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THE 



REVIEW 

, OP REVIEWS 

For Australasia QD 



MAY. 1912. 



THE LATE 

MR. W. T. STEAD. 



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The Review of Reviews. 



Ivii. 




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The Review of Reviews. 



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Ix. 



The Keview of Heviews. 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS FOR AUSTRALASIA. 

(Annual Subscription, 8/6.) 



WILLIAM H. JUDKINS, 

Editor ' Review of Reviews for Australaeia.' 



W. T. STEAD 

Editor Enf;li8h "Review of Reviews " 



OR. ALBERT SHAW, 

Editor American ' Review of Review e.' 



CONTENTS FOR MAY, 1912. 



The Late W. T. Stead 

History of the Month (Australasian) 

History of the Month (English) 

Talks on Topics of the Day : 

I. With Norman Angell 

II. With Sir Albert Spioer, M.P. . . . . 

Character Sfcelcli: Lord Pirrie 

Current History in Caricature 

The Next Great Word in the Evolution of 

More About the Twenty Greatest Men ... 



Pea 



PAGE 

Isiii. 

Ixvi. 

, 225 

• 239 
■ 241 

• 243 
250 

: 255 
. 262 



P.^GE 



Leading Articles In the Reviews — 

If Britain Went to War. What Would Happen 

in the City? 263 

Problems of Foreign Policy . . 264 

Problems of Domestic Policy 265 

Is Englaiul Emptying Herself? 266 

Chat About Chancery . . 267 

Recent Obanges in Wedding Customs 267 

A New Sketch of the Kaiser 268 

Sun Yat Sen on Himself 269 

Ijuboucberiana 270 

(Jreek Patron Sainjtfi of Feminism 271 

A Dream of the "Great State" to Come .. .. 271 

To Canadianise Britain 272 

Paris and Her Monuments 272 

Indian Reviews on tbe Durbar . . 273 



{Continued on next page,) 



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The Review of Reviews. 



CONTENTS -(Continued from pag-e Ix.) 



Ixi. 



PAGE 

Leading Articles (Cuiitiiined) — 

Cireatcr India 274 

The EthU-8 of Mr. Rooaevelt 275 

Tho United States of tli« World 276 

The Chin:tinan as the Coming Jew 277 

Opera in Kngland . .. .. 277 

In the Twenty-Seiond Century 278 

Growth of Socialism .. .. 273 

When Will War Cease? . . 279 

Wanted Colonists — for Franco . . . 280 

Three Explorations of El Dorado 280 

The Prejudice of Sex .... .281 

The Dny of the Spinster 281 

The Cliild's Xee<I of Play 282 

A Socialist. Plea for Puritanism .. 282 

The VVessex Drama 283 

Tales of Swiss Peasant Life 284 

Scotland and Her Songstresses 284 

Simplicity i\ Oorircousness in Decoration . . . . 285 

Dickens ;ind Music 285 

The Gospel .\c<!ording to Dr. Steiner 286 

Frederitik the Great as Historian .. 287 

One Hundred and Four Years Old 288 

Poetry in tho Matrazines 289 

Tlie Modern View of Beliffion . . . . 290 



PACE 

Leading Articles (Continued)— 

Medical Marriage Certificates 290 

The German Socialist Party , ... 291 

The World's Fastest Runners 292 

Nansen ou Yoking Polar Bears 293 

Music and Art in the Magazines 294 

Random Readings from the Reviews 295 

The Revie^vs Rcvie'wed — 

The Ilibbert Journal and its Editor 296 

The Fortnightly Review . 297 

The Contemporary Review 293 
The National Review .. .298 

The Nineteenth Century .. .. 299 

The liouiul Table— The Arena— The World's Work 300 

The Foiuin— Blackwood — Hispania 301 

The Spanish Reviews— The Dutch Reviews .. .. 302 
The Italian Reviews — The North American Re- 
view 303 

Languages and Leiter-Wrilirg 304 

Books ot the Month: The Milliunaire, the Mad 

men. and the .■\i)OStle 305 

Insurance Notes ■-• ■•• ••• ••• ■ • 308 



• '"V'^'V 



,/<-VJ~V^» 



Mr, Stead's Appeal t o His R eaders, 

July, 1906. 

I appeal to all those who, like myself, are ycurg of heart ant) strong in faith and full of 
love for their fellow-men to become associates in attempting to realise any of the following 
ideals to which, from its foundation, "The Review of Reviews" has been the exponent and 
champion : - 

1. International brotherhood on the basis of justice and national freedom, manifesting 
itself in universal entente ccrdialc, Anglo-American reunion, intercolonial intimacy 
and helpful sympathy with subject races ; and international arbitration. 

i. The Reunion of all Religions on the twofold basis of the union of all who lovo in the 
service of all who suffer, and the scientific investigation of the law of Cod as re- 
vealed In the material and spiritual world. 

3. The Recognition of the Humanity and Cltizcnshi)) of Woman, embodied In the saying. 

Whatsoever ye would that woman would do unto you, do ye oven so unto her. 

4. Tho Improvement of the Condition of the People, having as our guiding principle, 

" Put yourself in their place and think how you would like it. " 

5. The quickening and inspiration of Life, by the promotion of reading, physical training, 

open-air games, etc. 



• ■'V.^^V-/' 




THE LATE MR, W. T. STEAD, 

Viih Cf.iii" ell's ristol, Gordons Sl.itucttc, ;iii(l llic Copj of ■'lliwii^.is .i KcmiJis' tli.il (...nloil ii.*\t-' him Luforc leaving for tlic Souilaii. 



Ixiii. 



THE LATE 

WILLIAM THOMAS STEAD. 



By his "Friend and Colleague in Australia," W. H. Judkins. 

Ill the absence of definite news regarding his safety, it is to Ije feared that the loved and 
honourt-d i)r(>prietor and editottin-chief of " The Review of Reviews "has met his death in the appall- 
ing tragfdy of the "Titanic" disaster. The days of suspense have brought no relief. Beyond a 
doul>t he i> among.^ those who faced grim death in one of its grimmest and most terrible forms in 
that f<;irful rush of docm. It seems impossible to believe that Jle is not alive. His personality was 
so impressive that its influence pervaded one's atmosphere. He was so well known, his name being 
a household word whtiever men could read, that he was present ever\ where in a most realistic wa\ . 
And .ir will l)e a long time before we shall be able to accustom ourselves to the fact that he has 
gone. With many yt-.irs of useful life before him, he has been cut off in such a sudden and remorse- 
less kind of fashion lii;it one's sen.ses are numlied. 

He was a worlds man. There was nothing .small abnit W. T. Stead. He could nt>t think in 
small circles. The widest horizons appeared always oi)en before him in connection with anything 
that he undertook. He was a big man, in the biggest sense of the word. He [londered in continents. 
The foremost journalist of the wt)rld, he spoke to civilisation a.s a man who had a geniu.s for grasiiing 
srtuaitions, lM>king at things in their right persjjective. and intuitively finding his way to the loftiest 
jiKlgmeirts. 

He l«eg.in his career earlv. .\t the age of twenty-two, he took liis lir.st editor's chair, and com- 
pletely changed the character of the "'Northern P:cho." it D.irlington. .Nine years later he iK^-anie 
assistant editor to the "Pall Mall Cnzette," iinil.r Mr. John Morley, .succeeding to the editorship 
three years after he joined the .staff. In 1890 he founded ' The Review of Reviews." which has played 
so large a jiart in the making of history, and has Ixx-ome a p.iwer, not only in Britain, but also in 
.America antl .Austral.isia, in l)oth of which <x)untTies separate edition.s are published, and on the 
Continent of liuroix*. What a jxiwesr he has l)et-n in his m,ig;izine all oiir readers know. The 
ch.iracter skeielies of f.imous men and women, which ap|«Mre<I regularly month after month, are inaster- 
pi<-c<'S. Niching like them has e\er U-en printe^l. |Rai'y, briglit, inform-.itixe, and witli a sulitle in.<ight 
into the eharacter of the perwm whose ch.Traoter was .sketchetl. .iiid which summed up the dominating 
eh,iracteristi<« in a sentence or two, they fxinifiy a uni(|iie place in literature. 

fV-«ni|)ying the .time level as the character sket<'hes were the interviews whii li m . .iiitinually had 
with |)romineMt |xTs>iiages upon curn-nt topics of interest. ' In this connection he cime into per.sonal 
contact with <\ery crowned head of KuroiK-. It was not given to any other jfnirnalist to have almost 
free eiitr) to liie mon.irehs of tlv Old World. He had only to request, .md the request was granteil. 
There is no other journalist li\ing who could commancl this. How elo<|iienily it spoke f>f the pro- 
found res)xvt in which he was hehl ! If a big newspapiT or journal wanterl a king or emjicror or 
sultan intervi«-wed, there w,is one cert.iin way of gil'tiug it done, and th.it w.is ihruiigh Mr. Stead- 
These knew it was im|>nasible frw him to deal other" than fairly, th.-it there woiiM Iw m. disi.rtion t.. 
make sensation.d "copy," and th.it the dipnitv of the throne would Ix* uphehl 



ixiv. Ihe Hevlew of Reviews. 



All this nu-aiis that he had iiiadf a place for iiiinself in the hearts ol the people, fromi which he 
I'ould not Ix; dislodged. Both high and low respected him as a man who would not, indeed, could 
not, use opportunities that oame in his way simply to advance his personal interests. 

He WMS a giant in reform. His personal goodness, his sense of justice, liis passion for righteous- 
ness, made him a deadly foe in any combat with wrong that he entered. \\'hen he set out to fight 
he carried no hamper, and went in with the single purpose of slaying the wrong he attacked. Because 
his vision of the ideal was so clear, he could not stay at half measures. To him wrong was a thing 
not to be compromised with, but destroyed. Needless to say, he had to resort to extraordinary means 
.sometimes to accomplish his ends; Ijut he never shrank from any ordeal, however severe. This was 
made evident in his attack on the hideous crime of child procuration which had assumed proportions 
in London that were appalling. He demonstrated, with the aid of some godly women friends, and 
some of the most irreproachable men in I,ondon, that it was ridiculously easy to purchase for 
inunoral ])urposes ciiildren of tender yeai.s. It was necessary, in order to prove his accusa- 
lio'iis to the hilt, to s:how that it was possible to do this. Not one breath of per.sonal 
s<;andal could ever attach to him in his pursuit of the hideous evil; but, through 
defective and biassed justice, whirh could not see that the .saUation of thousands of 
innocent girls depended on his crusade, and that his personal character could not be 
impeached, he was charged by his countr\ with having commit'tL'd a tecJinical breach of 
the law, and, to Hngkind's shame, be it .said, sentenced to prison for three months, which was re- 
duced to two on fhe initiartive of the (Jueen. Although treated as a first-class prisoner, the reproach 
\o England was just the SHme, especially as no effort was made to hound down the brutal 
monsters that trafficked in childhood's innocency. But, as an immediate result of what 
he did, the age of consent was immediately raised. One can sc.arcely credit that a 
.\Iell)ouriie newspaper, in an otherwi.se complimentary sketch of his carei'r. should style this righteous 
crusade as " an early blunder." It was a magnifictMit work, imdertakt-n in the public's interest, and 
\Ir. Stead was jirobably the onl\ man in the Kingdom who w.is jdiieky enough to face it and lo <'arry 
it through. 

When seizt-d with the necessity of seeing .m\ thing tlu'ough to the vnd. nothing 
could prevent him from doing it. Person. d or hnanei.d lass did not enter into his 
consideration. This was n'otably the ca.se in the Hin-r War. He wins one of tho.se 
whii said that it was a monsitrous crime, and kejrf up his ojipositiou to it long after 
iiianv of his (;ompatriots had. through weariness at the futility of their opj)osition, 
fallen silent. What he endured in <'onnection with this, none but his intimates will ever kimw. In a 
country that boasts of i'reedom of speech, of tolerance and respect for others' opinions. Mr. Stead 
suffered calumny and bitter invective, scorn and derision, that would ha\e driven most men to di.straction 
or .ililivion. But lie stixxl against the storm unmo\<'d. and s\ibsciiuent e\i-nls ha\'e jirdAed that he was 
right. 

He had the vision of a seer. He was a modern-day iiroplu't, .nid those wlio Inng for the 
realisation of loftiest ideals, national ,ind per.sonal, will sorely miss him. To him the question. " 1> 
it right?" was paramount. "Is it expedient?" knew no place in his Ix^iiig. 

No .stronger advocite of universal iieace lived. He ihd more than any other man to make ilu' Ha-ue 
< "onvention a reality, although, as it was con.'^tituted. it did not cxame up to his ideal. W.ir, to !iini. 
was a grand mistake, a proof of national madness, and yet ,it the same time he had no false ide.i^ 
of the means necessary to preserve the Empire under ])r<'.sent conditions. It was this clear-headed 
perception of things that made him insist upon the " Iwn keels to one" stand. ird in connection wiili 



William Thomas Stead. Ixv. 



the expansion of the Gernuii navy; aial vei thtrie waj> no truer friend to Germany than he, and 
no greater opponent of the anti-Gemian sentiment, so frequently, so obstinately, and so wickedly 
engineered by J'ingo journalists. His " Truth About the Navy " created a great sensation. It was 
the calm statement of a rruui who knew the facts, .md uh^i exposed a national weakness in order that 
efficiency might come. 

No oit|>ressed [jeople or race ap|iealed to him in wiiii. He was i)rc-fminently a sufferer's friend. 
Readers of the '" Re\iew of Re\iews '' will remember how mercilessly he stripj^ed the veil from the 
Congo horrors, and endeavoured to get justice for the natives. To enumerate all his high deeds would 
tx? to write his history, which could not lie done here. That w-yi l>e done, for no man has left a 
deeper stamp, and Th-at for good, on his country's records.- His loss is a national one, and the natioit 
will rememhier him. His works will follow him. 

He provoked antagonisms, as every reformer who deser\es the name will do; but they were the 
antagonisms of those who O[>posed reform and progress, and who could not understand a man who 
sought the people's good with all his heart. Vet. with it all. he had no ill-will towards his antagonists 
f>ersonally. He i)itied the man who was on the wrong track, and sorrowed for him, while he pursued 
the e\il the man was engaged in, relentlessly. Even men who had wronged him personally, he enter- 
tained no bitterness for. To quote his own words, " Even to a man who has injured me, I ne\er 
wish txj do anything that I would regret in my la.-il hour." 

Had lie Ijeen prepared to keeji has voice silent towards some gigantic evils, and truckled to public 
sentiments, he would have been a wealthy man many times over ; but if he had so truckled, or kept 
ffllent, he would not have been \\'. T. Stead. N'o one but those in his inner circle knew what financial 
sacrifices he e\er\ year made to keep liefore the jieople certain ideiils which he profoundly belie\'ed to 
lie for the people's goixl, or to maintain projects for their advancement and education. 

Of his personal qualities too much cannot lie said. The very fact that wliat has been written 
liefore could be written presupi>oses philanthropy, gtwdness, gentleness, and all those qualities that 
make up the lo\-able in man. Of these I have had ajnple piX)of since I was appointed to the editor- 
ship of the " Review of Re\iews " for Australasia. It was not my good fortune to meet him. but 
nn man could ever ask for or exiiect to have a fnuT chief, or ,i truer friend. 

He was intensely sjnritual. To him the imm.iterial was as real as tlie material, and the veil 
that hides fr<jm ,s<i m,m\ the things that are iii\isil>le did not exist for him. In this, as in everv 
other thing, he w.is crmstantly on the look-out for develoimif-nts :m(\ in<Tea.se(l knowledge. 

.\ni\ he h.is gone cut dr>wn as a husbandm.iii might be in the held, , with his h.TJld upon the 
,uough, antl his e\e on the end of the furrow. .As t^w men h.ue d<»ne. he has sensed his dav and 
generation. .And iH)w he has " fallen on sleep." What h'.q)|KTied in that terrible hour of tragedy we 
shall never lie really able to grasp. One thing wi- are i-ert-iin of. ,iiwl that Ls that he would sfiuid 
asideth.it .in(*li<-r might p.-vis ^> >afet\. and that ileath to Ivim would h,i\e no fe.irs. He would nu^t 
it with cahntM-Ns .ind (|uirt in the midst of the awful chaos. 

There is no one who cm take just the s.nn<- high plao- in journ.ili.sjii tli.it he ilid. Nature is not 
prodigal in her gifts of such r.ire characters, and in each generation they can be found only in 
ones and twos. He was a.s trul\ a proi>het as any of those of olden tim«"s. and the world will miss 
luis righteous (ietiunriatioiis and his warning noti-. always directed to the nobU^it things. Over tlie world 
there are thoiLS,inds who were proud to U- cilltd hi^ " Heljiers," who tretl to carry out in their small 
way the great tilings he stooil f<->r. In has n.mii- I .i|)peal to rliem to carry on his wr>rk. and to try to 
ftil-fil his id<-al-s 



The Rev 




EVIEWS 



TEAff»EKA.XCE AND GBNBRA.L LIF i£ ASSVUANGE BUII^UCNG, SWAJVSTOJV 

STREET, MRLBOVRNE, 

II a matk is agaJn^t tbi- line the copy Is a sample one. Will you read it carefully and then send 8s. 6d. either to your news agent or to "The Review «f Reviews, 

T. and G. Building, Melbourne, and receive it foi la months. 

THE HISTORY OF THE MONTH. 



Melbourne, April 22, 1912. 

According to Mr. Anstey, M.H.K., 

The Labour ,jne of tlie oracles of the Labour 

Party's Sedan, p^rty, that Party is " marohing to 

its Sedan." In this liguravixe 
fashion he prophesies the defeat of the Party at 
the next elections. He says that his reason- for 
saving this is that he believes that the Re- 
ferendum proposals will prove too heavv a 
hamper for the Party to carry, and that, 
over -weigh ted, tht- Party will lie dt-fcatfil. 
Anrither memlier of the Federal P.irliament, no less 
a personage than Mr. Fisher, commenting u]")on the 
defeat of the State Labour Party at the South Aus- 
tralian elections, said that the Party could not ex- 
])ect to win every election, ,m<i the two statements, 
taken together, mav indicate that its members are 
not feeling too confident of their position. <-)n tlie 
ether hand, Mr. Anstey may have performed a dual 
action and winked the other eye. His .st.iteiTient 
may have hieen made with the idea of spurring the 
apathetic among his party, and of trying to lull the 
Lilveral Party into a sleepy contentment with the 
assurance that its success is assured and that lit nr-t-d 
not organise and work. If the latter were his inten- 
tion, his effort will fail signally. The Lil)eral Partv 
is ti:<) fully .s«iized with the situation, and too much 
intent upon organising to be turned froim the path 
by any soft soijhi.strit^s held up to it bv the Labour 
Party. It knows how that Party is organised. 
Further, it does not much care whether the Labour 
I'artv sul>mits the Refercn(hini iirojHJsals or not, 
although l)Oth Mr. Fisher ,uid Sir. Hughes have 
most emphatically .sitated that thev are to lu> 
re-submitted, and cannot draw back wiithout loss of 
prestige. For the people's eyes have been 
<pened, and the Laltour Party's administration h.is 
Uvn coincident with .so much blatant oppression on 
Ihe part of Labour, that the ]ieople are n<it likely 
to forget. 

X<'w /.■■al.uid is having trouble oxer 
Compulsory her Compulsory Training Act. Local 
Seriice. fc<'ling in .some qu.inters there runs 

\ery high. For refusing to take the 
<.ath under the Defence .A.ct, five lioys were sen- 
tenced to three ww^ks' imprisonment, 'lliey \v»-re 



released from prison by the Minister for Justice on 
the ground that refusal to register debarred the 
refu.ser from exercising his rights bv voting at elec- 
tions and also from entering the Civil Service, and 
that this was punishment enough. And far too much, 
.Seeing that the refusal was promirted not by any 
de.=ire not to do duty if the pinch of trouble came, 
but from religious scruples. There are quite a lot 
in .\ustralia who are not registering. The Govem- 
m<nt is anxiously lonking for aliout 10,000 bovs 
w h<i ;'.re supjjosed to l>e existent, acx^ording to census 
returns, but are net on the regi.ster of the Defence 
Department. .And there will f>e still further opposi- 
tion. The war god is nit worshipped by all. .nid 
there are many who look upon the cominilsorv tr, lin- 
ing of our boys as a \-otive offering to him. If 
youths, on attaining the age of twenty-one years, 
were compelled to learn a certain amount of drill 
there wiaild l>e less to sav about it ; but to take 
lad--; from fourteen years of age and tie them to 
drill for eleven years is making a farce of defence. 
Xuml)ers of parents who accepted the positir^i at 
its inception without comment, are becoming stout 
objectc>rs to it. 'J'hey liiid the indiscniminate mixing 
of lads a bad thing, and are concerned for their 
boys' morals. There is this aspect of the case, 
too, that is grave enough to cau.se serious thought. 
Lads brought up on militarism during their most 
impressionable years are not likely when man- 
hood comes t<j be strong advocates of uni- 
versal peao- and the degrading of the war god. The 
con.stant handling of a rifle in drill constantly im- 
]>rints on the boys' minds the image of a man he may 
some day point it at with intent to kill. The Act 
will have to be altered .Sfwner or later to make allow- 
ances for those who have conscientious objections 
against it. 

Some prominent writers .wiy that 

*" the Act will break down unless tJie 

Alternallve. n^^. g^^^,,^ ^^^^ j^ i^^cmght into it, 

that the sy.stem is too monotonous, 
and that in any case <.ur bovs are not steeped in 
militari.sm sutliciently to make them very ardent. 
I'liere iis a deal to !« s.iid for this, although it 
even ought to be voluntary. But if boys were taken 
by trained ob.servers, taught to get close to Nature, 



May, 1912. 



history of the Month. 



Ixvii. 




[.V.Z. Graphic. 
THE HON. J. MAOKEXZIE. 
The New Premier of New Zealand. 

to berome natur«?-lo\vrs, to enJure long walks and 
l)odily ta6i;;ue, to l)erfmie efficient in .some elemen- 
tary forms I'f snrveving so a.s to K-i-c^me |)ro;i<-)ent 
in lanii-marking, much practical and useful good 
would h)e done. It would pro\oke thought and ob- 
servation and promote muscular growth, as marching 
and counter-marching in the streets under the light of 
the lamps cannot do. It would, moreover, do awav 
with the dangers that l>eset the present systt-m in the 
way of immoral contamination. The present system 
is obnoxious and objectionable. 

The I't-deral Go\ernni<-nt is having' 

Sinie .1 b.id time over the building of its 

Enltrpristg. „ .ir.Uiips. The Kit/n.y d.»ks 

muddled those it put together. 

Now llif p.irt> tor others are read\ , but ncbndv 

can tell when tin- work will U* crim|)U-te(i. Mr. 

Fi.sher trietl to ge< Mr. MK'iowan the oth<T <I.n to 

guarnnte*' to g<-t the work done in a certain time, 

Init the New .Soulh VV.des Premier was too .isitute 

for thai, anfl all Mr. Fi.sher could get was a )>ro- 

mise that the work would be pushed on as (piicklv 

.ns |K)ssible, which may mean anything or nothing. 

Life drifts along very comfortably in the Fil/ro\ 

flovernment dix-ks. It really se.-ms as though there 

were some germ at work in fiovcrnmcnt industries, 



th.it prcM-nts push. And things are not likely to 
get any hK?tter, so that in the immediate future the 
FeiJeral Government may have to call in the aid 
of the hated manufacturer, " the natural foe of 
the working man." Gov<Tnments act not wisely 
when they destroy private enterprise. A few vears 
ago the Victorian Government caused the closing 
of a huge foundry in IJallarat by deciding to 
do all its engine building and repairing at the 
Newport Government workshops. To-dav the de- 
mand for rolliing .st(x-k is so heavv that the work- 
shops cannot nearly cope with the demand, and 
engine.s ha\e had to he imported. The work could 
not be undertaken in Ballarat, for the machinerv 
is dismantled and the place shut u\). Invited ten- 
ders only c.illed forth two replie.s — <_>nly one from 
<^)uwnsl.ind and one from .South Australia. Healthy 
<-.'.mi)etitioti among private firms would have pre- 
vented this impasse. Po.s.siibly the pendulum will 
reach its limit with these difficulties and begin to 
swing back. But it is a co.-nplete answer to those 
wiio (-.instantly cackh- ami clamour for .Sta»e-OAvned 
<'nt;T])rists of every de.scripticHi. 



Immigration 

and the Federa 

Labour Party. 



The Federal Go\ernment continues 
to set its face determinedly against 
anything that will increase immi- 
gration. The State Governments 
some time ago unitedly asked the Giivernnient to 
undert.ike the business of getting ^5,000 immigrants 
ye.irly to Au.str.dia, the States to .irrange as to dis- 
tribution. The Government has re<-eived an official 
refusal. The reason giiven is <)f the flim.saest dest^rip- 
tion. It is that the Federal Government does not 
tliink th.it divided control lietweeii Commonwealin 
,ind States is desir.ible. The f<illv of such a re-ason 
is m.initest, when it is borne in mind th.it the .States, 
in asking the Commonwealth to take charge of jm- 
migration, did it for the very purpo.se of eliminating 
the divided control which exists at present. They 
recognised that the rommonwealth. and not indi- 
vidual States, should aihertise for and advise 
intenfling immigrants, and otTered to hand the con- 
trol our to the I'"e(l<-r.il (lovernnifiit. The fact is 
that the Fisher (]<«ernmeiit will not take the thing 
on, on the ground that it will remedy the very evHl 
that Government professes to abhor. The reply is 
only ,1 shuffle. The Feder.il Government, ol)e\ing 
thi' tug of the rein given by I.alour leagues, is 
against immigr.aition, and is (l*-ti-rmined tt> put every 
barrier it cm in the way of .idding to our [xipulation 
fr<«n outside. Londoners tell of the folly of divi- 
sion of work by the .States, .md urge that the Gom- 
monwealth should take rontrol of this department. 
But. in the f.ice of the G<T\crnnient's refusal, it 
looks .IS though chaos is likely to rdgn till the 
Fedwal Party is returneil to |K)wer. 



//le Keview or Heviews. 



May, 191 2. 




HIg Laudation 
of tbe Strike. 



/'/(OtO.] 



CAPTAIN AMITNDSEN. 



[Lfljd ijcttr 



Mr. Fisher on 
tbe Stump. 



Mr. Fisher has had a gay time in 
( Jueriisland, during the month, 
whiirther he has gone to help his 
Painty ait the elections. It is hardly 
necessary to say that the dominant note of bis 
speeches was his refusal to accede to the request 
of the (^)neensland Government to 'RU]>plv troops to 
assist in preserving order. The sitring is haqntd on 
so much that one c»in discover the anxiety that lies 
l^ehind to put himself right with the general ])uhlic. 
He gaugt-il the ])os.ition bettt-r than the Oueensland 
r*n-mier, said he. although he was over a thousand 
miles from the situation ; and that his opinion was 
correct is <-viden<'ed hv the orrler tlvat was kt-|«t. 
Surely Mr.' Fisher 'is utterly devoid of humom ! 
Order wa.s kept hy the Government in spite of Mr. 
Fisher's refusal ; but the fact remains that the 
T'cdt-ral riiivernmenit did nfJt do what it ought t" 
have doni'. The ("onstitution is clear enough. Tlic 
Federal Government shall su|)ply militarv a.ssistancc 
under i'crt.\in conditions. These (-(niditions existed. 
;in<l the request was made in iiro|)er form. But Mr. 
I- ishtr refused — not becau.se he lielieved he was 
constituition.dlv right, but liecau.se he feared thp 
bludgton of his Party. It vvxauld not hesitate to 
denounce , him if he ceased to \te a machine to carry 
out its orders ; and Mr. Fisher is noi a .strong 
enough man to act indi-peudenth . Public policv 
.ind his own judgment. forMXJth 1 The prbsjiecf of 
dethronement by L.ilHUir i^ not a plea.saut thing to 
contempl.ite by men whi^ h.ue come to love power 
and »-nvibiments. 



Mr. Fisher has no sense of 
h amour ! Thef>retically, he is 
again.sit strikes. During hiis Queens- 
land campaign he left the strikers 
no doubt as to his belief that the strike was a right 
and proiier thing. Mr. Fisher naturally falls into 
the pose of the actor agiitator. He pictured the 
piior -wives of tramway men (who. by the way, had 
no (ju.irrel with their conditions of work), in fear 
and trembliing every day le.st the evening .should 
bring home a dejected man who had been di.schargef] 
for his lieroic determrnatiini to wear a union badge 
when on duty. What rulihish ! And he justified 
tlie holding up of the city of Brisbane for that, sub- 
scribed to the strikers' fund, and refused the help 
he was legally Ixiund to give to the terrorised folk 
of Brisbane. Mr. Fisher temporised with the ques- 
tion of badges by saying that, of course, ' a man 
could hardly appear with medals all over him. But 
win not? If a company or an employer cannot for- 
bid the we.iring of one medal, which is objected to 
because it f>ecomes a signal for strife and di.scussion, 
how can he forbid the decoration of an employee's 
ooat with medals galore. <.>r prevent him from turn 
ing himself into a walking metal shop. It is well 
to know that Mr. Fisher is opposed to sitrikes, and 
in sympatin- with the Brisbane strike. It is an 
indication of a many-sided character, at any rate, 
but such an attitude is verv like that of a bandit 
who ilr.ius .1 sh.ir]) knife lightly across his victim's 
throat, t'l give him an idea of the gravity of the 
situation, and then s;iys. ■ I'm bitterlv oppased to 
cutting thro.its, it harrows my finer feelings, it is 
oppo.sed to hum.ni [iroj^ress ; but. by jingo, if you 
don't empty your |n.H■knt^. I'll cut vour throat with 
plea.siuv." It won't (Im. Mr. Fisher. Tliese sophis- 
tries are not fnie eno^^ll 10 veil the true state of 
affairs from the people. 



The 
Koombana. 



The loss of the " Koomlun.i " off 
the .North -West Caist of Australia 
is another of the tragedies of the 
setis to which we have lateK lie- 
cKine accustoni.-d. The " ^■ongal.l." off the i>oa.st 
(.1 iJui-ensLuid. and th ■ ' Ivoomban.i," off the 
West, bring home to us the dangers of the sea in 
.1 fearfully imjiressive way. It is the opinion of 
meteorologists that the " Koombana " w.is caught 
bttween the walls of two cyclones, .md w.is U-aten 
to pieces, .^o ship, thev s;iy, could have lived i:i 
such a sea. Thank Go.l. these terrible conditions 
ot wind and w.ive do not often happen. The 
'■ Is.eombaii.1 " was reg.irdt-d as a setiworthy Ui.it, 
well found and propeil\ .^luipped, but it was of 
no avail. Her wreckage Ix-ars eloquent vvitne.ss to 
her terrible fate. No trace of any of the no souls, 
slie cirried can ix' found. 




The 
Colliers' Strike. 



LONDON, March ist, 1512. 
All political questions arc over- 
shadowed at this moment by the 
colliers' strike. That a million 
miners should simultaneously lay 
down their tools and take holiday for an indefinite 
period in order to induce their employers to concede 
not merely the principle of the minimum wage, but 
the precise minimum which the 
men have fixed themselves, is 
a signifirant symptom of the 
progress that has been made of 
late years towards the realisation 
of Mazzini's ideal of association. 
It is the latest illustration of the 
tendency of mankind to organise 
itself according to its interests 
rather than according to geo- 
graphy. The new units of 
organisation ignore frontiers, 'i'he 
miners of I'Vancc and Germany are 
reported to have declared their 
intention to join the British miners 
if the strike continued. The aero- 
plane will probably expedite the 
process of reori^'anisation. The 
relative importance of the terri- 
torial .State shrinks every day in 
comparison with the ever-increasing 
interests of that vast ganglion of in- 
ternational inlirests which constitute the community. 
Mankind is but dimly conscious of the transformation 
which is going on silently in our midst. It will probably 
be by the outbreak of an international war between 
two jarring intern.itional interests that the absurdity 
of the old frontiers will be made manifest. An inter- 
national coal strike might advertise to the world the 
anachronism of the old wur system of Europe. 



The 

Dethronement 

of 

King Coal. 




Piiity Chrvmclf. ' 
The Atlas of the 



It is significant that the great 
strike of colliers should have coin- 
cided with the arrival of the first 
large oil-driven steamer in British 
watei's. The Selandia — a 5,000-ton steamer of the 
East Asiatic Company — is a ship of destiny, perhaps 
in more ways than one a ship of doom. The Trojan 
horse did not carry in its bowels more fatal freight 
than the Selandia brought in her 
bunkers. For she heralds (i) the 
dethronement of King Coal, the 
monarch upon whose throne rests 
British commercial and industrial 
prosperity ; (2) the scrapping of 
the Dreadnoughts ; and (3) the 
destruction of one of the greatest 
of our assets as rulers of the sea. 
Lord Fisher told me two years ago 
that in five years the whole of 
our mercantile marine would have 
to be rebuilt owing to the coming 
of the motor-steamer. What he 
said as to its cfTect on the Navy I 
will not repeat. But in the Selan- 
dia we have the first-fruits of the 
( oming revolution. .She was built 
in Copenhagen for the Far Eastern 
trade. Her speed is only tweh-e 
knots, and she only carries two 
eight-cylinder Diesel engines. l?ut 
she is the pioneer of swift monsters which will rival the 
Lion in speed, and exceed it in endurance and in power. 
The Selandia can fill her bunkers with 900 tons of oil 
in a very few minutes, and then she is provided with 
motive power to drive her 20,000 miles without needing 
to replenish her stor". If oil costs, let us say, 37s. 6d. 
per ton. this means that twenty pcnn; worth of oil 
will drive a 5,000-ton steamer across u mile of .salt 



Industrial World. 



220 



The Review of Reviews. 



water. Oil occupies only one-fourth of the bunkers 
needed for coal. No boilers are needed ; three-fourths 
of the engine-room staiT can be dispensed with ; stokers 
will become extinct. The Diesel oil motor-engine will 
compel the conversion or rebuilding of all our steamers, 
and they will not burn coal. 

It is a rather melancholy reflection 

Us Industrial that the moment when the collier 

Imperial Significance, has achieved a triumph without 

precedent, the industry by which 
he makes his living should have received definite notice 
of its coming doom. The concession of the minimum 
wage will hasten rather than retard the dethronement 
of coal. As it will tend to the elimination of the older, 
weaker and less competent miners, so it will tend to the 
closing down of mines which, in face of the competition 
of oil, can no longer be worked at a profit. It is as 
melancholy for Great Britain as it is for the colliers. 
For our long industrial supremacy has been based 
upon our possession of the best and cheapest coal in 
the world. America has long since displaced us, but 
we hold our own against all other nations. In oil, 
however, we are nowhere in the race. The United 
States and Russia possess inexhaustible stores of the 




-<5^?r,rp^j; 



Its Bearing 

on ttie 

Naval Competition. 



liy frnttissitin oj the prtypHetors o/** Funch,"\ 

Mean Profits. 

Coal MF.RCH\Nr (to miner): "Look licre, my friend, I'm 
against sirikos, I am ; but the more threat!, of 'cm you can give 
nic, the better it suits my book." 



new motive force of civilisation. We have only a 
limited supply in Scotland, and none, or next to none, 
in England, Ireland and Wales. Probably nothing 
would do so much to revive Ireland's prosperity as 
the striking of paying oil in the wilds of Connemara. 
P"rom the point of view of Imperial defence the change 
from coal to oil hits Britain hard. We have hitherto 
been supreme on all the seven seas because we alone 
had coaling stations all round the world. Coaling 
stations may now be scrapped as useless. Ships can 
carry enough oil to take them round the world without 
calling anywhere en route. If they should run short, 
they can fill up from any tank steamer they meet in 
calm or in storm. Thus oil wipes out one of our great 
advantages. And what is worse, it will compel us to 
rebuild our navy. All our costly Dreadnoughts, 
which cost two millions each, will be scrapped before 
they have fired a shot. For it would be impossible to 
reconstruct them. 

It is the certainty that the Diesel 
engine will put the Dreadnoughts 
and the super-Dreadnoughts out 
of action that partially reconciles 
me to the weakening of our shipbuilding pro- 
gramme, for which various Liberal papers have been 
working with a zeal worthy of a better cause. Instead 
of maintaining without discussion or questioning 
the standard of two keels to one, they are eager to 
prove that we should be quite safe if the standard were 
reduced to three keels to two — signs of weakness noted 
with grim satisfaction in Germany, where the two 
keels to three standard is already being talked of as 
the normal relation between the two navies. This 
might be fatal — it is dangerous, in any case. But the 
certainty that all the capital ships upon which we 
are lavishing our millii)iis will be out of date so 
soon renders it less mischievous than would other- 
wise be the case. At present the Germans are ahead 
of us in the application of the motor-engine to ships 
of war. But we have great faith in our genius for 
naval construction, and in all probability some novel 
leviathan is being de\-ised in British shipyards which 
will utilise the motor to such an extent as to effect as 
great a revolution as was wrought by the Dread- 
nought, which practiially held up the battleship 
building of the world for cigliteen months. It is unsafe 
to play tricks with the standard of two keels to one, 
but it will be some consolation, if Mr. AN'inston 
Churchill should monkey with that standard for stcain- 
driven Dreadnoughts, that he will be all the more 
iioiind to lay it down as an axiom when he comes to 
build his new motor battlesliips. 



The Progress of the World. 



227 



Great Britain stands to-day 

On the Brink (March ist) on the very edge of 

of Hell. Hell. One million coal-miners, 

representing the whole body of 
workmen engaged in coal-mining, have struck work : 
— Yorks and N'. .Midlands, 235,000; South Walts, 
220,000; Scotland, 130,000: Northumberland, 
120,000; Durham, 110,000; Midlands and South, 
105,000; North Wales, 70,000; N. and E. Lanes., 
45,000. If they refuse to go back to work until their 
demands are conceded, and if those demands are not 
conceded, the country will be plunged into civil war. 
Not civil war of the ordinary kind, in which two armed 
forces appeal to the arbitrament of arms as to which 
shall rule, but civil wdr of a far more terrible kind — 
civil war in which the sole arbiter will be stars'ation 
— starvation endured not by the combatants alone or 
even in chief, but the starvation of a nation. Starvation 
is a far more cruel arbiter than War. War has its 
laws ; starvation knows no law. War confines the 
combat as far as possible'to the armed forces of discip- 
lined combatants. Starvation wreaks its worst 
tortures upon non-combatants, upon women, and most 
of all on infants. There is a certain chivalry in war. 
There are many noble qualities evoked on the battle- 
field. In the arena in which Famine sits as judge there 
are no such compensating advantages, for if man be 
deprived of food for a certain number of days he is 
converted first into a savage, then into a wild beast. 
.Vnd it is now being realised for the first time that 
in our highly complex hand-to-mouth civilisation, in 
this modern society of ours, which is as delicate as the 
works of a watch, it is in the power of a single deter- 
mined trade union to convert a whole nation of 
civilised men into an anarchic multitude of wild beasts 
ravenin;,' fi>r prey. 

Since the world began there has 

Our Hnnd-to-Mouth "^'^cr been a nation of forty 

Civilisation. millions that lived so absolutely; 

from hand to mouth as the British 
nation. Down to the middle of last century the 
country was to a large extent self-supporting. The 
nation also was organi.sed, .so to speak, in water-tight 
compartments. Railwaj's were still in their infancy. 
Each district was compelled to rely more or less on its 
own resources. A hundred years ago each household 
laid in stores of food to supply its needs till the grass 
grew again in the fields. To-day all this is changed. 
The country cannot feed itself. Two-thirds of its food 
come from o^■ersea. No one lays in stores of food. 
Everyone lives from hand to mouth, relying with 
implicit faith upon the continuous smooth working of 



the vast system of railways, steamships and banks. 
And the power which kept the whole system going 
with the regularity of the planets was coal. Without 
coal it is impossible to do anything. In old times 
the villagers drew their water from the village well. 
To-day there are at least twenty millions of persons in 
Great Britain who would die of thirst if th(; pumping- 
engines at the city waterworks could not be kept 
going. Our cities would be in darkness without coal. 
The sewage of London could not be disposed of with- 
out coal. Our manufacturing industries would be 
paralysed. Outside the purely agricultural districts 
everyone would be reduced, without coal, to absolute 
luck of food and drink, light and warmth. And to-dav, 
because a million miners refuse to go to work excepting 
on their own terms, this immeasurable disaster is 
threatening the whole nation. 

Sixty-five per cent, of the mine- 
The Questions owners are willing to agree to the 
at Issue. principle of a minimum wage by 

their own free will. The remainder 
are willing to give in if compelled to do so by Act of 
Parliament. For : Over sixty-five per cent. — English 
Federated area, comprising Lancashire, Yorkshire, 
Midlands, and North Wales, Durham, Cumberland, 
Northumberland. Against : Under thirty-five per cent. 
— Scotland, South Wales, Forest of Dean, Somerset, 
and Bristol. But in both cases it is stipulated that 
the question of what the minimum rate of wages should 
be in each district should be the subject of negotiation. 
The men's demand insists upon the following individual 
miner's minimum wage rates per day for piece-workers 
at the coal face : — 

s. il. s. .1, 

YorksliifL' 7 6 Bristol 411 

Lancashire 7 o Cumberland 6 6 

Miilland Federation Scotland 6 o 

6i. lo 7 o South Wales 

Derliy 7s. ij lo 7 6 7s. ij<l. In 7 6 

Nollini;hamshire 7 6 Northumberland 

.\oith Wales 6 o 6s. to 7 2 

Leicestershire 7 2 Durham 6 ij 

South Derby 6 6 Forest of Dean 5 10 

Somerset 4 II Cleveland 5 10 

Some security should be given that the payment of 
the minimum wage should not be made to cover 
malingering. Further, it is asked that the men should 
give some guarantee that bargains deliberately entered 
into should not be cynically set aside the moment the 
miners think there is a good opportunity for a new 
deal. To these limitations the miners object. If the\ 
[H'rsist ill their objections we shall no longer stand on 
the brink of Hell ; we shall be plunged into the abyss. 



228 



The Review of Reviews. 



Ministers, appalled at the prospect 

Action Qf fi^y welter of anarchy and star- 

of ... 

the Cabinet. vation into which the country may 

be plunged, have taken steps which, 
as Mr. Asquith said, are in defiance of convention and 
tradition and custom, in order to compel the mine- 
owners to concede what, in the impartial and unani- 
mous judgment of the Cabinet, the men might fairly 
demand. Mr. Asquith said : — 

We do not intend that the resistance of what I liope is a 
•dwindling minority of tlie employers of labour shall indefinitely 
delay the attainment of an object which we have satisfied our- 
selves is consistent with justice and the best interests of the 
community. 

If that object cannot be obtained by agreement, "our deter- 
mination is that, by whatever appropriate means we can command 
it will become part and parcel of the organisation and of the 
working of the coal industry of the country." 
They are now up against the question whether, if the 
miners persist in demands which in the Ministerial 
judgment are unjust and unreasonable, they will 
endeavour to compel the mine-owners to yield for the 
sake of the community. They naturally shrink from 
taking so extreme a step. For once let it be admitted 
that the miners have only to ask in order to have, and 
to be supported by the Government in enforcing their 
demands, no matter how unjust they may be, then the 
whole nation lies enslaved before the miners' union. 
Nor is it only the miners who would promptly profit 
by such a demonstration of the power of organised 
labour. Neither, let me add, is it only in Great Britain 
that such a complete surrender of authority to the 
blackmail demanded by Labour would bear fruit. 
Representatives of the French and German miners 
were in consultation with the British miners, promising 
them to follow suit. And it does not appear unlikely 
that the force of that example will make itself felt 
across the Atlantic. 

The miners admittedly have a 
The Economics giant's Strength. It remains to be 
the Dispute. seen whether they will be tyrannous 
enough to use it like a giant. If 
they rlioosc they can smash Society and knock the 
bottom out of civilisation. Any fool with a lucifer 
match can burn down a farmsteading. But how much 
better off they will be when they have smashed Society 
and knocked the bottom out of civilisation is a question 
which they will do well to ponder. The economic 
margin of profit on coal-mining in Britain is very 
narrow. Out of every pound realised for coal at the 
pit's mouth the miner receives from 12s. to 14s. The 
balance has to cover cost of machinery, rents, rates and 
taxes, cost of management, and many other charges, 
so that the whole profit of the coal owner does not 



average five per cent., or about SM. per ton, and ten per 
cent, increase in wages would wipe that out altogether. 
The total extra amount demanded if paid in wages 
on the latest official output would be approximately 
£7,500,000, which would bring the present aggregate 
net profits of £8,795,711 los. down to less than 
£1,300,000. Of course, it may be said that the con- 
sumer may be made to pay more, but in that case the 
miner is striking, not against his employer, but in 
order to increase the cost of a' necessary of life paid 
by every working-man in the country. Besides, the 
price of coal is fixed by competition in the international 
market, and any material rise in the price of English 
coal would immediately divert much of the trade to 
America, Germany, and other coalfields. 

There is a cry in some quarters 

Remedies for the nationalisation of the 

that . . 

are no Remedies, mines. But as the experience of 

New Zealand shows, strikes can 
take place in nationalised mines, and the cost of pro- 
duction goes up when the mine is removed from the 
stimulating atmosphere of private management. On 
the other hand, there is a demand in some quarters for 
vigorous measures of coercion, and it is noted with 
grim satisfaction that orders have been issued for everv 
available man in the British Army on Salisbury Plain 
to be armed and equipped ready for immediate action 
— cavalry, infantry, artillery, and engineers. But these 
measures of precaution cannot break the strike — 
cannot even maintain a semblance of order when famine- 
stricken mobs are looting London as the Chinese 
soldiers have been looting Peking. 

The railway strike of last summer 

.u „ ,!^'^^'c. „ ""1^' l=«ted a couple of days, but 
the Railway Strike . • '^ . •' ' 

Taught Us. 't brought the great industrial 

towns within a week's distance of 
starvation. Local authorities warned the Home Office 
from all the great industrial centres that there was not 
a fortnight's supply of food in their towns, that the 
starving people would break into the shops to find 
bread and meat, and that after that was consumed 
the community would find itself face to face with 
famine. Short as the strike was, shops were broken 
into in Leeds. In Li\erpool, where the strike lasted 
longer, the lack of milk and fresh food was reported to 
have caused the death of thousands of infants. 

It is idle to talk of importing coal. 
A Commune "php Transport Workers' Union ha\-e 
on a 11, 

National Scale. |)lc(lgc(l themselves to treat coal 

as contraband of war as long as 
the strike lasts. The railways will keep running a 
limited service as long as their stock of coal holds out. 



The Progress of the World. 



229 




Lord Haldane in Berlin. 

The I'.rilisli War .Miiii-.ltr, who went on a minion uf peace to 

Ucniiany, is the tiyure on the right ; the other is his brother. 

There are ominous rumours that the railvvaymen will 
.strike against the conveyance of soldiers to repress 
di.sorder. If the worst comes to the worst, we may 
expect to witness scenes upon which the sun has not 
looked down since the Commune of Paris. A starving 
nation knows no laws, respects no persons. If there 
was food cnouph in the country it might seize it, and 
order might he preserved. But the supply of food 
depends upon the regular working of the steamshi[) 
antl railway service, and the continuous operation of 
public credit. If it really comes t9 starvation, the 
famished people wnll hail as a saviour of society any 
strong-handed man who will . not hesitate to shoot, 
nor should I lie surprised if, at the end of a month 
or two, every man known to be responsible for the 
strike on cither side were to be shot down at sight like a 
mad dog. 

Il is the very terror of the possi- 
bilities let loose by such an 
industrial war which makes me 
believe that reason will assert its 
sway and that some way may be found out uf the 



deadlock. If so, much good will come out of evil. 

The strike has already made us all furiously to think. 

Men's minds are much more open to consider the 

merits of schemes of profit-sharing and of co-partner; 

ship and of co-operation than they were before. So 

from the brink of Hell we may make our way to 

Heaven. " Oh, Lord," prayed the Methodist revivalist, 

" take this vile sinner by the hair of his head and 

swing him over the pit of Hell till he can smell the 

reek of the sulphur and feel the burning heat of the 

fire, if so be, Lord, that he may turn from his evil 

ways and repent and be converted." We have riot 

been uttering that prayer, but it has nevertheless been 

answered. For this dispute about a minimum wage 

in the coal trade has brought us within measurable 

range of not being able to get a minimum ration of 

l)read necessary to keep us all from dying of starvation. 

If we keep our Navy up to the 

Is an Anglo-German {^.q keels to one standard we can 
Arrangement , ... 

Possible ? make any arrangement we like 

with Germany. If we let it fall to 

three to two we must be very careful in an)- bargain 

we may make with hc-r. At the express instance of 



A Hopo Rooted 

In 

Despair. 




By PermUsitfH of thf fioprtttors if l'ufKn:\ 

Turned Turtle. 

TiiK War Minister: " .V little it.orc of this and Ilaldane's 
occupation's gone 1 " 



230 



The Review of Reviews. 



the Kaiser Mr. Haldane went to Berlin last month for 
what the Americans would describe as a bit of lieart- 
to-heart talk witii the rulers of the German Empire as 
to the possibility of an Anglo-German understanding. 
When Lord Haldane got to Berlin he found the atmo- 
sphere genial, and the discussions which he held with 
the Kaiser, the Chancellor, and the P'orcign Minister 
gave him good hope that some advance might be made 
towards the removal of the misunderstandings which 
have endangered the peace of Europe of late years. 
The question of armaments was not touched upon. 
Armaments are like fur coats — the colder the weather 
the thicker the coat. What Lord Haldane sought to 
do was to change the somewhat glacial temperature 
that has prevailed in Berlin and in London. If he suc- 
ceeded in his mission armaments would diminish auto- 
matically, as a man casts his overcoat when the summer 
comes. One swallow docs not make a summer, and 
Lord Haldane's mission could not establish between 
England and Germany the same cordiality that 
prevails between France and England. But considering 
it is onh' twelve years since we were arming in hot 



haste for instant war with France over Fashoda, it is 

not absolutely impossible that between England and 

(iermany there may arise kindlier feelings than those 

which have prevailed of late. 

It was rather unfortunate just 

■• Luxury " Speech at the very moment when Lord 

°^ Haldane was endeavouring to 

Mr. Churchill. " 

smooth thmgs at Berlm that Mr. 

Winston Churchill should have used an unfortunate 

expression at Glasgow which irritated Germans 

considerabl)'. After saying, and saying well, many 

excellent things as to the vital importance to us of a 

navy, he unfortunately launched the phrase that a 

fleet for Germany was a luxury, whereas for England 

it was a necessity. The Teutons, who believe that their 

fleet is their sole safeguard against the piratical attacks 

of John liull on their commerce and on their coasts, 

were up in arms at once. Fortunately, the Kaiser 

appears to have realised the absurdity of making such 

fuss about a maladroit phrase, and the matter dropped. 

What Mr. Winston Churchill meant to say, and what, 

if he had .said it, would have given no offence to 




/■//W.'.t rvj//i i'y\ 



[Lafayrlli-, Dublin. 



Lord and Lady Pentland and their Children. 

\joxA Pontlnnd has just resigned his post in the Gi>v(>iniiiciil .t^ .Sccri'l:iry for Scolhind, ami lias been appointed to the 
('■overnorship of Madras. Lidy IVniland is a daugliler of ilie Counlcss of Aberdeen, whom she strikingly resembles. 



The Progress of the World. 



231 





■'.;,.'... ^,;/''i O I I f,T,;7,v;-. /'/;,.i',y.-,i//, /ivl \ I.nf.iyclle. Pliotogrnph l<y\ {L.tfiyrltr. 

Mr. T. McKinnonWood. Mr. Ellis Griffith, M.P. Sir A. A. Haworth. 

New .Socrctnry for Scotland. New Uncler-Secrelary to the Home Oftice. New Junior Lord of the Treasury. 



mortal man, was that Germany and Britain rcspmhk'd 
each other in that each of them had a branch of 
ImiK-rial defence which was vital, and another which, 
although important, was not essential. For instance, 
ihc British Army is a luxury, whereas our Navy is a 
necessity. With pcrmany the case is reversed. With 
her it. is the Navy which is the lu.xury, whereas her 
.Army is the necessity. Of course, neither Germany nor 
Great Britain could dispense with their respective 
luxuries, but if Mr. Churchill had bracketed them no 
offence could have been taken. 

'I he visit of Mr. Winston Churchill 
Mr. Churchill to Belfast passed of! quite peace- 
Belfast, fully.' Instead of meeting in Ulster 
Hall, where his father had spoken, 
a marquee was rigged up on the football ground, 
where, under a soaking deluge of rain, a faithful 
multitude listened to Mr. Churchill's plea for Home 
kulc. It was a very good speech, hut whether it was 
worth while going to Belfast to make it is another 
matter. Troops had to be sent into the town to protect 
the right of free speech at a cost of £2,730, a sum 
which, being di\ided by the number of words uttered 
by Mr. Churchill, averaged Out at iss. a word. It 
would, of course, have been right to spend ten times 
that sum to maintain liberty of speech, and it is 
to l)c hoped that Mr. McKcnna and London police 
magistrates will remember that truth when next they 
have to deal with rowdy mobs of students and fish- 



Ministerial Changes. 



porters who desire to vindicate orthodox Christianity 
by dipping a Frcethought lecturer in the pond of a 
London park. Lord Pirrie, who was .suffering severely 
from the malady which afterwards necessitated a 
severe surgical operation, accompanied Mr. Churchill 
to Belfast. Mrs. Churchill also went with her husband, 
and it is possible her presence did more to prevent a 
iireach of the peace than all the cavalry and infantry 
which were quartered in the town during his visit. 

Lord Pentland, C.-B.'s favourite, 
and Lord .Aberdeen's son-in-law, 
has now exchanged the Secretary- 
ship for Scotland for the Governor- 
ship of Madras. Lord Pentland justified C.-B.'s 
decision to make him a Caiiinet Minister. Quiet, 
unobtrusive, diligent in business and always abounding 
in good works, he will take to India the bright memory 
of a blameless record. His successor at the Scotch 
Office is Mr. McKinnon Wood, who vacates the 
Financial Secretaryship of the Treasury. He was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Masterman, Mr. Ellis Griffith becoming 
Under-Secretary at the Home OlTice. The new Junior 
Lonl of the Treasury is Sir A. .\. Haworth. A change 
quite as important as any of those just mentioned is 
the retirement of Sir Charles Ottley from the Secretary- 
ship of the Committee of Imperial Defence. Sir 
Charles Ottley ha.s suicumbed to the temptation 
offered by the Armstrong Company, who can pay their 
directors twice as mu( h as the Government pays its 



232 



The Review of Reviews, 



officials, and appoints them for life. We shall all 
miss Sir Charles Ottley, who did yeoman service for 
the British cause at the last Hague Conference. • I 
hope that his mantle has descended upon his successor, 
Captain Hankey, who has served with .Sir Charles, and 
will be faithful to the tradition of the Office. 

The Home Rule Bill is to be intro- 
duced this month, providing the 
strike does not upset everything 
— Ministers included. The con- 
troversy as to fiscal autonomy has subsided, ihe mal- 
contents realising that that way madness lies. The 
House of Commons will probably pass any Bill which 



The Prospects 

of 

Home Rule. 




"F.C.G." in the Liber.zl MonlMy.] 

Getting to Understand Each Other. 

John Bull : " Vou're not lialf such a l).id chaii as I used to 
think you were, Pat ! " 

Pat : " Sure, I never vv.as — and the same to yourself! " 

Mr. Asquith introdmes and Mr. Redmond endorses, 
and the House of Lords will even more certainly throw 
it out. Next year the self-same Bill, without the 
alteration of a jot or an iota, must be introduced and 
passed through all its stages. It is tolerably clear, 
from the experience of the last two Home Rule Bills of 
Mr. Gladstone, that if a Cabinet of angels and arch- 
angels framed a Home Rule Bill, and got it through 
the House of Commons one season, the discussions of 
the Recess would reveal flaws in the Bill which would 
render it unworkable unless amended. Mr. Glad- 
stone's finance, for instance, was proved to be quite 
impossible. Therefore, we take it, the odds are heavy 
that before the Bill is introduced a second time it 



■^he Women 

and 
the Ministry. 



will have been discovered that some serious amend- 
ment or other will have to be made in it, if it is to 
work properly and be acceptable to the Irish people. 
But if a single amendment is made the Lords can 
treat it as a new Bill, and it will have to be sent up 
thrice, and two more years must elapse before it can 
be passed .over the veto of the L'pper House. Hence 
the prospects pi Home Rule are by no means rosy. 
This is no reason for not trying to do the best we can 
with it. But do not let us delude ourselves bv the 
notion that all !is over but the shouting. 

" When lovely woman stoops 
to folly " she sometimes stoops 
very low indeed. And it must be 
admitted that some of the women 
who are zealous for the enfranchisement of their sex 
stooped very low when they attended the great 
woman's suffrage meeting in the Albert Hall for the 
purpose of spitting out foul epithets at Mr. Lloyd 
George, who was there, to plead their cause as he has 
defended it in the Cabinet. There is a certain feline 
ferocity in some womeri ; they snarl and spit and 
swear at any object of their aversion, just as some 
cats snarl and spit and swear at the friendliest and 
least offensive of dogs. But what conceivable benefit 
could accrue to the woman's cause by calling a Cabinet 
Minister " traitor," " liar," and Heaven knows what 
else, when he came to advocate their cause in a great 
public meeting presided o\er by Mrs. Fawcett, I fail 
utterly to perceive. Mr. Lloyd George's statement of 
the case was unanswerable. He was against the 
Referendum. He did not like the Conciliation Bill, 
but if he could not amend it he would accept it. He 
said : — 

Three-fourths of the memheis of the Liberal Party 4U])port 
women's suffrage. Two-thirds of, the members of the Cabinet 
will vote for tlie aniendnu-nt wlum it comes on. But one-fourth 
of the members of the Liberal Party are opposed to the suffr.age. 
Now come to the Conservative Party : from two-thirds to three- 
fourths of the members of that party are 0|)posed to the suffrage. 
No party, therefore, can form a Cabinet to carry woman 
sulfr.age. 

What then is the use of swearing and caterwauling 
when you are up against hard facts like that ? What 
is the use of iasisting that the Cabinet must introduce 
a Woman's Suffrage Bill, when the Cabinet is hope- 
lessly divided upon the subject and the Prime Minister 
is opposed to it ? 

The militant section of the Suf- 
fragists -some of whom expend 
their energies in writing letters to 
Mrs. Asquith threatening to kill 
her and her children — decided, at Mrs. Pankhiirst's 
instigation, to manifest their displeasure by smashing 



Window Smashing 

as a 

Protest. 



The Progress of the World. 



233 



^^'indows on a great scale. Considering that the nation 
is in the throes of a coal strike which may eventuate in 
the assertion in the most naked form of the brutal fact 
that force is an ultimate factor in the selllenic-nt of 
social and political disputes, the moment does not seem 
opportune for lawless manifestations by those who, 
with all their virtues, are nevertheless physically the 
weaker sex. There is no doubt a great deal to be said 
in favour of making yourself a nuisance when you want 
to call attention to your grievances, but it is possible 
to make yourself such an intolerable nuisance by press- 
ing your claims at the wrong moment as to provoke a 
reaction against you, which is the one thing you want 
to avoid. The woman's cause has made much progress 
and has now attained such assurances of support that 
it seems a thousand pities it should be thrown 
back by demonstrations of this sort. It is not the 
wmdoiys that are smashed 1 am worrying about ; it is 
the cause of the window smashers. 

At the great anti-suffrage meeting 

The Position ^t the Albert Hall, held last 

ot 
the Cabinet. month, Miss Violet Markham dis- 

tinf,'uished herself by making an 

eloquerit speech affirming that Nature's Salic Law has 

disqualified woman for political activity. Then what 

■is Miss Violet Markham doing on a political platform ? 

And how can Nature disqualify women from the 

irnple act of marking a ballot-paper, while it leaves 

ihem free to do all the arduous and disagreeable work 

of t-anvassing for men ? The notable utterance at the 

anti-suffrage meeting was that in which the Lord 

Chancellor cut himself adrift from ^Mr. Asquith. It was 

,dways understood that the Prime Minister promised 

that if the House of Commons amended the Manhood 

Suffrage Hill so as to make it an Adult Suffrage Hill, 

the Government would take it up and endeavour to 

pass it into law as a Government measure. Not so, 

however, thinks Lord Lorebum. He declared : — 

It woald be .1 I'onsliiulional outrage if such a chanyi- were 
p.ibsc'l into law without the express sanclion of ihc const it uencies. 
But it would surely lie acknowledged that where gre.it and 

11,0111 deparlurcsof [lolicy were concernc<I for which no Ministry 
were prepared to shoulder the responsibility it was not legili- 
niate to spring a surprise on the country or to treat a vole in 
the House of t'ominons as finally decisive. He was convinced 
that the great ni.ijorily of people in the country were opposed 
to the proposal, ami they ought to do all in their power to 
|.ievent its iK-coniiiig law without the real consent and 

Iclibcrate demand of the electorate. 

We take it, therefore, either that Mr Asquith will 
modify his pledge, or that Lord Loreburn will not be 
on the Woolsack if an .Adult Suffrage Hill is presented 
to the House of Lords as a Government measure. 



Parliament 

in 

Session. 



Parliament met on February 14th. 
With the exception of March 1st, 
when it discussed the Plural Voting 
Hill, it occupied itself with debating 
various topics raised by the speech from the Throne 
and with discussions on Supply. Mr. Honar Law has 
not made a good start as leader of the Opposition. He 
made charges of political corruption and jobbery, which 
he utterly failed even to attempt to establish, and he 
made one great blunder in saying he certainly would 
repeal the Insurance Bill if his party came back to 
power. So conscious was he of having " put his foot 
in it " that he had to write to all the papers the same 
night explaining away his words. When he said 
" certainly " he did not mean " certainly," but only 
that under circumstances he would repeal it ; other- 
wise he would not. Mr. Balfour accustomed us to 
evasive dialectical answers. But everyone was sick of 
it, and we all hoped for better things from Mr. Bonar 
Law. 

The by-election at St. Rollox. 
The Prospects Glasgow, where Mr. McKinnon 
the Unionists. Wood was re-elected on his accept- 
ing office as Secretary for Scotland. 
showed a heavy falling-off in the Liberal majority. 
From 1,917 in 1910, it dwindled to 469 last month. In 
this pulling down of the Liberal majdrity it was like 
the in--c'lections which preceded it — jnly more so. 
The fact appears to be that the agitation against the 
Insurance Act has achieved some measure of success, 
and the prospect of Home Rule e.xcites no enthusiasm 
in Great Britain. Without exaggerating the significance 
of the by-elections, they certainly show a sufficient rise 
in the Unionist tide to justify a hope, if not an expec- 
tation, in the Unionist ranks that if they were to force 
a General Election they might come back to power. 
There is little doubt they would stand a good chance 
if they could only bury Tariff Reform. They are doing 
their best at the Manchester by-election, but its ghost 
haunts them to their own undoing. .Ml questions 
between the parties will be blotted out of existence as 
electoral issues if the strike goes on. And the strike, 
whatever else it may do, is almost certain to weaken 
the Government — first, .by alienating the Labour 
Party ; and, secondly, by enormously strengthening 
the Conservative instinct in the average Englishman. 
If this is what we are coming to, says the man in the 
street, we had better have the Tories back. What they 
will do when they are i)ul back is not very clear, e.xcept 
create a new Upper Chamber, guaranteed to be just as 
Conservative and far more powerful than the existing 
House of Lords. 



234 



The Review of Reviews. 



Mr. Lloyd George has done well to 

Two appoint two notable capable women 

Capable Women. ,„ assist in the administration of 

the Insurance Act. One is Mrs. 
Creighlon, the widow of the late Bishop of London, 
who is so well known for her ability that there is no 
need to speak of her. The other is Miss Mona Wilson, 
the daughter of one of the broadest-minded, clearest- 
sighted clergymen in the Church of England — Canon 
Wilson, formerly Vicar of Rochdale and Archdeacon 
of Manchester. Miss Wilson has dedicated her life to 
the study of industrial problems affecting women. She 



'Tis " vice alone will shelter wretchedness," and it is 
vice alone that pays record rates to women. It is 
usually regarded as unwomanly for women to hold 
high-salaried posts. It is womanly to be a charwoman 
at ten shillings a week. But to be a Commissioner with 
a salary of £i.ooo — I can only repeat, it is monstrous ! 
To all those false friends of peace 
who have been crying out for 
mediation between Italy and 
Turkey I have constantly replied 
that mediation would mean only one thing, and that 
was advice to the Turks to submit to their invaders. 



The 
War in Tripoli. 




Mrs. Creighton, Widow of Bishop Creighton. 

was a member of the Home Office " Departmental 
Committee to inquire into Industrial Accidents." 
Subsequently she was appointed to one of the Trade 
Boards under the Board of Trade, in which capacity 
.she was a potent factor in canvassing the chain- 
making and the paper-board trades, and making the 
labour exchanges of more practical use. As a mem- 
ber of the Board of Commissioners she will receive a 
salary of £\ .000. Monstrous ! Has any woman olT 
the stage ever before been so well paid — unless for 
being the complaisant mistress of some rich man ? 



Miss Mona Wilson. 

Russia is now making a second attempt to secure 
concerted mediation, and as a matter of course we are 
told that no mediation can be thought of that does 
not start with a recognition of the annexation of 
Tripoli and Cyrenaicaby Italy. Sir Edward Grey has 
gone far, very much too far, in holding the candle to 
the devil of lawless aggression in Tripoli; but for the 
sake of his own record and the fair fame of our country 
I hope he will shrink from the infamy of putting pres- 
sure upon the Turks in order to induce them to abandon 
the most Moslem provinces of their Empire to a 



The Progress of the World. 



235 



rriminal invader who, after five months, has utterly 
failed to do more than establish 130,000 men upon the 
seashore, where, so long as they are under the guns 
of the fleet, they are safe. Italy has decreed the 
annexation of provinces she has neither conquered 
nor occupied. The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies 
have ratified the crime. But the Turks have never, and 
ought never, and. I hope, will never, surrender their 
African provinces to the Italian aggressor. Italy does 
not advance into the interior of the provinces she has 
annexed on paper. To do so General Caneva regards 
as difficult, dangerous, 'and even suicidal. If the Powers 
wish to mediate, let them remind Italy of the Treaties 
of Paris, London, and Berlin, and politely request her 
to desist from persisting in the attempt to perpetrate 
a crime against international law and the good faith 
of nations. To ask us to confirm Ahah's title to 
-N'aboth's vineyard even before the owner of the vine- 
yard is dead is an outrage of which I sincerely hope 
Sir E. Grey will never be guilty. 

The Italians, bitterly chagrined at 

Italy ^^'^ discovery that an expenditure 

Getting Desperate, of £40.000 per day is not buying 

them either peace or territory in 
Tripoli, are now swearing that they will carry the war 
into other provinces of the Ottoman Empire. They 
made a beginning last month by shelling two rotten 
Turkish tubs-of-war in Beyrout harbour, incidentally 
killing and wounding many of the non-combatant 
citizens. It is, I suppose, what Drake would have 
called a " .singeing of the Sultan's beard." But its 
only result has been to precipitate the expulsion of 
Italians from Syria and to unite more firmly than 
ever all Ottoman subjects in opposition to the 
Italians. Foiled at Beyrout, the Italians ara talking 
" mighty biggotty," as Brer Rabbit would say. about 
rushing the Dardanelles and seizing Constantinople. 
If they found it impossible with 130,000 Italian soldiers 
to destroy 10.000 Turks and Arabs in Tripoli, how 
many Italian soldiers do they think will be necessary 
to defeat 250,000 Turkish troops in I'.urope and Asia ? 
The attempt to carry the war into the Sea of .Marmora 
will justify, .ind indeed compel, the Turks to close the 
Dardanelles, thereby severing the great artery of 
commerce between hungry Europe and the Russian 
granaries in the Black Sea. 

England and Russia, I am glad to 

The rerord, still sfiuid shoulder to 

Persian Trouble, shoulder in confronting the forces 

of anarchy and inidnipetcnce which 
are rendering trade or travel in Persia almost impos- 



sible. The ex-Shah is still giving trouble. It is usually 
said by the Russophobes that he was pushed forward 
by the Russians. In Russia it is just as firmly believed 
that he was used by Germany to create a diversion in 
Persia at the identical moment when the Panther was 
sent to Agadir. As the Persians cannot force him out 
by arms, the Anglo-Russian allies propose to bribe 
His Majesty to disappear. If he refused to do so and 
regained his throne in Teheran, (k-rmany might reward 
his docility by recognition. We could hardly follow 
suit. But if we did not we should be interfering with 
the internal affairs of Persia. 

The insane policy of ahenating the 
The Russification confidence and provoking the 
Finland. hostility of the Finns continues to 

be carried out with unrelenting 
thoroughness by the Russian Government, Last 
month the Finnish Pilot and Lighthouse Department 
was definitely .subordinated to the Russian Ministry 
of Marine. Thereupon over 200 Finnish pilots resigned 
their posts, and many Finnish ports are left pilotlcss. 
Now a pilot is one of those men who cannot be impro- 
vised. To know the intricacies of a channel is a thing 
that cannot be conferred by a ukase. If the pilots 
stand firm it will he equivalent to a pacific blockade of 
Finland. What conceivable gcod can come to Russia 
by these continuous encroachments on Finni.sh Home 
Rule I utterly fail to understand. The harm they 
do is only too palpable. They are arousing the .sus- 
picion that Russia is moving steadily but stealthily 
forward towards the annexation of the Norwegian ice- 
free port which is divided only by eighteen miles from 
the northern frontier of F'inland. It is monstrous to 
impute such criminal designs to the Russian Govern- 
ment, but there is no doubt that the Scandinavian 
world is profoundly agitated on the subject. The 
dread of Russia's advance northward, purely chimerical 
iLs it may be, has had one good result in compelling 
Sweden and Norway to forget the soreness of the 
.separation, and to consider whether they should not 
form a defensive military alliance against foreign foes. 
Such an alliance will, of course, be extended to Den- 
mark. The alarm produced in Christiania and Stock- 
holm by the Russifying policy in Finland is leading to 
much expenditure on fortifications and armaments. 
Such fantastical wickedness could never have been 
imputed to Russia were it not that her interference with 
the liberties of Finland seems utterly mad unless some 
such scheme lies behind. Even then it is mad and 
bad ; but then there would be some method in its 
madness. 



236 



The Review of Reviews. 



The 
Chinese Republic. 



Affairs in China have been cleared 
up in one direction and compli- 
cated in another. The Manchus 
have consented to their deposition, 
although the Emperor is to retain a titular or honorific 
position within the Empire which he ceases to rule ; 
and Yuan Shi-Kai is busy arranging for the organisa- 
tion of the Republic, of which he is at present the 
nominal head. So far all seemed to be going well, 
although ominous warnings reached us from time to 
time from Japan, from Russia, and from British resi- 
dents in China. Japan evidently dislikes the establish- 
ment of a 1-lepublic in Asia. Russia is not very cordial. 
15iit the chief difficulties are internal. Of this an ugly 



Mr. Roosevelt, in his own pic- 
Mr. Roosevelt turesque lansuaire, has thrown his 
and the ,.,.",. 

American Presidency, hat into the ring, and is now "out' 

for acceptance as a candidate for 
the third time, which he declared so often he 
would never, no never, accept. Now he says 
that his definite repudiation of all ambition to 
serve "a third term" meant ''a third consecutive 
term." There are many ways of getting out of a 
pledge when you want to, and Mr. Roosevelt's 
e.xcuse will serve his turn as well as any other. The 
important thing is that Mr. Roosevelt is now boldly 
in the field in opposition to President Taft, who is 
straining every means at the disposal of the executive 




Pliolografh / ,1 

The Chinese Amazon Corps. 

These Amazons are ladies, mostly sliulents, of good family, who were accepteil after iniicli deliberation as fighting units of the 

Chinese Republic. Thoy all l)ear arms and have been undergoing drill in Nankin and .Shanghai. 



reminder was afforded us in the last days of February 
by the outbreak of mutiny among the unpaid soldiery 
of Yuan Shi-Kai in Peking. They appear to have got 
entirely out of hand and to have looted and burned 
the wealthy quarters of the city. With the aid of some 
of the troops who remained loyal the looters appear 
to have been subdued. But it was a bad business, a 
sinister reminder of the forces which lurk below the. 
apparently placid surface of the Rcpulilic. It will 
take more than the Chinese Amazon Corps to restore 
order in China if once the fountains of the great deep 
are broken up. Unpaid .soldiers turn brigands of 
necessity. And where Yuan is to get the money to 
pay his troops is as yet an unsolved problem. 



to secure rcnomination at the coming Republican 
convention. Mr. Roosevelt has come out on a very 
Radical platform. He approves of the Referendum 
and the Initititive. but, worst offence of all in the 
eyes of his critics, he is in fa^■(nlr of the Recall. 
This would give the mass vote of the electors 
supreme tiuthority over the Supreme Court, whose 
decisions have often nullified the legislative enactments 
of Congress. That means, say his critics, that questions 
of law must be .settled first by the Federal Court, 
secondly by the Supreme Court, and thirdly by the 
mob. The battle rages loud and long, and betw een them 
Taft and Roosevelt may make it possible for the 
Republicans to adopt a dark horse as a candidate of 



The Progress of the World. 



237 




The Emigration 

of 

Youngsters. 



fwtagrapk ^/l [ Tt}/iical Press. 

Herr Schjedemann. 
The Socialist who for one sitting presided over the Reichstag. 

party reunion. If cither Taft or Roosevelt stands they 
will infallibly be beaten. Unless, of course, the 
Bryanite nemocrats were to rally round Mr. Roosevelt. 
They ought to do so. They would do so were party 
feeling not so strong in America that a Democrat 
would vote against the Apostle Paul if he were 
nominated hy the Republicans, and vice veraa. 

The Socialists, who are now the 
The Socialists strongest single group in the 
the Reichstaff. Reichstag, had the rare satisfaction 

of seeing one of their number sit- 
ting for one session as president. The president 
originally elected had resigned, and Herr .Scheidemann, 
one of the vice-presidents, took the chair until his 
successor was elected. All he had to do was to move 
that the House do adjourn, but the moment was 
enough. Mr. Gidbury is reported to have told a 
German .Socialist that the German Socialists had killed 
Jingoism in Germany. H Mr. Cadbury c\cr said this, 
he must be very ill-informed as to how things stand in 
Germany. Without going so far a.s Dr. Dillon does, 
who maintains lli.it the return of no Socialists will 
make no difference in the naval and military policy 
of Germany, one finds him much nearer the mark 
than .Mr. Cadbury. 



' Dear Old Charlie ' 
Triumphant. 



Mr. Hawkes, Canadian Emigration 
Commissioner, paid a hurried visit 
to this country last month for the 
purpose of inspecting what may 
be called the seedling crop of the future citizens of 
the Empire. Mr. Hawkes is a shrewd observer, and 
he has got the right idea in his head. Immigration 
is far more important to Canada than emigration is 
to Britain. An emigration agency in this country 
ships a boy across the Atlantic and is done with him. 
An immigration agency has to look after that boy in 
his new home and see that he grows up a worthy, 
self-supporting citizen. New Zealand and Australia 
are both on the look-out for likely seedlings to trans- 
plant to the dominions across the seas. It will be 
well if our local educational authorities take more 
pains in familiarising the boys and girls under their 
care with the opportunities and duties which lie before 
the emigrant to the Colonics. 

Lord Spencer, who appointed his 
■ college friend, Jlr. Charles Brook- 
field, to be E.xaminer of Plays and 
virtual censor of the morals of the 
London stage, has resigned. He has been succeeded 
by Lord Sandhurst, whose mother was one of the first 
women who sat on the London County Council. " Dear 
Old Chariie " has been revived by Mr. Hawtrey, and 
is nightly delighting London audiences, who chuckle 
sympathetic- 
ally at the 
glorification 
of a double 
adultery with- 
out passion, 
and rub their 
hands with 
delight at the 
spectacle of 
trusting hu.s- 
bands being 
betrayed by 
their"friend." 
" Dear Old 
C h a r 1 i c," 
meantime, 
continues to 
exercise his 
duties. A 
promising at- 
tempt was 
made to call 




f^kttfi/irttfik i>y\ [Swatfif, Xr-.v MifnJ St. 

The New Lord Chamberlain : 
Lord Sandhurat 



238 



The Review of Reviews. 



Lister 

and 

Fairbairn. 



the attention of His Majesty to the kind of play the 
Censor of Plays placed on the stage. But it miscarried. 
The memorial fell into the hands of men whose 
zeal against the institution of the Censorship has 
eaten them up. Instead of getting signatures to 
the short and simple memorial to the Crown which 
Mr. Archer suggested, they produced a column-long 
rechauffe of the arguments against any censorship. 
This immediately brought about the signing of a 
counter-memorial. Between the two memorials 
nothing will be done. Instead of concentrating upon 
the one definite point on which, with the exception of 
the Daily Mail, everyone was agreed, they raised the 
old issue, with the same old result. The King ought 
to go to see " Dear Old Charlie," and form his 
judgment as to the fitness of its author to be the 
keeper of his conscience as to the morals of the 
stage. 

February has seen the removal by 
death of two leading figures in the 
not unconnected spheres of medi- 
cine and theology. Lord Lister, 
as the founder of antiseptic surgery, robbed the knife 
of almost all its horrors. He made the cutting and 

carving of the 
human body a 
wonderfully safe 
means of restor- 
ing it to health. 
Such marvels 
have been 
wrought by his 
aid as to set men 
dreaming of the 
time when sur- 
gery will be em- 
ployed as readily 
and as fearlessly 
to remove inter- 
nal excrescences 
and superfluities 
as wc now use 
the art of the 
barber and the 
Kx-Principal of Mansfield College, Ox- manicurist to re- 
ford ; one of the great Nonconformist rwlnndant 
theologians of the Victorian age. '""^ '- 'Ctlunaant 

hair and nails. 
Dr. Fairbairn was far and away the foremost con- 
structive theologian of the non-sacerdotal section of 
British Christendom. He brought the Free Churches 
out of the shadow of Agnosticism and of a merely 




Pholosruplt iy] [Russell nth/ Sons. 

The late Rev. Dr. Fairbairn. 



literary religion. His glowing faith freed them from 
the dread of free criticism, and bridged over the 
chasm of negativism into which so many had fallen, 
making the way easy from the positive belief of the 
past to the positive faith of the future. He stripped 
the science of comparative religion of its supposed 
perils, and showed it to be an ally of the Gospel. 
His most overt and obvious achievement was the 
founding of Mansfield College at Oxford; his most 
vital was the fusing of science and religion, of social 
and personal evangelism in the lives of his followers. 
The rapidity with which public 
Crusade Against opinion is setting in the direction 
Poverty. of freeing the richest country on 

this side of the globe from the 
shame and pain of starving the poor is shown on 
many sides and ifi the highest quarters. The Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer long ago proclaimed his 
jehad against poverty. But he is Wx. Lloyd George : 
and Englishmen make liberal discount for Welsh 
enthusiasm. Only last week, however, the Prime 
Minister, with all the authority of hrs position as 
head of the Government, and with the utmost 
emphasis, pledged himself to give effect to the 
" tremendous principle " of " a reasonable minimum 
wage " for all underground workers. Still, Mr. 
Asquith may be said to have spoken under the dire 
dread of a national paralysis. Perhaps most signifi- 
cant of all, as a proof of the movement of the most 
staid, cautious, and conservative elements in our 
national life, was the deliverance of the Primate, 
made in the course of his quadreonial Charge in 
Canterbury Cathedral. T'he Archbishop said : — 

He was prepared quite deliberately to expftss his own belief 
that, given a lillle time, say a couple of generations, for bring- 
ing about the change, real [HAcri) of llie extreme sort, crushing, 
degrading poverty, ought to 1 i-, and in a Christian land lijie 
ours might be, practically abolished altogether. lie did not 
believe that anything short of that would satisfy even elemen- 
tarily the conditions of Christian brotherhood. D.tlerent 
reformers' and guides would have their own wa)s of trying 
to lead tlicm to that result. He could see no obvious and 
simple road. IJul that there uas a road, and a Christian 
road, he was sure. That it coirld be found, and that by 
prayer and pains and perseverance it would be found, he 
had no doubt at all. It w.as the task of workers in the Church 
of God to foster the growth of such a spirit as would make these 
results certain : to promote such a sense of responsible brother- 
hood in the Church of Christ on earth that men should sec that 
the solution, by whatever pathway reached, was im]ierativc and 
inevitable. Be that their resolve and pr.ayer. Could they doubt 
that it was the Will of tjod ? Could they doubt that it was the 
duty of His Church on earth to set it forward ? 

When an Archbishop of Canterbury declares for the 
abolition of poverty in a couple of generations, as an 
elementary condition of Christian brotherhood, the 
end of destitution cannot be very far otl". 



239 



Talks on Topics of the Day. 



I.— WITH NORMAN ANGELL. 



Ralph Norman Ancell Lane is the name that 
was given to him by his godparents in baptism. 
Hut Norman Angell is the part of his name liy 
which he has made himself known to the pubhc. 
Nobody knows Ralph Lane save the newspaper world 
of Paris and his colleagues in Carmelite House, where 
he long ago made a reputation for himself as one of 
the ablest newspaper managers who ever took office 
in Lord Xorthcliffe's service. It is somewhat odd that 
Norman Angell should come out of the Daily Mall 
oftice, but good things 
do sometimes come out 
of Nazareth, as a famous 
leading case is on record 
to prove. The name and 
the fame of Norman An- 
gell are now world-wide. 
When I was at Constanti- 
nople the Russian .\m- 
bas.sador told mo that he 
had just finished .Norman 
.Vngell's book, and had 
passed it on to the Ger- 
man .Ambassador, the re- 
doubtable Baron Marschall 
\'on Bieberstein, who was 
then eagerly studying its 
contents. Of late, Nor- 
man Angell has been 
iddrcssing audiences of 
..II sorts in CIreat Britain, 
.ind finding everywhere 
.ludiences eager, recep- 
tive, and sympathetic. 
One day he lectured at 
the National Liberal 
Club ; another day he 
discoursed at Cambridge 
Cnivcrsily. One Sunday 
he spoke at a Noncon- 
formist Chun h ; the ne.xt 
he appeared at .South 
I'lace Institute, liut he 
was most at home when 
.iddressing the Institute 

■'f Hankers, l-'or bankers need no convincing as to the 
• Atent to whi( li civilisation is built on credit, and that 
liie very existenc e of modern society facilitates inter- 
national peace. 

In ap()earani e Norman Angell resembles the Apostle 
Paul, whose personal presence is said to have been in 
marked contrast to the weighty and powerful produc- 
'ions of his pen. He is .short of stature, delicate in con- 
iitution, physically far from robust (though he 
'i.is lived a rough life on the frontier and travelled in 




Photograph l'y\ 



Mr. Norman Angell, 

Aullior of "The Gre.it Illusion 



wild countries), without an ounce of animal magnetism 
to spare for any public meeting. Vet he holds his 
audiences. He is going to Germany to preach his 
gospel there, and everyone must wish him God-speed. 
For it is a gospel indeed of good tidings of great joy. 
It is an old gospel in a sense. For it is but a reitera- 
tion of the old saying that we are " all members one of 
another." But whereas the old sa\ing is often limited 
to the city or the commonwealth, Norman Angell 
demonstrates that it is equally true when applied 

to the whole civilised 
world. 

I first met Norman 
Angell in Paris, when I 
was on my way to Con- 
stantinople, but I inter- 
\-ievved him last month 
in London at the Salis- 
bury Hotel. He was, as 
usual, quiet in manner, 
lucid in speech, and per- 
fectly certain of his posi- 
tion. 

" People constantly mis- 
represent me," he said 
cheerfully. " They assert 
that I have declared war 
to be henceforth impos- 
sible. In presence of the 
record* of contemporary 
iiistory it is inconcei\able 
that I could make such 
an assertion. What I 
have asserted, and not 
only asserted but de- 
monstrated, is that war 
is a game which is no 
longer worth the candle, 
which in the nature of 
things must miss its aim, 
futile because, when you 
have achieved your vic- 
tory the present organisa- 
tion of the worKl will 
prevent your turning it 
to account. In former times you could make war 
pay. The Norsemen who harried our coasts found it 
a profitable operation. That day is past. No one 
can make war nay nowadays. It is an illusion that 
conquest means profit, or that you can increase your 
wealth by annexing territory. When that fact is 
recognised war will die out, as religious persecution 
ha.s died out." 

" We all agree," I .said ; " but 1 think you slightly 
overstate your case in one direction, and understiite it 



( Ellioll ,inJ l-ry. 



240 



The Review of Reviews. 



in another. For instance, you contend that if Germany 
conquered TSritain it would profit her nothing. I agree 
that the co.st of conquest would make the operation 
financially unprofitable. But you argue as if Germany 
being, let us say, suddenly in a position- to dictate 
terms of peace to England, could not profit by such a 
position of vantage." 

" Do you think she could ? " 

" Certainly she could. For instance, she need impose 
no tribute, levy no indemnity, annex no territory. All 
that she need do would be to compel Britain to place 
the administration and control of the British Navy 
exclusively in German hands. They need not interfere 
with our self-government. They would man, control, 
and command the Navy, and we would pay just the 
same Naval Estimates as before. Nay, they might even 
promise to save us twenty millions a year in the cost 
of the Navy, since the old Anglo-German rivalry would- 
be extinct. They could disband their oW'n navy, and 
command the seas with one-half of the British fleet. 
Each nation would be saved twenty millions a year ; 
and Germany would be master alike of sea and of 
land." 

" I would like to put on my considering cap," said 
Norman Angcll, "before fully answering that objection. 
But practically it amounts to nothing. You cannot 
postulate the costless conquest of Britain, and the 
attempt at conquest would cost Germany more than, 
in your hypothesis, she would save by annexing our 
fleet. Besides, the gain of a reduction of estimates 
might be brought about more simply, by a friendly 
agreement without a war." 

" Agreed ! " I answered. " I was only pointing out 
what seemed to me an unnecessary overstatement. 
Now I come to your understatement. You dwell 
rightly and wisely upon the extent to which the whole 
fabric of modern society is built up on credit, and j'ou 
point out how disastrous war would effect indlistrial 
pro.sperity. But you might strengthen your argument 
by pointing out an even more conclusive argument 
against war in the modern state." 

" And what may that be ? " 

" The absolute certainty that no war between the 
two '1 riples could ever be fought to a finish by naval 
or military weapons. The one dominating factor 
of the fate of nations is not the Sword ; it is the 
Stomach. How long do you think Germany could 
have kept on the war if it had broken out last 
midsummer ? " 

" One of the leading bankers was asked that question 
the other evening," said Norman Angcll. " He replied, 
' Not longer than a month.' He was speaking solely as 
a financier." 

" The financial crash will he bad, but it is the 
secondary effects of the collapse of ' redit which will 
he decisive. Germany, like Britain, lives from hand to 
mouth. She has now twenty millions more people to 



feed than she had in 1871. These people are fed from 
abroad. They live from hand to mouth. Their daily 
bread depends upon the uninterrupted working of the 
vast complex machinery of modern commerce. In 
olden times every community was a self-contained, 
self-sustained, self-feeding unit. That da)' is gone for 
ever. We live from hand to mouth to such an extent 
that a two-days' railway strike brought our industrial 
North Country towns within sight of famine." 

" There are countries which feed themselves." 

" Yes. In Russia there is food enough for 
her millions. Turkey also, and sparsely-peopled 
countries need not starve, but if a densely-peopled 
industrial communitv goes to war it cuts its own 
throat." 

" Then, if w^ar broke out between the Triples, what 
do you think would happen ? " 

" A cataclysm, in which society would temporarily 
disappear — a catastrophe, in which all thought of 
carrying on war against the foreigner would be effaced 
by the far more pressing necessity of finding lations 
for starving millions. The twenty additional millions 
of Germans, instead of being an added strength, are 
so many useless mouths that would demand food, and 
no food would be forthcoming. The same thing would 
happen to us if we lost command of the sea." 

" I think there is a good deal in what you say,"' 
said Mr. Norman Angell, " but even my moderate 
understatement, as .you call it, has penetrated far 
and wide. My little book has been translated into 
many languages, and I hear echoes of its doctrine in 
quarters where the book itself is unknown." 

" Lord Esher told me the other day," I replied, 
" that he was one of the first to recognise the immense 
cogency of your argument. He bought copies of your 
book and sent them to half the sovereigns and states- 
men of Europe." 

" I have never seen Lord Esher," said Norman 
Angell, " though I owe him- very much. He wrote 
suggesting that I should expand my argument, as he 
believed that it would have more influence than any 
book since Seeley published his ' Expansion of 
England.' " 

" Thinking over your thesis," I said, " .suggests to 
me that modern civili,sed society is like a city built 
upon a frozen lake. If a thaw comes the whole city 
will descend into the depths. Our credit system, our 
hand-to-mouth system, are the foundations of our 
industrial civilisation. They presuppose as a con- 
dition precedent a state of uninterrupted peace. 
When war comes the whole fabric will collapse." 

" Yes," said Norman Angell, " and the notion of 
keeping the thing going by armaments is as absurd 
as if the builders of your city on ice were to try to 
keep off a thaw by surrounding it with walls, which 
not only are powerless to prevent a thaw, but increase 
the pressure on the ice when the frost gives." 



Talks on Topics of the Day. 



241 



II.— WITH SIR ALBERT SPICER, M.P. 



When the Russian visit was over I had a pleasant 
talk over the tea-table in the House of Commons with 
Sir Albert Spicer, M.P., former president of the London 
Chamber of Commerce, who was one of the twenty- 
nine selected guests who had enjoyed the hospitality 
of the Russians at St. Petersburg and Moscow. 

Sir Albert had enjoyed his visit. That, at least, was 
i-bvious. So, he said, had all the other visitors. 
They had had a royal time and an Imperial welcome. 
' liut what impressed me more than anything else," 
<;: id Sir Albert, " was the universality of the enthusiasm 



huge mistake if the visit had not taken place ; and 
from we ha\-e now seen, it would have been a great 
disappointment to a large number of the Russian 
people, including peasants, working men and students, 
if we had not gone. Ever)^where and by e\erybody 
our presence was hailed with evidence of the most 
friendly feeling ; wherever the train stopped it was 
the same. If it is said, ' Oh ! the reception was 
engineered,' all I can say is that there was over- 
whelming evidence from the receptions at all sorts of 
places that such a thing was impossible." 




The English Visitors to Russia. 
The parly were photographed in the Imperial l.il)rary, whete iliey weic atcmipariieil by the members of the Imperial Council. 



on the part of the pea.sants and the working men. 
As I told the Kmpcror when he received our party at 
I'sarskoe Selo, when we arrived at St. Petersburg I 
thought by the crowd that was outside the station 
that a General Election must be going on, and as if 
the next step might be the dragging of our carriages 
to our hotel." 

" Then- was some stupid protest before you left by 
a disgruntled facti n wlio objected to your going to 
Russia bf(ausr they disliked the [jolicy of the Russian 
Government ? " 

" V'es — -yes ; 1 know," said Sir .Mbirl. " 1 was 
written to and urged not to go, but I had no sym- 
pathy with Ihcir views, and felt it would have been a 



'• What impressed you most ? " 

" What I have just told you. The sentiment of 
friendliness, the desire to clasp hands with the nation 
which stands for liberty and progress. After that I 
was most impressed v.'ith the va.st. almost immeasur- 
able material wealth ol that enormous Empire. Prom 
the Hallic to Behrings Straits there stretches an 
enormous expanse of territory, much of which, I 
gathered, is still undeveloped." 

" Sir Robert Moricr," I observed, " used to say 
th.it Siberia would be to the twentieth century what 
the Western States of .America were to the nineteenth." 

■■ .\s to developing commercial relations. I had to 
respond to the ("ommercc IliiiinT in St. Petersburg, 



242 



The Review of Reviews. 



and I \entured to say some things as to the obstacles 
that stand to-day in the way of a larger commercial 
intercourse between the two nations. First, there 
ought to be a simplification of the customs. 
The Custom House machinery must be made 
to work more smoothly and quickly. Secondly, 
there is a tendency in some local administrations 
to put obstacles in the way of the employment of 
]>;nglisii overseers, foremen, and managers. These 
ubs'tacles are not created by the law of the Empire, 
but local prejudice is difficult to overcome, and there 
are also restrictions imposed by the police in some 
localities. Thirdly, there should be some arrangement 
made for the settlement of disputes by a system of 
friendly arbitration. My remarks were received in a 
very friendly spirit." 

" I suppose you found German competition very 
much en evidence 1 " 

" From all I could learn the Germans do a large 
business, but it is for the most part in cheaper articles 
than our manufacturers care to turn out. Naturally, 
so long as our people can find a demand for better- 
class goods, they are not going to turn on to inferior 
qualities." 

" Did you sec much of the political side of things ? " 

" No. We went to the Duma and heard, but did not 
understand, a debate. Then we were entertained 
and listened to speeches all full of goodwill. But 
we naturally did not venture upon controversial topics. 
I heard nothing of Finland, nothing of Persia. I had 
several conversations at the reception by the Duma 
with various members to whom I was introduced, and 
in those different conversations had plenty of evidence 
as to the great variety and difference in opinions. 



One had, of course, other conversations at the various 
dinner-tables and receptions, where naturally one had 
to realise that one was a guest." 

" How did it go at Tsarskoe Selo ? " 

" Very well indeed. The Emperor seemed to me 
a man of firmer character than I had expected. The 
Empress was charming. I had a curious e.xperience at 
the palace of taking precedence of a Bishop. The 
Bishop of Ossory, not being a Lord in Parliament, 
and only the Bishop of a Disestablished Church, 
stood below me. Apart from banquets and those 
receptions that we all attended, the Bishops, together 
with Lord Hugh Cecil and Mr. Birkbeck, were, I 
think, mostly together in gatherings connected with 
the Greek Church. In the few speeches I heard from 
the Bishops, apart from the spirit of friendliness, I 
did not catch any verv distinctive note. But very 
likely these were reserved fof their gatherings with 
the representatives of the Greek Church." 

" Then you were a pretty harmonious party ? " 
" Yes, most harmonious. We agreed at St. Peters- 
burg, with a view of meeting as many as possible of 
those who wished to receive us, to be .sent wherever 
our leaders chose, and this plan answered very well. 
I understand before we left a Russian said that we 
were the first party from other countries that had 
visited Russia and had not quarrelled amongst them- 
selves. It was, of course, a great disappointment 
that the Speaker had to return from Berlin on account 
of his father's death, but Lord Weardale excelled 
himself as the chief spokesman- of the party. He was 
indefatigable, full of energy, bonhomie, and tact. 
Altogether it was a most enjoyable visit, and, I believe, 
will bear srood fruit." 




KtitltdfUntutit, It 



A German View of Recent Anglo-German Differences. 

(I) " llulli) ! Here's ulil Michael ; wlial a lark ! \\C laii <li) w'aat we like with liiin, lie's such a iionr-spirited |iarl)'." 
(i) " Donncrwcllcr ! " 



243 



Character Sketch. 



LORD. PIRRIE. 

I am happy in thinking that merit ii becoming more and more the only determining factor in life. 
invitation to the youth of the world is " Go in and win ! " — Lord Pirkie. 



So that to-day the 



LORD PIRRIE has never been in the House of 
Commons. He has never (till now) taken an active 
part in the political strife at Westminster. 
Hence he is less familiar as a personality to the British 
public than scores of far less famous men. For Lord 
Pirrie is a famous 
man, one of the most 
famous of his day 
and generation. He 
is the greatest sh^- 
builder whom the 
world has ever seen. 
He has built more 
ships and bigger ships 
than any man since 
the days of Noah. 
And he not only 
builds ships, but he 
owns them, directs 
them, controls them 
on all the seas of all 
the world. 

Lord Pirrie was 
not bom with a 
goldfen spoon in his 
mouth. Nor even a 
silver one. Like Mr. 
Carnegie, he was born 
poor as regards 
worldly goods. He 
never went to college. 
When he was fifteen 
years old he began his 
life's work. " \'ou 
have your own way 
to make," .said his 
mother to him ; " it 
depends on your own 
exertions whether 
you succeed or not." 
He has succeeded. 

It is an irfleresting 
fact that, like Mr. 
JJonar Law, tlvc 
Leader of the 

Unionist party in the House of Crimmons, Lord 
Pirrie was born in Canada. But although cradled 
in Canada, he came back a.s an infant lo the 
land of his parents. liolh lost their father in 
Canada. Although one wa.s of .Scotch and the 
other of Irish descent, both belong to the >ame 
stock w hich was welded into w rought - iron 



his widowed mother, leaving 
in Canada, decided to return 



John Kno.x, the Shorter Catechism, and the Book of 
Proverbs. 
W. J. Pirrie was but a wee orphan laddie when 

her husband's grave 
to the land of her 
fathers. 

James Ale.xander 
Pirrie was a native 
of Little Clandeboye, 
in County Down. He 
had married Eliza 
Montgomery, of Dun- 
desart, in County 
Antrim, and had 
crossed the Atlantic 
in the forties to better 
himself in the New 
\\'orkl. Their only 
son, now Lord Pirrie, 
was born in Quebec, 
May 31st, 1847. His 
mother brought him 
back to Belfast, and 
gave to him the best 
education attain- 
able. He went to 
school at the Royal 
Academical Institu- 
tion. He was a lively 
boy who stuck to his 
books and showed 
a certain genius for 
mathematics. In 1862, 
when he was fifteen, 
he pleaded to be al- 
lowed to leave school 
and enter as a pre- 
mium apprentice the 
works of which he is 
now the head. Four 
years before a small 
firm of shipbuilders 
had started work in 
the premises formerly 
used as an ironworks. 
In i8^2 they were employing a hundred men. The 
era of iron shipbuilding had In'gtm. Palmer was 
making the Tyne famous, i)ut the Clyde was then 
easily first in the fiild. Neither Tyne nor Clyde 
dreamed that the lad who was taking his scat 
in the draughting dcparlnienl of a small Melfast 
by shipbuilding firm would make the North of Ireland 




An Excellent Portrait of Lord Pirrie. 



244 



The Review of Reviews. 



the seat of the greatest shipbuilding yard in the 
world. 

Ilarland and Wolff appear to have been men who 
had an eye for capacity among their employes. It 
is not quite clear how long it was before they discovered 
the genius whom they had employed unawares. 
William James stuck to his work. He meant to " go in 
and win." He had the right stuff in him and the 
right kind of mother behind him. 

LORD PIRRIE's mother. 

His mother was the third daughter of Mr. Alexander 
Montgomery, of Crumlin, co. Antrim, and niece of the 
Rev. Henry Montgomery, LL.D., of Belfast, who took 
such an active part in the Disestablishment of the 
Irish Church. 

Young Pirrie was a ^•ery lively and observant boy 
taking a keen interest in country pursuits and every- 
thing that came within his range. He owed much 
to the advantage of having spent his early years under 
the daily supervision of a devoted mother. For it was 
his mother who had the early training of William 
James. Of silver and gold she had little, but she gave 
him what was more valuable than either silver or 
gold, in the shape of a little manuscript book, in 
which with loving care she wrote down in simple 
sentences the love of a lifetime. 

In later years Lord Pirrie declared that he would 
advise every young man to make the chief corner- 
stone of their lives this maxim : — 

Respect your patents' wisdom aud good advice. 

At the outset of his career a young man could not do better 
than resolve that by thelielp of loivine giace nothing shall enter 
into his life of which his mother would not approve, or which 
would cause her pain. 

Herein we hear an echo of the Book of Proverbs : — 

My son, keep thy father's commandment and forsake not '.he 
law of Ihy mother. 

Bind tfiem continually upon thine heart, and tie them about 
thy neck. 

When thou goest it shall lead thee, when Ihou sleepcst it 
shall keep thee, and when thou awakest it shall talk with thee. 

For the commandment is a lamp, and the lav/ is light, and 
reproofs of instruction are the way of life. 

HIS mother's M.\XIMS. 

Few men have obeyed this precept more literally 
than Lord Pirrie. As one who wrote of him said 
quite recently :— 

Lord Firrie's mother framed a cod': of laws for her son's 
observance, quaint, lender, pious, and vastly wise and sound. 
.•\nd the beauty of it is that her system succeeded. Lord 
I'irrie grew up on the system, lie based his career upon it. 
The treasured little volume in which his mother wrote down 
her thoughts and aspirations concerning him h.as never been 
far from his hand. It has accompanied him on all his many 
voyages. I( has Iain snug in his pocket while he has been 
negotiating deals with the princes of money and industry on 
both sides of the Atlantic. This is no namby-pamby senti- 
nientalism, no gush. This little volume of counsel in his 
mother's hand was for many years the stay and support of his 
career, and since then, seeing that he feels that he owes his 
fortune to it, what more right and natural than thai he should 
rcgartl it with pious reverence and treasure it as his richest 
possession ? 

I have not seen the book which has been Lord 



Pirrie's guide and compass through the stormy seas 
of life, for it has never been published ; but extracts 
which have been published show that the mother was 
a shrewd, practical woman who knew how to condense 
into a few simple sentences the wisdom born of the 
observation and experience of a lifetime. For instance, 
she wrote : — 

It is the result of everyday experience that steady attention 
to matters of detail lies at the root of human progress, and 
that diligence is above all the mother of good luck. Accuracy 
is also of much importance, and an invariable maik of good 
training in a man, accuracy in observation, accuracy in speech, 
accuracy in the transaction of affairs. What is done in busi- 
ness must be well done ; for it is better to accomplish perfectly 
a small amount of work than to half-do ten times as much. A 
wise man used to say, " St.ay a little, that we may make an end 
the sooner." 

.Simple industry and studious exactness would be the making 
of Ireland. Method is essential, and enables a large amount 
of work to be got through with satisfaction. Despatch comes 
with practice. " If you want your work well done," says the 
proverb, " go and do it ; if you don't want it done, send some 
one else." 

HIS FIRST START. 

With these maxims in his head, and the inspiring 
influence of his mother ever behind him at home, 
William James soon made his mark. He rose rapidly 
in favour. He was steady, energetic and pushing. 
He had a head on his shoulders, an observant eye, 
and he never spared himself when work had to be 
done. By degrees he was trusted with more important 
work. When he was hardly out of his teens he was 
sent off to sea to learn the miseries and discomforts 
of sea travel as they then existed. And what he had 
to do when he came back was to take note of hi.s 
difficulties and privations seriatim and so improve his 
master's ships that these discomforts and disabilities 
should be ruled out of the products of the Queen's 
Island Yard. 

HARLAN U AND WOLFF. 

The story of the creation of the great shipbuilding 
firm of Harland and Wolff, prope'rly told, would b« 
an epic of modern industry. The founder of the firm 
Sir Edward Harland, was a man of original genius 
of bold initiative and great capacity in the selection o 
assistants. \\'ith his partner Wolfl he decided that ii | 
mudbank in the North of Ireland was the ideal sitif 
for a shipbuilding yard. It seemed a crazy decisiorij 
Ireland produced none of the ingredients necessa 
for the construction of steamships. Irishmen hai 
never shown much capacity for the building of ship: 
Neither had Ireland ever created a great nicrcha 
marine. 'I'here were no skilled arti.sans available o{ 
the spot. Of the raw material, iron and steel and bras 
and wood, not one ton could be produced in t 
whole of Ireland. And what was perhaps still moil 
important, coal, the magician whose touch alone coulli 
transmute iron ore and pig iron into hulls of ship 
marine engines, and all the appurtenances thereof, hai 
to be imported from (heat 15ritain. Neither skillc 
labour, capital, nor raw materials were to be foun 
in Belfast when Sir Edward Harland decided to ent 



Character Sketch. 



245 



into competition with the Clyde, the Tyne and the 
Tees, which had everything needed close to their back 
door. Orpheus with his lyre made trees and the 
mountain tops that freeze move hither and thither 
at his will. Not less marvellous was the magic by 
which, as by the wand of an enchanter, men and money, 
coal and iron hastened to the mudbank on Queen's 
Island, from which access to the sea had to be gained 
by an artificial channel. They began in 185Q with a 
staff of 44 men and an acreage of 3I acres. They 
now cover 80 acres and employ 14,000 men. And all 
this was accomplished in half a century : — 

O small beginnings, ye are great ami strong ! 
Based in a faithfvil heart and weariless brain, 

Yc build the future fair, ye conquer wron^', 
Yc earn the crown and wear it not in vain. 

.\ TRIUMPH OF BRAIN — 

Sir Edward Harland, Mr. Wolff, Lord Pirric, Mr. 
Alick Carlisle, Mr. Bailey, the Wilsons, and others who 
might be named, are entitled to a foremost position 
among the great industrial heroes of our time. It is all 
very well to exalt Labour and to maintain that Labour 
alone is the source of wealth. All the labour of all 
the men who were gathered together and trained to 
discipline and set to work at the construction of the 

I ocean ferries of our time could not have created the 
great wage-earning machine which, year in year out, 

( distributes a million pounds sterling to Labour in 
Belfast. Without the Harlands, the Pirries, and the 
Carlisles Labour would have found not even a penny 
piece on the Queen's Island mudbank. Nor would 
uny Government Department have ventured, greatly 
daring, to attempt such a venture as the creation of 
this shipyard. Brain, after all, is the great thau- 
maturgist. It is genius which transmutes by its 
alchemy the grosser metals into gold. 

— AND OF RULE OF THUMB. 

The firm seems to have been born under a lucky 
star. It has had its misfortunes when it has ventured 
out of the beaten track. But so long as it remained 
true to the task .set before it by its founder it was 
uniformly successful. And here, again, we find our- 
selves confronterl by a strange parado.x. Shipbuilding 
is of all the crafts the one which demands the most 
science. But Harland and Wolff knew nothing of 
science. Neither did Messrs. Pirrie and Carlisle, who 
succeeded them in the direction and control of the 
firm. The firm, from the first to the last, has built its 
hips by the rule of thumb. It began with small 
ships, it experimented with bigger ships, it tried ex- 
periments in all directions, and profited by their result. 
Hut although it has now the record for building the 
biggest and safest ships in the world, it has done it all 
not by scientific calculation, l)ut by the sheer genius 
of the rule of thumb carried to the nth point. 
None of the great men who built up this marvel of 
constructive skill and made it capable of turning out 
the leviathans of the modern world coulil have passed 
1' an ordinary Civil Service examination. One of the 



greatest of them never learned to .spell. But they 
built the Olympic, that wonder of the world. 

BELFAST AND ITS WORK.MEN. 

One of the essential elements in the creation of a 
successful industry is a constant supply of labour, 
obedient, skilled and docile. Belfast is the last place 
in the whole world where we should look for the raw 
supply of the labour required. The Black North has 
combined in its sons the dour doggedncss of the Scot 
with the fiery combativeness of the Irishman. Belfast 
has long been notorious for the readiness with which 
its sons let their angry passions rise on the slightest 
provocation. They are the only people in the British 
Empire who commemorate historical anniversaries by 
provoking always and occasionally producing bloody 
riots. When religion and history fail to supply them 
with an opportunity of showing that they have 
inherited the family characteristics of their pro- 
genitor Cain, they take a fierce delight in industrial 
wars. It was in the midst of this hornet's nest of 
Kilkenny cats, to perpetrate an expressive Hibernicism, 
that Harland and Wolff pitched their tent. They 
tamed the wild aboriginal and taught him to expend 
his energies not on breaking heads, but in driving 
rivets. They took the two-handed biped who had 
previously earned an exiguous li\-ing by digging 
potatoes, and turned him into a skilled mechanic, 
who, working in combination with his fellows and 
under the direction of his masters, turned out Olympics 
and Majesties as easily as his ancestors wove the 
wicker-work coracles of the western coast. The task 
was not achieved without many a tough and well- 
contested battle. The masters were as tough as their 
men, and they never shrank from the fray. No system 
of co-partnership, no tribunal of arbitration, was ever 
imented to evade the stern issues of industrial war- 
fare. Men struck and struck again. One strike 
lasted ten months. As a rule, if a strike lasted a day. 
It ran its course in four or eight weeks. But whether 
in war or in peace, the combatants understood each 
other, and when the battle was over they shook hands 
without rancour and resumed their fruitful joint 
labour in good heart. 

THE TRIUMPH OF HONESTY AND SKILL. 

I remember some forty odd years ago reading 
jeremiads by Mr. Froudc over the alleged decay of 
honest workmanship in modern Britain. The 
foundering of the Margara was one of the incidents 
which in those days supplied the prophets of disaster 
with materials for their sombre prognostications of 
coming doom. If we could raise Mr. Froudc from the 
grave it would be interesting to have his comments 
upon the superb results of modern shipbuilding. 
Better workmanship has never been put into floating 
craft since the world began than that which has been 
employed by Harland and Wolff. They are not the 
jerrybuilders of the fea. After breasting the storms of 
the Atlantic for a quarter of a century, the Whi'.e 



246 



The Review of Reviews. 



Star liner Britannic seemed to renew her youth and 
erhpsed all her previous records. The Oceanic, among 
other vessels, only put on her best speed after standing 
the wear and tear of a dozen years in constant serv'ice. 

" THE BUILDING OF THE SHIP." 

Longfellow's " The Building of the Ship " needs to 
be rewritten to suit the age of steel, but its spirit lives 
in Harland and Wolff's shipyard : — 

" Build Die straight, O worthy Master ! 
St.iunch and strong, a goodly vessel 
That shall laugh at all disaster. 

And with wave and whirlwind wrestle," 

The merchant's word 

D'jlighted the Master heard ; 

For his heart was in his work, and the heart 

Giveth grace unto every Art. 

And with a voice that was full of glee 
He answered, " Ere long we will launch 
A vessel as goodly, and strong and staunch, 
As ever weathered a wintry sea." 

Longfellow's words were more literally fulfilled at 
Queen's Island than in the shipyard vihere they used 
cedar of Maine and Georgia pine. This day and every 
day may be seen at Belfast how — 

Day by day the vessel grew . . . 
Till after many a week, at length. 
Wonderful for form and strength 
Sublime in its enormous bulk. 
Loomed aloft the shadowy hulk 1 

When Sir Edward Harland began in 1859 — for the 
firm of Harland and Wolff only came into existence 
in 1862, when Mr. G. W. Wolff was taken into partner- 
ship — they built small ships of 2,000 tons. The first 
order they booked was for three steamers of the Bibby 
Line, 270 feet long, 34 feet wide^, and 22 feet 9 inches 
deep. Their latest ships are 45,000 tons, 880 feet long, 
92 feet wide, and 64 feet deep. 

SIR EDWARD HARLAND. 

Edward J. Harland was not an Irishman. He was 
the son of a Scarborough doctor, who served his 
apprenticeship as an engineer in the Stephenson Works 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne. He worked as a journe}man 
at a pound a week at J. and G. Thomson's shipyard 
on the ("lyde, and got his first chance as manager of 
Thomas Toward's shipj'ard on the Tyne. When 
only twenty-three years old he applied for and 
obtained the post of manager of the Queen's Island 
shipyard, then doing business on a small settle under 
K. Hickson and Co. No sooner was he installed than 
he was confronted by a strike. He broke it by import- 
ing blacklegs from the Clyde, who worked for a time, 
;ind then, under the persuasion of peticeful picketing, 
withdrew. His best friends advised him to throw up 
the job. Hickson had to compound with his creditors, 
and Harland had himself to guarantee the wages of 
the faithful few who stuck to him. If the strikers had 
won there would have been no Harland and Wolff to- 
day. ]{ut Harland was a man of mettle " 1 have 
mounted a resti\e horse," he said, " and I will ride 



him to the stable." He persevered, got the Bank of 
Ireland to back him, imported more blacklegs from 
the 'I'yne, and finally triumphed. Three years later 
Hickson sold out, and Harland came into possession, 
when onl)' twenty-si.K, of the Queen's Islanci shipyard. 

WHAT HE DID FOR SHIPBUILDING. 

Professor Oldhsm, in his interesting lecture on 
" The History of Belfast Shipbuilding," attributes 
the success of the Queen's Island firm, first, to its 
proximity to Liverpool — " the Lagan has been the ship- 
yard of the Mersey " — and, secondly, to the initiative, 
energy and genius of Sir Edward Harland. He early 
grasped the idea that the fish was the finest design for 
a vessel, but as a ship must float, the art and mystery 
of shipbuilding lay in hitting upon the happy medium 
of velocity and stability. Professor Oldham says : — 

Mr. E. Harland was the first shipbuilder to perceive that an 
iron ship need not be kept to the lines that were most suitable for 
wooden vessels. He had early conceived his theory that if an 
iron ship were increased in h.-ngth without a corresponding 
increase of beam, the carrying power botli for cargo and 
passengers would lie much greater, that the ships would show- 
improved qualities in a sea-way, and that (notwithstanding the 
increased accommodation) the same speed with the same power 
would be obtained by only a slight increase in the first "capital 
cost." This idea was original with him, .and is the reason 
why Belfast has become especially the place for building very 
large ships. He was confident that length could be fully 
compensated for by making the upper deck entirely of iron. 
" In this way," to quote Mr. Harland's own words, "the hull 
of the ship was converted into a box girder of immensely 
increased strength, and was, I believe, the first ocean steamer 
ever so constructed." He persuaded the Bibby firm to apply 
this theory to the two ships for their second order, which were 
made 310 feet long. These new vessels were nicknamed 
" Bibby's coffins," by the old sailors, but they inaugurated a 
new era in ship construction, " partly because of the greater 
cargoes which they carried, hut principally from the regularity 
with which they made their voyages with such surprisingly small 
consumption of coal." 

The firm h.as ever continued to apply new ideas in the design 
of their vessels. A few of their novelties may be mentioned as 
illustrations. The shaipness of their fish-like hull conduced to 
steadiness in a pitching sea, .as the ship went through the crest 
of the waves — " it was not (mly easier for the vessel, but the 
shortest road "—the bow bearing a turtle-back covering to 
throw off the shipped waters. The perpendicular stem formed 
by cutting the forefoot and figurehead away was an artistic 
sacrifice to efficiency, for when combined with a new powerful 
steering gear, worked amidships, it allowed the extremely long 
ships to be easily handled and swung round in narrow channels 
of navigation. To give large carrying capacity, they gave to 
their ships "flatness of bottom and squareness of bilge," and 
the " Belfast bottom," as it is technically known, h.as since been 
generally imitated. Finding it impossible to combine satis- 
factorily wood with iron (the two materials being so differently 
affected by temperature and moisture), they filled in the sp.aces 
between frames, etc., with I'Drtland cement instead of chocks 
of wood. 

They were also pioneers in the introduction of marine 
engines and were early advocates of the surface condenser. 
Messrs. Harland and Wolff have been identified with all the 
steps in the perfecting of the reciprocating engine— from the 
simple engine to the compound, the triple-expansion, and 
especially the tpiadruplc expansion on the balanced iirinciple, 
which not only increased the efficiency and economy of the 
machinery, but also greatly added to the comfort of passengers 
by eliminating vibration. 



Character Sketch. 



247 



THE WHITE STAR LINE. 

It is sometimes said that the White Star line made 
the fortune of Harland and Wolff. But, as Professor 
Oldham points out, the fact is that it was the other 
way about. Jlessrs. Ismay and Fletcher started the 
Oceanic Steam Xaviyalion Company in 1869 because 
they saw that Harland and Wolff hatl invented a type 
of vessel which was both speedy and economical. 
This firm have built over fifty White Star liners as well 
as all the Bibby liners. 

The evolution of the White Star ships can be stated 
in a couple of lines : — 

Length, Iteam. Hold. Shaft 

Feet. Feet. ■ Feet. Tonnage. Horse-power. 

1S70 Oceanic 400 41 33 17,000 — 

1910 Olympic 882 92 64 45,000 16,000 

The White Star monsters are built for safety and 
comfort rather than for speed. The Maurelania, carry- 
ing 6,000 tons less cargo, requires 75.000 shaft horse- 
power in order to make twenty-si.x knots an hour, 
against twenty-one knots of the Olympic. 

THE queen's island SHIPYARD. 

I am not going to try to describe the works, for, in 
the first place, I have never seen them, and, in the 
second place, judging from the elaborate descriptions 
of those who have inspected them, I should utterly fail 
to do anything but bewilder the reader with a confused 
impression of immensity, lighted and worked by as 
much electricity as would illuminate the streets of a 
town of 300,000 inhabitants. A few nuggety facts, 
however, stand out from the bewildering maze of 
figures which dwell in the memory. To make the foun- 
dation of the slips on which the Olympic and Titanic 
were built required an expenditure of £250,000. They 
have got a 200-ton flouting crane — the largest in the 
world ; the travelling cantilever cranes are Brobding- 
nagian monsters, whose reach of arm and lifting 
capacity are quite uncanny. 

THE OUTPUT OF SHIPS. 

The firm has branches or sister establishments at 
Liverpool and at Southampton. At the latter place 
they employ from 2,500 to 3,000 men. Harland and 
Wolff have on twelve occasions during the last twenty 
years figured at the head of the shipbuilding returns. 
The following record of their tonnage will be found 
interesting : — 





N... of 




\V\v U. 


1896 


12 


1897 


10 


1899 


7 


1901 


7 


|i)03 


.S 


1905 


'( 


IC^ 


II 


I90,S 


S 


1910 


8 


1911 


10 



I. II. p. 



Ponrd of rra'Ir 

GroM Kcnistcr. 

'l'on>. 

. . 81,316 61,324 

84,240 45,850 

82,634 60,150 

92,316 76,000 

110,463 100,400 

85,287 72,OJI 

>ii.2i* 9<^i.70o 

106,528 65,840 

115,861 100,130 

118,209 96,9i6 



In addition i" mercantile work, they have supplied 



the machinery for some of the largest vessels in the 

British Navy, as follows : — 

IIM.S. /l.iNitibal 15,000 I.H.r. 

1I.M..S. Queen iS.ooo „ 

U.n.a. JCiits EciwarU VIZ. ... 18,000 „ 

H.M.S. Minotaur ... ... ... 27,000 ,, 

H.M.S. Xep/utie 25,0008. H. P. 

At Belfast, Bootle, and Southampton Harland and 
Wolff employ a standing army of between 17,000 and 
20,000 workmen, whose weekly wage is £30,000, equal 
to an annual wage bill of £1,500,000. The nominal 
capital of the company is £600,000, held in si.\ hundred 
shares of £1,000 each. The value of the works repre- 
sents more than £2,000,000. 

LORD PIRRIE'S CAREER. 

After this digression concerning the famous shipyard, 
in which he had at one time the major interest, and of 
which he is still the chairman, it is time to return to 
Lord Pirrie. His rise was very rapid. He entered the 
yard when a lad of fifteen. He was head draughtsman 
when the Oceanic was designed in 1869, when he was 
twenty-two. Five years later, when he was only 
twenty-seven, he became partner, and was soon master 
of the concern. 

'■ ALICK CARLISLE." 

If I had space I should like to devote a special 
chapter to Mr. Carlisle, the cousin and brother-in-law 
of Lord Pirrie, who entered the business as an appren- 
tice in 1870. Lord Pirrie left the organisation of the 
business to his capable brother-in-law, who worked like 
a demon. Up till his retirement he practically never 
took a holiday. His instantaneity of decision enabled 
him to get through the work of half a dozen ordinary 
men. He designed everything ; looked after everything ; 
and had all the detail of everything at his fingers' ends. 
So herculean were his labours that no one was sur- 
prised when it was announced that he had retired 
from the active management of the great concern — 
which has still the advantage of his consultative abili- 
ties. Many wondered how the shipyard would get on 
without him. But he had organised it on solid 
foundations. The Carlisle tradition is not soon for- 
gotten ; and Harland and Woltf continues to prosper 
amazingly. Some time ago Lord Pirrie sold the major 
interests in the company to .Messrs. J. Brown and 
Co., of Clydeiiank. Shifheld, who at present own the 
celebrated Clydebank works, and will enter into full 
control of the famous Irish shipyard when Lord Pirrie 
retires from the chairmanship. 

THE CHARACTER OF LORD PIRRIE. 

Of Lord Pirrie as a man I can say nothing at first 
hand. I have never met Lord Pirrie, and when 1 began 
to write this sketch he was ])rcparing fur an operation 
which has, fortunately, been successful. If 1 had met 
him it is doubtful whether I could have fathomed that 
somewhat unfathomable character, of whom those who 
knew him best say they knew him least, who has 
carved his upward way to fame and fortune in com- 
parative .solitude of soul. 



248 



The Revikvv of RiiviKvvs. 



His speciality, which he has carried almost to the 
point of genius, was a magnetic talent for persuading 
people to entrust him with orders. But in this, as in 
much else, he preferred solitude to company. He 
always dealt with those with whom he did business 
" between four eyes." Two's company and three's 
none ; and of his exploits in persuading reluctant pur- 
chasers to agree to his own terms there are no eye- 
witnesses. Said one who knew him well : " Those who 
met Lord Pirrie for the first time were quite confident 
that they would have no difficulty in besting the 
apparently guileless, innocent gentleman who ushered 
them into his office. But no matter who they were, 
they all came out shorn." This Svengah-like gift of 
fascination has done wonders for Harland and Wolff. 
The firm always gave its customers good value for their 
money, but Lord Pirrie it was who persuaded them that 
it would be so. H he had the innocence of the dove, he 
also was as wise as a serpent ; and the impression of his 
wisdom lingered last. 

HIS PUBLIC LIFE. 

Lord Pirrie has devoted considerable attention to 
public life. In 1896-7 he was Lord Mayor of Belfast. 
They were memorable years in the history of the city, 
and Belfast testified its admiration of his character 
by making him its first honorary freeman — Lady 
Pirrie was subsequently rnade a sharer in the Freedom 
of the City. His Lord Mayoralty was distinguished 
not only by his public-spirited enterprise in municipal 
affairs and his hospitality, but by his generous senti- 
ment towards all men, so that in a city hitherto noted 
for religious differences all creeds and classes were 
drawn closer together. During his term of office the 
city boundaries were greatly extended and Catholics 
ensured admittance to the Council. 

Aided by his wife. Lord Pirrie was instrumental in 
furthering the erection of a large new hospital, the 
Royal Victoria, in celebration of the Diamond Jubilee 
of Queen Victoria. He personally supervised the 
design and construction of this building, which is 
one of the most scientifically-constructed and best- 
equipped institutions of the kind in the world. 

He has taken an active part in the municipal affairs 
of Belfast, and served in 1896-7 as Lord Mayor. His 
election was a well-earned tribute to the man of whom 
Lord Dufferin said : — " He is a man who by his talents 
and indefatigable exertions has so stimulated the 
activity of his town that he has lifted it from its former 
comparatively inferior position to that of being the 
liiird greatest commercial city in the whole Empire." 

A GREAT IRISHMAN. 

His zeal for the development of Ireland and Iri.sh 
industry is by no means confined to Belfast, 'f'ogether 
with Lord Iveagh lie projected a system of motor-cars 
l)y which the produce of the country districts of Ireland 
could be brought to market. He is a great believer in 
the industrial resources of Ireland and the Irish people. 
'I'lic Irish emigrate in thousands every year. " This 
ought not to be," he declared. " Why, Ireland herself 



is ready for commerce." Why should she let her 
choicest children go hence to foster the commerce of 
other lands beyond the Empire's limits, when she 
herself has need of them ? " Ireland is so ripe for 
commerce that I should be very sorry to advise one of 
her young men to try his chances abroad while such 
glorious prospects remain at his own doorstep." When 
he was a Conservative the Unionists made him a Privy 
Councillor. The Liberals made him a peer in 1906, 
and Lord Aberdeen made him Comptroller of the 
Viceregal household. 

LADY PIRRIE. 

Fortunate in business, he was equally fortunate in 
marriage. He married Margaret Montgomery, the 
daughter of John Carlisle, M.A., of Belfast, whose 
brother, another young man of genius, succeeded Lord 
Pirrie as head draughtsman. It would not be correct 
to say that Lord Pirrie was made by the Carlisles, but 
Lord Pirrie would be the first to admit that without 
his wife and his brother-in-law he could never have 
achieved his astonishing success. Lady Pirrie has been 
in more ways than one the helpmate of his life. Unfor- 
tunately without children, she has concentrated upon 
her husband all the wealth of a loving nature and a 
shrewd and powerful mind. 

Since 1879 Lady Pirrie has been her husband's 
constant companion, tra\elling round the world and 
going everywhere with him, has taken a keen interest 
in everything connected witli the welfare and further- 
ance of Harland and Wolff's interests, coming into 
close contact with his ship-owning friends. Their 
interests are always united, and while he looks 
after the business part, all who know her recognise 
that she helps to bind closely together the link 
between the commercial and social hfe which adds to 
the success of one's undertakings. 

THE DIRECTOR OF A MIGHTY FLEET. 

Lord Pirrie's shipping interests in 1909 included 
directorships in the following companies : — 

Steamships. 

British and North Atlantic Steam Navigation Com- 
pany (Dominion Line) ... ... ... ... II 

Frederick Leyland and Co. ... ... ... ... 36 

International Mercantile Marine Company (Ameri- 
can Line) ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Mississippi and Dominion S.S. Company (Dominion 
Line) 3 

Oceanic Steam Navigation Company (White Star 
I'ine) 30 

Wilsons and Furness-Leyland Lines 6 

Total ... ... ... ... 90 

In 1910 he bought the undertakings of the late 
Sir Alfred Jones. This made him owner of a 
considerable portion of the following companies : — 

Sleamsliips. 



Kldcr, Dempster .and Co. 

African S.S. Company 

British and African .Steam Navigation Company . 

Elder, Dempster Sliippiii}; Company 

Imperial Direct West India Mail Service Co. 
Elders and Kyfles, Limited ... 

Total 



. 12 
. 22 

■ ,S6 
• 25 
. 6 
. 16 

.117 



Character Sketch. 



249 



Lord Pirrie thus was directly concerned with the 
affairs of 207 steamships, including scores of vessels 
of 2,000 to 5,000 tons and the great White Star Hners 
of 25.000 tons. As chairman of Messrs. Harland and 
Wolff's, the great Belfast shipbuilding firm, in which 
he has been a partner for thirty-eight years, he con- 
trolled the fortunes of 10,000 hands, and in some 
degree of Belfast itself. The London and South 
Western Railway, the London City and Midland Bank, 
and the Scottish Widows Assurance Fund claim him 
as a director. 

But still he was not satisfied. The other day he 
negotiated the purchase through Sir Owen Pounds 
of the Royal Pacific Mail Company and the Union 
Ciistle Line. 

A LAST WORD. 

The ke\-notes of Lord Pirrie's character are the 
cheerful optimism and enthusiastic zeal he evinces in 
evcrvthing. Foresight, optimism, incessant industry. 



the selection of able lieutenants (a sure mark of superior 
ability), the constant introduction of new and improved 
devices, world-wide travel and observation — every 
possible combination of mind and body, land and 
ocean, theory and practice, science and matter, have 
been brought into requisition, united with unique 
powers of organisation, to build up the greatest busi- 
ness of the kind that has existed in the world since 
men first began to go down to the sea in ships. 

This is not a biography but a character sketch, and 
it would be a mistake to overload it with the long roll 
of his directorships on railways and steamship com- 
panies, of banks and telegraph companies, of trustee 
and insurance companies, of oil mills and I know not 
what. Let it suffice in this connection merely to print 
the string of letters that appear after his name in the 
Directory : — 

The Right Honourable Lord Pirrie, P.C, K.P., 
LL.D., D.Sc, D.L., J. P., M.I.C.E., M.Inst.M.E., 
M.I.N.A. 




P^tografh hy\ \l.uj.iytttt, UHllin. 

An Earlier Portrait of Loid Pirrie. 



250 



Current History in Caricature. 



'O wad some power the giftie gie us, 
To see oursels as ithers see us." — BURNS. 




Pasgttino.\ 



[Turin, 



Westminster Gazette] 

The Dove Reports. Persia's Plight 

Noah (Mr. Asquitli) : " Thank you very much ; it's quite a satisfactory report ! " The Bear : " Now that I have estab- 

lished order in Finland I will go and look 
after Persia." 

The sweeping electoral victories of the Socialists in Germany still 
continue to inspire most of the caricaturisits on the Continent, and our 
reproductions illustrate this fear of the " menace of Socialism." 




Melloume Punch. '\ 

The Burst Up. 

'I'Hii WoRKKK : "'Ello, boss, here's 

the {general bust up at last ! 'I'hank 'caviiii; 

we know where we are.'* 

(One of tlie Labour leaders had declared 
that what was wanted w.is "a general 
burst up all round to put an end to shilly- 
shallying "). 




LTurin. 



Pasquino.\ 

The German Chancellor's Surprise. 
Before the Eleclions. After the Elections. 

" Never fear, little man, wc will find a I " Good heavens I He will fill up the 
corner even for you." 1 whole House." 



Current History in Caricature. 



251 




KlaJ.Ur.iJ.itsci'i.'i (Berlin. 

The Beggars. 

The German Chancellor, with the Clcricil and Junker Parties, 
begging help from the National Liberals. 



Dt-r IFahrt 7«a>/'.] (Stuttgart. 

The Defeated. 
" Hail, Cxsar ! We who arc about to die salute thee ! " 




/,. ' ,, .If r.iri..\ 

The Balance of Power. 

John r.iii I ; " .sit liyhi, my children ; I am going to preserve 
the ojuilibriuiD," 



A 


DEBACLE INDEED. 


\ 


r 






""^ y.i'k.n. 



Kloiiiieraiia tsck, ] 



Kohl I 



[licrlin. 



Refers to the complete capture of Cologne by the Socialists, 
who won all the scats. 



252 



The Review of Reviews. 




KlaAfcrndalsch.'\ [Berlin. 

" F.c.G." in Pictur, Politics.] The Consultation, 

The Peacemaker-General. The Chanckllor : "The left hand 

The Peacemaker-" General " (Sir George Askwitli) : " There are those bells (Social Democrats) has suddenly grown to 

again 1 I wonder what would happen if / were to strike ! " an enormous size. Do you think that any- 

thing can be done to reduce the swellin-r?" 




Ktktriki. \ 



An Anglo-German Understanding 

results in a further extension of peace. 



[Vienna. 




Minneapolii yountaL] 



Up Out of the Gloom. 



Minruaf'otis ')oumat.\ 

Uncle Sam of the Orient. 



Current History in Caricature. 



253 




Ulk.} 



(Berlin 



Tranquillised China. 
TiiK Empress Dowagkk : " Come, chiUl, wc must go into exile." 
Thk K.x.Emi'ERor : "Oh, Aunty, I just want to sec how Sun Vat Sen and 
\ uan Shi-Kai settle each other 1" 





Fas<ptino.\ 

He Wants Everything. 

Tin; BiCAR : " I should like to eat llie cake, 
too, if it wasn't lor the conqueror." 



yo^/ ^ 



MiiJi.i.\ — iW.irv.nv. 

The Royal Unemployed. 

This picture shows ihr IX shall of l'ii>i.i playin;; chcs.H with 
!x-King Manuel. The exkeycnt of China, liolilinj; in his 
irms Ihc cx-Knipcror of China, remarks : " Both of your chcss- 
nen [I'ortut;ucse and Persian] appear lo be pretty busy K^inj; 
or one another frcfirrinj; lo the conlinucfl unrcsl in both 
:ountries]. Hurry up with your game as I want lo play, loo. 
Ve shall soon sec how the Chinese Republican puppets shape I " 




The Two Uuclcs. 

Mr. Ko<iskVH.t(" ^'y '''^''" f'''"^"''> >■"" '""' l'el'<-'f 'ook for 
Mk Takt I some other country 1 North America is 

I too small for you." 



254 



The Review of Reviews. 




U.S. : "Just gol dinged cold .ill over ! " 
A reminiscence of llie recent severe weather in America, 



Py permiiiioK oj the proprietors «/ " Putich."\ 

Down Under. 

The Kangaroo : " No matter 1 We meet again in Kngland." 
Tiiii Lion : " Yes, but let's be photographed like this first." 




MiH'ifiifolis ytiMrnai.\ 



Louder. 



Spffktsiiiaii-IitvirwA I U.S.A. 

The Trust : " Your honour, I'm as innocent as a new-burn 

bal>e." 



255 



The Next Great Word in the Evolution of Peace. 



A PLEA FOR A DEVELOPMENT OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE. 

IT is my privii(.-;;e lo publish the following Manifesto by one of the shrewdest and ablest public men 
to whom Latin America has gi\en birth in our time. It is a masterly presentation of a plea for taking 

a forward step towards the world's peace by adding to the Monroe doctrine, which forbids all conquest 
liy European nations in the Western hemisphere, the important corollary placing under the same interdict 
all conquest in the American Continent, without regard to the origin of the conquerors. Obviously 
this interdict at first sight seems to have as its objective a desire to make the extended Monroe doctrine 
a barrier against the possible ambitions of the countrymen of President Monroe. But in reality, as there is 
no citizen of the United States who desires to make any such conquest, the acceptance of such a 
formula by the Government at Washington would have as its first and immediate result the removal of the 
one great obstacle which hinders the extension of the influence and the interests of the United States 
in Latin America. 

It would, however, be a mistake to regard the proposal as one prompted solely by the position of 
the United States. Such an extension of the Monroe doctrine is necessary to secure the success of the 
Monroe doctrine itself. For that doctrine is not aimed solely at the prevention of European conquest. 
It vetoes European intervention " for the purpose of oppressing " the American States or " controlling 
in any other manner their destiny." The latter clause is often forgotten. It is obvious that 
so long as conquest is allowed in the Western hemisphere any American Republic bent upon extending 
its frontiers might enter into an alliance with a European or Asiatic State in terms which would 
have the effect of placing the control of the conquered territory in fact, although not in form, in the 
hands of the powerful ally whose military or naval forces had effected the conquest. If all frontiers 
were stereotyped as they exist to-day — barring such readjustments as might be effected by friendlv 
arrangements— this easy way of evading the Monroe doctrine could be as easily blocked. American 
Republics would be delivered once for all from the temptation of wars of conquest, and this self-denying 
ordinance would render it impossible for them to reward a European or an Asiatic ally with an 
exceptional position in the conquered territory. 

'Ihere is a third consideration which must not be lost sight of. Britain, France and Holland all 
have colonic.'' in South America. Suppose that by the fortune of war any one of these passed into 
the hands of Germany, Italy, or Japan. As long as conquest is admitted as a right of American States 
it is a moot question whether that right might not be claimed and exercised by the new holder of any 
line of the Guianas. It may seem a remote danger, but it is as well to be on guard against all possible 
ntingcncies. 

Wanted : a Revised and Extended which remain unsettled refer to special points, and do 

Monroe Doctrine "°'^ affect the fundamental doctrines. Furthermore. 

the effort to settle those differences and to re<ach 

I. — llll', .Ml-,.\'.\( E OF EXPANSION. perfect harmony is unceasing, and so widely spread 

The present conditions throughout the world '^hat it may be called universal. 

< annot be called those of peace and tranquillity. Even 'I''ie essential purpose of international law, in a world 

the most optimistically inclined must recognise the evolved from violence, bloodshed and greed from time 

' universal unrest prevailing in all manifestations of immemorial, is noble to the point of sublimity : justice 

' life— socially, within the States, and internationally, amongst nations. It is the highest ideal, embracing 

' amongst the Stales thcmselve,s. The ( onflict of classes liberty and charity, for where oppression or cruelty 

I is no less acute than the rivalry of Empires. begins, justice ends. 

Events to-day develop at a pace unknown in earlier . ^"^'h is the written law, ratified on countless occa- 

( periods. Modern methods of travel, transportation sions, AH the nations of the world cluster under its 

and communication have made the world smaller and protecting agLs, as the invulnerable shield of their 

accelerated the evolution from cause to effect, con- liberties and their existence, as sovereign peoples in 

dcnsing, .so to speak, into years or decades what in a new and regenerate world, from whi( h violence and 

former centuries only matured in the life of several injustice— in the eyes of the law of nations— are but 

generations. Social and international problems to-day ^^c memory of an evil dream. Well may the humanity 

\^ demand untiring wat( hfulncss and swift solution ; ^f ""'' fl^'v rejoice in a consummation so transcendent 

neglect or pusillanimity spell disaster, '" ''s results. 

INTKRNATIoNAI. I.A,W— IN TIIKORV. INTKRN ATK )N M, LAW— IN PRACTICE. 

All the civilised nations have accepted the j)rinciples The mere contem|ilalion of the daily orcurrencos 

: ol international law, which are identical for all of them. that range themselves as links of history, and the 

lllis un;miiiiit\ 1-,. indeed, rcassuriiic. Tin- liifTcrriK c^ .■in:i!v>is of ihi- riliiil!i'~s Irmliin ii-^ -,irin<- ;ind deep 



256 



The Review of Reviews. 



as the Gulf Stream, that shape the course of nations, 
however, soon dispel the hope and exultation created 
liy the letter of the law. Violence, bloodshed and 
rapacity, with occasional compromises that hardly 
constitute an exception, are still the supreme law of 
nations. Mendacity and hypocrisy have increased 
a thousandfold ; honesty is weakness, justice and the 
respect for the rights of others count no more than a 
straw in the wind ; might is still, as it ever was, the 
only right. 

The statement of these undeniable facts solely by 
way of lamentation would be thankless and puerile. 
It becomes indispensable to the study of the trend of 
modern development. 

PEACE BY ARMAMENTS — IN EUROPE. 

Military force continues to be considered the basis 
of national greatness. The Powers of Europe have 
constituted themselves into two distinct groups, the 
main avowed object of which is to maintain the balance 
or equilibrium of forces and to secure the peace of 
Europe. 

It is a matter of history that no war has reddened 
the soil of Central Europe for the last forty years. 
Nations on the Continent may be, as they are, every 
one of them, like a huge barracks. The personal 
liiierty of the individual may be curtailed by prolonged 
military service ; the masses may be reduced to the 
very edge of the life limit wage through the imposts 
which are indispensable for the enormous armaments ; 
the growth of an ubiquitous proletariat, oppressed by 
misery, verging on despair and blind revolt, may 
have been fostered ; all that may be, but the fact 
remains that Central Europe has been free from war 
for forty years — a marvellous event, unparalleled in 
previous history. 

EXPANSION BY WAR — OUTSIDE EUROPE. 

Peace in Europe has not signified peace in the rest 
of the world, or that the European nations have been 
at peace with other people. The period of expansion 
^that is to say, of acquisition of territory abroad — 
which had started at an earlier date, has synchronised 
with the self-same forty years of peace in Europe. 
Ivxpansion has meant war in every instance. Regret- 
table though it may be to the great imperial Powers, 
peoples and nations, no matter how weak thev may be, 
nor how forlorn their hopes of resistance, have not 
as yet learned to give up their liberties, their wealth, 
.ind their soil to a powerful invader without a struggle. 
'I'he Powers may well point to the perverse stubbornness 
of the invaded nations as the real cause of the unavoid- 
able wars. 

The tide of European expansion, which has always 
meant violence, has submerged every availaiile spot 
on the continents and the i.slands ' throughout the 
Old World. The remoter regions of the I'",ast and the 
darker and less accessible parts of Central Africa were 
the first principal centres of attraction. The field of 
operations soon extended to better-known and more 



accessible parts of the Old World ; the essential con- 
dition for the seizure and retention of a given territory 
was that it should be in weak hands ; the distribution 
among the great Powers of whatever was available in 
the Old World is well-nigh complete. 

THE ETHICS OF EXPANSION. 

No justification is required beyond success. The 
weak cannot retaliate, and the Powers have established 
amongst themselves the principle of mutual non- 
interference in their predatory expeditions, based on 
what is called compensation, that is to say, some par- 
ticipation in the spoils, as between two rival cracksmen 
who agree not to obstruct one another in exchange 
for a share of the plunder. 

Flimsy pretexts arc alwa)s alleged on each successive 
aggression, as tenable and sincere as the old-time com- 
plaint of the wolf against the lamb, drinking below 
the stream, for disturbing the water. These are 
simply conventional concessions to form. It is thought 
that some attempt at giving a reason should take place 
before the unsheathing of the sword. 

As a general conception, expansion is in itself 
sufficient, and requires neither justification nor defence. 

The repetition of events of a like nature, carried out 
now by this great Power, now by that, has bred the 
indifference of familiarity, which, in its turn, has 
rendered peoples and governments impervious to 
moral considerations. Thus a state of conscience has 
been created which accepts and welcomes for the nation, | 
on a huge scale, what it would brand and reject as ! 
criminal and infamous for the individual. 



M. HANOTAUX ON THE ACCEPTED DOCTRINE. 



In the quest for expansion violence to the weak and 
treachery and disloyalty to the strong, if occasion be 
propitious, are openly advocated as legitimate mcan- 
of action. 

The follow ing quotation from an article of M. Gabrici 
Hanotaux, at one time French Foreign Minister, ;i 
sagacious historian and an alert and outspoken writer I pn 
speaks for itself {La Revue Hebdomadaire, Pari; 
November 25, 1911) : 

" . . . As a con\inrr(l believer in the policy < 
the balance of power (I' o/ nil Hire) I ask that Franc 
should devote herself to maintaining as far as possiblt 
the equal balance amongst the great Powers. 

" In order fully to explain my point of view I wouli 
call to mind Italy's example. She has indeed knowi 
how to employ these tactics, and she reaps the bcnefi 
to-day. At the very moment that she is enterin 
upon a most difficult enterprise, which in realit 
menaces the interests of the two European groups < 
nations, and which, in any case, seriously jeopardise 
one of the principal axioms of general politics — viz 
tlie integrity of the Ottoman Empire — Italy's dipU 
matic situation is so strong that neither of these tu 
groups, whatever may be their real .sentiment in 1 
matter, dares to cross Italy's path or even to offer ll 
slightest remark, so grave is their fear that by so doi 






ho 

1% 
'11, 

>; 

'Hit 

I 

*tii 



The Next Great Word in the Evolution of Peace. 257 



Italy might be pushed over to join the rival combination. 
Italy is thus playing in perfect surety (sur le velours) a 
game which, on the other hand, is a very risky one. . . 
" .... It was this thought (of maintaining the 
balance of power) which took M. \\'addington to the 
Berlin Congress, whence he brought Tunis back for us : 
it was this thought which took M. Jules Ferry to the 
Coloni; 1 Conference at Berlin also, to obtain the 
recognition of our dominion in Central Africa with our 
rights on the Belgian Congo ; it was this thought 
which, inspiring our conduct in 1898. allowed us to 
acquire without striking a blow and without granting 
' compensation ' to anyone, the liberation of Tunis, 
the extension of Indo-China as far as Mekong, the 
seizure of Madagascar, the large extension of our 
establishments on the West Coast and on the coast of 
Guinea, and. finally, the joining of all our .\frican 
Colonies over the vast territories forming the three 
basins of the Niger, the Congo and the Nile. France, 
reiving on the Franco- Russian .-Mliance. holds an 
; d nirable position for defence ; she provokes no one, 
and can l)ide her time." 

THE CONTRAST BETWEE.N PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ETHICS. 

" Without Striking a blow," " France provokes no 
one" ; there is a delightful candour in these statements. 
The wars in Indo-China and the butcheries in Mada- 
gascar, without further enumeration, being against 
weaker, and, in the case of Madagascar, practically 
helpless nations, are neither " blows " nor "' pro\o- 
cations." 

Comment is superfluous. It is certain that the 
illustrious writer just quoted must be a model citizen 
in everv way ; that he abhors treachery and chicane ; 
that he never would resort to violence, nor acquire land 
or chattels except for value received to the satisfaction 
of the owner. Furthermore, he is not one of the 
amorphous multitude who take ideas as they receive 
them, labelled, like pills from the chemist. He is one 
of the elite— jl thinker, an investigator, one should 
presume a seer. 

Bearing in mind that quantity does not alter the 
essence of things, that an atom of o.xygcn, for instance, 
has the identical properties of the whirlwind from the 
blast of a steel fiirnac e, and that the rule holds for the 
moral conception no less firmly than for tangible 
jT.atler — for as JoulTroy said : " One point of space 
contains the eternity of time and one instant of time 
contains the infinity of space" — bearing this in mind, 
it would be interesting, and even profitable, to know 
by what psychological process an analyst of such 
magnificent power can arrive at his attitude of con- 
science and remain honest to his reasoning faculty. 

" WHERE DOES INIQUITY BECO.ME RK;ilTEOfSNESS ? " 

If quantity alters the essence of things, where does 
the change begin ? Where does • iniquity become 
righteousness ? 

The tradition of evil-doing from time immemorial 
ronstitutes no justification. Inveterate infamy may, 
ind does, supply an acceptable reason to the dishonest 



politician, the blind reactionary, or the oppressor, 
individually or collectively ; the exceptionally gifted, 
however, ha\e higher duties towards their fellow-men. 
The practice of depredation, called, be it remembered, 
expansion, and the neccs.sarily constant decrease of 
territory available for the purpose — that is to say, 
territory held in weak hands — have intensified the 
activity of expansionists as well as their spirit of 
enterprise ; schemes are planned and carried out 
to-day which a few years ago would ha\e been con- 
sidered foolhardy and impossible. 

THE OBJECT LE.SSON OF THE WAR IN TRIPOI I. 

The latest events on the northern coast of Africa, 
too recent and notorious to require recapitulation, 
have sickened the conscience of humanity, callous 
though it may have become of late years. One is 
prepared for anything from Russia : the action of the 
Italian Government, however, is an unexpected 
shock. Never in the history of that glorious land 
whose people ruled humanity for centuries upon 
centuries, leaving the winged seed of liberty in the 
human conscience to expand and fructify ; never in the 
long ages of incessant strife, of conquest and dominion, 
was there such ruthless iniquity, in conception and in 
performance, as in the Tripoli expedition. It marks 
present possibilities, and should indicate the trend and 
intensity of future developments. 

THE IMPOTENCE OF LIBERAL GOVERNMENT, 

The two powerful groups into which Europe is 
divided are both formed by a combination of rca<-- 
tionary and enlightened nations. F.xperience has 
demonstrated that no hope should be placed in the 
liberal Powers to guide or even to attenuate the 
policy of their allies. The bond of alliance throttles 
all attempts in favour of justice and of righteousnes.--. 
It becomes a bond of complicity. As in the case ol 
a given currency, according to the law of Gresham. 
when there are in circulation two classes of coins, one 
true, the other of base alloy, the latter drives the 
former out of the market, even so in these alliances 
the policv of barbarism and reaction triumphs and 
prevails ; the glorious traditions of the past and the 
sclf-impo.sed and nobly-done duty in defence of liberty 
and humanity count for nothing. 

HOW ARMAMENTS BREED REVOLUTION. 

The complex causes that have brought about this 
recrudescence of the predatory instincts, arming them 
with all the incalculable elements created by modern 
science, bid fair to increase rather than to diminish. 
Ours is an age of transition ; the doomed systems and 
institutions will die hard and exhaust every means of 
self-defence. Unlimited armaments have become a 
necessitv, and also a cancer in the organism. Their 
appalling cost, whii h is constantly on the increase, 
drives the Governments to periodic and frantic efforts 
in .search of a means (or their limitation, since sup- 
pression is inconceivable. Their efforts have thus far 
proved fruitless, and success is only possible through 



2^8 



The Review of Reviews. 



a fundamental reconstruction of the international 
>lructure, started, as it were, from within. Such a 
thing is not likely to happen by evolution, but by 
revolution. 

When millions of trained soldiers who have returned 
to civil life resume the military discipline on the day 
and for the purpose of casting a \ote which is primarily 
a protest against the e.xisting order of things, the hour 
for radical and even violent changes is certainly w'ithin 
measurable distance. 

EXPANSION AS A SAFETY VALVE. 

Expansion is considered as an offset against such 
menaces ; it also serves the purpose of the all-powerful 
cosmopolitan financier. Thus, expansion will continue 
with a correlative increase in the intensity and audacity 
of its methods adapted to the increasing difficulty of 
the circumstances and the higher pressure of the 
determining causes. Furthermore, it lends itself to 
the cry of " patriotism," which still is, not only as 
Dr. Johnson said, " the last refuge of unsuccessful 
scoundrels," but, also, the supreme resource of dis- 
credited institutions and bankrupt systems. 

No deep cavilling, however, is required ; the decla- 
ration of principle has been made with unreserved 
frankness. On March 30th last, Ilerr von Bethmann- 
Hollwcg, ("hancellor of the German Empire, delivered 
himself, amongst others, of the following declarations 
. to the civilised world, in the presence of the German 
Reichstag : 

" The condition of peaceableness is strength. 'J'he 
old saying still holds good, that the weak will be the 
prey of the strong. When a people will not, or cannot. 
continue to spend enough on its armaments to be able 
to make its way {sich durchzuselzen) in the world, then 
it falls back into the second rank and sinks down to the 
role of a ' super ' on the world's stage. There will 
alwavs be another and a stronger there who is ready 
to take the place in the world which it has vacated. 
We Germans, in our exposed position, are specially 
bound to look this rough reality fearlessly in the face. 
It is only so that we can maintain peace and our 
existence." 

The world, and specially the weaker nations, should 
lake this warning to heart ; it implies .something 
beyond the serene recognition of a fact ; it is the 
declaration of a policy, and that is the policy of ex- 
pansion, considered indispensable to the maintenance 
of peace and the existence of the German Empire. 

THE STATUS QUO AS IT IS. 

The situation, therefore, briefly stated, is as follows : 
The two combinations of Powers have succeeded in 
maintaining the peace of Europe ; 

That peace in reality is a state of latent warfare, 
which increases daily the burdens of taxation and 
menaces the existence of established social institutions, 
both in constitutional countries and in despotic 
empires alike ; 

Whilst peace has prevailed in Europe, the Powers 



have waged wars of conquest and have acquired outside 
of Europe possession and control of vast territories ; 

The methods of assimilation — that is, of conquest — 
have increased in violence and ruthlessness with each 
succeeding year ; 

No Power interferes on behalf of the victims witli 
the operations of another Power. If diflferences ever 
arise thev refer solely to the distribution of the spoils : 

The unruffled equanimity of the official mind can 
never be disturbed ; it watches in calm composure the 
unnecessary destruction of property, the wanton 
cruelty to human beings, and the blackest crimes 
against humanity. Loyalty to the ally becomes 
thus ominously significant and horribly potential. 

The weak have nothing to hope from the good 
ofTices of the liberal Powers, which, after all, in reality 
are partners in the ventures. 

A FORECAST OF THE FUTURE. 

Leading thinkers and eminent statesmen alike, 
maintain the excellence of the system and the necessity 
for its continuance. In view of all this it is safe to 
assume that expansion will continue, that the force 
of circumstances will lead to the search of whatever 
territories may be held in weak hands, even in regions 
that up to the present may have been considered as 
beyond the reach of available forces. In this struggle, 
justice and human liberty count for nothing ; it is the 
policy of the jungle : the tiger tearing and devouring 
the weaker beast. 

Europe as she is governed to-day is not the guardian 
but the enemy of democracy and human liberty when, 
they are not entrenched behind large armies and 
powerful navies. 

" The weak will be the prey of the strong." 'Ihat 
is the official gospel of Europe in the twentieth ccnturyj 
It behoves the weak to look the facts fully in the face 
Is there some precaution possible to avert the 
announced and impending doom .' 

THE BLOODSTAINED CLAW OF EUROPE. 

The conditions just described, which would warrant 
the description of Europe — symbolically- — as a huge 
bloodstained claw in eager quest for new victims^ ar< 
not fortuitous nor sporadic ; they are normal anc 
endemic. No direct responsibility necessarily attache 
to governing statesmen. They are as powerless as ; 
floating log in the current ; even when they may thin) 
otherwise, loyalty to the system which they serv 
renders them helpless and not infrequently force 
them to act in direct contradiction to their ow 
convictions. 

The predatory spirit, therefore, arises from cause 
which are ever on the increase. When Genghis, o 
.\ttila, or Napoleon, disappeared, the world coul Si 
breathe more freely ; in them war and devastatio 
were incarnate. European expansion, in its presen 
violent and sanguinary aspect, has the immort ility c 
collective human tendencies, deeply rooted in th 
entrails of past centuries. 



fe. 



The Next Great Word in the Evolution of Peace. 259 



J I. —HOW TO PROTECT THE NEW WORT.D. 

I'hc drama of recent European expansion has been 

\i lusively confined to the Old World : Africa, Asia, 

land the islands of the Pacific Ocean, large and small. 

>ince the Franco-Prussian War no important redistri- 

ition of territory has taken place in Europe. The 

-iiiall States continue to exist, like wedges in a structure, 

required for the safety of the larger parts. 

The New World has enjoyed absolute immunity ; 
the unsuccessful attempt to establish an Empire in 
Mexico, and the not more fortunate war of Spain to 
recover certain islands from Peru, have left no lasting 
historical trace, and, in fact, occurred before the 
recrudescence of the present spirit of expansion had 
set in. 

.American political emancipation from Europe 
began in 1776, and was completed in 1824. The old 
colonies became sovereign nations, holding sway, in the 
majority of cases, over the same territory as to-day. 
I he changes that have taken place have not been due 

any way to European interference. 

THE INDEPENDENCE OF PAN-AMERICA — 

The political independence of the American conti- 
nent from Europe is practically complete. England, 
France and Holland still hold some possessions, small 
in size and importance. Canada and the other self- 
governing British Colonies are, to all intents and 
purposes, sovereign nations acknowledging a haughty 
and conscious, if not a defiant, allegiance to the British 
Empire, founded primarily on a sentiment of loyalty 
to the common ideals of liberty and democracy, and 
limited by the convenience of the Colonies themselves. 
n the action of the Mother Country — supposing such 
a possibility — were to endanger or to jeopardise the 
evolution of liberty and democracy as the Colonies 
understand them, or wittingly or accidentally to clash 
with the interests and the convenience of the Colonies, 
in the opinion of the latter, the allegiance to the 
Empire would snap asunder like an overstrained bond. 

— STRENGTHENED BY EUROPEAN IMMIGRATION. 

Emancipation has proved propitious to the creation 
of new ties between Europe and America. Blood and 
treasure have steadily flowed from Europe to America 
during the nineteenth century, principally during 
j»s hitter half, contributing more decisively than any 
other factor to the creation in North America of the 
greatest democracy in the history of the race. A 
similar phenomenon is being realised, even at this 
moment, in the southernmost regions of the continent. 

These events are beyond the control of men, like 
the course of the seasons, inexorably advancing at the 
appointed time. 

Such happenings cannot be contemplated with 
equanimity in the old empires of Europe, where, doubt- 
less, it is thought that the national wanderers to distant 
lands should there constitute themselves, as it were, 
into a prolongation of the Mother Country, adding to 
its prestige and political power, and not become merged 



in the population of another nation, perhaps a potential 
rival in the future. 

It is quite conceivable that the United States may 
one day be the bulwark of the liberties of the American 
continent against German expansion, and yet, the 
United States would stand for far less than they do in 
the marshalling of the world's empires, if it were 
possible to eliminate the German element from the life 
of the nation. 

The attraction of the New World is as irresistible 
to the European masses as the tides of the ocean, 
limited solely by lack of information, or by sheer 
material possibilities of emigration. In the first 
place have come the United States and Canada ; 
then the River Plate, the temperate sections of Brazil, 
and Chili in a certain measure. And now, as the pres- 
sure of taxation increases and science has begun to 
teach how to live in the tropics, the tropical regions 
begin to have their turn. 

THE HEAVY BURDEN OF THE EUROPEAN. 

All Europeans, in the United Kingdom, as well as 
on the Continent, are born with a burden of taxation 
representing the vicissitudes of past generations. The 
cost of the Napoleonic wars, and of all the wars since 
then waged by Europe at home and abroad, awaits 
the European infant at the cradle and accompanies 
him through life, curtailing his economic independence 
and the result of his energies. Undoubtedly it may 
be argued that such is the fee of empire and of greatness 
and the boons of civilisation, which, in varying degrees 
bless the different European nations ; even so, the fact 
remains that such a burden does not exist in any of 
the American nations. Public debt there represents 
remunerative performance j the few occasional excep- 
tions from this rule do not alter the case. 

The pomp and pageantry of monarchy, military 
prowess on land and sea, resonant aristocratic names 
and glorious traditions of warfare and victory, must 
surely compensate the weary and life-long price 
imposed upon the millions of the masses beyond all 
sordid caU ulations. Yet they do not seem to think so ; 
they emigrate whenever they can to lands where the 
glitter of tradition may be contemplated from afar and 
not felt as a yoke. 

'I'he process of developing and strengthening the 
nations of America with European wealth and European 
immigrants is bound to continue upon the lines that 
it has followed heretofore, unless some fundamental 
transformation of existing conditions should arise, 
which it is not didicult to conceive, and which circum- 
stances may render possible. 

A TEMPTING FIELD FOR EXPANSION. 

The territorial responsibilities of the Latin-American 
nations are greatly in excess of their respective popu- 
lations. The seventeen Republics from Mexico to 
Cape Horn, with an area several times that of Central 
Europe, contain at best seventy million inhabitants, 
which could be comfortably housed in any one of the 



26o 



The Review of Reviews. 



larger Republics, as Mexico, or Colombia, or Brazil, 
or Argentina, leaving the remaining immense territory 
available for European expansion. Can Tripoli 
compare with the broad anri fertile plains of Northern 
Venezuela, bordering on the Caribbean ? Or Morocco, 
with the Atlantic coast section of Colombia, where 
the Magdalena waters a marvellous valley, in no wa\' 
inferior to that of the Nile, and equally well situated 
geographically ? Can the Congo compare favourably 
with the .'\mazon, or Madagascar or West Africa with 
the inner lands of Peru, of Bolivia, or of Ecuador ? 

THE POSSIBILITY OF CONQUEST. 

If an army of 100,000 men were to land suddenh-. 
without warning or provocation, in true Italian 
fashion, on the coast of one of these Republics, with a 
population of three or four million inhabitants, 
scattered over a territory twice the size of Germany or 
of France, and practically unprepared for war, all 
resistance would be unavailing ; the civilised com- 
munities of Latin-America would succumb like the 
nations of the Eastern hemisphere. 

The consideration of such possibilities implies no 
wanton spirit of alarmism. If Tripoli has been 
thought .worth Italy's present effort, and Morocco 
France's recent venture, why should not the infinitelv 
richer Caribbean coast of South America fare likewise ? 
No one in his senses, surely, would outrage the Powers 
by supposing that their abstention has been prompted 
by moral considerations ; their reputation is too well 
established. Their respect of the territorial rights of 
I.atin-American nations is as meritorious as the 
honesty of the man who found the safe locked. 

The disparity between territory and population 
makes the condition of the American nations one of 
weakness. The safeguard that has protected them 
from European expansion still subsists. On the other 
hand, the danger of an aggression, which may become 
the one supreme rallying effort of moribund systems, 
is constantly on the increase. No effort should be 
spared to strengthen a protection which has proved 
so efficacious and decisive in the past. 

THE MONROE DOCTRINE. 

There was an element of prophetic inspiration in 
the Declaration of President Monroe, uttered in 182^. 
It rang through the world like a peal of thunder ; k 
paralysed the Holy Alliance, and defmcd, once and for 
all time, as far as Europe is concerned, the international 
status of the newly constituted American Republics, 

The most important part of the Monroe Declaration 
reads : — 

In the wars of the F.uropc.in Towors, !n mailers relating to 
llicmsclvcs, we have never taken any pari, nor docs il comport 
with our policy ?o to do. It is only when our rij-hls are 
inv.iHed or seriously menaced that we resent injuiies or make 
preparations for defence. With the movements in this hemi- 
sphere wc are of necessity more immediately connected, and liy 
causes which must be obvious to all cnli(jlitcnc(l and impartial 
ol«ervcrs. The political system of the Allied Powers is essen- 
tially diircrenl, in this respect, from that of America. This 
difference proceeds from that which exists in their respective 
Kovcrnments. And to the defence of out own, which has been 



achieved by the loss of so niiicli blood and treasure, and matured 
by the wisdom of their most enlightened citizens, and under 
which we have enjoyed such unexampled felicity, this whole 
nation is devoted. We owe it, therefore, to candour, .ind to the 
amicable relations existing between the United Slates and those 
Powers, to declare that we should consider any attempt on 
their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemi- 
sphere as dangerous to our pe.ice and safely. With the existing 
colonies or dependencies of any European Power we have not 
interfered, and shall not interfere. But wilh the Governments 
who have declared their independence and maintained it, and 
whose independence ne have on great consideration and on 
just principles acknowledged, we could not view any interposi- 
tion for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling in any 
other mariner their destiny, in any other light than as the 
manifestation of an unfriendly disposition towards the United 
Stales. 

THE SHIELD OF .iVMERICAN INDEPENDENCE. 

The immunity from European aggression which the 
Latin-American nations have enjoyed since their 
emancipation, to this da}-, is exclusively due to the 
Declaration of President Monroe, which', having been 
uttered one year before the final overthrow of Spain in 
ICS24, was like a gift, which the nascent nationalities 
found in the cradle of their newly conquered liberties. 
European conquest was banned from the American 
continent. 

Sovereignty to a nation is as life to the individual : 
partial conquest of a nation's territory is mutilation. 
These truths must illuminate the appreciation of the 
scope and meaning of the Monroe Declaration, which 
has successfully stood the test of well-nigh a centurv 
of I':uropean expansion of unprecedented persistence 
and intensity. 

The immunity from conquest, however, has not been 
absolute. The United States themselves have on 
occasions turned conquerors. It serves no purpose to 
labour the point here. A glance at the map proves 
the assertion beyond perad\enture of a doubt. Thus, 
notwithstanding the evident and supreme benefits that 
have been conferred upon the Latin-American nations 
by the Monroe Declaration, benefits which, in manv 
instances, may be well considered as equivalent to 
national life itself, a spirit of distrust has been created 
throughout the whole of Latin-America, varving in 
degree according to local conditions and possible 
dangers— real or imaginary— which, if not counteracted 
and dispelled, may tend to modifv, prejudiciallv, the 
conditions which thus far have made the American 
continent inaccessible to European political expansion. 

In the presence of such dire possibilities it beho^■es 
the statesmen and the people of all the American 
nations to eliminate all cau.sc for friction and anxiety, 
letting the dead past bury its dead, looking solely to 
the future, mindful that recrimination never meiided 
a wrong, and often was the source of fresh evils. 

" AMERICA FOR THE AMERICANS." 

" America for Americans " is suppo.sed to be the 
essence of the Monroe Declaration. The tenet, if I 
rightly interpreted, embodies a noble ideal. It cannot 'k 
and has not stood for limitation of the geographical I 
place of birth or of racial character, as is shown by thej 



M 



The Next Great Word in the Evolution of Peace. 261 



illions of men from all quarters of the world for whom 
incrica has become a refuge and a home. Had those 
A n. however, sought to land, on any part of the conti- 
nent, as the forerunners of political expansion, repre- 
senting European s\stcms of governments and Old 
World traditions of caste and privilege, the continent 
would have been closed to them. 

America is consecrated to the ideals of liberty and 
democracy ; they constitute the paramount issue of its 
destiny. " America for Americans," therefore, does 
not e.xclude any free man determined to remain free, 
and abhorring conquest and oppression as he would 
theft or murder. 

DISTRUST OF THE UNITED ST.\TES. 

The means to accomplish unity of sentiment and to 
dispel the misgivings between the United Stales and 
the Latin-American Republics is not far to seek. It 
is only required to amplify the Jlonroe Declaration to 
the full extent of its logical development. Therein 
li(s not honesty alone, but safet\' and peace. 

In our day and on our continent conquest of territory 
is inadmis.sible per se, for its own intrinsic hideousness 
and for the lie it gives to the fundamental principles 
and the laws and constitutions upon which our political 
life is based, without any concern w)u\te\cr as to its 
origin. 

\\ hat is a crime in a European nation cannot be 
righteousness if done by the United States. 

HOW IT .MAY BE DISPELLED. 

If these conclusions of honest logic are accepted and 
acted upon by the United States ; if they should 
(liclare that the era of conquest of territory on the 
.\merican continent has been closed to all and for ever, 
beginning with themselves, the brooding storm of dis- 
trust will disappear from the l.atin-.'\merican mind, and 
an international cordiality of incalculable possibilities 
will ensue, not only for the welfare of the American 
nations, but universally for the cause of freedom and 
democracy. 

The recognition of the principle should be ofhcially 
•i( ( omplished : it might form the special object of a 
l'an-Ameri( an Congress. It means no antagonism to 
I'.urripe, but to modern European political expansion : 
and also to European political com[)li(ations which 
threaten a return to barbarism and to brute force as 
the one supreme law . und the destruction of a (i\ ilisation 
\v hi( h is the fruit nl 'ountlcssages of painful endeavour. 

-ignifies the union of all the nations of America for 

lie common, noble purpo.se— for the establishment of 

international life upon the same basis as civil life 

amongst the citizens of a nation, the basis of justice, 

and not of violence. 

AN (IIT'ORTI NITV FOR I'ktSIDtNT T.\FT. 

I This gospel has been prcathcd to the world from the 
I [ same eminent place as the Monroe Declaration. Early 
'in January of ii>i i I'resident Taft saifl :- 

i' " Personally I do not see any more reason whv 
matters o( national honour should not be referred to 
I court of arbitration than matters of property or 
_ national proprietorship. 1 know that is going farther 

f1 



than most men are willing to go, but I do not see why 
questions of honour may not be submitted to a tribunal 
composed of men of honour, who understand questions 
of national honour, to abide by their decision, as well 
as any other question of difference arising between 
nations." 

The United States should to-day, like President 
Monroe, scan the horizon of the coming centuries. 
The task of the morrow should be lightened to-day ; 
such is the law of greatness. The cordial co-operation 
of Latin-America, important as it is to-day, may 
become paramount to-morrow. In the field of distrust 
rivalries soon flourish ; the interests of all Latin- 
America are identical at this stage ; a cunning diplo- 
macy may soon foster antagonism and beget irre- 
concilable ambition. We are at the parting of the 
ways. The exclusion of conquest of territory, as a 
fundamental principle of international life on the 
American continent, should be solemnly proclaimed 
by all the American nations ; they should all pledge 
themselves to maintain it. The sands are running in 
the glass of Time ; to-morrow it may be too late. 

W ANTED : A NEW DECLARATION OF I'AN-AMERICAN 
POLICY. 

In these Tripolitan days the proposed declaration 
of continental policy by all the American nations 
would be salutary and opportune. It would not alter, 
but strengthen present conditions, and forestall 
possible dangers to the weak nations of the continent, 
rendering the task of the United States easier of accom- 
plishment. It means no antagonism nor hostility to 
the peoples of Europe ; it is solely a defence against 
European imperialism. It does not in any way 
interiere with economic developments, nor with the 
open door for commerce ; it is no Utopian panacea, 
no .~hort-and-ready cut to the millennium; but it would 
maintain tlic .American continent free from European 
political c\pan>ion, carried out in the service of 
systems doomed to early disappearance by the dead- 
lock of limitless armaments. I bus the real interests 
of the peoples of Europe would be ser\ ed and reaction 
crippled. 

Tlie declaration would also consult the true interests 
of the United States ; it would carry the Monroe 
prmciples to their utmost honest logical development, 
and it would dispel misgivings and distrust throughout 
the continent, facilitating the harmonious and fruitful 
evolution of international life. 

'I he declaration that conc|ucst of territory shall 
hereafter neither be practised nor tolerated on the 
.■\meri(an continent is in essence in full accord 
with the recent avowe<l policy of the United States. 
.Such a declaration, in .America, could only be opposed 
by nations contemplating schemes of aggrandisement 
at the expense of their neighbours, which would be 
rank treason to liberty and democracy. In such A 
case it is well for the friends of liberty and democracy, 
irrespective of nation or continent, to know where 
danger and insincerity lurk. 

.■\. i)E Manos-Albas. 



262 



More About the Twenty Greatest Men. 



Mr. Andrew Carnegie, whose list of twenty first 
started the inquiry as to who were the twenty greatest, 
sends me the following letter : — 

" Dear Mr. Editor,— The list of ' The Twenty 
Greatest Men ' to which you have given wide circula- 
tion thru the Review of Reviews were not given 
by me as such. 

" In ' Problems of To-da>-,' dealing with Socialism, 
page 151, chapter headed ' Variety versus Uniformity,' 
I write : ' Seldom if ever to the palace or stately 
home of wealth comes the messenger of the gods to 
call men to such honor as follows supreme service 
to the race. Rank has no place. Wealth robs life of 
the heroic element, the sublime consecration, the self- 
sacrifice of ease needed for the steady development of 
our powers and the performance of the highest service. 
Let working men note how many of the exceptionals 
indicated in the preceding pages, who have carried 
the race forward, were workers with their hands ; — 



Shakespeare 


Edison 


Arkwright 


Morton 


Siemens 


Franklin 


Jenner 


Bessemer 


Kay 


Neilson 


Mushet 


Murdoch 


Lincoln 


Columbus 


Hargreaves 


Burns 


Wan 


Stephenson 


Guttenberg 


Bell 


Symington 



" ' All these began as manual workers. There is 
not one rich nor titled leader in the whole list. All 
were compelled to earn their bread. 

" ' Under our present individualistic system, which 
breeds and develops the needed leaders, there is no 
State official to interpose — no commission to consider 
the respective claims of the exceptionals and decide 
upon their destinies. All are left in perfect freedom 
in the possession of glorious liberty of choice, free " by 
the sole act of his own unlordcd will " to obey the 
Divine call which consecrates each to his great mission.' 

" So much for ' The Problems of To-day.' 

" Perhaps you can start another ball which will 
roll round the press which uses the English language — 
and perhaps give rise to similar interesting criticism. 
^Yours, Andrew Carnegie." 

I had not intended to publish any more contributions, 
but since the issue of our last number I have received 
some communications from which I deem it well to 
make extracts. One is from an Icelander now working 
as a farm labourer in Winnipeg. I publish his list not 
onlv because he is an Icelander, but because his 
contribution illustrates the very wide range of interest 
that has been excited by this discussion. 

The writer says : " Being myself an Icelander, I put 
two Icelandic names on the list, those of Jon Sigtirdsson 
and Hannes Hafstcinn. The former was the greatest 
statesman and patriot that Iceland has produced, 
and the latter, Hannes Hafsteinn, ex-Premier of 
Iceland, and doubtless her ablest and most farsighted 
statesman of the p'resent day. He also is one of the 
most distinguished poets of the country." 



Homer, loth or nth cen- 
tury B.C. 

Aristotle, B.C. 384— B-C- 
322. 

Marcus Aurelius, 121-180. 

Dante, 1265 — 1321. 

Gutenberg (the greatest 
benefactor),i4oo — 1468. 

Michael Angelo, 1475 — 
1564. 

Shakespeare, 1564 — 1616. 

Spinoza, 1632 — 1677. 

Voltaire, 1694 — 177S. 

Goethe, 1749 — 1832. 



Balzac, 1799 — 1850. 
Charles Darwin, 1809^- 

1882. 
Jon Sigurdsson, i8ii — 

1879. 
Herbert Spencer, 1820 — 

1903. 
Ernest Renan, 1823 — 

1892. 
HenrikIbsen,i828--i9o6. 
George Brandes, 1842. 
Anatole France, 1844. 
Leo Tolstoy, 1828— 1910. 
Hannes Hafsteinn. 
Sir Harry Johnston, in sending in his first twenty, 
said he would be better satisfied if he could nominate 
a second twenty, which he proceeded to do as 
follows : — 

Marco Polo, 1254 — 1324. 
Prince Henry of Portugal, 1394 — 1460. 
Vasco da Gama, 1450 — 1524. 
Magalhaes (Magellan), 1480— 1521. 
Jaques Cartier, 1491 — 1557. 
Elizabeth of England, 1553 — 1602 
James Cook, 1728— 1779, 
Catherine II. of Russia, 1729 — 1796. 
Robert Arkwright, 1732 — 1782. 
Edward Jenner, 1749 — 1823. 
Robert Fulton, 1765 -1815. 
Napoleon Bonaparte, 1769 — 1821. ' 

Elizabeth Fry, 1780 - 1845. 
Ferdinand de Lesseps, 1805 — 1849. 
Harriet Beecher Stowe, 181 2 — 1896. 
Charles Dickens, 1812 — 1870. 
Henry Bessemer, 1813 — 1898. 
Bismarck, 1815 -1898. 
Queen Victoria, 1819 — 1901. 
" Even this leaves out William Ewart Gladstone, 
whose opinions and reforms have profoundly affected 
modern Europe." 

The Strand gives a symposium by more than a 
dozen contributors on the twenty greatest men, taking 
Mr. Carnegie's list as text, and supplies the result in 
the following list of the names most frequently chosen 
antl the number of votes which each has recei\'ed. It 
will be noticed that the list includes more than twent\' 
names, owing to no fewer than nine having recei\ccl 
four votes each : — 



Shakespeare 


... 11 


Stephenson 


... 5 


Darwin 


... 10 


Walt 


- 5 


Newton 


... 10 


Arkwright 


... 4 


Gutenburg 


... 9 


Cromwell 


- ^ 


Napoleon 





Dante 


... 4 


Luther 


... S 


Galileo 




Goethe 


... 7 


Jenner 


... 4 


Voltaire 


7 


Pasteur 


... .■ 


Beethoven 


... (i 


ritt 


... . 


Columbus 


... 6 


Raphael 




Washington 


... 6 


Wilberforce 




Bacon 


... 5 




1 



y 



I 



263 



Leading ARTICLES in the Reviews 



IF BRITAIN WENT TO WAR, 

\\ HAT Wi.iLU Happen in the City? 
I'liE Round Talle. that admirable arena for the dis- 
cussion of the serious problems of the Empire, publishes 
this month a most luminous and interestmg article on 
the credit system of the world, and how it would be 
affected by war. The article, entitled " Lombard 
Street and War," is anonymous, but it has been 
described by the Times as " one of the most remarkable 
articles on what we may call the natural history of 
' the City ' that has 1 een published for some time. 
The writer displays an ;unount of knowledge of the 
working of the London Money Market and a degree of 
insight into the forces which govern it which is unusual 
and refreshing. That it is written • with a purpose ' 
makes its scientific breadth all the more surprising." 

LONDON AS THE NERVE CENTRE OF THE WORLD. 

The wnter says : — 

An infinile number of strands binds all the great nations to 
one another, and, like the nerves of the human body, these 
stran<ls radiate from the great nerve centres of credit. 

The art of banking is to speculate vith success on the chance 
that only a small proportion of creditors will ask for their 
money in gold at the .'ame moment. But they may all 
demand it. 

Gold must be always available somewhere. And it is always 
available, but only frcm one place in the world. London, 
alone among the great financial centres, has undertaken the 
task of meeting tveiy legitimate demand in gold at all times 
and to any amount. No other banking nation has ventured to 
face the risk of meeting not only the demands of its own 
depositor', but of the world itself. If Germany has to pay 
gold to Turkey for a loan newly granted, she gets it from 
London ; if New Vork wants gold, she gels it from London ; if 
the .Argentine or Kgypt or India have had good harvests and 
want gold, they get it from London. 

She undertakes to supjily on demand not only the countless 
depositors in her own bank, but Ihe world at large. Anybody 
in the world who keeps money in London or can raise a credit 
or get an advance in London can gel gold from Ihe Bank of 
Kngland. 

lONIXJN'S GOLD RKSERVE. 

The Bank of France holds gold to Ihe amount or;f 128,000,000; 
ihiBankof Kus>.ia, / 125,000,000; lhcKeichsb3nk,/55.ooo,cxX); 
while the Hank <•! England, with world-wide liabilities, has 
only /j5,ooo,ooo lying in bullion or coin in the vaulls of the 
Bank of Kngland, together with the stock of metal held by 
other banks, in all, perhaps, /^jo, 000,000. It is estimated that 
ibis sum is equal to not much more than six per cent, of the 
lolal di posits of the banks of the United Kingdom. While the 
slock .'callcrcil aUiut among the d;(fcrcnl banks is a valuable 
standby, the final reverse is tlie reserve of the Hank of Lnglaml. 
That is the restive which all the banks in the United King- 
di ID fall back on. In 1907 .America drew nearly ^{^15, 000,000 
in two inunihs fiom I.ondon. The Hank of Kngland's reserve 
fell ever ;^6,coo,oco in two weeks. Tl.ere is no other nation 
which has been able lo undertake these tremendous respon- 
sibilities. 

Since 1895 the world's gold hat increased by ;f i,ooo,cco,ooo. 
.\ great portion of this huge sum has paiv^ed tlirough London, 
t ccause London is a free market. Only /J20,ooo,coo his 
I lyed there. 

IK WAR lnt(>KF. 01 1. 

What, then, is likely to happen on the outbreak of such a 
war ? Suppose, for instance, Gcimany declared war against us. 
A crisis in the Money Market nculil be at once precipitated. 



Everybody would be seeking to place themselves in a position 
lo meet their engagements. Money would diy up, and the 
Bank rate would be forced to a high figure. At the same Ume 
there would Le a tremendous fall in value of all securities on the 
Stock Exchange, so great a fall that the Stock Exchange might 
even have to be closed. Banks would have to "carry" their 
customers who had borrowed against seeurities, and would find 
a large part of their assets unrealisable. '1 he discount market 
— ;.(•., the bill marke:— would be no belter cfl". 

London finances Germany by means of acceptances to the 
(Xlent probably of about /70,ocio,ooo sterling at any one lime. 
This means that accepting houses in London will have made 
themselves responsible during the two or three months after Ihe 
outbreak of war for the pajment, mainly to the Joint Stock 
Banks, of ;£'70,<X)0,oco, against bills drawn on German account, 
which these banks and others will have bought in the discount 
market. But the accepting houses would only be in a position 
lo pay the whole of this lar^c sum if they receive, as they would 
in the ordinary course of affairs, the same amount from iheir 
German clients, lo finance whose business ihe bills were drawn. 
It is quite probable that these clients would not or could not 
pay. It is prob.ible that in any case, whether their money were 
received or not, the discount market would be so hopelessly dis- 
organised that a "moratorium" would have to be declared. 

WOUI.D I.ONDO.N PUT UP ITS SHUTTERS? 

The whole credit system rests on the supply of banking 
currency. If this currency is withdrawn no one can meet his 
debts, ijecause no one has the means to pay. The whole 
money market would be slruck with paralysis. As Bagehot 
said, all thai would be left would be a mass of failures and a 
bundle of securities. In any case the sudden stop of the 
discoimt machinery would cause incalculable damage and 
confusion to trade and enterprise throughout the world. 
Everything would cicpend on the aclion of our foreign clients 
as a whole. If they took fright and demanded immediate 
payment in gold, London might have to put up her shutters 
as a free gold market, simply through lack of lime to save 
herself by the realisation of some of her immense assets abroad. 
Would we ever recover? 

London might never regain her place Gold would flow in 
again, no doubt, lo pay lor the interest on our present invest- 
ments, which amounts to something like ;;^iSo,ocx3,ooo per 
annum on a cajiital invested of /'3.3CO,ooo,(XX) sterling. The 
most dangerous period, therefore, will be ll;e few days or weeks 
after ihe declaration of war, or if it was quite clear war was 
inevitable the fesv days before that declaration, when our 
enemies might attempt lo withdraw as much money as possible. 

IJut if we were defeated our position as the world's 
financial centre might be lost for ever. 

The moral of this is. according to the writer, that 
" The British fleet is the best protector of London's 
gold reserve." To vary the phrase, Lombard Street 
floats in the British Navy, and the nerve centre of the 
world depends for its safety upon the maintenance of 
the standard of two keels to one. 



Fry's for February is as varied as e\ cr. The experi- 
ence of an amateur \ct. will furnish mui h guidance to 
those whom poverty (oiiipels to look after the health 
of their own horses. Walter Dexter describes Charles 
Dickens as tramp, and tjuotes passages to prove his joy 
in tnimping through the t oiintry. Mr. Dexter .suggests 
that readers of Dickens should find out from his works 
his favourite walks, and tramp as he did. Lord Lyveden 
tells of curling as developed amidst tiie winter sports 
of Switzerland. 



264 



The Review of Reviews. 



PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN POLICY. 

Suggestions for Soli;tions, Practical and 

Impractical. 
The foreign questions chiefly dealt with in the 
reviews are the Anglo-German ri\'ahy and the Anglo- 
Russian entente. 

THE TEST OF GERMAN FRIENDLINESS. 

Mr. ]. Ellis Barker, writing in the Fortnightly after 
spending six weeks in Germany, reports that the 
Government apparently does nut wish for an improve- 
ment in Anglo German relations. He says : — 

111 a few Hetks' lime we shall Vnow tlie mind of the (Scinian 
(Jovcinment. If it should not dem.ind adililional credit for ihe 
conslructicn of six additional .Siipcr-Dreadnouylits, an atnio- 
spliere conducive to an Anglo-Girman lapprcchcnicnt will le 
created ; but until llie German Government has shown that it is 
in earnest with its intention to arrive :it an understanding with 
Great Britain, it is quite useless for Germans and Englishmen 
to t.ilk of Anglo-German friendship and co-operation and of the 
natural union of the countries of Goethe and Shakespeare. 

TWO VIEWS OF THE ANGLO-RUSSIAN ENTENTE. 

Mr. .Sidney Low, writing on " The Most Christian 
Powers," takes the worst possible view of the policy 
of England and Russia in Persia. He says : — 

Is the existing Persian nation, which through all the vicissi- 
tudes of twenty-five centuries of history, and under all its 
conquests, has contrived to maintain ils unity and its identity, 
to be finally sacrificed to the indolence of Britain and the 
acquisitiveness of Russia ? Is another crime as bad as the 
partition of I'oland to be consummated in this year of arbitra- 
tion, treaties, and pacificist speeches? One hopes not, but it 
seems very likely to occur. 

The other side of the shield is presented by Captain 
Battine, who lays stress upon the recuperation of 
Russia and the impossibility ol <arr\ing on a policy 
of antagonism to both Germany ;ind Russia at the 
same time : — 

Great, therefore, as the temptation may le in England to 
regard Russian ambitions with jealousy and distrust, the fact 
remains that we must come to a decision as to what Powers W'c 
can regard as friendly, and so shape our p.^Iicy towards them as 
to eliniinalc friction and suspicion. If Russia is to be an ally 
in Europe, she may reasonably insist that British policy shall 
not injure Russian interests in Asia unless undoubted British 
rights are involved. It is not for us to play the part of knighl- 
01 rant, nor are our resources equal to the rile. 

Result of German Elections. 

Dr. Dillon, writing on " Eorcign Affairs" in the 
Contemporary Kevieiv. .says that from a militarv point 
(il view Germany has not been in the least weakened 
by the last general elections. The immediate danger 
to the present regime from the Socialists" triumph is 
l.irgely imaginary. There are lew republicans in 
(Icrmany, and even of the Socialist working-men the 
bulk are quiescent monarchists. 

Dr. Dillon speaks enthu.siasticalls concerning the 
effects o( the British visit to Russia. He says that the 
.\nglo-Kussian yearning for mutual friendship, which 
was a (ew years ago peculiar to certain men of mark, 
has since become part of the general consciousness. 

THE PERSIAN PRdlilEM. 

Writing upon I'ersia, Dr. Dillon maintains that if 
there be one people more unfitted for constitutional 
government than the others, it is probably the Persians. 



'I'he Shah was overthrown by a motley band of fili- 
busters in the Caucasus. The Persians themselves were 
mostly passive. Under the constitution the whole 
country is in a state of disorder and chaos that almost 
bafifles belief. There is no administjation of justice, no 
maintenance of order, no security for property, and 
little for life. If the independence of Persia is to be 
preserved we must recognise that the constitutional 
regime has failed. Dr. Dillon thinks that England and 
Ru.ssia will grant a loan of five or six millions sterling 
if the Fidais of filibusters are disbanded, if a tvvo- 
Chamber Government is established, and if the Persian 
Cabinet is allowed a reasonable innings before sharing 
its power with the Chamber. He thinks the ex-Shah is 
not supported by Russia or F^ngland, but if he were to 
succeed in regaining power he might be recognised by 
Germany and Austria, and if England and Russia 
refused to recognise him they would be held to be 
interfering with the independence of Persia. 

Writing about Turkey, Dr. Dillon says that the 
King of Montenegro, who is now in St. Petersburg, 
reports that the condition of the Balkans is truly dis- 
quieting, and his Minister of Foreign Affairs reports 
that he is pessimistic in his forecast, being convinced 
that in the very near future a storm will burst over 
the Balkan Peninsula. 

TWO ATTEMPTS TO STOP THE ITALIAN WAR. 

Dr. Dillon says that Russia has made two attempts 
to stop the war. In the first place, M.Saxonoff addressed 
himself to the great military Powers of Europe — 
Germany and Austria-Hungary — suggesting that the 
Powers should equip themselves as soon as possible 
with everything requisite to make mediation successful 
when the acceptable hour should strike. The German 
and Austrian Ambassadors at Constantinople opposed 
the scheme, and it was allowed to fizzle out. But on 
February ist the Russian Foreign Office issued a 
Circular to all the Governments, urging them to 
acquaint themselves with the main features of the 
problem, and to concert together in advance upon the 
lines of mediation in which they are prepared to move. 
The Russian idea appears to be that there should be 
no peace treaty, but only an armistice followed by the 
withdrawal of all Ottoman troops from the African 
provinces, and the recall of the Italian squadron. 'I'he 
Italian Go\crnment would pay a sum of three or four 
millions sterling, and will be left to go on fighting the 
.^rabs without interference Irom the Sultan. Turkey, 
howe\er, refused this, but Dr. Dillon thinks that she 
ought to be compelled to give in. 

In China he thinks the Republic will inevitably lead 
to the ultimate loss of Manchuria and the North- 
western I'ro\inces of .Mongolia. 



A Picture Gallery for Pence. — In the Country 
Home for February Mr. Haldane Macfall describes 
" the fascinating hobliy of the Pas.?e-partout," under 
the title, " A Picture Gallery for Pence." It should 
be read by all who desire to make their houses beautiful 
at a minimum of cost and with a maximum of artistic 
effect. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



265 



PROBLEMS OF DOMESTIC POLICY, 
By Politicians of All Parties. 

Parliament having assembled, great are the multi- 
tude of counsellors in the magazines as to how our 
legislators should solve the various problems con- 
fronting them. 

MR. F. E. smith's ADVICE TO FREE CHURCHMEN. 

In a paper entitled " Recent Developments of 
Education Policy " in the Fortnightly Review, Mr. F. E. 
Smith, M.P., tells Nonconformists to look the facts 
in the face and to cease crying for the moon. He 
says : — 

.\ denominational majority in now installed in bolli Houses 
of Parliament. A Bill amending the Education .•Vet of I9"2 
and tased on the principles of parents' rights could pass both 
these Houses, and no other tducalion Hill could. It Noncon- 
formists want the redress of their educational grievances, they 
can get them. 

In this way, says Mr. Smith : — 

l.tt '.he suspicions of the Nonconformists be met by Church- 
men with a frank offer to concede the fullest possible public 
conlrol over all the village schools in England. Let Churchmen 
den,and of P.irliamcnt fair regulation for the conduct of 
religious teaching, and then let them surrender to the public 
authority the conduct of the schools so regulated, trusting 
ciiiirely to the operation of a carefully drawn statute imposing 
upon local education authorities the terms and conditions of 
I'lrental choice and denominational equality in the conduct of 
I'lMif elenitntaty schools. 

MR. Gardiner's optimis.m. 

.Mr. (jardiner, ot the Daily \e7ps. writing on the 
prospects of the Government in the same review, takes 
ii wonderfully cuuleur de rose view of the position. 
He favours giving the control of customs and e.xcise 
to the Home Rule Parliament. The Government is 
nio^t assailalilc on the subject of electoral reform. 
Hut he says : — 

There ought not to be any danger to the Government in a 
siiaightforward fulfilment of Mr. Ascjuith's pledge on the 
subject. It will put to the test the reality of the House of 
Coinnions' sentiment on the subject. If the sentiment is sincere, 
the vote for women «ill be won. If it is in a large ineasure a 
pioui opinion not intended for a work-a-day world, it will be 
defeated. In either case the Cabinet's prestige is unaflfected. 
MR. E. T. COOK ON THE SITUATION. 

.Mr. E. T. took, writing on "The Political Prospect " 
in the Contemporary Review for March, maintains that 
ih« Home Rule fiill may reasonably hoi)e to succeed. 
the same time he is absolutely opposed to giving 
.'.I autonomy to Ireland. He looks forward to the 
|M^.sage of a Bill which, by the toncession of Home 
Kiile to Ireland on '" Federal " lines, will give a new 
efliciency to the Imperial Parliament, and bring a new 
Strength and solularity to the British Empire. He 
thinks the Opposition will make nothing out of the 
Insurance Act and nothing out of Welsh Disestablish 
mcnl. As to the evidence supplied by the by-< lections 
showing a weakening- of the Liberal position as com- 
pared with the Conservative, he arjmils that it is 
ii^iderable, but not large enough to portend any 
isive movement. There have been twenty by- 
tions since the Insurance Bill wa.s introduced' The 
position have gained some ground, but whereas in 



1895 those seats were held by eleven Conservatives 
and nine Liberals, to-day they are held by six Conser- 
vatives and fourteen Liberals. .\s to Women's Suffrage, 
he finds it difficult to believe that the present electorate 
would support Parliament in swamping them at one 
swoop by the enactment of Female Suffrage on the 
larger scale. 



THE GROWING POWER OF THE KING. 

A VERY clever writer in the World's Work for March 
discusses the growing power of King George. The 
writer says that the Indian journey has added some- 
thing to the King's stature. It was the King's own 
business, his own proper doing, and it adds much to 
his prestige. The writer goes on to say, " The King is 
the most characteristic Englishman who has ever sat 
upon our throne " : — 

His intelligence is highly objective, so that fa,cts intpress him 
more than theories, and actions more than principles. Yet, 
below the surface, is a deep vein of imagination and enthusiasm. 
His opinions and practice in the sphere of morals are what the 
enlightened Continental would condemn as painfully narrow. 
His praise is for achievements, his enthusiasms are for achieve- 
ments yet to be. 

A SIGNIFICANT STORY. 

An interesting instance is told of the King's attitude 
to one of the most pronounced of Liberal Ministers : — 

Before his accession it was understood that his political 
opinions were emphatically not on the lines of sentimental 
Liberalism. There was curiosity as to how he would agree 
with his Ministers. Then came that one of the Ministers 
whom it might be thought the King would have appreciated 
least of all, and talked to him about King Edward's death. 
The expression of sincere sympathy at such a moment counted 
for much more than any opinion on p.irty politics. Common 
sorrow, and an atmosphere of the most natural and human of 
all sentiments, made the basis of future intercourse. How 
readily one can believe this of the common " unemotional " 
Englishman ? 

" DEFENDER OF THE FAITH " — MORE, A BELIEVER. 

.A deeper trait may be quoted : — 

It may be just decent to recall the story of his retiring early 
to bed one Saturday night at a country house because he liked 
to have a little time to prepare himself for the Holy Com- 
munion. It is one thing to be " Defender of the Eaith ;" it is 
another thing to take that Kaith so seriously. 

DECAY OF PARTIES THE KINC's CHANCE. 

The writer goes on to ask, What is this man destined 
to make of the British monarchy ? He declares : — 

of all the features of our public life at this moment there is 
none more remarkable than the growing alienation of the 
political parlies from the people. 

Whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are holy, 
whatsoever things are noble and generous and wholesome, teml 
to fall outside the bounds of party feeling. Here it is that the 
monarchy c.in lead the nation. 

In every respect the minds of Englishmen arc prepared for 
rapid and decisive changes, and for a succession of momentous 
events. There is a weakening of the sense of national con- 
tinuity. 

Here the monarchy has something approaching to a manifest 
destiny. It is a visible syml>ol of national unity through all 
changes, and an enduring chain of connection between the 
national past and the national future. " Constitutional " 
restraints only heighten the importance of the monarchy in this 
respect. 



266 



The Review of Reviews. 



IS ENGLAND EMPTYING HERSELF? 

Mr. Chkizza MoiNEV, iii the Nineteenth Century, 
raises the quaint query, " A ' Littler ' Englajid ? " He 
calls alarmed attention to the increase of emigration 
from the Mother Country. Since 1894 the number 
leaving these shores as emigrants in the year has risen 
from 38,000 to about 262,000 in iqi i — the largest total 
yet on record. This e.xtraordinary increase has taken 
place, not as in the old days, in a time of deep com- 
mercial depression, but in a time of abounding pros- 
perity. Mr. Money ascribes the increase to the way our 
Dominions oversea — first Canada, then Australia, 
and pre.sently South Africa — are advertising their 
attractions. At the same time, though the death-rate 
IS sinking, the birth-rate is dwindling too. 'I'he 
natural increase of births o\er deaths in the 
United Kingdom in 191 1 is estimated at about 440,000. 
Subtracting the 260,000 emigrants, the net increase is 
only about 180.000, or only ou per cent. A further dip 
in the birth-rate and a further rise in emigration, and 
our population will be on the down grade ! Great 
Britain and Ireland will take their places with declining 
nations like France. Meantime the population of 
Germany goes on increasing by births o\er deaths, 
900.000 a year ; and she is actually receiving more 
migrants than she loses. In the next decade she can 
liardly advance less than by 8,000,000. So by 1921 she 
will have 74.000,000, while the British Isles and 
France together will have, say, 84,000,000. 

It is not that these i.sles are overcrowded. With a 
first-rate coal supply, close by tide water, the United 
Kingdom could sustain two or three times as many 
people as at present : — 

Populated at the Uelt;i,iii rate, tlie United Kingdom would 
contain 14,000,000 families and to house 14,000,000 lamilies 
at the Garden City rate of six families to the acre would absorb 
but about 24 million acres of the 77 million acres of United 
Kingdom area. 

The suggestion of remedies is evidently not so 
much Mr. Money's purpose in this paper as to 
sound an alarm. True, he asks, " What are we doing 
to advertise the natural advantages of the United 
Kingdom to those who inhabit it ? " ]?ut agricultural 
operations, even with the help of small holdings, 
demand a steadily decreasing number of workers. He 
has a fling at " the exactions of private railway com- 
panies," which extract " an extortionate mono])ol\- 
profit of about £50,000,000 a year," and consequenll\- 
injure our trade at every point. He merely hints at 
solution when he says : — 

The problem is one of a fuller economic use of our natural 
advantages, combined wiih a livelier regard for the creation of 
healthy and beauiiful urban and suburban dwelling-places for 
those occupied in industrial operations. 



In the Hindustan Re^new .Mr. Abbas A. Tayebji, 
writing on the ethics of Islam, maintains that it is a 
mistake to think that Islam is intolerant of non- 
Moslems, or approves of barbarity in war. On the 
contrary, its teachings arc as humane as an\- practised 
to-dav. 



The Revue Economique Interriationale. 

The January number of the Ra'iie Ecoiiomiqiu- 
IntcrnationaU opens with an aiticle, by M. Jacques 
Bardoux, on Economic .\ctivity in England, 1905-11. 
The writer deals with the increase of British trade, 
since 1904, and compares it with the trade of France, 
Germany, and the United States. His article is 
based on the statistics of the Board of Trade and 
tables compiled by the Economist. Dr. Albert Haas 
writes on the Baltic and White Sea Conference, and 
Dr. H. Smissaert has an article on the proposed new- 
Tariff Law in Holland. The form of protection 
which the Dutch Government seeks to impose on the 
country, he says, is not desired either by Dutch 
industry or by Dutch commerce. M. G. Renard, 
who contributes a paper on Technical Education in 
France, considers some of the improvements which 
are needed. 

The Mahamandal Magazine. 

A MAGAZINE which I liave never seen before 
reached me last month, entitled The Mahantandal 
Altigaziiif. It is a socio-religious magazine, published 
at the head office of Sri Bharat Dharma Mahamandal, 
Benares City. No. 2, Vol. I., has an interesting 
article concerning the relations between the Sikhs 
and the Hindus ; an article on " Amritsar and its 
Recent Anti-Hindu History ; " and another interesting 
paper which says that the Natucotai Chetties of 
Madras — whose name I hear for the first time — have 
spent a fortune over the repairs and renovation of 
the great temples of Southern India ; and the 
Chetties, who are millionaires, have not only pro- 
tected the historic shrines of the South from the 
ravages of time, but have given a new lease of life to 
the indigenous decorative arts that were threatened 
with extinction. The editor cries aloud for other 
millionaires to follow their example in every Province 
of India. 

Mind. 
TuK tendency of ps\chology and philosophy to 
concern itself more and more with the processes 
and picducts of religion is again illustrated in the 
January number of Mind. Mr. W. E. Hocking's 
" Meaning of Mysticism " is an example " Hoino 
Leone " discu.sses at length the Vedantic Absolute 
The writer maintains that the Vedantic doctrine 
makes elevating and possible the only life that i 
worth living, at once human and divine, concrete ant 
universal. It is a message of universal peace 
Mr. H. .\. Prichard contends that moral philosophy 
as usually understood, rests on a mistake. It is ai 
effort to have proved to us that our sense that w. 
ought not to do certain things, is not illusion ; w] 



tli,>loi 

Itlllt 
{'iM \ 
Vtn 
•ett: 



M 



want to be convinced of this by a process which air'" 
an argument is different in kind from our original anr * 
unreflective ajipreciation of it. This, he argues, is al 
illeuitimate demand. We try to base on argument I ?* 
process that depends not on argumentative grounds.! '•''* 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



267 



CHAT ABOUT CHANCERY. 

In CasseU's for Maah Mr. T. \\'. \Mlkinson writes 
on Chancery's millions. 

THE REAL J.ARNDVCE V. J.ARNDVCE— OUTDONE. 

He grants there is ground for the reputation of 
slowness which the Court of Chancery has obtained : — 

Wiliicss that famous cause, Jamdyce r'. Jarndycc, which is 
known in legal annals as the Jennens case. The original of 
B cak Hou?c was a deserted mansion at Acton, in Suffolk, 
w ere lived an eccentric miser named Jcnnens. On his death 
n 1798 his estate went in:o Chancery, and gave rise to several 
suits which dragged on till 1878. They were then disposed of 
l)y the Court of Chancery, and revived again and finally decided 
by the Court of Appeal in 1893. A still longer cause originated 
in a quarrel about lands between one of the Lisles and Lord 
B rkeley. It lasted for seven generations, 189 years, and was 
then, to the great grief of the Chancery Bar — who had long 
looked upon it as a perpetual annuity — settled by a compromise. 
£50,000,000 NOW IN COURT. 

Chancery is the repository of vast funds, though 
liuse are by no means all dormant or unclaimed : — 

The nominal value of the money and securities now in court 
i-, about fifty millions, made up of amounts paid into court to 
abide the result of litigation, the proceeds of estates sold by 
i.r<ler of the court or under private estate Acts, appeal deposits, 
the property of lunatics, etc. One of the most curious sources 
of income is a railway undertaking. If a company wants to 
acquire land by compulsory purchase, and questions of owner- 
ship are raised, it need not trouble itself in the matter at all. 
By a dispensation which has been an immense boon to the Bar, 
it can pay the money into court, and leave the parties to fight 
for it. 

O.SLV ;fl, 100,000 D0RM.\NT. 

A certain portion is officially styled dormant — that is, consists 
of funds, not less than jCso, which have not been dealt with 
otherwise than by the continuous investment or placing on 
deposit of dividends during fifteen years. 1 his portion, which 
U comparatively small, amounting as it does to about 
/^l,ICO,ooo, has given rise to the ridiculous myths. 
■• CHANCERY EXCAVATORS." 

There are not many nice plums included in this 
more than a million : — 

I-'or more than two decades a class of men known as 
"Chancery excavators "—next-of-kin agents and solicitors — 
have been hunting among the records, and they have been the 
means of recuvtring an enormous sum in the aggregate. 

The "excavators," in truth, have explored Tom Tiddler's 
(iiound to such purpose that they have well-nigh denuded it of 
big nuggets, and nowadays their " finds " are, with few 
exceptions, more curious than valuable. 



RECENT CHANGES IN WEDDING CUSTOMS. 

I'liE March Str,iii(l tells how wedding ( ustoms have 
been altered in recent times. Bridal white is an old 

torn that dates from the Dark Apes, but the modern 
i iile often adopts touches of colour and while and 
gold lirocade. This change began with I.ady Helen 
Vincent in t8(;o. .Similarly, the old bridal bouquets 
were e.\cltisi\ely < omposed of while blooms, but Lady 
Loch introduced coloured blossoms and carried a 
bouquet of red ro^e^ at her wedding in 1900. So the 
wreath and hair decoration, once of necessity orange 
blossoms, may now be of other flowers or foliage. 
'l\rtle is a .special favourite. 'Iherc have also been 

•rn recently wreaths of white roses, gardenias, while 



heather, laurel leaves, lace mantilla, silver fillet. 
Pearls, though reckoned unlucky by the superstitious, 
have been bravely worn at recent weddings. There is 
now a dead set against a diamond tiara. 

THE RETURN OF THE GROO.MSMEN. 

Old-world styles are often introduced for brides- 
maids. .So one set of bridesmaids wore copies of robes 
in Botticelli's picture of " Springtime " : — 

l!ut the greatest innovation of all is the return of the 
groomsmen. During the last year or two they have been seen 
at several marriages, and bride=, bridegrooms, and bridesmaids 
(especially the latter) wonder \^hy they ever went out of favour. 
They arc always useful, and certainly add to the spectacular 
effect of the ceremony. At the above-mentioned weddings the 
old custom was revived of six groomsmen, who accompanied 
the six bridesmaids as they followed the bride to the altar. 
The fact that to-day we use the term "best man " is evidence 
of this old-time fashion. "Best man "really means the best 
groomsman, just as we now speak of a first bridesmaid. 

Motors now take the place of broughams and 
victorias in the " going away " of the bridal pair. 
Some have driven off for their honeymoon in an open 
carriage with four horses and postillions, or on a four- 
in-hand coach, the bride handling the ribbons. One 
bride of sporting tastes was escorted to church by the 
staghounds of one meet, and on her return was accom- 
panied by the fo.xhounds of another. Another bride 
was followed to the altar by a favourite while bulldog. 
Vet another drove to church in a carriage drawn by 
six white rusetted gun-horses, driven by an artillery- 
man in full uniform. The smartness of Society 
weddings is on the increase, presents become more 
numerous and of greater value, toilettes of great 
beauty and splendour. Trousseaux are, however, 
diminishing in bulk, if not in price. Few have reached 
the outfit of the lady who married Mr, Whistler. Her 
trousseau consisted of a new toothbrush and a new 
comb 1 

THE SOURCE OF MANY GHOST STORIES. 

Miss I'KANt i;s I'iTT, in Ihidinuitdii for March, tells 
how the increase of field-mice is kept down by foxes, 
badgers, owls, hawks, hedgehogs, prowling cats, 
stoats and weasels. She gives some most instructive 
photographs. She says : — 

The barn owl is, I believe, the source of more ghost stories 
than any other living creature, for, while in pi-rsuit of mice, it 
penetrates, by means of broken windows, holes in the roof or 
beneath the caves, into the deserted wings of old houses, and if 
not at first disturbed may even take up its (luarters there. 
Sooner or later somebody will invade the solitude of the 
deserted and shut-up building, to be probably greeted by a most 
peculiar souml, like a long-drawn wailing hiss. It is so strange 
and weird that it is sutlicient to upset tlie very stoutest nerves. 
I know of nothing else like it, and nolKxly hearing it for the 
first lime could possibly suppose it w.as uttered by a bird. The 
owl, which only gives this cry under the pres-sure of fear, anger 
and excitement, at the same time draws itself up as high as it 
can, droops its wings, and moves its head round in circles, so 
that anylKxly with an active imagination, catching sight for an 
instant, in a gloomy building, of this strange white object, 
which a second later may ha e vanished witluul a sound, has 
ample material with which to construct the most gruesome of 
talcs I And all because mice and rats infest these sort of old 
places I 



268 



The Review of Reviews. 



A NEW SKETCH OF THE KAISER, 

Approved by Himself. 
The March Strand contains a paper on the Kaiser 
as he is, " written by one who is in intimate personal 
contact with the derman Emperor." and it " has been 
.speciall}' approved by His Imperial Majesty." 

LOVE FOR THE ENGLISH AND THEIR QUEEN. 

The Kaiser \s, and always has been, a great asset for 
peace : — 

He has a very great liking for England anil the English 
people, and an alTection for the memory of the late Queen 
Victoria that almost anioimts to veneration. He once said to a 
group of his oHicers that the two wisest and best nionarchs that 
ever existed were Queen \'icloria and his grandfather, the 
Emperor Wilhelm I. " With two such grandparents," he 
added, with one of his whimsical smiles, " I ought to make a 
successful ruler." Ho frankly confesses that he has taken these 
Iw'o as his models throughout his life. 

There is very considerable friendship between the Kaisei and 
King George, and the two rulers exchange letters at frequent 
intervals. The Emperor hopes that it may be convenient for him 
to pay a short visit to this country every year in the future, and 
it remains to be seen how far this will be possible. 

The writer says that the Kaiser has a passion for 
letter-writing, and disdains the aid of the typewriter 
for correspondence with his fellow-monarchs. He is an 
extremely early riser, and often works late. He is 
nothing like so methodical as King George. He will 
take up half a dozen matters simultaneously, and deal 
with them at one and the same time. 

A " POOR FINANCIER." 

The Kaiser is stated to be a very poor financier : — 
Indeed, he frankly confesses that his knowledge of figures is 
of little more than an elementary character, and that he is more 
than a trifle bored when he is called upon to deal with them. 
It is upon finance more than anything else that His Majesty has 
disagreed with his Ministers. 

" Retrenchment," indeed, is a word that is anathema to the 
Emperor, and neither in his public nor his private life does he 
l>ause to consider the (xpense into which he is running. His 
private income is, of ccurse, very considerable, but there have 
been times when he has Leen distinctly " hard-up." 

At sea he unibends to a degree unknown ashore. He 
is an enthusiastic musician, and has composed several 
pieces himself. His private band on the llohenzoUcru 
is one of the finest : — 

A few years ago, during a cruise, the Kaiser stopped su<idenly 
and listened to a piece that the band was playing. " What a 
horrible noise ! " he exclaimed, and sent one of his attendants 
to discover the name of the composir. 'Ihe officer came back, 
and, scarcely able to conceal a smile, he informed I lis Majesty 
that it was one of his own compositiors. The Kaiser, the story 
continues, frowned heavily for a moment, and then saw the joke 
of it and laughed heartily, as did those about Wm. It w.as 
noted, however, that the piece promptly disappeared from the 
repertoire of the band. 

AGAINST VOTES FOR WOMEN. 

The person who has the most influence over his 
political actions is his brother, I'rince Henry of 
Pru.ssia. The Kaiser is one of the most pronounced 
opponents of woman's suffrage. During his visit to 
this country ht had paid constant visits to the 
nursery of the Prince of Wales, and had given 
many more or less useful hints to tho.sc charged with 
the care of the children, and, speaking to Queen 




A new Portrait of the Kaiser, 

With his eldest grandson. 



■ 



Mary on votes for women, he demanded fiercci\ 
" What can they know of politics ? " To which Q'ueen 
Mary replied, " Just about as much as a man knows 
(if the oiganisation of a nurserv and the rearing of a 
family ! " 

A TUSSLE WITH RHODES. . 

A famous interview with Mr. Rhodes is thus 
described : — 

The great South .\frican statesman deeply impressed the 
Kaiser with his abilities and force of personality when they luid 
their famous meeting to discuss the future construction of the 
trans-African railway and telegraph lines. Rhodes tried his 
hardest to get even the smallest strip of the hinterland of ^ 
(German East .\frica ceded to Great Britain, in order to realise '" 
his great ambition that the line from Cape Town lo Cairo 
should run solely through jiritish territory. The Emperor was 
inflexible upon the point, however, and ultimately a compromise 
wns arrived at. " I will lind a way somehow," said Rhodes, 
during the discussion. The Emperor looked at him rather 
curiously. " There are only two persons in the world cniillcd 
to say ' I will ' in that emphatic manner, and ! am one of tlieni.' 
he remarked. Rhodes smiled broadly. " That is quite right 
he retorted ; " I am the other one." 

The Kaiser is quoted as saying, " I never talk upon 
military matters to the Duke of Connaught Ijut he i'' 
teaches me something I did not know before." I, 

QUICK TO CONFESS A HASTY ERROR. Ij^ 

Queen Ale.xandra has described the Kaiser ofteij 
lately as " having been more than a brother to he 



10 



lis 



fcl: 
id!;. 

4,1 



1 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



269 



lire the death of King Edward." Tlie writer does not 
Mtate to say : — 

Imperious and autocratic to a degree lie uniloubtedly is, and 
ill- has a will of iron that hates to be diverted frotn its purpose. 
lie is also extremely hasty in his judgments as much as in his 
actions. No one is more quick to realise his failures, however, 
than he is himself, and he has been known after a heated out- 
hurst to go to the Minister or official who provoked his wratli 
almost immediately afterwards and oflcr his apologies, and 
a:.;rce that a different course from what he had at tirst demanded 
would possibly be the wisest. 

For his hasty telegram to Kruger the. Kaiser is said 
lo have written very full\- to Queen Victoria, reiterating 
his regrets. Of late the Kaiser is said to have shown an 
i\er-increasing tendency to devote himself more to 
intellectual pursuits than to shooting. 

The chief significance of this sketch is the fact that 
it is declared to have been approved by the Kaiser. 
This approval may be another indication of the 
strenuous endeavour of the Kaiser to make himself 
known to England. 

SUN YAT SEN ON HIMSELF. 

The March Strand contains a paper taken down 
from Sun Vat Sen's own lips, which is a statement 
of his career up to the time of his last leaving England. 
!ic says that up to 1885, when he was eighteen years 
of age, he led the life ot any Chinese youth of his ilass, 
ixcept that from his father's conversion to Chris- 
tianity and his employment by the London Missionarv 
society he had greater opportunities of coming intu 
(intact with English and American missionaries in 
'.mlon. An English lady became interested in him, 
■ 111 he learned eventually to speak English. Dr. Kerr, 
d the An^lo-American Mission, allowed him to pick 
ip a great deal about medicine. He studied medicine 
or five happ>- years of his life at the Hong Kong 
"ollege of Medicine under Dr. Cantlie. 

HOW HIS REVOI.LTIONARY CAREER BEGAN. 

On obtaining his diploma he decided to try his 
ortunes in the Portuguese Colony of Macap. It was 
hen that he enrolled himself a member of the Young 
"hina Party. He failed to secure a paying practice in 
•lacao, and removed to Canton, where he formed a 
)ran( h of the party. In 1895 he formed a conspiracy 
o capture the (ily of Canton, whith, however, the 
dvanre of Imperial troops frustrated. He fled for 
his life to Kobe. ( ut off his queue, and dres.sed as a 
lodi-rn Japanese. In 1896 he sailed for England, 

lure he was kidnapped at the Chinese Legation and, 
the intervention of Lord Salisbury, released at 

■ eleventh hour. He returned to China during the 

.\er troubles, and sjxike and wrote and lectured on 
ic inevitable revolution. It was then that Colonel 
lomer Lea gave in his adhesion, and became his chief 
iilitary adviser. 

CONVERTED HIS CAl»TORS. 

Ever since the Canton conspiracy a price had Ix'en 
ned upon his Ikm.I, At one time that amounted to 
00,000 sterling : — 
My most extraordinary experience was in Canton, when two 



young officials came themselves to capture me. I was in my 
room at night and in my shirt-sleeves, reading and looking over 
my papers. The two men opened the door. They had a 
dozen soldiers outside. When I saw them I calmly took up one 
of the sacred books and began to read aloud. They listened for 
a time, and after a while one of them spoke and asked a 
question. I answered it, and they asked others. Then ensued 
a long argument, and I stated my case and the case of the 
thousands who thought as I did at full length, as well as I 
could. At the end of two hours the two men went away, and 
I heard thein saying in the street, "That is not the man we 
want. He is a good man, and spends his life healing the 
sick." 

" I HAVE DONE MV WORK." 

Often asked why, with such a price offered for his 
head, he went about London so freely and took so few- 
precautions, he answered that his life was now of 
little consequence ; there were plenty to take his 
place. Ten years ago the cause would have suffered 
by his death ; now the organisation is complete. So 
he adds : — 

Whether I am to be the titular head of all China, or to work 
in conjunction with another, and that other Vuan-Shih-Kai, is 
of no importance to me. I have done my work ; the wave of 
enlightenment and progress cannot now be stayed, and China — 
the country in the world most fitted to be a republic, because of 
the industrious and docile character of the people— will, in a 
short time, take her place amongst the civilised and liberty 
loving nations of the world. 

Effect of the Crisis on India. 
The Rajput Herald, writing on the new Asia, says : — 

.■\fler the adjustment of Persia, which will be accomplished in 
a few years, the next step towards which the ball, set rolling by 
Cliina, will run to, is India. The Japanese victory had a 
stupendous etfect in India, and the people who never, a few 
years ago, knew the existence of Japan, rejoiced at her victory. 
Now the Chinese awakening will increase it further and further. 
In social matters India would once for all bridge her social 
gulfs and the people would put a stop to all internecine 
quarrels ; a deep feeling of awakening would electrify the 
nation, and after a few years social differences will be practically 
unknown. 



ABOUT MATTHEW ARNOCD. 

In " Sixty Years in the Wilderness," in Cornhill. 
Sir Henry Lucy mentions Matthew Arnold, who. 
he says, in company that he liked, was a delightful 
causeur : — 

To those permitted to enjoy intimacy of acquaintance he 
bubbled over with fun. He had a curious way ol telling little 
stories against himself. I lemcndjer two dropped in at the 
dinner table. Talking about Mrs. Arnold, he said : " Ah, you 
should know my wife I She has all my charm of manner, and 
none of my conceit." 

Another related to the episode of his un.satisfaclory visit lo 
the United Slates as a lecturer, a wuik undertaken at great 
personal sacrifice in order to perform what he regarded as a 
duly to his family. When the project was mooted, Arnold 
urged that it was not hopeful, since he was very little known 
in America. 

" I do not suppose," he .said, half hoping for contradiction, 
" that there are a hundred men in the country who possess one 
of my Ixiuk'.'' 

"Sir," said the agent, "I assure you you are mistaken. I 
know .Xmrrica, and I will unilcilake to say that there is not a 
small town or village that does not possess in its institute 
library a copy of ' The Light of Asia.' " 



•i 



270 



The Review of Reviews. 



LABOUCHERIANA. 

Mr. G. W. E. Russell contributes to Conihill 
several characteristic reminiscences of the -late Mr. 
Labouchere : — 

lie wa> the oracle of an initiated circle, anJ tlie smoking- 
room of the House of Commons w.ts his slirine. Tiiere, poised 
in an American rocking-chair and delicately toying with a 
cigarette, he unlocked the varied treasures of his well-slored 
memory, and threw over the changing scenes of life the mild 
light of his genial philosophy. It was a chequered experience 
that made him what he was. 

HIS " ARTS OF ROMANTIC NARRATIVE." 

He delighted to call himself " the Christian Member 
for Northampton," in contrast to his colleague, Mr. 
Bradlaugh. Mr. Russell gently insinuates that the 
Christian grace of veracity was not characteristic of 
Labby :— 

I have spoken of the flavour of unreality which was imparted 
to Labouchere's conversation by his affected cynicism. A 
similar effect was produced by his manner of personal narrative. 
Ethics apart, I have no quarrel with the man who romances to 
amuse his friends ; but the romance shoidd be so conceived and 
so uttered as to convey a decent sense of probability, or at least 
possibility. Labouchere's narratives conveyed no such sense. 
Though amusingly told, they were so outrageously and palpably 
impossible that his only object in telling them must have been 
to test one's credulity. I do not mind having my leg pulled, 
but I dislike to feel the process too distinctly. 

These arts of romantic narrative, only partially successful in 
ihe smoking-room, were, I believe, practised with great eflect 
on the electors of Northampton. 

No powers of divination could have ascertained what 
Labouchere really believed, but I think it was easier to know 
what he really enjoyed. 

HOW HE WAS SHUT OUT OF THE CABINET. 

Of his exclusion from the Liberal Cabinet in 1892 
Mr. Russell says, speaking of Mr. Gladstone : — 

He became Prime Minister for the fourth time, and formed 
his last Cabinet. But he did not find a place in it for 
Labouchere. licforc he submitted his list to the Queen, he 
had received a direct intimation that he had better not include 
in it the name of the editor of I'ruth. On this point Her 
Majesty was reported to be '* very stiff." Whether that stiffness 
encountered any corresponding, or conflicting, stifi'ness in the 
Prime Minister I do not know ; but for my own part I believe 
that "the Grand Old Man" acquiesced in the exclusion of 
" Henry " without a sigh or struggle. 

HIS HATRED OF " NONCON. POPES." 

Mr. Russell quotes a letter of the end of iyo6, in 
which Labouchere wrote : — 

As for the Education liill, 1 do not love Bishops, but I hate 
far more the Noncon. Popes. Either you must have pure 
Secularism in public schools, or teach religion of some sort ; 
and, allho' I personally am an Agnostic, I don't see how 
-Xtianity is to be taught free from all dogma, and entirely 
creedlcss, by teachers who do not believe in it. This is the 
play of " Hamlet " without Hamlet, and acted by persons of his 
]>hiloso]>hic doubt. 

" LABBY " ON " JOEY." 

In the same magazine Sir Henry Lucy, in his 
'■ .Sixty V'ears in the Wilderness," devotes several 
pages to Labouchere. In a letter of 1886 Labby thus 
de.scribes Chamberlain : — 

r)ver-bumptiousness is liis weakness. lie imagines that he is 
the Radical I'arty, and that all depends on him. This is true 
in Birmingham. Outside they regard him, much as the 



Apostles would have regarded Judas, if he had come swagger- 
ing in to supper with an orchid in his buttonhole, and said that 
the Christian religion would not go on, if his " flower " were 
not adopted, and he recognised as its chief exponent. He is 
utterly spoilt by the adulation of his fellow-townsmen, and has 
to learn that England is not Birmingham. 



THE WONDERFUL CAVES OF WESTERN 
AUSTRALIA. 

In the February \y unhur Mr. C. P. Conigrave gives 
a fascinating account, with striking illustrations, of 
the caves found in Western Australia. The Govern- 
ment has wisely taken precautions to safeguard these 
natural treasures. In Yallingup there is a series of 
caverns and chambers, the vestibule of which is known 
as " The Theatre," and is ht up with electricity. 
The Wallcliff Cave consists of a cluster of stalagmites 
which have assumed the shape of a mighty outstretched 
hand, some five feet in height, known as " The Devil's 
Hand." Mammoth Ca\e has been wrought by the 
action of a watercourse. Within, on all sides, are 
great boulders, massive pillars which rise to the roof, 
and strange and grotesque formations appear on every 
side. The cave is twelve chains in length. It com- 
pletely penetrates a large hill. There have been 
found in it the remains of the great extinct marsupial 
diprotodon. Giant Ca\e contains a huge chamber 
600 feet in length, with vast dome for roof 60 feet 
from the floor, wherein is found the " Fairies' Ball- 
room." The Lake Cave, only recently discovered, is 
singularly like a subterranean Polar sea — everything 
white, pure crystal white. Its most remarkable 
feature is the suspended table, which measures 15 feet 
in length and 4 feet in breadth, the stalactitic supports 
being several feet in circumference and remarkably 
corrugated. The Yanchep Caves are only thirty-five 
miles to the north of Perth. 

WHAT JAPAN HAS DONE IN MANCHURIA. 

Mr. Lindsay Russell, speaking to the Japanese 
in the Orienlal Review for February, says that Japan's 
main achievements in Manchuria during six years 
have been the construction of 189 miles of railroad 
over a mountainous country, the widening of its 
gauge, then the reduction of its gauge in the South 
Manchurian Railway on taking it over from Russia, 
and the conversion of the entire road (470 miles) to 
the standard gauge and its equipment with American 
rolling-stock. 'I'he town of Dairen now compares 
favourably with any town in America of 60,000 in 
population. The Japanese concession at Mukden is 
becoming a modern model city. What Mr. Russell 
thinks the most remarkable achievement of all is thai 
Japan has created one of the greatest industries of 
modern times — the bean and bean-oil trade, nowf ' 
Manchuria's chief export and greatest wealth-producer . 

A VERY realistic sketch of the French student of 
to-day is given in the Lady's Realm by Rowland' 
Strong. 



w 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



271 



GREEK PATRON SAINTS OF FEMINISM. 
Sappho and Aspasia. 

Mr. W. L. Courtney prints in the Fortnightly 
I:', vino his lecture before the Royal Society on Sappho 
and Aspasia. 

It is a brilliant attempt to vindicate the pioneers of 
Feminism in Ancient Greece. Mr. Courtney says that 
as they both set an early example of feminine enlighten- 
ment from prejudice, " A kind of crusade was entered 
upon to destroy their character, to deride their pre- 
tensions, to thrown scorn upon their names." 

SAPPHO. 

Mr. Courtney thinks the time has come to do justice 
to these two women, who are deserving of being 
hailed as pioneers if not patron saints of the woman's 
movement in the Western world : — 

In considering Sappho, we have to imagine a state of society 
in which it was not considered improper or indelicate to write 
frankly and openly about emotions, and feelings, and even 
passionate slates. Sappho's poems contain some instances of 
this frank speaking, and they have been misinterpreted, because 
wc read into the words some of the associations which belong 
only to a much later stage of civilisation and life. Sappho 
spoice sometimes with unconventional directness, but to argue 
from unconventional language to disorderliness of behaviour is 
to go a great deal beyond what the record warrants. 

Naturally, it suited the Christian writer, in his tirades against 
heathenism, to follow Greek perversions, and paint a Sappho 
full of corruption, as a terrible example of the depths to which 
heathenism could descend. We must put aside all these 
aspersions and innuendos, and take the poems themselves, if we 
«anl to understand .Sappho. 

.\ grave, clear beauty seems to reign over them, and that is 
why the only real way of judging Sappho is by reading her 
poetry, and then judging whether she could possibly have 
been the dissolute libertine that the Attic comic dramatists 
represented. 

ASPASIA, 

In whitewashing Aspasia Mr. Courtney is on firmer 
ground : — 

The scandal of .Xspasia's existence in .Vlhens was based 
es|Kcially on the fact that, instead of believing in the seclusion 
of women, she held reunions, at which both she and her friends 
moved with absolute freedom, discussing, with all the most 
learned men of the day, problems of policy, of philosophy, and 
metaphysics. 

She was also attacked by political partisans who 
hated Pericles. .Mr. Courtney points out that Pericles 
had made a most unhappy marriage, and was living 
apart from his wife. He could not marry Aspa.sia, 
who was an alien. Hut he lived with her openly as 
his wife, kissing her w henever he left home on business, 
and the excellence of the union was attested by the 
fact that the Athenians legitimatised her son : — 

Aspasia was a great woman, full of quick natural intelligence, 
adorned an<l fnriifud by a steady, organised system of culture. 
Socrates, in his l.nughing fashion, declares that she taught him 
how to speak. She made the house of Pericles the meeting-place 
for men and women, as wc should say, of the higher culture, 
who discussed, on terms of perfect equality, various topics — 
domestic economy, politics, art, the principles of morals, pliysics 
in the largest sense, and probably religion. Aspasias home 
was a salon, in the lust sense of the word. The great artists 
were there, the great dramatists, the great philosophers. And, 
so far as wc can tell, some of the more emancipated of the 



matrons of Athens did not hesitate to join this cultured circle, 
whatever might be the existing prejudice. The constant object 
(if her solicitude was a study of the rights and duties wliich 
marriage creates for man and woman. 

Everywhere she upheld the cause of woman as a 
social integer, a definite portion of the State economy. 
'■ Aspasia, the well-beloved of Pericles, stands in the 
very front rank of the great woinen who have adorned 
the pages of ancient and modern history." 



A DREAM OF THE "GREAT STATE" TO COME. 

By the Countess of Warwick. 

In the Fortnightly Review Lady Warwick gives us 
a sketch of her vision of things to come when Socialism 
has triumphed and the Great State has come into being. 

The Great State will abolish great cities. The 
Birminghams will give place to the Warwicks. In 
the Great State there will be no room for towns of 
factories belching forth yellow fog or for congested 
areas of slums. Free and speedy transit will scatter 
the population over the country : — 

The railways and trams and cars will then be communal and 
free services, just as the roads are communal and free to day. 
The waste of innumerable ticket-collectors and booking-clerks 
will be saved ; the citizens of the (ireat State will regard 
transit as a commonplace, which they will provide without 
stint, and encourage everyone to use without a moment's 
hesitation. 

All dwellers in the country will be within easy range 
of the advantages of town life : — 

For example, a w-ellequipped opera house, a theatre, a 
concert hall, art galleries and museums, libraries, swimming 
baths, specialised medical advice and special instruction, 
facilities for higher education, large shops with a full variety of 
choice for their customers, the invigorating interchange of the 
social intercourse of large gatherings ; all these things demand 
a town of fairly extensive size for their accomplishment. 

Farming will be revolutionised on a scientific and 
co-operative basis : — 

Under the rule of the Great .State, the landlord and the small 
and large private farmers will no longer exist. The State will 
own the land. The land will be divided up into convenient tracts, 
of a size determined by the nature of the soil and the kind of pro- 
duce to be grown ; .and these will be worked as State farms, under 
the control of a director and .assistants who are highly trained 
ill the latest science and art of their department of knowledge. 
The Great Slate agriculture will be to the agriculture of to-day 
what the Oil Trust is to the oil shop in the back streets of a 
slum. Klectricily, in the days of the Great Slate, will not be 
the monopoly of the towns. There will be no need to have a 
smoking stack of f.iclory chimneys in every village which 
possesses a factory. 

There is another probable development to consider. The 
industrial artisan and the agricultural worker will not necessarily 
lie two distinct persons. The bulk of the work on the fields is 
seasonal ; and the winter, on the whole, is a slack time for 
farmers. A well organised agricultural system » ill get much of 
its work done at limited pcrioils, leaving its workers free to 
remain in the towns or villages during the darker months of 
the year. The man who makes hay and liigs potatoes will 
probably have a town craft — for example, bootmaking, or 
woo<lwork, or house decorating — for a winter occupation ; just 
as the town artisans will s.ipply the extra hands to allow the 
countrymen to keep their reasonable hours during the stress of 
harvesting. 



272 



The Review of Reviews. 



TO CANADIANISE BRITAIK, 

Undkr the quaint title of " The Imperial Emigrant 
and his Political Religion" Mr. Arthur Hawkes, 
Special Commissioner of Immigration for the Dominion 
of Canada, writes in the Nindeeitth Century for 
January. He insists that the emigrant is the real 
custodian of the Empire's future. He urges the 
importance of trying to understand and prepare the 
emigrant by the light of the change that has come 
over the returned emigrant. He mentions, by the 
way, that an Australian talks like a Londoner ; the 
British Canadian speaks largely as the American 
speaks. 

WHERE TO PREACH THE IMPERIAL GOSPEL. 

His main theme is that the right place for the 
Imperial Canadian gospel is where the Imperial 
emigrant begins his pilgrimage. The gospel of 
emigration should first be preached to those who will 
never emigrate, that they may pass it on to succeeding 
groups of emigrants, and that they may become the 
leaven through which Britain herself may master the 
lessons of the emigrant returned. He implies that a 
judicious development of county patriotism in the old 
country will prepare the emigrant for the patriotism 
of the province of the Dominion abroad. Further- 
more, Westminster might learn from Ottawa that a 
< Jovernment can enter the advertising business with 
as much skill as the proprietor of a brand of shoes 
does. " With its manifold shortcomings, the Canadian 
Government strikes a more intimately human note 
than the public instruments have discovered how to 
do in the Old \Vorld." The British attitude to 
Canada has been revolutionised within the last 
decade. There is a new Canada and a changed 
Britain. 

THE DUKE OF SIJTHERI.AND's PLAN. 

The writer speaks most favourably of the Duke of 
Sutherland's plan. The Duke proposes the associa- 
tion of Canadian and British brains and capital 
in obtaining from the Canadian Governments lands 
and means of intercommunication, on which will be 
placed settlers througii a company which will partially 
prepare tiie farm, erect buildings, and put a certain 
amount of land into crop, and sell it to the occupant 
on terms devised to show a certain elasticity accord- 
ing to crop results, 'i'he Duke helps the settler to 
purchase his farm, and then retires gracefully 
with his capital and 6 per cent. The writer would 
also develop the process of approximating the life, 
ideas and standard of living of the average man in 
Britain to the life, ideas and standard of living of 
the average man in Canada. So he would try to 
Canadianise Britain. The writer mentions the 
Canada British Association, which has been formed 
to i)romote amongst those of British birth the sense of 
a Canadian nationality, to promote the extension of 
Canadian and Britisii channels of commerce, to 
encourage the immigration of settlers from the British 
Isles, and to welcome all new-comers from the Old 
Country. 



PARIS AND HER MONUMENTS. 

M. Gustave Pessard has just published a French 
pamphlet entitled " Parisian Statuomania." 

THE MANIA FOR MONUMENTAL HONOURS. 

The author's aim is to draw attention to the 
fabulous number of monuments and statues which 
have been erected in Paris, and to cry, Halt ! Many 
of the subjects honoured seem to have little claim to 
fame, and many of the monuments have equally little 
claim to be called works of art, and in many instances 
they stand in most uncongenial surroundings. At 
the present moment tliere are literally no blank spaces 
left. It has been suggested that the churches and 
public buildings might be more utilised, that busts 
might suffice for a large number, and that the 
cemeteries might be adorned after the manner of 
Pere Lachaise. Quite a number of celebrilies have 
more than one monument. Voltaire, for instance, 
has seven, Richelieu four, Joan of Arc three, and 
Napoleon two ; Alfred de Musset and Victor Hugo 
each have three, and will soon have a fourth ; 
Molifere has three, Beethoven and Chopin each two, 
George Sand two, and a third is projected, and a 
second monument is to be erected to Beethoven. 
Meanwhile the new celebrities are asked to wait a 
while. Gardens are to be laid out on the site of the 
old fortifications, and thtse will require some decora- 
tion. Perhaps, then, a little more system and sense 
of fitness in the selection of celebrities will be shown. 
There are still many great scientists, poets, artists, 
musicians, and writers of past centuries with real 
claims awaiting beautiful and suitable monuments. 

NINE HUNDRED STATUES. 

Not counting the large number of saints on the 
facades, etc., of the churches, or the monuments in 
the great cemeteries, or .such works as the Lion de 
Belfort, the Monument of the Republic, the Triumph 
of the Republic, the Statue of Liberty, and one or 
two others, or the statues in the Place de la Concorde, 
or the innumerable busts of immortals in the courts 
of the Institut, but reckoning the 335 statues in ail 
styles- -mythological, allegorical, and others which 
decorate the squares and avenues, the 32S Parisians 
of mark considered sufficiently illustrious to ornament 
the fai,-ades of the Hotel de Ville and the terraces of 
the Louvre, and the 180 other monuments of different 
kinds consecrated to the numory of individuals scat- 
tered about everywhere in the promenades, and 
including the seventy-two statues projected or in 
preparation, the grand total of monuments, statues, 
busts, bas-reliefs, etc., in Paris destined to com- 
memorate or to recall the names and exploits of 
great men exceeds 900. It would be interesting to 
learn how London compares with Paris in this 
respect. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



273 



INDIAN REVIEWS ON THE DURBAR. 

The Indian Rei'iru- brings out a special Durlxir 
number, with a series of symposia, with contributors 
Enghsh and Indian, including Sir William VVcdderburn, 
Mr. Frederic Harrison. Lord Kinnaird. Ur. Clifford, 
Mr. Harold Co.x and .Mrs. .\nnie Bcsant. 1 hey form 
together a chorus of applause. 

Mrs. Annie Besant. 

The scene at Delhi seems to have impressed Mrs. 
Annie Be.sant very deeply, but, she added :— 

There were incidents in these gorgeous IJclhi days, however, 
that touched tlie heart more than these splendid pageants. Tlie 
King-Emperor was leaving the polo ground on foot, strolling 
over lowar<ls his carriage. As he came to the road there was a 
great rush of the poor people, who had gathered thickly in the 
hope of seeing one who, to the Hindu, is very God on earth. 
Not unnaturally, perhaps really alarmed for his safety, the 
police and soliliers pushed them roughly 
back. But quickly the Emperor raised 
his voice and checked the men, bidding 
them let the [icoplc come near. En- 
couraged by his smiling face, they 
crowded round: " Oh I stand and let 
us ^ee you." And he stood smiling, the 
good Emperor with his fatherly heart, 
and his poor gazed their full. Again, at 
the garden party at the Fort, he and his 
Empress took the trouble to put on their 
royal robes and croivns that the vast 
crowds of the poor, gathered on the plain 
which stretches from the foot of the wall 
to the river, might see their monarch? 
clad in Imperial garb ; the crowd cheered 
and cheered again, and their faces were 
a sight to see. Then they disrobe<l, to 
wallt again amid their guests in ordinary 
ilress. 

Mr. H. P. Mody in East and W'esl 
for February speaks enthusiastic- 
ally of the Indian Coronation and 
its effects, and says : — 

The result was due in a large mea.sure 
10 the personality of the King-Emperor. 
I.et me not commit myself to the pleasant 
fictions which it is usual to indulge in in 
speaking of exalted personages. King 
(korge may not yet enjoy that general 
personal popularity which his late father 
commanded in such a large measure. 
There is a wide iliffcrcnce in their habits 

and temperament. But King George has shown, during the 
brief period which h.is elapsed since his accession to the throne, 
thai he possesses in a remarkable degree the purpose and capacity 
th.it iii.ike a ruler of men. 

The Chance of Capital. 

The lltiultistan Review declares : — 

The changr of capital from Calcutta to Delhi h.as been 
approved of by the organs of public opinion in all parts of the 
country — except by one Indian and two Anglo-Indian journals 
of Calcutta, The almost universal opinion of the country — 
which we ourselves share— is that the proposed change will lie 
beneficial and advaiilageous to the public interests of India at 
targe, though it ni.ay partially affect the vested interests in 
Calcutta. 

Things Left Out. 

Sundara Raja, writing in the Rajfml Herald of the 
change of capital, sa\s, "F.\<rpi this discomfort for 




Hindi i'unch J 

Hurrah for the 



a few lazy office clerks, not a single living real Indian is 
against the change." But while carefully distinguish- 
ing the King-Emperor from the conduct of his Ministers, 
the writer puts in questjon form the things that were 
left undone : — 

First of all, .isk whether the enormous and ever- increasing 
ta.xalion has been reduced ; ask again if the numerous political 
[irisoncrs were released ; thirdly, make an inquiry as to whetlier 
education was made free, if not compulsory ; fourth, see 
whether the broken pledges in the late (^ucen-Empress 
Victoria's proclamation of 1858 have been re-installed in their 
places ; tilth, whether the lawless laws of deportation and 
similar other freedom-depriving and liberty-killing legislations 
were erased from the .Statute-book ; and last, but not least of 
all, whether any democratic tinge has licen added to the present 
unsatisfactory, non-satisfying Legislative Councils, formed 
under the personal inception of the most autocratic of all 
.Secretaries of Stale for India, Lord Morley. Ask these 
questions, and the very walls will echo in 
reply, " No.'' " No," five times " No." 
Then are we to call these changes boons 
to the people 'i 

The Gaekwar Incident. 

On the Gaekwar incident the 
Raj put Herald expresses deep regret 
that the Gaekwar should have ap- 
peared in a miserable dress, a dress 
which would be construed as un- 
warranted insult even by the 
sovereign princes of India. Hence- 
forth, says the writer, the Maha- 
raja of Baroda is ruler of Baroda, 
and nothing more. He has lost 
his reputation as the leader of the 
nation. The writer also deplores 
the concurrent events that have 
lowered him in the estimation of 
his people. Posing as a social re- 
former, he gave assent to the 
polygamotis marriage of his 
daughter. Then came the Divorce 
Court. Strange astrological signs 
have conjoined to pull him down. 

The Unueri.ving Principle. 

The Rajfml Herald, which has 
completed its first year, says 
of the Delhi Durbar : — 

' It isan'event of which none can deny the historic importance. 
The practical unity of East and West had been for long the 
musing of poets ami the dream of politicians ; for centuries h.id 
the West attempted to join the Asiatic tributary to the main 
stream of its civilisation. This, in a measure, the Duibar has 
.accomplished. Not. the pageantry and pomp; not the Ini baric 
splendour that characterised the ceremony— it is not these that 
so much contribute to the union and co-operation of lOast ami 
West, .IS the jirinciple underlying the visit of His Majesty to 
Delhi, his tangible recognition of India as a factor of ImjKrial 
greatness : this it is which links India and F.nglarid. To a 
people living 7,cxx3 miles away the i.lea of an I'.nglish king was 
vague, appealing merely to iinaginalli>n ; but to see their 
Emperor face to face in their own lan>l instills into ihcm dcc|K'r 
feelings of love and loyally. This cements India and England 
closer and firmer than any fin mal act of best conceived diplomacy. 
In the history of Asia this Delhi Durbar will stand out asa politi- 
cal event of the greatest importance, and the year will not be 
r.i?>ily forgotten. 



Nevr Capital I 



274 



The Review of Reviews. 



GREATER INDIA. 

A PAPER by Bhai Pitrmanand in the Modern Revinv 
lor February suggests that before long we may have 
an Eastern Seeley writing on the expansion of India. 
Mr. Parmanand writes on Greater India. He says very 
few people in India realise the importance and extent 
of the emigration that has been going forward. He 
divides this process of colonisation into three main 
sections : the first round the Indian Ocean, including 
East Africa. 

IN EAST AFRICA. 

Mombasa presents all the features of an Indian town, 
and seems to be a growing commercial centre for East 
Africa. The major part of its merchants and Govern- 
ment officials are Indians. The trading population of 
Zanzibar is mainly Indian, both Hindu and Moham- 
medan. There are Indian traders in German and 
Portuguese East Africa. In the Island of Mauritius 
nearly half of the population are Indians. The struggle 
of the Indians to maintain their footing in the Transvaal 
is of course a burning question. When the writer was 
in South Africa, Johannesburg and Pretoria with their 
suburbs contained nearly 10,000 Indians. In Natal 
the Indians form the backbone of the colony. Most of 
the industries, agriculture, factories and mines are 
v\orked by them. They form more than half the 
population. 

IN WEST INDIES. 

The second section of colonisation is in the West 
Indies and South .'America. In British Guiana the 
Indians form about one-half of the population, all of 
tiiem, or their forefathers, having come under contract 
as labourers. Many of them have grown to be wealthy 
and prosperous merchants and landowners. The 
Indians in Trinidad number more than 100,000, and 
they occupy a yet better position than in British 
Guiana. There are villages in Trinidad which contain 
a purely Indian population. Surinam, or Dutch 
Guiana, contains about 40,000 Indians, some of them 
traders and landowners. Jamaica contains not more 
than 10,000 Indians, " who will be gradually swallowed 
uj> i)y Christianity if they are not taken care of." 

ON THE PACIFIC. 

The third section is the colonies in the Pacific Ocean. 
California has a few thousand Sikh labourers trying to 
become farmers. Brftish Columbia has also a few 
thousand Sikhs, mostly labourers in the fields, but onlv 
a few of them have their wives with them. In both 
places the Government has put a stop to immigration. 
The Fiji Islands have got a population of about 70,000 
Indians. The Madras Islands have also a number of 
Madras immigrants. 

A UNIVERSAL HINDU CONSCIOUSNESS. 

Mr. Parmanand concludes by urging all young men 
in India to go abroad in ever-increasing numbers, and 
to encourage our brothers across the seas : — 

• IrLT.ler Imlia h.-u; arisen without noise of drum or trumpL't, 
nn.jer ll c palm trees of tropical America and on the snow -girt 
plains of Canada. It is lime to take stock of our position and 



think in terms of a universal Hindu consciousness. The 
children of these colonists should be educated along national 
lines. 

Thus- the young men abroad may be saved irom 
absorption into the Christian community. " They are 
converted to Christianity only for social reasons, and 
not for the sake of their souls." 

EXPANSION ? — OR SLAVE TRADE ? 

A dark shade on this picture of expansion overseas 
appears in the next article in the same magazine, by 
Manilal M. Doctor, who writes on the Indian indenture 
system in the colonies, notably Mauritius, and demands 
that it should be put an end to in any shape or form. 
He would protect the Indian youths and girls who are 
kidnapped or abducted to Ma,uritius by prowling 
sharpers who obtain licence to recruit coolies. They 
are ruthlessly oppressed by the community at 
Mauritius, as is attested by the evidence of Mr. 
Bateson, an ex-magistrate of Mauritius. Further- 
more, they find it difficult to satisfy the legal 
proportion of men to women, even by taking on 
bazar women. In Mauritius the proportion is t,t, 
women to 100 men. Morality in general, and se.xual 
morality in particular, cannot grow under these cir- 
cumstances. The family antecedents of colonial-born 
Indians cannot as a rule satisfy fastidious inquirers. 



THE ESSENCE OF HINDUISM. 

In a recent issue of Easl and ]Vest Lala Baij Nath 
writes on the essentials of Hinduism, apropos of the 
Special Marriages Bill and other measures now 
before the Indian public. The question put to him 
by a census superintendent was, " What is the every- 
day working belief of every Hindu, irrespecti\e of 
sex, age, caste, creed, sect, education, or social con- 
dition?" He declares that caste is no rule of 
conduct in many cases. He finds the essentials to be 
four :— (i) Belief in the l,aw of Karma — as you sow, 
so you reap ; (2) active belief in a heaven where the 
good will enjoy the frtiit of their good karma, and 
hell where the bad will be punished for their bad 
karma ; (3) belief in the immortality and transmigra- 
tion of the soul from one condition of exi.stence to 
another, according to its karma; (4) belief in a 
Higher Power, called by various names, which 
rewards the good and punishes the bad. 'J'hese arc 
the basic beliefs of Hinduism. 

"The ideal of every Hindti is to achieve emanci- 
pation from this ever-recurring round of birth and 
re-birth, which is a source of infinite misery." If the 
Hindu is serious anywhere, it is here. This, then, 
is the essence of Hinduism — the merging of the 
individual into the universal self. " He sees all as 
his own self" The writer would include as many as 
possible in the fold of Hinduism, and open the door 
of university education and reform as wide as possible, 
to include Sikhs, Jains, Brahmos, Arya Somajists, 
Buddhists, and all others who are now living anci 
working in India. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



275 



THE ETHICS OF MR. ROOSEVELT. 

As Illustrated bv the Story of Panama. 
A VERY scathing attack upon President Roosevelt's 
[)olicy with regard to the Panama Canal is published 
in the February nurhber of the North Aiiien'ajn Revinv 
by -Mr. Leander T. Chamberlain. The contrast between 
Mr. Roosevelt's view of his own policy and the facts 
as they appear to Mr. Chamberlain may be gathered 
irom the following e.xtracts. 

that good man ROOSfiVELX! 

.Mr. Chamberlain opens his attack by quoting 
Mr. Roosevelt's own words in praise of his own action. 
He says : — 

In a recent public statement ex-President Roosevelt declares : 
" It must be a matter of pride to every honest .American proud 
of the good name of his country, that the acquisition of the 
[Panama] canal in all its details was as free from scandal as the 
public acts of Georye Washington or Abraham Lincoln." " The 
interests of the American people demanded that I should act 
exactly .as I did act." " Every action taken was not merely 
proper, but was carried out in accordance with the highest, 
fmest, and nicest 'standards of public and governmental ethics." 
" The [1903] orders to the American naval ofticers were to 
maintain free and uninterrupted transit across the Isthmus and, 
with that purpose, to prevent the landing of armed forces with 
hostile intent at any point within fifty miles of Panama. These 
orders were precisely such as had been issued again and again 
in preceding years, 1900, 1901, and 1902, for instance." 
" Every man who at any stage has opposed or condemned the 
action actually taken in acquiring the right to dig the canal has 
really been the opponent of any and every etiort that could ever 
have l>ecn made to dig the canal." " Not only was the course 
followed as regards Panama right in every detail and at every 
point, but there could have been no variation from this course 
except for the worse. We not only did what was technically 
justifiable, but what we did was demanded by every ethical con- 
sideration, national and international." " We did harm to no 
one, save as harm is done to a bandit by a policeman who 
deprives him of his chance for blackmail." "The United 
.States has many honourable chapters in its history, but no more 
honourable chapter than that which tells of the way in which 
our light to dig the Panama Canal w.as secured, and of the 
manner in which the work has been carried out." 

WHAT ROOSEVELT REALLY DID. 

Mr. Chamberlain subjects this Pecksniffian self- 
praise to a coldly cruel examination. He points out 
that the President's policy was the exact reverse of 
all that he pretends it to have been. It began by a 
cynical violation of treaty faith, it was continued 
by an unprecedented illegal intervention in the alTairs 
i)t a friendly State whose independence the United 
States had undertaken to respect, and crowned by 
the immediate recognition of an American-fostered 
revolution which severed Panama from the Republic 
of Coloml)ia. In describing Mr. Roosevelt's panegyric 
upon himself, .Mr. Chamberlain bitterly exclaims : — 

The raid -jn defenceless Colnmbi.i, in the interest of a swift 
indomitable construction of an Isthmian waterway, m.ide 
to vie with the heroic settlement of a new continent, in the 
interest of civil ami religious freedom I The " fifty-mile order " 
and its congener of the following day, foredooming a " guaran- 
teed " ally to defeat by secession, ranked with the proclamation 
which gave freedom to enslaved millions 1 The coddled 
Panama " uprising," insured in advance, set in the illustrious 
category of Lexington and Uunker Hill, S'allcy l'"orge and 
Vorktown ! The recognition of a new sovereignty, after one 



day, seventeen hours, and forty-one minutes of pampered, flimsy 
independence, favourably compared with an independence 
which was won by years of ceaseless conflict and the saciifice of 
treasures untold ! 

A CASE FOR THE HAGUE ? 

Mr. Chamberlain maintains that the question is one 
which justifies Colombia in appealing to the Hague 
Tribunal for just and ample redress for this high- 
handed wrong. The Republic of Colombia has asked 
for arbitration, but, as the Colombia Minister at 
Washington complains, Uncle Sam does not deign to 
reply to the demand. Hence last month there was 
a brief sensation occasioned by the public declaration 
that Mr. Secretary Knox had much better not pay 
his contemplated visit to Bogota until this old sore 
had been healed b}- the acceptance of the proposed 
arbitration. 

INDIAN AND ENGLISH NOBLES COMPARED. 

The nobility of India and England are compared in 
the Rajpul Herald, and the contrast drawn is somewhat 
instructive : — 

The nobleman of England claims superiority on the strength 
of his birth, without fulfilling the conditions of his order as 
required by society to which he belongs. On the other hand, 
the superiority of the Rajpul — the Indian aristocrat — in his 
country is not only placed in his hereditary aspect as an 
aristocrat, but in the fulfilment of the conditions and other 
details demanded of him as an aristocrat. The one, whether 
he abides by rules and regulations enacted by society or goes 
against them consciously, is entitled to the term nobleman and 
poses himself as such. lie even forces recognition in others 
as such. Put the Rajput, the very instant he fails to follow 
the enactments of society, falls far short of his vocation as a 
R.ijput, sinks beneath the level of a nobleman, and is not 
recognised as such. An English nobleman, the representative 
of the hereditary aristocracy of England, lacks in qualities 
which an average Rajput possesses. 

The writer thinks that the nobleman is not made, 
but born. So soon as .Mr. So-and-so, nurtured among 
common surroundings, becomes a Lord So-and-so, 
'• the air is contaminated, the purity of the soil is lost." 
The writer proceeds : — 

With the solitary exception of Barons of Magna Charia, there 
has not been a single nobleman who has aided and assisted the 
people in the restoration of iheir liberties, who has sacrificed 
ills life for the happiness of the nation. If the liberties of 
Kngland were vindicated it was not by a Lord X, V or Z, but 
liv a Mr. Pym or .Mr. Hampden. 

He even goes on to say, " We find to-day the zenith 
of corruption parading the ranks." The Rajput has a 
very dilTerent conception of its duty ; — 

The Rajput is not born to lord over all. He does not want 
to lord over the universe. He wants, by his simplicity, truth- 
fulness, self-sacrifice, devotion and love, to serve the weak, 
downtrodden and the depressed. 

The British aristocracy perhaps expects to be 
criticised by the democracy ; but critiiisni of the kind 
quoted above from the ancient nobility of India may 
prove as .salutary as it is sur|)rising. 



The ruins of Pcrscpolis, the ancient capital of Persia, 
are described with pho'ographic pictures in the March 
Pall Mall by Mr. John Home. 



276 



The Review of Reviews. 



THE UNITED STATES OF THE WORLD. 

A Chinese Dream. 

In the February Forum Mr. George Soulic describes 
" the United States of the World, a Chinese philoso- 
pher's plan for universal happiness." It is interesting 
to note that at a time when the Chinese are setting up a 
Republic, a Chinese author should be writing a Republic 
that recalls Plato in more ways than one. The author 
is K'ang Yeou-Wei, who was appointed editor of the 
department of accounts in i8q8, before the Dowager- 
Empress took fright at the pace of reform and the 
unfortunate editor had to flee for his life. He at last 
found refuge in Nagasaki, under the constant pro- 
tection of the Japanese police. There he has produced 
this work. He finds that happiness is the one motive 
of life, but it is essentially variable, and it includes the 
desire to escape from sufferings and sorrows. 

THE FAMILY TO BE ABOLISHED. 

Having got his leading motive, K'ang Yeou-Wei 
entirely reorganises the basis of the family and life. 
He begins, radically enough, with the capital import- 
ance of heredity and procreation. He would deprive 
of the power of adding to the population those who had 
physical or moral deformity or were criminal. Even 
children previously born to criminals should be sought 
out and executed : — 

The family would be definitely destroyed : women, when 
they attained maturity, would be married, after an inquiry of 
the " Direction of Uiiions." .\s for the children, wlien they 
are old enough to take care of themselves, towards six years 
old, they would be placed in large schools, where their instruc- 
tion and education would be provided at the same time ; from 
that period they will form a part of the government and become 
the property of the Slate and the world. In the new order of 
things, the child, not knowing its father, will be separated from 
its mother before it has become strongly attached to her : all 
ancestral relation will be suppressed. The wife living in the 
phalanstery will not exist to the husband, who will not know 
his children. 

PRENATAL EDUCATION. 

E.xpectant mothers would be sent to phalansteries 
established in the mountains or on the seashore or 
other places where the purity of the air and 
the beauty of the landscape would unite in 
making a favourable impression upon the 
mind and health. They would be placed 
under the care of famous hygicnists, in- 
structed in all that is necessary about the 
care of children, in human anatomy, physi- 
ology, and every evening will have on hestras 
playing to them the finest music. :\n\ 
woman discovered to posse.ss dangerous or 
unhealthy characteristics should 1)C pre- 
vented giving birth to children. Meitibers 
of the community, both men and women, 
on reaching their twentieth year would spend 
a year in the establishments for the dirertion 
of the care of the sick and old. The young 
men would be employed after their studies 
were complete, according to their aptitudes, 
and would receive in e.xchange food, lodging, 



clothing, and some pocket-money, with rewards, more 
rapid promoliori, and certain advantages, lor those 
who discharge their duties satisfactorily, There would 
be two sorts of punishment — deprivation of employ- 
ment, and exclusion from the community, and depriva- 
tion of the power to produce children. Bachelors and 
married people who did not have children would be 
excluded from the community. 

ALL THE EARTH MADE PUBLIC PROPERTY. 

On the economic side this is his organisation of 
society : — 

All the land on the globe would be declared public property ; 
individuals could not possess it in their own name. The .State 
would utilise it in different ways — renting, cultivation on shares, 
or any other form of contract. 

All the mines would be managed by the community, as well 
as the great railro.id and navigation companies ; the great 
manufactories would belong to it, and commerce would be done 
in its name and for its profit. 

Kach region, each race, having its individual needs and its 
special ideal, tlie laws could iioi be universal, so there will be 
various Governments, all establislied on the same basis. 

TWO CHAMBERS OF LEGISLATURE. 

Each Government would contain a Ministry of 
Justice, including Direction of Unions, of Re-allotment 
of Property, a Ministry of Cares for the People, 
including direction of the prenatal education of chil- 
dren, the care of childhood, the care of sick and aged : — 

Each region would have two Legislative Chambers : an 
Upper House, composed of permanent members chosen froni 
the scientists and sages ; a Lower House, consisting of members 
chosen by the people for three or four years. 

Finally there would be a general Government of the United 
.States of the world, composed of two Legislative Houses, a 
President and a \'i:e-rresident, chosen from the men most 
famous for their knowdedge or their great qualities, and an 
executive power consisting of difterent Ministers regulating the 
intercourse between the Stales iliemselves. 

From what Mr. George Soulie says, it seems that 
K'anlg Yeou-Wei might be described as a cross between 
Plato and Fourier. As with both his intellectual 
progenitors, his scheme will shatter on the impregnable 
rock of the familv. 




itrrjiiinnit' . 1 

The Latest Addition to the Republican Family. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



277 



THE CHINAMAN AS THE COMING JEW, 
Bv A Canadian Magistrate. 

Mr. W. Trant, the first police magistrate of 
Saskatchewan, contributes to the North American 
Review for February a remarkable paper, entitled 
" Jew and Chinaman."' He declares that the China- 
man is the coming Jew. Mr. Trant .says : — 

Thu Cliiiiaman, as the Jew, has discovered ihal where wealth 
is there also is power, ami he is rapidly becoming wealthy, so 
that the position of the jew as arbiter of the world's affairs is 
being threatened by the Chinaman. Napoleon said of China : 
"There lies a giant sleeping. Let him sleep, for when China 
moves it will move the world." The white man has awakened 
the giant, and China is moving. She is making history. China 
is assimilating Western customs, ideas, and civilisation generally. 
It may be a bitter pill to swallow, but she is doing it as a 
matter of prudence and precaution. She has established a 
complete system of education, from the kindergarten to the 
university, on the English plan ; her young children are flocking 
by hundreds of thousands to schools of Western learning. .\ 
postal service has been established with remarkable rapidity ; 
telephones, telegraphs, and railways are spreading faster than in 
any other country ; and commerce, manufactures, and every 
department of human activity are throbbing with the impulse of 
a new life. China, always rich in agriculture and minerals, is 
developing her resources by Western methods. Cotton-mills 
and steel-mills are multiplying to stlch an extent as to threaten 
the supremacy of England along these lines. 

If the Jews, despite all the pitiless persecution to 
which they were subjected, achieved their present 
position, although they were 

without poetry, without scieoce, without art, and without 
character, what shall be the result of the Chinese, with their 
intense solidarity, their marvellous industry, with faith in their 
new destiny, v\jth a history, literature, and science that are and 
have ever been the wonder of the world ? China cannot bo 
kepi bound in her geographical empire for ever. The history of 
the world shows the fatuousness of the notion. Nor will the 
overflow be across the plains of Asia and Europe, as was the 
great movement of long ago. It will take the line of least 
resistance, viz., across the Pacific. 



OPERA IN ENGLAND. 
Views uf Dr. Ethel .Smvtii. 

The bio;.'raphical article in the Musical Times for 
February is devoted to Dr. Ethel Sniytli. 

CAUSES OF failure. 

.■Vs the trend of Dr. Smyth's inspiration is in the 
(Jirection of opera, her views on the prospects of opera 
in this country at the present time are interesting. 
She says : — 

Vou get a first-rate orchestra, goo<.l principals, new scenery 
paintct, regardless of expense. But all these things arc of 
little or no value artistically compared with the creation of an 
adeijtiate emfmhU. 

The Covi nt Ciardcn Syndicate claims to manage the 
only opera-house in Europe that pays its way without 
a subsidy, but it i> able to achieve this mainly because 
it is a fashionable social gathering. The general pro- 
duction is often excellent, because great singers are 
engaged, and trouble is spent over favourite works. 
But -.'.hen a new opera is proposed the risk of failure 
to please the public is a governing factor in the decision. 



LACK OF THE CRITICAL SENSE. 

The Continental opera-houses are subsidised because 
the public cares about opera and demands novelties. 
Dr. Smyth continues ; — 

Whether the English public has a potential t.iste for opera or 
not we do not know. The food is too badly cooked, and 
those who are asked to eat it sliow no signs of ai'petite. There 
is not an audience abroad that has not a rough idea "of whether 
a performance is good, bad, or indilTerent ; one can say that 
as regards English opera the English public has not the faintest 
critical sense in this matter. . . . 

For myself, I have declined two recent offers to produce 
"The Wreckers" in England, being perfectly certain that it is 
a waste of time and money. But on the other hand it will be 
produced in \'ienna next spring, and so certain am I of its 
being treated as a work of art should be treated that I shall not 
even preside at the rehearsals. 

Under present circumstances I cannot conceive of ever writing 
an opera in English again. I would rather "do time" than 
endeavour to get it properly produced. You cannot make 
bricks without straw. 

OPERA A CIVILIS.\TION. 

Dr. Smyth thinks English voices extremely beautiful, 
but the singers have not the most elementary know- 
ledge of acting and of expressing the drama which the 
music contains in their action and phrasing. Even the 
question of light is not thought out. Summing up her 
views, Dr. Smyth declares : — " Opera is itself a civili- 
sation, and that civilisation in England is lacking." 



THE FAIRY TALE IN ART. 
Writing in Chambers's Jotiriial recently, Mr. 
A. B. Cooper has found a charming subject for an 
article — " The Fairy Tale in Art." We may explore, 
he says, every gallery in Europe without finding a 
single picture with the slightest claim to the title 
" Old .Master" which has for its subject an incident 
from a fairy tale. Legend, parable, mystery, 
mythology are all well represented, but it has been 
left to the modern artist to discover a mine of wealth 
in the fairy tale. Of course, the artist was forestalled 
by the word-painter, but it is interesting to note that 
during the last fifty years the greatest artists of ou: 
own country have not thought it beneath their dignity 
to paint the fairy tale. Two beautiful examples by 
Mrs. Stanhoiie Forbes are cited — " Hop-o-my- 
Thumb " and " The Woodcutter's Little Daughter." 
Mrs. Marianne Stokes has made the fairy tale her 
special province, and the ])icture " Little Brother and 
Little Sister " is named to show how she has caught 
the true authentic note of the fairy tale. Miss 1. L. 
Gloag has painted " Rapunzel," Val I'rinsep 
"Cinderella" and "The Goose Girl," ami Mouat 
Loudon " The Slee|)ing Beauty." Sir ICdward Burne- 
Jones also painted an allegory of life, " 'l"he Sleeping 
Beauty," " shadowing sense at war with soul," and .Mr. 
G. F. Walts painted as one of bis earlier pictures 
" Little Red Riding Hood." But what a number of 
fairy tales are still left out in the cold night of artistic 
neglect ! 



278 



The REvmw of Reviews. 



IN THE TWENTY-SECOND CENTURY. 

Mr. Kii'ling's Vision of the Hell to Come. 
Mr. Rudyard Kipling begins, in the London 
Magazine for March, a prophetical romance entitled 
" As Easy as A B C," the date of which is 2150 a.d. 
Readers will rejoice that there is no chance of any of 
them living to witness the state of things which 
Mr. Kipling professes to foresee. The most salient 
feature of the world which he describes in his vision 
is that its population has been cut down to 450 
millions. The Planet, which has passed under the 
despotic government of the Aerial Board of Control, 
has sickened of popular government. 

The board sitting in London was informed that the 
district of Northern Illinois had cut itself out of all 
systems, and would remain disconnected till the 
board should take it over and administer it direct. The 
Mayor of Chicago in the district had complained of 
crowd-making and invasion of privacy. The planet 
had had her days of popular government. She suffered 
from " inherited agoraphobia." The planet had, 
moreover, taken all precautions against crowds for the 
past hundred years. The total population was drop- 
ping, it was expected, to 450 millions. But men lived 
a century apiece, on the average. They were all rich 
and happv. because they were so few and they lived so 
long. 'I'lie country at the foot of Lake Michigan, like 
most flat countries, was heavily guarded against 
invasion of privacy by forced timber, fifty feet oak and 
tamarack grown in five years. No news sheet had 
been printed in Illinois for twenty-seven years, as 
Chicago argued that engines for printing news sooner 
or later developed into engines lor invasion of privacy, 
which might in turn bring the old terror of crowds and 
blackmail back to the planet. The carefully guarded 
privacy of the individual home was secured by belts 
of quicksand permeated with electric current that 
suspended the motion of any persons attempting to 
pass it. When the aerial fleet assembled over Chicago, 
the road-surfacing machines w-ere working on each side 
of a square of ruins. The brick and stone wre( kage 
crumbled, slid forward, spread out into white-hot 
pools of sticky slag, which the levelling-rods smoothed 
out more or less flat. The people were singing the old 
forbidden song, to an infernal tunc that had carried 
riot, pestilence and lunacy round the planet a few- 
generations ago. One stanza only is given of this 
anthem of Hell : — 

Once there was The People— Terror g.ive it birth ; 

Once there was The People, ami it made a hell of earth ! 

Earth arose and crushed it. Listen, oh, ye slain I 

Once there was The People— it shall never be again ! 
To suppress this insurrection of song the 250 ships of 
the aerial navy turn on terrible streams of light ; the 
firmament as far as the eye could reach seemed to 
stand on pillars of white fire. The light was with- 
drawn, and in the awful darkness the forbidden song 
rose again from undefeated Chicago. Then the fleet 
turns on terrific sounds that touch the raw fibre of 
the brain, and again pour down the beams of light. 



'i"he notes cut through one's marrow, and after three 
minutes thought and emotion passed in indescribable 
agony. All Illinois asked them to stop. The deeper 
note — the lower C — '' could lift street paving." On 
the Admiral's ship arriving at the Chicago north 
landing tower a grovelling crowd gathered around, 
some crying they were blind, others pleading that no 
more noises should be made. Next day they were 
told their eyesight would return. 

GROWTH OF SOCIALISM. 

In the American Review of Revieu's for T.Iarch 
Mr. Thomas Seltzer describes the growth of Sociali.sm. 
He says that : — 

Germany always led in the .Socialist movement 01 the 
world, and until recently none of the Socialist p.irties of the 
other "countries dared even to aspire to rival it. But of late 
the remarkable spread of .Socialist sentiment in the United States, 
the steady and rapid growth of the .Socialist organisation, its 
many municipal victories piling one upon the other in the brief 
space of two years, the incrc.T^ing number of Socialist repre- 
sentatives in the State legislatures, and finally the appearance 
of the Red .Spectre in Congress itself seemed to augur such a 
phenomenal landslide that for a moment it was thought American 
Socialism would outstrip the German Social Democracy. 

He gives the following valuable summary of the posi- 
tion of Socialism at the latest general elections : — 

^ . .. ,, , Seats in Percentage 

Country. Vear. Note. Lower House. ofSe.-.ts 

Germany 1912 ... 4,250,000 (ir)... I lo [li) ... 27-71 

France 1910 ... 1,106,047 ... 76 ((■) ... 13-01 

Austria 1911 ... 1,000,000 ... 82 ... IS'jI 

Australia 1910 ... 669,681 ... 44 (</) ... 58-66 

United States ... 1910 ... 641,789 (<■)... i(J)... 25 

Belgium 1910 ... 4^3,241 ... ZS ig) ... 21-08 

Great Britain ... 1910 ... 373,645 (/<)... 42 ... 6-27 

Italy 1909 ... 33^,885 ... 43 ... 8-46 

Sweden 191 1 ... 170,299 ... 64 ... 38' 79 

Finland 1911 ... 3:!i,cxx) ... 87 ... 43-50 

SwilzeiLind ... 1911 ... 100,000 ... 9 ... 5-29 

Denmark 1910... 98,721 ... 24 ... 2I-o6 

Norway 1907 ... yo,cX)o ... 11 ... 8-94 

Holland 1909 ... 82,494 ••• 7 ••• "'oo 

Spain 1910 ... 40,000 ... I ... 25 

Bulgaria 19H ... 13.000 ... 1 ... 52 

Argentina 190S ... 5,000 ... — ... — 

Servia 1908 ... 3.056 ... I ... 62 

Russia 1906... '(') ... 17 ... 3'82 

Greece 1910 .. (.=) ... 4 ... 1-93 

Luxendmurg ..^'.)C9 • (?) ... 10 ... 20-89 

Turkey „. ...^9)8.. (.') ... ... 3-06 

[o) 35 per cent, of total electorate. 

(/() In addition, 194 Socialist representatives in the State 
Legislatures. 

(r) The French Chamber has also 21 Independent Socialists. 

(1/) Laliouritcs not Socialists. The Labour Party in .\ustralia 
leans strongly toward Socialism. It also has a majority in the 
Senate, 23 out of 36. 

(c) Socialist Parly 607,674, Socialist Labour Party 34,115- 

(/) .\lso 23 representatives in 5 legislatures. 

{g) .-MsvJ 7 senators, 

(//) Independent Labour Party 370,802, Social Democratic 
Federation 2,843. 

Mr. Seltzer repents that the French syndicalist 
Herve has been converted by the success of the German 
Social Democracy to admit that its method of opening 
the road to the social revolution is more effective than 
the French labour nioNenient. Even in the Far East 
Socialism is raising its head threateningly. 



Leading Articles in thi-: Reviews. 



279 



WHEN WILL WAR CEASE? 
When the Comminitv Revolts Ai;ainst the State. 
In the Intemaliottal Journal oj Ethics for Januar>- 
there is a most suggestive and useful paper, entitled 
" War and Civilisation," by Mr. K. M. iMacIver, of 
King's College, Aberdeen. Mr. Maclver points out 
that the State, which once was conterminous with the 
community, is now only representative of a dwindling 
percentage of the vast range of the interests of the 
community, which become more and more international 
everv year. War will cease when the community 
which is international revolts against the right of the 
State to declare war. 

WAR AN ANACHRONISM. 

Mr. Maclver contrasts the ancient military isolated 
State with the modem community : — 

The city was once the .State, so far a? a State existed, ani^ 
wlierc the political society is co-extensive with and equal to 
■!jc whole social life of t!ie community, that community is 
!iireby essentially cut otV from all others. The new civilisa- 
■1 in, bringing to civilised peoples an ever-increasing and 
iltogether new solidarity, is thereby ni.iking war more ami 
mjre a meaningless survival. It is not our doing, we cannot 
liilp ourselves. It is soli<larity that is making war unintelligible : 
lie credit system merely makes it more disastrous. Isolation is 
lie source of all hostility, the allegc<l causes are mainly 
[■rclexts. 

THE STATE AND THE CO.MMl NITV. 

The State is nowadays one among other societies, 
fundamental, necessary, and the most authoritative, 
l>ut neither alone fundamental nor alone. The greatest 
ucial phenomenon of the present age is the expansion 
of society beyond the limits of any one State. It is 
perhaps the greatest distinction between the modern 
and the ancient world, but we have as yet failed to 
Iring our political thought into accord with this 
iU\elopment. The civilised world is becoming more 
,ind more rapidly an effective society. Each country 
is becoming more and more bound up in the welfare 
of earh. 




LlKtrt.) 



For the Peace of Europe. 
Poor I'eatc ! 



lt'..tis 



THE P.\THWAV TO PEACE. 

The community which is international will some 
day question the right of the State to declare war. 
For war is the breaking down of all community, and 
men will ask what right the State has to carry on 
warfare, when, as is now the case, the State is not 
co-extensive with society. 

'I"he stages in the path to peace have already been 
traced ; — 

So far as we can discern the dim beginnings of civilised life, 
first in the history of peoples came the law, never enacted or 
procl.iimed, next the court, the jurisdiction, the "doom," 
revealing but not making law, and last of all the legislature 
took law into its charge. International law is following exactly 
the same course. 

The Hague Tribunal has already begun its operations, 
and they will be extended. President Taft proposes 
to submit questions of honour to arbitration, and his 
example will be followed. Disarmament will come 
piecemeal by itself. War will cease to be regarded as 
the test of manhood. " God has found in place of 
war the tests of social and commercial progress." 



MODERN GERMANY AND THE GERMANS. 

V,\ Professor Mvnsterberg. 
Professor .Munsterberg contributes to the North 
American Review for February a characteristic essay- 
on " The Germany of To-day." 

THE secret of GER.MAN SICCESS. 

The Germans, says the Professor, owe their industrial 
prosperity : (i) to frugality, thrift, and a hatred of 
waste ; (2) to a natural spirit of enterprise ; (3) an 
inborn delight in industrious activity. The German 
loves his amusements in his leisure hours and can be 
happy with most naive pleasures. But he knows that 
work is work, and that it should be done with t)ie best 
efforts of the whole personality. Hut besides all these 
things, the Professor points out how much the German 
owes to the fact that he thinks first of the community 
and secondly of the individual : — 

For him the final aim is never the individual ; his aim is the 
life and progress of the community, not as a mere summation 
of millions of individuals, but .as an independent unity. The 
whole (Jerman life is controlled by this belief in the real exist- 
ence of the general mind as against the individual mind. This 
attract community is the real goal of interests, and the claims 
of any individuals must Iw subordinate 1 toil. 

THE GERMAN LOVE OF PEACE. 

Professor Munsterberg will have it that the mainten- 
ance of the German army is conclusive evidence of 
the German passion for peace. The forces — 

which really work toward the conservation of Kuropcan peace 
become more stable anil firm in Germany from year to year. 
The strong new nalion.ilism and patrinlism with all its pride 
in the ('•erman army and ilscnnlrmpi for a weak cosinopolitanism 
is not at all in contrast bu' ullimaltly in <lcepest harmony with 
this peace-loving intcrnalionalisui which acknowled^'es and 
respects the characteristics of every other nation. 



28o 



The Review of Reviews. 



WANTED COLONISTS-FOR FRANCE 
A Palliative against Depopulation. 
The Annales de Geographic for January published a 
general summary of recent census takings in various 
parts of the world. Beginning with France, the popu- 
lation in 191 1 was 39,601,509, the increase of 34Q.2'>4 
iniuiliitants since 1906 being less than one per hundred. 

A HIGH DEATH-RATE. 

Writing in the Nouvelle Revue of February ist, M. 
Jacques baugny draws attention to the movement 
of population in France in the first half of 1911. 
Mortality has increased, the birth-rate is reduced, 
and there is a decline in the number of marriages, he 
says. Moreover, the number of deaths has exceeded 
the number of births by 18,000. Compared with 
Holland, Belgium, England, and Germany, which are 
less favoured by Nature, France, notwithstanding her 
temperate and healthy climate, has a higher death- 
rate. The decline in the population in France, there- 
fore, is not due entirely to a low birth-rate. 

In order to raise the birth-rate M. Paul Leroy- 
Beaulieu has suggested the payment of bounties to the 
fathers of families ! The writer acknowledges the 
splendid work to fight depopulation of private associa- 
tions and public aid which have helped poor mothers 
and rescued abandoned children : and yet the French 
nice is the poorer by 18,000 souls in the first si.\ months 
of last year. It is not so much in regions where the soil 
is arid and less productive as in the more fertile regions 
that the depopulation has not been arrested. 

TO INCREASE THE RURAL llOPULATION. 

In the harvest months thousands of foreigners cross 
the frontier for a short season and then return to their 
own lands. Since this invasion is indispensable, the 
writer proposes as a palliative to arrest the decline 
of the rural population that the annual foreign inva- 
sion he replaced by immigrants invited to settle in the 
country with their families. There would be no difli- 
culty about finding them. Every year a million men 
emigrate from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean 
to form colonies in Africa and America. On their \vay 
to these unknown lands they cross French territory 
to embark at Havre or Marseilles. How many of them 
might be tempted to remain ! Poles, Ruthenians, and 
others would soon acclimatise themselves and replace 
with advantage in the North of I'Vance the Belgian, 
(Jerman, and other invaders; wliile the .Sardinians, 
Sicilians, Catalonians, and Andalusians would make 
excellent colonisfs for the south. Rude and primitive, 
but hard-working and not afraid of large families, these 
races might form an effective barrier against German 
infiltration. The Slavs would make good soldiers, and 
the Latins would assimilate tiuickly and easily with the 
native population. To elaborate and put into force 
such a scheme of home colonisation needs hut good 
will and a small capital, while the immigrants recruited 
from the most robust races might furnish France with 
the arms which she lacks, and check the invasion from 
the countries on her eastern border. 



THREE EXPLANATIONS OF EL DORADO. 

In a paper on the quest of El Dorado in the BuUetiir 
iij the Pan-American Union for January, three origins 
are given to the story. A roving Indian in 1535 fir>t 
told the Spaniards the story of the gilded chieftain. 
The person about to be made king, after a long fast, was 
obliged to go to the Lake of Guatavita, and offer sacrifice 
to his god. " After being stripped, he was anointed 
with a viscous earth, which was then overspread with 
powdered gold in such wise that the chief was covered 
with this metal from head to foot." Arriving at the 
middle of the lake with a great quantity of gold and 
emeralds, he made his offering by throwing into the 
lake all the treasure which he had at his feet. After 
several abortive attempts had been made to drain the 
lake, quite recently an English company have secured 
a concession from' the Colombian Government, have 
completely drained the lake, and found the bottom 
covered with a deposit of mud about three metres in 
thickness. It will be necessary to wash this carefully 
in order to find what treasures, if any, are contained 
in it. So far only a few beads, ceramic and gold objects 
have been found. 

According to Padre Gumilla, the word " Dorado " 
originated on the Caribbean coast. The Spaniards 
visiting the valley of Sogamoso found that the priest 
who niade his oblation in the great temple there was 
wont to anoint at least his face and hands with a certain 
kind of resin, over which powdered gold was blown 
through a hollow reed or cane. 

Others declare that the first authentic information is 
in a letter of January 20th. 1543. from de Oviedo. He 
tells of a great and powerful prince called El Dorado, 
near Quito. " This great lord or prince goes about 
continually covered with gold as finely pulverised as 
fine salt. To powder oneself with gold is something 
strange, unusual, and costly, because that which 
one puts on in the morning is removed and washed 
oil in the evening and falls to the ground and is 
lost. And this he does e\ery day in the year. While 
walking clothed and covered in this manner his move- 
ments are unimpeded, and the graceful proportions of 
his person, of which he greatly prides himself, are seen 
in beauty unadorned." 

Will some American millionaire on reading this be 
tempted to ad\-ertise his wealth by assuming the 
El Dorado costume ^ It is to be hoped not. 



Apropos of the now wiilnlrawn circular of the 
Japanese Government, relative to a combination of the 
common elements in Christianity and Buddhism and 
Shinto, may be quoted what Air. Wilfred H. ScholT 
reports in the MonisI for January : — " Six centuries 
after the Christian era Buddhist and Christian legends 
were so mingled in Western .\sia that the Koran 
absolutely confused the two ; while a little later in 
Ivistern .\sia a Chinese emperor issued an edict for- 
bidding the same confusion then prevalent' in his 
dominions." 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



281 



THE PREJUDICE OF SEX. 
Philosophy of M. Finot. 
M. Jean Finot. who is bringing out a book on the 
Woman Question, publishes another chapter from it 
in La Revue of February i. 

CAUSES OF UNHAPPINESS. 

In two previous chapters M. Finot has shown how 
a large number of ills, real and imaginary, may poison 
our existence, whereas happiness in the main depends 
on our selves. (See " The Science of Happiness " and 
'■ The Philosophy of Longevity.") In a third he has 
dealt with the prejudice of race, which has hitherto 
tended only to di\idc men, as though the world was 
not large enough to procure for all the means of li\ing 
divinely. Still more inconceivable, he says, is the 
prejudice of sex. In his march towards liberty, 
equality and happiness man would seem to have 
forgotten his constant companion, to whom he owes 
his existence and the better part of himself, and without 
whom paradise would be worse than hell for him. 

COLLABORATION OF THE SEXES. 

.M. Finot points out that since it is due to the collabo- 
ration of the two se.\es that we owe the immense 
variety of physiological life, it is also only bv their 
social and political co-operation that we can bring 
about a diminution, if not the total disappearance^ 
of the evils which poison the lives of individuals, 
nations, and humanity. By the side of the evils 
resulting from the prejudice of death, the prejudice 
of the inequality of men, and a false conception of 
happiness, there is this other great source of discontent 
—the prejudice ©f sex. Believing themselves unequal. 
the two sexes have for centuries been erecting between 
each other a barrier of lies. How can two travellers 
making a long journey hope to succeed except under 
conditions of complete harmony? Instead of an 
asso<iate animated by a sense of dutv and conscious of 
danger, man has preferred to have at his side a shadow 
or a slave. The woman, humiliated by the man, has 
in her turn humiliated him. 

HARMONY VERSUS DISCORD. 

But time is finding a remedy, and in the citv of the 
future divine harmony will reign between the two 
human halves of the race, and the dignity of the sexes 
will be rai.sed. .As humanity grows more just it will 
be happier, and man will be more contented with his 
lot when his wife or his sister will be admitted to the 
banquet of life, and be permitted to ta>te with the 
same right of its sweetness, joys, and sorrows. U hile 
one hiilf ul humanity suffers injustice the oppressors 
arc unhappy, just as when one part of the body is 
damaged the whole organism sufTers, .\ change in' the 
condition of woman must improve the condition of 
man. It is the new woman who will re^tore to 
humanity harmony between the sexes, peace among 
the nations whiih ha^ so long been desired, and the 
happiness so long awaited. 



THE DAY OF THE SPINSTER. 

Anna Garlin Spencer writes a clever paper under 
this heading in the February Forum. She declares 
that celibacy is comparatively speaking a recent 
experience of the human race (in face of the hordes 
of Buddhist monks, this seems rather a bold saying). 
But, she avers, " not until our own civilisation is 
reached do we ever find celibate women numerous 
enough to form a cla.ss." The courtesans of Athens 
and the \estals of Rome were exceptions. To make it 
possible for the respectable secular and average woman 
tolivca normal life without a husband two world-events 
of supreme importance were necessarv : one, the pro- 
clamation of Christianity, the other 'the abolition of 
slaver}-. Of the new draught of liberty the unmarried 
woman of to-day drinks the deepest and with the 
easiest abandon. 

The writer does not think it yet proved that the spin- 
ster as we now know her is to last for ever as a large 
class. It is the normal and the average that in the long 
run serve the purposes of social uplift. Hence she looks 
upon the day of the spinster as but a bridge of feminine 
achievement, which shall connect the merely good 
mother with the mother that shall be both wise and 
good. 

The writer finds the embodiment of the social value 
of the spinster in this her dav in the woman head of 
the social Settlement. Although men have been 
prominent in this work, and even husbands and wives 
with young children manage to harmonise a fine 
domesticity with public household arrangements, and 
to preser\e for their children a right atmosphere in a 
wrong environment, the Settlement is distinctly and 
logically a celibate movement, and also, to a great 
extent, a movement of celibate womanhood. The 
woman head of the modem Settlement has established 
a new type of salon. The larger and better-known 
Settlements, so far from being places of self-sacrifice, 
are the most coveted of social opportunities by young 
people of keen perception, high ambitions, and wide 
outlook. 



Is Golf Scotch or Dutch ? 

Let Scotland look to her laurels ! The roval and 
ancient game of golf has been one of her proudest 
distmctions. Now, in Frfs for Februarv, Mr. \V. W. 
Tunbridge declares that it is to Holland, not to 
Scotland, that we originally owe this popular pastime. 
He says : — 

It is .1 popuKir belief thai ihc game ori(;inatc«l in .^Jcolland, 
but this IS a fallacy. [| was brought lo Scotland from Holland, 
at some lime unknown, and this is proved by some of the ex- 
pressions that slill survive. 

Ihe name "golf" itself is derived from the Dutch word to/f 
n.canmg a bat or club. Then " fore ! " the word that is shoutc<i 
before ilnving off, when there are players in front, is derived, 
from the Dutch fwr (pronounced fore), meaning in front. 

" Putt " simply means to hole, from the Dutch 
putlen. to hole. Niblick is derived from an old Scotch 
word " knibloch," a knob of wood, which comes in turn 
from the Dutch knobhdachlig, meaning knotty. 



282 



The Review of Reviews. 



THE CHILD'S NEED OF PLAY. 

A Novel Creed for New York. 
The Chautauquan publishes the following extracts 
from a creed drawn up by the Playground League of 
New York. I heartily commend it to all who, in 
Great Britain or elsewhere, are interested in the welfare 
of the child : — 

We believe that a city child needs a place to play, things to 
play with, and someone to take a fatherly or motherly interest 
in its play. 

We believe that a playground should be made attractive to 
•win the child ; varied in equipment to hold the child, who 
needs constant change ; and supervised by directors trained in 
child culture, who can care for this cliild garden, as an expert 
florist will care lor his llowers, developing the best in each. 

We believe that family life should be encour.aged in the 
playground, avoiding the formal grouping according to age. 

We believe that normal play on swings, seesaws, and other 
such apparatus, or with simple games, such as ball and tag, in 
varied forms, or with toys such as toy brooms, doll house, etc., 
to be a better preparation for normal life th.in exciting competi- 
tions and complicated games requiring constant instruction. 

We believe that playground work where the character of the 
child may be A'j< moulded through skilful suggestion, informally 
given, should be in the hands of persons of the highest character 
and best 'training, who will make this a life work — a yearly 
graded salary as in other professional work being essential to 
attract such workers. 

We believe that the park playgrounds should be open on 
week day mornings as well as after school, and under super- 
vision, so that the mothers and babies, and physically weak and 
mentally defective children, may have opportunity for outdoor 
play when the grounds are not crowded with school children. 

We believe that playgrounds should be developed into 
centres of civic usefulness, beginning in the care of their own 
play space by the children, this extending to the adjacent park 
property, and thus leading to an interest and understanding of 
far-reaching questions. 

A SOCIALIST PLEA FOR PURITANISM. 

In the Socialist Review Mr. Ramsay Macdonald, M.P., 
puts in a plea for Puritanism. He admits that Puri- 
tanism is rough ; it does not worship the eye and the 
belly ; it does not fall into the error of putting history 
on an economic basis ; it has the insight to know the 
devil when it sees him, and the showman when it sees 
him ; it has no sympathy with revolutions that are 
produced by chatter. Very decidedly Mr. Macdonald 
says : — 

The Labour movement must welcome Puritanism if it is to be 
any good, or even if it is to Last. And the reasons are these 
amongst others : 

Our young men who join us full of enthusiasm against the 
present crushing order of society will never be disciplined and 
hardened for the fight, made wary .against its difl'iculties, and 
sobered in preparation for its triumphs by the vanity and mental 
exhilaration of tall and smart talk, of platform bravado, of 
literary swashbuckling. The man who is to do anything in the 
Labour and Socialist movement must begin by getting himself 
in hand. He has to serve an apprenticeship in mental and 
moral discipline. The I'urit.an can drudge as well as strut. 
Then the I'uritan spirit protects the movement against rascals of 
all types. With the I'urilan, character must always comit. 
The Puritan can no more .ask what lias private character to do 
with public life than he can a^k what has theft to do with 
honesty. The I'urilan view is that personality does count, and 
that sterling oualitics count in personality. .\ man who has 
been unfaithful to a woman may be a. fine mob orator, but he is 
untrustworthy as a representative of men, and is unworthy of 
any position of public trust and responsibility. A man who 



professes the morality and the kindly humanity of Socialism, 
but who reproduces in his own actions all the injustice and un- 
generous treatment meted out by Capitalism, is still an un- 
rcgenerate. 

Mr. Macdonald further insists that Puritanism 
makes life artistic, gives life a rich background, throws 
up its lights and shades, and gives to the most trivial 
incident a setting in the Eternal. 

Even the Puritan .Sabbath was an apprenticeship in not a few 
attainments which would be of great value to us now. It 
taught the mind to surmount dilTiculties ; it imposed the task of 
self-control upon it. One sombre day in the week is not a bad 
thing for men who, like Socialists, have to carry on a war 
whichcalls for moral weight .as well as lingual readiness, which 
asks for able men as well as smart men. 

Perhaps one may detect the occasion for this robust 
outburst in the sentence : — 

About the new British .Socialist Party and similar movements 
there is a variety of pose like what one sees in the women at a 
fashionable .Society dinner, nr, later in the evening, on the 
streets. 

PROTESTANTISM IN FRANCE. 

In La Revue of February ist M. Jean Vienot replies 
to the article by M. Onesime Reclus, in the first 
December number of the same review, on the Protest- 
ants in France. 

In this article M. Reclus drew attention to the small 
number of Protestants in France, and emphasised their 
former great influence and their great superiority. 
Compared to the Catholics they were the salt of France. 
M. Vienot replies, it is no secret that M. Reclus, the 
son of a well-known pastor, was a Protestant by birth, 
but that now he is no longer attached to the Protestant 
faith. Some of his facts are incorrect and others 
cannot be verified. He attributes to the Protestants 
of the past the qualities which he refuses to acknow- 
ledge in those of to-day. When he says that Protest- 
ants in general have been spoilt by prosperity, he 
merely repeats a phrase from the Soleil, but does not 
establish a fact. 

M. Reclus writes of the Free Church of sixty years 
ago ; but every one knows that the Free Church, 
like other Churches, is tiffected by the ferments of the 
day. Criticism and science have their place beside the 
faith, and the official journal, the Eglise I.ihre, openly 
acknowledged this quite recently. The statistics 
which M. Reclus quotes are some of 1903. There are 
no reliable up-to-date statistics dealing with the 
question. There may be legions where Protestantism 
is decliniiii;. owing lo the migrations of the people, or 
depopiiliiioti. In certain small places Protestant 
families are more numerous than others, and " total 
disappearance " is simply displacement. 

M. Vienot thinks the PVench Protestants are too 
much divided, but these divisions have never succeeded 
in destroying tlie fundamental unity of French Pro- 
testantism. A diversity "f sects is a proof of intense 
life and conscious indixidualisation of things pertaining 
lo the soul. 'I'herc are two things, says M. Vienot in 
conclusion, which the world will never renounce — 
religion and liberty. And Protestantism will always 
triumph when its late is united with that of liberty. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



283 



THE WESSEX DRAMA. 
A French Bomk on Mr. Thomas Hardy. 
The most complete and competent criticism of 
Mr. Thomas Hardy's work which has yet appeared 
comes from France, says a writer in the January 
number of the Edinburgh Rn'ieiv. The book thus 
referred to is "Thomas Hardy, Penseur et Artiste," 
recently brought out by M. Franck A. Hedgcock, a 
French writer, and it is described by the reviewer 
as a model of what criticism should be. The book 
is also the subject of an interesting article by M. 
Charles Chassc in the Grande Reriie of December 
25th and January loth. The opinions expressed in 
both articles are presumably those of M. Hedgcock. 

MR. H.\RDY'S pessimism. 

Writing of Mr. Hardy's pessimism, M. Chasse' says 
that fronv his early works one might think the novelist 
had been influenced by Schopenhauer, did he not 
hirrself so emphatically deny it. His pessimism 
certainly existed before he knew the vritings of 
Schopenhauer, but it cannot be denied that when he 
wrote his 'later novels he had come under the in- 
fluence of the German philosopher, and in ihem he 
uses a number of expressions borrowed from the 
jihilosopher's vocabulary. What Schopenhauer did 
was to help him to systematise a pessimism, which 
before had only been instinctive. If Mr. Hardy 
had been integrally a pessimist he would have com- 
mitted suicide or have died of grief. \s it is, he 
is too healthy-minded a man, and the instinct of pre- 
servation is too strong in him to allow pessimism to 
take complete possession of him. For this reason M. 
Chassc does not think Mr. Hardy's work very 
dangerous. Besides, with the normal man the love of 
life is so strong that no philosophical consideration 
can shake it. 

HIS SERVICE TO ENGLAND. 

A striking feature in Mr. Hardy's work is the 'great 
sympathy, and even a certain amount of envy, with 
which he si)eaks of the counti7-people. Zola's " La 
Torre " makes one pity the peasantry, Mr. Hardy 
makes us love iliLin. In fact, he makes us love all 
men. Thus, notwithstanding his pessimism, he helps 
us to find life more bearable and to make it more 
agreeable to others. But to the English especially he 
has rendered a great service, because he has dared, 
without prudery and without exaggeration, to speak 
1 luarly of the sexual problems and religious ((ucstions. 
The Lnglish, who morally and physically are perhaps 
more courn'cous than the French, are intellectually 
more pusillanimous. There are questions which they 
dare not ask for fear the answers should prove 
unpleasant. Mr. Hardy has dealt with these (|Ues- 
tions and has forced his contemporaries to discuss 
them ; he has broken down their reserve and made 
them think of these things; and that is one of the 
most splendid glories to which a novelist, and 
especially an English novelist, may pretend to attain. 



The Se.\ Obsession. 
The Edinburgh Rmiciver, in analysing Mr. Hedg- 
cock's book, points out that the key to Mr. Hardy's 
attitude towards life, his interpretation of its problems, 
is pathological — the medium, the perspective, the 
focus are wrong. To see all things in sex is to see 
them out of focus. Sex is not the whole of life or all 
man. Life is manifold ; its chord is too full to 
tolerate the monotonous persistence of one note. 
Preoccupation with the details of sex does not carry 
with it a high view of women. Religion, replies the 
reviewer, is ceasing to be Oriental ; education is 
ceasing to be confined to men, and the estimate of 
women based upon them has ceased to be tenable. 
In a word, feminism has re-shaped the sex-problem. 

SOME interesting CO.MPARISONS. 

Mr. Hardy's attitude to nature is compared to that 
of \\'ordsworth. The poet is a teacher or he is 
nothing, but Mr. Hardy is content to feel and 
describe. The Nature-sense is twofold, outer and inner. 
Wordsworth possessed both. Mr. Hardy, though he 
has it to perfection, has the first only ; hence his 
sombreness, recalling that of the Nature cults of the 
old world. .'Vgain, the standpoint from which Mr. 
Hardy regards life is contrasted with that of Stevenson 
— that of the pessimist who lays stress on the evil, 
and that of the optimist who lays stress on the good. 
Mr. Hardy is curiously destitute of the spirit ot ad- 
venture, whereas adventure is the most distinctive 
note in Stevenson. 

Another interesting comparison is made between 
Mr. Hardy and Meredith. With Mr. Hardy the 
style is simple and the standpoint individualistic. 
He is a spectator rather than an actor in the universe. 
Meredith's outlook is radically different. To the 
individual he opposes the race, to speculation science, 
and contemplation action. He believes in the world, 
in mankind, in the future, and in himself. To him 
life is a succession of efforts, and if his appeal is 
primarily to the understanding, we must remember this 
faculty is the key to our nature. He does not invite 
us to suffer with his personages, but to think about 
them, to observe them, to criticise them with him. 
He is more a professor of psychology than a iwet. 



Christina Rossetti. 
The January Bnck'ihin contained an article by 
Katharine Tynan (Mrs. Hinkson) on Christina Ros- 
setti, who died in 1894. In .Mrs. Hinkson's opinion 
Christina Rossetti stands head and .shoulders above 
all other women who have written English poetry, 
and the noblest series of sonnets given to the world 
by a woman is that entitled " .Monna Innoniinata." 
.Mrs. Hinkson also ventures the opinion that among 
the Victorian poets Christina Rossetti and Jirowning 
will eventually take the first place. The article is 
illustrated by a number of portraits of Christina and 
other members of the Rossetti family, most of them 
the drawings of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. 



284 



The Review of Reviews. 



TALES OF SWISS PEASANT LIFE. 

Jeremias Gotthelf and His \\'ork. 
In the January issue of the Bibliothique Universclk 
there is an interesting article, by M. Virgile Rossel, 
on Jeremias Gotthelf, the writer (in German) of a 
number of powerful tales of Swiss peasant life which 
have attained European fame. 

THE NOVEL AS A PULPIT. 

Jeremias Gotthelf is the pseudonym of Pastor 
Albert Ritzius (1797-1854), who in 1832 became 
pastor of Liitzelfliih, a small village in the Emmcnthal, 
and remained in the parish during the remainder of his 
life. Up to that time he had written nothing. He was 
merely observing, and being himself more of a peasant 
than a citizen, he soon showed himself the friend of 
the valiant peasantry, who had by their labours trans- 
formed the arid soil of the district into a fertile and 
verdant prairie. He appreciated their perseverance 
and intelligence, but was not blind to their faults — 
their want of charity, their greed of gain, and the 
coarseness of their manners. Not satisfied with a 
pulpit from which to speak to his little parish, the 
pastor soon felt the need of a wider pulpit from which 
to enlighten the people, and this pulpit was the 
book, whose voice cannot be imprisoned within the 
walls of a church. 

EUROPEAN FAME. 

His first tale, published in 1837 and entitled "The 
Autobiography of Jeremias Gotthelf," is the story of 
a poor peasant boy who succeeded in bursting the 
chains of misery in which he had been brought up 
and became a schoolmaster, assuming the role of 
counsellor to the disinherited and humble providence 
to the oppressed. In 1839 the best of his books, 
" Uli the Serf," was published, and a year or two later 
a sequel entitled " Uli the Tenant." Other stories 
include " The Sorrows and Joys of a Schoolmaster," 
a story dealing with pauperism, and several stories 
dealing with alcoholism. The reception of them was 
at first somewhat uncertain ; there was too much 
brutal frankness for many peojile. They seemed 
also of such limited local interest that it was doubtful 
whether they would never be read beyond the Swiss 
frontier. The first to sound the note of praise in 
Germany was Jacob Grinmi, and a Berlin bookseller 
then admitted the pastor's name to his catalogue ; 
and, translated into French, some of them appeared 
in the Rciuc dex Deux MoriJes, and George Sand 
proclaimed herself an admirer. In short, the simple 
peasant stories eventually became a [lart of European 
literature. 

THE NOTE OF SINCERITV. 

A pastor who never left his little parish, as little of 
a literary man as it is possible to be, ignoring all 
forms of advertisement and disdaining any success 
except that of trying to be a regenerator of the 
people, a great romancer without being aware of 
it or having any pretensions to be such, a profound 
and powerful realist by the mere grace of genius. 



Gotthelf has left some books which will live, their 
many artistic defects notwithstanding. The secret of 
his surprising literary success was doubtless his great 
gift of sincerity, and to this he has himself added, " I 
love my little country : therein consists my strength." 



SCOTLAND AND HER SONGSTRESSES. 

A WRITER in the January number of the Edinburgh 
Reviav has an interesting article on Lady John Scott 
and other Scottish .Songstresses. 

Nothing is more remarkable, he says, than the 
succession of essentially democratic songs which we 
have from the pens of a number of aristocratic ladies. 
Many of them base their claims to immortality on 
one or two songs ; they wrote spontaneously and 
shrouded themselves in a veil of mysterious anonymity. 
Thus we have Lady Grisell Baillie (1665-1746) who 
is chiefly remembered as the author of " Werena my 
heart licht I wad dee." Next appeared a Flodden 
song, a version by Mrs. Alison Rutherford Cockburn 
(died 1794) of "The Flowers of the Forest" which 
was entitled " The Blackbird," and with which she 
came to be identified. The version of Miss Jean 
Elliot (1727-1805), with which the old air is associated, 
is stated to be vastly superior to that of Mrs. Cock- 
burn. It was in 1756 that Miss Elliot, driving home 
after nightfall with her brother, fell into talk with 
him on Flodden. Lying back in her seat, with the 
refrain sighing in her ears, she put the verses of her 
F'lodden song together. Immediately it became 
popular, but Miss Jean gave no sign as to the author- 
ship. Lady Anne Lindsay or Barnard (died 1825), 
who wrote " Auld Robin Gray," kept the secret cf 
the authorship of the song by which she is best 
remembered for fifty years. 

Lady Nairne and Lady John Scott, unlike the 
songstresses of single songs already named, were 
primarily and definitely poets. Both ladies were 
intensely Jacobite in sentiment, both had powerful 
aristocratic instincts, a wide capacity for sympathy, 
and a morbid dread of publicity. Lady John, we are 
told, was deficient in a sense of humour, whereas 
Lady Nairne's best work is found in her humorous 
poems. Carolina Oliphant, Lady Nairne (i 766-1845), 
came of a distinguished and ancient Scottish family. 
Not until late in life did she acknowledge the author- 
ship of " The Land o' the Leal," which had hitherto 
been universally ascribed to Burns, and it was only 
after her death that a set of poems by her, entitled 
"Lays of Strathearn," was published with her name 
affixed. Alicia \\m& Spotliswood, Lady John Scott 
(1810-1900), like the other poetesses of her line, wrote 
in the ever\-day language of the people. Her poems, 
which are largely autobiographical, seem to show that 
many sorrows fell to her lot. But sad as the family 
poems are, there is no morbid sentiment. As a writer 
of Jacobite songs, the writer ventures to assert she will 
occupy a high place. She is the singer of Culloden 
as Jean Elliot is of Flodden, but her finest work is to 
be found in her topographical poems. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



285 



simplicity v. gorgeousness in decoration. 

Whistler and William Morris. 
In the Century Magazine for February there is an 
interesting article by Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Pennell on 
Whistler as decorator. 

WHISTLER FRAMES. 

Whistler, we learn, designed his early frames, he and 
his assistants decorating them with patterns derived 
from OrientiU motives. Each was different, being sug- 
gested by the picture it enclosed. Later he gave up 
these painted frames and adopted one now known as 
the Whistler frame— simple gold with reeded lines for 
"lis, water-colours, and pastels; and simple white for 
t tchings and lithographs. He used many sorts of gold, 
and his frames and canvases were of definite sizes, with 
the result that the canvas fitted the frame for which 
it was designed. 

FLAT COLOUR SCHEMES. 

He recognised no distinction between landscape and 
portrait painters, and he insisted that to be a painter 
nne must be a decorator, able to make of the wall and 
ihu whole room a harmony, a symphony, an arrange- 
ment, no less than was the picture which was a part 
ipf it. Whistler had no sympathy with William Morris's 
ideas of decoration. It is a curious fact, say the writers, 
that Morris, who said he was appealing to the people, 
!• ver appealed to them ; while Whistler, who tried to 
rape the people, made it possible for the people to 
■How him. He always used a flat colour for his walls, 
> that pictures and prints would tell upon it. Dis- 
mper gave him best what he wanted, but plain paper 
uld be used. The background of the " Mother," the 
Carlyle," and the " .Aliss Alexander " shows the 
heme of grey and black in his house— 2, Lindsey Row. 
'v hile Morris, preaching art for the people, would run 
up a bill for five thousand dollars in decorating a room, 
and make it so precious that the owner hardly dare 
use it, Whistler, insisting upon the aristocracy of art, 
would, at the cost of five dollars, arrange a room more 
beautiful, which cf)uld be used without fear, since it 
could l)e done over .i-ain in a dav. 

Whistler liked hi^ windows big, and his curtains 

were mostly of white muslin without patterns. Of 

iirse, there were -harles in the studio. The matting 

I the floor he de-,i;.'ned himself in harmony with the 

' "lour .scheme. The furniture was simple in form. He 

' .id no patience with the modern upholsterer's elaborate 

ntrivanres to encourage lounging. His extravagance 

A. IS in detail— the china, the silver, the table-linen 

iiuirkcd with the butterfly, etc. When conditions justi- 

lii-d it, he could be as gorgeous as he was usually simple. 

\\ itness the 'amous Pcaco<;k Room which he w'as asked 

to decorate for Mr. I.eyland. 

MukRls ANn THE PAST. 

Morris's idea was to put himself in the past. He 
preached that all things useful should be beautiful ; 
ili.it art sprang from the people, and should return to 
I lie people ; but, in practice, he made it impossible for 
people to own, or even to see, the work which he main- 



tained w^as theirs by right. His designs were beautiful, 
but the schemes he revived were often inappropriate 
in modem houses. Similarly, in the making of books, 
Morris copied old ones, without considering the needs 
of his time. They were beautiful, but the Gothic type 
he used was as ill-suited to Victorian eyes as mediaeval 
tapestries to Victorian houses. They were to be looked 
at rather than read, and the price explains how far 
they were beyond the reach of the people. Whistler's 
books are not toys for the rich ; with legible type and 
a well-leaded page, they make easy reading, and were 
intended to be read, and not hidden awav in a bookcase. 



DICKENS AND MDSIC. 

Mr. James T. Lightwood contributes to the 
February number of the C/ioir (C. H. Kelly, City Road) 
an article on Dickens and music. 

Strange as it may seem, the influence which poetry 
and music, especially the latter, exerted on Dickens 
has been little referred to, but Mr. Lightwood has 
recently made a perusal of Dickens's works with a view 
to noting all the musical references. This has revealed 
the fact that in practically all his books Dickens has 
introduced musical characters, or incidents with music 
as the background. Though not a practical musician 
himself, he was greatly interested in everything per- 
taining to music, and eagerly availed himself of any 
opportunity of musical intercourse. 

Dickens's orchestras are limited both in numbers 
and resources— a solitary fiddle, or a fiddle and a 
tambourine, or fiddles and harps, etc. He makes much 
innocent fun of the flute. Ja<k Rcdburn found con- 
solation on wet Sundays in " blowing a very slow tune 
on the flute," The 'cello, " the melodious grumbler," 
comes in for the most notice. .Mr. Morfin solaced 
himself by producing " the most dismal and forlorn 
sounds out of his violoncello before going to bed." 
.Among the many references to organs and organists 
may be noted the faithful Tom "Pinch playing his 
favourite instrument. In " The Chimes " tliere is a 
fine description of the music of the organ in the church. 
.\s to vocalists, Dickens pays more attention to basso 
profundos than to other voices, but the references are 
all of a humorous nature. .Almost all the novels contain 
references to singers, good, bad, and indifferent ; while 
the songs are often a parody of the original, an adapta- 
tion to suit the character who utters them, Dickens 
shows much enthusiasm lor the patriotic songs of the 
eighteenth century. " The Pritish Grenadiers " is " an 
inspiring topic," and he is equally attached to ' Heart 
of Oak," as it is more correctly named. According to 
Dickens church music was not in a healthy condition, 
either in the .Anglican churches or in the dissenting 
chapels, but his view of the music in the village 
churches is, on the whole, more favourable. 



World history and Kmpire history need to be taught 
in our schools, and so develop a political force of no 
small magnitude. Such is Mr, Douglas Gregory's 
contention in the Einf>ire Rtvinc for Februar}'. 



I 



286 



The Review of Reviews. 



THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO DB. STEINER. 

A RosicRuciAN Ideal. 
Mrs. Mabel Collins contributes to the Occull 
Review for March an interesting account of the teachings 
of Dr. Steiner, the teacher of the new International 
League for the Study of Occuhism. Baron Wallein, 
president of the Steiner Lodge of Copenhagen, lectured 
on the Rosicrucian ideal in London recently, and 
from him Mabel Collins has taken her synopsis of 
Steiner's teachings. 

WHAT THINKS HE OF CHRIST ? 

The fundamental idea of Dr. Steiner is that— 
Since the coming of Christ, the Way, the Truth, and the Life 
have been, and are, open to all. Before Christ only the hijh 
initiates were able to get into touch with Divinity. The 
Divinity was outside man, now He is within man and the whole 
earth ; but " has to be awakened by man's own eft'ort without a 
school of initiation." 

Jesus Christ, he teaches, was a reincarnation of 
Zarathusthra. The reincarnation took place at the 
baptism at Jordan, when Jesus of Nazareth withdrew 
His ego, and in its place came the Cosmic Christ. 

THE MISSION OF THE CHRIST SPIRIT. 

Dr. Steiner teaches — 
that the man in whom the Christ Spirit is awakened has to 
transform matter into spirit, not to get away from matter. In 
the lecture given on February I2th, Baron Wallein gave this 
doctrine very definitely. As he expressed it (as nearly as I can 
remember) he said that, " We have to take the evil in the 
world and turn it into radiating, beautiful spirit, by the power 
of Love." 

.A. man may not complain if another strikes him, because it is 
he himself who first struck the blow and it has but returned to 
him. So with all the bad things done by others to us. To 
those who accept this teaching personal bitterness is of necessity 
eliminated from life. None can complain whatever their lot 
may be, for they themselves have created it. "There is no 
bad Karma — Karma is always good, always gracious, and no 
matter what the trials, the weight of a Karma can be carried as 
a banner is carried, instead of as a burden undesired." These 
are high words and enable the pupils of such a teacher to set 
out upon the hardships of life with new courage. 

THE ACTIVITY OF THE SOUL AFTER DEATH. 

Dr. Steiner is against spiritualistic seances, holding 
that the phenomena are purely astral, therefore mis- 
leading, and sometimes quite false : — 

Dr. Steiner teaches that the duty of the ego during Devachan, 
the state after death, is to change the character of the world and 
help it in its evolution. This it does by meeting with the souls 
who represent and rule groups of beings in a lower state of 
consciousness than that of man, and influencing them, urging 
them to le.id their groups upon the upward path. He says that, 
for instance, all diamonds arc represented in this higher state by 
one group-soul. He considers that the animals are likewise 
represented by group-souls, and says that these arc very wise, 
and that by contact with them man can help to evolve the 
animal worlds. Thus it maybe said that it is our "dcid" 
friends who are actually, when we have lost sight of them, 
working upon the conditions of the earth. 

Yuan Shi-Kai's entire career is pronounced by the 
Oriental Review for F"ebruary to he an evidence of what 
a crafty man, devoid of conscience, may be able to 
accomplish in the world. 



THE "SONG OF THE SANDS." 

A SINGULAR natural phenomenon is thus described 

by Mr. W. J. Harding King, as he narrates his travels 

in the Libyan Desert, in the February Geographical 

Journal. He says : — 

At a camp in the north-eastern corner of the plateau the 
curious "song of the sands" was heard. This was on April 
igth, igog. The week belore had been unusually hot, and this 
was followed, on the 19th, by a cool, almost cold, day, with an 
overcast sky and slight showers at intervals. Towards sunset 
this was followed by a regular downpour, vvhich, however, 
only lasted about a quarter of an hour. After sunset there was 
frequent vivid summer lightning. The sound began about 
7.30 p.m. and continued at intervals until about 8. The sound 
was very faint ; in fact, two of my men were unable to hear it. 
There were two distinct sounds ; the one somewhat resembled 
the sighing of the wind in telegraph wires, and the other was a 
deep throbbing sound that strongly reminded me of the after 
reverberation of "Big Ben." The sky was about half overcast 
at 7.30, but the clouds had practically all cleared ofl' by 8 
o'clock. A few drops of rain fell between 7.50 and 7.55. The 
aneroid at 8.20 read aS'Sj inches, the dry bulb thermometer 
read 59'5 deg., and the wet 56'0 deg. It was very difficult 
to determine , the direction from which the sound came, but 
apparently it came from a place about a mile distant where the 
sand poured over a low scarp. The sound was a distinctly 
musical one, as opposed to a mere noise. Some of the dunes 
we crossed, which happened to be covered with a hard crust, 
gave out a hollow almost bell-like sound when trodden on, and 
I have heard of a place on the top of the plateau, to the north 
of Kasr Dakhl, that gives out a loud musical note when struck, 
but I was never able to visit it. Much of the surface of the 
plateau we crossed is covered with loose slabs of sandstone, and 
in many places this produces a tinkling sound like broken glass 
when kicked. 



DRY FARMING IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

In the Empire Revinu for February Mr. Henry 
Samuel offers a very urgent plea for emigration from 
the Mother Country in order to prevent South Africa 
from becoming whoUv black. He says that the 
capacity of South African lands is at least equal to the 
arable lands of America and Australia :— 

On a piece of the poorest soil in one of the driest districts 
in tile Transvaal a dry-tarming Government test was made, 
all manures being purposely withheld. The work was entirely 
done with hired while labour, and the yields realised were : 
wheat twenty bushels per acre, giving a net profit ,^4 ; 
potatoes four tons per acre, net profit £21 ; maize eight bags 
per acre, net profit £1 5s. 4d. per acre. Only national 
recognition is required to ensure that hundreds of thousands 
of white children growing up in .South .-Vfrica and Britain shall, 
within the next twenty years, be taught a highly interesting, 
manly business, and settled in independence on their own 
farms. The Closer Settlement Commission's report showed 
that the country is in every way as suitable for compact 
colonisation as Australia, Nesv Zealand, or Canada. .\li 
that is needed is the immigration of the steady, industrious, 
hard-working white settler, and he is the citizen whom South 
Africa should welcome and encourage. 

Mrs. S. E. Abbott, in the same magazine, declares 
that life in the tropics of the northern territory is quite 
possible to white women. " White women can li\e 
here, and if they leave the drugs and liquor alone, can 
rear as healthy a brood of children as one could vvish 
to see." 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



287 



FREDERICK THE GREAT AS HISTORIAN. 

Thk Sevkn \'k.\rs' War. 

The German reviews for February publish a number 
of articles on Frederick the Great, one of them, by 
Klisabeth von Moeller. in the Deutsche Rundschau, 
dealing with him as historian of the Seven Years' War. 

THE KI.NG's ViJl.UMINOlS WRITINGS. 

The works of Frederick the Great are said to be 
twice as voluminous as those of Goethe, and they were 
all written in French, for the King, with his contempt 
for German, could hardly speak, and certainly could 
not write, his own language. In Preuss's edition, 
published under the auspices of the Berlin Academy of 
Sciences, 1846-7, the King's writings run to thirty 
volumes. These include his famous history of the three 
Silesian Wars, the third war being now better known 
as the Seven Years' War (1756-1763). The history of 
the first two wars was completed in 1746, but was 
carefully revised thirty years later. Two \'olumes are 
devoted to the third Silesian War. It may here be 
remarked that Frederick did not use the designation 
'■ Seven Years' War " ; that title was invented twenty 
years after the war by G. F. von Tempelhoff, in his 
history, and made popular by Archenholtz, another 
historian. 

SOVEREIGN CARELESSNESS AS TO DETAILS. 

Frederick's history of the Seven Years' War was 
never subjected to revision, like the previous histories, 
and many errors, rather trifling it may be admitted, 
have crept in. Various causes are given for the inac- 
curacies. The King complained of his bad memory, 
but more probably the chief causes were the haste in 
which the history was written and his " sovereign 
carelessness." The work was taken up as a kind of 
recreation after the day's work. '' This occupation," 
he wrote, " makes me happy so long as it lasts ; it 
makes me forget my present condition, and gives me 
what the doctors call lucid intervals. But as soon as 
this stimulus dis.ippears I shall sink again into my 
sad dreams." He did not approve of that painful 
accuracy which seeks to avoid a mistake even in the 
smallest detail ; it .seemed to him pedantic and lacking 
in intelligence. " Our historians," he thought, " have 
always made the mistake of not distinguishing between 
chief and secondary things." He despi.sed details 
which diverted attention from the m.iin point. 

A CHRONICLE OF HUMAN FiPl.l.iES. 

According to one critic, never did a King speak so 
impartially about his own deeds, or, as a statesm.m or 
general, so-i^rankly about his motives or his mistakes. 
Frederick never emphasises his own great deeds ; he 
merely states facts. He apologises for his use of the 
French language. Hi- had considered the dilVirulties 
for a German, but. on the whole, he thought French the 
most precise, as it was also the language most in use 
in Kurope at the time. Like C.e.sar, he writes in the 
third person, and refers to hini'self as " the King." It is 
not possible to say how much time he spent on the 



history, but the bulk of it was probably written in the 
last seven or eight months of 1763. Though said to 
have been finished in December of that year, the 
preface is signed March 3rd, 1764. On February i6th 
he wrote to Mari'chal d'Ecosse : — " I am at work 
writing down m>- political and military follies " ; and 
on .\pril 7th he wrote : — " The memoirs just completed 
convint e me more than ever that the writing of history 
is making a collection of human follies and chance 
experiences." 

THE HISTORY A JUSTIFICATION. 

The two chief objects he had in view in writing his 
own account of the war were, he said, first, to prove 
to posterity that it was not possible for him to avoid 
the war, and that the honour and welfare of the State 
prevented him from making any other terms than 
those agreed upon ; and, secondly, to e.xplain his 
military operations. The history was thus a " justi- 
fication," military and political. At the outbreak of the 
war, as we know, he took the aggressive, but he 
explains :— " The real aggressor is undoubtedly he 
who compels another to arm and undertake a less 
.serious war to avoid a more dangerous one. One must 
always choose the lesser of two evils." While the war 
was in progress he wrote down explanations of his 
military strategy. His characterisations are often 
severe. '" .Must not Maria Theresa feel that she could 
not break her word against anyone without inflicting 
wrongs?" he wrote. On the other liand, we have 
" Maria Theresa, the splendid woman de\oured by 
ambition, who executed plans worthy of a great man." 
Some of the officers are very briefly mentioned, and 
there are no eulogies. But Schwerin is described as 
" worth more than 10,000 men," and Fouque is " a 
second Leonidas," Other ofiicers come in for severe 
criticism, 

Frederick's philosophy. 

Many a valuable hint for his successors is recorded 
by the King. For instance : — 

No mailer how favouralile one's opinion may be of onc>clfi 
carelessness in war is alw.iys dangerous. It i» bct'.cr lo lake 
superfluous precavilions tli.in omil necessary ones. 

After all, it is neither the forlilicalions nor the soldiers which 
defend a city. Kverythiny depends on more or less ctpablc 
heads and the strong courage of the man in command. 

A few glimpses of the " unbelieving belief " of the 
King are also afforded us in the great history. On one 
occasion he expresses his contempt for humanity by 
referring to the people as " an animal with few eyes 
and many tongues." While he affected to set little 
store by " secondary causes," he writes : — 

The existence of nun hangs by a hair, and the winnini; or 
the lois of a battle depends on a mere baRatcUc. Our fates are 
the result of a uni%-ersal network of secondary causes, which, 
owing lo the results they induce, must of neceuily end favour- 
ably ur dis.v>lrou9ly. 

Sometimes he calls the secondary causes " fate " ; but 
again he explains, " What is usually called fate has 
no part in the things of this life," 



283 



The Review of Reviews. 



THE POPULARITY OF GHOSTS. 

Mr. Frederick Rogers writes in the Treasury for 
February on the ghosts at Hampton Court. He re- 
cords the stories about three ghosts— Jane Seymour, 
Catherine Howard, and Mistress Sibell Penn — but 
fails to find conclusive evidence. He says, how- 
ever : — 

Criticise them, laugh at them, or rationalise about them as 
we will, it is an undoubted fact that ghosts remain subjects of 
permanent and abiding interest in literature and in the reading 
world. They vary in characteristics with every generation, but 
Ihey do not pass aw^ay, and probably no generation has pro- 
duced such a rich crop of supernatural stories as the present. 
Perhaps the best writer of ghost stories to-day is Monsignor 
Robert Hugh Benson. His story entitled "The Traveller" is 
simply perfect as a piece of literary art, whether it has any 
foundation in tradition or history, or not. Mr. Algernon 
Blackwood runs him close, but his ghosts are often things rather 
than embodiments of .anything like a human spirit, and the 
same may be said of the crowd of smaller men whose ghostly 
creations fill the columns of " occult " and other journals. And 
after all, it is the relation of the ghost to humanity that makes 
it interesting. We cannot work up much interest in things 
which belong neither to this world nor the next. 

It was Lord Byron, scoffer and sceptic to the last, who wrote 
concerning things ghostly : 

I merely mean to say what Johnson said, 

That in the course of some six thousand years, 
All nations have believed that from the dead 

A visitant at intervals appears. 
And what is strangest upon this strange head 

Is, that whatever bar the reason rears 
'Gainst such belief, there's something stronger still 
In its behalf, let those deny who will. 
His was an eighteen century voice, a century that filled its 
literature full of ghosts, never succeeded in making them 
convincing, and yet aian.aged to get for them as much belief as 
would heartily frighten, not only timid young ladies, but staid, 
elderly men and women as well. 



104 YEARS OLD. 

Rov ViCKERS, in the Royal, gives an account of the 
life of Captain Jackson, an old man who has attained 
the age of 104 years. He is in full possession of his 
faculties. Said this aged worthy :— 

Men are not so cheery as they used to be. It seems to me 
that somehow, in your frantic rush to " got on," whether at 
work or play, you have lost the art of being sociable. Vou can 
no longer entertain yourselves. Vou have to p.iy others to do 
it for you. 

In my day a countryman's life interest was his work, whether 
as farmer or labourer. He lived simply and dressed simply ; 
and anything like social pretension never entered his head. But 
nowadays he spends his spare time trying to imitate the City 
clerk. He has a smart suit in which he lounges about in the 
evening (how often have you young men seen a smock ?) ; and his 
cottage is furnished with a lot of furniture which would have 
been laughed at when I was a boy. He has learnt, in short, to 
do what you call " keep up appearances." I grant you he is 
smarter to look at, and, ni.iybc, more intelligent, but — he isnoi 
so happy. 

He can even remember seeing a duel in the Batter- 
sea Fields between a noble lord and a jjolitician, in 
which neither was injured. The old man went on : — 

I have noticed a great change in the relationship of m.ister and 
man. In my day there was a bond of mutual respect between 



them. Each was interested in the other's welfare. But now 
respect seems to have given way to hatred. I am not saying it 
is the fault of either in particular. I suppose that it's really on 
.account of all your wonderful inventions which ha\e made com- 
petition so keen that both master and m<an have to fight so hard 
for a living that neither has lime for the civilities. 

He attributes his longevity to his healthy, open-air 
life, to his eating slowly, to his moderate habits, and 
to being early to bed and early to rise. 



AN INFANT PRODIGY. 

The Royal for February contained an account of 
an eight-year-old genius. 'J'he list of her distinctions 
is indeed astounding : — 

One of the most remarkable children of the age is Winifred 
S.ickville Stoner, daughter of Dr. James Buchanan .Stoner, of 
the Public Health and Marine Service, Pittsburg. 

\i the age of eight Winifred can speak eight languages— 
lOnglish, French, German, Japanese, Russian, Esperanto, Latin, 
and Greek — and she has already written three books of essays 
and verse! The latter shou her remarkable sense of rhythm 
and rhyme. 

Her education began when she was a tiny baby, for her 
mother used to read Virgil to her instead of singing her to sleep. 
To hearing these lines of perlcct metre her parents attribute 
the child's genius for writing xerse at so early an age. When 
Winifred was two months old her mother began to show her 
pictures, and a month later she used to read to her, pointing to 
the illustrations. 

At six months old Winifred began to talk, pronouncing all her 
words distinctly. She was never taught to read, but learnt to 
do so by playing with lettered blocks. .\t three she began to 
use the typewriter ; and at four she knew Esperanto (in which 
she has written a play), as well as French. .\K the same age 
she could repeal many pass.ages of Virgil. At five she began to 
write verse, in which she embodied her knowledge of natural 
objects. 

The wonderful achievements of the child are the direct result 
iif a system of education eareluUy planned by her mother, to 
produce what she calls "a linguistic and literary prodigy." 



COLD CHARITY, INDEED! 

Those who live among the poor, and have rejoiced 
to see the improvement in the faces and lives of the 
children of the very poor since the necessitous chil- 
dren have been fed in our ])ublic elementary schools, 
will smile at the quaint jiarado.x which appears in the 
pages of the Economic Review for January. It is a 
clergyman who is writing on a Children's Care 
Committee ; his name is Rev. Henry Iselin. The 
journal in which he is writing is the organ of the 
Christian Social Union. Yet this Christian minister, 
writing for the Christian Social Union, thus bewails 
the feeding of starving children : — 

The fact remains that the Education Act, as it applies to the 
provision of meals, is b.id. It was an ill-considered attempt by 
politicians in a hurry to appease the demands of an outcry by a 
section of agitators, l-'alsc to all theories of rational govern- 
ment, the Act has shown itself pernicious in practice ; and if its 
policy constitutes friendship " for the masses," the self-reliant 
poor may well pr.ay to be saved from their friends. At the 
outset social workers who, for the sake of the people for whom 
they cared, have undertaken its .administration, prophesied its 
failure and its mischief, and their prophecies have been too 
sadly fulfilled. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



289 



POETRY IN THE MAGAZINES. 
Indian \'ie\v of Indistry. 
A i>uEM in the February Easl and West en "The 
Hill of Frenzy," by Umrao Singh, contains a very 
spirited description of the new industrial life that is 
in\ading India : — 
I'ar in ihe distance a factory funnel piercing the air, and sending 

10 Heaven the incense of llell, and grinding things to un- 

wholeiome powder. 
And the voice inaudible whispering of hope and fear and 

warning, 
\\ liispering from looms and grinding stones and smelting fur- 
nace, from whirring motor and p«£Bng engine, frcm 

stitching needle, 
rrom creaking yoke and scratching quill, from clanking harness 

and twitching muscle, 
Whispering of life, its luring hopes, its vanishing guerdons, its 

joys ever at hand and ever receding ; 
rif ever unwelcome but never departing sorrows ; of hopes 

reviving from the ashes of life, from the travail of years. 
Of the biilh of life from the womb of death. 

" A factory funnel piercing the air and sending to 
Heaven the incense of Hell," is about as good a 
description of a tali chimney as we have seen. 

St. \'.\le.ntine's D.av. 
In the Elicit slncoinan, Dorothy Bussy contributes a 
poem on Fcbruarx i4lhj from which the following 
lines may be chosen : — 

I-ove chose His holiday to fall 
In winter-time ; His festival 
He keeps when skies are dark and drear. 
In the saddest time of all the year. . , . 
He knows that of all sweets bereft. 
With neither fruit nor blossom left, 
\Vc shall but stretch our empty hands 
More eagerly to Him who stands 
The Lord of Life and Death, and I'ray 
With quicker, purer hearts than they 
Who go rose-crowned and never know 
The stress and gloom of « ind and snow. 

A Nine-Year Old Poetess. 
A recent issue of Harper's contained the following 
stanzas on the " Hermit Thrush," by .\rvia Mackaye, 
the nine-year-old daughter of the poet, Percy 
Mackaye : — 



While walking through a lonely hpo.1 

I heard a lovely voice : 
.\ voice io freOi and true and -^ 1 

It made my heart rejoice. 

It sounded like a Sunday bell 

Kung softly in a lonn, 
' >r like a stream, that in a dell 

Korcver liicklci down. 

Ii seemed to be a voice of love 
That always had loved me, 

Sii Miflly it rang out above — 
So wild and wanderingly. 

' 1 f oicc, were you a golden dove, 

Or just a plain gray bird ? 
<• \'oite, yiiu .ire mv wandering 1 .\ ■, 

Lost, yet forever heard. 



The Decay of the Yellow Press. 

In the Oriental Revicu: for February, Mr. Hamilton 
Holt, comparing the American and Japanese Pre.ss, 
conveys to his Japanese readers this piece of good 
news : — 

I am happy to tell you, however, that the " yellow " press in 
.\inerica has already reached its zenith. We now are w iinessing 
a positive reaction against it. Though it still wields a great 
power through its wide appeal to the masses, it is fast losing its 
prestige as a moral and political force, and that presages the 
dawn of a better day in American journalism as well asinler- 
i.aiionnl relations. 

Cherif-Pasha on the Young Turks' Committee. 

The Midieroutielle, or Constitutiunnd Ottoman, for 
January, the organ of the Ottoman Radical Party, 
contains a vigorous indie mcnt of the Committee of 
Union and Progress, as a new Ugolin, by its editor, 
Cherif-Pasha. He sums up by saying : — 

All liberties are suppressed — liberty of speech, of Press, of 
meeting, etc. There is only one institution which remains un- 
touclied, the Court Martial. 

The Conuiiiltee of Union and Progress has completely 
destroyed the Constitutional rule which it pretended was its 
work. 

Like Saturn and Ugolin, it devours its children in order to 
preserve to them a father. 

That is why we have the Committee of Union and Progress 
without a Constitution. 

But our friends abroad are disturbed about it, and the Otto- 
man people arc revolting against it. 

It is, in ilTfct, evident that the Kmpire will very soon partake 
of the fate of the Constitution if this state of aff.iirs continues, 
and that it cannot develop freely, entirely, unless disembarrassed 
from this sanguinary parasite. Then reversing the situation 
we shall have a Constitution without a Committee. 



Foreign Spots in London. 

Mr. |. I'Oster 1''r\si;r. pursuing; his " discovery of 
London " in the London Magazine for March, c'es ribes 
the habits and habitats of the 200,000 foreigners livinj' 
within the four-mile radius. In Liniehouse Causeway 
\ou find Chinatown ; Whitechapel is Jew land ; the 
("icrman colony is the oldest of foreign settlements in 
London. There arc now about 70,000 (Jermans in 
London, with twenty German clubs, tweKe German 
churches, a German farm colony, several employment 
bureaux, and two (Jerman newspapers, .'\t Forest 
Hill there is a considerable population of Germans. 
" Go into Soho, and it is just as though you had stepped 
into France." The Italian colony is arounti .St. 
Peter's Church in Hatton Garden. Hut Hatton 
Garden is " the hotchpott h of nationalities." 



.\ regatta of motors in miniature m the pond of a 
London park is desiribcd in March Royal bv \V, .^. 
Williamson, There arc miniature electric launches, 
ocean liners, and battleships. 



" Do Men's Meetings help the Churches ? " is the 
nueslion discussed in a symposium by ministers of 
religion in the Sunday at Home. Ihe answer is 
emphatically in the allirmative. though it is admitted 
that the men gencrallv 1 i.d<c no systematic contribution 
to the Church funds. 



290 



The Review of Reviews. 



THE MODERN VIEW OF RELIGION. 

Universe, Thy Will Be Done ! 

In the International Journal of Ethics for January 
G. A. Burrow maintains we are getting back to the 
Greek attitude of mind : — 

We are asking questions about the fundamental nature of 
existence, not simply about man's fate and man's part. With this 
renewed study of general problems has come a lessened 
insistence on the individual. As our civilisation has grown 
more complex, the individual realises that he counts for but one. 
Putting it simply, we are more concerned with the salvation of 
the world than with the salvation of our own soul. Even the 
interest in morality, which seems, from its preoccupation with 
man, to join more closely to the media:val interest, is not to-day 
the interest in changing the world to unworldliness, nor in 
seeking to be saved out of it, but the concern with the problems 
of sociology. We ask not how to be saved from the world, 
Ijut how to live in it. 

Mr. Harrold Johnson, in a paper on " The Problem 
of an Effective Moral Education in Schools," gives, 
among other things, an interesting account of the 
views of M. Devolve, author of a book on " Rationalism 
and Tradition." Mr. Johnson says : — 

The author is of opinion that what is now required is a 
naturalistic transposition of such religious experience as this 
into forms which may prove reasonably acceptable to the 
modern mind and in accordance with the terms of modern 
science. The conditions of such a tiansposition of religious 
experience appear to him to be : (i) We must replace the 
communication of the soul with a transcendent Being by its 
communication with a reality which is one with objective 
nature. We must acknowledge the homogeneity and real unity 
of nature with the soul that thinks it. (2) This sense of the 
homogeneity and unity of being involves the ultimate accord of 
the purpose of the conscious ego with the purpose of the 
universe. (3) We must have faith in the power of the Being 
and in the certain victory of his aspirations. 

Hence, says Mr. Johnson, man " must learn to cry 
when the fierce struggle within him goes on between 
the vaster and the narrower claims : ' Not my will, 
Universe, but thine be done ! ' " 



MEDICAL MARRIAGE CERTIFICATES. 

In the January Eiiginics Review A. N. Field 
suggests in New Zealand a new condition for entering 
the marriage state : — 

The idea is that every person before marrying should be 
compelled by law to undergo a medical cxamin.ation. The 
public has been accuslonied for many years past to submit 
without complaint to examination by doctors when taking out 
life insurance policies, and the examinations now proposed 
\\ould not be one whit more irksome than that. The doctors 
would give each person examined a certil'icate, setting out his 
<ir her general physical condition, and the answers given to the 
usual questions as to parentage, age of parents at death, and 
cause of parents' and brothers' .ind sisters' deaths, and so on. 
I"or the purpose of compiling statistics the persons examined 
might be grouped into three or four grades, according to their 
general soundness of physique and stock. 

The examination would be perfectly private and confidential, 
and is result would not even be disclosed by the doctor to the 
otlur party to the marriage. The certificate would be issued, 
and the person receiving it could then do as he or she thought 
fit with It. One alteration in the law might, however, be made 
with advantage, and that would be to provide that where one 
jiarty to a proposed marriage'refuscd to show this official medical 
certificate to the other party, no action for breach of promise 
would lie. 



The writer grants tlu't when two people got to the 
stage of applying for a marriage licence, no doctor's 
views as to their physique are likely to have much 
weight with them. Nevertheless, the mere fact that 
a medical examination must be undergone before 
marriage would cause the whole population to think 
more seriously about it. A national premium is, as 
it were, placed on good health. The writer's purpose 
is that a duplicate of the certificate would be filed 
away in the Government archives, and from these 
graded records valuable eugenic data would be 
found. The children of parents whose health was in 
the lowest grade would be the particular concern of 
the State. 

FROM THE OCCULT MAGAZINES. 

In the Theosophical Path for February there is the 
best illustrated account I have yet come across of 
Katharine Tingley's headquarters at Port Loma in 
California. The author, a Swedish Consul, writes w-ith 
enthusiasm of the educational work that is carried on in 
this terrestrial paradise. There are several hundred 
members of all nationalities. He never saw groups of 
children so happy, healthy, and well-balanced. No 
trace of mere religious forms is to be found. He came 
as a sceptic and went away convinced and converted. 

In the International Journal of Ethics Mr. A. Waite 
presents a reasoned plea for reincarnation. He says, 
" The doctrine of reincarnation, in its highest aspect, 
looks to a social end and not to the consummation of an 
isolated perfection." 

In the Theosophist for February Father Benson 
presents a carefully written exposition of the creed of 
the Roman Catholic Chunh. It is very ably done. I 
have seldom read a more popular presentation of the 
case for the Roman Church. 

In the Occult Review lor March Miss H. A. Dallas 
and several correspondents discuss the fascinating 
subject of dreams, their origin, and their signifi- 
cance. " Si rutator " writes on " Star Love and Star 
Tradition," and M. Zumslcg describes what he calls 
mcntalism. M iss Mabel Collins' paper on a Rosicrucian 
ideal expounds the faith as it is in Steincr. 

The International Tlicosophical Chronicle for February 
republishes from " The Ancient Bards of Britain " 
the doctrines of the ancient Druids, which are sur- 
prisingly modern and Christian. Take, for instance, 
this on pride : — 

I'ridc is the utmost degree of human depravity. It supplies 
the motive for the perpetration of every manner of meanness 
and wickedness ; it aims at displaying superiority and the 
usurpation of power to which none save the Ruling Spirit of 
the Universe is entitled. 

The Ofyen Court for February publishes an ac count 
of Mr. David P. Abbott's " New Illusions of the 
Spirit World." Mr. Abbott claims to do " spirit " 
pictures as well as the Bangs Sisters, and he has also 
invented a talking tea-kettle, which carries on con- 
versations with an\onc \\ho puts its spout to his ear. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



291 



THE GERMAN SOCIALIST PARTY. 
The Sozialislisthe Monatshefte of F'ebruary 15th is 
t a German election number. Herr Eduard Bernstein 
and other writers discuss from various points of view 
the significance of the recent General Election, as shown 
in the enormous increase in the party elected to the 
new Reichstag, as well as in the Socialist vote. Having 
twenty-nine more members than in 1903, the Social 
Democratic Party, with 110 members out of a total of 
397, ought to be able to make its influence felt. This 
brilliant success is attributed to the extensive growth 
of industrialism in Germany and the consequent 
increase of the working classes, the splendid organisa- 
tion and propaganda work of the party, the growth of 
the press, etc. But Herr Bernstein adds'a note of 
warning. Numbers, he says, are not everything, and 
it does not necessarily follow that the no Social 
Democrats will have more influence in the Reichstag 
than the 43-51 members of the previous Reichstag, ur 
the 81 of 1903. Against the 287 members of the other 
jiarties the no are still a minority. Cases in Austria 
and France are cited to prove that a party with a 
Mnaller number of members has often had more 
influence in Parliament than a larger one. 



SOCIALISM AGAINST MOB SWAY. 
In the Sociahsl Revitw for February the labour 
unrest occasions certain disciplinary remarks that 
might surprise srime readers. The recent railway 
-trike could only do little, we are told, because it had 
no purpose. It was an outburst : — 

A blalani crowd has wriUfn nolhinc but F.MI.URE in history 
every time that it began to write anytning. We accuse not the 
crowd. Our hearts beat for ihcm, our energies and our capaci- 
ties are theirs, they are worthy of all good that can come to 
them. , Wc accuse their spokesmen, the Rev. Mr. Kettledrum- 
mcls, who preach the good gospel nonsensically to then:. 
We want no more peasant wars which end in the darkness of 
rout, no more Chartist movements led by charlatans Into wil- 
derne&ses. The duly of the Socialist is to sec that the unrest 
does not spend itself in a vain, if heroic-looking, beating of the 
air. All the teni|)l:iiion offered to our movement is to shout, to 
talk of rtvoluiidn, to get giddy with the giddiest, to belittle 
'verylhing that has been done and censure everybody who has 
.id the courage to do it. That pays — for a day. That is 
" advanced "—so long as the temper is at boiling point ; it gets 
'he cheers and the enthusiasm of ihe meeting. It even wins .1 
!■ w victories— at (irsi, and they are Pyrrhic ones. But It is 
I'oor fighting. 

THE SPEAKER'S COACH. 

Mr. Oaki.kv Will I \.m.s describes in the March Pall 
Mall the Slate roach of the Speaker. It weighs two 
irms one hundred weiglit and several pounds, yet it is 
Mj well hung and balanced that one able-bodied man is 
able to draw it. Its origin is obscure. It is commonly 
stated to be Spc.iker I.enthall's, and therefore dtiles 
ba< k to the time of the Commonwealth. Its style anrl 
decoration is said to be undoubtedly Jacobean. The 
workmanship is probably Flcmi.sh. The panels arc 
lillerl in with rii^h paintings, evidently of a much later 
il.ile. They arc attributed to Cipriani. On one of the 
doors is a figure i)resenling a sheaf of documents 



legibly labelled " Magna Charta " and " Bill of Rights," 
to a patron who may be either the Genius of History or 
— possibly George III. The interior is upholstered in 
red vehet, and it is designed to seat five persons. The 
privilege of horsing the Speaker's coach on State 
occasions belongs to the brewers, Messrs. Whitbread 
and Company. It is used some four or five times in a 
centurw on Coronation and similar ceremonies. 



THE SOUVENIRS OF M. DE FREYCINET. 

In the mid-February issue of the Revue des Deux 
Mondes M. Henri Welschinger has an article on the 
\ oltime of " Souvenirs " recently published by M. de 
Freycinet. 

The book deals with a period of about thirty years, 
1848-1877 — that is to say, it gives the life-story of M. 
Freycinet from the age of nineteen to the time when 
he joined the Dufaure .Administration as Minister of 
Public Works. Presumably a second volume will 
record the events of his subsequent career, but it may 
here be remarked that he has represented the Depart- 
ment of the Seine in the Senate for thirty-six )ears ; 
he has been twice Minister of Pui)lic Works, four times 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, si.x times Minister of War, 
and four times President of the Council. The most 
important historic events which figure in the book are 
the Revolution of 1848, the Coup d'Etal of 1851, the 
Frant o-German War, the National Assembly of 1871, 
and the foundation of the Republic. 

In a few lines M. Freycinet describes the situation 
of the Government and of the country in the six 
weeks which preceded the fall of the Empire. The 
weakness of the Emperor, the inter\ention of the 
Empress, the culpable compliance of the Foreign 
Minister, the falsification of the Ems telegram, the 
lack of serious preparations, the inferiority of the 
French artillery, the incoherence of the early opera- 
lions, the transport disorder, etc.— all foretold th? 
disasters to follow. Besides numerical inferiority and 
inclTicicncy in the command, the French army sufTered 
from in.suilicient training, and the inexperience of the 
recruits compared with the drilled reservists of Ger- 
many—in a word, a general lack of discipline. The 
man who has not been broken by discipline in limes 
of peace lends himself lo it with dilTiculty in times of 
war. lie says in conclusion : " Discipline does not 
mean p.issive obedience. Soldiers must be convinced 
of the necessity and utility of obedience. Military 
discipline should be human and just. It i> ihe absericc 
of those moral virtues which form the soul ol a nation 
- discipline, respect, union, faith in un ideal and in a 
religion, the love of one's country— the consent to 
pacririic oneself— which makes disasters inevitable.'' 



"TiiK keynote ol the recent carni\als has been the 
gradual triumph of woman, whi<-h culminated last year 
in the birth of the first Queen ( arnival," So .savs Miss 
Isa Gibson in the Ma.ch h'oynl. i-; she dex riljcs ih' 
Carnival ut Nice. 



292 



The Review of Reviews. 



THE WORLD'S FASTEST RUNNERS. 

In Badminton for March Mr. G. C. Terry gives a 
most interesting account of the Tarahumare Indians, 
the champion runners of Mexico. Some 15,000 of these 
Indians dwell in the Sierre Madre Range. They are 
the sole remaining cave-dwellers in North America.- 
They are pagans. They live on beans and corn, and 
when these give out, on rats and snakes. They excel 
in the running of races — not the sprint of the white 
man, but of a kind that no white man could or would 
endure. As couriers probably no other runners on 
earth can compare with them. They are employed 
as couriers by the Mexican Government and by mining 
concerns of Chihuahua and Sonora. They average 
frequently 170 miles a day. One specially quick 
messenger covered a distance of 600 miles in five days. 
The runner had no luggage, but simply carried his 
white wool blanket and a package of ground corUj 
" pimole " :— 

When short of amnmnition (they use only the bow 
and arrows) these Indians will run down a deer, there 
being great numbers of these animals in the Sierras. Half-a- 
dozen men will take part in the chase ; they head oft" the 
animal, talcing up the pursuit in relays, until finally the poor 
beast, running in ever narrowing circles, drops from pure 
exhaustion. They also chase and capture the wild turkey in 
the same manner. The runners undergo a sort of training 
before the races come oft' ; that is they eat no fat, no potatoes, 
eggs, or anything sweet. Neither must they touch "tesvino," 
their own native intoxicating drink. Their food consists of 
meat and pimole. A " shaman " (chief or medicine-man) has 
also put them through a sort of primitive rubbing-down and 
massage ; and the night before the race all runners are " cured." 
The said curing consists of semi-religious ceremonies, led by the 
shaman, and all the men sleep within sight of their tribal tokens 
or gods. 

THE LABADISTS. 

An interesting article in the Anliqiuvy of January 
and February is that by Mr. J. F. Scheltema, on Anna 
Maria van Schuurman. and her relations with the sect 
of dissenters in Holland called Labadists. A pioneer 
of the mo\ement in vindication of the rights of her 
sex, Anna Maria van Schuurman maintained that 
women ought to be allowed to culti\ate the arts and 
sciences on the same footing as men. Herself a prodigy 
in every branch of science and art, she was the wonder 
of her age. When Jean de Labadic left the Reformed 
Church, and founded a " kerk " of his own, orthodox 
hate made it impossible for him to tend his flock. 
Anna Maria van Schuurman stepped forward to the 
rescue, and e\entually the Labadists were enabled to 
settle at \Meuwerd in Friesland. Here they lived the 
simple life. All that tended to foster a taste for finery 
was forbidden, and those who had been accustomed to 
comfort and refinement were given the most menial 
tasks to perform. Anna Maria van Schuurman 
(died 1678) seems to have made many converts to the 
new faith, but to-day, alas ! there is practically nothing 
visible left of the Labadists at Wieuwerd. 



FOUR NATION-MAKERS. 

Mr. G. M. Trevelvan reviews M. Thayer's " Life of 
Cavour " in the Atlantic Monthly for February. Mr, 
Trevelyan sa)s : — 

Germany is a greater country than Italy, but Cavour was 
greater than Bismarck, .ilin'ist in proportion to the inferiority of 
the material with which la- liad to work. Wliereas Italy suffers 
to-day just in so far as she has failed to understand or refused to 
imitate the spirit of Cavour's statesmanship, Germany's ills 
derive from too close an imitation of the great man who made 
her, — his tarifi's, his junkerism, his dislike of the power of 
I'arliament, and his belii-f in the army as the proper factor tn 
dominate in national life. Bismarck used a maximum and 
Cavour a minimum of tbrcc. Cavour thought force bad in 
itself, and Bismarck thoui^hl it good in itself. 

Not with Bismarck, therefore, must Cavour rank. 
He has his place in a trio of a higher order : — 

As a nation-maker, therefore, Cavour stands with Vi'illiam 
the Silent and George Washington. Each of these men fought 
tlirough the agony of a war of liberation, yet never yielded for 
a moment to the militarist or despotic ideals so liable to be bred 
in time of crisis ; each loved free institutions with his whole 
heart ; each could have said (as one of them did say), " I was 
always on the side of the people " ; yet each avoided the special 
faults of the demagogue as completely as Wellington or Peel ; 
each planted justice and mercy amid the chaos of wrath and 
revolution ; each kept an heroic equanimity of temper toward 
all their supporters, even toward the foolish and the false who 
bade fair to ruin their work ; finally,, each died leaving as his 
handiwork a nation whose every merit is symbolised in the life 
of the man who made it, w liose every defect is due to the tradi- 
tion which he started being too lofty for imitation. 

THE SIX INSTINCTS. 

" Education Dramatised " is the title of a sugges- 
ti^■e paper by Harriet Finlay-Johnson in the Atlantic 
Monthly for Februarv-. She says : — 

No less an authority than Mr. E. G. A. Holmes, late Chief 
Inspector of Elementary Schools in England, has tabulated 
these instincts in his recent book on Education. They are — 

1. The Conimunicative instinct — to talk and listen. 

2. The Dramatic instinct — to act, to make believe. 

3. The Artistic instinct — to draw, paint, and model. 

4. The Musical instinct — to sing and dance. 

5. The Inquisitive instinct — to know the why of things. 

6. The Constructive instinct — to make and invent things. 

THE DRAMATIC INSTINCT. 

The writer goes on to insist : — 

If we neglect any one channel of expression we are not 
developing the whole man. If Nature implanted certain 
instincts it is not ours to discriminate which, if any, we shall 
neglect and help to stunt and kill. Children are born actors. 
They are constantly impersonating, or making their dolls 
imper.sonate, other people. They play at "mothers and 
faihers " ; or, with dolls for scholars, they play at being 
"teacher." Some people might say this is merely mimicry; 
but if one listens to the plays one finds originality rather than 
mimicry. .\II who are interested in the education of children 
know how successful is the kindergarten game among little 
ones in presenting to their senses and understanding things 
which it would be otherwise impossible to teach them. In the 
play for older scholars we visualise facts in a similar way, 
extending and profiting by our experience with younger 
scholars. _^__^__^^^^^_^ 

In the March Royal the bursting of the Bradfield 
Reservoir at Sheftield is described to Walter Wood by 
a surviving spectator, Mr. Jo'in Gilley, then clerk to 
the Chief Constable of Shefl.eld. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



293 



NANSEN ON YOKING POLAR BEARS. 

Fridtjof Nansen writes in Scribner's for March 
on the race for the South Pole. He estimates the 
advantages first on the side of Captain Scott of the 
British e.xpedition, and then on the side of the Nor- 
wegian expedition under Roald Amundsen. Nansen 
does not think that modern invention has been of much 
importance for Polar exploration. Peary's great 
achievements were chiefly attained by employing 
Ivskimos. with Eskimo methods, Eskimo dogs, and 
Ivskimo sledges — methods used by Polar tra\ellers 
thousands of years ago. There has been an impro\e- 
ment of late years in working out systematically in 
detail beforehand what was necessary for an Arct c 
expedition. The motor-car does not appeal to Nansm 
as likely in its present stage of de\elopment to be of 
much service. The airship and the aeroplane may in 
time come to be of value. But perhaps the most 
picturesque suggestion is as follows : — 

II l.a> lieen stiggested tlial ihe polar bear miyht possibly be 
l;irntd lo actounl as a draught animal for polar expeditions. 
I .iplain .\ii undsen at one lime considered the advisability of 
iryint; lo btcnk in polar bears for the purpose, and men- 
lioncd it to the well-known Ilerr Hagtnleck, of Hamburg. 
Il3j,enbeck con-idercd il very po sible, and actually started 10 
break in st me bears, and, actording lo what I have heard, xcA y 
'o some extent succeeded. .-Viiyhow, this experiment has rot 
been made in the polar region*, but if it really were possib!e to 
train the polar bear for the purpose, he would naturally be 
an ideal draught animal for these regions: his sirengh and 
endurance are wondirfid ; like the dog, he can live on conccn- 
tiated food ; and, better than the dog, he has remarkable reserve 
poweis, f n.ibling him to live for a long time without any food. 
1 ;im, however, afraid that the polar bear would be a somewhat 
lisky and tioublesonie draught animal to use, as he might not 
dways be very easy to manage. 



DANCING DERVISHES IN DAMASCUS. 

l.N March Corn/iill .Mr. T. C. Fowle describes the 

|)arweeshes (as he calls them, according to the nati\e 

pronunciation of the word) of Damascus. He entered 

building crowded, excepting in a centre place, that 

'.oked like a prize-ring. After ^ short Moslem service, 

he darweeshes walked staidly round in a circle, 

Muntcr-dockwise. .Music wa.s playing, the instruments 

cing drurn, fiddle, and a pair of cymbals : — 

The darweeshes again began their slow procession round, but 

- each reathed the sIm ikh, who now stood still at his prayer mat, 

, change occurred. The sheikh l>enl forward and kissed the 

•ip of each darwcr-h, which was inclined for his salute, and no 

ooncr was this done than, as if moved by some sudden and 

Kvisible machinery, the darweesh himself spun away, whirling 

iildily around. ,\l first his aims wouhl be crossed on his 

ircasi, his hands clasping his shoulders, but as his momentum 

increased, .as though shot out by centrifugal force his aims would 

' xlend Ihcinselvcs unlil they were at right angles to his boiiy. 

1 he next darweesh would go through the same slow, digniliid 

{iproach, the ^ me salutation from Ihe sheikh, Ihe same sudden 

rotation ; and the next, and Ihe next, unlil the whole company 

of them, to the numUrr of about fifteen, were whirling liclow 

inc like so many gigantic while lops. It was j sirangc sight, 

rid moreover a not ungraceful sight cilhi r. In fact, I have 

• en far more awkward expositions of the " poetry of motion " 

in a Wotcrn ballroom than I did that day in a daiwccsh 

I ikeeyeh. 

After about ten minutes the music ceascl, the darwrcshes 
leased spinning, coming to a standstill with tlicir hands on iheir 



shoulders, their arms crossed before them ; and the sheikh, 
coming out into the centre of the circle (he had not as yet taken 
part in their whirling), bowed gravely lo ihem. The darweeshes 
returned his salutation, and took rest for a short while. Again 
Ihe music commenced, again the darweeshes whirled in ihe same 
manner, and after almost the same space of lime slopped, when 
once more ihe sheikh towed and was bowed to. The third and 
last bout of whirling was remarkable for the fact that the sheikh 
look part in it himself — that is, in a modified manner. 

Looking back on the affair, one finds in it ^.physiail as well 
,TS an ethnological interest. I mean it seems extraordinary that 
men could go through three bouts of whirling, such as I have 
described, wilh only a short interval for rest in beiwccn— and 
that rest taken standing, not sitting down. 

SANDHILLS MOVED BY WIND. 
'■ TiiF. .Automobile in Africa ' is the title of 5;ir 
Henry Norman's sketch in Scribner's of his tour from 
.Algiers into the Sahara. Sir Henry says that the 
Sahara is not a vast plain of sand, as is generally 
understood, but an undulation, varying in height from 
considerable depressions below sca-k\el to heights of 
thousands of feet. The average height of the Sahara 
is one thousand f\\c hundred feet above sea-level, 
more than five hundred feet higher than Europe. 
But though not a .sandy plain, il is spread over with 
great or little spreading mounds or dunes of golden 
sand, called " barchans." 

These, wind-created and wind-impelled, move forward almost 
like live things. Engineers employed in laying out desert 
railways have made costly, and even fatal, mistakes by not recog- 
nising the fact, now established, that "desert dunes are not 
anchored or stationary hills of sand, but mobile mas.ses, 
advancing at a VKxy appreciable rale in a definite direction." 
These dunes begin to move, according to another scientific 
observer, as scon as a light breeze blows : the air is perceptibly 
charged wilh sand in a moderate breeze; and during storms 
their progress may be nearly two inches an hour, while ihcir 
average advance is fifty feet a year. Many a once flourishing 
oasis is now buried forever beneath the great sand-dunes, which, 
"ever slowly widening, silence all"; nothing stops their 
insidious advance ; " in some localities extensive and prosperous 
setllemenis have been overwhelmed and blotted out of exist- 
ence." They form, however, but a minute part of the surface 
of the desert. 

It is not the soil of the Sahara that makes it sterile^ 
but simply the want of rain. 

A ROBIN STORY. 

In the Atlanlii- Monthly for I'ebruary Mr. John 
Burroughs writes on animal wit indoors and out. He 
insists that the experimentalist of the laboratory 
removes the animal frcni its natural surroundings, and 
that his conclusions are therefore vitiated by the un- 
ac( uslomedncss of the animal to its unnatural surround- 
ings. He urges that the fieUl naturalist is the true 
investigator. He tells this pretty story of two 
robins : — 

I heard of a well-aulhentiealed case of a jair of robins buiUI- 
ing Iheir nest under Ihe box on ihe running gear of a farmer's 
« agon which slo<xl under a shed, and with which the farmer 
was in liie habit of miking two trii>s lo the village, two miles 
away, each week. 'I'lic robins followed him on these trips, 
and the mother bird went forward wilh her incubation while 
the farmrr did his errand', and ihe binls relumed wilh liim 
when he drove home. An.i, strange lo say, the broo.1 was didjr 
hatched and reared. 



294 



The Review of Reviews. 



MUSIC AND ART IN THE MAGAZINES. 

Etchinus of Mr. Josei'h Pennell. 

Writing in the Canadian Magazine for February, 
Mr. Britton B. Cooke draws attention to the work of 
Mr. Joseph Pennell as an etcher and as an illustrator. 
Mr. Pennell's " portraits of places " — New York sky- 
scrapers, London scenes, etc. — are outstanding from 
the rest of his work. He finds out the beauties of the 
scenes and the atmosphere in which they lie, and 
represents these. He does not make a sketch of the 
subject and work it up afterwards in his studio. His 
most beautiful etchings have been executed at street 
corners. Three centuries ago Rembrandt became the 
printer of his own work : the fa.stidious Whistler did 
likewise ; and now Mr. Pennell is doing the same. 
Mr. Pennell was born in Philadelphia, of Quaker stock. 
New York has always been a source of delight to him, 
and, as Marion Crawford once remarked, he has 
" made architecture of the New York buildings ! " 

Gluck and His Portraits. 
The February number of the Art Journal opens with 
an article by Sir Claude Phillips on " Some Portraits 
of Gluck." The portraits referred to are four, all by 
French masters, and all representing the composer in 
the full vigour of his late maturity. The famous bust 
by Houdon was placed in the joyer of the Opera House 
in the Royal Palace in 1778. It was left unharmed by 
the conflagration which destroyed this old opera- 
house, but only to perish in that which destroyed the 
Grand Opera in the Rue Lepeletier in 1873. The 
Louvre contains a fine marble copy of this fine work. 
The painted portraits arc two by Duplessis, and one 
attributed to Greuze. All belong to the years 1774-79, 
and, adds Sir Claude, Houdon, Duplessis, and Greuze 
have, by their consummate art, done as much as the 
distinguished chroniclers of the eighteenth century and 
the distinguished critics and biographers of the nine- 
teenth century to enhance the glory of the German 
master who revolutionised French opera. 

A Musical Despot. 
[n a most interesting article contril)uted to the 
Revue de Paris of February ist, M. Romain Rolland 
tells the musical life-story of Frederick the Great. He 
writes of the great King's early passion for music. 
Music, then, was the King's best friend, the only friend 
who had never deceived him, while his flute was called 
" My Princess," and he vowed he would never ha\'c 
any other love than this princess. Wc have an account 
of the operas which were written in French by the 
King. The Court poet translated them into Italian, 
and another poet translated them from Italian into 
German. 'I'hc King had no love for German poetry and 
literature. Graun composed the music, for the King, 
though a composer, had his limitations. Then came the 
Seven Years' War, which entirely changed the nature of 
the King. During the war he continued to play his 
(lute, but before it was over he had become an old man. 
His artistic sense seemed to become petrified. Worst 



of all, when he lost all real interest for music his musical 
despotism survived. He became severe and tyrannical 
with his musicians. One of the principals. La Mara, 
once said she was unable to sing, and to punish her her 
husband was imprisoned in a fortress. She persisted 
that she was ill and unable to sing. Two hours before 
the performance a carriage, accompanied by eight 
horsemen, arrived at her door. The actress was in bed, 
but the Captain who entered said he had orders to 
take her dead or ali\e to the opera, and he would 
carry her off with her bed. She was obliged to go and 
to sing. M. Rolland pities the great but poor musicians 
compelled to pass their best years at the Court, 
especially Philip Emmanuel Bach and Franz Benda. 

A Choir of Lancashire Mill-Girls. 
The Gentlemen's Concert at Manchester on 
January isth enabled the public of that city to 
realise the real significance and greatness of the work 
being done amongst the girls of Ancoats by Miss Say 
Ashworth, says a writer in the February number of the 
Musical Times. Ten years ago she started with abso- 
lutely raw material ; perseverance and a constant 
pursuit of the highest ideals have enabled her to raise 
a choir which, on .this occasion, was well worthy of 
association with Sir Henry Wood. Among the works 
given was Debussy's " Blessed Damozel," and this was 
the first hearing of the piece in Manchester. There is 
food for much thought in this juxtaposition of Lan- 
cashire mill-girls, Rossetti's " Blessed Damozel," and 
Debussy's elusive music, observes the writer. What 
was the power that enabled these comparatively 
untutored girls to give us the quintessence of such 
subtle music } Why should they succeed where more 
cultured folk entirely miss their way } Sir Henr)- Wood 
stated it was the most beautiful performance in its 
absolute truth and rightness that he had yet con- 
ducted. One of the soloists, like the choir, was a 
product of the competitive festival movement. 

The Oi'era King. 

Mr. Arthur Farwell contributes to the February 
number of the American Review oj Reviews a short 
article on Mr. O.scar Hammerstein, the American 
impresario, who, in April, 1910, startled the world by 
selling his Manhattan and Philadelphia Opera Houses 
(the former opened in December, 1906, and the latter 
in No\'ember, 1908) for something like two million 
dollars, and agreed to withdraw entirely from the local 
field of grand opera. W'nh the operatic anchor thus 
weighed, he sailed, quite lilerall)-, in quest of new 
worlds to conquer, and landed in London, where he 
announced his intention of giving up-to-date opera. 
As is usual with Mr. liammerstein's opera-houses, the 
building was completed a few minutes before the 
raising of the curtain on the first performance. If Mr. 
Hammerstein has anything that can be regarded as a 
fundamental principle of success, it is the use of a vast 
deal of common sense — common sense based upon a 
knowledge of common humanity. 



293 



RANDOM READINGS FROM THE REVIEWS. 



Frank ! 
Gwendolen Overton, writing in the November 
Forum on democracy and the recall, quotes a recent 
admission of Governor Woodrow Wilson : — " For 
fifteen years," he said, "' I taught my classes that the 
initiative and referendum wouldn't work. I can pro\e 
it yet. The trouble is that they do." 

\V.\R Not Necessary to Herois.m. 
War against physical nature and the evils of human 
nature and their ultimate subjugation to the intel- 
lectual and spiritual dominion of man, constitute a 
.struggle which will give ample scope to the energies 
of the race beyond our remotest ken. We cannot even 
guess its ultimate possibilities ; but so long as there 
are mountain barriers to be overcome, floods to be 
controlled, deserts and swamps to be reclaimed ; or so 
long as men are denied equal opportunities, and 
" predatory wealth " has any other than a historic 
meaning, man need not feel that war is necessary to call 
forth the best there is in him. As we do not want 
holocausts or mine explosions or flood or pestilence in 
order to give us heroes in action, so we do not want war 
simply to draw forth the heroic in human nature. 
Neither do we want these perils for mere efliciency"s 
sake. — General Chittenden, in February Forum. 

Huw Much Depends on Trifles. 

We are reminded of Mr. Powell's work a few )-cars 
ago in the orange district of Southern California. 
Much of the fruit was rotting en route to the east. 
The Department of Agriculture at Washington sent 
Mr. Powell out to investigate. He found that the rind 
on the orange was being pricked b\- the finger-nails as 
well as by the scissor-clippers of the pickers. He cut 
off the ends of the clippers and manicured the finger- 
nails of the pickers, and soon there was practically 
doub'e the amount of fruit coming through sound and 
whole. The net result of the experiment was that this 
little trip of .Mr. Powell's resulted in the saving to the 
fruit-growers of one district of as much every year as 
the whole cost of the new Government agricultural 
buildings at Washington — about 1,500,000 dols. 
annually. — British Columbia Magazine. 

Disappointed in the Ten Command.ments. 
1 have the privilege of knowing two young ladies, 
daughters of a well-known member of the House of 
Commons, whose conversation is occasionally illumi- 
nated by startling flashes. The elder is aged eleven, her 
sister seven. One morning they had read out lo tlicm 
the tweniieth ( hapter of Kxodus, wherein it is written : 
" I the Lord thy God am a jealous God. visiting the 
iniquity of the fathers on the children unto the third 
and fourth gener.ition of them that hate me." " I am 
very sorry to hc.ir that." said the younger, a note of 
profound disappointment in her voice. '' 1 have always 
understood He had no faults,"— Sir Henry Ltcv, in 
Cornhitl. 



Women as Jurors. 

As jurors, in a number of recent cases, women in 
the Western Stales of America elicited praise and 
recognition from judges and high-minded lawyers. 
They did not di.splay the supposed prejudice of their 
sex against certain classes or sets ; they tried the cases 
on the issues of law and fact ; they were anxious to 
do justice and avoid mistakes of the heart as well as 
mistakes of the mind.^The Chautauquan, February. 
The Rhodes Scholars. 

There were last year 176 Rhodes Scholars in resi- 
dence at Oxford — seventy-seven from the British 
Dominions, eighty-nine from the United States, and 
ten from Germany. Of the ordinary Honours Schools 
at Oxford that of Jurisprudence (forty-four students) 
attracts nearly twice as many Rhodes Scholars as 
Natural Science (twenty-three), and History (eighteen) 
makes a good third ; while the famous " Greats " or 
Lilera Hunianiores School is being taken by fourteen 
and Theology by ten. The lines of work taken up by 
the scholars who left Oxford in 1906-10 are, it appears, 
from a statement just issued as follows :— Education, 
eighty-four ; law, sixty-six ; religious work, nineteen ; 
Civil Service (Germanx). thirteen ; medicine, eleven ; 
scientific work, nine ; business, eight ; journalism, five ; 
mining and engineering, fi\e ; agriculture, three ; 
Diplomatic Service (Germany), three ; Diplomatic and 
Consular Service (U,S.A.). two ; Indian CwW Service, 
two ; forestry, two ; Consular Ser\-ice (British), one ; 
Colonial Service, one ; Army, one ; secretarial work, 
one : miscellaneous and unknown, ten. — The University 
Correspondent. 

Sei.f-advkrtisinu Ani.mals. 

Some animals walk delicately, some lie low, some 
fade into their surroundings, some put on disguise. 
On another tack, however, are those that are noisy 
and fussy, conspicuous and bold, — the self advertisers. 
The theory is that those in the second set can aftbrd 
to call attention to themselves, being unpalatable or 
in some other way safe. The common shrew, for 
instance, is fearless and careless, and makes a frequent 
squeaking as it hunts. It can afford to be a self-adver- 
tising animal, because of its strong musky scent, which 
makes it unpalatable. A cat will never eat a shrew. 
Similarly, the large Indian musk-shrew is conspicuous, 
even at dusk, fearless in its habits, and goes about 
making a [K^culiar noise like the jingling of money. 
But it is safe in its unpleasant musky odour. The 
common hedgehog is comparatively easy to see at 
night ; it is easy to catch, because it stops to roll 
itself up ; it rustles among the herbage, and " sniflTs 
furiously " as it goes ; it is at no pains to keep quiet. 
Nor need it, for although some enemies sometimes 
eat it, it is usually very safe, partly in its spines, and 
partly because it can give rise lo a most horrible 
stench. The porcupine is another good instance of a 
sclfadverliscr, and so is the crab-eating mungoose. 
- Professor J. A. TncMSON, in KtwwUd^e. 



296 



The Reviews Reviewed. 



THE HIBBERT JOURNAL AND ITS EDITOR. 

I'HE most notable achievement in the domain of 
serious periodical literature that has occurred in the 
last twenty years has been the creation of the Hibhcrt 
fourual. In its way it is one of the landmarks of 
literary history. It ranks with the creation of the 
Edinburgh Review and the founding of the Revue des 
Deux Mondes. If anyone had a.sked me or any 
other editor of periodical literature in the year 
1899 whether it was possible to ^L•(ure a paying 
circulation for a half-crown quarter!)- clc^■oted to 
religion, theology, and 
philosophy, the answer 
would have been em- 
phatically in the negative. 
At that time' the public 
seemed to have lost its 
appetite for serious read- 
ing. High thinking had 
gone out of fashion in the 
days immediately preced- 
ing the Boer War. The 
public mind which was 
not absorbed in the ac- 
quisition of territory and 
the exploiting of gold 
mines was intent upon 
the reform of the mate- 
rial conditions of the life 
of the poor. It was a 
materialistic age, which 
abhorred metaphysics, and 
regarded theological 
speculation with the same 
pitying contempt that we 
look upon the ingenious 
calculations of mediaeval 
schoolmen as to how many 
angels could stand on the 
point of a needle. Never- 
theless, it was just at that 
bad, black Philistine time 
that certain men, of whom 
L. P. Jacks was one, arose 
and conceived the daring 
idea that there might be a 

remnant of thinkers who would, if the opportunity 
were offered, support a journal exilusi\cl)- dexotcd to 
the high matters of the mind. 'I his daring optimist 
lives in Oxford of all pkucs in the world. His name, 
even to this day, is hardly known to the multiludc, 
although he has successfully accomplished one of 
the miracles of the time. This man, then only forty 
>cars of age, is a professor in Manchester College, 
Oxford. When full of his great idea he went to the 
Ilibbert Trustees and asked for their support in his 
novel venture. 1 he Trustees listened to him with 
sympathy for his ideal, but with a not unnatuial 





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rhct'grjph /y-] 



Mr. L. P. Jacks. 

Editor of llic Hihhrl yciiniaj. 



doubt born of their mature experience. After he 
had finished setting forth his conception of what 
a Hibbert Journal ought to be and what a Hibbcrt 
Journal might accomplish, a Trustee asked him 
how many copies of such a high-class, religious, 
metaphysical, philosophical journal, published at 
half-a-crow n a quarter, did he think he would be able to 
sell ? The promoter of the scheme, taking his courage 
in both hands. 1 oldly replied that if he were fortunate 
he expected b.e would ha\e a sale of seven hundred 
copies per quarter! "Se\en hundred!" exclain.cd 

the Man of Experiencetl 
Wisdom. " Seven hun- 
dred ! You will be lucky, 
indeed, if you can .sell 
three hundred." Neverthe- 
less the Trustees showed 
their courage and fore- 
sight by generously back- 
ing up the enterprise. 

In such discouraKinjr 
atmosphere as of a wintrv 
frost the Hibbert Journal 
was born. To the amaze- 
ment of everyone it was 
<liscovered that, to use 
the cant phrase, it filled 
a long-felt want. There 
was for a metaphysical, 
philosophical, religious 
re\'iew a public that was 
counted not by hundreds 
Imt by thousands. It was 
a success, and a paying 
success, from the first. 
When at the clo.se of last 
year the decennial number 
was issued it had secured 
a circulation of about 
10,000 copies. The de- 
cennial number went up 
to 12.000, and the Ilihbcrl 
Journal is still " going 
strong." 

So phenomenal a ?iic 
cess is due to the editor, 
who first of all divined the fact that even in the midst 
of this materialistic generation there was a faithful 
remnant which had not bowed the knee to Baal, and 
who had the courage, the persistence, and the skill to 
carry out without flinching his own conception of 
what the Hibbert Journal ought to be. In his hands 
the HiHxrl Journal became the arena in which all 
the doughty gladiators of modern thought were free 
to do battle in their own way for their own ideas. 
'I here was nothing topical about the Hibbert JournaL 
Anything less "palpitating with actuality" could 
hardly le conceived. It was to the bookstall purchaser 



[lU.'iolt ami Fiy. 



The Reviews Reviewed. 



297 



dimply " too dry for anything, heavy, unreadable, an 
altogctlicr impossible publication."' Vet the editor 
h IS found his public, and the Hibbert Journal circulates 
10,000 copies. 

How can the success be e.\plained ? It certainly is 
not due, as is the success of some magazines, to the 
all-pervading personality of the editor. Never was 
there a more impersonal editor. So far as the reader 
is concerned the identity of the editor is hidden behind 
an impcnelral.ile shroud of thick darkness. His name 
does not appear on the title-page, and his occasional 
contributions rank simply side by side with those of 
other contributors. Vet his brain has created the 
journal. His power of selection, perhaps still more 
his instinctive genius for rejection, is perceptible in 
every number. He is an ideal keeper of the ring. 
No one can tell from the choice of essayist.s on 
whose side the editor ranges himself. He is con- 
cerned solely about two things : Has the man a 
thought, and can he express it ? For among meta- 
physicians the gift of thinking is often widely severed 
from the art of expression. 

But great and successful as is (he editor, the man 

is greater, and destined to a still greater success. 

l-'or L. P. Jacks, who is the Editor of the Ilibbeil 

hntrnal, is also the author of two of the most remark- 

ible books I have read for many a long day. " Mad 

Shepherds " and " Among the Idol Makers " are 

nasterpicces. Here is genius, with the supreme gift of 

xpression, and a still more rare gift of repression. 

icnius full of insight into the hidden depths, but 

imbent with humour and instinct with pathos. 

That Oxford should contain such a man is one of the 

'lysteries of a time not fertile in prodigies. 

Snarley Hob in " Mad Shepherds " is a master- 

icce, and the story of his communings with the 

Master " is pregnant with spiritual insight and 

luth. "Among the Idol Makers" is hardly up to 

'le high— the very high— level of " .Mad Shepherds," 

Mid there is squandered in the mere telling of the 

narratives treasure out of which other authors would 

have constructed a whole book. But I.. P. Jacks, as 

Mic Americans say, is "great — great, sir, and no 

.li-tiike." 

THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW. 
liiK I-'oriiiifililly opens with some \crscs by Thomas 
Hardy bearing the somewhat painful title of "God's 
Funeral," an allegorical conception of the present state 
[of iheolog)-. 

'.' I>'s FINIIRAI,. 

The poet, ^ccs liic funeral procession of the litily. 
The mourners lament : — 

" How swtcl il WM in years f.ir liid 
To start tlic w heels of cl.iy with Iru^lfiil pi.iyer, 
To lie t|r)\vn liegcly at the eventide 
Anil feel a blest assurance Me was there ! 

" .\nihwho or what !.h.ill fill His pl.ice? 
Whither will w.nnilercrs turn di>tracle<l eyes 
lor some fixcl star to stimulate their pace 
Icwards the goal of their enterprise ! " 



The theology may I c bad. but it is not worse than 
the '■ poetry." If any new beginner had sent in such 
limping lines his contribution would have gone into 
the waste-paper basket. 

LORD KITCHENER IN EGYPT. 

An anonymous author gives a glowing account of 
the tact and authority with which Lord Kitchener is 
ruling Egypt : — 

Loid Kitchener has taken upon himself the whole burden of 
government in Egypt, and has made the .Agency the responsible 
and hc.id olfice for every Ministry and Department. Lord 
Kitchener will have very little difficulty in governing Egypt, 
and so long as he rem.iins in the country we may expect 
tranquillity to reign. But when he leaves, and a man of less 
mighty reputation takes his place, then we may look out for 
trouble. 

THE NET RESULT OF THE KINg'.S INDI.\N TOUR. 

Mr. Saint Nilial Singh describes in glowing terms 
the excellent results which have already followed 
King George's visit to India. He specially praises — 

the King's words about the educational policy that the Indian 
(iovcrnmcnt should pursue, and declares that when all else is 
forgotten, if his suggestions arc loyally and generously carried 
out, they will be remembered. Posterity, proud of Hindostan's 
intellectual, spiritual, and economic stability and progress, will 
point to the lirst trip undertaken by the " White Maharaja," in 
1911 and 1 9 12, during the course of which the first definite 
pronouncement was made to accelerate the speed and multiply 
the power of the machinery which is removing the stigma of 
ignorance and superstition from twentieth century India. 

A RUSSIAN TRIBUTE TO THE JEWS. 

Mr. Geliierg replies on behalf of the Jews to the 
remarks of Baron A. Heyking in the January number 
of the Fortnightly. The most remarkable passage in 
this article is the following quotation from a speech 
said to have been delivered by the Governor-General 
of Poland : — 

" My connection with Poland," wrote the present Governor- 
General of Poland (M. Skalon) recently, "has converted me 
Irom a Jew-baiter into a friend of the Jews. The latter possess 
good qualities and noble feelings. They are a merciful, 
charitable, and non-extr.ivagant people, by no means unfriendly 
111 the Christians. The day when the Jew will be eman- 
cipated will be the happiest day in my lile, because il will also 
bring .advantages and prospeiity lo the Kussian nation." 

y 
OTHER ARTICLES. ' 

Mr. t'allcott, writing on the " Philosophy of Clothes," 
shows that " Sartor Resartus '' was anticipated by a 
pamphleteer in America who published his essay on 
the subject in 1772. .\iigus Hamilton writes on 
'■ The Mishmi Mission," and Mr. E. Temple Ihurston 
begins a new serial entitled " The Antagonists." .\n 
" American Exile," who has just returned from a short 
visit to the States, sets forth the truth about the 
President, his policies, and his prospects, dealing with 
the subjects in whii h Fnglishmen arc chiefly concerned, 
namely, Canadian Kci iprocity, the .Xrbitration Treaty, 
Trusts, the Tariff, and Mr. Tail's chances of re-election 
to the Presidency— il m;ittcr which really alTitt.s 
Fnglish interests. 



298 



The Review of Reviews. 



THE CONTEMPORARY REVIEW. 

Much the best article in the Contemporary Review 
for March is Mr. A. G. Gardiner's admirable sketch on 
" The Social Policy of the Government," which is 
noticed elsewhere. Sir William Collins describes the 
work that was done at the International Opium Con- 
ference at the Hague, which promises to be a landmark 
in the attempt of Governments to abate the plague of 
opium eating and smoking and the morphia habit 
among the nations of the world. Mr. F. W. Hirst, of 
the Economist, writes on " The Problem of Arma- 
ments/' in which he gives a free rendering of the 
views set forth by Baron d'Estournelles de Constant. 
Sir William Ramsay writes an essay on the " Method 
of Research in History." Mr. A. P. Graves discusses 
" Celtic Nature Poetry." Mr. Harold Johnson waxes 
enthusiastic over Bahaism as the birth of a world 
religion. Mr. E. Vincent Heward describes the 
" Romance of the Planetoids." 

SY.NDICALISM .\ND THE LABOUR UNREST. 

Mr. J. H. Harley, in a paper, tells the story of how 
M. Georges Sorel, the high priest of Syndicalism, began 
his revolutionary propaganda. He points out how it 
developed into an advocacy of violence, and that 
whatever truth there may be in Sorel's doctrines that 
labour is to go forward separately in the power of its 
own undivided strength, he ought at least to give them 
some idea as to where they are going. What is to be 
the end of it all ? He lights no beacon to illumine the 
exceeding darkness of the future. M. Sorel begins by 
decrying rational and ordered progress, but he is only 
playing with fire. He advocates violence, but he cannot 
tell us confidently where the violence may lead us. 
The most interesting thing in the article is that in 
which Mr. Harley traces the connection between 
I'.ergson's philosophy and the outrages of the Syndi- 
calists ; — 

In fact, Sorel practically reveals the nakedness of his Happy 
Land when he define, the General .Strike in Bergsonian language 
as an " undivided whole, and invites us to conceive the transi- 
tion from Capitalism to Socialism .is a catastrophe of which the 
details baffle.descriplion." 

All this is not very convincing ! Bui, if it does nothing else, 
it reminds us of the danger of all depreciation of reason both in 
philosophy and life. 

THE PORTUGUESE REI'UBLIC. 

Mr. Aubrey F. G. Bell writes a very well-informed 
and very discouraging paper concerning the Portu- 
guese Republic. He confirms the conclusion at which 
most of us \\A\c reluctantly arri\ed, that the upset of 
the Monarchy has done little or nothing for the 
Portuguese : — 

The weakness of the Republic has been that it was based 
upon these two extremes in education, the indifference or 
(xpettations of the completely ignorant, and the generous or 
interested but impractical dreams of doctrinaires. It was 
abstract intellectuals produced by the University of Coimbra 
who undertook, to govern Portugal after the fall of the 
Monarchy. 

Its finances are in disorder, and beyond passing a 
decree it has done nothing for education. It has 



rendered the religious difficulty more acute, and it has 
weakened the principle of authority everywhere. Its -j 
history has been full of strikes and disorders, which it -4 
has repressed with ruthless severity, and even a 
Republican journal declared in last December that the 
Repubhc in fourteen months had done more harm than 
fourteen )ears of Monarchical politics. 



THE NATIONAL REVIEW. 

As might be expected, Mr. Maxse is very sarcastic 
concerning Mr. Haldane's mission, of the origin of 
which he gives the following account : — 

The Kaiser deserves the entire credit of summoning Ilerr 
Balin to his councils, who, in his turn, enlisted the services of 
Sir Ernest Cassel, who conveyed the suggestion to our Govern- 
ment that the presence of a British Minister in Berlin would be 
welcome, and incontinently his Majesty's Ministers walked into 
a transparent trap. It goes without saying tlial absolutely 
nothing will come of this absurd episode, except the shedding 
of an enormous mass of ink .ind the talking of a vast amount of 
twaddle. 

Mr. Maxse rather bores us with his repetition of the 
phrase of snobbery, jobbery, and robbery as applied 
to the present Government, a phrase which he evi- 
dently thinks is a masterpiece. Mr. Andre Mevil, in a 
paper entitled '' Some flight on Agadir," goes over 
the old ground. The only important thing in his article 
is the menacing sentence with which it closes : — 

If the German Government does not change its methods, if 
its clumsiness and ariogance arouses fresh incidents, France will 
rise as one man, and the Fiench Government, whatever it may 
think or whatever it may do, will be incapable of retarding for 
a single hour the accomplishment of her destiny. 

The Hon. W. Ormsby Gore, M.P., states the Conser- 
vative case concerning Welsh Disestablishment and 
Disendowment. A na\al writer, reviewing the books 
of Lord Charles Beresfortl and Admiral Mahan, pro- 
poses that we should introduce a Navy Act providing 
that in each of the four next 3'ears six Dreadnoughts, 
eight cruisers, and twenty-four destroyers, besides 
submarines, should l:e laid down. If the Germans 
pro\ ide only two Dreadnoughts per annum we might 
be content with fi\c. I should be well content if we 
stuck to the standard of two keels to one. 

Mr. George Hookham cxainines Professor Bergson's 
criticisms of Darwin. A Radical reviews the life of the 
eighth Duke of Devonshire, and Mr. T. Comyn Piatt 
writes a very pro- Italian paper on the situation in 
Tripoli. He tells us that General Canava wisely refuses 
to folk)w the Turkisli army into the heart of a waterless 
desert. We can well believe him when he says that peace 
will not be yet awhile. What good the waterless desert 
is likely to be to the Italians he does not explain. He 
says it would be sheer madness to advance further into 
a country as useless as it is inhospitable. I agree with 
him. but why on earth spend £.40,000 a day to occupy 
the fringe of such a w orthless desert .' j 

Mr. W. Mallida) , in a charming paper, describes the 
sea birds which nest in the Fame Islands, Mr. Charles; 
Howard contributes a fancy sketch on the " Rise otj 
Archie," a Labour man, but who Archie is I am toci 
dull to divine. 



The Reviews Reviewed. 



299 



THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AND AFTER. 
Perhaps the most startling paper in the March 
number is the alarm sounded by Mr. Chiozza Money. 
M.I'., over the e.xit of people from these Isles. That 
li IS been noticed elsewhere. 

HOLDING A N.\TION TO R.\NSO.M. 

Mr. i larold Cox finds the true meaning of the railway 
strike last autumn and of the threatened coal strike 
this spring in a deliberate purpose of the working-man 
to hold the nation to ransom b\- the policy of the 
general strike. There is no cham e of obtaining a fair 
settlement of the wages question unless adequate 
police and military protection is giving to the indi- 
vidual working-man. He thinks the present Govern- 
ment, in refusing to give this, will only enable the 
Miners' Federation to fasten its hold upon the 
n:uion's throat. " To-day it is a minimum wage we 
demand. To-morrow it will be something else." 

THE PERIL OF HOME RULE. 

The note of alarm which runs through so much of 
this number is vigorously sounded by Mr. Edgar 
Oammond, who. after a formidable but most useful 
array of statistics, points his moral thus :— 

I'be general tendency of Imperial finance williin the past 
ilecide has Ix'cn to place the burden of expenditure for Iniperi.-.l 
services more and more upon the shoulilers of the English and 
Welsh Lixpajers. In 1900 England contributed 87 '05 per 
icni. of the total Imperial expenditure ; she now contributes 
'P"33 P<^' cent. .Scotland in 1900 contributed lO'S^ per cent. ; 
she now contributes only 9*67 per cent. ; while Ireland's 
meagre contribution of 2* 1 1 percent, in 1900 has been tnns- 
fornicd into a deficiency of I '06 per cent. England and Wales 
are already cinlributing far more towards the cost of Imperial 
services than they should be required to provide on the basis of 
taxable capacity, and any scheme of Federal Home Rule on the 
lines which have already been suggested for .Scotland and Ire- 
land would inevitably throw a still greater burden upon the 
English and Welsh taxpayers in respect of Imperial services, 
and at the same lime raise difficult questions which would ccr- 
tiiinly lead to bitter controversy. 

IN FRIGHT OF FEMALE FRANCHISE. 

Another wail, almost of dismay, is raised by Mr. 
Charles E. Mallet over the awful outlook for the 
I,ilK-ral Part) . the n.ilion, and humanity at large if a 
Woman's Suffrage Kill were passed thro igh the House 
of Commons this session, ft would destroy the unity 
of the party, sacrifice Home Rule, prcveni, Welsii 
Disestablishment, frustrate One Man One Vote — and 
all without a mandate from any General Eiec 'loii. 'Mr, 
.Mallet imi)lores the Liberals to tielj) the (lovernment 
<mt of Its present '•'ipossible position in one o( three 
ways -postponement, referendum, vote aL'amst the 
Woman's .Suifr.ige .\mendment. 

BEWARE ol- FRIENUSIIIP WI fll HERMANN ! 

Siaire also dominates .Mr. IJ. C. Lathbury's lament 
over what he describes us the new foreign policy of 
l^ngli^h Radicals, which, he thinks, is to renounc e the 
Triple Entente lor friendship witii Germany. Mr. 
Lathbury urges that Russia, Erance. and England all 
desire as their chief interest the maintenance of pe.ice. 
Germany ^vants pe.ice. it is true, but it is not her ciiief 



and only aim. So long as the three Powers are of one 
mind it is impossible for Germany to go to war with 
any one of the three. Mr. Lathbury closes by saying 
that these Radicals are the sole inheritors of the policy 
of Lord Beaconsfield — enemies of Russia and friend- 
of Turkey. 

THE COLONIES OF PORTUGAL. 

Sir Harry Johnston resumes his congenial task of 
making over again the map uf the world. This time he 
offers Portugal his benevolent and disinterested advice ^ 
of which this is the gist : — • 

If the Portuguese sold Guinea to the Erench ; the Con^o 
province and Xorth Mozimbiijue (Ibo) to the Clermans ; 
Zanibc/ia, Bcira and IJelagja Biy to the British, they 
would still remain the recognised and cflfective rulers of an 
empire of 500,000 square miles, a much larger area than they 
actually possessed in 1870 ; while, in .addition, they should 
have acquired a fund which would suffice to build a network 
of light railw.ays over Portug.al itself and enable that land to 
become the greatest fruit-producing region of Europe. 

CAN ACQUIRED CHARACTERS BE INHERITED ? 

Prince Kropotkin reverts to this much-discussed 
question. W'eismann's attempt to prove the impossi- 
bility of hereditary transmission of acquired characters 
he [)ronounces to have failed. He insists that both in 
plants and animals there is a germ-plasm scattered 
all over the body. This germ-plasm is capable of 
reproducing, not only those cells in which it is 
lodged, i)ut also the cells of quite different parts of 
the organism, 

THE " BACHELOR " GIRL. 

The Hon. Mrs. Wilson writes vivaciously on the 
" Passing of the Chaperon." She feels there is a want 
of honest out-speaking on all sides. She remarks : — 

New methods have produced a type of bachelor-girl — (I have 
already used this phr.ase, but I can ihink of no other) — 
previously unknown to us all. .\11 my sympathies are with her, 
though she would not like this. She has unwillingly ere itcd 
an iiiifitiSi' for herself. .She does not know that thougli she has 
altered, men arc ever the same, that the idea oi purJak is a^ 
strong in the West as in the East. The bride that is desirable 
is the precious guarded jewel which has not sparkled for others. 
There must be mystery where there is (o be romance. We can- 
not blame men who feel this ; lhc>' are going b.ack to the old 
piin-.eval instincts, of which the unwritten law of social life is 
merely the shadow. 

OTHER ARTICLES. 

i\dmiral Sir Reginald Custance puts the naval case 
for latifying the Declaration of London. The Rev. 
E. (;. .Selwyn forecasts the future of the 0.\ford 
.Mo\ement. Sir Godfrey Lagden declares the influence 
of the piil)lic schools to make for the formation of 
character, and for the development of the best national 
(jualities. Miss Gerlriide Kingston would get out of 
the dilhiully of the dramatic tensorship by forming a 
Ministry of Fine Arts in the hope that the British 
( haracter would finally give the place to art that is at 
present occupietl by sport. Mr. D. S. MacColl breaks 
a l.mie with .Mr. Frederic Harrison over what is foul 
ami beautiful in Rodin anil his art. Mr. \V. S. Lilly, 
warmly commends .Mr. Ward's " Life of Cardinal 
Newman." 



300 



The Review of Reviews. 



THE ROUND TABLE. 

The Round Table for March gives the first place, 
not to the admirably lucid exposition of the effect 
which war would produce on Lombard Street, but to a 
paper entitled " The Balkan Danger and Universal 
Peace." 

THE TRUE PACIFICISM. 

It is a carefully reasoned argument of the absolute 
futility of the dreams of the conventional pacificist 
and an inspiring exposition of the British Empire as 
the model and the omen of the organisation of 
mankind : — 

The Briti;^h Empire is Ihc oniy attempt wliicli the world lias 
yet seen at the practical application of those principles which 
will lead to the ultimate abolition of war. 

Modern war is caused by a conflict of interest, or aspiration, 
between nations. It will not disappear until that cause is 
removed, and this would involve two great changes. The 
prevailing nationalism of the most civilised peoples must be 
undermined ; the present organisation of humanity into indepen- 
dent sovereign states must be abolished, in order that the 
machinery for the maintenance of the reign of law may be 
extended so as to embrace the whole world. This is a ^tupcn- 
dous task. 

But it can be solved on the basis of a system as loose 
and elastic as that of the British Empire. 

OTHER ARTICLES. 

'I'here is a sensible article setting forth the case for 
the Declaration of London and the Naval Prize Court. 
It is followed by a short but clear narrative of how- 
Imperialism wrecked the hopes of Greece. As long as 
the Confederacy of Delos was organised as the British 
Empire is organised it was great and flourishing. But 
when .\thens attempted to compel the Confederated 
States to contribute to the cost of a fleet which Athens 
exclusively controlled, the death-blow was given bv a 
policy which destroyed the enthusiasm of the States, 
which h;id been reduced to the status of mere depen- 
dencies. 



does not shrink from further corrupting the English 
language by disseminating through its pages the 
jargon known as 'Varsitx slang. The new venture has 
chosen its own public, and within that limited sphere 
will doubtless awaken much sympathetic interest. 



THE ARENA. 

This name, which is already familiar to readers cjf 
.\merican and Continental magazines, now appears as 
the title of a new shilling monthly, published this 
month for the first time. The aim of the Arena, which 
incorporates Vmversity and Puhlie Scluxd l.ije and 
Auialeur Sport, is to " appeal to the Pulilic School and 
University men as such, and to deal with all subjects 
likely to interest anyone who is or has been associated 
in any capacity with these institutions." These sub- 
jects are apparently in the main three : academic 
news and memories ; sport ; and undergraduate 
humour^a species for which the outer world seems 
not to possess the requisite organ of appreciation. 
The illustrations are admirable. The frontispiece, a 
view of the interior of King's Chapel at Cambridge, is 
exceptionally fine. There are sketches of the Oxford 
Union Society, Marlborough College, and of Cambridge 
streets. Club chronicles liegin with an account of the 
Blackhcath Football Club, and a full-page coloured 
portrait ol B. C. Hartley in football gear. The Arena 



THE WORLD'S WORK. 

'The World's Work for March is a very good number. 
A striking papei' on King George V., along with the 
paper on Vancouver, and Selma Lagerlof on woman 
the saviour of the State, have been separately noticed. 

" Why London is the Centre " is the title of a 
series of papers begun liy Mr. J. H. Collins. He 
mentions that of two brothers in New England one 
sold out and brought his capital over to London to 
start there in his own wav. He meant to extend his 
business in the United Kingdom, and did so, but found, 
to his surprise, that he was being drawn into an export 
trade extending over the whole world. This illustrates 
how London is the lodestone to foreign trade : — 

London now has vigorous competition not only in other 
countries but from other great British cities that have arisen at 
home. But it is still the world's largest seaport in tonnage, and 
its annual trade, counting goods that come and go by railroad, 
exceeds _;^4,ooo,ooo,cx)3. The magnitude of this figure may he 
realised when it is known that it amounts to several million 
pounds more than the entire manufacturing output of the 
United States. 

" Home Counties " tells the story of the farmers 
who could not be daunted — the Dutchmen who have 
turned their straw into strawboard, potatoes into 
flour, make money out of moor, and farm contentedly 
fifteen feet below sea-level — an object-lesson of diffi- 
culties conquered which may be commended to the 
grumbling English farmer. 

Arbour Day at Blackley, Manchester, is described 
by Ben Wilde. Every year for five years the children 
of the municipal .school ha\ e gone forth to plant trees, 
and already 103 trees have been planted by the children. 
'The trees are paid for out of money collected by the 
children. 'They are planted by the Superintendent of 
Parks, and the Highways Department arrange the 
necessary excavating and reflagging. Each child takes 
part in the actual planting of the trees. Besides 
lieautifying a very black neighbourhood, the .scheme 
is a continual education to the children, who watch 
the growth and learn liow things grow. 

Mr. Frank Norton discusses the progress of the 
cult of the sweet pea. 

Miss Josephine 'Tozicr continues her description of 
the Montessori method of teaching children without 
tears. 

Mr. .Arthur James oilers political parties the despair- 
ing advice that they should postpone their quarrels 
and give their attention to the wages question. \ 
whole session spent upon that question would do 
more for the peace of the country than cither Tariff 
Reform or Home Rule, or the enfranchisement of a 
few million more of new voters. 

The visits of Charles Dickens to America are vividly 
described by Mr. Joseph Jackson. 



Thi-: Reviews Reviewed. 



301 



I 



A Dickens Number. 
Thl February issue ot the Bookman is a Dickons 
number. Mr. B. W. Matz contributes " Some Desultory 
Notes," in which he points out. among other things, 
the most notable instances of autobiography in 
Dickens's novels, the pictures of the troubles of his 
father, and the whole struggle (or existence of his family. 
Then follows an article on Dickens and London, with 
illustrations of the many houses in which Dickens 
li\ed, and, finally, there is a s\mposium to which a 
number of writers contribute personal recollections and 
opinions. .Mr. Harry Furniss is the onl\- artist who has 
illustrated all Dii kens's novels ; Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, 
the only surviving member of Dickens's statT on 
Household Words and All llie Year Round, writes of 
his connection with those journals ; Jlr. William 
De .Morgan believes he owes everything to Dickens ; 
Mr. G. K. Chesterton echoes this sentiment ; Mr. Percy 
White describes a Dickens reading ; and other writers 
say which of Dickens's stories the\- consider his greatest 
work. 



Nordland. 
I.N January a new (ierman illustrated fortnightly 
magazine, called \ordland, made its appearance. As 
its name implies, it is to be devoted to the interests of 
Northern Germany and Northern or Scandinavian 
interests in Germany ; in other words, the relations. 
commercial and other, between Germany and the 
countries of Northern Europe. Commerce, shipping. 
sport, travel, literature, art, and science are all to be 
represented. The first three numbers contain articles 
on Spitzbergen, Dr. Nansen, the Swedish Concert 
Union, the Position of Danish Women, Hans Christian 
.\ndersen in Weimar, Georg Hrandes. August Slrind- 
bcrg, Gerhard .Muntlie (Norwegian artist), .\nders 
Zorn and Nils Kreuger (Swedish artists), etc. The sub- 
scription for Germany is three marks per qu.irler (si.x 
numbers), and the address, Koi hstr. 14. Berlm. 
S.W. u>i. 



The Forum. 

The February l-onun contams sevcr.d articles that 
have claimed sep.irate notice elsewhere. The " Pil- 
grims of Eternity," by Ferdinand Farly, are a scries 
of verses illustrating the new poetry of connubial 
pas.sion which is becoming a, feature in .American 
literature. F.dwm Hjorkmann sktiches the unhappy life 
of August Strmdberg, whom he describes as the greatest 
living writer in the Scandinavian North, and one of 
the gre.itesl in the whole world. He traces his spiritual 
growth Irom Hartmann's " FhiloMiphy of the Un- 
conscious," till he found rest in Swedenborg. He 
touches lii;litly on his three matrimonial ventures, but 
insists that he was essentially a lone soul, though much 
attached to his children. Edwin I'ligh " in search of 
London," declare- that the true London is elusive, can 
Ije found neither in City, west, east, south, or suburbs. 



Blackwood. 

To readers in quest of psychic novelty the paper 
on the Norwegian Vardogr, noticed elsewhere, will \k 
the chief feature of the March number. The political 
article denounces Ministers as victims of their own 
vanity, demented as the first stage to their doom. 
" Musings without Method " inveigh against Sir George 
Trevelyan's "George III. and Charles Fox" — as 
expressing " the views of the desperate Whigs." Sir 
George Scott gives a vivid account of census-taking in 
Upper Burma, in a town where no census was even- 
tually taken ! '" Linesman " tells a grim story of a 
private shot, on his own confession, for murdering his 
officer, who was proved after the private's death to 
have been killed by the enemy 1 A graphic account 
is given of the Coronation Durbar at Zaria in Northern 
Nigeria. .Mr. .\ndrew Lang reveals from a pamphlet, 
" The Tobermory Galleon Salvage," the mystery of 
that galleon — a vessel of the Spanish Armada, sunk 
off Tobermory Pier. 

Hispania. 

The third number of this new political and literary 
Spanish-.\merican periodical maintains the high 
standard of its two predecessors. Mr. Sanin Cdno 
contributes a well-thought-out article upon the failure 
of Parliamentary rule. Mr. Enrique Perez writes 
upon the military influence of Chili throughout South 
.\nierica. The Chilian army is the finest in Latin 
.\merica, its officers are highly trained, and many of 
them are now acting as instructors in the armies of 
neighbouring Republics. A humorously sarca.stic 
editorial deals with the aspirations of Italy, as set forth 
in Italian newspapers, to annex Constantinople and 
generally to imitate Scipio's conquests on the borders 
of the .Mediterranean. In an appreciative sketch of 
Dickens, Mr. S. Perez Triana compares him with 
Shakespeare as a great master of literature, and points 
out that whilst the latter drew upon the whole world 
for his writings, Dickens confined himself almost 
exclusively to the upper and lower middle classes. 
Dickens is regarded in Spanish countries, where his 
works enjoy great popularity, as a master of laughter, 
a genius who can make a poem out of an\lhing. Mr. 
Triana points out, however, that Dickens respected 
the puritanical hypocrisy in his treatment of love. 
Instead ol depicting passion as the great furnace it 
actually is, he showed it in his novels as a feeble flame 
hardly warm enough to heal a cup of tea. 



The Hinduslan finiru' has begun a study of Indian 
women. The writer says : — 

I'.iisce women are far more advanced than any other coin- 
munily. The Brahmo .Samaj preaches the idc.il of women 
leaviiif; ihe furiiali and cmiiiti); into the world. Certain 
.Mahuniedan Indict also, nutaldy the members of the Tyabji 
Luiiily, have cost aside (he furJah ; but apart from a few such 
instances women seem to \x .15 nnich liehiiul the /■itrJah as ever. 

She warns Indian men that if they want freedom 
they must -eil; it f. r tin Ir sisters as well as for them 
selves. 



302 



The Review of Reviews. 



THE SPANISH REVIEWS. 

La l.edura contains four contributions concerning 
the Spanish poet and author, Juan Maragall, in whose 
honour a solemn session of the Madrid Athen.xum was 
held a short time ago. These consist of two orations by 
men of mark, and two of Maragall's own essays. The 
deep Catholicism and religious spirit of Maragall are 
eulogised in one discourse ; while the purity of his life 
and the style of his writing are praised in the other. 
One of his essays dwells on the power of the spoken 
word, called by him the greatest of physical and mental 
marvels. The second essay is on the advantage derived 
from having a mountain in close pro.ximity ; how the 
mountain enables us to gain an insight into the won- 
drous expanse of heaven above and the vast plains 
below it, with a bird's-eye view of the houses lying 
around. The articles on " The Sadness of Contem- 
porary Literature " are concluded, with examples from 
plays as well as novels ; but it is pleasant to note that 
the author perceives signs of a reaction and a return 
to wholesome optimism, both in Spain and elsewhere. 
A long contribution on the painters and sculptors of 
the Basque country contains some interesting details, 
mention being made of, among others, Echena, whose 
picture of " The Arrival of Christ at Calvary " was 
very favourably noticed by English critics. 

In his article on " The Tragic Sentiment," in Espatia 
Moderna, Professor Miguel de Unamuno treats of the 
hunger for immortality, which he also calls the thirst 
for it, and which might be termed, in unadorned lan- 
guage, the longing to live for ever. Writers have 
called life a dream and the shadow of a dream, as if 
they expected that real life would commence hereafter, 
and as if our present existence were of no special 
importance. Many quotations are given. The whole 
essay is of a thoughtful character. The next article, 
" Dream Phenomena," is equally interesting, and 
many instances are given of sleep visions that have 
been prophetic. Mental transference may account for 
some of the things seen in dreams, but there are many 
which cannot thus be explained. The story is told of 
a man who dreamt of the house at which he was to call 
on the next day ; he saw the people, the furniture, and 
even described one large dog and three smaller ones, 
and a lovely young lady. On paying the visit he found 
that every detail was accurate ; yet he knew nothing, 
had heard nothing, of all those facts until he dreamt 
them. Even the theory of inherited memory could not 
explain this vision. 

The article on " The Spanish Zone of Influence " in 
Morocco is continued in the current Nuesiro Tiempo, 
and various details arc given concerning the^military 
force and the administration of the country. The 
military force consists of men of all ages and con- 
ditions ; anyone who is able to carry a weapon is a 
soldier; the army is without discipline, and no time- 
limit of service is prescribed. Reckless fanaticism, 
rather than bravery or organised methods of fighting, 
has secured for these people the great victories, ancient 
and modern, which stand to their credit. According 



to the writer the Spanish zone contains land that 
should yield much profit to its proprietors. The bio- 
graphical sketch of the old Empress of China is con- 
tinued, and there is a lecture on Jovellanos, the great 
Spanish agrarian reformer, the centenary of whose 
death was solemnised at the end of last year. The soil 
of Spain is stated to be the most fertile of any in 
Europe. 



THE DUTCH REVIEWS. 

De Gitis opens with a translation of " Prometheus 
Bound," and then passes to a contribution on the 
future of what might be termed, using a literal trans- 
lation, folk law. Many of the laws by which the people 
of various nations have been governed were founded 
on Roman laws ; the influence is still prominent, but 
the times are changini,' rapidly and profoundlv. 
Religion and morality are playing their part, forming 
a code which is not in the statute-book, and, with other 
factors, affecting the law which statesmen are making 
for our government. International law is affected by 
the growth of intercourse between nations and by the 
desire for the abolition of war. Yet, when great nations 
think of what is right and proper, it sometimes appears 
to them that it is good for them to forget the rights 
which smaller nations think they (the smaller nations) 
possess, and absorb those minor communities. In 
another article expression is given to the fear of the 
consequences to Holland of a war between England 
and Germany, and the necessity for preparing, as far 
as possible, for such a contingency is urged upon all. 
" Anglo-German relations must either improve or 
grow worse." 

The review of a book on fables, legends and rules of 
conduct, from the Sanscrit, is one of the most enter- 
taining contributions to De Gids. It is the Hitopadeca, 
which is taken from the Pancatantra, and this latter 
is a descendant from a collection the original of which 
is lost in obscurity. It is calculated that the Panca- 
tantra was written about 300 B.C. Among the many 
quotations and references we find, with some amuse- 
ment, variants of such fables as " The Milkmaid." 
" The Ass in the Lion"s Skin," and " The Tortoise and 
the Two Ducks." \Vc may conclude that La Fontaine 
took some of his themes from .i^isbp : but here we have 
other forms of the same subject. Instead of the milk- 
maid making money by the simple process of counting 
her chickens before they are hatched, it is a Brahmia 
who does so in a dream, and with the same disastrous 
result. But he dreamt of things very different from 
milk, eggs, chickens, and the like ! 

J'ragen dcs Tijds contains three articles of a financial 
character. The first deals with the price of Government 
securities and local loans ; the second concerns savings 
liank deposits (in Holland a depositor cannot pay in 
more than £25 per year, and it is necessary to increase 
this sum) ; and the third is about the payment and 
privileges of Members of Parliament in different coun- 
tries. In Denmark, for instance, they receive about 



The Reviews Reviewed. 



303 



IIS. per day during the session, with free railway 
tickets, etc. 

Elsevier is a good number, with reproductions of the 
pictures of J. S. H. Kever ("' Mother's Help " and 
others), followed by " Japanese Colour Prints," and a 
very readable article, with illustrations also, on the 
French occupation a century ago. There is also a con- 
tribution on Dickens, with reproductions of the original 
pictures of Cruikshank, John Leech, Robert Seymour, 
" Phiz," Luke Fildes, and others. 

It would not be easy to find two articles more inte- 
resting than the first two in the current Tijdspiegel. 
The first traces the origin of the streams of water which 
we see running down the mountains of Switzerland and 
elsewhere ; the second takes Frazer's book, " The 
Golden Bough," as its starting-point, and gives a most 
entertaining summary of comparative mythology, 
using the word in a wide sense. Legends and super- 
stitions of widely-distant countries are noted. The 
next instalment will be eagerly awaited. 



THE ITALIAN REVIEWS. 
There is no article of outstanding merit in the 
Italian magazines this month. In the Rassegna Contem- 
poranea the Senator. R. De Cesarc, gossips about the 
diplomacy of Leo XIII. and his relations with Cardinal 
Galimbcrti, in an article mainly noticeable for its 
bitterness against Cardinal Rampolla. The Duke of 
Gualtieri, who, as a fellow duke, has much sympathy 
with English peers, writes of the Parliament Act from 
an extreme aristocratic standpoint, affirms that 
the admirable British constitution has been finally 
destroyed, and laments "the low social and moral 
level " to which the House of Commons is now reduced. 
The Rassegna, like other magazines this month, has an 
article on the Sicilian poet, Mario Rapisardi, whose 
recent death has revived memories of the bitter literary 
controversy of past days between him and Carduc( i. 

In the Nuova Antologia Professor Lino Ferriani 
writes with extreme outspokenness on the cruelty of 
society towards infant prodigies, who, he declares, arc 
often ruined morally and physically by being com- 
pelled to give public performances. Where its pleasures 
are concerned, the professor asserts that society is still 
as cruel and selfish as in past ages. Professor C. Segre 
discusses Sterne's " .Sentimental Journey " with much 
intimate knowledge, and adds notes on his relations 
with Elizabeth Draper. Romolo Murri writes lengthily 
on the re< ent tendencies of Sdalism, identifying 
himself completely with the movement. Helen Zimmcrn 
describes with enthusiasm the aim<; of the Workers' 
Educational .Xssoriation. L. Einaudi gives a detailed 
account of the admirable system of workmen's railway 
tickets in lone in Belgium, which, by their cheapness 
and their variety, have pone far to settle the housing 
problem by allowing workmen to live outside the towns, 
■md have greatly inrrci^ed the mobility of labour. 

The Rassegna Niizionale publisius a striking his- 
torical study of the hitherto unsolved problem. Did 



Alexander I. of Russia die a Roman Catholic ? That 
all his life religious preoccupations filled the Emperor's 
mind is well known. From among much that is legen- 
dary- it is now clearly established that through General 
Michaud, Alexander was in communication with 
Leo XII. with a view to his formal reception into the 
Catholic Church. It is probable that his talk of abdica- 
tion at this time was connected with his intention. 
The Emperor's sudden death at Taganrog put an end 
to negotiations which had been conducted in strict 
secrecy, but of which documentary evidence exists 
both at the Vatican and in Turin. The well-known 
deputy, Attilio Brunialti, discusses lengthily and with 
great moderation the position and prospects of Italy 
in Tripoli, points out the suitability of Cyrenaica for 
the cultivation of oranges, figs, olives, etc., in which 
Italians are experts, and recommends that colonisation 
should be undertaken in the first instance through 
agricultural co-operative societies which will have 
capital at their disposal. Hopeful as he is, the author 
cannot refrain from showing some impatience at the 
slowness of military progress. 

Emporium, which keeps up its high level of artistic 
excellence, describes the successful results of the 
restoration that is being carried on in the Palazzo 
Riccardi at Florence, many of the architectural 
features of which have been concealed by modem dis- 
figurements. Another profusely illustrated article 
describes the architectural treasures of Prague. 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

I NOTICE elsewhere the three most important papers 
in the February North American Review, which is .1 
very good number. 

Booker Washington exultantly points out that the 
negro is betaking himself more and more to farming : 
" Fully three-fourths of all the total increase in the 
number of farms in the United States during the past 
ten years is in the Southern States."' 

Mr. W. Jell Lanck says that the new immigrants 
now arriving in the States are responsible for much 
of the increased crime : — 

Increases in the number of cases of homicide and abduction and 
kidnapping, and other crimes of personal violence, may be l.irjjely 
traced lo the heavy immigration from southern and eastern 
Kuropc, and especially from Il.aly. To immigrants from Italy, 
Greece, and Russia may also in considerable measure be 
ascrilxrd the growth in the number of ofTences .against public 
policy, and ;o the Greek and Russian the violation of' local 
ordinances in large cities. 

Mr. R. Le Gallienne exults in the fact that Walter 
Pater is coming to his own. Lucy M. Salmon explains 
that history has constantly to be rewritten, because 
new sources of information are constantly turning up. 
Mr. Livingstone urges the .Americans to lake practical 
possession of San Domingo. But the most remarkable 
article of all is that in which Mr. H. L. Sallerlee main- 
tains that every Slate in the American I'nion should 
possess a Dreadnought, for the navy is the best 
national university in the world. 



lOi 



LANGUAGES AND LETTER-WRITING. 



THE annual meeting of the Modern Language 
Association took place in Birmingham this year, 
and a gratifying increase in the membership was 
reported. Professor Wichmann spoke about the 
importance of a knowledge of German to all engaged 
in commerce, and not that alone. Friendship without 
a language in common is not practical. His state- 
ment that the German schoolmaster last summer saved 
the peace of Europe has a basis in fact no doubt, but we 
British folk must not hold back and leave matters to 
the German schoolmaster. Amongst my latest letters 
are three from young Germans desiring to correspond 
with young Englishmen. Will some of my readers 
mention this fact, so that I may be enabled to pass the 
letters on to Englishmen willing to respond and eager 
to obtain a better knowledge of German by this simple 
method ? 

Two of the other speakers at the Modern Language 
meeting laid stress upon the increased difficulty of 
the study of a foreign language to children who had 
not been taught grammar and who, therefore, did not 
understand simple grammatical terms. 

One teacher in a girls' school (Altona) has one 
hundred girls who would correspond with English 
girls. 

ESPERANTO. 

The annual dinner of the British Esperanto Associa- 
tion was an unqualified success. Visitors from outlying 
places had a good opportunity to exchange informa- 
tion ; the string quartette, though amateur, was not 
amateurish ; Miss Maud was in fine voice, and Mr. 
Butler's harp solo unforgettable. The speech of 
M. Privat though short was full of matter, and he 
boldly called upon the British folk to gird up their loins 
lest they be beaten in the race. Adverting to M. 
Michelin's splendid gift of 20,000 francs to be used in 
giving school prizes lor Esperanto in France, he urged 
that Esperantists should endeavour to find a similar 
benefactor in Great Britain. Above all, they must not 
make the mistake of supposing that it was patriotic 
to conclude that ]'2nglish must be the international 
medium for intercourse ; in all his travels in Austria, 
l^jland, Russia, etc., he had been astonished to find 
that neither French nor English was of service ; even 
in St. Petersburg itself he found but one Russian 
eloquent in French, and that was the Prime Minister, 
whilst as regards English he did not meet a single person 
who used our language ; so that many firms have 
found that they can best push their business in Russia 
by using Esperanto. 

Mr. and Mrs. Moscheles had given an " At Home '' 
the Sunday preceding, so that non-Espcrantists could 
meet M. Privat and his bride, who with him is journey- 
ing far and wide to spread the knowledge of Esperanto. 
The result was not only a pleasant evening, but the 
promise of several of the guests to think seriously of a 
matter .so important. 



Death, alas ! has been % ery busy in our ranks lately. 
M. Van der Beist, the promoter and president of the 
Antwerp Congress, was called away in the midst of 
work which perhaps no one else can take up. Herr 
Lederer was a well-known and devoted German worker ; 
and now we have lost M. Robin, a comparatively young 
man, who leaves behind him a widow and two young 
children. As the editor of Danubo he was doing grand 
work in the Balkan countries. 

The arrangements fur the eighth congress are going 
on apace. The Galician Minister is wholly favourable. 
The old Polish capital is not only beautiful, but it is full 
of interest, whilst, as has been said, the West of Europe 
needs to be brought into contact with the East, and 
never will people of small means have a better chance 
of obtaining personal knowledge of some of the finest 
amongst the Polish, Czech and Russian peoples. The 
common meeting place will be at the Commercial 
Academy, which will be placed at the disposal of the 
congress. As many poor students are expected, 
arrangements are being made for the utilisation of 
schools as boarding places. Two, each having room for 
a hundred, are possible, the cost to be about 2s. 6d. for 
the six days. For us in England, the journey costs will 
be the great difticulty ; but, as during 191 2 the date of 
the twenty-fifth anniversary of the first publication of 
Esperanto will occur, and as it is feared this may be 
the last of Dr. Zamenhof's personal attendances, many 
will strain a point to go. 

Will our readers turn to the notice of the Esperanto 
books we publish ? One much neglected is the reprint 
of Dr. Zamenhof's own article, packed with ar- 'mcnts, 
upon " The Problem of an International Language,"' 
placed, with the English translation b\- Mr. Wackrill. in 
parellel columns, thus giving the learner the finest 
possible model for composition, a reading lesson, and 
translation exercises. It was printed at Dr. Zamenhof's 
special request, costs sixpence, and is known as '' An 
International Language," by Uniel. 

If, however, a book to convince the unbeliever or 
awaken the sleeper is needed, nothing finer can be found 
than Mr, B. E. Long's " The Passing of Babel " (British 
Esperanto Association), which gives the reasons for the 
need of an international help-language, the origin of 
Esperanto, its qualities, the proofs of utility given bv 
congresses, science and trade : its literary and educa- 
tive value, etc., together with an appendix which 
contains statistics and an epitome of the language 
itself. The price is (n\. 

I ha\'e no space to record the capital lectures and 
o\-ersea news. The British EsperaitlisI for the last 
two months has given these in detail and in Ivnglish. 

Norman Angell is now certain of a great audience 
when he writes ; but so that it may be truly inter- 
national, Messrs. Bunce and Cameron have translated 
the third chapter of " Tiie Great Illusion," and it has 
appeared, with other interesting matter, in the February 
Revuo. 



305 



BOOKS OF THE MONTH. 



THE MILLIONAIRE, THE MADMEN, AND THE APOSTLE.* 



Here are three topical books, which make timely 
rc.iding in these restless d.ws. Two of them deal 
with the ultimate products of our modern civilisa- 
tion, tile millionaire at the top, and the mad anar- 
chists at the lx>ttom. The third and the only really 
hel|)ful book of the three is Mr. Stanley Lee's 
" Inspired Millionaires." I have already briefly 
n'.iticed Mr. Lee's volume, which is more inspired 
than the millionaires, but the circumstances of the 
present time seem to me to justify the unusual 
course of returning to the book, for it contains much 
meat at which the hungry may cut, and come 
again. 

I, — John Pierpont Morgan. 

The d.iys of monarchy are numbered. In the 
pa.st, kings and emperors have led their hosts to 
battle and to victory; l)ut the future has for them 
no place. The Socialist has predic-ted the supre- 
macy of the proletariat, but this prophecy is in 
vain ; the millionaire has arrived, and his con- 
(|uest is alrc.idy assured. 

In futur»- the |>fople of the earth may enjoy 
\ienoL'. or may suffer the toils of war, but not of 
their own volition. The arbiter of the fate of 
nations is the millionaire. This can l)e the only 
conclusion drawn by tlie average heli)le.ss citizen 
on reading the life story of J. Pierpont Morgan, 
by Carl Hovey. 

The biographer is no mean artist ; he does not 
overdo the [)icture in any one particular. He may 
leave <-ertain things untouched, but lie paints in tln' 
b.ickgronnd, careful of every detail ; childhood 
and voutli, thi- finan'-ial nmdition of the '50's. tin,' 
r.'.ilw.iy tangles, and all other essentials to the r«-ad- 
er's imderst.inding. Here a line, there a lane, 
and little by littU- there emerges on the canvas th<- 
Uilfl outline of a man, not rirthless, but thorougli. 
no adventurer by a solilier, and yet no pioneer or 
sapper, l>ut ever tlv gcrK-ral whose bloodless cam 
paigrLs always spell success. A ma^^terful persfin 
alitv who seld<«n or hardly ever seems to talk ; 
not tr<iuliling over miicJi aboirt men, but hi- <Mn 
marshal nuisscd roliimns of gold with greater pr<- 
cision than NaiKiK-on dircrted his b.iiialions. Even 
the great king maker had to submit to the rigours 
of King Febru.ir\. Hut to J. Pi<-r])ont Morgan 
there is no we.\thiT ; he m.okes his own clim.iti-. 
and if he o])erated for a "freeze" zero woulil In- 



badly left. And yet at the age of fifty the name of 
PieriXMDt Morgan was unknown, save to a restricted 
circle, ;nid this, at least, is testimony to the man's 
strength, for he has always dispensed with the 
" s\veet uses of advertisement.'' 

Thomas Carlyle would have rejoiced to include 
such a one in iiis gallery of heroes, and the only 
foible which reveals the millionaire's kinship with 
common cla\ is his str(jng objection to be wrongly 
laL)elled as '" Pierrepont," as though he were the 
\eriest bank clerk, whose acquaimtances ignore the 
" hvphen Smith " part of his only title to suburban 
ilistinction. 




Mr Pternont Moruan 

Car! Hovey 's biography is a w<-.llbalanced 
to real greatness, the author achieving n<it 
of his subject's gr<Mlness of style, and this 

life- story is the latest 

" Self-Help." 



Mr. 

triliirt" 
a littli 



cirmment.irv on Smiles' 



* " Tho I*ifo of JoliM_Pierpoiit Moruan," by Carl 
HoTPV. (Hoiiioniniin. 7s. M. not.) 

" Tlio .Viiiu'cliist* : Tticir Faith ati<l 'riifir Hi'cortl." 
by K. \'i7,<>tolly. (I,.iiio. IflM. fid.) 



" In«i>ir4 (I Millioniiin*!.' 
Hioliiir'U, :U. 6.1.) 



l>y Stanley Lim. ' ((;. 



Men lik 
.in^ active 
them ? 

,As humli 
wonder and 



Morgan are 
world forci>s 



no longer jiortents, they 
: and who mav control 



<• pawns in the game, we can onlv 
wait, hoping that in some way. as yet 



306 



The Review of Reviews. 



uinouched, these gods may be amenable at last to 
the hnvs of heaven. The master of armed millions 
must wait on their will or court disaster, and the 
peoples of the earth can only pray that they may 
be as necessary to the millionaire in the future as 
they have been in the past. 

Not that J. Pierpoiiit Morgan is a tyrant, for, if 
not the mildest-mannered of men, his biographer 
impresses us with the fact that this emperor of 
world linance fully recognises that : — 
It is excellent 

To have a giant's strength ; but it is t3'raunous 

To u.se it like a giant. 

Indeed, there is nothing to fear, for Mr. Carl 
Hovey pictures the most amiable person, whose 
financial coups are more or less object-lessons in 
public philanthropy ; and have we not Mr. Stanley 
Lee in our mid.st, thanking God that all is well 
with the world in its sitrange dependence upon the 
money kings for all blessings and ultimate good? 

The old-fashioned democrat who has had visions 
of the triumphant progress of the nations must be 
reduced to despair when he finds that when the 
people are sick, the only physician who can be 
called in — if he will come — 'iis his lifelong enem\-, 
the much becalled millionaire. 

If he will -come — "aye, (there's the rub" — but 
we may take comfort, for we gather from his bio- 
grapher that, in spite of external brusqueness, Mr. 
J. Pierpont Morgan possesses the perfect bedside 
manner, and when the need is real his .ser\'ices may 
be relied upon, and, in fact, as oonsulting special- 
ist, his prescriptions have a\-erted more than one 
financial disaster. In spite of prejudice, the public 
is forced to refx>gnise a benevolent despot, who in- 
sists on playing thf jiart of hiappv Providence to 
derelict railways, wobblv .stet-l combines, etc., 
threatening to wreck themiselves, and to oxerwliflm 
others in their ruin. 

This benevolence is all to the good ; but what if 
our Lfird and King hardens his heart, and is con- 
cerneil to turn wr«^ker ? In this ca.se the public 
would ])roi)abiy \vi more ready to as.sess the mis- 
chief than the good works of which they .suspect 
nothing — or perhajxs it would be- more correct to 
Say that they suspect everything. 

Mr. Morgan i.s many-sidtxi in his interests, being 
a keen yachtsman, a gcxHl farmer, and, as all the 
world knows, a ]iatron of the arts without a peer ; 
education and religious caustrs claim him avs a 
friend, but, strangely enough, he does not pretend 
the least interest in politics. Mr. Ho\'ey tells us 
that when the Genn.ui l-lmperor sought to discuss 
Socialism with Mr. Morgan, he found his gu«=^t 
utiinterested, presumably, in such a minor topic. 
A little matter which may keep an emperor awake 
at nights, hut to a multi-millionaire a matter of 
small import ! Probably this aloofness from poli- 
tics is ,1 matter of self-j»res^rvation,, an in=tini.t 



witli the minev m.ikei 



rtYafkcl m;uiipt,'laror. 



The politician is, at least, under the necessity < i 
appearing to Ije honest and above board, and this. 
as may l>e imagined, may be a self-impo.sed handi- 
cap to the financier ; further, the politician has 
his ups and downs, whereas for the shrewd master 
of finance there should be no " downs," only on 
the other fellow. 

There are, howe\er, two sides to e^•erything. and 
it remains to be seen how long our ma.sters c.ui 
afford to remain outside the political arena. 

II. — The Anarchists. 

Mr. Vizetelly's liook is somewhat of a pot-boiler. 
It is more of a sensational catalogue of the crimes 
of the madmen v/ho wish to make themselves fam- 
ous by murder and. to inaugurate the millennium by ■; 
massacre, than a comprehensive philosophical sur- 
vey of one of the most painful phenomena of men- 
tal disorder. Nevertheless. "The \\'riting on the 
Wall " would ha\e been an appropriate title for 1 
A|r. Ernest Vizetelly's book. The Anarchists: their 
Faith and their Record. It is true that many <..| 
the regicides of the jjast two decades were men of 
the baser sort ; but when one reads the death-roll — 
Camot, the Emiires.s Elizabeth, King Htrmbert, 
President McKinlex — one is forced to realise that 
here is something in the nature of a world mow 
ntent. The self-ai)i)ointed assa.ssins, whose courage 
and fanaticism is admitted, do not leave room for i 
doubt that they Axe the devotees of a religion which : 
numbers many adherents in evers countrv which i 
boasts a civilised go\ernment. 

Let those who sit in comfort review in im|iaritii,il 
mood the history of the reigning houses of Eurr>]H 
(including something of the endle.ss intrigue of th 
master churchmen of the ages) ; the Newgate , 
Calendar will 'm.ike more moral reading. If the . 
comforitable citizen cannot in very truth acquit the 
world's rulers of .ilmdst e\-ery concei\-able (or incon- 
ceivable) crime, what nf the <-itizen who is no citizen, 
possessing the right to exist, but no right to li\-e? So 
long as he remains ignor;int all is well, but when he 
has re.id the indictment, and, reading, understands, 
it is no longer the same; his hunger — his spiritual 
hiuiger--does the resit, for these men-deriding our 
" ordered chaos " are not s^heei" wol\-es. 

The men of the International iielieved in lilierty, 
and their hatred turned to all those who represented 
the re.sti-iction of the individual — V\\\g% and their 
.satelites. The hideous things done in all ages 
under tlie aeg.is of law and order served the-m for 
an um'uding text, and the Anarchist took up the 
holy war with such effect that Mr. Viz( telly's three 
hundred pages only suftice to outline stmie details 
of their bloody campaign. 

Even i>e.aceful England has .served the turn of' 
the Anarchist, imti.i we are threatened with the 
registration of every foreigner who reaches the.se 
fj:i?rdly sh'^r<?<!. That we have gc/ne scathless is due 
not to an ill-plnoed ho-spitalitv, but \^ the toleration : 

. i 



Books of the Month. 



307 



which, thank God, is still numU-reil amongst our 
proudesPt assets ! The briefest stmly of Mr. Vize- 
telly's book proves conclusively that " stern repres- 
sive measures " are followed by doses of dynamite 
which these fierce surgeons deem to be a sjieciJic 
against that distenijx-r of law and order from 
which we suffer. Vou may not argue with Anarch- 
ism ; to liullv is useless, to reason equally vain. 
What, then, remains? Nothing short of the perfect 
way. Society beliexes in wajr and bloodshed ; the 
Anarchist is a man tif |)eace. Society believes in 
the chiicanejy anil stupidity of the law ; the Anarch- 
ist seeks to avoid that fir.st-born of the father of 
lies. Society helitnes in the lirm hajid of authoritv ; 
the Anarchist knows that hand to be cruel ; he 
Would restore Kden, even though to do so he would 
plimge us all into hell. 

Whether w<- l)elie\e and endure, or accept a com- 
promise or nukeshift, our Anarchist friend (for in 
theory he is no man's enemy) knows a la^itter wav. 
He is the complete ideaJist of imagination all com- 
jjact, and the task for mcxJem civilisation is to do 
its l)est to take whatever few grains of wheat are 
to Ik? found in these " despised and forsaken of men," 
and winnowing the chaff from the grain, reali.se 
something of the hopes that dimly stir the heart and 
br.iin of the dumb millions who only become 
-Anarchi-sts when they lose their wits. Is it not writ- 
ten, oppression will drive even a wise man mad? 
And many of the \octims of oppre.ssion axe far from 
Ijeing wise to start with. 

HI.— THK AP(i.SlLK. 
Mr. .Stanley I,ee is an .American who has an eye 
to see and a ix,'n with which he can record what 
he sees, and. what is more imi^rtant still, he has 
a mind capable of ,sei-ing and interpreting the signs 
of the times. The title of his lxx)k, " Inspired 
Millionaires," has misled many. Inspired employ- 
ers' managers would convey his meaning IxjCter. 
But the title doi-.s n<< m.itter. The message of the 
book is the main thing. That message is that we 
stand at the |)arting of the ways. The old indi- 
vidualism, with it^ diMtriiie of laissez fairc, and 
" the <le\il take the hindmost," is dead and done 
for. The devil h.is got the hindmost, and is using 
them in the sha|K' of .Anarchists, syndicalists, and 
the like to play tli<- d<vil with .S(jciety. 'I'he future 
lies either wilh indivi(luali.st<<J S<x;iali' m or .socialised 
indi\idualism. Mr. .Stanley I^ee contributed la.st 
month to the Daily CliroiiicU and the Wistniitister 
two articles, extracts from which will .serve my turn 
better than any commeirts or criticisms of mv own 
to Set forth the true inwarilness of Mr. .Staiilev 
Ix-e's message. Spi-aking of Pierpoiu Morgan, Mr. 
Lee says: — 

In tlio li,-K'kKrnuii(l (if my mind, n-. I see Pirrpoiit 
MiiiKaM, tliero i» iilttiiv.s tlio man nlio will take liis 



pliico. :niil 1 iV't'l lliaL it I did not .-<■(• tlic man com- 
ing rapidly, who is ro take Mr. Morgan's place, Mr. 
Morgan liiinself wonid .seem to me to be a failure, a 
di.sa.stei', a closed wall at the end of a world. The 
man who takes Mr. Morgan's place will ju.stify Mor- 
gan's work l).v beginning to iivet lii.s vision on the 
world where Mr. Moriian's vi.sion leave.s off. As Jlr. 
Morgan lia.s fused railroad.s, iron, coal, .steamships, 
seas and cities, the next iTidnstrial leader will fuse 
the spirits and the wills of men. The individualists 
and the Socialists, the aristocracies and democracies, 
the capitalists and the lal)ourers will be welded to- 
gether, will be fu.sed and transfu.sed in this man and 
men like him, into their ultiniate, inevitable, inex- 
tricable mutual interests. 

The new heaven and the new earth may prove 
to be au individualised Socialism, or it ma.y jje, as I 
have believed, a socialised individualism, but what- 
ever it Ls. the great common ground that is now 
made ready for it will be largely owed by this world 
to John Pjerpont ilorgan. 

In an admirable article in the '[Wstminslcr Gazette 
on " The Striker as the Xew Machine for Making 
("rowds Think,'' Mr. Lee thus states his view of 
the true solution of the industrial i)rol)leni. To him 
force is no remedy — 

One cannot help being an;iered liy force, liecause 
one knows that it is noi only a remedy, but is itself 
the cause of all incompetence and blindness in busi- 
ness. Force merely heaps incompetence and blind- 
ness up, postpones co-operation, defeats the mutual 
interest which is the very substance of business effi- 
ciency in a nation. Force is itself the injury, mouiit- 
in<; up more and more, which it seeks to cure, 

I'he most, likely way to prevent indu.xtrial trouble 
would seem to be to have employers and managers 
and foremen who have a genius tor getting men to 
believe in them. We are getting smoke-consinners, 
computing-macbines. and the rext contrivance is 
going to be the employer who has the understanding 
.spirit, and who sees the cash value of human genius, 
the value in the market of a genius for being fair 
and getting on with people. 

Success i.s the .science of being believed in. I'ndcr 
present conditions, if we have in eacJi iiulustry one 
.<jinglo (•ompet(Mit-employing firm, with brains for 
being fair and brains for beinp; far-sighted, and for 
being tbougblfiil for othei-s — in short, with brains 
for bi'ing believeil in — the control of that industry 
soon falls into their hands. 

After a reference to the taxjcab strike Mr. Lee 
humoroti-sly suggests th.at employers should l)e com- 
pelled to go about the world with fare recorders 
on their b.tcks. This Ix-ing impassible — 

The only pos.sible alternative is to have in charge 
men with enough genius for being believed in and 
for taking nu^.'isures to be believed in to keep em- 
ploye<\s believing in spit<> of sccrec.v. I'nder tlicwo 
conditions it eannoi be long bifor(> we will .see in 
every busiiuvis, on beliall of einployeis and employees 
both, blio men being put fornard on both .sides who 
have .'i genius for being believed in. Employers with 
the power of in.sniring more anil better work from 
their workmen. Labiiiir men with the power of iu- 
spiring iiiijdoyers to believe in llii'in. inspiring em- 
ployers to put up money, .slock, or profits on their 
liwlief — on till- belief that workmen are <iipable of the 
highest i|Uiilities of manlKiiMl — hard work, loyalty, 
persistence, and fnitli toward a commiui end. 



INSURANCE NOTES. 



THE 



The balance-slicot of the Colonial Bank of Austral- 
asia Ltd. for the half year ended 31st March, which 
appears in these columns again shows very satisfac- 
tory expansion of the Bank's business. The net 
profits amounted to i'28,8G3, being £41.55 in excess of 
the previous half-year, and are the highest on record. 
The deposits amounted to £4,157,674, showing an 
increase of £361, (JOO for the past twelve months. 
Advances amount to £3,191,000, beino; £329,477 
higher than a year ago. To the net profit is added 
a balance forward of £1'2'J1, making the total avail- 
able for distrilnition .£30,084. A dividend at the rate 
of 7 per cent, (ler annum on botli Preference and Ordin- 
ary shares is declared, absorbing £15,375; £10,0CK.) is 
added to Reserve Fund, making that fund £180,000, 
an increase of £20,000 for the past twelve months ; 
£1000 is placed to the Officers' Provident Fund, and 
the lialance, £3709, carried forward. A comparison 
of principal assets for the three last half years is as 
follows : — 

March 31, Sept. 30, March 31, 

1911. 1911. 1912. 

£ £ £ 



Cash items, 
tances in 
situ, etc. .. 

Premises, etc. 

Discounts and 
vances 



remit- 
tran- 



ad- 



1,800,093 
217,778 



1,334,531 

215,294 

3,145,503 



1,839,733 
210,615 



3,190,979 
Bank re- 



very successful 
is evidenced by 
figures for the 



2,861,-501 

The continued successful progress of the 

fleets credit on the management, and shareholders 

may congratulate themselves on the highly satisfac 

tory position of the Bank, and the 

half year it has experienced. This 

the following statement of leading 

last five half years : — 

Net 

Profit. 

£ 

... 24,416 

... 24,509 

... 24,708 

... 25,625 

... 28,863 



March 31, 


1910 


Sept. 30, 


1910 


March 31, 


1911 


Sept. 30, 


1911 


March 31. 


1912 



Deposits. 

£ 
3,723,926 
3,493,696 
3,796,311 
3,789,625 
4,157,674 



Advances. 

£ 
2,850,829 
2,928,324 
2,861,501 
3,145,503 
3,190,979 



An appalling shijujing casualty has marked the 
month, the mammoth 4.'), 000 ton "White Star liner, 
" Titanic," while on her maiden voyage from South- 
ampton to N(nv York, having collided with an ice- 
berg at twenty minutes before midnight on Sunday, 
the 14th ult. The vessel carried at the time a total 
of 24.'iO in passengers and crew, and while orders 
wore immediatcl.v given to man the boats, many on 
board thoiiglit there was little likcliliood of the vessel 
sinking. Women and cbildien were given preced- 
ence, and were quickly taken off the disabled 
vessel.** So badly was slie damaged that two hours 
and forty minutes after the collision she disappeared 
b(>neath the waves, over IfiOO persons losing their 
lives. No shipjjing disaster has ever been of such 
magnitude, not oidv for the fearful loss of life, in- 
cluding man.v notai>lc' men of workl-wide fame, but 
also from the financial as|)ect. The "Titanic" cost 
£1,250,000 to build, and the liner and cargo were 
insured for £2,3.")0,(KK>, .\dded to this is the ])ers(inal 
baggage of the 2400 persons on board. Many mil- 
lionaires and their wives were iiiiuing the passc'ii- 
gers. and their diamonds and other valiial)les would 
total a large sum. The life insiiraiices on many of 
the passengers would run into hug(> aiiKuints. in addi- 
tion to which is the compensation to the crew, for 
which the White Star Co. is liable. All told, the in- 



COLONIAL MUTUAL 
FIRE 

INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED. 



FIRE 

ACCIDENT- 
EMPLOYER'S LIABILITY - 
FIDELITY GUARANTEE - 
PLATE-GLASS BREAKAGE 
MARINE - 
BURGLARY 
LIVE STOCK 



INSURANCE 



OFFICES : 

MELBOURNE— 60 Market Street. 
SYDNEY— 74 Pitt, Street. 
ADELAIDE— 71 King William Street. 
BRISBANE— Creek Street. 
PERTH— Barrack Street. 
HOBART— Collins Street. 
LONDON— 77 CornhiU, E.C. 

WALTER TUCKER, 

General Manager. 

IHE EQIITY TRUSTEES, EXECIIORS, AND 
AGENCY COMPANY LIMITED. 

RESERVE LIABILIIY. £100.000; GUARANTEE FUKD. £10.000. 
BOARD OF DIRECTORS Edward Fanning. E»q., Chairman ; W. 
H. Irvine, Elq., K.C., M.F , Donald Mackinnon, Eeq., ML.*.; 
B. G. M'Outcheon, Esq.. M LA.: Stewart Jlo/.rthur, E»q. 

Registered Office: No. 85 Queen Street, Melbourne. 

ThiB Company in empowered by special Act of Parliament t* 
perform all olaSBPfl of trustee bueiness. JOEL FO.\, Manager. 
O T MARTIN, Aasistant Manager. 



CLEMENT H. DAVIS. 

Incorporated Accauntant, Specialist for Installing 
Latest American Office Bookkeeping Systems, viz.— 
Looseleaf or Perpetual Ledgers and Card-Ledgers 
Correspondence, Filing, Adding and Posting Machines, 
&c., &c. 

ROYAL BANK CHAI\/1BERS. MELBOURNE. 



surance loss cannot fall far short of £.5,000,000, and 
easily eclipses the loss in a single casualty in the 
liistoVv of insurance. 



A trial was recently given before the Victorian 
Board of Public Health of a new safety device to he 
ii.sed in ca.se of fire. The apparatus is a simple one, 
and occupies littli' space. The ]iriiK-iple is a rope 
running on a pulley wheel with a rim brake, and so 
coii.structed that if the rope runs out at a certain 
speed, the lirake is brought into action, and the 
speed checked. A trial of a person lowering hiin- 
.self from an upper window was given, and was very 
successful. 



309 



THE COLONIAL BANK OF AUSTRALASIA LIMITED. 



THE THIETY-BIGHTH RKPORT OP THE DIRECJTORS 
Of 
THE COLONIAL BANK OF ADSTR.U.ASIA 1>IMITED. 

To be Presented lo the Shareholders at the Thirty-Eich:h Ordiiuu-y General MEETING, 
126 Elizabetli-street, at noon oa IHiesday. 30th April, 1912. 



to be held at tlie Bank, 



REPORT. 

The Directors beg to submit lo the Shareh<ilder3 their Tbirly-eiehth Report, with a Balance Sheet 
and Statement of Profit and Ixjss for the Half Vcar ended 31st March, 1912. <luly audited. 

.\fter providing for Expenses of Management, Interest Accrued on Deposits, Rebate on Bills Currenrt, 
Tax on Note Circulation. Income Tax, Land Taxes, and making provision for Bad and Doubtful l)er)i8, the 
met profit amounted to £28,863 8 8 

Brought forward from 30tb September, 1911 1,220 19 

Which the Directors propose to apportion as followB. \iz. : — 
Diviilerid at. the r.ile of 7 per cent, per annum on Prefei'cnce .Shares 
Dividend at the rate of 7 per cent, per annum on Ordinary .Shares 

To Reserve Fund (making it £180,000) 

To Officers. Provident Fuiul 

Balance carried forward '■- 



;30,084 


7 


8 


:i0,641 


10 


9 


4.733 


5 


6 


10,000 








1,000 





U 


3,709 


11 


6 



Dr. 



£30,084 7 8 
The Dividend will be payable at the Head Office o i and aftir the 1st i!ay, and at the Branches on 
reteipt of advice. 

The thirty-eiKhth Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders will be held at the Head Office of the 
Company. 126 Elizabeth-street. Melbourne, on Tuesday, the 30tb day of April, 1912, at noon. 

By Order of the Board, 

Bli.iaj)[' PAXTON, 
Melbourne, 16th .Vpril, 1912. General Manager. 

BALANCE SHEET OF THE COLONIAL BANK OP AUSTRALASIA LIMITED. 

For the Half Year Ending 31st March, 1912. 

(INOLCDING LONDON OFFICE TO 291h FEBRUARY, 1912. 



Or. 



To Capital Paid Up. viz: — 

31.184 Preference Shares 

paid in cash to £9 15/- 

per Share £304.044 

77.278 Ordinary Shares 

paid in cash to £1 

15/- per Share 135.236 10 



By 



Reserve Fund 
Profit and I/>«s 



£439,280 10 

180,000 

20,084 7 



Notes in Circulation 

Bills in Circulation 

Balances Ihie to other Banks 
Government Deposits — 
Not l>earing interest, 
£80,375 16s. 5d.; be;iring 
inU-rest, £444,674 Os. 6d. £525.049 16 11 
Other Defjosits — i{«bate and 
Interest accrued^ 
Not bearing interest, 
£1,641,005 29. 5d.; iMjar- 
ing interest, £1,991,619 
3». 8d 3,632,624 6 1 



£639.364 17 8 

27,758 

415.896 16 3 

633 10 11 



Coin. Bullion, Australian 
Notes and Cash at 
Bankers, £752,927 5s. lOd.; 
Money at Call and Short 
Notice in I/ondon, 
£175.000 £927,927 5 10 

British Consols. £70,668 156. 
2d. at £77 per cent., 
£54.414 18s. 9d.: Victoria 
Oovernmeiit Stock. Metro- 
politan Board of Works, 
and .Municipal Deben- 
tures. £80.351 48. 3d. 134.766 3 

Bills and Remittances in 
transitu and in Lon- 
d .11 752.547 4 

Notes and Bills of other- 
Banks 3.268 

Bilancea due from other 

Banks 19,705 17 9 

S'.amps 1,518 5 4 



- 4,157,674 3 



Real Estate, consisting of — 

Bank Premises 

Other Real Estjite 

Hills Discounted and Other .Xdvances. 

cxi'lHsive of provision for Bad or 



-£1,839,732 15 11 



201,767 15 
8,847 10 



niubtful Debts 



3.190.979 6 10 



£5.241,327 7 10 



i'>iiilnKent LiabilitlM. 
per contra 



£218.809 13 6 



Liabilities of Customers 
atid others in respect of 
CoiitinEent Uabilities. as 
per t>>ntra 



£5.241.327 7 10 



218,809 13 6 



To Current 

rents. 

Note. Ini 

Transfer 

Balance 



expenHCfl 
reiKiirn. sT 
-onie and 
to reserve 



iiK'liiding s 
alloncry. etc.) 
land taxes 
fund 



I'liOFIT AND IX)88 
•«. By 



£35.629 1 

2.273 1 

10.000 

20.084 7 


8 
2 

8 


£67,986 10 


(> 



ACCOUNT. 

Balance brought forw.ird 

Gross proHts for the half-yeiir, after 
allowing for interest. accrued on 
deposits, rebate on bills current, and 
making provision for ba<l and doubtful 
debts . . 



£1,220 19 



66,765 11 6 
£67,986 10 6 



To Balance 



NOTE.— The cusiomnry Auditor*' 
appear on the ofllcial report 



RE8EIRVE FUND ACCOUNT. 

£180.000 I By Balance brought forward 



I 



Transfer from r»rof1t and b's- 



£170.000 
10.000 



£180.000 



£180,000 I 
Roport iifi'l *-'^' IHri'i'tiirii' Hiatpnieiit. t«i cjiniplv with the " C»>inpaiiies' Act' 



310 The Review of Reviews. 



...How to Make Crop s Grow... 

A SPLENDID TESTIMONY CONCERMNG NITR0-6ACTERINE. 

The following appeared in the Wairarapa Daily Times, New Zealand, of January 4. 1912. 

After reading this even the most sceptical must be assured of the wonderful properties of Nitro- 

Bacterine. A letter from Mr. Wingate informs us that the weather was extremely unfavourable, 

and that the oats w'ere in stook for 12 days, two facts which make the results all the more astonish- 
ing. 

MITEO- BACT ERIITE. 
Effect on an Oat Crop. 

Mr. John Wingate, of Masterton, who has been 
experimenting for some time past with nitro- 
bacterine, and its effect on crops, has kindly sup- 
plied us with some figures showing the result of 
the application of the culture to a sowing of oats. 
Mr. Wingate set aside five plots, to which he 
applied various manures, and he kept a careful 
note of the cost of the different methods of treat- 
ment he used. The results may best be shown 
in the following form : — It may be added that 
Mr. George Dagg, a well-known farmer, did the 
necessary measuring and weighing, and compiled 
the figures quoted. 

Plot r, treated with li cwt. of mixed basic 
slag and superphosphate, not inoculated with 
nitro-bacterine, ga\e i ton 12 cwt. 16 lbs. Cost 
of manuring : 9s. 

Plot 2, treated with i| cwt. super-phosphate 
per acre and inoculated with nitro-bacterine, gave 
2 tons 5 cwt. 2 qrs. 24 lbs., and cost 9s. 9d. 

Plot 3, treated with i^ cwt. mixed basic slag 
and superphosphate inoculated with nitro-bac- 
terine, gave 2 tons 15 cwt. 2 qrs. 24 lbs., and the 
manuring cost 9s. 9d. 

Plot 4, treated with li cwt. of basic slag in- 
oculated with nitro-bacterine, gave 2 tons 10 cwt., 
and the manuring cost 9s. gd. 

Plot 5, inoculated with nitro-bacterine only 
(fourth crop without any other manure), gave 2 
tons 12 cwt. 16 lbs. Cost of manuring: 9d. 

A study of plots i, 3 and 5 is well worth 
while. No. i, the only plot without the culture, 
although expensively manured, gave the poorest 
return. The best results, irrespective of cost, 
were obtained from plot 3. Easily the most 
lirofitable return was from plot 5, which, althdugh 
it was without the exp<'nsive manures used in the 
other plots, was only three hundredweight brliind 
number 3. 

Send for Trial Packet to " Nitro-Bacterine," "Review of Reviews" Office, T. and 
•Q. Life liullding, Swanston Street, Melbourne. Tasmanian orders should go to 

Messrs. W. D. Peacock & Co., Mobart, and New Zealand to Mr. John Wingate, 
High Street, Masterton, or Mr. L. M. Isitt, 95 Colombo Street, Christchurch. 

When ordering, please state for what Crop the culture is required. 

Price, 7/6 per p.icket. 



The Review of Reviews. 



3" 



CULTIVAK ARTISTIC TASTE 



By buying our Masterpiece Art Portfolios. They give much belter value for the money than most 
of the prints which adorn ( ?) the walls of many a home. 

You can get them, if you order promptly, for is. yd. each, post free! The Collotype given 
away with each portfolio is alone worth double the money. 

Beautiful Half-Tone Reproductions of 
Famous Copyright Pictures. 

The pictures are printed on plate paper, average size 13 x 10 inches. Kive distinct sets are 
offered. F.ach set is enclosed in a mat pnrtfolii. Each Single Portfolio mailed for Is. 6d. (Is. 7d. 
If Stamps sent), or the complete set of 5 Portfolios sent for 7s. 6d. 

Contents of Portfolios. 



PORTFOLIO No. 2. 
Murillo for the Million. 

Si.x Pictures by Murillo, illustrative of the 
parable of the Prodigal Son, together with a pre- 
sentation plate of Raphael's " -Sistine Madonna." 

PORTFOLIO No. 4. 

12 Famous Pictures of Beautiful Women. 

Head of a Girl, with Scarf (Circuzc), The .Artist 
and Her Daughter (Mme. Lebrun), Madame Mola 
Raymond (Mme. Lebrun), Portrait of Mrs. Sid- 
dons (Gainsborough), The Broken Pitcher 
(Greuzc). Portrait of the Countess of Oxford 
(Hopner), The Countess of IJlessington (Law- 
rence), Lady Hamilton as Slinstress (Romney). 
Portrait of Madame Racamirr (David), the 
Duchess of Devonshire (Gainsborough), Mrs. 
Braddyll (Reynolds), The Hon. Mrs. Graham 
(Gainsborough), and a Collotype reproduction 
of Queen Alexandra (Hughes). 

PORTFOLia No. 5. 
Various Pictures. 

A Hillside I'arm (Linnell), The Youth of Our 
Lord (Herbert). Krcc .^ncilla Domini (Rossctli), 



Rustic Civility (Collins), Salisbury Cathedral 
(Constable), Hurchell and Sophia in the Hay 
Field (Mulready), James IL Receiving News of 
the Landing- ot the Prince of Orange, 1688 
(Ward), The Pool of London (Vicat Cole), Recep- 
tion du Dauphin (Tito Lessi), and presentation 
plates " Joli Coeur," and " Blue Bower," by 
Dante Gabriel Rossetti. 



PORTFOLIO No. 6. 

The Royal Portrait Folio. 

Queen \'ictoria in 1836 (Fowler), Queen Vic- 
toria in 1851 (Winterhalter), Queen Victoria io 
the Robes of the Order of the Garter; Her 
-Majestv Oueen .Alexandra; His Majestv King 
Kdward VIL ; H.R.H. the Prmce of Wales; 
H.R.I I. Princess of Wales; The Princess Royal; 
The Coronation of Queen Victoria; The Marriage 
of (,)ueen Victoria; Windsor Castle; Balmoral 
Castle; Osborne House; and a Collotype picture 
of Queen Victoria at Home. 



PORTFOLIO No. 7. 

Two Fine Collotypes. 

The Cherub Choir (Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
P U.A.). Venice (I. M. W. Turner, R.A.). 



REMEfrtBER. Any single portfolio mailed to any address for Is. 6d. In Money Order or 
Postal Note, or Is. 7d. Stamps. The set of 5 portfolios sent for 7S. 6d. 

The Secretary Ballarat Fine Art Gallery says : - '• ( inc of the sets is wmth half a guinea." 



''TH[RfVlfW Of RfVITWS fOR AUSTRALASIA," 

rtWPtHA\CL & OtNtKVL lilt \SS\rR\NCt BlIIIDINO. SWA\SIO\-ST.. \1tlB0LRNE. 



31 -' 



Th<e Review of Reviews. 



BEAUTIFUL PICTURE OFFERED FOR ONE SHILLING. 



^ 




BLOSSOMS." 




>IJR beautiful Collotype Pictures, when framed and 
hung, add to the charm and attractiveness oi any 
home. Thev rire supplied at the extremely low 
price uf 2/6 each. Many experts have valued 
t!)ein at 10/6, so none can excuse themselves for having 
bare, unsigl tly walls on the ground of expense. 

We do not, however, want you to buy the pictures 
without knowing more about them, so we are offering to 
send Albert Moore's lovely picture " Blossoms," for the 
nominal price of 1/-, post free. Do not trouble to buy a 
postal note. — enclose twelve penny stamps in your letter, 
containing urder coupon, and mail to-day. 



LIST 



or COLLOTYPES. 

2/6 eacH. 



Mailed 



By J. C. McWhirter, 



I. BLOSSOMS. By Albeit Moore, R.A. (Size, 6} z 12 in.) 
to anyone sending Coupon for i/-. 

J. THE FIQHTINQ TEMERAIRE. By J. W. Turner, R.A. (18 
X 13J in.) 

3. JUNE IN THE AUSTRIAN TYROL. 

R.A. (i8j X 12J in.) 

A SUMMER SHOWER. By C. ■€. Perugini. (12J x 19 In.) 

THE MONARCH OF THE QLEN. By Sir Edwin Landseer 

(i4i» I4i ill.) 
BEATA (JEATRIX. By Dante Gabriel Rossetti. (14 x 18 in.> 
THE CORNFIELD. By Constable. (14! x i6i in.) 
THE VALLEY FARM. By Constable. (i4i x 16J in.) 

J CUPID'S SPELL. By J. A. Wood, R.A. (ujxi»iin.> 

I PROSERPINE. By D. G. Rossetti. (9 x 19 in.) 

(The sires given are of the actual Pictures, and do not include 
the white mounts.) 



4- 

5- 



These fa<nous pictures look besf )n a green or brown frame, with 
gold edging. The Collotype process excels all others. The Director 
of the National Gallery, Melbourne, says they surpass photographs or 
steel engravings. 



COUPON . 

Pleat* lend me "BLOSSOMS," tor whiob 
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Name 



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RcnVif of KpnVw*. 1,51 Iff. 



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Poets. 

Wordsworth (Pt. II.). 

[liberty, I'ronross and Labour (Whittier). 

1 be I'ltasiiris of Hope (Campbell). 

St. Gcoinc and the Dragon. 

John Drjden. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Talea. 

I'aradiso Lost (I't. II.). 

Child.- Harold (I't. 11.). 

\V. Ciillen Hryant. 

William Cowpt-r. 

I'oonis for Schoolroom and Scholar (Pt. I.). 



Novels. 

The Scarlet Letter. 
Aldersyde. 
Guy Fawkes. 

llir I'll III I'liriu of St. Dominic's. 
Cbailcs U'.\] alley. 
Stories of Sevastopol. 
Noemi, the Brigand's Daughter. 
Los Mi.scrablrs (Fantine). 
Les Mi.'-erables (Cosett«). 

Also 
Macaulay's History of England. 



We can also supply the following; books, stron;;1y hound in limp green cloth covers 
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.ibaUe.spenre's "Hamlet." 
Shakespeare's " Henry V." 
.Shakespi'are's " Honry VIII." 
.Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night." 
Shakespeare's " The Tempest." 
>h-ike^peare's ".Julius Cte^ar." 
Lamb's " Tnle« from Shakespeare." 
Seott'.i " MarmioM." 
Scott's " Lay of the T.,ast Minstrel." 
LiinKfellow's " Hiawatha." 



Word^worth'.s I'oems (I't I.). 
Moore's Iri.sh Melodies. 
Cliaucer's Canterbury Tales. 
Matthew .Vrnold : Hi-. I'oetry and Mes'^aae 
Hums' Poeni^. .Seleitions. 

Tennyson's "In Mrtuonani." and Other I'oems 
Poems for Srhoolnniin .mil S'lmlar (I't III ) 
Poem.s for Scbi>olri'nin and Siholar (Pt. IV ) 
Hymns that Have Helped 

National Songs livilh wokIs and Music, Tonic 
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The reading of GOOD HOOKS shapes a child's life natuially and pleasantly, and lays the 
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HHKIS IS TUB I^IST: 



.^sop's Fables. 

The Chief of the Giants 

Life's liittle Ones 

The Slave of the Lamp 

Fairy Tales 

Sunday's Bairns 

The Magio fjose 

The liedcross Knight — I'ait II 
Prince Want to Know 
The Christmas Stocking 

Illustrated Ifecitations — I'i.it IL 
Pictures to I'aint 
shock-Headed I'eter 

Little Sii<iw-\Vhit« 

(■iiIIimt's Travels. 
The ("hristiims 1 ret 



First Birdie Book 

Nursery lUiymes and Nursery Tales. 

The Story of the Robins 

lirynard the Fox. and Old Brer Kabbit. 

The Bales in the \\ ciods 

The Fairy of the Snowflakes. 

The Ugly Duckling 

More Nursery Rhymes 

The lOnchanted Doll 

Barim .Miinrhaiisrii and Sinliad the Sailor. 

Cual-.\luuk-l'eler 

Perseus the Gorgon Slayer 

The Frog Prince 

John Gilpin 

Country Scenes 

Alice in Wonderland 

Cecily Among the Birds 



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THE MANAGER. "Review of Reviews," 

Temperance and General Life Building, 

Swanston Street, Melbourne. 



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