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n — 



= ru 


= r-i 


= r^ 


— =o 




= 1-^ 

— a 



: — i-q 


== n 















Ph. D. (Washington.) 
Professor at St. Bonavent ore's Seminary, N. Y. 








9, Barcuy Str. 















Supenorum permissii. 

Nihil ohstat 

Remigius Lafort, S. Th. D. 


t Jolin Cardinal Farley 
Archbishop of New York. 

New York, April f2 2, 191 3. 







Pn. D. (Washington.) 
Professor at St. Bonaventure's Seminary, N. Y. 




9, Barclay Sir. 



Paragr. Page. ■ 

Preface vii 



1-9 Section I. Historical Sketch of Opinions bearing upon the pre- 
sent subject i 

10-20 Section II. A general Critique of former Opinions and the New 

Method of Investigation 12 


OF THE STEM "j^^ OP TO ilD")?. 

21-22 Section I. Negative Criteria 9 4 

23-47 Section II. Arabic 96 

48-50 Section III. Abyssinian 45 

51-56 Section IV. Chanaanitic 46 

57-69 Section V. Aramaic 54 

70-72 Section VI. Assyrian-Babylonian 66 

73-81 Section VII. The Substantive npi3 {Barihat) 69 

82-86 Section VIII. The Meaning tcProcubuit camelusn 76 



87-92 Section I. The Primitive Conception 82 

93-103 Section II. In Nomadic Life 86 

104-109 Section III. In Settled Life 96 



1 1 0-1 1 8 Section I. Barahat 101 

119-133 Section II. Baruk, Bank, Mabruk and Biiruk 110 

134-154 Section III. Bdraka and Barraka i95 

155-172 Section IV. The Passive and Reflexive Forms i43 

Index I. List of Lexicographical Works consulted and referred 
to in the present dissertation 161 

Index II. Forms explained in the present work 166 

Index III. Biblical Passages 172 

Diagram. Evolution of Meanings 179 


From remotest antiquity down to the present day, npn? 
lias been the one word used by the Semite to express his 
highest conception of prosperity, well-being and hap- 
piness, of the choicest goods both in the natural and 
supernatural order, in fact, of every boon proceeding 
from the Deity. We are accustomed to render this word 
by the generic term cr blessing it , which rendering, though 
probably the nearest and concisest that may be attempted, 
gives us at best but a ghmpse of the wealth of thought, 
sentiment and intimate life-story the Semite has hoarded 
up in the word ^^1^. Naturally, this term stands here for 
the entire category of the forms of the stem "jia associat- 
ed with the idea cc blessing ii , such as, bantk, bank, har- 
raha, bdraka, mubdrak, etc. To establish the origin of these 
forms, to trace their evolution and determine the import 
and significance of each one in particular, and of the ca- 
tegory itself in general, is the purpose and aim of the 
present dissertation. To attain this end, it became neces- 
sary that the scope of our inquiry should be widened far 
beyond the forms just mentioned. In fact, it has been 
found that only from a comprehensive semasiological study 
of the stem and all its derivatives in the different Semitic 
languages may we hope to be successful in obtaining 
results that shall be definite and satisfying. 

Semasiology, or the science of the meanings of words, 
is yet in its infancy. Its scope and principles have not yet 
been clearly defined, nor has a method of procedure been 
proposed that may be followed with absolute confidence. 

And though previous works of this kiod^'^ have been 
carefully and gratefully studied in preparing this thesis, 
yet as a whole it is the result of independent and pro- 
longed research. Various methods were tested, one after 
another of the different sources of information was con- 
sulted, argument upon argument was sifted and rejected 
before there was final assurance that a definite solution 
had been reached. If here and there the argumentation 
appears too diffuse, the reason may be found in the Intro- 
ductory Chapter in which all previous opinions bearing 
upon the subject are dealt with. It has been the aim of 
the author to answer or forestall all possible objections 
against his thesis and to estabhsh it from every point of 
view, animated as he is by the desire to set a limit 
once for all to the ever multiplying and conflicting opin- 
ions on a question Avhich for centuries has engaged 
the attention of Orientalists and Biblical scholars. A re- 
cent writer has given expression to the opinion that 
the original meaning of ~|"i3 (nD")3, etc.), must for the 
time being remain in the dark('^). Yet, salvo meliori jn- 

'^^ E. g. Bxvmssm, Begi'iff der Heiligkeit im A. T. in Studien zur Sennit. 
Religionsgesch. , II, i-i42: Kadtzsch, Die Derivate d. Stammes p~i im 
ahtest. Sprachgehr. , Tiib. (Uuiv.-Schr.), 1881; KucHE^'MEISTER, Das Wort 
D"'i<DT im A. T. u. s. Ubers, in d. versch. Spr. in Zeitsch. f. Wiss. Theol., 
XXX, 967-980; ScHROTER, Der Begr. d. Heiligkeit im A T vnd NT, 
Halle, 1899; L. Bach, Der Glaube n. d. Anschauuug d. A r(]"'DXn) in 
Beitr. z. Ford. d. christl. TAeo/., Giitersloh, 1900 (4"' year, 6*^ fasc), 
p. 1-96; Hermann, Die Idee der Saline im A. T. ("12D), Leipz., 1900. The 
foil, writings of W. Caspari deserve our special attention : Uber semasiolo- 
gische Untersuchungen am hebr. Worterb. in Zeitschr. f. altt. Wiss,, 1907, 
169-91 1: Die Bcdeutungen d. Wortsippe ''i'22 im Hebr., Leipz., 1908; Vorst. 
und Wort tfFriede-n i. A. T. in Beitr. z. Ford, christl. Theol., 1910 (XIY, 4). 
Other works of this kind are mentioned by Caspari, Uber semas. Unters., 
p. io3, notes 1 and 9. 

('' KiTTEL , Segen h Fluch in Realencyklop. f. prot. Theol. & Kirche , y ed., 

xvni,p. i54. 

fl?ic?o, it is coulidently felt thai this point at least, nat- 
urally the kernel of the thesis, has now been definitely 

Whatever bearing the present subject may have upon 
certain questions of religion and theology, it is well to 
emphasize that the philological point of view obtains 
throughout. The question to be answered is not so much, 
what the meaning is of the Semitic or Biblical Blessing, 
but rather : What is the meaning or signification of the 
Semitic word npns ? And while it stands to reason that the 
correct answer to the latter question contains more than 
half of the answer to the former, it Avill be found that by 
such method of procedure, philology may unexpectedly 
lend strong support to many a cherished traditional in-^ 

I take this occasion to express my sincerest thanks to 
the Very Bev. Edward Blecke, former Provincial of the 
Holy Name Province, and to the present Provincial, the 
Very Bev. Anselm Kennedy, for having so generously 
afforded me the means and the opportunity of pursuing 
my Oriental and Biblical studies. I also gratefully acknoAv- 
ledge the kind cooperation of my former lectors, es- 
pecially of the Very Bev. Benedict Boeing, Lector of 
S. Theology, and of the Bev. Paschal Bobinson, Lee. Gls. 
To the latter as well as to my colleague, the Bev. Ste- 
phen Donovan, Lee. Gls., I am deeply indebted for val- 
uable assistance in the immediate preparation of this 

For helpful suggestions my grateful acknowledgments 
are due to the Very Bev. Doctors H. Poels, F. Coin, 
B. Butin and J.-B. Chabot, who has lent me generous 
assistance in seeing the Avork through the press; also to 
Prof. Ignazio Guidi and to Bev. Father Zephyrin Biever, 

the venerable pastor of Beth Sahiir near Bethlehem, Pa- 

In particular I am under obligation to \ery Rev. Prof. 
H. Hyvernat, whose kind and generous assistance, dis- 
interested counsel and scholarly advice have never failed 
me during the years I have known him, especially in the 
preparation of the present dissertation. 

The abbreviations occurring in this work are self- 
explanatory. As regards Biblical references it has been 
found best to name the Books of Scripture as they are 
in the Septuagint, respectively the Douay Version. The 
numbers of the chapters and verses, however, are those 
of the particular text or version referred to in each in- 
stance. For the Hebrew Old Test. 1 have followed the edi- 
tion of the Massoretic Text (M. T.) of Baer and Delitzsch 
(except Ex., Lev., Nu., Dt.. which are quoted from Kiltel's 
edition); for the Septuagint (LXX) the edition of Swete; 
for the Greek New Test, the edition of Brandscheid; 
and for the Peshitto (Pesh.) the edition of the Dominican 
Fathers of Mosul [Bibl. Sacra juxta Vers. Simpl quae dicitur 
Peshitta, 3 tomi, Mausili, iSSy-iSQi)^^). 

As regards the lexicographical material, upon which 
this dissertation is chiefly based, it may be well to note 
that for any form or meaning that may not be considered 

(i) D. V. = Douay Version; A. V. = Authorized Version; R. V. = Revised 
Version. — Iq order to obviate ail misunderstanding, the usual abbrevia- 
tions of the books of S. Scriptiu-e (accord, to D. V.) are here given Avilh 
the full name in parentheses : Gen(esis), Ex(odus) , Levi^iticus) , ^u(mbers), 
Dt (Deuteronomy), Jos(ue), Judg(es), Ruth, I, II, III and IV Kgs (Kings), 
I and II Par(alipomenon) , Esdr(as), Neh(emias), Esther, Job, Ps(alms), 
Prov(erbs), Eccles(iastes), Gant^icle of Canticles) , Ecclus (Ecclesiasticus), 
Is(aias), Jer(emias), Ez(echiel'), Dan(iel), Joel, Nah(um), Agg(eus), Zach^^^a- 
rias), Mali^achias) ; Mt (Matthew), Mk (Mark), Lk (Luke), Acts , Rom(ans). 
Gor(inthians) , Gal(atianfi), Jas (James). 

common property, the autliority is in each case mentioned 
either in the text or in the foot-notes. Further particulars 
will be found in the list of lexicographical works (Index I.), 
which, it is hoped, may be of service to those who are 
engaged in researches of a similar nature. 

St. Bonaventure's Seminary, Allegany, N. Y. 
Mav 1, 1912. 

T. P. 





=5<5>Cf- — ■ 


Section I. 


1. Before entering upon our subject, it will be well to give a 
brief sketch of the opinions hitherto advanced on the origin of 
the signification of n;"i3. As may be expected, they are numerous 
and widely divergent from one another, owing to multiple points 
of view taken by the authors. A synthesis of these opinions ac- 
companied by an appreciation and criticism of each one in par- 
ticular, will thus serve as an adequate exposition of the status 

Since the subject of this Dissertation is the signification, not 
of the Semitic Blessing, but of the word nD"i3, only such ex- 
planations come within our scope as are strictly philological. To_ 
simpUfy matters, it will suffice to point out in the present syn- 
thesis the main vital difficulty in the whole question, viz., the 
transition from the simple forms -p?, "ijia* with their sensible , 
significations «knee, to kneel », etc., to the derived forms nsna, \ 
~l")2, •^n3, etc., all of which contain the idea k blessing 55 («to 
bless, blessed 71, etc.). For, to bridge over the gap existing 
between these two groups of forms and significations has been 
the chief aim of all previous explanations. Hence, we feel our- 



selves dispensed from burdening the text with such minor 
details, as, for instance, the various theories on the onoma- 
topoeic nature of the stem "j^^ti); on its primitive bilitcral 
root'^'; as to whether the present stem has been transposed from 
another (^^; or whether the two aforesaid groups or forms have 
originated in two different stems or roots ('^'. Such and other 
secondary considerations will be disposed of in their proper 

t'' E. H. Redslob , Hebr. Obstetrices, Lelpz., i835, p. 3 f. (ap. Hoelemann, 
Bibclstudie7i , I, Leipz., 1859, p. i3o, noLe) : ctObiter moneo, verbum "ij^S, a 
quo derivandum est "!)")?, formam emollitam esse verbi p"lD, quod crepare , fra- 
gorem edere significat, vel potius hunc sonum ipsum exhibet. . . Itaque "^jTS propr. 
est fractio sc. crurum, ut germ. Bug i. est q^. Biegimg, Einbiig, der. a verb. 
beugen, biichen. Verbum Piei "!]"13 igitur prorsus convenire videtur eum latin, 
verbo precor, propr. plicatiim s. fexum i. e. Jlexis genibvs esse . . . inde suppU- 
care.n In substance, this is also the theory of Bottcher, Ausfuhi'l. Lehrbuch 
(lev Hebr. Sprache (ed. Miihlau, Leipz., i86(3-i868, 2 vols.), I, 536, a, b, y 
and 538, 9, i, |3 (")3 wbrechenn ~ ~j~)3 tteckig umbrechen??); Dracu, Lexicon 
Hebr. et Chald. (ed. Migne, Paris, 18^18), s. v.; First, Hebr. xind Chald. Haiid- 
worterb. (Leipz , 1876), s. v. ("ij^S neinbiegen, knicken^? - TjTS ffBiegung, 
Bug, daher Knie»). Cf. also Renan, Histoire generale et Systeme compare des 
Langues Seinit. (A*'' ed. , Paris, i863), p. 97; Mc Curdy, Aryo-Semitic Speech 
(Andover, 1881), p. 91 (who instances the Indo-Germ. stem bharg). 

<"^) According to some 12 (cf. Ges.-Kautzscu , Hebr. Gramm., 527*'' ed., Leipz., 
1909, 3oh), which may be regarded Proto-Semitic and Proto-Aryan (cf. Mc Curdy, 
op. cit., p. 99, 11 5), containing possibly the idea «to divide 57, or (accord, to 
Jastrow, Diclioiiary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Jerushahni , London 
and New York, 1886, s. v.) ffto hollow ost (cf. 113)", — according to others 
~\2, e. g. FCrst, Librorum Sacrortim Vet. Test, concordantiae Hebr. atque Chald. 
(Leipz., i84o) s. v. (= ffbeugenn). 

'■^' Viz. from 3DT (ap. Furst, Handworterb., s. v. "jHS; or vice versa i. e. 3DT 
from T13; but see Sguwally, Idioticon d. Christl. Paldst. Aramdisch, Giessen, 
1893, p. 89). More recently the theory has become very popular that 'j"^3, in 
the sense «to bless??, has been transposed from Assyr. havdbu or kardbu, see 
§ 8, i3, 1/1. Hence "^"j^ wto bless» would be distinct from "j"l3 ccto kneeb etc., 
see below. 

'*) With a view to accounting for all the meanings (espec. nD"13 ffpool«) ex- 
pressed by forms of the stem "j")3, a great many scholars assume two distinct 
stems, viz. I. "jTS (perh. onomatopoeic, see above; so Fiirst, Bottcher, etc.; or 
denominated from "!] "13, Franz Delitzsch, Gerber, cf. S9) tcto kneelw (also the 
advocates of transposition, see prec. note) — II. "j")3 (Fiirst ctsich stark ergiessenn , 
cf. riD^S; Bottcher compares "i"lD, U?TD nspreizen??, etc. = Breite - Segen; 
cf. Friccir. Del., Gerber. S 9). Cf, Gazet, S 6. 

"2. Ever since the present subject has been under discussion, 
the majority of scholars have believed that the concept of k bless- 
ing » originated in the idea of c^kneehng:^, and while it has been 
the uniform endeavor of the aforesaid scholars to substantiate 
their opinions with proofs and illustrations drawn from the Ri- 
tuals of Semitic peoples,' and especially from the Bible, still, 
when if comes to pointing out more precisely the exact nexus of 
the evolution of « blessing 55 from ^t kneeling », they diverge into 
four distinct groups of opinions. 

In the first of these we find such authors as de Caiasio'^^ 
Gesenius'-', Drach'^^, Fiirst'*^, Redslob^^', Levy^*^', Vigouroux '■", 
Nestle («),Dillmannt9',Lange (10), Griinbaum'i'^ and Payne Smith (12), 

C Marius de Calasio, 0. F. M., Concordantite Sacrorum Biblionim Hebraicorum 
(Rome, 1621, 4 vols) s. v. : «... Piel benedurit : complectitur p»-ecafto«em, gra- 
tulationem, gratiarum actionem, salutationeni , valedictionein , et omnes actus in 
quibus genua flectunlur, vel quae genibus flexis fiunt. . . n. 

(^) Thesaurus phil. crit. Linguae Hebraic. & Chald. Vet. Test, (a"'' ed. , Leipzig, 
t835-i858), s. v.: 1° Qal genuflexil ; Vi. 2° Deum invocavit, laudavit, etc., quod 
(it flexis genibus; d° fausta alicui adprecatus est; ^° bene dixit Deus homini. 
Cf. Gesenids, Hebr. &. Aram. Handworterb. (1 1'"" ed. ), s. v. 

C Op. cit., same as Gesenius. 

(*^ Op. cit.; assumes two stems "j")3 (see S 1); s. v. : beugen, krilmmen 
(d. Knie); kniebeugen (vor Gott), anbeten, etc. Pi. anbeten, anrufen (Golt), 
spgnen (von Gott), grilssen, etc. 

(^) See S 1. 

C*) Chalddisch. Worterb. iib. die Targumim (S** ed., Leipzig, 1881), s. v. : 
hniebeugen, etc., daber aucb sich vor Gott beugen, ura ilin zu preisen oder 
Jemand zu segnen etc.; cf. Levy, Neuhebr. & Chald. Worterb. (Leipzig, 1876), 
s. V. 

C' In Dictionnaire de la Bible (Paris, 1897 ff.), s. v. Benediction : Qal 
jlechir les genoux pour honorer Dieu; Pi. invoquer, etc. Du sens de benir Dieu on 
passa p. anal, au sens de benir les hommes. 

(*' Marginalien und Materialien (Tiib. , 1898), Marg. , p. 78. 

('' Grammalik d.Athiop. Sprache (2°''ed. by Bezold, Leipzig, 1899), p. i33 : 
1 3, segnen (durcb kniebeugen); cf. Lexicon Aethiop. (Leipzig, i865), s. v. : IV 1, 
genua Jlectere, veiierationis et adorationis causa, etc. 

('"' In Realenencijklopddie f. prot. Theol. & Kirche, XIV (Leipzig, 1861), 
319 f. : QaL in die Knie sinken; Pi Gott anrufen, etc., dann riickwarts zur Erde 
gewendet Gliick und Heil wiinschen im Naraen Gottes. 

(") Gesammelte Aufsdtze zur Sprach- u. Sagenkunde (Berlin, 1901), p. 3o8 : 
Qal {knien z. Gebet) and Pi. derived from "!j"1.3. 

('-> Thesaurus Syriac. (Oxford, 1879-1891), s. v. : Peal se incurvavit, fexit, 
spec, genujlexit; Pa. oravit, benedixit (omnes sensus de '!j")3 ). 

[8 a] — f^( 4 )<■*— 

who hold, in substance, that "!]")3 means «to genuflect, kneel 
(before God) 55; whence comes the form ij"!:! expressing the 

L intensity or repetition of the action (Piel), viz. rdo pray, 
adore, praise, greets, or, in general, «to bless??. Yet, they 
are by no means unanimous as regards the order in which 
the specific significations of "i)"!? have originated; for, according 
to some, this form expressed essentially and originally an act 
of adoration, according to others, an act of prayer and suppli- 
cation, and still according to others, an act of praise or any 
other act of divine worship. The meaning, then, of «man blesses 
man?? or of « benediction?? would thus arise in those instances 
where such acts imply prayer or intercession for others. 

Needless to say, this opinion at first sight appears very plau- 
sible. There seems to be no difficulty, at least from a modern 
standpoint, in reconciling these various acts of worship with 
« genuflection J? , although even our own Rituals are far from 
blending « praise and glorification?? with « genuflection or 
prayer??. But what must we conceive to have been the attitude 
of the ancient Semites in this matter? — Again, the transition 
from "ijis to I]")? seems to explain itself naturally from such data 
as the following : 1° the form Jl^;^ which according to the 
Syriac Dictionaries signifies «i. genuflection, 2. benediction??; 
2" the form hd^d (Neo-Hebr.) signifying «i. kneehng down, 
2. blessing (to bless)??; 3° the Peshitto renders the form nonn: 

in M.T. (Ps. 9.5, 6) by **ota«..o;.jaj «let us bless Him?? (cf. also 

Pesh., I Par. 29, 20). However, it remains to be seen whether 
these instances reflect the original meaning of the words or their 
later evolutions. 

Apart, though from what has been said, how are we to recon- 
cile the signification « God blesses man ?? with the above explana- 
tion? We will have occasion elsewhere to show that this signifi- 
cation was expressed by the intensive verbal forms in the 
diff'erent languages, probably, before, or at least simultaneously, 
with the other signification «man blesses God??. None of the 
authors mentioned explains satisfactorily by what association 

the same term expressing an act of prayer or divine worship 
(performed upon bended knees) came to assimilate the idea of 
«God bestowing a blessing upon a creature ». Gesenius had 
already recognized this weak point in his theory'^'. Moreover, as 
far as our knowledge of the Hebrew Ritual goes, kneeling is 
a ceremony pertaining to prayer, and not to the rite of bless- 1 
ing '^'. 

3. A second class of scholars derive their explanation from 
the oriental custom of genuflecting when two persons meet and 
salute each other. Hence, they assume the following stages in 
the evolution : -p3 «to genuflects — ^-13 «to salute, greet, bid 
farewell v — « to wish well , bless « , etc. Such is the opinion of 
Joann. Buxtorf, Simonis'^', Rosenmiiller '''' and others '^l 

It is true, indeed, that genuflections and prostrations form 
part of the salutations in use among the Orientals, yet, such 
extreme marks of reverence and condescension are of by no 
means ordinary occurrence in daily life, and certainly not among 
friends. Moreover, those formulas of salutation or greeting 
wherein a benediction ('^S"'^) occurs have a special significance; 
either because of the dignity of the person addressed (^', or 
because of the auspicious character of the occasion f'', or because 

(') Cf. Thes., I, 9 42. 

(^) Cf. Franz Delitzsch, Dei- Mosaische Priestersegen in Zeitschr. fur Kirchl. 
Wissensch. & Kirchl. Leben (Leipzig, 1882, pp. ii3-ii6), p. lai. 

'^) Gesenius, loc. cit. : tfJo. Buxt. , Jo. Simonis, al. a gemifectendo duciint 
valedicendi et salulnndi vim, hinc per melon, bene precandi, quod in salutat. 
fieri solet.» In his Lexic. Chald., Talmud, el Rabb. (Basel, 1689), however, Bux- 
torf appears to derive ^1.3 and "ijl? ttgenua flecteren from nsaiutare, benediceren , 
e. g. «Tp3 a Benedicendo, quod Benedictionibus genuum flexio adhibeaturn. 
So also Gastellus (Cassel) Lexic. Heptaglott. (Lond. 1669), s. v. 

W Scholia in Vet. Testam. (Leipz. , 1788-1885), ad Gen. 1, 29. 

(5) See also Sant. Pagnisus 0. P., Thesaurus Ling. Sanctae (Colon. Allobr., 
i6i4), s. v. : (Tsunt qui utramque significalionem compleclentes, exponant placide 
genua vel sermonem flectere, velut cum geniculatione alloqui : ut fit inter salu- 
landum, precand. , congrat. etc. 55 

('') Cf. Gen. 47, 7, 10; I Kgs i3, 10. See Jahn, Biblische Archdologie , 
(2"'' ed., Vienna, 1817 f., 2 vols), I, p. 3i8. 

(') E. g. on feast days, or after a long journey. 


[§/i-5] ~^>{ 6 )<^— 

of the distinctive meaning of some salutations adopted by certain 
religious sects '''. It is only in these instances that -pa may be 
rendered «to greet, bid farewell 55, althougli such rendering 
hardly conveys the import of the original (cf. § ikS). 

U. A third opinion is proposed by Bohle, who ventures a very 
abstract and spiritual interpretation of "ij^a _ •!]n3, viz., «se 
demittere, spec, genuflectere?^, and then goes on to explain, 
« Deus hominibus benedicens se quasi demittit et homines Deum 
celebrantes se coram eo demittunt; per metonom. precatio, 
gratulatio, etc. '^^?. Another author, Bate, seems to fancy both 
God and the human mind as bending down in the act of bless- 
ing (-ij-).?) ^^l 

Possibly, the idea «Deus hominibus benedicens se quasi 
demittit » may be reconciled with the Semitic notion of the 
Deity, provided it be of that realistic and corporeal form which 
distinguishes the anthropomorpliism we meet with in ancient Se- 
mitic writings'*'. It seems safe to say tliat all words expressing 
religious and spiritual concepts had originally, at least in their 
primitive roots, a sensible, concrete meaning'^'. However this 
may be, the above explanations of the ideas «God blesses usw 
and «man blesses (God) 55 are devoid of all objective foundation. 

5. The last of the four opinions based on the Ritual is this : 
"ijna «in genua procumberew, "^"13 «in genua procumb. jussit, 
i. e. benedixitw. Among the patrons of this view are J. D. 

''' Cf. the salutation common among Muslims, viz. a Peace bo on you!?) — 
reply : ffOn you he peace, and the mercy of God, and His blessings! [iva-barakd- 
tuh)n Lane, Maimers & Customs of the Mmkvn Egyptians (London, New York and 
Melbourne, 1890), p. 179 f. 

<^) Disput. 3. de form., $ 18 ap. Christ. Stock, Clavis Linguae Sanctae (Leipz., 
1712 , 9 vols), I, i55. 

'■'') Crilica Hchraea or a Hebrew-Eiigl. Diet. (London, 1767), s. v. '\12. 

'■'''> Cf. c. g. the expression Brt«/-5/i«majw («Dominus imbriumw); see Robert- 
son Smith, Lectures on the Religions of the Semites (2°'' ed., London, 1901), 
p. 106. Cf. also Ps. 29. See Chap. IIL 

'^) (Jf. HoELEMANN, BibUsche Grundbegriffe der Wahrheil in Bibelstudien, I, 
pp. 3 f. 

Michaelis^^' and Burger^-', who hold that at the more solemn 
liturgical benedictions the recipients bended their kneess as a 
sign of humility and gratitude towards the giver of the blessing, 
and that after this solemn ceremony all other benedictions and 
blessings are named. 

Apropos of this opinion Gesenius remarks : ^tneque is bene- 
dicenti ritus usquam memoratur in V. T., neque hoc pacto reli- 
quae significationes expediri possunt^^^?. It seems that sometimes 
one or the other circumstance mentioned in connection with a 
blessing or benediction would insinuate that the recipient was 
kneeling, yet in these cases his bodily attitude appears to be 
of so secondary a character that it can hardly be regarded as an 
essential or integral rite of the blessing ^'l Moreover, it is certain 
that the Hebrew Ritual, after it had become fixed, prescribed 

that the whole congregation should stand while the benediction^ v 

was pronounced over them *^l Again , that this fourth opinion fails 
to account, as Genesius points out, for the remaining signifi- 
cations of "ij")? is a defect common to all the opinions based on i 
the Ritual, including that of Genesius himself. ^ 

So much for the present. Other more serious and more gen- 
eral objections to the opinions just referred to may be dealt with 

6. According to Jastrow the evolution of T|n3 (biliteral root 
^^-"n^, ''^^) has taken the following course : «to cave out» 
(denom. nDi3, "ijna, N'3"n3, NnDiia ^something hollow, absur- 
dity??) —cc to select (conf. "iis), point out 55 — u to bless (li"i3 « cho- 
sen ??)''''. Another author, Cazet, puts it thus : T|"i3 cccreuser» 
(npia «creux??,i.e."i'3)- "iji? «percer, maudire (conf. Arab. 

'■^ Supplementa el Emend, ad Lexica hebr., GoLt., 1784-1792 (ap. Gesen. , 
Thes., I. cit.). 

(^) In Realenencyclopddie f. prot. Theol. & Kirche, XIV (a"* ed.), p. 3 A. 

W Thes., I. c. 

(*) Cf. Gen. 97, qG, 97; /18, i4. 

f^) Cf. Ill Kgs (S, 4-, II Par. G, 3; see Hoelehann, Bibl. Gntalt. d. Anhet. m 
Bibelst., I, i3y. 

(") Op. ciL, s. V. 

[8 7] ~«.(8> 

8. conj.)55. The latter, however, derives the signification « bles- 
sings in much the same manner as Gesenius i. e. from ctto 
genuflect 55'^'. The uncertainty and unrehableness of any etymo- 
logy based upon such undetermined biliteral roots will be dealt 
with more extensively further on (S i3). Besides, th^ forms of 
the stem p3 which have been utihzed to substantiate the present 
theory, i. e. to connect the ideas ranging between "iji? and the 
simplest root, are liable to various olher interpretations, as our 
tudy of the development of the stem "jT3 will clearly show. It 
will also be demonstrated that such meanings as wto cave out, 
to pierce through" are in point of fact unsubstantiated in any 
Semitic language. 

7. Friedrich Delitzsch is inclined to think that "jis has deve- 
loped its meanings from the same underlying idea as iva. For 
just as the latter stem has passed from the meaning of « walkings 
(cf "il^'N «step», etc.) into that of « making progress, having 
success w (cf. Ass. asdru ct heilbringend sein», asur ctheilbrin- 
gend»,Hebr. n.v*N «Heil [dem Manne]!w), so the stem "ji3 
came to designate both «kneew (as the means of walking, i]"]?) 
and « blessing, to bless 55, etc.'^l Cheyne, among others, favors 
this explanation ^^l 

Leaving aside the important consideration that certain deri- 
vations of "]"13 really express the ideas of tt progress, successor 
good fortunes (see S 108), Delitzsch's theory could be streng- 
thened by an appeal to such phrases as al-la-ka hir-ha-a-a «my 
knees are marchings (see §7 i)or'''73T'?"inN mn"' "■)3'''i(Gen.3o,3o) 
« . . .whithersoever I turned w ( R. V. ). The main question at issue , 
however, is: does "ij^a actually signify ttto march, walk 55 and 
has n2'r2 « progress, blessings developed organically, so to say, 
from that simple form and meaning, just as «progressusw has 

(') Genealogies des Racines Semitiques (Paris, 1886), p. 285. 

(^) Prolegomena eines Neuen Ilehr.-Avam. Wortpviuchs :. Alt Test. (Leipz. , 
1886), p. AG, note. Cf. Franz Delitzsch, Neuer Commentar iiber die Genesis, 
{b'^ ed., Leipz., 1887), p. 62. 

(') Encyclopedia Bihlica [fi vols, New York, 1899-1908), s. v. ffBlessingw. 

..^(9)^^ [8 8] 

developed from Kprogredi^i, or have we merely a case of an acci- 
dental coincidence, inasmuch namely as the idea of « blessing 55 
necessarily imphes that of « progress?) and the knee happens to 
be employed in vv^alking? It is evident that such questions can 
only be settled by a searching semasiological investigation into 
the stem "jis. 

8. A second opinion having reference to the Assyrian 
Lexicon holds that the stem T)3 in the sense of « blessing 5? 
is the result of a metathesis from the Assyrian harahu. Haupt 
appears to have been the first to call attention to the possi- 
bility of such transposition of the consonants -'l This view 
has the support of Konig (^karabu) ''^\ Nowack^^^, and Zim- 
mern '•^K 

To begin with, it might be asked whether the meaning of 
knrdbu is really identical with that of ps. In any event, the 
word karahu, the etymology of which has not yet received suffic- 
ient and satisfactory explanation, embraces a much less wide 
range of distinct and singularly expressive ideas than tj"i3; and is 
wanting in that peculiar and unmistakable tinge of primitiveness 
that Arabic J^U, for instance, gives evidence of. It was only at 
a comparatively recent stage in the evolution of "ij"]? and n^y^ , 
when the significations «to bless and blessing 57 had exchanged 
their primitive sensible associations for those more abstract and 
refined, that we could have spoken of ":]"i3 «to bless w as being 

C Schrader's Keilinschriften u. d. Alt. Test, mit Beitrajr v. P. Haupt (a""* ed., 
i883), p. 79. 

(^) Hist.-Krit. Lehrgebdude d. Hebr. Spvache (3 vols, Leipz., 1881-1897), 
II, I, p. A70. See also his Hebi-. & Aram. Worterbuch z. Alt. Test. (Leipz., 
1910), s. V. ~\12 : Damit hangt atich "i]"]?, etc., trpreisen, segnenn so zusam- 
rnen, class der assyr. Stamm karabu (trgeneigl s. , huldigenji ; Del., H.W.B., 35o; 
Harper, Ham.-Code o4, 167 : to bless, to pray) im unwiilkiirlicheii Zusammen- 
schauen mit barahh trknienn eine Melatiiesis erfuhr. 

(') The Jewish Encyclopedia (17 vols, New York, 1901-1905), III, 2/i3. 

(*' ScuRADEu's Keilinschr. u. d. Alt. Test, 'i^ ed., by H. Winckler & H. Zim- 
MERN (Berlin, 1902-1903), p. 611: vlcardbu sicher identisch mit "JlS.n 
Cf. Ges.-Buul, lleh\ & Aram. Ilandworterb. (ii"'ed., Leipz., 1905), s. v. II, 

equivalent to hardhu ccto be gracious, to homage, to bless '^^w. 
k more precise equivalent of kardbu in Hebrew Avould be the 
verb pn ctto be, act, favorably, graciously, kindly ». Compare, 
for instance, the use of this term in the priestly Blessing Nu. G, 
9 5 '^l It will also be remembered that Amiaud long ago rejected 
the present opinion, calling attention to the fact that the verb 
hardku existed also in Assyrian. And even if the text he referred 
to is to be read pardku, as is now commonly believed, still, the 
stem "13 certainly appears in the Assyrian words birku {^burku^ 
and Barilildtn (cf. % ih). Hence, before assuming a metathesis 
or transposition of "i"]? from kardbu, it would seem more profi- 
table to determine what etymological relation iji? or birliu « knee » 
bears to ij"]? and Barikildni (cf. '?ND")3, prop, name, Job 82 , 2,6). 
How it may have come about that, while all the Semites em- 
ployed the stem "i"i2 in the sense « to bless 51 , the Assyrians and 
South Arabians alone adopted the Avord hnrdbu, will be pointed 
out in § i/i. 

9. We come now to the last opinion, the exponents of which 
assume two original stems with distinct meanings, the one signi- 
fying « to kneel », the other rdo spread out, expand 55. Bottcher, 
who calls attention to such cognate stems as ""iD and uhD , regards 
«amphficare55 as the underlying idea of "jj")?, whence he derives 
the ideas «to praise, to greet, to bless, to make happy (begliic- 
ken); "ll"i2 tt praised, blessed (ampliatus)»; n:n| « blessing, boun- 
tiful gift(reiche Gabe)55(3). Gerber, however, considers -")? as a 
denominative verb and traces the original idea of « expanding 11 back 
to such ancient meanings of nD-)2 as (t numerous posterity 5; and 
« abundance of all good 55 (Giiterfiille). He adds that in Hebrew 
all words expressing the ideas of « happiness, well-being » were 
taken from such stems as connotate the idea of «araj)litude55, for 

Ci See Delitzscu, Assijr. Handworterb. (Leipz. , 1896), s. v. kardbu. Cf. Zim- 
MERN , op. cit. , p. 6 1 1 . 

(^) See Franz Delitzsch, Der Mos. Priest^rseg., p. 12a. 

(^' Lchrb. d. Hcbr. Sprache, loc. cit., et passim (see S 1); cf. Ahrenlese z. 
All. Test., by same author (Leipz., i863), p. i3. 

instance 3m, nn, ^••^■'(1). Lastly, Franz Delitzsch reduces the 
same original idea to its actual concrete and sensible meaning, 
viz. p.a «to spread out the body?? (as applied especially to the 
camel), in such wav that the knees (d''2')3) and the breast (Arab. 
bark « breast??, especially « camel's breast??) rest upon the 
ground. From this sensible ground-meaning and with reference 
to the Arabic a^Z («any good coming from God, especially 
such as continues and increases and abounds??) this writer 
would infer that the idea of « blessing?? expressed by npna is 
to be conceived as « expansion??, i. e. « prosperous increase 
or accession ?? '-'. Needless to sav, these scholars are unan- 
imous in supporting their theory by the word nDna «pool?? 
which, in their opinion, originally signifies « expanse of Ava- 

It were useless to deny that there is much to be said in favor 
of this present opinion. Omitting for the moment any precise 
analysis of the ideas, there would seem a priori less misgiving as 
regards the association « expanding, increasing, blessing?? than as 
regards «kneehng, praying, praising, blessing??. The former 
at least Avould leave no room for doubt as to whether such ideas 
could have been associated with what may have been considered 
a blessing in primitive and perhaps nomadic conditions. — But, 
does the simple verbal form actually signify «to expand??? 
Franz Dehtzsch indeed rightly observes that the verb is especially 
applied to the camel; yet, the ulterior question arises : does the 
action of the lying down of the camel really strike the oriental as 
« a spreading out (of the body) ??? No evidence has been produced 
that such is the case. And we are likewise equally uncertain that 
nD"}3 means « expanse of water??. Moreover, it also remains to 
be seen whether the ideas r increase and abundance ?? constitute 
the closest connecting link between nzyi ("i]"]?) and ■^jna («to 
expand???), or whether they are merely links in the long chain 

'') Die hebr. Varba denominaliva (Leipz., 1896), p. 317. 

(^) Der Mos. Priestersegen (see al)Ove S 1), p. ii3-i36; see also ComniPiilar 
iiher den Psaller ( 4"" ed. . Leipz. , 1 883 ) , p. 653 , and Neuer Comin. iiber d. Genesis , 
I. c, by the same author. 

[§10-ll] fr>{ 12 >CS 

of ideas or significations that n^i:^ has taken on at a more 
advanced stage of evolution. 

Section 11. 


10. The synthesis of the various opinions hitherto considered 
is in itself sufficient apology for submitting the subject to a new 
line of investigation. It will doubtless have been noticed that a 
satisfactory explanation of the transition "ijia-^ina still remains 
to be given, and, too, that the signification of HDin (l*)?, etc.) 
has not been fully entered into. In referring to the weaknesses, 
defects, inconsistencies, as well as merits, of the different opin- 
ions taken individually, we have made some endeavor to clarify 
the horizon and to point out from a distance, as it were, certain 
landmarks which may serve to direct us in a search for the true 
explanation. But before any such attempt, it will be well to begin 
with a more comprehensive critique of the different view-points 
taken by the above-mentioned authors and also of the different 
methods of treating the question, that in this wise, having seen 
where they have erred in principle, we may propose and outline 
a more adequate method of investigation. 

11. Naturally, the first and simplest reason why former 
attempts have failed is not far to seek. While several of the 
scholars above - mentioned have accorded our subject little 
more than passing notice, others have advanced sundry aspects 
of the question; as a rule, however, their explanations do 
not exceed what may be termed an extended lexicographical 

Now, when it is borne in mind that the stem p3 is in many 
of its derivatives common to all Semitic languages, and that the 
category npns, in the sense of « blessings, had already" occupied 
a commanding position in ancient Semitic thought and hfe, 
especially in the field of religion, it becomes plain that an 

— «.( 13 )<^— [Sia] 

inquiry into a subject enveloped in so much obscurity cannot 
be dismissed with a few passing remarks. It is only by compre- 
hensive and thorough treatment that any definite results can be 

A comprehensive treatment of the subject, however, must 
needs embrace all Semitic forms and words that bear, at least 
apparently, a genetic relation to the word or stem to be in- 
vestigated. The representative of such genetic relation is, in 
the present case, the stem "jis. To designate a representative 
of this sort German scholars employ the more appropriate term 
tt Wortsippe w , but as long as the word stem denotes the trilit- 
eral radical in contradistinction to the biliteral root, it may 
be appropriately employed in deahng at least with Semitic lan- 

12. In accordance with the programme just outhned, our in- 
vestigation will thus be extended to every single word in Semitic 
languages containing the stem "j^s, from the earhest literary mon- 
uments down to the modern dialects. The material gathered 
from these sources will embody the historical evolution of the 
stem and its derivatives. Outside of this there is also a prehis- 
toric evolution which is, however, accessible to us only by theory. 
The significan'^e of ibis latter period in the evolution of the stem 
may be gathered from th*? fact that the Semites probably employ- 
ed the sterti "i'l^ in the sense of « blessing ?5 long before their 
language or languages were consigned to writing. Hence', it is 
not at all impossible that, owing to the vicissitudes through 
which the Semites passed during those prehistoric times, a word 
of the significance and religious and sacred character of riDT^ 
should have become entirely disconnected from the primitive 
meanings of the stem; or that these very meanings should have 
been obliterated. True indeed, the fact that the stem "jia exists, 
in a great variety of meanings, in every Semitic language modern 
and ancient, would give us considerable assurance that ihe traces 
of any important change of meaning are yet to be found in the 
historical material at hand; yet, without forming a conception of 

[§i31 — «.( 14 )k^— 

its prehistoric existence, such historical material cannot be ade- 
quately explored '1^ 

1 3. However, the old saying A> quid nimis has its application 
in our present matter. There is naturally, of course, a strong in- 
clination to venture upon the etymology of the stem 1")3. Even 
apart from any questions concerning the origin of the stem or 
the original relation between its physical (sound) and psychical 
(meaning) element, it would doubtless be a matter of interest to 
know the original meaning whence the meanings of its deriva- 
tives have partly, at least, been evolved. Great caution is always 
advisable in answering such etymological questions. But this 
consideration apart, the manifold attempts made to reduce the 
stem ~p3 to its elementary constituents, both in structure and 
meaning, have taught us that any question concerning etymo- 
logy were better shelved in the present instance. 

Thus, for instance, while there may be excellent reason for 
regarding the biliteral root "i3 as the bearer of a certain idea 
, (e. g. «to divide 55) which at an early date underlay a whole cate- 
gory of Avords (n"i3, ps, etc.), yet, the attempt to determine the 
meaning of an individual stem from such a vague and undefined 
( idea has proved not only futile but even detrimental to the pro- 
posed investigation (see § 1, 6)'^'. 

The same holds true regarding the question of onomatopeia. 
Ahhough the comparison of such Semitic stems as piD, "p-j 
mD, etc. and the Indo-Germanic root bhreg^^^ (cf. prjywfxi, fran- 
gere, brechen, to break, etc.) would permit of the inference that 
the stem p2 must itself have originally expressed some such 
idea as «to break or bend?? (viz. the knee Tp^) or ttto divider 
(is), yet, such inference, apart from its uncertainty, has rather 
obscured than elucidated the thread of the evolution of the deri- 
vatives, especially of nD"i3. Such theories, no doubt, are of 

^^"1 Cf. Caspari, Uber semas. Untersuch. am hebr. Worlerb., p. 1 64-175. 
(^) Cf. Friedr. Delitzsch, Prolegomena, p. 188 IT. 

(''' See Brcgmann, Knrze Vergleich. Grammalik d. Indogerm. Sprachen (Strass- 
burg, igo'i), p. bih. 

interest and importance to the lexicologist ^^^ and the student of 
comparative philology, but when there is question of establishing 
the real meaning of individual stems or words they tend gener- 
ally to fill the mind with preconceived notions and are thus a 
hindrance in grasping the underlying elements and the import 
of the actual meaning. We had ample proof of this in § 1-6. 
Then, too, an exhaustive study and analysis of all the mean- 
ings of the derivatives of~i3 will forestall such other difficulties 
as : is it necessary to assume two stems with distinct meanings 
(cf. § i)^-)? or, is there any need to suppose that lis has been 
transposed from 212 {Jmrabuy^. 

1 ^. The fact that the stem 1")3 has not developed the meaning / 
of K blessing » in the Assyrian and South Arabian languages / 
seems to present a difficulty (S 8). For does not this ^absence 
bespeak the identity of "ji^ and kardbu, which latter word is 
used in the sense of « blessing, praying 55 both in Assyrian and 
in Minean? In answer to this difficulty it is well to note that both 
these peoples settled in fertile countries at a very early date, 
where they soon rose to a high degree of culture and civilization. 

The question now arises : did the stem "i"i3 express the idea ^ 

tt blessing '7 (^tto bless w, etc.) before or after the departure of 
these peoples from the other Semites? If after, then the difficulty 
would be solved. If before, the two peoples in question may have 
abandoned the word 71212 {'p^, etc.), — which in those primi- 
tive nomadic conditions had no doubt a strong homely coloring 
— for a term which better suited their new status and which 
they perhaps borrowed from the natives of their new habitat. 
The use of 212 itself clearly points to a highly developed Ritual 
(cf. Sabean 3")3D ;t the highly honored, worshipful », a royal title ^^'; 
also Minean 3n:D (^' and Ethiopic T'tH-ili « temple w), and 

'■> Caspahi, op. cit., p. 166 ff. , gives us valuable suggestions on this matter. 
'^^ Cf. Gasi'ari, op. cit., p. 170 , n. Ix. 

<'^ See D. H. Mijller, Wieiiei- Zeitschrift f. d. Kunde d. Morgenl., I, 102 
(he denies, however, the identity of 3TD and Ass. karabu). 

W HoMMEL, Siidarabische Chrestomathie {Munich, 1898), 127. 

[Si5] — «.( 16 )k-»— 

incidentaliy furnishes a proof of an early intercommunication 
between the inhabitants of Mesopotamia and Southern Arabia. 
For the rest, the proper name Bariki-ilani may be regarded as a 
remnant of "i"i3 wto bless?? (cf. '?iXDl3 §8) in Assyrian. If, however, 
no remnants of the stem 1")3 can be ascertained in the inscrip- 
tions of Southern Arabia, this may be ascribed to the fact that 
these inscriptions are not written in the living language of the 
people but are couched in stereotype phraseology"^. 

1 5. The most patent proof of the superficiality which charac- 
terizes former opinions on the evolution of npT3 lies in the in- 
veterate belief or supposition that "jis expresses the idea of 
K kneeling??. Now, our proposed analysis will clearly show that 
the verb i^y^ is nowhere, in ancient Semitic monuments and 
least of all in the Old Testament, employed in the sense of 
« kneeling or genuflecting??. Had this simple fact been taken into 
consideration the chief support of the opinions based on the 
Ritual would have fallen long ago. 

But further, is it at all certain or even probable that kneehng 
was practiced as a rite or symbolical action in connection with 
prayer at such early times as the evolution of npnn t^ blessing?? 
Avould demand? Scholars who lay the burden of their argument 
on this supposition do not steer clear of anachronism by a mere 
reference to the practice of genuflecting or prostrating, common 
to other ancient races no less than to the Semites, nor by an 
appeal to the finally developed Rituals. The question at issue is: 
did the Semite at that early date kneel down in the act of prayer 
and supplication ? A careful investigation of the scanty records 
that regard the ancient or proto-Semitic nations, especially those 
who led a nomadic life, will prove that in this regard also too 
much has been taken for granted ^^l 

'') Cf. BnocKELMANN, Gvundriss d. Vergl. Grammalih d. Semit. Sprachen, I 
(Berlin, 1908), § 28. 

(^' On the whole, kneeling in connection with prayer was not very common 
with the ancients (H. Lesetre in Diction, de la Bible, III, p. ig-j). In Greece, 
for inst., it was considered as hecoming Barbarians only {ibid.). And if the slothful- 

— w.( 17 )k-h- [§i5] 

Furthermore, it stands to reason that kneeling is everywhere 
regarded by mortal man as an act symbolical of humiliation, 
reverence and homage. How it could ever have come to sym- 
bolize praise and glorification, is quite unthinkable. Yet such 
symbolization is implied in the supposition that the meaning of 
":]n3 evolved thus : wkneeling-praying-praisingw. Nor can it be 
pleaded that the idea of t^ praising 55 was evolved only after that 
of « kneeling w had been obliterated, for we meet the former in 
expressions that have come down to us from prehistoric times 
(cf. the ancient formula nin"' -jnn and its Aramaic equivalent). 
A brief survey of the uses and meanings of the stem bbn t^to 
praise v in Semitic languages would disillusion anyone of the 
notion that among the ancient Semites a word signifying upraise 
or jubilation:^ could at the same time express the idea of sprayer 
and supplication (on bended knees) w^^^. And if the Levites 

ness and indifference in religions and ritualistic observance, that characterizes 
the Arabian Bedawi of to-day (Doughty, Travels in Arabia Deserta, 2 vols, 
Cambr. , 1888, passim; Cubtiss, Urseinitischo Religion im Volksleben d. heut. 
Orients, p. 100 f. ) reflects at all the religious spirit of the ancient Semitic 
Nomads and Bedawin, we may safely conclude that the rite of kneeling was not 
j)ractiscd among them. The little that is known about them in this regard goes 
to confirm the same inference (cf. Goldziher, Muhammedanische Studien, 2 vols, 
Halle a. S., 1889-1890, 1, p. 33. See also the brief remark of St. Nilus bearing 

on this point; Patrol. Graeca, ed. Migne, LXXIX , 612 : Qeov ow eiSojes 

aalpo) Se iu> -mpciiivu ispoaKvvoijvTes[lhh does not necessarily refer to external acts, 
hut may have the general meaning of « worshipping, reveringn]. l?ut sec Thayer 
in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, III, p. 26). On the other hand, kneeling and 
genuflexions or prostrations are generally met with as approved rites of prayer 
in the Bituals of settled peoples, such as the Assyrians (cf. the term suheniiu , 
Schiiader's Keilinschr. u. d. A. T. , i'^ ed.) , the Moslems and, though perhaps 
only at a comparatively recent period, the Jews (cf. Benzinger, Hebr. Archiiologie , 
Tiib., 1907, p. 387). Later on such rites were minutely defined and determined 
for synagogical service (cf. Cahpzov, Apparat. hist.-crit. antiquilalum Cod. S. et 
gent. Hebr., Leipz., 17^8, p. 329 f.; Jewish Encijcl., art. tr Adorations). Needless 
to say, they had found their way into the Ritual of the early Church (cf. Acts 
21, .5, etc., see Mabtigny, Diclionnaire des Aniiquiles chreliennes, i865, p. 556 ff.). 
See especially the scholarly written dissertation by Hoelemann : wDie Biblische 
Gestaltung d. Anbclungn in his Bibelstudien, I, p. 96-153. 

O On the singing of the 7?n or tahifl see Welliiadsen, Reste des Arabischen 
Heidenthums (2'"' ed., Berlin, 1897), 11, 109; Rob. Smith, Ret. of Sent. , p. 34 o, 
^32 ; HoRMuzD Rassam, Asshw and the Land o/Ninirod (New York, 1897), p. 157 f. 

THE signification. 2 

IMl-iinirnir !|,tius,4le. 

[Si6J — «.( 18 ).€^~- 

(Neh. 9, 5) bless ("p?) and exalt the name of God above c^all 
blessing and praise 51 (nVnm nDin), it only goes to show that at 
least in ritualistic language the word n2-}2 (or -"i?) had come 
near to assimilating the force of the stem '?'7n. Wherefore, if 
nzn? implies the idea of sprayer 51, — which it does^^' — this 
cannot be a prayer or supplication on bended knees; and, of 
course , the same holds true in regard to a precatory benedic- 

Such considerations make it plain that there is absolutely no 
evidence in support of the favored opinion which would derive 
the meaning c^to bless w ("!]"!?) from the meanings «to kneel- 
pray-greet, etc 55. Nay more, it appears that Tji2 must be traced 
to something more ancient and more deeply rooted in the 
thought and life of the Semites than any of their rehgions rites 
or conventional practices. 

16. The only way to harmonize the ideas of « blessing, prais- 
ing, praying, greeting 55, etc. is to assume with Gerber'^' that 
Tpi is a denom\nd[i\e verbum dicendi (^cL svXoyeTv and henedicere). 
This will make utterance or speech the external feature common 
to all these acts. In point of fact it is the utterance of the lips, 
the spoken word, to which Semitic people attach the mechanical 
operation of the benediction^^'. Other symbolical actions which 
sometimes accompany the benedictions may be held as acciden- 
tal, for instance, that the recipient of the benediction reverently 
kneels down, or that the one who pronounces the benediction 
lays his hands upon the recipient, or stretches them out towards 
him, as may be witnessed at the solemn priestly Blessing ^^'. The 
last of these actions gives expression to the idea that a blessing 
passes from one party to the other '^'. Thus , the word or utter- 

^') See Stade, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, 2 vols, I(2'"'ed. , Berlin, 1899), 
p. 491. 

(-) Verba denom., loc. cit. 

(') Cf. Rob. Smith, op. cit., (>. i6i, note; Wellhadsen, Reste, II, 126. 

'*) Lev. 9, 92. Cf. Gen. 48, ih; Mt. 19, i3; Mc. 10, 16; Lk. 24, 5o. 

''^ Sec KoMG, art. tt Symbol, symbolical actionsn in Basting's Did. of the Bible, 
Exlr. vol. 1 73. 

— «.( 19 )<-i^ [S17] 

ance serves to convey a certain power which proceeds, of course, 
ultimately from God, or, where the notions about the suprasen- 
sible world are of a cruder kind, from some other higher Being 
(cf. Ch. IV, Sect. III). Hence « blessing ii as expressed by the 
words n^ns, ~p2, etc. resolves itself into tw^o elements; the utter- 
ance of a HD'na (precatory or laudatory), which imphesa human 
agent, and the nrnn as a power proceeding from God. For the 
sake of clearness the word benediction will hereafter in the course 
of this Dissertation be used to designate the former, and the word 
blessing the latter of these elements. How these two distinct ideas, 
originally, perhaps, having their distinct corresponding forms, 
have been blended into one form or word (viz. n^in, -p^, etc.) 
still awaits satisfactory explanation. 

17. Bearing in mind what has so far been said, it will have 
been observed that hitherto scholars have been content to ap- 
proach the present subject from one of the four, historical, logi- 
cal, ethical, or teleological points of view^^'. If applied with 
proper discrimination, these modes of interpretation may render 
good service. Thus, in tracing the evolution of the ancient Semitic 
stem "p3 we cannot overlook such historical questions as for in- 
stance the primitive habitat of the Semites, their succeeding 
migrations, the history of the individual peoples, their mutual 
intercommunication, the age of the literary monuments, etc. 
Likewise, the logical point of view will throw important light 
upon our present question. True, language is not the outcome 
of logical reasoning; but by logical analysis and classification of 
the various meanings, according to the principles of coordina- 
tion, subordination and superordination, we shall be enabled 
to study their psychological evolution with greater facility. Again, 
the ethical point of view ( Wertbeurteilung) has place wherever 
there is a passing of the stem "jis from common vulgar appli- 
cations in nomadic life to more refined significations. We shall 

'■' Cf. Wdndt, VotkerpsycJiologie : Die Sprache (9"'' ed. , Leipz., igo'i), II, 
p. ^67 ff. 

[8i8] _^3.( 20 )<4— 

also have occasion to point out in certain instances the teleologicai 
element in the changes of the meaning of words, or, to speak- 
more correctly, in the psychical process by which a new idea, 
meaning, or nuance is attached to an already existing word, or 
by which new forms or expressions are produced. To what extent 
the striving after clearness and convenience — the two chief teleo- 
logicai factors — may influence and actuate these processes will be 
seen better after the nature of these processes has become clearer. 
We gather from what has just been said that the above modes 
of interpretation may serve indeed to elucidate certain phases of 
the question; but the result Avill be partial at best. It is our firm 
conviction that full justice can be done to our present subject 
only by the psychological interpretation reducing, as it does, 
the various phenomena to their ultimate causes*''. It would be 
presumptuous, however, to expect that every meaning and form 
can be traced to these ultimate psychical processes, especially as 
there is question here of words that date from a time when the 
vivid fancy of the Semite was influenced and fed by surroundings , 
of the actual conditions of which we can form at best but a 
vague conception. 

18. In accordance with the axiom Nihil in intellectu quod prius 
non fiierit in sensu it will always be our first endeavor to follow 
the Semite on his route, and to concentrate our attention upon 
those objects, ideas, actions, etc., to which the actual meanings 
of the diff'erent forms refer. For, if every word is a part of a sen- 
tence, the full conception of the entire sentence will alone show 
forth the associations which were blended in the meaning of the 
word. What makes this part of our work difficult is the circum- 
stance that we have to cope, not with an objective state of things, 
but rather with subjective conceptions. 

Any alteration in the conception implies an evolution of ideas 
and consequently, in regard to the word which expresses the 
conception or idea, a change of meaning. Psychologists assign 

'') See WcNDT, oj). ch., p. /182 fT. 

—y>{ 21 )<^- [§i8| 

as the ultimate causes of these phenomena the psychical pro- 
cesses of association and apperception^". By continuous interac- 
tion these two inseparable processes of human consciousness 
concur in causing these alterations and changes above-mentioned. 
Association mav be termed the causa mntcvmhs. However, it has 
to do with conceptions in their complete form (wGesamtvorstel- 
lungen ») only in so far as it directs its closely consecutive actions 
upon distinct portions of such conceptions (« Partialvorstellun- 
gen?:), eilher by combining elements resembling one another, or 
such as are contiguous as to time or place, or by expelling those 
that are incompatible. It will come about in this way that by 
consecutive acts of association (or dissociation) the elements will 
be shifted and rearranged; some will have been thrown out and 
others given prominence. It will then remain for the concen- 
trated action of the causa formalis, viz. the apperception or 
i;^ attentive or discerning perception »'-', to encompass a definite 
group of these elements or to give previous ideas or conceptions 
a new form. The result will evidently be a new step in the evo- 
lution of an idea or in the change of the meaning of the outward 
expression or bearer of this idea, viz. the word. The apperceptive 
act, whether svnlhetical or analytical, is ordinarily focused upon 
one dominant element or feature which may be said to give the 
new conception or meaning its characteristic tone, while other 
elements or associations are thrust in the background. Since the 
data of the associative process embrace everything that comes 
within the field of consciousness, it will be obvious that, in not 
a few instances, only a limited analysis of the meaning of many 
words can be attempted. We shall find less difficulty, however, in 
hitting upon the dominant element or feature above referred to, 
which like the dominant note in a melody will often be found to 
run through a whole category of meanings. 

(1) On this subject see VVundt, op. cit., I, p. 3i; espec. II, p. 696 ff. Cf. Maher, 
Psychology (4"" ed.), p. 367; Baldwin's Diclionary of Philosophy and Psychology 
(2'' ed.), I, s. V. ffApperception?! and tr Association ti. 

'-) Ladd and Woodworth, Elements of Physiological Psychology (Now York, 
1911), p. 483. 

[§19-30] —.->.( 2^ )<.^ 

19. We have thus far only considered what Wundt styles 
Rselbstandige Bedeutungswandel?^ (independent changes of 
meanings). This author distinguishes these from « correlative 
changes 75, viz. such as have developed correlatively with the 
changes (phonological and morphological) of the word itself. It is 
precisely because this aspect of the question has been generally 
overlooked in previous interpretations of the subject before us, 
that , what may be regarded as the greatest difficulty of all , has 
rarely been taken cognizance of, much less explained. For, 
how does it come that in all Semitic languages the act « to bless w 
is expressed by intensive conjugations ("ij")?, etc.), while the result 
of this act, viz. « blessed 57 and the ideas k blessing and benedic- 
tions, are expressed by Qal formations ("jnn, HDna, etc.)? This 
phenomenon is not a sporadic outgrowth or an anomaly, but has 
come down to us from the prehistoric language or languages of 
the Semites ; which goes to prove that the primitive conceptions 
the ancient Semite had of the ideas r«:to bless, blessed, blessing?? 
have had a formal influence upon the shaping of the above 
words ^''. And since this is true, the consideration of the form 
and grammatical function of these words will necessarily be the 
starting-point in our investigation , if there is to be hope of solv- 
ing the difficulty we have referred to, and if we are to arrive at 
a thorough and comprehensive understandig of their meanings. 

i20. All this being premised, our investigation will comprise 
the following heads. First of all (Chapter II), we shall endeavor 
to trace the stem "jns in the different languages through all its 
forms or derivatives and their actual meanings, the meaning 
« blessings being of course excluded. And by analytical procedure 
it will then be our aim to establish the genealogy of these mean- 
ings, beginning from the most primitive of them (which may 
or may not be the original meaning of the stem) to their most 
distant ramifications. 

Whatever may be the ultimate result of such analysis, we are 


Cf. Wuisnt, op. cit., II, p. fii3. 

->*«.( 23 ).c-i*^ [§--20] 

confident in the hope that it will bring out the link — if indeed 
any such at all exists — between iii and "ps (n^is, etc.). And 
in so far as our endeavors in this regard are fruitful we shall be 
enabled to trace, in Chapter III, the evolution of the idea 
c^ blessing » in all its forms. 

It will of course be understood that this third chapter will be of 
a provisional nature, inasmuch as the statements made therein 
will require further corroboration from subsequent inquiries into 
the forms and functions of each of the above words in particular, 
with which we will be concerned in Chapter IV. Moreover, the 
concomitant evolution of the forms on the one hand, and the 
ideas on the other, being thus understood, we Avill be enabled 
to obtain a clearer insight into the signification of the entire 
category nD"i3. 



Section I. 


21. The main difficulty in the present investigation is to 
decide upon a proper starting-point. It is well-known that the 
oilman, in search of a suitable place to drill his well, will select 
the site that seems to give the best assurance of a copious pro- 
duct. Our method of procedure will be of a similar nature. We 
will begin our inc|uiry in that language where the stem has 
developed the greatest number and variety of forms and mean- 
ings or where it gives the surest signs of life and growth. The 
reason is obvious. The fact that a stem or word in any language 
is prolific in forms and meanings proves that it strikes the ap- 
perception of the people, not as something that has become 
fossilized with a certain fixed idea or meaning, but as conveying 
a living picture, a vivid conception subject to variations and 
further developments. And while this condition remains, there 
is greater possibility of determining the psychical nexus of the 
different meanings. Although, any analytical inquiry must even- 
tually bring us back to the most primitive of these meanings, 
yet, some previous indication as to where this meaning is likely 
to be found would help us in no small measure. 

22. The negative criteria proper to the methods of investiga- 
tion referred to in a previous paragraph (17) seem to be 
applicable to the present instance. 

And to begin with, we may mention the simple grammatical 
principle that a derived conjugation ordinarily modifies the 
meaning of a simpler conjugation or form and does not, there- 

fore, contain the primitive meaning in its purity. Hence, we 
would not ordinarily look for the primitive meaning of pa in 
such forms as Karaitic 7)^3: (Syn. J^pDp)'^', New Hebrew yi2r\ 
fcto bend (the vine)w, Ethiopic hti-til^Xi. 

In turning, then, to the simple or Qal forms of "1^3, it will 
be our next step to discard an expression widely current in 
the different languages, viz. D''3-i3 bi? "l")3. For, as Fiirst'^' and 
Frz Delitzsch ^^' have already pointed out, the explanatory phrase 
CDis bi? adds a new idea to the primitive one contained in the 
bare form of the word. The same holds true in regard to similar 
constructions, as for instance in New Syr. jbio^ yi^ («to 
bow, bend the knee^i). We infer hence that the primitive 
meaning of the verb ■^13 must have been less specific than the 
ideas «to fall upon the knees, i. e. to kneel 55 or «lo bend 
the kneew, etc. Syriac y.;^ , however, is an exception. This word , 
in its bare form, expresses the idea of «kneehng« and, what 
is more significant, is not infrequently applied to the rite of 
prayer. But, then, in all such cases, the verb is followed by one , 
of the terms ^•^fo, "-^j, >a.oU''', a proof that it had not as / 
yet come to signifiy this or any rite as such, but merely the 
posture or physical attitude of prayer. In other words, the ritual- 
istic meaning supposes a more primitive, cruder, and more 
commonplace application of the term. 

Our inquiry will thus have become limited to the sensible, 
physical meanings of the stem. In determining the more primi- 
tive among them we may be guided by the relative antiquity and 
currency of the various meanings taken separately. Thus, if 
we set aside for the moment a few isolated forms or meanings 
in the Ethiopic dialects (§ 5o), as well as certain other mean- 
ings that have developed in Modern Arabic (§ /i6) and later 
Syriac (§ 63 ff.), but are not met with in the older languages. 

('' Cf. Franz Delitzsch, Commentar iih. d. Psalter, V' ed., p. 053; Ges., Heir, 
und Aram. Wrirlerb., ii"'e(l. ,p. i32. 
(^' Hebi: und Chald. Wm-terb., p. 220. 
^'' Der Mas. Prientei'segen , p. lai. 
(^' Cf. P. Smith, Thes. Syr., s. v. 

[8 93] — M.( 26 )^ — 

our materiai dwindles down to a very limited group of meanings 
or rather of different nuances of one underlying meaning. It 
will, of course, be part of our task to determine the place, within 
the compass of this meaning, of the widely-current and ancient 
meaning of the simple nominal form ']-}2 «knee?i. Having ac- 
complished so much, we are at last confronted with the more 
general and popular meaning of the stem -pn, viz. «procubuit 
camelus5?, as being of all the most primitive. 

Section II. 


23. The fact that the meaning wprocubuit camelusw is the 
primary and almost exclusive meaning of the Arabic verb i2)y is 
one of the reasons why it seems proper to start the present in- 
vestigation with this form in the Arabic language. But, our chief 
reason for so doing is because in no other language has this stem 
been productive of such a variety of significations. The Arab 
apperceives in the various forms of this stem a living picture; for 
him they have a specific significance. This fact does not indeed 
vouch for the antiquity and primitiveness of these significations, 
yet it affords us the assurance that we shall be able to expose 
clearly certain lines in the evolution of the stem and thus gain 
a firm foothold for subsequent investigations. 

In ancient and classical Arabic the verb ^Z [haraka) is ap- 
plied, in the I. (aor. u, inf. noun d^y and ti^C^), II. (inf. 
noun '^.y^) and IV. forms, primarily and almost exclusively 

to the lying or kneeling down of the camel, i. e. «procubuit 

In the dialects of xModern Arabic the verb is used in a more 
generic sense; yet, the specific signification ^procub. cam. » is 
by no means extinct. In fact, it may be said that in every part 

(') Maroun gives the form *5o trseduta, ia maniera di sedere da camello??. 

of the Arabian world this has remained to the present day the 
primary signification of the verb '*l 

2/|. It will be to our purpose in grasping the conception 
whence this signification has come, to give closer attention to 
the manner in which the camel lies down. Doughty's graphic 
description of this action is to the point. -rThe great brutes 55, 
he says, «fall stiffly with a sob upon both their knees, and 
under-doubhng their crooked hind-legs they sit ponderously 
down upon their haunches. Then shuffling forward, one or the 
other fore-knee , with a grating of the harsh gravel under their 
vast carcass-weight, they settle themselves and with these pains 
are at rest; the fore-bulk weight is sustained upon the 
zora ... '•-Kv 

Such is the action which by the Arab is named haraha. It is 
foreign to the scope of our present purpose to indulge in any 
hypothesis on the form and meaning of the verb anterior to 
this actual signification (cf. § i3). What is of importance is to 
determine, as far as may be, the psvchical processes that regu- 
late the use and application of this verb. Hence, we will be con- 
cerned principally in an endeavor to learn upon which feature 
or features, of the action expressed by haraha, the Arab's apper- 
ception is mainly concentrated in the use of the term. 

25. Naturally, our first attention may be directed to the 
Arabian lexicographers. In the S and k haraha is defined by the 
form ^XjjjL\ i. e. (according to Lane) «He (the camel) lay down 

or kneeled and lay down, upon his breast, with his legs folded. » 
The Mgh renders the verb thus : (the made his breast to cleave 

to the ground w; the Msb : « he fell upon his d^j i. e. breast »; 
the TA : «he threw his J^ i. e. breast upon the ground 5). It 
will be noticed that all these definitions coincide, each in its 
own way, in emphasizing the part the breast of the camel 

'•' Cf. Newman, Diction, of Mod. Arab., s. v. 
'-' Travels in Arabia Desei'ta, II, aSfi. 

[§96] ~^'i 28 ).e-i*- 

plays, or (according to the TA) the function it discharges in the 
action expressed by haraha. Nor need we wonder at this. The 
unique and striking adaptability, with which nature has fitted 
the camel's breast for the function assigned to it, is bound of 
itself to engage the observer's attention. Nor can he but feel 
that the whole complexus of movements of the huge form of the 
camel in the action of lying down is ultimatelv directed towards 
throwing or placing the breast upon the ground. As Doughty 
justly points out in his description, the action terminates here, 
and one observing such an action would, in consequence, desi- 
gnate it : a lying down upon the breast. At all events, it so strikes 
the keen perception of the Arab. For this, we have his own 
reflex testimony in the above lexicographical definitions. 

26. This testimony will be reinforced by a study of the 
simple nominal forms of the stem. To begin with the transitive 

type hat]. The form Jo is employed in a two-fold sense, the col- 
lective and the concrete. That the former has superseded an 
antecedent, abstract one''' would probably appear from the 
uncertain and generahzing way in which the lexicographers have 
defined the extent of what the noun collectively comprises, viz. 
Kmany camels?? (iS,k), «a herd of camels » (K), «any camels, 
males or females??... (TA), «all the camels of the people 

of an encampment to whatever number they may amount 

even if they be thousands?? (K), « lying down upon their 
breasts??. The collective signification of this form will serve to 
elucidate its concrete signification, which is « breast of the 

This is not the place to discuss the difficult question of genetic 
priority in regard to the verb and the noun'^'. Their genetic rela- 
tion is doubtless an intimitate one'^', the two may each be 

^') Cf. Barth, Nominalbildung in Semitischen Spoc/ie/i ( a""* ed. , Leipz. , iSgi), 
S 970, 1. 

(*' Cf. Brockelmann, Grundriss d. Vergl. Gi'ammatikd. Sem. Sp'achen, I, S 1 14. 

<'' Barth, op. cit., S 18, 19, 970, 1, derives tlio noun from the perfect 

-~t^{ 29 )^— [897] 

regarded as expressing an element or aspect in a comprehensive 
and complete conception, as will be pointed out later. Anyhow, it 
seems safe to say that the signification of the one will determine 
and point out the characteristic signification of the other. Thus, 
the noun [hark) shares, as its form indicates, the active force of 
the verb. On the one hand, it has come to denote collectively 
the agents or subjects in that action or state, which the verb 
expresses ; on the other, it denotes with the same active force 
the part of the body chiefly concerned in this action. In this 
latter case, the form harh specifies the camel's breast as an agent 
in the performance of a conspicuous function. It is «the breast 
with which the camel crushes something beneath itw (TA, etc.) 
or « upon which the camel lies down 55 (^Ham., p. i/i5). 

27. AlonCT with harh abreast of the camel 55 we meet the form 

hirkat (^^) which is employed practically in the same sense, 

though they are not really identical in meaning. While the lexi- 
cographers are unanimous in testifying the lack of this identity, 
they fail to tell us exactly where it exists 'i'. On the whole, they 
do not, it seems, attribute to the noun hirhat the active meaning 
oi hark; and, in this way, they give us an indirect clue to the 
difference between the two words. And, as a matter of fact, 
while bark designates the camel's breast as discharging its func- 
tion in the action haraka, the form hirkat designates the same 

(') Lane,s. v. J^ (S, Msb, K) and *5^, which is with kesr (S,K), the 
hreast (S, Msb, K) of a camel (Msb, TA). This is the primary signification 
(TA) : as some say, the former signifies the breast of the camel with which he 
crushes a thing beaneat.h it (TA) and (K); accord, to Lth (TA) the latter is the 
part next to the ground of the skin of the breast of the camel (or, as in the 'Eyn, 
of the skin of the belli/ of the camel and of the -portion of the breast next to it, TA) ; 
as also the former (K) = or, as some say, the former is the middle of the breast, 
where [the a prominences of flesh called] the (jIjS^ conjoin at their upper parts 
(Ham. , p. 66) ; or the latter is the plural of the former like as iCJ^ is of l}^ : or 
the former is of man; and the latter of others : or the former is the interior of 
the breast (or, as Yaakoob says, the middle of the breast ; T A.) , and llie latter the 
exterior thereof (K) : or the former is the breast primarily of the camel because 
the camels lie down ( J-^") upon the breast, and metaphorically '/"'/ics (Ham., 
p. i/i5). 

[§28] -^>{ 30 )^^^— 

object as « being mainly affected by tbe actional ^^\ Hence, birhat 
is appropriately defined as «tbe part next to the ground of tlie 
skin of the breast v , or, « of the belly of the camel 11 , or, as ct the 
exterior of the breast 55, i. e. that part which rests upon or 
touches the ground. We may say, in consequence, that the two 
nominal forms express different component elements or aspects 
of a general conception, or are parts of the abstract : «a camel 
lying or falhng down upon its breast 55. The action itself, as 
such , is expressed bv the form haraha. The form harh designates 
the subjects m actu, and the immediate concrete agent (i. e. 
breast). A\ hile the form hirhat signifies not only this same part 
of the body as the concrete (not active but passive) object af- 
fected by the action, but also the mode or manner^'^^ of perform- 
ing the action as well '^^. 

28. That these significations had eflectively asserted them- 
selves and have had a controlling influence upon the use of the 
stem lily, at least in ancient and classical Arabic, is attested by 
the fact that the verb expresses exclusively the same action of 
other objects (i. e. the ostrich TA, the lion or man, K s. v. ij^)) 
inasmuch as it resembles the manner of the camel's lying down 
upon the breast. Yet, it lay in the nature of the case that, 
within the compass of the general conception above referred to , 
certain variations should have developed. We must represent the 
Arab to ourselves in his nomadic state in order to trace and 
appreciate the associations that have come before his vivid ima- 
gination. In these nomadic surroundings the camel comes to 
assume an importance and dignity, and its form appears in its 
natural setting. The large body of the camel presents itself with 
characteristic conspicuousness in the Bedawi's field of view, 
commanding his attention from afar. And as the animal is its 
owner's chief mainstay, as regards his material existence, so its 

^'' Cf. Barth, Nnininalh., § 77, a 1. 

(*' Lank, s. v. s51^ v A mode or manner, of Jj o [i. c. of a camei's kneeling 
and lying down upon the breaal^. . . » 

'■''' Cf. WuNDT, V oilier pxijciiologie : Die Sprache, II, p. 48 /i ff. 

_^j.( 31 )^.»_ [§ 29-80] 

habits and very form must have wrought upon his mind impres- 
sions of an indelible nature '''. 

'29. But the <^ lying down] of the camel » presents, besides, 
other features and phases , though of course less prominent than 
the dominant one above referred to. The conditions of place, 
time and purpose attendant upon the action naturally vary 
according to circumstances. The Arab is also alert in perceiving 
such variations and in discovering in his surroundings and stock 
of ideas other elements resembling the aforesaid features and 
phases, and in some \va\ having the relation of contiguity to 
them. Thus, while the conception originally apperceived in the 
verb becomes broader, it also happens that , by means of these 
new associations, the apperception stamps, so to say, upon the 
word a new idea or signification (cf. § 18). 

In the first place, then, we notice that the general concep- 
tion of the signification of haraha has been split into two''-^^, 
according to the two main phases of the action, namely, the 
movement of flying down upon the grounds, and the resultant 
posture of the animal. In classical Arabic, haraha denotes, as we 
have seen, the whole action, but more particularly the latter of 
these two phases. Though in modern Arabic the verb seems to 
apply more generally to the former phase, conveying in a some- 
what vague arid undefined way the movement of ^ falling upon 
the ground??. 

30. We shall first trace the evolution of this meaning in 
classical Arabic. The sight of the camel lying upon its breast 
impresses the musing Bedawi with singular force. Save the mono- 
tony of the endless waste around and the vaulted firmament 
above, all things are fleeting and passing before his gaze. He 
himself lays no claim to a lasting dwelling place. Wherever he 
finds pasture for his flocks and herds, there he pitches his tent, 

C' See Lagarde, Ubersicht iiber die iniAram., Arab, undllebr. iibliche Bildung 
dor Nomina (Gotlin^j. , 1889), p. ^9. 
^'' Cf. WuNDT, op. cit., II, 5 06. 

[§3i-32] -•-9.( 32 )^-i — 

but only for a brief stay. His life is one of idleness. In bis tent 
he passes manv an hour in drowsy reverie, as his eyes rest upon 
his faithful companion, the camel, lying immovably upon its breast, 
and affording a perfect picture of firmness, stability and contin- 
uance. Such a picture would naturally come to his mind when- 
ever he wished to express these qualities in reference to other 
objects. Thev thus came to constitute the dominant elements in 
the meanings of the verb. « Hence, i. e. from the verb, said of 

a camel, inf. n. S^Ji (TA) He, or it (i. e. anytliing, S) ivas or 
became firm, steady, steadfast, oy fixed; continued, remained or 
stayed (S, K) in a place (TK). ... 55 (Lane). 

31. But these qualities are not merely passive, for the verb 
implies as well the principle whence they are derived. There is 
something deceptive about the camel's attitude of rest. The 
strained position of its limbs, the appearance as if it made its 
breast «to cleave to the grounds (i. e. haraha, Mgh) in order to 
assert its place, are features that suggest the ideas of steadiness, 
perseverance, of effort and exertion. Hence haraha remains an 
active verb, even with this apparently stative meaning. At a later 
period, however, it also appears to have developed an intran- 
sitive form, a sign that the latter phase of the action above refer- 
red to had entirely dominated the entire meaning of the verb. 
With reference to this fact Lane goes on to remark «... [and 
so apparently with i for its aorist; for] You saytjLxJU) tily , aorist 
i [//e ivas or became firm etc. , for the purpose of fighting^ and in 
like manner ^J, aorist « (TA)». 

3t^. Once these ideas had been attached to the verb, it grad- 
ually expressed a great variety of concrete and abstract signi- 
fications in different grammatical forms. The form and idea go 
hand-in-liand (cf. § 19). So intimately do these two elements 
blend that in certain instances it is doubtful whether a particular 
shade of meaning may not have resulted from the character of the 
form rather than from the underlying idea. This applies in parti- 

-^«.( 33 )^-i^— [8 33] 

cular to the intensive forms, such as : Jy, ^^^^ ^s)^- On the 
other hand, the resulting significations do not represent clearly 
distinct categories. Even from a logical aspect there exists be- 
tween them a close relationship. Firmness implies continuance, 
and vice versa; and when qualitative of a living being or object, 
the two imply effort and exertion. It will be observed that the 
picture of the camel lying firmly upon its breast has left its 
impress upon subsequent significations, as if the Arab still 
faintly apperceived in the background the huge figure of the 

33. We are now prepared to enter upon the evolution of the 
various meanings of the verb, beginning with the meaning <xto 
be firm, to continue". In Class. Arabic this meaning was expres- 
sed by haraka in regard to p: anything 55 (S). In Mod. Arabic also 
the verb retains this meaning. In Palestine, for instance, the 
expression harah lion is used of a guest or visitor who unduly 
prolongs his visit. In a similar sense the verbal adjective hurdk'^^^ 
(§82) « remaining fixed (cf. barik « camel lying up its breast w) 
at, or by, a thing (I Aar, K)?? was applied, for instance, in the 

phrase ^liiJI t^^^ J^£ liJCj (^Remaining Jixcd at , or hy , the side of a 

vessel) in a verse describing c^a [gluttonous] man, who swallows 
closely-consecutive mouthfuls (lAar)??. Closely related to this 

form are the appellatives «^', io^,yl^, yl^o and >2)lyl (pi.), 

all signifying a « small white aquatic bird 55 f'-', and in Mod. Arabic, 

C' Denotin[![ intensity. Cf. Wright, A Grammar of the Arabic Language (3 vols, 
transl. from the Germ, of Gaspari; 3'' ed. by Roberts. Smith and de Goejc , 
Cambr. , 1896-1898), S 281 f. See also Barth , Nominalh., §i3. 

t^) Lane : S511 (S, K) or *5li (Msb) A certain aquatic bird, white (S, Msb, 
K) and sm.all (K) [the former applied in Barbary, in the present day^^ to a duck], 
pi. J^' (S, Msb, K) and JlSjlj and ytiji and [pi. of pauc] *Jl^!; (K) or, in 

the opinion of ISd, Ji^l and y^^ are pis of the pi. [^^C?] (TA). Other 
significations of those forms, such as crTurba nobilium; id quod accipit ob 
moliluram molitor; turba hominum quae de piaculo caedis interrogat; ranao" 
(Freitag) and tttax, tax-collector): (cf. Wharmund) will be explained later on. 
See, on these forms, Barth, op. cit., S 206. 


l.ui:-.liiritlr. >iilOH&Ll 

hurhe, ahrak (in Maltese hyrhae, hryh), etc., signifying « duck 55. 
These different forms express the same idea, characterizing, as 
they do, the aquatic hird or duck as ^one that remains fixed in 
a place?? or as one « given to perching, roosting w (cf. American 
f^ rooster 55) '''. Thus, Lane (sub VI) interprets the phrase J^J 
^tii (1^ JliJt as « the continuing of the birds at the water j?'^^ 

The same idea underlies the collective signification of these 
nouns, viz. k frogs 55 (Freitag). 

3 -4. One remarks in these forms a slight turn in the original 
meaning. For it so happens that the quahty of the subjects (i. e. 
birds, frogs, etc.) which has occasioned the appellation coincides 
with their posture, when at rest or repose. This makes the sub- 
ject of haraha appear in a passive condition. The verb is thus 
appUed metaphorically to the lingering night : ^^.It was, or 
became, long, oy protracted; as ihougli it did not quit its place (A 
and TA in art. j<**3)». As inherent qualities these ideas are 
expressed by the verbal adjectives hurdh and haruk^-''\ signifying 
^<; coward J5 (K, TA) or, as Freitag renders the latter form, 
wlimidus, segnis:?*'''. In the light of this signification, it will be 
seen how haraha came to be applied, in different forms, to the 
miller's trade. It should be remembered that the miller's life in 
the Orient is anything but active. From morning till night he is 
seen squatting in the same place, leisurely watching the oper- 
ation of the mill. This indolence, in fact, has become prover- 
bial. Hence, the signification oiharaha wto practice the trade of 
a millers (Wahrmund*^^) has in it a touch of irony. The wmil- 
ler's wages w are termed hurhat (Freitag; see § 33). Again, the 
form barrdk does not merely signifiy k miller » , as is commonly 

f) Cp. the ornithological terms cfinscssores, perchersn. Birkdn also signifies 
ff small tree, shrub (cp. 'sessile', botan. ), cliick-pea?j. 

(-' Cf. Annibale Prega, Malta Cananea ossia Invpstlg. Filologico-Etiiii. ncl Lin- 
guaggio Maltese (Malta, 190^), p. 383 : boi-ka tfanitra, volatile che ama stare 

'■'') Cf. Wright, loc. cit. 

('"' Cf. the Aramaic forms : Ni^TIS et NDDTI^, ffstoiiditas, ignavia?? , etc., S Sg. 

(^) ffDas MiiHerliandwerk trciben75. 

— ►{-»•( 35 )»c-i— [S 35-36] 

asserted, but is applied to that servant or empioye of the miller 
who is properly charged with the w ork of the mill '^l It often 
so happens that this same person is employed in other domestic 
nork of a menial kind. Hence the name has a ring of contempt. 

35. In the preceding significations the qualities of firm- 
ness, etc. are represented as proceeding from the subject or indi- 
vidual referred io by the verb. In Mod. Arabic a usage has deve- 
loped in which the verb implies some external force, as in the 
signification ttto be obliged to remain; not to be able to get 
away w. The II. form, then, implies violence, «to force somebody 
to remain, or stay in a place )5 (cf. Steingass and Wahrmund). 

It is used in imprecations, for instance, M\ >ioy, which would 
be equivalent to our expression <xMay God prostrate you ! ?3 

36. What may be termed a favorite tlieme of the stem baraha 
in Arabic, is ^the brave soldier on the field of battle 55. We have 

already met A^ith the expression jLxU [^ji) dij? «he was or 
became firm for the purpose of fighting ?n This marks the initial 
apphcation of the verb in its present relation. We can hardly 
follow the further evolution of this meaning without picturing to 
ourselves the Arab as he is on the field of battle. As in the heat 
of the contest, the spectator no longer observes the posture or 
position of the combatants, but watches with increased interest 
their several movements, their laboring, striving and exertions, 
it will naturally come to pass that in his apperception the idea 
of firmness should change from « firmness in place and positions 
into ?^ firmness and persistence in action or strugghng??, as the 
following examples will show. First of all, we meet with the 

ancient infinitive, used here in the imperative sense *^' : fc d)!^'^' 
Jly (S, K) like Jlsi (K) said in war or battle (S), means \_^^\ 

(') The form denotes profession or trade. Cf. Wright, nif). cit., S 288, Rem. a. 

(-' Cf. Wright, op. cit., I, 8 98, Rem. c.;Rartu, l\'oiiiinalb,$ ho, 2. 

(3) Giggeus spells it lillCj (which form occurs along with katdli, see Earth, 
np. cit., S A I d) (tvox qua miiites ad irruptioncm. . . ad [)relii tolorantiam inci- 
tanlur". dp. birdh, see below. 


[S37] --«•( 36 )^-«^- 

[Be ye firm, steady or steadfast. . . [S, K] ». In abstracto the same 
ideas are conveyed by the substantives ^ :it^^ (S, K) '^^ and 
it^lCj (TA) Firmness, steadiness, or steadfastness in war or battle; 
(I, Drd, S) and a striving, laboring ov exerting o?«ese//* [therein] ; 

from d)*^H'^^ [inf. n. of (2)^) : (S) or rt falling upon the knees in 
battle and so fighting; as also ^o ^ (K)^^^). These words are 
also applied to k the field of battle v, or, according to Er-Raghib, 
Ljpl it^Vjj and UjI^^yj signify the place to which the men of valor 
cleave (TA)??. Detaching the afformatives '^' from these substan- 
tives, we have the forms ^^' : Jljj, Jl^, ci)^, all derived, like 
the infinitives J]^ and dJi^ (Giggeus), from the first form of 
the verb, and retaining, which it is important to note, the active 
signification of the I. form. The reciprocal element is intro- 
duced into this signification by the III. '*^' and VIII. '^^ forms. 

37. In the forms so far considered the activity expressed by 
them is per se referred back to the agent. In the various groups 
of meanings, however, presently to engage our attention, this 
activity affects directly some other object or person. In the 
conception of the camel's flying upon the ground 55 and (^crush- 
ing something beneath itw it was the (Aground?? or the « some- 
thing 55 which simultaneously with the camel's attitude caught 
the apperception. And thence various new meanings have been 

C' Giggeus, s. V. : «Irrupllo acris cum impelu, ita ut Interimantur. Toleranlia 
belii et preiiin. Freitag, s. v. : nConslanlia et immoti animi contcntio in pugna, 
qua loco cedere nescitn. Cp. lardkijat , wgenus quoddam lcgis;5 {^^8S-) ~ "sta- 

("■'' Gigg. , s. V. : tflrruptio velox, et sedula. Belli, vel prelii patientian. 

(^) The picture of «the soldier in arms 75 has probably occasioned the forms 
baruhat ahedge-hog??, burdkijat trvulcanon and birdk ff sword-fish n. 

W Gf. Barth, op.ciL, 8 2i3 ff. 

W Nomina verbi, cf. Wright, op. cil., I, § igS IT. See also Brockelmann, Verirl. 
Gramm., § i3i c, i35d, i/ii b jS(i33 c: kitdl). 

'*) Vr=^W *^W "il le combattit sans relachen, Cartas, 107, 7 a f. (ap.^Dozv). 

(') Giggeus : r-T^^I£Sl eques irruit, et interfecti sunt;:; tf^oJUl i '>^y^"l in 
hostem celeriter, et sedulo irrumpitc. 

-—!->.( 37 )^-^— [838] 

The intensive form burak « remaining fixed by a things? (see 
above) lakes here the meaning of c^ applying oneseif persistently 
lo a thingw, according to Giggeus'^^ andFreilag^-l The III. form 
represents the subject as making use of the quality, expressed 

by the I. form, towards an object ^^^, as : k ^CX£ <i)^U He kept, or 

applied himself, constantly or perseveringly to it (Lb, K); namely, 
an affair (TA in art. lajU»>) or commerce or tratTic, etc. (Lb, 
TA)», Lane. Compare the Latin expression wincumbere alicui 
TGw. With slight variations the same meaning is expressed by 
the V. ^*' and VI. '^' forms, which are not, however, found in 

In the I., IV., or more correctly the VIII. foi'm, haraka is 
applied to the cloud or sky, training continually, incessantly or 
vehemently?' (cf. Lane). «Le ciel est parterres, as Kazimirski 
puts it. The meaning of the participle, however, remains more 

realistic : a Jycl* applied to a cloud, metaphorically Bearing 

down ]^upon the earthy and paring off the surface of the ground \hy 
its vehement rain; see VIII. form] (TA) v, Lane '^^. 

38. With the help of the VIII. form the Arab reproduces the 
original meaning of haraka with realisitic effect. Thus, « d Ju! 

He (a man) threw his djj [i. e. breast upon the ground (as the 
camel does in lying down) or upon some other thing] (8)55, 
Lane. The abreast 55 being the seat of energy came, in conse- 

O aQui rei insistit. Qui rei firmam stabiiemque operam defertn. 

(^' « Genua flectens super re-n. The latter words (super re) express the domin- 
ant feature , the former being only secondary. 

(^) Cf. Wright, op. cit., I, § 43, c. 

W Giggeus : ff J|i;L> J^^ vir qui bonae rei nitaturji. Freitag : » J^li* 
fretus re eique insistensii. 

<^' Giggeus : » *i tii^'4^ Perseveravit in iilo. Assidue in illud incubuit??. 

t'*' Pedro de Alcala is authority for the foil, meaning of barah{a) : wsolaper, 
c.-a-d. croiser, en pariant d'une partie d'habit qui se double sur une autre n 
(ap. Dozy). Cf. birkat «cette partie d'un habit, qui se double sur une autre et 
qui couvre la poitrinen (Dozy). It appears that this noun has developed, from 
haraka ttsolapern , independently of birkat «camel's breastn. 

(') Cp. mubvikal ttignisn; mubtarik, cpitheton leonis (Freit.). 

[§39] — 5->( 38 )<^— 

quence, to be regarded as the dominant feature or the center of 
the action. Hence, it was natural to make the transition from 
« throwing the breast upon something:^ to chicaning upon some- 
thing ?? (as (he workman upon an instrument) or rtupon one side^i 
(for instance, in running)'". Through such associations the 
form acquired the meanings of chastening, speeding, striving, 
laboring, exerting oneself in running », etc.'-', which came to be 
expressed also by the I. form'^l The participle of the Mil. form 
comprises elements of the other forms, chiefly of the III. : 

« dLili (in the CK tiCLx^) applied to a man, metaphorically 

Leaning, or bearing, upon a thing; applying himself [thereto] per- 
severmghj, assiduously, or constantly (K, TA.)?^, Lane. 

It would seem that the phrase *t£lJI dJy ^the first and main 

part of winter?? (cf. Lane)'''' has originated through similar asso- 
ciations, probably through the analogy between the callous breast 
of the camel pressing upon the ground and the severity of 
winter bearing upon the earth with benumbing coldness. 

39. Within the present class we meet with several significa- 
tions that may appropriately be grouped under the heading 
« oppression w. Thus, in its physical sense, the verb baraka 
means, also, «mettre sous soi?? said of an encounter or battle 
(Beaussier). In Palestine one would use the phrase Obrok alihil 
in the sense ctOn him!». This idea is of course more fully con- 
veyed by the VIII. form in class. Arabic : »J^jJii\ I prostrated him 
or threw him down prostrate, and put hun beneath my Sjj [i. e. 

f^' Lanp : kUc (a sword-polishcr) leaned upon the polishing-instrunwnt (K), 
on one side (TA) and lie (a liorse) inclined on one sido in his running (TA). . . n 

(-' Lane : tr//e hastened or sped, and strove, laboured or exerted himself, in 
running (S, K).r) 

C) Lane : trAnd J^ inf. n. J^o (K) or as some say, this is a substantive 
from the former verb (TA), He strove, laboured or exerted himself (K)-" — 
S. V. wlJjij : tf-'i hastening, speeding, striving, laljoring or exerting oneself, in 
running; a subst. from JjX_'! : and inf. n. of JCi . . . ?> (K; sec VIII. form). 

'*^ According to Akbbar, 82, 8 (ap. Dozy) the expression means trrhiver 

breast] (S)??, Lane. From these usages the verb has derived the 
signification Rto be hard, severe (on the people)??, as is said in 
Palestine, for instance, of a task-master. But even more grievous 
than this for the Oriental is the imposition of taxes ■'■', and doubt- 
less on this account he was led to apply the substantive hurhat 
{hurke), etc. (seoS 33) to the « tax-collector ??, k taxes?? (cf. Rim- 
post??, German «Aullage??) and to a r. turba hominum quae de 
piaculo caedis interrogat??. The phrase harak \div!.he pestered me 
so much??, which is current in Palestine, tends to elucidate the 
following expressions of an ethical bearing in class. Arabic :d)yoI 

iuo^ j, and *lXff v^He detracted from his reputation, censured him 

or impugned his character, and reviled him (k, TA), and labored in 
vituperating him {T k) V {hdiney 

Among the significations of the intensive forms hurdh and 
hdriik in Class. Arabic, we find r^ incubus or nighlmare?? (K). 
We are familiar with the fact that the nightmare org-mmis, in 
the mind of the Arab, capable of assuming human form'-'. Fa- 
ther Jaussen'^' is authority for the statment that in the land of 
Moab a person, who is seized by a nightmare, will say : (jS^ 
i^y^. This can only mean literally «the ginn has laid himself 
upon me, i. e, oppresses me??. Hence the forms hurah and hdruk 
would designate the nightmare as a «being given to this action?? 
(cf. incubus), while the form hamh [^^j^)-, in the dialect of Moab, 
designates in our opinion Kthe place where he (the ^j/mi) 
dwells??'''. In the dialects of Tunis, Tripoli and elsewhere the 
verb designates an attack of fever, etc. Thus, in Palestine, one 
would say harakat \di es-shune 5^ the fever lies upon me??'^^. 

'') Cf. Lane, Manners and Cjustoms of the Mod. Egyptians, p. 117. 

f^' Sec GoLDZiHEii, Abhandlungen zitr Arahischen Pliilologte (Leiden, 189G- 
1899), I Tlieil, p. 1 ff. , 107 tr. . Ill, passim; cf. Lane, Mod. Egyptians, 
p. 202 ff. 

(') Coutumes des Arabes au Pays de Moab (Paris, 1908), p. Sao, see note. 

(*) As Fr. Jaussen tells us, several localities have thus received the name 
baruk, which, however, in his opinion is passive, viz. : rrle lieu est saisi par nn 

(^' Beaussier (Tun. et Trip.), s. v. : irattaqucr, prendre maladie; la fievrc Pa 
pris; il est altaque de la fievre; accahler, sommeil». 

[S 4 0-4 a] — «.( 40 )<-t — 

hO. Though on the whole haraka is employed preferably in 
the sense of r oppression 55 it has, in one expression at least, the 
sense of « protection ?5, viz. barrik ^ali (Palestinian) meaning 
literally « Throw thyself upon me!w. ^^ilh these words a man 
who is left to the mercy of his enemies throws himself at the 
feet of another in supplication of help. 

41. Not seldom the verb haraha is applied, in various dia- 
lects, to sexual coition, the male being the subject of the verb ''I 
And it is first applied in this sense to the camel ^-'. Hence, in 
Mod. Arabic hamk (denoting intensity or repetition) is an epi- 
thet of the male camel. In Palestine the verb is used in this 
sense of man also. It would seem, however, that this usage is 
restricted to abusive language. In the case of fowl the II. form 
(Mod. Arabic) designates the male's part in the action, as berrek 
r;volucris in coituw (in Maltese, cf. Gesen., Thesaur.). Thence is 
derived the form harruk k cock 55 , which has made its way into 
various modern dialects (cf. Dozy). 

In the sense of « hatching eggsw, the verb is used in the dia- 
lects of Tunis, Tripoli and Palestine; for instance, El-kurku 
tubruk '«/-/>«/(/ (Palestinian) the «hen sits on the eggs 55. 

42. We may now venture to explain a certain form in Class. 
Arabic, the meaning of which appears quile disconnected from 

the other significations of the stem. It is : « J?^ a woman thai 
mnrnes having a big son (^S, K) 0/ the age oj puberty (S)w, Lane. 
We have good authority for stating that the same form is em- 
ployed to this day in three other meanings, which go a great 
way towards elucidating the meaning of this form in Glass. 
Arabic. Of these the first is bariik ctmale cameb) (see above). 
In the second place, il'^' is applied to a female camel in the 

(') Cf. , however, Malt, byrek i. e. gallina ttnel prendersin. 

(-) See Comte de Landberg, Etudes sur les Dialectes de I'Arabie meridionale , 
I. Hadramont (Lcide, 1901), p. 867, 876 fT. 

'^) Our authority for the two following meanings is a native of the village 
Beit Sdhur near Bethlehem, a man of remarkable intelligence. He claims to have 
heard the term employed, in these two meanings, in some songs of the Bedouin 
troubadours, who are frequently seen in Bethlehem. 

M.( 41 )»<-*— [ill -2] 

sense of shaving brought forth many young ones». We should 
first remark that the Arab designates by the verb haraka the act 
of a camel lying down to yield its young. Now the form hatul 
indicates an inherent quality in a very high degree, or an act 
which is done with frequency or violence ^^l Applying this gen- 
eral rule to our form, it would seem that, just as haruk desi- 
gnates the male camel as ct one that frequently performs the act 
of copulation d , so the same form designates the female camel 
«as one that has often lain down to bring forth ^. Thirdly, haruk 
is used in designation of an aged woman, who has passed the 
years of fecundity. Most likely this name had originally a deeper 
significance and a more elevated tone, signifying perhaps, «a 
mother of many children jj. At all events, there is evidently ques- 
tion here of a secondary meaning of the word as applied origi- 
nally to the female camel, and both these meanings (2. and 3.) 
combined furnish the clue to the derivation of the fourth mean- 
ing of haruk, i. e. in Class. Arabic. 

In this meaning (see above) two distinct elements are discern- 
ible : c^the act of the woman marrying 55 and sthe fact of her 
having a big son». The former of these was the occasion of her 
receiving a new name , and concurring with the latter was deter- 
mined by it in forming this new appellalion. It is above all in 
relation to matrimonial engagements that in the Orient, no less 
than in the rest of the world, a woman's qualities, social condi- 
tion, dowry, etc. are made the object of heated discussion among 
the parties concerned. And popular usage is wont to coin new 
words or expressions in designation of one or another circum- 
stance that is considered as increasing or diminishing her value 
in the eyes of her intended. The student of Oriental conditions 
need not be told that in this matter the kinship and existing 
connections of the bride by marriage play an important role. It 
is irrelevant what precisely were the rights and privileges that 
Arabian law or custom accorded to a woman who had a grown- 
up son. Suffice it to call attention to the circumstance that in the 

(') Wright, Arab. Gi'amm., I, 8 282, Rem. d. 

definition of S her son has arrived at «the age of puberty 55 and 
is, therefore, looked upon as the future propagator of her fa- 
mily, her support and consolation in old age and hence t«;hetter» 
lo her rvthan seven sons 11 who are still minors (Ruth h , 1 k-t 5 ; 
cf Gen. 5, 29). In all probability, then, it was for the fact of 
«her having a grown-up son 55 (implying the ideas of ^offspring 
and continuance of her family iti) that a « woman marrying?) came 
to be styled hardh. 

AS. In returning to the original «proc. cam. 55 our attention 
will be directed to another feature contained in this action, 
namely the ponderousness and stiffness which characterize the 
« camel's falling upon the breast?) (Msb). The meanings evolved 
from this feature may be grouped under ihe heading « breaking 
or falling down?). The idea of ponderousness is thus still ap- 
parent in Ks'affaisser par son propre poids??, which meaning is 
current in Tunis and Tripoli. Here haraha has also the sense 
of wabattre, renverser, jeter par terro)), which meaning is pref- 
erably applied to the horse. Thence comes *.^i^ denoting an 
equestrian feat, ^qui consiste a faire agenouiller le cheval etant 
monte» (Beaussier). 

kk. We may notice in these meanings how the idea of phy- 
sical exhaustion or weakness is seen to commingle with the 
leading theme. Gradually, that idea became dominant, evolving 
in this wise the signification of « collapsing)). So the verb is 
used, first of all, of the camel <x breaking down completely, i. e. 
dying ))'!'. Metaphorically it is used in the sense «s'fkrouler, 
s'ebouler, i. e. mur, maisou)) (Tunis and Tripoli). Since the signi- 
fication of « collapsing)) is found in the other languages as 
well (notably in Syriac), it should be emphasized that in Arabic 
this signification has obviously been brought forth from the 
original r. procubuit cam.)). 

(') Cf. the expression Mubrah en-nak{g)a referrin{j to tlie place where the tfdi- 
vine?i camel of the prophet trfell upon its knees and couched downn — being 
killod by a son of Behal. See Douohty, Travels in Arab. Des., I, 81. 

— K>.( Zi3 >ci— [$libM] 

/l5. The idea that is next seen in the evolution is that of 
«heing pressed down by a heavy load or burden j5. Its origin is 
clear. The camel is preeminently the beast of burden. And the 
word expressing ils falling under a ])urden [haraha^ has come to 
signify generally ctlo fall under a burden or any heavy load??, 
and is applied in this sense to men and beasts alike. At the sight 
of a caravan, which has collapsed on its march through the 
desert, the Bedawi will exclaim : Barik taht rijcml'^\ <:<; broken 
down under the burden 5:, thus unconsciously testifying to the 
fact that upon the sturdy limbs of the camel, the weal and woe 
of the entire caravan depends. The expression is a popular one 
and appears in sundry variations''^'. In the dialect of Iraq we 
meet with the expression mutdia hdrVcdt applied to asses ct broken 
down under their load 11 but which may again be on the march '^'. 
The expression is significant inasmuch as it elucidates the evolu- 
tion of certain substantives belonging to this category of mean- 
ings. The sight of the bearer of a burden or of the porter, 
weighed down by his heavy load, is bound to bring to the Arab's 
mind the picture of a camel ct collapsed beneath its load »''''. 
Thence the nouns hurdk and hirhdn «mulier bajula; maritus 
ejus quae gestando opem feratw (Giggeus; see § 33) as well as 
hdrdk tt baggage 5? (cf. Dozy) have their origin. 

/l6. Lastly, there remains to be explained the category of 
« kneeling 5), which action, as seen in the Orient, is understood 

''' Cf. G. Wetzstein, Sprachliches aiis den Zeltlagern der stjrisclieii Wiiste {in 
Zeilschrift d. Deiitsch. Morg. Gexelhcha/t, X\II, 69-1 gi), p. 97. 

(^' E. g. Barvak taht es-sallb tr(Jesus) collapsed under llic cross?? — • an ex- 
pression often emplo\ed in sermons or prayers (Palestine). 

'■^' Cf. B. Meissnki!, i\euaral)isclie Geschichten aiis dem /»'a(/ (Leipz., 1903), 
p. 1 1 3 ff. , /io fl". The present meaning is remarkably distinct in this dialect 
(cl". barah freinknicken, umsinken>?; el mull banal; iiefxiili- vDor Esei knickte 
sich einn, ibid.), although it appears to occur in Bedouin Arabic in general 
(cf. bdrilc «kniend, eingeknicktn, see Ges. , Hebr. utul Aram. Ilandwdrterb., 
11"' ed., p. i3-?; Vn Delitzscii, Cnmrnentar iib. d. Psalter, A"" ed., p. 653). 

('') «The camel of the loads lay down (harrach)'?, are the words of a woman 
lamenting over her husband who is smitten with illness. M. Lohr, Der Vulgdr- 
arab. Dialect von Jerusalem (Giesscn, 1909), p. ii5. 

to be more particularly « kneeling back on one's heels 7^ (cf. Dozy). 
This use o[ haraka is, however, confined to certain dialects, and 
there are numerous indications to show that it has derived from 
the original «proc. cam. w. In Palestine and Syria the usage is 
commonly looked upon as a vulgarism; it betrays the Aleppine. 
The word is thus used, however, in uttering a harsh command, 
c. g. in Jerusalem, as ^Ubruk indik ! •>■> c^Lie down there! 5) (like 
a camel). 

There is no ground whatever that would justify our supposing 
that in Arabic baraka ever designated a posture in prayer or 
worship. It is found evidently in its original as well as vulgar 

meaning in the following quotation from the Mgh : «The d^j 
of a man praying, which is forbidden, is The putting down the 
hands before the knees, after the manner of the camel »'^'. We 
have here another proof of how deeply the original meaning was 
impressed upon the mind of the Muslem. 

True, we do find the verb used in the sense of « kneeling » 
(for instance in Tun. and Trip.)^-*, or in the sense of a deep rev- 
erence (as in Maltese)^^^ or also in the sense of ^sitting, squat- 
ting?? (Beaussier, Dozy). But these are isolated instances ^*l On 
the other hand, whenever the Arab wishes to express plainly 
and clearlv the idea of wkneeline ?? he must needs have recourse 
to a circumlocution , such as w *^^; (J^ tiJ^ He fell or set him- 
self upon his knees; he kneeled?? (Lane). 

47. We have but little information on the stem liJ^ in the 
Southern Arabic dialects. In Mahra the verb has the signification 
of «proc. cam.??. The form bark (pi. birok) signifies «knee?? — 
which is not the case in Northern Arabic. Although no certain 

('' For the camel «falls first upon his knees, and then upon his stifle-jointsn, 

(-) Beaussier : cts'accroupir, s'agenouiller, flechir les genouxw. 

<^) Vassalli, s. v. : crpiegarsi innanzi comnie fanno Ic donne nel fare rive- 

C") Gf. also the o^jression «*j.s J^ J^y ^^r? vir priori capitis parte, tor- 
ram procumhcns tetigitn (Giggeus). 

— ^*.( A5 )<^— [Si 8-49] 

conclusions as to this stem in the Ancient Minean and Sabean 
dialects may be drawn from these data, yet since «proc. cam. 55 
is the predominant meaning of baraka in the Arabic, as well as 
in the Abyssinian languages, they would seem to furnisb us with 
some further warrant that k proc. cam. » was the primary mean- 
ing of baraka before the separation of tbese two groups of lan- 

Section III. 


liS. In the Abyssinian Languages the verb fl^JM signifies in 
its simplest form (I, 1) primarily and, according to our aulhor- 
ilies, well-nigh exclusively «procub. cam 55. It is apphed to an 
ass in Ge'ez, Num. 29, 27 (M. T. ^21). In Amharic the verb 
is said of a tree or plant « weighed down with fruit »-^'; which 
naturally recalls the Arabic phrase bdrik taht I'heml Likewise, the 
idea of c^ resting, supporting oneself upon something w(cf. Arabic 
baraka «the camel made its breast to cleave to the ground; it, 
i. e. anything, became firm», etc.) is intimately attached to the 
stem and has produced, chiefly in Amharic, a variety of sub- 
stantives denoting all manner of instruments or objects of sup- 
port (2). 

^9. The simple nominal form signifies «kneew : "flCh (Ge'ez), 
bork (Tigre), berke (Tigrina). It is significant that the Vocabu- 

('' aPiegarsi (piante troppo carlche di frutta)n, Guidi. 

(■2) E. g. bhkummd : T a very short crutch or a small stool (specie di stam- 
pella cortissima o sgabelietto), used by cripples; 2. a pillow of wood (origliere 
di legno) used especially by women to prevent their hair -dress from being 
spoiled; or also, a little cushion of wood (cuscino di legno) covered with leather 
(cf. Guidi). In the Somali language the same word has the form barhimo (rrKopf- 
kissen, Kopfpolstem). Being made of leather the barhimo is generally used only 
by women or sick men, while healthy men use the bdrU — the same imple- 
ment, though made of wood (aholzerne Nackenstiitze^). In Somali even the verb 
has been preserved, in the sense trio support, rest the head upon something'' 
(cf. S37); cf. Reinisch. In Amharic the subst. tanbarak is applied to a small 
thatched roof which is placed over the wall to protect it against the rain 
(cf. d'Abbadie). 

[S5o-5i] — 1-9«( 46 )<i— 

larium Aethiop. (ap. Dillmann, Lex. Aetli.) renders h'fl<Mfi ' by 
T'Afl'P'f » Kthe patella or kneepan j?^^'. This specific signification 
would imply that 'flCh designates Rthe kneer properly as « dis- 
charging a function », viz. as that part which touches the ground 
in the action expressed by fl^li (cf. § 82). 

50. In none of the dialects does the simple form of the 
verb express the idea of ct kneeling », much less a posture of 
prayer or worship. The nearest approach to such ideas is re- 
presented by the Amharic expression : ^f^ » ttitu «tutti si 
sono sottomessi;;. This is, however, an isolated instance, 
and necessarily presupposes an original, material meaning, 
such as « throwing oneself upon the grounds (cf. sproc. 
cam. 55). 

In order to bring out the idea of « kneeling or genuflecting », 
each of the Ethiopic dialects was obliged to employ one of the 
derived conjugallons (cf. §8/i), i. e. in Ge'ez the causative-refle- 
xive (IV, \) asiabraha (<xKniebcugung machen 55) '-^; in Tigrina 
tcmhi'ihehe; in Amharic tamhorkdha , etc. The last of these dia- 
lects brings out the same meaning with the additional idea 
of (t violence?? by the form : harhak (^al) r.mettersi cadere 
ginocchioni (anche sdrucciolando)». 

Section IV. 


51. The South Semitic languages have so far claimed our 
attention. In passing to the Northern languages those of the 
AVest merit our first consideration. Beginning, then, with He- 
brew we find that this is the only language in the Chanaanitic 
group where the stem p2 has been preserved in Qal. Besides 

(') Cf. , however, berekuedd (Tigrina) i. c. tfthc ham, hock?) {garrcUo, tie 

'-' Dillmann, (immtn. d. Atltiop. Sprache, p. iA3. 

— «.( 47 )kh— [§52] 

the noun "ij-ia^^Ukneew, the verb T|"12* occurs in the Bible in only 
three places. 

The first is Gen. 2/1, 11 : D'''7^3n "i")^;!".. Considering, on the 
one hand, that this is the only instance in Hebrew literature 
where the living down of camels?? is mentioned and, on the 
other, that various other physical and symbolicnl actions men- 
tioned in the Bible would doubtless have been expressed by 
■:j^3, had this verb lent itself to a more generic application, we 
may regard this ancient text as an incontestable proof that c^proc. 
cam.?? is an original, or more likely, the original signification 
of this verb in Hebrew. At all events the fact establishes the abor- 
iginal identity of Hebrew (and North Semitic) i^ii ctproc. cam.?? 
with South Semitic harnha as employed in the same sense. This 
conclusion will be reiiiforccd by the two remaining instances of 
the verb. 

52. In H Par. I], i3, the expression r^nn-^'y ■^1311 applies 
to Solomon kneeling down in prayer before the congregation of 
Israel, and spreading forth his hands towards Heaven. It is the 
only instance in (he Bible where "j-12 is employed in this expres- 
sion, the usual form being D"'D")3"'?>' inD (J^idg. 7, 5 ff. ; III Kgs 
8, 5/1; IV kgs 1, i3; Esdr. 9,5). The Aramaean, however, 
employs in this connection regularly the verb "|-)3 (cf. Dan. 6, 
1 1 and Syriac JLaia^^^^ r*^' ^^^' ^^^^'^)- Hence we may justly 
suspect whether II Par. G, i3 is genuinely Hebraic, which 
suspicion is further confirmed by the fact that in the parallel 
passage in the older document, viz. Ill Kgs 8, 5/i, where the 
same event and action are referred to, the common Biblical 
phrase just referred to (i. e. ■■■hv i-nsD- •■ Dp) is employed. If, 
in addition to all this, we take into account the strong Aramaic 
coloring of II Par. in general, there appears to be no difficulty in 
assigning the use of the verb -j-)3 in 6, 1 3 to Aramaic influence. 

(') Gen. 3o, 3; ^8, !<?; 5o, :>3; Dn. 10, lo; 98, 35; Judj;. 7, 5, 6; 16, 
19; III % 8, 5i; 18, 42; 19, 18; IV Kgs 1, i3; h, ao; II Par. 6, i3; 
Esdr. 9, 5; Job 3, is; A, /i ; Ps. 109, a4; Is. 35. 3; /|5, •?3; 66, 19; Ez. 7, 
17-, 31, i;2; /17, h\ Nail. 2,11. 

[S53] ->i-3.( 48 ).«— 

53. The third instance is Ps. 95(9/1), G. Here the meaning 
of the verh -12 is ohscure. It will be well to study the passage 
in the light of the versions : 

M. T. LXXC). PESH. S. .lER. (^i. TARG. P). 

^iV3 SsCts oL Venite ]in\S* 

"^.)Q'?^P 'apo(7Hvvrja(A)[ ^ovj^j adoremus "IJCJ 

'"Ifl^^jl x(xl Tspoaitiawiisv civtm cfc>. vo^^amo et curvemur : ]T^iJlJ^ 

'"Jfl^J tat xXaxjaMiiev -waowAjo flectamus genua i3"'Dnj 

ninp^.?? ivavriov Kvphv Uv>s^ ante faciem Domini mn'' Dip 

^JC*i? roil 'zsoiriaavTOs yJixis vr^^j ffictoris nostri Nin"" ""'3^1 

It must strike us at the first glance that the LXX and Pesh. pre- 
sent each a rendering which differ as widely from the M. T. as they 
differ from each other. The chief point of variance is of course 
the rendering of the formnDia:. The fact that the LXX trans- 
lates this form by ^let us weep?) and the Pesh. by t^let us bless 
(praise) « would lead us to suppose that the former read in the 
original text, or perhaps read into it, the form n:3:, and the 
latter, the form nziDj. But such suppositions will only compli- 
cate matters. There is reason to believe that the M. T. has pre- 
served the original reading, which is also attested to by St. Je- 
rome and the Targum (and, as regards the consonantal text, 
by the Pesh.). Hence we would rather suppose that the diver- 
gence of the versions has been caused by the obscurity of the 
original text itself'^'. No doubt, the sequence of the terms is 
unusual and strange. It is the only instance where i'l- follows 
mnn?yn (which has never a purely symbolical sense) ^^l The LXX 
smooths over this incongruity by strengthening the term corres- 
ponding to n:?"iDJ, and renders it by 'zspoa-KsacoyLsv auTw (else- 
where y")3 is translated simply by <aMsiv or bxXdlsiv) which 

(') The Itala (cd. Sabatliier) lias ffploremus contra Dominum^. 
(2) Ed. Mignc. 

(^) Ed. DE Lagarde {Hagiugr. Chald., Leipz. , 1878). 

'*) Cf. HoELEMANN, ffBiblischc Gestaitung der Anbctung'5 in Dibehtiulien, I, 
p. i33. 

'^) Id., oj). cit., p. 120 ff. 

— f-^ 

.( h9 )<^~ [§53] 

term is practically synonymous with^^K The 
Pesh., however, puts the terms in their logical order, viz. ^v^ 
(«to kneel down??, §64, always foil, by) *-.^£o («to worships, 
and therefore) y.'^ («to bless, praises). There is no doubt that 
the authors of both versions aimed at clearness and hence, 
without concerning themselves much about the literal meaning 
of the third term, nDiDJ, where they evidently looked for the 
climax, they sought rather to grasp the significance of the 
posture conveyed by the three terms taken together, and thus 
they translated each to suit their individual conceptions of 
the leading theme of the psalm. Thus it happens that in the 
LXX the Psalmist is represented as shedding tears of com- 
punction where in tlie Pesh. he bursts out into praises and 
blessings '-'. 

t'^ Id., op. cit., p. ia6 IT. The Syro-Hexaplar (ed. CerianI) has : ;q„^^oj ot 


'-' We arc not concerned here witli the question whether Ps. gS is composite 
(cf. Brigcs, The Bnoh of Pxahns, 2 vols, Edinhurjrh, 1907-1909 = The Intern. 
Crit. Comm., in h. toe). The translators, findinji; the Hebrew text in its present 
structure {M. T. with few' exceptions), have endeavored to harmonize the senti- 
ments expressed in the two main divisions (1-6, 7-11). The Greek translator 
appears to be prepossessed throughout by the thought contained in v. 8 : 
~13-t:3 HDC nVD nnnCD n^Sn'? rk:*pn-'?iX. How keenly he perceived the 
stern reproach underlying these words is seen by his forceful translation or ra- 
ther interpretation : (tri aKXripvyve tas napSias vficov, us iv tw 'tsapaiUKpaayiUi • 
Kma. trtv ri(iepiv tov iseiprtayiou iv li} ip-/i[t.ci3 (Itala: nolite obdurare corda vestra, 
sicut in exacerbatione secundum diem tentalionis in deserto). Wherefore, in 
anticipation of the sentiments of contrition and repentance that this gloomy 
recollection of the past would arouse, he already, in \. h a, strikes a note of 
hopeful trust and conlidence in the Lord : ot< oCk aisuasTii Kyp<os tov Xotov 
avToij (quia non rcpcliet Dominus plebora suam) — which words are not found 
in M. T. and Pesh. And reading on the text of the psalm under such preoccupa- 
tion the translator perforce pictures to himself in v. 5 the psalmist as giving 
unrestrained vent to his feelings and as casting himself down and weeping 
(cf. Esdr. , 10, 1) before his Lord and Maker while hearkening to and repeat- 
ing, in an attitude of complete self-abasement, the reproachful words of God, 
contained in the second part of the psalm : ay^(iepov iav tt/s i^uvris aCrov aKOfi- 
avTS, fi-^ anXvp^vriTS . . . (hodie si vocem ejus audierilis, nolite. . .). It is now 
seen that there is no need of supposing that the translator read in his Hebrew 
text the form HDSJ in place of nD~)3J. Even the latter form expressing, as he 
would suspect, some such attitude as has been suggested, afl'ordcd liiiii an 


IMllllUI Ull. :t.VXtU.\ALL. 

[§53j — i5-( 50 )^-4- 

Whetherwe call the parallelism of the present couplet synonym- 
ous, synthetic or stairlike, one point must not be overlooked, 
namely that the second member cannot be inferior in thought 
and expression to the first which, as has been said, contains 
plainly a climactic element. Both the LXX and the Pesh. bring 
this out, and in this their renderings have an advantage over 
that of St. Jerome. Evidently the term nD"i3: implies more force 
and effect than the simple rendering «flectamus genua?; con- 
tains. The Psalmist's summons to the worship of Yahweh is 
enthusiastic and passionate; accordingly, he uses strong and 
expressive terms. In view of all this, the obvious meaning of these 
terms in the original would be as follows : mnriu'n signifies 
generically the act of worship or adoration; ""is denotes the in- 
cipient phase of this act (« falling upon the knees w), while ""i2 is 
meant to convey the final phase of the act, viz. the performance of 
the mnnc'n, i. e. a profound prostration before Yahweh. There is 
no sign here or anywhere else of an accepted symbolical or 
liturgical meaning of the term "in. Nor is there any ground for 
the assumption that it has been denominated from the simple 
noun "i"!? and that, therefore , it must signify k to kneel down »^^'. 
To determine its real meaning in the present instance we have, 
besides the context, no other guides than Gen. 2/1,1 1 (== wproc. 

cam. »), llPar. 6, i3 [n''2')2~b:f "j"i3, Aramaism) and Arabic dC, 
Ethiopic fl<jn and Syriac y.;.^ («proc. cam.; cecidit, corruitw, 
the meaning c^genuflexitw is too recent, cf §6/i). There being no 

excellent opportunity to bring out las idea and to establish a beautiful connec- 
tion between the two parts of the psalm. 

In the Peshitto, however, a note of joy and jubilation runs through the entire 
lirst part of the psalm, and these joyful sentiments come in an appropriate 
cUmax in the words «Let us praise the Lord^. Barhebraeus briefly expresses the 
trend of this part of the psahn in the Pesh. in the words : oi j- ' . ^^^ ■■ ">- ■ ol 
]-.,.v>'v ..wa. '>•,'> JO JUjoS ^ r-^^? (Ausrd Raze, in h. loc. We have quoted from 
Cod. Vat. Syr., 28a, p. 98 v"; cf. de Lagarde, In libr. psalm, adnotationes in 
Praetei-tniss. Uhri duo, (Jotling. , 1879, ad loc). The idea expressed in the 
phrase l^cxS ^ ^'^j (trqui fecit nobis reditum;?) appears to have been sug- 
gested to him by v. 1, frsalvatori nostrow. 

''> Cf. Franz Delitzsch in Ps. gS, 6, see SS 1, 9. 

— ^-».( 51 W-.'- [§54] 

special reason for regarding th e form as an Aramaism , we may say 
that the Psalmist has borrowed from the common or vulgar idiom 
a term which served to give adequate expression to the thought 
he wished to convey (comp. the c^ falling down of the camel w as 
expressed by the verb in Gen. 2/1, 11 and in all the other lan- 
guages); a term that seemed to express with original and realistic 
force the act of adoration (expressed in liturgical language by 
mnnu^n), to signify his complete and unrestrained abasement 
before Yahweh. 

While this view is indirectly supported by the LXX and Pesh. , 
it is directly supported by the Targum, Here the rendering is 
meant to be literal and faithful (since the first two terms corres- 
pond exactly to the original); the terms are placed in the natural 
order. Moreover, the two members of the parallelism are well 
balanced, -jr. «to bow, bend oneself ?5 being weaker than roDn 

«to sinkdownw, Pa. c^to throw down^. Comp. Syriac ^'^^ c^to 
sink break down 55, symb. ato fall down into the dust, in sub- 
mission??, and Amh. fl<Ch «to submit oneself??. In the face of 
such evidence we take the form riDna: to express an unrestrained 
« sinking or faUing down upon the ground?? before Yahweh, 
the King above all gods (v. 3), the Creator and Owner of all 
nature (v. /i-6). Wherefore we would render the couplet as 
follows : 

come ! let us worship and bow down ! 

let us fail prostrate before YahAveh (our Maker) ! 

5h. We shall now treat the few isolated forms of "jin in New 
//e^reu' litterature. Here we meet, first of all, the ritualistic term 
nD''"i3. It appears to have been formed for the purpose of desi- 
gnating the act or attitude expressed by the biblical term n2i2j 
in Ps. 96 (9/1), 6 (see preceding §), wherefore its real meaning 
is as obscure to us as the meaning of its antecedent. While there 
is no uniformity among the Rituals of the various Jewish sects 
in the manner of making the nsna'^', the Talmudic references 

'•' Cf. L. Ginsberg, Jewish Encijclopedia , I, art. tr Adorations. 


[S55] —»-»•( 52 )<^— 

to this synagogical ceremony are likewise equally insufficient ^^l 
There is, however, in the Palestinian Talmud (viz. in Benlchoth, 
I, 8) a passage which seems to indicate, not indeed the precise 
nature of the act or ceremonv, but its relation to other similar 
acts of worship. The passage reads as follows : "]'? ni"'i2 'b 
]^vh h2 "3U?n 'ii b2 yiDn "'? nsns -p n-'innc'n -{7 "•d^'D:. Evi- 
dently, the author gives a climactic position to nDna, as it 
precedes directly the classical formula from Is. lib, 28 , which 
contains the solemn profession of the worship of Yaliweh. It is 
even stronger than n''innw'n , which shows that the author felt it 
to convey an attitude expressive of complete and unreserved 
subjection and humiliation before God'-'. Thus the form nDm, 
though it by no means reflects the actual use or meaning of the 
stem ■j^^ in living language, has nevertheless an exegetical* 
bearing, inasmuch as it gives further support to our opinion in 
regard to Ps. 96 (9/1) 6 (see above). 

Considering the wide currency and promiscuous adaptability 
of the form katilai in New Hebrew f^', it w ould not be at all sur- 
prising, were the term n:''n2to have assimilated the meaning « to 
bless », as the Dictionaries seem to take for granted (cf. sitpra, 
§ 2). However, we have not come upon, either in New Hebrew or 
West Aramaic literature, a single instance where a Qal form of 
~p3 bears this meaning. 

55. Several forms, used principally in Horticulture or Agri- 
culture, have been derived from the word Tp2 c^knee». From it 
the wine-grower denominated the form yiin signifying liter- 
ally «to make a knee??, namely in the process of layering, or 
of bending the vine down under the ground so as to take root 
and become a separate plant; hence, c^to sink, layer, provine?;. 

^'' See e. g. the Dictionaries of Jac. Levy and Jastrovv s. v. HD^IS and cf. the 
same works on ilT'p, H^ID, etc. 

(^) M. Schwab, Le Talmud de Jerusalem (Paris, 1871-1890), I, 99, appropri- 
ately renders the diflerent terms as follows : tragenouiller, courber, prosterner, sliu- 

(^) Cf. Bartq, Nominalb., S 85 f. 

-^!-5.( 53 ).«^~ [§56] 

To express the concrete object of this action, or the «knee thus 
formed 55, the form hntllal is again employed. Accordingly, nsnn 
signifies c^shoot (of a vine)^^ or wtwig, branch (of a tree)?)'^^ 
Thus assimilating the ideas of r^ sprouting, shooting forth, fructi- 
fying w it came to be applied, hke the Latin terms puUulare, pul- 
lities, pullus, to plants and living beings alike, for instance, 
w fruit » (of certain trees such as the olive and fig-tree) or 
« brood w (of pigeons), and perhaps even to human beings'-'. 
This explanation forestalls the theory of Schindler (ap. Buxt.) 
who would give ps the meaning «nidificare55, whence niDna 
would signify k nidi v. 

56. Again, the forms pn and -j-in (commonly vocalized '!i"^3 
and ■!ji.i3) designate one of the parts of a plow, namely, accord- 
ing to Dalman (sub pn)'^' the plow-beam; according to Buxtorf, 
the share -beam (dentale) — both of which towards their lower 
extremities are knee-shaped. It is a significant coincidence that 
to-day, the Palestinian Fellah applies the name buruk to the knee- 
shaped wooden brace, placed between the plow-beam and handle 
above the point where they are joined'^'. Hence, the function of 
the buruk is similar to that of the stretcher-brace in our modern 
plow. We may take it for granted that the Palestinian plow was, 
in past centuries, the same as it is to-day'^'; hence we might 
conclude that the Jewish term -jnia had the same technical mean- 
ing as the modern Arab, term buruk. But there are two more 
authorities to be heard : de Landberg, Hadramout, p. 629, 

« dJJj age de la charrue, Syr. 55; p. 297, « . . .Syr. ^^i arbre, 
timon. . . J5 and Butrus el-Bustani i^Muhit al-MuhU ap. Dozy), 
« d^Jj . . . Le hois de la charrue 55. All things considered, we may 
say that the form buruk or burk is the more common and appar- 

''' According to Jastrow "ijlS is likewise used in this sense. 
(5) Cf. Jastrow, s. v. , on Yeb 63°. 

(•^) Dalman gives, however, separately: ff"!] "1)3 1. Knie 2, ein knieartig gebogenes 

'■' Cf. Zeitschrift d. Deulsch. Pal.-Vereins , XII, p. 1.57 IT. 
<^' Cf. Benzinger, Ilebr. ArchdoL, p. i/io. 


[^57-58] — j-s.( bli } 

enlly the more original one. Its evolution can be explained as to 
meaning and form from the Arabic stem ti)^'''; but for reasons 
that need hardly be explained here^-' it is more likely that buriik 
or burk is nothing else than the Arabicized (Neo-Hebrew or 
Aram.) word -p\2 (« knee-shaped brace??). 

Section V. 


57. It will be found convenient to pass from Biblical and NeAV 
Hebrew Literature first to the West Arnmaic dialects. We shall 
find that the meanings of the few sporadic forms or derivatives 
of ~p3 in this section of the Aramaic languages reflect the same 
mental atmosphere as the New Hebrew words just discussed. 

In Biblical Aramaic we meet with (Dan. 6, 1 1) the expression 
current in all Aramaic dialects (cf. § 83; see Dan. lo, lo*-')) : 
"•DmD") y"? "^jia (expressing a posture of prayer and follo\\ed by 
the words : nnba Dip niidi n"?!:!:!). 

In Talmudic times the substantives a^ii, XDi-'n and ndiis 
were used in the sense of « shoot, branch », being literally the 
wknee of a vine or tree»(cf. N31D1N rknee, joint, vine??). 

58. Two more forms remain to be considered, the meanings 
of which bespeak some relation to certain Arabic words we have 
met with. The first, xriDinD "; caravans (also pr. name), appears 
to have originally been applied to the « encampments of a cara- 
van , consisting probably of Arabian merchants. Buxtorf renders 
it Klurma mercatorum??. It is quite possible that in designating 
such caravans the Aramaeans borrowed and accommodated the 
very names which the Arabians themselves employed (cf. baraka; 

'•' Cf. 0. [T. hurah (and buriik) rrremaining fixedw § 33 (as, for inst. , the brace 
between shaft and handle) or trincubusn § 89 (Note llie form and position of the 
buruh). Cf. also the meaning of the verb in Amharic and Somali, viz. «to support, 
place upon» (S 48). 

'^' Cf. Brockelmann, Vergl. Gramin., § 98. 

'^' But see Strack's edition of this text, Grammalilc d. Bibl.-Aramdischen 
(Leipz., 1901), p. a6, 27, 89. 

— }->.( 55 )<^— [§69-60] 

bark «herd of camels lying upon their breatsjj; mnbrak « place 
where the camel lies downw), though the meaning ftprocubuit 
camelusw may still have clung to the stem p2 as used in 

59. The meaning of NDTiD, xriDmn, <^stoliditas, stultitia, fatui- 
tas, insulsitas, incivilitasr (Buxt.) appears to be quite isolated. 
Miinster renders these terms bv wis[navia». If we assume that 
they are derived from p3, and not from nn (i. e. Nnm2 c^stolidi- 
tas55, etc.; cf. Aruch Gompl., Buxt.), we cannot fail to see that 
they bear a distinct relation, especially if we accept Miinster's 
rendering, to the Arabic forms hdruk and bdriik « coward 5\ 
We need not suppose a direct borrowing; the Aramaic word 
may have developed from an ancient meaning, which, though 
perhaps dormant, was nevertheless originally contained in the 
stem l"i3(cf. Arabic baraka ^he lay flat on his belly »; cf. also 
ninbruk originally baruk, § 3/i , used euphemistically in the sense 
of ^a stupid, good poor fellow ^i). 

60. Among the Western Aramaic dialects Sijri/ic will first 
engage our attention. Here the simple nominal form la»a3 is 
used in an abstract and in a concrete sense (comp. Arabic bnrk 
abreast of camel w and wherd of camels couching ?i). Elias of 
Nisibis renders it in the former case by J^ and in the latter 
by iCji^ (r knee 55). In the Old Testament Peshitlo, the verb -.u> 
corresponds almost exclusively^" to :?-)D (comp. n^'jiD «leg 
bones 55) in the Hebrew text. Special interest attaches, therefore, 
to those few cases where yiD has been rendered by a term other 
than y-i-2». Such is the case e. g. in Nu. 9/4, 9 : 3DC?1 irnD = 
«-..ioio >a.:3» '-'. Let us compare this w ith the rendering of 

'') In only a few passages the Hebrew text has lip (see below) and in one 
instance "|")!3 . 

(-' Sucii cases are few in number. In some instances it is obvious that the 
meaning of i?"12 was not contained in ^vs,e. g. Job !i, h, my")D D''D"13 (trfeeble 
kneesn). Klsewhcre i?")D has been rendered by'^ixaj, II Par. 7, 3; Is. A(), i;or by 
»a2L3,Is. A5, a3; or by .a**aE>, Judg. ii, 35 (but see Maclean, Diction., s. v.). 
The other exceptions are (besides Nu. -?J\, 9) Job 3i, 10 and Ecclus. i3, h. 

[S6o] — ^-3«( 56 )•€-»— 

Gen. ^9, 9 : V^"'* y"i2=>^_»io y.;-». In both instances the sub- 
ject is Juda, of whom it is said «he couched, he lav down as a 
iion». The translator aimed no doubt at poetical effect rather 
than logical precision , but there was certainly a reason for not 
rendering y-i3 by -ws in Nu. 9/1, 9. He must have fell that the 
phrase **io}o ^v^, which we might naturally expect, would 
not adequately convey the physical action expressed in the origi- 
nal^". In fact, there is no natural connection between the two 
distinct acts that the terms -.;-» and » designate. The full 
import of these terras is best seen by putting together the two 
passages and placing the different terms in their natural physical 
order; thus while "^s» naturally takes the central place, the 
following sequence ensues : wW^ c^he sank down» — >a^io r^and 
couched » — f^^o «and lay, sleeping??. Tbere is a striking 
parallel to this in the Song of Debbora, Judg. 5, ay a, where it 
is said of Sisara : ^•\'^j>o '^>.2uo ^w=> (comp. M.T. aru; 'jDj 'J12; 
LXX xaT sjivX 1(7$ V ' e-rrsaev xa) iKOi\iriQr)^. Here, as also in 
Judg. 5, •2'-j b and Ps. 20, 8 ( d^ aou:>), the term %.;^ is 
followed by "^aj which is expressive of violence. From the 
several examples before us we infer that the terms •a.^jl and 
and u-ioj imply the idea of complete repose, a lying flat upon 
the ground; that>a^» and '^aj specify the manner in which the 
body settles itself upon the ground; ^^ hence it follows that y}^ 
denotes the incipient and the more conspicuous phase of the 
whole action, viz. the moving downwards of the body, or its 
sinking, falling upon the ground. It follows further that the act, 
originally expressed by the last named verb, is marked bv a 
certain amount of violence and intensity. But, as Judg. 5, 27 
and Ps. 20, 8 indicate, this violence or intensity is not due to 
the action or exertion of the subject; rather is it a passive 
quality resulting from the falling or breaking down of a heavy 
body or object. And it is precisely this feature that shows the 
genetic relation of Syriac «*i3 «corruit, ceciditw to Arabic ha- 

f'' The LXX has rendered thus : Gen. '19, 9 avineauv ixoiynriQy^s; Nu. 2/1, 9 xa- 
ToixXtdeU ivsTCdiaato. 

~^>( 57 )<s— [S6i] 

raka. In connection with the latter form it has been pointed out 
(see §§ /i3-^5, kS) how the above ideas became associated with 
the meaning r.proc. cam. 75 and how, in consequence, the verb 
took on the signification of « collapsing, breaking down (from 
exhaustion)??. It maybe said that all the significations of Syriac 
-ts have been strongly shaded by this last named idea, which 
goes to prove that the Syrian must have apperceived this idea 
in the verb from the very first. Gradually, that idea w^as toned 
down to Rpowerlessness, helplessness », understood in a symbol- 
ical and moral sense, and the physical act originally designated 
by the verb changed, in proportion, from ^a sinking or falling 
down violently 55 into a dignified « bending upon the kneew at 
prayer or worship. 

61, The old Lexicographers (such asBar Ali, Bar Bahlul. Elias 
of Nisibis) define the verb -;-» as follows : laJu** («to fall, colla- 
pse w, Elias of jNis.), ^ (^to fall down, prostrate 75), Law (e. g. 
uy^. rihev bend down r> , Bar B.), >>^ («to bow down upon 
the grounds), x5^ (wto bow down profoundly??), li:?. (Elias of 
Nis.; «to kneel, squat upon the toes??), wi)y (probably meant 
in the sense of ^to kneel, to squat??). Though the Lexicogra- 
phers make no distinct mention of the meaning rrproc. cam.??, 
probably because they no longer recognized this as a specific 
meaning of the verb, yet its existence is clearlv attested to by 
the Pesh., Gen. 2/1, 11 -«<i^aG^^;o) (cf. § 5i). It is also 
used of other animals, e. g. the lion (comp. Gen. /ig, 9) or sheep 
(Cardahi)f^l In Neo-Syriac the verb is apphed in the sense of 
•living down?? to animals in general. That this meaning, or 
more specifically ^proc. cam.??, has been the most primitive 
of all the meanings of the stem -pa, in Syriac no less than 
in the other Semitic languages, will be pointed out at greater 

'') That the verb was applied very generally in the sense of ^f lying down, repos- 
ing?? would appear from the following text from St. Ephrem : ••-»l ■ • • yl 
^^.'aA;^^ ]oi'^ f^Si peccatum ad roncubitum invitaveris. . .r> [Opera Syr., ed. 
AssEMANi, 111, 3gs). But Smitli [Thes. Sip\, s. v.) renders: (rrecumbcre fecit in 

[S 62-63] — «•( 58 >€-«— 

length on another occasion (cf. Section VIII). We shall now 
treat of the different other significations, which this stem 
has developed in Syriac, beginning with is to collapse, break 

62. It will be observed that the Syrian generally applies the 
verb -W5 in this sense to the soldier in battle collapsing as the 
result of having received a deadly wound or on account of being 
actually overpowered and thrown down by his adversary. Thus 
it is applied to Joram, IV Kgs 9,2/1, who, when the arrow had 
gone out at his heart, Ksunk down in his chariot ?5 ()J^.^avia:>; 
LXX : ixafii^sv in) to, ybvinct)\ and to Sisara, Judg. 5, 27 b(see 
above); or to such as ctshall fall under the slain », Is. io,/i 
()*i.*co) J^— I; the LXX has i\i-ni'n]uv^ or, lastly, to ^our ene- 
mies 57 who ware bowed down and fallen ?7, while Kwe have risen 
and stand uprights, Ps. 20, 8 (see above; LXX : o-yvsTro^/o-^r^o-av 
KOLi 'imcrav). Here the Psalmist sets the conqueror in contrast to 
the conquered. The actual encounter itself of two such comba- 
tants is vividly depicted elsewhere, for inst. in Ps. ly, i3 
« Arise Lord, confront them, cast them down 11 (\aj) y«i-^I; 
LXX : viroaKskicrov avTOvsY Gomp. also Ps. "yS, 3i; Jo. 
Eph. 106, 2/1; Poc. cd. IV 299 r (vid. P. Smith. Thes., s. v.). 
Again, the enemy is said to he subdued (y^J^) sunder me?? 
(-la-»l) II Kgs 2/1, /lo; Ps. 18, 89; or to hoiv down (y>«^) «to 
the slaughter?) (Jl^xi.3) Is. 65, 12; or c^ under the sword » 
(Ji,.,'>fr> Jtww^l) Jac. Sar. 36 v (vid. P. Smith) '^l 

63. We now enter upon the symbolical application of the 
verb in the present sense. The posture of the defeated or slain 
warrior, at the feet of his vanquisher, is made to serve as an atti- 
tude symbohc of complete subjection and submission to one 
superior in strength or power (comp. Amharic 04*1 «to submit 

('' Comp. ~7^-■^'^ J^Jw» J^oaao £sMtL lJ^x>>ao (Jacob of Sarug 68 r, ap. Smith, 
Thes.). By ffcityj? is probably meant, not the material city, but the population; 
though in Arabic baiaha has the sense of afalling doun of houses, walls». 

—«.( 59 )<^— I §64 I 

oneself??). Accordingly, the verb denotes here « to fall prostrate 

or flat V (cf. Bar Bahl. : ij^y^. ij^^^j « t.t^*^ ^ *^^^} bend down , 
falling prostrate to the ground ») probably with the additional 
idea of ciinto the diist5\ The subject manifests by such action 
both the sense of his powerlessness and the sentiment of pro- 
found self-abasement and submission. The act has further a 
touch of rudeness and savageness, as the examples will show : 
Ps. 2 2, 3o (^And before Him (the Lord) all they that go down 
to the dust (i. e. the « decaying and dying 55 suggesting the idea 

of « corpses w) shall faU down 11 {\'<^i^ )J^wJ'^o yo^^^^j; 
LXX : ■srpoTrso-oDi'Tai)^'); Ps. 72,9 « before Him (i. e. the King 
who shall have dominion unto the ends of the earth) shall fall 
(loam (LXX : -zspoTrsaovvTai) the islands 55 (R? jL^implying the idea 
c^ barbarians 55. Comp. the second member : c^and his enemies shall 
lick the dustw). This is probably also the force of -t^ in a text 
quoted in the Bibl. Orient., \l, 32 5 : wFerunt autem eum sic 

poenituisse ut prae foribus ecclesiae procumbens ()o« ^V^?) 
coUum pedibus populi ingredientis et exeuntis submitteret. 55 

6-4. In the next place the verb denotes a posture of prayer 
and supplication. Naturally, the feeling of self-abasement is here 
toned down and , accordingly, the symbolical posture is marked 
by more composure and a certain degree of refinement. From 
the instances at hand it is clear that y.i^ has in this application 
entered on a new phase, that it is applied in a sense which is 
not its original one. It may be noticed that the verb never goes 
beyond expressing the physical side of the act, its higher pur- 
pose or motive being determined by a following ^^o or <*^i or 
^x-^l. In the oldest literary monuments, at least, this usage is 
strictly adhered to, except in pregnant diction, e. g. Esther 3, 5 
)o« yi^ |) (v. 2 of the same chapter, however. ^«^^oo ^-^w>). 
Owing to such changes in the meaning of y,;.^ it was natural that 
afterwards , when Syriac had ceased to be a spoken language, the 

''' Cf. Briggs, The Book of Psalms , ad loc. 

[865] -^9.( 60 )^^— 

Lexicographers should have defined this term by such apparently 

synonymous verbs of their adopted language as <y^ ,xJ^^,Z^''^\ 
though it should be remembered that in so doing they had no 
intention of giving the original hteral meaning of the term they 

In the following instances, then, y.i^ is followed by j..:^© 
(which term corresponds in M.T. and LXX to mnnCT. and 'srpocr- 
xuvsTiv^ in the sense of « rendering homager, e. g. to \[\Qkmg, 
III Kgs 1, i5 (the subject is a woman; to -v^ correspond in 
M.T.Tpri, in LXX exv-i^sv^ and ihid. v. 3i; to a high oJficiaJ , 
Esther 3, a, 5 (see above; the LXX has only '7Tpo(Txvve7v); to God 
Gen. 2/1, 26 (KiI^^^;-»;M.T. lpri;LXX : svSoxrfa-as bcivBpw- 
Tios 'apoasxvviia-ev'j, ibid. v. /i8; Ps. 96, 6 (cf. S 53); or to the 
Sun, Act. Martyr., I, 272 (ap. P. Smith). 

65. Mention has been made before of the phrase '^^ -i3 
JLD?ar>, which is distinctly Aramaic. It indicates the posture of a 
suppliant « kneeling 51 upon the ground'-' with his face turned 
upwards to a superior person from whom he expects to obtain 
a favor, ii^ this sense it is apphed to one making supplication 
before God, Esdr. 9, 5 [xXivsiv stt) to. yovara), III Kgs 8, 5/i 
(LXX : OKXaxojs eVi . . .). 11 Par. 29, 29 (LXX : £HCi.[i-if/sv iiri. . .); 
before Bmd , Rom. \ \ ,k (vide»i/ra); before Christ, Mat. 17, i^ 
(Gr. yovvmiwv auTor); before di prophet, IV Kgs 1, i3 i^'ixay.-\iev 
int. . .y^- before an apostle, in Clementis Rom. Becogn. Syr. (ed. 
Lagarde) 80, 1 1 (dvajo ao;ja). 

In liturgical language the same phrase is used to designate 
the act of ctgenuflec(ioni5, e. g. at the Holy Sacrifice, Bihl. 
Orient., Ill, 11, 008, or at the sacrament of Holy Orders where 

(') Thus Bar Ali sub num. 2688 : Jv4si! Jtfl ?a.^«> »« *.a-".-»- 

(^) The posture itself is minutely described in Judg. 7, 5, 6 (LXX : xXlveiv iirt. . .). 

Two more instances of ^v^ sliould be mentioned here : Job 89, 3 ^^o ^^.s^i^ 

(the hinds) bow themselves and bring forth; 1 Kgs. A, 19 (where it is applied in 

the same sense to a woman). 

<^' St. Ephrem, commenting on tliis passage, describes the posture of the 

suppliant in the terms ^JL^^^ao ««aaoj_a yV:» (Opera Syr., ed. Assem., I, 5i8). 

— K>( Gl )<-t^ [SG6-67] 

the Ritual prescribes that the ordiiiandus must «bend upon 
his right kneen (^ibid. 806) or upon «both his knees « (^ibid. 
699), while the pontiff places his hand upon his head (cf. 8 ill, 

66. In view of these examples it appears quite natural that 
the translator of III Kgs 19,18, b^ib lyiD-Nb Ti:\y wzi^n ^d , should 
have introduced into his rendition the Jigura elyniologlca , i. e. 
'.^i^ u^5t3 jj? JLoia^'^.o (1). More frequently, however, we find 
the position of noun and verb reversed, viz, : Jl^ias ^.t^ «to 
bend the knee » , which phrase survives to this day in modern 
Syriac. It will be noticed that the act here expressed by the 
verb no longer engages the whole body, as was the case in 
the examples previously treated, but is restricted explicitly to 
the knee as the agent or direct object. So far as the physical 
side of the act, expressed by the verb, is concerned, it may 
be said that ^;.s coincides, in the present sense, with 
Arabic d^ji «to kneel back on one's heels w (cf. § /i6). 
Though it should be added that this coincidence is the result 
of two independent processes of evolution in the two different 

67. This last observation goes to show that «lo kneels? 
cannot have been the original meaning of-w> or of the stem 
-p3 in general, which point will be discussed at greater 
length on another occasion (§812 ff.). Nor is this conclusion 
reversed by such isolated forms as e. g. JLows Koratio quaedam 
cum genuflexionew (cf. Smith, Thes.^ which is, moreover, evi- 
dently of recent date. Lastly, the statement that the forms -i3 

and 1^;^ have the meanings of « genuflexion and «benedictio» 
is based upon one single text, the correctness and reliableness of 

(') The same phrase has been rendered in diflcrent ways, e. g. Is. i5, aS : 
yo-_3 '*^i .Sttfil C^ ; Rom 11,4: yoot-^'io^ '^ia. o^w^ , but in the Sinaitic 
Palimps. : »o>Q-3?a.» "^ki* ^aj; see The Four Gospels in Si/riac transl. from the 
Sinaitic Palimpsest by R. L. Bensly and J. Rendcl Harris and F. Crawford Burkitt 
(Cambridge, iby'i), ad loc. 

[$&8] — !->.( 62 ).«— 

Avhich appear to he very doubtful, to say the least ^''. For the 
rest, that the Syrians have not lost sight of the real and ori- 
ginal significance of the symboHcal act expressed by the verb at 
a more recent date is apparent from one of the rubrics quoted in 
the Bibl. Orient. , II , 1 6 5 , according to which it is forbidden to 
hneel down during the Holy Sacrifice as well as on the Lord's day ; 
and the explanation given is this : t^genuflectio enim casum 

nostrum significat(yl^^^a^io? )l) omJ^««) ;«*^JLo^ai] Liturgia 
(i. e. sacra Coena) autem resurrectionem. 55 

68. We should not dismiss the present subject without speak- 
ing briefly of a certain Massoretic controversy between the 
Western and Eastern Syrians, i. e. the Jacobites and Nestorians. 
The controversy has reference to the present point at issue, and a 
review of the controversy will lend to illustrate and confirm our 
views on the evolution of the meanings of y\-^, as set forth in the 
foregoing, and will incidentally shed some light upon individual 
passages of the tevt of the Peshilto. The controverted point is 
stated by Barhebraeus , whom later writers have copied , in the fol- 
lowing manner. The Western Syrians (Jacobites), he says, write 

y.;^ in the sense of U'^o and J^ in the sense of )JtC:^a2Lio . 
He refers us for the former instance to Rom. \t,k, and for the 
latter to Ps. 20, c) and Judg. 5, 97. But the Eastern Syrians, he 

continues, write -w^ in either of the two senses and never 

employ y.'i^^'\ 

On general grounds one may attach greater weight to the tra- 
dition of the INestorians than to that of the Jacobites. In point of 
fact, if we glance at the list of words which are marked by the 
same dialectical difference we shall see at once that the Nestorian 

'^) The text is i^i^A r*-*? ^"^"^l, (Ordo benedictionis cineris),i4necc?. Syr., I, 9 
ap. P. Smith , Thvs. 

'^) See the K'lovo d'tsem'hc of Barhebraeus, ed. by Martin in GEuvres jrramma- 
ticales d'Abou'l Faradj dit Bar Ilebraeus (Paris, 1879), t. I, p. 1 18. Cf. Maiitik in 
Journal asiatique, Avril-Mai, 1879, p. A71 f; Dcval, Grainm. Sijr. (Paris, 1881), 
p. 177. Smith {Thesaur.,s. v. -v») quotes Georg. Karmsedinoyo (Lexicon, 1619) 
on this subject. 

( 63 )K-t— [S68] 

tradition approaches nearest to what may be regarded as 
belonging to the common Semitic stock'''. In the case of %>V3 
the question is, however, more comphcated. True, we can cite 
in support of the Nestorian pronunciation such forms as Arabic 

jiJo and Ethiopic fl^Jh, but the controverted point does not lie 
here. The ulterior distinction of the Jacobites, viz. between 

Si^ and Si^, must needs be traced beyond the point of its fixa- 
tion in the text, at all events beyond the testimony of Barhe- 
braeus. Did this distinction, we may ask, exist in the language 
of the people before such fixation, perhaps even before the sepa- 
ration of the Eastern Syrians from their Western brethren? Or 
may we ascribe its origin to Arabic influence? 

Barhebraeus, the Jacobite Primate, plainly states that it was 
only his partisans who made the distinction. Possibly, this was 
true at his time (died 1286); but that two centuries before, the 
Nestorians were also famihar with, and applied, the same dis- 
tinction is attested to by as great an authority as Elias of Ni- 
sibis. Tbis celebrated Nestorian Bishop (died after io5o) clearly 
distinguishes in his Lexicon between «.w> = <julJc_*.5; Jx dJ^-i 

and »-.;^==kJu.'-'. Whence it follows that the Jacobites have, 
in the present instance, adhered consistently'^' to a tradi- 
tion which, in all likeliness, dates back to a time previous 
to the separation, and which, therefore, claims our closest 

C' See Mabtin, op. cit. , table. A few examples will suffice to Lear out the asser- 
tion made above : ^» (Jac.) — ^» (Nest., comp. ^^b^, Aram. ]UT Dalm.); 
^^ (Jac.) — ^ (Nest., comp. lyi^ , Aram. |nt3); ^v><t> (Jac.) — jQaox» 
(Nest., J.;.^, ppp); ^ (Jac.)— %^ (Nest, 0^. T]]? , fearfarfu Ass.), etc. 

(2) We may safely conclude that the vowels which we have supplied above were 
intended by Elias, as there could have been no other reason of Iiis mentioning the 
Peal of ywis twice. We quote from the edition of Lagardo, Praelennissorum libri 
duo (Giitting., 1879), p. 76. It is interesting to note that Thomas a Novaria 
0. F. M. gives in his Thesaurus Arab.-Syr.-Latinus (Rome, iGSO), which is based 
upon Elias's work (vide Lagarde, op. cit.), the following : ^vj» cadere ; y.-^ 

W Gf. N6LDEKE,5</r. Gramm. (a""' ed., Leipzig, 1898), p. xxxiii. 

[S68] — «.( 64 )<-^^ 

The value of this tradition would be materially increased if 
it could be shown that the form -W2> has been used in other in- 
stances besides those mentionned by Barhebraeus. In default of a 
critical edition of the Syriac text with Jacobite vocalization, we 
gather from such sources as may be available ''' that the distinc- 
tion between -v^ (rccorruit, cecidit??) and -u> (Kgenudexit?;) 
has been applied consistently in the versions of the Bible. While 
the Hebrew text need hardly be considered in this matter, since 
j'')^ generally corresponds to -wa in both these senses, it is re- 
markable that the Greek text of both the Old (LXX) and the 
New Testament presents a striking coincidence with the Jaco- 
bite reading in so far as it expresses, in a variety of terms, the 
same shades of meaning which the Jacobites have contrived to 
bring out, though with far less force and variety, by two dis- 
tinct vocalic elements. The following list of the passages in 
point will serve to elucidate the whole question. The Jacobites 
seem to have vocalized yX:=>, besides Ps. 20, 9 (where the verb 
applies to soldiers collapsing in battle; LXX : awe-noSlaB-ncrav) 
and Judg. 6,27 [his; the LXX has K(xiSKvkiaBr] and xaieKlidri^^^), 
also Gen. /19, 9 (in reference to Juda r^who couches like a 
lion 55; LXX: dvaTteawv^ and Mt. 27, 29 (»oo»*^5a3'*^'^ od;^© 
-«aiouD; xou yovvneTrfa-avTSs sfXTrpoadsv avTOv, i. e. the soldiers 
falHng down in mockery before Jesus). These instances show 
that yX=> was meant to express a « lying down prostrate jj (as 
said of animals, in the first place no doubt of the camel), a 
c^ collapsing, breaking down 55 or a k falling down in a rude, sa- 
vage manners (cf. Mt. 27, 29(2)). On the other hand, the Jaco- 

t'' Where no special references are given Ave have followed the Polyglotl of 

(^) In the light of previous ohservations (8 62 ff.) we may translate Judg., 5, 
27 a, > -k'\ * r) '^Suo yu> ■ • . thus : «(at her feet) he sank down [from exhaus- 
tion] and fell and lay (sleeping))!. This rendering would save the harmony of the 
two descriptions of the same event, viz. that of the poet, 5, 27, and that of 
the narrator, /i , 1 5 ff. Cf. LiGnAXGE. Le Uvre des Juges (Paris, 1908), p. 10 IT. 

(•'') It was a caricature of the ceremony of adoration. Cf. Hoelemann, op. cit., 
p. 135, nolo 1. The original Syriac text of Tatian's Diatessaron seems to have 

~f^( 65 >c-H— - [S69] 

bites seem (0 have vocalized ^i^ wherever the act expressed by 
this verb appears to be marked by a certain degree of composm'e^^' 
and refinement. Here the verb is followed by either JLDja:> or 
Ji^^a^ "^^v. The corresponding terms in the Greek text are : 
jidiyLTiletv in IV Kgs, 1, i3 (eV) tol yomxa); (| , a/i; II Par., 
29, 99; Rom., 11, k (foil, by 701-1;); xXivsiv, Judg., 7, 5, 
6 (^tt} to. yovacxoL\ Hexapl., Ka.\vK^ziv\\ svSoxe7v (with 'sspoa- 
xvvtiv^ Gen., 24, 26; oKlct^siv yovv, III Kgs, 19, 18 and 
lastly 'u^Msiv (stt) to., etc.) II Par., 6, i3 (in M. T. ps, see 

69. Thus it is obvious that the Jacobites have, consciously or 

unconsciously, attached the form -Wi to the original, and «.;js to 
the derived and secondary significations. The vocalic differentia- 
tion appears to have set in at the time when the meaning of the 
verb commenced to widen and generalize. And while the primi- 
tive vowel held on to the original meaning (comp.^aj), the 
lighter vowel attached itself to the more refined and liturgical 

meaning (comp. *^o) of more recent origin. The case has 
its analogies in Syriac'-^ no less than in other Semitic lan- 
guages. ^ . . . 

We find, then, that y.^2» is identical with Arabic Jo, 
Abyss. fl<Jh and Hebr. "j"i3, both as to meaning («proc. cam. 55; 
comp. "jis Gen, 2/1, 11) and vocalization. This fact furnishes a 
further proof for our main thesis, namely, that «proc. cam. 75 
(comprising the ideas c^corruit, ceciditw) is of all the most pri- 
mitive meaning of Semitic baraka, while such other meanings as 
wgenuflexitw, etc. have evolved only at a comparatively recent 

{{iven expression to the same idea if we may judge from the corresponding pas- 
sage in the Arabic transhition, \iz. /H-^^ <J-^ '^r?-' Tatiani Evangeliorum Har- 
moniae Arab. , ed. Ciasca , ad loc. 

<') IV Kgs 9, 2^ , J^-tT.vt-t yi^ appears to be an exception, though perhaps 
the circumstance that he (Joram) sank down «in his chariot n gave the impres- 
sion that it was not a complete falling down flat, i. e. y*i-». See § Ga. 

(2) Cf. Duval, Giamm. Syr,, p. 177. 


t.iii-iti.ui.iUE l^.L^IO^ALE• 

[870] _„5-s.( 66 ) 


Section VI. 


70. So far as the Assyrian literary monuments would lead us 
to conclude, it would hardly seem possible for us to ascertain the 
existence of a single instance of a verbal form of the stem "i^^. 
No evidence can be gathered from the well-known Writing Ta- 
blet, V Rawlinson, pi. /i5, col. f, which has, line 11. the 
form : tu-b{pjar-raJi(^(j)''^K A much discussed text, and one to 
which reference has been made in Chapt. I. (§ 8), is to be 
found in V Rawl., pi. h, line 8:3, viz. : sa suqdni pur-ru-kii 
malu ri'bdti, now commonly translated as follows : « which (viz. 
the cadavers) blocked up the streets and filled up the wide 
places » (2). Though, instead of purniku, Amiaud read hurmku 
and translated : c? qui (i. e. les cadavres) gisaient dans les 
rues. . . 55^^'. 

It may be noted that the absence of the preposition ma before 
suqdni does not exclude the latter rendering. It is quite possible 
that hardku, if such a verb existed, had developed a transitive 
meaning just as, for instance, the verb emedu rtto stand 55 — «to 
lay upon?5. In point of fact, the Arabic verb harnha in the sense 
^the camel threw his breast upon the ground — clave to the 
ground 55 is not far from having such a transitive meaning as 
the German word helegen («to lay upon— cover r). Besides, the 
intens. form barraka « a multitude of camels lay down » suggests 
that the above sentence, supplanting burruku instead o{ purriiku, 
might perhaps be rendered something like this : « which lay in 
heaps upon the streets and filled up the wide places ». This, 
however, remains a matter of conjecture. 

'■' Cf. Assyr. Dictionaries of Delitzsch and i\Iuss-Arnolt. 

<-) See Haupt m Beitvdge zur Assyi-iulogie , I (1889) ad V Raw!., 4, 82; cf. 
KcUinschriftl. Bibliolheh , II (1890), 192; Winckler, Altoriental. Forschungen, I 
(3893), ^78 rm. ; cf. Mnss-ARNOLT, Concise Diction, of the Assjjr. Lang., s. v. 

'^^ Zeitschiift f. Keihcliri/tforschung , I (1886), p. aii. 

—»->.( 67 )<~t — [^71] 

71. The noun birku may signify the akneej), whether as that 
part upon which the body rests (cf. a-sar hir-ka-a-a mandhtu in 
Sennacherib [I Rawl. . 87-/12] III, 78, « wherever my knees 
found a resting place '''») or, in a wider sense ;, as it is the means 
of walking (cf. aJ-la-ka hir-ka-a-a, II Rawl. , 1 6, be , 3 : « my knees 
are marching 55'-^). The Semite has a tendency to regard the knee 
as the obvious center or seat of physical strength and persever- 
ance. Thus we read of « feeble knees « (Job h, lx\ Heb. 12, 12) 
and of knees that ado not tire» [la in-na-hu, V Rawl., 65, 
b Shy^K In the light of these examples the sentence Suzub sa isu 
bir-ki (Sennacherib [I Rawl., 87-/12] V, 9) might be appro- 
priately rendered : R...who had no perseverance (staying 
power) 55 ^^K 

According to Meissner the form burkii is identical with birku'^^K 
Both words have the secondary meaning of «lap»"^) and « geni- 
talia ?? f'". It appears that the latter sense is not, however, directly 
connected with the Mod. Arabic term barak, which is used as a 
word of reproach to express the conjugal act (§ k\). If in all 
the languages the simple nominal form of "")2 designates a fore- 
part of the body, generally of course the « knee r> , as the most 
conspicuous object or leading factor in the action expressed by 
the corresponding verb, it may be said that birku and burku 
designate the <^ fore-part of the leg from the knee upwards, the 
genitalia inclusive??, as the conspicuous factor in the action 
expressed by baraku, viz. sto fall or he down prostrate?? (comp. 
burruku above; Arab, baraka; Syr. b'rdky Thence would result 

(1) See Hebraica, VIII, p. 63; cf. Keilinschrift. BibL, II, p. gg. 

■-) See Beilrcifre z. AssyrioL, II, 285 ff. ; cf. Lenormant, Etudes accadiennes 
(1873 ff.), II, p. 71; III, p. 25. 

'^) See Muss-Arnolt, Diet., s. v. birku; cf. IV Rawl., 9 a, 88-39. 

'*' Haupt, Anduver Review, May 1886, renders : ffwho was a coward, a cow- 
ardly bastard?!. Cf. KeilinscJuiJ'l. Bibliotli., II, 108 (ffder keinen Stnmnibaum 
liaLlc?5); Hebraica, VII, 65 (ttwlio had no physical strenght, was a weakhnjjn). 

*^' Supplement z. d. assyr. Worterb., a 5; cf. Delitzsch, Assyr. Worlerb., 56 1; 
Muss-Arnolt, Diction., 191, 83 1. 

C^) Vide infra. 

(') Comp. Sninma anielu ina burin assali salil, Bez. Cat., 1020 (ap. Meissner, 
op. cit.). 


[ § y 9 ] ■ • *> ( 68 J Ki - ■ 

such specific meanings as t^knee, genitalia, Iap», etc., in ac- 
cordance with the specific application of the verb. In the hght 
of this the expression / sa btirki birmu (Amarna, Berlin, 26, 
col. Ill, 27), occurring in a list of articles of dress, would si- 
gnify, literally : c^one (article) for the burki (^i. e. the front of 
the lower part of the body), (made of) colored stuff ??, therefore 
some such article as an apron ^^K 

72. The variation of sound in burku and birku is easily 
accounted for. Had Stephen Langdon never traced such changes 
in Sumerian, the fluctuation of the same word between birka and 
burka in the Aramaic dialects (cf. Arabic bark, Hebr. berSk, etc. ; 
cf. § 83) would nevertheless suggest the possibility that such 
fluctuation, as regards the simple nominal form of "")3, existed 
at a very early date and that in Assyrian it could have developed 
the two forms birku and burku. In accordance with this explana- 
tion it is our contention that ina burki is the same as ina birki 
coupon the knees r. The Oriental has a special predilection for 
this phrase, especially in the sense of cc holding a child in one's 
lap V , for instance : n^Dia-'ri* DU>1 (IV Kgs Zt , 20 ; cf. Job 3 , 1 2 ) ; 
<h^^ * dtfttMl (r. sinu amplecti??, Dillm.); ma-ru ina birki 
nmeli u-sat-bu-ii t^they take away the child from the man's lap» 
(IV Rawl., 1, a, 3 8-3 9)'-'. There can be no doubt that the last 
phrase is identical with ina {ana^ burki assati (^Meiss^er , Supple- 
ment, 26 bis'j Rin the woman's lap??, literally, «upon her 
knees n ^^K 

'') Cf. Knddtzon, Die El-Amarna Tafeln (Leipzig, 1907, Vorderasiat. Biblioth.), 
22, Koi. 3, 27 : fffiir das Knie (aus) buntgewobenem StofTn. 

'■-'' See Haupt, Congress-Vorirag iib. die Akkad. Frage (Berlin, 1882), XXX; 
Zeitschv.f. Keilschrift. , I, 3i6, rm. ; Lenormant, Etud. accad., Ill, 80; Delitzsch, 
Worterb., he. cit. 

*'' Comp. , e. g. , a passage occurring in a prayer, ed. and transl. by Fr. Martin, 
Textes religieux Assijr. etBab., 1908 (cf. Craig, Assyr. and Babyl. religious texts, 
2 vols, 1895-1897, 6-7), p. 28, line 7 : «0 mon pauvre Asurb., toi que j'ai 
depose sur le sein (ina burki) de la deesse reine de Ninive. . .v (cf. Meissner, 
Suppl., s. v.). — Since, according to oriental custom and thought, gifts and pre- 
sents are placed or trgiven inton a person's «bosom« (cf. Lk, 6, 38), it would 
appear that the reading ma burki might be preferred to ina purki (from par«/iM 

— «.( 69 )^^"- [S73] 

These considerations all tend to make it clear that the usual 
renderings of the expression tar-bit hir-hi-ia, viz. « offspring of 
mv knees 55(1', or, «of my loins »^-\ or, «of my strength » ''^^ are 
lacking in precision. There is nothing in the expression that 
would hear an allusion to the idea « generation 55. The word hirhi 
signifies « knees w or rJap»; tarbitu (from rabil «to grow upw) 
literally « grown up 51. Thus, the more precise meaning of the 
expression would be « grown up (or reared) on my knees 55. It is 
a significant coincidence that the Syrian expresses the same 
thought in the very same words, viz. )-^«jt*j«D **«aoia3^^>^ 
A.-oil) {^Bibl. Orient., Ill, 1 , i5o) ain ejus sinu educatus fui » 

Section VII. 

THE SUBSTANTIVE n^ll (Barikat). 

73. Special importance attaches to the word n^']?. It ap- 
pears to have belonged to the common stock of the West Semitic 
languages, wherefore it has seemed advisable to give it more 
detailed and separate consideration. 

The word occurs, first of all, in several Phenician inscrip- 
tions (''', in the inscription of Siloah'^^, and frequently in the 
Books of Kings and other 0. T. writings (see below). In New 
Hebrew we find along with HDna the noun DZii: (probably de- 
nominated in Niphal; cf. Buxt., s. v., « piscina, locus ubi lava- 
turr.) and the denominative Pual (of "in) ato be watered », and 
possibly the Piel, «to clear virgin ground 55. For this reason nsna 

(fto separate, keepn, etc.) wherever this expression has the meaning of «(sacred) 
treasury n (e. g., Ill Rawl. , bo, n. h, 31 ana purki Istav; cf. Keilimchrift. Bibl., 
IV. 199 : «m die Kasse der /s<ar. . . niederlegen?? ; Keilinschriftl. BihL, IV, 182 
[Kon^Tinjik, Sai], n. 1, 16 ... ina purhi Mnib; cf. Zeitsclir. /. Assijr., XIII, 
5(38-269 : trSchatz des Gottes Ninibn). 

(') Cf. Keilinschi: und d. A. T., a"*" ed., 35 1. 

(2) Cf. KeilinschriflL Bibl., II, 99. 

(•■'' Cf. Muss-Arnolt, Diet., loc. cit. 

W See Hoffmann, Phoniz. InschriJ'len, f. 27. 

(.^' In S"" line, ed. Eating, ap. Ges.-Kautzsch , llcbr, Gramin. (97 ed., Append.) 

must have been familiarly known all over the Chanaanitic terri- 
tory. Thence it passed into Egyptian ^^^. 

The Arab must have known the term from tlie earUest times, 

as is apparent from its genuinely Arabic form (viz. &^Jo and <^j^)-, 

as well as from its extensive use all over the Arabian world. It 
is employed by the ancient poets in the North '^l by the Sabae- 
ans *^' and Himvarites ^''' in the South, and the term is still extant 
at the present day in the different modern dialects, as is witnes- 
sed by such forms as h'lAiet (being the more common form) or 
hnrkrt, h'lrhc or Imrke, birga^''\ birika, birk (Suahili; cf. •flCll, 
IsENBERG, Amharic. Diet., p. 87), hirhad (Somah), barka"'^ (Mal- 
tese) and Spanish nlberka or alrerkn. 

In Aramaic we meet with this word (written nn:n3) even in 
the Palmyrene and Nabataean inscriptions, not to speak of its 
frequent occurrence (i. e. of the form nn^nn) in Jewish Pales- 
tinian writings. This shows that the Western Aramaeans at least 
have used the term from the very earliest times. The only wit- 
nesses of its use in East Aramaic are the modern Syriac {ormsbtirke 
(Algosh dialect) and birke (Tkhuma; cp., however, Modern 
Arabic birke y 

All things considered, there seems to be no doubt that the 
Western Semites were familiar with this word before they 

7/i. A word must now be said in regard to its primitive form. 
Evidently, n^ns, n^na and nnD"'")3 were originally bnriknt. The 

forms ^'ti {birket, etc.) and do [birke, biirke^. etc. may simi- 

!') See BnuGSCH, Diet, gpop-aph . , 1112; Maspero, Genre epislolaire, p. A5; 
BoNDi, Dem Hebraisch-Phoni:. Spvachzweige angeh. Lehiiworler (Leipzig, 1886), 
p. 4o, barhada. 

(-' See NoLDEkE, Delectus Veterum Carminum Arabic. (BerJin. 1890). p. 9/1. 

(') See MoiiDTMANN und Mlllep. , Sabciische Deriktiuiler (Vienna, i883), n. 21, 
line 9 (n:-)3). 

W See the inscriptions ed. by Mordtmann, in Z.D.M.G., XXX, 21 ff. (nD"13); 
cp.XXXVIIl, 36/1. 

(^) See Z.D.M.G., XXII, i05. 

(*) In tlie compound name gar-barha , a grotto with stagnant water (Proca). 

-^>->.( 71 )^-.~- [§75-76] 

larly be regarded as variations or attenuations of an original 
hnrikat^^K At all events, the characteristic vowel of the primitive 
form must have been /. Now the form hdnkat is regarded as a 
compensativum for harik (cp. Arabic Jsnj). And again these two 
forms, viz. hdrihat and harlk, point ordinarily to the corresponding 
verbal form harika i^^J^) ^^^. Such observations as the foregoing 
will have their purpose in assisting us to determine the original 
meaning of the word n;T3 or harikal. 

75. It will be remembered that scholars have generally touch- 
ed upon the derivation of the meaning of this word in connec- 
tion with their explanations of the meaning of nr"i3 (§ 1 ff. ). 
According to some , the word bariknt originally designated the 
pool or reservoir as ^(something) dug out or caved out», ac- 
cording to others, as a « depression, hole (in the ground) », 
or a abend, knee, curve (in a river) », or a k kneeling place 
(for drinking) J5, or, again, as a (^breaking, gushing forth (of 
water) 55, or, lastly, as an c^ expanding (ausbreiten) i. e. an ex- 
panse of water ». Despite these explanations we are still in the 

76. Perhaps, though, an answer to the question : was harikat 
applied originally to natural or artificial pools? will afford us a 
proper starting-point in tracing the origin of its meaning. More 
particularly our question is : was the term harikat applied to any 
body of water whatever, or only to a basin, tank or reservoir, dug 

(') Comp. the variations : c-Jlb, *---J.^, *-*-^: see Barth, Nominalb., S 78 a. 

(*' See Barth. op. cit., S 62, 9a; cp. 21, 77; Buockelmann, Grundriss, I, 
S 1 4o . cp. 1 1 9 c-d. — In view of the facts and explanations given in tlie preced- 
ing paragraphs, there appears to he no room for the diminutive form hurdikatu 
in the evolution of n2"l2, and the firm accented e in DDTS does not, in our 
opinion, point to an antecedent diminutive, as Huh. Grimme is inclined to 
think {Grundziige der llebr. Alizcnt- niiil VohaUehrc , Frih. Helvet. , i89G,p. 87- 
38), hut to an original barikat, whose unchangeahle i expresses permanent qua- 

'•^' Ges.-Buhl. Handworterb., s. v. : rrWurzel unhekannt?i. 

[S76] -"»-»•( 72 )^-.'- 

in the ground and especially constructed for the purpose of hold- 
ing water ? 

The different nisna mentioned in the 0. T. were apparently 
artificial pools. The townspeople and FelldJitn of Palestine and 
Syria are likewise wont to apply the word birket primarily to a 
pool made by hand, or a basin ^^l Yet, we should not forget that 
we are deahng bere with resident peoples. The question is : did 
they employ the word barikat in this sense before they had 
become domiciled ? 

In classical Arabic the terms birkal and birk are used in a gen- 
eric sense, as a perusal of Lane s. v.^-' will convince the reader. 
Yet, one cannot but observe that in a general way the words 
tend to convey the idea of a natural rather than an artificial 
pool. For if the latter were ordinarily designated by these terms, 
why should Ash'ari (Az) have seen the need of stating specially 
that the tanks on the road to Mecca were called birnh? If we take 
into account the wide range of meanings that this word bears in 
the different languages, such as, « watering trough (dug in the 
ground), tank, pond, basin, pool, lake », and in Modern Arabic, 
Ksea (Somali), bay of the sea, reach of a river, basin of a foun- 

*'' Cf. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria (New York, 1906); B. Meistermann, 
New Guide to the Holy Land (London, 1907), passim. 

(') xSji a Jo^ [i. e. watering -trough or tank] : (K) or the like tliereof 
(S, TA) dug in the ground, not having raised sides constructed for it above the 
swface of the ground; (TA) and JIj signifies the same : (Lth, K j said to be 
so called because of the continuance of the water therein : (S) pi. Jo (S, Msb, 
K) which Az found to be applied by the Arabs to the tanks, or cisterns, that are 
construcled with baked bricks, and plastered with lime, in the road to Mekkeh , 
and at its watering places; sing. *5lj, and sometimes baSo is a thousand cubits 
[in length], and less, and more ; but the watering-troughs, or tanks, that 
are made for the rain-water, and not cased with baked bricks, are called l^JJis\ , 
sing. tJUa : (TA) [ *5y often signifies a basin, a pool, a pond; and a lake : and 
in the present day, also a bay of the sea : and a reach of a river^ ; also a place where 
water remains and collects, or collects and stagnates, or remains long and becomes 
altered (ISd, K). Thus far Lane. It is to be noted, however, that a lx>e (from 
fMs nto make, to work a thing skilfully n) is distinctly an artificial pool or a 
cistern (cf. Hata, s. v.), and was presumably so named in conLradistinclion to 
a natural pool, such as a *5o (see S 80). 

-^,-K 73 )^^ [S77] 

tain ^'', pool or puddle of rain water ^-', etc. 5?, it is quite apparent 
that the original signification, viz. the one from which all these 
have been gradually accommodated, must have been something 
like : sa place where Avater remains, collects and stagnates 5? 
(ISd and K). In confirmation of this may be added the import- 
ant fact that to-day the Bedawin generally understand by a hirhet 
merely any collection of standing water. 

77. So much for the actual meaning of the word ns^a or 
harikat. Retrogressively and psychologically we may succeed in 
tracing its evolution to a more primitive form and meaning by 
determining, namely in the objects signified, such features as 
would naturally have dominated the apperception of the Semite 
and would thus have occasioned the meaning of the word. 

Anyone at all conversant with Oriental conditions is well 
aware of the far-reaching signiticance attaching to water. It is ihe 
source of life. This truth applies to nomadic conditions in an 
eminent degree. The Bedawi greets the beneficicnt cloud with 
great rejoicing; he improvises joyful songs when a well (cf. Nu. 
21, 17 ff. ) or a K brimful poolw'^) is discovered'^'. An irrigated 
plain is for him a veritable ^garden of the Lordr (cf. Gen., i3, 
1 0). But these are the special gifts of God's bounty; yet, the Be- 
dawi has been taught to value and to utihze every pool and 
puddle of stagnant water he may meet with on his cheerless 

May not his appreciation of the value of tlie contents of a 
pool have entered his consciousness and elfoctually influenced the 
process of naming it? And, if so, which quality of the pool 
would he appreciate most ? Certainly not the shape or form of the 
pool. For the Bedawi or Nomad the chief concern is, as to how 

'■' Cf. Richardson; Steingass. 

'*' For inst. in Palestine. See Guthe in Zeitschr. d. Deutsch, Palestinavoreins , 
V, 399, 335 (cf. Belot). 

^'> Cf. NoLDEKK, Delectus Vet. Carm. Arab., he. cit. 

'*' Cf. R. A. Nicholson, A Literary Iiist</ry of the Arabs [The Libr. of Lit, 
Hist,), New York, 1907, p. 78. 

[S78] —y^{ Ifi )-€-H — 

long the water in the pool, as well as in the fountain or brook, 
will continue. The Hebrews sang r. unto the wcllw — that it 
might continue to flow (Nu. 21, 171!., see above). Should the 
water in ihe brook have « deceitfully 55 vanished, the caravans are 
confounded; «tbey turn aside, go up into the waste and per- 
ish » (cp. R.V. , Job 6, i5-2o). Conlinunnce , then , is the quality 
that in regard to the water the Bedawi values most. This quahty 
is the manifestation of God's special favor, a blessing in the 
truest sense. It is just the pool or birket that presents the quality 
of continuance with realisitic force. For, when neither fountain 
nor brook is near, the Bedawi's languishing eye eagerly scans the 
desert to see whether somewhere in some hole or hollow a little 
water may not have remained. And his eyes will no sooner have 
descried the desired object than his lips A\ill give expression to 
the idea uppermost in his mind, viz. «remained or stayed (i. e. 
« there , some water remained! d ). 

78. In a less subjective way it may be said that « standing, 
remaining, fixed, continuing w are just the ideas that the sight 
of the placid, unruffled surface of the pool, especially when 
stagnant, would tend to suggest. Elsewhere, water is said to ^lie 
or couch w, viz. rinn T\iii Dinn «the deep that coucheth beneath » 
(Gen. -^9, 26; Dt. 33, i5). 

The next question, then, is : what word would naturally have 
suggested itself to the Semite's mind as adequately expressive of 
the feature just indicate^- He had not far to seek. Immediately 
before him, perhaps on the very border of the pool he saw the 
camel lying upon its breat , a perfect picture of firmness and con- 
tinuance. And thus, both the couching camel and the re couch- 
ing « pool presented apperceptively the conspicuous feature of 
continuance. It was, then, but natural that the word harnho, 
applied to the former, should have come to be the vehicle of the 
concept « remaining, couching Avaterw. As we have seen above, 
this verb had come to be applied, no doubt at a very early 
date, to any object in the sense of ^being or becoming firm, 
steady, steadfast, or fixed; continuing, remaining, or staying in 

~^^•( 75 )^-s— ' [§79.1 

a placet). And, what is more significant, the intransitive form 
hnrilxa (aor. n and also i) is also used in the sense. In this 
way it would he a simple matter to identify all the stages in 
the morphological evolution of Arahic birkat or Semitic bn- 
r'lhit , viz. : bnriha-bnrllc-banhnt. However, this point will 
be more fully explained in another place (§ 126). Suffice it 
here to call attention to an observation of Stade's, namely, that 
nouns of the type hatiht denote a permanent quality, state or 

All these items put together seem to leave no more room for 
doubt regarding the origin and evolution of the word barihnt 
•spools. In addition to this we may appeal to as excellent an au- 
thority as El-Gauhari, who states that the ^^ is r^so called 
because of the continuance of the water therein 55 ^'^l There is 
sufficient proof in this, that in his time the Arabs had not as yet 
lost consciousness of the real origin of the word. 

79. A sufficient period, of course, must be allowed for the 
form barikat to pass from the general meaning « anything or 
something remaining, continuing 55 to the more specific and 
complete, concrete apphcation « couching, remaining, continuing 
water 5\ This period of evolution is reflected in the use of nD"i3 
in the 0. T. , where the term refers either to a particular pool 
or to c? pool 71 in general. In the former instance it is modified by 
some attribute , as in II Kgs 2 , 1 3 ( ter) ; /i , 1 2 ; III Kgs 22, 38; 
IVKgs 18, 17 ; 20, 20; Is. 7, 3; 22, 9, 11; 36, 2 ; Neh. 2, i/»; 
3, i5, 16 (see above) and Cant. 7, 5. Without such attrib- 
utes, however, the word nrns not being as yet completely iden- 
tified, in the Hebrew's apperception, with the concrete signifi- 
cation of « pool 57 needed an explicative in the form of D"<D « waten^ 
We may refer to Eccles. 2 , 6 , o^D m3i3 ^^7 ':\^ty and Nab. 2 , 
9 '^'. This usage may have survived from nomadic times. 

C' Lehrbuch d. Hehr. Gramm. (Leipzig, 1879), S 309. 

(^) Cp. GiGG., s. V. : wFovea aquarum, quod in iis aqua persislitw; Gol. : 
«... conceplaculum aquae peculiariler sla(;nantis». 
'■*' Cp. in Egyptian Arabic : birket moije. 

[S 80-82] -~^>{ 76 )ks— 

80. In passing from nomadic to agricultural life, the Semite 
was confronted with the necessity of constructing artificial pools 
for the purposes of irrigation and cultivation. And, as was natu- 
ral, he applied the old name to these constructions almost un- 
consciously, although, at first he may have felt that the name was 
misapphed and he would add the idea smade or constructed w 
by an explicative such as that in the expression : n"'iiyyn nzian, 

Neh. 3, 16''' (cp. Arab, ^k^o and (XJ^-^j* « cistern, i. e. skilfully 

constructed v ) ^'^l 

81. In the light of previous explanations, we are enabled to 
grasp more fully the force and significance of the figure in Nab. 
2,9: D'lp: n'Dn) n'^n ""p^p oip-riDnap n.ij'':i. If it be remembered 
that the term nDi2 contains the idea of « firmness , stability, con- 
tinuance 5?, and in the picture of t^Niniveh as a pool of water 55, 
thus gives the added coloring of an « enduring, impregnable 
mass (of water) 55 (i. e. «from the days of yore 55, as the Targ. 
understands the following H'^ri "'C'D), the contrast expressed by 
the words cd: ni2n will become even more strikingly forcible. 
In view of this, we might interpret the prophet's words as mean- 
ing : «and though Niniveh be as a pool (immovable), verily (^"''"i) 
from the days of yore — (j^t) they shall rush forth : « Stand 
f^ still, stand still « (they shall cry); but there is none to look 
back 5)'^'. 

Section VIII. 


82. We have no precise knowledge as to what was the real 
meaning of the stem -pa at the time when the Eastern Semites 
(i. e. the Babylonians and Assyrians) formed as yet one people, 

(') So GuTHE, op. cit. It was probably the pool of Siioah; cf. Benzinger, Hebr. 
Archdologie (Tiib., 1907), p. 33, 38, 308. 

'■^1 In Suahili bi'rika has come to mean «bathing tuhn. 

''' Cf. Knabenbauer, ad he. in Cursus Script, Sac; v. Orelli, ad he, in Strack- 
Zockler's Kurxgef. Kommentar, 

-^^( 77 )^— [§82] 

or were living in close communication, with the Western Se- 
mites. Perhaps, the forms Mrku, burJcu and hurruhu (see §§ 70- 
7 3) are remnants of an earlier more prolific development of the 
stem. — When was this development arrested, or when did the 
remaining forms cease to be used? Presumably, at the time 
when the Eastern Semites passed from the nomadic stage into 
settled conditions. 

On the other hand, in the four groups of Western Semites, 
the meaning ^proc. camelus:^ ranks decidedly as the primary 
meaning of the stem; and more than this, it has exercised a 
moulding influence upon the other meanings and may conse- 
quently be regarded as the more primitive of them all, at least, 
in the West Semitic languages. But the question arises: is «proc. 
camelusT) also the original meaning of the stem, or has it been 
derived from one more primitive ? 

Evidently, there is no mistaking the fact that the simple, 
nominal form of the stem from its earliest use has been em- 
ployed in the sense of ^kneew. And although we find the form in 
this sense hardly at all in the Arabic group, yet, its being widely 
current in the Chanaanitic and Abyssinian languages and above 
all in Assyrian, goes to show that its currency is actually more 
extensive and apparently more ancient than that oihavaha r:proc. 
camelus5\ Hence, in order to establish the original meaning 
of the stem, we must determine the relative place of the idea 
« knee 17 within the compass of the conception expressed by the 
verbal form. 

May we suppose the verb to have been denominated from the 
noun -13? If so, the verb would have originally expressed some 
such idea as ^do make a knee, to genuflect, kneel 55. But we 
have learned in the preceding chapter that the verbal forms in 
the different languages demand a broader meaning, namely, 
some such meaning as <sto fall or throw oneself forward upon 
the ground 55. Hence, we may put aside the question of denomi- 
nation as of no moment, and regard both verbal and nominal 
meanings as elements of an original conception. What now is 
the dominant feature in the «kneew that has led to its being 

[883] — f->( 78 )<-^~- 

designated Ti^s, birku, etc.? It has previously been noted that in 
the act of « falling or throwing oneself forward upon the 
ground v the knee is that part of the body which touches the 
ground; it is the concrete and conspicuous object or immediate 
agent of the action. Very likely, then, it was the apperceiving of 
this function that resulted in the above designation. This 
would make Arabic bark (c^ breast of the camel; knee??) and 
Assyr. burku (c^ front of the lower part of the body??) originally 
identical with "n?, birku, etc., both, in their primitive meaning, 
in so far as they all express a particular function in the act of 
« falling or throwing oneself forward upon the ground??, and 
perhaps also as regards their primitive form [ride infra). 

83. It is very significant that the transitive form bnraha goes 
hand in hand with the meaning rproc. camelus??. ^Vhile this is 
the rule in the South Semitic languages, there is every indica- 
tion to show that in the North Semitic languages the splitting 
and generalization of the aforesaid meaning into various other 
meanings coincides with the change of baraka into barikn , i. e. 
Aramaic "ijn?, Syriac y\^^ Hebrew 'ijna;'! (II Par. 6, i3, M.T.)'^^ 
These forms, sparse and unsettled though they be, seem to bear 
testimony, if not to the actual change itself, at least to the ten- 
dency. For the rest, Syriac y;^ bears witness to a more ancient 
baraka (t^proc. camelus??) also in the Aramaic group (§ 69). 

There is no way of determining the original form of the 
simple noun, although it would be natural to assume that a 
nominal form bark (cf. Arabic bark) existed also along with an 
original verbal form baraka. But there are abundant examples 
to show that each language has moulded such forms in accord- 
ance with its own phonological rules , and doubtless in the pre- 
sent instance, the actually existing forms, viz. Arabic bark (k knee ??, 
Mahra) , burk^^^; birkal (« breast , belly ??) ; Abyssin. berek ( Ge'ez tr the 

(') Cf. Blake, The so-called Intrans. Verbal Fo)'ihs in Semit. Languages , in 
Journal ()f the Amei-ican Orient. Society, XXIV (1908), s. v. 
J^. ■(^' Belot, p. 1102 : (t JiJ Le devant dc la poitrino). 

kneepan5j), hdrk (Tigr^), herke (Tigrina); Hebrew herek (^l)ark = 
']']^ Is. lib, 2.3)^1'; West Aramaic hirka (^hurkn); East Aramaic 
bui'ha (^birkny, Assyrian birim, /jMrAw ( « knee , lap 55, etc.), — all 
go back probably to one original form'^^, expressing one and the 
same idea in the prehistoric language, viz. the concrete object, 
or conspicuous, immediate agent in the act expressed by bnraha. 

8/i. If, on the other hand, the original meaning of the noun 
had been c^knee « as designating nothing more than a part of the 
leg, possibly on account of its shape; and, the original meaning 
of the verb had been c^to kneel, genuflects, does it not seem 
strange that wherever the verb is employed in specific and re- 
fined meanings of this kind the Semite should have to make use 
of some phonetic or stylistic contrivance, such as for instance, in 
Ethiopic, the derived form astabvaha (S 5o), in Syriac the varia- 
tion y\^ (comp. y,)^), in Aramaic, Arabic and Hebrew the 
phrase D'^mn 'pi* "|")3? The conclusion is too plain to require 
further explanation. 

85. The previous conclusions may further be reinforced by 
a consideration of an ethical nature (§ 17). The passing of -^2 
from the common and vulgar application rproc. camelus?) to 
more refined signitications (such as t^ kneeling in prayen? , see 
above) appears to have happened quite naturally, although we 
have had occasion to observe that the change of meaning, being 
contrary to man's ethical feeling, was notably delayed. But, to 
suppose that this evolution had taken the opposite course, na- 
mely, that the ritualistic term p3 («to genuflect j?) had passed, 
as it were, from the liturgical Service into desert life («proc. 

(') Cf. KosiG, Lehrgehiiuch , II, 1, p. 17. 

(-) Comp. 0. {; : p"}D - JLo»a3 - Oj^ " NpT^S (Aram.); 

*^-)!} - NnL2-)ir (Mand.)- o^f ~ NI3"1'2 (Aram.); 
nnD - JL.W3 - j^-f - piv[iu (Assyr.). 
See on such chanrjos : Mayeu- Lambert, Revue des Eludes juives (Juil.-Si'pl. 
1896), p. 21; Babtii, Nominnl/j. , S 19, cf. Wi\ight, Comparal. Grammar. (iSijo), 
p. 81; Brockelmank, Vergl. Gramm., S 128-126. 

[S86] --«.( 80 ).C4— 

camelus r) were lo overlook altogether the deep religious sense 
of the Semite. 

86. The entire problem before us will therefore amount to this. 
Before ihe separation of the Western and Eastern Semites (Baby- 
lonians, Assyrians) the stem may possibly have expressed some 
such idea as r to fall or throw oneself forward upon the ground v , 
in which action the knee and other fore-parts of the body were 
apperceived as the conspicuous concrete objects or immediate 
agents. But this remains a matter of conjecture. Setting aside for 
the moment all theory with reference to the time previous to the 
separation, certain it is that in all the Western languages the 
stem p2 was, so to say, monopolized by the meaning « proc. came- 
lus??. Evidently, this was at a time when these Semites were 
leading a nomadic life and when, too, the camel was their faith- 
ful companion'^'. It may safely be said that the action of « lying 
down?? of this animal became the natural meaning of the verb 
harnha. And those who would insist on an onomatopoeic origin 
of this verb might best perhaps trace such origin to the sound 
caused by the ponderous faUing down of the large animal upon 
the sand or gravel, so graphically described by Doughty (cf. 2/1). 
However this may be, we find that wherever the Semite ex- 
changes the desert for an inhabited country and where, in his 
new surroundings, the camel is lost, as it were, amid houses 
and trees and a variety of other objects, the verb haraha, as well 
as the corresponding simple nouns, gradually lose their specific 
force and meaning, no less than their primitiv forms. 

This, loo, would account for the Eastern Semites' not having 
retained in their new settlements the original significance of 
the stem. 

All these considerations taken cumulatively seem to point 
to haraha and hark as the most primitive and original forms of 
the stem : the former signifying, 1° ^^to lie, kneel down , i. e. the 

('' Cf. HoMMEL, Die Natnen der Sdugelhiere bei den Siidseinilischen Volkevn, 
(Leipzljj, i87()), p. 216 (T., passim; G. A. Barton, Sketch of Semitic Origins 
(New York. 190a), p. a. 

— t-9.( 81 )<*— [S86] 

camel (procubuit cam.)?), 2° «to lie, kneel or fall down after the 
manner of the camel w; the latter, 1° wthe (fore-part of the 
camel's body =) camel's breast, knee, belly {hirkat)n, 2" c^(a 
fore-part of other animals and man =) the knee 5? (comp. hark, 
Mahra), also «the breast?? (Arab.), wthelap?? [hiirku)^ etc. But, 
after all, the real importance and significance of the meaning 
wproc. camelus?? lies in the fact that it is the only meaning of the 
Qal of -yii which along with the category nD^s ("Ijl?, -p-in, etc. 
and nD")3) the Semites (the Babylonians and Assyrians perhaps 
included) have brought with them from their common home or 


lurniuinir .tATlonALEi 

887] —y>{ 82 ) 






Section I. 


87. The present chapter is directly complementary of the 
last sentence of the preceding chapter. For if it he true that the 
'\\ estern Semites employed the verh harakn universally in the 
meaning of ctproc. camelus?? along with the category n2"i3 (i. e. 

T]"]?, ii)^lj, -|n2, "jnn, etc.), in the sense of r. hlessing w , then there 
must be a genetic relation between the meanings «proc. ca- 
melusw and (s blessing ?? , unless we Avere to assume, what is on 
the face of it quite improbable, that there existed two altogether 
distinct stems of the form --a. It is not our aim to demonstrate 
in this chapter the existence of such a genetic relation between 
the two meanings, but merely to prepare the way and to collect 
the material for the final conclusions to be drawn in the fourth 
vhapter. ^^ hence it follows that, to a certain degree, the present 
chapter is aprioristic and provisional. And as it is our intention 
to defer the substantiation of our explanation to the fourth 
chapter, it will be lawful for the moment to assume the correct- 
ness of our analysis of the evolution of n?")?, which is as follows : 
«proc. camelus57 — «to be firm; to continue, etc. 5^ — « firm- 
ness, stability, continuance, increase = blessing (blessed; to 
bless, etc.)». A\ith this conception of k blessing » before our 
minds , it will be our aim to draw a picture of its psychological 
setting and thereby to trace within its origin and further evolu- 
tion, or rather within the surroundings of the Semite, the asso- 
ciations that have entered into his field of consciousness and 

— «.( 83 )k-i— [S 88-89] 

have been factors in developing the meaning of nD"]3. In this 
study the words forming the category n3"i3 will not come under 
our notice directly, but only in so far as they may determine the 
scope of our inquiry. 

88. If it be borne in mind that at the time where it is natural for 
our inquiry to begin, the Western Semites were as yet braving 
the vicissitudes of nomadic life , it will not be a matter of surprise 
to find that the true coloring of the forms to be treated is best 
preserved in their uses and meanings with the Arabian Bedawin, 
respectively in Classical Arabic. In point of fact, in Arabic the 
stem d^ presents an unbroken chain of ideas, ranging between 
the simple forms and the several derived forms (including birkat 
rtpoolw) of the category nD^a or ii^j^j. Needless to say, these 
ideas or meanings will render invaluable service in the present 

89. The object that will for some time engage our attention 
in the present study is the camel, the Semites' indispensable 
companion on those arduous migrations from their common 
habitat to their different new abodes and settlements. We have 
learned in the preceding chapter that the meaning <xproc. ca- 
melusw has given rise to a variety of meanings containing, in one 
way or another, the ideas of c^being firm, of continuing, etc. 55. 
Though constituting an integral element of the conception 
« blessing)), in its most primitive form, these ideas have branch- 
ed ofi" from the true complete picture which contains, in a 
germ, as it were, the conception « blessing?). That picture is no 
other than the « camel lying upon its breast)) at certain limes and 
in certain surroundings. For it is these latter elements that lend 
to the meaning «proc. camelus)) a certain coloring, which has 
gradually associated with the underlying thought, flying firmly, 
continuance )?, the ideas of r, beneficence, prosperity, felicity, etc. n, 
thus leading up to the idea ^blessing)). 

True, the camel is at all times a conspicuous object in the 
purview of the Bedawi. But it is especially when these animals 


[Sgo] — v>( 84 )' Ci -- 

are driven home full-bellied at sunset, or, when the pasture is 
very rich, even at noon-day, that the eyes of the entire encamp- 
ment are fixed upon them. Spontaneously the householders go 
forth from their tents to lure to them as they pass by. With com- 
placency the gaze of the owner rests upon these beneficent 
animals, which for the rest of the time until the morning sun 
remain couched upon their breasts before and around his tent, 
chewing their huge cuds^^'. A similar scene is witnessed in the 
camp after returning from watering when the camels, swollen 
and groaning with the swallowed burden, couch again in troups 
before the Bedawi's household '^'. 

90. It is significant that the collective noun bark has direct 
reference to this picture inasmuch as it signifies c^ camels lying 
down upon their breasts by the water or in the desert by reason 
of the heat of the sun, or by reason of satiety (TA), or all the 
camels of an encampment that return to them from pasture in 
the evening, or afternoon. ,. (K)w. One of these is termed 

This signification indicates how the ideas of ^ firmness, stability, 
continuance v are associated with such ideas as k satiety, fulness, 
plenty, comfort or happiness??. The idea of « continuance ??, for 
instance, already expressed by baraka (i.e. Kto continue ??), appears 
in this picture as the result of satiety and plenty; it is a cc contin- 
uance in plenty and felicity ?\ Again, the form bark illustrates 
that the circumstances of place and time form integral elements 
in the picture before us. The bulky, swollen form of the camel 
suggests near-by pasturing grounds and plenty of water. In fact, 
without such associations the Bedawi could not conceive the pic- 
ture, for the connection is one of cause and effect. The idea of 
continuance in plenty and felicity, above referred to, corresponds 
of course to the fertility and richness of the soil and surround- 
ings. In this matter, the ideal state of things would be , in the 

(^' See the graphic description of Doughty, Travels in Arabia Deserta, I, 219, 
II, 275. 

(^) Op. cii., I, /i58. 

_^^ 85 ).«— [891-92] 

BedaAvi's estimation, tlie sojourn in an irrigated, luxuriant oasis, 
or, what is of more ordinary occurrence, the time after the rain 
when the country round about yields plentiful pasturage; when 
the camel feeds on the sappy rebm. During this period these 
animals are strong and frolic. It is then that they lay up flesh 
and fat in their humps for the rest of the long year. There is 
mirth and cheerfulness in the entire encampment, and all par- 
take of the camel's milk which at this time flows plentifully. This 
is also the rutting season of the camel. 

91. It is obvious that this happy state of the camel, the Be- 
dawi's faithful companion and his sole support, and the qualities 
expressed or suggested by the forms haraka, biiruk, bark, bdrik, 
in reference to all the camels of the entire encampment, were 
bound to be apperceived and identified as the state and qualities 
belonging to the entire encampment, family or Iribe. The Be- 
dawi in gazing upon this picture, to him the most thrilling and 
gratifying, cannot but recognize in it his own continuance and 
plenty in happiness and prosperity. Hence, it came about that 
the terms employed to designate the action, attitude, or posi- 
tion of the camel in the above picture were gradually used to 
express whatever the dweller of the desert may call prosperity, 
felicity or blessing. 

92. This picture, then, is the starting-point in the evolution 
of all the forms of the category nsia, including also several 
intervening forms. Hamasa's (p. 687) definition of the abstract 
noun barahat, viz. « firmness, stability, or continuance coupled 
with increase?), flows so naturally from the simple forms baraha 
or bark, that their genetic relation is beyond doubt. Somehow 
the idea of ^continuance in a happy and prosperous state » re- 
mains, not the dominant feature, but the underlying idea or 
thought in all the different meanings of the various forms; for 
after all, this thought must be, in the estimation of the Bedawi 
or of the Oriental in general, the basis of every kind of blessing 
and blessedness. It is also noticeable that even in the farthest 

[SgS] — *->«( 86 ).«— 

ramifications the reposing figure of the camel at times still 
gleams through, though only in very faint contour. 

It would seem that in every one of the terms of the category 
npna the apperceptive act had embraced the entire picture. 
There was no line of distinction drawn between cause and effect, 
the qualities or state of the subject (first of the reposing camel 
or camels, and later of the entire encampment, tribe, or owner) 
being imperceptibly blended with the qualities and state of the 
surroundings or the background. A new meaning, or nuance, 
was created whenever within the compass of the picture any 
quality or feature or object assumed a dominant position in the 

We shall now follow up the evolution of the idea « blessing 55, 
first in nomadic and then in settled Hfe. 

Section II. 


93. Owing to the constant interlinking of ideas, a definite 
plan of treatment is practically out of the question. But to have 
some order, we may arrange our investigation according to the 
main aspects or considerations which guide the wandering Be- 
dawi in that one important and ever menacing question of find- 
ing pasture for his camels and flocks. The author of I Par. (/i , 
ho) incidentally points out such considerations when he speaks 
of « fat and good pasture (aitoi ]12U ni?i!:) and a land spacious 
(nnt nam yi^'ni) and quiet and undisturbed (mVcM nL:pc*i)n. 
These are the preoccupations that overlie all the concerns and 
aspirations of the Bedawi; that furnish the topics in the delib- 
erations of the elders; that invariably direct his march through 
the desert '^^. According lo the above, they may be brought 
under these three headings : rich pasturing grounds; expansive 
territory; peaceful neighboring peoples or tribes. To these in 
the subject correspond : satiety (i. e. abundance of food) and 

C Cf. DouGHTV, Travels, I, 2 48. 

— 1^( 87 ).€-.— [S96] 

fecundity: growth or increase in numbers; influence, power and 

9h. Let us begin with the first category of ideas, viz. «rich 
pastures » (in the surroundings) and f^satiety (plenty of food), 
fecundity 51 (in the subject). We recall the reposing figure of the 
camel, swollen and groaning under the swallowed burden of 
food or water (= hnraka, hark, hdrik). Here the idea of fixed- 
ness or continuance in a place is coupled with the idea of plenty 
and abundance, and this entire group of ideas is expressed by 
the form burdk «x remaining fixed 55, e. g. at the side of a vessel, 
as said of a glutton (see above). In the Amharic word harkac the 
swollen form of the (originally the camel's) belly has become the 
predominant feature , as its meaning shows, viz. « avere il ventre 
costipato, gonfio5?. 

The Bedawi will perceive in any such pictures plenty of pro- 
visions or, as the case mav be , rich and luxuriant pastures in 
the background. For it is, as we have seen above, when the 
spring or autumnal rains have fallen and when the whole country 
is covered with herbs, or when he arrives at some watery, grassy 
spot, that he witnesses the happy state, as above described, of 
his camels and his flocks. And recognizing that state as his own 
he would say with the Psalmist (Ps. 28, 1-2) : 

Yahweh is my shepherd , I have no want. 

In grassy pastures he maketh me lie down ( y2") ) ; 

Unto refreshing waters He leadeth me;. . .^'* 

We are aware that with the Bedawi the ordinary way for him 
to repose is to lie on his stomach ^2)^ which posture the Arab also 
expresses by hnraka (§ 28). Hence it is only natural that in 
more primitive times the idea «in grassy pastures he maketh me 
lie down 5? should have been expressed by -p? rather than by 

('' Briggs, The Bool; of Psalms, in li. loc. ; Wolter , Psallite Sapienter, I , 
(Freib. i. B.) : rtAuf griiner Weidetrift liisst er mich lagern, ...» The LXX has 

^-\ Gf. Doughty, op. cit., I, 260. 

Y3") . Such an idea certainly underlies the former term in Gen. 
/i8, i5, where the aged Jacob blesses (':]"i3) the sons of Joseph, 
or rather entreats Jahweh, his shepherd (Gen. /19 , 9/1 ), who had 
fed (nin) him all his life (Gen. /i8, i5), to bless his children. 
So, too, the Psalmist (Ps. 28, 9), when beseeching Yahweli to 
bless ("!] "13 ) his inheritance, means that He should c^focd (nv"i) 
them» and «bear them up 55 (hke lambs, Nt?:) forever '''. 

Where the Bedawi finds good pasture, there he will encamp. 
In the language of Arabia Deserta they say : el-Aarah umjemmhi i. e. 
«the camp is standing ?? (-'. And it will thus remain standing as 
long as the place provides sufficient pasture. Hence the idea 
r^ standing, remaining, or dwelling (cf. t-^viL? to remain, dwell, 
Hava) in a place » has developed into « stability, continuance in 
a fertile place, or increase and prosperity w. Such is precisely the 
underlying meaning of the abstract noun harakai according to 
Ham. ^ .se above). 

95. Again, the proximate and visible cause of such fertility 
and richness of soil, namely the water, may easily become the 
dominant element in the picture before us. Thus, we read of the 
mD"i3 of « heaven above and of the deep that lieth beneath » 
(Gen. /ig, 2 5). The heavy cloud on the horizon is welcomed as 
a harbinger of blessing, and, no doubt, when the Arab employs 
the verb haraha (in the first, fourth and eighth forms, § 8-7) in 
the sense «(the cloud or sky) rained continually, incessant- 
ly, etc.?), he associates with this meaning the idea of « benefi- 
cence or fertility w. In Tunis and Tripoli, the adjective iu5^ has 
both an active, «fecondantc (pluie)», and a passive sense, «f^- 
conde, fertile (terre)». Gomp. herehetti (^kvah. and Turk.), «co- 
pieux, abondant, fertile, qui fait profiterw (Zenker) and berhatte 
(Tigrina) k abundant)?. After the rain has ceased there is rejoic- 
ing everywhere, and God is praised and blessed '^': for He has 
sent down « showers of blessing )? (nsna "•dc'n, Ez. 34, 26); He 

f'^ Gf. R. v.; WoLTER, op. cit.; Briggs, op. cit., in h. loc. 
(^) Cf. Doughty, op. cit., I, aao (the form is from ^li). 
<'' Cf. Doughty, op. cit., I, 168. 

-^(89)^s~ [S96J 

has poured down from the windows of heaven a nD")3 (cf. Mai. 3, 
10); or again, the early rain has clothed the valley «wilh bles- 
sings » (mD")3, Ps. 84, 7)^^'. 

The lean lives of the Bedawin are dependent upon the show- 
ers, and with eager curiosity and keen intelligence the sky is 
watched and studied '-'. But far more intense is their desire for 
the mine of water that will never fail them ^^\ A man was wont 
to sum up the praises of his fertile Western country in the two 
words « springs and long lives 5?'**. The finding of a new well is 
greeted with rejoicing and singing (Nu. 21, 17 ff.), for the event 
means appropriation of new territory (cf. Gen. 26, 22) and an 
enduring n^na. 

But the privilege of abiding in such surroundings must be of 
short duration and the fertile banks of the river leave room only 
for a few. The Bedawi must now be content with whatever may 
have remained of the gifts of heaven, such as the pool or cistern 
or any collection of water. It was natural that he should have 
named such « standing water?? after the immovable figure of the 
camel as it is couched by its side (cf. § 78, haraka «proc. ca- 
melus??, harika «constitit«, hnrikat sstagnum??). However, a 
circumstance that could not be appreciated in the second chap- 
ter may be added here, namely that the new name harikat 
contained , in the Bedawi's apperception , besides the idea w stand- 
ing, remaining (i. e. water) » certainly also that of ?t benefi- 

96. The Sacred Author in Gen. h(^, 25 indicates an expan- 
sion of the previous meaning of n3"i3 when he speaks in one 
strain of «the DiDia of heaven above and the deep below w and of 
r^the m3")3 of the breasts and the wombs??. The intimate connec- 
tion between these two species of blessing is apparent. It is no 
wonder that the Bedawi should forsake all transitory advantages 

(^) Comp. Ecclus. 89, 2 9. 

'^) Cf. DoncHTY, op. cit., I, lizU. 

f^") Id., 1,453. 

W Id., I, 5i3. 

[S96] -~^^{ 90 > 

for the mine of water, for it yields to him milk and hutter con- 
tinually '*'. Again, he is well aware that if the winter rains fail 
not, the coming spring will be a real milk season '^l In such a 
season he feels no want, for this precious gift of God flows 
plentifully. When the time for milking, which is ordinarily in 
the evening '^', draws near all gather around the tent where the 
camels lie down upon their breasts '*l Ordinarily, the form birkat 
signifies rtthe manner of a camel's lying down upon its breasts 
but in this instance the term seems to have assimilated a far 
more specific raeaninof. Naturallv, the attention of thebvstanders 
isrfixed upon the swollen udder whence the precious gift of God 
now oozes forth. Such a sight might elicit from their hps the 
words quoted by S. : «How good ((jj-«*ai-l Uj is the she-camel's 
manner of lying down on the breast (= birkat^ Iv No doubt, 
Kazimirski gives the true motive of this exclamation when he 
adds «c. a. d. qui (la chamelle) donne tant de lait sans le faire 
attendre'5. Thus, the dominant element in the picture of the 
she-camel couched upon her breast is the giving of her milk, and 
the- form birkat may be fitly translated after Giggeus, Freitag^^', 
and Kazimirski ^^' «the abundant discharge or flow of milkw. 
And in accordance with this meaning the term is used also in 
reference to the « milking of the sheep in the morning^''^?; for in 
spring the sheep must be milked twice '"^'. Freitag is authority for 
the following form, which confirms the preceding interpreta- 

tions : rt 'i^yi quod mulgetur ovis tempore matutino ; incremen- 
tum, augmentumw. According to Wahrmund the form &?rAfli has 
the general meaning also of w milking 11 and fer metonymiam that of 

(') Gf. Doughty, Travels, I, 453. 

(^' Id., op. cit., I, 262. 

(') Id., op. cit., I, 261. 

'^' Id., op. cit., I, 960. 

(^) « Status quum lac camelae largiter ellluit, dum ilia genua flectit, tu voro 
earn mulges, quum surrexit.n 

(") wEcoulement abondant du lait des pis d'uno cliamelle quand elle est a 
s'agenouiller. » 

*'' Giggeus : «Ovis cujus lac emulsum sit; matutina lactis emulsio.n 

(*' Doughty, Travels, I, 261. 

-~^>{n)^^^ [§97-98] 

«milk pail?? (comp. birket, «pooi, basin?) etc., which designates 
both the container and the thing contained). 

97. In reviewing this matter we arrive at the interesting con- 
clusion that the word npna presents to the apperception in vague 
outhnes the picture of the Bedawi's camp, let us say at spring- 
time, as the background, while directly it expresses such ab- 
stract quahties as « stability, continuance, fertility, abundance, 
overflow, beneficence, or prosperity 55. The form harikat, however, 
attaches to the more prominent concrete objects within the 
frame of this picture, or to the concrete subjects of the above 
abstract ideas. Or we might follow Earth's interpretation of such 
forms and say that barikat expresses the result of the action 
expressed by the verb'''. In this instance the action, or rather 
the state, expressed by the verb is «to be firm, continue?) (and 
when said of liquids « to flow, overflow ») , and therefore barikat 
expresses, on the one hand, t^ standing water?? as a prominent 
concrete cause of nsia (fertility), and on the other, «continuing, 
abounding, overflowing milk?? as an obvious concrete effect of 
the nD")3. .. 

T T : 

98. Once the stem "i^a had been used in connection with 
milk, the chief article of nourishment for the Bedawin, it read- 
ily became attached to food or eatables in general. There is a 
visible HDna in food when at mealtime it abounds or when some 
remains over after all have eaten (cf. II Par. 3i, lo; II Kgs 
h, /i3, kk\ Lk 6, 38). This is in accordance with Freitag's defi- 

nition of the form dl^ , t^ felix , benedictione et copia abundans; 

uti cibus cuius redundat pars et residua manet?? (cf. Kazim.). 
It appears, then, that bank (Jsy "jna »4.-w^), being the com- 
pensativum of barika, expresses the concrete meaning of 

harikat {'^^y^ ^^"^t)^ « standing, continuing (and therefore) 

abundant, overflowing milk or water??, as a quality, viz. : 

t^' ^ominahildung , § 77 a i. 

[§99] -^K92)<^^ 

«( continuing) abounding, redounding, overflowing, i. e. bles- 
sed55. In a broad sense, dL^ has almost the meaning of ^"^ 
^ (cf. K et S),but while the former signifies, for instance in 
the expression J^ y^^-> properly «food in which there is a 
blessing » (cf. Lane), i. e. abundance, plenty, the latter would 
seem to refer, in the same connection, to «food which has been 
blessed (by an external agent )». 

From dby the Arab forms the noun 'iS^,y> (Giggeus kiUj^^', 
Freitag gives also ^^y.) which is ^ abundant, beneficent or 
sweet food par excellence 55 , viz. : « fresh dates with cream w, the 
favorite dish of springtime. 

99. AMth the exception of the dominant feature or element, 
the Bedawi apperceives in the « npna of the womb 55 the same 
background as in the ^ n^na of the breasts, the deep, etc. », as 
outlined above. It will be recalled that the Arab employs the 
verb baraka to express the posture or action of both the male 
camel, in the act of copulation, and of the female camel, in the 
act of giving birth. Thence the intensive form baruk has derived 
its four different meanings; «he-camel?j (see § /ii); ^she-camel 
(ihid., so called on account of frequently bringing forth , hence) 
having numerous offspring 55; ^a matron, past the years of 
fecundity 55; ?^a woman that marries ha\ing a grown-up son». 
Thus, the repetition or intensity (implied by barukj of such acts 
will result in the multiplication of the species or offspring, or in 
general, of fruitfulness and fecundity. « Fruitful, prohfic or fe- 
cund » is really the meaning of bariik particularly when applied 
to the female camel and to a woman, in the senses given above *^'; 
and this is also the force of the form ■!jn5 and of -na in such 
instances as Gen. 17, 16 (wShe shall be a mother of nations r) 

(^) wCibus ex dactylis et adipe. Daclylus qui cum butyro comeditur.» *C»J-H 
ffCum hie cibnsconficitur.n 

(-) In Zanzibar the term bariki is used with reference to young people when 
they have arrived at the age of puberty (cf. Krapf). 

-<-9«( 93 )«€-l [SlOO-lOl] 

and Gen. a/i, 60 (« — a mother of thousands »). Gomp. also 
the nuptial Blessing (§ 1^9)- 

100. As the rutting season of the camel falls in spring '1' 
when the pastures are rich, it is natural that the idea of « fecun- 
dity (in man and heast)?? and the idea of « fertility of the soilw 
should have been intimately blended in the category npnn from 
the very beginning. No doubt the metaphor employed by Isaias, 
when he says (/i/i, 3-4) that God will pour (p'ii) His n^yi upon 
the offspring sand they shall spring up among the grass as 
willows by the water courses 55 , may be traced to the picture sug- 
gested by the word nD')2 itself. In Jacob's benediction Joseph 
is a « fruitful tree (ms) by the well» (Gen. k^, 22). Represen- 
tations such as these gave rise to the well-known formula of 
benediction nil nD (Gen. 1, 22, 28; 9, 1; 35, ii;/i8,/i). 
Logically, then, the Piel of the stem -jin, when applied to the 
author of fertility, fecundity, etc., assumes the meanings of the 
forms riD-in c? to make fruitful , prolific » and n^in « to make many, 
multiply?? (cf. Gen. 1-7, 20; 22, 17; 26, 2/1; 28, 3; Dt. 7, 
i3; Ps. 107, 38). In nomadic conditions where each tribe is a 
distinct unit whose welfare and existence is constantly menaced 
by the waste and perilous desert and by relentless foes, this 
meaning of "n?, «to make many ?5, has a special significance. For 
in it the original idea of continuance or conservation (viz. , of 
the tribe or people) again comes to the front, especially in 
cases where the verb signifies «He (God) will make (someone) a 
great nation?? (Gen. 12, 2), or « thousands?? (Gen. 26, Go; 
Dt. 1, 11), or « multitudes ?? (Gen. /i8, i5-i6; 28, 3), or «na- 
tionsw (Gen. 17, 16, 20; 35, 9- 11; 48, 3-4). 

101. Needless to say, in the above mDna the Bedawi comprises 
indirectly all his belongings, his servants, cattle, flocks and, in 
general, his provisions. It is the constant prayer of his heart 
that God may increase and multiply everything. Hence in Arabia 

'') See DE LAJiDBEUG, Etudes , I, IJadramout, p. 867. 

[S 102-103] — «.( 9U )<-t~- 

the guest on his departure will invoke a blessing (^harnkat) upon 
his host by saying : ^hattir (multiply) AlUh lehnnahm (your 
milk)», or ^'ihilahom (your great cattle) 5), or ^gnnama- 
homn (your flocks), or ^"ijidahomt) (your children), and even 
n^kildbakomn (your watchdogs) ^'l From this we may form an 
idea of the import and comprehensiveness of the term barakat 
(np"i3). It is plain that in Dt. 7,18 (cf. Gen. 2/1,1) the verb ip2 
is identical in meaning with/iYJ_a'r as used above, and in Dt. 28, 
3-6 the form "jna, referring to the fruit of the body and of the 
ground, has exactly the same neuter meaning as Arabic katir 
« numerous , many, much 5?. 

102. It will be remembered that for the JNomad the next 
concern, after the fertility of the soil, is expanse of territory. 
AVhat he seeks is an cninarn y-ix (see I Par. k, ho). Fertihty, 
increase and multiplication naturally imply « spreading abroad 55 
(yiD, Gen. 28, ih). Thus there is a logical order of words in the 
benediction yixn nx in^dt imi nD (Gen. 1, 22, 28). As re- 
gards the desert, the question of territory, that is, of the use of 
pasturing grounds is, as we all know, of vital importance. The 
Bedawin respect certain laws regulating these rights. AVhen a 
new well has been discovered , w the Lord has made room v 
(^Tnn) for the tribe; their territory has expanded and hence 
they shall be fruitful (mD; Gen. 26, 22). We meet with fre- 
quent allusions to these ideas in the Biblical niDis. The verb ?)■)?, 
as applied to God, signifies predominantly in this connection ^to 
enlarge 55 which idea is made more specific in the various bene- 
dictions by terms like STiTn (Dt. 33, 20; see above) nncn (Gen. 
9, 27)'^) and nyin (I Par. h, lo, Kcnlarge my borders w). 

108. The extension and enlargement of the borders of a 
tribe is generally effected by less peaceful means than those in- 

(') Doughty, oj). cil., I, Aoo (khatir Uilah, etc.). — When a Iribe settles in a 
place the neighboring tribes are accustomed to express their greeting in the 
words : Mal/ruk el menzil ! 

'"-' Cf. Ges.-Kaltzsch, Hebr. Grainui., p. 76 gg. 

__«.( 95 )'^*-~- [§to3] 

dicated above. When referring to a tribe or people the ideas 
« great and mighty w (mi'in '711; , Gen. 18, 18) go hand in hand. 
Once again the well-known benediction contained in Gen. ( 1 , 
•28; see above; cf. g, 1-2) will serve as an example of the logi- 
cal sequence in the ideas « fecundity, multiphcalion, expansion, 
dominion over others » . . ."2 nm n?y3Di ynN'n nx labDi lam ns. 
The Bedawi's next desire is for a quiet and undisturbed (see 
I Par. /(, /io ) or peaceful country ; for peace is the necessary con- 
dition of prosperity ^^K But he realizes that power and superiority 
are the best security of peace and are, therefore, an integral ele- 
ment in his npns . In the patriarchal henedictions this element 
is often emphasized, for instance when the recipient, generally 
the bearer of the divine promises , is styled the « Lord of his 
brethren^ (Gen. g , 25-27 ' ^7' ^9 ' ^9 ' 8 ; cf. Zig , /i), or when 
he is said c<:to crush his enemies ?? (Nu. 2/1, 17; Gen. Ag , 8-10; 
Dt. 33,29) and tdnherit their land 55 (Nu. 2/4, i8;cf. Dt. 33, 
29) and c^ possess their gates 51 (Gen. 22, 17; 2/1, 16). In this 
sense Saul styles David inn (I Kgs. 26, 26) and with the same 
motive Josue imparts his blessing ("■}?) to Caleb (Jos. ih, i3; 
cf. V. 12). Or again the benediction introduces God as the source 
of such power and strenght (Gen. /ig, 2/1; Dt. 33, ii); to 
Him benediction is due after the victory is won (Gen. ik, 20 ; 
cf. Ps. i/i/i, 1-2)^2)^ [Je whose n3")3 is from the Lord will rise 
up against his enemies like a lion or lioness (Nu. 23, 2/1); his 
strength will be like to the rhinoceros (Nu. 2/1, 8); and having 
routed the nations (Dt. 33, 17) he shall devour his prey (Nu. 
23, 2/ii) — as a lion he shall lie down (Gen. h^, 9; cf. Pesh. 
1^), and c^who would dare rouse him up? 57 (Gen. ^9, 9; Nu. 
2/1, 9). As God's malediction dooms Cain to the existence of a 
K fugitive and vagabond 55 (iJii*:, Gen. /i, 12), so does His bene- 
diction ensure for Japhet a peaceful abiding (i^^^l) in the tents 
of Sem (Gen. 9, 26). Such undisturbed peace is always intro- 

('' Cf. DouGiiTv, 02). cit., I, 39. 

(^) Douf][hty tells us that the news of the capture of the enemy's leader is hailed 
by the soldiers with the shout hnhaiak, hnharak ! {= mubdrak , cf. § i55 ff.). After 
the battle is won hymns of praise and thanksgiving (II Par. 20, a6) are sung. 

[Sio4] _^,.( 96 )<^— 

duced as the crowning point of the npns, but it is peace secured 
by strenght , as is well borne out in the picture of the couching 
lion. In this sense, too, the Psalmist (29, it) says : 

The Lord will give strenght to His people; 

The Lord will bless ("^"i?) His people with peace (m'7U''3). 

Section III. 


\0h. So far it has been our endeavor to limit our investiga- 
tion more or less to the n2^:i as conceived and employed by the 
Bedawi and Nomad. To such it expresses the highest degree of 
well-being, prosperity and felicity. We have seen when and 
where they behoved themselves to be in possession of the same , 
and yet this nD"i3, it is well to note, is after all felt to be incom- 
plete and lacking in fulness. The time when everything flows in 
abundance, such abundance as the desert will yield, is of short 
duration. Hardly has the Bedawi alighted near the clear spring in 
a fertile spot, when the question, whither next to turn in the bar- 
ren desert, has already become uppermost in his mind. It is the 
experience of travellers that the Bedawin constantly complain of 
their barren country and the wretchedness of their lives. They 
reahze deeply the truth that they are banished from all the 
world's goods, such as, shadow by day, plenty of bread and 
dates, water enough and a stable dwelling '^l And , notwithstanding 
their proud persistence in this mode of life, there hngers in their 
breasts a desire and hope that some day they may settle down in 
a fertile spot, never to leave it. Here all their wanderings will 
terminate : here there will be « continuance, stability and increase n 
in the fullest sense. Their children after them will inherit this 
land and it shall be called by their name forever. 

The HDn? of the Patriarchs is a case in point. Ever since God 
had given to Abraham the solemn promise that He would give 

'') Cf. DoLGiiTV, Travels, I, 28/1, 3io, 332, 563. 

-— «.( 97 ).€^— [§io5] 

him and his seed the iand of Chanaan for an everlasting inher- 
itance, the Hebrew people have looked forward to the fulfd- 
ment of this promise, for it is only in the promised land that 
this blessing is to be complete, that God is really c^to bless 55 
(in?) His people (Gen. 12, 1-2; 26, 3-/i; 28, 3-/i; Dt. 7, i3; 
1 5, A; 28, 20; 28, 8-9; 3o, 16; cf. Ecclus. hli, 93). 

The fulfilment and realization of this nD")3 come in the bene- 
dictions of Jacob, Balaam and Moses, wherein the twelve tribes 
are pictured in the act of settling down in their new territory 
(Gen. /ig, 1-27), or in the peaceful enjoyment of their posses- 
sions (Nu. 2/1, 6-7; Dl. 33, cf. Dt. 32, i-/i3; cf. also Isaac's 
benediction. Gen. 27, 27-29). There is a note of perfect content- 
ment and felicity running through these descriptions. The very 
attitude of the individuals, which is sometimes indicated, re- 
minds one of the meaning of the simple verbal form bnraka wto 
lie doAvn, repose, dwell in a place ». The figure of the couching 
camel has, however, been replaced by the lion or lioness lying 
down in a proud, defiant attitude (Gen. /J9, /i; Nu. 2/1,9; ^*' 
33, 20) or by a figure more famihar in agricultural surround- 
ings, a strong ass couching down (ysi) between the sheepfolds 
(Gen. /ig, 1/1). Such a picture is also suggested by the verb ]y^ 
(Gen. /ig, 1 3) cUo dwelh? (lit. «to lie down, to rest 55) or np? pt:^ 
f^to dwell securely 53 (Dt. 33, 12, 28). 

105. It will now be proper to turn our attention to the con- 
sideration of how the passing from nomadic to settled life has 
resulted in a gradual alteration in the picture or conception 
apperceived in the np")3. The first object in these new surround- 
ings that was bound to associate itself intimately with this word 
was no doubt the settler's house, hovel or hut. For no matter 
how wretched it might have been, it was henceforth to be his 
stable dwelling-place, and as such the settler apperceived in it 

the concrete realization of what npi3 or iS'S originally expres- 
sed, viz. : « firmness, stability, continuance in a place 55. Hence 
we meet with the word rr^a in the benedictions of settled peoples 
so frequently. Originally the firmness and solidity of the malrrlal 


I.ll'l\l\ir»lr. SATIDNALIl. 


[Sio(i] .— 5-3.( 98 > 

]juil(ling was evidently referred to (cf, Mt. '7, 9/1-27). "^^^^ bene- 
diction of parents establishes (^alnpilet) the houses of children, 
and their malediction roots up (expi^o?) tlieir foundation (Ec- 
clus. 3, 8-9). A benediction is pronounced over a new house. In 
Neo-Syriac ? iJ^iC* -.^ means wto congratulate a man on buy- 
ing a new house» and )J^<^? )>^o^ci^ is a « house-warming w . 
God's npna is conceived as resting (ni:)upon the house (Ez. kh, 
3o). If God blesses (^"13 ) the king, his house shall endure (II 
Kgs 7, 29; I Par. 17, 17) and his throne shall be established 
forever (III Kgs 2, /i5). In this connection "iji? has the force 
of the phrase '"? rr^s nj3(Dt. 26, 9; II Kgs 7, 27; cf. v. 29, see 
above), and it comprises within its compass all that the term no 
stands for, viz. : family, posterity and all belongings. These var- 
ious elements form the background of the picture apperceived 
in the phrase "d n^a ■!j"i3 (God being the subject. II Kgs 6, 11- 
1 2 ; I Par. i3, ik\ 17, 27; Gen. 35, 5 ; Ps. 1 1 5 , 1 2 ; Prov. 3 , 
33 np K dwelling 75). 

106. The settler is quite as deeply concerned about the 
n2")3 of heaven above and of the deep below as the Bedawi, and 
even more so. For his demands for water are of a more varied 
nature. If possible he will fix his abode near the water spring or 
the brook, there to sow his fields, to plant his vineyards and 
olive groves. There the Lord will bless him (cf. Ps. 107, 35- 
38). Hence the « blessed w (l"i"i3) man is hkened to a tree planted 
by the waters (Jer. 17, 7-8 ;cf. Gen. 49, 22;Nu. 2/1, 6) or to 
a valley or a garden by the river side (Nu. 2/1,6) and a water 
shall come from his buckets, and his seed shall be in many 
waters w i^ihid. v. 7; cf. Ecclus. do, 27). 

~ As a result of these associations the stem -ji3 frequently takes 
on tlie meaning cavateredw and therefore ^^ fertile 51, etc. In 
Tun. and Trip. , as we saw above, the adjective iUSlj signifies both 
rfeconde?? and c^fecondante??. In Ge'^ez the phrase yrj dyaBr{ {\)[. 
1 , 35 ; 3, 25 ; /i , 22 , in Hebr. ni^^ \n^) is rendered by y*frC * 
fi*Cli^'. in view of these examples it is also quite probable that 
the noun npn^ in Axa's petition, hdid '•'? n:n r. give me a blessings 




[8 107-108] 

(Jos. i5, 19; cf. Judg. 1, i5), means really « watered or fertile 
land ». This is evident from the further motivation of her request, 
wfor thou hast given me a south (dry) land; give me also springs 
of water 55. There is no douht that the numerous proper names 
of valleys, districts and towns derived in the various dialects from 
the stem "i")3 have originated in some such association. 

107. Though comprising the c; fatness of the earth w , the set- 
tler's riDna is yet incomplete without the idea of dew and rain 
at their proper seasons. With keener interest than the Bedawi he 
watches the operations of c^the mD^^ of heaven 57. When it rains 
it is as if God visited the earth and watered the field and loving- 
ly guarded the grain in the ground, thus blessing ("Ij"]?) «the 
springing thereof 55 (Ps. 65, 9-1 3). While the Chanaanite attrib- 
utes such beneficent operation to his Baalim, the Israelite knows 
that it is Yahwe's npns which brings forth such abundant fruit 
(nxian nby, Lev. 2 5 , 9 1 ; Ps. 1 2 9 , 8 ). When Yahweh blesses, the 
fields will yield their ^ increase 5? (n^13"», Ps. 87, 6; Ruth 9, h) 
even an hundredfold (Gen. 26, 12). The last named element, 
viz., an abundant produce of the field, vineyard or olive grove, 
is naturally the crowning feature in benedictions that have refer- 
ence to settlers or to farming people (cf. Gen. 27, 27-28; 
/19, 11; Dt. 82, i3-i/i; 33, 2/1). In Amharic the term harhdc 
signifies ^essere molto (i. e. il prodolto, la raccolta)?? and 
aharlidc wdare un buonissimo raccolton. Gomp. the benediction 
extended to the reapers in the field, Ps. 129, 8 (cf. Ruth 
2, k). 

108. Thus God's np^3 extends by its operations to all of 
man's belongings and possessions (cf. Dt. 33, ii k substance '7). 
His faithful servant shall be blessed in the field and in the city 
(Dt. 28, 3); in all the works of his hand, or in all that he may 
put his hands unto (Dt. i5, 10, 18; 16, i5; 22, 20; ik , 19; 
28, 8; Job 1, 10). r^ Blessed shalt thou be when thou comest 
in and blessed shalt thou be when thou goest out?5 (Dt. 28, 6). 
Hence, the conception « blessing 55 comprises « advancement, 


[Siog] —*->{ 100 )<+— 

progress, prosperity ?? in every shape and form. Comp. Arabic 

io^ « prosperity, good fortune 5? [Fr., Ky Nor does it embrace 
things material only; it extends to man's personal and natural 
endowments (cf. Judg. i3, 2/1), and to spiritual boons and 
graces as well. The innocent « shall bear away a blessings (nD")3 
from Yahweh, «and righteousness (npv) from the God of his 
salvations (Ps. 2/1, 5; cf. Ecclus. h , i3). 

109. The present inquiry may fitly close here. All the main 
component elements, at least, of the conception ^blessings have 
been analyzed and traced to their sources within the compass of 
the psychological setting, or, respectively, within the outer sur- 
roundings of the Semite. We have, however, treated these various 
component elements or ideas only in so far as they are psychical 
processes, without adverting to their individual forms as repre- 
sentative of objects, qualities or states (inclusive of action). In 
looking back we observe that the Semite conceives and , accord- 
ingly, expresses the conception ^blessings either as existing wi_ 
nbstracto (nons), or as residing m concreto in individual objects 
or persons ("i"n2 v^*;j» '^^)' ^^ ^^ undergoing the process of 
production by God and man respectively (^ip^ ti);lj fl<Jh), or 
lastly, as having been or being produced or effected (passive and 
reflexive forms). These various aspects will in the following chap- 
ter engage our attention. 

-^f>( 101 )<^— [§iio] 



Section I. 


110. The substantives employed in the West Semitic lan- 
guages and dialects to express the idea « blessing w are easily re- 
duced to the primitive type, barnkat ^i'. As time went on, and as 
each separate group of languages developed its own linguistic 
characteristics , that type naturally kept apace with such phone- 
tic changes. Thus, we have in Classical Arabic ^^ . In Mod. Arabic, 
generally, barake{dZ , Dozy; Malt, barka; Mahra birket). In Ethio- 
pic a^h't '-^ (Somah baraked). According to Earth ^^', Hebr. n-^-^-^ 
and Bed. Arabic (of Syrian desert) rj^raMet^' witness to the original 
place of the accent, viz. harakat^^\ In the Aramaic dialects this 
substantive, like other forms of this type*"^), was subject to sever- 
al changes, owing partly to the shifting of the accent'"" and 
partly also to the nature of the adjoining consonants''^'. And, 
thus , in the Western dialects , the vowel of the first syllable was 
changed into i, viz. NnDi^n, Nnp-)3 '°' (Jewish Palestinian; cf. 
Christian Palestinian )J^;o), and into u, viz. jj^oias and 

(') Cf. Brockelmann, Vergl. Gramm., % 182; Wright, Comp. Gramm., 182 ff. 

(2) bdrakata, Dillmann, Aethiop. Gramm., a"*^ ed., 107 f. 

(■■'' Nominalb., S 56 b. 

W Wetzstein, Zeitxchr. d. deutsch. morg. Gesellsch., XXII, 189 f. 

(^) But see Grimme, Grundziige der Hebr. Alaent und Vohallehre, p. 34 f . : 

W Cf. NoLDEKE, Afanrfa/sc/ie Grammatik {E&We , 1875), p. 110; Earth, Nomi- 
nalb., 570 remark. 

(') Cf. Barth , loc. cit. 

(*) Cf. Brockelmann, Vergl. Gram., ']b,\. e. 

<") See Dalman , Grammalik des jud.-palest. Aramdischen ( 2""^ ed., Leipz., 1 yo.^)) , 
p. 167. 

§iii] --«.( 102 )^-*— 

)Jt>-Dja3(^^ (Old Syriac), biirktd (New Syriac) in the Eastern'-'; 
while in Mandaitic it seems to oscillate between the two, i. e. : 
N^:^^3, NnDn^3, Nn:i-)^3, NDDnu'^). These data leave no room_ 
for doubt that the word harakat was employed by all the Western 
Semites before their dispersion. 

111. In tracing the various applications of this word (see 
Chapt. Ill), we have acquired a general idea of its signification'*^, 
but in order to settle definitely upon the precise derivation of 
this signification, further inquiry into the correlative evolution 
of its form will be necessary. 

ATiff/a/adscompensativum {oYhatal^^\ Fortunately, it so happens 
that the form hnrak is still extant in Classical Arabic, and thus 
we are able to identify the three stages in the evolution of hara- 
kat, viz. : haraka «(proc. cam.) to be, become firm, etc.; to con- 

tinue, etc. ?5; W^JA" (extant in the imperative tily « be ye firm, etc., 

in battle 5;; of. §36); harakat s firmness, stability, continuance 
coupled with increase 55 (Ham. p. 587). There would now appear 
to be ample reason for the statement that, in the light of the 
preceding chapter, these facts furnish us a final and incontes- 
table proof that we have succeeded in tracing the signification of 
the word harakat or ri2i2 (and consequently the whole category: 
■jns, yi^, "I?, etc.) back to its true origin. 

As the ancient Arabic lexicons indicate, it were indeed a fatal 
delusion to imagine that the Semites apperceived in the terra ha- 
rakat such abstract meanings as our customary renderings of 
the -term \iz. svAoyiW, henediclio, blessing- would imply. There is 
of course no mistaking the abstract character of the term; and, 
doubtless, the feminine ending -^f at once detached it from any 
definite concrete objects or agents, but even so we must allow a 

'') See Duval, Traile de Grammaire syriaque (Paris, 1881), 126. 

(-) Corap. the simple nominal forms : birka (in the West, dialects), burka (in 
the East, dialects). 

(') See iSoLDEKE, Mand. Gra)nm., p. li, 109. 

(^) On its different senses see Komg , Hebr. und Aram. Worterb. 

(^) Cf. Barth, Nominalb., pp. 56 ff; Ges.-Kautzscii Hebr. Grainm. (27"' cd.), 
S 84, f, nole; Brockelmann, Vergl. Gramm., § iSa. 

— «.( 103 W-. — • [§11 -J J 

long period before the process of abstraction could have reached 
such rarified concepts as e. g. that of « blessedness ?5 (cf. Ps. 2/1, 
5,np-)3 parallel to ni^-^f)'^'. _,^ 

112. Originally the picture apperceived in the term hai^k, 
for instance, t^thc camels of an encampment lying upon their 
breasts, after feeding or watering 11 may, though very dimly, 
have entered the field of consciousness along w ith the term ba- 
rahat , and accordingly the Bedawi may have apperceived in this 
term some such idea as «a couching and abiding in rich pas- 
tures », which idea would in due course give way to the other 
more abstract, viz. r. continuance in prosperity 15. This latter 
meaning marks an important step in the evolution of the term. 
Thenceforward, it was left to develop more independently of the 
original concrete representations. Being borne along upon the 
underlying thought r. continuance in prosperity ?•» it became de- 
tached, both in the nomadic and the settled state of the Semite, 
to a variety of qualities apperceived as being within the compass 
of the aforesaid underlying thought, such as r. firmness, stabi- 
lity, continuance, increase, abundance, growth, fertility, fe- 
cundity, expansion ?5, etc. There is no doubt that in Classical 
Arabic such meanings were distinctlv apperceived in the term '2'. 
In the Old Testament, nrns has apparently passed beyond 
this stage of evolution, which however is still faintly reflected 
in such expressions as mn"' riDin x'pDi pST i'3b r satiate 
with favor and full of the blessings of Yahwebj? (Dt. , 33, 

(1) Cf. WcNDT, Volkerpsychologie : Die Sprache, II, p. 609 ff. 

'^) Lane , s. V. « *5o [a blessing, any good that is bestowed hy god; and parti- 
cularly such as continues and increases and abounds ;] good (Jel. in XI, 5o) or 
prosperity, or good fortune , (Fr. , K) that proceeds from God : (Fr. in explanation 
of the pi. as used in the Kur. XI, 76 :) increase; accession; redundance; abun- 
dance, or plenty; (S, Msb, K, KuH;) whether sensible or intellectual : and the 
continuance of the dirinehj-bestowed good, such as is perceived by the intellect, in, 
or upon, a thing : (KuH :) or fniuiess, slabdily or continuance , coupled with in- 
crease : (Ham, p. 587 :) or increasing good; implying the meaning of increase, 
accession or redundaiu:e (Bd in XXV, 1 :) or abundant and continual good; (so in 
an E\[)os. (if ihe Jami' es-Saj;lioor, cited in the margin of a copy of the (MS : ) 
and accordinjj lo Az, God's superiority of everything (T\).n 




[S 11 3-11 4] — ^«.( lO/i ).«— 

2 3), or, mD-)3 31 « abounding with blessings j? (Prov., 98, 

113. Occasionally, the aforesaid qualities might figure as the 
predominant features of concrete objects and might thus impart 
to the term hnrahal a concrete meaning. Gomp. c. g. Dt. 12, 
i5; 16, 17; Joel 2, 1/1; Mai. 3, 10, where the underlying 
meaning of n^")? is evidently w abundance or amassment (of 
something)?). In the Abyssinian dialects the term is frequently 
applied to « abundant crops 55 (comp. Suahih haraka or mharaha 
« great yield of plantation 5}). In Arabic, of course, it has the 
generic meaning of « plenty, abundances (Lane) or ^u'iches, 
means (of living, rish), possessions?? (cf. Dozy)'''. In colloquial 
Arabic the term has come to be applied adjectively or adverbially 
in the sense of « enough ?? ''^l 

\\h. In this wise the term harakai had become applicable to 
an unlimited variety of qualities existing in absti^icto and concreto , 
and all being of a beneficial relation towards man (Avhether no- 
mad, settler, or townsman) inasmuch as thev all bore out, in 
one way or another, the state of « continuance in prosperity or 

*') Gomp. the expression « . . .mais prenez ceci; (jc vous le donnc) selon mes 
moyensw (*5->J! <_--,„^. (J^)> ^P- Dozy. The term also signifies ^provisions de 
bouchen (ibid.). 

(^) H. Stumme , Grammatik des Tunis. Arabisch {Le'ipz., 1 896), p. 1 60 (cf. p. 1 /i 1), 
is of opinion that bdrka is the verbal form J^^o used in an optative sense [ubark 
imperative = J^U^). Cf. also Marcais, Dial. Ar. d. Tlemcen, p. 180, iSfi, ig.5. 
As a matter of fact, the term is used with pronominal suffixes, e. g. barkdni, 
larkdk, barhdh, barkdna, barkdkum, etc. Thus (^i^ji = ffJ'en ai assez.n We quote 
the following from Beaussier : ct JI^S^ bl AUons assez ! — finissez — voyons 
done; tiU i:>Jj> Ojj Finissez, vous dis-je — seuleraent; t^o jvj^l^ Un seulement, 
un seul; ^^ 15jJ Treve de, cessez de; L5li adv. Assez, c'est assez, il suffit.n Gomp. 
ff^arAa Assez! laisse-moi tranquille! (ap. Dozy).'? Whatever be the right interpre- 
tation of these forms in the North African dialects , it seems certain that in Syria 
the substantive barakat or barake is used in this adverbial or adjectival sense and 
is conceived as such, e. g. fi barake frthere's plenty w, etc. We should also men- 
tion in this connection the form ^y-^ adj. ffD'accord, soit, bien?5 (Beauss.). Gf. 
S 182. Gomp. also the expression |XZ")3 [B'resil Rabba, Par. 78,7) wplenty for 
us : we have plenty » (Jastrow, Diet.). 

--«.( 105 )ks— [8 11 4] 

blessings. At one time, this state appears to have been the uni- 
fying and controlHng element in the process of evolution, but 
as soon as the range of the qualities signified by the term began 
to expand, and especially when the traces of the original picture 
grew dimmer, it lay in the nature of the case that a new reflec- 
tion should have forced itself upon the Semite, namely that the 
aforesaid stale of prosperity, as well as the coherent beneficial 
qualities, were manifestations of an underlying operative force. 
This force is, from the first, beneficial, or rather propitious. 
For, the apperceiving of such a force and the attributing it to 
some propitious unseen power may be regarded as belonging 
to a single mental act. Barahat now took on the meaning of 
«an abiding propitious force 35 (^'. 

In this sense, Arabic lexicographers define iiSJj as r^ prosper- 
ity, good fortune that proceeds from God 55, or « continuance of a 
divinely-bestowed gift , etc. 55 ( cf. Ex. 3 2 , 2 9 ) or « prosp^rit^ benie , 
qualite salutaire , vertu » ^^' and , in the language of the Christians , 
wpuret^, saintet^w (Dozy). So, too, is nDn3 employed in the 
0. T., e. g. in the sense of the divinely sent fructifying force, 
abiding in rain or showers (Ps. 8/i, 7 ; Is. /i/i, 3; Ez. 3/1,26), 
or in the cluster of grapes (Is. 65, 8, wherefore the cluster 
must not be destroyed) '^l The passer-by would wish such a pro- 
pitious force to ('7i') the reapers in the field (Ps. 129, 8). The 
Lord commands (mif) it into a place (Ps. i33, 3); and it is 
sure to bring forth fruit (Lev., 26, 21). He causes it to rest 

('^ Cf. Ges.-Buhl : wgluckspendencle Kraft??. 

(-' E. g. <rde Teau d'une source??, Becri (ap. Dozy). This force is believed to 
reside in certain sacred objects; hence, an amulet is called barahat (Dozy). 
For the same reason certain medicinal plants are called by this name. Thus 
JUj^J! *^ (ap. Dozy) is the seed of the Anethum foenicuhtm L. , while )^..^*•^ is 
the Artemisia L. (see Low). Cf. C. Hoffmann, Lehrbuch d. Prakt. Pjlanzenlxunde 
(Sluttg.), p. 46. 

'^) Palestinian Felldlnn, as they begin to count out the measures of their 
wheat, instead of cf number one??, say «el barahen. They attach to this tlio idea 
of blessing. Similarly, the Arab, at a coffee party, calls the fourth cup harahe, 
while the Abyssinian applies the same term {barakd, Amh.) more particularly to 
the ground coffee, from which the second or third cup lias been drawn (see 
GuiDi , Diz, Amar.). 

[8 11 5-11 6] — H 106 )^-^— 

upon the house (ri"'3 "jy m:, Ez. kh , 3o) or upon a man's be- 
longings (Gen. 3c), 5), for it crmaketli rich 55 (Prov. 10, 92); 
upon His people, for from Him is salvation (Ps. 3, cj; Ecclus. 

kh, 22). 

115. It was only natural that a person upon whom God's 
blessing visibly rested , one who was literally « full of blessing ^1 , 
(Dt. 33 , 23) should have come to be looked upon as the embo- 
diment of this divinely sent propitious force. Accordingly, when 
the Psalmist styles the seed of the just a nons (Ps. 37, 26) he 
has in mind, not a mere ?d3enediction ?? or k object of benedic- 
tion r) , but a visible concrete i^ blessing v , as is apparent from his 
previous statement (v. 26), that never has the seed of the just 
been seen to beg bread (cf. Ps. 112, 2 pii"' □nu"' "in). Fur- 
thermore, when describing, in Ps. 21, the glory and majesty of 
the ccKing?5 whom Jahweh will make (rr^iy) « blessings forever?? 
(v. 7 Ti''? msna), the Psalmist doubtless pictures to himself a 
perfect embodiment of such choice blessings as have been men- 
tioned in V. Ix (sito mD"Q). It is only to such a visible embodi- 
ment of blessing that the words of Jahweh in Ez. 3/i, 26 can 
have reference ; ^and I will make (thij) them (i. e. my people) 
and the places round about my hill a blessing??. In this sense, 
too, shall Israel be a « blessing?? (Is. 19, 2/1). And as Juda 
and Israel were a curse {^^^V-> not necessarily c^ imprecation ?? 
but perhaps « waste??, cf. Jer. /ic), i3) among the nations, so 
shall the Lord save them, and they ct shall be a blessing?? (Zach. 
8, i3). Such, in fine, is the import of the pathetic words ad- 
dressed to Abraham : nD")2 rrrn c^Thou shalt be a blessing?? (Gen. 
12,2; comp. the prop, name n2"i3, I Par. 12, 3). 

116. It will have been noticed that this meaning of harakat 
distinctly implies the idea « overflowing, abundance or redun- 
dance?? (cf. Arabic *^Cj). The force, abiding and propitious and 
dwelling visibly in a person or nation, is therefore difl'usive of 
itself, affecting as it does whatever comes within its compass. 
Thus, in Ez. 3/1, 26, the places round about KYahweh's hill?? 


( 107 )^^— [§ii6] 

participate in its blessing. Israel is «a blessing in tbe midst of 
tbe earth w, on tbe highway between Egypt and Assyria (Is. 
19, 2/1); Juda and Israel t^ among the nations » (Zach. 8, i3); 
and win Abraham and in his seed?? shall all the nations of the 
earth be blessed (cf. Gen. 12,2 ff.). 

It may now be asked how the Oriental conceives this diffu- 
sion or communication of the divinely sent boon. In answer to 
this question it may be noted that, apart from its hidden, 
mystic, or supernatural operation (viz. per contagium), because 
a c^ blessed w, i. e. rich, man generously succors the needy. It will 
manifest itself in a sensible and tangible way as well. For it is 
the glory of an Oriental prince or magnate to be called a bene- 
factor — when it is said of him «all day he dealeth graciously 
and lendeth» (RV, Ps. 87, 26). So Israel, having been blessed 
by Yahweh, ^ shall lend to many nations 55 (Dt. 28, 12; 
cf. Gen. 12, 3). It is on account of such liberality that one 
becomes deserving of the fond designation n3"}3~iJ*D: («a liberal 
soulw; Prov. 11, 26). And developing along this line the term 
ri9")3 again took on another concrete meaning in the sense of 
cdiberal, bountiful gift 55 (Gen. 33, 11; I Kgs 2 5, 27; 3o, 26; 

IV Kgs 5 , 1 5 ). Dozy justly remarks with regard to H^^ «faveur 
du ciel qu'on recoit par I'entremise d'un homme, cadeau, gra- 
tification 55. In the dialect of Trip, and Tun. we meet with the 

form ciJj5^ ^cadeau 55 (Beaussier) which appears to have passed 
into Spanish (^'. In Syriac the subst. )j^^ia:> is applied in the 
same sense, viz. «donum, munusw (II Cor. 9, 5, 6) and, in 
designation of the « blessed gift;? par excellence, « eucharistia , 
coena dominica?? (cf. Smith, Tlies.). Comp. the expression 

Zj*kj Jlo ctrecevoir un sacrement» (Bochtor ap. Dozy) 


(') Viz., alborque, alhoroc, alvarnch, alvoroch, alvaroc , or alvoroc tfpot-de-vin, 
t'j)ingies, ce qui se donnc par maniere de present au deia du prix convenun 
(Dozy et Engelmann, Glossaire, etc.). 

(^' Note the following derivatives oibarahat in the different languages : ma- 
brakat (abeatituden, ap. Dozy); mbaraha (ayield of plantations, Suahili); the 
Amh. adjectives mdbarhacd («che frutta moito, non si consuma prestos); mdhar- 
tat;a(«che arreca bcnedizione, profitto s) ; 6ara/i;a(a»i (ttche produce, du moltos); 

[Si 17] — «•( 108 )^-i— 

1 17. The sight of the hlessing, as a quahty or force, in any 

person or object would naturally excite in others feehngs of 

admiration and joy and the desire for such a boon. The desire 

1 was expressed, with the eyes spontaneously and in implicit 

\ trust lifted up to the Deity, and the spoken word or the prayer 

I for the harahat came itself to be styled harahit (i. e. benediction = 

r^yA?^, inf. noun). It is at this juncture that the term^ ^>:fl^ — 

\^ comes to express a religious act. We have already signified our 
intention of discarding from the present work the religious as- 
pect of the question , except in so far as the signification of the 
term itself is involved. Suffice it, then, to state that in religions 
where the ideas concerning a supersensible world were of a crude 
and material nature, the Benediction, as well as the Curse, 
frequently became the object of the grossest and most supersti- 
tious beliefs. So it was thought that once the word had been 
uttered, particularly by one especially qualified, it operated with 
absolute, mechanical efficacy. And, while under such condi- 
tions, Benediction and Malediction were thus looked up to, or 
feared, as the case might be, as self-existing, hidden Powers, 
that could be roused at the slightest provocation, or by an ap- 
peal to some numen or spirit (g-m/a), the believing worshipper 
of Yahweh saw in these forces Yahweh's propitious or vindictive 
Hand. Once uttered ct before Yahweh w, the Benediction operates 
ex opere operato^^' (Prov. ii, 26), though Yahweh may turn a 
curse into a benediction (Dt. 28, 6; Neh. i3, 2) or vice versa 
(Mai. 2,2). Naturally, the « benediction 15 of His representa- 
tives has a special efficacy (cf. Gen. 27, 12, 35, 36, 3-8, h\\ 
28, lx\ A 9, 26, 28; Dt. 33 , 1 ; Jos. 8, 3 A; Prov. 11, 11 ^of 
a just man 55). When represented as coming from God the Bene- 
diction retains the nature of a propitious force. God's n2-)2 is 
conceived as a benediction only when He is represented as speak- 
also ihe Amh. forms barkdc (ptc, see S 107) and abarkdc (ptc. of causat. , 
ffdare un buonissimo raccolto; fare uii regaio ; portare gli abiti moHo tempo, 
senza logorarli; fare un buon affare, guadagnaren); lastly Syr. hurk'tdndju (trad 
benedictionem pertinensn). 

'') Cf. ScHEGG, Biblische Archdologie (Freib. i. B., 1887), p. ^72 f. 

— ^3.( 109 )^-i^ [8118] 

ing (cf. II Kgs y, 29). Furthermore, in Deuteronomy we see 
how YahAveh's hd")?, as such a propitious force, being attached 
more directly to the priest's utterance (cf. Ecclus. 5o, 20) is set 
(jn:) upon Garizim (Dt. 11, 26, 27, 29; 3o, 19); whence it 
shall come upon ('7i''Ni3 Dt. 3o, 1; cf. Gen. ^19, 26) and over- 
take (3''^ Dt. 28, 2) those who abide by Yahweh's precepts. 

118. Perhaps the occasion for pronouncing such a benedic- 
tion upon another presented itself in the form of a kind act or 
generous gift, coming from a n3")2"UD: (cf. Prov. 10, 6, 7; 
It, 26; 2/1, 26; Job 29, 1 3 ) , and as to such a person grati- 
tude will bespeak an ever increasing blessing, so this on the 
other hand will be far from him « who himself delights not in 
benediction 55 (Ps. 109, 17). nzii"? lanD^T C'DJ m: wMay his soul 
rest in peace and his memory be blessed » are the words written 
upon the tombstone of a deceased relative or friend (Hebr. 
Inscr. at Jaffa, of 2'' or 3** cent, after Christ; Clermont-Gann., 
Picperl., n. /n8). Gomp. Ecclus. /i6, 1 1 : r\2')i'^ m:T M\ 

In consequence of uses such as these the term n3i3,bothas 
« blessing w and « benedictions, assimilated the ideas of « mutual 
benevolence, friendship, amicable reciprocity » between the giver 
and the recipient. Hence, though all nations shall be blessed in 
Abraham, yet, it is stated that God blesses those (only) who 
themselves have blessed Abraham. The offerings (n;")3) of Jacob 
(Gen. 33 , 1 1) and Abigail (I Kgs 25, 27/0^ 3o, 26) had no 
other p^irposethan that of securing the favor and friendship of the 
respective recipients. Therefore, thenDn:! that Rabsaces wished 
^to makew (nt'i*) with the city of Jerusalem (IV Kgs. 18, 3i) 
and to which Isaias so strongly objected (36, 16), is in reality., 
a « coming to terms of friendship and peaces'^'. For the rest, 
since the meaning « benediction 55 as well as ^^ praise w (Neh. 9,5; 

('' Klostermann, Die Biicher Samuels und der Konige (Nordiingen, 1887, in 
Strack's und Zockler's, Kurzgef. Comment.) , renders the phrase HZTS ^FlN It-'i* 
by «machet mit mir ein giitliches Abkommen55. — wTo obtain peace and bene- 
dictions (azzekd wulbardka) seems lo be a standing expression, occurring fre- 
quently in prayors (see Marcais, Dial. Ar. de Tiemcen, p. 260). 

— N 



[§119-120] •• t3 '( 110 )•«— 

and, according to the explanation given in the text, II Par. -20, 
96 bis) are contemporaneous in point of origin with the verb 
J12 [harraha), they will receive more detailed consideration in 
their proper place when we come to treat of "ijna , etc. 

Section II. 


1 19. For reasons that will appear presently the above forms, 
employed at a very early date in the sense of « blessed 55, demand 
our special attention. The form ""ns is used throughout Hebrew 
Literature.. Owing to defective spelling it is, however, difficult to_ 
trace it in the other hterary monuments of the Chanaanitic 
group (i. e. in the Phenician, Punic and Neo-punic inscrip- 
tions) 'i'. 

The second form has a wider currency. Its existence in the 
Chanaanitic group, though apparently attested to by the translit- 
erated form harichal^'\ seems very improbable. From the ancient 
Aramaic inscriptions (i. e. Palmyrene and Nabataean) and Bib- 
heal Aramaic, down to the Modern Syriac dialects (both Eastern 
and Western) the Aramaic form h'rik (~p3, f*''^) is univer- 
sally employed '^l 

In the sense of k blessed » it occurs hkewise in Class. Arabic 

(dl>^) and in the dialect of Mahra (i. e. hereh). 

From these data the antiquity and, consequently, the impor- 
tance of the two forms are sufficiently clear. 

120. It is customary to classify haruk and harih as passive 
participles of Qal. Qimchi is not of this view. He regards the form 
1^3 as an adjective, for the reason that the idea «to bless » is 

('' Schroder, Phoniz. Gramm., p. 209, is of opinion that "^n^ existed in the 
prop, name "Jl^. 

'^) See Schroder, op. cit., p. 200. See 8 189, note. 

(^) According to Uldemann the following participles occur in Samaritan : 
bareh, barik and baroJ:; ptc. pass. Pa. : amharrak. 

--^».( 111 )<^— [§l-3l] 

not expressed by the Qal form of the verb'^'. Again, Ewald '-) 
and Bdttcher ^^^ call attention to the adjectival nature of this form. 
In the opinion of the latter scholar "jna is far from sharing the 
intensive meaning of ij"]?. 

Whatever be the right view of the question, the anomaly, so 
clearly perceived by these scholars, has not been satisfactorily 
accounted for. We are confronted, not with a dialectical usage, ~~~^ 
but with the plain fact that at a period beyond which our inves- 
tigation does not reach , the Aramaean , Chanaanitic and , perhaps , 
Arabian peoples employed the forms hariik and barik in the 
sense of « blessed v along with the verb -"in ("ij'ia ii)o) ?^to bless jn \ 
The question, then, is : could these Qal forms at such an early \ 
period have indicated adequately the result or effect of the idea 
expressed by the intensive form? Why was the result or effect 
not expressed by participles that corresponded to the intensive 
forms of the verb, such as I'lSD and «*.;.:a,io, as is the case in 
Arabic and in the Abyssinian dialects? That perhaps at a more 
recent date, the Hebrews or the Aramaeans no longer felt this 
incongruity is not unlikely, but to suppose that they should have 
consciously associated a participle passive Qal with the active 
meaning of an intensive conjugation, is to charge the ancient 
Semites with too great a licence in the use of their grammatical 

121. .In explanation of this anomaly grammarians have ap- 
pealed to the forms "il^i and ""IDD which serve also as passive 
participles for the derived conjugations '^l But, the analogy is 
by no means adequate. For the forms appealed to are of exceed- 
ingly rare occurrence (^1D2 only Ps. 82, 1; "i3- only Prov. 
20, 11; Ecclus. 36, 20) and, besides, each has a corresponding 
active participle (np3, ini), though of occurrence equally as 

*'' Mihitlol, fol. -20, ap. KoNiG, Lehrgeb. , I, p. 177. 

'-' Ausfiihrl. Lehrbuch d. Hebr. Sprache {8^ ed. , Gottin<jon, 1870), 8 170, a. 
^^' Ausfiihrl. Lehrbuch d. Itcbr. Sprache (Leipz., 1866-1868), II, 99^, 5. 
t*' Cf. Stade, Lehrb. d. Hebr. Sprache; Ewald, Ausfiihrl. Lehrbuch, 8 170,3; 
B.IP.TU, Nominalb., 8 128, b. 

[§129-123] — «.( 112 )^-<*- 

rare^'l Hence ii^" and ""IDD are at best but secondary forma- 
tions (^' and are consequently of no service whatever in explain- 
ing the use of such ancient and such consistently employed forms 
as baruk and bank. 

122. The opinion has been put forth that the latter were 
formed after the analogy of 'arur and lit, tr cursed 75 *^'. But when, 
on the one hand, we consider more attentively how great a 
variety of words the Semite has to convey the idea of k cursing 71 
and, on the other, the universal antiquity and uniformity of the 
derivatives of "i")3 employed in the sense of « blessings, we had 
rather suppose that the analogy had worked the other way. 
Withal, it would seem that any coincidence of grammatical for- 
mations in the vocabulary of Blessing and Cursing should have 
its raison d'etre in the analogy of the underlying ideas rather 
than in the words that express them. And thus what appears on 
the surface to be merely a linguistic anomaly may ultimately be 
traced to the true primitive concept itself of k blessing ». This, it 
may be noted, should be borne in mind in the course of our in- 

123. Speaking generally, the forms katul and katU are em- 
ployed as adjectives or participles in an active, passive, or neuter 
meaning'^'. It may for the moment be taken for granted, and 
subsequent investigations will confirm the correctness of the 
assumption, that the forms baruk and barik coincide both as to 
grammatical function and meaning. We have here an exemplifi- 
cation of the general rule that in the choice of certain forms for 

('' We have not mentioned the form u*n3 in our text for the reason that its 
Qal is regularly used , though Stade and Ewald mention the form in connection 

with -^na. 

'-) Cf. Ewald, loc. cit., note. 

'•^^ Brockelmann, Vergl. Gramm., 8268 A, c, Rem. 

'^) On these forms see Brockelmann, Vevgl. Gramm., % i38, 1/11; Barth, 
Nominalb., 8121 tT. ; Lagarde, IJbersicht, p. Sg ff. On active, resp. neuter, katul 
see KoNiG, Lehrgeb., I, p. 176-178, II (I), p. i36 fF. , 189, 198, 887; on 
1/lil see NoLDEKE, Syv. Gramm., 280; Dalman, Jiid.-Palest. Gramm., 64, i, 7. 

--»^( 113 )^~ [Si24] 

one and the same grammatical function, the Hebrews adopted 
Ixatill where the Aramaeans preferred katil, or vice versa ^'l So 
much in general may be premised as regards the forms bariik 
and bank. In order to determine what their meaning was pre- 
cisely, we shall go back to the other Qal forms, the meanings 
of which we have hitherto been concerned in estabhshing. It will 
be remembered that harakat and barikat have originated in ba- 
raka (aor. u and a) ccproc. cam. w — «to be, become firm, etc. 
continue, etc.?) (also barika, aor. «). This of course is not the 
place to venture any theory, such as those of Barth and La- 
garde, in regard to the genetic relation between these simple 
verbal forms and the forms baruk and barih. For, provided their 
true meaning can be traced, it is after all irrelevant to our pur- 
pose whether these forms have evolved from the perfect, future, 
or imperative of the simple verb. For the rest, it so happens 
that the characteristic vowels ii and i are to be found, as will be 
seen, in some of the forms or derivatives of the simple verb in Arab- 
ic^-'. The main query, then, will amount to this; has the idea «to 
be firm, to continue, etc. 7) developed into the idea « blessed?? as 
expressed by baruk and barik? If so, these two forms are not 
passive participles but verbal adjectives with a neuter meaning. 

12/i. It has been shown in the preceding chapter that the 
meaning «to be firm, etc.?? has given rise to various verbal ad- 
jectives and nouns, expressing that idea in an intensive degree 
[burdk ^remaining fixed??), or as an inherent quality, viz. , burdk, 
baruk and baruk c^ incubus, nightmare, coward??. Of particular 

t'' Comp. TTHN and wk~| trseizingn. Cf. Barth, op. cit., S 121 ff. 

(-' See Barth, Nominalh. , Lagarde, Ubersicht. Cf. MOller, Semitische Nomina. 
Bemerkungen zu de Lagarde und Barth, in Zeitschrift d. Detihch. Morg. Gesell- 
schajt, XLV, 22 1-338; Philippi, Die Semitische Verbal- und Nominalbildung in 
ihrem Verhdltniss zu eitiander, in Beitrdge z. Assyriologie , II, SSg-SSg. Cf. Komg, 
loc. cit.; Brockelmann, Vergl. Gramm., 8116; Sellin , Die verbal-nominale Dop- 
pelnatur der hebr. Participien und Infinitive (Leipz. , i889),p. i6f. ,/ii ^- '^''^ 
researches of Ihese scholars have indeed been helpful to us, yet, it will he found 
that our conclusions are based solely upon the usage of the forms under ronsidc: - 


>KtL »AttOMLE. 

[Si25] —«.( lU )^^— 

interest is the form banik in Classical Arabic , «a woman marry- 
ing, having a big son w, and in Bed. Arabic, «a she-camel having 
often brought forth w; ran aged woman past the years of fecun- 
dity » (of. 8/12). Evidently, this form is identical with Hebrew 
■j'ls. There would, however, appear to be a gap of some sort 
botw^een the meanings of the former (including burdk and bdriik) 
and the meaning of the latter. But if it be borne in mind that 
these Arabic forms contain, as it were, in concreto the idea k being 
firm, fixed; continuing:?, it will easily be seen that the gap just 
referred to is in reality of as little importance as the one exist- 
ing between k blessing w ('~?")2) and « firmness, stability, con- 
tinuance ?5 (i^). The participial forms in Arabic tbus denote in 
concreto only what a^Cj denotes in ahstractn. It was pointed out 
above that the abstract substantive harakat was perhaps applied 
first to an attitude, and then to specific qualities; and that only 
at a later stage in its evolution it came to signify that beneficial, 
propitious force whicb we style r. blessing 75. It stands to reason 
that the forms haruh and bank have passed through the same 
stages of evolution. The transition from those original meanings 
(i.e. burdh, etc.) to the general concept i:tblessed» may still be 
witnessed in some examples. Thus, in buriih r remaining fixed 
by the side of a vessel 55 (cf. bdrik^ the quality of continuance 
assimilates the idea of comfort, contentment; it becomes a benefi- 
cial quality. The meaning of baruk may be easily generalized 
into « blessed with offspring 55 (see above), and once the form is 
used as denoting such an inherent beneficial quality ^'^, its appli- 
cation to similar ideas is rapidly effected. It may also be noted 
that in this generalized sense, the form Jjio is of almost similar 
import as that of nm^, applied to Noemi in Ruth /», i/i ff. 

1:25. In the case oibm-lk the solution of the difficulty is far 
more obvious. Fortunately, this form has asserted itself in Clas- 

('' This explains liow the form came to be applied to concrete objects e. g. 
«a lucky coim: ra thing kept to bring good luck" (Spiro); or «gift» presented 
by way of congratulation (see Beaussier). 

.__^ 115 )<^— [8126] 

sical Arabic in a meaning which may serve as a connecting link 
between haraha or harika and harih « blessed 55. In the K Aijj is 

said to mean xo iiJ_;l>l^, for instance in the expression ^S -Utio 

sas though meaning djUl* [i. e. blessed food; or food in which 
there is a blessing, etc.] {S)v (Lane). Thus, the present form, 
attested to bv the best authorities and probablv extant in other 
substantives, appears both in meaning and structure to be ge- 
nuinely Arabic. Freitag gives its meaning thus explicitly : sfehx, 
benedictione et copia abundans; uti cibus cujus redundat pars et 
residua manet??. The food, then, is called ^J^j^ because it contin- 
ues, remains (^^4) over and abounds, and this is precisely the 
blessing or barahat contained therein ^^'. 

126. It were useless to deny the close genetic affinity »ilj 
(^continuing, remaining over, aboundingr>) ttblessed^j bears to 
J^nAat (r. remaining water J) ^ «poolw. For one cannot fail to ob- 
serve tbat i, the characteristic vowel of each, appears along 
with a strictly neuter or intransitive meaning of the simple form 

of the verb, i. e. dJy f^to be firm, continue, etc. 51. Now, just as 
bar aha has vielded barah and its compensativum barahat (nzi^), 
so likewise has bariha been effective of barih (T"'^) and its com- 
pensativum barihat (^:^3). And while bardh and barahat have 
retained, in some measure, the active character of the original 
meaning of the verb (r.proc. cam. 55), which in barahat appears as 
an abstract concept of the propitious quality or force, so barih 

(>) The form JC!-I (comparative) ffhappier, boider.^ (Ha va), which appears to 
have been derived from J^j?, may be quoted in confirmation of the opinion 
that the latter form has neuter meaning. Cf. Wright, Arab. Gramm., I, S aSo. 
Possibly, the idea ^blessed foodn (see text) is contained in the Amh. word lir- 
ku'tta (Tigrina berkuetta), a certain kind of cake (see Guidi), whence have been 
derived the verbal forms barkudc, asbarkiidc and tabarhuac (with corresponding 
meanings). Perhaps, too, the idea rrabundant, superfluous (and therefore ^un- 
claimed-)), blessedn underlies Amii. beriLkd, rnon determinato, che non ha pa- 
drone?!. The Abyss, words bdrahd (Mucaww'a), berrik (Tfia), berekd (Tna), 
meaning sdesert, waste; hill {bemk)r) , and others, are probably derived from 
other stems (cf. (Il^ch). 

[S127] — «.( 116 )^-4— 

and, on the same principle, hanih may be considered as true 
embodiments of that same quality or force. This quality or force, 
it should be noted, is not, however, apperceived as bestowed from 
without; it is permanent, enduring and inherent in the object 
or person itself. 

As has been hinted above, the transition from such specific 
concepts as ^ being firm, steadfast, continuing, remaining w into 
the generic concept ^blessed?) was effected gradually. The mind 
of the Semite had first to realize that such qualities were mani- 
festations of an operative force, propitious in its results, which 
results might be approximately designated by our term « pros- 
perity 5?. At this stage in the evolution of the terms haruk and 
hank — and we may say that Semitic usage has definitely fixed 
them here — we might fitly translate them by the phrase « abid- 
ing in prosperity ». Having sprung from the verb, their gram- 
matical relationship was originally quite undetermined. Their 
verbal character (as verbal nouns) (^' may still be recognized in 
the ancient formula "ins "f 2i3D (Gen. 27, q^; Nu. q/i, 9). 
As in the case of viijjj and dL^ in Arabic ^'^\ they may be termed 
verbal adjectives. 

127. It goes without saying that once the Semite recognised 
an operative, propitious force as underlying these specific qual- 
ities, his ideas of the powers of nature and their subordination 
to an invisible world came to determine his mental attitude , and 
to take an active part in the shaping, if not of the form, at least 
of the signification of these two terms. That the propitious force 
designated by them was instinctively ascribed to some invisible 
power, is evident. Yet, the Chanaanitic and Aramaic peoples, 
unhke the Arabs, did little more than contemplate, perhaps in_ 
holy awe, this force of the invisible world; and dared not, or 
cared not, to penetrate into its mysterious causation. Hence, 
such words as hariih and harik, in their languages, are found to 

('* Cf. Barth, Notninalb., 8 121, b. 

W Cf. Wr.iGiiT, Ai-ab. Gramm. , I, ? 23; 

-^«.( 117 )k-i— [8128] 

express merely the existence of that force in a person or thing 
without any explicit reference to its causation. To the believing 
Israelite, then, Yahweh is the author of this propitious force; in 
Yahweh's hands it remains unchanged, immutable and inherent 
in the person or object that « Yahweh blesses 55. Thus, one who is 
called "i"i")3, is the possessor, not the recipient, of nsna'^'. «Thou 
shalt not curse this people for it is blessed » (xin "]"nn ■•d , 
Nu. 22, 12)^2), 

128. The forms "jna and y^^ occur, besides, in two gram- 
matical constructions, which do not seem at first sight to square 
with the interpretation of the two forms just set forth. These 
are: '"''7 "iinn and "i"* "ijn?, and their equivalents in other dialects 
of the Chanaanitic and Aramaic groups. Naturally, the question 
presents itself : what relation is introduced by these constructions 
between "JTis and mn""? The terms genitivus auctoris, and lamedk 
auctoris, whereby they are usually designated, fail to indicate 
the relation satisfactorily. The point is : is this relation necessar- 
ily one of cause and effect, or may we suppose it to be of a less 
intimate nature? For if in these two constructions the Hebrew 
conceives Yahweh as the cause, originator or agent, he cannot 
but conceive the ^blessed (one)«, as the pattens, and the form 
"jTis as a passive participle — which is in direct opposition to 
our thesis. 

(') This view is opposed to a common opinion, \-iz., that Tl")3 (Qal pass, 
part. ) , when referring to men , denotes some special blessing bestowed by God 
and coming upon one from without. Cf. G. W. Votan , Hasting's Did. of the Bible , 
Extr. Vol., art. ttSermon on the Mountn , p. i4, note. 

(2) In the 0. T. "jl"13 is said oi man, Gen. 27, 29, 33; Nu. 92, 12; 26, 
9; Dt. 7, ill; 28, 3 {bis), 6 {bis); 33, sit; I Kgs 25, 33 {bis); a6, 95; 
III Kgs 2, 45; Is. 19, 95; Jer. 17, 7; 20, i/i; Ps. 118, 26; Ruth 2, 19. 

It is applied to other objects only Prov. 5, 18 ("(^3 ':inipD""'n^J and Dt. 
28, 4,5 (where, however, the phrase nnX ")T)2 precedes and follows). 

The expression "''' 7jl"l3 (see foil. S) occurs Gen. 9/1, 3i ; 26, 29; Is. 65, 23; 
and ''"''? "ina, Judg. 17, 9; I Kgs i5, i3; 23, 21; II Kgs 2, 5; Ps. ii5, 
i5: Ruth 2, 20; 3, 10; ]V?'J hub "jna. Gen. i4, 19. See 8S 129, i3o. 

Ksnom pr. "|n3 occurs Jer. 3a, 19 f., 16; 36, 4-39; 43, 3, 6; 45, 1, 9, 
Neh. 3, 20; 10, 7; 1 1, 1 5. 

As , however, the main facts , for which we have been contend- 
ing in the course of the present dissertation, may now be con- 
sidered as fairly well established, we should rather, it seems, 
make some attempt to explain this dative and genitive in the 
light of conclusions already arrived at. It is obvious that the inti- 
acy of the relation in question must be judged in ultima ana- 
lysi from the nature and meaning of the two terms. In the pre- 
sent instance, then, we have the terms "jiis « blessed ii and mn*' 
«Yahweh». Now blessing, or blessedness, is looked upon ulti- 
mately as a gift or production of the Deity; hence, in agenitival 
dependence of "jTi^ upon mn\ this production will naturally be 
implied, or the two ideas will be fused into a relation of cause 
and effect, if the two terms permit of this. According to our 
thesis, "i"i")3 does not. The term precludes any reference to exter- 
nal causation or agency; it denotes one who is established in 
blessing, « abiding in prosperity ri. The question now arises : what 
can be the relation of the Deity to one who ^ abides in prosperity 
or blessing n ? 

129. Account may here be taken of the local, tribal and na- 
tional character of the mimina and deities revered by the ancient 
heathen Semite. Speaking generally, they were regarded as the 
possessors, lords or owners of certain places and territories '''. 
Hence, as regards at least its own tenants, or, in a wider sense, 
its proteges, clients or worshippers, each deity assumes some • 
sort of ownership (^Zufrehdrigkeity 

Now as it was these deities that controlled the forces of nature, 
therefore, a person who came to be under the ownership of any 
particular deity would experience at its hands the beneficial 
operation of these forces. Hence, in expressing this ownership 
there was implied also, though indirectly, the beneficial oper- 
ation, favor or blessing of the deity. And this only goes to show 
how important it is that we should distinguish between what is 

''' Cf. Knabenbauer, in Hngen's Lexicon Bibl., 1, s. v. trBaaln; Peake, Diet, of 
the Bible, I, art. trBaalw; Kautzsch, in np. cit., Extr. Vol., art. ct Religion of 
Israel n, p. 6i5 S. 

-~y->{ 119 )^-i — [§ 


explicitly slated and, accordingly, apperceived in a given word 
or phrase, and what that word or phrase contains merely by 
implication. As we are already aware, the forms 1^3 and "i^")2 
convey explicitly the idea « abiding in prosperity (blessing) ». 
Not infrequently, however, it became a matter of importance 
and interest for one to know the name of the particular deity in 
whose territory, or under whose protection or influence, a 
person wabideth in blessing ^\ For, in proportion to the great- 
ness and power of such a deity, does its protege become the 
more the object of envy and admiration. But to mention the 
name of the deity is to indicate primarily the relation of 
ownership. And this relation is, we believe, all that is exphcitly 
contained in the genitival construction under consideration, 
namely, a genitivus possessoris (Gen. of ownership, Ziigehorig- 

Undoubtedly, the obvious content of the Biblical phrase 
'"' 7]n3 , when addressed by foreigners, such as Laban (Gen. 2/1, 
3i) and Abimelech (Gen. 26, 29), to the faithful servant and 
client of Yahweh, was that of ownership. The monotheistic 
belief only renders more intimate the relation of the Israelite to 
Yahweh, his own true God. To his mind the phrase would seem 
to convey the idea «the (truly) blessed (bondsman) of Vahwehw. 
In this strain Isaias (G5, 28), too, seems to say of the chosen 
people : Dmx Dn\s*!.\xi:i riun mn^iDns yiT ■'D ^For a seed blessed 
before Yahweh are they, and their offspring (abideth) with 
them »'". The relationship, then, bears primarily the note of 
ownership , not of the agency of Yahweh. 

130. While the existence of such a relation is expressed by 
the genitival construction, its going into effect is conveyed by 
the dative with lamedh. The former construction naturally occurs 
in assertory, the latter in optative sentences. Evidently the dative 
with lamedh implies a real benediction. But, we still maintain 

(') Cf. Ali.ioli, Die HI. Sclirijl (6''' cd.), ad loc. See also Knabenbauer, np. cit., 
11, ffDeusn. 

[Si3o] —«.( 120 ).«^— 

that the terms "i^n^ and "jna retain their full neuter meaning 
^abiding in prosperity ». The one who utters the benediction 
conceives the recipient as one already in possession of the divine 
gift. And when this fact is considered in its psychical aspect, it 
is noticed that in the biblical example^ (given below) it is pre- 
cisely the excellent qualities or virtuous deeds of a person that 
will elicit or evoke such benedictions from others, and thus also 
the recipient of the benediction appears to the bestower from the 
very first as one having a certain right to it and is, therefore, al- 
ready considered as t^one blessed 55. 

However this may be, in the phrase ''''h "]Ti3 the b relationis 
introduces Yahweh, not as the agent, but directly only as Lord 
and protector, to Whose tutelage the felicity of the third party 
is commended; be this one already consecrated to God (Gen. 
i/i, iC);IKgs i5, i3; Ps. ii5, i5), or one whose virtuous 
or generous acts ( cf. Judg. I'y, 2;IKgs 28, 21; II, 2, 5; Ruth 
2, 3o; 3, 10) have merited for him enduring Divine favor (cf. 
LXX, £uXo7)7To? T&5 S-£(W, and Onkel., d"]?^^'). The words of 
Melchisedech, the priest oi El~ Elijon , are significant: msN "]l")3 
]r'?y 'pN*'? (Gen. 1 4 , ig). Perhaps we might interpret them 
thus : wMay Abraham abide in blessing before El-'Elyon 55 '^l 

Needless to say, at a later period, when the Semite had lost 
consciousness of the original meaning of the terms "jTi^ and T"'^? 
they would naturally come to be regarded as passive participles. 
This appears to have been more generally the case in the Aramaic 
dialects, e. g. in the expression : ">"• nip^^ |p pnx ]"'D''")3 (Ps. 1 1 5 , 
1 5 , ap. BuxT., Lex.y^K 

(^) Cf. KoNiG, Lehrgeb., II, p. 35, 36. 

'^' In a malediction the relation between the deity and the object of the curse 
is expressed, in Hebrew, by ^jD?, e. g. '^^ ^^D?. . . ."IIIN* (Jos. 6, 26; I Kgs 
96, 19). Gomp. also )d5^v^i>. ,Xi>.jtsJo (in an ancient inscript. publ. in Zeitschr. 
d. Deulsch. Morg. GescUsch., XXXVI, tab. 1 , n. 8), which expression Noldeke ren- 
ders : «llnd werde dem Herrn der Goiter ais verflucht vorgefiihrtw {Syr. Gratnm., 
S 2/17). 

(■*' Gomp. the formula, so frequently occurring on Aramaic Votive tablets; "]^")3 
KD?i*/ nDC*. See Noldeke, ctBeitriige z. Kenntn. d. Aram Dial.Ji, in Zeitschr. d. 
D. Morg. Ges., XXIV, p. 106, note 3. 

~f->.( 121 )<^— [Si3i] 

131. In the light of what has previously been said , we can 
now see the genuine original meaning and import of the very 
^ancient formula mn-' "inn which, if the divine name be altered, 
is common to all Chanaanitic and Aramaic languages. As Kittel 
rightly observes, we can hardly suppose that the original mean- 
ing of this phrase was : «Praisjd be Yahweh ! jj Nor need we 
suppose the phrase to imply a formal benediction. For, if this 
were the case it would amount to our conceiving the early Semite 
as being under the impression that a benediction of some stran- 
gely and wonderfully endowed person could affect the deity'*'. 
As we have seen above, the terms 11")^ and "i''"i3 do not express 
the abiding propitious force, as coming from without, but as 
intrinsic to the subject. It is, therefore, not a divinely bestowed 
force, but is itself divine. Truly, there is no other subject within 
the purvue of the Semite more worthy of the predicate "jiis or 
■jna than is God. And hence he applies the term to him in all j 
the fulness of its significance, not in an optative, but in an as- 
sertory sense. Whatever may have been precisely the notion of 
the Deity among the different Semitic peoples, the phrases "'"' ins 
or nha "jn^ must have originally expressed something Hke c^ God 
is (of Himself) abiding (and abounding) in blessedness, i. e. he 
is intrinsically and perfectly blessed 7: (-'. We shall see on an- 
other occasion how the Arab has managed to reproduce this idea 
in his own language. That later on (especially in the Aramaic 
and Rabbinical literatures) the above phrase really came to signify 
« blessed be God jj, no one will question '^'. 

''' Cf. Kittel, wSegen und Fluch^i, in Realencyklop. f. protest. Theol. und Kirche 
(3d ed., Hauck), XVIII, p. iZi8-i5/i. 

(^) In the 0. T. , the phrase is applied to God, Gen. 9, 96; i4, 20; 24, 27; 
Ex. 18, 10; Dt. 33, 20; I K{[s 25, 32, 89; II Kgs 18, 28; 22, li'^^lll Kgs 
1, 48; 5, 21 ; 8, i5, 56; 10 , 9; Ez. 3, 12; Dan. 3, 28 (~p")2); Zach. 11 , 
5,Ps. 18, 47; 28, 6; 3i, 22; 4i, i4; 66, 20; 68, 20, 36; 72, 18, 19; 89, 
53; 106, 48; 119, 12; ia4, 6; i35, ai; i44, 1; Ruth 4, i4; Esdr. 7, 
97; 1 Par. 16, 36; 29, 10; II Par. 9, 11; 6, 4; 9, 8. 

('' It may not be amiss to investigate how "J1")3 and "j"13D have been rendered 
in the LXX. Only twice has the latter form been rendered by a participle, viz. , 
by sCXoyniLsvoi (Job 1, 91 ; Ps. 11 3, 9). Tlie former ("jn^) is rendered either 
by evXoyrj(iivos or evXoyriTos. The form euXoyv(^^vos has full perfect passive force 

[Si 32] — 1^( 122 )ks— 

132. There is one more question that deserves our attention 
before closing the present section. Doubtless, the unmistakable 
primitive character and the great antiquity and wide currency of 
the forms baruk and bartk Avill have lead one to suspect that at a 
very early period these forms had been common at least to the 
Western Semitic languages. True , the Arab has a decided predilec- 
tion for J^LLo' and the Ethiopian uses ft*4»h exclusively; but, the 
question is, has this been so from the beginning? In point of 
fact, we have met , in Classical Arabic at least, with both dl^y and 
d^jj, though neither has fully developed the meaning of "jTin 
and T""^- It is strange, too, that in the evolution of its meaning, 

(like xonapaiiivos cfhaving become the subject of a curse», J. H. Moulton, A 
Grammar <>J' N. T. Greel- , I, Edinb. , 1908, p. f22i) and hence is used in bene- 
dictions which have precative meaning ( — tov Q-sov, Is. 65, 28; Gen. 36, 99; 
— Tw xvpitu), I Kgs a3, 21; II Kgs 3, 5; Ps. 11 5, i5; Ruth 3, 10). Meichi- 
sedech (Gen. id, 19, 20) applies the term eCXoyny-svo? (tw. . .) to Abraham, 
but with reference to God he uses eJAo^nros. Since only this form is applied (in 
the N. T. exclusively) to God, it is natural to suppose that the Greek conceived it 
as the (approximate) equivalent of "jTID, particularly in tlie phrase T\''\\\'' "^1*13. 
It has hardly fidl passive force (like eCXoyrjfiivos), and the rendering ttlaudabihs, 
laude dignusw (cf. Knabenbaueh, in Cursits S. S., ad Luc 1, 68) would be more 
precise than tfbenedictus?' or wlaudatus'^. Moreover, it would seem that in the 
doxology EvXoyntos Kvpios o Qsos tou ItrparjA, the form iaiiv ought be supplied 
rather than ei'rj. Moulton, speaking of the verbals in — to's, justly observes that in 
each case usage must decide whether an intrans. , an active , or a passive meaning 
is to be assigned to each word {op. cit., p. 992). Hence, may we not suppose 
that in LXX and N. T. Greek, at least, the form evX^oyrjTos had come to express 
the idea ttblessedw as an inherent quality (^""13)? There is no reason why this 
should not be the case in those instances where it is applied to God (N. T. exclu- 
sively). Only those places of LXX can create a dilTiculty where it is applied to sub- 
jects other than God. In some cases, perhaps, (laxdptos might have been more 
appropriate , but no doubt it would have seemed improper to the translators to 
depart from the established usage of rendering the category nD"13 by the cate- 
gory eJAopz/a. On the other hand, in the light of what has so far been said on 
~p")3, it appears that in all those passages of the LXX just referred to, the form 
ev'AoyjjTos expresses (at least as conceived by the translators) the quality tr bles- 
sed n as inhering or residing in the respective persons or objects. In this sense it 
is applied to Abraham's servant (Gen. 2^, 3i), to Samuel (God's prophet, 
I Kgs i5, i3), to the people of God (Dt. 7, 1^) to Michas and Booz (Judg. 
17, 9, and Ruth 2, 3o, respectively; both being called crblessedn for having 
performed a good or noble act), to the wisdom of Abigail (I Kgs 25, 33; her- 
self being called eCXoyrjfisvv)- 

— ^>{ 123 )^^ — [§i32] 

djjo should not have kept apace with dij^ . Perhaps , the form 

d}j)yJo, commonly used in the modern dialects in the sense 
^blessed 55, will throw some hght upon the whole question. Is 
this form , it may be asked, a regular tiomen patientis ? It may, in 
reply, be stated first that the ground stem, whence the nomen 
patientis is ordinarily derived, does not contain the meaning «to 
bless 55. Again, it should be borne in mind that maktul in derived 
directly from hatuV^\ And it may further be observed that in the 
modern dialects, at least, maktul is often formed from neuter 
verbs ^^'. These facts make it quite possible that the form ma- 
briili may have been developed directly from the ancient Semitic 
form baruk; and in this supposition the former would have con- 
tained, at least originally, a true neuter signification. The pre- 
sent use and meaning of mabruk may throw some light upon this 
matter. This form is current in practically every part of the Arab- 
ian world to-day; nor is its use limited to colloquial or vulgar 
language. It is significant, too, that the Bedawin seem to prefer 
it to mubdrak, whereas the Fellahin more commonly use the latter 
form. All this points to at least a relative antiquity. Lexicogra- 
phers frequently translate it by ?^ blessed 55; but this is too generic. 
Kazimirski and Beaussier have t^b^ni, heureuxw. Hava and Ma- 

roun, however, clearly distinguish between cii^Ul« and J^^, as- 
signing to the former a passive meaning, viz. « blessed 55 («bene- 
detto da Dio, dal sacerdote55, Maroun), and to the latter, a 
strictly neuter meaning, viz. « abundant, prosperous w (used as 
an exclamation e. g. ?d)ravo ! 55). Not unfrequently mabruk is used 
as an epithet, expressive of some inherent quality. Thus, when 
the Mohammedans call a « saint 55 or dervish by this name, they 
probably mean to express some mystic power or quality as dwell- 
ing or inhering in such a person, though this quality may pos- 
sibly be also conceived as having been « bestowed by God 55. 
Similarly the epithet is applied to insane people, inasmuch as 

'') Cf. Sellin, Die verhal-nom. Doppelnatur d. heltr. Part. u. Infinitive, p. 17; 
BnocKELMANN, Verfrl. Gramm., S 268 A,c. 
'■^) Cf. Brockelmann, op. cit., $ .'>o3 c. 

[Si 33] ~^^>{ 124 )^H— 

in the Orient insanity will pass for sanctity, or for a certain in- 
dwelling, inherent power. Again, the term is applied, in Pales- 
tine at least, to a dunce, an idiot in the sense of ^a good poor 
fellow w, or even to a donkey. No doubt, there is a touch of 
irony or of compassion, as the case may be, in such designa- 
tions. Among Mohammedans a slave or negro hoy may be called 
by this name. 

Taken all in all these usages of mabruk seem to indicate that 
the Arab conceives its signification as a neuter one, namely, that 
he apperceives in the term an inherent, permanent or natural 
quality. If such really be its signification, then the form natur- 
ally shows itself to be a development of an ancient haruk. And 
so long as this explanation remains plausible, there would ap- 
pear to be no reason for charging the Arab with forming a 7iomen 
patientis, the meaning of which is so absolutely foreign to the 
simple stem of the verb. 

133. The same question may be raised concerning the form 
ft'4«h in Ge'ez and cognate dialects (e. g. Amharic). True, this 
form keltil is considered the regular passive participle of stem I, 
3 '^l Yet there is the possibliity that huriik, for one, was origin- 
ally identical with haruk, and that only at a more recent date it 
took on the function of a passive participle to conjugation 1,3. 
There is, of course, no questioning the passive meaning of this 
form when it is employed, like p^D, e. g. in the sense «lauda- 
tus, celebratus, veneratione ornatus, benedictione consecratus 
( Dillm. ) II as for instance in Ps. 7 1 , 1 7 ( ft*<«h ' tioo* s j , hut these 
meanings may belong to a later stage or evolution. On the other 
hand, the neuter significations of the form are such that they 
could hardly have evolved from an original passive meaning. In 
the sense of t^fortunatus, beatus, felix?) (Dillm.) it coincides 
with "jTis in Hebr. Yet ft*4«ii appears to approach nearer to the 
original meaning of an ancient Wm^' than any of the forms in^, 
■jn3 (in Hebr. and Aram.) or mabruk, in as far as its signification 

(') DiLLMANN, Athiop, Gramtn., 111 b; cf. Barth, Nominalb., 128 b. 

— i-5.( 125 )^-H- [81 34] 

comprises within its compass, such qualities as are expressed by 
the terms: ayaSos (as apphed to the fertility of the soil; in 
Hehr. siio, e. g. Dt. 1, 55), probus, praestans, or egregius (cf. 

In view of these facts, it seems very likely that the forms 
hnruk and hank were originally employed, not only in the Gha-- 
naanitic and Aramaic, but also, though not in the same deve- 
loped meaning, in the Arabic and Ethiopic groups. When 
speaking of the passive forms (see § i55 ff.) we shall have oc- 
casion to point out what factors were mainly active in arresting 
both the use of these forms and the further evolution of their 
meaning in the Arabic group. 

Section III. 


13/i. The idea «to bless?? is expressed by Piel (resp. Pael) 
in Hebrew and in all the Aramaic dialects. The few exceptions 
that occur in the Aramaic group will be accounted for presently. 
As regards Phenician and Neo-Punic this point is not to be de- 
finitely ascertained from the inscriptions, though it is assumed 
(cf. Bloch , Schroder ) and , doubtless with good reason , that Piel 
was used here, too, in the sense ^to bless??. The spellings "l"in2 
(Phen., Clermont-Gann. , n. 3/io) and "jii^a (^id., n. 3o3 and 
3o5) would seem to bear this out. In Arabic the same conju- 
gation is employed in a restricted meaning, as will be seen in 
the sequel. 

In view of these data it seems strange that in all Syriac dic- 
tionaries the meaning «to bless?? should be given under Peal as 
well. Closer attention to the matter will show, however, that this 
indication has its only warrant in the text ^<>^^^ ^t^iS"^ 
^^ i^ -^ *;^ *^*.oiz>o (Gen. 27, 99; Nu. 29, 9, in the Pesh.). 
But, why this singular departure from the common usage? It 
stands to reason that the Syrian translators should have tried to 
preserve the conciseness of form and the beauty of expression 

[$ lU] ~^K 126 )<^— 

they were struck with in the original Hebrew : "l"'2"iD?:"i inx "jmx 
1l")3. That in this they have succeeded (especially as regards the 
first member, ^-^^^^ f'*^'^) ^^ cpite evident. Yet in the se- 
cond member they encountered a difficulty. For if, as JNoldeke tells 
us'^', the participles of the derived conjugations refuse to take 
suffixes, the translators naturally hesitated in rendering, in this 
instance, the form ~p3D by its Syriac equivalent *4-uaLio, as they 
have done elsewhere (see Nu. 2/1, 10). On the other hand, the 

participle of Peal does take suffixes (e. g. «4.^jl1 Is. ih. 16)^-^, 
and it is this, no doubt, that prevailed upon the translators to 

coin just for this one expression the form (i*.*^;^. As likely as 
not, the form ***.^J^, in the first member, concurred in deter- 
mining the choice f'^l Mandaitic "ijna, though used along with 
Pael, is another exception to the common usage. In all probabi- 
lity Pael was, however, the more original of the two. 

In the present review we should mention two more unusual 
forms, viz. -o;-c» . which occurs in the expression ^i-^-* ^o*^ 
wJ^— (Gen. 22. 17) in a Christian Palestinian Aramaic text 
(cf. Schulthess) and "na (Jos. 2/1, 10, M. T.). Nestle consid- 
ers the former as an inf. absol. Schulthess is undecided be- 
tween an act. part. Peal and an inf. Pael. The latter form is best 
explained as an inf. absol. Piel, i. e. as a secondary form to -"is, 
which is ordinarily employed in the same connection , viz. Nu. 2 3 , 
1 1 and 2/1, 10. 

Apart from these few exceptions and certain evident corrup- 
tions '**, it is thus an established fact that throughout the Cha- 
naanitic and Aramaic groups and, with some restriction, in 
Arabic the form harraha is employed in the sense rto bless ». 

(1' Syr. Gvamm., S 288. 

(2) Id., op.cit., S 282, 983. 

W Onkeios has : j-'Dna \\n'' "jDnS"! |''lD"'"'?-pn'' "fi:"''?. The meaning of the 
second member (according to the vocalization in BerUner's edition, cf. Dalman, 
Graminatih. d. Jiid.-PaL Aram.,% 79, 6; ii, 9) is s And thy blessed ones (T|D"'1131) 
shall be blessed (indeed )ln 

(*) As such may be regarded the form y'«.^» which is employed by the Jews of 
Azerbajan in the sense of trkneelingn and ctblessing'i. 

—*-».( 127 )<^— [§i35-i36] 

135. In the Soulli Semitic languages, however the form 
hamka is more commonly used. In Arabic J;Ij is used together 
Avith dJjj, the two differing, however, in meaning. In the Abys- 
sinian dialects the former (fl<Jli) is used exclusively ^^l Hence we 
may safely conclude that from the very earliest times all the Se- 
mites expressed in their different tongues the idea « to bless •>■) by 
one of the intensive conjugations. 

136. But whence, it may be asked, is the differentiation be- 
tween haraha and harmha, the former asserting itself in the 
South, the latter principally in the North? Fortunately, the 
Arabic Lexicon furnishes us with a clue to the solution of this dif- 
ficulty. In this connection Lane writes :«dl^ i^Ai^p) signities The 
praying for »Si> (S, K, TA) for a man, etc. (TA). You say oL^ 

dl^J^ (inf. n. as above) / said to him (*i^j) *iU^ ^5 dl^lj [God 
bless thee! etc.] 55. From this it is apparent that barraha denotes 
a prayer or benediction, and is, therefore, used when man 
blesses, i. e. when he utters a benediction or prays for a bles- 
sing. However, when God is said to bless, the Arab instincti- 
vely uses the form baraka. And this form will not then de- 
note the imparting of a mere benediction, but of a real blessing 
consisting, that is. in some action exerted upon a person 
(therefore the third conjugation; in German k Einwirkungs- 
stammi?), and not merely in a word or utterance. From this, 
barraha would appear to be of later origin than baraka. This 
view receives further confirmation, psychologically, from the 
fact that a man may not ask God to bless himself or others 
before it has entered his consciousness that «God blesses 
man v . 

On the other hand, baraka is likewise apphcable toman. Lane 
goes on to say : c^ . . . . [^ou also say of a man *xi ti);U, and 

(1) The form 'f'fl^Jll occurs as early as in ttie famous Aizanas-Inscription 
(Ethiopic part, line aS). Cf. Miller, Epgr. Detikm. aus Abijss., p. 2A, etc.; 
E. LiTTMANN, Viirber. d. Deutsclieii Aksutnsejcpedilion, Berlin, 1906, p. 6-9 (Aus 
tlem Anhang z. d. Abhandl. d. Kon. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss. v. Jahre 1906). 

[Si37] --«•( 128 )kh^ 

id, etc., meaning He blessed him; i. e. he prmjed God to bless 
him) 1). In the South Semitic languages generally a predilection for 
this metonymical use olbaraha has come to exist in preference to 
barraka. As a result hdrnka is in more general, though by no 
means exclusive ''^, use in the modern Arabic dialects than bar- 
raka; while in all the Abyssinian dialects the former is, as has 
been said, used exclusively. 

137. We are now prepared to investigate each of the inten- 
sive forms and meanings more in detail. The meaning of bdraka 
may be traced back to its most original material idea. According 
to Arabic Grammar, whenyrt'rt/a denotes a quality or state, faala 
indicates that one person makes use of that quality towards an- 
other and affects him thereby, or brings him into that state '-'. In 
perfect accordance with this rule, the original meaning of the 
verb., «procub. cam. — to be firm, continue, remain fixed by a 
thing, etc. w, has gradually evolved, in the III. form, into the ex- 
pression AxX^ ijjlj : ^He kept, or applied himself, constantly or 
perseveringly to it, viz., an affair, commerce or traffics (see 
§ 3 7). If now the Deity be conceived as the subjet of this sen- 
tence, the idea of « keeping or applying oneself perseveringly to 
a thing or person n will immediately be apperceived as the oper- 
ation of that propitious force, proceeding from the Deity, which 
the Arab, and other Semites as well, call barakat. The Arab, then, 
apperceives the Deity (Allah) as making use of this force and 
affecting thereby an object or person or, literally, as putting that 
force {barahat^ into such a person or object'^'. This thought is 
expressed with realistic force in the following variations : c^vJjIj 

IL^; iil (Fr. S, Msb, K) and Jj and iiXU (S, K) and i^^l^ 

(Fr. S, K) inf. n. ^JLT.^ (Tk) [God bless, beali/y, felicitate, or 
prosper thee;] God put in thee {^T A) give thee, make thee to possess 

") In the Egyptian AraLic harraka is used in the sense ffto congratulate" 

(-' Cr. \'\iin;nT, Arab. Grnnu)!., p. 33. 

'■') Conip. : *5jJ! liL^j ^tK-! ^^) (Spiro) and JwoJCSl^Jl J-xjsj aMI (Beaussier). 

— H^.( 129 ).*^~ [§i38] 

(T, K) io^ [i. e. blessing, good of any kind, prosperity, or good 
fortune, increase, etc.] (TA, T, K)n (Lane). 

138. The use of hdraka in this sense would not appear to 
have set in before the terms barakat, barlk and baruk had passed, 
from what may be styled their specific , into their generic uses; in 
other words, not before there was apperceived in these forms this 
abiding propitious quality or force. For both the perceiving of 
this propitious force and the recognizing in it of Allah's operation 
are contained apperceptively in one and the same mental act. 
Thereafter baraka kept pace with the above forms, in associating 
with its meaning whatever the Arab might attribute to Allah's 
beneficent operation, or whatever he might style a barakat. 

In the light of what precedes it will be seen that the verb oc- 
curs in a relatively primitive sense in the Moslem prayer : « ii^lj 
<>r^ Jl(P^S 9^-^ (ij^ ^ trad., TA) means Continue thou, or perpe- 
tuate thou (o God) to Mohammad and to the family of Mohammad 
the eminence and honor ivhich Thou hast given them (K, TA :) [or 
still bless or beatify, or continue to bless or beatify Mohammad , etc. : 
though it may well be rendered simply bless or beatify, etc.]-)i 
(Lane). Here the translator clearly discerns in the form dl^lj the 
idea of « continuance??. Allah is represented as affecting Moham- 
med and his family by this quality, or as bringing him into the 
state of continuance. To the devout Moslem the simple prayer 
Kthat Allah should make Mohammad and his family to continue?) 
implies, as the k and TA suggest, the perpetuation of every form 
of blessedness, felicity, of eminence and honor for the favored 
Prophet. So, too, was the idea of continuance in a state (i. e. in 
death) apperceived in the sentence c^^t ^ ID J^Li 2^\, which, 
«in another tradition, means [0 God bless us] in the state to 
which death will bring us (TA)?? (Lane). For the rest, that the 
meaning o{ baraka has been derived from ctproc. cam.?? — our 
main point of contention — is supported by no less an author- 
ity than El-Ash'ari who teaches that c^ d)^\^ is from d)Z said of 


IMrniviniip s vtio*; vi.r. 

[§i39] -—*->{ 130 )<^— 

a cameiw, meaning ^he lay down upon his breast in a place and 
clave thereto?? (TA). 

139. In Hebrew and Aramaic the meanings of haraha 
« (God ) blesses 55 , or more precisely « makes blessed v , and bnrraka 
<s(man) blesses » are expressed by -{12 and -ijns, ^.^S, respectiv- 
ely. We have here an instance of a factitive (causative) Piel 
or Pael. By it the Northern Semite expresses the meaning of 
haraha with equal force though perhaps with less vividness. 
As has been pointed out before, the divinely sent propitious 
force (harakat) is said ^to overtake w and to come upon a person 
(Dt. 98, 2); or God will « command ^i it upon a person (Lev. 
25, 21; Ps. i33, 3;/i2, 9) and it will follow such a one every- 
where (Dt. 28, 8). Naturally, then, God is thought to be ^with 
him75 whom he deigns to bless (cf. Gen. 26, 3). The same 
idea, i. e. of being near a person and affecting him in some Avay, 
is conveyed by such terms as were found to be used synonym- 
ouslv with 112 , viz. : y2T <xto make lie down 75, n>'") ato feed??, 
ab^ Rto bear up??, men «to make fruitful??, nmn ^to multi- 
ply??, 2''r\')n « to make room?? (enlarge). From these and similar 
expressions we gather that the conception underlying the Piel, 
~ip2 , « God blesses ?? , was substantially the same as that under- 
lying the form di^L'^l 

(1) In the sense of « God blesses n the form "ijl^ occurs : Gen. 1, 22, 28; 2, 3; 
5, 2;9, 1; 12,2,3; 17, i6(iis),2o:22, i7;2i,i,35;25, ii;2G,3,i2, 
24; 27, 27; 98, 3; 3o, 27, 3o; 32, 27, 3o; 35, 9; 39, 5; 48, 3, 16; 49, 
25; Exod. 20, 11, 24; 23, 25; Nu. 6, 24, 27; 23, 20; Dt. 1, 11; 2, 7; 7, 
i3(6is); 12, 7; i4, 4,24, 99; i5,4,6, 10, i4, 18; 16, 10, i5; 23,2i;24, 
19; 26, i5; 28, 8, i2;3o, i0;33, 11; Jos. 17, i4; Ruth 9 , 4; 1 Par. 4, 
10; i3, i4; 17, 27; 26, 5; II Par. 3i , 10; II Kgs 6, 11, 12; 7, 29; Job 
1, 10; 43, 12; Ps. 5, i3; 28, 9; 39, 11; 45, 3; 65, 11; 67, 2, 7, 8; 107, 
38; 109 , 98; 110, 12 {ter), i3; 128, 5; i34, 3; i33, i5; 147, i3; Prov. 3, 
33; Is. 19, 95; 5i, 2; 61, 9; Jer. 3i, 23; Agg. 2, 19. Hence the proper 
uames iT'DTS 'Yahweh blesseth', I Par. 3, 20; 9, 16; i5, 93; Neh. 3, 4, 3o; 
G. 18 ; Zach. 1,1; and Tn"'n3i Zacb. 1, 7; I Par. 6, 94; i5, 17; II Par. 28 , 
12. Probably the names hit:2'^^2 (Job 39, 9, 6), Barik-ili (S 8, i4), V^^DHS 
(comp. Baricbal, Berecbal, Biricbal. See Schroder, Phoniz. Qramm., p. i3o), 
U?DU3"l3i 1")33j (Schroder, p. i3o, 200), "jTsVn (Bloch), etc., haveorigin- 
aled in the same way. 

— ««( 131 )kh— [Si/io] 

l/iO. In so far as -ijna {'\']2, etc.) expresses the idea «man 
blesses wit is, like J^, a denominative verbum dwmdi. Gerber has 
definitely established this point f". But from this it does not fol- 
low that the factitive meaning of the form has been developed 
from its denominative meaning, as Gerber and others seem to 
take for granted. The two meanings are clearly distinct, at least 
in origin; they are the results, no less than J^U and Jy , of two 
entirely distinct genetic processes. Even apart from any suppo- 
sition as to the existence of an original bdraka along with harraha 
in Hebrew and Aramaic, it is quite possible that two distinct 
functions of Piel (Pael) should have been employed quite inde- 
pendently of each other, and perhaps at different periods, to 
express two distinct ideas. The factitive, then, is one of these 
functions; the declarative, the other, which has originated the 
denominative here as elsewhere'"^'. 

Furthermore, it is Gerber's opinion that originally denomina- 
tive "^-)2 expressed the idea c^to use a formula of benedictions 
(eine Segensformel mit ''d D3-i3 gebrauchen)^^l Yet it appears 
that the process of denomination had been far less involved. 
For obviously, the abstract notion contained in n^na, tt blessings, 
would presuppose a higher form of mental activity than the 
simple statement expressed by -jna'*^. This form was, therefore, 
prior to the other in origin , conveying as it did the Semite's simple 
observation in such forms as xin -ns or nnx -n2. These are 
simple statements or assertions evoked bv feelings of admir- 
ation, surprise, joy and the like. They became, gradually, stand- 
ing expressions with a character and significance of their own. 
There was a deep religious meaning in ^calling or declaring some 
one ~|*")3». Such acts were frequently referred to, and in so doing 
the declarative Piel offered itself naturally enough as the logical 
and the briefest form to convey this thought. There are numer- 
ous Biblical passages to show, incidentally but clearly, that the 

'') Die hebi-dischen Verba denoniinativa , p. 2i3 ff. 

'"^' Id., op. ciL, p. 3. 

(') Op. cit.,p. 2 1 3. 

''*> Cf. WcNDT, Votkerpsych.: Die Sprache, II, p. Bog. 

[Si/ii] — «•( 132 )^-i— 

process of the denomination of ~p3 has happened exactly in this 
wise, e. g. Gen. ih, 19 : ]vb:f bi<b onnx -jna -idn^i inDin^i 
(cf. Is. 19, 26). Wherefore, i|")3 she blessed 55 is she said : 
■^nn, etc. 77. So, too, in Gen. fik the words of Abraham's servant 
mrr'TiN "j")2N1 (v. Zi8)are explained bv the narrator (in v. 97) 
in the terms mn"' "jna "iDNii (cf. I Par. 29, 10). 

\h\. As these two passages indicate, denominative ~\'i2 is 
used in two distinct meanings, viz. : «to bless Godw and ctto 
bless man 55, the origin of which meanings we shall now attempt 
to point out. Since ~p3 had been denominated from the term 
■JTis, it was natural that the verb should take on the meaning of 
this term in its twofold application. Accordingly, where "*"i2 is 
said of the Deity, viz. in an assertory sense, "p? also imphes, 
broadly speaking, an assertion or statement. And since in the 
0. T. the words mn'^ "yni « blessed is Yahweh» — being an 
acknowledgment of God's absolute blessedness — are generally 
uttered in grateful recognition of some favor received, or on the 
occasion of any manifestation of God's poAver, majesty, mercy or 
kindness, it is evident that originally the phrase ■'"'"nx "^il? denoted 
the utterance of such expressions, and that gradually it came lo 
embrace the motives, purpose and circumstances of such utter- 
ances as well, Avhence originated the generic meaning «to 
praise (viz. God or any deity) 5\ It should be noted, however, 
that the rendering «to praise 55 does not take into account the 
special significance that the Semite is wont to attach to the terms 
harakat, harraha, haruh , etc., a significance that would better be 
expressed bv the word «to bless 55 ^^\ 

As a matter of course, in the Aramaic and Syriac Versions the 

Biblical term -p3 has been rendered by -ns and y-w*, respec- 

(') In this sense 1"13 occurs : Gen. 94, 28; Dt. 8, 10; Jos. 33, 33; Judg. 5, 

2, 9; i3, ai; I Par. 29, 10, ao; II Par. 20, 36; 3i, 8; Neh. 8, 6; 9, 5; 
Ps. 16, 7; 96, 12; 34, 9; 63, 5; 66, 8; 68, 27; 96, 2; 100, 4; io3, 1, 2, 
20, 21, 22 {bis)\ io4, 1, 35; ii5, 18; i34, 1, 2; i35, 19 (iis), 20 (^/s); 
1 45, 1, 2 , 10, 21; Is. 66, 3 (wto bless idolsn); Ecclus. 39, 35; 5o , 22 ; Dan. 
2, 19, 20; 4, 3i. 

— «.( 133 )<^— [S162] 

lively, yet the use of these verbs in this sense (viz. «to bless- 
praise Godfl), existed also, no doubt, independently of the Biblical 
usage. Conip. the ancient formula nbn "jna. In Ge'ez the term 
svXoysco of the LXX and N. T. has been consistently rendered 
bya<jn,e. g. Is. 25,23(M. T. 12:); 38, 18 (M. T. ^'pn). Once 
this form is used in the sense of « singing a hymn (of praise) w 
viz. : Exod. i5, 1 : fl<ih » H » ft^Atfc » (LXX, ^ae. . . M.T., . . . 
T'C*"'). In Arabic neither barraka nor haraka seem to be employed 
in the present signification. It may also be noted here that, just 
as the original assertory meaning of haruk could change into an / 
optative meaning (e. g. ^ Praised be God??, see § i3i), so, too, 
declarative barraka has taken on an optative, not to say preca-i 
tive, meaning, namely, in so far as the term is conceived as im-l 
plying that by the benedictions of the worshippers the (external) 
glory of the Deity is increased. 

l/i2. In the sense of r<:to bless man» the verb barraka natur- 
ally developed a precative meaning. As we have seen on a 
previous occasion, the antecedents of "i")?, viz. baruk and barik, 
do not contain, when applying to man or things temporal, the 
idea « blessed?? in all its fulness; there is always room for an 
increase of blessing, and thus the Oriental's characteristic 
longing after such an increase, being apperceived simultaneously 
with the meaning of the terms, was instrumental in making the 
assertory meaning of haruk, and consequently the declarative 
meaning oi barraka, optative and precative. Hence ~p3 may assi- 
milate a precative meaning even where it implies an expression 
like ■''' "ins, or a simple statement hke nrix "p"i2; for there always 
is the latent wish, in the consciousness of the speaker: «may 
his blessing increase '?. On the other hand , wherever the term ~p3 
implies the phrase ^^b "f^, its meaning is precative from the 
very beginning. 

It lay in the nature of the case that the precative meaning of 
barraka and Wra^a^, respectively, though probably of later origin 
than the assertory meaning, should have become the leading 
meaning of these terms and should have attained a wide 

[Si 4 3-1 44] — *->.( 134 )<4^ 

currency in the different Oriental languages. To some extent 
the force of this meaning or the significance of uttering a bene- 
diction has been dwelt on in connection with harahat «benedic-_ 

1/13. In the natural course, the intensive verbal form harraha, 
«to utter a benediction??, would have produced a corresponding 
nominal form of an intensive type, containing the idea « bene- 
diction??. But for the most part the substantive harakat is em- 
ployed as such. There are but a few exceptions. In Ge'ez and 
Amharic, for instance, fl<ili has produced the nom. act. th^feC' 
ahymnus (Ex. i5, i, 20), fausta precalio (Jas.* 3, io),donum 
Dei bonum??. In like manner has Syriac w;^ developed the 
substantive w.>a3, JLoioi''^', said of benediction as a rite or cere- 
mony. This form survives in Neo-Syriac as hurdhd « wedding; 
the marriage service book??. From the participle y»,-iv> have been 
formed the nominn agentis'^^^ jLLaw->v> «benedicens??, JLLa;.3j^%:io 
wbenedictionem accipiens??, and from the first of these, the 
noun )lni '•^w^v? ttbenedictio ??'*'. 

\kh. The significance of the precative meaning in general 
may be said to arise chiefly from three heads; the moUve and 
oh^ect of the benediction, the dignity of the person pronouncing 
it, and the occasion. Every harakat or blessing naturally conno- 
tates, as has been pointed out on a former occasion, the relation 
of mutual love, fidehty and friendship between the Deity, from 

(') See DiLLMANN, Athiop. Gi-amm., lao /3; cf. 60, 1 1 1 jS. Cf. Brockelmann, 
Vergl. Graimn., i3i, c, v- 

'^' See NoLDEKE, Syr. Gramm., 117. 

'•'*' Cf. Id., op. cit., i3o. 

'*) The followings forms, too, appear to have been derived from the intensive 
conjugations (iarj'aAa and bciraka) : mabdrakijd (Amh. adj., ffi" che serve si 
riferisce al benedire; 9° mnbb. che e di benedizione, fausto:^); bdrehvt (Tfia., 
ffbenedizioncji ; comp. bereket, ttricompensan); mebrdh (Tfia., rbenedizionen); 
bdrahan (Somali, ptc. trblessedn) and birruki (Amli., trpezzo di pane spezzaton, 
cf. § 1/18). 

.( 135 )<-^— |§i65] 

whom the biessing proceeds as from its ultimate source, and the 
recipient. While it is a pledge of favor and protection from the 
former, it naturally urges the latter to grateful recognition and 
reciprocation. t^The generation of the blessed of the Lord 55 
(cf. § 1 29) would be a case in point. In proportion as the Lord 
blesses them, establishing them in prosperity [bdmka), do they 
gratefully glorify {harraha) Him in His acts of kindness, mercy 
and power. Such is the attitude of the members of a religious 
community to their God, and it is only within the circle of such 
a community , that the harakat (^ benediction w) as a prayer may 
be found. 

In general, then, the benediction proceeds from the spirit of 
friendship and brotherhood, and as such is employed even in 
ordinary salutations. Usually, however, benedictions proceed 
from the motive of gratitude, to requite some good turn or favor 
(comp. the np3 C/d:, Prov. 11, 25; see Job 3 1,20; Dt. 2/1, 
1 3 ; Neb. 11,2), whence it is that the forms harraha and harahat 
have derived the meanings of c^ thanking » and « thanksgiving 5? , 
respectively '^^ A special gift (n^na) sometimes companies such 
benedictions; for the face of the receiver has appeared to the 
giver «as the face of God » (Gen. 33, \ 1). Again, a God-fearing 
generation is one that will bless father and mother (Prov. 3o, 
11). The king, too, receives the benediction of his faithful 
subjects (II Kgs 1/1,22; HI Kgs 1, /i7; 8, 66; Ps. 72, i5), 
for to cm'se him is an offence like to that of cursing God 
(III Kgs 21, 10, 1 3). Similarly, the prophet or God's repre- 
sentative is greeted with words of blessing. And r blessed » is 
«he that cometh in the name of the Lord 55 (Ps. 118, 26). 

l/i5. Both the verb harraha in the sense of « blessing, doing 
homage to a prince or king 55, and the noun harakat in the sense 

C Comp. the following expressions : walla baraka nThank God! I'm glad of it ! 
So much tlie heller!?) huruhdl warsin nMany thanks. I'm much obliged to you; 
quite enoughn (Spiro). Similarly Beaussier. — Allah jbdnik f rizqak tf Thanks, 
may God bless thy means of subsistences (cf. Reinuardt, Zanzib.). Comp. also the 
exclamalion Bdrakald! «Well donein (Maclean, Neo-Sijr.). 

[8i46] -—«.( 136 ).«— 

of « gift, or token of homager have passed into Egyptian. It may 
be that Chanaanitic captives, formally submitting themselves, or 
taking the oath of allegiance before their Egyptian conquerors, 
have been the proximate occasion of such transmission. Thus we 
read in ancient inscriptions of the captive princes of Amaru and 
Libya « doing homage ?5 {harha) before Ramses III."^, and of for- 
eign countries bringing a « present 75 {harha^ as a token of homage 
before the king''-^l Brugsch--^' rightly identifies the two terms 
with Hebrew Tj"i3 (cf. Gen. hq, 7, 10, Jacob blessing Pharaoh; 
III Kgs 1, AS; ik, 22) and nr")? (cf. § 116), respectively. jNo 
doubt these foreign terms had gradually become naturalized in 
Egyptian, though their use may have been restricted to this tech- 
nical sense. And this is one reason Avhy we suspect this to be 
the sense also of the much discussed form -pnx (Gen. /n,/i3), 
a word employed by the herald summoning the Egyptians to 
render homage or do obeisance to Joseph, their newly installed 
governor. As likely as not, the form may have coalesced from an 
(Egyptian) interjection (of calHng, a) and the imperat. "1^3, 
hence « Bless, Worship 1 55, or, what appears more likely, it may 
be an ancient elative form (derived from ~n3 = Phen. or Aram, 
cf. § 1 19) i. e. in3N = "]n2N « Highly blessed! 55 Comp. Ps, 118, 

26 (preced. §) and Arabic J^l . ^Piu prospero, di mighor au- 
gurio w (Maroun)f*l 

1/16. A curse which is rendered effective by the Deity is a 
weapon more formidable in the hands of the enemy than those 

(^' See DCmichen, Hist. Inschriften (1867-1869), I, 28,29, ^^"- ^-^- The 
German translation of this text is as follows : «Wir beten (huidifren, segnen) 
deinen Doppelurausschmuek , wir iassen erzahlen von deiner Kraft dem Sohne 
unseres Sohnesn (ap. Bondi). The verb occurs probably in the same sense also 
Dim., op. cit., I, 22, 28, lin. 26. On the whole, see Bondi, Dem Hebr.-Phon. 
Sjjrachziv. ang. Lehnworter , n. XXX. 

(-' See Papyrus Harris (Birch), I, 7, 3; 79, 9. ffHudigungsgabenn, cf. Bondi, 
op. cit., n. XXXI. 

(3) Hieroglyph isch-demot. Wdrterbuch (1868-1889), II, /io4; V, /i36. 

'^' See the literature on this form in Gks.-Buiil, Hrbr. and Aram. Handwoi'- 
tei'b. [ill ed.), s. V. The different explanations are recorded by H. J. Hey^es, 
Bibel und Agypten, Miinster i. W., 190^, p. 25/i-256. 

-♦«.( 137 )k^~- [S147] 

made by steel or iron'^l In order to thwart its fatal effects and 
to appease the angry Deity, the army or people that is « under a 
curse 55 will exert itself to secure the benedictions of their enemy. 
Hence David asks the Gabaonites what atonement he should 
make «that ye may bless the inheritance of Yahweh?? (II Kgs 
9 1, 3). For the same reason Pharaoh urges the Hebrews to 
depart and wblessw him (Ex. 12, 3 2). Such is also the nature 
of the benediction by which is sealed the treaty of peace, as we 
have seen in § 1 18. It is interesting to note that among Bedouin 
tribes such a treaty is considered as concluded when after long 
and tumultuous discussions the intermediary finally steps between 
the two parties, saying : c^May God bless your peace, and may 
not even a quibble come between you ! » 

1/17. Attention has been called repeatedly to the fact that a 
benediction derives its efficacy and significance to some extent--^ 
from the person who pronounces it. The Oriental argues logically 
that the nearer a man stands to the Deity, either in regard to 
personal merits and sanctity or to the dignity and character of 
his position, the more certain will be the result of his benedic- 
tions. Throughout the Old Testament wfe way witness the deep 
reverence and implicit confidence that is evinced toward the 
benedictions oi parents (cf. Ecclus. 3, 8-9). The patriarchal bene- 
dictions, though of a far superior character on account of the 
Messianic promises they carry, are in reality the last words of the 
aged father to his children ^^'. It is hardly necessary to emphasize 
the significance of the blessing of the priest whose very office it 

Ts «to bless in the name of Yahweh?? (Dt. 10, 8; 91, 5; I Par. 

^3, i3; I Kgs 2 , 2o)f^'. Naturally, great importance is attached 
also to the benediction of a prophet or other men of God, some- 

''' Comp. Nu. 22-24 (Balaam). See Goldziher, Ahhandl. 2. Arab. Philologie, I, 
(Leyde, 1896), p. 42 fT., passu**. Cf. Schwally, Semitisciie Kriegsaltertiimer, 
Hel't 1, Der heil. Krieg im Alt. Israel (Leipzig, 1901), pp. 26, 46, etc. 

(-) Cf. Gen. 27, ti, 7, 10, 19, 28, 25, 27, 3o, 3i, 33, 34, 38, 4i; 98, 1, 
& {bis)\ 48, 9, i5, 20; 49, 28 [bis). 

<^' Cf. Gen. i4, 19; Exod. 39, 43; Lev. 9, 22, 23; Nu. 6, aS; Dt. 33, 1; 
II Par. 3o, 27; Eccius. 45, i5. 

times rather in view of personal endowments (cf. Nu. 22, 6; 
23, 11, 20, 25; 2/1, 1, 10; Jos. 2/1, 10; I Kgs 9, i3), or 
of the king (II Kgs 6 , 18; III Kgs 8 , 1 ^ , 5 5 ; I Par. 16,2; 
II Par. 6, 3) or, in general, of any of God's special representa- 
tives (Gen. 32 , 27; Dt. 27, 12; Jos. 8,33;i/i,i3;22,6,7). 

\hS. On numerous occasions in Oriental every day-life bene- 
dictions will pass between friends, kinsmen and co-religionists. 
Not infrecjuently their ordinary salutations are couched in words 
of heartfelt blessings (I Kgs i3, 10; II Kgs 6, 20; IV Kgs h, 
29 bis; 1 0, i5 ; I Par. 16, /i3 ; Prov. 27, i/i ; cf. Gen. h'j, 7, 10). 
In bidding farewell to a person that is dearly loved, even choicer 
expressions are employed ( Gen. 2/1, 60; 32, 1; II Kgs 1 3 , 2 5; 
19, ho). The ancient custom of blessing the meal (cf. I Kgs 9, 
1 3) exists of course to this day. Among Moslem the simple eja- 
culation Bi-smi-Uah is employed. In Amharic fl<Jh «to bless (the 
meal)?? has also the meaning «to break the bread?? (spezzare il 
pane) since the father or head of the family probably performs 
both actions conjointly. 

1 d9. Frequently, the benediction has the nature of a congratu- 
lation rather than of a prayer, although somehow the one idea 
seems never to be conceived without the other (Ps. ^9, 19). In 
Arabic the II. *^\ and III. (Dozy) forms of the verb, but more fre- 
quently the partic. forms mabruk and mtibdrah , are employed on 
such occasions. In Neo-Syriac the expression Juhit brikd is used. It 
is with these congratulatory terms that the seller hands over the 
sold article to the buyer. In Malta he says, instead: Ir-risk u dbarka. 
The above formula is also adressed to a person wearing a new 
article of clothing, and often the words are added k that you may 
wear it out in good health ??. The answer is ; '^ May God bless your 
age ! ?? This custom seems to be universal. A man who has pur- 
chased or built a new house receives similar congratulations. In 
places where the pagan custom exists of daubing the foundation 


Comp. (abnk ftcongratuiationn (Seidel). 

— »^( 139 )k-»— ■ [§i5o] 

of a new house with blood, the bystanders say, after the cere- 
mony is finished : Beit imhdrak! A man returning from a long 
journey is greeted with the words : ^May thy journey be blessed 
(/>W/ia)!w Reference has been made, on a previous occasion, 
to a custom prevalent in ancient Israel, namely of pronouncing 
a benediction upon the harvesters in the field (cf. Ps. 129, 8). 
A similar custom must have been observed on the occasion of 
sheep sharing (cf. I Kgs 25, ih) and other agricultural feasts. 
In modern Palestine a traveller passing by a threshing floor says : 
Allah jetrah el harnkel^^^ or simplv: El harnkel The answer is : Hal- 
let! (viz. el harahe) rJt (the blessing) has come (at your com- 
hig).55 Quite naturally, a success in any line of work, e. g. 
in business, studies, etc. elicits the benedictions or rather con- 
gratulations (often accompanied bv presents, Beauss. : hariik 
«repas, cadeau, cafew) of friends; a signal victory, those of allied 
princes (II Kgs 8, 10; I Par. 18, 10). But there is hardly an 
event in Oriental life which witnesses such an abundance and 
profusion of these manifestations as the wedding. The birth of a 
child, especialh of a male, receives equal attention on the part 
of neighbors and relatives*'-'. The customary formula in the plain 
of Urmi is : wMay his foot be blessed! 11 But probably this expres- 
sion has reference more directly to the stranger arriving on such 
an occasion. To the latter these same words are applied in Kur- 
distan *^'. 

150. A great many examples could be quoted where harraha 
or other forms of this category contain the meaning « consecrat- 
ed, sanctified?? (resp. « consecration??). This is especially the 
case in Ancient and Mod. Syriac and in other Christian dialects 
(comp. Malt, hyrek « sanctum reddo??. See Farhat). For the 
Christian such a benediction has of course the nature of a sacra- 
mental. It is customary both among Christians and Moslem to 

('' See § 187, note. 

(^) On tliese cuslums see Masteuman in Bildical World, XXII, 248. 
W Ttie Tatmudic tractate JlPrakot contains a great variety of benedictions for 
different occasions. 

[Si5i] — .«.( UO )<^— 

greet one another on great religious festivals with the words : 
^May thy feast be blessed! w Here the terms muharak and hrika 
have evidently the meaning of « blessed, sanctified w. This recalls 
to us the words of Gen. 2,3: God «blessed (l"i2''"i) the seventh 
day and He sanctified (^yipi) it. » 

151. Much has been written on the euphemistic use of "pa. 
Ed. Konig, after submitting the whole malter to a careful inves- 
tigation, finds no warrant for the assumption that this verb was 
used in the euphemistic sense in the ancient Hebrew language. 
He inclines to the view that at a revision of the sacred Text the 
term was substituted in place of such verbs as denoted « to curse, 
blaspheme?? and were followed directly by the Divine Name. He 
calls special attention to Psalm lo, 3 ("''' Vn:i p3), where, in his 
opinion , ":j"13 was added to serve as an interpretation or euphe- 
mistic compensation of the following term (yvXJjd). One question 
presents itself here, viz. : what reason is there for supposing in 
the present instance that the redactors should have felt the pro- 
fanity or irreverence of such expressions more keenly than the 
authors? If the former could make up their minds to employ 
■!i')3 in the euphemistic sense, why not the latter? And why was 
the same change not made in other equally shocking ex[)res- 
sions, e. g. Lev. 2/1, i5 : vrhii '?'?p"'~"'D 2^''N (where no 3 would 
have prevented it)''-^'? True, the euphemistic use of this verb in 
other Semitic languages, such as Ge'ez, Arabic, Maltese, or 
New Hebrew, does not prove for certain, as Konig justly remarks, 
that the same must have been the case with regard to "i]"]? in 
ancient Hebrew, but it certainly marks very forcibly the tendency 
of the Semite to employ in a euphemistic sense, not only verbs 
of blessing in general , but the verb harraka or hdraha in particu- 

^'' Ed. Konig, Stilistik, Rhclorik, Poetilc, in Bczug auf Bill. Literatur, l:o)npa- 
rativisch dargesiellt, 1900. Tlie subject was discussed with special reference to 
the A. V. and R. V. in a series of articles appearing in the Expository Times, 
XIX, n. 3, Dcz. 1907, p. i63 (H. T. Potten); n. 4, Jan. 1908, p. 190-191 
(R. F. Revan); n. (5, March 1908, p. a83-284 (A. Bonus). 

(-' See KiJMG , loc. cil. 

__«.( iiii ).€^— [S i59-i53] 

lar. What then, we may ask, is the underlying psychical reason 
of this tendency? 

152, The Psalmist (Ps. 62, 5) refers to such as will bless 
("l"!?) with their mouth but curse inwardly (n^npa). In Prov. 27, 
ill, we read that he who blesses ("li")?) his friend with a loud 
voice in the morning « it shall be counted a curse to him » ( R. V. ). 
In both instances, then, the term for blessing has the meaning 
and force of a curse. And this, it must be noted, is apperceived 
by the one to whom the benediction is addressed. He takes it for 
a malediction. May we not interpret in this sense, also, Ps. 1 , 3 ? 
The MT reads : n^n^ yx: -^^^ v^jdi wd: DM<D-b'J t^i %n ^d. 
The phrases :?^i bin and ~")3 i?si are plainly synonymous. The 
context shows that both the « praisings of the wicked and the 
« blessing w of the covetous, are acts that displease God. It is 
precisely on account (""d) of them that «they shall be taken in the 
devices (niDTD?) that they have thought out (i2t:?n)w v. 2 b. 
But where are these devices? Is it a device openly to despise or 
blaspheme God ? Evidently not. The phrase mn"' yxi is too plain 
and crude to fit into the context. Now the term "^pi certainly has 
the force of a curse, as we saw above. Moreover, the preceding 
verse (2 b), as also the subject (i?V3)5 clearly suggest this meaning. 
Why not, then , regard yXJ as an explanatory verb and the whole 
construction asyndetic, as for instance :?3C*^ HNn";, Is. 53, 11 
« shall see and be filled 55 (Douay V.)? Hence, the devices which 
they have thought out, consist in this that «the wicked has sung 
praises at the desire (which was evil!) of his soul; and the cove- 
tous has blessed (but inwardly) despised Yahwehw. 

153. Thus, the term ":]")3 actually comprises within its com- 
pass the idea of « cursing w. This idea will naturally advance to 
the front, should an occasion present itself. There are different 
elements in Oriental religious thought that may urge on such 
an occasion and thus bring about the euphemistic use of the term. 
In Arabic, e. g., the term muharah is commonly applied to syphi- 
litic diseases (Spiro, Dozy). The same words is instinctively 

[Si56] — v>.( U2 )<^— 

uttered, for instance in Palestine, at the sight of a serpent. 
Evidently these two usages are euphemistic. In explanation it 
may be said that the first sensation produced bv the sight or 
perception of either, the disease or the serpent, is one of dread 
and horror. A curse or malediction instantly forces itself upon 
the lips, but is arrested, at is were, before being uttered. 
Perhaps , the contagious character of the disease and the swifthess 
of the venomous animal impress themselves upon the horrified 
onlooker, and intensify his fear lest the malediction redound 
with mechanical force upon himself, instantly taking its revenge. 
In his mind and intention the curse is complete and intense, but 
in uttering it he instinctively clothes it in words of blessing. The 
same may be said of the expression Donnu Alia hijrhu (Maltese) 
c^Videtur Deusmaledixisse ilium 51. No doubt, the idea of curse is 
uppermost in the mind of the speaker, yet in the act of being 
expressed, it assumes the form of a benediction. The speaker sees 
that r«;God has cursed himw, but (he hopes and wishes) «that 
he may turn the curse into a blessing 55. 

15^. As regards the main point of contention, namely, the 
six Bibhcal passages (III Kgs 21, 10, i3; Job 1, 5, 10; 2, 
5, 10), where ~|1? is plainly euphemistic, we should note, first 
of all, that we have to do with only two documents. III Kgs and 
Job (Introduction). That the euphemistic use of "^n? was pos- 
sible, even at the earliest stage of Hebrew language, is clear in 
the light of the above examples. Perhaps the deep reverence of 
the Hebrew or Israelite for the Divine Name was instrumental 
in creating the usage. Then too, it may have been a peculiarity 
of style with certain writers only, to which class we would assign 
the authors of the two documents just referred to. It should be 
noted that in each single instance the word -p? is not part of 
the curse itself, but merely signifies rtto utter a curses. Most 
likely the curse referred to in these places was couched in strong- 
er and more explicit language. Of course, the precept snot to 
curse God •)i might have given occasion to misconception if pre- 
sented in euphemistic language. Comp. Lev. 2/1,16 (dni'pn 'pbp) 


( 143 ).« — [§i55] 

and Is. 1 , /i ; 8 , !2 1 . In the former instances, however, the con- 
text is sufficiently clear to prevent any such misconception. Thus, 
if in I Kgs 2 1, 10, 1 3 the two w sons of Belial ?5 are to bear 
Avitness against Naboth saying: "ij'jpi □'•ri'p.N nD12, we fail to see 
how, in face of such and open charge , the hearers could have 
understood the term "iji? in the sense of « blessings. Again, if 
Job (i, 5) fears that his sons might have t sinned and blessed 
God in their hearls v , it is evident that their ?; blessing » amounted 
to K sinning or blaspheming w. Satan «uses)5 the term ~p3 with 
the expression "j"'JD"'7i'' (jbid. i, 1 1) or "i"':D~'7N (ibid. 2, 5), «to the 
facew, which adverbial phrase certainly makes the expression 
sound very unlike a benediction. Lastly, when Job's wUelthid. 2, 
g ) expresses her amazement at his perseverance in his integrity 
or innocence (nDn), it seems evident that her brief and pointed 
words npi □"TibiV "1.3 are not meant to contain a pious inspiration 
or exhortation. Their meaning can be no other than « Curse 
God and (that \ ou may) die ! 55 For the rest, in conversation the 
tone in which such expressions are uttered would of itself 
sufficiently indicate whether a euphemism is intended or not. 
Comp. e. g. the euphemistic expression k Bless that man! w 

Section IV. 


155. In view of the frequent interchange between reflexive 
and passive forms and of the mutual absorption of their mean- 
ings, it has seemed well to treat them together. In the light of 
what has been said in previous sections, it is clear that the 
passive and reflexive forms are derived either from factitive bdrnka 
and barraka, or from declarative denominative barraka. In the 
former case, the subject of the action will be God, in the latter a 
human agent. Hence it is a foregone conclusion that all passive 
forms of factitive bdraka or barraka must have signified, at least 
originally, r. to be blessed by Godw. 

In point of fact, the passive of JjU, i. e. kiLi ^^, signifies 

«mavest thou be blessed 71 (viz. bv God). This thought evidently 
underlies the corresponding passive participle, as is evident from 
the definitions collected by Lane: ^ dijll^^" is originally dUi d;'-!-* 
(or <xJ or *IXfi, according to those who know not, or disallow 

lil^lj as transitive without a preposition; and, signifies Blessed, 
beatified, felicitated, or prospered; gifted ivith, or made to possess, 

i^y 1. e. a blessing, any good that is bestowed by God, prosperity, 
or good fortune , increase, etc.); (Msb) abounding in good ; (ksh and 
Bd in III, go) abounding in advantage or utility; (Bd in VI, c)2 
and 1 5 6 , and XXXVIII , a 8 and i , 9 ). » 

Judging from the definitions of Ksh and Bd, viz. r abounding 
in good, advantage and utility", one would almost conclude that 
originallv the form contained a neuter meaning. Perhaps , these 
definitions reflect an effort to impart to the form miibdrah the 
meaning of the ancient Semitic form baruk, of which the Arab 
had doubtless not yet lost consciousness. Be this as it may, the 
true meaning oimuharah is passive, expressing, as it does, the 
external causation of barakat, or more precisely, God's action 
upon a person or object; whence, literally, « gifted with, made 
to possess a barakat v. The impersonal construction (i.e. with 
dLi) adds considerable vividness to this underlying idea. 

156. One Avould expect to find this same idea expressed in 
Hebrew by the Pual; and there was doubtless a tendency to do 
this; yet, there was also a strong opposing factor. The ancient 
forms baruk and barik had too firm a hold In the Chanaanillc and 
Aramaic languages. And their original meaning, r^ abiding in 
prosperity or blessings , so expressive to the mind of the Semite, 
appears to have gradually absorbed the passive meaning of facti- 
tive barraka, or what is the same, the result of God's propitious 
operation, at least in so far as the Hebrew and Aramaean had 
occasion to give expression to this idea. Here, then, was the 
opposing factor. For how could the perfect or imperfect Pual be 

(1' In Mod. Arabic often pronounced Imbdrak or Embdiak; in Maltese Imbi'erek 
or M'bierek. 

— f-5.( U5 )^— [§157] 

harmonized with the participle banik? The latter form being prior 
in origin, naturally determined the choice of its corresponding 
perfect and imperf. (fut.). We are of opinion that the choice 
fell on Niphai, as will be pointed out later on (cf. § 170 ff.). 

157. In one instance, however, the Pual seems to express 
the conferring of a material blessing by God, viz. Dt. 33, i3 : 
D^D'C? -u^^ isix mn^ nD-)3D. Doubtless, the preposition |p clearly 
designates the « precious things » as the instrumental material 
cause (1); and yet, with Gen. hij, 22, 26 before us, it would 
seem that these « precious things w Avere conceived not as being 
actually bestowed upon Joseph's land, but as being promised 
in Jacob's choicest benedictions (v. 26 f.), which were, no 
doubt, known to the author. 

AVith this possible exception, the Pual seems to be employed 
as the passive of declarative, denominative ~p3, and may there- 
fore be regarded as a verbiim dicendi. Thus, in the sense « called 
blessed-praised 75 , it is applied to the Divine Name, e. g. in the 
doxology : "pSD ''"' nt \T' (Job 1, 2 1; Ps. 1 13, 9), or also to man 
(Judges 5,2/1 his). In the words that Balac adressed to Balaam 
(Num. 2 2 , 6 ) : « for I know that He w^iom thou blessest is blessed 
(-j-)3D) 75 , the term clearly refers to the invocation of a benediction 
in the sense of « blessed, a benediction upon him! 55. It is very 
significant that in Num. 22, 12, where nearly the same words are 
applied to God and where, consequently, God, and not a man, is 
the agent, the form 1*13 should be instinctively substituted for 
■]"i3D, viz. «thou shalt not curse the people for it is blessed w, 
Nin ""na "d, i. e. not declared blessed, but ct immutably abiding 
in blessing 55. Thus, too, Isaac's words (Gen. 37, 33) : in^naxi 
\Vj\'^ "jTin-DJ are founded upon the conviction that Jacob is bles- 
sed, not through his (Isaac's) benediction, but through God's 
invisible operation (cf. Gen. 27, 29; Num. 2/1, 9). The words 
of Solomon, I Par. 17, 27 : di'^b T-^l, should be read in the 

(') Cf. Gks.-Kautzsch , Hebr. Gramm., 119 z; Volck, Der Segen Moses (Erlan- 
gen, 1878), p. 90 ff. Tlie LXX has : Aw' eCXojtas nupiotj 77 yv auTov. 


urnit tit tiOKAi.r.. 


§i58] — j-K U6 

light of tlie older document, viz. II Kgs 7, 29 : ct For thou, 
Lord God, hast spoken (^i-"') it, and Avith thy blessing lot 
the house of thy servant be blessed ("p^"') forever. 75 For God is 
here represented as pronouncing the benediction. So, too, is the 
blessing of God's VD1212 rr those that are blessed of Him?? (Ps. 87, 
2a), of Kthe generation of the upright w (Ps. 112, 2), of r^thc 
man that feareth the Lord?? (Ps. 128, li), conceived as a bene- 
diction pronounced or promised to such individuals. Again, the 
cr bountiful eye is blessed??, i. e. receives benedictions from the 
poor and needy (Prov. 22, 9); and ill-gotten inheritance shall 
not she blessed?? (Pual, Prov. 20, 21), since its rightful owner 
will curse it^^'. 

1 58. We are now prepared to indicate the origin, as well as the 
mutual relation existing between the forms hitherto considered. 
Originally, then, there existed the Qal forms : hnriih, hmik, hara- 
linl, expressing simple observation or assertions in some such 
form as «he, or it, is blessed??, a ft blessing?? (then probably con- 
ceived as a quahty or state, i. e. continuance, etc.). In the next 
place, such qualities or states came to be apperceived as an abid- 
ing propitious force, and, simultaneously, its production or 
causation by the Deity was expressed by factitive bdraka or har- 
rnha. Then, the question arose as to how the result of this action 
could be expressed. Perhaps it was not to be expressed at all? 
The impression of the Semite, in general, was thas this new 
idea was sufficiently implied in the terms haruk and harth, and so 
these ancient participial forms were faithfully adhered to in the 
Chanaanitic ("piS; perfect ~i")3^), Aramaic (T''^)» Abyss. (ft**«li) 
and, to some extent, in the Arabic {'^j^ <^^ji '^^y^) groups. In 
the latter group, however, the form J^Lauo (perfect ^jyi) lending, 
as it did, a more realisitic expression to that idea, gradually 
became prevalent. While these processes were in progress, the 
declarative, denominative barraka (with corresponding Pual in 

''' Needless to say, this relation between the participles baruh and mhordk 
exists likewise between their Aramaic equivalents : cf. Syr. b'rih uam'barrak, 
sbeatus et benedictus^i (ap. Smith, Thes.). 

— j-».( 147 )<-^~- [SiSg] 

Hebrew). came into existence in the manner above indicated. 
And the already existing forms came for the most part to be used 
in this new sense also. This brings us to the origin of the reflexive 

159. In some languages reflexives are employed as substitutes 
for the passive forms, viz. Ethiopic '^^<il^, Syr. ^v^l), Aram. 
"!i"]3nn ''^K These forms may pass without further notice. The real 
difficulty appears where the reflexive form takes a passive mean- 
ing, not by a general rule, but owng to the peculiar nature of 

the reflexive signification. Here belong ciljlo, *4j^' "P?^"^ ^^^ 
It may be said a priori that hdraka naturally yields a reflexive 

1 JO 

only when God is the subject. For He being alone the agent of 
His action, it is evident that He alone can be thought of as its 
subject in a reflexive sense. Since, then, harnhn signifies: ^He 

(God) blessed or made (some one) blessed «, aMI dJ^lIj can only 
signify : r^God has made Himself (is become of and through Him- 
self) blessed or perfect '^'. ?? One would almost took upon this as 
an attempt to reproduce the ancient doxologies mrp -n2 and 
n'^N ■j"'~!n of the Chanaanitic or Aramaic peoples, respectively. 
And in this supposition it may be said that, in substance, the 
reproduction is faithful, only that the Arabic expression con- 
tains the additional idea of activity. For while the Hebrews and 
Aramaeans are content to express that blessedness is immanent 
in God, literally that a He is abiding and abounding in blessed- 
ness w (S i3i), the Arab designedly represents such blessedness 
as the result of God's own reflex action. As regards this VI. form, 
Beidawi has this to say : kJjLj signifies He is abundant 

in good; from '^^\ which is « abundance of good jj ; or He exceeds 
everything, and is exalted above it, in his attributes and his opera- 
tions; bee. i^p3l implies the meaning of increase, accession or 

C Cf. Brockelmann, Vergl. Gramm., 267 H £ w ff. 

'^> In a Sinaitic inscription (Eutinij n° A98) tlio refl. partic. "j^")3nD occurs. 

(^) Cf. Wright, Arab. Gramm., I, S 5o. 

1 n. 

[Si6o] ~y->{ 148 )^-j— 

redundance; or He is everlasting; syn. Jl!^; from ^^-^aJI tiJjJ 
^1X)I («the continuing of the birds at the waters]. . . (Bd 
in XXV, 1)55. According to K, «it is an attribute pecuhar to 

160. As Fleischer, commenting upon Beidawi, rightly re- 
marks, the ideas originally contained in barakal, such as increase, 
prosperity, abundance (and we should say, before all else, con- 
tinuance), are brought by this form to the fulness of all perfection 
residing in the Divine Being'". But no doubt, Fleischer goes too 
far Avhen he absolutely denies that the present formula maA" be 
taken in an optative and passive sense. Though false dogmatic- 
ally, as well as grammatically, such a meaning would eventually 
have found its way into ordinary language at least. In the mind 
of the fervent worshipper, especially when at congregational ser- 
vice , the dogmatical significance of his words will soon be lost 
in the ardor of his soul and religious enthusiasm. Unconsciously, 
the thought c^magnus est Deus» would then become tmagni- 
ficatus sit Deus!», though the original form remains. Hence, 
like the Hebrew and Aramaic phrases above referred to (and 

the denominative verbs), Arabic ^Mi J^Lj has also developed 
a passive and optative meaning, viz. «... (Blessed is or be, 
God; or) hallowed is, or be, God; or far removed is or be He 
from every impurity or imperfection , oy from everything derogatory 
from his glory (K) or highly to be exalted, or extolled, be He; 
(Abu -1 -'Abbas, TA) greatly to he magnified is God; or greatly 
magnified be He (flk). . . ^i (Lane). 

The remark of Nestle (who rejects Fleischer's explanation), 
that in formulating expressions of this nature the Arab had to be 
schooled by the Hebrews and Syrians ^^^, is thus seen to be veri- 
fied. For it, perhaps, was precisely, as suggested above, for the 
purpose of reproducing the ancient Hebrew and Aramaic 
expressions "'"' ins, nbx y^"^, that the Arab resorted to this form; 

'■' Fleischer, Kleinere Schriften, i885, I, p. ']k S. 

'-) Nestle, Marginalien iind Materialien, Marg. ,p. 78 ff. 

~-y>{ 169 ).^+— [S 161-162] 

but then, again, this is also the very reason why the present 
Arabic expression shares the assertory signification of the He- 
brew and Aramaic expressions. 

161. As the reflexive act expressed by tahdraha can only 
be predicated of God , so the form tabarraka is said exclusively 
of man, in the sense of muttering a benediction in one's own 
behalf w or r. blessing oneself » (from harraka ccto utler a bene- 
diction :i). The metonymical use of hdraka instead of har- 
raka extends also to the reflexive forms. Hence, also, ci);L*-> is 
sometimes '^^, and •^fld^l always of course, used in this sense ^^^ 
In Hebrew the Hithp. expresses the original reflexive mean- 
ing, e. g. Dt. 29, 18 : -iCn'? 133^73 "i-isrim (LXX : e7ri(pr](jLicrvT0i.i 
iv T>7 xapSia avTOv; Vulg. : «benedicat sibi in corde suow) and 
Is. 65, 16 : |DN N-iSs-3 pnn^ •p''^- T^nDn lun (R. V. «he who 
blessetli himself in the earth shall bless himself in the God 
of truth 55). Cf. 'ttli^it' » M^V'tVaD^, Syn. Jacatit, 9 (ap. Dillm.) 
and Amh. tahararaka abenedirsi, lodarsi, adularsi, uno coll' 

162. Special interest and importance attach to the construc- 
tion (-> ii}y3 and its equivalents in the other languages, such as 
"d (-iin:)-ii3rn, +04*1 « fl, etc. What precisely does the Semite 
mean when he blesses himself « in » or t^ by 11 somebody or some- 
thing? This modus loquendi is easily understood in the hght of 
what has been said (in Section I) on the term harakat as applied 
to a person or a people, in the sense of a visible embodiment of 
the abiding propitious force , difl'usive of itself and affecting by its 
beneficial operation whatever comes within its compass. The 

('5 Lane : « according to I Amb, it means [that] one looks for a blessing by 
means of [uttering] his name (*^^ '^7^') ^" every affair or case-?. 

'^' In colloquial Arabic tabarraka and tahdraha may signify ttto be blessed» 
i. e. ffto have blessed oneself with somethingn , hence «to venerate an image, 
a relicTJ (cf. Maroun). Comp. the expression 1m*j JC*j «to receive a sacramentn 
(Bocllior ap. Dozy), literally ffto bless oneseu with the sacraments. Comp. mula- 
barrilc, trsaint, sacre et visiter (lieu : vide § 162), Kaz. 

[Si 63] —^>{ 150 )kh^ 

belief that such power is given to certain individuals or peoples 
is common in all Oriental countries. While the Christians travel 
to the tombs of the Saints, to pray for a blessing (cf. Syr. etbar- 
7'ak, c^pelere benediclionem^j, Smith, Tlies.), the Moslems under- 
take long pilgrimages to the tombs of the Caliphs or prophets, 
with a view of obtaining their blessing, or, as the Arab calls it, 
liltabarruk. Such ideas are not new to the Bible reader. Besides the 
examples given in connection with nD'^2 (see § i i/t ff.), we may 
mention the case of Jacob on whose account God blessed the 
substance of Laban (Gen. 3o, 3o). So, too, on account of Jo- 
seph, He blessed the house of Putiphar (Gen. 89, 5). Abime- 
lech seeks the friendship of Isaac (Gen. 26, 28 ff. ; cf. 90, 
17) for the purpose, no doubt, of obtaining blessing through 
him. The participation, then, in such a blessing, the Semite 
expresses by the reflexive with the preposition 3 denoting, 
that is, the instrumental cause. Arabic Lexicographers ren- 
der this preposition why means ofjj, « from 5?, etc. (vide infra). 
In Ethiopic the preposition (1 sometimes changes off with dhTft 
(e. g. Gen. 12, 3; 18, 18; 28, i/i) «in reference to 55, won 
account of^?"', or with Ih'Pi in the sense of «from55, and fl'Vfl 
in the sense of «by?) (iocal)^'^'. The Targ. has, e. g. Gen. 12, 
2, V"'~3 r^on account ofv (propter te). All these variations of 
the use of the preposition in the present formula go to illus- 
trate how the Oriental conceives the instrumental cause of the 

163. But what, we may ask further, is the force and import 
of the reflexive verb employed in the formula? The Arabic Lexi- 
con is very explicit on this point. Under the V. form Lane gives 

the following : c^ *? Jtxj i. q. aj ^^jJ^' [He had a blessing; and he 

was, or became blest; by means of him or it; so according to the 

§ _t ^ 

explanations of dJjlj in the KL ; but very often signifying he 
looked for a blessing by means of him or it ; he regarded him or it, 

(') Cf. DiLLMANN, y4//nV)^j. Gramm.,% iG6, 20. 
^2) Ibid., S i6/i,3; i65, /i. 

— 1->.( 151 )^-H~- [§16/.] 

as a mean of ohtaimng n blessing; he augured good from him 
or it . . .] 55. 

From this it is evident that the expression ».> J^ has two dis- 
tinct meanings. The latter, «he looked for a blessing, etc. d, may be 
regarded as the more primitive one; it has a purely reflexive force, 
meaning literally cf to bless one's self by means of somebody or 
something 55. Parallels ot this reflexive meaning are in the O.T. : 
Jer. A, 2 D"""!: m iD-isnm [hXX svXoyvcrouai; parallel to i'?^"!"' i2"i)(') 
and Ps. 72, 17 13 1D")2n'''i (LXX xal suXoyndiia-ovTat iv avjca 
-noLCTdi a\ (^v\a\ -rfis yrjs: parallel to inTu*N^ D>)rb2). Although 
the LXX renders the Hithp. in the latter case by a passive, 
it is evident from the parallel members "i'?'?'"!"' 121 ^in him shall 
they glory w and imiyx^ «they shall call him happy 77 C^^^lg. 
« magnificabunt eum^j) that in both cases the author conceived 
the phrase "2 1"innn as a verbum dicendi in the sense explained 

16/i. The other meaning of ^ d^ is what grammarians 
call the eff'ective meaning'-^, viz. : re he had a blessing, he was or 
became blest 55. It may be noted that the reflexive has an intimate 
psychical connection with the effective meaning. As the Arabic 
Lexicon shows, the former has been broadened from its ori- 
p^inal, literal concept, «to bless one's self by. . . 55, into such 
concepts as Rto look for a blessing by means of him or it, to 
regard him or it as a means of obtaining a blessing 15, etc. In 
other words, the verbum dicendi has become a verbum sentiendt. It 
implies the firm hope and confidence of the petitioner that the 
blessing Avill assuredly be his. For, placing implicit faith in the 
person appealed to, who, it is supposed, is God's highly favored 
friend or servant (a living barahnt), his appeals shall certainly 
meet with response. Add to this the secret power apperceived by 
every Semite in the term barakat, and it becomes clear how 
such a K blessing one's self in or by a certain person 57 may, in the 

'"' Cf. Knabenbader , ad luc. 

(^) Gf. Wright, Arab. Gramm., I, S 48. 

[§i65] -^9-( 152 )^^"- 

mind of the Semite, be tantamount to c? obtaining a blessing 
from him 75. Thus, the Moslem travels to the tombs of the Ca- 
liphs, lilinharruk hiki, literally «lo bless himself by him«; but 
in reality he goes there to c^ fetch a blessing 55 or ^become blest :i 
as a matter of course. The same may be said as regards Jer. 
k, 2 and Ps. 72, ly. Though a verhiim dicendi and, there- 
fore, expressive of the reflexive act, nevertheless the Hithp. 
implies in these two instances the certainty of the effect. For 
evidently there is reference to Abraham's blessing, according 
to which all nations are to obtain a blessing win him and his 
seed 55'''. 

165. In the light of this it is clear that the above phrase is 
often not rendered adequately by «to bless one's self in or by 
some-one >5, since this rendition fails to convey the assurance 
and conviction of the efficacy of the blessing. Yet, just when 
the effective element becomes dominant in such a way as 
to absorb, as it were, the reflexive force of the verb, is diftl- 
cull to decide. We learn from the Arabic Lexicon that the ef- 
fective meaning is the usual meaning of the phrase. Its being 
employed in the reflexive sense only, will therefore be in- 
dicated by its special use in particular instances. Doubtless, 
where the reflexive act as such is to be expressed, or where 
the context would show the subject as the one making the 
appeal to be particularly emphasized, the reflexive mean- 
ing alone wiU thus be intended (cf. Jer. /i, 2; Ps. 72, 16). 
On the other hand, where the act itself or the subject of the 
act is not to be made emphatic; but where rather the parti- 
cipation in the blessing of one is the thought that stands out 
more prominently, as is instanced particularly in prophetic utter- 
ances, no doubt can exist as to ihe efl'ective meaning only. The 
context, then, is the ultimate court of appeal in any particular 

<') Cf. Maas, Christ in Type and Prophecy (New York), I, 876; Briggs, The 
Booh of Psalms, ad lac. 

— «.( 153 )k-i— [S166J 

166. There is much difference of opinion as regards the 
meaning of the form "i^ann in the Old Testament. Aside from 
the cases already discussed (§ i63-i65), the form is employed 
twice in Genesis (§ 168 ff.) and here there must he question as 
to whether it is to be taken in the reflex, or in the pass, sense. 
There are authors who reject the pass, meaning for the simple 
reason that, if a pass, had been intended, the Pual would have 
been used. But, apart from the fact that "ijnii is not the pass, of 
factitive Piel (§ i56-i57), it remains to be seen whether any 
simple pass, form would have adequately conveighed the thought 
in the author's mind. Let us compare the forms taharraka and 
burrika in Arabic. The latter merely indicates that a person is the 
object of the benediction of another, Avhile the former in the ef- 
fective meaning implies, moreover, that the same person in 
some way concurs in the act of benediction. Thus, talammaiJa 
does not signify merely « to he taught », but sto become learn- 
ed, to learn w'^l Thus also takassara imphes more than ^to 
be broken 55; it signifies, as Agapitus a Valle Flemmarum puts 
it, wfractum est (viz. vas), id est, sivit se frangi, nee restitit 
actioni meaew. So that even a material object may be con- 
ceived as capable of volition, and as maintaining an attitude 
which is not merely passive, but is one of acquiescence and 

Now, then , while burrika or "ijni signify « to be blessed , to be 
under a benediction?), the effective taharraka introduces the sub- 
ject, not merely as the agent of the reflex, act, nor simply as the 
object of the blessing, but, over and above this, as the actual re- 
ceiver of all the effects and consequences resulting from such a 
significant act (i. e. taharraka hihi). He stands forth as the ini- 
tiator and promotor of the intimate relationship and amicable 
reciprocity which are necessary conditions for participation in 
the harakat of another (cf. § 1 18). and which render him, more- 
over, a participant in the social and religious pre-eminence of the 
holder or, more correctly, mediator of the harakat. The only 

'■') Cf. WniGiiT, i4ra6. Gramm., 1,8 48. 

[S167] — M 15-^» ).«— 

question now is : does "^"lann contain the expressive power of 
Arabic tahnrraha''^^t 

167. Hebrew Grammar does not make the distinction be- 
tween reflexive and effective Hithpaei. Yet, there are instances 
where Hithpaei has a strong leaning towards the effective. As such 
we would regard the two Hithp. forms, which are commonly 
understood in a passive meaning, viz. '7'?nnn iVin (Vulg. «ipsa 
laudabiturj?), Prov. 3 1 , 3o ; and nDniyn (RV ^?were forgotten 59 ) , 
Eccles. 8, iQ-^^l The first instance refers to the valiant woman 
whose active life has been presented in a vivid picture. In v. 3o 
the source of her superior excellence is indicated in the words : 
w Grace is deceit and beauty vanity; but a woman that feareth 
the Lord she shall be praised. » One is not prepared to fancy 
such a woman in a passive state even while she receives such 
well-merited praise. Grace and beauty, being passive qualities, are 
placed in antithesis to the fear of the Lord which makes her vigi- 
lant, energetic, active and, above all, the maker of her own fame 
and fortune. Certainly, the climax would be more real and more 
in harmony with the picture as a whole if the term '?'7nnn con- 
tained the idea of activity in some such sense, as «(a woman that 
feareth the Lord , she it is that) shall reap praise 55. That this idea 
was uppermost in the author's mind is signified by the succeed- 
ing words (verse 3i), Kgive her of i\\Q fruit of her hands; and 
let her works praise her in the gates 5j. 

In Ecclesiastes 8, 10 there is an antithesis between the wick- 
ed and the virtuous : the former were « buried and came to 
peace75 (□'•"ini? [cf. Is. By, 2,Di'72;=] in'Si); the latter, who had 
done right, Rwent away from the holy place and were forgotten 
in the city w (i"'y3 ^nsn^y^i id^.h''. i^iip DipDDi). Indolence charac- 
terizes the former, activity the latter. Even in coming to their 
fate both bear out these characteristics. The wicked are buried, 

'*' See Agapitus a Vaile Fiemmarum , 0. F. M. , Flnres Grammalicales Arabici 
Idiomatis (ed. Castellini, Rom., i845), p. 79. Wright's explanation of these forms 
{hic. cil.) does not seem satisfactory. 

(^' Cf. Ges.-Kautzsch, Hebr. Gramm., 5/i g. 

— i^K 155 )^-j~- [§ 168] 

and rest or peace is their lot; the virtuous, however, relinquish, 
literally «walk away from 7), the holy place and thus place the 
cause of their being forgotten: Kthey make themselves forgotten 
in the city?'" (= pass into oblivion). Thus it is obvious that in 
both cases (Prov. 3i, 3o and Eccles. 8, 10) the meaning of 
Hithp. is effective rather than passive. 

168. We are now prepared to treat in detail the Abrahamic 
blessing (in Gen.), which has ever been a crux mterpretum. It 
occurs five times; thrice (1 a, 3 ; 1 8, 1 8 ; 28, i/i ) in tbe form of 
"n ~p3: and twice (92,18; 26, /i) in the form of "3 ■i^2nn. In the 
light of what has been said on the meaning and force of the prepo- 
sition 3, as employed in this formula, we consider as altogether 
untenable the translation of Rashi and those who follow him^-' : 
«They sball take thee and thy seed as a type of felicity 55. In 
expressing the type of felicity or blessing, for instance in the 
sense rtmay God bless thee as NN.??, the Hebrew employs the 
prepositions, as is clearly exemplified in Gen. 48, 20'^^. 

(') Cf. G. GiETMANN, In Ecclesiasten (1890, Curs. S. S.), ad. he. 
'-> Gf, Mabgoliooth, Lines of Defence of Biblical Revelation (New York, 1902), 
p. 281. 

(3) The MT runs as follows : "PvSnty^ "ijia^ ^ia "liDNb N'inn 0^3 D3-)3''1 

nto*:p?1 D;'"1?X3 D"'n'?N "^Pt?"; nOX'?. The genuineness of the phrase ip2\ "^ 
is under dispute. Instead of ^3 (i. e. win theen, Joseph), the LXX and Lagarde 
[Materialien tur kritik und Gesch. des Pentateuchs, Leipz., 1870) are for D33 (win 
them55 , i. e. Ephraim and Man.). Instead of ~"]3^ the LXX, Pesh. (Lee), Vulg. 
(Hetzenauer), the Version Arabe du Penlateuque de R. Saadia ben Josef al- 
Faijijoiimi (J. Derenbourg, Paris, 1898) are for 'ip2'} , others for ~p3ri;',and 
stiil others for "!j"]3]' (cf. Kittel, Bibl. Hebi:, ad loc). Hence , the following trans- 
lations are possible' : rrlsraol shall blessi^ (Piel), « — shall bless itself?i (refl. 
Hilhp.), tf — shall obtain blessings (elTect. Hithp.), tx — shall be blessed ;•) (Pual 
or Niph.). Notwithstanding these divergencies — evidently the result of the 
obscurity of the original reading — we see no reason why the reading of the MT 
should be abandoned. If studied in its context, it yields a beautiful sense, and 
clearly shows forth the import and force of the two prep. 3 and 3 : «tAnd he 
blessed them on that day, saying : In thee (i. e. Joseph) Israel shall bless , saying : 
'May God make thee as Ephraim and Manasses'.;^ It should be borne in mind 
that the conversation is carried on by Jacob and Joseph. It is on account of his 
own sou, Joseph, that Jacob shows such affection for his two grandchildren and 

[SiGg] — «•( 156 ).«— 

169. Again, we cannot be content with attributing the use 
of Niphal, in some instances, and that of Hithpael, in others, to 
a difference of sources'^'. Apart from any such considerations, 
we can judge by the purport and the setting of the prophecy 
that the two forms have the same meaning^-'. The five passages 
are variations of one thought, viz., the actual participation of the 
nations in (2) the blessing of Abraham and his seed. The only 
question is, do the verbal forms express this idea in the reflexive , 
effective or passive sense f^^? 

As we saw above, the purely reflexive meaning can obtain only 
where the reflexive act or the person appealing is distinctly em- 
phasized. But, in the present instance we have a prophecy of the 
most far-reaching import; not atlached to any particular person 
or occasion; uncircumscribed by the limits of either time or space. 
And even if the words had a purely reflexive sense, viz. cc that all 
nations of the earth shall bless themselves in him w , the Oriental 
would, nohvithstanding, implicitly perceive in them the effective 
meaning, namely, that as a matter of fact the nations are to ob- 
tain a blessing in him, respectively, his seed. The climactic 
gradation of thought that characterizes the prophecy as a whole 
bears additional witness to the strong effective sense of the words. 

that he pronounces over them this exquisite benediction. And being conscious 
that the blessinji; and felicity of sons redounds to the glory of their father, Jacob 
instinctively turns to Joseph {~\2), as the real object of the blessing, while the 
narrator naturally follows the motion of his hands which were placed upon the 
heads of the two sons (=DD")3''1). In them Ihese words were to be realized; 
their blessing was to be typical and proverbial. Naturally, the Israelite, when 
utiering these words (..."jDi!?'') over his own offspring, would look up to 
Ephraim and >,Inn. as the types of blessing — but (0 Joseph as its source. His 
words would be accompanied by the hopeful prayer of his heart, to obtain for his 
offspring the blessing of Ephr. and Man. through their divinely-favored progenitor 
who, as the prince among his brethren, had been promised the choicest and 
rarest blessings (Gen. /19, 26). 

(') Cf. HoLziNGER, Einleitung in den Hexalench (Frib. i. B. , 1898), p. 96. 
Wellhausen, Die Composition des Hexaleuchs, ad Gen. 98, \h. 

'^) Cf. G. HoBEBG, Die Getiesis nach dem Lileralsinn erlddrt (Frib. i.B., 1908), 
ad Gen. 12, 2-3; MARGOMOuxn, op. cit., p. 280; Kautzsch und Socin, Die Ge- 
nesis {Frih. i. B. , 18M8), ad 22, 18. 

(^) The reciprocal sense would be contrary to the context. See Hoberg. , /. c. 

-^-«.( 157 )^~ [§170] 

This will become quite evident when the five different texts of 
the prophecy are grouped around the one that is most explicit, 
namely, Gen. 12, 2-3. 

170. It begins (12, 9) : 'pTi:! iijS "jiy^Ni ^l will make of thee 
a great (and mighty DViVl 18, 18) nation 55. The next term, 
"|D"i2Ni, imphes what the other texts have explicitly, namely that 
Abraham's seed shall be exceedingly numerous (cf. 22, 17; 
26, k); that he (or his seed) shall possess «all these countries?? 
(26, /i), and the gates of his enemies (92, i 7); and that he (res- 
pectively, his seed) shall spread abroad (V^) in all directions 
(26, 4). The phrase immediately following, y2^ nbiJNl (12, 2), 
indicates Abraham's position among the neighboring peoples '*'. 
His name, power and influence shall be great before the nations, 
and they shall fear him and seek his friendship and alHance as a 
pledge of their own prosperitv. Then follow the words that 
throw into bold relief the pre-eminent relation of Abraham and 
his seed to all the nations of the earth, viz. nD"i3 nMi t^thou shalt 
be a blessing w , i. e. not a mere benediction , but the embodiment 
of an abiding propitious force, placed in the midst of the earth, 
diffusive of itself and reaching with its beneficent operation all 
the nations f the earth ^'^'. Though the efficacy of this blessing be 
amply clear, God, nevertheless, solemnly pledges to make it 
efficient, "p^i^D nD~i3X* (12, 3), ^and I shall bless those that 
bless thee 55. Amicable reciprocity is, as we haveseen (§ ikh ff.), 
a necessary condition of participation in the blessing; hence, to 
such as are in estrangement from him, apply the words "j'^'ppDi 
INN (^ibid.), r^and I shall curse him that curseth tlieew. This last 
promise bears out with all force Abraham's pre-eminence, inas- 
much as all the nations of the earth shall draw near him to share 

('^ Corluy sums up the contents of the promises made to Abraham as follows : 
1. posteritas numerosa; 9. specialis Dei protectio; 3. possessio diuturna terrae 
Chanaan; h. victoria de hostibus {Spicilegium Dogmatico-Biblicum , Ghent, i884, 
I, p. 373). 

(^' «Erit etiam aliis benedictio i. e. abundantis benedictionis fons'5, De Hlmmel- 
AUER, Comm. in Gen. (iSyT), Curs. S. S.), ad luc. 

[Siyi] —*-»•( 158 )<^ — 

in his blessings. The closing sentence, then : nncu'D b2 ']2 iDn^Ji 
noixn, presents the chmax. This climax would he weak indeed 
and altogether lacking in proportion , were it required to adopt 
any one of the renderings, <xand all nations shall take thee as a 
type of felicity 5? , or <:^ shall bless themselves in thee«, or ^ shall 
feel themselves blessed in thee v 'i'. The rather must it be said 
that there is only one thought expressed by the words 13")3: 
■]2(lD")3nn), viz. that the npn? of Abraham and his seed shall 
actually diffuse itself over, and benefit, all the nations of the 

171. In accordance with this obvious sense, the meaning of 
the verbal forms must be either effective or passive. As for 
Niphal, this may of course be the reflex, or pass, of Qal, which 
are excluded in the present instance since 'p^ is not used in the 
sense ftto bless w. Or, Niph. may be the passive of Piel, namely, 
whenever Qal has an intransitive meaning, or has dropped out 
of use'^'. Now we have a denominative and a factitive "ijna. It can- 
not be supposed that ']122 expresses the passive of the former, 
since in this sense the Hebrew uses "na; nor would its meaning 
in that case correspond to an effective ""isnn. There remains, 

then, the passive of factitive "n? (equivalent to Arabic ^jjj), 

« to be blessed 1? (not with a benediction but with a real blessing), 
and this is exactlv the meaning the context would suggest. But , 
to be precise, the Hebrew expresses the result of God's propitious 
operation by the form hnruk, which, though it may have absorb- 
ed, to a certain degree, the passive meaning of factitive har- 
raka (= «God blesses 55), still retains its neuter or stative signi- 
fication (« abiding in prosperit> 5?). And it is with this form that 
"]~)3J associates itself (cf. § i56), not exactly in a passive sense, 
but rather, by a process of denomination, in the sense of the 
Arabic effective inhatala^^\ and thus comes to signify, literally, 

('^ So e. g. Strack ad Gen. la, 3, in Kurzgef. Komment, z. d. HeiL Schriften 
A.undN. Test. (Miinchen, 189/t ff.). 

'^) Cf. Ges.-Kautzsch, Hebr. Gramm., 8 5i c, f. 

■'') Op. cit., 5i g, h; NVniGiiT, Arab. Gramm,, I, S -53, 53. 

— ^-».( 159 )<-^~- [§ 172] 

c^lo become a barukv. As for the form Hithpael, this too may 
have a passive meaning^'', but in those instances, as has been 
seen, it may be regarded as the equivalent of an effective takattala 
in Arabic (cf. § 187 ff.). If taken in this sense, lisnn, in the 
above passages, may be rendered, in perfect accordance with the 
context, «all nations shall obtain a blessing in himw '^'^l In Arabic, 
tabarraha is translated either way: «he had (= obtained) a bles- 
sing ?5, or «he was or became blest )5 (c_^ «by means of him 7?). 
Hence, though pratically passives (and therefore rigthly rendered 
as such in the Versions; see below), yet, the forms "i"i3nn and 
"jin: were apperceived by the Semite as two variations of an ac- 
tive sense, implying initiative and effort, viz. «to obtain or have 
a blessing w (= tabarraka), and «to become a baruk or pass into 
a state of blessedness 57 (= inbaraha). 

172. The occasion for such variations may be discerned in 
the words of God's promise, immediately leading up to the cli- 
max. The statement «thou shalt be a blessing 77, i, e. among the 
nations (understood), is emphatic and comprehensive. God's pro- 
mise «I shall bless those that bless thee?? heightens the effect 
of the former statement, but then, again, it also increases the 
expectancv and tension produced by the chmactic progression, 
and in this way determines the wording of the climax. The 
form nD"i3X («I shall bless 77) requires as its complement the idea 
crand (they) shall be blessed (o^Dnn, § 127)77 = 13-13:1, while the 
form 1"'2")3D (f^ those that bless thee 77) seems to have elicited the 
thought « shall have, or obtain, a blessing 77 =iD')3nm. 

In conclusion, we should not fail to note the strong support 
lent to our interpretation of Niphal and Hithp., as set forth in 
the preceding paragraphs, by the corroborative testimony of the 
Versions and of Christian exegetes *^', in particular by the active 

'1) Ges.-Kautzsch , oj). cit., 5'i g. 

f^' Hoberg : trsich Segen verschaffenn. Philo renders: « shall derive a blessing 'i. 
See Margoliouth , Lines nf Defome , p. 281. 

('' See CoRLuv, SpiciL, I, 878 ff; de Huhhelaceb, loc. cit.; Hoberg, oj). cit., 
p. 1^5 ff; Strack, loc. cit.; Dillmann , Kurzgef. Handbuch z. A.T., Genesis 

[§172] — 1^( 160 )kh— 

y^ib (scil. 2^13 i^nn) of the Hebrew Ecclesiaslicus (kh, 21), as 
well as by (he passives ivzvXoynOrja-ovjai and Kbenedicenlur?? of 
the Septuagint and Vulgate, respectively — an interpretation 
which, for the rest, finds its true fulfilment and realization in 
the words of St. Paul : 'iva sis to, eOvrj rj evXoyia. tov ASpaoLfx ysvrj- 
rat iv lt](70vXpi(7loj (Gal. 3, i/i ; cf. v. 1 6 and Acts 3, q5). 

(Leipz. , 1889), ad Gen. 12, 3 , and especially Maas, who gives {op. cil., p. 229 ff.) 
a comprehensive classification and appreciation of the various opinions, and 
Margoliodth , oj). cit., 280-284. 

— ^i 161 )^-j — 







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Mim), ed. G. Hoffmann, Kiel, 1876. 
Bar Bahlll, Learjco/i Syriacum, cd. Rubens Duval, 3 vols, Paris, 1888- 

Brockelmann (C), Lexicon Syriacum , Berlin, 1895. 
Brl'n(J.),S. J., Dictionarium Syriaco-Latinuni, Beiroot, 1895. 
Bdxtorfrs (Joh.), Lcxicum Chaldaicum Talmudicum et Rabbinicum, ed. 

B. Fischerus, Leipz., 1875. 
Cardahi, p. Gle, Libanense, Al-Lobab seu Dictionarium Syro-Arabicum, 

2 vols, Beirut, 1887-1891. 
Cook (St. A.), ^ Glossary of the Aramaic Inscriptions , Camljridge, 1898. 


lurniurRic :i,itioxilc. 

Dalman(G.), Aramdisch-neuhebr. Worterbuch zti Targum, Talmud und Mi- 

drasch, Frankfurt a. M. , 1901. 
Duval (R.)r Les diakctcs neo-arameens de Salmnas, Paris, i883. 
Eliae Nisibeni inlerpres ed. P. de Lagarde in Praetcrmissorum libri duo, 

Gotting., 1879 (p. 1-96). 
EvTiTiG {ixd.) , Sinaitische Inschrifleu , Berlin, 1891. 
Fraenkel (S.), Die aramahchen Fremdivortcr im Arab., Leiden, 1886. 
Jastrow (M.), Dicliouary of the Targumhn, The Talmud Babli and Jeru- 

shalmi, London and New York , 1886. 
KoHiT (Alex.), Aruhh Completum... auctore Nathane filio Jechielis... 

corr. expl. critice A. Kohut, 8 vols. Vienna, 1878-1892. 
Levy (Jac), Neiihebrdisches und Chaldaisches Worterbuch iiber die Talmudim 

und Midraschim , Leipz. , 1876. 
Lew (Raljl). J.), Chaldaisches Worterbuch iibei' die Targtimim, S"" ed. , 

Leipz., 1881. 
LiDZBARSKi (M.), Die neu-aramdischen Handschrifteii des konigl. Biblioth. :u 

Berlin, 2 vols, Weimar, 1896. 
Low (I.), Aramdische PJIanzennamen, Leipz., 1881. 
Maclean (A. J.), j4 Dictionary of the dialects of Vernacular Si/riac as spoken 

Ijy the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, North- West Persia, 6c the Plain 

of Mosul with illustrations from the dialects of the Jews of Zakhu 6c 

Azerbaijan , 6c of the Western Syrians of Tur 'Abdin 6c Ma^lula : Oxford , 

Nouberg (M.), Lexidion Codicis Nasaraei citi Liber Adami nomen, Londini 

Gothorum, 1816. 
Pauisot (D. J.), Le dialecte neo-syriaque de Ma'iula in Journal Asiatique , 

serie 9,1. XI, p. 239-812, hho-bi^: t. XII, p. 194-176. 
— Le dialecte nco-syrique de Bakha'a el de Djuh'adin, ibid., t. XIX, p. 5i- 
Petermanx (J. H.), Brevis linguae Samaritanae Grammatica (Porta ling. 

Orient., Ill), Berlin, 1878 (vide Gloss.). 
Prym (E.) und SociN (A.), Der Neuaramdische Diale/d des Tur 'Abdin, 

Getting., 1881. 
Schlltuess (Fr.), Lexicon Syropalcstinum , Berlin, 1908. 
ScHWALLY (Fr.), Idiolicon des Christlich Paldstinischen Aramdisch , Giessen , 

Smith (R. Payne), Thesaurus Syriacus, 2 vols, Oxford, 1879-1901. 


Bloch (A.), Phonizisches Glossar, Berlin. 1890. 

BoNDi (J. H.), Dcm Hebrdisch-Phonizischen Sprachziveige angehorige Lehn- 
ivorter 71 hieroglyphischen und hieratischen Texten , Leipzig, 1886. 

— ^>( 163 )^-j— 

Brown (F.), Driver (S. R.), aad Briggs (G. A.), A Hebrew &; English 
Lexicon of the Ohl Testament; with an app. containing the Bibl. Aram., 
Gambr. (Mass.). 1906. 

[Brugsch [U..), Hieroglijphisch-Demotisches Worterhuch, 7 vols, Leipz., 1867- 

Gesenids, Hebr. uml Aramdisches Hamhvdrterbuch iiber d. AJte Test., 
li"" ed. by Fr. Buhl, Leipz., 1906. 

Gesenids (Gul.), Thesaurus philologicus criticus Linguae Hehraicae & Chald. 
Vet. Test. ,3 vols, Leipz., 1829-1858. 

KoENiG (E.), Hebr. h Aram. Worterhuch :. Alt. Test., mit Einschaltuug 
u. Analyse aller schwer erkennbaren Formen , Deutung der Eigennamen 
sowie der niassor. Randbemerkungen u. deutsch-hebr. Wortreg. , 1910. 

Levy (M. A.), Phonizisches Worterhuch, Breslau, i864. 

IjIDZBARski (M.), Altsemitische Texte, I Heft : Kanandische Lischriften 
(Moab.. Althebr., Phon.,Pun.), Giessen, 1907. 

Siegfried (C.) iind Stade (B.), Hebrdisches Worterb. z. Alt. Test, (includ- 
ing tfLexikon z. den aram. Stiickendes Alt. Test. a), Leipzig, 1898. 


Beahssier (M.), Dicti&nnaire pratique Arabe-Francais , Alger, 1887. 

Belot (P. J. B.), S. J., Vocabulaire Arabe-Francais, O"" ed. , Beyrouth, 

Dozv (R.) et Engelmann (W. H.), Glossaire des mots espagnols el portugais 

derives de I'Arabe, 2"'' ed., Leyde, 1869. 
Dozy (R.), Supplement aux Dictionnaires arabes, a vols, Leyde, 1881. 
Farhat (G.), Dictionnaire arahe. Revu, corrige et considerablement aug- 

meute sur le MS. de I'auteur par Rochaid de Dahdah (in Arabic), 

Marseille, 18^9. 
Freytag (G. W.), Lexicon Arahico-Latinum , h vols, Halle, 1800. 
Giggeds(A.), Thesaurus linguae Arabicae , k vols, Mediolani, 1682. 
GoLius (G.), Lexicon Arahico-Latinum, Liigd. Batav. , i653. 
Hava (J. G.), S. J., Arabic-English Dictionari/, Beyrut. 1899. 
HoMMEL [¥.), Siidarabische Chrestomathte , Miinchen. 1898. 
Jahn (A.), Die Mehri-Sprache in Siidarabien (Si'idarab. Exped. d. k. Ak. a. 

Wiss.,HI), Wien, 1908. 
Kazimirski, a. de Biberstein, Dictionnaire Arabe-Francais, contenant toules 

lesracinesde la langue arabe, leurs derive's, tant dans I'idiome vulgaire 

que dans Tidiome litte'ral et des dialectes d' Alger et de Maroc, 2 vols, 

Paris, i860. 
Krapf (L.), a Dictionari) of the Suahili Language, London. 1882. 
Landberg (Le Comte de), Etudes sur les dialectes de I' Arabic vu'ridionale, 

T Hadramoul, Leide, 1901 : II Datjnah, ibid., 1906. 

11 . 

__«.( i6Zi )^— 

Lane (E. W.), Arabic-English Lexicon, derived from the best and most 
copious Eastern sources, 8 parts, London, 1863-1898. 

Remark. ■ — • It is well to note that in the quotations from Lane the square 
brackets indicate his own interpretations or observations. Of his authorities 
tlie following are frequently referred to in the present Dissertation : MS (the 
ffMukhtar es-Sihahn), S (The trSihahn, autlior : El-Jowharee), Msb (The 
ffMisbahn of El-Friyoomee), K (the trKamoosn, author : El-Feyroozabadee), 
TA (The ffTaj el-'Aroosn, author : Seyyid Nuertada Ez-Zebeedee), jNlgli 
(The aMughrib» of El-Mularrizee), TK (The «Turkish Translation of the 
Kamoosn), Lth (El-Leyth Ibn-Nasr Ihn Saijar), Bd (El-Beydawee's tf Exposi- 
tion of the Kurann), Ham (The tr Exposition of the Ilaindsehn by Et-Tc- 
breezee), L (The «Lisan el-'Arab^, author : Ibn-Mukarram), lAar (Ibn-El- 
Aarabee), ISd (Ibn-Seedeh, author of the crMohkamn), Kur (The ctKuranw), 
Kuil (The (tKulleeyatn of Abu-1-Baka). 

LoHR (M.), Der vuJgdrarahische Dialect von Jenisalem , Giessen, igoS. 
Marcais (W, ),Le Dialecte arabe parle a Tlemceu ( Publications de I'Ecolc 

des lettres d'Alger. Buli. de corr. Africaine, XXVI), Paris, igoa. 
Maroun (Camilio), 0. F. M. , Vocabolario Arabo-Italiano , Jerusalem (in 

Meissner (B.), Neuarabische Geschichteii aus dem Iraq (Beitr. z. Ass. uud 

Sem. Sprachw. , V, 1), Leipz., 1908. 
Meninski (F.), Lexicon Arabico-Persico-Turcicmn , 2"* ed., 1780. 
MordTjMAXN (J.) und Mlller (D. H.), Sabdische Denkmdler, Vienna, i883. 
MoRiTZ (B.), Sammluiig Arab. Schriflstiicke aus Zanzibar vnd Oman 

(Lebrb. d. Sem. f. Orient. Spr. z. Berlin, L\). Berlin, 1892. 
MiJLLER (D. H.), Die Mehri- und Soqolri-Sprache (Siidarab. Exped., IV, VI), 

Vienna, I, 1902; II, 1906. 
— Epigraphische Denkmdler aus Arabien, Vienna, 1889. 
Newman (F. N.),yl Dictionary of Modern Arabic, 2 vols, London, 1871. 
Penrice (J.), A Dictionary & Glossary of the Kor'dn, London, 1878. 
Pr.ECA (Annil).), Malta Cananca ossia Investigazioni Fitologico-Etim. ncl 

Linguaggio Maltese, Malta, 190^. 
Beinhardt (C), Ein Arab. Dialect gesprochen in 'Oman und Zanzibar 

(Lehrb. d. Sem. f. Orient. Spr. z. Berlin, XIII), Stuttgart, 1896. 
ScHiAPARELLi (C.) , VocabuUsla , Arabo-lat. e Lat.-Arabo, pubbl. da C. Sch., Fi- 

renze , 1 87 1 . [ The Arabic spoken in the kingdom of Granada in xiii cent. ] 
Seidel (A.), Praktisches Handb. d. Arab. Umgangssprache dgyptischen Dia- 

lehts, Berlin [189 A]. 
Spiro (S.), An Arabic-English Vocabulary of the Coll. Arab, of Egypt, 

Cairo and London, 1895. 
Steingass (F.), The Student's Arabic-English Dictionary, London, 188(1. 
Vassalli (M. a.), Ktyb yl Klym Mdlti : Lexicon Melitense Latino -Italicum, 

Romae, 1796. 

-^«.( 165 )^-~ 

Wahrmdnd (A.), Handivorterbuch der Arab, mid Deutsch. Sprache, Giessen, 

1877. [Glass, and Mod. x'Vrabic]. 
Wetzstein (I. G.), Sprnchliches aus den Zeltlagern der Syrischm Wiisie in 

Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morg. Ges. , XXII, 69-194. 
Zenker (J. Th.), Dictionnatre Tiirc-Arabe-Persan, Leipz., 1866. 


Abbadie (k. d'), Dictionnatre de la Langue Amarihna (Actes d. 1. Soc. Philo- 

log.,X), Paris, 1881. 
DiLLMANN (G. F. A.) Lexicon Linguae Aethiopicae, cum Ind. Lat. Adj. est 

Vocabuiarium Tigre Dialecti Septentr. comp. a W. Munzinger {Voca- 

bulaire de la Langue Tigre, par W. Munziger; Extrait du Vocab. d. I. 

Langue Tigre parlee a Mucaivw'a, comp. p. A. d'Abliadie), Leipzig, 

GuiDi (I.), Vocabolario Amarico-Ilaliano , Rome, 1901. 
LiTTMANN (E.) und Krenckler (D.), Vorberichtd. Deutschen Aksum-Expedi- 

tion (aus d. Anhang z. d. Abh. der K. Preuss. Ak. d. Wiss. v. J. 1906) , 

Berlin, 1906. 
MiJLLER (D. H.), Epigraphische Denhmdler aus Abessinien {Denkschrifien 

der k. Ak. d. Wiss. in Wien, phil.-hist. Klasse, Bd. XLIII, no. 3), 

Vienna, 189^. 
Reinisch (L.), Die SomaU-Sprache (Siidarab. Exped., II), II. Worterbuch, 

Vienna, 1902, 
ViTO (L. de), Vocabolario della Lingua Tigrigna, Rome, 1896. 

.( 166 ) 



The different groups in this Index are headed by the basic form after which 
follow its variations and derivatives in the difl'erent languages and dialects. In a 
few instances tlie arrangement is, of course, somewhat arbitrary. 

The letters placed before the basic forms indicate the three groups of the 
meanings of the stem, viz. : 

A = «flo fall, lie or kneel down, the knee, etc.n; 
B = ctto be firm, fixed, to continue, firmness, etc.n; 
G = (fto be blessed, blessing, to bless, etc.n. 

To avoid any misconception, only the fully WTitten long vowels are indicated 
by the circumflex, e. g. bank. 

The numbers after each form refer to paragraphs and their respective foot-notes. 


A hamhi, active 27, 67, <^5, 111, US 

Ass. haraku (?) 70, 103 

Syr. h'rdk (see h'rek) 22, 53, 55, 60-69, 83 

h'rdkd (b'rdk ? h'rdkdnd ?) 2,21, 67 

bdrek, bdrik 63 

Heb. hdmk (?) 1-20 passim , 22 , 51-5S ,60.69, 83 

Arl). /(rt?"rt/.rt (inf. n. ^»n}/.and /fti/Y<A-23).. 25-47,53,56, 58- 

61,64,66,68-71,78,82-85, 94 

bardke A3 

barkat 23, cf. 96 

bdrik (bdrikat, ffkneei) 33, /i4 , /15, <48, 90 

mabrak (cf. miibraktd , ^\ . Arm.) 58 

Ab. baraka (ptc. bamki) Zj8-50. 53 . 63. 68, 69 

A bark 83 

Arb.. Conor 55-27,38,39.47,60,72, 83 

abstr.(coli.) 26,58,60,72,82,(95, 90 

B baraka , stative. 

Arb 25, 5i, 34,37, 38, 59 

barak, concr 45 

Somali, barkimo, bdrki, concr. (and verb) 48 

— »-9.( 167 )^*~- 

B bardk HI 

Arb. , inf. (= imperat.) 36 

bardkd, hardkdu' 36 

hardkijat, burdkijat (second.), concreta 36 

hirdk (second. ) inf. and concr 36 

biti'dh, burdld (^second.) 36 

G barakat, abslr. (concr. second.) 110-118, 123 

E. Arm. birk'td 110 

W. Arm. burm 110 

Svr. burk'tdmjd 116 

Hob. (=Chan.) b'rdkd 1-20, 87-109, 110-118 

Egypt, (barka?) 92, 94, U5 

CI. Arb. barakat 87-109, 110-118 

concr 114, 116 

Mod. Arb. barake, barknt, etc 110, 149 

Malira birket (== barikat?) 110 

Alger, mahrakat, abstr 116 

Tun. and Trip, barakije, adj 95, 105 

Turk, bereketti, adj 95 

Ab. barakata ... 110 

Arab, barakd concr 114 

barakatdm, adj 116 

mabarakacd (and mdb.), adj 116 

Tna. bereket (= barikat?), concr 143 

berkatte, adj 95 


A barika (attenuated fi-om baraka?), active 83 

E. Arm. (?) : Syr. b'rek (and b'rdk). 22, b^-o 6,60-69, 71, 83- 

85, 103 

W. Arm. {b'rek?).: 57-59, <95, 84 

Heb. (see under baraka). 

Neo-Heb. b'rikd , nom. act 2 , 6^, 55 

concr 55 

A birk (from bark ?) 83 

Ass. birkti, concr 7, 8, 71-72, 82, 83 

W. Arm. (Bibl.) b'rak*, concr 53 , 57, 83 , S'l 

(Jew.) birkd, burkd, concr 57, 83 

__«.( 168 )^— 

Heb. berek (= bark ?) , concr. 1 -20 , 22 , 51 , 55 . 60 . 66 . 72 

82, 83 

Neo-Heb. berek, concr 55 , 56 

Arb. birkat, concr 27, 39, 83 

nom. spec 96 

Ab. berek (Tiia berki), concr ^9 , 72 , 83 

Amh. birkiimma, berkudne, concr hS 

Tna. berekiiedn, concr h9 

B barika, stative, Arb 31, 36, 74, 78, 123 

B barik lU.lS, 98 

Arb. barikat (burik), concr 98 

C barik 119-131, 156. 158 

Arm. b'rik 119-131, U5, l/i9. 150. 157, 158 

Sam. barek, barik [barok) 119 

Arb. barik 119-131 

comparative 'abrak 126, Ihb 

Amh. berikkd, concr 125 

(and Tna) birku'tta, concr. (and verbal derivatives). . 125 

B barikat, concr 73-81, 123 

W. Arm. b'rehd (Neo-Syr. birke, burke) 73-74 

Chan. : Heb. (and Pheu.) b'rekd . . 1-20, 73-7/t, 76, 79 , 81 

Egvpt. {barkata ?) 73 

CI. Arb. birk, birkat ; 7.5-7^, 76-79 

Mod. Arb. birket, burkel, etc 73-74 

Amh. berka (?) 73 

Somali birkad 73 



A burk (from bark ?) 83 

Ass. biirku 8, 7i-75, 82, 83 

E. Arm. : Syr. bilrkd, concr 52-53, 60-68, 1^2, 83 

verb, n 67 

Neo-Heb. b6re{a)k, concr. (cf. Arb. buntk) 56 

Arb. burk, concr 83 

buruk : see baraka. 

Tigre bork, concr 49 

-^>( 169 )<-i^- 

B burak, Arb , 32-3i, 37, 39, AZi, ^5, 56, 59, 94, 124 

Arb. burlcal, byrke (Malt.), etc., concreta. . . 33, 34, 39, 45 

burkdn, birkdn, etc., concreta 33, 45 

W. Arm. : Jew. burkd , burk'id ( Arb. ?) , abstr 6,34, 59 

B bamk 123 

Arb 32,36,39,41,42, 99 

bariikat, concr. barilka', barukd'uhd 36 

bdruk 32, 34, 39, 59, 124 

C bamk 119-131, 149, 155, 156, 158 

Chan. (Heb. and Phen.) baruk 1-20, 87-109, 119-131 

Arb. (see B) mabruk (?), ptc 59, 132, 158 

adv 113, 132 

Mod. Arb. (Tun.) baritk (Span, alboroc ?), concr 106, 116 

133, 149, 158 

Ab. (Ge'ez) buruk, (Amh. beruk) 106, 133, 158 


A bnrraka. 

Ass. burruku (?) 70 , 82 

Arb. barraka (inf. n. tabrik) 23, 40, 41, 45 

B barraka, Arb 35 

Mod. Arb. barrdk (= Neo-Syr. bnrrokm), nom. agentis. ... 34 

bamik, nom. agentis 41 

G barraka, int. (= factitive) 139, 158 

denom. (from ba7'uk) 140-154 , 158 

W. Arm. bdrik 1 40 

pass. (Sam. ptc. «mian-rtA;) 119, 120, cf. 159 

E. Arm. : Syr. barrek (ptc. m'harrek) , 140 

pass. (ptc. m'barrak) 120, 157, cf. 159 

vfbarek (Neo-Syr. m%lrehd) 105 

m'bdrkdnd, in'Mrkaniitji , burdk, burdk(d)... . 143 

Phen. nom. pr. Baricbal, etc 139 

Heb. (=Chan.) berek. . . 1-20, 53, 139, UO-15^, 158, 168 

171, 172 

bdrokCl), inf. abs 134 

pass. bdrak{yt[''bdrak). 156, 157, 166, 168, 171 

nom. pr. Barak' el, Berek jd (cf. Ass. Barikili), etc 139 

-^M.( 170 )^-H— 

Egypt 1^5 

Arb. barraka, denom 136 

tnbrik (tebryk), inf. n 117. U9 

Tna. btmlki (?l concr Vi^ 

A bdraka, factitive, Arb 36 

B Arb 37 (recipr.) 37, 38 

G Arb 134-15^,158 

pass, biirika, ptc. mubdrak [imbdvak, etc.). 99, 149, 150 

153, 155, 158 

Ab. bdraka (ptc. bdraki) 135 , 1 41 

Tiia. bdrekbt, mebrdk, subst 143 

Amb. mabdrakijd , adj 143 

Ge'ez (etc.). burdke, subst 141, 143 

A barkaha, Amb 50 

Tna. berkuk, act. ptc cf. 50 

Amb. ambarakaka (see under Reflexiva). 


A nnbrnka. 

Karait. nibrdk 22 

Ami). (Tigre andTna.) ambarkaka[=anb.), AowhXe. ve^. cf. 50 


mamberkdk (and Tiia, see below) of. 50 

mambarkaktjd , adj cf. 50 

B nabraka. 

Neo-Heb. nibreket (denom. from b^ekd; also Pi , Pu & Hitbp.). 73 

G nahraka. 

Heb. nibrak (denom. from bamk?). 156, 158, 159, 168-172 

B tabairaka, Arb 37, 38 

G Arb. refl. (ptc. mutabarrik, 161) 159-172 

eflfect 159-172 

B itbarraka, Arb ^' 

-^^>{ 111 )^— 

G Arm. hitbdvak ( W. ) , etbarnilc ( E. ) 159, 1 62 

Svr. metbarkdnd 143 

Heb. hitbdrek, refl 159, 1 66 

effect 159,166, 167 

B tabdraka, Arb 37 

G Arb., refl. and pass. (efTect.) 159-161 

Ab., rell. and pass 135, 159-161 

A iblaraka, Arb 36, 38 , 39 

B Arb. (ptc. miibktrik, 37 ) . . 36 (recipr. ) 37-39 

[/rtHirtr(/-)«/t(^-)rt = double refl. and int.] 

A tambarkdka (also Tna. ), tamharcikka , tamburdkkaka, Amh. (cf. Gni- 

di , Gramm. Aiuar. ,21) 50 

B tanbarak, concr. , Amh 48 

C tabardraka, recipr. , Amh 161 


A 'nbraka. 

E. Arm. : Syr. 'nbrek 61 

Heb. hiljrlk. ...~ 51 

Neo-Heb. Iiibnk (denora. from berek) 22, 55 

Arb. '(tbraka [miibrak, ptc. pass.) 23, 37, 40, hU 

Mahra hdberk cf. 23 

Ab. : Tiia abdreke, Tigre abreke cf. 48 

B 'abraka, Arb. miibrikat, ptc 37 

G Arb. (used as a verb of wonder, with ind : Lane). 

A nstabraka, Ge'ez (caus.-refl.) 20, 50, 84 

Tigre atdbreke (caus.) cf, 48 

(] (isbdrnka, Amh cf. 135 , 141 

--^5.( 172 )k-k— 


This Index includes ail Old Test, texts where the stem n^3 occurs 
Abbreviations : 

c =~^3 (Dan. Tp.3»); 
C = nD-)3; 

p. = participle; 

P =-n3(Dan. -i^a; 

Pi (Pa) = -12(^-13); 
Pu =1"I3: 

n. p. = nomen propnum. 

The numbers after each quotation refer to parafjraphs and their respective foot-notes. 

Note the followinfj typoffraphical errors in M\>delker.n"s Hebrew Concordance : 

Lev. i5. 91 = 90, 21 (A); Ps. 86, 36 = 68, 36 (P); 

Jer. 65, i6 (Hilhp.) = Jes. 


1,92 Pi 100, 102, 139 

1, 98 Pi 100, 102,103, 139 

2,3 Pi 139, 150 

4,19 103 

5, a Pi 139 

5, 99 1x1 

9, 1 Pi 100, 139 

9, 1-9,95 103 

9, 96 Pi, P 131 

9,97 102 

12, 1-9 Pi lOi 

12, 9ff.,Pi,A. 100, 115, 116, 139 


12, 3Pi(bis),Niph. 116, 139, 162 


13, 10 77 

14,i9P,Pi. 127,130,131, UO, U7 

14,9oP 103, 131 

17, i6(bis),90 Pi 100, 139 

18, iSNiph 103,162, 170 

20,17 162 

22, 17 Pi (bis).. .. 100, 103, XU 

139, 170 

22,i8Hithp 168 

24, 1 Pi 101, 139 

24,iiHiph 51,53,61, 69 

24, 16 103 

24,96 64, 68 

24, 97P 131, UO 

24, 98 Pi Ul 

24,3i P 127,129, 131 

24, 35 Pi 139 

24, /i8 Pi U, UO 

24,6nPi 99,100, U8 

25, 11 Pi 139 

26, 3 Pi 104, 139 

26, 4 Pi, Hithp. ... 104,168, 170 

26, 19 Pi 107, 139 

26,99 95, 102 

26, 94 Pi 100, 139 

26, 98ff 162 

26,99P 127, 129, 131 

27,4,7, 10 Pi 147 

27, 19 A 117 

27, 19, 23, 95 Pi 147 

27, 96, 97 5 

27, 97 Pi (bis) 139, 147 

27, 27-98 107 

27, 97-99 104 

27, 99P,"Pi. 103,126,127,134, 157 

27,3o.3i Pi 147 

27, 33Pi,P 127, 147 

27, 34 Pi 147 

27, 35,36 A 117 

--i-9.( 173 )k-."- 

38,^1 A, Pi 117, 

1 Pi 


28, 3 Pi 100,104, 

28, A A, Pi 101, 

28, 6 Pi (bis) 

28,i4Nipli 102,162, 

30, 3C 

30, 97 Pi 

30, So Pi 7,139, 

32, 1 Pi 

32, 27 Pi 139, 

32,3o Pi 

33, 11 A 116,118, 


35, 9 Pi 

35, 9-11 


39, 5 A, Pi 1U,139, 

41, /i3 

47, 7 Pi 3,U5, 

47, 10 Pi 3, 


48,3 Pi 


48, 9 Pi 

48, 12 c 

48, i4 5, 

48,i5Pi 9/i, 

48, 16 Pi 100, 

48, 20 Pi U7, 

49, 1-27 

49,4 103, 


49,9 60,61,68, 103 

49, 11 107 

49, i3, lA 104 

49,32 100, 106, 159 

49, 24 94, 103 

49, 25Pi, A(ter). 78,95,96,139 


49, a6 A (bis) 117, 157 

49, 28 A, Pi (bis) 117, 147 

50,23c 51 


12, 32 Pi 146 

15, 1, 10 143 


18, 10 P 131 

20, 11,24 Pi 139 

23, 25 Pi 139 

32,29 A 11^ 

39, 43 Pi 147 


9, 9-. Pi. 

9, 23 Pi. 
25, 21 A. 

16, 147 
. ... 147 
107, 114 


6, 33 Pi 147 

6,24 Pi 139 

6,25 8 

6, 27 Pi 139 

21,i7fr. 77, 95 

22,6Pi,Pu,p 147, 157 

22, 12 P 127, 157 

22, 27 48 

23, 11 Pi 134, 147 

23, '?oPi 139, 147 

23, 24 103 

23, 25 Pi 147 

24, iPi 147 

24,6-7 104, 106 

24,8 103 

24, 9 Pi, P.... 60,103,104, 126 

127,134, 157 

24, 10 Pi (bis) 134, 147 

24, 17, 18 103 


1, 11 100, 139 

1,35 106 

1, 55 133 

2,7 Pi 139 

3,25 106 

4,22 106 

7, i3Pi(bis).. 100, 101,104, 139 

7, i4P 127, 131 

8, 10 Pi 141 

10,8 Pi 147 

11,26,27,29A 117 

12, 7 Pi 139 

— !-».( 174 )^-j- 



4, 2 4, ag Pi 

4 Pi (bis) 104, 

6 Pi 

10 Pi 

i4 Pi 



10 Pi 


17 A 

5 Pi 


6 A 

2 Pi .* 

31 Pi 


19 Pi 108, 



12 Pi 

2 A 

3P(bis) 108, 

4, 5, 6 (bis), P 127 


8 A, Pi 108, 


12 Pi 


1 A 

i6Pi 104, 

19 A 


i3, i4 



i3Pu,p 157 

17 103 



iiPi 103,108, 

12 , 

20 P 102,104, 


24 P 107, 




6,26 130 

8, 33 Pi 147 

8,34A 117 

14, 19 Pi 103 

14, i3Pi 103, 147 

15, 19 A 106 

17, 1 4 Pi 139 

22,6,7 Pi l^"? 

22, 23 Pi 141 

22,33 Pi 141 

24, ioPi,inf.abs 134, 147 


1, i5A 106 

l,24Pu(bis) 157 

4,17 68 

5,9,9P 141 

5,27 60,62, 68 

7, 5 ff. 52 

7, 5, 6 c 51, 65, 68 

11,35 60 

13,24 Pi 108, 141 

16, 19 c 51 

17, 2 P 127,130, 131 


2,4 Pi 107, 139 

2, 19,20 P 127, 130 

2,3oP 131 

3, loP 127, 130, 131 

4, t4ff.,P 42,129, 131 


2,20 Pi 147 

4,19 65 

9, i3 Pi 147, 148 

13,ioPi 3, 147 

15, i3Pi,P 130, 131 

21, 10, i3Pi 154 

23, 21 P 130, 131 

25, i4 Pi 149 

25,27A 116, 118 

25,32P 131 

25, 33 P (bis) 127 

25,39P 131 

26, 19P 130 

26,25P 103, 131 

30,26A 116, 118 

^>{ 175 )kh 


2,5P 127,130, 131 

2, i3C(bis) 79 

4, laC 79 

4,43,/ii 98 

6, 11, 12 Pi 105, 139 

6, i8,2o Pi U7 

7, 27 105 

7, 29A,Pi,Pu. 105,117,139, 157 

8, 10 Pi U9 

13,^5 Pi U8 

14, 92 Pi U4 

18,28P 131 

19, 4o Pi 148 

21,3 Pi U6 

22,/i7P 131 

24,40 62 



i5, 01 


1, 47Pi 144 

1, 48P 131, 145 

2,45P 105, 127 

5,2iP 131 

8,4 5 

8,i4Pi 147 

8,i5Pi,P 131, 147 

8.54 c 51, 65 

8.55 Pi 147 

8,56P 131 

8,66 Pi 144 

10, 9 P 131 

14, 22 145 

18, 42 c 51 

19, 18c 51,65, 68 

21, io,i3Pi 144, 154 

22,38C 79 


1, i3c 51,52,65, 68 

4, 20 c 51, 71 

4, 29Pi(bis) 148 

5, I'SA 116 

9,24 62, 68 

10, i5 Pi 148 

18,3i A 118 

18,17 c 79 

20,2oC 79 


3, 2on.p 139 

4,ioPi(bis) 102, 139 

4,4o 93,102, 103 

6,24n.p 139 

9, i6n.p 139 

12,3n.p 115 

13, i4Pi 105, 139 

15, 17, 23n.p 139 

16, 2 Pi 147 

16,36P 131 

16,43 Pi 148 

17, 17 105 

17, 27Pi,Pu,p.. . 105,139, 157 

18, 10 Pi 148 

23, i3 Pi 147 

26, 5 Pi 139 

29, ioPi,P 131,140, 141 

29, 20 Pi 141 


2, iiP 131 

6, 3 Pi 5, 147 

6,4P 131 

6,i3Q,c.... 51,52,53,68, 83 

7,3 60 

9,8P 131 

20, 26 A (Lis), Pi. . 103,118, 141 

28, i2n. p 139 

29,29 65, 68 

30, 97 Pi 147 

31, 8 Pi 141 

31, 10 PI 98, 139 


7, 27P 131 

9,5 c 51,52, 65 

10, 1 53 


2, i4C 79 

3, 4,3on. p.,Pi 139 

>«.( 176 )<-i— 

3,i5C 79 

3,i6C.... 79, 80 

3,2oP,n.p 127 

6,i8n.p 139 

8,6Pi Ul 

9,5A,Pi 15,117,118, Ul 

10,7P,n.p 127 

11, 2 A, Pi 118, Ihh 

11, i5P,n. p 127 

13, sA 117 




1, 5 Pi 

1,10 Pi 108,139, 

1, iiPi 

l,2iPu,p 131, 

2 , 5 , 9 Pi , 1 

3, 12 c 51, 

A, lie 51, 

6, 1 5-2 


31, 10 

31, 90 PI * 

32, 2, 6 p. n 


42, 12 Pi 


3, 9 A lU 

5,i3Pi 139 

10,2 152 

10, 3 Pi 151, 152 

16,7Pi 141 


















17, i3 


18,47P 131 

20,8 60, 62 

20,9 68 

21, 4,7A 115 

22, 3o 63 

23,1-2 94 


5A 108, 

12 Pi 


gPi 94,95, 

1 1 






i5Pi 144 

17 Hilhp 163, 164, 165 

18, 19P 131 

2 Pi.. 
22 Pii . 


26 A., 
i4 P., 


3 Pi.. 

19 Pi. 
5 Pi.. 
5 Pi.. 

11 Pi. 
8 Pi.. 

20 P. 

27 PI. 
36 P. 



7 A. 




6Q 53,54, 

9 Pi 

100,4 Pi 

103, 1,2, 20, 21, 99 (bis). Pi. . 

104, 1,35 Pi 141 

106,^8 P 131 

107, 35-38 106 

107, 38 Pi 100, 139 

109, 17 A 118 

109, Q4r 51 

109, 28 Pi 139 

112, 2 Pq 115, 157 

113,2 Pn, pt 131, 157 

^>{ 111 )^-H 

115,i9Pi(ter) 105, 139 

115, i3 139 

115, i5P 127,130, 131 

115, i8Pi Ul 

118, 26 Pi, P 127, U/l, U5 

119, 12 P 131 

124,6 P 131 

128, 4 Pu 157 

128, 5 Pi 139 

129,8Pi,A 107,114, U9 

132, i5 Pi (bis) 139 

133, 3A lU, 139 

134, 1,9, Pi 141 

134, 3 Pi 139 

135, 19 (bis), 20 (bis), Pi 141 

135, 21 P 131 

144,1 P 131 

144,1-2 103 

145, 1, 2, 10, 21 Pi 141 

147, i3Pi 139 


3, 33 Pi 105, 139 

5, 18 P 127 

10,6,7 A 118 

10,22 A 114 

ll,iiA 117 

11,25A 116, 144 

11, 26A 117, 118 

20,2iPu 157 

22,9Pu 157 

24,25 A 118 

27, i4Pi 148, 152 

28,2oA 112 

30, 11 Pi 144 

31, 3o 166, 167 


2,6C 79 

8, io,3o,3i 166, 167 

23,4 60 

7, 5 C 79 



4,i3 108 

39, 22 A 95 

39, 35 Pi 141 

40,27 A 106 

44, 21 A 114 

44, 23 A 104 

45, i5 Pi 147 

46, 11 A 118 

50,ao A 117 

50,23 Pi 141 


7, 3G 
























iGHithp. (bis) 161 

23 P 127,129, 131 

3 Pi 141 

12c 51 




25Pi,P 127,139, 

9' 11 G 




16 A 




23c 51,60,66, 


2 Pi 


9 Pi. 

8 A. 


4,2 Hilhp 163,164, 165 

17,7? 127 

17,7-8 106 

20, i4 P 127 

1 2 

fMrniMrnrr »ATlosAi.r, 

^ \7S ).€^. 

31, 23 Pi.. 139 

32,19, i6P,n.p 127 

36, i-3a n. p. (sedecies) 127 

43,:!,6n.p 127 

45 , 1 , 2 n. p 1 27 

49, i3 115 


3,12? 131 

7, 17 c 51 

21, 12 c 51 

34, 26 A (bis).. 95, lU, 115, 116 

44,3o A 105, lU 

47, i c 51 


2 , 1 9 Pa , 20 Pa p. pass 1 A 1 

3,28 P 131 

4,3i Pa Ul 

6, 11 Q,c 52, 57 

10, 10c 57 


2, 1/1 A, 



2,2 A 117 

3, 10 A 95, 113 


7, 2A-97 105 

17, i4 65 

19, i3 16 

27,29 68 


10,16 16 


1,68 131 

6,38 72, 98 

24, 5o 16 





11, /i 65,66, 68 

2,9c 79, 81 



2, 19 Pi. 








3, li, lO 172 

I, 1, 7 "-P 

8, i3A 115, 116 I 

II, 5P 131 ; 3, 10, 




(See Index II.) 


Prehistoric [ rrto throw oneself, fall prostrate , kneel downn = bara(-i-u-)ka : ba{-i-u-)rk = fore-part, knee ] ? 

A [I. The Camel lies down : 

Historic : baraka 


man, etc breast-lower part-knee(s) / jj^^.^^. 


upon the ground with its breast-be]ly-knee(s) 

II. Other animals, 


B The Camel , any object : becomes firm exerts itself upon some object . . . 

i«ra(i)Aa-= continues (i. e. any object) 

(mod. Arb.) 
-> lazily (nomina) >■ A. kneel on heels 

steadily (nomina) 

. . . falls down heavily 
strengthless under load 

A. bara{i)ka : symbolical (Arm.) 
A. bi{ti)rk, knee : derivatives (Arm.) 

1. laboring, 2. oppressing (others), 3. supporting oneself 

(Arb. forms) 


barakat, continuance. 



barikat, pool. 


barvkat, etc. concreta. 

C Continuance : in rich pastures ... an abiding home well-being; (hence) firmness, stability = sa- 
tiety, abundance = fecundity, increase = felicity, prosperity; (resulting, through operation of Deity, in an) 
Abiding , propitious force. 


I. blessing 

►God blesses = baraka 

II. benediction . . . 

+ . . 

III. propitious gift. 

barraka = | He (or God) is blessed = declar. (denom.) 
( baraka ) | 

( May God bless him = precative. 

-► nomina verb. : burake, etc. 

Rell. (pass.) : tabdraka, tabarraka, nabraka, etc. 



Plassmann, T.B, 

The signification of 
braka. . • 


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