Skip to main content

Full text of "Smithsonian year : annual report of the Smithsonian Institution for the year ended Sept. 30 .."

See other formats

Smithsonian Year 

1/yQ ^r*THHffi» is i*pba 

Smithsonian Year . 1982 

Smithsonian Year • 1982 




SEPTEMBER 2>0, 1982 

Smithsonian Institution Press • City of Washington • 1983 

frontispiece: With the completion of the Smithsonian's Quadrangle project 
serving our public and Associates alike, a new dimension in America's com- 
prehension of the non-Western world will be opened on the Mall. Exhibitions, 
performances, seminars, and discussions will enhance America's understand- 
ing of this panorama of nations harboring two-thirds of the planet's popula- 
tion. Shown are (left to right) a Korean musician, students in a seminar, a 
Kutiyattam performer from Kerala, India, young visitors being introduced to 
African life and art, and Smithsonian Associates visiting the Treasury Build- 
ing in Petra, Jordan. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 (paper cover) Stock Number: 047-000-00388-1 

The Smithsonian Institution 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 
1846 in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson 
of England, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United 
States of America "to found at Washington, under the name of 
the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge among men." After receiving the property 
and accepting the trust, Congress incorporated the Institution in 
an "establishment," whose statutory members are the President, 
the Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive 
departments, and vested responsibility for administering the trust 
in the Smithsonian Board of Regents. 


Ronald Reagan, President of the United States 

George H. W. Bush, Vice President of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States 

George P. Shultz, Secretary of State 

Donald Regan, Secretary of the Treasury 

Caspar W. Weinberger, Secretary of Defense 

William French Smith, Attorney General 

James G. Watt, Secretary of the Interior 

John R. Block, Secretary of Agriculture 

Malcolm Baldrige, Secretary of Commerce 

Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary of Labor 

Richard S. Schweiker, Secretary of Health and Human Services 

Terrell H. Bell, Secretary of Education 

Samuel R. Pierce, Jr., Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

Andrew L. Lewis, Jr., Secretary of Transportation 

James B. Edwards, Secretary of Energy 

Board of Regents and Secretary • September 30, 1982 

regents of the Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio, Chancellor 
institution George H. W. Bush, Vice President of the United States, ex officio 

Henry M. Jackson, senator from Washington 

Barry Goldwater, senator from Arizona 

Edwin Jacob (Jake) Garn, senator from Utah 

Silvio O. Conte, representative from Massachusetts 

Norman Y. Mineta, representative from California 

Edward P. Boland, representative from Massachusetts 

David C. Acheson, citizen of the District of Columbia 

Anne L. Armstrong, citizen of Texas 

J. Paul Austin, citizen of Georgia 

William G. Bowen, citizen of New Jersey 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Murray Gell-Mann, citizen of California 

Nancy Hanks, citizen of the District of Columbia 

A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., citizen of Pennsylvania 

Carlisle H. Humelsine, citizen of Virginia 

executive Warren E. Burger, Chancellor 

committee David C. Acheson 

William A. M. Burden 

Carlisle H. Humelsine (Chairman) 

the secretary S. Dillon Ripley 

Phillip S. Hughes, Under Secretary 

Charles Blitzer, Assistant Secretary for History and Art 

David Challinor, Assistant Secretary for Science 

Joseph Coudon, Special Assistant to the Secretary 

Julian T. Euell, Assistant Secretary for Public Service 

James M. Hobbins, Executive Assistant to the Secretary 

Christian C. Hohenlohe, Treasurer 

John F. Jameson, Assistant Secretary for Administration 

Paul N. Perrot, Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs 

Peter G. Powers, General Counsel 

James McK. Symington, Director, Office of Membership and Development 

Lawrence E. Taylor, Coordinator of Public Information 

Smithsonian Year • 1982 






69 Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

80 National Air and Space Museum 

88 National Museum of Man, Center for the Study of Man 

91 National Museum of Natural History 

110 National Zoological Park 

119 Office of Biological Conservation 

121 Office of Fellowships and Grants 

126 Radiation Biology Laboratory 

136 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

150 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 


167 Archives of American Art 

173 Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

179 Freer Gallery of Art 

182 Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

187 Joseph Henry Papers 

189 National Museum of African Art 

194 National Museum of American Art 

199 National Museum of American History 

206 National Portrait Gallery 

211 Office of American Studies 

212 Office of Folklife Programs 


219 Conservation Analytical Laboratory 

228 National Museum Act Programs 

229 Office of Exhibits Central 
232 Office of Horticulture 

240 Office of International Activities 


244 Office of Museum Programs 

252 Office of the Registrar 

253 Smithsonian Institution Archives 
255 Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

265 Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 


271 Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

272 Division of Performing Arts 
274 International Exchange Service 

276 Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

279 Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 

282 Office of Telecommunications 

286 Smithsonian Institution Press 

288 Smithsonian Magazine 

289 Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center 


295 Administrative and Support Activities 
298 Financial Management Activities 

300 Smithsonian Institution Women's Council Activities 


301 Office of Development 

302 National Board of the Smithsonian Associates 

303 Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates 
305 Smithsonian National Associate Program 

313 Smithsonian Resident Associate Pogram 


326 Office of Public Affairs 








Smithsonian Year . 1982 


This cut-away drawing of the Quadrangle (Independence Avenue view), from 
the architectural firm of Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson and Abbott, shows 
some of the space to be provided in three levels for exhibitions, theater pro- 
ductions, and study. 

£ * 

;r; ' 

■%*;. ..« 



1A «w ** * ** 

Know Thy Neighbor as Thyself 


This paraphrase of the Bible saying, "Love Thy Neighbor as Thy- 
self/' a true saying, and one to be emulated if in larger affairs it 
had not a mocking ring, is one that I often think of in connection 
with the Smithsonian. To know is to learn but also to give a little. 
If one knows anything it is a scrap of learning. Every scrap should 
be shared for all bear upon a central theme. The assemblage of 
knowledge is like a pyramid. Its creation is the very abnegation of 
self, and in the process we learn to know each other, more sanely, 
I believe, than love would ever let us do, clouded with the mists of 
sentiment or tears, as that may be. 

Speaking at the dedication of the American Museum of Natural 
History in New York in 1874, Professor Joseph Henry, first Secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian, stated that James Smithson's memorial, 




x' : 


the Institution, should be a work place, a "college of discoverers," 
a haven for research, "discovering new facts, new phenomena and 
new principles," and making this information known to all. Knowl- 
edge should be spread abroad by museums based on this research. 
This is the finest memorial of all, for "what, in comparison to this, 
are local monuments, pyramids of flint, statues of brass or obelisks 
of marble!" 

These two generations past have been the generations of self, on 
which mountains of egocentrism have been erected, eroding over 
the years, as always, in the sands of anomie and the washings of 
self-pity. I went to Persepolis not long ago and walked over the 
desert into the blue silk and damask tents erected to celebrate two 
thousand five hundred years of a dynasty that never was. Created 
with cunning skill by French decorators for the nonevent, the tents 
still stood, the curtains giving way at one's entrance to the great 
banquet pavillion; within, a crescent-shaped dias with a crescent 
table, backed by a row of pale blue velvet tall chairs arranged on 
one side only, not for conversation but for the admiration of the 
courtiers and press. No sound broke the spell except for a faint 
soughing of the wind, which made the gilt candelabra sway slightly 
in a ghostly reverie. Oh, Ozymandias have you told us nothing? 

The accumulation of knowledge must not be a selfish thing, for 
knowledge and learning go hand in hand, and to learn is to teach. 
James Smithson in his charge to his heirs — his administrators for 
the future — said that his Institution should serve for "the increase 
and diffusion of knowledge among men" (i.e., mankind). One of 
my colleagues, Wilcomb Washburn, has recently discovered a letter 
of Smithson's in French, addressed to Baron Georges Cuvier, the 
most celebrated French savant of his day, written from Germany 
in 1806, twenty years before Smithson's death, in which he pres- 
aged the language of his famous will. A translation might be, "It 
seems to me, Sir, that the man of genius who through important 
discoveries expands the scope of the human mind is entitled to 
something beyond a mere and fruitless admiration [for this we 
might read "ego trip"]. That he is entitled to expect that all con- 
tribute as much as they can to facilitate research so that, if fame is 
achieved, they can share in the benefits. And it would indeed be 
unjust that national differences as well as resentment and war 
should have any bearing in this matter. The works of scientists 

4 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

being for all nations, they themselves should be looked upon as 
citizens of mankind." 

It seems to me that what Smithson is writing is that as scientists 
or scholars of history or art at the Smithsonian, we are obligated 
to increase and diffuse knowledge, and in the process sweep away 
the cobwebs of self-pity, deriving satisfaction not from self- 
promotion but rather from the rewarding tasks of increasing and 
diffusing knowledge. We must reach what we know and discover, 
as best we can, using research as a tool for illumination. 

The Smithsonian Institution is embarking on a course which, if 
successful, will lead to an expansion on an international scale of 
our motto. For perhaps the first time in our history, we are em- 
barking in a spirit of social responsibility on a creative effort to 
increase understanding and respect for our neighbors. 

One of our mandates, the diffusion of knowledge among men 
(among mankind) works both ways, within and without. We can, 
for example, tell Americans about their history, but how can we 
extend that to tell Americans about the history of the rest of the 
world, especially about those parts and nations of which we are 
still so woefully ignorant. Our entire awareness of others has been 
concentrated until recently on the so-called Western world: Europe 
— extending east to Russia, south to the Mediterranean — and parts 
of Latin American, our traditional neighbors. Until World War II, 
Asia was known to relatively few Americans. Few Americans pene- 
trated beyond Japan and China. The vast worlds of more southern 
Asia (except for the Philippines), tropical Asia, the southwest 
Pacific areas (except for Australia), and Africa and the Middle East 
were essentially little-known and beyond most people's means to 
visit or experience. 

Now this Institution has an opportunity to combine objects, col- 
lections such as those in the Freer Gallery of Art, the National 
Museum of African Art, collections in our kindred departments of 
Anthropology and History and Art, into our Quadrangle, a new 
Center for African, Near Eastern, and Asian Cultures, to be built 
south of the original Smithsonian Castle. This Center will delineate 
to Americans as well as to the world the necessity to 'know your 
neighbor/ to respect our fellow inhabitants in this shrinking world, 
and in the process generate an increased measure of self-respect in 
ourselves and in our neighbors as well. Traditions and cultures 

Statement by the Secretary I 5 

alien to the massive onslaughts of mechanistic technology are frag- 
ile indeed. They are being eroded every day just as the forests of 
the tropics disappear. Cultures drift away like the dust that follows 
the draft of a lifting jet plane on a far-away runway. Cultures and 
traditions represent the only stability, the only defense against the 
mindlessness of self, and the only model for the cultivation of self- 

In the world of this vast region, home to almost two-thirds of 
the human population, there are now ninety-two nations, where 
perhaps a dozen reigned before World War II. We in America, 
still unused to the totality of this change, remember only dimly 
some of the new names and find little occasion to think of the im- 
plications involved, except perhaps to be bothered by reading of 
the debates in the General Assembly of the United Nations, or to 
hear of some man-made or natural catastrophe on the other side of 
the globe. Our Center will help to correct this lack of understand- 
ing on our side as well as theirs. We will have a chance to fore- 
gather here to discourse, to exhibit their traditions and cultures in 
a meaningful way, and to demonstrate the long history of inven- 
tion, intellectual achievement, and civilization, of which those of us 
on both sides must remind ourselves before it is too late. So we 


This elevation drawing by Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson and Abbott, archi- 
tects, shows the Quadrangle's pavilions and landscaping, north side. 

6 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

have embarked upon the creation of this Center in an effort to "put 
out more flags," to shine the light of understanding between us. 

In this effort, approved by the Regents of the Institution, we are 
pledged to raise $75 million for construction, half by the Smith- 
sonian itself and its dedicated friends, and half by the federal gov- 
ernment. Over the past few years many others have shared this 
vision and have helped us bring it closer to fruition. To signify the 
government's commitment to the project, the United States Con- 
gress in its 1983 budget has approved legislation authorizing con- 
struction of the Quadrangle and has appropriated the federal share 
of the financing in the amount of $36.5 million to add to almost 
$1 million appropriated the year before. 

The Smithsonian's private financing has received a munificent 
boost in the generosity of Dr. Arthur M. Sackler, a psychiatrist 
and medical publisher who resides in New York City. He has 
pledged not only 1,000 works of Asian art, valued well in excess 
of $50 million, but also $4 million towards construction of the Far 
Eastern gallery within the Quadrangle, which will house his collec- 
tion as well as those of others and be named in his honor. In mak- 
ing these gifts, Dr. Sackler reflected the synthesis as well as the 
essence of the Quadrangle in saying that ". . . in the years to come, 

Statement by the Secretary I 7 

Washington will continue to grow into a world cultural capital, 
augmenting its status as a world political center." 

Support for our Center for African, Near Eastern, and Asian 
Cultures continues to come in from abroad as well as from other 
friends of the Institution in many parts of the country. We will 
celebrate and commemorate their gifts in appropriate ways within 
the new structure and in the various programs that will flow from 
it; especially in outreach and public education. 

Throughout the past year the existing programs of the Institu- 
tion, as well as the supporting functions that are crucial to their 
success in reaching the broad audiences that we serve, have been 
marked by a continuing high level of public interest and achieve- 
ment. Steady progress has been made towards completing in 1983 
the initial physical inventory of the National Collections entrusted 
to our care. Not only will we then be able to refine more intelli- 
gently our previous estimates of holding some 75 million items, but 
we will also have more substantial information about the location 
and condition of all these objects, thus enabling us to manage and 
conserve them for generations yet to come. 

Another significant element in the care and conservation of col- 
lections is the Museum Support Center, the facility in nearby Suit- 
land, Maryland, currently under construction. We expect to take 
possession of the building within budget and on schedule in this 
winter of 1983. To the partnership, Metcalf/KCF and to the chief 
architect of the project, Coke Florance, we offer our appreciation 
for so thoughtfully resolving the problems of space for collections 
storage and research, along with conservation training, in a massive 
edifice that, nonetheless, provides a comfortable working environ- 
ment in harmony with its natural surroundings. 

In the area of collections acquisition, gifts and purchases have 
enabled us to extend modestly the evidence of our cultural heritage 
and of the physical world inhabited by us and by those who have 
gone before us. The National Museum of African Art has acquired 
two early and important Benin bronzes, while the National Portrait 
Gallery, in association with the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foun- 
dation at Charlottesville, Virginia, has purchased Gilbert Stuart's 
"EdgehiH" portrait of Thomas Jefferson painted in 1805. Following 
the pattern established in the joint purchase of the Stuart portraits 
of George and Martha Washington, the portrait, named for the 

8 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Smithsonian Associates search for wildlife at Corbett National Park, India. 

plantation of Jefferson's grandson where it hung for many years, 
will be exhibited for alternating three-year periods at the Portrait 
Gallery and at Monticello. 

The lives of two other presidents were the focus of major win- 
ter exhibitions and related activities. To commemorate the one- 
hundredth anniversary of the birth of Franklin Roosevelt on Janu- 
ary 30, 1882, a number of events took place in several Smithsonian 
museums. Early January saw the opening of the exhibition Roose- 
velt's America: New Deal Art from the National Museum of Amer- 
ican Art. Shortly thereafter a small exhibition, FDR: The Early 
Years, chronicling his early life and entrance into the political 
arena, opened at the National Portrait Gallery. Our friend, the dis- 
tinguished journalist Joseph Alsop, a cousin of the late president, 
presented a lecture, "FDR: The Great Change," in conjunction 
with the exhibition. At the end of January the National Museum of 
American History presented Franklin Delano Roosevelt: The Inti- 
mate Presidency, which included the White House desk and micro- 
phones from which he delivered his famous "fireside chats," his 
1938 Ford with special hand controls, and a wide range of photo- 
graphs of FDR and of the nation during his presidency, giving an 
especial quality of verisimilitude to the event. 

On February 22 a gala birthday party at the National Museum 
of American History, followed by fireworks on the Mall, marked 
the two-hundredth-fiftieth anniversary of Washington's birth and 
the opening of a major exhibition, George Washington: A Figure 
Upon the Stage. The exhibit surveys the many ways in which 
Americans of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries have idolized 
and indeed utilized Washington and the aura of his name. Also, 
perhaps this exhibition helps to humanize "G.W.", showing sides 
of his character and his ambitions, usually clouded in the atmo- 
sphere of the almost imperial tradition. Smithsonian historian 
Margaret Klapthor, curator of the exhibition, points out that "the 
image and character of Washington have taken various forms," 
with each era favoring an appearance related to its own values. The 
National Portrait Gallery mounted a related exhibition of prints 
depicting George Washington and showing the variety of ways in 
which the Founding Father was perceived by his contemporaries. 

Irish songs and fancy footwork marked the March 17 opening 
of Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual, which examines the 

10 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Gilbert Stuart's "Edgehill" portrait of Thomas Jefferson, painted in 1805, is now 
jointly owned by the National Portrait Gallery and the Thomas Jefferson Memo- 
rial Foundation, Incorporated, Charlottesville, Virginia. The painting will be 
exhibited for alternating three-year periods at the npg and at Monticello. 


Richard Fiske (left), nmnh director, participates in an Eskimo dance at a Contribut- 
ing Membership reception following a review of the major exhibition inua: spirit world 
of the bering sea eskimo. Below. Paul E. Garber, nasm historian emeritus, shows 
seventh and eighth graders how to build a kite from scratch as part of the "D.C. Day" 
festivities held at the museum. 

universal phenomenon of celebration and demostrates how differ- 
ent people mark the important events and cycles in their societies. 
The exhibition includes approximately 600 objects — 95 percent of 
which have never before been exhibited — from more than 60 cul- 
tures and the collections of 9 Smithsonian museums. A related 
exhibition was presented later in the year at the National Museum 
of African Art: Life . . . Afterlife: African Funerary Sculpture, 
which examines the cycle of birth, death, rebirth, and afterlife 
experienced by many African cultures. Other notable exhibitions 
included two companion shows at the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden — Raphael Soyer: 65 Years of Printmaking and 
5 oyer Since 1960 — honoring the very substantial output of this 
talented artist and contributor to the museum's collections. The 
Hirshhorn was also host to the De Stijl: 1917-1931, Visions of 
Utopia exhibition, illuminating the art, architecture, and design of 
the influential Dutch movement that was characterized by elemen- 
tary, geometric forms and pure, primary colors. The exhibition was 
one of several international events marking the two-hundredth 
anniversary of the establishment of formal diplomatic relations 
between the United States and The Netherlands, the longest peace- 
ful relationship the United States has had with any foreign power. 

Further reflecting significant international influences in art and 
design, the Cooper-Hewitt Museum opened in September a retro- 
spective view of the history of Scandinavian design during the last 
100 years, which included furniture, glass, ceramics, metal work, 
and textiles as part of a national celebration of "Scandinavia 

A selection from the Meserve Collection of the original glass 
plate negatives of Mathew Brady's portrait photographs were ex- 
hibited for the first time in May at the National Portrait Gallery in 
a specially designed room, evocative of the mid-nineteenth century. 
This unique collection of immense historical importance also in- 
cludes the only print ever made from the last photograph of Presi- 
dent Lincoln. Perhaps the most haunting likeness of Lincoln, it was 
taken on April 10, 1865, in a studio four blocks south of the 
Portrait Gallery building just four days before his assassination. 

During the past year our colleagues in the physical and natural 
sciences also have made lively and important contributions in 
exhibitions as well as in research. Of the former, perhaps the most 

Statement by the Secretary I 13 

extraordinary was inua: spirit world of the bering sea eskimo, 
which opened in June in the Evans Gallery of the National Museum 
of Natural History. Featuring for the first time nearly 500 objects 
collected for the Smithsonian more than 100 years ago by the 
naturalist and surveyor Edward Nelson, the exhibition recreates 
the world of the Bering Sea Eskimo and traces the roots of Eskimo 
cultural and artistic traditions. Many objects in the exhibition were 
associated with elaborate myths and decorated with dual animal 
and human images, reflecting the belief of the Eskimos that every- 
thing had an inua, a human-like essence or spirit that was revealed 
to people in dreams, visions, or when encountering animals. Also at 
the National Museum of Natural History, the ever-popular Dino- 
saur Hall was reopened after a hiatus of several years during which 
it has been renovated and the paleontological exhibits enlarged and 
current theories of evolution presented. 

Dr. Terry Erwin, a curator in the museum's Department of Ento- 
mology, continued his studies of the tropical rain forest canopy and 
of the insect life abiding there. This research reveals that the num- 
ber of insect species worldwide may be substantially larger than 
previously suspected, and that tropical deforestation, therefore, will 
inevitably destroy far larger numbers of species than had been 
anticipated or supposed. 

The world's tropical rain forests are home to half of the earth's 
plant and animal species, and thus are areas of immense priority to 
numbers of Smithsonian scientists. During a symposium on the 
ecology and management of the tropical rain forest, which was held 
at the University of Leeds in England last spring, Dr. Ira Rubinoff, 
director of our Tropical Research Institute in Panama, proposed the 
establishment of a system of Tropical Moist Forest Reserves in the 
temperate zones, financed by the developed nations in order to save 
this crucial international resource. 

Dr. David Roubik, an entomologist at the Institute and an expert 
on the African honeybee let loose on an unsuspecting New World 
in Brazil in 1957, has been working closely with Panamanian au- 
thorities on ways of adapting to these notoriously aggressive bees, 
which arrived in the Republic from the south late last winter. He is 
sharing his information with Central American governments as 
well, for this is a matter of concern as the species spreads north- 

14 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Another study on the effects of forest habitat destruction was 
conducted by Dr. James Lynch of the Chesapeake Bay Center for 
Environmental Studies, whose work was an investigation of the 
size and stability of bird populations in Maryland. Dr. Lynch has 
begun work with other Smithsonian scientists on a similar study in 
the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, part of the winter migration 
route for a fifth of our North American bird species. 

At the National Zoological Park's Conservation and Research 
Center in Front Royal, Virginia, studies on the behavioral ecology 
and population dynamics of wildlife from around the world are 
underway. This work is being used as a means of training scientists 
from India and Europe in the use of sophisticated techniques for 
studying endangered animals in their own countries and elsewhere 
in the world. 

The reptile and amphibian house of the Zoo's Rock Creek loca- 
tion has been renovated and reopened to the public. The refur- 
bished structure proves to be much more effective than the former 
house for studying these exotic animals and encouraging breeding 
and survival rates in captivity. For the second consecutive year the 
Zoo received the highest award from the American Association of 
Zoological Parks and Aquariums for captive propagation programs. 

The National Air and Space Museum commemorated twenty-five 
years of space exploration with an exhibition and a conference of 
that name, both of which seek to place accomplishments of the 
space age in a social, cultural, and political context. The Museum's 
Garber Facility, for the restoration and preservation of aircraft, 
celebrated its fifth anniversary with a week-long series of events 
for the general public. 

The observatory atop Mount Hopkins in Arizona was renamed 
for our colleague Fred Lawrence Whipple, and dedicated in his 
honor last May. Fred Whipple was the first director of the Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory when it moved to Cambridge, 
and was a primary developer of the concept of the MMT. The 
newly renovated gamma ray reflector — the largest in the world — 
has resumed operation at the Whipple Observatory and will enable 
astronomers to probe high energy events in the far reaches of the 

In an effort to understand other aspects of universality and 
fundamental processes, the Smithsonian sponsored an international 

Statement by the Secretary I 15 

symposium on "How Humans Adapt: A Biocultural Odyssey." A 
diverse group of scholars met to debate what may be one of the 
most critical questions of our time: has Homo sapiens, having come 
this far in his several million years, learned anything at all that 
can help him survive in the present global village and adapt to the 
future? The papers from the symposium — the keynote speaker of 
which was the late Rene Dubos — will be published by the Smith- 
sonian Institution Press in the winter of 1983. 

During the summer, the Festival of American Folklife returned 
to its original plot on the National Mall among the Smithsonian's 
museum buildings. The larger and more accessible site accents the 
strong, complementary relationships between museum collections 
and the presenters of living traditions. This sixteenth annual festi- 
val featured the rich and diverse folk traditions of Korea during 
the anniversary of a century of diplomatic relations between our 
two countries, as well as the Diamond Jubilee of the State of Okla- 
homa. It reflected the traditions that Oklahomans nourish and 
support, particularly those associated with two major activities — 
horses and oil — and brought a functioning rig and a quarter-mile 
race track to the Mall. The festival was also the setting for the 
awards ceremony for the first annual National Heritage Fellow- 
ships, honors given by the National Endowment for the Arts to 
traditional musicians and craftsmen who have made outstanding 
contributions to the cultural life of the nation. 

As in previous years, we should not let this report slip by with- 
out mentioning certain comings and goings of Smithsonian staff. 
We were terribly saddened this year by the death of John Estes, 
the experienced director of the International Exchange Service. By 
the end of the fiscal year we learned that another dear friend and 
companion, our Assistant Secretary for Public Service, Julian T. 
Euell, who had served in that capacity for nearly a decade, would 
be accepting the directorship of the Oakland Museum. Still other 
departures included Noel Hinners, the director of the National Air 
and Space Museum, who became director of the Goddard Space 
Center; Robert Angle, director of our National Associates program, 
who assumed membership responsibilities for the National Trust 
for Historic Preservation; and both David Estabrook, director of 
Elementary and Secondary Education, and Richard Griesel, our 

16 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

(1 1 1 1 I I 


ft I 

ii ii ii Hi!' 



Quarter horses from Oklahoma race down the National Mall at the Sixteenth Annual 
Festival of American Folklife held in the summer 1982. 

business manager, who have left for the vineyards of private indus- 
try. We have been fortunate to be able to promote Jacqueline 
Austin to the helm of the National Associates, Ann Bay to the 
head of Elementary and Secondary Education, and Joe Chmelik to 
business manager. 

At the same time we should note two nearly simultaneous 
arrivals at the old Patent Office Building. Alan Fern, formerly of 
the Library of Congress, has been named director of the National 
Portrait Gallery, and Charles Eldredge, the former director of the 
Spencer Museum of Art in Lawrence, Kansas, has assumed the 
directorship of the National Museum of American Art. I am confi- 
dent these two innovative and sensitive scholars will lead their 
programs in imaginative ways and in the spirit of partnership. 

If the pursuit of knowledge is the aim of this Institution, then 
we can look forward to an enlarging era in the programs planned 
for the future of our new Center described in the opening of this 
statement. Americans long to be friends with all the world. We are 
frustrated by those who fail to understand that we hope that our 
civilization, our history of democracy and freedom is a real one, 
in spite of the ups and downs of our progress. If James Smithson 
had a vision — that somewhere across the ocean from the Europe of 
stratified hierarchies and iron-bound convention of the eighteenth 
century, this new world could achieve such an ideal — we could 
hardly deny that that vision was proleptic. It is in the fulfillment 
of that ambition of our precursor that we must proceed. 

There is a time in the world for the realization of these ambi- 
tions. The eagle on the Great Seal may have arrows or thunder- 
bolts clutched in one set of claws, but there is an olive branch in 
the other. Justice and equality demand that America be strong and 
competent in the role of peace-keeper, but peace itself demands 
understanding, friendship, and mutual self-respect, hand in hand 
with certainty. Respect above all for cultures and traditions across 
the face of that great arc of the world stretching from Atlantic to 
Pacific, from Africa to East Asia, should insure that we can "know 
our neighbors as ourselves," and in this knowing, learn to respect 
and live with new friends for the future. For indeed there is no 
other choice. 

18 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

The Board of Regents 

The Board of Regents held three formal meetings during the last 
year. Additional meetings of the Regents' Executive Committee, 
the Audit and Review Committee, the Personnel Committee, and 
the Investment Policy Committee were held throughout the year 
and reported at the Regents' meetings. 

The first meeting of the Board of Regents was held on Janu- 
ary 25, 1982, in the Regents' Room of the Smithsonian Castle and 
was called to order by the Chancellor. The Executive Committee 
reported that it met on January 5, 1982, to discuss the Regents' 
agenda and took special note of the Audit and Review Committee's 
close attention to Smithsonian business, the Secretary's and staff's 
strengthened measures regarding museum protection, and plans to 
cope with ever-tightening budget stringencies. The Audit and Re- 
view Committee reported on two of its meetings, one held jointly 
with the Personnel Committee on October 14, 1981, and the other 
held on December 2, 1981. The committee proposed a resolution to 
indemnify Smithsonian Regents, officers, and employees for liabili- 
ties and expenses incurred as a result of litigation arising from 
service for the Institution, and the resolution was incorporated by 
reference into a new Bylaw of the Board of Regents, Section 2.09, 
entitled indemnification. The Audit and Review Committee also 
reviewed possible insurance to cover the indemnification and, 
accordingly, the Regents directed the Treasurer to secure appro- 
priate "Directors and Officers" insurance. 

The Audit and Review Committee decided that the thorough 
auditing conducted annually on the Smithsonian's trust funds 
should be extended to an annual audit of the federally appropriated 
funds by the Institution's independent auditors, Coopers and 
Lybrand. In view of the fundamental importance of this matter the 
Regents expressly endorsed the committee's action. Other commit- 
tee reviews included: 

Coopers and Lybrand's audit of fiscal year 1981 trust funds; 
Smithsonian procedures for reporting financial interests; draft 

Statement by the Secretary I 19 

standards of conduct; museum security; Smithsonian procedures 
for construction and repair services; and computer services. 

The Personnel Committee of the Regents reported that it had 
reviewed the financial-interests statements of the Secretary's top 
assistants and that it found no conflict of interest whatsoever. 

The Treasurer informed the Regents that a self-assessment 
review has recently been conducted at the Institution to identify 
lower priority programs that might be reduced or eliminated, and 
alternative modes of operation that might create savings of dollars 
or workyears. After extensive discussion, the Regents agreed that 
in view of the existing security and financial constraints the Insti- 
tution should eliminate summer evening hours on a trial basis, 
subject, if necessary, to further review by the Audit and Review 

It was noted that final congressional action resulted in fiscal year 

1982 federal appropriations totaling $142,534,000, some 9 percent 
below the amount requested. That appropriation included $960,000 
for Quadrangle planning — the first federal appropriation for this 
project. The Treasurer also reported that the Office of Management 
and Budget (omb) allowance for all appropriations for fiscal year 

1983 was $192,610,000, reflecting increases for Museum Support 
Center equipment, critical security and maintenance, and inflation 
in pay, utilities, and rent. In addition, omb allowed the Institution's 
full request ($36.5 million) for Quadrangle construction, but did 
not allow the Institution's request for an additional 99 positions to 
open and operate the Museum Support Center and 48 other posi- 
tions to strengthen security. 

The Investment Policy Committee reported that they met on 
November 17, 1981, to review the performance of the Institution's 
three investment managers and to discuss strategies for the future. 
It was noted that the managers continue to out-perform market 
averages and that the annualized return from each of the managers 
for the last three and one-half years was about 16 percent per year. 

The Secretary outlined the Five-Year Prospectus, FY 1983-1987 
and stressed his commitment to include projections beyond the 
five-year period where appropriate. Priorities of the Institution 
were the equipment for the Museum Support Center, the comple- 
tion of the Quadrangle, the enhancement of collections manage- 
ment activities, security, and automation. The Regents approved 

20 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

the Prospectus as submitted, in anticipation that annual revisions 
will similarly be presented for approval. 

The Secretary briefed the Regents on the status of the Quadran- 
gle project, introducing Mr. George Brakeley of Brakeley, John 
Price Jones, Inc., the fund-raising consultants. The total income 
from unrestricted trust funds, gifts, pledges, and interest amounted 
to $14,017,600 as of November 30, 1981. The Regents discussed 
the strategies for raising the balance of the $37,500,000 from 
domestic and foreign foundations, corporations, individuals, and 
foreign governments. During the fall the Quadrangle design was 
approved by both the National Capital Planning Commission and 
the Commission on Fine Arts. 

The Museum Support Center was reported to be 45 percent 
complete and about two months ahead of the January 1983 com- 
pletion date. In a report on the status of the collections inventory, 
it was noted that the target date for completion of the baseline 
inventories remains June 1983, after which the inventories will be 
a continuing process and priority. 

The Secretary presented a report on the equal opportunity pro- 
gram, noting only marginal improvement in increasing the repre- 
sentation of women and minorities, particularly in the higher 
grades. Recognizing that commendable efforts have already been 
made and without being critical, the Regents urged the administra- 
tion to redouble its efforts and explore all possible strategies. 
Subsequent to the meeting the Audit and Review Committee 
agreed to review the subject in the spring. 

In other actions, the Board of Regents effected an amendment to 
the bylaws of the National Portrait Gallery Commission, reap- 
pointed Mrs. Elizabeth Brooke Blake, Mr. David Lloyd Kreeger, and 
Mrs. Margaret McKee to the National Museum of American Art 
Commission, and paid tribute to the late Dr. Robert Elliot Silber- 
glied, an entomologist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Insti- 
tute, who died in a plane crash on January 13, 1982. 

The Chancellor announced that Mr. Webb had resigned as chair- 
man of the Executive Committee. Accepting that resignation with 
great reluctance, the Chancellor assured the Regents that Mr. Webb 
would remain on the Executive Committee for the duration of his 
term. With the consent of the Regents, the Chancellor appointed 
Mr. Humelsine as chairman, effective January 25, 1982. 

Statement by the Secretary I 21 

The traditional Regents' Dinner was held on Sunday evening, 
January 24, 1982, in the Thomas M. Evans Gallery of the National 
Museum of Natural History/Museum of Man, where the exhibi- 
tion Deep Ocean Photography provided a dramatic setting. The 
Secretary addressed the guests about his and Mrs. Ripley's faun- 
istic and floristic survey of the Namdapha Region in Arunachal 
Pradesh, India. 

The spring meeting of the Board of Regents was called to order 
by the Chancellor on May 3, 1982, in the Regents' Room. The 
Executive Committee reported that it met on April 14 to consider 
the proposed agenda for the Regents' meeting. The committee 
noted that the decision to restrict summer evening hours was wide- 
ly announced and received little criticism. At the suggestion of the 
committee, the Regents voted to confer on James E. Webb the title 
of Regent Emeritus upon the expiration of his term on June 21 and 
to elect David C. Acheson to membership on the committee effec- 
tive June 22, 1982. After considering a large number of suggested 
nominees, and the recommendation of the Executive Committee, 
the Regents voted to request that the Congressional Regents intro- 
duce and support legislation to appoint Nancy Hanks as a citizen 
Regent of the Smithsonian, for the statutory term of six years. 

It was noted that, in response to a poll conducted through the 
mails in April, the Regents voted to establish the James E. Webb 
Fellowships for the promotion of excellence in the management of 
cultural and scientific not-for-profit institutions. The Regents ob- 
served that this was a particularly appropriate honor for Mr. Webb 
and that this program in public administration will be of great 
benefit to the Institution. 

The Audit and Review Committee reported that they met on 
March 23, 1982. At that meeting the independent auditors, Coopers 
and Lybrand, highlighted their December 31, 1981, Report to Man- 
agement and introduced their consolidated audit plan for fiscal year 
1982. Mr. Acheson reported that on March 13 the committee 
visited the Cooper-Hewitt Museum in New York City. Mr. Hughes 
had informed the Committee about a current, as yet incomplete, 
internal audit of the gem collection in the National Museum of 
Natural History/Museum of Man. 

The Audit and Review Committee noted that the indemnifica- 
tion resolution and bylaw adopted by the Regents on January 25, 

22 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

1982, had, through inadvertence, not included coverage for Regents 
Emeritus and members of Regents' committees and advisory bod- 
ies. To effect this coverage — and to clarify the intent of the resolu- 
tion that Smithsonian employees and officers will be indemnified 
for liabilitity arising out of service on boards of other organiza- 
tions when that service is part of official Smithsonian duties — the 
Regents voted to amend the resolution and bylaws, Section 2.09. 

The Treasurer informed the Regents that the Institution was 
allowed to submit to Congress a supplemental appropriation re- 
quest of $2.3 million to cover one-half of fiscal year 1982 pay-raise 
costs. This amount, together with cost-reduction actions taken as a 
result of the self-assessment review, will permit the Institution to 
continue operations with a minimum of disruption to essential ac- 
tivities. Revised projections for Unrestricted General Trust Funds 
still anticipated a break-even budget, with increased net gains ex- 
pected from the Smithsonian magazine being offset by lower re- 
turns in other auxiliary activities and increased administrative 

The performance of the Institution's investment managers was 
reviewed by the Investment Policy Committee at its meeting on 
April 28, 1982. Mr. Hohenlohe noted that total Smithsonian en- 
dowments continued to outperform the standard market indices. 
The Board of Regents approved the total return income payout for 
fiscal year 1983 as recommended. 

By invitation six members of the National Board of the Smith- 
sonian Associates joined the meeting of the Board of Regents for 
the discussion of the Quadrangle. The Secretary highlighted the 
report circulated in advance, noting progress through the tentative 
design phase. Accordingly, the architect's drawings, specifications, 
and construction estimate were submitted to the General Services 
Administration. A second estimate was also obtained by the Insti- 
tution. The estimates suggested that some cost savings will be re- 
quired to meet the $75 million budget, but these savings will not 
force any major alterations to the project. The Secretary added that 
the Smithsonian will not appeal to Congress for any amount 
greater than the $36.5 million requested for construction. He also 
noted progress in the congressional approval of the construction 

Mr. Ripley outlined the foreign gifts and pledges to date and 

Statement by the Secretary I 23 

noted prospects for additional foreign donations. It was noted that 
all gifts and pledges ($13,910,800), added to Smithsonian unre- 
stricted fund transfer ($12,357,100), total $26,267,900 — more than 
two-thirds of the $37.5 million goal. 

The Secretary underscored the importance of the National Board 
of the Smithsonian Associates in the domestic fund-raising cam- 
paign, noting that the extraordinary generosity and dedication of 
several members has been critical to launching a sequential strategy 
for soliciting leadership-level gifts, to be followed by an expanded 
search for more moderate gifts. A series of special regional meet- 
ings will be arranged for the Secretary in this connection. A 
broader appeal to the entire membership of the National Associates 
may ensue. 

One of America's leading collectors of Near and Far Eastern art, 
Dr. Arthur M. Sackler, made a firm proposal for the donation of 
works of oriental art valued at $50 million and also $4 million in 
cash toward the construction costs of the Quadrangle, with the 
condition that the new gallery of Near and Far Eastern art will be 
named for him. After discussion, the Regents authorized the Secre- 
tary to negotiate terms of the agreement, subject to further review 
by the Board. 

Mr. Ripley informed the Regents that the Museum Support Cen- 
ter was 65 percent complete on April 22, 1982, and that procedures 
are being developed to facilitate a complex, multi-stage move to the 
center. The Secretary reported on the status of the Institution-wide 
collections inventory and the progress in formulating up-to-date 
collections management policies. 

It was noted that the Secretary received the rank of Commander 
in the Order of Orange-Nassau just prior to the visit of the Queen 
of The Netherlands, in recognition of the work culminating in the 
Queen's opening of the De Stijl exhibition at the Hirshhorn Mu- 
seum and Sculpture Garden, as well as, more generally, the Smith- 
sonian's work over the years. The Regents offered their approval 
and congratulations. 

The traditional Regents' Dinner was held in honor of Mr. Webb 
the evening of May 2, in the "Commons" of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Building. The guests gathered in the Victorian Garden, 
where a model of the Quadrangle was on view. The Chancellor 
presented a citation to Mr. Webb dedicating the Webb Fellow- 

24 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Shown above is the Regents' meeting of January 25, 1982, in progress. Below. Her 
Majesty, Queen Beatrix of The Netherlands and Abram Lerner, director of the Hirsh- 
horn Museum and Sculpture Garden, attended the official opening of De Stijl: 1917- 
1931, Visions of Utopia, April 19, 1982, at the Hirshhorn. 

ships in his honor: ". . . the Webb Fellowships will nurture man- 
agement abilities of Smithsonian employees and visiting scholars 
for years to come — and will therefore continue to symbolize our 
profound gratitude for this sensitive and dear colleague." The Sec- 
retary offered a toast to Dr. Fred L. Whipple, in whose name the 
astronomical observatory at Mt. Hopkins was to be dedicated on 
May 7, 1982. There followed a showing of the film In Open Air, 
procured through the generosity of the Allbritton Foundation in 
connection with the exhibition of the American Impressionists' 

The Chancellor called to order the autumn meeting of the Board 
of Regents on Monday, September 20, 1982, in the Regents' Room. 
The Executive Committee reported on their August 25 meeting, 
where the Committee discussed contingency plans, should a pay 
supplemental appropriation not be forthcoming, and called for a 
staff report on the projected deficit of the Division of Performing 
Arts to be distributed to the Audit and Review Committee. The 
Treasurer reported that the Institution's banking and cash-manage- 
ment systems are being simplified, streamlined, and modernized. 
The Committee then discussed in detail the status of the Quad- 
rangle project and agreed to recommend proceedings as proposed 
(see below). 

The Audit and Review Committee reported on its meeting of 
May 21, 1982, noting that Coopers and Lybrand had found no 
weaknesses in accounting and controls in their audit of fiscal year 
1981 federal appropriations. Mr. Jameson presented a report on 
the status of equal opportunity and affirmative action, emphasizing 
the persisting problems of underrepresentation in professional and 
administrative positions. The Committee received a report on the 
organization of book publishing at the Smithsonian. 

The Treasurer informed the Regents that the Institution received 
a federal supplemental appropriation of $2.7 million, some $400,- 
000 above the Institution's request of $2.3 million for fiscal year 
1982; that Unrestricted General Trust Funds were projected to pro- 
vide a small surplus of $47,000, compared to an original breakeven 
budget; and that substantial gains by the magazine, the National 
Associates, and the Smithsonian Institution Press largely offset 
higher administrative and program expenses and a substantial 
deficit in the Division of Performing Arts. 

26 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

The Treasurer added that House and Senate mark-ups of the 
Institution's fiscal year 1983 appropriation request were not antici- 
pated until late in September, and it would appear the Institution 
would again be required to operate under a continuing resolution 
for a portion of the new fiscal year. Net income from Unrestricted 
General Trust Funds is expected to total $12,237,000 in fiscal year 
1983, an increase of $720,000, due primarily to improved perfor- 
mance in certain of the auxiliary activities and holding program 
growth and administrative costs to a minimum. The Regents ap- 
proved this budget, reauthorizing the Collections Acquisition, 
Scholarly Studies, and Educational Outreach programs for a sec- 
ond five-year period at an annual level of $2.2 million, an increase 
of $200,000 above the previous funding level. This increase will 
allow some expansion for research and education outreach projects 
and will expand the Collections Acquisition Program to include the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum. The Regents reviewed and approved for 
submission to the Office of Management and Budget a request for 
federal appropriations totaling $178,653,000 for fiscal year 1984. 
The Secretary added that, with the approval of the Chairman of 
the Executive Committee, the Institution signed a contract for the 
sale of the Belmont Conference Center and 82 surrounding acres 
to the American Chemical Society. 

The Regents' Investment Policy Committee reported that the 
market value of the Smithsonian Endowment Funds, paralleling 
substantial gains in the stock market, increased from $77.4 million 
at the end of June to just under $85 million as of the beginning of 
September. Over the last four years and two months, there has 
been an annual compounded rate of return of 13.3 percent, some 
two percentage points ahead of the major market indices and well 
ahead of the annual inflation rate of approximately 10 percent. 

The Secretary reported on the completion of the intermediate 
working plans for the Quadrangle, noting that final plans are ex- 
pected to be completed by November 15. A request for bids will be 
issued in early January. To save about three months and approxi- 
mately $1.5 million in escalation costs, separate design and bid 
packages are being prepared for solicitation — as soon as receipt of 
a construction appropriation is assured — for constructing a perim- 
eter fence, removing existing landscape materials, and relocating 
utility lines. On September 14 the Commission on Fine Arts gave 

Statement by the Secretary I 11 

general approval to the building plans but asked for further study 
of landscaping details. The National Capital Planning Commission 
will review the project in October. 

The Secretary added that, in accordance with the Regents' earlier 
approval, he signed an agreement with Dr. Sackler providing for a 
pledge of $4 million toward construction of the Quadrangle; a 
donation of nearly 1,000 works of Oriental art valued at well over 
$50 million and selected by the director of the Freer Gallery; a 
provision that the director of the Freer be also the director of the 
western portion of the Quadrangle interconnecting with the Freer, 
such portion to be known as the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery; and 
that the director be assisted by an assistant director whose prin- 
cipal duty would be day-to-day management of the gallery; a 
mutual commitment to continue a program of scholarly publica- 
tion based on the collection, conducted at the donor's expense; and 
an understanding that the donor's commitments are contingent 
upon the Smithsonian obtaining $36.5 million in federal funds for 
construction costs by July 1983. 

Mr. Ripley stated that as of July 31, 1982, a total of $27.4 mil- 
lion had been raised or committed toward the fund-raising goal of 
$37.5 million. The sequential fund-raising technique recommended 
by Brakeley, John Price Jones, Inc., is being utilized, concentrating 
first on commitments from prospects with substantial gift potential 
and those with close associations with the Smithsonian. Members 
of the National Board of Smithsonian Associates have given or 
pledged $1.4 million, and that total is expected to reach $2 million. 
Members of that board have also assumed active roles in fund- 
raising among corporations, foundations, and other individuals, 
and have been helping to organize regional functions at which the 
Secretary will present the concepts and plans for the Quadrangle 
to local leadership. A broad general appeal will be directed to 
Smithsonian Associates through Smithsonian magazine in 1983. 
Solicitation of foreign gifts continues in the Middle East and South- 
east Asia and among businesses with interests in African nations. 
Mr. Brakeley stated that the campaign is going very well and he 
is confident that the required funds will be raised on schedule. 

The Quadrangle authorizing legislation, signed June 24, 1982, 
stipulated that no funds appropriated for construction shall be ob- 
ligated or expended until the Regents have available from non- 

28 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Fred Whipple (center), former director, sao, was honored May 7, 1982, with the 
naming of the Smithsonian research facility on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, "The Fred 
Lawrence Whipple Observatory." Assistant Secretary for Science David Challinor 
(right) and George B. Field, current director of sao, presided over the unveiling of a 
commemorative plaque. Below are shown the new alligator and crocodile exhibition 
areas of the National Zoo's recently renovated reptile and amphibian house. 






■ L " -■ — 


- , 

federal sources a sum which, when combined with the appropriated 
funds, is sufficient for the construction. Assuming approval of this 
appropriation (the House included it in the continuing resolution 
for fiscal year 1983), the Board of Regents needed to certify the 
availability of the nonfederal sources before any construction ap- 
priation could be obligated. Given the success of efforts to date, 
the strength of future prospects, and the existence of trust funds in 
the event insufficient funds are raised, the Regents voted to express 
gratitude to the Congress and the President for the authorization 
of the Quadrangle project and the anticipated implementing appro- 
priation; to affirm full confidence in the ability of the Institution 
to secure from nonfederal sources remaining funds to total $37.5 
million towards the Quadrangle project; to pledge that unrestricted 
trust funds of the Institution will be directed to the project to the 
extent necessary to guarantee its commitment of $37.5 million of 
nonfederal funds; and to certify therefore that, with an appropria- 
tion as requested, total project funds of $75 million are available, 
and construction may commence. Subsequent to the meeting, the 
Regents' resolution was communicated to the chairmen of the 
Smithsonian's authorizing and appropriations committees in the 

The Secretary highlighted a report on the construction of the 
Museum Support Center, then more than 90 percent complete, 
ahead of schedule, and within budget. Favorable bids were received 
for supplying the storage equipment for '"wet" collections, while 
specifications continue to be developed for other kinds of storage 
equipment (to be bid in January 1983). 

In recognition of Mr. Warren Robbins's service to the Smith- 
sonian and to the nation in founding the National Museum of 
African Art and overseeing its development from a small private 
venture to its present status, the Regents voted to award him the 
Henry Medal. The Regents also voted to appoint to the Commis- 
sion of the National Museum of African Art, effective January 1, 
1983, Frank Moss, Frances Humphrey Howard, Roy Sieber, David 
Driskell, and Robert Nooter for a term of three years; Walter 
Washington, Richard Long, John Loughran, Susan Samuels, and 
Robert Thompson for a term of two years; and Franklin Williams, 
Lee Bronson, John Duncan, Michael Sonnenreich, and Sylvia Boone 
for a term of one year. 

30 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

It was noted that in response to the Acting Secretary's letter of 
June 15, the Regents had unanimously voted to concur in the pro- 
posed agreement for the purchase of Gilbert Stuart's "Edgehill" 
portrait of Thomas Jefferson. The Secretary added that the acquisi- 
tion has proceeded as outlined, and this unique portrait is now 
shared by the National Portrait Gallery and Monticello at a cost of 
$500,000 to each. Display of the portrait will alternate between 
the two every three years. 

The Secretary also reported that Julian T. Euell, Assistant Secre- 
tary for Public Service since 1973, will be leaving to become direc- 
tor of the Oakland Museum, October 1, and the Secretary added 
he will be reorganizing some aspects of the Public Service func- 
tions at that time. 

The traditional dinner was held on Sunday evening, Septem- 
ber 19, at the National Zoo in the Reptile House, following cock- 
tails in the Ape House. After dinner the Secretary greeted the 
Regents and guests and introduced the new Regent, Miss Hanks. 
He also paid tribute to the departing Assistant Secretary for Public 
Service, Julian T. Euell. He went on to honor the generous sup- 
porters of the Quadrangle, particularly Dr. Arthur M. Sackler, and 
spoke briefly about his aspirations for this significant addition to 
the Smithsonian's museums. 

Statement by the Secretary I 31 

Fiscal Years 1970, 197s, and 1980-1982 

(In $l,000,000's) 









Unrestricted [_ Trust 
Restricted J Funds 

— Trust Funds 

(Gross Revenues) 

Federal Grants 
and Contracts 


1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 

To Plant and Endowment. 

1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 

Smithsonian Institution • 1982 


Summary: In fiscal year 1982, the overall financial resources pro- 
vided to the Smithsonian permitted maintenance of its extensive 
programs in exhibits and research, in public education and out- 
reach. During this time of financial uncertainty, the continued 
strong support from Congress, from donors, from granting agen- 
cies, and from revenue-generating auxiliary activities made possible 
the progress and important accomplishments noted elsewhere in 
this report. The bar chart on the facing page summarizes the funds 
provided to the Smithsonian from a wide variety of sources, as well 
as the application of these moneys for an equally diverse range of 
programs. Evident from this chart is the growth of the operating 
budget in 1982 over prior years; as in the most recent years, how- 
ever, this growth related less to program expansion than to the 
ever higher costs of salaries, supplies, utilities, and collection pur- 
chases. While some enhancements were possible, notably for the 
new Museum Support Center and for the collection inventory pro- 
cess, the year was characterized by fiscal restraint, self-assessment, 
and cost-reduction efforts. Due to partial hiring freezes and budget 
constraints, the full-time staff of the Smithsonian was kept to a 
level below that of last year. 

While not unaffected by the government budget restrictions of 
this fiscal year, the Institution was nevertheless allowed a federal 
appropriation sufficient to sustain ongoing operations. After de- 
tailed and understanding review by the Congress, total federal ap- 
propriations of some $145 million were passed, including $131 mil- 
lion for operations; it is this appropriation which provides the In- 
stitution's base resources for research, education, and exhibition 


programs, for study and care of the national collections, and for 
administrative and support services. Of signal importance to the 
Institution was a planning appropriation of $1 million in support 
of the Quadrangle, the center more fully described by the Secre- 
tary in his Statement; this commitment of federal funds to a proj- 
ect whose costs will be met from matched federal and nonfederal 
funds was most welcome. (Subsequently, on October 2, 1982, the 
remaining funds of $36.5 million were voted and signed by the 
President for fiscal year 1983.) Also important to the Institution in 
fulfilling its public duties was the annual appropriation for the nec- 
essary, but less inspiring, task of repairing and maintaining the 
large and diverse physical plant. Significant funding was also re- 
ceived from federal agencies in the form of grants and contracts, 
primarily for scientific research. 

In addition to the core support provided by the federal appro- 
priations, the Institution is also dependent on nonappropriated 
trust funds to enrich its programs and expand their reach. Strong 
public acceptance of the Institution's services continued during the 
year, with tangible financial return from the Smithsonian Asso- 
ciates programs and other auxiliary activities, as well as generous 
gifts and grants from individuals, foundations, and corporations. 
While net revenues from nonappropriated sources, after deduction 
of the operating expenses and sales costs of auxiliary activities, 
were lower than in fiscal year 1981, ongoing program commitments 
were met, and, as budgeted, transfers were made of $2 million to 
unrestricted endowment and $1 million toward Quadrangle con- 
struction reserve. Together with the transfers of prior years as 
well as favorable investment return, the unrestricted endowment 
of the Institution now totals some $37 million; continued addition 
to this fund remains a high priority of the Institution. 

Significant progress was made during the year in securing finan- 
cial support for the Quadrangle. As outlined more fully below, 
gifts and commitments to this project from outside sources as well 
as the Institution's own resources now total almost three-quarters 
of the nonfederal funds of $37.5 million needed for construction. 
Fund-raising efforts for this major project are actively underway. 

34 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Table 1. Financial Summary 
(In $l,000's) 

FY 1980 FY 1981 FY 1982 


Federal Appropriations — Salaries & Expenses $107,764 $122,478 $131,170 

Federal Agency Grants & Contracts 12,947 14,172 13,217 

Nonappropriated Trust Funds: 

For Restricted Purposes 5,339 6,378 6,821 

For Unrestricted & Special Purposes: 

Auxiliary & Bureau Activities Revenues — Gross 75,150 88,381 97,350 

Less Related Expenses (65,933 ) (75,924 ) (88,596) 

Auxiliary & Bureau Activities Net Revenue 9,217 12,457 8,754 

Investment, Gift, and Other Income 3,825 4,887 4,808 

Total Net Unrestricted & Special Purpose Revenue . . 13,042 17,344 13,562 

Total Nonappropriated Trust Funds*— Gross 84,314 99,646 108,979 

—Net 18,381 23,722 20,383 

Total Operating Funds Provided — Gross 205,025 236,296 253,366 

—Net $139,092 $160,372 $164,770 


Science $ 57,907 $ 62,703 $ 64,837 

Less SAO Overhead Recovery (2,196) (2,470) (2,487) 

History & Art 26,224 25,614 26,762 

Public Service 3,129 3,421 3,782 

Museum Programs 8,974 8,084 8,539 

Special Programs 3,204 7,284 9,533 

Associates and Business Management 345 312 543 

Administration— Federal** 8,048 8,782 9,719 

—Nonappropriated Trust Funds 4,937 5,740 5,733 

Less Smithsonian Overhead Recovery (4,379) (5,014) (5,338) 

Facilities Services 30,630 36,501 39,327 

Total Operating Funds Applied 136,823 150,957 160,950 

Transfers (Nonappropriated Trust Funds) 

Unrestricted Funds— To Plant 1,342 2,550 1,064 

—To Endowments 2,031 2,550 2,259 

Restricted Funds— To Endowments 757 108 318 

Total Operating Funds Applied & Transferred Out $140,953 $156,165 $164,591*" 



Restricted Purpose (Incl. Fed. Agency Gr. & Contracts) . . $ (225) $ 1,276 $ (45) 

Unrestricted — General Purpose 36 42 5 

—Special Purpose (1,672 ) 2,704 404 

Total $ (1,861) $ 4,022 $ 364 



Restricted Purpose $ 4,675 $ 5,951 $ 5,906 

Unrestricted — General Purpose 5,001 5,043 5,048 

—Special Purpose 9,895 12,599 13,003 

Total $ 19,571 $ 23,593 $ 23,957 


Special Foreign Currency Program $ 4,200 $ 3,650 $ 4,320 

Construction 32,100 15,829 9,744 

Total Federal Appropriations (Incl. S&E above) $144,064 $141,957 $145,234 

*Figures do not include gifts and other income directly to Plant and Endowment Funds: FY 1980— 

$1,211,000; FY 1981-$2,696,000; FY 1982-$2,197,000. 
**Includes unobligated funds returned to Treasury: FY 1980— $267,000; FY 1981-$64,000; FY 1982- 

**Includes $185,000 available for FDR Centennial carried forward from FY 1981. 

Operating Funds — Sources and Application 

Growth in the overall operating budget of the Institution contin- 
ued, but at a slightly slower pace than experienced in previous 
years. Total gross operating funds, as shown in Table 1, increased 
by over $17 million, or 7 percent, from $236,296,000 in fiscal year 
1981 to $253,366,000 in fiscal year 1982. These funds were derived 
from three major sources: 52 percent from federal appropriations, 
43 percent from nonappropriated sources, and 5 percent from fed- 
eral agency grants and contracts. 

After deducting expenses of the nonappropriated auxiliary and 
bureau activities, net operating income grew by only $4.4 million, 
approximately 3 percent, and was derived 80 percent from federal 
appropriations, 12 percent from nonappropriated sources, and 8 
percent from federal agency grants and contracts. Application of 
these funds by all Smithsonian bureaux is outlined in Table 2, with 
further supporting detail in succeeding tables. 


The federal appropriation for the core operating programs of the 
Institution totaled $131,170,000 in fiscal year 1982. The increase 
of $8.7 million, or 7 percent, over fiscal year 1981 was approxi- 
mately equivalent to increased costs resulting from inflation in 
such areas as pay, utilities, rent, and other objects of expense. The 
appropriation included specific increases for these inflationary costs 
as well as for such high-priority programs as the inventory of col- 
lections and equipping of the Museum Support Center. These were, 
however, partially offset by an across-the-board reduction to all 
Smithsonian programs, part of a government-wide cutback aimed 
at reducing the nation's overall budget deficit. In order to prevent 
major disruption to ongoing programs and public activities, a series 
of financial actions were taken. Additional control on hiring, travel, 
and all nonessential purchases and contracts was instituted. Based 
on a comprehensive management review of all Smithsonian pro- 
grams, certain activities were curtailed or deferred, including elim- 
ination of spring and summer evening visiting hours in all mu- 
seums except the National Air and Space Museum and the Na- 
tional Zoological Park. Following regulations set forth by congres- 
sional committees, funds were reprogrammed among bureaux to 

36 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

meet priority needs. These actions enabled the Institution to com- 
plete the year with a minimum of disruption. 


Grants and contracts from federal agencies totaled $13,217,000, 
approximately 7 percent less than received in the previous year. 
This support not only contributed substantially to research and 
educational projects being conducted by Smithsonian personnel, 
but also benefited the granting agencies by providing access to 
specific expertise and resources maintained at the Institution. As 
illustrated in Table 3, the majority of these funds, over $9 million, 
were provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion to continue work at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory in satellite tracking, maser design and construction, and stud- 
ies of the upper atmosphere and stellar magnetic fields. Support 
from the Defense Department, the National Science Foundation, 
and other government agencies provided an additional $4 million — 
primarily to science activities — for a broad spectrum of projects, 
including dating Antarctic ice sheets, enhancement of a volcano 
data file, a tumor registry program, coral-reef research, sorting and 
study of polar marine specimens, a medical entomology project, 
and the Smithsonian's annual Festival of American Folklife. 


In fiscal year 1982, nonappropriated trust fund revenues to the 
Institution from gifts and grants, endowment fund and current in- 
vestments, and revenue-producing activities totaled $108,979,000, 
an increase of $9,333,000, or 9 percent, over fiscal year 1981. After 
deduction of expenses incurred by the bureau and auxiliary activi- 
ties, however, net income declined by $3,339,000 to a total of 
$20,383,000. As displayed in Table 2, these revenues provided 
support for programs of virtually every bureau of the Institution. 
Restricted fund income to the Institution totaled $6,821,000 for 
the year, of which $3,154,000 was derived from gifts and grants; 
$2,886,000 from restricted purpose endowment investment income 
and interest paid on fund balances of restricted purpose funds; and 
$781,000 from other sources, including primarily fund-raising ac- 
tivities of the Archives of American Art and Cooper-Hewitt Mu- 
seum and the sales desk at the Freer Gallery of Art. Available only 

Financial Report I 37 

Table 2. Source and Application of Operating Funds 
Year Ended September 30, 1982 

(Excludes Special Foreign Currency Funds, Plant Funds and Endowments) 

(In $l,000's) 

Nonfederal Funds 









Gen- con- 
eral tracts 

FUND BALANCES 10/1/81 . . $ 185* $ 23,593 $ 5,043 $ — $12,599 $ 5,546 $ 405 


Federal Appropriations 131,170 — — — — — — 

Investment Income — 6,526 2,921 — 719 2,886 — 

Grants and Contracts — 13,217 — — — — 13,217 

Gifts — 5,234 18 1,757 305 3,154 — 

Sales and Revenue — 95,593 — 92,668 2,925 — — 

Other — 1,626 83 — 762 781 — 

Total Provided 131,170 122,196 3,022 94,425 4,711 6,821 13,217 

Total Available $131,355 $145,789 $ 8,065 $94,425 $17,310 $12,367 $13,622 


Assistant Secretary 

Natl. Mus. of Nat. History 
Astrophysical Observatory 
Less Overhead Recovery 
Tropical Research Inst. . . 
Radiation Biology Lab. . . 
Natl. Air & Space Museum 
Chesapeake Bay Center . . 
Natl. Zoological Park .... 
Center for Study of Man 

Total Science . . . 

History and Art: 

Assistant Secretary 

Natl. Mus. Am. History 
Natl. Mus. American Art . . . 

Natl. Portrait Gallery 

Hirshhorn Museum 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Archives of American Art . . 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
Natl. Mus. of African Art . . . 

Total History and Art 

333 $ 

412 $ 



































129 $ 188 

1,810 1,269 

171 10,551 





44,652 19,234 


3,586 2,458 12,848 
































































20,960 6,352 

717 — 

2,239 3,279 


Table 2. Source and Application of Operating Funds — continued 

Year Ended September 30, 1982 

(Excludes Special Foreign Currency Funds, Plant Funds and Endowments) 

(In $l,000's) 


onfederal Funds 


















Gen- con- 







eral tracts 

Public Service: 






— — 






— — 






219 — 






3 — 







19 — 






— — 

Total Public Service . . . 





241 — 

Museum Programs: 






23 19 


Conserv. Analytical Lab 







16 — 




Traveling Exhib. Service 






238 112 







Total Museum Programs 






277 131 

Special Programs: 

Am. Studies & Folklife Pgm. . . 






32 324 

Intl. Environ. Science Pgm. . . . 


Academic & Educational Pgm. 






117 15 

Collections Mgt. /Inventory . . . 


Major Exhibition Program . . . 


Museum Support Center 






— — 

Total Special Programs. 





149 339 




35 — 

Business Management 






— — 







130 — 

Less Overhead Recovery . . . 



— — 

Facilities Services 





2 — 

Transfers Out/ (In): 


Coll. Acq., Schol. St., Outreach 






— — 






— — 

Other Designated Purposes . . . 






(241) — 







— — 



2,577 2,021 

3,641 (1,664) 

121,832 $ 3,017 ! 



318 — 




77 — 

Total Funds Applied . . 

$131,355 $ 

$ 4,307 ! 

$ 6,648 $13,435 

FUND BALANCES 9/30/82 . . 

$ — $ 


$ 5,048 : 

* — 

$13,003 $ 5,719 $ 187 

*Funds available for FDR Centennial through FY 1982. 
^Unobligated funds returned to Treasury. 

Table 3. Grants and Contracts — Expenditures 

(In $l,000's) 

Federal Agencies FY 1980 FY 1981 FY 2982 

Department of Commerce $ 89 $ 210 $ 174 

Department of Defense 1,078 703 1,001 

Department of Energy 340 407 448 

Department of Health and Human Services . . . 280 283 325 

Department of Interior 197 244 268 

National Aeronautics and Space 

Administration* 9,832 10,663 9,303 

National Science Foundation** 651 784 1,079 

Other 415 574 837 

Total $12,882 $13,868 $13,435 

♦Includes $554 (FY 1980), $813 (FY 1981) and $264 (FY 1982) in subcontracts from 
other organizations receiving prime contract funding from NASA. 
**Includes $112 (FY 1980), $208 (FY 1981) and $230 (FY 1982) in NSF subcontracts 
from the Chesapeake Research Consortium. 

for specified purposes, restricted funds provided substantial sup- 
port for a wide variety of research, exhibitions, publications, and 
educational activities, and served as the major funding source for 
the Freer Gallery of Art and the Smithsonian Marine Station at 
Link Port (formerly the Fort Pierce Bureau). A particularly signifi- 
cant contribution was received by the Office of Museum Programs 
in fiscal year 1982 in the form of a three-year grant of $1.1 million 
from the Kellogg Foundation. This grant will be used to fund a 
series of fellowships, colloquia, workshops, and videotapes de- 
signed to strengthen the education role of America's museums. 

Revenues to Unrestricted Special Purpose funds during the year 
totaled $4.7 million. Bureau activities, such as the National Air 
and Space Museum Theater and the membership programs of the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum, generated revenues of $2,925,000, while 
gifts, interest earned on the investment of bureau fund balances, 
zoo parking revenues, and other miscellaneous income accounted 
for an additional $1,786,000. Also included in this fund category 
are allocations for the Collections Acquisition, Scholarly Studies, 
and Educational Outreach programs, for pre- and postdoctoral fel- 
lowship awards, and for revenue-sharing to bureaux housing cen- 

40 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Table 4. Restricted Operating Trust Funds* 

Fiscal Years 1980-1982 

(In $l,000's) 



Gifts Misc. 














end of 






FY 1980 — Total $2,349 $2,257 

FY 1981— Total $2,591 $2,978 

FY 1982: 

National Museum of 

Natural History $ 973 $ 337 


Observatory 57 51 

Tropical Research 

Institute 24 49 

National Air and 

Space Museum 61 24 

Chesapeake Bay Center . 3 — 

Other Science 230 197 

National Museum of 

American History 77 330 

National Museum of 

American Art 69 51 

National Portrait Gallery. 30 124 

Hirshhorn Museum 67 355 

Freer Gallery of Art .... 972 50 

Archives of American Art 28 314 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum . 66 180 
Traveling Exhibition 

Service 24 235 

Office of Museum 

Programs 19 331 

All Other 186 526 

Total FY 1982 $2,886 $3,154 





$ (773) 

$ (290) 






$ (111) 

$ 972 




$1,810 $ 


$ (505) $ 






























— 407 


— 29 

— 259 

238 — 











- (73) 





— 324 





— 125 





- (173) 





— 37 





12 — 338 
693 19 94 


$ 781 


$6,571 $ (77) $ 173 


f Does not include Federal Agency Grants and Contracts. 

Financial Report I 41 

Table 5. Unrestricted Special Purpose Funds 

Fiscal Years 1980-1982 

(In $l,000's) 

Revenue Deductions 

Gifts Bu- Net Fund 

Bu- and Pro- reau in- bal- 

reau other Total Trans- gram activ- crease ance 

Invest- activ- rev- rev- fers in ex- ity ex- (de- end of 

Item ment ities enue enue (out) pense pense crease) year 

FY 1980 $430 $2,049 $ 771 $3,250 $4,252 $7,361 $1,813 $ (1,672) $ 9,895 

FY 1981 $589 $3,333 $1,105 $5,027 $4,766 $4,844 $2,245 $ 2,704 $12,599 

FY 1982: 
National Museum 

of Natural 

History $ 42 $ 4 $ 32 $ 78 $ 475 $ 501 $ 1 $ 51 $ 387 


Observatory . 6 118 73 197 523 514 143 63 597 

Tropical Research 

Institute — — 3 3 134 141 5 (9) 81 

National Air and 

Space Museum 336 2,003 31 2,370 (179) 633 1,360 198 3,036 

Chesapeake Bay 

Center 2 35 11 48 80 92 27 9 34 

National Zoo- 
logical Park 186 — 206 392 8 77 — 323 1,618 
Other Science 39 — 3 42 137 92 — 87 233 
National Museum 

of American 

History 23 13 80 116 132 235 9 4 277 

National Museum 

of American 

Art 14 6 97 117 140 279 5 (27) 170 


Portrait Gallery 7 9 30 46 511 547 2 8 70 


Museum 18 — 44 62 39 113 — (12) 137 


Museum — 590 78 668 5 273 514 (114) (81) 

National Museum 

of African Art — 13 3 16 146 1 20 141 143 

Liability Reserves — — — — — — — — 3,330 

Unallocated Coll. 

Acq., Schol. 

Studies, and 

Outreach — — — — (197) — — (197) 73 

Fellowships — — — — 822 668 — 154 627 

Museum Support 

Center Equip.. _____ i _ (1) 749 

All Other 46 134 376 556 8 741 97 (274) 1,522 

Total FY 1982 $719 $2,925 $1,067 $4,711 $2,784 $4,908 $2,183 $ 404 $13,003 

trally managed shop and concession activities. As specified by the 
Bylaws of the Regents, transfers were made to endowment of 
otherwise unrestricted bequests received during the year. 

Unrestricted General Purpose fund revenue is derived primarily 
from investment income and net revenues of the auxiliary activi- 
ties. After deduction of auxiliary activity expenses, net general 
unrestricted funds provided some $11 million for general Institu- 
tional purposes, a decrease of approximately $3.5 million, or 24 
percent, from the previous year (see Table 6). 

Several factors have contributed to this reduction in income, 
including lower postal subsidies to nonprofit organizations, lower 
museum visitation, limiting of summer evening hours to the Na- 
tional Zoological Park and the National Air and Space Museum, 
and higher expenses, particularly as related to the recording pro- 
gram of the Division of Performing Arts. Unanticipated costs of 
promotion and record production combined with an unfortunately 
high rate of bad debts and inventory adjustments resulted in a net 
loss to this activity of more than $2.5 million. Of net revenues 
generated by the auxiliary activities, some $8.1 million was from 
the Associates programs. The Smithsonian magazine was respon- 
sible for the majority of this income, continuing its success of pre- 
vious years. Sizable surpluses totaling over $1.5 million were also 
generated by the Museum Shops, the Mail Order Division, and the 
Smithsonian Institution Press, which in fiscal year 1982 was re- 
organized to include the publishing activities of the Smithsonian 
Exposition Books. Income generated by concessions, parking, and 
food services provided an additional $1.5 million, which was some- 
what below last year's results, due primarily to lower visitation 
and the costs of converting two concessionaire-managed food fa- 
cilities (at the National Air and Space Museum and the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden) to Smithsonian-run operations. 

Notwithstanding the decline in unrestricted general purpose rev- 
enues, continued support was provided a wide range of administra- 
tive and programmatic activities, including major operating sup- 
port for the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, the Office of Telecommuni- 
cations, Office of Folklife Programs, and the Visitor Information 
and Reception Center. Special allotments were also made for fund- 
raising efforts related to the Quadrangle construction, for the coop- 
erative education and other programs initiated in fiscal year 1981 

Financial Report I 43 

Table 6. Unrestricted Trust Funds — General and Auxiliary Activities 

Fiscal Years 1980-1982 

(In $l,000's) 

Item FY 1980 FY 1981 FY 1982 


General Income: 

Investments $ 2,470 $ 3,123 $ 2,921 

Gifts 14 15 18 

Miscellaneous 140 55 83 

Total General Income 2,624 3,193 3,022 

Auxiliary Activities Income (Net) : 

Associates 6,113 8,691 8,126 

Business Management 

—Museum Shops 1,022 631 856 

— Concessions, Parking and Food Services . . 1,938 1,978 1,513 

—Other (191) (251) (322) 

Performing Arts (75) (186) (2,544) 

Smithsonian Press* 557 767 670 

Traveling Exhibitions (268) (226) (298) 

Photo Services (115 ) (35) 11 

Total Auxiliary Activities 8,981 11,369 8,012 

Total Funds Provided (Net) 11,605 14,562 11,034 


Administrative and Program Expense 10,535 12,141 12,505 

Less Administrative Recovery 6,575 7,484 7,825 

Net Expense 3,960 4,657 4,680 

Less Transfers: 

To Special Purpose for Program Purposes . . . 4,307 4,816 3,328 

To Plant Funds 1,281 2,526 1,000 

To Endowment Funds 2,021 2,521 2,021 


ENDING FUND BALANCE $ 5,001 $ 5,043 $ 5,048 

*Includes Smithsonian Exposition Books which was combined with the 
Smithsonian Institution Press in FY 1982. 

to strengthen affirmative-action efforts, for equipment and publica- 
tion costs, as well as for events related to the Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt Centennial and the bicentennial celebration of the Battle 
of Yorktown. 

Transfers to special purpose funds, which totaled $3,328,000, 
provided support, as mentioned earlier, for a variety of acquisition, 

44 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Table 7. Auxiliary Activities 

Fiscal Years 1980-1982 

(In $l,000's) 


and Less Net 

other cost Cross reve- 

rev- of rev- Ex- nue**** 

Activity enue Gifts sales enue penses (loss) 

FY 1980 $72,203 $ 898 $41,569 $31,532 $22,551 $ 8,981 

FY 1981 $83,719 $1,329 $45,866 $39,182 $27,813 $11,369 

FY 1982: 

Associates $55,037 $1,757 $38,293 $18,501 $10,375 $ 8,126 

Business Management: 

—Museum Shops* 18,330 — 11,449 6,881 6,025 856 

— Concessions/Parking/ 

Food Services 4,933 — 1,076 3,857 2,344 1,513 

—Other** 363 — — 363 685 (322) 

Performing Arts 5,721 — 2,618 3,103 5,647 (2,544) 

Smithsonian Press*** . . . 7,310 — 2,321 4,989 4,319 670 

Traveling Exhibitions . . . 869 — 398 471 769 (298) 
Photo Services 

(Administration) 105 — 11 94 83 11 

Total FY 1982 . . . $92,668 $1,757 $56,166 $38,259 $30,247 $ 8,012 

*Includes Museum Shops and Mail Order. 
**Includes Business Management Office and Belmont. 
***Includes Smithsonian Exposition Books, which was combined with the 
Smithsonian Institution Press in FY 1982. 

****Before revenue-sharing transfers to participating Smithsonian bureaux of 
$381,000 (FY 1980); $390,000 (FY 1981); and $380,000 (FY 1982). 

education, research, and outreach projects. These allocations al- 
lowed the purchase of significant works including a major collec- 
tion of West African textiles, a portrait of Thomas Jefferson 
painted by Gilbert Stuart, and two seventeenth-century Chinese 
scroll paintings by Tao-chi. The funds permitted extension of the 
Institution's outreach through special lectures and concerts, radio 
features on Smithsonian activities, and programs for the elderly 
and institutionalized, and also furthered research in such diverse 
areas as the ecological impact of the Africanized honeybees in Cen- 
tral America, the behavioral ecology of reef sharks, and the devel- 
opment of an oral history on the origins of modern astronomy and 

Financial Report I 45 

astrophysics. An additional amount of $1 million was transferred 
to plant funds for Quadrangle development, and $2,021,000 to un- 
restricted endowment principal to ensure income for future needs. 

Special Foreign Currency Program 

Foreign currencies accumulated from sales of surplus agricultural 
commodities under Public Law 83-480, determined by the Treasury 
Department to be in excess of the normal needs of the United 
States, are made available to the Smithsonian through the Special 
Foreign Currency Program. An appropriation of excess foreign cur- 
rencies equivalent to $4,320,000 was received under this program 
in fiscal year 1982. Some $3.4 million was used to continue a pro- 
gram of grants to United States institutions for field research 
and advanced professional training in the countries of Burma, 
India, and Pakistan. Fields of study focused on areas of traditional 
Smithsonian competence, including archaeology and related disci- 
plines, systematic and environmental biology, astrophysics and 
earth sciences, and museum programs. The balance of funds ap- 
propriated — $960,000 — was provided for the international effort to 
preserve the monumental site of Moenjodaro in Pakistan. This ap- 
propriation represented the first increment of a total of $4 million 
equivalent in nonconvertible Pakistani currency expected to be 

Table 8. Special Foreign Currency Program 

Fiscal Year 1982 — Obligations 

(In $l,000's) 



atic and 






$ 15 



$ 2 



$ — 

$ — 

$ — 

$ 17 




$ 446 

$ 64 

$ 236 

$ 66 


46 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

sought by the Institution as the United States' contribution toward 
the project. Obligations during the fiscal year by research discipline 
and country are provided in Table 8. 


Funding provided for construction and renovation projects at the 
Institution totaled $12,962,000 in fiscal year 1982, as shown in 
Table 9. Of this amount, $9,744,000 was from federal appropria- 
tions, and $3,218,000 was from nonappropriated trust funds. 

An appropriation of $7,680,000 was provided for major repairs, 
renovation, and building improvements to Smithsonian facilities, 
with a further $1,104,000 designated specifically for buildings and 
exhibits of the National Zoological Park. Projects supported by 
these appropriations included maintenance of building exteriors, 
particularly of the Arts and Industries Building and the Renwick 
Gallery; renovations to protect the safety, security, and health of 
the public, staff, and collections; elimination of architectural bar- 
riers to assure accessibility for disabled persons; energy conserva- 
tion efforts; and programmatic modifications to outlying research 
and animal preservation facilities. 

An additional $960,000 was provided for Quadrangle develop- 
ment planning, marking the first federal appropriation for this 
project for which planning has been underway since 1978 with 
support from unrestricted trust funds. The Quadrangle represents 
a special partnership of federal and nonfederal funding; of the 
anticipated total construction cost of $75 million, one-half will be 
provided from federal appropriations and one-half from nonappro- 
priated sources. As of the end of the fiscal year, gifts for the 
Quadrangle, transfers from unrestricted trust funds, and earned 
interest totaled some $9,656,000; together with additional com- 
mitments from outside sources, anticipated revenues from the sale 
of real estate, and planned unrestricted trust fund transfers in the 
future, over $27.6 million of the $37.5 million has been raised. In 
recognition of the success of fund-raising efforts and of the Insti- 
tution's commitment to the project, a construction appropriation of 
$36.5 million was passed in October 1982, and construction will 
commence early in 1983. 

Financial Report I 47 

Table 9. Construction and Plant Funds Fiscal Years 1980-1982 

(In $l,000's) 

Sources FY 1980 FY 1981 FY 1982 


Federal Appropriations: 

National Zoological Park $ 6,250 $ 3,290 $ 1,104 

Restoration & Renovation of Buildings 5,250 7,539 7,680 

Museum Support Center 20,600* 5,000 — 

Quadrangle — — 960 

Total Federal Appropriations 32,100 15,829 9,744 

Nonappropriated Trust Funds: 
Income — Gift and Other 

Special Exhibits Gallery — 307 1 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 104 175 31 

American Art & Portrait Gallery Bldg — — 183 

Quadrangle 1,051 2,115 1,650 

Smithsonian Institution Bldg. South Entrance — — 64 

Bequest of Real Estate — — 225 

Horticulture Greenhouse — 11 — 

Total Income 1,155 2,608 2,154 

Transfers from Current Funds : 

Chesapeake Bay Center 39 300 — 

Tropical Research Institute — 26 — 

Museum Support Center — 750 — 

National Museum of African Art 22 24 24 

Quadrangle 1,040 1,340 1,040 

East Garden 241 110 — 

Total Transfers 1,342 2,550 1,064 

Total Funds Provided $34,597 $20,987 $12,962 

*Obligation authority of $19 million deferred until FY 1981 on instructions from 
Office of Management and Budget. 

Other nonappropriated fund receipts included a gift for renova- 
tion of the south entrance to the Smithsonian Institution Building, 
a settlement for damages to the American Art and Portrait Gallery 
building that were done during Metro subway construction, a 
bequest of real estate which was subsequently transferred to the 
endowment funds, and interest paid on unexpended fund balances. 
Funds also were transferred for mortgage payments on property 
occupied by the National Museum of African Art. 

48 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Table 10. Endowment and Similar Funds September 30, 1982 

Book value Market value 


Pooled Consolidated Endowment Funds: 

Cash and Equivalents $ 8,919,165 $ 8,919,165 

Bonds 13,341,192 14,451,431 

Convertible Bonds 814,000 900,000 

Stocks 59,806,844 64,587,546 

Total Pooled Funds 82,881,201 88,858,142 

Nonpooled Endowment Funds: 

Notes Receivable 100,020 100,020 

Loan to U.S. Treasury in Perpetuity 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Bonds 39,769 39,700 

Common Stocks 1,999 8,100 

Land 225,000 225,000 

Total Nonpooled Funds 1,366,788 1,372,820 

Total Endowment and Similar Fund Balances .... $84,247,989 $90,230,962 


Unrestricted Purpose: True Endowment $ 3,023,414 $ 3,781,557 

Quasi Endowment 32,742,990 33,378,487 

Total Unrestricted Purpose 35,766,404 37,160,044 

Restricted Purpose: True Endowment 36,319,845 40,129,316 

Quasi Endowment 12,161,740 12,941,602 

Total Restricted Purpose 48,481,585 53,070,918 

Total Endowment and Similar Fund Balances .... $84,247,989 $90,230,962 

Endowment and Similar Funds 

The market value of Smithsonian Endowment Funds was 
$90,231,000 on September 30, 1982, as compared to $79,025,000 
on September 30, 1981. The majority of these funds — $88,858,000 
— is invested in the Pooled Consolidated Endowment fund under 
outside investment management; $1 million is on permanent de- 
posit with the United States Treasury; and the remaining $373,000 
is held in miscellaneous securities and donated real estate. Approxi- 
mately 59 percent of the endowments, as shown in Table 10, are 

Financial Report I 49 

Table 11. Market Values of Pooled Consolidated Endowment Funds 

(In $l,000's) 

Fund 9/30/78 9/30/79 9/30/80 9/30/81 9/30/82 

Unrestricted $18,114 $22,614 $28,384 $30,399 $35,974 

Freer 16,807 18,303 20,771 20,472 22,596 

Other Restricted 22,109 24,639 28,175 27,101 30,288 

Total $57,030 $65,556 $77,330 $77,972 $88,858 

restricted, with income available only for purposes specified by the 
donor. The remaining 41 percent — or $37,160,000 — are unre- 
stricted, with income available for general Institutional purposes; 
certain of these unrestricted funds, however, such as the Lindbergh 
Chair of Aerospace History, have been designated internally for 
specific purposes, as noted in Table 13, which lists all Smithsonian 

Investment management of the Pooled Consolidated Endowment 
fund is conducted by three professional advisory firms under the 
oversight of the Investment Policy Committee and the Treasurer, 
and subject to guidelines established by the Board of Regents. As 
of the end of fiscal year 1982, the firms (with their respective por- 
tions of the fund) were Fiduciary Trust Company of New York 
(50 percent), Batterymarch Financial Management Corp. (31 per- 
cent), and Torray Clark & Company (19 percent). The total rate of 
return for the fund during fiscal year 1982, as calculated by an 
outside investment measurement service, was +15.7 percent (in- 
cluding interest and dividend income as well as market value ap- 
preciation), as compared to +12.1 percent for the Dow Jones In- 
dustrial Average and +9.9 percent for the Standard & Poor's 500 
average (both calculated on the same basis). Table 11 displays the 
market values of the major components of the fund for prior years, 
and the activity during the past year is shown on Table 12. 

The Smithsonian utilizes the Total Return Income policy, which 
defines total investment return as yield (interest and dividends) plus 
appreciation, including both realized and unrealized capital gains. 
A portion of this return is made available for expenditure each 

50 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Table 12. Changes in Pooled Consolidated Endowment Funds 

for Fiscal Year 1982 

(In $i,ooo's) 

Gifts est Market 
Market and and Income value Market 

value trans- divi- paid Sub- appre- value 

Fund 9/30/81 fers dends* out total elation 9/30/82 

Unrestricted $30,399 $ 2,172 $ 2,083 $ 1,158 $33,496 $ 2,478 $35,974 

Freer 20,472 — 1,394 907 20,959 1,637 22,596 

Other Restricted . . 27,101 355 1,862 1,210 28,108 2,180 30,288 

Total $77,972 $ 2,527 $ 5,339 $ 3,275 $82,563 $ 6,295 $88,858 

"Income earned, less managers' fees of $367,138. 

year, and the remainder is retained as principal. This total return 
income payout is determined in advance each year by the Board 
of Regents based on studies of anticipated interest and dividend 
yields, the Institution's programmatic needs, inflationary factors, 
and the five-year running average of market values, adjusted for 
capital additions or withdrawals. The income payout rate for fiscal 
year 1982 to restricted purpose endowments in the Pooled Consoli- 
dated Endowment fund constituted an 8 percent increase over the 
prior year, while the payout to unrestricted endowments was re- 
duced from the earlier level, permitting a proportionately greater 
reinvestment for unrestricted endowments. After the income payout 
of $3,275,000 during the year, a total of $2,064,000 of excess inter- 
est and dividend yield was reinvested into endowment principal. 
A full listing of all endowment funds is shown on Table 13. De- 
tail of the securities held in the Pooled Consolidated Endowment 
fund as of September 30, 1982, may be obtained upon request 
from the Treasurer of the Institution. 

Financial Report I 51 

Table 13. Endowment Funds September 30, 1982 









Avery Fund* $ 97,414 

Higbee, Harry, Memorial 27,592 

Hodgkins Fund* 194,654 

Morrow, Dwight W 163,348 

Mussinan, Alfred 53,367 

Olmsted, Helen A 1,736 

Poore, Lucy T. and George W.* 371,458 

Porter, Henry Kirke, Memorial 604,525 

Sanford, George H.* 2,980 

Smithson, James* 541,380 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux, 

Research (Designated)* 964,960 

Subtotal 3,023,414 


Forrest, Robert Lee 2,685,284 

General Endowment* 27,264,305 

Goddard, Robert H 21,246 

Habel, Dr. S.* 500 

Hart, Gustavus E 1,274 

Henry, Caroline 3,159 

Henry, Joseph and Harriet A 127,408 

Heys, Maude C 256,292 

Hinton, Carrie Susan 66,298 

Lambert, Paula C 118,616 

Medinus, Grace L 2,533 

Rhees, William Jones* 1,822 

Safford, Clara Louise 116,070 

Smithsonian Bequest Fund* 514,021 

Taggart, Ganson 1,030 

Abbott, William L. (Designated) 307,133 

Barstow, Frederic D. (Designated) 2,573 

Lindbergh Chair of Aerospace History 

(Designated) 1,234,468 

Lindbergh, Charles A. (Designated) 8,249 

Lyon, Marcus Ward, Jr. (Designated) 10,709 

Subtotal 32,742,990 

Total Unrestricted Purpose $35,766,404 


Arthur, James $ 83,720 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton 76,335 

Barney, Alice Pike, Memorial 60,030 

Batchelor, Emma E 83,150 

Beauregard, Catherine, Memorial 100,892 

Brown, Roland W 67,465 

Canfield, Frederick A 82,706 

Casey, Thomas Lincoln 32,305 

Chamberlain, Frances Lea 58,940 

Cooper Fund for Paleobiology 34,482 

Division of Mammals Curators Fund 4,520 

Drake Foundation 416,067 

Dykes, Charles, Bequest 110,937 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort 22,748 

Freer, Charles L 20,408,648 

Grimm, Sergei N 78,053 

Guggenheim, Daniel and Florence 299,577 

Hamilton, James* 3,357 

Henderson, Edward P., Meteorite Fund 819 

Hewitt, Eleanor G., Repair Fund 17,728 

Hewitt, Sarah Cooper 104,884 

Hillyer, Virgil 16,939 

Hitchcock, Albert S 3,314 































































$ — 0— 

— 0— 
— 0— 
— 0— 
— 0— 





$37,160,044 $ 1,215,771 $ 145,778 

111,774 $ 4,485 ! 

i 3,793 


















— 0— 







































— 0— 



— 0— 







Table 13. Endowment Funds September 30, 1982 — continued 






































— 0— 









— 0— 



— 0— 






— 0— 





































Hodgkins Fund* 100,000 

Hrdlicka, Ales and Marie 122,202 

Hughes, Bruce 40,072 

Johnson, Seward, Trust Fund for Oceanography 8,427,739 

Kellogg, Remington, Memorial 62,125 

Kramar, Nada 6,861 

Lindsey, Jessie H.* 11,502 

Maxwell, Mary E 41,062 

Milliken, H. Oothout, Memorial 523 

Mineral Endowment 237,330 

Mitchell, William A 32,287 

Natural History and Conservation 48,754 

Nelson, Edward William 49,105 

Petrocelli, Joseph, Memorial 15,531 

Reid, Addison T.» 56,831 

Roebling Fund 252,498 

Rollins, Miriam and William 480,772 

Shryock Endowment for Docents 1,637 

Sims, George W.» 35,513 

Sprague Fund 3,299,159 

Springer, Frank 37,806 

Stern, Harold P., Memorial 345,307 

Stevenson, John A., Mycological Library 12,403 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux, Research.. 309,242 

Walcott Research Fund, Botanical Publications.. 120,197 

Williston, Samuel Wendell, Diptera Research . . 3,787 

Zerbee, Frances Brinckle 1,984 

Subtotal 36,319,845 


Armstrong, Edwin James 7,306 

Au Panier Fleuri 51,126 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy 229,001 

Becker, George F 394,028 

Desautels, Paul E 25,714 

Gaver, Gordon 3,061 

Hachenberg, George P. and Caroline 10,526 

Hanson, Martin Gustav and Caroline R 22,908 

Hunterdon Endowment 7,499,981 

International Council for Bird Preservation 211,131 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore 19,938 

Loeb, Morris 225,533 

Long, Annette E. and Edith C 1,144 

Myer, Catherine Walden 52,065 

Noyes, Frank B 2,529 

Noyes, Pauline Riggs 24,073 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston 19,145 

Ramsey, Admiral and Mrs. Dewitt Clinton* . . . 738,020 

Rathbun, Richard, Memorial 27,456 

Roebling Solar Research 62,652 

Ruef, Bertha M 77,744 

Schultz, Leonard P 19,979 

Seidell, Atherton 1,564,818 

Smithsonian Agency Account 513,685 

Strong, Julia D 25,806 

Witherspoon, Thomas A., Memorial 332,371 

Subtotal 12,161,740 

Total Restricted Purpose $48,481,585 












— 0— 









— 0— 

























































— 0— 






— 0— 


$53,070,918 $ 2,130,742 $ 1,850,662 

$90,230,962 $ 3,346,513** $ 1,996,440 

'Invested all or in part in U.S. Treasury or other nonpooled investments. 

**Total Return Income payout; does not include $238,436 of interest income for investment of unex- 
pended income balances. 

Related Organizations 

The Science Information Exchange, Inc., which has served as a 
national source for information on research in progress since its 
founding in 1949, ceased operation on October 31, 1981; a certifi- 
cate of dissolution was granted in June 1982. Under a contract with 
the Department of Commerce, the Institution has continued dur- 
ing the past year to provide the Exchange with administrative and 
fiscal services necessary to closing out the operation, transferring 
the assets to the Department of Commerce, and paying the out- 
standing net liabilities. All operations are expected to be closed 
out by June 1983. 

Reading is Fundamental, Inc., associated with the Institution 
since 1968, is an independent, separately incorporated entity dedi- 
cated to the improvement of reading abilities in children. Primary 
support is derived from private contributions and a federal con- 
tract with the Department of Education to operate the federal 
Inexpensive Book Distribution Program. 

The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, the 
National Gallery of Art, and the John F. Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts were established by Congress within the Institu- 
tion but are administered by separate boards of trustees. Inde- 
pendent financial reports are prepared by each of these organiza- 
tions. Office space and fiscal and other administrative and support 
activities are provided the Woodrow Wilson International Center 
for Scholars on a reimbursement basis. 

The Friends of the National Zoo (fonz) is an independent, non- 
profit corporation working closely with the National Zoological 
Park. It operates, under contract, a number of beneficial conces- 
sions for the National Zoo; fonz provided concession and rental 
fees to the Zoo amounting to approximately $268,000 during cal- 
endar year 1981 (fonz's fiscal year). In addition, fonz contributed 
other important financial and volunteer support to Zoo programs. 
Financial affairs of this organization are described separately else- 
where in Smithsonian Year 1982. 

54 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Accounting and Auditing 

The nonappropriated trust funds of the Institution are audited an- 
nually by an independent public accounting firm. In order to pro- 
vide a comprehensive audit of all Smithsonian funds, this inde- 
pendent verification has been extended in fiscal year 1982 to cover 
appropriated funds as well, and the report of Coopers & Lybrand 
is contained in the following pages. Additional reviews are con- 
ducted annually on a number of Smithsonian activities by the in- 
ternal audit staff. Additionally, the Defense Contract Audit Agency 
conducts an annual audit of grants and contracts received from 
federal agencies, as well as their allocated administrative costs. 

The Audit and Review Committee of the Regents met during the 
year pursuant to their responsibility, under the bylaws of the Insti- 
tution, for reviewing the Smithsonian's accounting systems and 
internal financial controls; for facilitating communication between 
the Board of Regents and auditors from the internal audit staff, 
the independent accounting firm, and the General Accounting 
Office; and for reviewing operations of the Institution for compli- 
ance with approved programs and policies. 

Financial Report I 55 



To the Board of Regents 
Smithsonian Institution 

We have examined the statement of financial condition of the 
Smithsonian Institution as of September 30, 1982 and the related 
statement of financial activity for the year then ended. Our exam- 
ination was made in accordance with generally accepted auditing 
standards and with generally accepted governmental auditing stan- 
dards and, accordingly, included such tests of the accounting rec- 
ords and such other auditing procedures as we considered neces- 
sary in the circumstances. We previously examined and separately 
reported upon the statements of the trust funds and the statements 
of the federal appropriations of the Smithsonian Institution for the 
year ended September 30, 1981, combined totals of which are in- 
cluded in the accompanying financial statements for comparative 
purposes only. 

In our opinion, the financial statements for the year ended Sep- 
tember 30, 1982, referred to above, present fairly the financial 
position of the Smithsonian Institution as of September 30, 1982, 
and the results of operations and changes in fund balances for the 
year then ended, in conformity with generally accepted accounting 
principles applied on a basis consistent with that of the preceding 


1800 M Street, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20036 
December 14, 1982 

56 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Statement of Financial Condition 

September 30, 1982 

with comparative totals for September 30, 1981 

(thousands of dollars) 


Trust Federal all Totals, 

funds funds funds 1981 


Cash on hand and in banks (Note 3) $ 2,632 $ 46 $ 2,678 $ 900 

Fund balance with U.S. Treasury (Note 4) 407 38,080 38,487 32,473 

Investments (Notes 5 and 6) 109,551 — 109,551 103,234 

Receivables (Note 7) 21,751 51 21,802 20,321 

Advance payments (Note 8) 631 6,441 7,072 22,460 

Merchandise inventory (Note 1) 9,902 — 9,902 7,462 

Materials and supplies inventory (Note 1) 1,518 1,135 2,653 2,224 
Amount to be provided for accrued 

annual leave — 6,163 6,163 5,847 

Prepaid and deferred expense (Note 1) . . 8,771 — 8,771 6,329 

Property and equipment (Notes 1 and 9) . 18,430 179,617 198,047 177,633 

$173,593 $231,533 $405,126 $378,883 

Accounts payable and accrued expenses, 

including interfund payable of $9,427 

(Note 7) $ 17,944 $ 7,795 $ 25,739 $ 21,137 

Deposits held in custody for other 

organizations (Note 2) 2,265 35 2,300 1,993 

Accrued annual leave (Note 1) 831 6,163 6,994 6,627 

Deferred revenue (Note 1) 20,061 — 20,061 16,713 

Total liabilities 41,101 13,993 55,094 46,470 

UNDELIVERED ORDERS — 30,929 30,929 39,458 


Unrestricted general purpose 5,048 — 5,048 5,043 

Special purpose 13,003 — 13,003 12,599 

Restricted 5,906 — 5,906 5,951 

Endowment and similar funds (Note 6) . . 84,248 — 84,248 75,458 

Plant funds (Note 9) 24,287 — 24,287 21,312 

Total trust fund balances 132,492 — 132,492 120,363 

Operating funds ~ — 202 202 379 

Construction funds — 5,657 5,657 9,007 

Capital funds — 180,752 180,752 163,206 

Total federal fund balances — 186,611 186,611 172,592 

Total all fund balances 132,492 186,611 319,103 292,955 

Total liabilities, undelivered 

orders and fund balances $173,593 $231,533 $405,126 $378,883 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements. 

Financial Report I 57 

Statement of Financial Activity 

Year ended September 30, 1982 

with comparative totals for the year ended September 30, 1981 
(thousands of dollars) 


ment and 
Current similar Plant 

funds funds funds 


— 1,049 
3,880 — 

44 927 

— 1,871 

— 178 


3,924 4,025 

— 1,865 

Revenue and other additions: 

Appropriations $ — $ — 

Auxiliary activities revenue 95,593 95,593 

Federal grants and contracts 13,217 13,217 

Investment income (net of $367,000 for 

management and custodian fees) 9,635 8,586 

Net gain on sale of securities 3,884 4 

Gifts, bequests and foundation grants 6,205 5,234 

Additions to plant (Note 9) 1,871 — 

Rentals, fees, commissions and other 2,372 2,194 

Total revenue and other additions 132,777 124,828 

Expenditures and other deductions: 

Research and educational expenditures 23,521 23,521 

Administrative expenditures 8,810 8,810 

Facilities services expenditures 1,275 1,275 

Auxiliary activities expenditures 85,153 85,153 

Expenditures for acquisition of plant 

(Note 9) 1,865 — 

Property use and retirements (Note 9) — — 

Retirement of indebtedness 6 — 

Interest on indebtedness 18 — 

Endowment reimbursement (Note 6) — — 

Total expenditures and other deductions . 120,648 118,759 

Excess of revenue and other additions 
over (under) expenditures 
and other deductions (Note 11) 12,129 6,069 

Transfers to government agencies — — 

Transfers among funds — additions (deductions) : 

Mandatory principal and interest on notes .... — (24) 

Nonmandatory for designated purposes, net 

(Note 12) (5,681) 

Total transfers among funds 

Net increase (decrease) for the year . . 

Returned to U.S. Treasury 

Fund balances at beginning of year 

Fund balances at end of year 

— 1,889 

3,924 2,136 












$ 23,957 



The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements. 


Total Operat- Construc- 

federal ing tion Capital Totals, Totals, 

funds funds funds funds all funds 1981 

$145,234 $135,490 $ 9,744 $ — $145,234 $141,957 

— — — — 95,593 87,052 

— — — — 13,217 14,172 

























































(52) (3,350) 17,546 26,273 32,688 

(125) — — (125) (64) 

379 9,007 163,206 292,955 260,331 

$186,611 $ 202 $ 5,657 $180,752 $319,103 $292,955 

Notes to Financial Statements 

1. Summary of significant accounting policies 

Basis of Presentation. These financial statements do not include the accounts 
of the National Gallery of Art, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Perform- 
ing Arts or the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, which 
were established by Congress within the Smithsonian Institution (Institution) 
but are administered under separate boards of trustees. (See Note 2.) 

The accounts of the federal funds have been prepared on the obligation basis 
of accounting, which basis is in accordance with accounting principles pre- 
scribed by the Comptroller General of the United States as set forth in the 
Policy and Procedures Manual for Guidance of Federal Agencies. The obliga- 
tion basis of accounting differs in some respects from generally accepted 
accounting principles. Under this basis of accounting, commitments, such as 
purchase orders and contracts, are recognized as expenditures, and the related 
obligations are reported on the balance sheet even though goods and services 
have not been received. Such commitments aggregate $30,929,000 at Sep- 
tember 30, 1982. 

The trust funds reflect the receipt and expenditure of funds obtained from 
private sources, from federal grants and contracts and from certain business 
activities related to the operations of the Institution. The federal funds reflect 
the receipt and expenditures of funds obtained from Congressional appro- 

Fund accounting. To ensure observance of limitations and restrictions placed 
on the use of resources available to the Institution, the accounts of the 
Institution are maintained in accordance with the principles of fund account- 
ing. This is the procedure by which resources for various purposes are classi- 
fied for funds control, accounting and reporting purposes into funds estab- 
lished according to their appropriation, nature and purposes. Separate ac- 
counts are maintained for each fund; however, in the accompanying finan- 
cial statements, funds that have similar characteristics have been combined 
into fund groups. Accordingly, all financial transactions have been recorded 
and reported by fund group. 

The assets, liabilities and fund balances of the Institution are reported in 
self-balancing fund groups as follows: 

Trust current funds, which include unrestricted resources, represent the 
portion of expendable funds that is available for support of Institution 
operations. Amounts restricted by the donor for specific purposes are 
segregated from other current funds. 

60 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Trust endowment and similar funds include funds that are subject to 
restrictions of gift instruments requiring in perpetuity that the princi- 
pal be invested and the income only be used. Also classified as endow- 
ment and similar funds are gifts which allow the expenditure of princi- 
pal but only under certain specified conditions and quasi-endowment 
funds. Quasi-endowment funds are funds established by the governing 
board for the same purposes as endowment funds; however, any portion 
of such funds may be expended. Restricted quasi-endowment funds rep- 
resent gifts for restricted purposes where there is no stipulation that the 
principal be maintained in perpetuity or for a period of time, but the 
governing board has elected to invest the principal and expend only the 
income for the purpose stipulated by the donor. 

Trust plant funds represent resources restricted for future plant acquisi- 
tions and funds expended for plant. 

Federal operating funds represent the portion of expendable funds that is 
available for support of Institution operations. Separate subfund groups 
are maintained for each appropriation — Salaries and Expenses appropria- 
tions, Special Foreign Currency appropriations, and Barro Colorado 
Island Trust Fund. 

The balance of this fund represents amounts available for support of 
specific Institution operations including the Special Foreign Currency 
Program, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Appropriations, and Barro Colorado 
Island Trust Fund. 

Federal construction funds represent the portion of expendable funds 
that is available for building and facility construction, restoration, reno- 
vation and repair. Separate subfund groups are maintained for each ap- 
propriation — Construction and Improvements, National Zoological Park, 
Restoration and Renovation of Buildings and Museum Support Center. 

Federal capital funds represent the amount of the investment of the 
United States Government in the net assets of the Institution acquired 
with federal funds and nonexpendable property transfers from Govern- 
ment agencies. 

Investments. All gains and losses arising from the sale, collection or other 
disposition of investments are accounted for in the fund in which the related 
assets are recorded. Income from investments is accounted for in a similar 
manner, except for income derived from investments of endowment and simi- 
lar funds, which is accounted for in the fund to which it is restricted or, if 
unrestricted, as revenue in unrestricted current funds. 

Merchandise inventory. Inventories are carried at the lower of cost or market. 
Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method, or retail cost 
method (for those inventories held for resale). 

Materials and supplies inventory. Inventories of materials and supplies are 
carried at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the first-in, 
first-out (FIFO) method. 

Deferred revenue and expense. Revenue from subscriptions to Smithsonian 
Magazine is recorded as income over the period of the related subscription, 

Financial Report I 61 

which is one year. Costs related to obtaining subscriptions to Smithsonian 
Magazine are charged against income over the period of the subscription. 

The Institution recognizes revenue and charges expenses of other auxiliary 
activities during the period in which the activity is conducted. 

Works of art, living or other specimens. The Institution acquires its collec- 
tions, which include works of art, library books, photographic archives, ob- 
jects and specimens, through purchase or by donation of the items them- 
selves. In accordance with policies generally followed by museums, no value 
is assigned to the collections on the statement of financial condition. Pur- 
chases for the collections are expensed currently. 

Property and equipment. Capital improvements and equipment purchased 
with trust funds and utilized in income-producing activities are capitalized at 
cost and are depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful 
lives of three to ten years. All other capital improvements and equipment 
purchased with trust funds are expensed currently. 

Real estate (land and buildings) purchased with trust funds is recorded at 
cost, to the extent that restricted or unrestricted funds were expended there- 
for, or appraised value at date of gift, except for gifts of certain islands in 
the Chesapeake Bay and the Carnegie Mansion, which have been recorded at 
nominal values. Depreciation on buildings purchased with trust funds is 
not recorded. 

Buildings and other structures, additions to buildings and fixed equipment 
purchased with federal funds are recorded at cost and depreciated on a 
straight-line basis over a period of 30 years. 

Certain lands occupied by the Smithsonian Institution's buildings were ap- 
propriated and reserved by the Congress for that purpose and are not re- 
flected in the accompanying financial statements. Property and nonexpendable 
equipment acquired through transfer from Government agencies are capi- 
talized at the transfer price or at estimated amounts taking into consideration 
their usefulness, condition and market value. Nonexpendable equipment pur- 
chased with federal funds is recorded at cost depreciated on a straight-line 
basis over a period of 10 years. 

Government contracts. The Institution has a number of contracts with the 
U.S. Government, which primarily provide for cost reimbursement to the 
Institution. Contract revenue is recognized when billable or received in the 
trust funds. 

Contributed services. A substantial number of unpaid volunteers have made 
significant contributions of their time in the furtherance of the Institution's 
programs. The value of this contributed time is not reflected in these state- 
ments since it is not susceptible to objective measurement or valuation. 

Annual leave unfunded. The Institution's civil service employees earn annual 
leave in accordance with federal law and regulations. However, only the 
cost of leave taken as salaries is funded and recorded as an expense. The 
cost of unused annual leave at year-end is reflected in the accompanying 
financial statements as an asset and accrued liability in the federal funds. 

62 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

2. Related activities 

The Institution provides fiscal and administrative services to several sepa- 
rately incorporated organizations in which certain officials of the Institution 
serve on the governing boards. The amounts paid to the Institution by these 
organizations for the aforementioned services, together with rent for Institu- 
tion facilities occupied, etc. totaled approximately $323,000 for the year 
ended September 30, 1982. The following summarizes the approximate ex- 
penditures of these organizations for the fiscal year ended September 30, 
1982 as reflected in their individual financial statements and which are not 
included in the accompanying financial statements of the Institution: 


Smithsonian Science Information Exchange $1,900 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc $7,500 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars — trust funds . . . $3,000 
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars — 

federal appropriations $1,897 

The Smithsonian Science Information Exchange ceased operations as of 
October 31, 1981. The U.S. Department of Commerce provided a grant to 
close down operations and to perfect an orderly liquidation, which is con- 
tinuing with final close-out projected in fiscal year 1983. 

3. Cash on hand — federal funds 

This represents deposits in transit and the amount of imprest fund cash 
advanced by the U.S. Treasury to imprest fund cashiers for small purchasing 

4. Fund balance with U.S. Treasury 

The account represents fund balances on the books of the U.S. Treasury 
available for disbursement. 

5. Investments 

Investments are recorded at cost, if purchased, or fair market value at date 
of acquisition, if acquired by gift. At September 30, 1982, investments are 
composed of the following: 

Carrying Market 

value value 

($000s) ($000s) 

Current funds : 

Certificates of deposit $ 11,977 $ 11,977 

Commercial paper 1,974 1,974 

U.S. Government and quasi-Government obligations . . 12,330 12,515 

Common stock 145 138 

Preferred stock 56 48 

26,482 26,652 

Financial Report I 63 

Endowment and similar funds : 

Money market account 8,066 8,066 

Loan to U.S. Treasury 1,000 1,000 

U.S. Government and quasi-Government obligations . . 10,711 11,641 

Corporate bonds 3,484 3,750 

Common stock 59,256 64,130 

Preferred stock 552 465 

83,069 89,052 

$109,551 $115,704 

Substantially all the investments of the endowment and similar funds are 
pooled on a market value basis (consolidated fund) with each individual fund 
subscribing to or disposing of units on the basis of the value per unit at 
market value at the beginning of the month within which the transaction 
takes place. Of the total units, each having a market value of $148.04, 
290,802 units were owned by endowment, and 309,427 units were owned by 
quasi-endowment at September 30, 1982. 

The following tabulation summarizes changes in relationships between cost 
and market values of the pooled investments: 

($000s) va l U e 

Net per 

Market Cost change unit 

End of year $88,858 $82,881 $5,977 $148.04 

Beginning of year $77,972 $74,411 3,561 134.12 

Increase in unrealized net gain 

for the year 2,416 

Realized net gain for the year 3,880 

Total realized and unrealized 

net gain for the year $6,296 $ 13.92 

6. Endowment and similar funds 

Endowment and similar funds at September 30, 1982 are summarized as 



Endowment funds, income available for: 

Restricted purposes $36,320 

Unrestricted purposes 3,023 

Quasi-endowment funds, principal and income available for: 

Restricted purposes 12,162 

Unrestricted purposes 32,743 

Total endowment and similar funds $84,248 

64 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

The Institution utilizes the "total return" approach to investment manage- 
ment of endowment funds and quasi-endowment funds. Under this approach, 
the total investment return is considered to include realized and unrealized 
gains and losses in addition to interest and dividends. An amount equal to 
the difference between interest and dividends earned during the year and the 
amount computed under the total return formula is transferred to or from 
the current funds. 

In applying this approach, it is the Institution's policy to provide, as being 
available for current expenditures, an amount taking into consideration such 
factors as, but not limited to: (1) 4V2°/o of the five-year average of the mar- 
ket value of each fund (adjusted for gifts and transfers during this period), 
(2) current dividends and interest yield, (3) support needs for bureaus and 
scientists and (4) inflationary factors as measured by the Consumer Price 
Index; however, where the market value of the assets of any endowment 
fund is less than 110% of the historic dollar value (value of gifts at date of 
donation), the amount provided is limited to only interest and dividends 
received. The total return factor for 1982 was $5.94 per unit to the Restricted 
and Designated Purpose Endowment Funds and $5.00 per unit to the Unre- 
stricted General Purpose Endowment Funds; new units were purchased for 
the Unrestricted Endowment Funds with the $.94, the difference in the total 
return factor. The total return applied for 1982 was $2,230,000 to the Re- 
stricted and Designated Purpose Endowment Funds and $1,046,000 to the 
Unrestricted General Purpose Endowment Funds. 

Endowment reimbursement represents payment of income, which had accu- 
mulated in principal of the endowment funds, in accordance with a settle- 
ment related to a lawsuit. 

7. Receivables 

Receivables at September 30, 1982 included the following: 

Trust funds ($000s) 

Accounts receivable, auxiliary activities; net of allowance 

for doubtful accounts of $962,000 in 1982 $ 9,148 

Interfund receivables due from current funds: 

Endowment and similar funds 812 

Plant funds 8,615 

Interest and dividends receivable 2,181 

Unbilled costs and fees from grants and contracts 892 

Other 103 


Federal funds 

Service fees and charges 51 

Total, all funds $21,802 

8. Advance payments 

Advance payments represent advances made to Government agencies, educa- 
tional institutions, firms and individuals for services to be rendered or prop- 
erty or materials to be furnished. 

Financial Report I 65 

As of September 30, 1982, the Institution has advances outstanding to the 
U.S. Government of approximately $4,084,000, principally for construction 
services to be received in the future. The Institution at that date also had 
advances outstanding to educational institutions amounting to approximately 
$2,150,000, principally under the Special Foreign Currency Program. 

9. Property and equipment 

At September 30, 1982, property and equipment which has been capitalized 
(see Note 1) is comprised of the following: 

Current funds ($000s) 

Capital improvements $ 1,949 

Equipment 2,146 

Leasehold improvements 247 

Less accumulated depreciation and amortization 2,026 

Endowment and similar funds 
Land and buildings 225 

Plant funds 

Land and buildings 15,889 

Total, trust funds $ 18,430 

Capital funds 

Property 236,621 

Equipment 26,991 

Less accumulated depreciation 83,995 


Depreciation and amortization expense reflected in expenditures of the cur- 
rent funds for 1982 was $495,000. Depreciation expense reflected in expendi- 
tures of the capital funds of 1982 was $9,619,000. 

The balance of the plant fund at September 30, 1982 includes $8,568,000 of 
unexpended plant funds. 

10. Pension plan 

The Institution has separate retirement plans for trust and federal employees. 
Under the trust fund's plan, both the Institution and employees contribute 
stipulated percentages of salary which are used to purchase individual annui- 
ties, the rights to which are immediately vested with the employees. The cost 
of the plan for the year ended September 30, 1982 was $2,771,000. It is the 
policy of the Institution to fund plan costs accrued currently. There are no 
unfunded prior service costs under the plan. 

The federal employees of the Institution are covered by the Civil Service 
Retirement Program. Under this program, the Institution withholds from the 
gross pay of each federal employee and remits to the Civil Service Retire- 
ment and Disability Fund (Fund) the amounts specified by such program. 

66 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

The Institution contributes 7% of basic annual salary to the Fund. The cost 
of the plan for the year ended September 30, 1982 was approximately 


11. Excess of expenditures and other deductions 

The net excess of expenditures and other deductions over revenue and other 
additions disclosed for federal operating and construction funds in the State- 
ment of Activity for the year ended September 30, 1982 arise because certain 
multiyear appropriations, having been recorded as income in prior years and 
carried forward as fund balance, were expended during the year. 

12. Nonmandatory transfers for designated purposes 

The following transfers among trust funds were made for the year ended 
September 30, 1982 in thousands of dollars: 

Current funds ment an d 

Unre- Re- similar Plant 

stricted stricted funds funds 

Portion of investment yield 

appropriated (Note 5) $ (925) $ (1,139) $2,064 $ — 

Purchase of property and equipment 

for plant fund (83) — 

Future plant acquisitions (917) — 

Income added to endowment principal — (118) 

Appropriated as quasi-endowment . . . (2,259) (200) 

Other designated purposes (281) 241 

Total $(4,465) $(1,216) 












$ 815 

13. Income taxes 

The Institution is exempt from income taxation under the provisions of Sec- 
tion 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Organizations described in that 
section are taxable only on their unrelated business income. The Internal 
Revenue Service has issued a Technical Advice Memorandum to the Institu- 
tion indicating that income derived from sales of certain items in the Museum 
Shops may constitute unrelated business taxable income. The application of 
this memorandum is under discussion with the Internal Revenue Service. 

It is the opinion of the Institution that it is also exempt from taxation as an 
instrumentality of the United States as defined in Section 501(c)(1) of the 
Code. Organizations described in that section are exempt from all income 
taxation. The Institution has not as yet formally sought such dual status but 
intends to do so in the near future. 

Management believes that any income taxes required as a result of settlement 
of these matters would not have a material effect upon the financial position 
of the Institution. 

Financial Report I 67 

From the nmnh's exhibition inua: spirit world of the bering sea eskimo is this cere- 
monial dance mask "Horned Puffin Eating Walrus," collected by Edward W. Nelson. 

Smithsonian Year • 1982 


Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

Effective management of renewable resources is dependent on 
knowledge of the factors that influence the abundance and distri- 
bution of biological populations. A major question to be answered 
for management purposes is the extent to which variations in these 
populations result from the activities of man or from fluctuations 
in natural phenemona (e.g. seasonal and longer-term weather con- 
ditions). Long-term environmental research at the Chesapeake Bay 
Center for Environmental Studies (cbces) is focused on these ques- 
tions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. 

Educational research at the center is focused on a better under- 
standing of the extent and effectiveness of educational processes 
that occur outside the formal school setting. Of particular interest 
are learning in museum-like settings and the role the family may 
play in increasing public understanding of science. 


On-going cbces watershed research focused on the effects of in- 
creased acidity on ecosystem processes and the role of buffer-zone 
forests in modifying runoff from agricultural fields. The former 
study, conducted by David Correll and Deborah Ford, has docu- 
mented a long-term increase in rainfall acidity, with an accom- 
panying increase in hydrogen ion inputs. The data indicate that 


hydrogen ions may be displacing significant amounts of essential 
plant nutrients (magnesium, calcium, potassium) from the soil. 

The second project, conducted by Correll and William Peterjohn, 
showed that riparian forest vegetation is important in removing 
nutrients and sediments from surface and subsurface water. Sur- 
face runoff from a 10 ha experimental cornfield was reduced by 
approximately 4.1 tonnes of particulate matter, 11 kg of particulate 
organic nitrogen, .83 kg of ammonia nitrogen, 2.7 kg of nitrate 
nitrogen, and 3 kg of total particulate phosphorus per ha of ri- 
parian forest. In addition, 45 kg per ha per year of nitrate was 
removed from subsurface water that flowed from the cornfield 
through the riparian forest. This study demonstrated how nutrient 
and sediment removal by the solar-powered natural riparian forests 
can be coupled with intensely managed agro-ecosystems to control 
diffuse source pollution. 


As part of the watershed/estuarine research program, a study was 
conducted by Thomas Jordan, David Correll, and Dennis Whigham 
to determine the roles of high and low elevation estuarine marshes 
in nutrient-exchange processes within the estuary. The study 
showed that both types of marshes imported particulate carbon 
and nitrogen and exported dissolved nitrogen and carbon. Particu- 
late phosphorus was imported, and dissolved phosphorus was 
exported only by the low elevation Typha (cattail marsh). 

Data from the tidal exchange studies were then combined with 
data from the cbces watershed study to determine the relative role 
of the marshes- — compared to tidal mudflats — in over-all nutrient 
flux within the estuarine basin. The marshes were shown to have 
only a minor effect on total mass balance of carbon, nitrogen, and 
phosphorus when compared to the mudflats. The primary role of 
marshes seems to be transformation of particulate nutrients into 
dissolved nutrients. 

In companion studies, Park Rublee, Susan Merkel, and Maria 
Faust studied the role of microorganisms in tidal nutrient transport 
from the Rhode River marshes. Fluxes of bacteria, phytoplankton, 
and several dissolved organic compounds were traced in the high 
and low elevation marshes. Flux calculations suggested a small, 
net import of both bacterial and algal biomass into the marshes. 

70 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

In agreement with the nutrient flux studies, this project showed 
that the primary role of microorganisms in marshes appears to be 
nutrient recycling rather than transport. 

Rublee, Merkel, and Faust also found that bacterial biomass did 
not account for a large portion of the total organic-matter transport 
from the marshes. Their study demonstrated that marsh sediments 
were not an important source of bacterial biomass in ebbing tidal 
waters. By measuring numbers of bacterial cells in sediments, in- 
terstitial water, and overlying water, the researchers were able to 
show that while cells are most numerous in sediments (10 9 cells 
per cc), 99 percent of the bacteria were tightly bound to the 

Additional studies of microbial populations in the estuary were 
conducted by Rublee, Merkel, Faust, and Joe Miklas. They found 
that phytoplankton accounted for 80 percent of the total microbial 
biomass, and that bacterial production — estimated to be between 
1.2 and 50.2 X 10 9 cells per day per liter — requires a significant 
carbon input, most likely from phytoplankton. These findings are 
consistent with the results of earlier work at cbces, which detailed 
the importance of phytoplankton-bacteria interactions in the 

Research on litter dynamics of Rhode River forested and her- 
baceous marshes was conducted by Dennis Whigham and Jay 
O'Neill. The rates of litter generation varied from about 50 to 500 g 
of carbon per m 2 per year. Rates for two forested wetlands were 
200 gC m -2 yr _1 and for two upland forests were 242 9 gC m -2 
yr _1 . The amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus were 
much higher, however, in the litter zone of the intertidal marshes, 
thus demonstrating that the turnover of nutrients from litter is 
slower (approximately 4 years) in those habitats. These data pro- 
vide additional vertification of other studies suggesting that inter- 
tidal marshes of the Rhode River are primarily sites for nutrient 

Although salinity regulates the biological zonation within estu- 
aries, it is difficult to predict community responses to altered 
salinities resulting from floods, droughts, or water use by humans. 
In a "before-during-after" sequence of experiments, Anson Hines 
and Kathryn Comtois have measured the response of bottom- 
dwelling invertebrate communities of the Rhode River estuary to 

Science I 71 

a drought in 1981, which caused a major increase in salinities and 
shifted the salinity regime of Chesapeake Bay "upstream" by 
60-80 miles. The community response to the elevated salinity was 
a major increase in abundance of most species and no significant 
change in several others. Only one species of amphipod crustacean 
declined sharply. Surprisingly, no infaunal species from the lower 
portions of the Chesapeake Bay invaded the Rhode River communi- 
ties, even though elevated salinities persisted for more than a 
year. Continued studies by Hines and Comtois on predation by 
blue crabs and bottom-feeding fish (spot and hog chokers) indi- 
cated that predatory impacts are greatest in the top 5 cm of sedi- 
ment in late summer, when estimated turnover rates of bottom 
invertebrate populations are high. Experiments with predator ex- 
clusion cages placed on the bottom during summer showed signifi- 
cantly higher densities of sedentary infaunal species and higher 
survivorship of clams within caged, compared to uncaged, areas. 
In other experiments, they found that high densities of adult clams 
can reduce larval recruitment of bottom invertebrates. 

Investigation of population dynamics of fish in the Muddy 
Creek/Rhode River estuarine system were continued by Hines and 
Miklas. The over-all goal of this project has been to analyze and 
interpret the causes of annual variations in reproductive success 
and year-class strength of fish that use the system as a spawning 
or nursery area. 

Extensive shoreline seining surveys, otter trawl collections and 
trapping have provided the initial description of spatial, seasonal, 
and annual variations in the population, size and age, structure, 
growth rates, and distributon of the more than twenty common 
speces of fish in the Rhode River. A temporary weir was operated 
for the past several years on Muddy Creek to trap and tag semi- 
anadromous species (white and yellow perch, shad, carp, pumpkin- 
seed, and pickerel, among others) in order to provide accurate 
censuses of the spring spawning runs. Yellow perch and pickerel 
were essentially absent from the system in 1982, and spot, an- 
chovies, and pumpkinseed sunfish also declined. Young striped 
bass and bluefish showed major increases, while populations of 
several species of minnows appeared to remain relatively constant. 
White perch remained at relatively low, but stable, levels. Con- 
struction of a much larger and permanent fish weir was completed 

72 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

in 1982. The weir will be used to continue the longer-term studies 
on annual variations in fish populations. The next phase of the 
project will be to conduct correlation analysis between fish popu- 
lations and parameters of weather and water quality. 


A wide variety of plant and animal research projects were con- 
tinued by James Lynch and Dennis Whigham. Lynch continued 
his research on the community ecology of ants and expanded it to 
include additional study sites in Florida and Mexico. At cbces, 
he and Edward Balinsky focused on the influence of ants on plant 
survivorship during secondary plant succession and studied 
the role of ants as dispersers of plant propagules. Most of the 
common forest herbs that flower and fruit in the spring produce 
specialized seeds that are dispersed by several species of ants. The 
ants carry these seeds to their nest sites where they feed on fleshy 
outgrowths on the seeds. Future work will consider whether ant 
nests are the best sites for seed germination and seedling survival. 
Working with Patricia Mehlhop, a Smithsonian Post-Doctoral 
Fellow, Lynch has expanded his earlier work on ant community 
structure and behavioral ecology to include studies of specialized 
aggressive and foraging behavior by different worker subcastes of 
several ant species. 

Lynch continued his long-term studies of the ecology and 
evolutionary biology of plethodontid salamanders in temperate 
and tropical areas of the New World. This research, which has 
been conducted in collaboration with colleagues at the University 
of California, Berkeley, and the University of Chicago, is currently 
focusing on the degree of ecological and genetic differentiation 
associated with speciation events in Middle America salamanders 
of the genera Bolitoglossa, Chiropterotriton, and Pseudoeurycea. 

Recent results of this research indicate an unexpectedly ancient 
origin for many living salamander species, despite the fact that 
these amphibians tend to show only slight morphological differ- 
ences. For example, electrophoretic data suggest that a newly 
described Guatemalan species (Bolitoglossa meliana) diverged from 
the other members of its species group some 10-15 million years 

Science I 73 

Lynch and Whigham's work on the effects of forest fragmen- 
tation on Maryland bird communities was expanded to include 
studies of habitat relationships of neotropical migrants on their 
wintering ground in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Along with 
Eugene Morton of the National Zoo, they studied habitat relation- 
ships of the hooded warbler (Wilsonia citrina), Kentucky warbler 
(Oporonis formosus), and approximately twenty other migratory 
warblers, vireos, and flycatchers. Results to date indicate that each 
migrant species responds to a unique combination of habitat factors 
on its wintering grounds. For example, the density of hooded 
warblers is primarily a function of the amount of tree-canopy 
cover and the density of shrubs in the forest understory. The 
researchers were also able to demonstrate statistically significant 
differences in bird frequency between humid and dry forests. This 
was particularly obvious for the hooded warbler, which was 
encountered in over 90 percent of the survey points in the humid 
evergreen forest, with an average density of 1.2 birds per survey 
point. In drier forests, the density of hooded warblers was only 
about .4 birds per survey point. The white-eyed vireo was the 
only migrant that was present at substantially higher densities in 
areas of dry forest. 

James Lynch and Edward Balinsky continued to monitor small 
mammals at cbces and began intensive monitoring of mammal 
populations at three additional sites that are being used to study 
the impacts of mammals on propagules of important tree species. 
These studies now are being conducted in a recently cleared field, 
a 35-year-old successional forest, and in two old-aged hardwood 
forests. At each site, a 50 m X 20 m deer exclosure has been 
constructed, and small mammal populations are monitored both 
inside and outside the exclosures. Peromyscus leucopus (white- 
footed mouse) is the dominant small mammal at all sites. 

Whigham, Lynch, and Balinsky, by using exclosures that also 
exclude mice, have been able to demonstrate that Peromyscus is 
the primary predator of seeds of common oaks and hickories. 
Rodent predation is less important on small-seeded trees (e.g., 
black cherry, Prunus serotina; dogwood, Cornus florida) and is 
especially low on the wind-dispersed seeds of tulip popular (Lirio- 
dendron tulipifera) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) . Long- 
term studies of seedling survivorship in the same tree species are 

74 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

being conducted at all sites both inside and outside the mammal 

Seed density manipulation studies showed that seeds of nut- 
bearing trees are removed most rapidly at high densities, but that 
almost all seeds are ultimately eaten by rodents and deer. Forest 
trees produced numerous seeds in 1981, the first mast year in the 
last seven, and Whigham and Lynch were able to test the hypoth- 
esis that more seeds escape predation in years of heavy fruit pro- 
duction. Compared to years with lower seed production, seeds were 
removed more slowly in the fall of 1981, but almost all seeds had 
nevertheless been removed by the spring. Seedlings of most tree 
species surveyed were only found in areas from which predators 
were excluded. Beech (Fagus grandifolia) was an exception, and 
numerous seedlings of this species were present throughout the 
forest in the spring of 1981. Cohorts of beech seedlings have been 
marked in permanent plots and their growth and mortality is 
being monitored. 

Dennis Whigham has continued his long-term studies of forest 
herb populations, and has completed a study of nutrient and 
biomass allocation patterns in the cranefly orchid (Tipularia 
discolor). He demonstrated that for 13 micro- and macro-nutrients, 
Tipularia assimilates more nutrients from the soil than were trans- 
located from storage structures during periods of rapid growth of 
leaves and reproduction structures. These results constitute addi- 
tional evidence that woodland herbs may play an important role 
in nutrient cycling in forests. Results also suggest that large 
nutrient storage structures, which are common to most forest 
herbs, may be important mainly as adaptations to enable the 
plants to survive heavy predation. 


Over the past few years, the education staff has been investigating 
the effects of school field trips on learning among elementary- 
school children. In a recent collaborative effort with the National 
Zoological Park, specific types of pre-trip teaching materials were 
developed, and the learning resulting from a single-visit field trip 
to the Zoo was assessed. Although there was significant variation 
among the experimental conditions, all classes who visited the Zoo 
showed a great deal of learning from a very structured tour of the 

Science I 75 

aquatic mammal area. For educators, a natural question arose: For 
learning, how important was it that the students actually went to 
the Zoo? Might they not have performed better if they had 
received the same information in the classroom, free from the 
distractions of a field trip? 

A study conducted by John Falk and John Balling, with the 
assistance of Ellen Goldstein, attempted to answer these questions. 
Essentially, the same "tour" of the aquatic mammal area of the 
Zoo was given to classrooms of fourth-grade children, similar to 
those in the original study, using a slide/lecture presentation 
format. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess learning. The 
results showed that the students who received the "tour" in the 
classroom learned significantly less than the children who visited 
the Zoo. These findings are further confirmation of the pedagogical 
efficacy of field trips. 

In another museum-related study, John Falk spent two months 
in India investigating field-trip learning at the National Museum 
of Natural History in New Delhi. In a series of previous studies, 
Falk and his colleagues at the center have shown that the learner's 
perception of the museum setting dramatically affects learning. 

In particular, the relative novelty of the setting can impinge 
upon learning so much as to totally deflect the best efforts of both 
exhibit designers and museum instructors. In his India study, Falk 
tried to investigate three issues: 

1. determine whether novel field-trip phenomena are a general 
human experience or primarily an American/Western experience; 

2. test the relative importance of "exhibit quality" versus 
"novelty effects" on learner behavior; and 

3. determine whether "novelty effects" can be ameliorated in 
the relatively short time available for the field trip. 

The experiment involved 320 Delhi fourth- and fifth-form 
school children participating in a school field trip to the museum. 
Upon arrival at the museum, classes were divided in half and taken 
on museum tours that began at different locations. Therefore, the 
students in each group stopped in front of the target exhibitions 
and received a prearranged lecture/discussion at different times 
relative to the beginning of the tour. If exhibition quality was the 
most salient factor affecting behavior and learning, no differences 
should exist between the behavior of children in front of an 

76 I Smithsonian Year 1982 

exhibition, regardless of when during the tour they encounter it. 
If factors such as novelty and fatigue played an important role, 
behaviors should significantly differ as a function of time. The 
dependent measure was an "on-task," "off-task/' nonverbal 
behavior, observational instrument developed by Falk in work at 
the center and the British Museum (Natural History) in London. 

Preliminary data analysis showed that behaviors, which were 
highly correlated with cognitive learning, were significantly differ- 
ent in front of the same exhibition, depending upon whether it was 
viewed early or late in the tour. Consistent with previous research, 
children spent more time attending to the exhibit and the lecturing 
docent at the end of the tour, after having time to acclimate to 
their setting. Early into their visit, more than half the time, chil- 
dren were attending to everything but the intended lesson. 

A major new initiative undertaken by the Education Program 
in 1982, is a National Science Foundation-funded research project 
to investigate the role of the family in the promotion and main- 
tenance of scientific literacy in America. In collaboration with 
educators at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, John Balling 
and Deborah Hilke are conducting a series of studies designed to 
examine parent-child interactions with regard to science-related 
topics. As part of the first investigation, an attempt is being made 
to determine what aspects of family interactions children and 
adults view as important to the success of their exchanges. A 
relatively novel application of a well-known psychological measure- 
ment technique termed the "Q-sort," which has been used 
extensively in personality assessment, is being employed to gather 
data on attitudes toward family interactions. 

Preliminary analyses of the data on children have shown that 
dimensions such as the amount of personal freedom and imagina- 
tion permitted, the amount of responsibility required, and the 
degree to which the adults and children work cooperatively or 
independently underlie their judgments. It is hoped that after both 
more adult and child data are acquired, points of intergenerational 
conflict and agreement regarding family interactions can be identi- 
fied. Such information should help developers of materials design 
more successful family activities. 

In a postdoctoral research study, Judy Diamond and Alan Bond 
investigated family learning from an ethological perspective. In 

Science I 77 

particular, they investigated mechanisms of cultural transmission, 
which were described in terms of the behavioral interactions 
between fathers and their children as they fished from a pier on 
Maryland's Eastern Shore. Verbal and nonverbal behaviors were 
analyzed, and the patterns of association in the behavioral reper- 
toire were described in detail. A wide variety of transmission 
techniques were revealed, ranging from behavioral clusters sug- 
gestive of modeling or simple showing, to complex combinations of 
behaviors involved in teaching. Based upon their study, Diamond 
and Bond suggest that the behaviors used to transmit information 
vary systematically with both the specific content of the trans- 
mitted information and the social role of the actor or person doing 
the transmitting. Diamond and Bond conclude that, while certain 
information transmission behaviors — such as showing or naming — 
have similar functions in adults and children, others — such as 
giving praise and telling — have different functional associations, 
depending on age. These contrasting sequences of development 
may reflect a fundamental distinction in the ontogeny of complex 
behavior patterns. 

Another longstanding research interest at the cbces has been 
environmental influences on human behavior and the ways in 
which human preferences for various landscapes are formed. John 
Balling and John Falk have been exploring the effects that man's 
evolutionary history may have on these preferences. Underlying 
much of their work is the hypothesis that human evolution, in 
large part, took place along or near river courses in the East 
African savanna. Preferences for natural settings with scattered 
trees, short grass, and some type of water body may, therefore, 
reflect an innate preference for the environment in which much 
of our biological (and psychological) apparatus evolved. 

Previous research by Balling and Falk have shown strong prefer- 
ences by Americans for savannalike settings. In order to validate 
these findings in light of evolutionary, rather than cultural, influ- 
ences, cross-cultural data were required. Last year, Falk collected 
data from two populations of Nigerians living in the rain forest 
of West Africa. This year, he collected comparable data from 
urban and rural Indians. These subjects possess very different 
cultural and environmental experiences than the North American 
populations previously sampled. Preliminary analysis of the data 

78 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

showed an overwhelming preference by Indians for savanna over 
all other biomes sampled. Earlier analysis revealed the same pattern 
for Nigerians. These cross-cultural findings lend strong support 
to Falk and Balling's evolutionary basis for landscape preference 


Two major educational materials development projects were carried 
out during the year, one for families and one for early adolescents. 

The Smithsonian Family Learning Project (sflp) is a series of 
family-activity packets for hands-on exploration of home science 
topics such as: home energy, houseplant and lawn ecology, food 
science, and pets. The sflp staff of John Falk, Laurie Greenberg, 
Jamie Harms, and Vicki Dedrickson was involved with intensive 
testing and revision for eventual publication and widespread 
dissemination of the materials. Both workshops and monthly 
mailings to over 1,200 families in 43 states provided evaluative 
information for revision of both text and graphics. Press coverage 
through the Smithsonian News Service, the Christian Science 
Monitor, the NBC "Today Show," and a variety of syndicated 
radio shows has given the sflp exposure to families and profes- 
sionals across the U.S. The project staff is currently working with 
Smithsonian Exposition Books to publish the activity packets. 

Growing out of increasing national concern for the declining 
scientific competence and literacy of American youth, the National 
Science Foundation awarded the center a grant to develop science 
materials for early adolescents in out-of-school contexts. The 
project, entitled Science Activities for Informal Learning (sail), is 
directed by John Falk and co-coordinated by Barbara Steinberg 
and Gary Heath. Cathy Brady is a materials developer on the 
project, and John Balling serves as a consultant. In sail's first year 
as a pilot project, its staff has developed several dozen science- 
related activities to be done in a potential cross-age teaching 
situation, namely that of babysitting, in which the adolescent can 
assume some aspects of an adult role. Interest in the project and 
its materials has been expressed by a wide variety of informal and 
formal educators and groups such as the Girl Scouts, Red Cross, 
school and community service programs such as Head Start, and 

Science I 79 

museums and science centers within the Smithsonian and elsewhere 
around the country. 

The National Air and Space Museum 

The National Air and Space Museum (nasm) has continued to 
fulfill the expectations of its public by expanding its integrated 
series of programs in research, exhibitions, collections manage- 
ment, education, and public service. Building upon a base that has 
satisfied more than 55,000,000 visitors, the museum opened a 
series of new exhibits, produced a number of significant publica- 
tions, and laid the foundation for a research effort of even greater 
potential than its current one. 

It is characteristic of nasm that plans for research, exhibits and 
collections management are closely tied together so that efforts in 
one area can benefit another. This emphasis in cutting across 
boundaries is especially important in the fields of education and 
public service; the museum feels that the diffusion of knowledge is 
equally important to the increase of knowledge. As a result of this 
coordinated effort, the components of the museum work together 
like a finely tuned watch in a imaginative, innovative cost effective 

Three major research efforts began in fiscal year 1982. The 
Aeronautics Department began work in earnest on a four-volume 
history of aviation, intended to be the definitive work in the field. 
In a parallel endeavor, the Department of Space Science and Ex- 
ploration established the framework for the compilation of a 
history of the Space Telescope. As part of a nationwide system 
for the storing and research of planetary mission data, agreements 
have been made with the National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration (nasa) to establish nasm's Center for Earth and Planetary 
Studies as one of eight Regional Planetary Image Facilities located 
in the United States. The center, cosponsored by nasa and the 
Smithsonian Institution, will provide access to planetary images 
and other data for investigators from nearby colleges and universi- 
ties, as well as continue its archival role for data acquired by lunar 
and planetary missions. 

80 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Rockets reach for the stars in this unusual view 
of the National Air and Space Museum. 

Both the Aeronautics and Space Science and Exploration depart- 
ments continued their research in a number of other major areas, 
but with particular concentration on the study, care, and docu- 
mentation of the artifacts in the collection. An important oral 
history project is under way to record and transcribe interviews 
with prominent participants in the last thirty years of space as- 
tronomy. Visiting scholars will continue to be invited to deliver 
seminars on the history of space science and exploration; T. Keith 
Glennan (nasa's first administrator) and John Naugle (former 
chief scientist for nasa) were among those involved in the program 
this year. 

An investigation by the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies 
(ceps) of the distribution and orientation of Martian structures 
indicates that the formation of the structures was primarily due 
to the weight of the Tharsis volcanic province on the crust of the 
planet; additional sources of compression are needed to account 
for the planet-wide occurrence of such landforms. Comparisons 
of martian and Egyptian desert features were completed during 
the year and are being published by nasa. Analysis of lunar 
orbital geochemical data has proven useful for mapping the extent 
of volcanic units on the surface and subsurface, where impact 
craters have exposed older geologic units. Some areas of the Moon 
that were thought to be ancient anorthositic crust now appear 
to represent the earliest volcanic deposits, some of which may be 
present in the Apollo 16 suite of lunar samples. 

In November 1981, soil and sand samples taken in the Western 
Desert of Egypt along the flight track of the Space Shuttle 
Columbia were used to calibrate the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared 
Radiometer results. Over twenty-five published works resulted 
from research by the ceps staff this fiscal year. Joint research in the 
Sinai with the Suez Canal University was initiated with studies of 
enhanced Landsat images of the northern Sinai peninsula. The 
center is now operating under the direction of Dr. Ted Maxwell. 
In July, ceps's research director, Dr. Farouk El-Baz, left the center 
to join private industry. 

Nasm research was also reflected in the expanded series of pub- 
lications which have been well received by the public and well 
reviewed by the critics. Museum personnel have created an exten- 
sive publishing program, which includes everything from popular 

82 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

books to scholarly works. These publications are listed in Ap- 
pendix 6. 

The three NASM-produced publications entered in the 1982 Blue 
Pencil Awards (sponsored by the National Association of Govern- 
ment Communicators) each won awards: first place in the category 
of books for the Aircraft of the National Air and Space Museum 
catalogue; second place in popular publications exceeding sixteen 
pages went to the exhibition booklet, Jet Aviation: Threshold to a 
New Era; and third place in the category of brochures for the nasm 
Langley Theater brochure. 

The creation of exhibitions requires a similar degree of research 
that a book does, and often an exhibition will result in the cor- 
rollary publication of a book. The major exhibition for the year, 
25 Years of Space Exploration, opened on July 1, 1982. Using film, 
photographs, space artifacts, and memorabilia, the exhibition 
recalls those tumultuous years that saw not only tremendous 
achievements in space, but remarkable and sometimes shattering 
social and cultural changes. The theme of twenty-five years of 
space exploration will be reinforced with lectures planned for the 
anniversary of the Sputnik launch in October and the U.S. launch 
of Explorer 1 the following January. A joint symposium on the 
subject will be held in October 1982, in association with the 
National Academy of Sciences, which also opened a space art 
exhibit, using pieces from nasm's collection. 

In addition to 25 Years of Space Exploration eight other major 
exhibitions were opened. 

Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation opened in Sep- 
tember 1982, depicting the previously untold story of American 
black aviators from Eugene Bullard's service in France in World 
War I, to the black astronauts assigned to the space program. A 
model of the World War II P-51 Mustang and the fighter used by 
the Tuskegee airmen are also exhibited. The exhibition highlights 
much new information and many photographs not previously 

Other exhibitions during the year included: a show of twenty- 
eight works of art documenting various aspects of the Space 
Shuttle program; Aerial Aircraft Carriers, the history of aerial 
carriers (mother-ships) and the vehicles they carry; Jacqueline 
Cochrane — World Record Holder, focused on the outstanding 

Science I 83 

forty-year career of this aviation pioneer; The Flying Roosevelts, 
a photo exhibition documenting the many uses of the airplane by 
Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, in keeping with the Smithsonian 
Institution's commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of 
the birth of Franklin Delano Roosevelt; Solar Challenger, the air- 
craft that made aviation history by flying across the English 
Channel, powered only by energy generated from sunlight; USS 
Enterprise, an eleven-foot model of the aircraft carrier, including 
its eighty-three model airwing, built by and donated to the 
museum by Stephen Henninger; and a display of fifty aircraft 
models all in one case. 

Nasm's third imax film, Flyers, opened in the Langley Theater 
on August 6. The film, sponsored by Conoco, Inc., is a new 
departure in the genre, being an action drama featuring the exploits 
of a fictional World War II Navy pilot, who continues his love of 
flying by restoring aircraft and doing stunt work for films. Flying 
sequences show many different types of aircraft ranging from soar- 
ing sailplanes to modern jets. The other two imax films, To Fly 
and Living Planet, continue to draw large audiences, and the 
theater operates at near capacity at all times. The ten-millionth 
visitor to the Langley Theater was welcomed on July 20, 1982. 

A new presentation opened in the Albert Einstein Spacearium 
in September. Entitled Probe, the planetarium show is an odyssey 
that transports visitors to the surface of Venus, through Jupiter's 
system of satellites, and past the ringed world of Saturn, explain- 
ing how the spacecrafts' journeys were made, and detailing some 
of the lessons learned by these spectacular voyages. The previous 
attraction New Eyes on the Universe drew almost one million 
visitors during its two-year run. 

Besides the intensive work that results in major exhibitions and 
publications, the museum has a constant goal of making it easy 
and interesting for the public to use its facilities for other than a 
standard museum visit. Nasm's public service efforts during the 
year included a wide variety of offerings. Among the best received 
of these were: 

The fifth anniversary of the Paul E. Garber Facility was 
celebrated in April with a festive five-day open house for the 
public. Staff from all offices of nasm and docents were on hand 
to welcome, assist, and answer questions of the more than 8,500 

84 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Area visitors tour the nasm's Paul E. Garber Facility, which celebrated its fifth anni- 
versary in April with a 5-day open house. 

enthusiastic visitors who toured the facility. The opportunity to 
climb into airplane cockpits for photograph sessions, to watch 
and question the restoration staff while they worked, and to freely 
tour three buildings on their own were some of the visitor high- 
lights of the celebration. 

"D.C. Day," was held in February; five hundred junior-high- 
school students from the District of Columbia spent a day at nasm. 
Activities included an opening talk by Space Shuttle astronaut 
Frederick Gregory, demonstrations by nasm staff members on 
building kites, model rockets and airplanes, photo-taking opportu- 
nities in the galleries, and a display of Space Shuttle art, with 
paintings done by the students themselves. 

The sixth annual Frisbee Festival was held in September. This 
popular event drew 15,000 people to the Mall to watch demonstra- 
tions by Frisbee champions — both human and canine — and to 
attend workshops offered at several levels of proficiency. 

A new, free daytime international concert series, held in coopera- 
tion with area embassies, was inaugurated during the spring and 
summer, with performing groups from around the globe, and 
evening concerts were also presented by the Navy's Commodores. 

The ever-popular free aviation and space-fiction films presented 
on fall and winter evenings were shown in the Langley Theater. 
Nine aviation lectures were also held in the theater, and 81 live 
lectures were presented in the Albert Einstein Spacearium. 

The museum's Briefing Room was used for live lecture demon- 
strations for school groups and also for three mini-lecture series, 
presented during the year by nasm curators, on topics of aero- 
nautics, astronomy, and current events in space science. 

The museum continued to support the National and Resident 
Associate programs through staff lectures and use of the building 
for over 126 activities this past year. Increased use of nasm facili- 
ties for special events and events by outside organizations num- 
bered 58, with sponsorship of lectures and special events by 
outside organizations increasing. 

In April, three dozen science writers from the Washington, D.C, 
area spent a day behind the scenes at the Garber Facility and at 
the museum's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies. The program 
was sponsored by the local chapter of the National Association of 
Science Writers, and was coordinated by nasm's Office of Public 

86 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Affairs and Museum Services and the Smithsonian Institution's 
Office of Public Affairs. The writers also toured the National 
Museum of Natural History. 

Nasm served over 100,000 visitors through 4,100 tours and 
theater and spacearium reservations. In addition to the regularly 
featured tours, three new tours have been added: a group "tour 
of the month," emphasizing a particular theme or anniversary, a 
highlight tour designed for the mentally retarded and learning 
disabled, and a summer family tour for parents and children. 

The nasm educational staff presented classroom lectures to 
Washington, D.C.'s, Dunbar High School students on topics such 
as early flight, aerospace heroes, rocketry, and the Space Shuttle; 
these lectures were then followed by visits to related exhibition 
galleries in the museum. 

On a larger scale, through the training of regional resource 
persons, 800 sessions were presented nationwide to 24,000 people 
in 28 states. Presentations on the principles of flight were made 
to students, local teachers, senior citizen groups, and the general 
public at local libraries, schools, nursing homes, and banks. 

This year's intern program for graduate and undergraduate 
students included opportunities for twenty-two students — the 
museum's most successful intern program to date. 

The collections management program of the museum was en- 
hanced with the establishment of a new documentation storage 
center at the Garber Facility, which will be maintained under strict 
controls for humidity and temperature. The center will support 
the museum's archival and reference services by providing addi- 
tional storage for the museum's extensive document and photo- 
graph collections. Over one-half-million photographs from the 
Wright Field collection were sorted and boxed and will be moved 
into the new storage center along with archival material stored at 
the North Capitol Street building and in other areas at the Garber 

Nasm's videodisc image storage and retrieval project, initiated 
by the Atherton Seidell program, has proven to be an outstanding 
success and is the subject of great interest by not only museums 
and universities but also by commercial firms. A keyword indexing 
system is also being developed to support this disc. 

Computerization of the registrar's manual records and report- 

Science I 87 

ing systems — including computer-generated accession memoranda, 
donor listings, and gallery listings — was completed. Information 
will continue to be added as it is received. 

The nasm inventory project is nearing completion. All space 
artifacts have been inventoried, and the remainder of the aero- 
nautical inventory is being reconciled. The total nasm inventory 
project will be completed by January 1983. 

The Space Science and Exploration Department implemented its 
five-year collections plan by acquiring new, scientific artifacts of 
the space program both in the area of space astronomy and manned 
space flight. An archival and preservation task force was estab- 
lished to carry out and monitor the acquisition of documents re- 
lated to the artifact collection and their preservation. A major goal 
of rationalizing loans of space artifacts to other museums was 
reached with the establishment of a departmental loan committee 
to review computer-inventoried loans. 

Three aircraft restorations were completed in fiscal year 1982: 
Ecker Flying Boat, Benoist Type XII, and deHavilland DH-4. Work 
continues on several other important aircraft. An intensive preser- 
vation program at the Garber Facility has been initiated to method- 
ically clean and preserve the entire collection of aircraft. Twenty 
aircraft were preserved this year. 

The aeronautics collection was augmented by the addition of 
a Lockheed U-2, Martin B-57, Monocoupe, and Farman Sport. The 
B-57 is the first of nasm's aircraft to be stored at Dulles Interna- 
tional Airport. 

Noel W. Hinners resigned his position as director on June 8, 
1982, to become the director of the Goddard Space Flight Center. 
Walter Boyne was appointed acting director, and a search com- 
mittee to fill the position of director was established by Dr. David 

National Museum of Man, 
Center for the Study of Man 


Dr. E. Richard Sorenson, director of the National Human Studies 
Film Center, and Tibetan research assistant Ragpa Dorjee filmed in 

88 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

1982 at Gyudmed Tantric Monastery of the Gohe Samaje — one of 
the most advanced and disciplined centers of learning in the 
Tibetan system — recording ceremonial events that only highly 
initiated and educated monks have hitherto been allowed to see. 
At Dzonkar Choede, one of the most ancient monasteries of Tibet, 
now transplanted to South India, Sorenson and Dorjee also re- 
ceived permission to film the annual Mahayasksha Cham cere- 
mony. With the work in those two South India monasteries, the 
researchers obtained for the first time in history, research film 
footage of the training and development of traditional Tibetan 
monks. Such monks played crucial roles in Tibetan history. 

The Research Report Film "Jyapu: Industrious Productivity as 
Life Style," prepared under the direction of Dr. Sorenson with the 
participation of the scholars of the Royal Nepal Academy to com- 
memorate the Academy's Silver Anniversary, was shown at the 
Smithsonian Institution in May and at the celebrations in Nepal in 
June. The film was praised by the Chancellor of the Royal Nepal 
Academy. Since then, it has been shown to numerous groups, in- 
cluding academics and students in several countries as well as the 
United States. 

Significant fiscal and logistical support was provided by the 
Royal Government of Bhutan so that Dr. Sorenson could survey 
Bhutan for sites where traditional Bhutanese culture could be 
filmed. Several promising sites were identified. 

In Micronesia, Dr. Sorenson's research project, "The Artistic 
Lifestyle of the Western Caroline Islands," continued on the most 
traditional atoll left in the Pacific. A detailed photographic and 
community census, prepared by Project Coordinator Mathias 
Maradol, is being used as part of the preliminary annotation of the 
research film record. 


On October 1, 1981, the National Human Studies Film Center was 
restructured to emphasize film preservation in a new component: 
the Human Studies Film Archives. The purpose of the archives 
is to locate, acquire, preserve, and document film and video mate- 
rials of non-Western and Western cultures for research. 

Pamela Wintle, formerly of the Film Center, is responsible for 
the day-to-day management of the archives. Assisting her in 

Science I 89 

7 >%>0 

From the files of the new Human Studies Film Archives comes this photograph of 
Berber Nomad girls, Sahara Desert, Algeria, 1930. (Photographer, George L. Waite) 

developing archival policy is Dr. Herman Viola, Director of the 
National Anthropological Archives, and an advisory group of 
professionals reflecting various dsciplines. 

The first six months of fiscal year 1982 were used to effect the 
restructure, to conduct an inventory of the holdings, to move the 
archives and the cold-storage film vault into the National Museum 
of Natural History, and to establish office systems. Subsequently, 
priority has been given to designing archival procedures and 
establishing the technology for acquistion, preservation, control, 
and research use of the current collection and future acquisitions. 
A new, enlarged, cold-storage film vault was designed, and con- 
struction will begin in January 1983. 

National Museum of Natural History 


At the National Museum of Natural History (nmnh), the paleo- 
biology halls in December 1981 returned to the public eye one of 
the Smithsonian's most popular attractions — the dinosaurs. 

Rearranged for better viewing, interpreted by new textual in- 
formation, and integrated with displays of other reptiles, plants, 
and animals that lived in the same age, the huge beasts are once 
more delighting and awing visitors. 

The nmnh has added to the company of its dozen older mounted 
dinosaurs some spectacular new attractions, one of which is 
antrodemus, a fierce flesh-eater with powerful gaping jaws, posed 
in full stride in pursuit of another dinosaur. Soaring overhead is 
a life-sized model of the reptile Quetzalcoatlus northropi. Its 
forty-foot wingspan makes it the largest flying animal on record — 
twice as large as any bird that ever lived. 

The old dinosaur exhibition was shut down for an extended 
period during the early stages of the reorganization of the muse- 
ums's paleobiology halls into the large, all-encompassing exhibi- 
tion Fossils: The History of Life. Eight highlights in the complex 
are now open, with seven others in various stages of planning 
and construction. 

All of the evolutionary events in the fossil complex are indexed 

Science I 91 

This life-size model of a pterosaur soars over the nmnh's refurbished dinosaur exhibi- 
tion. Below. Vacuuming the backbone of the diplodocus was part of the preparation 
for opening the new Dinosaur Hall. 

*"*"' "yft 


» ta 



WEh* w 


and illustrated on a spectacular new twenty-seven-foot-high 
"Time Column" at the entrance of the Dinosaur Hall. 

The public can view the dinosaurs and the Time Column from 
a new west balcony that is connected to the hall's existing east 
balcony by a cantilevered ramp. On the west balcony — which can 
be entered from the second-floor rotunda balcony — are five huge 
monolithic slabs of fossil resources, illustrating how over eons of 
geological time plant and animal remains have been concentrated 
into valuable mineral wealth. 

The outstanding event of the museum's 1982 special exhibition 
season was the opening on June 18 of inua: spirit world of the 
bering sea eskimo in the Thomas M. Evans Gallery. This large 
exhibition drew upon one of the museum's hidden treasures — the 
unparalleled collection of Eskimo ethnological material acquired 
100 years ago by Edward W. Nelson. On explorations along the 
Bering Sea Coast by dog sled, kayak, and on foot, Nelson collected 
some 10,000 ethnological artifacts, ranging from wooden cere- 
monial masks to clothing, household implements, and carved ivory 
hunting equipment. Rich in technology, art, and religious sym- 
bolism, the comprehensiveness of the collection and its careful 
documentation make it the finest Eskimo collection in the world. 

The idea of mounting a big exhibition of Nelson material was 
suggested in 1979 by Ann Stevens, the late wife of Senator Ted 
Stevens (Republican — Alaska) after she was shown the collection 
in the museum's attic, where it had been carefully preserved for 
more than 100 years. Struck by the collection's beauty and impor- 
tance, and the fact that very little of it had ever been placed on 
exhibit, the Stevenses urged museum anthropologist, William Fitz- 
hugh to organize a traveling exhibition so that the works could 
be shared by other Americans. Fitzhugh and anthropologist Susan 
Kaplan took the collection down from the attic and gave it the 
first comprehensive study of this century, writing a 300-page 
scholarly catalog to accompany the exhibition (with nmnh Archae- 
ologist Emeritus Henry B. Collins contributing an essay on 

After the exhibition closes at the museum on January 3, 1983, 
a smaller version will be circulated to locations in Alaska and else- 
where in the United States and Canada by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Traveling Exhibition Service (sites). It is the first traveling 

Science / 93 

exhibition ever assembled from nmnh's ethnological collections. 

The Evans Gallery hosted five other superb exhibitions during 
fiscal year 1982: China's Inner Frontier, photographs of the 1923 
Wulsin Expedition to Northwest China (October 8-November 5, 
1981); Hopi Kachina: Spirit of Life, a tribute to the unique culture 
of Arizona's Hopi Indians (November 13, 1981-January 3, 1982); 
Deep Ocean Photographs, featuring mural-sized U.S. Navy photo- 
graphs of a two-mile-high volcanic seamount beneath the Atlantic 
Ocean (January 22-April 18, 1982); A New Look at the Work of 
Edward Curtis, a sites exhibition, organized by Christopher 
Lyman, which raised critical questions about the Curtis photo- 
graphs of American Indians (March 4- April 15, 1982); and 
Brazilian Feather Art (May 11-May 31, 1982). 

The museum's Rotunda Balcony Gallery featured Revelations of 
Nature, nature photographs by Frank Greenwell (October 6-De- 
cember 6, 1981); Botanical Prints, by Henry Evans (December 9, 
1981-February 7, 1982); Artist and Botanist: A Collaboration, 
orchid watercolors by Dr. Regina O. Hughes (February 13- 
April 11, 1982); The Tarahumara, sculptures and drawings of the 
Tarahumara people of Mexico by George Carlson (April 17- 
June 13, 1982) and Sigrid James Bruch: Recent Work, oil paintings 
of birds and other zoological subjects (June 19-August 15, 1982). 

An exhibition of Contemporary North American Indian Art, 
sixty-five paintings and sculptures by more than forty leading 
North American Indian artists, was shown in the second-floor 
special exhibit gallery (March 13-September 12, 1982); Grass 
Work of Labrador, a collection of basketry and other craft works, 
was on view in the Learning Center Gallery (August 30- 
October 30, 1982); and Deep Sea Dives to Biological Frontiers, a 
permanent exhibition about communities of unique, deep-sea 
organisms living a mile and a half beneath the Pacific Ocean, 
opened in the museum's first-floor Sea Life Hall (February 18, 


Paleopathology, the study of disease and trauma in the people of 
the ancient and historical past has enjoyed an increased interest 
in recent years — as attested to by many recent articles in the 
anthropologic and medical literature. The nmnh's large skeleton 

94 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

collections, which have literally hundreds of examples of skeletal 
disease and abnormalities, make it one of the world centers of 
paleopathology research. In December 1981, museum physical 
anthropologist Donald J. Ortner, in collaboration with Walter G. J. 
Putschar, a leading authority on skeletal pathology, published a 
monumental 479-page reference work on skeletal paleopathology 
titled "Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal 
Remains" (Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology No. 28). 
This book grew out of a paleopathology lecture series presented 
annually at the museum by the authors between 1971 and 1974. 
The authors have recorded many examples of paleopathology from 
the museum's reference collections and have traveled to museums 
of anatomy and pathology throughout the world to examine, cata- 
logue, and photograph modern specimens of bone disease and 
archaeological remnants. The book has received an enthusiastic 
response from the anthropological and medical communities. 

North American ethnologist William L. Merrill in 1981 and 
1982 continued his research on the Raramuri (Tarahumara) world 
view and religion. Little known to most Americans, the 50,000 
Raramuris live in many small hamlets scattered over the rugged 
sierra and canyon country in southwestern Chihuahau, Mexico, 
200 miles southwest of the U.S. border. During 1982 Dr. Merrill 
examined museum collections of Raramuri materials at the South- 
west Museum, the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural His- 
tory, the Museum of Cultural History at the University of Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, the Laboratory of Anthropology at the Mu- 
seum of New Mexico, and the Maxwell Museum. These materials 
provided insights into regional variations and changes through 
time in Raramuri material culture. 

The computer is being used to file and manipulate this data and 
other detailed and complexly interconnected information on the 
kinship and social organization among the Raramuri — aspects that 
have intrigued Dr. Merrill since his original fieldwork in the 
Raramuri country in the 1970s. 

Dr. Merrill was also active in the last year in encouraging 
American Indian involvement in museums. He coordinated the 
loan of Zuni ceramics from the Smithsonian collections for a 
traveling exhibition currently being organized by the Zunis. He 
also visited the new Acoma museum in New Mexico and selected 

Science / 95 

appropriate Acoma pieces from the Smithsonian collections to 
lend to it. 

The Smithsonian, under John Wesley Powell in the late nine- 
teenth century, pioneered in studies of North American native 
languages. Today it continues its work in this area. The research 
has an urgent aspect to it because many of the 200 languages 
spoken by North American Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos are 
dying out. The museum's linguist, Dr. Ives Goddard, in addition 
to his linguistic editing of the Handbook of North American 
Indians, has been conducting linguistic field work on the Munsee 
language on the Moraviantown Indian Reserve, Ontario. This 
eastern Algonquian language is believed to be the one spoken by 
the native residents of Manhattan Island at the time the Dutch 
arrived. Today Munsee is only spoken in two small, surviving 
Delaware Indian communities in Oklahoma and Ontario. Since 
Dr. Goddard began documenting the vocabulary, pronunciation, 
and grammatical structure of the language in Ontario in the 1960s, 
the number of speakers has dwindled from forty-two to twenty. 

Dr. Goddard also spent a considerable amount of time in fiscal 
year 1982 working on the editing and translation of a complete 
corpus of native Massachusett writings. Massachusett, the native 
language of East Massachusetts, was one of the first native lan- 
guages committed to writing in the New World — a project accom- 
plished by John Eliot, a missionary. This system, based on English 
letters, was used for the first bible printed in America (the first 
edition of which was published on a press at the Indian College 
in Harvard Yard in 1663) and was subsequently used by Indians 
to write many documents. Goddard plans to publish these Massa- 
chusett writings in collaboration with Dr. Kathleen J. Bragdon. 


On coral reefs, dense populations of herbivorous fish and other 
browsing animals feed constantly on seaweeds. To protect them- 
selves from this voracious grazing, the algae have evolved a 
variety of survival techniques, including the manufacture of potent 
and toxic chemical defenses — nature's equivalent of chemical 

Marine biologists over the past decade have become increas- 
ingly interested in these algal chemical compounds and are study- 

96 I Smithsonian Year 1982 

ing them for their potential as new drugs, pharmaceuticals, pesti- 
cides, and other useful industrial products. 

In a collaborative study of "Chemical Defense in Tropical 
Marine Algae," at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, published in 1982, 
museum marine botanist James N. Norris and William Fenical, a 
chemist at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, reported on the 
potency of a variety of unique or unusual natural compounds they 
isolated from the green, brown, and red algae on the Caribbean 

When the extracted compounds — which included halogenated 
and nonhalogenated terpenoids — were tested in controlled labora- 
tory conditions on reef damsel fishes, in most cases they were 
either lethal or caused physiological stress. Not surprisingly, field 
observations indicate that algae producing these compounds are 
not eaten by herbivorous fish and invertebrate reef animals. 

The same compounds were tested in the laboratory to see if 
they had antibiotic properties. Here again, they often proved effec- 
tive. Norris and Fenical report that sometimes a compound did not 
harm fish but was toxic to bacteria, suggesting that its role might 
be as a defense against free-floating microbial pathogens in the 
reef environment. 

The nmnh's botanists sometimes are unable to name a plant in 
the field because it lacks the structures (usually flowers or fruits) 
that are used for classification. One way to overcome this difficulty 
is to collect the living plant (if it is not too large) for cultivation 
in the museum's east courtyard greenhouse, where it can be 
observed on a long-term, daily basis. In addition to learning the 
plant's name — and some new species are discovered in this man- 
ner — the botanist can learn much about the plant's reproductive 
biology, which can lead to a fuller understanding of its relation- 
ships and evolution. 

Dr. Robert Faden, a specialist on the family Commelinaceae 
(dayflowers, spiderworts, and wandering Jews), is finding the 
greenhouse invaluable for his research. In recent months, several 
Commelinaceae, which are cultivated in the greenhouse, have 
flowered for the first time. These include the Bromeliad-like 
Cochliostema odoratissimum (originally from Ecuador), whose 
large, fragrant, orchid-like flowers suggest a complex pollination 
system that is still unknown. Dr. Faden is currently studying the 

Science / 97 

reproductive biology of several Commelinaceae, including Palisota 
hirsuta and Commelina erecta. The former, grown from seeds and 
cuttings collected by Dr. Faden in Ghana, has been found to have 
an elaborate breeding system — with both hermaphroditic and male 
flowers, each with two kinds of pollen — that operates to maximize 
cross-pollination. Commelina erecta was first studied by Dr. Faden 
in the Big Thicket country of eastern Texas in 1981. Analysis of 
the field data and further experiments on the reproductive biology 
of plants from Texas are now continuing at the museum. 

Other botanical research highlights in the past year included 
publication of museum botanist Stanwyn G. Shetler's book Varia- 
tion and Evolution of the Nearctic Harebells. Culminating many 
years of work on the perplexing biological variation among the 
plants allied to the common harebell or bluebell-of-Scotland, 
Shetler's treatise not only reports his own findings for the New 
World but also presented a synthesis of the many other studies 
of Eurasian harebells. 


In an article in the Coleoptera Bulletin, museum entomologist 
Terry L. Erwin in 1982 proposed a new and startling answer to a 
question that scientists have been guessing at for more than a 
century: How many insect species are there in the forests of the 

Based on his research on the tropical forest canopy of Panama, 
and subsequent work at Manaus, Brazil, and at the Tambopata 
Nature Reserve in southeastern Peru, Erwin concludes that the 
current estimates of arthropod species numbers are far too low. 
His findings show that there could be as many as 30 million 
species extant globally, not 1.5 million as is usually estimated. 

Dr. Erwin points out that it is important to know, when setting 
aside tracts of tropical forest for conservation, that small biotopes 
are unique to thousands of insect species — many of which could 
be beneficial to mankind. Conversely, it is important to know that 
with the rapid destruction of tropical forests, many more insect 
species are becoming extinct than previously thought. 

Erwin's pioneering field work on the natural history and diver- 
sity of the insect fauna of the tropical forest canopy — a virtually 
unstudied and unknown habitat 30-55 meters above the forest 

98 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

floor — is now focusing on Peru, where more than half the arthro- 
pod species he is collecting are new to science. Many may have 
potential usefulness in forestry, agriculture, and medicine. 

Other entomological research highlights during 1981 and 1982 
included Dr. Don Davis's three-month expedition to the southern 
deserts and forests of Chile to collect Lepidoptera. Approximately 
20,000 moths were collected along with more than 20,000 other 
insects. A preliminary survey of the microlepidoptera indicate that 
between eighty and ninety percent of the species collected are new. 
Dr. Oliver S. Flint, Jr., published "Studies of Neotropical Caddis- 
flies XXXIII: New Species from Austral South America (Trichop- 
tera)" (Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 377), in which 
110 new species and one new genus of caddisflies are described 
and illustrated — the largest single group of new caddisfly species 
ever described in a single paper. 


The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, a 
600-page volume published in June 1982, was the first in a series 
of major publications for an on-going museum project that is the 
most exhaustive and comprehensive long-term study of a Carib- 
bean coral reef and its surroundings ever taken. 

Museum invertebrate zoologist Klaus Ruetzler, coordinator of 
the multi-year, interdisciplinary study, was co-author of the book 
with museum geologist Ian Maclntyre. The publication contains 
thirty-four scholarly accounts of the scientific findings to date. 

The book begins with a summary of past work on the Belizean 
reefs and cays — an area that had never received any concentrated 
scientific attention until two decades ago, even though Charles 
Darwin had included the Belizean reefs in his classic 1842 work 
on the classification of principal reef types. 

Heavily illustrated with color and black-and-white photographs 
and illustrations, the book includes in-depth descriptions of the 
barrier reef complex and its climate and environment. There are 
discussions of distinctive communities, including an unusual sub- 
marine cave, and several sections on the flora and fauna inhabiting 
the cays, reefs, and surrounding waters. 

The latest phase of the study project began in 1982 as Ruetzler 
and museum colleagues Gordon Hendler, James Norris, Brian 

Science / 99 

Kensley, and Kristian Fauchald launched the Smithsonian Western 
Atlantic Mangrove Program (swamp), a study of the ecosystem of 
shallow-water mangrove islands a few miles away from the cay. 
These mud islands, submerged at high tide, are covered with man- 
grove trees, the roots of which accumulate and anchor soil, serve 
as a nursery for many forms of marine life, and act as a buffer 
to protect the reef's cays from erosion. 

Among the many other significant invertebrate-zoology research 
achievements during the year were: the discovery of a new pro- 
priceptor (position-sensing) organ in the nervous system of nema- 
tode worms by Duane Hope and S. L. Gardiner; the publication 
of a 549-page volume on the natural history of "The Crayfishes 
of Georgia," by Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., a comprehensive study 
based upon some forty-three years of personal field work in a 
state that has the richest recorded crayfish fauna of any in the 
Americas; the discovery of a new order of crustaceans by Thomas 
Bowman; a study of the population genetics of sea urchins by 
David Pawson; and the publication of the Audubon Society Field 
Guide to North American Seashells, written by Harald A. Rehder. 

Museum invertebrate zoologist Robert P. Higgins, in the fall of 
1981, conducted two weeks of field work as a guest of the Insti- 
tute of Oceanology at Quingdao, a Chinese city on the northern 
coast of the Yellow Sea. He is the world's only authority on the 
tiny kinorhynch, a creature belonging to a little-known, but eco- 
logically important, marine phylum that lives in ocean sediments 
throughout the world. Making day trips in a research vessel pro- 
vided by the institute, Higgins was able to collect four or five pre- 
viously unknown species. He also lectured on his research in 
meiobenthology, the study of very small marine organisms, a 
field the Chinese want to develop. 


Researchers were intensely occupied throughout the year with the 
collection and study of Antarctic meteorites. A large body of new 
material was discovered with the help of geophysicist Robert F. 
Fudali, who took part in the National Science Foundation Antarctic 
Search for Meteorites (ansmet) expedition in November, Decem- 
ber, and January of 1981-1982. 

Fudali, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory colleague Ursula 

100 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Marvin, and five scientists from the University of Pittsburgh and 
other institutions, spent six weeks encamped in the Allan Hills 
region, northwest of McMurdo Sound. There they used snow- 
mobiles to carry out a systematic "clean-up" search of two ice- 
field areas that had yielded a considerable amount of meteorite 
material in previous years. About 375 meteorites and meteorite 
fragments were recovered — a record for an Allan Hills expedition. 
Fudali located a forty-two-pound iron meteorite, the largest find. 
The material included another iron, six achondrites, four carbona- 
ceous chondrites, and several enigmatics. Most of the remainder 
are ordinary chondrites. 

As part of a joint nsf-nasa-si program, all Antarctic meteorites 
are being shipped to the nmnh for characterization and descrip- 
tion. A major effort, headed by Roy S. Clarke, Jr., is going into 
the study of Antarctic metal-rich meteorites. Brian Mason is han- 
dling the basic classification and description of all meteorites col- 
lected by nsf expeditions as well as those collected by expeditions 
organized by the National Institute of Polar Research of Japan, 
in Tokyo, where he spent May and June 1982 as an invited 

Dr. Kurt Fredriksson attended the Seventh Symposium on 
Antarctic Meteorites in Tokyo and delivered a paper on chondrule 
analysis. During the year, he completed and published his work 
on the ultrafine matrix in chondrites (the most primitive and 
abundant class of stony meteorites). This matrix may represent the 
earliest condensate from the solar nebula. As an extension of this 
work Dr. Fredriksson worked at the ion-microprobe analyzing 
facility of the Max Planck Institute in Mainz, Federal Republic of 
Germany, looking for magnesium isotope anomalies in certain 
unusual aggregates that possibly also represent the earliest con- 
densates of the solar system. During this study, the preparation 
of samples, using highly sophisticated techniques, was accom- 
plished through the volunteer work of two geology graduates 
from Carleton College and Purdue, working closely with Dr. 


Museum paleontologist Richard Grant, in 1981 undertook the first 
major collecting field trip to be made by a Smithsonian scientist 

Science I 101 

on the Chinese mainland during the modern era. His five-week 
rock and fossil collecting trip, covering a broad swath of the huge 
country, was arranged under an agreement between the Smith- 
sonian and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Grant and 
Professor Jin Yu-gan of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and 
Paleontology are cooperating on a study of the 240-million-year- 
old brachiopods of the Permian Age that are found in South China. 

Grant traveled in China with three Chinese geologists and a 
Chinese technician, collecting at sites on the Yuangtze River, 
Guiyang in Guizhou Province, Laibin and Heshan in Quangzi 
Province, and Nanning near the Vietnamese border. 

More than 700 pounds of silicified Permian material was col- 
lected and shipped to the museum where it is now undergoing 
acid processing. Professor Jin Yu-gan made a reciprocal visit to 
the nmnh from January to September 1982 and, while here, 
traveled to Permian brachiopod sites in the Glass Mountains of 
Texas and the Great Basin. 

Museum paleobiologist Richard H. Benson continued to work 
on two long-range projects during the year. The first of these — 
the study of sudden events in deep-sea history — depends upon the 
processing of deep-sea-drilling project cores for ostracodes. Empha- 
sis is focused on tracing the evolution of the South Atlantic 
Ocean, especially with respect to its Cenozoic history. Since Creta- 
ceous events provide the geologic setting for the Cenozoic, Benson 
is attempting to demonstrate the Cretaceous depths of the Rio 
Grande Rise and the Walvis Ridge. Dr. Jeon Peypouquet, Univer- 
sity of Bordeaux, France, collaborates with Dr. Benson in this 

The second project, begun four years ago, is a study of ostra- 
code skeletal allometry with special attention to both ontogenetic 
and phylogenetic change. Benson is currently studying the ostra- 
code genus Poseidonamicus; a companion study is a comparison 
among primate skulls. 

Curator Thomas R. Waller's systematic revision of the living 
scallops of the world's oceans is a program of broad scope that 
will continue for many years. The project involves use of the 
scanning electron microscope to observe the microstructure of 
scallop shells of many growth stages and from many environ- 

102 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

merits, including specimens from bathyal and abyssal depths 
dredged by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Texas 
A&M University. The evolutionary origins of groups of scallops 
are being traced by study of fossils dating back 230 million years 
to the dawn of the Mesozoic Era. 

Molluscan research in related areas is concentrating on some 
nonscallops, with two other projects begun this year; one is an 
investigation of periostracal mineralization in the Lithophaginae, 
a subfamily of the Mytilidae, or mussels. Some preliminary results 
of this work were given in July at a symposium on shell micro- 
structure during the annual meeting of the American Malacologi- 
cal Union in New Orleans. Waller's talk was entitled "Mineraliza- 
tion in the Periostracum of Lithophaga nigra (Mollusca: Bivalvia) 
and its Taxonomic Implications." 


It has long been generally believed that Hawaii was an unspoiled 
paradise when the English explore Captain James Cook and other 
Europeans first saw it in the late eighteenth century, and that only 
after their arrival on the scene did the alarmingly rapid disappear- 
ance of the islands' unique animals and plants begin. But a study 
by museum paleobiologists Storrs L. Olson and Helen F. James 
now establishes solid evidence that by the time of European 
arrival the Hawaiian Archipelago had already been drastically 
altered and despoiled by prehistoric Polynesians. 

Olson and James reported in the August 13, 1982, Science mag- 
agazine that an analysis of tens of thousands of bird fossils, found 
in recent years on five of the main Hawaiian Islands, shows that 
at least thirty-nine species of native birds vanished in the rela- 
tively short period between A.D. 400-600 (when the Polynesians 
colonized the islands) and Cook's arrival in 1778. 

Gone forever was about half of the islands' incredibly diversi- 
fied and rich assemblage of unique native land birds: seven species 
of geese (many of them flightless), two species of flightless ibises, 
a sea eagle, a small hawk, seven flightless rails, three species of 
owls, two large crows, one honeyeater, and at least fifteen finches. 

The distribution of many of the surviving species also was 
altered. In many cases, populations that were once found through- 

Science / 103 

out the islands remained only on individual islands. Some species 
were extremely rare by the time the Europeans arrived and shortly 
thereafter became extinct. 

The Polynesian residents in Hawaii hunted birds for food and 
decorative feathers. However, it would have been impossible for 
them, with the limited technology available, to have hunted to 
extinction many of the populations of small forest birds. Ulti- 
mately, in the opinion of Olson and James, the cause of most of 
the prehistoric extinctions of Hawaiian birds was the burning of 
lowland forest habitats. Taro, sweet potatoes, and a variety of 
other food plants imported by the Polynesians were planted and 
raised in lowland areas that were cleared for cultivation by fire. 

Museum scientists Victor Springer and George Zug headed an 
expedition to the Fiji Islands in mid-April to early June 1982. 
Traveling by ship and plane more than 2,000 miles in and around 
Fiji's 180 islands, they assembled an extensive collection of the 
region's fishes, amphibians and reptiles, including many new 
genera and species. The expedition was organized as a result of 
Springer's interest in the unusual distributions and relationships 
of Indo-Pacific near-shore fishes, which he attributes to the 
region's geotectonic history. 

In 1982 Springer published "Pacific Plate Biogeography, with 
Special Reference to Shorefishes," (Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology No. 367). This major study is concerned primarily with 
central and western portions of the Pacific Ocean (The Pacific 
Plate, which underlies most of the Pacific Ocean, occurs as far 
east as the northern Pacific Coast of the Western Hemisphere). 

Springer says that in his study he has attempted to mesh the 
relatively little that is known about the distributions and relation- 
ships of the shorefish fauna of the Pacific Plate with the little that 
is known about the geotectonics of the plate. Up to now, scientists 
have not made such a connection. In Springer's view, the tectonic 
influences on dispersal, invoked to explain the distributions of 
localized terrestrial and freshwater organisms, are equally impor- 
tant in explaining the distributions of localized, shallow-dwelling 
marine organisms. The volume discusses what is known about the 
distributions of 179 shorefish family groups, as well as selected 
terrestrial and marine taxa of other organisms. It reviews the com- 
plex geotectonic history of the plate and adjacent plate margins 

104 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

and advances scenarios to explain why the Pacific marine biota — 
shorefishes in particular — behave distributionally as they do. 


Under the administrative auspices of the nmnh since March 1981, 
the Smithsonian's marine facility at Fort Pierce, Florida, has ac- 
quired a new name during the 1981-82 year. What was formerly 
known as the Fort Pierce Bureau, is now officially designated the 
Smithsonian Marine Station at Link Port. Along with the new 
name, a new and expanded program of research has been initiated, 
consisting of a multi-bureau cooperative research effort. Contribut- 
ing to this research are Smithsonian scientists from the Chesapeake 
Bay Center for Environmental Studies (cbces), the Radiation Biol- 
ogy Laboratory (rbl), and the nmnh, as well as resident scientists, 
postdoctoral fellows, and a number of national and international 
visiting investigators. For the museum curator or land-bound in- 
vestigator, the marine station provides the opportunity to test 
hypothesis in the field, where long-term study sites can be estab- 
lished and marine organisms kept in culture. 

Studies cover a broad range of topics ranging from an investi- 
gation of the spectral quality of light in the Indian River Lagoon 
to investigations of the ecology, systematics, and life histories of 
macroalgae, foraminifera, and a wide variety of invertebrates. 

Among this work is Dr. Richard Houbrick's investigation of the 
developmental aspects of a cerithiid snail that inhabits the high 
intertidal mangrove flats of the Indian River, and Dr. Joseph Rose- 
water's studies of the histories of littorinid gastropods and the 
functional morphology of an unusual sand-burrowing bivalve. 
Cinematographic work by Smithsonian biological films producer 
Kjell Sandved is helping Rosewater understand how the bivalve 
ejects sand as it burrows; Drs. Raymond Manning and C. W. 
Hart are studying unknown species of sand-dwelling crustaceans, 
which will form the basis for a future quantitative sampling pro- 
gram to determine breeding cycles and seasonal variations in 
abundances of these species. 

A comparative study of the underwater light field in the Indian 
River with that of Rhode River, Maryland, was initiated by a 
collaborative team headed by Dr. Jack Pierce, nmnh, Dr. David 
Correll, cbces, and Dr. William Klein, rbl. With the help of scien- 

Science I 105 

On an exploratory trip to the Smithsonian Marine Station at Link Port, Florida, 
Dr. Raymond Manning of the nmnh uses a sampler to collect stomatopods and cal- 
lianassids in the Indian River. 

tists at the Harbor Branch Foundation, the Smithsonian team has 
measured the intensity and spectral quality of underwater light 
and the water-quality parameters that may affect the transmittance 
of light through the water column, including levels of chlorophyll, 
dissolved organics, and particulate loads. Results to date indicate 
higher intensities of light in the Indian River than Rhode River 
and a change in the spectral quality, with a shift to greater pene- 
tration of the blue-green wave lengths and a higher attenuation 
of the orange bands. The study will be continued at different sea- 
sons and at times of differing concentrations of tannic and humic 
acids in the water. 


One of the popular services the office provides to museum visitors 
are weekly presentations of films related to natural history and 
anthropology and lectures and slide shows by the museum's cura- 
torial staff and invited guests. In December 1981, a Dinosaur Film 
Festival celebrated the reopening of the Dinosaur Hall. Extra show- 
ings were scheduled to accommodate the large number of visitors 
who wanted to see the films. In conjunction with the exhibition 
inua: spirit world of the bering sea eskimo, special Friday lectures 
and films were presented to enrich visitors' understanding of the 
Bering Sea Eskimo environment and culture. Films about Eskimo 
life were shown on a daily basis in the Gallery Theater. The 
Eskimo lectures and films were supported with funds from the 
Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates. 

The highly successful Gifted Students in Science Program was 
continued for a second year, with support from outreach funds. 
Twenty-three students were selected from ninety-one Washington 
area applicants to work on research projects with curators or other 
museum personnel. The Collaborative (with the National Zoo and 
the National Museum of African Art) Outreach Program to the 
elderly, disabled, and institutionalized served 7,355 persons be- 
tween October 1981 and May 1982. Efforts to find private funding 
to continue this program, as well as funds for a national program 
with the National Council on the Aging, are underway. 

The Office of Education provided school and adult tours of 
exhibitions from October through May 15, with the assistance of 
about 200 docents, who were also trained to provide tours of the 

Science I 107 

inua exhibition in the Evans Gallery. About one hundred docents 
also contributed to the successful operation of the museum's Dis- 
covery Room and Naturalist Center. Families and school groups 
visited the Discovery Room at the rate of almost 10,000 each 
month — full capacity. The Naturalist Center increased its usage 
by almost forty percent during the spring months, with a remark- 
able 150 persons attending a Sunday "Draw-In" on August 1. 

Laura McKie, education specialist in Anthropology, was selected 
by the African Studies Program of Indiana University to partici- 
pate in a six weeks' travel and study seminar in Niger, Nigeria, 
and Senegal. Her experience will be used to enrich the training of 
the docents for the Hall of African Cultures. 


Subarctic, a basic reference work on about thirty-five Indian tribes 
of Canada and Alaska, was published in 1982. It is the fourth 
volume to appear in the twenty-volume Handbook series on the 
prehistory, history, ethnology, and linguistics of the Native North 
Americans. Editing and typesetting have been completed on the 
second part of Southwest (volume 10), scheduled for publication 
in 1983, which covers all non-Puebloan peoples. The first part of 
Southwest (volume 9), on the Pueblos, was published in 1980. 
Research and editing on Arctic are underway. California and 
Northeast, issued in 1978, are both in their third printing. The 
Handbook is under the general editorship of nmnh's Dr. William C. 


During the 1981-82 year, 2,253,634 specimens of algae, fishes, 
and invertebrates were sorted at the Smithsonian Oceanographic 
Sorting Center (sosc), and 374,093 specimens were shipped to 102 
taxonomists throughout the world. Recent acquisitions include 
fishes from Halmahera, collected by Dr. Paul Taylor, and marine 
algae from the northern Philippines, collected by Dr. Ernani G. 
Menez. Dr. Gordon Hendler participated on a National Science 
Foundation expedition along the Antarctic Peninsula and returned 
with a valuable general collection of benthic invertebrates. Samples 
of this collection are being prepared with specialized techniques 

108 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

such as the freeze-drying of bryozoans for the extraction of poten- 
tial anti-cancer compounds. Ms. Betty Landrum developed a com- 
puterized data system at sosc that is compatible with the system 
used for the nmnh fish collection, thus eliminating considerably 
duplication of effort. Dr. Frank Ferrari completed a study concern- 
ing the introduction of oithonid copepods from coastal waters of 
China into the San Francisco Bay and delta system. 


The museum's Office of the Registrar has been actively engaged 
in the establishment of new registration systems in the departments 
of Botany and Vertebrate Zoology. The new systems are designed 
with a view towards an automated registration system. The office 
continues to monitor the registration system for the department of 
Anthropology, Mineral Sciences, Paleobiology, Invertebrate Zool- 
ogy, and Entomology. Registration was very active during the year. 
The office recorded approximately 1,490 accession transactions, 
1,071 incoming collections, 3,453 outgoing shipments, and 1,200 
numbers assigned in blocks to Botany and Vertebrate Zoology to 
be used for incoming and outgoing shipments. 

The office participated in the Museum Registration Methods 
Workshop and the Northeast Museum Conference Registrars Com- 
mittee Deaccessioning Workshop — the latter chaired by Margaret 
Santiago, with approximately seventy-five registrars and other 
museum professionals participating. The registrar continues to 
review registration systems in other science museums. The most 
recent visits were to the British Museum (Natural History), the 
Sedgewick Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, and the 
Museum Documentation Centre in England. 


The museum's comprehensive collection inventory was nearly 
seventy-eight percent complete at the end of fiscal year 1982. 
Item-by-item inventories are being compiled for valuable speci- 
mens, types, and many specimens going to the new Museum 
Support Center; the remainder of the museum's collection of over 
60 million specimens is being inventoried in batches. Inventories 
finished or near completion include the anthropology collections, 

Science I 109 

type specimens of plants, invertebrate and vertebrate animals and 
fossil organisms, valuable mollusks, gems, minerals and rocks, 
certain important groups of insects, invertebrates, mammals and 
birds, large stratigraphic suites of fossils, the egg and nest collec- 
tion, fish, reptiles and other vertebrates stored in large tanks, and 
the collection of the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center. 


Design work based on last year's ventilating and air-conditioning 
systems of the nmnh was begun. These designs, when implemented 
in future years, will bring significant improvement to the environ- 
ment so vital to the conservation of our collections and to the 
comfort of our visitors and staff. 

Continued progress was made in improving the building's fire- 
protection systems. The installation of complete fire detection and 
suppression systems was begun in the nonpublic areas of the main 
museum building. 

National Zoological Park 

In fiscal year 1982 the National Zoological Park (nzp) continued 
its commitment to education, science, recreation, and conservation 
through animal exhibitions, symposia, research with the collec- 
tions, publications, and continuing research and breeding of en- 
dangered species. These programs were accomplished through the 
combined efforts of the Office of Animal Programs, the Office of 
Support Services, and the Office of the Director. 


In December 1981 the renovated Reptile and Amphibian House 
and Small Mammal House were completed, and preparations for 
opening began. The construction contract for Monkey Island was 
awarded, and excavation started in December 1981, with the 
project to be completed in October 1982. The Aquatic Vertebrate 
Facility design was completed in February 1982 and is now on 

110 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

hold until construction funds can be programmed. Plans for im- 
provements along Olmsted Walk began with the award of an 
exhibit design contract in the latter part of 1982, and a design 
contract was awarded in August 1982 for renovation of the Monkey 
and Elephant houses. Construction should start at the end of 1982. 

At the Conservation and Research Center (crc), the small- 
mammal-facility construction contract was awarded in November 
1981, and work was completed in September 1982. Work on the 
hoofed-stock facility was finished in December 1981, and after 
completion of yardwork and the outside fencing, the facility opened 
on July 1, 1982. This building has been named the Rivinus Barn 
in honor of Mr. Edward F. Rivinus, former director of the Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, who alerted the nzp staff to the availability 
of the property. 

The Master Development Plan for the Conservation and Re- 
search Center was completed March 1982, and copies were dis- 
tributed. The schematic design for the veterinary hospital was 
completed, and a design contract will be awarded later in 1982. 

The Office of Support Services continued the routine annual 
maintenance and repair of the animal quarters and related areas. 
In some instances, some of the animals had to be off exhibit for 
a few days due to the repairs. 

January 13-17, 1982, the Zoo was closed to the public due to a 
very heavy snow storm. The first priority was to clean the walks 
to get food to the animals, and then the public access areas were 


During fiscal year 1982 the following endangered mammal species 
were born: golden lion tamarins, maned wolves, Eld's deer, Persian 
onagers, and clouded leopards. Other major births were grey seals, 
a spectacled bear, a sloth bear, California sea lions, a bongo, a 
ruffed lemur, Bengal tigers, and a red-bellied tamarin. 

Animals received during fiscal year 1982, which are new to the 
present collection, were: burrowing rats from Brazil, four pairs 
of Aleutian Canada geese, a guanaco from the Bronx Zoo, red- 
crested cardinals, red and white crakes, an Eastern flying squirrel, 
a Jarrow's spiny lizard, a giant toad, a Tokay gecko, a tree shrew, 
a Senegal bushbaby, a giant coot, and a Johnstone's crocodile. A 

Science I 111 

Among major Zoo births this past year were a 
California sea lion, upper left, and a spectacled 
bear cub, upper right. Below right, Keeper 
Leader Michael Davenport introduces one of the 
new gharials to its pool. Below left, is Tomoka, 
the male gorilla — the fourth Zoo-born gorilla — 
who reached the grand age of 21 years on Sep- 
tember 9, 1982. 

major acquisition to the herpetology collection was the gift of six 
gharials from the King of Nepal to the United States. The gharials 
arrived on June 30, 1982; unfortunately, two were dead on arrival. 

April 16, 1982, marked the tenth anniversary of the arrival in 
Washington of giant pandas, Ling-Ling and Hsing-Hsing. Ten 
years of friendship with the People's Republic of China was recog- 
nized at the nzp with the unveiling of a plaque expressing friend- 
ship and goodwill. On March 17, 1982, Ling-Ling, the giant panda, 
had come into estrus and, since the ensuing breeding encounters 
were not successful, she was artificially inseminated over a three- 
day period, beginning March 19. The Panda House was closed to 
the public on July 13 to give Ling-Ling seclusion in the event she 
was pregnant, but on August 26 it was determined that she was 
not. The behavior watch continued anyway until August 30, and 
the Panda House was reopened on September 8. 

Other notable occasions during the year include: the May 20 
receipt of white-naped cranes and Derbyan parakeets as gifts from 
the Peking Zoo; the twenty-first birthday, September 9, of Tomoka, 
the Zoo's male gorilla (and also the fourth zoo-born gorilla); the 
annual December trip of the nine reindeer to the Ellipse for the 
Pageant of Peace. This year the trip was longer, since the reindeer 
are now located at the Conservation and Research Center, Front 
Royal, Virginia; the computerization record, begun April 1982, 
for all bird eggs laid at Rock Creek; and two major openings: the 
Reptile and Amphibian House, on December 18, 1981, and the 
Herplab, located in that facility, on September 21, 1982. 


The very active research staff and associates continued their varied 
projects. Katherine Ralls continued her cooperative research with 
the Fish and Wildlife Service on the threatened California sea 
otter prior to undertaking translocation of this species. Kenneth 
Green, principal investigator of the Image Analysis and Graphic 
Facility for Ecological Studies (images) who is funded by nih for 
a three-year period, kept on with a study that will enable primate 
field workers to utilize remote-sensing data from landsat satellites. 
W. P. J. Dittus and Anne Baker-Dittus continued their long-term 
research on primates of Sri Lanka with National Science Founda- 
tion support. Eugene Morton continued his studies of Kentucky 

Science I 113 

warblers at the Conservation and Research Center and also his 
research on neotropical bird migration and the habitat of hooded 
warblers in Yucatan, Mexico. John Frazier, under contract with the 
Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service, 
proceeded with studies to establish reliable age techniques in sea 
turtles. His work also includes studies on sea turtles in Peru, 
Ecuador, Panama, Mexico, and Cayman. During the summer of 
1982 Dr. Frazier conducted a survey of sea turtles and their habi- 
tats and birds in the Egyptian Red Sea. He is also collaborating 
with Egyptian colleagues to begin sea turtle field studies there, and 
Dr. Frazier has also initiated a study of the breeding of loggerhead 
turtles in Greece. 

The research begun in 1980, under the coordination of John 
Seidensticker, on the behavioral ecology of the native wildlife at 
the Conservation and Research Center and adjoining Shenandoah 
National Park near Front Royal, Virginia, continues very actively. 
An analysis of the vegetation of the area is also underway. This 
program serves to train overseas and local biologists in ecology, 
conservation, and management field techniques. 

Dale L. Marcellini completed a study on lizard population 
ecology; data were collected on two species of Puerto Rican Anolis. 
In August 1982, Daryl Boness and Olav Oftedal began a long-term 
study of California sea lions on San Nicolas Island, California. 
This is a multidiscipline project participated in by nzp, Marineland, 
British Columbia Provincial Museum, and University of California, 
Berkeley. Mel Sunquist began a study of small carnivores and om- 
nivores at Hato Masagural in Venezuela, and John Eisenberg, 
R. Rudran, and Richard Thorington continued their long-term 
investigations of red-howler monkeys in llanos of Venezuela. 
R. Rudran kept on with his study of the effects of deforestation on 
the vertebrates of the Sinharajah in Sri Lanka. 

In March 1982, Devra Kleiman spent seven weeks in the 
People's Republic of China — at the Ying Xiong Gou captive- 
panda facility in the Wolong Nature Reserve — observing giant 
pandas during the breeding season. She also spent some time at 
the Chengdu Zoo training Chinese counterparts in the collection 
and analysis of behavior data, and she held discussions on the 
Smithsonian giant-panda field study with Chinese scientists and 
officials in Peking. Later in the summer, Dr. Kleiman went to 

114 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Above. April 16, 1982, marked the 10th anniversary of the arrival of giant 
pandas Hsing-Hsing and Ling-Ling at the nzp. Below. Ten years of friendship 
with the Peoples Republic of China was recognized with the unveiling of a 
plaque. Participants in the ceremony were (from left) Ambassador Chai 
Zemin, an interpreter, Ambassador John Holdridge, and Dr. T. H. Reed, 
director of the nzp. 




Brazil to discuss with officials the protocol and possibility of a 
program for reintroduction of the golden lion tamarin into the 
Poco d'Anta Biological Reserve. 

The inbreeding studies continue with a program in modern 
genetic principles being offered to nzp collection managers, and a 
24-hour hand-rearing facility at Rock Creek has been established 
with trained volunteers participating. 

A symposium on "The Biology and Management of the Cer- 
vidae" — which included participants from all over the world — 
convened at the Conservation and Research Center in August 
1982. The papers will be published in the nzp symposia series to 
be edited by Christen M. Wemmer, curator-in-charge of the Con- 
servation Center. 

The nzp was well represented at the Third International Therio- 
logical Congress held in Helsinki, August 12-20, 1982. John 
Eisenberg, Olav Oftedal, Edwin Gould, and James Dietz were in 
attendance, presenting papers and participating on panels in specific 

The departments of Animal Health and Pathology continued 
their aggressive program of preventive, medical, and surgical care 
of the collection. The research of these departments includes the 
study of pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in zoological species. The 
antibiotic studies have been expanded to evaluate the results of 
aerosol therapy (nebulization) on blood and tissue levels in birds 
and mammals. An in-depth study on the best parvovirus vaccine 
is also being conducted, concurrent with a study to evaluate the 
best vaccination procedure for developing immunity to canine dis- 
temper. The present killed-distemper vaccine is not providing ade- 
quate protection, and the use of a modified live vaccine could cause 
a vaccination-induced disease in exotic carnivores. Studies on the 
repair of avian fractures proceeded apace, including the use of 
bone grafts, tissue glue, and plastic inserts to return the bone to 
its normal function. 

The Department of Pathology continues its on-going research 
and vigilance against infectious diseases that may threaten the 
collection. This is accomplished through a complete autopsy, a 
systematic dissection of the carcass, with tissues being taken for 
culture, and a complete microscopic examination of all organs. 
Reproductive physiological research continues in semen collection 

116 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

and preservation, with artificial insemination being performed on 
various species, such as elephants, rhino, giraffe, clouded leopard, 
giant panda, and Dorcas gazelle, among others. The concern is the 
general lack of success in zoo animals to become pregnant when 
artificially inseminated. Dr. Bush and associates made a second 
trip to South Africa for further studies and to collect tissues and 
semen in cooperation with South African colleagues. 

The medical records of nzp are now computerized, and nzp is 
the first zoo to do so. On the computer are a multitude of records : 
medical and surgical, anesthesia, X-ray, preventive medical, para- 
site, and pathology. 


The Office of Public Information and Education has continued its 
programs of contact with the public. The office, with the Friends 
of the National Zoo (fonz), has established a wildlife studies 
certificate, which is awarded when an individual has completed 
six courses in the approved curriculum (conservation, animal 
behavior, veterinary studies, and certain electives). This fiscal 
year, the first annual nzp public symposium "Animal Extinctions: 
What Everyone Should Know" was held. Internationally known 
speakers were on the program, and the symposium was well 
received by the public. 

In order to promote better coordination among the nzp and fonz 
offices with presentations to the public, the Information Services 
Panel was established this year. The panel has been very success- 
ful in assuring consistency in the quality of programs offered to 
the public. 

The office continued its programs with the D.C. Program: A 
Closer Look, the Highschool Teacher's Workshop, and Zoo 
Observation Training; and is proceeding with its successful work 
with the Zoolab, Birdlab, and now Herplab educational units, 
which are very popular with the public. 


The Smithsonian Institution Office of Audits, from December 1981 
to March 1982, conducted a review of the nzp's management and 
administration. The audit resulted in the realignment of the 

Science I 117 

supply and warehousing function and has brought directly into 
the management and administrative operations the functions of 
the Office of Management Services to better serve the nzp depart- 
ments and offices. The Supply and Warehousing Unit was trans- 
ferred from Support Services to the Office of Management 
Services and was retitled Receiving/Warehousing Unit. 

On August 21, 1982, Dr. John F. Eisenberg resigned as assistant 
director for Animal Programs to become Ordway Professor of 
Ecosystem Conservation at the University of Florida, Gainesville. 
Effective June 16, 1982, Dr. Dale L. Marcellini was appointed 
acting assistant director for Animal Programs until a permanent 
assistant director is appointed. Dr. Donald L. Janssen, associate 
director, Department of Animal Health, resigned to take a position 
at the San Diego Zoo. 


The Friends of the National Zoo (fonz) continued their assistance 
to the National Zoological Park in education, science, recreation, 
and services to the public. 

This year the Smithsonian Institution renewed the contract 
with fonz for operation of the parking lots at the Zoo. 

A principal part of fonz's contributions to the nzp is the core 
of well-trained, educated guides, who provide their time on a vol- 
unteer basis during the week and on weekends. Many of these 
volunteers spend many hours at the Zoo working in all areas. The 
bus program, which is so popular with D.C. elementary school 
classes, is still being provided, and fonz has contributed funding to 
programs in science, financing research projects, field trips, and 
intern and postdoctoral programs. 

Financial information for calendar year 1981 is provided in 
detail below. In addition, a percentage of the restaurant and park- 
ing concessions is available directly to the Smithsonian for the 
benefit of the National Zoo and is reported as income in the 
Financial Report of the Smithsonian Institution. 

118 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Financial Report for the Period 

January 1-December 31, 1981 

[In $l,000's] 

Net increase/ 



icrease) to 



fund balance 

$ 926 

$ 391 

$ 324 









2,384 3 



$ 155 

$1,081 l 

FUND BALANCE @ 1/1/81 . . . 



Education 1 

Zoo Services a 

Totals - 

FUND BALANCE @ 12/31/81 

1 Excludes services worth an estimated $141,215 contributed by volunteers to fonz. 

2 Includes gift shops, parking services, and food services. 

3 Includes $268,368 paid during this period to the Smithsonian Institution under contractual 

* Net worth, including fixed assets, to be used for the benefit of educational and scien- 
tific work at the National Zoological Park. 

The Office of Biological Conservation 

The Office of Biological Conservation (obc) is responsible for for- 
mulating many of the Institution's responses to requests for infor- 
mation concerning the conservation of the world's environment. 
Working with government and nongovernment organizations in 
the United States and abroad, the obc has continued to assemble 
data regarding the status of endangered species and ecosystems 
throughout the world, and has been engaged in activities designed 
to improve public awareness and understanding of conservation 

The Si-Threatened Plants Committee (iucn) Latin America 
Project has completed the compilation of candidate lists of endemic 
and possibly threatened species for Middle America (Mexico and 
Central America). The 6,000 scientific plant names with assigned 
status categories have been entered into the Wang computer at the 
committee's headquarters at Kew, the Royal Botanic Gardens, 

Science / 119 

Giant tortoises now survive only in the Galapagos and on Aldabra. This one, 
Ceochelone elephantopus, is among species benefiting from obc support. 
(Photographer Craig McFarland.) 

England. The final publication, which will include the lists and an 
introduction concerning the needs for conservation efforts in 
Middle America, is expected to be published in 1983. 

Similar work on the flora of South America has continued. Con- 
tributors from each country have been requested to submit lists 
that will then be evaluated to determine if the candidate species 
are threatened on a world scale. 

Threatened species of economic importance or that are crop 
relatives or represent monotypic genera — as well as those that are 
of aesthetic interest or horticultural value — will be featured as 
Red Data Sheets in the next volume of the IUCN Red Data Book, 
expected to be published in 1983. 

The director served as cochairman of the "Ecosystem Mainte- 
nance Panel" at the U.S. Strategy Conference on Biological Di- 
versity held November 16-18, 1981, in Washington, D.C. The 
panel addressed the need for careful management of natural, pro- 
tected ana 1 man-modified ecosystems. Proceedings of the conference 
were published by the State Department in April 1982. 

The coordinator attended a Regional Workshop on Conserva- 
tion of Tropical Plant Resources in Southeast Asia, held in New 
Delhi, India, March 8-12, 1982. Serving as a member of the work- 
shop Scientific Program Committee, he delivered, on behalf of the 

120 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

director, two papers: "Smithsonian Institution Endangered Flora 
Information-Processing: Experiences and Goals" and "The World's 
Diminishing Plant Resources/' which will be published in the 
forthcoming conference proceedings. 

Work has continued on the contract to provide illustrations of 
ten plant species (three carnivorous Sarracenias, seven Mexican 
cacti) frequently found in international trade. The illustrations will 
be included in the United States Identification Manual, which will 
be used by customs inspectors enforcing the Convention on Inter- 
national Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 

The director and coordinator have completed three chapters for 
a book about worldwide conservation problems: "Wetlands," 
"Plants for Man," and "Savannas, Prairies, Arid and Semi-Arid 

Working with the government of Jamaica, West Indies, the obc 
is in the process of developing a comprehensive "Situation Report" 
on the island's environmental issues, including the potential for 
managing renewable resources, conservation problems, and recom- 
mendations for future programs. The report will be used to develop 
a national conservation program. 

The director submitted a paper to the international conference 
on Current Topics in Plant Taxonomy, held at the University of 
Reading, United Kingdom, July 7-9, 1982. "Taxonomic Problems 
Relating to Endangered Plant Species" will appear in the published 
proceedings of the conference. 

A color-illustrated book, Endangered Plants of the United States, 
is in the editorial stage, and illustrations are being selected. It is 
hoped that this text will stimulate concern among students and 
the general public. 

The obc continued its role in supporting the Charles Darwin 
Foundation for the Galapagos Isles, and the Seychelles Islands 

Office of Fellowships and Grants 

The Office of Fellowships and Grants (ofg) continues to serve as 
an Institutional link with scholarly organizations throughout the 

Science I 121 

world. It brings scientists and scholars to all parts of the Smith- 
sonian to utilize the unique resources available, as well as to inter- 
act with professional staff. The office also encourages research 
by universities, museums, and research organizations in the fields 
of art, history, and science. At present, two major activities are 
managed and developed by the office: Academic Programs and the 
Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program. 

Academic Programs at the Smithsonian support and assist visit- 
ing students and scholars, providing opportunities for research to 
be conducted at Smithsonian facilities, in conjunction with staff 
members. Residential appointments are offered at the undergradu- 
ate, graduate, and professional levels. 

The Smithsonian also enhances the quality of its research and 
extends the reach of its scholarly efforts through the Smithsonian 
Foreign Currency Program (sfcp). The sfcp offers grants to the 
Smithsonian and other U.S. scholarly institutions for research in a 
limited number of foreign countries where "excess currencies" are 
available. It is particularly effective in strengthening the "increase 
and diffusion of knowledge" on an international scale. 


Academic programs at the Smithsonian are an important comple- 
ment to those offered at universities. The national collections and 
the curators who study them are unparalleled resources that are 
not available anywhere else and are essential to scholarly research. 
In general, university education is based primarily on the study of 
books or artifact reproductions. At the Smithsonian, historical and 
anthropological objects, original works of art, natural history 
specimens, living plants, animals, and entire ecosystems are avail- 
able for study. The educational experience, which combines uni- 
versity training with field research, is one that is significantly 
enhanced, and the breadth of field opportunities at the Smithsonian 
is unmatched. 

The ofg administered a variety of academic appointments in 
fiscal year 1982. The program of Research Training Fellowships 
was begun in 1965. This year fifty-five pre- and postdoctoral 
fellowships were awarded. These appointees pursue independent 
research projects under the guidance of staff advisors for periods 
of six months to one year in residence at one of the Institution's 

122 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

bureaus or field sites. Topics of study for Smithsonian fellows in- 
cluded: the role of plant litter in nutrient cycling; ancient Chinese 
ritual jades and weapons; quantum physics and the composition 
of the stars; functions of juvenile/adult color dimorphism in coral 
reef fishes; intercultural interaction on the Southern Plains; and 
classical medicine and social development in early America. 

In addition to the general program funded through the Office 
of Fellowships and Grants, competitions for pre- and postdoctoral 
fellowships may also be held for specific awards. At the suggestion 
of First Lady Nancy Reagan, the First Ladies Fellowship was estab- 
lished for the study of costume in America at the National Museum 
of American History. The International Environmental Sciences 
Program supported a fellowship for the study of the social behavior 
of iguanas in the llanos of Venezuela. 

In addition, twenty graduate student fellowships were offered 
for ten-week periods during 1982. The participants are usually 
junior graduate students beginning to explore avenues that develop 
into dissertation research. This year some of these fellows studied: 
learning among a group of captive orangutans; the indigenous 
roots of New York Dada; design elements of Near Eastern textiles 
and clothing; Caribbean sponges; and tool marks on the hull of the 

A number of senior fellowships continued to be offered at the 
Institution. The distinguished botantist G. Ledyard Stebbins, emeri- 
tus professor at the University of California at Davis, came to the 
National Museum of Natural History as a Regents Fellow this 
winter. In addition to continuing his research on the population 
biology and systematics of the genus Antennaria, Dr. Stebbins 
gave a number of talks and seminars to both lay and professional 
audiences. Sir David Bates from the Queens University of Belfast 
began a stay of six months at the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory (sao) as a Regents Fellow, working with members of 
the divisions of atomic and molecular physics, optical and infrared 
astronomy, and radio and geoastronomy. Also appointed a Regents 
Fellow was Dr. Gerald Wasserberg, California Institute of Tech- 
nology, who came to the National Air and Space Museum in Sep- 
tember. He is working on popular publications on the significance 
of the space program and its scientific and political evolution since 
the early 1960s and on a chronology of the origin of the solar 

Science I 123 

The nasm reappointed R. E. G. Davies to the Lindbergh Chair 
to continue his studies on the history of air transport. In addition, 
John M. Logsdon was appointed to the first Chair in Space History. 
Dr. Logsdon is director of the graduate program in Science, Tech- 
nology and Public Policy at The George Washington University 
and while at nasm will complete a study of U.S. space policy from 
1969 to 1972. 

To honor Regent Emeritus James E. Webb, the Institution an- 
nounced the establishment of a number of fellowships in his name, 
designed to promote excellence in the management of cultural and 
scientific not-for-profit organizations. The first awards were offered 
in late fall of 1982 to persons from outside the Institution to come 
to the Smithsonian, and for Smithsonian staff to spend training 
periods away from the Institution. 

During fiscal year 1982 bureaus continued to offer support for 
visiting scientists and scholars in cooperation with the ofg. These 
awards make possible visits to the Smithsonian by persons who 
do not fall within the framework of the research training program, 
principally scholars at mid-career. The office also continued ad- 
ministration and partial support of the short-term visitor program. 
Forty-four persons spent from one week to a month at the Institu- 
tion conducting research, studying collections, and collaborating 
and conferring with professional staff. 

The expanded role of internships in the academic community is 
paralleled by increased support for interns within the Institution. 
The nasm supported sixteen interns through the ofg this year, 
almost double the number in 1981. The Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
again appointed three students under the Sidney and Celia Siegal 
Fellowship fund. Internships in environmental studies at the 
Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies and in primate 
conservation training at the National Zoological Park also con- 
tinued. The Smith College-Smithsonian Program in American 
Studies is now in its third year; six students will participate in a 
seminar course and conduct research projects under the direction 
of staff members. 

Progress on the organization of internship activities at the 
Institution continued. Institution policies regarding internships 
were published, and an internship council — consisting of intern- 
ship coordinators representing all bureaus and offices — was formed. 
Placement of interns will be through these coordinators, but the 

124 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

ofg will continue to administer all stipend awards for internships. 
For the second year the ofg, in cooperation with the Office of 
Equal Opportunity, has offered academic opportunities aimed at 
improving minority participation in Smithsonian programs. Start- 
ing with internships in 1981, the program expanded to include 
fellowships for faculty of historically black colleges and minority 
faculty members of other colleges. Awards were made to twenty 
interns who were placed at a variety of bureaus and offices on the 
Mall and also at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, the 
Radiation Biology Laboratory, and the sao. Some of the appoint- 
ments have already developed into more permanent relationships. 
Ofg also awarded seven fellowships to faculty persons to conduct 
research on subjects ranging from plant taxonomy to Eastern 
Cherokee sacred formulas and a social history of black New 
Yorkers during slavery and freedom. Also as a part of the minority 
education effort, two Smithsonian archivists went to Albany State 
College, Georgia, to offer a two-day workshop on developing an 
archival system. 


The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program (sfcp) awards grants 
to support the research interests of American institutions, includ- 
ing the Smithsonian, in those countries in which the United States 
holds blocked currencies derived largely from past sales of surplus 
agricultural commodities under Public Law 480. The program is 
active in countries in which the U.S. Treasury Department declares 
United States holdings of these currencies to be in excess of 
normal federal requirements, including, in 1982, Burma, Guinea, 
India, and Pakistan. Research projects are moving toward conclu- 
sion under program support in the former excess-currency coun- 
tries of Egypt, Poland, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, and Yugoslavia. 

The Smithsonian received a fiscal year 1982 appropriation of 
$4,320 million in "excess" currencies to support projects in anthro- 
pology and archaeology, systematic and environmental biology, 
astrophysics and earth sciences, and museum professional fields. 
From its inception in fiscal year 1966, through fiscal year 1982, 
the sfcp has awarded about $49 million in foreign-currency grants 
to 225 institutions in 40 states and the District of Columbia. 

This year, projects ranged through many disciplines, including 
archaeological investigation of Oriyo mound in Gujarat, India; 

Science / 125 

geological investigations of the Egyptian desert; paleoanthropo- 
logical studies of Later Miocene hominids in Pakistan; archaeo- 
logical mapping of the Theban Necropolis; examination of ceramic 
production and distribution in Rajasthan, India; linguistic study of 
the nomenclature of ancient economic plants in South India; oral 
histories of Tibetan refugees; micropaleontologic studies of Ceno- 
zoic marine sedimentary sequences; and ecological studies of 
parasitic drosophilids. 

The Smithsonian conveyed to the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific, and Cultural Organization (unesco) in 1982 the first of 
four projected contributions to the international effort to restore 
and preserve the Indus civilization city of Moenjodaro in Pakistan. 
The 4,500-year-old city, which flourished from about 3000 B.C. to 
1500 b.c, with its sophisticated planning, sanitation, and social 
organization, anticipated developments that were to blossom sev- 
eral thousand years later. Floods of the Indus River and highly 
saline ground waters have caused serious destruction of the exca- 
vated remains. The preservation project, long in the planning stage, 
has begun with a scheme for ground-water control. 

Through the Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program and other 
relationships, the Institution has a long-term interest in American 
research centers abroad. In spring 1981, Dr. Alice Ilchman was 
retained by the Smithsonian to study the Institution's role in secur- 
ing the future of such centers and developing their activities 
further. As part of the response to Dr. Ilchman's recommendations, 
the ofg has been assisting these centers to form a cooperative 
organization for advancement of the interests shared by all. During 
fiscal year 1982, the new organization, The Council of American 
Overseas Research Centers, was established, its membership con- 
solidated, and bylaws adopted. An effort was begun to investigate 
possible sources of continuous funding for the centers. 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

One of the aims of science is to describe in molecular detail the 
way in which processes occur. In biology, a reductionist approach 
is to take the cellular systems apart and then to characterize the 
components that are present. From such information about the 

126 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

sub-units, it is assumed that an understanding can be constructed 
of the way the parts interact. 

Another approach is to study biological systems as a whole by 
describing their behavior, either as individuals or as populations, 
in response to environmental stimuli. From these data, it can be 
deduced what sort of components or sub-units must be present. 

The research of the Radiation Biology Laboratory (rbl) utilizes 
both approaches to understand how plant growth and development 
are influenced by the environment. The disciplines of biochemistry, 
plant physiology, physics, biophysics, genetics, and engineering 
are used in an interdisciplinary manner. In addition, it is necessary 
to measure accurately and precisely environmental variables. The 
rbl has continued such measurements and emphasizes measure- 
ments of sunlight and its utilization for photosynthesis and photo- 
morphogenesis. Specifically, the research of the laboratory concen- 
trates on four areas: measurement of environmental processes and 
energy flow in biological systems, such as photosynthesis, water 
relations, and carbon metabolism; regulatory processes of plants, 
such as membrane synthesis and pigment synthesis; measurement 
of the amount, duration, and color quality of sunlight present in 
the environment; and age determination of biological artifacts 
based upon their radiocarbon content. Administratively, the re- 
search is grouped into three units encompassing individual proj- 
ects: Regulatory Biology, Environmental Biology, and Carbon 


All plants that are capable of becoming green when grown under 
natural conditions have, in addition to green chlorophyll, a pigment 
that is sensitive to the light environment. This pigment (phyto- 
chrome) is the photoreceptor for many important light responses 
in plants. It is a large, photochromic protein that can be inter- 
converted by light between biologically active and inactive forms. 
Although these forms can be detected optically both in plant cells 
and in extracted solutions, the molecular differences between the 
two forms remain unknown, as does the mechanism of action of 
the molecule. 

Recently, in the rbl new methods have been developed for puri- 
fying and characterizing the biologically active and inactive forms. 

Science I 127 

This development has required major effort in refining plant protein 
purification procedures and the use of some innovative techniques. 
Large quantities of phytochrome can now be purified, free of con- 
tamination by other proteins. One immediate result has been the 
recognition that partial breakdown of phytochrome must have 
occurred in the phytochrome described in all previously published 
work. Precautions can now be taken to eliminate this problem 
routinely, and sensitive procedures have been developed for moni- 
toring extracts for the presence of contaminating, degraded forms. 

Among the findings with undegraded materials is the fact that 
the process of reversion of the active phytochrome in the dark to 
inactive phytochrome is profoundly affected by limited breakdown. 
This fact probably explains past observations that phytochrome 
extracted from monocotyledonous plants showed dark reversion, 
while no dark reversion could be detected in intact living plants. 
When care is taken to eliminate breakdown in phytochrome ex- 
tracts from monocotyledonous tissue, reversion is essentially 

When a solution of undegraded phytochrome obtained from rye 
seedlings is placed under red light, eighty-four percent of the 
molecules are converted to the biologically active form. The absorp- 
tion characteristics of the partially degraded molecule are changed 
by the presence of salts in the solution. As the concentration of 
salts is increased, solutions of the biologically active form absorb 
more strongly. 

Other colored pigments (yellow, orange, and red carotenoids) 
are also present in plants, and their synthesis is regulated by blue 
light. The precursor of these pigments, phytoene, is a forty-carbon 
colorless compound, which is synthesized from a five-carbon com- 
pound, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (ipp), by a series of enzymatic 
reactions. In cell-free enzyme extracts from the fungus Neurospora 
crassa, the conversion of ipp to phytoene has been found to require 
both soluble and membrane-bound enzymes. The enzyme that con- 
verts the twenty-carbon intermediate geranylgeranyl pyrophos- 
phate (ggpp) to phytoene is membrane-bound and regulated by 
blue light. The conversion of ipp to ggpp requires two soluble en- 
zymes, an isomerase and a prenyltransferase. Partial purification 
of one of these enzymes (prenyltransferase) has been achieved, 
and the enzyme activity that can be extracted is increased by blue 

128 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

light applied to intact cells prior to extraction. Thus, it is concluded 
that blue light exerts at least one of its effects in the living cell at 
this locus in the biosynthetic pathway for carotenogenesis. 

In the fungus Phycomyces, the levels of the carotenoid beta- 
carotene are regulated by blue light. Previous data from the rbl 
indicated that the photoreceptor regulating the synthesis of beta- 
carotene is beta-carotene itself. Low levels of beta-carotene are 
synthesized in the dark, and blue light increases the rate of syn- 
thesis. It is postulated that this mechanism protects the cells from 
damage caused by exposure to high-intensity light, since caro- 
tenoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen, which is produced 
by the intense light. 

Preliminary data were obtained on the growth rates of fungal 
cells for three strains of Phycomyces, wild type (wt), an albino 
strain incapable of synthesizing beta-carotene (C-5), and a strain 
which produces abnormally large amounts of beta-carotene (B-401). 
When these three strains were grown at 15° C under intense blue 
light (50 W m -2 ), the albino cells ceased growth quickly. How- 
ever, the growth of the B-401 strain also was inhibited by blue 
light, as compared to dark-green controls, while the wild-type 
grew at the same rate as in darkness. Apparently the wild-type 
strain has something in addition to carotenoids that protects it 
from the intense blue light, and this characteristic is diminished in 
the B-401 strain. It is postulated that, even though the additional 
beta-carotene can quench damaging singlet oxygen if present, ex- 
cessive amounts may produce blue-light-induced photodynamic 
damage directly. 

When algae are grown under light-limiting conditions, they 
utilize accessory pigments contained in specialized structures called 
phycobilisomes that absorb light and transfer the absorbed energy 
to reaction centers for photosynthesis. These phycobilisomes play 
a major role in absorbing light in tlue-green algae. Phycobilisomes, 
isolated from the blue-green alga Nostoc by the method developed 
in the rbl, were found to consist of colored phycobiliproteins 
(eighty-five percent) and uncolored polypeptides (fifteen percent). 

These phycobilisomes can be dissociated to their component 
parts, and these parts purified and identified. In addition, for the 
first time, conditions have been determined whereby functional 
phycobilisomes could be reassociated from these components in 

Science / 129 

the test tube. Using these conditions, it was possible to show that 
the absence of one, small, colorless polypeptide prevented such 
in-vitro reassociation. From this fact, as well as corroborating evi- 
dence from other studies, it is suggested that this colorless poly- 
peptide has a crucial role in the specific attachment of two phyco- 
biliproteins — namely, phycocyanin with allophycocyanin. These 
two previously identified phycobiliproteins constitute the core of 
native phycobilisomes. 

Green plants contain chloroplasts in which are located the 
pigments for photosynthesis. A large portion of the chloroplast is 
composed of membranous sacs (thylakoids), in which the electron 
transport reactions of photosynthesis take place. Some of the poly- 
peptides of these thylakoids are made in the chloroplast on chloro- 
plast ribosomes, and some are made in the cytoplasm on cytoplasm 
ribosomes. Thylakoids of the alga Chlamydomonas, and thyla- 
koids of other plants have ribosomes bound to them. Previous 
work suggested that the thylakoid-bound chloroplast ribosomes 
might be specifically involved in synthesizing polypeptides that are 
added to the thylakoids. 

Thylakoids can be isolated from Chlamydomonas, but intact 
chloroplasts cannot. Thus, it is not possible to determine the rela- 
tive amounts of messenger rna (m-RNA) in thylakoids and stroma. 
Therefore, highly purified intact chloroplasts were obtained from 
immature first-true leaves of spinach. The chloroplasts contained 
thirty percent of their ribosomes bound to thylakoids. The thy- 
lakoid-bound ribosomes had properties similar to the thylakoid- 
bound ribosomes of Chlamydomonas and pea. 

Polyribosomes were released from the membranes by controlled 
digestion with trypsin. Ribosomal sub-units were released with 
high salt and puromycin, and release was totally dependent on 
the presence of both together. A chloroplast synthesized polypep- 
tide, the large sub-unit of ribulose-bis-phosphate carboxylase, was 
isolated, and an antibody was prepared against it. The carboxylase 
is a protein localized in the stroma. Messenger rna for it should 
not be present on thylakoids if thylakoid-bound ribosomes syn- 
thesize thylakoid proteins exclusively. 

Total rna was prepared from chloroplasts, washed thylakoids, 
and stroma. The rna was translated in the wheat-germ-protein 
synthesis system, and the presence of radioactive polypeptides was 

130 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

tested with specific antibody, using the indirect immunoprecipita- 
tion technique. Significant quantities of labelled, large sub-unit of 
ribulose-bis-phosphate carboxylase were formed using thylakoid 
rna as message, as well as stroma rna. These results indicate the 
presence of iti-rna for large sub-unit of ribulose-bis-phosphate 
carboxylase on thylakoids as well as in the stroma. Thus, thylakoid- 
bound polyribosomes may not be exclusively involved in the 
synthesis of thylakoid polypeptides as originally hypothesized. 

The light stimulus for inducing flowering in plants is received 
in leaves, and something in the leaves is altered. This alteration 
results in a change in materials moving from the leaves through 
the phloem sap to the terminal bud where flowering occurs. Despite 
many years of concentrated effort, isolation of the postulated 
hormonal materials that control flowering has not been successful. 
One plant that is very sensitive to light stimuli, Perilla, a member 
of the mint family, was tested. Phloem sap from vegetative and 
flowering material was extracted and fractionated into neutral 
ethyl acetate, acidic ethyl acetate, neutral butanol, and acidic 
butanol fractions. These fractions were examined by high pressure 
liquid chromatography (hplc), and a number of significant differ- 
ences between vegetative and flowering extracts were identified. 
Most of the differences are quantitative, but a few may be qualita- 
tive. The reproducibility and chemical nature of these differences 
are being determined. 

Similarly, samples of duckweed — vegetative and flowering — have 
been examined collaboratively with Professors Takimoto and 
Takahashi of Japan. Sensitive assays for benzoic acid and abscisic 
acid found no differences. In addition, bioassay failed to detect 
significant levels of gibberellins. Cytokinins were found. No corre- 
lation of the levels of these plant hormones with flowering has yet 
been detected. 

The reproductive behavior of many plants is also affected by the 
duration and spectral quality of sunlight. This response, known as 
photoperiodism, is based on the ability of the plant to measure the 
relative length of the day. In order to do so, the plant, utilizing a 
suitable photoreceptor molecule, must be able to detect the dif- 
ference between light and darkness. 

Laboratory studies in the rbl have shown previously that flower- 
ing in barley, which is promoted by increasing daylengths, can be 

Science I 131 

enhanced by the addition of long wavelength, far-red light to 
the daily photoperiod. It is also known that this far-red light 
causes structural changes in the chloroplast that result in increased 
efficiency for photosynthesis. Extensive experiments were contin- 
ued to test the hypothesis that enhanced flowering was caused by 
more efficient photosynthesis. Plants were grown in the presence 
of an herbicide that produces plants that are completely devoid of 
chlorophyll and, thus, lack any photosynthesis. The promotion of 
flowering by far-red light was, however, found to be unaffected. 
Therefore, chlorophyll is not the photoreceptor molecule that 
regulates the photoperiodic enhancement of flowering. 

It was found, further, that flowering was not only enhanced by 
far-red light in the absence of chlorophyll, but was in fact better 
than that in the green controls. Preliminary indications are that 
the far-red light stimulates the uptake or utilization of glucose, the 
sugar that must be supplied externally in the growth medium to 
the plant to replace photosynthesis. Thus, some photoreceptor 
other than chlorophyll seems to be involved with carbohydrate 
metabolism that may be in the causal chain of events leading to 
the promotion of plant reproduction. 


The photosynthetic activity of a plant depends on several vari- 
ables, such as the irradiance and spectral quality of the incident 
radiation, the temperature of the plant, the concentration of carbon 
dioxide in the surrounding air, the availability of water to the 
roots, and the level of nutrients in the root medium. In green- 
houses, light from electric lamps is often added as a supplement. 
However, the relative effectiveness of these lamps in producing 
photosynthetically active radiation is temperature-dependent. Their 
efficiency for emitting light decreases as the temperature is 
reduced toward the minimum temperatures — about 10° C (50° F) — 
below which horticultural crops cannot be sustained. Similarily, 
the photosynthetic efficiency of the plant decreases, principally 
because of the decreasing rate of chemical reactions at these 
reduced temperatures. For a cool-temperature crop, such as lettuce, 
it was found that the plant mass could be heated directly with in- 
frared radiation to achieve higher photosynthetic efficiencies with- 
out expending the large amounts of oil or electrical energy that 

132 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

would be necessary to heat the ambient air in the greenhouse or 
growth chamber. However, the use of a far-red radiation source 
enhances the photochemical processes of photosynthetic activity 
above that obtained with only "white" lamps. The combination 
of plant irradiation with infra-red energy and the use of far-red 
lamps to enhance photosynthesis provides an alternative to the 
high cost of heating the ambient air. 

This far-red enhancement effect also works with plants that 
require higher temperature for growth. However, these plants must 
be maintained at a higher ambient temperature since the far-red 
lamps do not emit sufficient radiation to increase the plant to a 
high enough temperature to enhance photosynthesis. 

The most common environmental perturbation leading to reduc- 
tions in primary production in higher plants is water stress. Many 
of the factors that control plant growth, such as turgor pressure, 
are directly affected by changes in plant water balance. Photo- 
synthesis is particularly sensitive. As the plant dessicates, turgor 
pressure declines, and the stomatal openings in the leaves close, 
reducing the supply of carbon dioxide from the ambient air to the 
chlorophyll-containing tissues within the leaf lamina. Further des- 
sication leads to inhibition of not only light harvesting, but also 
the production of reducing power and carbon reduction. 

The physical measurement of water stress by plant physiologists 
is a determination of the chemical activity of water in the plant 
relative to the chemical activity of pure water. This measurement 
is called "water potential" and reflects the fact that reduction of 
the chemical activity of water in the plant reduces its capacity to 
react in chemical reactions and to diffuse. Under favorable growth 
conditions for crop plants, water potential is normally high, but 
when dessication occurs, water potential declines by a readily 
measurable amount. The level of water potential required to pro- 
duce an effect upon photosynthesis varies considerably between 
species. Plants adapted to the very dry saline habitats are able to 
accomplish photosynthesis at much lower water potentials than 
are less hardy species. 

Wild species are well adapted to water stress and differ from 
more sensitive crop species. An understanding of these wild plants 
may someday help to improve drought resistance in important 
crop plants. Such a plant that has adapted to a very broad range 

Science / 133 

of water potentials is Spartina alterniflora, or common cordgrass, 
an abundant and highly productive species found along the 
Atlantic coastline. Although this plant is tolerant of very low 
water potentials, it grows best in mild, unstressed environments. 
It manifests many of the effects of water stress typical of those 
plants that are not tolerant of water stress. For example, it has a 
reduction of leaf area with increased water stress. 

Clues to the mechanism by which this adaptation is accom- 
plished are found in the analysis of pressure-volume data. As 
relative water content is reduced below about seventy percent, 
the dependence of the inverse of plant water potential upon rela- 
tive water content, becomes linear. Extrapolation of this linear 
relationship to 100 percent relative water content permitted esti- 
mation of osmotic potential and turgor pressure in the normal, 
physiological range of relative water content, which is typically 
seventy-five to ninety percent. Data obtained in this region could 
also be used to calculate the modulus of elasticity; i.e., the change 
in turgor pressure per unit of change in relative water content. 
At high relative water contents, the osmotic potentials of plants 
adapted to severe stress were always lower than osmotic poten- 
tials in plants adapted to moderate stress. Plants adapted to 
severe stress were also more rigid — the modulus of elasticity was 
greater — than plants adapted to moderate stress. 

These results show that the ability to maintain turgor pressure 
includes adaptation of the physical, as well as the biochemical, 
properties of plant tissues. The physiological meaning of the 
increased modulus of elasticity is that larger changes in turgor 
pressure are produced by the same change in relative water con- 
tent. The ecological benefit is that plants having a high modulus 
of elasticity are better able to exploit habitats in which water is 
limited. The capacity for reduction of osmotic potential as stress 
increases is evidence of osmotic regulation in this species. 

Measurements of the light penetrating the water in the Rhode 
River estuary of the Chesapeake Bay showed a marked increase 
in the transmissivity of the water when ice had formed. This 
increase is a complex phenomenon that is not readily explained. 
It could be due to various factors, such as a decrease in plankton, 
less run off from the land — which can carry a great deal of silt 
and other matter into the estuary — or the failure of other mechan- 

134 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

isms that normally prevent light from easily penetrating to any 
extent. These failures could be due in part to frozen conditions on 
the land and upper reaches of the river. 

Seed germination and morphological responses in plants have 
been attributed to the relative amounts of energy in red (660 nm) 
and far-red (720 nm, 730 nm) light absorbed by the phytochrome 
pigment. New data, taken in Rockville, Maryland, using an inter- 
ference-filter scanning radiometer developed by the rbl shows 
very little change in the 660 nm/730 nm ratio of irradiances, but 
large changes in the 660 nm/720 nm ratio do occur. These data 
are representative of both global (horizontal surface) and direct 
beam (normal incidence) irradiances. Occasionally the 660 nm/ 
730 nm ratio will show a large change at very low irradiances 
(0.01 Wm -2 nm -1 ), but these changes seem to be the exception 
rather than the rule. Since the wavelength band widths are only 
5 nm, these changes are generally predictable. The 720 nm filter 
measures energy at the peak of the water absorption band, which 
extends from approximately 715 nm to 730 nm. The 730 nm filter 
measures at a point little affected by the change in atmospheric 
water. Since these ratios seem to depend on atmospheric water, it 
would be expected that the 660 nm/720 nm ratio would show even 
larger changes in the normal incidence measurements near or on 
the horizon. 


The laboratory provides analytical service for the research interests 
of the Institution's staff by providing radiocarbon chronologies 
for samples of geological and archaeological interest. During the 
past year more than 300 such service samples were dated. Addi- 
tionally, a major portion of laboratory research continues to focus 
upon paleoclimates, the early occupations of the Americas, and 
investigation of the relationships between changing environment 
and changing cultures. 

Collagen extracted from a portion of rib bone of a mammoth 
skeleton found just east of Washington, D.C., dated to 21,000 or 
20,000 years ago, while plant matter from the underlying deposit 
dated to about 26,000 years, a period spanning the onset of the 
last major continental ice advance. Analyses of fossil pollen grains 
from the deposit are being undertaken to provide some clue to the 

Science / 135 

presence of this grazing mammal in an area presumed to be scrub 
boreal forest. 

Collagen from bones in a cave deposit in West Virginia have 
spanned a range of 23,000 to 20,000 years ago for remains of a 
tropical bat now found only south of Georgia. The apparent tem- 
perate character of the area is of considerable interest for inter- 
pretation of data from Meadowcroft Rockshelter not far to the 
north, where earliest human occupations have been successfully 
dated to 21,000 years ago, and it is especially interesting since 
that site lies only seventy kilometers south of the continental ice 
border. Floral and faunal remains from the rockshelter indicate 
boreal forest at that time and prompt major reconsideration not 
only of man's adaptability to cold ice-front regimes, but also of 
assumptions regarding geographic-transgressive vegetation regimes 
as one moves away from the front of a continental ice mass. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

The past year might be called "Year of the Director" at the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (sao). The former director 
had an observatory named in his honor; the current director chaired 
a committee that produced a landmark scientific report; and the 
next director of the observatory was selected and appointed. 

On the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday, Fred L. Whipple, 
former director of sao, was honored by the Smithsonian Board of 
Regents' decision to rename sao's field site at Mt. Hopkins, Ari- 
zona, the "Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory." Since 1968, 
this facility, located some thirty-five miles south of Tucson, has 
served as sao's major observatory for ground-based astronomy, 
including studies of planetary, stellar, and extragalactic objects. 
Mt. Hopkins is also the site of the Multiple Mirror Telescope, 
operated jointly with the University of Arizona. 

The formal change in name was marked with ceremonies on the 
summit of Mt. Hopkins, May 7, 1982. As Assistant Secretary 
David Challinor noted, it was appropriate to name the facility 
"after the man who conceived it, planned it, and, during its fledg- 

136 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

ling days, nurtured it so the site might become the multi-faceted 
research center it is today." 

While former director Whipple was being feted by his colleagues 
and friends, the current director, George B. Field, was receiving 
national praise for his efforts on behalf of the astronomical com- 
munity as chairman of the Astronomy Survey Committee. Com- 
missioned by the National Academy of Sciences and funded by the 
National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration, the committee undertook the formidable 
task of reaching a consensus within the large and diverse commu- 
nity of scholars and researchers on national priorities for the next 
decade. The report of that committee, Astronomy and Astrophysics 
for the 1980' s, published in the spring of 1982, established a set 
of research goals and ranked recommendations for major new 
instrumentation and facilities to fulfill them. Among the projects 
urged by the committee were: an Advanced X-ray Astrophysics 
Facility (axaf) to provide a permanent national X-ray observatory 
in space; a Very-Long-Baseline (vlb) array of radio telescopes de- 
signed to produce images with an angular resolution of 0.3 milliarc- 
seconds; a New Technology Telescope (ntt) of the 15-m class, to 
provide a tenfold increase in light-gathering capacity at optical 
wavelengths and a hundredfold increase at infrared wavelengths; 
and a Large Deployable Reflector in space for spectroscopic and 
imaging observations in the far-infrared and submillimeter wave- 
lengths, complementing and extending the capabilities of the 
largest ground-based telescope. 

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, in partnership with 
the Harvard College Observatory (hco) as members of the Center 
for Astrophysics (cfa), is uniquely placed to respond to the recom- 
mendations of the committee, having specialists and research 
groups active in all areas of modern astrophysics. The person who 
will be responsible for exploiting sao's potential for leadership will 
be Irwin I. Shapiro. A professor of physics and geophysics at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Shapiro was named senior 
scientist at sao on July 1, 1982, with his appointment as director 
to be effective January 1, 1983. (At that time, Shapiro will also 
become director of hco and the cfa. George Field will return to 
research and teaching duties as senior scientist at sao and professor 
of astronomy at Harvard.) 

Science / 137 

As director of the cfa, Shapiro will be responsible for leading a 
research staff of more than 140 scientists engaged in a broad pro- 
gram of astronomy and astrophysics. Data-gathering facilities in- 
clude, besides the Whipple Observatory, an international network 
of field stations to observe artificial satellites, an optical astronomy 
facility in Massachusetts, a radio astronomy facility in Texas, and 
satellite-borne and rocket-borne telescopes for X-ray and infrared 
observations. Research results are published in established journals 
as well as in the Center Preprint Series, the Smithsonian Special 
Report series, and other technical and nontechnical publications 
distributed to scientific and educational institutions around the 

Smithsonian scientists are encouraged to teach in the Harvard 
University Department of Astronomy and other departments, as 
well as at other universities and colleges. Both a Visiting Scientist 
Program and a Postdoctoral Fellowship Program are sponsored by 
sao at the cfa. An extensive public education and information 
program is coordinated by the sao Public Affairs Office. 

The Center's research programs are funded by various combina- 
tions of sources. Sao's programs are supported by federal appro- 
priations and trust funds from the Smithsonian Institution and by 
contracts and grants from both the private sector and government 
agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion, the Office of Naval Research, the Department of Energy, the 
National Science Foundation, and the Air Force Geophysics Lab- 
oratory. The Langley-Abbot Program, funded by the Institution, 
provides fundamental support in the area of solar physics and 
related research. Harvard members are supported by university 
funds and by outside contracts and grants. 

The Center's research activities are organized in seven divisions 
under the leadership of associate directors, who are charged with 
coordinating the investigations and planning the resources required 
to carry out programs. The research accomplishments in each of 
these divisions during the past year follow. 


Burgeoning developments in astronomy continued to create new 
and exciting demands for precise and comprehensive atomic and 
molecular data and for extensive understanding of physical and 

138 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

chemical processes. The goals of Atomic and Molecular Physics 
Division members are to provide these data and the basic under- 
standing of the processes. Research was carried out in theoretical 
and experimental physics and chemistry relating directly to the 
interpretation of astronomical observations and entering into 
theories of astronomical phenomena. These research topics are 
interwoven by the vital interaction between theorists and experi- 
mentalists, which continues to be a strength of the division. 

Recent measurements of the cross-section for charge transfer in 
the collision of C 3+ ions with atomic hydrogen seemed to suggest 
a possible discrepancy between the low energy (<250 eV) and the 
high energy data (>2 keV). Accurate theoretical calculations were 
performed for the charge transfer process, and the results for the 
cross-section showed that two channels contribute with very dif- 
ferent energy dependence in such a way that the total cross-section 
is in harmony with both sets of experimental data. 

Most plasma diagnostic techniques require accurate electron- 
impact excitation cross-sections for multiply charged ions and 
many need transition probabilities for transitions involving meta- 
stable levels. Measurements of these atomic parameters were em- 
phasized in the laboratory. The Ion-Beam Facility was used to make 
the first measurement of the electron-impact excitation of the 
ground term of C + , 2s 2p 2 P°, to the 2s2p 2 2 D term. The Al335 A 
spectral line produced by this excitation is observed in the sun 
and other astronomical sources and is an important, electron tem- 
perature and density diagnostic when used with other lines of C + . 

A facility was developed for measurement of radiative transition 
probabilities for intersystem transitions in light ions of astrophys- 
ical interest. The ions are created and excited by the electron bom- 
bardment of gases, stored in an ion trap, and the photons from 
radiative decay are detected. The magnitudes of the A-values for 
typical spin-forbidden transitions are between 10 2 and 10 4 sec -1 . 
Because of its use in solar transition-zone diagnostics and as a 
test of theoretical atomic calculations, the Si III (1892 A) line was 
measured first, and an A-value of 1.63 X 10 4 was determined. 

The opacity of the earth's atmosphere in the wavelength region 
1750-2050 A is controlled by the absorption cross-sections of the 
rotationally discrete Schumann-Runge bands of O2. The cross- 
section of the Schumann-Runge bands (12, 0) through (1, 0) were 

Science I 139 

measured with a 6.65-m photoelectric scanning spectrometer of 
high enough resolution (0.0013 A) for the cross-sections to be 
independent of the instrumentation — a result never previously 
achieved. Definitive band oscillator strengths have been determined 
directly from the measured cross-sections and were used to obtain 
predissociation line widths of the bands by fitting computed cross- 
sections to those measured. 


High Energy Astrophysics Division members devoted considerable 
time during the past year to the reduction and analysis of scientific 
data from the two High Energy Astronomy Observatory satellites 
(heao 1 and 2). Research programs covered a wide range of astro- 
nomical topics, including stellar coronae, supernova remnants, 
globular clusters, binary X-ray systems, normal galaxies, narrow 
emission-line galaxies, radio galaxies, BL Lac objects, Seyfert gal- 
axies, quasars, clusters of galaxies, and surveys and identifications 
of galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources. Substantial observing 
time with a number of ground-based optical and radio telescopes 
was obtained and utilized as a part of these scientific programs. 

Analysis of data from the Scanning Modulation Collimator ex- 
periment on board heao-1 continued, with the objective of identi- 
fying bright X-ray sources with optical objects. A major milestone 
was the completion of the data-reduction phase by creating merged 
directories of all mission data for each of 1,200 possible X-ray 
sources. So far, about 240 sources are indicated; of these 50 may 
be contaminated by stronger sources. Other X-ray sources were 
also identified, including a new transient-like source, H0323+02 — 
with what (sometimes) appears to be a normal G-star with a 
large infrared excess — and three probable Be-star X-ray systems. 
At least two of the latter, 4U0728-25 and 3A2206+543, are 
interesting in that a low-luminosity, quasi-steady, X-ray component 
may be observed. Study of 2A1704— 241, the first normal M-giant 
emitting system, was completed. 

Basic data processing, support of the Guest Observer Program, 
and varied scientific programs are the focus of the division's heao-2 
(Einstein Observatory) research. Completion of a first-pass analysis 
of all Einstein data led to revision of the aspect solution and the 
High Resolution Imaging (hri) processing software, and resulted 

140 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

in an improvement in source-position accuracy to about 3.3 sec 
at 90 percent confidence, as compared with the earlier estimated 
error of 10 sec. 

In support of the Einstein Guest Observer Program, division data 
aides and scientists provided both data and programming assistance 
to visiting researchers, who, last year, numbered more than 90. 

Among the results of the Einstein investigations were the fol- 
lowing: discovery of a new class of X-ray-emitting galaxies — 
"dull" galaxies, otherwise optically undistinguished; development 
of a classification scheme for galaxies based on X-ray emission, 
optical morphology, and radio properties; statistical studies of 
complete samples of quasi-stellar objects (qsos); evidence for 
evolution of qso X-ray luminosity; correlation of X-ray and optical 
properties of qsos; determination of cluster X-ray luminosity func- 
tion; extension of cluster classification schemes; the discovery of 
an X-ray pulsar in the supernova remnant msh 15-5(2); and mass 
estimates of supernova progenitor stars. 

Studies of solar and stellar coronal plasmas continued to focus 
on understanding the physics of coronal formation. Substantial 
progress was achieved in two areas : the first involved observational 
tests of coronal heating, using Skylab and related solar data, and 
the second, Einstein data analysis and interpretation of stellar 
X-ray emission, with particular attention to magnetic-field-related 
processes. Significant advances were also made in studies of plasma 
and magnetohydrodynamic processes. 


Research in optical and infrared astronomy concentrated on extra- 
galactic and galactic astronomy, with special emphasis on studies 
of clusters of galaxies, active galactic nuclei, redshift surveys, star 
clusters, and the formation and evolution of stars. In support of 
research throughout the Center, the division operated the Fred 
Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, the site 
of the Multiple Mirror Telescope (mmt), a joint project with the 
University of Arizona. 

This year, major improvements were made in the performance 
of the mmt, which now meets or exceeds all the original design 
specifications. Automatic alignment and tracking are now accom- 
plished at the final combined focal plane. The mount works excep- 

Science / 141 

tionally well, with absolute pointing better than one arc second 
and very smooth tracking. The median image size was measured 
to be better than one arc second fwhm, which confirmed the earlier 
reports of excellent seeing. The telescopes at the Whipple Observa- 
tory also reached new heights of productivity in support of dozens 
of research programs, and division efforts to develop and refine 
the instruments, detectors, and software systems continued. Of 
particular note was the establishment of a new Image Processing 
Facility in Cambridge. 

In extragalactic astronomy, noteworthy work on several clusters 
of galaxies studied in detail showed that, in general, the structure 
and kinematics are more complicated than previous dynamical 
studies have admitted. However, select cases of binary clusters 
were shown to yield significant information about their dynamical 
evolution. The mmt played an essential role in this research. 

Various aspects of active galaxies were investigated. International 
Ultraviolet Explorer observations were used to study galaxies that 
have undergone recent bursts of star formation. The mmt Infrared 
Photometer and Circular Variable Filter were utilized to observe 
qsos where optical lines of interest have been redshifted into the 
infrared. Examples of interacting galaxies and their relationship to 
qsos were examined, and, by use of the mmt, a survey of faint 
qsos was carried out. 

The first stage of the cfa Redshift Survey was completed, and 
work began on two major extensions. In collaboration with the 
Observatorio Nacional, a copy of the Z-machine was built and 
put into operation in Brazil, which will allow the extension of the 
Redshift Survey to the Southern Hemisphere. 

The kinematics of the globular clusters in M31 were surveyed 
with the mmt; and a slight rotation in the cluster system as a whole 
was found. Several aspects of open clusters were also studied: faint 
photometry of the lower main sequence in the Hyades and Pleiades 
showed that the cluster ages derived from the turn-on-point dis- 
agree with those from the turn-off-point by a large factor. Newly 
developed techniques for measuring accurate radial velocities of 
faint stars were used for a variety of projects, including a new 
convergent point solution for the Hyades and direct measurements 
of the kinematics of open clusters. Binaries were found to be a 
frequent phenomenon. 

142 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

During 1982, major improvements were made in the performance of sao's 
Multiple Mirror Telescope at the Whipple Observatory, Mt. Hopkins, 

This image of an edge-on spiral galaxy shows several independent struc- 
tures: a bright nucleus, the thin inner disk of stars, and a larger envel- 
oping halo of material. Current theory suggests that spiral galaxies may be 
stabilized by such massive haloes of dark material "invisible" to normal 


Infrared observations from the ground, the nasa Kuiper Air- 
borne Observatory, and from high-altitude balloons were used for 
imaging and spectroscopy of astronomical objects, such as regions 
of star formation and the galactic center, and high-resolution 
spectroscopy of the earth's atmosphere. 

Division scientists also operated a balloon-borne telescope that 
produced a high-resolution, far-infrared map of a large area 
(1° X 4°) of the galactic center. Finally, work on a major project, 
the Helium-Cooled Infrared Telescope on Spacelab 2 continued; 
the experiment is scheduled to fly aboard the Space Shuttle in 1984. 


Members of the Planetary Sciences Division carry out all three of 
the traditional forms of scientific activity: they study the planets 
by observational, theoretical, and laboratory techniques. 

This past year, the observational program centered on the Oak 
Ridge Observatory (formerly Agassiz Station) in Harvard, Massa- 
chusetts. With its 61-inch reflector, this facility is ideally suited to 
provide the astrometric observations needed to calculate the orbital 
elements of small bodies — comets and asteroids, for example — in 
the solar system, which require the determination of positions on 
a number of different nights. The Oak Ridge program of regular 
observation of newly discovered, unusual, and faint minor planets 
and comets is operated closely with the International Astronomical 
Union's Minor Planet Center and Central Telegram Bureau (di- 
rected by a division member). These resources seek to verify obser- 
vations, compute orbital elements, and disseminate, on a timely 
basis, information to astronomers worldwide. 

Observational studies were also carried out by division scientists 
who participated as members of the imaging team on the Voyager 
mission. The group found the ring system of Saturn to be vastly 
more complex than had been imagined. 

Theoretical studies of planetary bodies and comets included an 
investigation of the effect of decay on the motions and cohesive- 
ness of comet nuclei and the examination of the dynamics of 
postulated double comets. Recent improvements in the accuracy of 
models of the primitive solar nebula have contributed to under- 
standing of the origin of refractory inclusions and chondrules in 
meteorites. Efforts to relate the long-term dynamical behavior of 

144 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

orbiting objects (such as the material in Saturn's rings) to mass 
distributions continued. 

The laboratory approach to solar system science is employed 
by application of the techniques of mineralogy and petrology to 
studies of the detailed properties of meteorites and lunar samples. 
Meteorites contain a cryptic record of events and processes asso- 
ciated with the origin of the solar system, and even presolar 
system history. Lunar samples contain an equally cryptic record 
of the earliest internal evolution of a small planet. Research 
centered on the origin of refractory inclusions in carbonaceous 
chondrites: the major question being explored is whether these 
materials represent high-temperature condensates from nebular 
gas or residues of distilled interstellar dust. 

Particular attention was also given to the history of the lunar 
highlands crust. A division member leads a consortium in studying 
the properties of constituents of highlands breccia 67015; early 
findings suggested an unexpectedly complex geology at the Apollo 
16 site. 

Measurements of 37 Ar produced in potassium as a function of 
depth at the Homestake Mine were carried out. These measure- 
ments will provide a value for the cosmic-ray background of the 
chlorine solar neutrino detector, and a decay-mode independent 
half-life for proton decay. Findings should contribute to an under- 
standing of the highly complex interior of the sun. 


The Radio and Geoastronomy Division conducted studies in radio 
astronomy, aeronomy, and geophysics, as well as research and 
development programs in maser technology. Division members 
operated a satellite laser tracking network and a radio astronomy 
facility near Fort Davis, Texas, where a Very Long Baseline Inter- 
ferometry (vlbi) station is also located. During the year, the Fort 
Davis installation was renamed the George R. Agassiz Station. 

Vlbi research focused on several areas. Using long-period map- 
ping of proper motions of interstellar maser sources, statistical 
parallaxes were measured for a number of sources. The accuracy 
of the techniques has been advanced to about 10 microarcseconds. 
The first millimeter-wavelength vlbi observations of extragalactic 
sources were performed. Data on ngc 1275 at 3.3-millimeter wave- 

Science I 145 

length revealed a very compact component, 0.1 milliarcsecond in 
size, which probably produces the observed X-ray emission by 
inverse Compton scattering. 

In other programs, the Very Large Array (vla) or vlbi method 
was used to study M87, compact H II regions, OH maser sources, 
BL Lac objects, and hydrogen in planetary nebulae. The group 
also operated a fringe verification procedure during vlbi observa- 
tional programs. 

Division members also carried out a project to measure ozone 
in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere by using a ground-based 
millimeter-wave technique. 

Studies of the earth's thermosphere based on data from satellite- 
borne mass spectrometers continued. Data from the esro 4 and 
S3-1 satellites were augmented by those from the Atmosphere 
Explorer-C satellite, which provided needed information for greater 
heights. The major emphasis was on the geomagnetic variation 
and its relation to the heat sources and the dynamics of the 
disturbed thermosphere. An important result was the identification 
of the effects of winds and waves generated by the heat input 
and the successful modeling of the time lag and the persistence of 

Work on problems of orbital dynamics included a study of the 
effects of atmospheric drag in relation to strategies for the con- 
struction of a large space platform and related investigation of 
the secular effects associated with the critical inclination and 
harmonic resonance. 

Sao's hydrogen maser group continued their maser research 
and experiments using ultra-stable clocks. Three vlg-11 series 
masers were built; one was delivered to the Tokyo Astronomical 
Observatory and two others were constructed for the nasa Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory. Two additional masers are under construc- 
tion for the U.S. Naval Observatory. Experimental work is under 
way with cryogenically cooled masers to investigate hydrogen 
collision effects on wall surfaces coated with freezing gases of 
various types and to demonstrate stability data at the 10~ 16 level 
for time intervals between one minute and one hour. 

The simulation of Doppler detection of pulsed low-frequency 
gravitational waves using clocks and a multi-link Doppler sys- 
tem in a deep-space probe was completed. With today's precise 

146 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

timing and space-tracking technology, it is possible to detect 
pulses at the 10 ~ 14 level in the Doppler signatures. These gravita- 
tional pulses are thought to originate in the collapse of super- 
massive black holes of about 10 7 solar masses, which are believed 
to exist at the core of some galaxies. This is the first feasible 
system developed that could detect such waves. 

The division continued operation of a satellite laser-tracking 
network, which provided routine laser-tracking coverage for geo- 
physical research conducted at sao and other research organi- 
zations in the U.S. and abroad. In addition to tracking, five-day 
mean pole positions were provided to the scientific community on 
a routine basis. During the year, the laser-tracking stations were 
closed in Natal, Brazil, Orroral Valley, Australia, and Mt. Hop- 
kins, Arizona. Arrangements were made to relocate the laser from 
Natal to Matera, Italy, under a joint program with the Consiglio 
Nazionale delle Richerche. The network also completed the upgrad- 
ing of the Arequipa, Peru, laser to improve range accuracy from 
10 cm to 3-5 cm. 


Research programs in solar and stellar physics focused on various 
problems concerned with stellar activity and mass loss and the 
behavior of hot plasmas in the universe. The pursuit of the "solar- 
stellar connection" in both observational and theoretical areas 
provided an important theme. Division scientists recognize that 
phenomena long known to occur on the sun are present, often in 
extreme form, in stars as well; and study of the physics of the 
sun provides an on-going framework to test against other objects 
in the universe. 

Experimental programs in the division included development of 
speckle imaging techniques, which can be applied both to the solar 
fine structure and to extended stellar atmospheres. The rocket 
coronagraph program, to measure the solar atmosphere in the 
acceleration region of the solar wind, provided a unique spectro- 
scopic tool for use in probing the plasma characteristics and 
energy requirements of the solar wind. A version of this instru- 
ment is now planned for development on a Shuttle mission in 
1985. Complementary theoretical studies under the Langley-Abbot 
Program of the Smithsonian Institution assessed the physical 

Science I 147 

implications of such observations for both solar and stellar winds 
and mass loss. 

Research in stellar activity was carried out by using a variety of 
observational and theoretical techniques. The collaborative program 
between Smithsonian and Mt. Wilson observatories to monitor 
the long-term variability of the flux in the Ca II emission lines 
yielded rich insight into the presence and character of stellar 
activity cycles. Complementary measures of line profiles, spectro- 
scopic rotation rates, and magnetic fields in stellar atmospheres — 
all fundamental parameters of activity — are also under way at the 
Whipple Observatory. Measurements of high-temperature plasmas 
in stars were obtained by using the heao-2 (Einstein Observatory) 
and the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellites. On-going 
theoretical calculations of radiative processes in optically thick 
chromospheric emission lines and other features in static and 
expanding solar and stellar atmospheres enabled the requirements 
to be defined for the energy balance in cool atmospheres. 

The wealth of new quantitative spectroscopic measures has 
demanded, and will continue to require, thorough understanding 
of atomic, ionic, and molecular behavior. Studies of plasma pro- 
cesses at high temperature and, in particular, the spectroscopic 
response of hot gases to conditions of nonequilibrium contributed 
valuable insights to all spectroscopic — optical, ultraviolet, or 
X-ray — measurements. In addition, models of nonradiative shocks 
and their observable consequences can be predicted to infer 
characteristics of the shock itself. Application of such studies can 
be found not only in solar or stellar atmospheres, but also in 
the observation of gaseous interstellar remnants left from super- 
nova explosions or Herbig-Haro objects. Achievement of a basic 
understanding of such processes and their diagnostics directs and 
enhances the pursuit of nonequilibrium phenomena in many other 

These interdisciplinary studies generated considerable interest 
among astrophysicists, as evidenced by the highly successful 
Second Cambridge Workshop on "Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and 
the Sun." This was held in October 1981 at the Center for Astro- 
physics, and was supported in part by the Langley- Abbot Program 
of the Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Astrophysical Obser- 
vatory, and Harvard College Observatory. The proceedings were 

148 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

published in SAO Special Report No. 392, which documents both 
invited and contributed papers. 

Studies in the history of astronomy, carried out by a division 
member, provided a broad perspective on the development of 
ideas, thoughts, and style during the early centuries of astronom- 
ical research. 


Valuable progress was made this year in the understanding of 
magnetic fields, interstellar clouds, accretion flows and mass 
outflows, spiral structure, galaxy formation, radiation processes, 
X-ray sources, the clustering of galaxies, convection theory, and 
extragalactic radio jets. Research was carried out on a diverse 
range of astrophysical phenomena, with theoretical studies often 
applied to the support and interpretation of observational data. 
The basic studies in stellar and galactic dynamics, stellar and 
galactic structures, gravitational theory, radiative transfer, kinetic 
theory, hydrodynamics, scattering theory, and cosmology also 

Members of the division contributed significantly to the educa- 
tional programs of the observatories and collaborated frequently 
with scientists in other institutions as well as with members of 
other divisions. Specific research programs addressed the follow- 
ing: physics of gamma-ray bursts; supersymmetry theories of the 
elementary particles and their applications; various problems in 
relativistic cosmology; thermal effects in quasar accretion flows 
due to irradiation by the quasar continuum; theoretical study of 
magnetic helicity conservation; and investigations of radiative 
processes and radiative transfer theory, including the Comptoniza- 
tion of X-rays and the escape-probability method for spectral 

In a study of the dynamics of globular clusters, statistical corre- 
lations were found between internal dynamical properties of 
clusters and their distances from the galactic center. Attempts to 
reconcile the observed properties with theoretical models of dy- 
namical evolution are under way. 

A numerical simulation demonstrated that the accretion of 
lunar-sized planetesimals is a plausible mechanism for the forma- 
tion of the earth. It was shown that "secondary infall" was not a 

Science I 149 

viable mechanism for forming the shallow-density-profile galactic 

A systematic study of a number of clusters of galaxies has 
begun. So far, the focus has been on clumpy systems, which are, 
in a sense, dynamically young. N-body models indicated that 
these systems, if bound, will eventually have a smooth, centrally 
condensed galaxy distribution. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

The tropics have always interested biologists, largely because 
diversity of tropical life is so immense, and the different kinds of 
tropical organisms make their living in such varied and occasionally 
bizarre ways, and because the plants and animals that have sur- 
vived in this diverse world are so precisely adapted to their ways 
of life. Here the ecologist can study the mechanisms maintaining 
the balance of nature in the most complex of natural communities, 
while the morphologist and behaviorist find ample opportunity for 
the comparisons that are as essential now to understanding biology 
as they were in Darwin's time, or Aristotle's. Understanding 
tropical biology, however, has taken on a new urgency: why are 
natural communities in the tropics so lush, while small farms here 
can be devoured by pests after only a few harvests, and large-scale 
farming often leads to land with the color, texture, and fertility of 
a brick? How can the diversity of life recover from the growing 
human onslaught? These questions cannot be answered fully by 
research explicitly directed to the purpose. Unforeseeable discov- 
eries — by curious naturalists interested in plants and animals for 
their own sake — will offer essential leads to practical problems of 
crucial importance. 

To this end, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (stri) 
maintains a full-time resident staff of trained scientists, many of 
whom are engaged in long-term studies of tropical organisms. Stri 
is equipped with modern facilities, an excellent up-to-date library 
(for which a new building is in progress), and a full supporting 
staff. Among its facilities is a field station in the 4,200-hectare 

150 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Seen from the air, Barro Colorado Island, Panama, may seem to be a sleepy little 
place, but it actually teems with activity. A full-time residential staff of scientists are 
engaged in long-term studies of tropical organisms. (Photograph is copyrighted by 
N. Smythe.) Below. The Caribbean reef squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea is the subject of 
a new book by stri scientists M. H. Moynihan and Arcadio Rodaniche. (Photographer, 
A. Rodaniche) 

Barro Colorado Nature Monument. This is an easily accessible 
reserve of tropical forest, where a "growing house" for plant 
experiments — complete with a plant physiology laboratory — was 
completed in November 1981. There are also marine stations, 
where one can study the contrasting communities on the two sides 
of an isthmus which split the oceans only three million years ago. 

Stri offers short-term and 12-month fellowships to citizens of 
all countries and maintains a vigorous program of training for 
young scientists from tropical countries, capitalizing on their life- 
time residence in, and first-hand knowledge of tropical regions. In 
the current fiscal year, EXXON grants supported thirty such stu- 
dents from Panama, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, and Peru. 
Moreover, student assistants from tropical countries have collab- 
orated in a great variety of staff projects, ranging from the pollina- 
tion biology of tropical flowers, to the breeding of pelicans. For 
many of these students, stri represents an introduction to an active 
research community and an acquaintance with fellow research 
scientists — both provide crucial career impetus. In addition, a 
student on Barro Colorado can build on sixty years of previous 
research; the marine stations have also amassed an impressive 
amount of background information. 

For centuries scientific knowledge of tropical nature was largely 
based on fragmentary studies conducted by travelers and expatri- 
ates, many of them amateurs. Even today, the majority of scien- 
tists ranked as experts in tropical biology can spend only a few 
weeks of the year actually working in the tropics. Piecemeal, 
sporadic study inevitably fails to comprehend the long cycles and 
rare events that are so often the essence of tropical adaptations. 
Stri provides opportunities for long-term research, which few 
institutions can match. 

Stephen Hubbell, who has just joined the stri staff on an inter- 
mittent appointment, and Robin Foster, a stri research associate, 
have just finished mapping half a square kilometer of forest on the 
"plateau" of Barro Colorado Island (bci). This project has required 
fifteen man-years of work so far, involving students from the U.S., 
Panama, and Mexico. 

Since each kind of tree has its own pests and diseases, it has 
long been thought that trees of a single kind, which are crowded 
too closely together (or more especially, their seeds and seedlings), 

152 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

are particularly liable to become extinct. Since disease is supposedly 
most rampant in the tropics, and insect pests most voracious there, 
the diversity of tropical trees has been attributed largely to such 
"penalties of abundance." Hubbell and Foster hope to infer what 
factors maintain tropical tree diversity from the patterns of dis- 
tribution of individual species (the extent to which a species occurs 
in "clumps," and the degree to which it is confined to particular 
topography or soil) and the manners in which trees of different 
species are commingled. The plot will be resurveyed at intervals 
to assess growth, mortality, and recruitment of the different species. 
Over the years many students on bci have studied features of 
reproduction in trees, especially how seed dispersal affects repro- 
duction success. Is there a penalty for overabundance? What form 
does it take? Mapped plots make such studies much easier. 

David Hamill, a graduate student from the University of Iowa, 
has mapped the distribution of Ocotea skutchii seedlings and sap- 
lings around various mature trees of this species on Hubbell's 
mapped plot and is monitoring their survival and growth. A 
fungus, unique to the species, causes lesions on all the saplings, 
girdling the stems of many and killing those which cannot sprout 
from below the wound. Seedlings far away from the parent plant 
have twice as good a chance of living three years as those living 
closer to it; this differential survival is not enough to even out the 
distribution of these trees. 

Victoria Sork, of Washington University, finds that Gustavia 
superba, a subcanopy tree, is much rarer in the old forest of Hub- 
bell's mapped plot and has many fewer young per adult than in 
Gerald Lang's plot of young forest on bci — or in even younger 
forests on the nearby mainland. Sork is monitoring seed production, 
prospects of germination, and seedling survival in these three plots 
to see if these factors explain the differences. She is also comparing 
the demography of these plants on bci, which abounds in fruit- 
and seed-eating mammals, and on the mainland, where such an- 
imals are much rarer, to see what difference the animals make. 

Carol Augspurger, of the University of Illinois, is mapping seed 
and seedling "shadows" for wind-dispersed trees of several differ- 
ent species. Fungi, perhaps related to the Irish potato blight, attack 
seedlings of many of these species — especially seedlings that are 
densely crowded in the shade. In some species, only seedlings in 

Science I 153 

"light gaps," opened by large fallen trees, can survive. Augspurger 
is trying to learn more about how these diseases are communicated 
and to determine the length of time that infectious spores last in 
the soil. 

Henry Howe, of the University of Iowa, for the fourth year, is 
continuing his study of reproduction in Virola (wild nutmeg), 
monitoring the fruit and flower production of selected trees, the 
species eating and dispersing the fruit, and the proportion of fruit 
dispersed. He and his student, Eugene Schupp, are setting out 
fruit at different distances from parent trees and find that the pros- 
pects of fruit placed far from the parent are much more promising. 

Eugene Schupp is also beginning a study of flowering, fruiting, 
the consumption of flowers or green fruit by natural enemies, fruit 
dispersal, and seedling germination and survival in an understory 
shrub, Faramea occidentals, which flowers much more heavily 
every second year. His study will last three years. 

These studies are backed by a long-term monitoring program 
sponsored by the Environmental Sciences Program (esp) of the 
Smithsonian Institution, which — along with the accumulated re- 
sults of individual research — provides a large and profound fund 
of background information. This increases the value of shorter- 
term studies manyfold and provides data on climatic and biotic 
patterns, which are of fundamental value in themselves. 

Dr. Donald Windsor, staff coordinator of environmental moni- 
toring on bci, has become an expert in data-processing and the 
assessment of the dynamics of the forest community. He reports 
that environmental monitoring in stri study areas (e.g., Gamboa 
and Gatun) dates from the French era of Panama Canal construc- 
tion, with the earliest records in 1859. At the present time, con- 
tinuous records of rainfall, soil moisture, and sediment and runoff 
volume in the Lutz ravine of bci enable scientists to estimate rates 
of erosion and water retention in a known area of forest, for com- 
parison with that of nearby cleared plots in the Panama Canal 

Measurements of windspeed, temperature, and of light intensity 
and spectral quality at different levels in the forest are obtained 
from instruments mounted on "The Tower," a 138-foot structure, 
which pierces the canopy near the Lutz ravine. The instruments 
provide data for estimating the input of solar energy to the forest, 

154 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

the quality of light available for different photosynthetic pathways, 
and the rate of water loss by evaporation from the forest as a 
whole. Knowledge of the "hydrologic budget" is supplemented by 
information on dissolved nutrients passing out of the watershed 
through the Lutz-ravine weir. 

Douglas Rocha, whose meticulous attention to the reading and 
maintenance of monitoring equipment assures the accuracy of this 
information, also collaborates with the Smithsonian's Radiation 
Biology Laboratory and the Skin and Cancer Hospital of Phila- 
delphia in providing specialized data on tropical light conditions 
that affect human health. 

Bonifacio de Leon is in his eighth year of following the phenolo- 
gies of bci trees — their annual patterns of leaf, flower, and fruit 
production — which are basic to understanding the movements and 
reproductive cycles of numerous forest animals. 

Seed dispersers need to eat. The factors governing the timing 
and amount of fruit produced by different kinds of trees is decisive 
to the livelihood of a whole host of forest animals. 

Dipteryx trees normally fruit at the end of the late rainy-season 
fruit famine, but, like many other trees that flower in response to 
the onset of the rainy season, they often fruit poorly, if at all, 
after a wet dry season. William Glanz, of the University of Maine, 
finds that squirrels start mating much later in the year and pro- 
duce far fewer young when Dipteryx fruit is in short supply. He 
has also been censusing mammals, and finds that the numbers of 
squirrels and agoutis have fallen sharply the last two years, perhaps 
because of the fruit shortages caused by the wet dry season of 
1980 and 1981. 

Pacas are fruit-eaters of the forest floor, comparable to the 
mouse deer of the Old World tropics, and perhaps the favorite 
neotropical game animal. Mickey Marcus, a stri short-term fellow 
from the University of Maine, has begun a radio-tracking study 
of pacas to see how their behavior and feeding habits change 
during the onset of the autumnal fruit shortage. He has also begun 
a live-trapping survey, comparable to that completed by the esp 
three years ago, to estimate the density of pacas and other fru- 
givorous mammals in the Lutz catchment. 

Priyadarshini Davidar completed a study of the dispersal of 
mistletoe fruit by birds, asking why some kinds of mistletoe were 

Science I 155 

The largest tree in this drawing from bci is Dipteryx panamensis, the fruit of which 
plays a crucial role in the life cycles of red-tailed squirrels. (Drawing copyrighted 
by Marshall Hasbrouck) 

dispersed by one or two "specialists," while others had far more 
general appeal. 

Allen Herre collaborated in a study on the factors affecting pol- 
lination success in fig trees: are more isolated trees, or those trees 
fruiting at certain times of year, likely to have fewer seeds ferti- 

Charles Handley is continuing his studies of fig-eating bat 
populations and their responses to changes in fig production. He 
is also mapping the fig trees on various parts of bci to assess the 
amount of food available. Figs are important to bats because, un- 
like most fruits, they are available all year long. This may be 
related to their pollination system. 

Other animals respond to seasonal changes in the supply of 
different kinds of food. Young iguanas, for instance, hatch from 
their eggs at the onset of the rainy season when flowers and new 
leaves are most abundant. Stanley Rand and his collaborators have 
been marking the adult females which congregate each February 
at various nesting sites around bci to lay their eggs, radio-tracking 
a few to learn how far they travel after nesting. Brian Bock is 
monitoring how many young emerge and where they go. Iguanas 
are a favored game animal in Panama, and Rand now understands 
enough of their demography to advise the joint STRI/Government 
of Panama project concerned with increasing the number of iguanas 
available for cropping. Kathy Troyer continued her work on when 
and how young iguanas acquire the "gut flora" they need to digest 
mature leaves and has also compared the ways young and adult 
iguanas try to control their body temperatures. 

Henk Wolda now has eight years of data on fluctuations of leaf- 
hoppers and some other insects caught at light traps on Barro 
Colorado Island. Such insects tend to be most abundant at the 
beginning of the rainy season, when new leaves are most preva- 
lent, but the populations of the different insect species change 
irregularly from year to year, fluctuating quite as much over the 
long-term in the tropics as in the temperate zone. Wolda is also 
studying an endomychid beetle, Stenotarsus rotundus. During the 
last four years, 30,000 or more of these beetles have aggregated 
to diapause for ten months of the year on a single palm tree, dis- 
persing to feed for the first two months of the rainy season. As 
these beetles eat fungi — which are presumably most abundant late 

Science I 157 

in the rainy season — their seasonal rhythm is an extraordinary 

Seasonal rhythms in leaf-eating insects cause seasonal rhythms 
in the breeding of the birds that eat them. Judy Gradwohl and 
Russell Greenberg of the National Zoo are continuing their studies 
of how year-to-year variations in survival and reproduction of 
understory antwrens is affected by change in the supply of insects 
the antwrens eat. 

At the beginning of the rainy season, the animals that break 
down the leaf litter awake to feed and reproduce, as do the insects 
that eat them, and as do the small lizards that eat the predatory 
arthropods. Robin Andrews, of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and 
State University, and Stanley Rand are continuing to census the 
small lizard Anolis limifrons on selected plots for the tenth con- 
secutive year. 

Long-term research also plays a major role in stri's marine 
program. On the reef flat at Galeta, stri's Caribbean marine lab- 
oratory, John Cubit, Michael Vassar, Judith Connor, and others 
are continuing a monitoring program for the esp. They are follow- 
ing rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed and direction, tidal level 
and salinity, sea-urchin populations, and the proportions of the 
various zones of the reef covered by each principal kind of alga. 
Caribbean tides are slight and erratic. About twice a year — some- 
times more often — calm weather, low tides, and lack of cloud-cover 
exposes the reef flat to a merciless sun, devastating the reef-flat 
community. Fifty square meters of the reef have been continuously 
irrigated by seawater for the past sixteen months to compare its 
community with those of neighboring sectors subject to exposures. 

As part of John Cubit and James Norris's studies of algal com- 
munities at Galeta, Judith Connor has followed the seasonal 
rhythms of algal reproduction on the reef flat. The rhythm of two 
species at the top of the reef flat and two subtidal species peak 
during the dry season; other species at the seaward edge of the 
flat reproduce all year long. 

As part of John Cubit and Walter Adey's study of algal produc- 
tion, Peter Griffith estimates photosynthesis and respiration by 
monitoring the depth and speed of water moving across the reef 
flat, and the amount of oxygen it acquires (if by day) or loses (if 
by night) during its crossing. This is the first time reef production 

158 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

has been monitored on a twenty-four-hour basis. Griffith finds that 
respiration rate varies through the night; this contradicts the 
assumption under which marine productivity is usually calculated. 

Stephen Garrity, a stri predoctoral fellow, is comparing the 
effects on rocky shore snails of the strong tidal cycle on the Pacific 
side — where even the lowest tides rarely cause mass mortality — 
with those of the unpredictable lows on the Caribbean side — which 
can be as devastating on rocky shores as on reef flats. More gen- 
erally, he is following how snails respond to the risks of life on 
tropical shores. 

In 1976, a great earthquake in the Darien threw whole hillsides 
into the sea, creating half a mile and more of new rocky shore in 
places, and vast expanses of bare earth. Nancy Garwood has been 
monitoring the revegetation of the land, while John Cubit, Sally 
Levings, and Stephen Garrity have been monitoring the recovery 
on the coast. Ten months after the quake, the rocks were green 
with leafy algae; in another year, littorinids, thin-shelled limpets, 
and herds of isopods had devoured those algae. Later, patches of 
crustose algae and — nearer high tide — velvety patches of algal 
turf began to spread, and heavier-shelled herbivorous snails waxed 
more prevalent. Only in 1982 did populations of predatory snails 
really attain substantial levels, but they are still low. 

Olga Linares has continued her studies of the Diola people of 
Senegal, who live in an area that used to average over 1,500 mm 
of rain a year. The famous Sahelian drought has had great effects 
further south: last year, the Diola lands received 700 mm, and 
annual rainfall has never exceeded 1,500 mm during the past ten 
years. The northern Diola are now growing millet and sorghum 
instead of rice, and are also raising peanuts as a cash crop. The 
drought has caused a shift to a male-dominated agriculture, which 
requires plows and fertilizer because larger areas have to be culti- 
vated, leaving land fallow for far shorter periods. 

Ross Robertson has begun a study of what happens to reef fish 
populations around the Great Barrier Reef when crown-of-thorns 
starfish devastate the corals on their reef. This study will entail 
yearly visits to Australia. And Robertson has found that it is 
possible to study the daily feeding rhythms of sharks by watching 
them from a helium balloon. This study will complement his 
research on the daily rhythms of feeding and reproduction in reef 

Science I 159 

fish of the San Bias Islands, where he wishes to know why differ- 
ent kinds of fish time their activities as they do. On the San Bias, 
he has also been examining the lunar periodicity of damselfish 
spawning and recruitment, and seasonal and year-to-year variation 
in settlement at various reefs of other kinds of fish. 

Most of the pelicans of tropical America breed within thirty 
miles of the Pacific mouth of the Panama Canal. Gene Montgom- 
ery has found that their breeding is intimately tied to dry-season 
upwelling in the Bay of Panama, which brings the schools of fish 
they eat near the water surface. This year the upwelling failed, 
and the pelicans produced very few young. 

Long-term research sometimes provides the opportunity for 
spectacular natural experiments. David Roubik, who had been 
studying the ecology of bees on Barro Colorado Island and at many 
mainland sites for the past three years, was prepared for the day 
when Africanized bees invaded from South America. In July 1982, 
the killer bees finally reached Barro Colorado Island, and Roubik 
initiated a whole array of studies to assess the impact of these 
invaders on local bee communities, and on the fruit set of bee- 
pollinated plants, such as the tree Luehea seemanii. 

Roubik and Leslie Johnson, of the University of Iowa, have been 
studying how stingless bees compete for food. The bees are rather 
like ants: if two species encounter each other over food, the more 
aggressive wins, but less aggressive species find much food over- 
looked by their competitors. James Ackerman, a former stri pre- 
doctoral fellow, and Roubik monitored seasonal and year-to-year 
changes in the abundance of orchid bees (euglossine) at various 
sites by attracting them with scents. Robert Schmalzel, Wilson 
Devia, and Enrique Moreno have been preparing a "pollen flora" 
of Barro Colorado Island, so that one may identify the flowers a 
bee has visited from the pollen it is carrying. Allison Snow, Lucinda 
McDade, and others have studied the relation between pollinator 
visits and the amount of fruit set. 

Studies of the variety and precision of adaptation also play a 
vital role in stri research. Martin Moynihan has completed a de- 
tailed study, which has just appeared as a book of communication 
in the Caribbean reef squid Sepioteuthis. Most animals have be- 
tween ten and forty behavioral "displays." This squid has many 
more, mostly color changes, which are used in intricate combina- 

160 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

tions. Moynihan analyzed the function and the "linguistics" of 
these displays and, since then, he has done briefer comparative 
studies of squid at Palau and elsewhere in the tropics to test the 
generality of his conclusions. 

Leonard Freed, a Smithsonian postdoctoral fellow, is comparing 
southern housewrens with their northern counterparts, whose 
ecology he studied earlier. The housewrens of Panama are bigger 
and have a long breeding season. Few of the wrens in Panama 
breed in a given year, but those that do seem not to be limited by 
the availability of food. They nest in holes, as do wasps, which 
may take up enough of the suitable nest-holes to limit the wren 
population. Dr. Bao-Lai Zheng, from Kunming, China, has just 
begun a two-year study of nesting habits and parental care in 
trogons and motmots, which nest in burrows in the ground or in 
great termite nests. 

Mark Denny has been studying how a coral's shape, the prop- 
erties of the calcium carbonate in its skeleton, and its position 
relative to other corals, enable it to resist destruction by the surf. 
Urchins and parrotfish can also "erode" corals, as can animals that 
bore into them. Harilaos Lessios is asking how these enemies con- 
trol coral distribution, and what defenses corals have against them, 
by way of shape, regenerative capacity of coral tissue (an effective 
shield against many borers), and capacity to grow faster than their 
enemies erode them. Peter Glynn has found that shrimps and crabs 
that live inside the branching coral Pocillopora defend it against 
crown-of-thorns starfish, which would otherwise devour it com- 
pletely. Even in the absence of such enemies, the crustacean sym- 
bionts seem essential to the health of their corals. Glynn and 
Gerard Wellington have finished a book on the reefs of the 

Hermit crabs need snail shells as armor against predators, and 
their numbers are sometimes limited by the availability of such 
shells. This has led Thomas Spight, a Smithsonian postdoctoral 
fellow, to study the factors governing the availability of snail 
shells to hermit crabs, which has led him to study the variation in 
the abundance, diversity, and species composition of intertidal 
snails from place to place on the cobbly shores near the Pacific 
mouth of the Panama Canal. 

Neal Smith has just obtained the first evidence that migrating 

Science I 161 

hawks deliberately fly inside clouds. Hawks at the base of a cloud 
receive a constant lift, like sailplanes, which can travel forty miles 
along such a "cloud street" without changing altitude. This habit 
can save essential energy during migration, which is a strenuous 

George Bartholomew, of the University of California at Los 
Angeles, and M. C. Barnhardt, his student, returned to Barro 
Colorado to study insect physiology. On earlier trips, Bartholomew 
studied large insects that had to warm up quite substantially before 
flying. This time, he studied a large cicada that can fly away 
immediately when disturbed, although it warms up substantially 
while flying. He also showed that, when the cicada is flying, its 
abdomen has to be actively ventilated to supply enough oxygen 
for its metabolism; simple diffusion does not supply enough. 

William Eberhard has continued his research on measuring the 
prey available to orb-weaving spiders. Catherine Craig, a Smith- 
sonian predoctoral fellow, has been comparing the types of webs 
best suited to catching insects that fly in very irregular, jagged 
paths, with those suited to catching insects that fly more directly 
from one place to another. 

The newly emerging leaves of many understory plants in the 
mature forest of Barro Colorado are pink or white, while canopy 
leaves are green from the beginning. Phyllis Coley and Thomas 
Kursar, Smithsonian postdoctoral fellows, suspect that where there 
is little light, it is undesirable to install much "machinery" in a 
leaf until it is tough enough to deter herbivores. They are com- 
paring changes in toughness, energy content, respiration rate, 
chlorophyll content, photosynthetic capacity, and chance of being 
eaten, in young leaves that have been green from the beginning 
with those which start out pink or white. 

How rapidly does a leaf increase photosynthesis in response to 
a passing sunfleck? If light level changes more permanently, how 
do old leaves adjust? How does the structure of new leaves reflect 
the changed conditions? What are the characteristics of the plants 
that invade? To find out, Alan Smith and his associates are using 
the Hubbell plot, where both plants and openings in the canopy 
are mapped, to learn whether different understory herbs are asso- 
ciated with different light levels. They are also chopping down 
trees on a mainland site to see how herbs adjust — in both the 

162 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

short and the long term — to the increased light load, and they are 
simulating understory and "gap" light regimes in the growing 
house to see how different species respond. 

Most plants acquire carbon dioxide by opening the stomates in 
their leaves during the daytime; water evaporates (transpires) from 
the stomates, pulling up more nutrients-containing water from the 
base of the tree, and carbon dioxide enters the leaves through the 
open stomates. Desert plants, and epiphytic plants, which lack a 
reliable source of water, open their stomates at night when they 
can take in carbon dioxide without losing so much water. They 
store the carbon dioxide as acid for daytime photosynthesis. Plants 
with such "crassulacean acid metabolism" photosynthesize much 
more slowly in full sunlight than most plants. Since it has been 
thought that the process was more wasteful of light in general, it 
was a stunning surprise when William Pfitsch, a short-term fellow 
from the University of Washington, and Alan Smith discovered 
that the "ground pineapple" Aechmea magdalenae, which grows 
in deep shade, photosynthesizes by crassulacean acid metabolism 
even when plenty of water is available, just as does its epiphytic 
congener in the forest canopy. Moreover, ground pineapples seem 
to fix as much or more carbon per unit dry weight of leaf as 
ordinary understory plants. 

If their leaves do not transpire water, trees presumably must 
expand energy to bring nutrients up to their leaves. Egbert Leigh 
is trying to learn, from the forms of its trees, the extent to which 
"elfin forest" on fogbound, windy mountaintops — where the 
weather can prevent transpiration for weeks at a time — are stunted 
by shortage of mineral nutrients. In October 1981, Leigh visited 
the Nilgiri Hills in south India to compare the shapes, branching 
patterns, and leaf arrangements of trees in a forest that is usually 
below the cloudbelt with trees of fogbound forests in Malaysia 
and Costa Rica. 

A surprising amount of stri research has focused on sexual 
selection and related topics. Sexual selection is interesting because 
the manners in which males compete for mates can harm the 
species. In her study of reproduction and demography of electric 
fish in the streams near Gamboa, Mary Hagedorn finds that the 
males signal the females electrically, and these signals also seem 
to attract the catfish which eat them. Michael Ryan has investi- 

Science I 163 

gated what characteristics of a male frog's call most attracts 
females, and he and Merlin Tuttle have found that these attractive 
characteristics also attract predatory bats. In March 1981, Ryan 
and Tuttle assisted the British Broadcasting Corporation in making 
a movie of the depredations of bats on frogs. 

Robert Warner, of the University of California at Santa Barbara, 
and his students have continued their studies of sexual selection 
in the blue-headed wrasse, a coral reef fish. Most of these fish are 
born female but become male, assuming bright colors, when they 
are big enough to compete effectively for mates. The males hold 
mating territories side-by-side at one end of the reef, and females 
go there to choose their mates. Warner is trying to learn how the 
females decide which male to choose. 

Before his death in January 1982, Robert Silberglied had shown 
that the bright colors and displays of male butterflies — like the 
striking signs of male songbirds — serve primarily as warning 
signals to rival males, rather than to charm females into mating. 

Leslie Johnson has been studying sexual selection in brentid 
weevils, where mature males of the species show a fivefold varia- 
tion in length. Is absolute size, or size relative to immediate neigh- 
bors, more important to a male beetle's behavior and sexual 

Michael Robinson is studying courtship and mating patterns in 
preying mantises and in predatory fish, both freshwater and 
marine. He wants to learn how each species mates without one 
partner being stimulated to eat the other. This is a sequel to his 
study of courtship among spiders. 

Mary Jane West-Eberhard has revived Darwin's ideas on the 
important role of sexual selection in the origin of species and finds 
that those groups whose social system or mating pattern enhances 
the effect of sexual selection speciate more rapidly. At the moment, 
conservationists are rightly worried about maintaining the existing 
diversity of plants and animals, but it will also become essential 
to know how new diversity might most easily be generated. It is 
strange to consider that characters normally considered harmful to 
the species may play an essential role in generating diversity. 

When the Isthmus of Panama sundered the oceans three million 
years ago, it provided a superb opportunity for studying the origin 
of species. The isthmus divided several urchin populations in two; 

164 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

judging from electrophoresis, Harilaos Lessios believes that the 
resulting halves of some populations diverged only very slightly. 
He is now checking to see whether the two halves of an ancestral 
species now spawn at different times. If so, they have evolved 
barriers to interbreeding and have become separate species "quite 
by accident." Some Caribbean urchins, of species whose larvae 
must feed in the ocean, have larger eggs than their Pacific counter- 
parts. Lessios is seeking to learn whether the lower productivity 
of Caribbean waters means larvae need a better head start there. 

On November 21, 1981, stri signed an agreement with the Insti- 
tuto de Investigacion Agropecuaria de Panama (idiap), the Minis- 
terio de Desarrollo Agropecuario (mida), the Direccion Nacional de 
Recursos Naturales Renovables (renare), and the Centro Agrono- 
mico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, Costa Rica (catie) to 
promote research in the watershed of the Panama Canal. Stri 
scientists will attempt to apply their knowledge obtained from 
years of fundamental research to the development of a pilot project 
of alternative agricultural techniques, compatible with the mainte- 
nance of forest cover. 

In a meeting held June 14, 1982, which was attended by Adela 
Gomez and David Roubik, stri closed its Cali field station after 
more than ten years. Under the terms of a new agreement with the 
Instituto Vallecauno de Investigaciones Cientificas (inciva), stri 
will have reserved laboratory and dormitory facilities in the re- 
cently renovated Museum of Natural Sciences. STRi-sponsored 
investigators and students wishing to conduct studies in the Cauca 
Valley of Colombia will be able to continue to do so under this 
new agreement. 

In June, renovation of a building in the Naos Island Marine 
laboratory complex was completed for use by the University of 
Panama. The official inauguration of the joint STRI/University of 
Panama (Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia) Marine 
Laboratory at Naos Island took place on June 24. In attendance 
were high officials of the Panama government, the University of 
Panama, and stri. Opening remarks were given by Dr. Ceferino 
Sanchez, Rector of the University of Panama. 

Science / 165 

i >r'V 





Jfc f 

i. **■ «. 


t ■ i* 





•s £ 



£* S- 



'("J* 1 

This Chinese landscape painting by Tao-chi (1641-1707), a prince of the 
Ming imperial family, was acquired by the Freer Gallery of Art through 
the Smithsonian's Collections Acquisition Program. 

Smithsonian Year • 1982 


Archives of American Art 

Of the many forms of historical records, a well-written diary 
is among the most sought-after by researchers. Unfortunately, 
diaries of superior quality are all too rare, and when one with 
significant subject matter and enlightening observations on per- 
sons and events does turn up, it is an occasion for celebration. 
This year the Archives of American Art (aaa) acquired four, all 
of substantial merit, and one a truly distinguished example of 
the genre. 

The most extensive diary was kept by the nineteenth- and early 
twentieth-century painter and printmaker James D. Smillie. It 
consists of forty-five small, leather-bound volumes whose entries 
describe Smillie's daily life in an unbroken sequence from 1865 
to 1909. Since each page represents a single day, the substantive 
material is necessarily spare, but the accumulation of detail, the 
sheer span of time covered, and the innumerable references to 
New York's artists, art activities, and art organizations make this 
journal an invaluable source of information. It is especially useful 
for determining or confirming dates and the makeup of the various 
circles and factions in which Smillie moved. There are also some 
unflattering comments on contemporary notable figures: "Decem- 
ber 1, 1882 — Went to Wallach's and saw Mrs. Langtry in Honey- 
moon by Tobin — a tolerably well written play with intolerably 
stupid plot. Mrs. L. is not a particularly good looking woman — had 


Of the four diaries acquired by the aaa during the past year, the most extensive was 
kept by James D. Smillie, a painter and printmaker in the 19th and early 20th cen- 
turies. This is a self-portrait dated 1900. (Photographer, Joseph Klima, Jr.) 

not a good form, is not graceful, does not dress well, and is a 
very commonplace actress." 

We usually think of diaries, at least those available for research, 
as documents of the more-or-less distant past, but the latest addi- 
tion to Charles Seliger's continuing record of our time brings his 
account up to 1981. A New York painter since the early postwar 
years, Seliger gives full treatment to his own work and methods, 
as well as informative notes on the artists, dealers, and collectors 
with whom he is associated. He is a more introspective and more 
expansive diarist than Smillie and, writing with the conscious 
knowledge that his journal will be consulted by scholars, he offers 
occasional recollections of the past and has developed a talent for 
setting a scene and filling in the details of conversations and 
impressions. As an uninhibited record of the trials, defeats, and 
triumphs of an artist in our time, Seliger's diary is an important 
contribution to our awareness of the New York art world over the 
past quarter century. 

Mrs. Walter Gropius's diary is rather farther afield. It covers the 
mid-1920s when the Bauhaus was already well established as an 
international influence in architecture and design under Gropius's 
leadership. The writer is intelligent and cultivated and has a sharp 
eye for character. She also has a stong consciousness of the 
Bauhaus's significance, and her descriptions of its difficulties and 
achievements are filled with useful insights on its administration 
and on some of the major artists associated with it, especially 
Feininger, Klee, Kandinsky, Moholy-Nagy, and Albers. The ver- 
sion received by the aaa is a typescript translation with accom- 
panying notes made many years later. 

The diary kept by A. Hyatt Mayor during a three-year sojourn 
in England and on the Continent also covers the mid-1920s. Later 
a distinguished art historian and authority on prints, Mayor was 
then a young, impressionable Rhodes Scholar, whose high spirits, 
intellectual curiosity, good connections, and talent for vivid writing 
make his diary — more technically a long series of letters written 
in journal form to his grandmother — a model of its kind. The 
Oxford setting and the personalities encountered there bear a 
remarkable resemblance to those of Brideshead Revisited, and 
some of his subsequently famous acquaintances — Harold Acton, 
W. H. Auden, Kenneth Clark, and Peter Quennell — are dissected 

History and Art I 169 

with merciless accuracy. He calls on the legendary Lady Ottoline 
Morrell and in two brilliantly written passages analyzes the for- 
midable charm she exerted on so many personages of the time. 
His descriptions of two lengthy visits to I Tatti offer a fully 
rounded portrait of Bernard Berenson as a fascinating, overwhelm- 
ing, and ultimately wearisome presence. 

"He is more than learned, he is wise," Mayor writes in 1925. 
But a year later he offers a more seasoned judgment: "B. B. is 
really and truly a wonderful old man but only when he disremem- 
bers just what a wonderful old man he is. Mrs. B. B. forever holds 
an enlarging mirror before him, as do all the stupid rich people 
he has too easily bamboozled to get money." 

One of the chief virtues of the diary as a historical source is 
its direct immediacy, a quality shared by personal, professional, 
and business letters. Correspondence usually forms a major part 
of any collection of records, and although some of it is routine or 
perfunctory, much of it is of great value to the scholar. Especially 
noteworthy series of letters acquired this year are Clement Green- 
berg's to the Washington painter Gene Davis, Marcel Duchamp's 
to his brother-in-law Jean Crotti, Rockwell Kent's to Harry Gott- 
lieb, and those of Charles Burchfield, Stuart Davis, and Charles 
Sheeler to the art collector Edward Wales Root. 

The working notes and manuscripts of critics and art historians 
are another welcome addition to the aaa. Rich background mate- 
rial on American art during the entire postwar period was acquired 
this year with the papers of the writers Dore Ashton, John Gruen, 
Lucy Lippard, and Irving Sandler. These collections also include a 
substantial number of taped interviews with contemporary artists. 
Fairfield Porter, best known as a painter, was a perceptive critic 
as well, and the final installment of his records reflect that aspect 
of his career. 

The records of art organizations and institutions are necessary 
for institutional histories, and they often throw light on other 
subjects as well. Several important groups of such records were 
microfilmed by the aaa this year, including the official correspon- 
dence of the office of the director of the Cincinnati Art Museum 
from 1882 to 1929; seventy-seven scrapbooks covering the activi- 
ties of the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut, from 

170 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

the 1890s through the 1960s; the correspondence files of the Hay- 
stack Mountain School of Crafts; a portion of the archives of the 
San Francisco Art Association; papers relating to the history of 
the McNay Art Institute in San Antonio; and a compilation of 
material on the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan. An 
unusually contemporary collection of correspondence, statements, 
questionnaires, and papers represents the records of the Wright 
State University Visiting Artists Program at Dayton, Ohio, from 
1978 to 1982. 

In the field of oral history, the Archives of American Art con- 
tinued several projects that had been funded in the previous year. 
In New York, under a Mark Rothko Foundation grant to pursue 
a taping project on Mark Rothko and his times, a number of indi- 
viduals who knew Rothko well were interviewed at length, among 
them Katherine Kuh, Mrs. Milton Avery, and James Brooks. 

Several important grants provided support for a broad inter- 
viewing program on contemporary artists in California, including 
Billy Al Bengston, Joyce Treiman, Marguerite Wildenhain, and 
Helen Lundenburg. The subjects were selected with the help of 
the Northern and Southern California Archives Advisory Com- 
mittees. Through the efforts of the Detroit office, a grant of thirty- 
six thousand dollars was awarded to the aaa by the Warner Com- 
munications Corporation to undertake a national video and oral 
history program. This fund will be administered over a period of 
two years and will focus on individuals critical to contemporary 
American art. 

The Boston office concentrated this year on notable crafts. Faith 
Andrews on Shaker furniture, Tage Frid, a furniture designer, and 
the influential silversmith Arthur J. Pulos gave extended interviews 
on their respective fields. Leslie Cheek, retired director of the 
Virginia Museum, and Marcella Comes, an important figure in the 
Washington art community, were taped by the Washington Center. 

Only through the use of, and demand for, its holdings can the 
aaa determine its success in providing support for scholarly 
research. In fiscal year 1982, the bureau's five regional research 
facilities were used 2,900 times by visiting scholars, who consulted 
8,600 rolls of microfilm, examined thousands of original manu- 
scripts, and read 400 oral-history transcripts. The Archives' inter- 

History and Art / 171 

library loan service handled 450 requests for 1,250 rolls of micro- 
film. Copies of 480 photographs from the Archives' collections 
were provided to researchers for lectures and publications. 

Having received strong encouragement from previous involve- 
ment in the organization of symposia, the aaa collaborated this 
year with the National Academy of Design and the American 
Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art on a two-day confer- 
ence on "Still Life Painting in America." In addition to papers 
given by several authorities in the field, a panel of noted con- 
temporary still life painters held a lively discussion on the subject. 
In Washington, D.C., the aaa conducted a symposium entitled 
"Hidden Virtues Revealed: Some Enquiries into Patterns of Recog- 
nition," which addressed itself to such recently active fields of 
inquiry as folk art, nineteenth-century painting in the South, and 
documentary photography. 

The Archives lent a variety of documents from its holdings to 
museum exhibitions: the Institute for Architecture and Urban 
Studies in New York borrowed a group of sketches from the col- 
lection of Raymond Matheson Hood; Smith College exhibited an 
Edwin Ramanzo Elmer sketchbook; the Morris Museum of Arts 
and Sciences in Morristown, New Jersey, borrowed sketches and 
a manuscript autobiography of Worthington Whittredge; and the 
Essex Institute in Salem, Massachusetts used several William 
Morris Hunt letters. The Washington Center mounted small exhi- 
bitions at its own quarters of art-exhibition-award medals and 
selected documents on Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney and on John 
Reed and Louise Bryant. 

The aaa continued the quarterly publication of its Journal, this 
year featuring articles on Adelheid Lange Roosevelt, Alfred H. 
Barr, Jr., Albert Bierstadt, and Ilya Bolotowsky, and reporting on 
the collecting activities of the regional centers. 

A substantial quantity of books, articles, and exhibition cata- 
logues published in 1982 were based on research at the Archives 
of American Art. A few of the more notable ones were on the 
Hudson River School painter Worthington Whittredge, Ellen Day 
Hale, Childe Hassam, William Morris Hunt, J. Francis Murphy, 
Konrad Cramer, Alfred Jacob Miller, Winslow Homer, Mary 
Cassatt, Alma Thomas, and the silversmith Arthur J. Stone. 

172 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

Celebrating its fifth year as the National Museum of Design, 
Cooper-Hewitt (oh) continued to offer an ever-growing public a 
diversified range of design-related exhibitions. 

The major fall exhibition, Writing and Reading, addressed 
aspects of the design evolution of the written word, surveying 
printing, writing, and the book arts, and included an enormous 
variety of objects: papyrus documents, stone inscriptions, stamps, 
cylinders, pens, quills, writing sticks, felt-tip markers, typewriters, 
a word-processor, wax tablets, skins, desks, examples of callig- 
raphy, illuminated manuscripts, bindings, and end papers. The 
New York Times art critic, Hilton Kramer, commented, "... I 
know of few exhibitions that leave the visitor with such a vivid 
and revivifying sense of the esthetic component in the life of 
civilization. . . ." 

Documenting a remarkable achievement in urban design, The 
Suburb examined the evolution of this familiar phenomenon from 
its sixteenth-century prototypes to the twentieth-century concept 
of a "city village." The exhibition allowed visitors to view the 
work and ideas of major architects, H. H. Richardson, Frank Lloyd 
Wright, and M. H. Baillie Scott, as well as relatively unknown 
architects such as Grosvenor Atterbury, Ernest Flagg, and Electus 

Focused on what is one of the most public of all forms of 
graphic art, Magazine Covers: Art for the People surveyed the 
graphic, artistic, and social sensibilities of the past century by 
presenting a variety of original covers that documented works by 
artists, illustrators, and photographers from the mid-nineteenth 
century to the present. 

Filling the museum with 230 puppets and marionettes, which 
spanned 800 years and included everything from pre-Columbian 
antiquities to the Muppets, Puppet: Art and Entertainment, a 
traveling exhibition sponsored by Exxon Corporation, delighted 
over 60,000 visitors during the holiday season. Complementing the 
traveling show was a special, smaller exhibition, In Small Stages: 
Puppets from the Cooper-Hewitt Collection, which included both 

History and Art / 173 

Filling the c-h with 230 puppets and marionettes, which spanned 800 years, 
Puppets: Art and Entertainment was an exhibition that delighted over 60,000 
visitors during the holiday season. 

antique and contemporary puppets and marionettes, some of which 
were on display for the first time. 

As part of a continuing program to document and exhibit the 
vast Cooper-Hewitt collections, the following exhibitions were 
presented: English Majolica; Button-Button; The American Land- 
scape; The Column: Structure and Ornament; Fashion Prints: 125 
Years of Style; and Lace. Never before has the museum's superb 
lace collection been viewed so comprehensively; Lace provided the 
public with a survey of more than five centuries of Western Euro- 
pean lace history. 

Americans in Glass, organized by the Leigh Yawkey Woodson 
Art Museum, presented contemporary work by seventy-five artists, 
suggesting some of the new directions in art glass in the coming 

Hawai'i: The Royal Isles, organized by the Bishop Museum of 
Honolulu, opened at the museum in March. This popular show 
examined the traditions native to Hawaiian culture as it evolved 
over five hundred years without outside influences, and followed 
the development that took place after the introduction of Western 
culture. Among the ceremonial objects included were feather capes 
worn by Hawaiian kings, hand-carved bowls, images, calabashes, 
tapa cloths, and shell and ivory ornaments. 

Two architectural shows, Architectural Fantasy and Reality: 
Drawings from the Architectural Competitions of the Academia 
di San Luca in Rome and City Dwellings and Country Houses: 
Robert Adam and His Style, were held concurrently during the 
winter months. The former was composed of seventy ideal and 
exuberant drawings for projects for Rome and included such 
artists as Filippo Juvarra, Bernardo Antonio Vittone, Carlo Fon- 
tana, and Carlo Marchionni. Robert Adam and His Style was 
the first major American exhibition of the work of architect- 
designer Adam and his circle. Selected from public and private 
collections in Scotland, England, and the United States, this impor- 
tant exhibition surveyed Adam's extraordinary accomplishment 
through a selection of more than one hundred drawings, furniture, 
silver, ceramics, and decorative objects. 

Two summer exhibitions of fiber arts included The Jacquard 
Loom: Recent Experiments and Basketry: Tradition in New Form. 
The Jacquard Loom, organized by the Rhode Island School of 

History and Art I 175 

Design, provided an enlightening review of divergent trends in 
contemporary weaving as well as insight into textile structure, 
design, and production. Basketry included forty examples of work 
by ten American artists offering an array of highly individual 
pieces, the latest work being done in this medium. 

A series of video-taped interviews by Barbaralee Diamonstein, 
"Interior Design: The New Freedom," were shown at the c-h 
during the installation of Scandinavian Modern: 1880-1980. 
Twelve designers and architects — including Massimo Vignelli, 
Angelo Donghia, and Ward Bennett — discussed their approaches 
to the problems of contemporary interior design. 

Scandinavian Modern: 1880-1980 provided a landmark retro- 
spective of design from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and 
Sweden. Over 330 examples of ceramics, glass, metalwork, furni- 
ture, and textiles were selected from private and public collections 
in Scandinavia and the United States, documenting the continuity 
and changes that distinguish the Scandinavian tradition in design 
and the decorative arts. 

In 1982, the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Ser- 
vice (sites) continued to circulate nationwide both Urban Open 
Spaces and The Shopping Bag: Portable Graphic Art, and this 
year included an exhibition of Matchsafes from the Cooper-Hewitt 
Collection. Subways was circulated by the Cooper-Hewitt. 


The on-going Cooper-Hewitt collection handbook series was en- 
larged by six volumes: Nineteenth Century American Landscape 
Drawings; Buttons; Columns; Fashion Prints; Lace; and Archi- 
tectural Drawings. Three more volumes have been commissioned 
for the Smithsonian Illustrated Library of Antiques prepared by 
the Cooper-Hewitt Museum. Rizzoli published Cities in tabloid 
format, and Harry N. Abrams, Inc., published Scandinavian Mod- 
ern 1880-1980 in conjunction with the exhibition. 

The English publication Architectural Design printed a special 
magazine edition on "Suburbs" to coinside with the Cooper- 
Hewitt exhibition, and four articles which originally appeared in 
The Connoisseur were reprinted as a catalogue to accompany City 
Dwellings and Country Houses: Robert Adam and His Style. 

An Alphabet Book in the museum's collection was reprinted for 

176 / Smithsonian year 1982 

the occasion of Writing and Reading, and for the museum's Con- 
servation Consultancy Program, a series of bulletins were issued 
dealing with specific conservation issues and practices. 


The museum accessioned 2,074 works of art from 61 donors. The 
collections were enlarged by 26 purchases from restricted acquisi- 
tion funds. Of particular importance were: an eighteenth-century 
etching by Piranesi; an "Argenta" bowl by Wilhelm Kage; a 4- 
piece silver tea service by Jean Puiforcat; and 2 vitrines by the 
early twentieth-century, Italian designer, Carlo Bugatti. The c-h 
borrowed 2,821 objects from 321 public and private collections 
and lent 140 objects to 42 museums, galleries, and institutions. 
Since 1979, 175,000 articles have been inventoried and put on 

Several construction projects were undertaken to provide more 
efficient storage for the decorative arts collection. Extra alarm 
systems were installed in the first-floor exhibition areas to insure 
greater security, and a new boiler was installed. A new reception 
area was constructed, and renovations were made in the Registrar's 
Office. The Design Gallery was renovated as were both classrooms. 

The New York Horticultural Society has offered its expertise 
for the maintenance of the Conservatory. This has insured the 
museum of a seasonal variety of flowers and plants. 


During four semesters beginning in the fall of 1981, almost 6,000 
students and adults participated in the museum's extensive educa- 
tional programs. Nearly 4,000 others participated in tours and 
special events. Total programs attendance was equal to that of the 
previous year. 

The department offered a selection of special events and courses 
relating to the design field, architecture, and the decorative arts. 
Three credit classes dealing with European and American Decora- 
tive Arts were offered for undergraduates of the Parsons School 
of Design. The children and adult workshops and special programs 
were extremely well attended by over 9,000 individuals. 

More than ninety volunteers and forty interns offered their 

History and Art I 177 

valuable services in all departments. The Sidney and Celia Siegel 
Fellowship Program this year provided stipends for four excep- 
tionally qualified summer interns. 

Membership support in the form of renewals remained constant. 
A membership drive at the end of the summer boosted the number 
of new applicants. 

As one of ten member institutions of Museum Mile, initiated 
by the Cooper-Hewitt four years ago, the museum again partici- 
pated in the annual street festival. 

Along with nine other cultural institutions in New York City, 
the c-h involved itself in a unique museum education project 
entitled the "Cultural Voucher Program." This program was con- 
ceived by Museums Collaborative, Inc., for the purpose of promot- 
ing broader public understanding and use of cultural institutions. 
The Cooper-Hewitt was chosen to participate because of its ability 
to present educational opportunities that relate to design and the 
decorative arts. The Cultural Voucher Program provides a strong 
incentive to develop new educational programs, and the c-h re- 
sponded vwith a wide variety of model projects involving nearly 
3,000 students — more than any other cultural institution involved 
in the program. 

In September, the museum welcomed the first class of twenty- 
five students accepted into a new graduate program in the history 
of European decorative arts. The two-year program, leading to a 
Master of Arts degree, is a collaboration between the Cooper- 
Hewitt and the Parsons School of Design/The New School and is 
the first of its kind in the country to deal exclusively with Euro- 
pean decorative arts and art history. 

This year, with a grant from the New York State Council on 
the Arts, the museum has established the Conservation Consul- 
tancy for New York State. This consultancy will offer specialized 
conservation advice to the many museums and historical societies 
in New York State that may otherwise have little access to profes- 
sional conservators. 

Several special fund-raising events were held at the museum 
over the spring and summer. For the second year, "Crafts in the 
Carnegie Mansion" was held over two weekends in May, with 89 
craftsmen participating and 6,000 museum-goers attending. Again, 
the museum hosted its annual Summer Ball, a gala evening event 

178 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

held in the Mansion and Garden. Over 500 people attended, 75 
percent of which were under the age of 35. In honor of the 
museum's fifth birthday, in October, the Junior Committee spon- 
sored a birthday party to celebrate the event. 


The Cooper-Hewitt noted with sadness the death of Alice Baldwin 
Beer, curator emeritus, at the age of 94. In her honor, a memorial 
purchase fund has been established. 

After 29 years of service to the museum, Assistant Director 
Christian Rohlfing retired in September 1982. 


One exhibition and two publications were honored during the past 
year. Now 1 Lay Me Down to Eat, curated by Bernard Rudofsky, 
was given top award by Designers' Choice Magazine in the cate- 
gory of "environments." Both the Nezvsletter and the Frederick E. 
Church poster were awarded citations of merit for excellence in 
printing and design. 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Renovation was a primary theme in the Freer Gallery of Art (fga) 
throughout the year. In addition to the continued renovation of the 
heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system — which partially 
closed some of the galleries to the public — the effort to improve 
the lighting throughout the newly painted corridors on the exhibi- 
tion-gallery level, as well as in the main lobby, was completed. 
The enhanced appearance of these corridors makes them more 
effective for the exhibition of works of art. 

The Freer auditorium — the scene of the annual Freer oriental 
art lecture series, classroom for the Resident Associate programs, 
and forum for this year's Centennial Celebration symposium on 
U.S. and Korean diplomatic relations — also underwent a transfor- 
mation with lighter-painted walls and ceiling. New lighting facili- 
ties are also scheduled. 

The Freer's twenty-ninth annual lecture series included: "The 

History and Art I 179 

Self-Portrait by Sesson: A Winter Night's Journey of 1200 Years/' 
by Barbara Brennan Ford, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which 
was jointly sponsored with the Embassy of Japan; the Rutherford 
J. Gettens Memorial Lecture, "The Contribution of Technical 
Studies to the Understanding of Chinese Culture," delivered by 
Ursula M. Franklin, University of Toronto; and "Mamluk Jewelry: 
Influences and Echoes," by Marilyn Jenkins, The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art. 

A program that was initiated last year to renovate the frames 
of the American paintings in the collection was greatly expanded 
this year. Work was finished on all of the frames to appear in the 
1984 James McNeill Whistler exhibition, and many of the frames 
for works of other American artists represented in the collection 
have been repaired. The work has included rebuilding gesso por- 
tions, regilding, and toning the frames. 

Other renovation activities included a small collection storage 
room that was altered to provide more work space for the Tech- 
nical Laboratory. 

Despite the turmoil of renovations, a number of new exhibitions 
was presented this year. Autumn' s Voices displayed twenty-one 
works of Japanese art, including paintings, calligraphy, ceramics, 
and two lacquered wooden drums dating from the early thirteenth 
to the early nineteenth centuries. The mid-sixteenth- to early 
seventeenth-century drums and the seventeenth-century calligra- 
phy by Shokado represented significant recent acquisitions on 
exhibition for the first time. The exhibition showed the variety of 
interpretations of autumnal motifs in Japanese art. 

Winter into Spring: American Landscapes was an exhibition 
drawn from the Freer collections by curator David Park Curry to 
explore the theme of seasonal change, a subject of great interest 
to both Charles Lang Freer and the small group of American artists 
he admired. Six of the works had not previously been displayed at 
the museum. 

Other special exhibitions included: Two Centuries of Japanese 
Ceramics, 1550-1750, which displayed approximately forty exam- 
ples of Japanese stoneware and porcelain from the Kyoto, Kyushu, 
and Mino regions; a group of thirty Japanese prints featuring 
eighteenth- and nineteenth-century prints by Utamaro, Hiroshige, 
and Hokusai; Screens of Genres and Narratives, dating from the 

180 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

seventeenth to nineteenth centuries of Japan, and Luminous 
Shadows, with objects representative of the art collected by the 
Ashikaga Shoguns of the Muromachi period. Glass of the World, 
Korean Art, and Chinese Paintings: Recent Acquisitions were also 
shown. This group of Chinese paintings of the sixteenth to nine- 
teenth centuries fills a gap in the Freer's Chinese collections and 
was on view for the first time at the gallery. 

Tours of these exhibitions increased in number under the 
museum's new docent program. In addition, the Freer now offers 
nine free leaflets to visitors and to those inquiring by mail to 
explain aspects of oriental art exhibited at the museum. 

Among the well-known visitors to the museum this year were 
Yoshio Sakurauchi, Japanese minister for foreign affairs; South 
Korean Vice Foreign Minister Ro Jae-won, chancellor of the Insti- 
tute of Foreign Affairs; Haidar Mahmoud, director general, Depart- 
ment of Culture and Arts of Jordan; and Xia Nai, director of the 
Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 
along with a group of fifteen other specialists from the People's 
Republic of China concerned with archaeology. 

The third award from the Harold P. Stern Memorial Fund 
enabled the Freer to invite Professor Toshio Ebine of the Tokyo 
National University of Fine Arts and Music to spend three months 
at the Freer doing research on Japanese Muromachi painting. 

Through the Smithsonian's Collections Acquisition Program, the 
Freer Gallery was able to acquire a pair of important Chinese 
paintings by Tao-chi (1641-1707), a prince of the Ming imperial 
family. He is generally regarded as the most brilliant painter to 
emerge since the sixteenth century. His innovative and individual 
style, characterized by a rich variety of brushwork, earned Tao-chi 
the respect of his contemporaries, but it is only during the twen- 
tieth century that his seminal role in later Chinese painting has 
been properly understood. 

Notable donations to the Freer collection this year included a 
twelth-century Sung dynasty Chinese Chun ware bowl from Mr. 
and Mrs. James M. Avent of Sewanee, Tennessee; seven Chinese 
blue-and-white porcelain vases of the Ch'ing dynasty, Y'ang-hsi 
period, 1662-1722, from Mr. and Mrs. Myron S. Falk of New York 
City; a Japanese landscape painting with calligraphy of the Edo 
period by Nanko (1759-1839), from Mr. and Mrs. Willard G. 

History and Art I 181 

Clark of Hanford, California; and a Chinese jade chime, Ch'ing 
dynasy, K'ang-hsi period 1662-1722, from Mr. William S. Weedon 
of Charlottesville, Virginia. 

The Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation of Charlottesville donated 
funds for the Freer library, and the Metropolitan Center for Far 
Eastern Art Studies of Kyoto, Japan, contributed to the publishing 
of a proposed catalogue on Japanese Buddhist and Shinto art. A 
grant from the James Smithson Society was awarded to support 
publication of a child's version of the Ramayana, a well-known 
Indian epic, which is well illustrated in the Freer's sixteenth- 
century manuscript. The National Committee to Honor the Four- 
teenth Centennial of Islam extended an existing grant for the 
organization of the Myron Bement Smith archives. 

Dr. John Alexander Pope, director emeritus of the Freer Gallery 
of Art and specialist in Far Eastern porcelain, died on September 
18, 1982. Although he was a pioneer in the study of early Chinese 
blue-and-white porcelain, he also made important contributions to 
the understanding of developments in Japanese, Korean, and Thai 
ceramics. While he was director of the Freer (1962-1971), signifi- 
cant acquisitions to the gallery's collection of Ming dynasty por- 
celains were made. The high quality of those collections is directly 
attributable to Dr. Pope's relentless curiosity and informed judg- 
ments. Born in Detroit on August 4, 1906, Dr. Pope earned a 
bachelor's degree at Yale University and master's and doctoral 
degrees at Harvard University. He joined the Freer in 1943. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

As one of the major museums of contemporary art in the country, 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (hmsg) maintains 
an active exhibition schedule and acquisitions program. In support 
of these are related programs of lectures, films, concerts, and edu- 
cational activities involving audiences of all ages. Technical and 
support units include offices of conservation, registration, and 
photography and a reference library. 

From its opening in October 1974, the museum has evolved an 
active schedule of major exhibitions, usually of material borrowed 

182 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

The senior lama of Ladakh (center) on a visit to the Freer with his assistant (right) 
and an interpreter, examines a seated Bodhisattva from China, Northern Ch'i dynasty, 
6th century a.d. In the left foreground is an Indian sculpture — a Mathura-style torso 
of a Buddha, 5th century a.d. 

Dr. John Alexander Pope, Au- 
gust 4, 1906-September 18, 1982, 
was director of the Freer from 
1962 to 1971, and was director 
emeritus and a specialist in Far 
Eastern porcelain from 1971 until 
his death in September. A pioneer 
in the study of early Chinese blue- 
and-white porcelain, he also made 
important contributions to the 
understanding of developments in 
Japanese, Korean, and Thai ce- 

Ur . 

from collectors and other institutions. There are also unit exhibi- 
tions drawn from the permanent collection. Many exhibitions 
organized by the hmsg are circulated to other museums, and there 
are frequent loans of individual works of art to other museums. 

The first major exhibition of 1982 was Metaphor: New Projects 
by Contemporary Sculptors (December 17, 1981-February 28, 
1982). This unique exhibition was actually created in the galleries 
by six artists from their drawings and blueprints. The artists had 
developed a rough idea of what they would construct, and com- 
ponent elements were created in advance, then assembled in the 

An "Evening with the Artists of the Metaphor Exhibition" was 
sponsored by the museum. Vito Acconci, Siah Armajani, and 
Lauren Ewing were the speakers. 

The next major exhibition was De Stijl: 1917-1931, Visions oj 
Utopia (April 20-June 27, 1982). Organized and first shown by 
the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, this exhibition consisted of 
250 works illuminating the art, architecture, and design of the 
influential Dutch movement. The Washington presentation was 
supported by a grant from Champion International Corporation. 

On the afternoon of April 19, 1982, Her Majesty Queen Beatrix 
of The Netherlands officially opened the De Stijl exhibition, which 
was one of several international events celebrating The Nether- 
lands-American Bicentennial. Secretary and Mrs. Ripley and other 
guests were in the museum to greet the queen and her husband, 
Prince Claus. 

Other events in connection with this exhibition included an all- 
day symposium, sponsored by the Smithsonian Resident Asso- 
ciates Program; a free concert, sponsored by the Division of Per- 
forming Arts; free films; and the American premiere and first pro- 
duction in English of The Ephemeral Is Eternal, a 1926 Dada 
play by Michel Seuphor. This play, with reconstructions of Mon- 
drian's sets, was presented June 25-27, 1982, and was supported 
by a grant from the Smithsonian Educational Outreach Fund. 

Finally, two exhibitions of the works of Raphael Soyer were 
presented by the museum (August 5-October 3, 1982). Raphael 
Soyer: Sixty-five Years of Printmaking consisted entirely of works 
owned by the hmsg, and Soyer since 1960 was an exhibition of 
paintings made over the last two decades. 

184 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Above. Artists Raphael Soyer (left) and Chaim Gross attended the opening 
of the hmsg's exhibitions, Soyer since 1960 and Raphael Soyer: Sixty-five 
Years of Printmaking, August 4, 1982. Below. At the opening of Five Distin- 
guished Alumni: The W.P.A. Federal Art Project, in January 1982, were 
(from left) Senator Claude Pepper, former I.R.S. Commissioner Mortimer 
Kaplan, hmsg Director Abram Lerner, and American artist Alice Neel. 

Smaller exhibitions presented were: European Abstractions on 
Paper (January 6-March 7, 1982); Five Distinguished Alumni: 
The WPA Federal Art Project (January 21-February 22, 1982), 
honoring the centennial of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's 
birth; Red Grooms: The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gar- 
den Collection (February 25-May 2, 1982); Drawings from the 
Museum's Collection (March 11-April 25, 1982); Heirs of De Stijl 
(April 20-June 27, 1982); Samuel Murray: The Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden Collection (May 20-July 18, 1982); 
Variations on a Musical Theme: Selections from the Museum's 
Collection (July 22-September 5, 1982); and Works on Paper: 
Genre Scenes (August 19-November 7, 1982). 

A special exhibition, Modern Indian Paintings from the Collec- 
tion of the National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi (July 28- 
August 29, 1982), was displayed in conjunction with the state 
visit of the Indian Prime Minister. Madame Gandhi visited the 
exhibition on July 30, 1982. 

Exhibitions to which the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden lent objects included Canada/US (Winnipeg Art Gallery); 
What It Is: 20th-century Black Folk Art (Corcoran Gallery of 
Art); Sculpture au XXeme Siecle 1900—1945 (Fundacion March, 
Madrid, Spain); Hans Richter Retrospective (Akademie der 
Kunste, Berlin, West Germany); 20th-century American Masters 
1915-1957 (Cedar Rapids Art Center); Orientalistes Provenciaires 
(Musee des Beaux Arts, Marseilles, France); Miro in America 
(Museum of Fine Arts, Houston); Milton Avery (Whitney 
Museum of American Art); Ritual and Myth (Studio Museum of 
Harlem, New York City). 

Although the one-day visit of French President Mitterand to the 
United States on March 12 was widely reported in the press as a 
meeting between presidents, the fact is that M. Mitterand also 
expressed a wish to visit the Hirshhorn Museum. He made a 
thorough tour of the museum, spending one and a quarter hours 
in the galleries, and concluded his visit with a walk through the 
Sculpture Garden. Upon departing, he was presented with the 
museum's inaugural catalogue and in turn expressed his thanks 
and satisfaction with the visit. 

Acquisitions are vital to any museum, but especially to a con- 
temporary art museum. During 1982 the hmsg acquired 161 works 

186 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

of art, including 67 silkscreens, lithographs, and etchings by R. B. 
Kitaj. Purchases in 1982 included Leon Polk Smith's Black-White 
Duet with Red, 1953, and Willem de Kooning's Untitled III, which 
was an exchange and part purchase. 

The hmsg continued its three-part film series: Lunchtime Films 
about Artists, Evening Films by Artist Filmmakers, and Saturday 
Films for Young People. 

Hirshhorn Holiday, a special Saturday program presented each 
year in early December, again met with enthusiasm from area 
children and their parents. This special day, sponsored in part by 
the Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates, included 
performances and music. 

The museum has designated a special theater area in the third- 
floor galleries for presentation of a special slide/tape program 
designed to introduce the museum visitor to various concepts and 
principles of art. Two additional adjoining galleries are used for 
the exhibition of the paintings and sculptures from the museum's 
collection referred to in the slide/tape lecture. The initial pre- 
sentation, called "The Elements of Art: Line," began on May 1. 
It will be followed by a presentation called "The Elements of Art: 

The museum's exhibition program was augmented by lectures 
on various aspects of contemporary art and art history. Speakers 
during the past year included Abram Lerner and Milton Brown, 
Daniel Robbins, Red Grooms, and Raphael Soyer. 

The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden continued the 
annual inventory of its collections. Paintings were fully inven- 
toried in the second three-year cycle. 

Joseph Henry Papers 

Work continued on The Papers of Joseph Henry during 1982, 
with volume five, covering the years 1841-43, edited and set to 
go to the Smithsonian Institution Press by the end of the year. 
This period of Henry's life was among his busiest, including 
intensive experimentation in physics, promotion of the American 

History and Art I 187 

Philosophical Society as a revitalized center for science, and pro- 
fessional campaigning to promote the cause of science in Ameri- 
can government and universities. 

During the past year, scholars in various disciplines visited the 
project to use its extensive microfilm and Xerox collections in mid- 
nineteenth-century science. Visitors included researchers on James 
Espy and the beginning of the national weather-reporting system; 
on a biography of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft; and on American 
perceptions of Latin America by artists and naturalists. The Henry 
Papers acted as host for Cynthia Field, a research associate in the 
history of American architecture, and sponsored two Smithsonian 
Fellows this year: Jeffrey K. Stine, researching the activities of 
American engineers in the overseas possessions of the United 
States, and Gregory Good, who is investigating the organization 
of nineteenth-century American research in terrestrial magnetism. 

The staff of the Joseph Henry Papers has engaged in a wide 
variety of other professional activities. Nathan Reingold has con- 
tinued to serve as chairman of the Commission on Documenta- 
tion of the International Union for the History and Philosophy of 
Science, and is organizing an international conference on the sub- 
ject for September, 1983. He was invited to comment on antebel- 
lum southern science at the first Barnard-Millington Symposium 
on Southern Science and Medicine at Oxford, Mississippi, and 
continues as a member of the Governing Council of the Rocke- 
feller Archives. Dr. Reingold's monthly Nineteenth-Century Semi- 
nar continued throughout the year with presentations on science, 
engineering, art, and the law. 

Marc Rothenberg completed a bibliography of American sci- 
ence — which is being published by Garland as part of their series 
of bibliographies of the History of Science and Technology — and 
he delivered an overview of his findings to the Nineteenth- 
Century Seminar. Kathleen Waldenfels served as director of pub- 
lications for the Association for Documentary Editing. In this 
capacity, she edited the Newsletter of that society for a second 
year. Paul Theerman delivered papers on Victorian science to the 
History of Science Society in Los Angeles, to the Nineteenth- 
Century Seminar, and to the weekly Tuesday colloquium at the 
Museum of American History. 

188 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

National Museum of African Art 

For the National Museum of African Art (NMAfA), 1982 was 
marked as a period of assessment, definition and refinement. 
Objectives were refined, exhibitions aligned with objectives, and 
an acquisitions program was planned to advance these goals. 

The NMAfA Commission approved a statement affirming the 
museum's primary mission of collecting and exhibiting the tradi- 
tional art of sub-Saharan Africa. Worthy exhibition opportunities 
from the contemporary field or from adjacent areas are not 
excluded, but exhibition and collection emphasis will be confined 
to the designated area. This is an important development in the 
museum's history because it gives clearer focus to program activi- 
ties and guides the staff in resisting the numerous temptations to 
pursue important endeavors that are only tangentially related to 
traditional African art. 

In line with this statement of objectives, the NMAfA presented 
three major exhibitions during the year. Each of these shows — 
Life . . . Afterlife: African Funerary Sculpture; Thinking with 
Animals: African Images and Perceptions; and The Stranger among 
Us — was designed to elucidate some of the complexities in diverse 
African cultures. Life . . . Afterlife, for example, dealt with the 
functions of art objects associated with traditional African funer- 
ary practices. Thinking with Animals explored the many ways in 
which animals are depicted in African art, but more importantly, 
it revealed why certain animals are represented and others are 
not. Finally, The Stranger among Us assembled art objects from 
many African peoples, all of them representing different ways in 
which Africans have viewed outsiders or "strangers" to their own 
culture. Each exhibition was developed by the museum's staff 
using, in addition to objects from our permanent collection, major 
pieces on loan from private collectors and other museums through- 
out the United States. Informational brochures and checklists 
were produced to accompany each exhibition. 

Several extension exhibitions were prepared by the NMAfA 
during 1982. They included exhibitions for: the Women's National 
Democratic Committee; the Ramapo College Art Gallery; the 
Studio Museum of Harlem, New York City; the Stewart Center 

History and Art I 189 

The standing female figure 
from the Bambara people in 
the Segou region of Mali is a 
major acquisition of the NMAfA. 
From the exhibition Life . . . 
Afterlife: African Funerary 
Sculpture comes the other fe- 
male figure shown here, a me- 
morial statue from the Yombe 
people of Zaire. And the rap- 
torial bird, which symbolized 
the power and status of its 
royal owner, sits atop an ivory 
spoon from Owo, Nigeria, and 
was featured in the exhibition 
Thinking with Animals: Afri- 
can Images and Perceptions. 

Gallery, Department of Creative Arts, Purdue University; and 
Meridian House International. 

The NMAfA's collection grew significantly during fiscal year 1982, 
primarily through the donation of 204 objects. Large numbers of 
items were received from the collections of Gaston DeHavenon, 
Norman and Mary Michie, Robert and Nancy Nooter, Gerald 
Pennington, Benjamin Weiss, and Uzi Zucker. The museum 
purchased a major work of Bambara sculpture — a standing female 
figure. Donations of art works by Afro-American artists were also 
received. These included five paintings by Edward M. Bannister 
and a sculpture by Edmonia Lewis. The comprehensive inventory 
of the museum's collection, begun in 1980, has been completed. 
Donations received by the Eliot Eliosofon Archives included 
fifty black-and-white photographs of African art by Walker Evans, 
approximately 300 color slides of African art and culture, and a 
16-mm film, Museum, from Janus Films, Inc. Archives projects 
during 1982 included the cataloguing of more than 1,800 photo- 
graphs of museum activities — such as exhibitions, in-house pro- 
grams and performances, and outreach programs — and the printing 
of more than 300 glass plate negatives of scenes photographed 
in Zaire, circa 1910. 

Although of primary importance, exhibitions are only one seg- 
ment of the NMAfA's goal of providing the public with knowledge 
regarding Africa, its art, and its peoples. To this end, didactic 
and aesthetically appealing exhibitions are supplemented by 
courses, workshops, seminars, public lectures and performances, 
and by outreach programs and tours conducted by the museum's 
docent corps. 

During 1982, the museum's Department of Academic Studies 
offered four courses in African art at universities and educational 
institutions in the Washington area: Georgetown University ("Art 
of Black Africa") and the United States Department of Agriculture 
Graduate School ("Understanding Africa Through Its Art," "Afri- 
can Decorative Arts," and "Collecting African Art"). In addition, 
special lectures and gallery tours were presented to other university 
groups, including, for the fifth successive year, a class in "Aes- 
thetics and Education" for the University of Virginia. 

The museum hosted a prominent visiting scholar from the Uni- 
versity of Ife, Nigeria, Professor Rowland Abiodun, during the 

History and Art I 191 

month of April 1982. Traveling, teaching, and lecturing under the 
auspices of the Council for the International Exchange of Scholars, 
Fulbright Program, Professor Abiodun delivered two public lec- 
tures and one training session for museum docents. In addition, he 
consulted with staff members and utilized the museum's collection, 
photographic archives, and library to pursue his own research. 

In 1982, the museum continued to cosponsor, with Johns 
Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, a 
monthly series of lectures entitled, The Africa Roundtable. The 
roundtable presents lectures by local and international scholars 
on all aspects of African political, economic, and social life. Afri- 
canist scholars who presented papers during 1982 included Pro- 
fessor Nehemia Levtzion (Hebrew University), Professor Emmannel 
Ayendele (University of Calabar), and Warren M. Robbins 


The NMAfA's internship program hosted sixteen interns during 
1982. Five of the interns were recruited from historically black 
colleges, a result of the museum's intensive efforts to encourage 
such students to consider careers as museum professionals. Special 
recruiting efforts continue in this area. 

The Department of Elementary and Secondary Education and 
Public Programs coordinates all school and group tours, work- 
shops, and public lectures, performances, and demonstrations at 
the museum. This department also trains and coordinates the 
activities of the docent corps and oversees collaborative activities 
with local institutions. 

For the second successive year, the museum participated, with 
the National Museum of Natural History and the National Zoo- 
logical Park, in the Collaborative Education Outreach Program. 
Designed to serve audiences that are unable to visit the museum, 
the program provides museum services to nursing homes, deten- 
tion units, senior-citizen centers, and public schools. The NMAfA 
program included three offerings: "Traditional African Music," 
"Animal Symbolism in African Art," and "African Folktales." A 
total of 104 programs were presented during 1982, serving more 
than 1,700 people in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. 

The Education Department also began, in 1982, a new outreach 
program based on African textiles, entitled "Have Loom Will 
Travel." Geared to grades 4-6, the program was conducted by 

192 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

museum docents at elementary schools in the greater metropolitan 

Exhibitions were supplemented by a great variety of public per- 
formances, lectures, and special events at the museum during 1982. 
Performances by African musicians and dancers included a Sene- 
galese griot singer, Malian and Upper Voltan balaphone (xylo- 
phone) players, and a concert by the master mbira (thumb piano) 
player, Ephat Mujuru, of Zimbabwe. In April the museum 
cosponsored, in conjunction with the African Literature Confer- 
ence, a Theater Showcase, featuring the National Theater Com- 
pany of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A "Festival of 
Animals" at the museum in June featured a parade, musical per- 
formances, children's workshops, films, and live animals. In Decem- 
ber and January, the museum celebrated Kwanzaa with tours, 
children's workshops, films, and live animals; and cosponsored a 
city-wide celebration, "Tribute to Langston Hughes." "Afro- 
Tales," a performance by the Nubian League Theater Company, 
was part of the museum's celebration of Black History Month in 

More than eighteen Africanist scholars spoke at the museum 
during 1982, both in individual lectures linked to specific exhibi- 
tions and in panel discussions. Professors John Murungi (Towson 
State College), Abena Busia (Rutgers University), Rowland 
Abiodun (University of Ife, Nigeria), Phillip Peek (Drew Univer- 
sity), and Eliot Skinner (Columbia University) were among those 
who discussed diverse aspects of African art, life, and thought, 
illuminated by the museum's exhibitions. 

On July 1, 1982, following a one-year sabbatical, Warren 
Robbins, director of the National Museum of African Art since its 
establishment in 1964, became senior scholar and founding director 
emeritus at the museum. Dr. John Reinhardt, who served as act- 
ing director of the museum during Mr. Robbins's sabbatical year, 
continued to serve in that capacity during the search for a perma- 
nent director. A committee has been formed by the Secretary, 
with Assistant Secretary for History and Art Charles Blitzer as 
chairman, to seek candidates for the director's position. 

History and Art I 193 

National Museum of American Art 

The search for a new director for the National Museum of Ameri- 
can Art (nmaa) was successfully completed with the formal 
announcement on November 25 that Dr. Charles C. Eldredge, 
director of the Spencer Museum of Art and professor of art his- 
tory at the University of Kansas, had accepted the appointment 
to head the museum, effective July 1, 1982. During the interim, 
Mr. Harry Lowe continued to serve as acting director. 

In keeping with nmaa's continuing interest to explore the rich 
resources of regional art in this country, the autumn exhibition 
schedule was highlighted by More than Land or Sky: Art from 
Appalachia, which included 109 works by 69 artists from the 13 
Appalachian states. Organized by the Department of Education, 
this major exhibition served as a focal point for a number of 
well-attended public programs, which included films, poetry read- 
ings, concerts, a symposium, and a panel discussion. The exhibi- 
tion is reaching an even wider audience in Appalachia, where it 
will go on tour to at least 12 museums and galleries until Septem- 
ber 1984. 

Exploring the American print from an historical perspective, 
the major exhibition organized by the Department of Prints and 
Drawings, The Print in the United States from the Eighteenth 
Century to the Present, brought together a fascinating selection of 
over 100 works on paper from various Smithsonian museums and 
collections. The exhibition had been shown initially in Mexico 
City the previous summer. 

Nmaa's permanent collection was significantly enriched by 685 
new accessions, bringing the total collection to 26,481 works. 
Among the many generous gifts given to nmaa this year were a 
major new color lithograph by Frank Stella, an important water- 
color by Maurice Prendergast, Blueberry Eyes by Franz Kline, a 
limestone sculpture by the folk artist William Edmondson, five 
paintings by Abraham Rattner, and a selection of 36 nineteenth- 
century silhouettes by some of the finest masters of this genre. 
The silhouettes are from the collection of F. W. Reidenbach of 
Rochester, New York, and provide an exceptional starting point 
for future collecting in this area. 

194 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Among the most significant works purchased this past year by nmaa is this oil on 
canvas landscape, Lost Balloon, by William Beard, 1882. 

Among the most significant works purchased this year is an 
evocative landscape by William Beard, The Lost Balloon (1882), 
revealing as much about the artist's attitude toward post-Civil 
War America as his many humorous and satirical animal paintings. 
The purchase of Mark Lindquist's Ascending Bowl added to the 
museum's growing collection of contemporary craft objects. In 
addition, a significant group of approximately 700 contemporary 
photographs, transferred from the National Endowment for the 
Arts, represents the most significant addition to date to the nmaa's 
photography collection. 

The Renwick Gallery observed two especially festive occasions 
this year. On January 31, it commemorated its tenth anniversary 
with an all-day celebration that featured tap-dancing perfor- 
mances, music and songs, and appearances by a magician and a 
juggler, and culminated in a huge birthday party. Two exhibitions, 
The Inedible Renwick Birthday Cake and The Grand Renwick 
Gallery Souvenir Show, were planned in conjunction with the 
tenth birthday. From 80 proposals by American craftsmen, the 
Renwick staff selected 14 birthday cakes of porcelain, neon, steel, 
crocheted cotton, stuffed fabric, glass, and earthenware. American 
craftsmen, in response to the question "If the Washington Monu- 
ment can be a thermometer, what can the Renwick be?" submitted 
60 proposals, from which seventeen souvenirlike objects were 
selected. The objects related to the gallery by utilizing the dis- 
tinctive image of the Renwick facade or the portrait of architect 
James Renwick. 

The first part of a major two-part exhibition cosponsored by the 
Renwick Gallery and the Office of Folklife Programs, Celebration: 
A World of Art and Ritual, was inaugurated on March 17. The 
second part opened August 26 and will continue through Febru- 
ary 21, 1983. Over 600 objects, culled from the collections of nine 
Smithsonian museums, vividly illustrate how 62 diverse cultures 
celebrate events through ritual, ceremony, and festival. Accom- 
panying the exhibition are free public-education programs, which 
directly interpret the objects and customs exhibited. Such varied 
activities as ethnic dances and music, lectures by anthropologists 
and ethnography scholars, films, symposia, and a monthly series 
of "Living Celebrations" explore the concept of celebration and 
further elucidate how people celebrate with their bodies, voices, 

196 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

In attendance at the June 11, 1982, symposium "Creative Women in Paris and New 
York in the 20s and 30s" were (from left) Lillian Hellman, Berenice Abbott, and 
Emily Hahn. 

ideas, and words, and with ritual objects such as those displayed. 

During this year, the Department of Exhibition and Design 
designed and installed eight changing exhibitions at the Renwick 
Gallery and twenty-four at nmaa. One of the most handsomely 
mounted exhibitions at nmaa was The First Annual Awards in the 
Visual Arts Exhibition/ AV A 1. The pioneering project's stated 
purpose is to promote, through fellowships and publication of an 
exhibition catalogue, the national recognition of accomplished 
artists whose works are not yet generally known. On May 5, 
AVA 1 was previewed by Mrs. Ronald Reagan who met with the 
artists; she was accompanied by S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, and Dr. Harry Rand, nmaa curator of 20th 
Century Painting and Sculpture. Earlier in the year, another exhi- 
bition of contemporary art, Recent Trends in Collecting: Twenti- 
eth-Century Painting and Sculpture at the National Museum of 
American Art, focused on 130 recently acquired works, which 
showed the range and breadth of the museum's holdings. 

Nmaa's dedication to research and professional training — efforts 
which began with an Intern Program in 1968 and a Research 
Fellowship program in 1970 — continues. These programs are 
showing splendid results with numerous, former nmaa interns and 
fellows having become museum professionals or pursuing academic 
careers. A symposium on the American decorative arts of the 
1920s and 1930s was organized by the Department of Research 
and Professional Training; five eminent scholars spoke on the uses 
of new materials and design problems, and a panel of museum 
curators discussed problems of collecting decorative art objects. In 
addition, a new cooperative program for the study and teaching of 
American art and culture of the 1930s was initiated by the Depart- 
ment of Research and Professional Training and involves George 
Mason University and two other Smithsonian bureaus, the National 
Museum of American History and the Archives of American Art. 

The nmaa year began and closed with notable exhibitions by 
two major black artists. In November, A Life in Art: Alma Thomas, 
1891-1978 displayed 46 paintings, sculptures, and works on paper 
by this artist, who made Washington, D.C., her home. Thomas 
dedicated her life to art education and turned to painting relatively 
late in life. On September 17, William H. Johnson: The Scandi- 
navian Years opened to show an impressive segment of nmaa 

198 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

holdings by this artist, the largest single collection of Johnson's 
work. These loosely painted landscapes in bright, saturated colors 
were executed mainly between 1930 and 1938. 

Three of the thirteen nmaa publications and miscellaneous man- 
uscripts that were monitored through press by the Department of 
Publication were singled out for awards by the Art Directors 
Club of Washington, D.C. The project to save the Peter A. Juley 
and Son Collection of 127,000 negatives, which document eighty 
years of American art, received an added boost in the form of 
funding from the James Smithson Society and continued support 
from the Samuel H. Kress Foundation. Within the past year the 
NMAA/National Portrait Gallery (npg) Library successfully com- 
pleted a search for the position of librarian with the appointment 
of Cecilia H. Chin, formerly associate librarian at the Art Institute 
of Chicago. 

In January of 1982, the nmaa/npg Library received the Mallett 
Library of Reproductions from the Library of Congress. Daniel 
Trowbridge Mallett, whose 1948 publication, Mallett's Index of 
Artists, is an indispensable source for locating biographical material 
on artists, assembled a series of 495 scrapbooks containing repro- 
ductions of works by the artists included in the index. Although 
largely undocumented, these illustrations provide a visual docu- 
mentation of the artists' works and will be a useful tool for schol- 
ars in American art. 

National Museum of American History 

Among this year's accomplishments at the National Museum of 
American History (nmah), two exhibitions and several on-going 
programs stand out. C. Washington: A Figure Upon the Stage 
and FDR: The Intimate Presidency explored the ways these two 
great men addressed the world. Much time was devoted to con- 
tinuing efforts such as the inventory of the collections, with a 
shelf survey of nearly 16 million items now more than 75 percent 
complete; planning a major exhibition on ways of life in eigh- 
teenth-century America; and a multidepartmental effort to pre- 
serve the Star-Spangled Banner. Finally, with the guidance of 

History and Art I 199 

This is a view of the entrance to the exhibition C. Washington: A Figure 
Upon the Stage at the nmah. Below. Standing at the entrance to the exhibi- 
tion FDR: The Intimate Presidency are (from left) nmah Director Roger G. 
Kennedy, President Ronald Reagan, and Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon 

J. Michael Carrigan, the new assistant director for exhibitions and 
public spaces, the nmah has developed a new plan for the use of 
collections and space over the next ten years. 

One accomplishment in October was the publication of The 
National Museum of American History, a book describing the 
museum and its collections in richly illustrated pages. Written by 
Shirley Abbott in coordination with the museum's Office of Public 
and Academic Programs, this large volume was published by 
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., in New York. 

Two diverse exhibitions marked the start of the year. By Sea 
and By Land: Independence With the Help of France, organized 
by Philip Lundeberg, curator of Naval History, opened October 9 
in the Castle. Funded by a grant from the James Smithson Society, 
the exhibition commemorated the crucial aid given American 
troops by the French at Yorktown. Also, in the nmah's Hall of 
Glass, Birds of North America — Porcelain by Edward Marshall 
Boehm offered examples of the master craftsman's work. 

Regular concerts, sponsored by the Division of Musical Instru- 
ments, provided continuity before the changing backdrop of exhi- 
bitions. In addition to "Saturday Live," its popular series of 
informal concerts, the division, in cooperation with the Smith- 
sonian Chamber Players, inaugurated a four-part series of lectures 
and concerts around the theme "Music from the Ages of George 
Washington." The series focused on the music that contributed 
to cultural life in late eighteenth-century London, Vienna, Paris, 
and Philadelphia. 

Continuing a long-standing museum tradition, Mrs. Ronald 
Reagan presented her inaugural gown at a special ceremony on 
November 4. At the time of the donation, Mrs. Reagan announced 
the establishment of a First Ladies Fellowship to encourage research 
in American fashion design. 

In that same month, the Division of Graphic Arts opened a 
new exhibition entitled The Machine as Artist: 19th-century 
Drawing Devices and Their Products. The exhibition allows vis- 
itors to try their own skill at a camera obscura (a device used to 
project images onto paper in a darkened room) and includes 
weekly demonstrations of a profile-drawing pantograph, showing 
how silhouettes may be made. 

In December, Beverly Sills gave the last of the 1981 Doubleday 

History and Art I 201 

lectures on music in America. Cultural exchange was evident in 
an important exhibition, Steuben: Secret Aid for the Americans, 
which opened December 12. Organized by Werner Giesebrecht 
of the Foundation for Prussian Cultural Property, Berlin, "Von 
Steuben" documented the origins and character of the Prussian 
officer, who brought discipline to Washington's troops during and 
after the cold winter at Valley Forge. Ending 1981 was the 
traditional Trees of Christmas, produced by the Smithsonian's 
Office of Horticulture, and a holiday fete, sponsored jointly by 
the museum and the Smithsonian's Division of Performing Arts, 
featuring mimes, musicians, jugglers, and all manner of per- 

On January 30, to commemorate the centenary of Franklin 
Delano Roosevelt's birth, FDR: The Intimate Presidency opened 
to the public. This major exhibition was organized by Arthur 
Molella of the Division of Electricity and was supported in part 
by a special congressional appropriation and generous gifts from 
LIFE and RCA. Photographs, newsreels, radio broadcasts, news 
magazines, posters, newspapers, and other channels of commu- 
nication were used to illustrate the ways in which this president 
tried to establish direct contact with Americans and make the 
national government more aware of the mood of the people. In 
conjunction with the exhibition, the Office of Public and Aca- 
demic Programs offered a series of films pertaining to Roosevelt 
and his era. The exhibition closed on August 1, 1982, and was 
adapted for a tour arranged by the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibi- 
tion Service. 

G. Washington: A Figure Upon the Stage — the most compre- 
hensive museum exhibition ever devoted to the man and his 
time — opened on February 22, the two-hundred-fiftieth anniver- 
sary of his birth. Margaret B. Klapthor, curator in the Division 
of Political History, organized the exhibition, and with Howard A. 
Morrison wrote the accompanying catalog. The result of more 
than a decade of research, the 675-object presentation illuminated 
the means through which Washington sought to define himself 
as a Virginia gentleman, a military leader, as president (a role 
for which he established a model), and as an elder statesman. 
Supported in part by a generous grant from United Technologies 
Corporation, this exhibition provided a focal point for many other 

202 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

activities, among them a singing school and a dancing school, 
both in the eighteenth-century tradition, offered to Resident 

Doubleday lectures for 1982 carried on the theme of "The 
Presidency," with commentary and insights from several promi- 
nent figures. In March, Marcus Cunliffe discussed the myth of 
George Washington, and in April John Chancellor shared his 
conclusions garnered from long experience with mass-media cov- 
erage of American presidents. The month of May brought "Ren- 
dezvous with the Thirties," a special lecture in which John House- 
man discussed his career in the American theater, particularly 
with the Federal Theater Project. The lecture was punctuated with 
selections from 1930s musical theater, sung by a Howard Univer- 
sity chous. Garry Wills ended the series with his lecture on the 
eighteenth-century view of Washington as Cincinnatus, the leg- 
endary hero honored for his service to his country and for his 
willingness to relinquish power after the crisis had passed. 

"Images of Women in American Culture," a symposium orga- 
nized by Edith Mayo of the Division of Political History and 
cosponsored with The Wonder Woman Foundation, took place at 
the nmah during Women's History Week in March. Among the 
distinguished participants were the Honorable Nancy Landon 
Kassebaum, the Honorable Patricia Schroeder, and Ms. Gloria 
Steinem, with Ms. Susan Stamberg as moderator of the panel of 

The Life in America Project, devoted to developing a major 
exhibition interpreting eighteenth-century America, yielded its 
first public results when "Buyin' Freedom," a short dramatic 
presentation, was given in the Virginia Parlor of the Hall of 
Everyday Life. One of the museum's first experiments with live 
acting in an exhibit, "Buyin' Freedom" focused on a slave's tena- 
cious efforts to negotiate his release from a patriarchal plantation 
owner. During its six-week run from late March into May, it 
received a warm response from the visitors who saw it. 

April saw the opening of "The Fall of Parity," a display illus- 
trating a successful experimental challenge to a tenet of physics 
long held to be true. This was also the time for the annual Spring 
Celebration, with musicians and other performing artists delighting 
visitors inside the museum as well as outside on its terraces. 

History and Art I 203 

Activities related to the Division of Community Life's popular- 
entertainment collections brought several celebrities to the nmah 
during the spring. In March, Dick Clark gave a selection of "num- 
ber-one hit records" and other objects commemorating thirty 
years of his association with "American Bandstand." April 
brought producer Hal David to present memorabilia from the 
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers, and 
comedian Rodney Dangerfield to present one of his shirts and a 
red tie. And in May, Hal Linden donated several props from 
"Barney Miller," the television series in which he had the title 

In May, the refurbishing of the Bond Clock Shop as a working 
exhibition in the Timekeeping Hall was completed, and an exhibi- 
tion of marbles dating from the nineteenth century to the pres- 
ent — gifts of the Marble Collectors Society of America — went on 
view in the pendulum area of the first floor. 

On Flag Day, June 14, Director Roger G. Kennedy announced 
a major endeavor to preserve the Star-Spangled Banner, a prized 
artifact in the museum's collections. He made the announcement 
during a public ceremony attended by Mrs. George Bush, wife of 
the vice-president, and sixty children from the District of Colum- 
bia's Francis Scott Key School, who sang patriotic songs. Mr. Ken- 
nedy described plans to remove dust from the flag, to improve light- 
ing and ventilation systems, and to install a large, opaque cover in 
front of the flag, to protect it from light and further dust. The 
conservation plan, developed by textile curator Rita Adrosko and 
supervised by conservator Scott Odell, required painstaking work 
during the summer and early fall. When the project, made possible 
by the support of Sears, Roebuck and Co., is complete — shortly 
after the end of this fiscal year — the cover will be withdrawn for 
several minutes each hour, allowing visitors to see the flag itself. 

Examples of American art and crafts figured in three summer 
exhibitions. On June 15, an exhibition entitled Gifts of Glass 
opened to the public. Offering fine selections of cut, engraved, 
and art glass given to the Smithsonian between 1885 and 1920, 
the display shows examples that major American glass manu- 
facturers believed best represented their companies. Then, in 
conjunction with Festival of American Folklife in July, the 
museum mounted a display of works created by National Heritage 

204 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Fellows — master craftsmen recognized with awards from the 
National Endowment for the Humanities. Tooled-leather saddles 
by Duff Severe, carved canes by Elijah Pierce, an ornamental iron 
gate by Philip Simmons, and other works were featured. Finally 
in late July, an exhibition of nineteenth- and twentieth-century 
photographs was installed in the Hall of Photography. Organized 
by Eugene Ostroff, Gum and Carbon Prints illustrates the results 
of two allied but different methods of photographic printing. 

July 9 and 10 were days for special events related to the 
George Washington exhibition. To commemorate Washington's 
signing his will on July 9, 1799, the Fairfax County Circuit Court 
brought the document to the museum for the day, where it was 
displayed in the Flag Hall near the exhibition. That evening and 
the next day, Gretchen Schneider, formerly of Colonial Williams- 
burg, shared her expertise in dress and deportment of Colonial 
Virginia's gentry in a lecture and two family workshops. 

Two major acquisions enhanced our collections during this 
period. In June, the Division of Military History received a rare 
regimental flag of Black Volunteers who fought for the Union in 
Louisiana and Texas. The flag, donated by Mr. David K. Lander 
of Caldwell, Idaho, is scheduled for display after it has received 
conservation treatment. Also, a century-old metal-drawing press 
built by the E. W. Bliss Company, then of New York, went on 
view in the Tool Hall in August. A gift of the Hudson Tool and 
Die Company, the machine is the first of its kind to enter the 
collections. Such machines were developed in the nineteenth cen- 
tury to shape sheets of metal into buckets, thimbles, and other 
seamless containers and utensils. 

In September, the first visible signs of the museum's five-year 
plan for reorganization of its public spaces occurred when the 
windmill near the pendulum was dismantled and the first in a 
series of Victorian arches was put in place. Once completed, the 
line of arches will demark a palm court between the pendulum 
area and the Victorian ice cream parlour. Designed as an area for 
rest and reflection, the palm court will feature the Horn and 
Hardart Automat of 1908 and Stohlman's confectionary displays 
and will provide visitors with chairs and tables in a period setting. 

The Office of Public and Academic Programs, among other 
broad and numerous activities, continued to sponsor the Senior 

History and Art I 205 

Series, a program that allows specially trained leaders to offer 
lectures about and demonstrations of the collections to groups of 
elderly adults in the metropolitan area. Funded by grants from 
the Smithsonian Education Outreach Fund and other private 
sources, the programs followed the theme "Changes in Technology 
and Their Effects on American Lifestyles." 

Other major acquisitions not previously mentioned were: a gift 
of approximately 2,000 engineering drawings of Corliss steam 
engines — the sole surviving records of the company founded by 
George Corliss, often called the James Watt of America; the only 
known example of an eighteenth-century firearm incorporating a 
multifiring system invented by Captain Joseph Belton of Phila- 
delphia; an extensive collection of equipment, archival material, 
and biological products from Parke-Davis and Company; 2 fine 
surveyor's compasses, examples of the early work of two impor- 
tant nineteenth-century workshops in Philadelphia; and several 
artifacts for the ethnic collections, among them an Indian woman 
shop figure by John Cromwell of New York City. Noteworthy 
donations to the National Philatelic Collections included 5 vol- 
umes of Napoleonic and French Revolution covers from the Henry 
A. Myer collection; 530 early U.S. Airmail Service objects; a 
collection of 5,974 world stamps, including significant holdings 
in German colonies and early German issues; and a collection of 
4,155 philatelic objects related to the Boy Scouts of America. 

Throughout the year, great progress was made on the inven- 
tory. Revised estimates of the collections within the nmah and 
at Silver Hill pushed the grand total of the museum's holdings 
from 15,872,168 to 16,257,075. Of those, 12,476,680 objects had 
been shelf-surveyed by the end of August 1982, and the data 
for 1,468,321 objects had been keyed into the computer. Sub- 
stantial progress was achieved in both the philatelic and numis- 
matic collections, where the inventory was top priority. 

National Portrait Gallery 

On June 1, 1982, Dr. Alan Fern became the third director of the 
National Portrait Gallery (npg). Dr. Fern brings to the gallery his 

206 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

administrative experience of twenty years at the Library of Con- 
gress (most recently as Director for Special Collections) and the 
scholarly interests and achievements of an art historian and 
former faculty member of the University of Chicago. The other 
major staff appointment in fiscal year 1982 was that of Cecilia 
Chin as American Art and Portrait Gallery Librarian, effective on 
May 16, 1982. A native of China, Ms. Chin came to the npg from 
Chicago, where she was associate librarian and head of the Ref- 
erence Department at the Ryerson and Burnham Libraries of the 
Art Institute. 

The crucial process of building a collection to meet the man- 
date first defined for the npg by the Congress in 1962 — and a 
collection worthy of the individuals who have shaped the nation's 
history — has continued unabated. The most significant acquisition 
of the year was announced in Kansas City, Missouri, by the npg 
and the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, Inc., as joint- 
purchasers of Gilbert Stuart's 1805 "Edgehill" portrait of Thomas 
Jefferson. This historic and beautiful image of Jefferson was a 
long-sought addition to Jefferson's own collection, hung at Monti- 
cello for the last five years of his life, and was owned by several 
of his descendants in succession throughout the nineteenth and 
early twentieth centuries. The commissioners of the npg had 
desired to bring this particular Jefferson icon into the collection 
since the mid-1960s and encouraged lengthy negotiations to that 
end, but the opportunity to acquire the work jointly with Monti- 
cello developed only recently. Following the precedent established 
in 1980 by the joint purchase (with Boston's Museum of Fine 
Arts) of Gilbert Stuart's 1795 portraits of George and Martha 
Washington, the gallery purchased half-ownership of the Edgehill 
panel and will place it on exhibition in 1983 for three-year 
periods, alternating with Monticello. Funds for this landmark 
purchase were provided for the npg by the Regents Collection 
Acquisition Program. 

Among the other acquisitions by purchase during the year, the 
gallery has been fortunate enough to acquire: a full-length, life- 
size portrait of Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), by John White 
Alexander; an unusual double portrait of the industrialist Henry 
Clay Frick with his daughter Helen, by the much-admired Edmund 
C. Tarbell; an unforgettable ambrotype of the youthful George 

History and Art I 207 

Among other acquisitions by purchase during 
the past year, the npg has been fortunate to 
acquire this full-length, life-size portrait of 
Samuel Clemens ("Mark Twain") (left), painted 
by John White Alexander around 1902, and a 
rare likeness of Tenskwatawa ("The Prophet"), 
by Henry Inman, painted around 1830-33. 

Armstrong Custer; another ambrotype (this one dating from 
about 1858) capturing the pre-presidential visage of Abraham 
Lincoln; a smashing study of the popular nineteenth-century 
actress Juliana Westray Wood, by Rembrandt Peale; and a rare 
likeness of Tenskwatawa ("The Prophet") by Henry Inman. 

The list of distinguished gifts accepted for the gallery's Perma- 
nent Collection is also growing. Joanna Sturm presented both 
Peter Hurd's tempera painting of Alice Roosevelt Longworth and 
a collection of Theodore Roosevelt family photographs. A superb 
1818 portrait of Rembrandt Peale, by his father, Charles Willson 
Peale, was the gift of Donald Hamilton Workman in memory of 
his father, James Clark Workman, and his grandfather, James 
Henry Workman. And a stylish marble head of Helen Gahagan 
Douglas by Isamu Noguchi came to the Gallery as the gift of the 
estate of the subject's husband, the actor Melvyn Douglas. 

The npg's list of temporary exhibitions during fiscal year 1982 
continued its traditional diversity and popular success. Two of 
America's most legendary presidents were the subjects of special 
tributes: on the two-hundred-fiftieth anniversary of George 
Washington's birth, the gallery opened An American Icon: The 
18th Century Image of George Washington in Prints and Illus- 
trations (organized by npg's Curator of Prints Wendy Wick and 
the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibitions Service), and 
the centennial of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's birth was cele- 
brated with FDR: The Early Years. An extensive and scholarly 
catalog accompanied the Washington show, and a smaller publi- 
cation was produced on FDR by gallery historians Frederick S. 
Voss and James Barber. 

The Frederick Hill Meserve collection of Civil War-period glass 
negatives — acquired last year with the help of Congress — became 
the focus of a permanent gallery space in which modern prints 
(produced in the technically correct nineteenth-century manner) 
will be shown on a rotating schedule. These diminutive images 
from the studios of Mathew Brady are already proving to be a 
major highlight of the npg's collections. 

Carl Schurz, America's Teutonic Reformer and John Stevens 
and Sons: A Family of Inventors were two additional special- 
feature exhibitions, which showed the effects of individual imagi- 
nation and diligence on American culture and society. Both were 

History and Art I 209 

produced by the gallery's Office of Small Exhibitions, which also 
prepared a one-room exhibition, The Godlike Black Dan, to com- 
memorate the two-hundredth anniversary of the birth of Daniel 
Webster — renowned legislator, secretary of state, and orator. This 
exhibition was also accompanied by a short catalog. 

The npg's unique concern with the arts of portraiture shaped 
two of the year's most important exhibitions: Portraits by George 
Bellows included a choice group of masterpieces selected by the 
gallery's former director, Marvin Sadik, and was accompanied by 
a catalog prepared by Margaret Christman; and American Portrai- 
ture in the Grand Manner 1720—1920, organized and first seen at 
the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, proved to be a very 
popular survey of the most ambitious and imposing formal por- 
traits produced in this country. 

Two special events bore direct relationship to the exhibitions 
programs. In October, as coorganizers with the education depart- 
ment of the Henry Francis duPont Winterthur Museum in Wil- 
mington, Delaware, the npg's Charles Willson Peale Papers staff 
presented a one-day conference in Washington on "Charles 
Willson Peale: An Interdisciplinary Study of His Work." Several 
speakers explored different aspects of the versatile Peale's life and 
career as an artist, inventor, and museum organizer in the late 
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Both Lillian B. Miller, 
editor of the Peale Papers, and Sidney Hart, assistant editor, were 
among the speakers. Wendy Wick's small exhibition Charles Will- 
son Peale and the Challenge of Mezzotint Portraiture was also on 
view. In January, to mark the opening of FDR: The Early Years, 
Joseph Alsop spoke to a distinguished audience on "The Roosevelt 
Enigma." His talk was a remarkable blending of personal memoir 
with the trained journalist's analysis of the Roosevelt presidency 
as a political achievement. 

The Education Department continues to serve a wide range of 
audiences, from school groups (both in classroom and museum 
programs) to senior citizens and individuals who visit the gallery 
and are shown the collections by knowledgeable, volunteer docents. 
The department's popular "Portraits in Motion" series has also 
attracted steadily increasing critical approval and enthusiastic audi- 
ences. In the series, individual actors and small theatrical groups 
give vivid portrayals of historical personalities represented in the 

210 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

gallery's collections, including H. L. Mencken, Edgar Allan Poe, 
and Dorothy Parker. 

The Catalog of American Portraits (cap) continued to process 
records created during the first three years of its 7-year, nation- 
wide survey of American portraiture. Simultaneously, field 
researchers have been documenting dozens of collections in Maine, 
Vermont, New Hampshire, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wis- 
consin, Minnesota, and Iowa. Funded, in part by the Andrew W. 
Mellon Foundation, the Ambrose W. Monnell Foundation, Thomas 
Mellon Evans, and numerous other donors in the regions being 
surveyed, this unique documentation program has yielded in 
excess of 5,000 carefully prepared records from the most recent 
field work. When the project is completed, the files of the cap's 
Washington offices will be an unparalleled and irreplaceable index 
to American portraiture. The holdings of each collection that is 
surveyed by the cap are entered into a computerized data base. 
Then each participating institution receives a copy of the processed 
records of its holdings from the cap, affording it a thorough record 
for convenient local use, as well as a future reference. To date, 
such records have been produced and deposited with 124 organi- 
zations in 7 states. 

Office of American Studies 

The Office of American Studies (oas) continued its program in 
graduate education throughout the year. The autumn 1981 seminar 
in "Material Aspects of American Civilization" had as its theme 
"Birth, Marriage, and Death" and was taught by the director of 
the program and Professor Bernard Mergen of The George Wash- 
ington University. 

Other seminars during the academic year 1981-82 included 
"The Decorative Arts in America," taught by Barbara G. Carson; 
"Study of American Art and History: Portraiture," taught by 
Ellen G. Miles; and a summer session course on "Folklore in 
America," taught by Geraldine N. Johnson. Individual graduate 
students continued to pursue specialized research under the super- 
vision of the director of the Office of American Studies. 

History and Art I 211 

The director of the oas, in his capacity as chairman of the Folk- 
life Advisory Council, conducted a meeting of the council on 
March 18, 1982, to review the progress of the Folklife Programs 
of the Smithsonian. The opening of Celebration: A World of Art 
and Ritual, an exhibition in the Renwick Gallery, marked the first 
time folk objects from all the Smithsonian museums had been 
brought together in a single exhibition bearing on the folklife 

The director of the oas, in his capacity as a member of the 
St. Mary's City Commission, continued his association with the 
research and restoration activities of Maryland's seventeenth- 
century capital. 

Office of Folklife Programs 

Most Americans would agree that the richness of the nation's 
culture lies in the impressive diversity of its people and in their 
creative response to historical conditions. Research, presentation, 
and preservation of this cultural wealth is the goal of the Office of 
Folklife Programs (ofp), which produces live performances by the 
keepers of tradition, museum exhibitions of traditional artifacts, 
and documentary studies of particular technological, social, and 
aesthetic processes. Members of the ofp also teach and conduct 
research on a cooperative basis in Washington— area academic and 
governmental institutions. Taken as a whole, the activities of the 
program are directed not only toward representing folk culture in 
national cultural institutions, but also toward continuing the sur- 
vival of folk traditions and their practitioners. 


The ofp planned, supervised research, and produced the Sixteenth 
Annual Festival of American Folklife in fiscal year 1982. The festi- 
val was returned to its original site on the National Mall outside 
the national museums of American History and Natural History. 
It was held over a two-week period: June 24-28 and July 1-5, 

This year, three major programs were presented. The main per- 

212 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

At the 1982 Festival of American Folklife, the 100th anniversary of 
U.S. -Korean diplomatic relations was observed with many folk artists 
being presented, among them, this traditional Korean potter. Below. 
Two members of the Kutiyattam troupe from Kerala, India, perform 
at the Renwick Gallery as part of the nmaa exhibition Celebration: 
A World of Art and Ritual. 

formance stage each day featured a series of tribute concerts in 
honor of the recipients of the National Endowment for the Arts' 
first National Heritage Fellowships. These fellowships were 
awarded at the festival to fifteen traditional musicians and crafts- 
persons who have made outstanding contributions to the culture of 
the United States. Also, an exhibition of crafts by fellowship 
recipients was mounted in the National Museum of American 

In observance of the one-hundredth anniversary of the estab- 
lishment of U.S.-Korean diplomatic relations, twenty-five folk 
artists were presented along with twenty-five artists from Korean- 
American communities. This program revived the "Old Ways in 
the New World" format, which was highly successful during the 
Bicentennial Festival and before. The traditions presented include 
sandae-nori (an ancient masked-dance drama); a shinawi instru- 
mental ensemble; musical-instrument, pottery, and horsehair-hat- 
making; calligraphy; food demonstrations; and a shamanistic 
spring-festival ritual that was presented for the first time outside 

The third program, with approximately 110 participants, pre- 
sented the folk traditions of the State of Oklahoma. This program, 
part of a celebration of Oklahoma's Diamond Jubilee of statehood, 
included Anglo, black, Native American, and ethnic music and 
crafts, as well as the occupational folklore of the oil and horse 
industries. The National Mall was transformed by an oil-drilling 
derrick and a 400-yard-long runway down its center for quarter- 
horse racing. 

The festival was cosponsored by the National Park Service and 
the Smithsonian and received funding support from the Music 
Performance Trust Funds, the International Cultural Society of 
Korea, and the Diamond Jubilee Commission of the State of 


In conjunction with several Smithsonian bureaus, the ofp has been 
involved in a series of special projects during fiscal year 1982. 
Throughout the year, the staff of the ofp worked in collaboration 
with the staff of the National Museum of American Art to plan 
the exhibition Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual, which 

214 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

opened on March 17, 1982. The exhibition contains more than 
600 objects — drawn from Smithsonian collections — which fill all 
seven of the Renwick's galleries. The objects were chosen to dem- 
onstrate the ways in which different societies celebrate the impor- 
tant cycles and milestones in the lives of their people. To augment 
the exhibition, the ofp planned and produced a monthly "living 
celebration" as well as a monthly lecture and film. These events 
were held in the Renwick Gallery. The living celebrations included, 
among others, St. Patrick's Day festivities, Laotian and Cambodian 
new year's ceremonies, and Kutiyattam, an ancient form of San- 
skrit theater still performed in Indian for ritual occasions. 

During the Roosevelt presidency, seven folk-song concerts were 
presented in the White House. On January 31, 1982, in observance 
of the centennial of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's birth, the ofp 
planned and produced a concert, entitled Folk Music in the Roose- 
velt White House, at the National Museum of American History. 
This concert featured the folk music performed for the Roosevelts 
and it included some of the musicians who played the music. In 
addition, FDR's son James and folklorist Alan Lomax, both of 
whom worked in the Roosevelt administrations, shared with the 
audiences reminiscences of the White House concerts. 

For the opening week (June 18-22) of the exhibition inua 
revealed: the spirit world of the bering sea eskimo, the ofp, in 
response to a request from the Department of Anthropology, orga- 
nized a program of Eskimo culture at the National Museum of 
Natural History. A group of twelve Eskimos from the Village of 
Gambell, on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, demonstrated their 
crafts and games, told traditional stories, and presented perfor- 
mances of dancing, drumming, and singing. 

Research was begun during fiscal year 1982 under the super- 
vision of the ofp for an exhibition on the surviving traditional 
potteries of the Southeastern United States. The exhibition is being 
planned by this office in conjunction with the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Traveling Exhibition Service, and will begin a 26-month- 
long tour of American museums in November 1983. 

Finally, on February 13, 1982, the ofp and the National Council 
for the Traditional Arts cosponsored a performance by the Khmer 
Classical Ballet in the National Museum of Natural History's 
Baird Auditorium. 

History and Art I 215 


Collaborative work with the American Folklife Center at the 
Library of Congress (lc) began in the summer of 1979 on a project 
to preserve more than 3,500 wax-cylinder recordings principally 
held by the lc. These contain Native American songs and stories 
recorded prior to 1930. Dr. Thomas Vennum, Senior Ethnomusicol- 
ogist in the ofp, has served as project director since 1979. The proj- 
ect involves the transfer of fragile cylinder recordings to magnetic 
tape, the preparation of accompanying written material, and the 
development of suitable means for the dissemination of these his- 
toric cultural documents. Before his term of duty as director ended 
in June 1982, Dr. Vennum, at a conference on American Indian 
Arts sponsored by University of California, Los Angeles, delivered 
a paper on the ethics of accessibility to sacred Indian recordings 
in archives. The paper is to be published as part of the proceed- 
ings of the meeting. Additionally, he published an article on the 
Truman Michaelson cylinder collection in the lc's Folklife Center 

Research, writing, and production continues on seven mono- 
graphs and accompanying films, which are included in the 
Smithsonian Folklife Series. The series was established in 1978 to 
document, through monographs and films, folkways still practiced 
(or recreated through memory) in a variety of traditional cultures. 
Drawing on more than a decade of research accruing from field- 
work conducted for the office's annual Festival of American Folk- 
life, the studies are unique in that each consists of a monograph 
and a film conceived to complement each other. In fiscal year 
1982, one new study has been initiated through the filming of a 
two-day shamanistic ritual conducted by several Korean festival 
participants in the home of a local Korean-American family. This 
is the first time the ritual has been filmed. 

During fiscal year 1982, a film was begun in conjunction with 
the exhibition, Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual. Conceived 
of as more than a visual catalogue of an exhibition, the film will 
present a portrait of the exhibition's guest curator, Dr. Victor 
Turner, the world's foremost symbolic anthropologist. The film 
will be a document of one of the twentieth century's most original 
and compelling intellectuals, using the exhibition as a springboard. 
This production is scheduled to be completed in fiscal year 1983. 

216 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

On May 6, 1982, a film entitled Miles of Smiles, Years of 
Struggle premiered in Washington. Depicting the heretofore untold 
story of the black Pullman porters who formed the Brotherhood 
of Sleeping Car Porters — the first black union — this film was pro- 
duced by the Columbia Historical Society in cooperation with the 
ofp. Dr. Jack Santino of this office was a coordinator of the film, 
which grew out of his research for the 1978 Festival of American 
Folklife. The film has been shown on public television in New 
York and Washington, D.C., and has been highly praised by the 
press and public. 


Three visiting scholars, supported by funds from the Office of 
Fellowships and Grants used the ofp's archives as well as the 
scholarly resources of the staff in 1981 and 1982. William Nye 
(Ph.D., Tufts) conducted research for a definitive biography on 
jazz musician Charlie Parker. Robert McCarl (Ph.D., Memorial 
University of Newfoundland) conducted research and commenced 
writing a complete ethnography of urban firefighters. Michael 
Licht (M.A., University of Texas, Austin, and doctoral candidate 
at the University of Texas) conducted research on the role of the 
harmonica in traditional American music. Also, the staff of the 
ofp supervised the work of eight interns. 

History and Art I 217 





f jjifk "TY^Hm 



Smithsonian librarians, Ms. S. Van Haften-Mackler and Dr. C. Jopling, check a print- 
out from the online systems, which provide up-to-the-minute data for Smithsonian 

Smithsonian Year • 19 Si 


Conservation Analytical Laboratory 

The Conservation Analytical Laboratory (cal) is primarily respon- 
sible for advising and assisting Smithsonian museums in the study 
and the preservation of the National Collections. It provides 
extensive conservation, analytical, information, and educational 
services for this purpose. 

In this fiscal year, cal has collected and added to its system 
945 reprints, bringing the total up to 7,500. This includes publi- 
cations from Scandinavia, Japan, Australia, and Germany, among 
other countries, on technical matters of concern to conservators. 
Some 336 reprints have been read, key-worded, and fully indexed 
this year. The file on commercial materials has been updated by 
300 additions, and 80 video tapes of the Conservation Orientation 
Lecture Series have been shown to 22 persons, of whom 10 
received certificates of completion. Twelve others viewed selected 

The technical publications editor has edited about 144 conserva- 
tion reports, of which a total of 119 cal reports — varying in size 
from 1 to 40 pages — have been completed and sent out to various 
bureaus of the Smithsonian. The editor has also further developed 
a thesaurus for use in computerizing our conservation reports and 
a more general thesaurus for the 7,500 reprints that cover the 
entire field of conservation and related museum activities. Copies 
of our thesaurus for conservation have been provided to inquirers 
from Israel, Hungary, England, and Seattle, Washington. 


Literature searches in cal reports and reprints — by computer or 
otherwise — in books and biographies, have numbered about fifty. 

Preparation of dialog records has required conversion of the 
mass of material from the old selgem file to the preliminary new 
file. Some fifty or so over-long abstracts on the old file have been 
rewritten to make them fit the new system, and they have been 
entered onto tape for transfer to the dialog records. Ninety-seven 
test abstracts have been written for entering into the new system 
when it becomes fully operational. About thirteen new-style 
tapes have been created by computer manipulation of selgem 
tapes ready for insertion into dialog. 

Professional visitors numbered 535, and faculty has been pro- 
vided to the following: Office of Museum Programs workshops — 
"Museum Registration Methods," "Developing, Managing, and 
Maintaining Collections," "Storage and Handling," "Principles of 
Conservation and Preventive Care: 1) Basic Problems, 2) Environ- 
mental Conditions, 3) Control of Insects, 4) Dangers of Photog- 
raphy;" Gunston Hall, "Coping with Collections," at Lor ton, Vir- 
ginia; plus attendance at eighty video-tape lectures to expand 
lectures and answer questions. 


Roland Cunningham joined the cal staff as senior conservator of 
paintings at the end of March and spent the greater part of three 
months redesigning and reorganizing the small space assigned to 
this activity, and purchasing new equipment for this area as well 
as for the new paintings studio at the Museum Support Center. 
Since the first of May, Mr. Cunningham has examined and treated 
five paintings, all oil on canvas, from the collections of the National 
Museum of American History (nmah) or on loan to that museum 
for exhibition. At the request of the Society of the Four Arts, 
Mr. Cunningham traveled to Palm Beach, Florida, to examine 
large murals on canvas glued to the walls of an outside loggia. 
Samples from these paintings are currently being analyzed in cal. 
Several painted objects, including the lettered, wooden signboard 
from a turret clock, are current projects. 

Senior furniture conservator Walter Angst completed seventeen 
objects, seven of which were for the major nmah exhibition George 
Washington: A Figure Upon the Stage. Most notable among the 

220 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

seven were a foot stool from Mt. Vernon, Washington's silver 
chest, an inlaid table, and a mirror, the treatment of which was 
coordinated with conservator Kory Berrett. All of these, except for 
the mirror frame, required analysis by scientists, as did a tool 
chest from nmah and an inlaid side chair from the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum. Objects of particular interest treated by Mr. Angst were 
the Mace and Badge of Office, used at official Smithsonian func- 
tions. Seal imprints attached to two well-known paintings belong- 
ing to the National Gallery of Art were examined extensively and 
reported. Mr. Angst's continuing projects include a fire screen from 
nmah, a boulle table from the collection of the S. I. Castle, the 
gun said to have belonged to Emperor Maximilian, and eighteenth- 
century furniture from the National Air and Space Museum, which 
features representations of early balloon flight. 

In response to a request for conservation expertise for the major 
National Museum of Natural History (nmnh) exhibition, inua, cal 
provided two objects conservators, Mary Lou Garbin and Nikki 
Horton, for two days a week over the period of a month, to work 
in the Anthropology Conservation Lab. Here they treated a total of 
twenty-seven objects comprised of such materials as ivory, wood, 
sinew, plant fiber, hide, rawhide, iron, stone, and fur. Objects 
treated included lance tips, earrings, a basket, a fish club, a mask, 
a steatite doll, a civet-skin skirt, and an amulet. 

Mrs. Garbin, who works part time, completed reports on work 
done on a tiny bronze bull's head in cal and continues two major 
literature searches in conjunction with treatment of a wooden tre- 
panning kit and a number of Revolutionary War bone buttons 
from nmah collections. It is expected that the data being gathered 
and evaluated will aid conservators faced with similar and related 
problems. In the instance of the kit, insufficient data found in the 
conservation literature has led to an extensive search to determine 
which wood adhesives used in industry possess qualities acceptable 
for use. With respect to the bone buttons, a literature search has 
revealed that a variety of materials have been used to consolidate 
bone, but since the bulk of the literature concerns building mate- 
rials (stone and wood), it is being examined for its relevance to 
bone. Unfortunately, industrial data is not as relevant as in the 
case of the wood adhesives. Because consolidation of bone in 
paleontological collections is regular, though infrequently pub- 

Museum Programs I 221 

lished, Mrs. Garbin is collaborating with the Paleobiology Lab at 
nmnh, also interested in the problem. 

In cal, Mrs. Horton completed treatment of nineteen objects, 
eleven of these for the major exhibition, George Washington: A 
Figure Upon the Stage. These objects included George Washing- 
ton's shaving kit, two razors and their cases, a leather fire bucket 
painted with a portrait of President Washington, Washington's 
camp stool, and the canvas and leather bag used to transport his 
campaign tent. Treatment of nearly all of these objects required 
the analytical expertise of the cal scientists. Mrs. Horton also 
treated objects from other collections within nmah. The remainder 
of her time was spent conserving an iron oil lamp and a poly- 
chome sculpture for the National Museum of African Art (NMAfA). 
On the seventeen objects she continues to work on, about half are 
from the NMAfA, three are from the S. I. Libraries, and the 
remainder are from nmah. 

Objects conservator Kory Berrett finished treatment of thirty- 
eight objects, ten of which required analytical work and six, 
extensive literature searches. Thirty of the objects were for the 
nmah — three of these for the George Washington exhibition and 
the remainder principally for exhibition in the Ceramics and Glass 
Hall or at out-of-state museums. The remaining eight objects com- 
pleted by Mr. Berrett came from the Anthropology Department of 
nmnh, with one from the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibi- 
tion Service. Of the thirty-eight completed, the most noteworthy 
from the standpoint of complexity were a framed mirror belonging 
to George Washington (worked on in conjunction with Walter 
Angst), red-dyed ivory chessmen, a silver fragment from the 
Anthropology Department, and a Tiffany candlestick, an oil lamp, 
and a glass picture frame containing a photograph from the col- 
lections of the Division of Ceramics and Glass, nmah. Twenty-five 
on-going projects — notably, a coral brooch and a glass perfume 
bottle with attached glass label, from the collections of the nmah, 
an excavated bronze pitcher from the nmnh, and a bronze statue 
from the NMAfA — all required analysis by scientists. 

By means of eighty-one hygrothermographs, cal monitors the 
environment of eleven bureaus, ranging from the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum to the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. Seventy of 
these hygrothermographs are permanently installed in exhibition 

222 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

or storage areas, and twelve are placed temporarily. Having up- 
dated and revised the system of tracking incoming charts and the 
calibration log, Thomas Raysor, conservation technician, main- 
tains the first and accomplishes biannual calibration of all but the 
Cooper-Hewitt instruments. Mr. Raysor was also responsible for 
processing eighteen loads of objects through the cal fumigation 
chamber, under the supervision of Mr. Angst or Mrs. Horton, who 
were certified as pesticide applicators during this fiscal year. This 
service was provided on request to nmah, NMAfA, nasm, and the 
Arts and Industries Building. 

With Mr. Raysor's assistance, 857 information requests (letters 
or phone calls) plus questions aired at omp workshops were 
answered with 19,803 single information sheets (guidelines). A 
recent sampling of 100 consecutive requests revealed that about 
75 percent of these were telephone inquiries. 

Cal continues its service of providing conservation materials and 
lending equipment to the various S. I. divisions. In sixty-eight 
such instances, twenty-six were to staff of divisions within nmah, 
excluding the Division of Conservation, for which there were 
ten more. 

During this period, cal conservators recorded conservation 
advice given mainly to Smithsonian callers with a total of 110 
"quickie" records. Of these, 36 were replies to conservator col- 
leagues, and 74 to nonconservators. Of the nonconservators, 35 
came from within nmah, 31 from other bureaus of the Institution, 
and 8 from outside the Smithsonian. 


The science group has continued its well-established function as a 
service lab, answering diverse queries the only common themes of 
which are the technical study of the museum's collection and its 
preservation. As usual, cal has used the more interesting and suc- 
cessful of these studies to justify long-term research. For example 
Tim Padfield, David Erhardt, and Walter Hopwood have written 
a joint paper about pollution that is generated within museums. 
The paper was presented at the Washington Conference of the 
International Institution for Conservation (nc) in September 1982. 
Cal is also studying the behavior of hygroscopic salts in porous 
materials — a curious choice of subject, but surprisingly important 

Museum Programs I 223 

in the display of textiles and prints, which often transfer their 
images to the glass in front of them and to the boards behind 
them. Cal has now studied eight examples, which have come to 
the lab, and is making a systematic study that involves simulat- 
ing the effect in the lab and measuring the effect of atmospheric 
moisture on humidity-sensitive materials. Progress in this was 
described by Tim Padfield in a paper presented at the Washington 
conference of the Harper's Ferry Textile Group in September 1982. 

Another major occupation is the roof of the Arts and Indus- 
tries Building. Cal measurements of the microclimate have now 
covered a year and a half, and interpretation of the process by 
which liquid occasionally falls from the ceiling in warm, sunny 
weather is complete. The results prompted cal to caution the 
Office of Design and Construction (odc) about weaknesses in the 
design of the next stage in roof renovation. Cal is now reviewing 
the mass of data and preparing a paper that will describe the 
measurement techniques, which are unusual, and the condensation 
process, which is caused by an amazing combination of factors, 
none of which, alone, would have caused trouble. Cal is also dis- 
cussing the way in which the building has reacted to the incom- 
patible needs of the historic structure, the objects, and the inhabi- 
tants (joint project with odc). 

The most memorable undertaking of the scientific staff this 
past year was the cleaning of the gilded bronze equestrian statues 
around the Lincoln Memorial and Arlington Memorial Bridge. The 
cleaning was done by Nick Veloz of the National Park Service; 
cal's role was to study the current state of the protective varnish 
"Incralac," which had been applied ten years before. The varnish 
had altered profoundly. It had shrunk into brittle polygonal frag- 
ments, was insoluble in solvents that would easily dissolve freshly 
applied lacquer, and showed a high absorption of ultra violet 
light, which suggests considerable chemical alteration of the poly- 
mer or absorption of pollutants. Since Incralac is widely used on 
bronze statuary, cal is preparing a joint paper to describe the 
difficulty in removing the degraded varnish. 

In a joint project with Martin Burke, nmah, cal made a cool 
display case for George Washington's Commission as Commander 
in Chief of the Continental Army. This document was lent to 
nmah by the Library of Congress (lc) on condition that it would 

224 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

be kept considerably cooler than our 76° F museum temperature. 
Through thermoelectric cooling units clamped to an aluminum tray, 
which holds the document under an airtight safety glass lid, this 
refrigeration system is basically orthodox. Most of the design 
effort went towards insuring that the system would be fail-safe 
under any accidental event imaginable. So far it has failed, safely, 
twice within half a year, but we are conscious that this document 
is intended to last for ever. 

Other achievements throughout the year include: evaluation of 
a vicious multipronged pigeon scarer for installation on city para- 
pets; explaining the appearance of a row of sticky drips on the 
walls of the Carmichael auditorium; and giving advice on the con- 
servation of eleventh-century Egyptian tombstones on the basis 
of analyses of debris from a modern Cairo stonecutter's yard. On 
the subject of fragmental stone, cal is studying gravel from the 
paths of a famous French park to find out why their paths are 
firm, while the National Mall gravel paths are so incohesive that 
a significant portion of the dust found inside the museums is fine 
quartz particles. 

The scientific staff also worked this year on two hallowed relics 
of American history: the Star-Spangled Banner and the Apollo 11 
space capsule. The Star-Spangled Banner has been recently veiled 
for cleaning by nmah. Cal's role in this much-publicized affair 
was to report on the condition of the fibers so that a safe clean- 
ing method could be developed. Cal found the flag to be some- 
what weakened but basically healthy, and coated with a fine, 
easily removable dust. Cal identified the dyes on the fibers, which 
had been removed for tensile-strength measurements, allowing the 
scientists to advise on safe lighting of the flag. The red dye is 
cochineal and madder on a tin mordant; the blue is indigo. These 
are among the most light-fast of the traditional dyes. Even so, 
they fade fast in a bright light. 

The Appollo 11 capsule had some rusty liquid drip from its 
heat shield onto the Plexiglas enclosure. The trouble turned out 
to be corrosion of stainless-steel parts of the shield by salt 
absorbed on splashdown. Cal attributed the local, high humidity 
necessary for such corrosion to sunlight falling on the outer case 
and affecting the microclimate within. 

Tim Padfield (supervisor), David Erhardt, Martha Goodway, 

Museum Programs I 225 

Walter Hopwood, Joan Mishara, and Harold Westley, make up 
the scientific staff involved in these various enterprises. 


The Archaeometry Section added one new staff member during 
fiscal year 1982, Yu-tarng Cheng, a nuclear physicist who had 
been working in the Neutron Radiography Section of the National 
Bureau of Standards (nbs). Dr. Cheng is now assisting with the 
development of the cal's facility for neutron-induced autoradiog- 
raphy of oil paintings, using the nbs reactor. A study was begun 
on a painting by Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Lady with a Rose, from 
the collection of the nmaa. The study will complement the auto- 
radiographic study made earlier using the Brookhaven National 
Laboratory (bnl) Medical Reactor on the Metropolitan Museum's 
Tobit and the Angel by Dewing. 

During fiscal year 1982, the artifacts that were brought back 
from the Smithsonian expedition to Kodlunarn Island, Baffin Island, 
were received on loan from the Prince of Wales Heritage Center, 
Northwest Territories, Canada. An inventory of these artifacts 
was prepared in the Department of Anthropology. A sample of 
55 mg of charcoal was obtained from a crevice in the surface of 
one of the iron blooms recovered on that expedition. That sam- 
ple has been submitted to the Chemistry Department at bnl for 
carbon-14 dating, using the small counter for which the cal con- 
tributed funds to develop. A thirteenth-century date was obtained 
earlier at bnl on carbon, which is now in the Naval History Divi- 
sion of the Museum of American History, (nmah) extracted from 
a bloom from that area. This bloom had been attributed to the 
sixteenth-century English explorer, Martin Frobisher; however, the 
carbon-14 date and the attribution do not agree. The Smithsonian 
expedition in August 1981 and the subsequent study of the exca- 
vated artifacts begun in fiscal year 1982 are intended to resolve the 
questions and shed more light on the history of the activities on 
Kodlunarn Island. 

A 1-mg sample of the charcoal from the Canadian bloom was 
also submitted to Dr. Lloyd Currie of the Gas and Particulate 
Science Division, Center for Analytical Chemistry, nbs, for even- 
tual comparison with the sample being dated at bnl. Dr. Currie is 

226 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

working on the origin of carbonaceous species in the atmosphere, 
deduced by radiocarbon. He is using 5-15 mL counters, like those 
developed at Brookhaven with cal funding, to determine the 
anthropogenic contribution to carbonaceous contaminants in the 
environment, but he is not presently doing carbon-14 dating. Dr. 
Currie is also beginning to explore the use of accelerator mass 
spectrometry to count C-14 atoms directly and is cooperating with 
the universities of Rochester and Arizona. Dr. Currie has repeat- 
edly offered space for a guest worker from cal to work with him 
on carbon-14 dating. 

M. James Blackman and Jacqueline S. Olin attended the 
Twenty-second International Archaeometry Symposium at the 
University of Bradford, Bradford, England, where they both pre- 
sented papers. Jacqueline Olin also presented a short talk on the 
Smithsonian's Round Table on Future Directions in Archaeometry 
held at the archaeometry meeting at bnl in May 1981. The pro- 
ceedings of this round table discussion were published during 
fiscal year 1982 by the Smithsonian Institution Press, with Jac- 
queline Olin as editor. 

Harold Westley has developed the use of direct-current, plasma- 
optical emission spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of major, 
minor, and trace elemental concentrations in ceramics. A compari- 
son with analyses obtained by neutron activation analysis showed 
excellent agreement. 

Marino Maggetti of the University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switz- 
erland, was a visiting scientist in the cal. Dr. Maggetti is with the 
Institute for Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of 
Fribourg and came to cal to participate in a project on archaeo- 
metric study of majolica ceramics. This work will be presented 
at the Archaeological Chemistry Symposium of the American 
Chemical Society in Kansas City, September 1982. 

Two post-doctoral fellows in Materials Analysis were selected 
from twelve applicants for that felowship. The two selected are 
Albert Jornet, who will receive his degree in geology from the 
University of Fribourg, and Christopher Nagle, whose degree is 
in anthropology from Brandeis University. Mr. Jornet will begin 
his fellowship with a field trip to Spain where he will collect sam- 
ples of clays used in the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century produc- 

Museum Programs / 227 

tion of Spanish majolica. Mr. Nagle will continue the analysis, 
begun by Dr. Blackman, of nephrite source samples and artifacts 
from sites in Labrador. 

Charles Milton, who was formerly with the U.S. Geological 
Service and The George Washington University, was appointed as 
a research associate in cal. He will begin his appointment in Jan- 
uary 1983 and will be engaged in the study of scoriae from metal- 
working areas at the site of Tel el Malyan in Iran. Dr. Blackman 
(cal) has excavated at that site and has conducted neutron activa- 
tion analysis studies of ceramic and obsidian artifacts. 

National Museum Act Grant Programs 

Through its programs of grants, and in keeping with the original 
authorizing legislation of 1966, the National Museum Act (nma) 
continued to provide support for professional training for careers 
within the museum profession, for special studies investigating 
critical museum and museum-conservation problems, and for tech- 
nical assistance to the museum field. As in the past, the 1982 
guidelines that describe the grant programs stressed the impor- 
tance of the conservation of museum collections and encouraged 
the submission of applications for conservation training and 
research projects. 

In 1982, 139 applications, requesting a total of $2,687,696 in 
support, were received. After review by the Advisory Council, 56 
grants were awarded with available program funds that totaled 
$673,860. Thrity-five of the grants, representing $370,060 of the 
total award, dealt directly with conservation training, research, 
and studies. 

The majority of research and special-study projects supported 
in 1982 addressed conservation issues of critical importance to the 
care and preservation of the many types of collections held by 
museums. Among these were projects involving the development 
and testing of useful methods for cleaning tarnishes and other 
blemishes from daguerreotypes, ways through which albumen 
photographic prints could be preserved, and the development of 
consolidants for porous stone and masonry materials. Other stud- 

228 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

ies dealt with the effectiveness of certain treatments in extending 
the life of textiles. 

To help meet significant needs of museums generally, nma pro- 
vided support for projects making available technical information 
about museum administration, management of collections, educa- 
tional programs, exhibition planning, and similar topics. One such 
project has enabled the African American Museums Association 
to compile and distribute much-needed advisory and instructional 
material to its member museums. 

Forty-two grants were awarded in 1982 for training museum 
personnel. Training activities were varied and ranged from semi- 
nars offered to groups of museum-staff persons to advanced 
internships for conservation training at the graduate level. Many 
areas of specialization were represented in the conservation-train- 
ing programs supported by nma: paper, rare books, fine arts, tex- 
tiles, leather, and archaeological and ethnographic materials. Per- 
sons accomplished in these specializations, as well as conservator 
generalists, will help fill a major void in the pool of skilled 
resources needed by museums to preserve the diverse and irre- 
placeable objects and specimens in their collections for the benefit 
of present and future generations. 

Throughout the year, the National Museum Act office main- 
tained close liaison and exchanged information with agencies and 
other organizations that make grants to museums, as well as with 
professional museum and conservation associations. 

Office of Exhibits Central 

Activities in the offices and shops of the Office of Exhibits Central 
(oec) continued at a brisk pace throughout fiscal year 1982, pro- 
viding the widest range of exhibition services to clients within 
the Institution. Over 300 separate projects were requested, of 
which 227 were completed, with the balance scheduled into the 
next fiscal year. Long-range scheduling of projects has been the 
basis of oec operations since it was established in 1972 and is the 
major factor in oec's productivity. 

Functional and organizational aspects of the oec were studied 

Museum Programs / 229 

during fiscal year 1982, and some substantial changes will occur 
early in fiscal 1983. Plans have been developed to computerize 
much of the accounting and administrative procedure, and it is 
hoped to have a terminal on line and programmed by the end of 
the calendar year. 

As a result of a task-force study by the Office of the Under 
Secretary, the Exhibits Motion Picture Unit (Karen Loveland, 
director, and John Hiller, assistant director), will be transferred 
from the oec to the Office of Telecommunications (otc). The 
Motion Picture Unit has been a source of great pride for the oec; 
the work it has produced in conjunction with exhibition pro- 
grams throughout the Institution is unmatched in the museum 
world. More than forty national and international motion picture 
awards, including eight Emmys, have been given to the unit in 
recognition of the excellence of its efforts. The transfer of the 
unit will make it possible for staff to extend their productivity to 
an ever-broader range of Smithsonian-wide film productions. 

The work of the film unit, as is true of the entire oec, was 
varied. This year it completed a thirty-second public service 
announcement (for TV) for the exhibition inua: spirit world of 
the bering sea eskimo at the National Museum of Natural His- 
tory (nmnh); two films (five minutes and eighteen minutes) shown 
in conjunction with the National Museum of American History 
(nmah) exhibition FDR: The Intimate Presidency; "A Star is 
Hatched," a ten-minute compilation of Hollywood's view of dino- 
saurs for the new Paleobiology Hall in nmnh; four, three-minute, 
8 mm film loops on reptiles and amphibians for the Office of 
Education at the National Zoological Park (nzp); a nine-minute 
training film for museum personnel on the hearing-impaired, pro- 
duced in conjunction with the SI Office of Elementary and Secon- 
dary Education; and a film for the nzp, "Changes: The Story of 
Evolution and Speciation," animated by Film Polski in Warsaw. 

John Hiller again served as cinematographer for filming the 
Festival of American Folklife and, with the Folklife Office, he com- 
pleted a twenty-eight-minute film, "Miles of Smiles," which is a 
documentary for television about the Brotherhood of Sleeping 
Car Porters. He continues to film stone carvers at the National 
Cathedral and has shot footage for a film of "Jugtown" pottery. 

Projects to be completed in early 1983 include: "American Pic- 

230 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

ture Palaces/' a twenty-minute film produced with otc for the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum, where it will be shown in conjunction 
with a major exhibition of the same name; and "Kalila wa 
Dimna/' a ten-minute animated film to be shown with the Renais- 
sance of Islam exhibition. In addition, two one-hour films — the 
working titles of which are "The Maine Coast" and "Caribbean 
Coral Reef" — are being produced with and for the Marine Sys- 
tems Laboratory. "Coral Reefs: Understanding Their Passage 
through Time," previously produced for the Marine Systems Lab- 
oratory, was selected to be shown at the Festival of Mountaineer- 
ing and Exploration Films, Trento, Italy, and at the tenth Semana 
Internacional de Cine Naval y del Mar, Cartagena, Spain. "The 
Big Cats and How They Came to Be," originally produced for the 
nzp, was shown in the Ottawa International Animation and Film 

William Jacobs, a designer at oec for two years, joined the 
nmah. His final projects for oec were an nmah exhibition on the 
women's movement, Perfect in Her Place, which has been rede- 
signed for travel with the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhi- 
bition Service (sites), and "Quicksilver Galleons," also a sites 
exhibition, designed and produced with the National Geographic 
Society. These are two of the more than twenty exhibitions 
designed, edited, and produced by oec for sites. The major sites 
exhibition this year — and oec's largest project of the year — is 
Ban Chiang: Discovery of a Lost Bronze Age, which will open at 
The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, on Novem- 
ber 10, 1982. Jim Mahoney, chief of oec, designed the exhibition, 
and Karen Fort, oec editor, wrote, edited, and assisted in design 
of this major presentation. 

Oec designed and installed the exhibition The Paintings of 
Frederic Clay Bartlett and Evelyn Fortune Bartlett in the Lounge 
of the Castle Building this year. 

Although some of oec's projects are small in size, or fairly 
quickly performed, all are special to the exhibition media. Pro- 
duction of crates for traveling exhibitions seems routine, but all 
must be custom made with a variety of interior treatments to 
accommodate and protect their valuable contents. The sites exhi- 
bition American Impression, an extremely valuable collection of 
paintings shown only in Europe, required extreme care in crate 

Museum Programs / 231 

fabrication. The labels for this exhibition were produced in sev- 
eral languages, and the Ban Chiang exhibition is in both English 
and Thai — new challenges for our editorial staff. 

The editors continue to prepare copy and layouts for the 
Smithsonian Associates Travel Program announcements, and the 
Models, Plastics and Restoration Unit is producing, for the Feny- 
kovi elephant in the Rotunda of nmnh, a new pair of tusks (in 
fiberglas) that are the exact duplicates of the originals. The unit 
has also produced exceptionally accurate and realistic reproduc- 
tions of grave sites for the Ban Chiang exhibition. The Graphic 
Production Unit continues to work with all manner of museum 
presentations, silk-screening labels and preparing original works 
for exhibition and travel. Preparing natural history specimens by 
freeze-drying is now routine, and Rollie Hower continues to con- 
sult with other museums and related agencies in the use of this 

Oec staff continues to teach in the Office of Museum Program 
(omp) workshops and to participate in professional seminars and 
conferences wherever and whenever possible. Training and intern 
programs are now fairly routine, with three to five trainees work- 
ing with oec professionals at any time during the year. Our sched- 
ule appears equally full and exciting for next year, and we look 
forward to the challenges and satisfactions of creating museum 

Office of Horticulture 

During fiscal year 1982, the Office of Horticulture expanded into 
many new areas of educational, research, and exhibition activities, 
including organizing a student internship program, recruiting 
additional volunteers for all divisions, organizing major new col- 
lections of orchids and bromeliads, planting new gardens, plan- 
ning the relocation of storage of all plantings and garden furnish- 
ings from the Victorian Garden, continuing research in historic 
horticulture, developing plans for installing the first international 
horticultural exhibitions (to be held in Munich in 1983); acquiring 
major new collections of rare seed and nursery catalogues, and per- 

232 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

forming numerous services for all of the Smithsonian bureaus. 
Once again, without the dedicated performance of hard-working 
volunteers, interns, and work-study students, the office would not 
have accomplished its mission, especially in light of budget 

During the year, the office performed services for more than 
300 special events for the various Smithsonian bureaus. For these 
events, the office provided potted palms, floral arrangements, 
and — in most cases — an ever-increasing number of magnificent 
orchids and bromeliads from our permanent collections. These 
events involved the participation of all divisions of the Office of 

The Education Division, under the direction of Ms. Lauranne C. 
Nash, staged the fifth annual Trees of Christmas exhibition at the 
National Museum of American History (nmah), from December 
18, 1981, to January 4, 1982. There were twelve trees displayed: 
"Soft Sculpture Angels," by the Textile Volunteers, Witte Mu- 
seum, San Antonio, Texas; the tree of "Armenia," by the Arme- 
nian-American Society of Washington, D.C.; the "Swedish Dowel 
Tree," by Colleen Wallace; "Patchwork and Quilting," from the 
Eastern Shore Piecemakers Quilt Club (Easton, Maryland) Chap- 
ter of the National Quilters Association; "Kansas Golden Wheat 
Dollies," by the wheat weavers of Kansas; "Poland" by the 
Polish-American Arts Association of Washington, D.C., and Per- 
spectives, Inc.; "Germany," by the Association of German- Ameri- 
can Societies of Greater Washington, D.C.; "Ukraine," by the 
Ukrainian National Women's League of American, Inc., Chapter 
78, Washington, D.C., and Slava Gerulak; "Origami Around the 
World," by Michael Shall, Alice Gray, and The Friends of the 
Origami Center of America; "American Celebration," by Dixie 
Rettig; "Gold Thread Embroidery," by Sara Hamilton; and 
"Grandma's Christmas," by Jeannette Whitmer. All ornaments — 
most of which were handmade — were contributed to the office and 
have been stored for future exhibitions. Mrs. Dixie Rettig, a 
dedicated volunteer, assisted Ms. Nash in the coordination of the 

During the year, the Education Division coordinated the com- 
puterization of the office's permanent plant collections. A total 
of 20,000 records from 1972 to 1982 were entered into the 

Museum Programs I 233 

permanent data files by Mrs. Libby Ellis Roberts, following the 
program of the American Horticultural Society Plant Science Data 
Center, with special provisions made by the office to accommodate 
the specialized orchid collection. The program was jointly devel- 
oped by Ms. Lauranne C. Nash, Director James R. Buckler, and 
Mr. Paul E. Desautels of the Office of Horticulture, in conjunc- 
tion with Mr. Frank Bennett and Mr. George Meyer of the Office 
of Information Resource Management. Brass labels are being pre- 
pared for installation on all permanent collections of trees, shrubs, 
vines, ground-cover plants, and greenhouse collections. It is antici- 
pated that the plant records will be up to date by late spring 1983. 

In the fall of 1981, the Education Division coordinated the relo- 
cation of the office's library to the North Balcony of the Arts and 
Industries Building, a move that brings together all the books 
needed to complement the research in historic horticulture being 
undertaken by Mr. Buckler and provides an organized reference 
facility for all staff members. Volunteers and interns — including 
Mrs. Marguerite MacMahon, Mrs. Libby Ellis Roberts, Mr. Robert 
Gardner, and Ms. Kris Ramstad — assisted in the inventory and 
organization of the new library area, and for the first time the 
forty regular periodicals were organized for research and public 
inquiries. Over seventy volumes of antique and contemporary 
horticultural books and approximately 1,000 antique catalogues — 
not including the magnificent Burpee Collection, described later — 
were added to the Office of Horticulture Collection. 

In January 1982, Mr. Buckler recruited a volunteer, Mrs. Laura 
Triest, to assist the Education Division in developing an intern- 
ship program. This task included preparing brochures and appli- 
cation forms for the program, compiling a mailing list of agri- 
cultural colleges and related horticultural organizations to be con- 
tacted, and canvassing most of these organizations to determine 
student interest in spending a summer working with the Office 
of Horticulture. 

This new and direct approach brought about great enthusiasm 
from students throughout the United States. Four interns were 
recruited, on a volunteer basis, for a six- to ten-week program, 
in which they received practical experience in the educational, 
research, and exhibition areas, in greenhouse-nursery production, 
and in the office's grounds management and maintenance opera- 

234 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

tions. The interns included Ms. Connie Maruca-Berger and Mrs. 
Libby Ellis Roberts, Northern Virginia Community College; Ms. 
Kris Ramstad, Oregon State University; Mr. Robert Gardner, 
James W. Robinson Secondary School; and Mrs. Marilyn Nordby, 
University of Virginia. 

The exhibition A Victorian Horticultural Extravaganza and the 
new orchid and tropical-plant exhibition in the National Museum 
of Natural History (nmnh) were assigned to the Education Divi- 
sion for coordination in 1982. Mr. Buckler was able to recruit a 
volunteer, Mr. Bruce Buntin, in spring of 1982, to coordinate the 
maintenance of the exhibition. This new approach allowed the 
office to continue the installation and rotation of fresh flowers 
and potted plants, as well as collection items in the exhibition. 
Without this volunteer effort, the exhibition would have been 
closed because of manpower restraints. Mr. Buntin was assisted 
by Mrs. Dorothy D. High, Mrs. Louise Grotlisch, Ms. Charlene 
Hescock, and Ms. Rosalie Goodrich. Their untiring efforts im- 
mensely improved the quality of the exhibition. 

The Interior Plant Program provided support to all museums 
by the management of the 2,000 plants located in various exhibi- 
tion areas. The Freer Gallery of Art, the Renwick Gallery, the 
nmah, and the National Museum of American Art (nmaa) had 
plant renovations done for their existing exhibit areas. Plant 
installation and management were also coordinated for museum 
exhibitions — including Hopi Kochina and the Dinosaur Hall at 
the nmnh; New Friends at the nmaa; von Steuben and George 
Washington at the nmah; and Yorktown at the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution building — as well as for exhibition changes at the National 
Museum of African Art and the Anacostia Neighborhood Mu- 
seum. Most of the plants for these exhibitions were grown at the 
office's Greenhouse-Nursery Division. The new Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Food Services Program was supported by the office's coordi- 
nating plant purchases and installations for them in their new 

The Greenhouse-Nursery Division, under the direction of Mr. 
August A. Dietz IV, continued to expand its collections and to 
modify its facilities to accommodate the expanding Orchid and 
Bromeliad Collections. During 1982, the division produced over 
65,000 annual plants, over 10,000 cut flowers, and approximately 

Museum Programs I 235 

13,500 seasonal plants, such as poinsettias, chrysanthemums, 
coleus, primroses, and forced spring bulbs. It propagated and 
maintained approximately 2,500 tropical plants tor exhibitions 
and special events, 37,000 orchids, and over 1,000 bromeiiads. 
Improvements such as vertical racking, installation of pad and fan 
cooling systems, new circulation fans, overhead misting systems, 
and installation of gravel and mulching beds in lath house and 
around greenhouses permitted the office to increase productivity 
as well as improve the over-all quality of its seasonal and peren- 
nial plant collections. Over twenty-six tours of the greenhouse- 
nursery facility were provided during 1982, fulfilling an increas- 
ing demand by garden clubs and orchid and other specialized 
plant societies requesting these tours. It is anticipated that docent 
volunteers will need to be recruited if the demands for tours con- 
tinue in fiscal year 1983. 

Mr. Paul E. Desautels continued as curator of the Office of 
Horticulture Orchidaceae Collection. Through his untiring efforts 
and those of the Orchid Subcommittee — Mrs. Mary Ripley, Dr. 
Edward Ayensu, Mr. Buckler, and newly appointed member, Mr. 
Paul N. Perrot — the collection increased substantially in number 
as well as quality. 

In fiscal year 1982, the Orchid Collection grew from approxi- 
mately 27,000 to over 37,000 plants of rare and endangered spe- 
cies, awarded and botanical hybrids, specialized display collec- 
tions, and new hybrids being developed through the breeding and 
meristem cultures of Office of Horticulture plants. In November 
1981, an Orchid and Bromeliad Collection expedition to Colombia, 
South America, was sponsored by the office. Through the dedica- 
tion and assistance of Mr. Jaime and Mrs. Lehia Posada, and a 
local Colombian orchid specialist, a total of 820 rare orchids were 
added to the office's collection. 

Throughout the year, many rare and unusual orchids were 
added to the collection by purchase, exchange, or donation; how- 
ever, the addition of two major gifts in August and September 
of 1982 provided the office with some of the finest orchids avail- 
able in the United States. Dr. Henning Borchers of Mountainside, 
New Jersey, donated fifty-three rare orchid species and hybrids 
as well as miscellaneous orchid supplies. Mr. Joseph Koss II and 
Mr. Joseph Koss III donated the entire Black River Orchid Col- 

236 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

lection from South Haven, Michigan. This remarkable collection, 
negotiated by Mr. Desautels and Mr. Buckler, added over 15,000 
rare and endangered species, awarded hybrids (contemporary and 
historic), and an extremely fine stud (breeding) collection to the 
Office of Horticulture. All of these orchids were packed through 
the efforts of Mr. Desautels, Mr. Ted Villapando (the Office of 
Horticulture orchid grower), and many fine volunteers from the 
South Haven area. Mr. Jules Armellini, of Armellini Trucking, 
Stuart, Florida, donated the services of a tractor-trailer and two 
drivers to transport the rare collection to the office's greenhouses, 
and all of the plants arrived in mid-September in excellent con- 
dition. They are now being accessioned into the permanent col- 
lection. In addition, Black River Orchids donated a substantial 
quantity of orchid supplies, clay pottery, and resource material 
to support the Orchid Collection. 

The Bromeliad Collection continued to expand in 1982 with a 
total of over 1,000 mature plants now being maintained by the 
Greenhouse-Nursery Division. These plants are used throughout 
the museums as companion plants for the Orchid Collection. The 
enormous growth of offsets from these plants allowed the office 
to provide surplus plants to the National Zoological Park, the 
United States Botanic Gardens, the Baltimore Aquarium, and the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum and provided exchange material to in- 
crease the collection. 

Dr. Robert Read resigned as curator of the Bromeliad Collec- 
tion in 1982 due to workload and scheduling difficulties. 

In March 1982, the office participated in Florafest III, an educa- 
tional flower show presented by the United States Botanic Gardens, 
the Professional Grounds Management Society, the Smithsonian 
Institution, and other horticultural organizations in the Washing- 
ton area. Following the theme of "Fantasyland," Mr. John W. 
Monday, assistant director of the office, designed a gigantic 
shoe — 24 feet tall by 20 feet long by 8 feet wide — to emulate the 
Mother Goose nursery rhyme, "The Old Lady in the Shoe." 

The shoe, which was fabricated by Mr. Warren Abbott and Mr. 
Fred Burrow — gardener and maintenance mechanic, respectively — 
was made of wood, papier-mache, and wire. This colorful creation 
was set off with a wide variety of tropical foliage plants, primroses, 
cymbidium orchids, and spring flowering perennials grown by the 

Museum Programs / 237 

office. Installation of the exhibition was coordinated by Mr. Mon- 
day in conjunction with the Greenhouse-Nursery Division and the 
Grounds Management Division. The exhibition was enjoyed by 
over 30,000 visitors to the United States Botanic Gardens Con- 

Throughout 1982, the office continued to coordinate the design 
and installation of the East Garden (formerly the Garden for the 
Handicapped) between the Arts and Industries Building and the 
west wall of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. The 
raised beds were planted with a broad array of colorful, textural, 
fragrant perennials, annuals, herbs, shrubs, and trees that were 
selected to entice the senses. A magnificent three-tiered, cast-iron 
Victorian fountain (ca. 1875) from the office's collection was in- 
stalled by the Office of Plant Services. In addition, a cast-iron 
Victorian "Griffin" urn and two J. L. Mott cast-iron Victorian urns 
(ca. 1880) were installed in the garden and planted with an ex- 
uberance of colorful flowers and vines. A grand opening of the 
garden is scheduled for spring of 1983 to highlight the contribu- 
tion that the Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates 
made toward the garden. 

The Grounds Management Division, under the direction of Mr. 
Kenneth Hawkins, installed over 75,000 annuals, 80,000 spring 
bulbs, 25,000 pansies, and more than 400 large specimen tropical 
standards and topiaries on Smithsonian Institution grounds. Special 
projects included installation of the Florafest III flower show and 
the Trees of Christmas exhibition; resodding major areas of the 
nmnh and the nmaa; installation of an irrigation system in the 
perennial border of the nmnh; and coordinating the installation of 
the new East Garden; as well as the continued renovation and 
management of all exterior plantings of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion museums in the Washington, D.C. area. 

The Office of Horticulture has designed and will coordinate the 
installation of a nineteenth-century style garden for the IV. Inter- 
nationale Gartenbau-Ausstellung to be held in Munich, Federal 
Republic of Germany, from April 28-October 9, 1983. Designed 
by Mr. Buckler and Mrs. Kathryn Meehan, the garden, entitled the 
"Smithsonian Institution — American Garden," is sponsored by the 
Smithsonian Institution, but will be privately funded. 

The office is continuing to strengthen its historic horticulture 

238 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

research resources. Through the efforts of volunteers Marguerite 
MacMahon, Sally Tomlinson, and Nell Vetter, the assembling, 
labeling and registration of growing collections of nineteenth- 
century stereopticon cards, seed catalogues, design books, garden 
furnishings catalogues, and slides duplicated from illustrations 
from nineteenth-century publications is vastly increasing the of- 
fice's ability to serve other Smithsonian Institution bureaus and 
the public. A significant increase in the number of public inquiries 
from other museums and individual researchers — as a result of 
lectures, publications, exhibitions, and tours, along with a generally 
growing interest in nineteenth-century horticulture — indicates that 
the office has become an important source for information in this 
field. In addition, Mr. Buckler and Mrs. Meehan continued collect- 
ing historic information and data for their manuscript, The Horti- 
cultural Extravaganza of the Victorian Era, to be published by the 
Smithsonian Institution Press. 

The year was particularly active for Mr. Buckler, who presented 
lectures on historic and practical horticulture at various museums 
and garden clubs throughout the United States; served on the 
thesis committee for Ms. Nancy Bossier of the Longwood Program, 
University of Delaware; acted as judge at the National Cathedral 
Flower Mart; and served on the Board of Advisors for the National 
Colonial Farm in Accokeek, Maryland; gave special tours for the 
Resident Associates Program to Longwood Gardens, Chanticleer, 
Tyler Arboretum, and the Office of Horticulture greenhouses 
located at the United States Soldiers' and Airmen's Home; traveled 
to England and the Netherlands to study major horticulture shows 
and gardens; and gave a special tour of the Victorian Garden and 
A Victorian Horticultural Extravaganza for the members of the 
Council of Botanical and Horticultural Libraries. 

On June 16, Mr. Buckler and Dr. Joan Challinor traveled to 
West Grove, Pennsylvania, to meet with Mr. Richard Hutton, 
president of the Conrad-Pyle Star Roses Co., to discuss naming a 
rose in honor of the Bicentennial celebration to commemorate the 
1783 signing of the Treaty of Paris. A miniature rose was selected, 
and the name "American Independence" was chosen. The rose was 
accepted by the American Rose Society in August 1982. This new 
rose will be marketed by the Treaty of Paris Bicentennial Com- 
mittee through the Smithsonian magazine, the Resident and Na- 

Museum Programs I 239 

tional Associates, and the Smithsonian Institution Museum Shops. 

In July, Mr. Buckler and Mrs. Meehan visited the University of 
Rochester to study the renowned Ellwanger-Barry Collection of 
catalogues, memorabilia, and records of the Mt. Hope Nurseries. 
A number of superb photographs, illustrations, and records — se- 
lected by Mr. Buckler for duplication — will be used in future edu- 
cational research and exhibitions. 

Also in July, Mr. Buckler and Mrs. Meehan visited Fordhook 
Farms — the original W. Atlee Burpee home and seed production 
site — to negotiate the donation of approximately 6,000 seed, nur- 
sery, and other horticultural trade catalogues from 1876 to 1940; 
the Burpee family records; rare horticultural books, photographs; 
and memorabilia from one of the greatest horticultural families in 
America. Following a meeting with Mrs. Linda Harris — represent- 
ing W. Atlee Burpee Co. — and Mrs. David Burpee, the gift was 
accepted for the Office of Horticulture. This remarkable collection, 
packed and shipped to the Smithsonian Institution during the week 
of September 20, represents one of the greatest resources in horti- 
cultural history in America. The entire Burpee Collection will be 
sorted and catalogued by the office, together with the Smithsonian 
Institution Libraries, and made available for scholarly research. 

Throughout 1982, Mr. Buckler and his staff coordinated plans 
to remove the Victorian Garden as part of the Quadrangle Project. 
The majority of the trees were to be relocated at the new Museum 
Support Center in Silver Hill, with the remaining plantings sched- 
uled to be relocated to the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Gardens, the nmaa, the United States Soldiers' and Airmen's 
Home, and the new East Garden. A total of 1,092 major trees and 
shrubs and several thousand perennials were removed to Smith- 
sonian Institution museums in fall of 1982. 

Office of International Activities 

The objects of cultural history and the specimens of natural history 
preserved in Smithsonian museums, as well as the professional 
people who study and exhibit them, are employed in a global 
research and education process. The Office of International Activi- 

240 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

ties (oia) contributes to this process by fostering international 
dimensions of Smithsonian programs. It does so by advising pro- 
gram managers and by maintaining liaison with the United States 
and foreign governments, with private institutions around the 
world, and with international organizations. 

In fiscal year 1982, oia enhanced its capabilities to serve Smith- 
sonian staff when Richard T. Conroy, deputy director, completed 
a Handbook for International Activities, summarizing knowledge 
accumulated through years of helping international projects suc- 
ceed. In addition, a group of volunteer escorts for foreign visitors 
to the Institution was organized. The group was formed from a 
list of Washington area residents with substantial experience 
abroad, compiled by the Smithsonian Visitor Information and 
Associates' Reception Center. Oia's Brian J. LeMay coordinated 
the work of the escorts and the schedules of foreign dignitaries, 
insuring appropriate contacts with Smithsonian staff as well as 
follow-up correspondence. The volunteers contributed substantially 
to successful arrangements for 101 foreign dignitaries whose visits 
were managed by oia during fiscal year 1982. 

Noteworthy and illustrative of other Office activities in 1982 
were: consultations with the Immigration and Naturalization Ser- 
vice on new legislation affecting visas for foreign scholars invited 
to conduct research in the United States; coordination of contribu- 
tions from eight different Smithsonian offices to the celebration 
One Hundred Years of United States-Korean Diplomatic Relations; 
communication with nations of Asia and the Middle East, concern- 
ing their support for construction of the Quadrangle, the center 
for non-Western cultures to be built on the Mall to serve as a 
showcase in the nation's capital for cultures rarely seen and poorly 
understood by many Americans; monitoring of conditions in East- 
ern Europe that might affect the showing of the exhibition Ameri- 
can Impressionism, which was to tour the German Democratic Re- 
public, Bulgaria, and Romania under the Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service in cooperation with the United States 
Information Agency (formerly the International Communication 

Research initiatives with the People's Republic of China, coor- 
dinated by oia, involved realization of four projects agreed upon 
with the Chinese Academy of Sciences during the previous year. 

Museum Programs I 241 

The initial exchange of paleobiologists was completed in August 
1982 when Jin Yugan of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and 
Paleontology departed after eight months in the Smithsonian's 
Department of Paleobiology. He had worked both in collaboration 
with Dr. Richard Grant on Permian brachiopods collected when 
they traveled together in China in the fall of 1981, and under a 
Smithsonian fellowship covering other research interests of the 
Chinese scholar. 

In October 1981, Dr. Robert Higgins of the Department of 
Invertebrate Zoology collected meiofauna specimens at Qingdao 
and Yantai and lectured at the Qingdao Institute of Oceanology, 
his host institution. In addition, in July 1982, the ornithologist 
Zheng Baolai from the Kunming Institute of Zoology arrived at 
the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama to begin 
two years of research with Dr. Martin Moynihan and others there. 

Finally, three Americans, led by Dr. Dennis Stanford of the 
Department of Anthropology, surveyed potential Pleistocene ar- 
chaeological excavation sites in northeastern China and toured other 
well-known sites during the period of July through September 
1982. This was the second phase of a joint program that brought 
three Chinese scholars from the collaborating Institute of Verte- 
brate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology to work on Dr. Stan- 
ford's paleoindian excavation in Colorado the previous summer. 
Altogether, oia provided advice and assistance on twenty-nine 
Chinese exchange matters during the year. 

The oia supported a total of 224 similar Smithsonian collabora- 
tive projects with other nations during fiscal year 1982. In addition, 
63 exchange visitors and 54 students — a total of 117 profession- 
als — were processed by the office for participation in Smithsonian 
programs. Twenty-three visa problems were solved for foreign 
scholars at the Institution, and, finally, oia responded to 22 re- 
quests for assistance from like-minded institutions in the United 
States and abroad during the year. 

242 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Chung Chai-Kak, president of the Academy of Korean Studies, addresses 
Secretary Ripley's reception in the Freer courtyard after the conference "A 
Century of United States-Korean Relations/' sponsored by the Korean Acad- 
emy and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Below. The 
omp's Native American Museums Program utilized on-site locations from 
several reservations for the production of Tribal Archives, a slide-tape pro- 
gram. Here we see the archives of the Museum of the Cherokee Indian, in 
North Carolina. 

Office of Museum Programs 

The Office of Museum Programs (omp) of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion provides training, services, information, and assistance for the 
professional enhancement of museum personnel and institutions 
throughout the United States and abroad. Its objectives are ful- 
filled through a program of interrelated activities and services and 
through research into methods to improve the effectiveness and 
impact of museum operations and practices. 

The availability of diverse and extensive resources at the Smith- 
sonian enables the omp to offer useful museum training workshops, 
both in Washington, D.C., and on-site, and to arrange for intern- 
ships, short-term professional visits, and foreign professional train- 
ing and group projects. The office produces and distributes audio- 
visual presentations on conservation theory, preventive care and 
practice, and on educational programming, and conducts studies 
to evaluate museum exhibitions and educational programs. On an 
individual basis, experienced members of the staff offer counseling 
and consulting services and arrange conferences on museum 
careers, training, and museum practices. The staff also provides 
training, technical assistance, and consultation services for Native 
American museums. Associated with the omp is a branch of the 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries known as the Museum Refer- 
ence Center, which consists of a special and unique collection of 
books, periodicals, research papers, subject-matter files, and docu- 
ments on museums and their operations. Resources at the center 
are available to museum professionals and others interested in 
doing research on museums. 

The grouping of these functions into one program enables the 
Institution to respond effectively and directly to the multitude of 
requests received from museums throughout the United States and 
abroad for assistance and guidance in enhancing their own opera- 
tional methods, practices, and techniques. The arrangement has 
the added benefit of keeping the staff of the Institution informed 
and aware of museological developments elsewhere. 

The omp is coordinating the planning efforts of Smithsonian con- 
servators and local universities for a graduate conservation train- 
ing program to be centered at the Museum Support Center, now 
nearing completion in Suitland, Maryland. 

244 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

The Kellogg Foundation, recognizing the scope and breadth of 
the omp's national and international activities, this year awarded 
a generous three-year grant to the Office of Museum Programs 
and the Resident Associates Program "to expand the educational 
influence of museums" everywhere. With the guidance of a 
national advisory committee, the office will implement the program 
through colloquia, workshops, residencies, and videotapes for 
museum professional leadership throughout the United States. By 
promoting interaction among museums colleagues and representa- 
tives of community resources — such as universities, corporations, 
civic organizations, and school systems — the program will encour- 
age a greater recognition and utilization of the educational poten- 
tial of museums. 


The omp sponsors an annual schedule of three- to five-day work- 
shops to provide training opportunities for museum professionals 
from the United States and abroad. The workshops, which are 
held at the Smithsonian Institution and elsewhere, focus on current 
theories and practices in the field, and make both human and 
material resources available to the larger museum community. 
National surveys are undertaken to assure that workshops are 
responsive to the needs of the profession. The most recent survey 
was compiled in 1982. 

The Smithsonian Workshop Series draws faculty members from 
the Institution's staff, and outside experts join the program to offer 
specialized information or to speak from a particular perspective. 
Subject matter covers a broad range of topics including exhibition 
design and production, registration methods, membership, develop- 
ment, collections management and maintenance, grant solicitation 
and administration, educational programming, evaluation, museum- 
shop management, volunteers and docent training, security, storage, 
archives administration, and museum management. 

During 1982, more than 300 museum professionals enrolled in 
the workshop sessions. Participants represented all types of 
museums, and came from a broad geographic distribution that 
included 42 states in the continental United States and the District 
of Columbia. In addition, there were museum professionals from 
Canada, Kuwait, Panama, India, Great Britain, Mexico and 

Museum Programs / 245 

Besides these programs, regional workshops were conducted in 
cooperation with the Southern Arts Federation, the Virginia Asso- 
ciation of Museums, and The George Washington University's 
Division of Continuing Education. With this cosponsorship, and 
at no cost to the Institution, programs were presented by Smith- 
sonian faculties to professionals in the field. 


The Smithsonian Office of Museum Programs' Internship Program 
offers specialized training in museum practices to undergraduate 
and graduate students and to professionals employed in the field. 
Individuals from the United States and foreign countries are eli- 
gible to participate. During 1982, the program, coordinated by 
Mary Lynn Perry, placed sixty-six individuals in internship posi- 
tions throughout the Institution. Seventeen of these persons were 
from foreign countries. The internships sometimes carry academic 
credit, but no stipends are provided by the Institution. The aver- 
age length of an internship is from four to six months, with 
shorter or longer programs available. 

As with the workshops, the focus of the internships is on 
museum practices; intern assignments may involve training in 
administration, education, collections management, conservation, 
registration, exhibit design and production, and curatorial depart- 
ments. Long-term interns, especially those from foreign countries, 
often elect to travel as part of their program. In such cases, the 
omp prepares itineraries and contacts staff of appropriate museums 
throughout the United States and, in some cases, arrangements 
with foreign museums also may be made. Interns participate in 
a wide variety of programs in addition to their assignments. The 
omp coordinates meetings, lectures and special presentations by 
foreign interns to supplement the interns' museum experiences. In 
1982, the omp organized a nine-week Museum Careers Seminar 
Series, which exposed Smithsonian interns to a variety of career 
choices in the museum field. 


A specialized service is offered to museum professionals interested 
in shorter periods of training and study. Through the Visiting 
Professionals Program, museum professionals gain access to col- 
lections and Smithsonian staff for concentrated discussion and con- 

246 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

sultation. The program is designed to serve individuals who are 
available for training periods of up to one month and it consists 
of a combination of meetings, workshop activities, demonstrations, 
research opportunities, and visits to museums selected to meet 
special training needs. During 1982, eighty individuals, represent- 
ing museums in the United States and abroad, took part in the 

Cosponsorship of the annual Education in Museums Project 
continued with the United States Information Agency (formerly 
the International Communications Agency). Twelve museum pro- 
fessionals from foreign countries participated in a four-day sem- 
inar in Washington, D.C., as well as in a thirty-day program in 
museums in five U.S. cities, all arranged by omp. 


The Conservation Information Program (cip) produces and dis- 
tributes a series of educational, audiovisual information packages 
as a service to museums and other cultural institutions. In 1982, 
the program offered sixteen slide presentations and ninety-nine 
videotaped presentations, most of which are accompanied by 
technical booklets. 

These audiovisual presentations are borrowed periodically by 
organized museum training programs or by individuals concerned 
with museum practices. The content of the presentations helps to 
sharpen observational skills and increases awareness of current 
practices in preventive care of museum collections, and to encour- 
age museum staff participation in protecting cultural property from 
both natural and man-made hazards. Some of the programs are 
planned to enhance the skills of museum educators and to make 
museum staffs more aware of visitors' needs. 

Since 1974, when the program began, 4,742 presentations have 
been sent on short-term loan. In 1982, 292 slide shows and 286 
videotapes were requested by, and lent to, museums, other institu- 
tions, and individuals. 

Because the loan program is limited to the United States and 
Canada, a sales program was initiated in 1976 in response to 
requests for these presentations from museums in foreign coun- 
tries. In 1982, 47 slide shows and 167 videotapes were sold to 
museums in France, Italy, Venezuela, and Peru. In addition, in 

Museum Programs I 247 

1982, 519 technical booklets were disseminated to institutions and 
individuals on request. Copies of the technical booklets were also 
sent to libraries requesting them. 

This year the cip received an award for its 1981 videotape pro- 
duction entitled "Museum Careers." The award, given by the 
Information Film Producers of America, Inc., cited cip for achieve- 
ment in the training and education category of its Audiovisual 
Department of the Year Competition. 

In the last four years, the omp Video Production Unit has 
expanded beyond serving only the cip; it also provides video 
services to many other units and bureaus of the Smithsonian. Dur- 
ing fiscal year 1982, omp responded to 228 requests for dubbings, 
documentation, training, and viewings. A list of new cip audio- 
visual offerings may be found in Appendix 6. 


The Native American Museums Program (namp) provides specially 
designed educational and training opportunities to the personnel 
of Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut urban and tribal museums and cul- 
tural centers for the advancement of museum practices; it also 
serves as a focus for regional and national concerns and informa- 
tion related to Native American cultural-heritage preservation. In 
previous years, the program conducted a series of on-site work- 
shops and internships, and provided on-site technical assistance, 
which required staff and participant travel expenditures. In 1982, 
because of reduced funding to both the tribal organizations and 
the namp, travel to tribal centers was curtailed, and program efforts 
were concentrated on developing new ways of serving these 
museums and groups. Educational materials and lines of com- 
munications were developed to provide sources of information and 
data to those participants who were at a distance from Washing- 
ton as well to as those who were able to come to the Smithsonian. 

The namp produced the slide-tape presentation, Tribal Archives. 
The program, which premiered at the Tribal Archives Conference 
in Denver, was also shown at the American Indian Librarians 
Association meeting in Philadelphia, and to the board of directors 
of the Americans for Indian Opportunity. 

A Native American Museums Program newsletter was initiated 
this year to maintain close liaison and exchange information with 

248 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

tribal cultural groups and other organizations who work closely 
with Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut museum collections and personnel. 
It was developed through an extensive network of Native Ameri- 
can contacts and will be published quarterly. 

A new bibliography, Native American Museums and Related 
Issues, was researched and compiled this year. It includes such 
topics as ethics, sacred objects, exhibition policy, history of the 
Native American movement, and the role and function of tribal 
museums and centers. 

The namp responded to more than fifty requests for assistance 
and information from Native Americans and other museum pro- 
fessionals and researchers. Services included supplying copies of 
specially selected materials, setting up appointments with experts, 
suggesting appropriate places for observation of museum opera- 
tions, arranging for research opportunities, and providing biblio- 
graphic citations. 


The year has been a productive one for the Museum Reference 
Center (mrc), a branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
system. Activities centered around providing information and 
bibliographic service to museum professionals, students research- 
ing specific aspects of museology, and the public in need of 
museum administrative guidance. Administrators, curators, trust- 
ees, friends of museums, educators, and students of this burgeon- 
ing field were given assistance with their problems and studies. 

In 1982, the mrc answered over 2,500 inquiries, and the staff 
has met and instructed over 500 visitors in the use of the center. 
Under the guidance of Rhoda Ratner, the omp's publication, 
Museum Studies Programs in the United States and Abroad, was 
published in its third edition. The publication meets the growing 
demand for information about museum curricula in museums and 
academic institutions in this country and abroad. 

To meet the need for reference sources in museology, two 
bibliographies have been compiled to add to the extensive biblio- 
graphic lists of over forty subjects: De-Accessioning: Disposal of 
Museum Objects and Open- Air Museums: Outdoor Museums and 
Restored Villages. Other bibliographies on computers in museums, 
ethics, museum training, and an extensive resource on transporta- 

Museum Programs I 249 

tion museums of all types have been compiled in preparation for 

The mrc's librarian, who serves as consultant to other museum 
libraries, has addressed the omp Workshop Series, increasing an 
awareness in the museum community of the museum informa- 
tion resources available to them. Many of the participants have 
studied the activities, programs, and practices of museums in the 
center's rich clearinghouse of museum data. Through their inquiries 
and those of others unable to visit the center, the staff has been 
able to further identify current aspects of the field to enrich the 
contents of the subject and organization files. 

The mrc continues to receive visits from foreign professionals. 
During the last year, these have included groups and individuals 
from the Philippines, Israel, Syria, El Salvador, Canada, Australia, 
India, Peru, Kuwait, and Honduras. 

The librarian met with a representative of the Paris-based 
International Council of Museums Documentation Center, con- 
cerning a critique of the key-word descriptors in museology and to 
discuss mutual problems of concern in terminology. 

Local university professors and students in museum studies pro- 
grams utilized the mrc on a regular basis. Briefings were provided, 
individually and in groups, to new students in these programs at 
The George Washington University, Mary Washington College, 
College of William and Mary, and the University of Maryland. 

Materials continue to be added to the collections, and gifts of 
museum exhibition catalogues and guidebooks were given to the 
center as a result of visits by international interns and profes- 

In March 1982, Catherine D. Scott became the new chief of the 
mrc, replacing Rhoda Ratner. 


During 1982, museum evaluation studies, conducted by Dr. Robert 
Wolf of the University of Indiana, dealt with several important 
developmental projects: a coral-reef study for the National 
Museum of Natural History (nmnh) was completed, and the final 
report was prepared; an Anacostia Neighborhood Museum study 
on the development of labels for hearing-impaired children was 
completed; a comparative study of the fossil fuel and Alvin 

250 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

exhibits at the nmnh were disseminated; and — from January 1981 
to June 1982 — a training program was presented at the National 
Museum of American Art to instruct docents and educational staff 
in evaluation techniques. 


Career counseling for people who are interested in the museum 
field is a subsidiary activity of the omp; more than one hundred 
counseling sessions were held last year. The office also organizes 
national and international conferences, and staff members serve 
as consultants to university and other museum studies programs, 
to offices and departments of the Smithsonian Institution — such as 
the Office of International Activities and the Office of Symposia 
and Seminars — to the SI-ALI-ABA Law Conference, and to Pro- 
grams for the Disabled. During 1982, over one hundred consulta- 
tions on museum practices and organization were provided to 
persons from foreign countries and the United States. 

Staff members served as speakers at regional and national 
museum conferences and were actively engaged in international 
museum activities. They attended professional meetings of the 
American Association of State and Local History, the Midwest 
Museums Conference, icom Conservation Committee, Northeast 
Museums Conference, Southeastern Museums Conference, Ameri- 
can Association of Museums (aam), International Institute for 
Conservation, New England Museums Association, and icom 
Advisory Committee. 

Program Manager Jane Glaser is secretary and board member 
of the icom Committee on Training and is program chairperson 
for the committee's 1982 meeting. She is on the aam Council and 
serves as chairperson of the Smithsonian Institution's committee 
for planning the Conservation Training Program at the Museum 
Support Center. She also serves as chairperson of the Audio-Visual 
Advisory Committee and is the coordinator of metric conversion 
at the Smithsonian, where a metric-awareness campaign was 
launched, with distribution of materials and a "pilot" metric train- 
ing workshop. Omp is also represented on the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Internship and Conservation Councils. 

In 1982, Mrs. Glaser made presentations to: the District of 
Columbia Arts; university presidents from India; an ICOM dele- 

Museum Programs / 251 

gation from Finland; the ICOM Committee on Training; an Art 
News conference; the Organization of American Historians; the 
American University School of Government; the American Asso- 
ciation of the History of Medicine; classes in museum studies at 
The George Washington University, University of Delaware, and 
Pennsylvania State University; and a group of Latin American 
museum professionals. She was appointed to represent museums 
on a Commission for the Social Sciences, organized by the Inter- 
national Research and Exchanges Board, which is exploring the 
possibilties of exchanges of personnel, publications, and research 
with East Germany, and she served on the Interagency Task Force 
on Education for the Interagency Committee on the Arts and 

A list of omp publications may be found in Appendix 6. 

Office of the Registrar 

During the last five years, the museum profession, in response to 
growing concern about the accountability obligations of museums, 
has placed ever-increasing emphasis on sound principles, policies, 
and procedures for collections management. The Institution has 
not only moved with the trend, but often determined the pace. 
Shortly after the Office of the Registrar was reorganized in 1976 
it was assigned responsibility for providing impetus and monitor- 
ing developments within the Smithsonian. The role of the office, 
informal and loosely defined at the outset, gradually assumed 
better definition and finally became formalized with the issuance 
of an official mission statement in 1982. The office now has a 
firmly established responsibility for insuring the adequacy of 
Smithsonian collections management policies and procedures. 

The activities of the office during the year, though formalized 
by the mission statement, followed the pattern already established 
for on-going programs. Monitoring and reporting on progress 
in collection inventories, reviewing the few btireau collections-man- 
agement policies that are still not up to standard, and coordinat- 
ing the affairs of the Registrarial Council continued to occupy the 
office's attention. Its annual workshop on registration methods and 

252 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

its semiannual workshops on computerization for museum collec- 
tions were presented as usual and its presentation on the formula- 
tion of policies was included again as a regular feature of the 
workshop on collections. 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 

After twelve years of service as archivist, Richard H. Lytle moved 
on to become director of the Office of Information Resource 
Management. Under Lytle's guidance, the Smithsonian Institution 
Archives (sia) developed, from mostly an ancillary file unit to the 
Office of the Secretary, into a strong institutional repository. The 
sia's holdings increased from 1,097 linear feet to 10,000 linear 
feet of records, accessioned from the major art, history, and science 
museums and bureaus of the Institution. Complementing this 
growth, programs were developed to make the rich documentation 
resources of the Smithsonian more accessible to administrators 
and scholars. 

William A. Deiss, deputy archivist, assumed the duties of acting 
archivist on July 11, 1982. In January 1982, Gail McMillan, assis- 
tant archivist, resigned, and Susan E. Westgate was appointed to 
fill that post. 

After three years of negotiations, the sia, in cooperation with 
Oxford University, donated its small holdings of the John Obadiah 
Westwood Collection to the Hope Entomological Library at Oxford 
University. Richard Lytle delivered the collection to E. J. Warnock, 
vice-chancellor of Oxford, in May. 

In June, historian Pamela M. Henson attended a seminar on 
"Hierarchy and Classification in the Biological Sciences," held at 
the Naples, Italy, Zoological Station. 

During 1982 selection and preservation of archives continued 
in the National Museum of Natural History, the National Museum 
of American History, the National Museum of American Art, and 
the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Work 
began on archival programs in the Office of the General Counsel 
and the Office of Audits. The sia returned to the National Zoo- 
logical Park to continue its work there, and discussions were held 
at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory concerning the use 

Museum Programs I 253 

of machine-readable records. Major survey projects begun in fiscal 
year 1981 in the National Air and Space Museum and the National 
Portrait Gallery, were completed during FY82. A survey and 
transfer of archival records were made at the Smithsonian Science 
Information Exchange. Records disposition schedules were estab- 
ished for the Office of Membership and Development, Smith- 
sonian Exposition Books, and the Freer Gallery of Art Museum 
Shop. Disposition of records under established schedules contin- 
ued in the Office of Plant Services, Accounting Services Division, 
Office of Protection Services, Secretary's Files, the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory, and the Smithsonian Institution Em- 
ployees Federal Credit Union. 

Scholars continued to visit the sia during the past year. Several 
recent publications have appeared, based at least in part on mate- 
rial in the archives. Among them are Robert W. Rydell II, "All 
the World's a Fair: America's International Expositions, 1876- 
1919," Doctoral dissertation, University of California at Los 
Angeles, 1980; John M. Peterson, ed., "Buffalo Hunting in Mon- 
tana in 1886: The Diary of W. Harvey Brown," Montana, The 
Magazine of Western History 31 (1981):2-13; Marilyn S. Cohen, 
"American Civilization in Three Dimensions: The Evolution of 
the Museum of History and Technology of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution," Doctoral dissertation, The George Washington Univer- 
sity, 1980; William A. Deiss and Raymond B. Manning, "The 
Fate of the Invertebrate Collections of the North Pacific Exploring 
Expedition, 1853-1856," in History in the Service of Systematics, 
edited by Alwyne Wheeler and James H. Price (London: Society 
for the Bibliography of Natural History, 1981); Lester D. Stephens, 
Joseph Le Conte: Gentle Prophet of Evolution (Baton Rouge: Lou- 
isiana State University Press, 1982); and Robert Ryal Miller, 
"James Orton: A Yankee Naturalist in South America, 1867- 
1877," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 126 

Work in progress includes biographies of John LeConte, 
James E. Keeler, and Henry Rowe Schoolcraft; a history of the 
Bernice P. Bishop Museum; an historical account of America's 
world's fairs; a study of the early fossil invertebrate collections of 
Fielding B. Meek and Ferdinand V. Hayden; and a centennial his- 
tory of the American Ornithologists' Union. 

254 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Major accessions were received from the Assistant Secretary for 
Administration, the Assistant Secretary for History and Art, the 
Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs, the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden, the National Air and Space Museum, the 
Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, the National Museum 
of American History, the National Museum of Natural History, 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Office of Programming and 
Budget, Office of Telecommunications, and the Office of Grants 
and Risk Management. 

Other accessions of note include: the records of the Museum 
Education Roundtable; the records of the Audubon Naturalist 
Society of the Central Atlantic States, Inc.; the papers of Farouk 
El-Baz, Nathan Reingold, and Doris Holmes Blake; additions to 
the papers of C. Malcolm Watkins, Harry H. Knight, and 
Charles P. Alexander; the records of the Society of Systematic 
Zoology; and the records of the Entomological Society of 

The Oral History Program continued, with interviews of two 
Smithsonian administrators. Materials accessioned and prepared 
for research use during the year include interviews with Watson M. 
Perrygo, former National Museum of Natural History (nmnh) 
taxidermist and field collector, Harald A. Rehder, a marine-mollusk 
specialist who celebrated his fiftieth anniversary at the Institution 
this year, and with members of the nmnh's Senate of Scientists 
on the formation of their faculty senate. 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries (sil) embodies and continues a 
tradition of library service provided for in the Foundation Charter 
of 1846. In the mid-1960s Secretary Ripley, realizing that the 
Smithsonian needs orderly and speedy access to information, re- 
organized, from various quasi-independent library units and collec- 
tions, an institution-wide system called the "Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Libraries" and placed it under the leadership of one director. 
In fiscal year 1982, no new libraries were added to this system, 

Museum Programs I 255 

although plans have been advanced for a branch library in the 
field of horticulture. The libraries at the Smithsonian Marine Sta- 
tion at Link Port, the Freer Gallery of Art, the Joseph Henry 
Papers, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, and the 
National Museum of American Art/National Portrait Gallery — rep- 
resenting about twenty percent of the Institution's library expendi- 
tures — do not report to the sil director and are discussed elsewhere. 
However, the sil assists these libraries in many ways and devotes 
approximately five percent of its budget to their direct support. 
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art, and the John F. Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts libraries are further removed from the daily life 
of sil, although the Woodrow Wilson library's acquisition func- 
tions are done gratis by sil. 

Comprising some thirty-five geographically dispersed branch 
and satellite libraries, the sil is organized on the model common 
in major North American universities, effecting centralized econ- 
omies of administration, collections, and systems planning. In 1982 
branches of the sil operated in Cambridge,. Massachusetts, New 
York City, the Washington, D.C., area, and the Republic of 

The sil is organized in three operational divisions: Bibliographic 
Systems, concerned with automated control of all sil inventories 
and providing standard descriptions of all holdings; Collections 
Management, responsible for policies, acquisitions, preservation, 
and housing of library collections essential to Smithsonian work; 
and Research Services, charged with direct, personal assistance to, 
and interpretation for, the scholarly clientele of the Libraries. Each 
of these divisions reports to a manager, who is a member of the 
sil executive staff. The sil, led by the director and associate direc- 
tor, is also assisted by staff for systems planning and administra- 
tion, exhibitions and publications, and resource development. 


The sil is financed chiefly from the federal budgets granted by 
Congress; in fiscal year 1982, these federal monies were $3,153,000 
or 93 percent of sil funding. The remaining seven percent, or 
$230,300, came from Smithsonian Institution trust funds. The sil 
budgets represent two percent of all Smithsonian expenditures — 

256 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

The sia recently received the 
papers of Charles P. Alexander, 
entomologist and world author- 
ity on crane-flies. Dr. Alexander 
is here seen on a collecting trip 
to Ithaca, New York, 1914. 

This display is from the sil ex- 
hibition Art of the Fine Press 
Book, held for an Associates' 
course in 1982. 

federal and trust. In addition, the libraries received in 1982 
$300,000 in foreign-exchange currencies (P.L. 480) to support its 
translation-publication program over the next years. 

In addition, during fiscal year 1982, the sil obtained three grants. 
One, for $31,500, is from the Atherton Seidell Fund to automate 
old catalogue records of sil scientific holdings. The second, $12,500, 
also from the Seidell Fund, is for the publication of a catalogue 
describing manuscripts in the Dibner donation. The third, $27,500, 
from the James Smithson Society, strengthened the libraries' bird 
collections by permitting purchase of Thomas Brown's Illustrations 
of the American Ornithology of Alexander Wilson and Charles 
Lucien Bonaparte (1835). 

Mr. David Dibner of Norwalk, Connecticut, continues as in the 
past to support development of SIL Special Collections. In this 
year, Dibner funds were used to purchase G. Polacco's Anticoper- 
nicus Catholicus (Venice, 1644). 

Another important sil benefactor in 1982 is the estate of physi- 
cist Claire K. Marton, bequesting 142 rare volumes in the history 
of science, which augment the large library given by Dr. Bern 
Dibner in 1976. 

During 1982, the Libraries began its first approaches to founda- 
tions. Also, a proposal for a National Advisory Board was drafted 
and studied for its feasibility. 


The sil was authorized ninety-four federally funded work years in 
1982. This represents more than a ten percent reduction of forces 
over 1981. In addition to federally funded positions, the sil has 
nine employees supported by the Smithsonian trust funds. The 
reduction of personnel resulted in curtailment of some services in 
sil branches, slowed the rate of cataloguing in older collections not 
yet under bibliographic control, and necessitated a heavy reliance 
on volunteers. 

Major staffing accomplishments of the year include the redeploy- 
ment of personnel in the Research Services division, the completion 
of an extensive committee structure whereby many sil employees 
are involved in all aspects of the Libraries' planning and decision 
making, and the appointment of a professional librarian as liaison 
with the Library of Congress. Two professional librarians were 

258 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

deducted from the Bibliographic Systems division and reassigned 
to Research Services for direct assistance to readers. Two important 
executive positions (systems planner and administrative officer) 
were merged into one, effecting savings. 

The staffing of the Libraries is at least one-third less than is 
normal in academic research libraries of similar scope; this thinness 
provides no fail-safe backup and is particularly serious given the 
geographic spread of the branches. That the sil manages to pro- 
vide a basic level of service is due in no small measure to the dedi- 
cation and constant, hard work of many sil employees, as well as 
that of eighty volunteers. 

The Libraries had one research associate and three interns in 
1982 and participated in the ceta and Stay-in-School employment 


This division of the sil provides the bibliographic linkage for the 
entire sil system; it was reorganized in 1981 to move more rapidly 
toward extensive automation. 

The continuing publication and enlargement of the Smithsonian 
Institution Libraries Catalogue, a computer-output-microfiche 
(com), alphabetic guide by author, title, and subject — comprising 
all materials catalogued by the libraries in a machine-readable 
format — is a proud accomplishment. By the end of calendar year 
1982, all older card catalogues containing records generated since 
1965 will have been converted into sil's electronic database. 

A year ago the Smithsonian Institution Libraries Catalogue con- 
tained automated bibliographic records generated in the period 
1974-1981; during the current year 85,000 records were added to 
extend coverage of holdings from 1965 to 1982. Thus, by the end 
of 1982, sil will have close to 145,000 automated bibliographic 
records. Crucial to this progress was the 1981 Seidell Grant for 
conversion of serial records and the 1982 Seidell Grant for conver- 
sion of science titles. This retrospective conversion project is a key 
element in the progressive automation of library services. 

Another milestone was achieved in the completion of a draft 
for the sil Total Automated System Plan, detailing a single, inte- 
grated, electronic system that will control data for all acquisitions, 
cataloguing, inventory, binding, and loans and provide manage- 

Museum Programs I 259 

merit data as well as other services. This system is scheduled to be 
operational in late 1984 if funding is forthcoming. 

Sil continues to contribute and receive cataloguing data cooper- 
atively through the Online Computer Library Center (oclc), a 
bibliographic utility based in Columbus, Ohio. Use is also made 
of the Research Library Group's utility, Research Libraries Infor- 
mation Network (rlin), in Stanford, California, and the automated 
name-authority files of the New York Public Library's system 
(lions). The sil devoted considerable efforts in 1982 to monitoring 
the major North American bibliographic utilities to determine the 
best vehicle for sil developments. 

During 1982, more than sixty percent of the files controlling 
binding operations and contracts were automated. Binding staff 
was reduced and integrated into the sil's acquisition/purchasing 

While the sil rigorously conforms to national library standards 
in preparation of its data, certain documentation can, nevertheless, 
be better and more inexpensively controlled by approaches more 
usual among indexers and archivists. In 1982 the sil Thesaurus 
and Indexing Committee, under Associate Director Karklins, suc- 
cessfully elaborated and tested a strategy for intellectual control of 
the sil's trade literature — mostly commercial catalogues. This in- 
dexing technique has speeded the processing of the commercial 
and industrial trade collections. The resultant data is made avail- 
able in electronic form, is compatible with national norms, and will 
be available via the sil's projected online catalogue. The sil 
thesaurus and indexing strategy is being extended to the Smith- 
sonian Tropical Research Institute and Panama biological bibliog- 

The productivity of the Bibliographic Systems division has been 
significantly increased in 1982 through a mix of more automation 
and streamlining of staff procedures. New performance standards 
doubled the previous output of the original cataloguing unit. An 
excellent turn-around time for cataloguing of currently acquired 
materials has been established and a serious backlog eliminated. 
The entire library in the National Museum of African Art was 
fully catalogued into the sil system, completing a three-year proj- 
ect. There remain, however, large, older collections catalogued im- 
properly, or not at all, in the past, which the Bibliographic Systems 

260 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

division works on after new materials are processed. In 1982 some 
6,000 of these older titles were handled by contracted cataloguing. 
Without increased staff or funds for contracts, this old problem 
will long remain. 


The sil has grown in the number of its branch libraries and in its 
collections since the mid-1960s. In fiscal year 1981, recognition of 
the acute space problems confronting the entire sil system, the 
need to better coordinate acquisitions, the demand for updated 
and comprehensive collection policies, and the crisis of conserva- 
tion for unique and valuable materials led to the foundation of the 
Collection Management division and the appointment of the first 
chief, Mr. Jack Goodwin, the nationally known bibliographer for 
history of technology. During 1982, Mr. Goodwin was also named 
an assistant director of the sil. 

Sil space needs continued to be studied, and recommendations 
were incorporated into 1983 budgets. In particular a statement was 
developed, presenting strategies to confront critical, library-space 
problems through a new or renovated structure. The sil Research 
Annex, at 1111 North Capitol Street, Washington, D.C., received 
increasing numbers of books and reached saturation point in 1982. 

A weeding and inventory program in most of the branches per- 
mitted deacquisitioning of approximately 17,000 items and indi- 
cated that large portions of the collection are still under the un- 
satisfactory controls, which obtained widely before 1965. During 
the inventory, many rare and valuable items were discovered and 
transferred to Special Collections. This weeding/inventory also 
cleared up problems in serials dating back twenty years. 

In 1981 the first sil master collection-management policy was 
drafted; in 1982 this received the approbation of the Institution. 
During the year, collecting practices in each of the branches were 
reviewed, discussed with appropriate Smithsonian scholars and 
directors, and drafted into policies that will be refined in 1983. 

The Book Conservation Laboratory, a model of its type and 
part of the Collection Management division, continued the restora- 
tion of physically endangered and scholarly valuable sil materials. 
The structure and chemistry of the books in the collection are the 
focus of a professional staff, assisted by volunteers and interns. 

Museum Programs I 261 

In addition to restoration of paper and bindings, the laboratory 
further developed its code of ethics in handling scientific and cul- 
tural rarities, continued to monitor atmospheric conditions in li- 
brary and book exhibition areas, reviewed standards for bookbind- 
ing let on contract, and maintained the sil Disaster Preparedness 
Program. A master policy of the sil's goals and procedures in 
conserving all its collection, not just the rare and unique, was 
prepared during the year. 

Due to budgetary restrictions, $70,000 less in 1982 than in 1981 
was available for purchase of library materials — books, journals, 
bindings, microforms, conservation supplies, and commercially 
available online systems. Thus, collection management staff had 
to screen requests more rigorously, and a significant amount of 
basic research material was not acquired. In addition to rare pur- 
chases noted elsewhere, $20,000 of Smithsonian trust funds were 
made available for extraordinary acquisitions. 


The Research Services division provides assistance to scholarly 
clientele and the Smithsonian administration. These services are 
located in the various, geographically dispersed, sil branch li- 
braries, as well as in the sil Central Reference and Loan Services 
unit, located on the Mall in Washington. 

Research Services was without a permanent division chief during 
most of 1982. First S. J. Churgin and then R. Maloy, the director 
of sil, assumed acting-chief duties until July when Dr. Margaret 
Child, former assistant director for Research Resources Programs 
at the National Endowment for the Humanities, arrived. Dr. Child 
is both manager of Research Services and an assistant director of 
the sil. 

The Research Services staff prepared a comprehensive set of 
guides to collections and branches of the system and developed 
many specialized bibliographic tools; a dozen of these guides 
appeared in 1982. 

Central Reference and Loan Services is a special focus of the sil 
administration. During 1982, M. C. Gray was appointed head of 
the unit; a humanities reference librarian was added; the files of 
loan records were reviewed and brought up to date for the first 
time in decades; an effort at building a large, strong general- 

262 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

reference collection was begun; the plans for the physical improve- 
ment of the unit's facility in 1983 were studied; and the separating 
out of natural history collections was started. 

The Natural History branch was more clearly defined as a 
distinct unit of the sil when its chief librarian, S. J. Churgin, re- 
turned in 1982 from other assignments. In addition to many satel- 
lite collections scattered through the National Museum of Natural 
History (nmnh), there is now a central branch library, for which 
quarters are being readied in the west wing of the museum. The 
branch has its own Advisory Library Committee, organized in 1982 
from among sil and nmnh staffs. 

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Panama) branch 
of the Libraries had an important year, in both the appointment 
of Dr. C. Jopling, an anthropologist and librarian, as chief librarian, 
and also in the ground-breaking for a new library building. Equip- 
ment tests were conducted there, preparatory to the beginning of 
online links with computer-database services in the United States. 

Other significant changes in the Research Services division were 
the following 1982 appointments to chief branch librarian: F. Pie- 
tropaoli (National Air and Space Museum), R. Ratner (National 
Museum of American History), and C. D. Scott (Museum Reference 


Interlibrary loan borrowing of sil has grown because online 
reference services have brought even greater knowledge of re- 
sources to sil clientele. Conversely, loans by the sil have increased 
because of the demand by scholars elsewhere who can now see, 
on computer terminal screens, what materials are held by the sil. 
To facilitate these loans, the sil employs traditional loan-request 
forms, electronic mail requests (via the oclc network), and tele- 
facsimile transmissions. To improve speed of delivery, the sil 
sends staff on a regular schedule to borrow from, and return 
materials to, the Library of Congress, the National Agricultural 
Library, and the U.S. Geological Survey Library. In 1982 inter- 
library loan traffic was 15,400 items borrowed, 3,900 lent; these 
statistics indicate a borrow/loan ratio of four to one. Thirty percent 
of these borrowings were from the Library of Congress. Sil has, 
of course, regular and heavy intra-Smithsonian loan traffic. 

Museum Programs I 263 

Online Services 

A significant and growing characteristic of research librarianship 
is the shift from book-based to machine-assisted reference ser- 
vices. By the end of 1982, 8 sil reference librarians had been 
trained or updated in the use of some 170, commercially available, 
online databases. While most of this searching is done in Central 
Reference, about 30 percent is performed in the branches. In addi- 
tion to these online reference services in citation, abstract, diction- 
ary, and directory files, a large part of the staff in most units of 
the sil regularly uses the strictly bibliographic databases (oclc, 


Public programs sponsored by the sil have included lectures, pub- 
lications, and exhibitions. 

SIL Lecture and Seminar Series 

To illuminate significant items of the sil collections, the history of 
libraries and books, or important developments in information 
technologies, sil began in 1981 a series of occasional lectures and 
seminars. In 1982 the following were held: a seminar, "Collectors 
on Collecting," chaired by J. Goodwin and including W. Van De- 
vanter, R. Kaufmann, and E. Wells; a panel presentation on bind- 
ing by sil for the Washington Book Publishers; and a seminar, 
"The Value of Older Scientific Works: A Dialog among Historians, 
Scientists, Bibliographers." 


In addition to the Smithsonian Institution Libraries Catalogue and 
the exhibition catalogues, sil continued its management of a trans- 
lation and publication program based on excess foreign currency 
(P.L. 480), producing L. I. Blacher: The Problem of the Inheritance 
of Acquired Characters; Yu K. Bogoyavlenskii: Structure and 
Function of the Integuments of Parasitic Nematodes; A. I. Tolmac- 
ver: The Arctic Ocean and Its Coast in the Cenozoic Era; and F. N. 
Zagorskii: History of Metal Cutting Machines to the Middle of the 
19th Century. The sil publishes a monthly newsletter with broad 
distribution to sil staff, the Institution, and the national library 

264 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

community. Guides to the sil branches and collections began pub- 
lication in 1982. 


In addition to special displays, which the various branches mount 
from time to time, sil sponsored the following official exhibitions: 
Old Books??? Rare Books??!, October 1981-March 1982; The Art 
of the Fine Press Book, January-March 1982; Trade Literature: 
Catalogues of Fashionable Apparel, April-July 1982; Thomas 
Brown's Works, July 1982; Naturgeschichtes des Thierreichs by 
Cotthilf Heinrock von Schubert, Summer 1982; and An Introduc- 
tion to Conservation in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, 
September-October 1982. The sil exhibitions were placed in the 
Dibner Room at the National Museum of American History, in 
the lobby of the National Museum of Natural History, and at the 
National Zoological Park. 


Renovation of sil areas in the east wing of the nmnh began after 
two years' planning. The first phase demolished inoperative stacks 
of the old National Museum Library and created space for sixteen 
staff members where three had been. At the Research Annex, 1111 
North Capitol, Washington, security of collections was improved. 

Introduction in 1982 of an improved, microcomputer office sys- 
tem has increased timeliness of financial record-keeping and of 
tracking mechanisms for administrative actions such as delivery 
and supply requests. 

Compilation of the first regular and comprehensive statistics on 
library operations has been underway one year at the end of 
FY82. This base of information will, after another year, be useful 
in determining directions and trends in the sil and will aid man- 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

The first exhibition of American Impressionist paintings ever 
shown in Paris opened at the Musee du Petit Palais on 

Museum Programs I 265 

At the Community Art Gallery, Santa Fe Community College, Gainesville, Florida, 
sites Public Affairs Officer Eileen Harakal gives a gallery tour of Ethiopia: The Chris- 
tian Art of an African Nation. (Photographer, Andrew Manis) 

March 30, 1982, for a two-month showing. The Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (sites) was invited to 
organize American Impressionism by the U.S. Information Agency 
(usia) (formerly the International Communication Agency) and 
the European Association of American Studies. A film, catalogues, 
posters, handouts, and lecture series supplemented the exhibition. 
The Smithsonian's Office of Telecommunications produced the 
28-minute film, "In Open Air," which premiered at the Grand 
Palais Film Theater. A fully illustrated catalogue in French, Ger- 
man, Romanian, and Bulgarian was published by sites and the 
usia, with considerable design and editing support from the Smith- 
sonian Institution Press. The exhibition poster, published by sites 
and the usia for locations on the tour, was also published by sites 
in a commemorative edition for U.S. distribution. Following its 
premier showing in Paris, American Impressionism traveled to 
East Berlin and Vienna, and will be shown in Bucharest and Sofia. 
Financial support for this important exhibition was provided to 
sites by a number of foundations and corporations, including The 
Armand Hammer Foundation, the Joe L. and Barbara A. Allbritton 
Foundation, PepsiCo International, Saks-Jandel, and the Eugenie 
Prendergast Foundation. 

To further the sites international program, negotiations began 
with the usia for a 1983-84 East Asian tour of American Porce- 
lain, an exhibition organized by the Renwick Gallery. International 
exhibitions from abroad, whose tours began in fiscal year 1982, 
included Contemporary Art from the Netherlands, Irish Silver, 
English Naive Paintings, Contemporary German Textile Art, and 
Korean Drawing Now. 

Sites continued to introduce new photography exhibitions, 
including Galapagos: Born of the Sea; China From Within; Aqua- 
culture; and America's Space Truck: The Space Shuttle; as well as 
The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: A New Look at the 
Work of Edward Curtis — a major photographic retrospective of 
Curtis's work. 

An American Icon: The ISth-Century Graphic Portraits of 
George Washington was organized with the National Portrait 
Gallery, with substantial funding support from The Barra Founda- 
tion. Sites published the book by the same name and arranged 
for its trade distribution through the University Press of Virginia. 

Museum Programs I 267 

Sites publications were increasingly recognized for excellence in 
design and production, netting nearly twenty awards this year. 
Efforts were increased to effect further distribution of books and 
posters to other museum stores and individuals and through trade 

Sites's education department has remained in the forefront of 
new, interpretive programming for exhibitions. A gallery game, 
"Fathom," was developed for children visiting Treasure of the 
Quicksilver Galleons and a beautifully illustrated children's book 
was published in conjunction with the exhibition. Sites published 
The Magic Shuttle to accompany its textile shows and produced 
an innovative fiber kit to introduce visitors to textiles. Guidelines 
were developed in conjunction with Perfect in Her Place for a 
community-generated panel presentation on working women. Gal- 
lery guides and handouts were created for a number of new 

Sites has helped exhibitors publicize its exhibitions in their 
galleries by placing articles or arranging coverage in national pub- 
lications. Since the beginning of FY82, sites has received coverage 
in 134 magazines and major newspapers, with a total circulation 
of 49 million readers. 

As its thirtieth anniversary year ended, sites could look back on 
presenting exhibitions to audiences in 15,000 communities — an 
estimated 100 million viewers. In these thirty years, sites has 
organized some 1,150 exhibitions. In fiscal year 1982 alone, sites 
scheduled 583 bookings in the United States and abroad. In the 
future, sites will continue to seek creative ways to present, inter- 
pret, and seek financial support for its broad range of exhibitions. 

268 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

SEPTEMBER 30, 1982 

Number of bookings 583 

Number of states served (including Washington, 

D.C.) 49 

Estimated audience 3.5 million 

Exhibitions listed in last Update (catalogue of 

sites exhibitions) 137 

Exhibitions produced for tour during the year .... 20 

SEPTEMBER 30, 1982 

An American Icon: The Eighteenth-Century Graphic Portraits of 

George Washington 
American Impressionism 

America's Space Truck: The Space Shuttle (2 copies) 
China from Within 

Contemporary Art from the Netherlands 
Contemporary German Textile Art 
English Naive Paintings 

Ethiopia: The Christian Art of an African Nation 
Galapagos: Born of the Sea 

Good as Gold: Alternative Materials in American Jewelry 
Irish Silver 

Korean Drawing Now 
Lithographs of James McNeill Whistler 
The Natural History of Sexuality 
Perfect in Her Place 
Traditional Crafts of Saudi Arabia 
Transformed Houses 
Urban Open Spaces 
The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: A New Look at the Work 

of Edward Curtis 

Museum Programs I 269 



s* j 

As part of his internship with the Office of 
Horticulture, oese summer intern Robert 
Gardner monitors the growth of a poin- 

Smithsonian Year . 1982 


Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum (anm), while still growing 
as a museum, is also strengthening its role as a leader in ethnic- 
oriented museums and advancing as a depository of Afro-American 
historical and cultural knowledge. The anm continues to research, 
design, and produce innovative in-house and traveling exhibitions, 
while at the same time accomplishing its mandated mission ". . . to 
reach and involve segments of the population [museums] are not 
now reaching/' 

Through the efforts of its education-department staff, a small 
park next to the museum was turned, by young neighborhood 
children, into a lush garden — providing nourishment for both the 
body and the mind. 

January 24, 1982, marked the opening of Mary McLeod Bethune 
and Roosevelt's Black Cabinet, an exhibition honoring the centen- 
nial of President Roosevelt's birth. Although a small, lobby exhibi- 
tion, it was well received by the public, and was described by 
The New York Times as ". . . one of the more interesting of the 
FDR Centennial exhibitions." 

The research department this past year had the opportunity to 
work with Dr. Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, a Smithsonian Fellow and 
Visiting Faculty Scholar, and Ms. Jacqueline A. Rouse, a Ph.D. 
candidate from Emory University and a Smithsonian museum 
intern. Along with the continuing research for the upcoming major 


exhibition on the Harlem Renaissance period, the research staff 
acted as consultants to the Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum in 
its recent acquisition of a nineteenth-century slave cabin asso- 
ciated with Frederick Douglass. 

Extensive work is also being done on updating anm's very popu- 
lar exhibition, Black Women, for further travel with the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, and a version is 
being produced for installation at the anm itself. 

The most momentous aspect of anm's year was the start of 
definitive site planning for the Museum Annex at Fort Stanton 
Park. The Annex will replace the present public space in the 
Carver Theater on Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue. 

Division of Performing Arts 

Performances continued to animate and enliven Smithsonian 
museums and to bring context and educational dimension to 
exhibits and special events. 

The Division of Performing Arts (dpa) continued to maintain a 
high level of program and production expertise in fiscal year 1982. 
Concerts of music heard by George Washington were recreated to 
complement the National Museum of American History exhibition 
of Washington memorabilia. Performances tracing the develop- 
ment of the American musical theater in the New Deal era were 
presented as a complement to FDR: The Intimate Presidency. The 
first American production of The Ephemeral Is Eternal, a play 
written in 1926 by Michel Seuphor, with sets designed by Piet 
Mondrian, was presented at the Hirshhorn in conjunction with the 
exhibition De Stijl: 1917-1931, Visions of Utopia. 

The tenth anniversary of the Smithsonian's Jazz Program was 
celebrated with sixteen concerts and four film showings, which 
presented some of the most acclaimed American artists of this 
century. The concerts were videotaped and will be broadcast over 
public television, on educational networks, and on subscription 
stations. Five country music concerts traced the development of 
southern regional music to national popularity. 

The Discovery Theater staged 325 performances for more than 

272 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

From the anm exhibition Mary McLeod Bethune and Roosevelt's Black Cabinet, is a 
picture of Dr. Bethune in her office at Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona Beach, 
Florida, January 1943. (Photographer, Gordon Park. Photograph courtesy of the 
Library of Congress.) 

52,000 children. Recognized as one of the outstanding children's 
theaters in the nation, Discovery Theater serves as an important 
bridge for young visitors to the world of museums. 

The Program in Black American Culture presented significant 
concerts that explored the traditions of gospel quartet singing, a 
landmark conference, and performances on "The Poetry of the 
Blues." The second annual Smithsonian tribute to prominent 
gospel-music composers was devoted to Rev. C. A. Tindley, author 
of such classics as "Stand By Me" and "The Storm is Passing 
Over." The Tindley program also yielded a new publication and 

The Chamber Music programs presented by the Smithsonian 
are correlated with the program goals and identity of the museums 
in which they are performed. These performances included: 
baroque and classical period music using instruments from the col- 
lections of the National Museum of American History; romantic 
period music performed in the Grand Salon of the Renwick Gal- 
lery; contemporary music in the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden; exhibit-related music and theater at the National Museum 
of American Art; and salon music at Barney Studio House. 

Additional efforts were made to research and present the his- 
tory of American dance, and live performances or lectures were 
presented by Merce Cunningham, Lucinda Childs, and Honi Coles 
and the Jazz Tap Ensemble. 

Outreach is a major objective of the dpa. In fiscal year 1982, 
ten recordings were published, bringing to fifty-two the total cata- 
logue of musical history available to national audiences. Also in 
1982, Smithsonian resident ensembles traveled to twenty-one cities 
for local performances. Three Washington concerts were broad- 
cast to a national audience by National Public Radio, with a 
reported listenership of 2.5 million persons. 

International Exchange Service 

The Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, established the 
International Exchange Service (ies) as the first bureau of the new 
Institution. At the time, Secretary Henry was responding to a real 

274 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

The dpa's Program in Black Ameri- 
can Culture presented a program on 
gospel music composer Rev. Charles 
A. Tindley in May 1982. Pictured is 
Avery Brooks as the Reverend Mr. 

Fortunato Arico (left) and Kenneth 
Slowick, members of the Smithsonian 
Chamber Players, are seen here per- 
forming music by Mozart at the 
nmah's Hall of Musical Instruments. 

and present need in the world's scholarly community by promot- 
ing the exchange of scholarly, scientific, cultural, research, and 
archival documents among nations, academic and learned institu- 
tions, and individuals. Even though vastly improved communica- 
tions technologies have increased the quality and quantity of 
information-exchange systems nationally and internationally, Sec- 
retary Henry's original purpose is still being carried out by the ies 
as it has been for more than 130 years. 

Indeed, it is now even closer to its original mandate since the 
ies is in the process of transferring to the Library of Congress and 
the Government Printing Office responsibility for the exchange of 
U.S. government publications — the Congressional Record, Federal 
Register, and all publications designated by the Library of Con- 
gress for depository libraries, among others — with foreign govern- 
ments in return for their own official publications. The transfer 
of this function has enabled the ies to concentrate more fully on 
the exchange of publications originating in the private sector. 

For example, in fiscal year 1982 more than 200 universities, 
libraries, agricultural experiment stations, medical and dental asso- 
ciations and libraries, scientific institutions, and members of Con- 
gress exchanged publications with comparable institutions or dig- 
nitaries abroad. In addition, almost all of the countries in the 
world, principally through their universities and libraries, send 
some of their publications to U.S. addresses on an exchange basis. 
This aspect of the ies operation has been particularly beneficial 
to the developing countries of the Third World. 

One final note: much of the good work of the ies over the past 
decade is due in large measure to the untiring efforts of its direc- 
tor, Jack Estes. So, it is especially sad to report that his sudden 
death in February 1982 removed from our midst a good friend and 
a dedicated colleague. He is missed. 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

A firm belief in the power of museum objects as educational 
resources is the guiding principle behind the activities and pro- 
grams of the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (oese). 

276 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

With the conviction that it is equally as important for students to 
learn to use works of art, natural history specimens, historical arti- 
facts, and other museum objects as research tools, as it is for them 
to learn to use words and numbers, oese continues to serve the 
Smithsonian's education offices while working to meet a solid com- 
mitment to foster the educational uses of museums in the Wash- 
ington, D.C., area and throughout the nation. 

On the local level, oese continues to offer a number of programs 
that have proven successful in the past. Let's Go (a monthly news- 
letter) and Learning Opportunities for Schools (an annual bro- 
chure) inform teachers of the ever-growing variety of Smithsonian 
services available to students. Multiple copies are sent free of 
charge to approximately 1,200 schools in the Washington, D.C., 

In December 1982, the fifth annual "Teacher's Christmas Pro- 
gram" was held at the National Museum of American History. A 
Christmas tree, decorated with ornaments made by area school- 
children, and madrigal singers were the highlights of this year's 
program, attended by nearly 150 Washington-area educators. In 
May 1982, the eighth annual "Teacher's Day" brought more than 
100 teachers and Smithsonian staff together for activities at the 
National Zoo and during the summer, more than 300 teachers 
participated in a full-scale workshop program that included a 
series of five-day courses on such subjects as "Victorian Archi- 
tecture," "Insects in Your Classroom," and "American Cultural 
History through Art." 

In addition to these programs for local teachers, a three-credit 
graduate course on "Using Museums to Teach Writing" was 
offered to teachers nationally in cooperation with the University 
of Virginia. This course, held in the Smithsonian museums, in- 
volved teachers from as far away as California and Panama in a 
variety of writing assignments adaptable to classroom use. As a 
final project, the teachers were required to develop curriculum 
units that would draw on the resources of their own communities. 
Oese's workshops have been well received by all participants as 
attested by comments from teachers. One teacher writes, "I 
wouldn't have missed this course for the world! I feel genuinely 
privileged to have been part of this experience." While another 

Public Service I 277 

found it to be "an excellent workshop — well taught with a good 
balance of individual and group participation and discussion." 

In cooperation with the Department of Anthropology, oese has 
completed a media kit for high-school students, drawing on the 
extensive papers and collections of the nineteenth-century nat- 
uralist, Edward W. Nelson. It is anticipated that the "Nelson Kit" 
will be the first in a series of curriculum units on various aspects 
of the Smithsonian collections in art, history, and science. A spe- 
cial media project with the Children's Hospital National Medical 
Center was also begun. When the kits are completed, they will 
be distributed to children's hospitals and wards throughout the 

Also for teachers nationally, Art to Zoo — a six-page publication 
to promote the use of community resources — reached approxi- 
mately 55,000 classrooms; and The Museum Idea, a slide-tape 
loan kit, has proven very popular. As one teacher wrote us, 
"Reading Art to Zoo has been fascinating. I am amazed at all the 
information you present in each issue. The popularity of this 
publication is certainly not difficult to understand." 

In response to an Art to Zoo article on insects, another reader 
wrote: "I just received a copy of the April issue of Art to Zoo, 
which is fabulous! We are in the process of concluding our insect 
study, and it has proven a terrific resource for a review of our 
unit. The children have loved it, especially the 'hands on' of 
catching and caring for the insects." 

In 1982, oese sponsored its eighth annual program for summer 
interns. "Intern '82" brought twenty-four high-school seniors from 
rural and inner-city communities to the Smithsonian to participate 
in learning and service projects. The students worked under the 
guidance of curatorial and technical staff members in various parts 
of the Institution. The program often provides students with new 
perspectives. As one intern put it, "Each person here has influ- 
enced me in ways that have broadened my outlook in my chosen 
field of journalism and also the outside world." 

In 1982, oese also assumed responsibility for a Career Aware- 
ness Program for the District of Columbia Public Schools. Through 
this pilot program, carried out in cooperation with the various 
Smithsonian museums, minority young people of junior-high and 

278 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

high-school age will receive an introduction to the variety of career 
opportunities available to them at the Smithsonian. 

In addition, oese continued its progress in making Smithsonian 
programs accessible to disabled visitors. The office maintained 
such services as providing sign-language and oral interpreters 
for special events and regular program offerings, developing bro- 
chures for mentally retarded visitors, and offering sign-language 
and "disabilities awareness" sessions to Smithsonian staff and 

Oese also initiated several new projects this year to develop 
materials for and about disabled individuals. One of these projects 
is a slide kit for language-delayed students. The kit, which in- 
cludes lessons based on several different Smithsonian collections, 
is designed to help teachers use museum artifacts in developing 
students' language skills. Also, in conjunction with the kit, a sum- 
mer course on museums as a resource for developing language 
skills, was offered to teachers from the Washington, D.C., area. 
A second project is a package of materials designed to train 
docents — here at the Smithsonian and in other museums nation- 
ally — on how to teach disabled persons effectively in a museum 
setting. The package, to be completed in 1983, will consist of a 
manual and a videotape for national distribution. 

Other important oese activities include developing and coordi- 
nating a pan-Institutional lesson program for seventh- and eighth- 
grade teachers and students in the District of Columbia public 
schools — with support from the Cafritz Foundation — and expand- 
ing the scope and understanding of the professional museum 
educator, through participation in national and regional confer- 
ences and workshops. Oese staff members also helped to plan 
and teach seminars on museum/school relations, and museum 
interpretation, offered by the Smithsonian's Office of Museum 

Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 

In November 1981, the long-awaited seventh international sym- 
posium of the Smithsonian took place: "How Humans Adapt: A 

Public Service I 279 



Prior to the formal opening of the November 1981 symposium "How Humans Adapt: 
A Biocultural Odyssey," Gretchen Gayle Ellsworth, bearer of the Mace, leads the 
academic procession from the Castle up the south steps of the nmnh on the way to 
Baird Auditorium. 

Biocultural Odyssey" began with a colorful academic procession 
across the Mall from the Castle to the National Museum of 
Natural History on a bright, breezy morning. Following the Insti- 
tution's mace were some seventy scholars in their academic regalia, 
including many of the Smithsonian research staff. The formal 
opening in Baird Auditorium featured Rene Dubos, making his 
last public appearance before his death in February 1982. The 
Secretary presented the James Smithson Bicentennial Medal to 
symposium chairman James V. Neel in recognition of his enor- 
mous contributions to the symposium and to the larger increase 
and diffusion of knowledge. 

Original essays were prepared for advance distribution to the 
major essayists and commentators, so that the scheduled working 
sessions might afford reflective discussion of each writer's ideas. 
Essays were contributed by Edward S. Ayensu, Richard J. Barnet, 
Kenneth E. Boulding, Asa Briggs, George Morrison Carstairs, 
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, James M. Gustafson, Fekri A. Hassan, 
Jane B. Lancaster, Peter Laslett, Geoffrey McNicoll, Betty J. Meg- 
gers, Mary Midgley, Moni Nag, James V. Neel, Donald J. Ortner, 
John Arthur Passmore, Nevin Stuart Scrimshaw, and Stephen 
Toulmin. The collected proceedings, edited by Smithsonian anthro- 
pologist Donald J. Ortner, will be published by the Smithsonian 
Institution Press in winter 1982-83. 

A subsequent conference on human adaptation, in May 1982, 
was held jointly with The International Organization for the Study 
of Human Development in Carmichael Auditorium. Wilton S. 
Dillon, director of the office, gave a paper on "Rites of Passage at 

The Joys of Research, edited by Walter Shropshire, Jr., based 
on the Einstein Centennial colloquim of the same name, was pub- 
lished by the Smithsonian Institution Press in late 1981. This 
book tells of eight successful scientists' experiences in basic re- 
search, providing insight into creative imagination and outlining 
their disappointments and successes. 

Following two Smithsonian colloquia on refugees from Nazism, 
Jarrell C. Jackman, a California historian, and Carla M. Borden, 
associate director of the Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Semi- 
nars, have edited a volume titled The Muses Flee Hitler: Cultural 

Public Service I 281 

Transfer and Adaptation, 1930-1945. Work on this book, to be 
published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in spring 1983, has 
been made possible by support from The Rockefeller Foundation. 

On September 17, 1982, the Smithsonian was host to a program 
on Galileo, cosponsored with The Catholic University of America. 
William A. Wallace, Catholic University, spoke on "Galileo's 
Science and the Trial of 1633," and James Lennox, University of 
Pittsburgh, discussed "Aristotelian Background of the Mixed- 
Sciences Tradition." 

In anticipation of future commemorations by the Smithsonian 
and the need for more central coordination of its participating 
units, an advisory Commemorations Committee was established 
to work with the Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 
in scheduling and overseeing Institutional observance of signifi- 
cant events. 

Office of Telecommunications 

This Office of Telecommunications (otc) continued to extend 
the Institution's reach both in the United States and abroad 
through bold new ventures in film, radio, and television during 
1982. The productions, primarily educational and informative, 
were done in close cooperation with Smithsonian curators, re- 
searchers, and scientists. The broadcast industry honored several 
of these productions with prestigious awards and major recogni- 

One of this year's highlights was the production of a half-hour 
film to accompany the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibi- 
tion Service's major exhibition, American Impressionism, which 
toured Europe in the spring of 1982. Made possible by a grant 
from the Joe L. and Barbara B. Allbritton Foundation, "In Open 
Air: A Portrait of the American Impressionists," is the first film 
ever to explore the growth of impressionist painting in this coun- 
try. Through the U.S. Information Agency (formerly the Inter- 
national Communication Agency), versions of the film were pre- 

282 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

pared in French, German, Bulgarian, and Romanian for the 
European showings. "In Open Air" premiered on March 30, 1982, 
to great acclaim, at the opening of the American Impressionism 
exhibition in Paris, and has since received several coveted awards, 
including the bronze "Cindy" from the Information Film Producers 
of America, and the bronze "Chris" plaque from the Columbus 
Film Festival. The first U.S. television showing took place July 1, 
1982, on WETA-TV, Washington, D.C., and a national PBS tele- 
cast was planned for the fall of 1982. 

In keeping with the office's goals to expand its national broad- 
cast efforts, an experimental new series of short features for tele- 
vision was launched with extraordinary success. Called Here at 
the Smithsonian . . . , this innovative series of 15 features is now 
appearing in news broadcasts and in "magazine" shows on 35 
selected television stations across the country, reaching a poten- 
tial audience of 34 million households. Patterned after Smithso- 
nian Galaxy, the office's highly successful series of 2V2 -minute 
radio features, Here at the Smithsonian . . . offers a lively, behind- 
the-scenes look at the activities and exhibitions of the Institution. 
With the favorable results of this initial experimental year, the 
office is encouraged to produce another edition of video features 
beginning in January 1983. 

The McDonnell Foundation granted $500,000 — part of its total 
commitment of $3,000,000 — for the research, development, and 
staffing of the projected PBS series, Smithsonian World. A copro- 
duction of WETA-TV and the Institution, the series will consist 
of seven 1-hour programs on various aspects of the Smithsonian. 
Executive producer Martin Carr has assembled a core research and 
production staff, and broadcast is slated for 1984. 

At the request of the White House, the otc supervised the pro- 
duction of a half-hour documentary commemorating the two- 
hundredth anniversary of the victory at Yorktown. The film, pro- 
duced by Charles Guggenheim Productions, features the Bicen- 
tennial reenactment of the historic battle and is scheduled for 
release in October 1982. 

A special edition of Radio Smithsonian, the weekly, half-hour 
radio series, was also produced for the Yorktown Bicentennial. 
Broadcast nationwide during the week of the anniversary of the 
battle, "Yorktown: Echoes of a Victory" has received many com- 

Public Service I 283 

Ann Carroll of the otc is shown here with a video crew at the 1982 Festival of 
American Folklife, producing a short feature for the otc series "Here at the Smith- 
sonian . . .," which brings news of SI activities to TV viewers around the nation. 

mendations including letters from the French Ambassador, Gov- 
ernor John N. Dalton of Virginia, Ambassador at Large Daniel J. 
Terra, and Secretary of the Army John O. Marsh, Jr. The regular 
Radio Smithsonian programs can be heard on the sixty stations 
that subscribe to the series. 

The International Radio Festival of New York awarded a gold 
medal to Smithsonian Galaxy. Receiving the top prize for infor- 
mation programs, this radio series of twice-weekly, 2V2 -minute 
features is carried on more than 212 stations in 45 states, Canada, 
the Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, and the Canadian Forces 
Network in Germany. 

In conjunction with the Division of Performing Arts (dpa), the 
otc produced 3 musical specials, which were broadcast on 110 
National Public Radio stations across the country. Beginning with 
a November production of the first complete recording of Victor 
Herbert's operetta, Naughty Marietta, the series of specials also 
marked this office's first live radio broadcast of concerts from the 
Institution, with a live holiday concert in December, followed by 
a live Bach concert in January. 

In an effort to stay abreast of the fast-changing cable industry, 
otc participated in an experimental cable project in 1982. The 
office coordinated the videotaping of the tenth anniversary per- 
formances of the dpa's Jazz at the Smithsonian. It is now being 
sold as a mini-series to cable systems all across the country. Along 
the same lines, the sports division of Home Box Office filmed 
scenes for a one-hour cable television special in the National 
Portrait Gallery's Champions of American Sport exhibition for 
broadcast in the 1982-83 season. 

The otc has been working with the Agency for Instructional 
Television on several production elements of a new science series 
for junior high school students. Dr. David Challinor has invited 
key SI staff members to be on-camera guests, and taping will take 
place during the winter of 1983. 

The office continues to monitor the latest developments in the 
electronic and film media, gathering information and outlining 
future directions for the Institution, from low-power television to 
home video discs and cassettes to satellite teleconferences. Assist- 
ing in this on-going effort is consultant Tom Wolf, former vice- 
president of ABC News. 

Public Service I 285 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

The most noteworthy and significant event for the Smithsonian 
Institution Press (sip) in fiscal year 1982 was the reorganization 
of all book-publishing activity. To strengthen the Institution's 
important outreach objective of diffusion of knowledge, and to 
continue the development of a well-defined book-publishing pro- 
gram that encourages development of the Institution's resources, 
Smithsonian Exposition Books became part of the sip in December 

Under the reorganization, the newly named University Press 
Division will continue the traditional role of publishing trust- 
funded scholarly books, general trade books, federally funded 
series monographs, exhibition catalogues, and other publications 
necessary to Smithsonian activities. The new Direct-Mail Book 
Division will develop and offer popularly presented books on 
themes relevant to the Institution, using the Smithsonian Asso- 
ciates' list and other large mailing lists. 

The reorganized sip will be directed by Felix C. Lowe. Glen B. 
Ruh will serve as deputy director of the sip, itself, as well as 
editorial director of the Direct-Mail Book Division. John Ouellette 
was hired to fill the newly created position of financial manager. 

During the year, the University Press Division published a 
total of 279 books, catalogues, and miscellaneous publications. 
Books of special significance published and/or distributed by the 
sip in 1982 include: 

Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual, which won the Silver 
Medal from The Art Directors' Club of Metropolitan Washington; 

Renaissance of Islam: Art of the Mamluks, which was selected 
for special exhibition by the Association of American University 
Presses and received Honorable Mention in the Association of 
Government Communicators' annual Blue Pencil Publication 
Awards competition; 

inua: spirit world of the bering sea eskimo, which was published 
in conjunction with the National Museum of Natural History 
(nmnh) exhibition of the same name; 

The National Museum of Natural History, a handsome book 
featuring the collections and research efforts of the staff of nmnh. 
This book was copublished with the New York firm, Harry N. 

286 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Felix C. Lowe (right), director of the recently reorganized sip, and Glen B. Ruh, deputy 
director of the Press and editorial director of the new Direct-Mail Book Division, 
pause in discussing forthcoming editions. In the foreground are some of the Press's 
best sellers. 

Abrams, which has now cooperated with the sip on three beauti- 
fully illustrated books on Smithsonian museums and galleries, as 
well as on such previously published books as The Smithsonian 
Collection of Newspaper Comics; 

The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, 
I: Structure and Communities, presenting research of the Smith- 
sonian program investigations of marine shallow-water ecosystems. 
This publication is the first of several volumes on the ecosystem 
at Carrie Bow Cay projected for Smithsonian Contributions to 
the Marine Sciences. 

In September, the Direct-Mail Book Division published Thread 
of Life: The Smithsonian Looks at Evolution, by Roger Lewing. 
This 256-page book, which explores recent findings in evolutionary 
biology by Smithsonian scientists and many others, is available 
through mail order and will, in addition, be distributed to book- 
stores by W. W. Norton in New York. 

A complete list of sip publications may be found in Appendix 5. 

Smithsonian Magazine 

Smithsonian magazine had another great year and, since the 
magazine is the fundamental benefit of Associate's membership, 
its prosperity augers well for the Institution. Membership, just 
under 2,000,000, has remained steady, continuing the trend of 
the past few years. That it remained steady is an achievement 
since the national economy was in recession and since membership 
dues were raised to $17.00, an increase necessitated by increased 

Advertising in the magazine was extremely strong in the first 
half of the year but weakened thereafter — the weakness being 
attributed to general economic conditions. 

Postal increases have been a principal reason for increased 
costs and these, themselves, pursued an erratic and oftentimes 
unpredictable course; less than projected first quarter, higher than 
projected middle quarter, and lower than projected last quarter. 

The magazine again made a significant contribution to the 
Institution's unrestricted funds. 

288 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Smithsonian's editorial strength was reflected in the high demand 
for reprint rights both from commercial publications — such as 
the New York Times Syndicated Service, the Reader's Digest, and 
a variety of European magazines — and from nonprofit cultural 
and educational institutions. Some editorial highlights include 
Joseph Alsop's memoir of FDR, the richly illustrated story on the 
El Greco exhibition, and the award-winning article on the return 
of the Atlantic salmon. 

Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center 

As the Institution's Public Service bureau charged with providing 
a range of centralized information and assistance services, the 
Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center (viarc) made 
significant strides in 1982 toward the refinement of several estab- 
lished programs while expanding and adding others to meet the 
expressed needs of the public, Associate members, and Smith- 
sonian staff. 

The Seven-Day Information Service Unit is comprised of four 
program areas. The Museum Information Desk Program utilized 
the services of 380 volunteer information specialists who, working 
in excess of 50,000 hours, once again achieved staffing goals in 
the ninetieth percentile. In January, the National Museum of 
African Art officially joined the complement of Smithsonian 
museums whose information desks are staffed through the center, 
bringing the total number to fourteen duty stations, involving 
some forty-nine daily assignments. 

Memorial Day weekend marked the beginning of the summer 
Mall Information Program, which, through the generous support 
of the Smithsonian Women's Committee, was equipped with four 
brightly colored mobile units. Propelled to various outdoor loca- 
tions from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. daily by five energetic and specially 
trained young staff members, the service was enthusiastically 
received by the hundreds of confused visitors who arrived on the 
Mall thinking the Smithsonian was but one building. 

Volunteer lecturers active in the Group Orientation Program, 
presented daily half-hour, illustrated orientations to some 10,000 

Public Service I 289 

Visitors gather around viarc's Maria Bruzzese (center) and her brightly colored 
mobile information unit. Through a generous assist from the Smithsonian Women's 
Committee, four of these units were purchased and were used daily during peak 
summer visiting hours. 

Smithsonian visitors. During the month of August, daily walk-in 
orientations — scheduled prior to museum hours — attracted more 
than 1,400 visitors to the Discovery Theater in the Arts and 
Industries Building. Adaptations of the visitor orientation were 
tailored to meet the needs of special audiences within the Institu- 
tion (new employees, interns, and docents) while viarc's own 
summer intern further expanded the program's repertoire by 
developing a presentation for children. Requests from organiza- 
tions outside the Institution, especially agencies offering tourist 
services to Washington, D.C., visitors, found the Smithsonian 
orientation a valuable addition to their training agenda. 

The Castle Docent Program, strengthened by five new volun- 
teers, led some 170 tours of the historic Smithsonian Institution 
Building for more than 2,700 persons, including fellow Smithsonian 
volunteers and participants in three National Associate programs — 
Domestic Study Tours, the Regional Events Program, and Selected 
Studies Seminars. 

Completing the spectrum of programs encompassed in the 
Seven-Day Information Service Unit is the Telephone Information 
Program. Staffed daily by senior volunteer information specialists, 
this program provides "live" response to an immense volume, and 
sometimes dizzying variety, of inquiries about the Smithsonian, 
its bureaus' activities and programs. 

To handle the volume of incoming traffic more efficiently and 
to acquire valuable statistical data, an automatic call-sequencing 
system was installed, a first for the Institution. Another new 
acquisition, an improved Telecommunications Device for the Deaf 
(tdd) not only insures the dependability of this service, but also 
provides a printed record of calls. The availablity of after-hours 
recorded information was expanded by doubling the number of 
incoming lines to six. Dial-A-Museum and Dial-A-Phenomenon, 
the Smithsonian's two recorded twenty-four hour information 
services, are temporarily being produced by the Telephone Infor- 
mation Program to accommodate the Office of Public Affairs. 

As the central research, response, and referral point for the 
Institution's unsolicited public mail, the Public Inquiry Mail 
Service (pims), viarc's second major program unit, handled some 
30,000 letters during the course of the year. 

Working both independently and in cooperation with curatorial 

Public Service I 291 

offices, pims generated a record number of new fact sheets, bibli- 
ographies, and updated, preprinted materials. A major production 
was the "Smithsonian Collection of Warship Plans," completed 
in conjunction with the Division of Naval History. Another 
accomplishment was the initiation of an Institution-wide public 
mail survey which, among other determinations, confirmed that 
the majority of Smithsonian staff take seriously their charge to 
educate the public through timely and informative answers to 

Pims continued to produce a quarterly master list of sales 
merchandise for the Institution's auxiliary units and, in response 
to requests for previsit information, mailed over 14,000 copies 
of its booklet entitled Planning Your Smithsonian Visit. 

Viarc's third major program unit, the Staff/Volunteer Service 
Unit (svs), substantially broadened the scope of its responsibility 
in fiscal year 1982. The Volunteer Receptionist Program, begun in 
1980 to provide group assistance for administrative staff, was 
expanded to include task forces in several major offices. To accom- 
modate a request from the Office of International Activities, the 
Volunteer Escort Attache program was established to facilitate the 
itinerary of foreign officials visiting the Smithsonian. 

Functioning as the Institution's central point of registration 
for all behind-the-scenes volunteers, the Independent Volunteer 
Placement Service (ivps) maintained a file of over 750 volunteers; 
440 new volunteers were added to the register, 41 percent of 
whom were screened, interviewed, and assigned through the ivps 
office. Independent projects involved a wide range of curatorial 
and technical activities, including assignments at the Fred L. Whip- 
ple Observatory, the Oceanographic Sorting Center, and the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 

The Institution-wide survey conducted by this unit to document 
annual volunteer participation revealed that in fiscal year 1981 
3,777 volunteers contributed 359,521 service hours, a 36 percent 
increase in unpaid personnel over the previous year. 

Two publications were coordinated through the Staff/Volunteer 
Service Unit: Volunteer! O Volunteer! A Salute to the Smithso- 
nian's Unpaid Legions. Written by Philip Kopper, with support 
from the Smithsonian Women's Committee, this book documents 
the tradition of volunteerism that has prevailed at the Smithsonian 

292 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

since its founding. The second publication, The Smithsonian Insti- 
tution: An Overview, will be used as an orientation tool for new 
volunteers, employees, and interns. 

In addition to fulfillment services for some 4,300 National Asso- 
ciate memberships, the Staff/Volunteer Services Unit assumed re- 
sponsibility for Smithsonian magazine's Complimentary Mailing 
List. With the transfer of this function to svs, all Washington- 
based special magazine files were centralized. 

Public Service I 293 

Smithsonian Year • 1982 

A wide range of administrative, technical, and other central sup- 
port services were provided during fiscal year 1982 to help the 
museums, art galleries, research laboratories, and other program 
activities perform their work. These central units include budget, 
personnel, equal opportunity, procurement and contracting, ac- 
counting, grants and risk management, printing and photography, 
management analysis, information resource management, travel, 
and facilities services. Exclusive of utility, telephone, and mail- 
service costs and the expenses associated with the maintenance, 
operation, and protection of the Institution's many buildings and 
natural areas, the costs of these central administrative and tech- 
nical services amounted to only about six percent of the total 
operating expenditures of the Institution. Particular care is given 
to controlling these costs. 

Special areas of emphasis over the past year included the devel- 
opment of the Institution's planning document called the Five- 
Year Prospectus; efforts to identify, coordinate, and integrate in- 
formation-handling problems; equal opportunity programs con- 
cerning the historically black colleges and universities; successful 
negotiations of union contracts; strengthening of financial man- 
agement controls and accountability; and construction and plan- 
ning development of the Museum Support Center and Quadrangle 
projects, respectively. 


Administrative and Support Activities 


At its January 25, 1982, meeting the Board of Regents approved 
the Smithsonian's Five- Year Prospectus, covering the period 1983- 
1987, with a look past 1987 for longer-range goals and objectives. 
The prospectus, highlighting research, education, and other pub- 
lic-service plans as well as necessary attention to security and 
the care of collections and facilities, was submitted to the Appro- 
priations Committees of Congress with the specific budget request 
for 1983. This planning effort, which involves staff in all Smith- 
sonian areas, serves to highlight directions and priorities, to sus- 
tain action to reach objectives, and to provide a unified overview 
of accomplishments and plans to interested persons and organiza- 
tions. Work was started on the next cycle of preparation, culmi- 
nating in a draft prospectus for 1984-1988 and beyond, and was 
submitted for Regents review at the September 20, 1982, meeting. 
An Office of Information Resource Management was estab- 
lished, and Richard H. Lytle, who had been Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Archivist since 1970, was appointed director. This action 
recognized the critical importance that word and data processing 
have to every aspect of Institutional life. The purpose of this new 
office, which incorporates the Office of Computer Services, is to 
identify information needs and their relationships, including rela- 
tionships to unify the work of bureaus and offices and to provide 
solutions to requirements in integrated and cost-effective ways. 
In on-going activity, the first steps were taken toward establish- 
ment of a Smithsonian-wide local area network for communica- 
tions. The network makes possible a number of advances in auto- 
mation, opening the possibility of linking computers and other 
devices among offices and the central computer. In a related activ- 
ity, work continued to develop, essentially on schedule, an inte- 
grated computer system for personnel, payroll, equal opportunity, 
and budget records. This new system will become operational in 
mid-1983. Continued strong support was given to data-handling 
projects for research, collections management, and administrative 
purposes. Particularly useful were registration and booking sys- 

Administration I 295 

terns development in support of the Associates and Traveling 
Exhibition Services programs. 

The new performance appraisal and companion Merit Salary 
increase systems concluded their first full year of operation 
smoothly, with indication that the new process will contribute to 
effective personnel management and to strengthened communica- 
tions between managers and employees. The first two available 
students under the Institution's Cooperative Education Program 
were employed, and, in addition, about twenty internship appoint- 
ments and five faculty fellowships were made, primarily from the 
students and staff of the historically black colleges and universi- 
ties. Continued attention was given to recruitment and applicant- 
selection processes to correct underrepresentation for women, 
minorities, and the handicapped. Increased procurements and con- 
tracts were awarded to firms in the small, minority, and women- 
owned categories. 

Union contracts were negotiated with Local 400 of the United 
Food and Commercial Workers, for trust employees of the 
Museum Shops; Local 2463 of the American Federation of Gov- 
ernment Employees, for eligible civil-service employees at Insti- 
tution facilities in the United States; and with the National Mari- 
time Union, for certain employees of the Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute in the Republic of Panama. 

The Office of Printing and Photographic Services (opps) com- 
pleted construction in May 1982 of an archival cold-storage facil- 
ity, which is used to store processed film — both color and black- 
and-white — at 45° F and 45 percent RH to insure extended archival 
life. At the same time, opps has been converting hazardous nitrate 
film onto safety-based materials. During the past twelve months, 
approximately 25,000 conversions have been completed. Working 
with the Smithsonian Archivist, a new computerized cataloguing 
system has been developed for retrieval of photographic images. 
It is expected that this catalogue will provide access, which has 
never before been possible, to Smithsonian photographic collec- 

Priorities for the Office of Facilities Services included overseeing 
the construction of the Museum Support Center and the detailed 
architectural and engineering planning and design for the Quad- 
rangle development project. Progress was excellent in both of the 

296 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

major facilities-development areas, with the Support Center sched- 
uled for completion on time in early 1983 and Quadrangle plans 
and specifications to be ready, for construction bids at that same 
time, should funding be available. The office also managed a wide 
range of protection, health, saftey, design, construction manage- 
ment, and plant maintenance services, performed by its constitu- 
ent branches. In addition to meeting successfully the day-to-day 
demands of keeping Smithsonian museums and galleries in good 
condition — safe, with proper temperature and humidity for the 
protection of collections — significant progress was made in a num- 
ber of other facilities areas. 

During the past year, the Office of Plant Services continued to 
expand its Computerized Preventive Maintenance Program in its 
effort to provide a highly reliable and efficient physical plant oper- 
ation. Special attention was given to adding fire, smoke, and heat 
detectors to the system to insure reliability of operation for these 
important safety systems. In addition, the Computerized Equip- 
ment Monitoring System, which analyzes the operation of various 
types of mechanical equipment in major Smiithsonian museums, 
continued to be expanded. 

In the Office of Protection Services, work continued on the 
phased development of a new electronic security and fire-alarm 
system to extend to all Smithsonian buildings and to be owned 
and operated by the Institution. Computer communications net- 
work equipment and software packages have been purchased, and 
other software modules are being written. Closed-circuit television 
equipment and security sensor devices are being acquired for 
installation in the Museum Support Center along with the first 
command and control system. Installation is scheduled to begin 
in January 1983 and to be completed that summer. 

The energy conservation program continues to receive close 
attention with the effective participation of program and support 
personnel. Comprehensive energy audits of buildings are under- 
way, and the Institution has initiated a phased program, through 
the Restoration and Renovation of Buildings account, to renovate 
heating, ventilating, air conditioning, plumbing, and electrical sys- 
tems to improve their energy efficiency. Controls for lighting levels 
and other heavy users of energy are continuing. 

Elsewhere in the administrative area, the word-processing sys- 

Administration I 297 

tern, set up by the Office of Supply Services to prepare, issue, and 
record all procurement and contract transactions, performed very 
successfully and has become a model installation for examination 
by other organizations. Similarly, the Office of Programming and 
Budget extended the use of similar equipment to assist in the 
preparation of a wide range of narrative and tabular materials. 
Comprehensive federal and trust budgets were prepared for inter- 
nal use and for submission to the Office of Management and 
Budget and the Congress. Important management surveys were 
completed by the Management Analysis Office, which also sus- 
tained progress on the large and difficult task of improving the 
policies and procedures that govern the Institution's operations. 
The Travel Services Office planned and facilitated national and 
international trips in support of research, performances, and 

Financial Management Activities 


Steady improvement has been realized in financial accountability, 
controls, and services. At the direction of the Audit and Review 
Committee of the Board of Regents, and to enhance further the 
public accountability of the Institution, the annual audit of trust 
funds by an independent public-accounting firm was extended this 
year to include the federal monies appropriated to the Smith- 
sonian. In addition, the Institution's Federal Accounting Principles 
and Standards were reviewed and approved by the General 
Accounting Office. To facilitate accounting requirements of the 
various bureaus, the number of accounting-service units located 
in Smithsonian facilities was increased from five to eight. These 
units, linked by computer terminal to the central Accounting 
Office, enable expeditious processing of accounting documents and 
provide guidance and assistance on financial procedures. Com- 
munications and understanding were furthered through seminars 
and specialized training on accounting procedures, grants admin- 
istration, and risk management concepts, as well as through 
expanded financial reports. 

298 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Based on a comprehensive study of the Smithsonian banking 
system, the Institution has taken steps to simplify, streamline, and 
modernize its banking relationships and cash management. Incor- 
porating recent advances in banking technology and data-process- 
ing applications the number of banking relationships will be 
decreased, and investment opportunities for non-appropriated 
funds will be maximized. As a part of the active risk manage- 
ment, a computerized management-information system, which will 
accumulate data on damages and losses to the collections, was 
completed this year. This data will allow accurate measurement 
of the cost of losses for each fiscal year and suggest ways of pre- 
venting future losses. Surveys to identify and eliminate risks were 
also conducted in a variety of areas. 

Direct responsibility for certain auxiliary activities, including 
the Museum Shops, the Mail Order Division, Concessions, and the 
Belmont Conference Center, lies with the Business Management 
Office. Richard O. Griesel, business manager and director of this 
office, resigned his position in June after nine years of distin- 
guished service to the Institution. He was succeeded by James J. 
Chmelik, formerly director of the Museum Shops. 

Reproductions of Smithsonian objects and other products 
selected for sale in the Museum Shops and Mail Order catalogues 
continue to meet rigorous standards on their relatedness to the 
Institution's collections and activities. This close connection is 
highlighted in the catalogues as well as in award-winning displays 
in the Museum Shops. Sales, both in the shops and through the 
catalogues, were strong, reflecting wide acceptance of Smithsonian 

The facilities, formerly operated on a concession basis, were 
incorporated within central Smithsonian management; the Smith- 
sonian bookstore located in the National Museum of American 
History was converted to Museum Shop operation, and the Hirsh- 
horn Plaza Cafe is now managed by the Food Service Department, 
established in 1980. 

During the year, a contract was entered into for sale of a large 
tract of the land attached to the Belmont Conference Center to the 
State of Maryland for addition to Patapsco State Park. A further 
contract was signed to sell the house, outbuildings and remaining 
surrounding acreage, subject to restrictive covenants, to the Ameri- 

Administration I 299 

can Chemical Society, which intends to continue conference cen- 
ter operations. Final settlement of both sales is expected by the 
end of 1982. 

Smithsonian Institution Women's Council Activities 


The Smithsonian Institution Women's Council (siwc) continues to 
keep management informed on issues that affect the women of the 
Institution. Through its programs during the year, the council has 
focused attention on information processing and its effects on the 
role of women and other office workers. The council sponsored 
three tours of the "Paperless Office" at the Department of Trans- 
portation, a three-hour seminar on "How Automation Can Benefit 
You," and a panel discussion entitled "The Changing Role of 
Women in the Office." A financial education program was also 
presented in the form of "An Investment-Planning Workshop." 

The council has also been very active during the year in further- 
ing the realization of a Day Care Center at the Smithsonian. A 
roundtable discussion was held with eight Day Care Center direc- 
tors from the local community. A preliminary space design was 
prepared by the Office of Design and Construction. 

The Women's Council has put forth great efforts during the 
year to attract the attention of all women employees. Volunteers 
in support of siwc programs have made all efforts worthwhile. 

300 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Smithsonian Year • 1982 



Office of Development 

The Smithsonian's Quadrangle Center for African, Near Eastern 
and Asian Cultures has been the major focus for the Office. The 
director has traveled to the Far East, seeking support in Japan, 
Hong Kong, and the Philippines; the assistant secretary for 
Museum Programs visited Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, and the 
United Arab Emirates on a similar mission. The director has 
worked closely with the consulting firm of Brakeley, John Price 
Jones and its representative, Richard Stainbrook, who is campaign 
director, as well as with William Anderson, former national board 
chairman and chairman of the Quadrangle Campaign Committee. 
Under the Secretary's leadership, the campaign has achieved nearly 
75 percent of the $37.5 million goal, which is to be matched from 
federal appropriations for the Quadrangle construction. The cam- 
paign will, of course, continue through 1983, with every expecta- 
tion of a successful conclusion. 

At the same time, the office has continued its essential activities 
in gaining support for the various Smithsonian bureaus and their 
needs for private funding of exhibitions, acquisitions, research, 
education, and other programs. The availability of the Thomas M. 
Evans Gallery for special exhibitions at the National Museum of 
Natural History has created new demands for private support of 
exhibitions there, many of them productions of the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (sites). Sites itself is 


expanding its activities to include more international exhibitions, 
the first of which, American Impressionists, received major support 
from the Joe and Barbara Allbritton Foundation and Pepsico Inter- 
national. Its April opening in Paris at the Petit Palais served as a 
focal point for the spring meeting there of the National Associate 

This has been a challenging year, therefore, for the Develop- 
ment Office, involved as it is in the Smithsonian's first major 
capital campaign for the Quadrangle, as well as in maintaining its 
traditional role of serving the funding needs of all the bureaus 
of the Smithsonian. 

Further complicating the business of development have been the 
state of the national economy and the president's pressure on the 
private sector to fill the gaps in social and human services no 
longer supported by government. These demands have resulted in 
enormous new competition — which is likely to characterize the 
balance of this decade — for corporate, foundation, and individual 
contributions toward the arts, culture, research, and education. 

National Board of the Smithsonian Associates 

Under the continuing chairmanship of James M. Kemper, Jr., the 
board has maintained its positive interest in the Smithsonian and 
the Associate programs. Most especially has this been so in sup- 
port of the Quadrangle Center for African, Near Eastern and 
Asian Cultures. As of September 1982, personal gifts of board 
members to the Quadrangle amount to $1.4 million, and it is 
expected that this support will eventually exceed $2 million. 

The Regents meeting in May saw the first attendance of sev- 
eral National Associates Board (NAB) members, including the 
chairman, at one of their meetings. It proved a good opportunity 
for these two groups to explore ideas to advance the progress of 
the Quadrangle. 

New members elected to the NAB in 1982 were Mr. David 
Coffin, Mrs. Brooks McCormick, Mr. Arjay Miller, Mr. Arthur 
Altschul, Mr. Malcolm Stamper, Mrs. Joseph Allbritton, Mrs. 

302 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

George Seignious, and Mrs. Parker Hart (Chairman of the 
Women's Committee). 

Board meetings were held in Washington in autumn 1981 and 
in Paris in spring 1982. The Paris meeting was held in conjunction 
with the Institution's opening of the sites exhibition, American 
Impressionism. Following the meeting, the board visited museums 
and other cultural institutions in Lugano and Provence. 

Women' 's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates 

Once again, the net proceeds of the annual Christmas Ball, spon- 
sored by the Women's Committee, provided support for a number 
of worthwhile projects of various Smithsonian bureaus, offices, or 
departments. Selecting from among forty-nine projects submitted 
by twenty-four organizations, the committee awarded eleven 
grants, which helped make possible the following activities: the 
Free Film Theater of the Resident Associate Program; renovation 
of the Frederick Douglass Room at the National Museum of 
African Art; the Amelia Earhart Symposium of the National Air 
and Space Museum; the Thomas M. Evans Gallery exhibition, 
inua revealed: the spirit world of the hering sea eskimo; audio- 
visual equipment for the National Zoological Park; a public-school 
exhibition for Cooper-Hewitt; the Family Learning Project of the 
Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies; mobile infor- 
mation units for the Visitors Information and Reception Center; a 
secondary-school publication, Of Kayaks and Ulus, for the Office 
of Elementary and Secondary Education; and, for the Office of 
Museum Programs, a videotape, "Techniques in the Care of Rare 
Books and Flat Papers." 

During the year, the Women's Committee decided to sponsor 
yet another major fund-raising program, which, like the Christmas 
Ball, would become an annual event. This is to be the Washington 
Craft Show, patterned after other such shows in Philadelphia, 
Baltimore, and other cities across the country. It will take place 
May 5-8, 1983, in the Departmental Auditorium on Constitution 
Avenue. Chairman of the subcommittee of the Women's Com- 

Membership and Development I 303 

mittee for this project and show director is Mrs. Robert Gray; she 
and her committee are well on their way toward making this 
important endeavor a great success next year and in subsequent 
years as well. 

Finally, it is expected that the East Garden, between the Arts 
and Industries Building and the Hirshhorn Museum on Jefferson 
Drive, will be formally opened to the public in early summer 1983. 
This will be the culmination of dedicated efforts by the Women's 
Committee to create an attractive new feature in that portion of 
the Mall, stemming from the committee's major contributions 
toward its design and construction in 1978 and 1979. 

The James Smithson Society 

The James Smithson Society, the highest level of the Contributing 
Membership Program, grew to a new total of 364 members — 
184 Annual Members and 180 Life Members. No new Life Mem- 
bers were admitted in the Society this year. 

Since the Society's inception in 1977, it has granted nearly $1 
million in support of projects and acquisitions throughout the 
Institution. This year, through the contributions of Annual Mem- 
bers, the society funded the preservation of the Juley Collection, a 
photographic archive of numerous works of art, for the National 
Museum of American Art as well as funds for the construction 
of a combination recreation area, wildlife trail, telescope platform, 
and information center at the Whipple Observatory, Mt. Hopkins, 
Arizona. Monies were also provided for the development of a 
learning exhibition on the techniques of sculpture to be produced 
by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. The 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries received funds to purchase a 
rare book, Illustrations of the American Ornithology of Alexander 
Wilson and Charles Lucian Bonaparte, by Thomas Brown. And 
finally, the society, for the third year, has given $40,000 toward 
the construction of the Educational Center within the Quadrangle 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges the gen- 
erous support of the members of the James Smithson Society. 

304 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Smithsonian National Associate Program 

Since its inception in 1970, the Smithsonian National Associate 
Program (snap), in cooperation with other Smithsonian bureaus, 
has provided innovative educational opportunities for Smithsonian 
Associates throughout the nation. Through Smithsonian magazine, 
members join activities that increase their awareness of the Insti- 
tution and encourage additional support for its work. 

The four units that currently comprise the National Associate 
Program offer benefits to Associates in a variety of ways, all of 
which are directed toward increasing members' personal involve- 
ment with the life of the Smithsonian. 

The Selected Studies Program invites Associates to Washington, 
D.C., for intensive, week-long seminars, during which lectures, 
field trips, and films provide members with an in-depth under- 
standing of topics as diverse as American Impressionism and Air- 
craft Restoration. 

The Regional Events Program serves Associates by presenting 
lectures, workshops, and seminars in their home communities. 
Smithsonian curators and scientists describe their work to Asso- 
ciates in programs that visit ten cities of various sizes and various 
distances from Washington each year. The events are cosponsored 
by local museums, universities, and cultural organizations. 

Members who participate in the Associates Travel Program 
share educational experiences with Smithsonian study leaders as 
they travel throughout the world. Under the expert guidance of 
scholars, Associates visit domestic and foreign destinations and 
learn about the unique features of these areas. 

The Contributing Membership Program provides members with 
an opportunity to contribute to the unrestricted funds of the 
Institution in five levels of membership. In return, Contributing 
Members receive a variety of benefits, including publications 
related to the work of the Institution and invitations to special 
events and behind-the-scenes tours of the museums. 

In 1982, snap continued to increase the services to its members 
as it encouraged private support for the Institution. Inherent in 
the approach of the program is an emphasis on four themes: edu- 
cational pursuits, member participation, public awareness, and 

Membership and Development I 305 

11 ■ &_£ H5" 

' »"^"* -- *■■ » . ■ ■ I M P ' " " 

Smithsonian National Associates pose with faculty and students at the 
Szechuan Provincial Opera Arts School, Chengdu, People's Republic of China. 

cooperation with Smithsonian bureaus and like-minded organiza- 
tions nationwide. 


In Washington, across the country, and abroad, Smithsonian Asso- 
ciates joined their fellow members in a wide range of activities 
that demonstrate the Institution's varied research interests. The 
Selected Studies Program offered sixteen seminars this year, includ- 
ing "Quilting: Traditional to Modern," "Post Impressionist Mas- 
ters," and "Religions of the Far East." "The New Astronomies" 
was the first seminar held at a Smithsonian research facility out- 
side Washington, D.C. Eighty-eight Associate members traveled to 
Tucson, Arizona, to participate in the activities led by Smithsonian 
scientists from the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory and their 
colleagues from the University of Arizona and Kitt Peak National 
Observatory. The program combined lectures and films with tours 
of the area's most advanced astrophysical facilities. 

Participants in Domestic Study Tours explored the northern 
forests and waterways of the Pacific Northwest, Isle Royale, and 
Minnesota's North Shore. Others spent a week in residence at 
the Colorado Outdoor Education Center, where instructors cov- 
ered topics from wildflowers and birds of the Colorado Rockies 
to astronomy and fossil hunting. 

Associates gained a greater understanding and appreciation of 
the fragile ecosystem of south Florida during their week-long stay 
in Everglades National Parks; they learned about Colorado's fasci- 
nating mining and railroad history from local historians and pro- 
fessors; and they traveled to Savannah, Charleston, Boston, and 
Philadelphia to experience, firsthand, architectural history and the 
cultural heritage of these cities. Each of the thirty-five domestic 
tours provided orientation lectures and on-site discussions led by 
local experts. 

Associates traveling abroad chose from forty-four sea- and land- 
based itineraries. Aboard the tall ship Sea Cloud, they sailed 
through the Leeward and Windward islands to learn about Carib- 
bean cultural and natural history. They cruised the Rhine River 
from Basel to Arnheim, or explored the historic cities surrounding 
the Adriatic and Red Seas. Museum curators and historians pro- 
vide shipboard lectures and led walking tours through various 

Membership and Development I 307 

ports of call. New land-based destinations for the Foreign Study 
Program included tours of Peru's legendary archaeological sites, 
the art and architecture of Belgium and Holland, and a two-week 
countryside visit to England's picturesque Cotswolds region. 

The China Program expanded to fourteen departures this year. 
Associates toured Tibet, climbed the sacred peaks of Taishan and 
Emeishan, and followed the Eastern Silk Route across the steppe 
region of Central Asia. The Associates Travel Program success- 
fully completed its most ambitious plan to date: a thirty-seven-day 
rail journey from Paris to Beijing in the company of Sino and 
Soviet experts. 

The Regional Events Program traveled to Oshkosh, Wisconsin; 
Gainesville, Florida; Columbus and Cincinnati, Ohio; Boise, Idaho; 
Spokane, Washington; Nashville, Tennessee; Santa Barbara, Cali- 
fornia; and Tulsa, Oklahoma City, and Norman, Oklahoma, bring- 
ing 132 events to Associates in their home communities. In coop- 
eration with eighty-two local cosponsoring organizations and 
two national cosponsors, the Regional Events staff developed new 
programs that reflect current Smithsonian research and comple- 
ment local interests. 

A lecture, by Adrienne Kaeppler of the National Museum of 
Natural History (nmnh), at the Cincinnati Museum of Natural His- 
tory on Oceanic art, focused attention on the opening of the 
museum's major exhibition of the Fleischman collection of Mela- 
nesian artifacts. Smithsonian Fellow Don Fowler presented sem- 
inars on historic preservation in Cincinnati and Spokane. Preserva- 
tion groups in each city enhanced his presentations with walking 
tours of historic areas. Other first-time events were "WWII 
Aviation: A Closer Look," by Donald Lopez, National Air and 
Space Museum (nasm), "Worksongs, Playsongs, Spirituals and 
Blues," by Bernice Reagon, Division of Performing Arts (dpa), and 
"Margaret Mead: A Personal Reminiscence," by Wilton Dillon, 
Office of Symposia and Seminars. 

Fourteen special events were arranged for Contributing Mem- 
bers during the year, including an evening with David Atten- 
borough, who previewed portions of his award-winning BBC tele- 
vision series Life on Earth, and a special evening-viewing of the 
Renwick exhibition Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual. In 
recognition of their support for the Institution, members received 

308 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

copies of Mr. Attenborough's best-selling book as well as two 
other Smithsonian-related publications. Sustaining Members ($500 
category) were invited to a curatorial tour through the Frances 
and Sidney Lewis collection of contemporary art at the Lewis 
residence and Best Company headquartered in Richmond, Virginia. 


New educational benefits offered by snap attracted thousands of 
Associates who had not participated previously in the Selected 
Studies, Associates Travel, and Regional Events activities. The 
over-all response to the Selected Studies offerings, as in the past, 
was excellent. More than double the anticipated number enrolled 
in the quilting seminar, and the "New Astronomies" program was 
repeated to meet the unexpected demand. 

Foreign and domestic study tours also continued to show strong 
enrollments, with about one-third of the travelers returning for 
additional Smithsonian tours. More than 3,175 Associates traveled 
on eighty-two domestic-study and foreign-study tours. Many of 
the China programs, as well as other Associates tours were filled 
four to six months prior to departure. The Washington "Anytime" 
program was enjoyed by 3,200 Associates who wanted to visit the 
Smithsonian for a weekend. 

The Regional Events Program invited more than 200,000 Asso- 
ciates and local members to events in the host cities of 1982. The 
majority of events were fully booked, and additional sessions were 
scheduled when requests exceeded available space. Participation in 
forty-five in-depth seminars — a program format introduced in 
1980 — increased by fifty percent this year. 

Eighteen thousand Associates are now Contributing Members, 
a twenty-four percent increase in the past year. The most signifi- 
cant growth was recorded in the Donor ($100) Membership cate- 
gory, which increased by fifty-five percent in 1982. Unrestricted 
funds for the Smithsonian, provided by the five categories of 
Contributing Members (Supporting, Donor, Sponsoring, Sustain- 
ing, and the James Smithson Society), along with the Corporate 
Matching and Annual Giving revenues, increased by twenty-six 
percent over 1981. 

In May, 250 Contributing Members in Santa Barbara were 
invited to a gem-appreciation seminar, led by Paul Desautels 

Membership and Development I 309 

(nmnh), and a reception in their honor at the Santa Barbara 
Museum of Natural History during the Regional Events series. 
The Associates Travel Program cooperated with Regional Events 
to plan Washington, D.C, tours for members from organizations 
that had been host for Smithsonian programs. These included the 
Rochester Museum and Science Center, the California Academy of 
Sciences, and the Colorado Historical Society. Behind-the-scenes 
tours and meetings with curators were arranged to meet the special 
interests of these membership groups. 


The services provided to national members this year drew increas- 
ing attention from the media, creating a greater awareness among 
the general public of Smithsonian activities. Lecturers traveling 
with the Regional Events Program were invited to describe their 
research interests on twenty-eight TV and radio broadcasts in this 
year's host cities. Local newspapers highlighted the series in sixty 
feature articles. 

In Columbus, Ohio, the Regional Events Program collaborated 
with Warner Amex Cable Communications, Inc., and was assisted 
by the Office of Telecommunications in the production of five 
half -hour cable-television lectures: "The Continental Puzzle: A 
Look at Plate Tectonics," by Richard Fiske (nmnh); "Nature's 
Lights Beneath the Sea," by Clyde Roper (nmnh) ; "George Bellows : 
Boy Wonder of American Art," by Margaret Christman, National 
Portrait Gallery (npg); "Beyond the Ocean, Beneath a Leaf," by 
Kjell Sandved (nmnh); and "Of Myth and Men: The American 
Presidency," by Marc Pachter (npg). The series, entitled Smith- 
sonian Profiles, has been scheduled for cablecast on Warner- 
Amex stations in Columbus, Cincinnati, Houston, Pittsburgh, 
Dallas, suburban St. Louis, and suburban Chicago. Following each 
cablecast, viewers will be given a toll-free number to request infor- 
mation about the Smithsonian and its Associate membership. 

The Selected Studies Program once again enjoyed extensive 
national media attention. Articles and notices describing seminars 
appeared in special-interest publications such as Antiques, Antiques 
Monthly, Art and Antiques, Flying Machine, AOPA Pilot, Asia 
Mail, and Quilters Newsletter Magazine. Articles by participants 

310 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

have also appeared in local and national publications, including 
Model Airplane News. 

Corporate interest in Smithsonian activities was stimulated by 
the Contributing Membership's Matching Gift Program. In 1982 
over fifty corporations made pledges to match or exceed the dona- 
tions of employees who are currently Contributing Members. This 
represents more than double the amount raised in 1981. The 
Matching Gift Program, still in its early stages, is expected to 
become a major source of revenues in the coming years. 

Newspapers and magazines carried articles about or by partici- 
pants in domestic and foreign study tours. Some Associates have 
developed regular lecture circuits to civic, corporate, and education 


Cooperation with SI bureaus continues to be the essence of success 
for the program. Staff members travel with the Regional Events, 
Domestic Study, and Foreign Study programs, and participate in 
Selected Studies and Contributing Membership activities. 

Thirty-five representatives from eleven bureaus joined the Re- 
gional Events series in 1982. While traveling, curators and scien- 
tists often further their research interests and confer with col- 
leagues throughout the country. David Pawson and Clyde Roper 
(nmnh) visited and conducted research at the Smithsonian field 
station in Fort Pierce, Florida, after they lectured to Associates in 
Gainesville. In Cincinnati and Santa Barbara, Howard Fox (Hirsh- 
horn Museum and Sculpture Garden) met with artists currently 
working in new creative directions. Following his programs in 
Boise and Spokane, George Venable (nmnh) traveled to Portland 
and Seattle to lead professional seminars for the Guild of Scien- 
tific Illustrators. Herman Viola (nmnh) participated in the Native 
American Archives Project workshop during the Regional Events 
in Norman, Oklahoma. 

The Visitors Information and Associates Reception Center 
(viarc) provided docent-led tours of the Castle each Sunday for 
participants in the Washington "Anytime" Weekend. Beginning 
in 1982, a Washington "Anytime" brochure was included in infor- 
mation packets mailed to those who requested information from 
the viarc. To help promote attendance at Smithsonian Performing 

Membership and Development I 311 

Arts events, Washington "Anytime" Weekend participants re- 
ceived with their confirming letters a list of coming performances. 

A number of curators helped with weekend programs at the 
Smithsonian, including Paul Desautels, John White, and Pete Dunn 
in the "All About Gems Weekend." John Falk and staff at the 
Chesapeake Bay Center introduced their facilities on the bay to 

Staff members with expertise in foreign and domestic areas 
were invited to accompany several trips this year. Gus Van Beek 
(nmnh) joined members for the "Red Sea Odyssey" and offered 
lectures on ancient Egypt and Jordan as members toured Petra, 
Luxor, and the Valley of the Kings. Julia Murray (Freer Gallery of 
Art) served as study leader for an Associates tour to northern 
China, and Predoctoral Fellow David Steadman (nmnh) led mem- 
bers through the Galapagos Islands. Domestic study programs 
down the Salmon River and through Desolation and Gray Canyons 
were led by Von Del Chamberlain (nasm). William Melson (nmnh) 
accompanied Associates through the Grand Canyon. 

Walter Boyne (nasm) coordinated Selected Studies' "Aircraft 
Restoration" seminar, which combined lectures by Boyne and 
Donald Lopez (nasm) with tours of the Paul H. Garber Facility 
led by staff members. Martin Amt, William T. Chase III, and Julia 
Murray led tours of the Freer Gallery collections and conservation 
facilities for participants in seminars on Chinese ceramics, Eastern 
religions, and Chinese cultural history. Members who attended 
the quilting seminar enjoyed the opportunity to view the Smith- 
sonian's collection of American quilts during small group visits 
coordinated by Doris Bowman (nmah). 

By making an advance commitment to purchase a Smithsonian 
book and an exhibition catalogue each year as benefits for its 
members, the Contributing Membership Program has helped make 
possible the development and printing of a number of Smithsonian 
museum publications. In 1982, Contributing Members across the 
country received the catalogue published for the Natural History 
Museum's exhibition inua: spirit world of the bering sea eskimo. 
Members were invited to a specially arranged preview of this exhi- 
bition. The National Museum of American Art (nmaa) and Wash- 
ington's Harry Lunn Gallery also collaborated with the Contribut- 
ing Membership Program to offer members "An Evening with 

312 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Berenice Abbott" to mark the opening of nmaa's exhibition of 
Ms. Abbott's photographic works. Other special activities for 
Contributing Members were arranged throughout 1982 in coopera- 
tion with most Smithsonian museums. 

Snap is dedicated to the belief that learning should be an enjoy- 
able lifelong pursuit for everyone, and that the national museums 
and research organizations of the Smithsonian Institution will 
continue to make a valuable contribution to this learning process. 

Smithsonian Resident Associate Program 

The Smithsonian Resident Associate Program (srap) — the private, 
self-supporting membership and continuing-education arm of the 
Smithsonian Institution for metropolitan Washington, D.C. — is 
considered a model for museum membership and education pro- 
grams both nationally and internationally. Established in 1965 by 
Secretary Ripley to provide opportunities for those who live in the 
Washington area to participate actively in the life of the Smith- 
sonian, the program offers an extensive range of educational activi- 
ties that complements and enhances the exhibitions, collections, 
and research of the Institution. 

Resident Associates represent a broad cross-section of the greater 
Washington community. Membership has grown from 8,000 with 
a retention rate in excess of fifty percent in 1972, to more than 
52,000, with a retention rate of over seventy-six percent in 
1982 — including more than 110,000 persons in the Washington 
Metropolitan area. The program also provides full membership 
benefits and support to over 3,000 Contributing Members residing 
in the Washington metropolitan area and limited benefits to over 
17,000 Contributing Members living elsewhere in the U.S. and 
abroad. During fiscal year 1982, the program offered 904 activities 
attended by 95,000 persons. 

Self-supporting since 1972, the program fully reimburses the 
Institution for office space, computer and audio-visual support, 
labor and guard service, and administrative overhead (over 

Membership and Development I 313 

$500,000 in fiscal year 1982). In addition, the program generates 
a modest annual surplus that is transferred to the unrestricted 
funds of the Institution. 


The program's primary focus continues to be planning activities 
that enhance popular appreciation of Smithsonian exhibitions, 
collections, curatorial research, and special activities. During fiscal 
year 1982, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (hmsg) 
and the srap formed a special affiliation to cosponsor annual lec- 
tures and symposia. In celebration of the opening of the Hirsh- 
horn's newly redesigned Sculpture Garden, eminent art historian 
Daniel Robbins lectured on the concept of a twentieth-century 
sculpture garden. In an evening dialogue, hmsg Director Abram 
Lerner, who was a Work Project Administration (wpa) artist, and 
art historian Milton Brown recalled the life of the wpa artists 
during the depression days of the 1930s. 

In recognition of Raphael Soyer's recent contribution of his life's 
work in graphics to the hmsg in honor of Abram Lerner, the srap 
commissioned an original self-portrait lithograph by this Ameri- 
can "old master." An artist's proof of the lithograph was donated 
to the hmsg by the srap and was included in the Hirshhorn show, 
Raphael Soyer: 65 Years of Printmaking. Artist's proofs were also 
donated to the National Gallery of Art (nga), National Museum of 
American Art (nmaa), National Portrait Gallery (npg), and the 
Smithsonian Institution Castle Building, in honor of the James 
Smithson Society, of which Mr. Soyer is a Life Member. In con- 
nection with this exhibition and the concurrent Soyer Since I960, 
a dialogue was presented between Raphael Soyer and Abram 
Lerner ranging over the artist's prodigiously productive life. 

The opening of the reconstructed Dinosaur Hall in the National 
Museum of Natural History (nmnh) provided the occasion for an 
all-day seminar on the dinosaur epoch by four eminent scientists, 
including Nicholas Hotton, curator of Paleobiology. Two evening 
extravaganzas on dinosaurs — embellished with dinosaur songs, 
puppetry, ballons, art, and cookies — were staged for young people 
and their families. Another nmnh exhibition, inua: spirit world of 
the bering sea eskimos, served as the stimulus for an all-day 
seminar exploring Eskimo art with internationally eminent anthro- 

314 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

pologists and art historians, including William Fitzhugh, curator 
of North American Archaeology. 

The srap responded to the Institution-wide celebration of the 
centennial of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's birth with a variety of 
activities. An all-day seminar examining FDR as a politician and 
statesman was organized with leading Roosevelt scholars from 
across the country. Guitar-playing songwriter Joe Glazer presented 
a concert of political and social songs of the Roosevelt era. A 
course, organized by Nathan Reingold, editor, Joseph Henry 
Papers, examining the home front in World War II featured re- 
spected economist John Kenneth Galbraith, who was assistant 
administrator of the Office of Price Administration in the Roose- 
velt administration. Tours were offered of the National Museum 
of American History (nmah) exhibition on FDR and the hmsg wpa 
show. The Free Film Theater screened eight films on FDR, the 
New Deal, and the war years. 

The program observed another national landmark, the two- 
hundred-fiftieth birthday of George Washington, with gala open- 
ings of the nmah's exhibition George Washington: A Figure Upon 
the Stage. A participatory course, teaching eighteenth-century 
dances, was also offered in connection with the exhibition, and 
students demonstrated their dance accomplishments at the exhibi- 
tion's opening. 

In connection with the exhibition Berenice Abbott: the '20s and 
'30s, at the nmah, the srap presented a special evening with the 
renowned American photographer Berenice Abbott, in dialogue 
with Barbara Shissler Nosanow, curator of the exhibition. The 
program also presented a lecture on the new book on Arshile 
Gorky, by Harry Rand, nmaa curator of Twentieth Century Paint- 
ing, and a lecture on the sculpture of Frederic Remington, by 
Michael Shapiro, guest curator of the nmaa exhibition Cast and 
Recast: the Sculpture of Frederic Remington. 

The nga's major exhibition, El Greco of Toledo, served as the 
stimulus for three well-attended lectures by Jonathan Brown, dis- 
tinguished art historian and author of the catalogue, providing a 
new interpretation of El Greco's work. A course on the Spanish 
people, their traditions, art, and music was also planned around 
the exhibition in collaboration with the Embassy of Spain. In 
addition, fifteen tours of the exhibition were offered and filled. 

Membership and Development I 315 

To celebrate the Renwick Gallery's tenth birthday, the program 
commissioned — at the suggestion of Renwick Director Lloyd Her- 
man — a poster reproduction of the festive and visually appealing 
1979 Wayne Thiebaud painting, California Cakes. The poster was 
donated to the nmaa, the hmsg, and the Renwick Gallery. 

In conjunction with the major exhibition, Of Time and Place, 
organized by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service (sites) and the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the srap presented 
a film series focusing on American times and places central to our 
national identity. An all-day seminar, examining the visions of 
everyday life in America created by artists and photographers 
from the early nineteenth century through World War II, was also 
offered in connection with this exhibition. 

During the year, the program organized several successful courses 
in collaboration with the Woodrow Wilson International Center 
for Scholars, examining U.S. defense policies in the 1980s, issues 
in U.S. power projection in East Asia, and current nuclear con- 
cerns. Another popular course was offered by Smithsonian Regents 
Fellow G. Ledyard Stebbins, on the timely topic of evolution: 
chemical, human, and cultural. Michael Quick, organizer of the 
major npg exhibition, American Portraiture in the Grand Manner: 
1720-1920, lectured on the significant historical role played by 
formal portraiture in American painting in conjunction with the 
show. Associates were offered study tours of all major Smithsonian 
museum shows throughout the year. 

The srap's director participated in three workshops under the 
auspices of the Office of Museum Programs, and the associate 
director conducted a two-day seminar on museum membership for 
the Virginia Association of Museums. 


The srap works closely with civic, cultural, and educational insti- 
tutions in the Washington area to present activities that address 
current issues and are open to the public as well as to members. 
The program also supports local cultural and outdoor sporting 
festivals and city-wide projects, and commemorates civic observ- 
ances with appropriate programming. 

For the ninth consecutive year, the program presented the Audu- 
bon Lecture Series in cosponsorship with the Audubon Naturalist 

316 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Society and the Friends of the National Zoo. This year's double 
series was sold out. 

In March the program, in cooperation with the Washington 
Metropolitan Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, 
presented a unique four-part architectural design seminar that 
provided a forum for the study and application of basic design 
principles to a specific site in D.C. — Eighth Street, N.W. — between 
the Mount Vernon Square Library and the nmaa. 

In a spring term course, "Conversations on the City," Washing- 
ton architects, planners, preservationists, critics, and government 
officials — including Mayor Marion Barry, architect Arthur Cotton 
Moore, and J. Carter Brown, chairman, Commission of Fine Arts 
and director, nga — joined in discussion and debate on fundamental 
issues affecting the quality of life in the nation's capital. A winter 
course on "Titans of Typography" was organized in cooperation 
with the Art Directors Club of Metropolitan Washington, and a 
spring course featuring internationally known interior designers 
was planned in conjunction with the American Society of Interior 
Designers. A summer course exploring new directions in publica- 
tion design was offered in cooperation with the National Associa- 
tion of Government Communicators to consider new ways of 
creating innovative, cost-effective publications. 

In observance of Black History Month in February, the program 
offered a lecture by Joseph Harris, a Woodrow Wilson Fellow and 
former chairman of the Department of History at Howard Univer- 
sity, examining the 1,500-year story of the global African diaspora. 
A tour that encompassed the Corcoran Gallery of Art's exhibition 
Black Folk Art in America, the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, 
and the Mary McLeod Bethune Museum sampled the wealth and 
diversity of Washington's black legacy. 

Saluting the Caribbean/American Intercultural Organization's 
annual Caribbean Independence Week, the program offered its 
sixth consecutive Caribbean Gala, featuring Jamaican, Trinidadian, 
and Haitian dances and traditional Cuban music. 

As has been the practice of the program for the past ten years, 
tuition-free scholarships were awarded to innercity young people 
and adults to attend courses of their choice. Through the D.C. 
Public School System, ninety-seven youngsters received full schol- 
arships to attend Young Associate classes in fiscal year 1982, and 

Membership and Development I 317 

137 scholarships were awarded to adults, high-school students, 
and Smithsonian docents to attend the program's adult courses. 
The srap received funding from the Rouse Company for seed 
money to plan the presentation of educational and cultural activi- 
ties — primarily crafts/lecture demonstrations — at the company's 
Columbia and White Marsh malls. This local program outreach 
would be related to activities now conducted by the Resident 
Associate Program at the Smithsonian, but would also be especially 
designed for mall shoppers. 


The Resident Associate Program occupies a prominent position in 
the continuing education field, among universities as well as in 
the museum world. Resident Associate staff members are active in 
the National University Continuing Education Association, as well 
as in the American Association of Museums. Janet W. Solinger, 
the program's director, consults regularly in education, program- 
ming, and membership for museums, art centers, and institutions 
of higher learning throughout the country and abroad. She also 
serves on many boards of cultural institutions. This year, Ms. Sol- 
inger was instrumental in obtaining a three-year grant of over 
$1 million for the Institution from the W. R. Kellogg Foundation 
of Battle Creek, Michigan. As a result of this grant, the Smith- 
sonian will launch a three-year national program to improve and 
expand the educational role of museums in society. Ms. Solinger 
will serve as senior advisor for the grant. 


The program was active in several different international arenas 
during the year. The Netherlands-American Bicentennial, for 
which Ms. Solinger served as national vice-chairperson for Cul- 
ture and Publications, celebrated 200 years of unbroken diplomatic 
relations between the two countries. An array of activities marked 
the celebration, including a film series, organized by the srap, that 
was shown in D.C. before traveling to eight other key cities in the 
U.S., an all-day seminar on the art of the De Stijl movement, and 
the presentation of the dada play The Ephemeral is Eternal at the 
hmsg. A course and a lecture were offered on the golden age of 

318 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Resident Associates pause outside a historic house in Rockville, Maryland, 
on a walking tour of the town's historic district. 

A member of the First Maryland Regiment (left) shows a Young Associate 
his rifle, following the Regiment's performance "From Reveille to Tattoo," 
sponsored by the Smithsonian Resident Associates Program. 

Dutch painting, as well as a course on the art of Jan Vermeer, and 
tours were arranged of the De Stijl exhibition at the hmsg and 
the Dutch masters show at the nga. Films on Rembrandt were 
screened, Dutch games and stories were organized for young 
people, and a workshop on Dutch lace was offered. In addition, 
the srap was responsible for the design and printing of the elegant 
poster reproduction of Larry Rivers' exquisite painting, Rainbow 
Rembrandt I, which was published in commemoration of The 
Netherlands-American Bicentennial. 

The Centennial celebration of the birth of Kemal Atatiirk was 
recognized with the presentation of an all-day scholarly seminar 
on ancient Anatolian civilizations, in collaboration with the Office 
of the Ambassador for Turkish Affairs, Turkish Republic. Another 
centennial celebration, that of U.S./Korean relations, was observed 
with a course examining the past, present, and future relationship 
between South Korea and America. 

Throughout the year, the program cooperated with several 
Washington embassies to enhance appreciation and understanding 
of foreign cultures. The annual Christmas entertainment of the 
British Embassy Players was performed at the Smithsonian under 
Resident Associate auspices, and courses were offered in coopera- 
tion with the embassies of Australia, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey. 


The impact of the recession has been felt by the program during 
the year and probably bears some responsibility for a slight drop 
in membership, both in retention and new membership figures. 
Attendance at activties was high, and program expenses, while 
rising, have not increased as dramatically in fiscal year 1982 as in 
the two previous years. Income objectives were surpassed. 

A totally new on-line computerized membership record system 
was developed and became operational during the year. With this 
system, new memberships and changes in existing membership 
records are instantly recorded, expediting processing of such items 
as membership cards, renewal notices, newsletter and magazine 
mailings, and changes of address. The new system was designed 
and developed by Office of Computer Services and Resident Asso- 
ciate staff to meet the unique needs of the program. 

320 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


The special events component of the program enables members to 
enjoy a wide variety of one-time cultural experiences through lec- 
tures, films, performing arts, seminars, and symposia. During fiscal 
year 1982, 149 special events, directed toward the arts, humanities, 
and sciences, were attended by over 59,000 people. 


More than 16,000 persons attended srap films this year. IMAX 
films on Australia's Great Barrier Reef, a festival celebrating the 
outstanding films of Alec Guinness, and the historical films of 
Roberto Rossellini were among the year's highlights. A scholar in 
the field introduced each film or series. 

The Free Film Theater — which is sponsored by the Women's 
Committee of the Smithsonian and the Office of Public Service, 
as well as by srap — a weekly series of documentaries open to the 
public, screened fifty films. The film, "Birds of the Indian Mon- 
soon," by internationally acclaimed wildlife cinematographers Stan- 
ley and Belinda Breeden, was shown at a special screening intro- 
duced by Secretary Ripley. Additionally, the program presented the 
United States public premiere of a new film produced by the Office 
of Telecommunications, "In Open Air: A Portrait of the American 

Seminars and Symposia 

Seventeen intensive day-long seminars and symposia exploring 
Imperial Russian palaces, the art and music of Venice, Edwardian 
England, the natural and cultural history of Wales, 4.5 billion years 
of rocks, and the world of medieval Europe constituted a major 
component of the program. 


Among the year's notable speakers were portraitist Alice Neel, 
photographer Berenice Abbott, art historian Dore Ashton, comedy 
writer Robert Orben, artist/painter/filmmaker Red Grooms, realist 
painter Raphael Soyer, and film critic John Simon. In addition, 

Membership and Development I 321 

Participants in SRAP-sponsored activities 
during the past year include (clockwise 
from upper right): portraitist Alice Neel, 
architect Romaldo Giurgola, Roosevelt 
scholar William E. Leuchtenburg, art 
historian Dore Ashton, film and drama 
critic John Simon, and Smithsonian Re- 
gents Fellow G. Ledyard Stebbins. 

lectures exploring subjects as diverse as the fourth dimension, 
computer animation, and sinking of the Titanic, recent excavations 
at Petra, Ice Age art, and Saturn's rings were offered by distin- 
guished experts. 

Performing Arts 

Sunday brunch concerts are a regular feature of the annual pro- 
gram, September through May. This past season, for the third 
consecutive year, demand necessitated two schedulings of pianist 
John Eaton's American popular music series. Summer outdoor 
concerts in the courtyard of the National Museum of American 
Art/National Portrait Gallery — featuring outstanding jazz, Dixie- 
land, and bluegrass groups — continued to attract large audiences. 
The rich tradition of the art of mime was discussed and demon- 
strated in a special evening with Mark Thompson, veteran of the 
internationally acclaimed Swiss mime troupe, Mummenschanz. 
The annual Caribbean Gala, sponsored in collaboration with the 
Caribbean/American Intercultural Organization, was a sell-out pro- 
duction. A total of 8,090 persons registered for the program's 
limited number of performing arts events. 


Through a broad-based curriculum in the arts, sciences, and hu- 
manities, the adult courses segment of the program provides 
opportunities for serious study with distinguished Smithsonian and 
visiting scholars. During fiscal year 1982, 169 lecture courses were 
offered, attended by 8,325 students, which set a new record for 
Resident Associate enrollment — up thirteen percent over the previ- 
ous year. Among the best-attended courses of the year, attracting 
some 1,300 persons, were "The Emerging Solar Home," "Masters 
of Portrait Photography," "Titans of Typography," "Basic Com- 
puter Literacy," and "Archaeology and the Old Testament World." 
During the year there was increased emphasis on presenting 
courses that probed the latest developments in science and tech- 
nology, such as practical applications of recombinant DNA tech- 
nology, or gene splicing, and topics in the forefront of brain re- 
search today. The noontime course program remained strong, with 
a total of thirty-six courses taking place at locations on the Mall, 

Membership and Development I 323 

at Dupont Circle, and in the new facility of the YWCA on Ninth 
Street, N.W. 


The studio arts sector of the program seeks to enhance apprecia- 
tion of age-old crafts by keeping alive hands-on techniques that 
are rapidly disappearing from our modern world. During the past 
year, intensive courses in sketching, wood sculpture, and photog- 
raphy, and short classes in figure drawing and painting on fabric 
were extremely well-received. An expanded selection of photo- 
graphic courses and workshops was also offered during the year. 
A course on contemporary quilts with an antique flair and a 
lecture/demonstration on the art of gilding with master gilder 
William Adair were among the highlights of the 179 programs 
attended by 2,736 individuals in fiscal year 1982. 


On-site learning experiences are offered for small groups in art, 
architecture, archaeology, history, industry, and science at the 
Smithsonian and complementary facilities. Ranging in length from 
one hour to two days, tours are geared to appeal to a spectrum of 
age groups, financial circumstances, and interests. During fiscal 
year 1982, 269 tours took place, with a total participation of over 
30,000 individuals. 


Through Young Associates and family activities, young people, 
ages three to fifteen, alone or with their families, gain new under- 
standing of the Smithsonian's vast resources. Classes, workshops, 
monthly free films for families, tours, and performances exploring 
topics in history, art, science, and studio arts are specially tailored 
to their ages and interests. Parent/child classes and workshops 
enable a parent and child to work together on projects of mutual 
interest. During fiscal year 1982, 138 Young Associate and family 
programs were attended by 12,562 individuals. 


A total of 438 volunteers provided invaluable assistance to the 
Resident Associate Program, monitoring special events, lectures, 

324 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

courses, and tours, and performing vital office duties. The 78 
volunteer office workers represent the equivalent of five full-time 
staff members, and the hours contributed by 360 monitor volun- 
teers is equivalent to the work of six staff members. In apprecia- 
tion of their contribution to the program, all volunteers were feted 
at a special reception at the Renwick Gallery on September 14 
and office volunteers at a luncheon on May 5. 

Membership and Development I 325 

Smithsonian Year . 1982 



Office of Public Affairs 

In its continuing efforts to reach a broader segment of the public 
and the media, the Office of Public Affairs (opa), in cooperation 
with the Smithsonian Institution Press, redesigned and redirected 
its ten-year-old science-oriented periodical, Research Reports, to 
include the full breadth of the Institution's research activities. The 
publication now features in-depth reports on art, history, and 
science research and highlights of on-going efforts. Research 
Reports is distributed free of charge to all Smithsonian Contribut- 
ing Members, to journalists, and to thousands of specialists who 
work at museums, universities, government agencies, corporations, 
and cultural and educational organizations, as well as science and 
research institutions and foundations. The diverse interests of the 
Smithsonian are mirrored in the publication's contents which, last 
year, included reports on the space age, Antarctic meteorites, a 
study of nineteenth-century art connoisseur Charles Lang Freer, 
the endangered status of our Native American languages, and the 
photography of Edward Curtis. 

Diversity continued to be the hallmark of the Smithsonian News 
Service, a free, monthly feature-story service produced by opa for 
daily and weekly newspapers. Completing its third year of opera- 
tion, the service has received an enthusiastic reception from more 
than 1,400 newspapers with an estimated 40 million readers 
throughout the United States and expanded its readership over- 


seas, in Canada, and among ethnic-oriented media during the year. 
There were 50 feature-length articles distributed, illustrated with 
photographs, drawings, and color artwork — a new addition to the 

A special story on White House renovations, with an exclusive 
interview with First Lady Nancy Reagan, was especially popular 
among subscribers. Recognizing the outstanding quality of the 
service, the National Association of Government Communicators 
awarded the top three prizes and two honorable mentions in its 
"feature" category of "Blue Pencil Awards" to News Service 

As part of its continuing mission to encourage visits to the 
Smithsonian, opa produced an experimental thirty-second, televi- 
sion public-service announcement (psa) to promote the concept 
that a planned museum visit is more rewarding than an unplanned 
visit. In cooperation with the Visitor Information and Reception 
Center, a packet of information, "Trip Planner," was offered to 
viewers who wrote in for it. Stations in twelve states received the 
announcement, and hundreds of responses were received from 
these states and seventeen neighboring states. 

Opa also produced thirty-second and sixty-second psas on the 
exhibitions at the Smithsonian and elsewhere in the Washington 
metropolitan area to commemorate the one-hundredth anniversary 
of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's birth. Nearly half of the television 
stations in Washington, D.C., Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsyl- 
vania used the announcement, encouraging many people to attend 
the exhibitions. 

In an effort to conserve Institution funds, opa realized major 
savings in its publishing program this year. The Torch, a monthly 
newspaper for employees and friends of the Institution, was 
adapted to a computerized system, which shaved seventeen percent 
off typesetting costs. The publication won second prize among all 
government in-house newspapers in the nationwide National Asso- 
ciation of Government Communicators Blue Pencil Awards contest. 
Opa redesigned the Welcome brochure — the publication seen by 
most visitors to Smithsonian museums — to effect a forty percent 
savings on the total printing bill. The brochure was updated and 
reprinted in four languages — French, German, Spanish, and Japa- 
nese — in response to the needs of large numbers of foreign visitors 

Public Information I 327 

who come to the museums each year. A revised edition of Guide 
to the Smithsonian for Disabled Visitors was also published, re- 
flecting improvements that have made Smithsonian buildings and 
programs more accessible to people with physical and mental 

Research at the Smithsonian was emphasized in two special 
science-oriented events coordinated by opa. In conjunction with 
21 professional societies and organizations, opa organized and co- 
sponsored a reception at the National Air and Space Museum 
(nasm) for 350 science writers attending the annual meeting of 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 
April, opa coordinated a "Behind-the-Scenes Day" for members 
of the National Association of Science Writers, when more than 
30 nationally known writers visited facilities at the new Mu- 
seum Support Center, nasm and the National Museum of Natural 

Opa continued to provide assistance to other bureaus and offices, 
with an opa staff member assisting the Office of Folklife Programs 
by preparing, coordinating, and distributing information for the 
media about the sixteenth annual Festival of American Folklife 
and for events held at the Renwick Gallery in conjunction with 
the exhibition Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual. 

328 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Smithsonian Year • 1982 



Since its founding sixteen years ago, Reading Is Fundamental, 
Inc., (rif) has grown into a nation-wide reading motivation pro- 
gram with local projects in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, 
Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam. Such extraordinary 
growth attests to the soundness of the rif approach to motivating 

The rif concept is simple: give youngsters the chance to choose 
and keep books that appeal to them, and they will discover for 
themselves that reading is both enjoyable and useful. Once they 
have made this discovery, they will read more and learn more. 

Rif's goal is to make books and reading a natural part of every 
child's daily experience. In its first fifteen years alone, Reading Is 
Fundamental brought more than 43 million books into American 

Convinced that the rif method of getting children to read is 
sensible and easy to administer, some 117,000 citizens volunteered 
their time last year to operate rif projects. Sponsors and supporters 
of rif programs include schools and school districts, state agencies, 
service clubs, correctional facilities, library associations, ptas and 
ptos, united charities, businesses, day-care centers, and recrea- 
tional centers. 

In 1982, some 3,400 rif projects gave 2.7 million young peo- 
ple — age three through high school — the chance to choose and 
keep 8.9 million books. The children who chose rif books were a 
cross section of America: youngsters from the heart of major cities 


like Chicago, New York, Los Angeles, and Dallas, as well as chil- 
dren from remote rural districts, often without libraries or book- 
stores. At least 10,000 of the young people choosing books during 
1982 were native Americans, and more than 87,000 youngsters 
were the children of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. 

In 1982, Reading Is Fundamental continued its technical-assis- 
tance services to local projects, providing them with 115 work- 
shops; special services and discounts negotiated with 346 book 
suppliers; and guidance materials, including a comprehensive col- 
lection of reading motivation activities. 

Rif also completed production of a short documentary film, 
which shows how parents, citizens, business, and industry can 
work with rif to help school-age children overcome reading 

For the sixth consecutive year, Reading Is Fundamental con- 
tracted with the U.S. Department of Education to operate the In- 
expensive Book Distribution Program — a federal program, modeled 
on rif, that permits Reading Is Fundamental to match with federal 
funds the local funds that projects raise for books. Rif also en- 
couraged local groups to organize rif projects relying solely on 
local funds. Some 295 locally funded projects were in operation at 
the end of fiscal year 1982. 

In June of 1982, the Educational Publishers Association, an or- 
ganization of publishers and wholesalers, honored RIF President 
Ruth Graves with the fourth annual Jeremiah Ludington Memorial 
Award, in recognition of her promotion of literacy and her service 
to young people. 

Mrs. Elliot Richardson, RIF Chairman, welcomed two new mem- 
bers to the Board of Directors this year: W. Thomas Johnson, 
publisher of the Los Angeles Times, and Harry Hoffman, president 
and chief executive officer of Waldenbooks. 

Rif's success in promoting reading continues to attract substan- 
tial private support from corporations, foundations, and private 
citizens. More than fifty major corporations, foundations, labor 
unions, and organizations supported the rif program in 1982. 
Book companies also contributed by earmarking to rif the proceeds 
of sales on a special edition, in one case, and in another, the reve- 
nues from a benefit screening of the movie version of a major best 

330 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation made a 
major grant to Reading Is Fundamental, giving rif the unique 
opportunity to develop materials and methods that parents can 
use at home to encourage their children to read. Rif will survey a 
sample of parents in the 3 million families served by rif projects, 
and analyze the data to identify information and materials that 
parents could use. 

The National Home Library Foundation, a supporter of rif since 
1966, awarded rif a grant to underwrite the cost of producing a 
brochure describing rif project techniques, to be published in 
memory of rif's founder, Mrs. Margaret McNamara. 

Since 1971, rif has mounted a public-education campaign to 
promote reading. Rif public-service announcements have received 
nearly $20 million in free broadcast time and magazine space from 
the ABC, CBS, and NBC radio and television networks, and from 
magazines such as Reader's Digest, Nezvsweek, U.S. News and 
World Report, Fortune, Business Week, Ladies Home Journal, Nero 
York Magazine, and many others. 

U.S. commissioners of education since 1969 have endorsed rif, 
and nearly every major educational and service organization has 
supported and endorsed the rif program — including the National 
Association of Elementary School Principals, the National Asso- 
ciation of Secondary School Principals, the National Association 
for the Education of Young Children, the National Catholic Educa- 
tional Association, the American Library Association, Association 
for Library Services to Children, the International Reading Asso- 
ciation, the National Urban League, the National Education Asso- 
ciation, the Girl Scouts of America, and Campfire, Inc. 

Rif has cooperated with many of these organizations to promote 
a public awareness of literacy issues. At the 1982 International 
Reading Association convention, for example, rif cosponsored with 
the National Parent Teachers Association, Inc., a symposium on 
the topic "I Want a Book I Picked Myself . . . The Right to 

A recent major study of illiteracy reports that one in five Ameri- 
cans can't read or write well enough to handle the needs of every- 
day life. Reading Is Fundamental is working to reverse this trend, 
and a number of studies, reports and surveys clearly demonstrate 
that the rif method is succeeding. As a result of rif programs, 

Reading Is Fundamental I 331 

according to these reports, youngsters spend more time reading; 
their attitudes toward reading improve; parents get involved in 
reading with their children; the community at large focuses more 
attention on reading and education; and often, reading scores rise 
and library circulation increases. 

But despite these successes and the rapid growth of the program, 
rif is reaching only a small percentage of the young people it could 
serve. If America is to become a society where the ability to read 
is the birthright of every American, then Reading Is Fundamental 
will have a role to play for many years. 

332 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Mrs. George Bush, a member of the rif Board of Directors, shares a 
tale with two youngsters at the Cameron Elementary School, Alexan- 
dria, Virginia, during a book distribution visit. Behind Mrs. Bush 
(from left) are rif President Ruth Graves and a rif volunteer. 

In the lounge of the Castle, at one of the Center's events celebrating 
the 125th birthday of Woodrow Wilson, Vice President George Bush 
(center) is shown here with the Center's new Board of Trustees Chair- 
man William J. Baroody, Jr. (left), and wwics Director James H. 

Smithsonian Year . 1982 





The Wilson Center — with the Kennedy Center for the Performing 
Arts and the National Gallery of Art — is one of three institutions 
with mixed trust/public funding created by the Congress within 
the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., fulfilling a na- 
tional mission under a board appointed by the president of the 
United States. The Wilson Center is an active workshop and 
switchboard for scholarship at the highest levels. Since its opening 
twelve years ago this fall, it has gained widespread recognition for 
the work of its fellows in mining the scholarly riches of Washing- 
ton, for its many meetings that bring together the world of affairs 
and the world of ideas, and for its democratic openness to all 
comers through its annual fellowship competition. 

Each year, some fifty fellows are brought in through open inter- 
national competition involving ever-increasing numbers of appli- 
cants from a wide range of backgrounds, disciplines, cultures, and 
nations. A broad spectrum of ideas is, in turn, shared with a non- 
specialized national audience through The Wilson Quarterly, which 
already has more subscribers than any other scholarly quarterly 
journal in the English-speaking world. 

The Wilson Center seeks to render a service to the world and to 
the Washington, D.C., community by throwing open its core 
fellowship program to all interested individuals. Fellows are selected 
for the promise, importance, and appropriateness of their projects 
on the recommendation of broadly based academic panels outside 


the center. The fellows come for limited periods, not only in the 
broadly inclusive program entitled History, Culture, and Society, 
but also in special programs in Russian and Soviet studies (the 
Kennan Institute), Latin American studies, international security 
studies, East Asia studies, and a program in American society and 
politics. Each program is directed by a scholar on the staff. 

Following its mandate to symbolize and strengthen the fruitful 
relation between the worlds of learning and of public affairs, the 
center sponsors conferences and seminars on topics of special cur- 
rent interest to both worlds. In 1982, for example, the center 
brought together scholars from many different disciplines, mem- 
bers of Congress, representatives of the Executive Branch, busi- 
nessmen, journalists, military experts, writers, educators, and diplo- 
mats to consider a variety of issues, examine current questions, 
enjoy celebrations, and participate in evaluative discussions. In 
commemoration of the one-hundred-twenty-fifth birthday of 
Woodrow Wilson, the center held an evening dialogue at which 
John M. Cooper, Jr., professor of history at University of Wiscon- 
sin-Madison, presented a paper on "Woodrow Wilson's Demo- 
cratic Politics," and Richard L. McCormick of Rutgers University 
presented one on "Progressivism: A Modern Reassessment." 
Arthur S. Link, editor of the Pages of Woodrow Wilson, being 
published by Princeton University Press, gave an address entitled 
"Woodrow Wilson: Hinge of the 20th Century." 

A dinner-discussion, cosponsored with the Atlantic Council, on 
"The Teaching of Values in Colleges and Universities," was 
chaired by James H. Billington, center director, and included such 
participants as Thomas Bartlett, president of the Association of 
American Universities; Edmund Pellegrino, president of the Catho- 
lic University of America; Glenn Campbell, director of The Hoover 
Institution; Georg Turner, president of the West German Rectors' 
Conference; and Paula Brownlee, president of Hollins College. 

During the year, the International Security Studies Program of 
the center held seminars on security issues in the Middle East and 
Gulf, covering such topics as Middle East oil and the industrial 
democracies, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and Soviet and United States 
strategies for the region. Among the principal participants were 
Hermann Frederick Eilts, Shahram Chukin, Shlomo Avineri, and 
Parker T. Hart. 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars I 335 

The center's fellows continue to come from all over the world, 
from many disciplines, and from many areas of the United States. 
Among its 1982 fellows and guest scholars were Yao Wei, chief of 
the Press Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People's Republic 
of China, studying the American foreign policy-making process; 
Karl Dietrich Bracher, historian of modern political ideas from the 
University of Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany; Jagat Singh 
Mehta, India's former foreign secretary, evaluating India's role in 
the world today; Edward Rowny, lieutenant general, U.S. Army 
(ret.), former salt negotiator and now serving as chief of the 
U.S. START Delegation; George Morrison Carstairs, former vice 
chancellor, University of York, United Kingdom; Patricia Albjerg 
Graham, The Charles Warren Professor of the History of 
American Education at Harvard University, recently appointed 
dean of Harvard's Graduate School of Education; Sergio Zermeno- 
Garcia, professor of sociology, National University of Mexico, 
studying democracy in present-day Mexico; and Heinrich Vogel, 
director of the Federal Institute for East-West and International 
Relations, working on East-Central European cooperation. The 
result of this broad and heterogeneous mix of fellows is an intel- 
lectual life greater than the sum of its parts: the collegial atmos- 
phere provides an opportunity for learning and communication 
that transcends national and academic boundaries for the benefit 
of all. 

336 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Smithsonian Year . 1982 



The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts was autho- 
rized by an Act of Congress in 1958 as the National Cultural 
Center. It is administered as a self-supporting performing arts 
organization under the direction of a board of trustees, the citizen 
members of which are appointed by the president of the United 
States. Affiliates of the Kennedy Center that present programming 
in its theaters include the National Symphony Orchestra, The 
Washington Opera, the American Film Institute, and the Wash- 
ington Performing Arts Society. The programming presented by 
each of these organizations at the center during fiscal year 1982 
is reflected in this report. 

The Kennedy Center, which celebrated its tenth anniversary 
during the past year, operates under a congressional mandate to 
present artistic programming of the highest quality, to serve as a 
national focus for the performing arts in America, and to reach 
the broadest possible audience through its activities. Since the 
center receives no direct federal appropriation to carry out its 
performing arts programming, its board of trustees, which has 
been able to operate the center in the black for ten years, has 
relied on ever-increasing private contributions from corporations, 
foundations, and individuals to supplement box office revenue and 
additional earned income. 

The National Cultural Center Act of 1958 explicitly recognized 
that cultural enrichment is a vital part of our nation's well being. 
Twenty-four years later, the John F. Kennedy Center stands in 



From the Robinson Jeffers version of Medea at the Kennedy Center are (from left) 
Zoe Caldwell in her award-winning performance of the title role and Dame Judith 
Anderson in her role as the Nurse. 

lively tribute to the vision of our nation's leaders as a unique, 
American cultural institution. 

Performing Arts Programming 

The 1981-82 season at Kennedy Center in the Eisenhower and 
Terrace Theaters, Opera House, and Concert Hall was attended 
by 1.3 million people. Programming highlights are outlined in the 
sections that follow: 


The "Tenth Anniversary" theater season was distinguished by the 
Eisenhower Theater Season of plays, produced by the center in 
association with the CBS/Broadcast Group. Such outstanding 
artists as Dame Judith Anderson, Brian Bedford, Zoe Caldwell, 
Len Cariou, George Grizzard, Barry Nelson, Jean Stapleton, 
Frances Sternhagen, Liv Ullmann, and Irene Worth appeared in a 
season of six productions: Diirrenmatt's The Physicists; Sidney 
Howard's The Late Christopher Bean; Moliere's Tartuffe; the 
Robinson Jeffers version of Medea; A. R. Gurney's The Dining 
Room; and Ibsen's Ghosts. Three of the six productions toured 
elsewhere in the country, and Zoe Caldwell received a Tony award 
for her performance as Medea. 

The Kennedy Center Opera House hosted an unusually broad 
variety of musical and dramatic productions. The Grand Kabuki 
of Japan appeared for a week with a repertory that featured the 
most extraordinary group of Japanese artists ever to perform out- 
side Japan, including four designated as Living National Treasures 
by the government of Japan. The United States tour of only two 
cities other than Washington was sponsored by the Japan Society 
on the occasion of its seventy-fifth anniversary. A revival of 
George M. Cohan's Little Johnny Jones, and touring productions 
of West Side Waltz, starring Katherine Hepburn, and Sugar Babies 
were also presented in the Opera House. 

The Acting Company continued to tour the United States under 
the sponsorship of the center, with substantial support provided 
by Conoco. During the season, more than thirty states were 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts / 339 

visited. The company's two-week residency in the Terrace Theater 
was highlighted with productions of Shakespeare's A Twelfth 
Night and Wycherley's The Country Wife. 

At the conclusion of the season, the Opera House was equipped 
with infra-red listening equipment to aid the hearing-impaired, the 
Eisenhower and Terrace theaters having been similarly equipped 
during 1981. Eisenhower Theater productions are also enhanced 
by commentary for visually impaired patrons — a service provided 
by volunteers working with Washington Ear. 


The 1981-82 season offered the largest number of dance attrac- 
tions in the center's history, ranging from the latest in the "post- 
modern" school of modern dance to the classics of the Royal 
Danish Ballet. 

Highlights included the December 1981 engagement of Ameri- 
can Ballet Theatre, which offered not only its renowned Nut- 
cracker — staged by Mikhail Baryshnikov — but also two weeks of 
repertory, including the world premiere of The Wild Boy, by the 
British choreographer, Kenneth Macmillan, with Mikhail Barysh- 
nikov and Natalia Makarova in the leading roles. 

The Dance Theatre of Harlem, sponsored by the Washington 
Performing Arts Society, offered a new production of Stravinsky's 
Firebird, staged by John Taras and designed by Geoffrey Holder. 
This ballet was taped at Kennedy Center and televised later on 
public television as one segment of the Kennedy Center Tonight! 

The Joffrey Ballet returned to the center — after several seasons — 
with a gala opening performance attended by President and Mrs. 
Ronald Reagan, and with a repertory that included John Cranko's 
famous evening-length version of The Taming of the Shrew, pre- 
viously seen at the center only with The Stuttgart Ballet. 

Continuing Kennedy Center's ideal of presenting at least one 
of America's fine regional companies each year, The Pennsylvania 
Ballet made its second appearance at the center and received out- 
standing critical reviews. 

The Eliot Feld Ballet presented a virtual retrospective of the 
work of this brilliant American choreographer in a two-week 

340 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Nakamura Kanzaburo, declared a National Living Treasure by the government of 
Japan, was one of many celebrated performers and musicians appearing with the 
Grand Kabuki troupe during its 1982 engagement in the Kennedy Center's Opera 

The Royal Danish Ballet closed the season with a two-week run 
that attracted national press attention and garnered rave reviews 
for all performances. In addition to a week featuring ballets by 
the classical Danish choreographer Bournonville, the company also 
offered the United States' premiere of a new version of Stravin- 
sky's Firebird, by American choreographer Glen Tetley. 

In the Dance America series, sponsored jointly by the Kennedy 
Center and the Washington Performing Arts Society, six com- 
panies were offered in the Terrace Theater and three in the Eisen- 
hower. The "classical" school of modern dance was represented 
by: the Joyce Trisler Danscompany, one performance of which 
offered commentary on Trisler's work by the well-known author 
and dance critic, Walter Terry; the Erick Hawkins Dance Com- 
pany, which sold out every performance; and the Kennedy Center 
debut of the Maryland Dance Theatre, a company associated with 
the University of Maryland. The Maryland company honored the 
distinguished American choreographer Anna Sokolow with its 
performance, and Miss Sokolow was introduced to the audience 
from the stage. Representing the "post-modern" group of com- 
panies were: Jennifer Muller and her company; Crow's Nest, an 
outgrowth of the Pilobolus company; and a company called 

Three larger companies appeared in the Eisenhower for the 
Dance America series: the brilliant and popular Paul Taylor Dance 
Company, the Twyla Tharp Dance Company, and the Jose Limon 
Dance Company. 


The past year was marked by a number of musical tributes includ- 
ing a re-staging of Leonard Bernstein's Mass, which opened the 
Kennedy Center ten years ago. The entirely new production was 
broadcast live on public television as part of the Kennedy Center 
Tonight! series. The premiere American composers' concert was 
devoted to the music of Aaron Copland, who attended the presen- 
tation and offered special remarks. The National Symphony Or- 
chestra celebrated the seventy-fifth anniversary of Dmitri Shosta- 
kovich's birth, with a concert conducted by the composer's son, 
Maxim, and featuring his grandson, Dmitri, as pianist. 

342 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

The National Symphony Orchestra presented 138 performances 
at the center and enjoyed a triumphal European tour under musical 
director Mstislav Rostropovich. 

The Metropolitan Opera returned to the center for a two-week 
engagement — its longest appearance outside New York City — -and 
offered its new production of Offenbach's Les Contes d'Hoffman 
and a highly acclaimed production of Wagner's Parsifal, as well as 
Madama Butterfly, The Magic Flute, and Rigoletto. 

The Washington Opera presented fifty-seven performances of 
seven productions in the Opera House and Terrace Theater. Among 
the highlights of the season was the production of Puccini's La 
Boheme, staged by Gian Carlo Menotti, Verdi's Macbeth, Igor Stra- 
vinsky's The Rake's Progress, Mozart's The Magic Flute, Offen- 
bach's Monsieur Choufleuri, Gaetano Donizetti's L'Elisir D'Amore, 
and Madama Butterfly. 

The annual Kennedy Center Christmas Festival was expanded 
to include more public-service programs than in previous years. 
The highlight free event, A Night in Old Vienna, with New Year's 
Eve dancing in the Grand Foyer, was enjoyed by nearly 8,000 
people — more than in any previous year. 

The second "Festival of Festivals" — a great success, with sub- 
stantially increased attendance over the first year — included the 
Carnegie Hall Serenades, featuring the St. Paul Chamber Orches- 
tra, conducted by Pinchas Zukerman, and an appearance by the 
Guarneri String Quartet; the Mostly Mozart Festival, with con- 
ductors David Zinman and Gerard Schwartz and soloists Richard 
Stoltzman, Cecile Licad, and James Galway; and the Bach Festival 
from Baldwin-Wallace College in Berea, Ohio, which performed 
the complete St. Matthew Passion. 

A new Orchestra Discovery Series featured the Zagreb Phil- 
harmonic, the New York Strings, the Fairfax Symphony, and the 
Sofia Philharmonic. 

The Friedheim awards, which recognize American composition 
in symphonic and chamber music in alternating years, have been 
described by leading music critics as the "only significant com- 
petition in existence for new American music." The awards honor 
the late Arthur Friedheim and are supported, in part, by a grant 
from the Eric Friedheim Foundation. The 1981 Friedheim award 
for chamber composition was awarded to Joseph Schwantner; the 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 343 

final competition performance was broadcast on National Public 

Chamber music continued to thrive under the guidance of Marta 
Istomin, the center's artistic director. In addition to the already- 
established series by the Theater Chamber Players and the Young 
Concert Artists, several new series were inaugurated, including a 
piano series, an art-song series, eight chamber music series, and 
the American Portraits Series, which devotes an entire evening to 
the music of a living American composer. Performers included 
clarinetist Richard Stoltzman, the Kalichstein-Laredo-Robinson 
Trio, pianist Anton Kuerti, tenor Peter Schreier, and the New 
York Woodwind Quintet, along with the American Portraits Series, 
which this year honored Aaron Copland, Ned Rorem, Alberto 
Ginastera, Roger Sessions, Dane Rudhyar, and Philip Glass. The 
Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center offered its annual series 
of four concerts. 


The American Film Institute (afi) has presented film programming 
in its 224-seat theater at the Kennedy Center since 1973. In that 
time, 6,500 motion pictures have been shown to a total audience 
of one million people. Many of the films are drawn from afi's own 
motion-picture archives. The institute has, in addition, cooperated 
with the Library of Congress to carry out the most extensive film 
preservation program in the nation. 

The afi, dedicated to preserving the heritage and advancing the 
art of film and television in the United States, conducts activities 
around the country which work toward the achievement of three 
primary goals: to increase recognition and understanding of the 
moving image as an art form, to assure preservation of the art 
form, and to identify, develop, and encourage new talent. 

The afi's Television and Video Services annually presents the 
National Video Festival, sponsored by Sony Corporation of Amer- 
ica, in the AFI Theater — the only public theater in the country 
regularly exhibiting video in a large-screen format. 

During this year, Exhibition Services toured several film series 
nationally, including China Film Week, Jewish Film Festival, and 
New American Cinema. Public Service Programs conducted sem- 
inars, workshops, and classes around the country — including the 

344 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

annual "Patricia Wise Lecture" — to focus public attention on the 
moving image as an art form. The Wise lecture for 1982 was 
delivered by Dr. Stanley Cavell in the AFI Theater. 

Several of afi's programs are administered from its Los Angeles 
campus as well as the Kennedy Center headquarters. The Center 
for Advanced Film Studies provides training in all aspects of film- 
making; the Independent Filmmaker Program administers grants to 
filmmakers across the country; and the Directing Workshop for 
Women provides training for professional women who wish to 
enter the field of feature-film directing. Education Services pre- 
sented its annual Faculty Development Workshops, a series of 
sessions focusing on various aspects of film and television educa- 

Finally, the tenth Life Achievement Award was bestowed upon 
director Frank Capra — a tribute that recognized a lifetime of 
accomplishments acknowledged by scholars, Capra's peers, and 
the public. 

Public-Service Programming 

During the past year, the Kennedy Center allocated more than 
$3.5 million, raised from private sources, to fulfill the center's 
Section 4 mandate, including its national Education Program, Cul- 
tural Diversity activities, Performing Arts Library, and to support 
the presentation of special music festivals and the development of 
new works and younger artists. Four hundred seventy-five public- 
service events were presented by the center, of which 400 were 
sponsored by the center itself and 75 by associated organizations. 
Audience attendance for these events totaled 300,000, both in 
Washington, D.C., and around the country. 


The Specially Priced Ticket Program (stpt) the most extensive 
reduced-price ticket program of any performing arts institution in 
the country, has been in effect since the center's opening. It is 
administered daily throughout the year by Friends of the Kennedy 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts / 345 

Center volunteers and provides up to fifteen percent of available 
tickets at half price to students, military personnel in grades E-l 
through E-4, and handicapped, senior, and low-income citizens. 

The sptp operates without benefit of public subsidy, the atten- 
dant costs being borne by the center itself as part of its education 
and public service responsibility. During the past fiscal year, 
96,681 half-price tickets for center-produced or presented attrac- 
tions were sold through the program. The sale of these tickets at 
full price would have resulted in additional gross income to the 
center of $576,663. 

The center also requires that independent producers participate 
in the program by making a percentage of their tickets available 
for sale at half price. During the past year, combined half-price 
tickets sales for center-produced or presented attractions and those 
of independent producers, totaled 112,873. The sale of these tickets 
at full price would have resulted in a total additional gross income 
of $1,104,040 to the center and independent producers. 

Education Programming 

The Kennedy Center's authorizing legislation specifically directed 
the Board of Trustees to develop programs for children and youth 
in the performing arts. The Education Program was designed 
toward this end to provide national leadership in the field of arts 
education and to cooperate with regional performing arts centers 
and education networks across the country in developing and pre- 
senting model performances for young audiences. The program has 
three coordinated components: the Alliance for Arts Education, 
the Programs for Children and Youth, and the American College 
Theatre Festival. 

At both the state and national levels, the program seeks, by 
identifying and supporting exemplary arts-education projects, to 
promote incorporation of the arts into the education of every child. 
As part of this commitment, the center works closely with the 
National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped. Principal funding 

346 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

for the Education Program is provided by the U.S. Department of 
Education and the Kennedy Center Corporate Fund, with addi- 
tional assistance from corporations, foundations, and individuals. 


The Alliance for Arts Education (aae) serves as a national and 
regional network for information exchange on model arts-education 
programs. Conducted with the Department of Education since 
1973, the aae is composed of fifty-six committees: one in each of 
the fifty states, plus representation for American Samoa, the 
Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Department of Defense Dependents 
Schools-Pacific Area, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 
the Virgin Islands. The national office is responsible for promot- 
ing information exchange among aae committees, providing tech- 
nical assistance in the field of arts education upon request to the 
committees and the public, and distributing to the committees 
operation and programmatic funds. 

Each committee (usually composed of representatives from pri- 
vate and public agencies involved in arts education) sets its own 
goals, objectives, and activities. Most often, these activities focus 
on the committee's role: a forum for state and local awareness and 
advocacy work for arts education; for the development and imple- 
mentation of statewide plans for comprehensive arts education; 
and for providing consultant services to individuals and organiza- 
tions conducting arts education programs and projects. 

The national aae staff provided direct technical assistance and 
consultation services to more than half of the aae committees dur- 
ing fiscal year 1982. Each committee received a copy of a new 
slide-tape presentation, "First Flights," prepared by the Education 
Program. The national aae office also published Interchange, a 
bimonthly arts-education newspaper. 


The commitment of the center's Education Program, to quality per- 
forming arts programming for young people, is clearly expressed 
in the goals of its Programs for Children and Youth (pcy) ". . . to 
support arts-education programs in the schools through the 
medium of performance and to provide a variety of quality per- 
formances to student and general audiences." Along with the 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 347 

development and presentation of performances for young people, 
materials are provided for audiences and teachers to help integrate 
the performance experience into the student's over-all education. 

During the past season, the pcy presented nearly three hundred 
free performances and related events to audiences of more than 
150,000 in Washington, D.C., and cities around the country. The 
pcy produced a Children's Arts Series at the Kennedy Center in 
the fall, featuring professional artists performing for young people 
and a Caribbean Festival during February. Performing companies 
were selected from across the United States to represent the cul- 
turally diverse population of our country. 

The pcy annually presents "Imagination Celebration," a national 
children's arts festival at the Kennedy Center, and key elements 
are replicated in selected cities throughout the United States. This 
program not only provides a model for performing arts festivals 
for young audiences, but enables the Kennedy Center to contribute 
to the development of new works, to involve noted artists in per- 
forming for young people, and to serve as a catalyst for the 
development of programs for young people at performing arts 
centers throughout the country. 

The pcy provides technical assistance and core professional pro- 
ductions for each outreach festival, featuring such well-known 
artists as Sarah Caldwell, Jacques d'Amboise, and Leon Bibb. Each 
year during the "Imagination Celebration," an Award for Excel- 
lence is presented to an outstanding artist or individual for their 
contribution to young people through the arts. The recipient of 
this year's award was composer Gian Carlo Menotti whose new 
opera, A Bride from Pluto, was commissioned by pcy for its world 
premiere during the "Imagination Celebration." 

Another component of the pcy is the series of Arts Education 
Workshops offered to elementary and secondary school teachers, 
created to provide greater awareness and apreciation for all the 
art forms, thus enhancing teacher commitment to the arts in edu- 
cation. The workshops are offered annually in the fall and spring. 

Pcy programs received support from the George Preston 
Marshall Foundation, the Alvord Foundation, Mobil Oil Corpora- 
tion, The McLachlen National Bank, the Eugene and Agnes E. 
Meyer Foundation, and the German Orphan Home Foundation 
during the past year. 

348 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


The American College Theatre Festival (actf) is presented annually 
by the Kennedy Center to provide national recognition of the 
efforts of college and university theaters throughout the United 
States. Nearly 13,000 students and 2,200 faculty members from 
368 schools participated in ACTF XIV. Their production across 
the country drew audiences of more than two million. The festival 
seeks to encourage new styles of theatrical presentation and meth- 
ods of staging, innovative approaches to the classics, original 
plays by young writers, and revivals of significant plays of the 
past. It emphasizes excellence of total production, including act- 
ing, directing, design, and writing. 

Nearly sixty productions were presented in twelve regional festi- 
vals. Of these, seven were chosen for showcase presentation at 
the two-week national festival in the Kennedy Center Terrace 
Theater: Between Daylight and Boonville, University of Evans- 
ville, Evansville, Indiana; Oedipus Rex, California State University, 
Hayward; Don't Bother Me, I Can't Cope, Prairie View A&M Uni- 
versity, Prairie View, Texas; The Cashier, Indiana University, 
Bloomington; Seduced, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston; The 
Birds, St. Michael's College, Winooski, Vermont; and Folk Art, 
Masks and Puppets, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. 

The ACTF Michael Kanin Student Playwriting Award and other 
actf awards and scholarships in acting, theatrical design, theater 
criticism, and theater management offer students vital professional 
experience and cash awards totaling over $30,000. 

The Kennedy Center's Committee on Cultural Diversity pro- 
vided assistance to the actf to support the Black College Technical 
Assistance Project, intended to increase the participation of the 
historically black colleges and universities in the national festival. 
The project was initiated in 1980 in order to allow project staff to 
work with a number of the colleges on entry productions for the 
fourteenth annual actf competition. At the conclusion of the first 
full year of the project, national actf judges awarded Prairie View 
A&M's production of Don't Bother Me, I Can't Cope a place in 
national showcase festival at Kennedy Center. 

Actf is produced by the University and College Theatre Asso- 
ciation for the American Theatre Association and is supported in 
part by the Amoco companies. 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 349 

Cultural Diversity Programming 

The National Committee on Cultural Diversity in the Performing 
Arts serves as a standing advisory body on minority affairs to the 
chairman of the center's board of trustees. Its members are com- 
poser Roque Cordero, dancer/choreographer Chuck Davis, vocalist 
Ella Fitzgerald, actress Cicely Tyson, pianist Andre Watts, play- 
wright Richard Wesley, and Kennedy Center trustees, Marjorie M. 
Lawson and Henry Strong. Dr. Archie L. Buffkins, who serves as 
president of the committee, also worked closely this year with the 
center's Education Program to plan a major "Caribbean Festival," 
in observance of Black History Month, which received support 
through the Cultural Diversity Committee. 

Major support for the committee's projects is provided through 
the Kennedy Center Corporate Fund. Highlights of the year 
included: recitals by promising young artists in the center's Terrace 
Theater; a musical salute to America's black composers; play read- 
ings of new works by the Rep Theatre Company and support for 
major Kennedy Center productions of Shiro, a Japanese musical, 
and An Evening with Cab Calloway. 

Friends of Kennedy Center 

The Friends of Kennedy Center (fkc) was authorized in 1966 by 
the center's board of trustees as a nationwide, self-supporting 
auxiliary of volunteers and donor members. In the Washington 
metropolitan area the fkc volunteers contributed more than 65,000 
hours of service during the past year to provide visitor and infor- 
mation services 365 days a year. The volunteers staffed the cen- 
ter's souvenir shops, provided special visitor assistance to the 
handicapped, administered the Specially Priced Ticket Program 
and served as docents for the exhibition, Shakespeare: The Globe 
and the World, from the collection of the Folger Shakespeare 

The fkc organization also helps support public-service programs 
on behalf of the center and promotes a national membership net- 
work to aid and sustain the center's national outreach and pro- 

350 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

gramming activities: The Acting Company's national tour, the 
annual American College Theatre Festival, "Imagination Celebra- 
tion," Children's Arts Festival, the national Performing Arts 
Library at Kennedy Center, the National Committee Arts for the 
Handicapped, and a number of regional ballet companies. To assist 
recruitment of new members, a national membership committee 
has been formed on which many of the former state chairmen 
have agreed to serve. Members receive Kennedy Center News, a 
bimonthly periodical published by the fkc. 

Throughout the past year, the fkc sponsored such weekly, free, 
public-service events as "Conversations from Kennedy Center," 
weekly live and radio-broadcast symposia with leading guest per- 
forming artists appearing at the center and around Washington; 
free demonstrations of the Filene organ in the Concert Hall and 
the Wurlitzer organ in the AFI Theater; and special tours of the 
center as part of the annual summer 4-H program in Washington, 

Friends tour-guides offer free tours of the Kennedy Center every 
day of the year to more than 6,000 people who visit the center on 
an average day. Tours are also conducted in French, German, 
Spanish, and Portuguese to accommodate the unusually large num- 
ber of visitors from abroad. Group tours, including those arranged 
through the offices of each United States Senator and Member of 
Congress, are also offered on a daily basis. 

The revenue from fkc membership and souvenir shops is 
designed to assist the over-all public-service and performing arts 
mandate established for the Kennedy Center by its authorizing 

Mrs. Polk Guest has served as chairman of the Friends of 
Kennedy Center since its founding in 1966. 

Performing Arts Library 

The Performing Arts Library, a joint project of the center and 
the Library of Congress, opened to the public in March 1979 as 
the final element in the new Terrace Theater's artistic and educa- 
tional complex. During the past year, nearly 22,000 visitors utilized 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 351 

the library's information, reference, audio-visual, and exhibition 
facilities. In addition to the services provided artists, directors, 
visitors, patrons, and staff at the Kennedy Center, the library staff 
responded to requests on the performing arts from all parts of the 
country and received many visitors from around the world as well. 
The library's video-display computer link to the collections of the 
Library of Congress enhanced and assisted all of its services. 

The library staff includes specialist reference personnel in 
theater, music, and dance. Thoughout the year, special bibliog- 
raphies were prepared, and exhibitions and displays were mounted. 
The exhibition, Highlights of a Decade, honoring the first ten years 
of the Kennedy Center, remained on view from September 1981 
through April 1982. 

In April, in conjunction with the Library of Congress's National 
Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, the 
library mounted an exhibition of performing arts materials in the 
form of tapes, records, books in braille, and braille music scores 
for blind and physically handicapped persons. These materials 
exemplified the kinds of services provided by the Library of 

Also in April, another new exhibition, Focus on the Performing 
Arts: The Photography of Bern Schwarz, was unveiled. The exhibi- 
tion, comprised of portrait photographs of prominent persons in 
the performing arts, signaled the gift made to the Library of Con- 
gress by Mrs. Ronny Schwarz of a large number of negatives 
created by her late husband, Bernard Lee Schwarz, and a fund for 
the purchase of photographs. 

During 1982, in conjunction with the Exhibits Office of the 
Library of Congress, the Performing Arts Library made plans for 
a new exhibition of nineteenth-century American theater posters 
made to advertise the spectacles of the Kiralfy brothers. 

The Performing Arts Library continued to provide increased 
service to readers during 1982. Several on-going projects included 
final preparations of background material for the "Kennedy Center 
Honors," a television production of Medea; theater productions of 
Tartuffe, The Dining Room, Ghosts, Twice Around the Park and 
Monday After the Miracle; material used by the center's Public 
Relations and Marketing Office for "Theater Lovers' Notes"; and 
the organizing of the collection of Kennedy Center Stagebill pro- 

352 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

gram books — a collection, nearly complete, that spans the ten and 
one-half years of center performances. 

The library was supported by the Library of Congress and a 
major gift from R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc., through the Ken- 
nedy Center Corporate Fund. 

Kennedy Center Honors 

The Kennedy Center's board of trustees established the Kennedy 
Center Honors in 1978 to express the nation's esteem for its most 
distinguished artists. The 1981 Kennedy Center Honorees — Count 
Basie, Cary Grant, Helen Hayes, Jerome Robbins, and Rudolf 
Serkin — were the principal guests at a White House reception and 
subsequently were celebrated by their fellow artists at a gala 
performance in the center's Opera House. The event was shared 
nationwide by CBS telecast on December 26, 1981. 

Kennedy Center Tonight! 

Kennedy Center Tonight! is produced by the center in association 
with public television station WQED, Pittsburgh, with generous 
funding provided by the Shell Companies Foundation and addi- 
tional funding provided by the Corporation for Public Broadcast- 
ing. The second season of four outstanding programs was enjoyed 
by more than 25 million viewers and will be seen in more than 
fifty countries around the world. Great Vibes: Lionel Hampton 
and Friends, included triumphant appearances by the guest vibra- 
harpist at both the White House and Kennedy Center; Broadway 
Plays Washington, a salute to the American musical theater, 
helped public broadcasting stations across the country meet their 
annual fund-raising goals; and the Dancer Theatre of Harlem 
made its television bow on Kennedy Center Tonight! with its new 
production of Stravinsky's Firebird. The season concluded with a 
gala tribute to the great bass-baritone, George London. 

The center has consistently sought to exercise leadership in the 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 353 

development of the performing arts in America and to carry out 
its mandate as the National Cultural Center. Kennedy Center 
Tonight! has enabled the center to share with a nationwide audi- 
ence outstanding new productions, many of America's .leading 
artists, and rare behind-the-scenes understanding of our nation's 
artistic achievement. 


The Kennedy Center's operating budget for 1982, from its theater 
operations, concession income, and contributions, exceeded $27 
million. More than $3.5 million was raised from private sources 
in order for the center to fulfill its mission as a national 
performing arts center and to sustain a year-round calendar of 
educational and public-service programming. 

The National Park Service is responsible for the maintenance 
and security of the Kennedy Center, which, as a presidential 
memorial, is open to the public without charge every day of the 
year. The center, however, must reimburse the National Park 
Service a 23.8 percent pro rata share of maintenance, utility, and 
housekeeping expenses allocated to its operation as a performing 
arts center. Beyond its 1982 reimbursement to the National Park 
Service of nearly $900,000 for its apportioned share of costs, the 
center, in addition, bears the complete cost of maintaining its five 
cheaters and extensive backstage and office facilities. 

Since its opening in 1971, foundations, corporations, and indi- 
viduals have contributed more than $20 million to enable the 
center to carry out the broad mandate of performing arts, public 
service, and educational programming that is set forth in its 
authorizing legislation but is not supported by federal appropria- 
tions. A major portion of the private support contributed on 
behalf of the center has been provided by the Corporate Fund for 
the Performing Arts at Kennedy Center. 

The Corporate Fund was organized in 1977 by the principal 
officers of thirty-six major American corporations and currently 
represents nearly 300 corporations committed to the support of 
the center as a National Cultural Center. Funds contributed to the 

354 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Corporate Fund enable the center to extend its national outreach 
through programming and public-service activities, to foster new 
works, and to offer performing arts programming, at reduced 
prices or, in many instances, at no admission charge whatsoever. 
Participation in the Corporate Fund is open to any corporation 
that contributes to the center. Charles L. Brown, Jr., chairman of 
American Telephone and Telegraph Company, served as chairman 
of the 1982 Corporate Fund. The members of the board of gov- 
ernors and a listing of fund contributions received during the past 
year are named in Appendix 8. 

Board of Trustees 

The Kennedy Center is independently administered as a bureau 
of the Smithsonian Institution by a board of trustees, thirty of 
whose members are citizens appointed by the president of the 
United States for ten-year overlapping terms. The remaining fif- 
teen members are legislatively designated ex officio representatives 
of the legislative branch and executive departments of the federal 
government. Members of the Kennedy Center Board of Trustees 
are listed in Appendix 1. 

President's Advisory Committee on the Arts 

New appointments to the Advisory Committee on the Arts for the 
Kennedy Center were announced in September 1982 by Presi- 
dent Ronald Reagan. The committee, under the chairmanship of 
Herbert Hutner of California, includes membership from forty- 
three states and the District of Columbia. The Advisory Committee 
is authorized by the Kennedy Center Act to assist the center's 
Board of Trustees. At its first meeting in July 1982, the new mem- 
bers of the committee concentrated their discussions on private 
fund-raising and national outreach programs on behalf of the cen- 
ter. Members of the committee as of September 30, 1982, are 
listed in Appendix 1. 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 355 

Smithsonian Year . 1982 



The National Gallery of Art (nga), although formally estab- 
lished as a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, is an autono- 
mous and separately administered organization. It is governed by 
its own board of trustees, the ex officio members of which are the 
Chief Justice of the United States, the Secretary of State, the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. Of the five general trustees, Paul Mellon continued 
to serve as chairman of the board, with John R. Stevenson and 
Carlisle H. Humelsine as president and vice president, respectively. 
Also continuing on the board were Dr. Franklin D. Murphy and 
Ruth Carter Johnson. 

During the year, visitors entering both of the gallery buildings 
numbered 6,117,234 and included Mrs. Ronald Reagan and Her 
Majesty Queen Sofia of Greece; His Excellency, Sandro Pertini, 
president of the Italian Republic; and Her Majesty Queen Beatrix 
and Prince Claus of the Netherlands. 

The programs developed and distributed by the gallery's 
Department of Extension Programs during the year reached an 
estimated audience of over 48,000,000 — nearly double that of 
the previous year. This figure reflects a 98 percent increase in 
viewers of educational and public television programs, and a 400 
percent increase in orders for videocassette programs. Forty-seven 
new agencies joined the long-term Regional Extended Loan system. 
Three films developed and produced by the department won 
awards; 1982 Cine Golden Eagle awards were given to Rodin: The 
Gates of Hell and Picasso and the Circus; and Mobile, by Alex- 
ander Colder won the grand prize at the Montreal International 
Film Festival. 


Renovation continued in the West Building. A new dining facil- 
ity, the Garden Cafe — serving light lunches and desserts — opened 
in March in the Central Lobby of the ground floor. Construction 
continued on the new graphics, decorative arts, and small sculpture 
galleries in the west end of the ground floor to ready them for a 
January 1983 opening. 

Seventeen scholars were in residence at the Center for Advanced 
Study in the Visual Arts for varying periods during the year. The 
Kress Professor for the first half of the academic year 1981-82 
was Frank E. Brown, a leading scholar on the archaeology of 
ancient Italy, professor emeritus of classics at Yale University and 
former director of excavations of the American Academy in Rome. 
Professor Jean V. Bony, a specialist in medieval architecture and 
professor emeritus at the University of California at Berkeley, was 
appointed Kress Professor for the second half of the academic year. 

Washington area art historians were invited to the center for 
thirty-three meetings. There were eleven colloquia, in which papers 
were presented by the senior members; six seminars in various 
fields of art history and related disciplines; four meetings to hear 
area art historians discuss their current research; and seven lec- 
tures presented by scholars from the United States and abroad. 
Three informal meetings were held for visiting foreign scholars 
to present papers on their most recent research to members of the 
center and gallery and area historians having a particular interest 
in the topic under discussion. There were also two symposia, the 
first of which was the art history session of the Hermeticism and 
the Renaissance symposium organized by Catholic University and 
the Folger Institute. The second symposium was the Twelfth 
Annual Middle Atlantic Symposium in the History of Art. 

The center cosponsored two other symposia held elsewhere. The 
first, in Baltimore, Maryland, in March, dealt with new research 
in Italian studies of the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries 
and was cosponsored by the Art History Department at the Johns 
Hopkins University. The largest symposium of the year was held 
in Toledo, Spain, in conjunction with the Spanish opening of the 
El Greco of Toledo exhibition and with the collaboration of the 
Instituto Diego Velasquez in Madrid, marking the first time the 
center has held a program outside the United States. 

A number of fine paintings came into the collections through 

National Gallery of Art I 357 

gifts or purchases. Two seventeenth-century paintings, a still life 
by Dutch artist van Aelst, and a Madonna and Child, by Jan 
Gossaert (Mabuse), were added to the newly renovated and rehung 
Dutch and Flemish galleries. Two marine paintings by British- 
born artists of the early nineteenth-century, Seapiece: Off the 
French Coast, by Richard Bonington, and The Ship "Favorite" 
Maneuvering off Greenock, by Robert Salmon, were also added to 
the collection, as well as an historically and artistically important 
work by American Martin Johnson Heade, entitled Cattleya Orchid 
and Three Brazilian Hummingbirds around Nest. The gallery also 
received a partial interest in an early twentieth-century painting, 
Woman with a Hat, by Fauvist Maurice Vlaminck. 

Several other important twentieth-century works of art were 
acquired for the collections. The mysteriously beautiful A Moment 
of Calm, by Max Ernst, painted between 1939 and 1956, is a 
masterpiece of surreal landscape painting. Although the gallery has 
a major collection of Helen Frankenthaler works on paper, her 
painting entitled Wales, done in 1966, is the first acrylic on canvas 
by this artist to enter the collection. Gifts of a recent construction 
by Frank Stella entitled Jarama II, the bronze Wandering Rocks, 
by Tony Smith, and a painting by Hans Hartung entitled T-51-6 
further broadened the gallery's contemporary holdings. An impor- 
tant early Braque collage, Aria de Bach (1913), and a Picasso col- 
lage, Guitar, done in 1926, provide a fascinating comparison of 
these two twentieth-century masters in their treatment of essen- 
tially the same subject matter in similar techniques. 

Twentieth-century graphics were greatly enhanced by several 
purchases of prints by Picasso — in particular, the first complete 
set to come to America of his famous series of eleven lithographs 
entiled The Bull, and a unique impression of the final state of his 
important, but unpublished, analytic cubist drypoint Man with a 
Guitar. Fourteen contemporary prints by Johns, Lichtenstein, 
Stella, and Francis were also received as gifts. 

Among the finest gifts of drawings received this year were an 
early Claude landscape; a partial interest in a rare Schongauer 
drawing, Young Woman with a Scarf, from about 1475; and a 
partial interest in a beautiful early Matisse, Reclining Nude. Gifts 
of old master prints were distinguished by extremely fine impres- 
sions of Castiglione's Genius, Callot's complete Solimano series, 
and of Jan Muller's striking mannerist, Harpocrates. 

358 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

The gallery was able to purchase several unusually fine Italian 
drawings, in particular a Perugino sketch for a Baptism of Christ, 
for which curators had been searching for more than six years, a 
preparatory drawing by Raphael for the nga's painting of Saint 
George and the Dragon, and a large, intensely felt, Resurrection, 
by Testa. Nga also acquired Watteau's most important surviving 
drawing for a wall painting or architectural design, The Bower. 
The gallery's finest Dutch drawing acquired this year was a strik- 
ing Self-Portrait by a little-known seventeenth-century painter, 
Dirk Helmbreker. 

Of the 13 temporary exhibitions mounted, 5 presented selec- 
tions from private collections: 101 nineteenth-century American 
paintings, drawings, watercolors, pastels, and sculptures lent by 
Los Angeles collectors, JoAnn and Julian Ganz; 100 Picasso prints 
and drawings from the family collection of Chicagoan Morton 
Neumann; 25 eighteenth-century drawings from the collection of 
the late former Ambassador to Spain, Irwin Boyle Laughlin, lent 
by his daughter, Gertrude Laughlin Chanler; 66 paintings by 
twentieth-century American and European artists, lent by Swiss 
collector Baron Thyssen-Bornemisza; and a selection of approxi- 
mately 80 pieces of sixteenth-century maiolica from the collection 
of Dr. Arthur M. Sackler. 

Other painting exhibitions presented the works of Dutch artists 
of the seventeenth century, El Greco, and George Bellows. Coinci- 
dental with the bicentennial anniversary of Dutch-American dip- 
lomatic relations, Her Majesty Queen Beatrix of The Nether- 
lands opened an exhibition of forty outstanding examples of 
seventeenth-century Dutch painting from the Mauritshuis, the 
Royal Picture Gallery of The Netherlands and one of the best 
loved museums in Europe. The exhibition El Greco of Toledo was 
the most comprehensive ever assembled and included fifty-five 
paintings drawn from United States and foreign museums, 
churches, monasteries and private collections. An exhibition of 
American artist George Bellows's boxing paintings, drawings, and 
lithographs celebrated the centennial of that artist's birth. 

The first comprehensive exhibition of Costa Rica's pre-Colum- 
bian treasures to travel outside Central America presented more 
than three-hundred objects including pendants and other orna- 
ments in finely wrought gold and elegantly carved jade, richly 
colored and incised ceramic jars and vessels, and large stone sculp- 

National Gallery of Art I 359 

tures of warriors and other figures, as well as curved grinding 
tables intricately carved from volcanic stone. 

Three other exhibitions of works on paper included The Cubist 
Print, the first comprehensive survey of cubist prints in all media; 
Dutch Figure Drawings from the Seventeenth Century, 100 draw- 
ings and watercolors from the Rijksmuseum and other major 
museums and private collections in Europe and the United States; 
and the memorial exhibition, Lessing ]. Rosenwald: Tribute to a 
Collector, a selection of 100 prints, drawings, and watercolors 
chosen from the more than 20,000 graphic works which Mr. 
Rosenwald donated to the gallery between 1943 and 1979, the 
year of his death. 

The gallery made loans to 38 exhibitions at 51 American insti- 
tutions and to 25 exhibitions at 28 museums in foreign countries. 
Included were a total of 105 paintings, 4 sculptures and 170 works 
of graphic art. 

The Education Department prepared interpretative material for 
the Costa Rica exhibition, El Greco of Toledo, and the paintings 
from the Mauritshuis. Attendance at the special tours, lectures, 
and films as well as the regularly scheduled tours and talks relat- 
ing to the gallery's collections, the tours conducted by volunteer 
docents for area school children and foreign visitors, and the audi- 
torium lectures delivered by staff docents and invited scholars 
totaled 207,493. 

A number of distinguished scholars lectured during the year. 
Among them were: Leo Steinberg, eminent critic and Renaissance 
scholar, currently serving as Benjamin Franklin Professor of the 
History of Art at The University of Pennsylvania, who delivered 
the 1982 A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts on "The Burden 
of Michelangelo's Painting"; 1982 Kress Professors Frank E. 
Brown and Jean V. Bony; 1981 Press Professor Leopold D. 
Ettlinger, University of California, Berkeley; Alan Fern, director 
of the National Portrait Gallery; Terisio Pignatti, University of 
Venice; Robert Rosenblum of the Institute of Fine Arts, New 
York University; Peter Schatborn, curator of drawings at the 
Rijksmuseum; Giles Waterfield, director of the Dulwich Picture 
Gallery, London; Kathleen Weil-Garris of the Institute of Fine 
Arts, New York University; and Mahonri S. Young, former direc- 
tor, Columbus (Ohio) Museum of Art. 

360 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Smithsonian Year • 1982 

The following is a representative selection of Smithsonian events during the 
fiscal year. No attempt has been made to make this a complete compilation of 
Smithsonian activities. 


Milestone: The first Museum of Natural History major research field trips in 
China during the modern era were conducted by paleobiologist Richard Grant 
and marine biologist Robert Higgins, and continued through November. 

Publication: The National Museum of American History, the second book 
jointly produced with the Smithsonian Institution, was published by Harry N. 
Abrams, Inc. of New York. 

Seminars: For the sixteenth consecutive year, the Joseph Henry Papers spon- 
sored the monthly "Nineteenth-Century Seminar." Topics this year ranged 
from hydraulic engineering on the Mississippi River to the political content of 
historical-religious art. 

Symposium: "The Silver Jubilee Symposium" organized by the International 
Society of Tropical Ecology was held in Bhopal, India, and included six papers 
presented by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 

Outreach: Urban Spaces Project began, providing an introduction to con- 
cepts of architectural design and history to fifth and sixth graders during the 
school year, part of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum's Cultural Voucher Program. 

October 2 

Exhibition: The Print in the United States from the Eighteenth Century to the 
Present, 90 works on paper from various Smithsonian museums and collec- 
tions, opened at the Museum of American Art. 

October 5 

Milestone: The Cooper-Hewitt marked its fifth anniversary as the Smithson- 
ian's National Museum of Design. 

October 6 

Radio Special: "Yorktown: Echoes of a Victory," produced by the Office of 
Telecommunications, was broadcast nationwide as part of the Bicentennial 
celebration of the historic battle. 


October 10 

Seminar: Five European military figures who were instrumental in helping 
win American independence were the subject of a seminar organized by the 
Office of Symposia and Seminars as part of the Yorktown Bicentennial ob- 

October 15-18 

Special Event: The original script and score of the musical theater classic 
"Rose-Marie" was reconstructed by the Division of Performing Arts for a live 
performance at the Museum of Natural History and for a cast recording. 

October 21 

Special Event: The Contributing Membership of the National Associate Pro- 
gram, in cooperation with Warner Communications, Inc./Warner Bros., spon- 
sored an evening preview of Life on Earth, narrated by David Attenborough 
who created and served as host of the successful British series later shown 
on public television. 

October 21-23 

Seminar: The second "Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, 
and the Sun" was held at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; pro- 
ceedings appeared as SAO Special Report 392. 

October 26 

Concert: In celebration of the 250th anniversary of George Washington's 
birth, the Smithsonian Chamber Players and the Division of Musical Instru- 
ments presented the first in a series of four concerts re-creating performances 
given during Washington's lifetime in Vienna, London, Paris and Philadelphia. 

October 30 

Exhibition: More than Land or Sky: Art from Appalachia, 105 works by 69 
artists in 13 Appalachian states, opened at the National Museum of American 
Art. Subsequent public programs included films, poetry readings, concerts, a 
panel discussion and symposium. The exhibition is being circulated to a dozen 
museums and galleries in Appalachia. 

October 30-November 1 

Outreach: The National Associates Travel Program sponsored a program of 
lectures and tours for members of the Grand Rapids Art Museum. This was 
one of five programs offered to the members of selected museums who had 
co-sponsored 1981 events with the Regional Events Program, National Asso- 
ciate Program. 


Milestone: A series of concerts, films, publications, tours and recordings be- 
gan, marking the tenth anniversary of the Smithsonian Jazz Program. The 
series, produced by the Division of Performing Arts (DP A), included great 
jazz musicians who had appeared at the Smithsonian during those years. 

Agreement: A cooperative agreement was signed among Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute (STRI), Recursos Naturales Renovables, Instituto de Inves- 
tigacion Agropecuaria de Panama and Centro Agronomico Tropical de Inves- 
tigacion y Ensenanza to promote joint action for investigation and develop- 
ment in relation to the management of natural resources. 

362 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

November 2-5 

Seminar: Twenty museum professionals from museums and state arts councils 
in 12 states and Canada attended a seminar in Washington, D.C. on exhibi- 
tion interpretation, sponsored by Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service (SITES), Office of Museum Programs and the Corcoran Gallery of 
Art. The program was held in conjunction with SITES' exhibition Of Times 
and Place: American Figurative Art from the Corcoran Gallery. 

November 4 

Presentation: Mrs. Nancy Reagan presented to the National Museum of 
American History the gown she wore at the inaugural balls held on January 
30, 1981. 

November 4 

Grants: The First Ladies Fellowship was established for the study of costume 
in America. 

November 5 

Concerts: The first of four programs of Asian dance, music and theater fea- 
tured the Court Dance Theater and Music from Okinawa, a joint venture of 
the Division of Performing Arts and the Museum of Natural History. 

November 8 

Concerts: The 20th Century Consort, sponsored by the Division of Performing 
Arts, began its season commemorating the centennial of Igor Stravinsky's 
birth by including one of his works in each of four concerts at the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

November 8-12 

Symposium: "How Humans Adapt: A Biocultural Odyssey," seventh in the 
Smithsonian's international series of the Office of Symposia and Seminars, 
featured 20 major essayists examining the historical, biological, cultural and 
philosophical implications of human adaptation. 

November 15 

New Facility: A new electronic image processing system, coupled with a VAX 
computer, for producing video and hard-copy images of observational data 
from both ground-based and space-borne telescopes was installed at the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 

November 18 

Lecture: Mr. Ayad Musa El-Awamy, curator of the National Museum of 
Natural History in Libya, presented an illustrated talk on the museum as 
part of the Office of Museum Programs' International Program Lecture Series 
featuring foreign museum professionals in training at the Smithsonian. 

November 19-20 

Study Tour: "New York, New York!" an art study tour sponsored by the 
Resident Associate Program, offered participants the opportunity to experi- 
ence the inside New York art scene. The tour was repeated in January and 
February 1982 to meet demand. 

November 25 

Appointment: Dr. Charles C. Eldredge, Director of the Spencer Museum of 
Art and Professor of Art History at the University of Kansas, was named 
Director of the National Museum of American Art to succeed the late 
Dr. Joshua C. Taylor. 

Chronology I 363 


Publication: The Joys of Research, based on the colloquium organized by the 
Office of Symposia and Seminars for the Einstein Centennial celebration, was 
published by the S.I. Press. 


Expedition: Smithsonian scientists Robert Fudali and Ursula Marvin, Museum 
of Natural History, were members of an expedition to Antarctica that dis- 
covered a record number of 375 meteorites at the Allan Hills, an area where 
the polar ice cap has acted to concentrate meteorites on its surface. 

December 3 

Children's Theater: "The Elves and the Shoemaker," a production by the 
Puppet House Players, opened the season of the Discovery Theater in the 
Arts and Industries Building, presented by the Division of Performing Arts. 

December 4 

Exhibition: A newly reorganized dinosaur exhibition and other displays deal- 
ing with fossils and the evolution of life opened at the Museum of Natural 
History. A "Dinosaur Extravanganza," sponsored by the Resident Associate 
Program for Young Associates and their families, celebrated the reopening 
and featured a quick sketch artist, dinosaur songs, puppetry, balloons and 
tyrannosaurus cookies. 

December 4-6 

Milestone: The National Associates Travel Program celebrated its tenth 
annual "Christmas at the Smithsonian" for Smithsonian Associates. This 
weekend program was highlighted by a gala dinner and tree-trimming party 
in the Castle. 

December 12 

Exhibition: Von Steuben: Secret Aid to the Americans, organized and co- 
sponsored by the Foundation for Prussian Cultural Property, Berlin, opened 
at the Museum of American History. 

December 14 

Lecture: Amina Said, education officer of the Lamu Museum in Kenya and a 
Smithsonian intern, presented an illustrated talk about the museum and its 
programs for school children, for the Office of Museum Programs. 

December 15 

Special Event: The final event in the 1981 Doubleday series presented opera 
star/director Beverly Sills at the Museum of American History, in an evening 
of reminiscences and insight into American musical artistry. 

December 15-21 

Research: Dr. Gerald Deitzer, Radiation Biology Laboratory, worked with 
Dr. Lee Pratt at the University of Georgia, Athens on the development and 
construction of an ultra-sensitive microprocessor-assisted spectrophotometer 
for the measurement of the pigment phytochrome. 

December 17 

Exhibition: Metaphor: New Projects by Contemporary Sculptors, large-scale 
temporary installations by six American artists, opened at the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

364 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

December 18 

Reopening: The Reptile and Amphibian House at the National Zoological 
Park was opened to the public after undergoing renovation. 

December 21 

Milestone: The first live satellite radio program of a special holiday concert 
produced by the Division of Performing Arts and the Office of Telecommuni- 
cations was broadcast from the Institution to more than 110 National Public 
Radio stations across the country. 


FDR Centennial: Five exhibitions were opened at Smithsonian museums as 
part of a citywide observance of the 100th anniversary of Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt's birth: Five Distinguished Alumni: The W.P.A. Federal Art Project 
at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden; Mary McLeod Bethune and 
Roosevelt's Black Cabinet at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum; FDR: 
The Intimate Presidency at the Museum of American History; FDR: The 
Early Years at the National Portrait Gallery, and The Flying Roosevelt at the 
National Air and Space Museum. 

Outreach: Television public service announcements marking the 100th anni- 
versary of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's birth and related exhibitions at the 
Smithsonian and elsewhere in Washington, D.C., were prepared by the Office 
of Public Affairs and were aired on stations in Washington, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania. 

Publication: Subarctic, the fourth volume of the Smithsonian's encyclopedic 
Handbook of North American Indians, was published by the Smithsonian 
Institution Press. 

New Service: Information Desk services were initiated at the National 
Museum of African Art by the Visitor Information and Associates Reception 

Lecturer: Dr. Elisabeth Gantt, Radiation Biology Laboratory, was designated a 
distinguished lecturer for the Phycological Society of America for the year 

January 1 

Grant: The New York State Council on the Arts provided a grant to Cooper- 
Hewitt Museum for the establishment of a Conservation Consultancy Program 
for New York State. 

January 3 

Special Event: The Office of Public Affairs organized and co-hosted a recep- 
tion at the National Air and Space Museum for 350 science writers attending 
the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of 

January 5 

New Facilities: Groundbreaking ceremonies began construction of the library 
serving the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in the Republic of 

January 6 

Lecture: Li Ching Wong, conservator with the National Museum of Singapore, 
spoke on the artifacts and galleries of that museum in a program for the 
Office of Museum Programs. 

Chronology I 365 

January 15 

Publication: Revealing the Universe: Prediction and Proof in Astronomy, a 
collection of essays on the complementing roles of theory and observation in 
astronomy, was published by the MIT Press, edited by James Cornell and 
Alan Lightman of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 

January 16 

Lecture: Walter E. Fauntroy, Delegate to the U.S. Congress from the District 
of Columbia, lectured to area students at the Anacostia Neighborhood Mu- 
seum on his reminiscences of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 

January 16-18 

Concert Series: The Smithsonian Chamber Players, sponsored by the Division 
of Performing Arts, presented three all-Haydn concerts in celebration of the 
250th anniversary of the composer's birth. 

January 18 

Milestone: The National Air and Space Museum welcomed its 50 millionth 
visitor to the museum: Joseph P. Rostron of Clemson, S.C., a retired professor 
of engineering and a private pilot of forty years. 

January 19 

Exhibition: City Dwellings and Country Houses: Robert Adam and His Style, 
opened at the Cooper-Hewitt Museum in New York. 

January 28 

FDR Centennial: Joseph Alsop, author and columnist, lectured on "FDR: The 
Early Years" at the National Portrait Gallery. 

January 30 

FDR Centennial: "FDR: In the Shadow of History," a seminar sponsored by 
the Resident Associate Program, featured four eminent historians — William E. 
Leuchtenburg, James MacGregor Burns, Gaddis Smith and Frank Friedel — 
presenting a composite view of the late president. 

January 31 

Special Event: "Dance, Music, Art and Ritual in African Funerary Celebra- 
tions," a lecture presented by Rowland Abiodun, a Fulbright Scholar and 
Professor of Art at the University of Ife, was one of several events scheduled 
at the Museum of African Art in conjunction with its exhibition Life . . . 
Afterlife: African Funerary Sculpture. 

January 31 

Anniversary: To celebrate the Renwick Gallery's tenth birthday, an open 
house was held at the Gallery with dance and music, a magician and a 
juggler. Two exhibitions were opened in conjunction with the anniversary: 
The Inedible Renwick Birthday Cakes (January 29) and The Grand Renwick 
Gallery Souvenir Show (June 11). 

January 31 

FDR Centennial: "Folk Music in the Roosevelt White House," a concert of 
music that had been performed for the Roosevelts, was produced by the 
Office of Folklife Programs and included some of the musicians who had 
played on those occasions. The late President's son James and folklorist Alan 
Lomax provided their personal reminiscences of the White House concerts. 

366 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Automation: Smithsonian Institution Libraries began automation of its bind- 
ing records and contracts. Sixty percent were converted by the end of 1982. 

Docent Training: An advisory committee was established by the Office of 
Elementary and Secondary Education to develop a docent training manual for 
working with disabled museum visitors. 

February 5-6 

Special Event: The "Poetry of the Blues," a combined symposia/performance 
featuring international scholars and artists discussing, analyzing and perform- 
ing America's native poetic form, was presented by the Division of Perform- 
ing Arts. 

February 10 

Stamp Issue: The Office of Biological Conservation assisted the Wildfowl 
Trust in marketing a special Darwin commemorative postage stamp signed by 
Secretary Ripley. 

February 13 

Performance: The Khmer Classical Ballet was presented in a concert per- 
formance at the Museum of Natural History, cosponsored by the Office of 
Folklife Programs and the National Council for the Traditional Arts. 

February 20-26 

Research: Dr. William H. Klein and Bernard Goldberg, Radiation Biology 
Laboratory, collaborated with scientists at Harbor Branch Foundation in 
Florida to monitor the spectral quality of underwater light in the Indian 
River, using newly designed instruments constructed at the Laboratory. 

February 22 

Exhibitions: Two exhibitions opened honoring the 250th anniversary of the 
birth of the nation's first President: C. Washington: A Figure Upon the Stage 
at the National Museum of American History and An American Icon: The 
18th Century Image of George Washington, produced by the Smithsonian 
Traveling Exhibition Service, at the National Portrait Gallery. 

February 23 

Special Event: Four hundred 7th and 8th grade students from the District of 
Columbia schools participated in educational activities at the National Air 
and Space Museum's D.C. Day, that included a talk by Space Shuttle astro- 
naut Fred Gregory, kite and model building demonstrations and a student art 

February 24 

Lecture Series: In cooperation with the Boston Museum of Science and with 
the support of the Lowell Institute, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory began "Astronomy from Space," documenting a quarter-century of space 
science research. The series continued through April 7. 

February 24 

Lecture: Martha Lucia Sierra, a Fullbright Scholar and Smithsonian intern, 
lectured on The Gold Museum in Colombia in a program for the Office of 
Museum Programs. 

February 27 

Special Event: Ephat Mujuru from Zimbabwe, master artist of the mbira 
(thumb piano) performed at the National Museum of African Art. 

Chronology I 367 


Grant: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education received funding from 
the Cafritz Foundation in support of the "Exploring the Smithsonian" program 
for the District of Columbia Public Schools. 

Seminar: "Architectural Design Seminar: An Urban Site," a four-part design 
series, was conducted by some of the country's most distinguished architects 
and architectural design students, presented by the Resident Associate 

March 3 

Exhibition: The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: A New Look at the 
Work of Edward Curtis, organized by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service, opened at the Museum of Natural History and provided 
an analysis of the photographs taken by Curtis of American Indians. 

March 4 

Special Event: The Contributing Membership of the Smithsonian National 
Associate Program held A Waltz in Space, its annual membership ball, in the 
Milestones of Flight Hall of the National Air and Space Museum. 

March 5 

Research: Dr. Devra G. Kleiman of the National Zoo left for the People's 
Republic of China for seven weeks of cooperative work with Chinese counter- 
parts on the giant panda at the Chengdu Zoo and at the Wolong Reserve 
breeding facilities and discussions with Chinese scientists and officials con- 
cerning the Smithsonian's giant panda study. 

March 8-12 

Teaching: Robert M. Organ, Director of the Conservation Analytical Labora- 
tory taught for five days as part of a four-month course in "Scientific Prin- 
ciples of Conservation" at ICCROM, Rome. 

March 11 

Symposium: In honor of Women's History Week, a panel of eight distin- 
guished guests discussed "Images of Women in American Culture," co- 
sponsored by the Wonder Woman Foundation and the Museum of American 

March 12 

Special Event: The National Air and Space Museum and the Office of Fellow- 
ships and Grants hosted a reception for the 40 panelists convened by the 
National Academy of Sciences to evaluate applications for the Ford Founda- 
tion post-doctoral fellowships for minorities in the humanities and sciences. 

March 12 

Visit: President Mitterand of France visited the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden accompanied by the museum's director, Alan Lerner. 

March 13 

Special Event: A Tri-Museum Family Weekend focusing on the lives of five 
distinguished black Americans, was held at the Anacostia Neighborhood 
Museum, National Portrait Gallery and the Museum of American Art. Tours 
were conducted at each museum, with transportation provided between the 

368 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

March 17 

Exhibition: Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual opened at the Renwick 
Gallery. The exhibit, presented in two parts, included 600 objects assembled 
from the collections of nine Smithsonian museums and representing 62 socie- 
ties from around the world. Part I opened March 17; Part II, August 26. 

March 17-21 

Giant Panda Breeding: Ling-Ling, the National Zoo's female giant panda, 
came into estrus, however, the ensuing breeding encounters were not success- 
ful. She was then artificially inseminated. No birth resulted. 

March 18 

Exhibition: American Portraiture in the Grand Manner 1720-1920 opened at 
the National Portrait Gallery, the first major exhibition devoted exclusively 
to America's most grandiose formal portraiture. 

March 20 

New Program: "Basic Computer Literacy" provided an introduction to com- 
mercially available home micro-computers and software packages, basic com- 
puter language and usage. This intensive course represented a timely new 
subject area for the adult courses segment of the Resident Associate Program. 

March 20 

Seminar: "Ancient Anatolian Civilizations," an all-day program with four 
distinguished archaeologists, was presented by the Resident Associate Pro- 
gram and the Office of the Ambassador for Turkist Affairs, Turkish Republic, 
commemorating the birth of Kemal Ataturk. 

March 22-25 

Guidelines: Standards for use and measurement of artificial lighting systems 
of environmentally controlled rooms were formulated by a Department of 
Agriculture committee chaired by Dr. John C. Sager, Smithsonian Radiation 
Biology Laboratory. These standards were adopted by the American Society 
of Agricultural Engineers as guidelines for use throughout the United States. 

March 25-26 

Workshop: "Museum Membership Programs" workshop was held in Front 
Royal, Va., in cooperation with the George Washington University's College 
of General Studies and the Virginia Association of Museums. 

March 26 

Exhibition: Contemporary Art from the Netherlands, a SITES exhibition, 
opened at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, in celebration of the 
1982 bicentennial of diplomatic relations between the Netherlands and the 
United States. 

March 27-28 

Special Event: A seminar entitled "Human/ Animal Partnerships" was held at 
the National Zoo with demonstrations, lectures and films, as part of the Year 
of the Disabled. 

March 30 

Milestone: American Impressionism, organized and circulated by SITES, 
opened at the Musee du Petit Palais, the first exhibition of American Impres- 
sionist paintings ever shown in Paris and the first show in the new SITES 
Abroad program. 

Chronology I 369 

March 30-April 2 

Lectures: Jacqueline S. Olin, supervisor of Archaeometry and James Blackman, 
Research Chemist, both with the Conservation Analytical Laboratory, were 
participants in the 22nd Archaeometry Symposium, University of Bradford in 

March 30 

Film Premiere: IN OPEN AIR: A Portrait of the American Impressionists, 
produced by the Office of Telecommunications, had its premiere in Paris in 
conjunction with the SITES exhibition. This film subsequently won a Bronze 
"Cindy" from the Information Film Producers of America and a Bronze 
"Chris" Plaque from the Columbus Film Festival. 


Research: Based on pioneering studies in the tropical forest canopy in Panama 
and the Amazon, Terry L. Erwin, Museum of Natural History entomologist, 
calculated that there could be as many as 30 million species of insects extant 
globally, not 1.5 million as is usually estimated. 

Research: Estimates of growth rates of lichens collected in Antarctica's dry 
valleys by Dr. Mason E. Hale, Museum of Natural History Botanist, indicated 
ages in excess of 10,000 years, making them the oldest known living orga- 
nisms on earth. 

New Program: The Office of Museum Programs and the U.S. Information 
Agency co-sponsored a project for museum professionals from abroad to 
study at the Smithsonian and other museums in the United States. 

New Program: The Officer of Elementary and Secondary Education assumed 
responsibility for an Institution-wide Career Awareness Program, for the Dis- 
trict of Columbia public schools. 

Outreach: "Here at the Smithsonian . . . ," a new series of short features for 
television, was launched by the Office of Telecommunications for broadcast 
by a selected group of stations across the country. 

Extended Program: The contract for the Threatened Plants Committee's Latin 
America project was renewed for an additional year by the International 
Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, in order to enable 
a more thorough treatment of the region. This is a project of the Office of 
Biological Conservation. 

Outreach: An experimental television public service announcement was pre- 
pared by the Office of Public Affairs in cooperation with the Visitor Informa- 
tion and Reception Center and distributed to stations in twelve states to 
promote Trip Planner, a packet of information offered to viewers to help plan 
their visits to Smithsonian museums. 

April 3-5 

Special Event: Coinciding with the appearance of Honi Coles and his Jazz Tap 
Ensemble at the Museum of Natural History under the sponsorship of the 
Division of Performing Arts, Mayor Marion S. Barry proclaimed April 2 
"Honi Coles Day" in Washington, D.C. to honor the renowed tap dancer on 
his 71st birthday. 

April 5 

Outreach: The Office of Public Affairs, in cooperation with the National Air 
and Space Museum and the National Museum of Natural History, hosted a 
"Behind-the-Scenes Day" for 30 nationally known science writers, featuring 
interviews with more than two dozen Smithsonian scientists and curators and 
visits to major Smithsonian science facilities. 

370 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

April 11-15 

Research: Drs. Roy Harding and Nicholas Shaw, Radiation Biology Labora- 
tory, presented two papers on research results of control of enzymes in Neuro- 
spora at the eleventh Neurospora Information Conference held at the Univer- 
sity of Georgia. 

April 14-18 

Milestone: The fifth anniversary of the Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restora- 
tion and Storage Facility of the National Air and Space Museum was cele- 
brated with an open house and restoration-in-action demonstrations. Nearly 
9,000 visitors toured the facility during the five days. 

April 14-18 

Research: Dr. Robert Stuckenrath, Radiation Biology Laboratory, presented a 
paper on The Stratigraphy, Cultural Features and Chronology of Meadowcroft 
Rockshelter, Washington County, Southwestern Pennsylvania at a University 
of Pittsburgh symposium. The dates he presented were accepted as firmly 
establishing human occupation about 18,000 years ago, and now force revision 
of all previously held chronologies for the first human settlements on the 
east coast of the United States. 

April 15 

Lecture: Jacqueline S. Olin, Conservation Analytical Laboratory, presented a 
lecture on "Artifacts of Uncertain Provenance in the History of North 
American Exploration" to the Coast Guard Academy at New London, Conn. 

April 16-17 

Milestone: The tenth anniversary of the arrival of the giant pandas, Ling-Ling 
and Hsing-Hsing, at the National Zoo was marked with the unveiling of a 
plaque expressing friendship with the People's Republic of China. 

April 17 

Symposium: Director Ira Rubinoff, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 
presented a plan to preserve tropical rainforests from destruction at the 
"Leeds International Symposium on Rainforest Ecology" in Leeds, England. 

April 17-18 

Performance: Laotian and Cambodian New Year celebrations were organized 
with members of the Laotian and Cambodian communities of the District of 
Columbia metropolitan area by the Office of Folklife Programs and presented 
at the Renwick Gallery in conjunction with the current Celebration exhibition. 

April 19 

Visit: Her Majesty, Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands and His Royal Highness, 
Prince Claus officially opened the exhibition De Stijl: 1917-1931; Visions of 
Utopia — 250 works illuminating the art, architecture and design of this influ- 
ential Dutch movement — at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 
Related events included a seminar, films, concert and a 1926 Dada play. 

April 20 

Grant: The McDonnell Foundation granted $500,000, a part of its total com- 
mitment of $3 million, for the research, development and staffing of the 
projected Public Broadcasting System series of seven one-hour programs, 
"Smithsonian World." This is a co-production of WETA-TV and the Office of 
Telecommunications, scheduled for broadcast in 1984. 

Chronology I 371 

April 21 

Lecture: Rosina Corruthers Tucker, the 100-year ex-international secretary- 
treasurer of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, spoke at the Anacostia 
Neighborhood Museum on "A. Phillip Randolph and the Brotherhood." 

April 22 

Seminar: As a follow-up to the International Year of Disabled Persons, a 
seminar on further steps for improving research and education on disability 
was held by the Office of Symposia and Seminars. 

April 27 

Lecture: Economist John Kenneth Galbraith discussed his activities as Deputy 
Administrator in the Office of Price Administration during World War II in 
a program entitled "Memories of Price Fixing Days," presented by the Resi- 
dent Associate Program. 

April 27 

Automation: Smithsonian Institution Libraries began conversion of its older 
card catalogues into machine-readable electronic form. 

April 27 

Lecture: Fatima Ben Touq, museum specialist at the National Museum of 
Kuwait and a Smithsonian intern, spoke on the museum in a program for the 
Office of International Activities and the Office of Museum Programs. 

April 29 

Lecture: lone Carvalho de Medeiros, technical director of the Archaeological 
Museum, Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil and a Smithsonian intern, spoke on her 
recent work in developing a new museum for the community of Camoopa in 
Nicaragua, in a program for the Office of Museum Programs. 

April 29 

Lecture: Dr. W. Montague Cobb, president of the NAACP, spoke on "Blacks 
in Washington, D.C. after 1900," at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. 


Outreach: To mark its 10-year anniversary, Research Reports, a periodical 
produced by the Office of Public Affairs and reporting primarily on science 
research, was redesigned and redirected to cover the full breadth of Smith- 
sonian research including history and the arts. 

Grants: The Smithsonian Institution Libraries received two Atherton Seidell 
Endowment Fund grants, for computerization of old catalogue records of 
scientific titles and for a publication describing manuscripts in the Dibner 

May 5 

Visit: Mrs. Nancy Reagan reviewed the exhibition The First Annual Awards 
in the Visual Arts Exhibition/ AV A 1 at the National Museum of American 
Art, accompanied by Secretary Ripley and Dr. Harry Rand, the museum's 
curator of 20th century painting and sculpture. 

May 6-8 

Seminar: A conference on human adaptation was held in cooperation with 
the International Organization for the Study of Human Development as a 
follow-up to the Smithsonian's seventh international symposium held in 
November 1981. 

372 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

May 7 

Name Change: At ceremonies in Arizona, the name of the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory major field facility on Mt. Hopkins was officially 
changed to The Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in honor of SAO's 
former director. 

May 11 

Gallery Opening: The Frederick Hill Meserve Collection Gallery was opened 
at the National Portrait Gallery with an exhibition of photographic portrait 
prints made from Mathew Brady glass plate negatives that were part of the 
entensive, recently-acquired Meserve Collection. 

May 14-15 

Performance: A "big drum" dance was performed by recent immigrants from 
the Caribbean island of Carriacou, one of several Living Celebrations pro- 
duced by the Office of Folklife Programs in conjunction with the Renwick 
Gallery's Celebration exhibition. 

May 16 

Special Event: A program with Kitty Wells, presented by the Division of 
Performing Arts as a tribute to the acknowledged "Queen of Country Music," 
was held in the Museum of Natural History auditorium. 

May 26 

FDR Centennial: Actor/director John Houseman presented one in a series of 
Doubleday Lectures on "The Presidency," discussing his career in the Ameri- 
can theater, especially under the Federal Theater project. 

May 26 

Discovery: Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory scientists F. R. Harnden 
and Fred Seward reported the discovery of an X-ray pulsar blinking on and 
off several times a second in the heart of a supernova remnant, providing new 
support to the theory that stellar explosions must leave behind compact cores 
of original material. 

May 29-30 

Lectures: At the annual meeting of the American Institute for Conservation 
in Milwaukee, Wise, Robert M. Organ, director of the Conservation Analyti- 
cal Laboratory, spoke on "Information Systems for Conservators" and Walter 
Angst, senior conservator, presented a slide lecture on "Conservational 


New Facility: A joint STRI-University of Panama laboratory was inaugurated 
on Naos Island. 

Awards: Fourteen prizes in eight categories went to the Smithsonian in the 
National Association of Government Communicators 1982 Blue Pencil Awards 
Competition. The Office of Public Affairs received seven, including first (tied), 
second, third and two honorable mentions to the Smithsonian News Service; 
S.I. Press received four, and the National Air and Space Museum, three. 

Outreach: A five-week series of workshops, designed to train teachers in the 
educational uses of museums, was launched by the Office of Elementary and 
Secondary Education. 

Chronology I 373 

June — Continued 

New Service: The Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center initi- 
ated daily summer Mall information services. 

Publication: The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, 
was published by the Smithsonian Institution Press. 

June 2 

Acquisition: Lost Balloon, an 1882 landscape by William Beard, was acces- 
sioned by the National Museum of American Art. 

June 3 

Award: Anacostia Neighborhood Museum received an award on Energy 
Awareness Day for "the greatest percent reduction in gas consumption over 
the previous year." 

June 3 

Visiting Lecturer: Dr. Zoe Apostolache-Stoicescu, director of the Natural 
Science Museum in Ploiesti, Romania, lectured on that museum's wildlife 
conservation park, in a program for the Office of Museum Programs. 

June 3 

Visit: Princess Benedikte of Denmark toured the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, accompanied by Secretary Ripley and the museum's direc- 
tor, Abram Lerner. 

June 4 

Award: "Smithsonian Galaxy," Office of Telecommunications' radio series, 
received a gold medal from the International Radio Festival of New York. 

June 6 

Special Event: A "Festival of Animals," featuring a parade, music, children's 
workshops, films and live animals, was held at the Museum of African Art in 
conjunction with the exhibition Thinking with Animals. 

June 11 

Symposium: Lillian Hellman, Emily Hahn and Berenice Abbott discussed 
"Creative Women in Paris and New York in the 20s and 30s" in conjunction 
with an exhibition of Abbot's work at the Museum of American Art. 

June 11 

Lecture: Pia Vivarelli, participant in the Visiting Professionals Program, Office 
of Museum Programs, lectured on the National Gallery of Modern Art in 

June 14 

Conservation: Special Flag Day ceremonies at the Museum of American 
History, with Mrs. Barbara Bush, wife of the Vice President, launched con- 
servation work to protect the Star Spangled Banner. 

June 15 
Seminar: The Office of Museum Programs began a nine-week course, "Museum 
Careers Seminar," providing Smithsonian interns with an overview of museum 
professions and the skills and education required. 

June 16 
Milestone: SITES exhibition, American Impressionism, opened in East Berlin, 
the first East European city on its tour. 

374 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

June 18 

Symposium: "Amelia Earhart: Flight into Yesterday/' a program at the 
National Air and Space Museum, joined as panelists individuals who knew 
Earhart personally, including her sister Muriel, and historians who have 
researched her disappearance. 

June 19 

Milestone: Inua: Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo, the first major 
traveling exhibition assembled from the ethnological collections of the Mu- 
seum of Natural History/Museum of Man, opened at that museum. Craft 
demonstrations, dancing, drumming and singing by Eskimos from St. Law- 
rence Island in Alaska, were arranged by the Office of Folklife Programs in 
conjunction with the first week of the exhibit. The group also performed at 
Renwick Gallery for its Celebration exhibit. 

June 20 

International Conference: David Erhardt and Tim Padfield, Conservation 
Analytical Laboratory, presented a paper on "A Method for Making Molds 
from Embossed Paper" at the International Institute for Conservation Cana- 
dian Group Conference in Quebec. 

June 23-27 

Family Event: A weekend of special activities on the Mall was sponsored by 
the National Associates Travel Program for Smithsonian Associates and their 

June 24-28, July 1-5 

Festival of American Folklife: The 16th annual festival, co-sponsored by the 
Smithsonian and the National Park Service, returned to its original site on 
the National Mall adjacent to the museums of American History and Natural 
History. Participants came from Oklahoma, Korea and Korean-American 
communities. The first annual National Heritage Fellowship Awards were 
presented by the National Endowment for the Arts and these 15 musicians 
and craftspersons also participated in the festival. 

June 24 

New Facilities: Legislation was signed by President Reagan authorizing the 
construction of a new center on the Mall for African, Near Eastern and Asian 

June 25 

Lecture: Dr. S. M. Nair, director of the National Museum of Natural History 
in New Delhi, India, lectured on that museum in a presentation for the Office 
of Museum Programs. 

June 26-July 2 

Special Event: "Summerfest" was held at the National Zoo, observing Zoo 
and Aquarium Month as designated by proclamation of the President. 


Research: Dr. Elisabeth Gantt, Smithsonian Radiation Biology Laboratory, 
began three months of collaborative research on phycobilisomes at the 
Okazaki National Research Institute in Japan. 

Grants: The James E. Webb Fellowship was established in honor of James E. 
Webb, Regent Emeritus, to promote excellence in the management of cultural 
and scientific not-for-profit organizations. 

Chronology I 375 

July — Continued 

Research: Dr. David Correll, Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental 
Studies completed a study which documents large increases in the acidity of 
rainfall at the Center during the period 1974-1982. 

Film: The Office of Biological Conservation began consultation with National 
Geographic's film division on a two-part documentary on "The Galapagos 
Since Darwin." The subsequent placement of cameras on the Islands resulted 
in the first 16mm film of a Galapagos volcanic eruption. 


Appointment: Irwin I. Shapiro, professor of physics and geophysics at MIT, 
was named Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and 
Director of the Center for Astrophysics, which encompasses SAO and the 
Harvard College Observatory, effective January 1, 1983. 


Tours: In cooperation with the University of Arizona and with support from 
the Office of Public Service, the guided bus tours of the Whipple Observatory 
in Arizona were reinstated. 


Exhibition: The National Air and Space Museum opened 25 Years of Space 
Exploration, a commemorative exhibit with photographs, film, memorabilia 
and artifacts that placed the developments of the space age against the back- 
ground of social, cultural and other historical events of the time. 


TV Premiere: IN OPEN AIR: A Portrait of the American Impressionists, pro- 
duced by the Office of Telecommunications, had its first television showing 
on WETA-TV, Washington, D.C. 

July 20 

Publication: Astronomy and the Astrophysics for the 1980s, the report of the 
Astronomy Survey Committee containing recommendations and priorities for 
the development of research instrumentation in the next decade, was pub- 
lished by the National Academy Press. George B. Field, director of the Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory, served as committee chairman. 

July 28 

Visit: Her Royal Highness Queen Sophia of Spain visited the National Air 
and Space Museum, accompanied by Secretary Ripley, Under Secretary Phillip 
S. Hughes, Assistant Secretary David Challinor and the museum's acting 
director Walter J. Boyne. 

July 30 

Visit: Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of India visited the exhibition Modern 
Indian Paintings from the National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi, at the 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, accompanied by Under Secretary 
Phillip S. Hughes, Assistant Secretary Charles Blitzer and the museum's 
deputy director, Stephen Weil. 


Grant: The James Smithson Society enabled Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
to purchase Thomas Brown's Illustrations of the American Ornithology . . . 
(Edinburgh, 1835). 

376 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

August — Continued 

Exhibitions: Soyer Since 1960 and Raphael Soyer: Sixty-five Years of Print- 
making, featuring the work of the eminent 82-year-old American realist, 
opened at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. The artist also par- 
ticipated in "An Evening with Raphael Soyer," sponsored by the Resident 
Associate Program. 

Publication: The Behavior and Natural History of the Caribbean Reef Squid 
Sepioteuthis sepioidea, by Martin H. Moynihan and Arcadio F. Rodaniche of 
the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, was published by Verlag Paul 
Parley of Berlin and Hamburg. 

Construction: Scientists at the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental 
Studies completed a permanent fish monitoring station on Muddy Creek, a 
tributary of Chesapeake Bay. 

Publication: The Smithsonian Institution Libraries, through its translation/ 
publications program based on excess foreign currency funds (P.L. 480), pub- 
lished History of Metal Cutting Machines to the Middle of the Nineteenth 
Century by F. N. Zagorskii. 

August 1-5 

Symposium: "The Biology and Management of the Cervidae," an international 
conference, was held at the National Zoo's Conservation and Research Center, 
Front Royal, Va. 

August 6 

Film Premiere: Flyers, the National Air and Space Museum's third IMAX film, 
sponsored by Conoco Inc., opened in the museum's Samuel P. Langley Theater. 


Publication: The National Museum of Natural History, the third book jointly 
produced with the Smithsonian Institution, was published by Harry N. 
Abrams, Inc. of New York. 

New Program: Master of Arts Degree Program was launched by the Cooper- 
Hewitt Museum in conjunction with Parsons School of Design/The New 

New Directions: The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum initiated planning for 
a new Museum Annex site at Fort Stanton Park. 

Milestone: The Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies was desig- 
nated a National Estuarine Sanctuary. 

New Facility: STRI acquired the sixty-six-foot SS Las Cruces from the Panama 
Canal Commission at no cost, for conversion into a floating dormitory/ 

Research: A study by paleobiologists Storrs L. Olson and Helen James, 
NMNH, showed prehistoric Polynesians responsible for the extinction of 
apparently half of the bird species on the islands before the arrival of 
Captain James Cook in 1778, disproving the generally accepted belief that 
pre-European Hawaii was an unspoiled paradise. 

Automation: The Smithsonian Institution Libraries completed planning for 
the extensive automation of its operations. 

Exhibition: Introduction to Conservation in the Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries, the first exhibition on the work of the Book Conservation Labora- 
tory, opened in the Museum of American History. 

Chronology I 377 

September 5 

Festival: The sixth annual Smithsonian Frisbee Disc Festival, largest non- 
competitive disc event in the world, was held on the Mall, sponsored by the 
National Air and Space Museum. 

September 8 

Conference: Three scientists from the Conservation Analytical Laboratory, 
Timothy Padfield, David Erhardt, and Walter Hopwood, were participating 
speakers in the International Institute for Conservation annual conference, 
held in Washington, D.C. 

September 10-11 

Performance: Traditional Sanskrit theater (Kutiyattam) of Kerala, India, was 
presented at the Renwick Gallery in conjunction with the Celebration exhi- 

September 11-12 

Symposium: "Animal Extinction — What Everyone Should Know," a sympo- 
sium directed to the general public, was held at the National Zoo with inter- 
nationally known speakers. 

September 15 

Gift: Arthur M. Sackler of New York, art collector, researcher and publisher, 
pledged 1,000 masterpieces from his Chinese, Southeast Asian, Near Eastern 
and other art collections to the new Smithsonian facility devoted to Asian and 
Near Eastern cultures, to be named the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. 

September 17 

Lectures: "Reinterpreting Galileo," sponsored by the Office of Symposia and 
Seminars in association with the Catholic University of America, examined 
Galileo's significance to the history and philosophy of science. 

September 20-25 

Conference: The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory sponsored an inter- 
national workshop on "Very High Energy Gamma Ray Astronomy Using the 
Atmospheric Cerenkov Technique in Oootacamund, India," with the support 
of the Smithsonian Foreign Currency Exchange Program and the cooperation 
of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. 

September 21 

Exhibition: The Cooper-Hewitt Museum opened Scandinavia Modern: 1880- 
1980 as part of the nationwide program Scandinavia Today. 

September 23 

Exhibition: Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation, depicting the con- 
tributions and achievements of blacks in the field of aviation, opened at the 
National Air and Space Museum. 

September 25 

Reception: Dr. Mary Leakey, distinguished anthropologist, was honored with 
a reception by the Contributing Membership of the National Associate Pro- 
gram on the occasion of her presentation of the first Allen O'Brien Memorial 
Lecture at the Museum of Natural History. 

September 29 

Premiere: Probe, a new Spacearium presentation — an armchair tour of the 
solar system — opened in the National Air and Space Museum, produced by 
the Spacearium staff. 

378 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Smithsonian Year • 1982 

Organization Chart page 380 

1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, Boards, and 
Commissions, September 30, 1982 382 

2. Smithsonian Special Foreign Currency Program Awards 

Made October 1, 1981, through September 30, 1982 392 

3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded in Fiscal Year 1982 395 

4. Academic, Research Training, and Internship 

Appointments in Fiscal Year 1982 397 

5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 

in Fiscal Year 1982 415 

6. Publications of the Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 

and Its Subsidiaries in Fiscal Year 1982 425 

7. The Smithsonian Institution and Its Subsidiaries, 

September 30, 1982 521 

8. Donors to the Smithsonian Institution in Fiscal Year 1982 553 

9. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution in 

Fiscal Year 1982 624 

10. Visitors to the Smithsonian Institution in Fiscal Year 1982 639 








Accounting Office 

Office of Grants and Risk Management 

Investment Accounting Division 

Business Management Office 


Food Services Division 

Mail Order Division 

Smithsonian Museum Shops 


Assistant Secretary for 

Chesapeake Bay Center for 

Environmental Studies 
National Air and Space Museum 
National Museum of Man 

Center for the Study of Man 
National Museum of 

Natural History 
National Zoological Park 
Office of Biological Conservation 
Office of Fellowships and Grants 
Radiation Biology Laboratory 
Smithsonian Astrophysical 

Smithsonian Tropical Research 


Assistant Secretary for 

Archives of American Art 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
Freer Gallery of Art 
Hirshhorn Museum and 

Sculpture Garden 
Joseph Henry Papers 
Museum of African Art 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 

Renwick Gallery 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
National Portrait Gallery 
Office of American and 

Folklife Studies 

Assistant Secretary for 

Conservation Analytical 

National Museum Act 
Office of Exhibits Central 
Office of Horticulture 
Office of International 

Office of Museum Programs 
Office of the Registrar 
Smithsonian Archives 
Smithsonian Institution 

Smithsonian Institution 

Traveling Exhibition 

Secretary's Executive Committee 


Under Separate Boards of Trustees: 








Coordinator of 


Office of Congressional Liaison 
Office of Public Affairs 
Office of Special Events 

Director of 


Development Office 
Smithsonian National Associate 

Smithsonian Resident Associate 


Assistant Secretary for 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 
Division of Performing Arts 
International Exchange Service 
Office of Elementary and Secondary 

Office of Smithsonian Symposia and 

Office of Telecommunications 
Smithsonian Institution Press 
Smithsonian Magazine 
Visitor Information and Associates' 

Reception Center 

Assistant Secretary for 

Contracts Office 

Office of Equal Opportunity 

Office of Facilities Services 

Office of Design and Construction 

Office of Plant Services 

Office of Protection Services 
Office of Information Resource 

Management Analysis Office 
Office of Personnel Administration 
Office of Printing and Photographic 

Office of Programming and Budget 
Office of Supply Services 
Travel Services Office 

APPENDIX 1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, Boards, 
and Commissions, September 30, 1982 


Warren E. Burger, The Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio, Chancellor 
George H. Bush, The Vice-President of the United States, ex officio 

Henry M. Jackson, Senator from Washington 
Barry Goldwater, Senator from Arizona 
Edwin J. (Jake) Garn, Senator from Utah 

Silvio O. Conte, Representative from Massachusetts 
Norman Y. Mineta, Representative from California 
Edward P. Boland, Representative from Massachusetts 

David C. Acheson, citizen of the District of Columbia 

Anne L. Armstrong, citizen of Texas 

J. Paul Austin, citizen of Georgia 

William G. Bowen, citizen of New Jersey 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Murray Gell-Mann, citizen of California 

A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., citizen of Pennsylvania 

Carlisle H. Humelsine, citizen of Virginia 

James E. Webb, citizen of the District of Columbia 


Gordon N. Ray, 

Dore Ashton 
Milo C. Beach 
Milton W. Brown 
Frederick B. Burkhardt 
William H. Davenport 
Anne d'Harnoncourt 
A. Hunter Dupree 

Frank B. Golley 
Stephen Jay Gould 
Neil Harris 
August Heckscher 
Nathan I. Huggins 
Ada Louise Huxtable 
Bennetta Jules-Rosette 
George F. Lindsay 
Thomas E. Lovejoy 

Peter Marler 
David F. Musto 
Ruth Patrick 
Vera C. Rubin 
Andre Schiffrin 
Carl E. Schorske 
Gunther Schuller 
Barbara W. Tuchman 


Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, Chairman 
Mr. Gilbert H. Kinney, President 
Mrs. Nancy B. Negley, Vice-President 
Mr. Alfred Taubman, Vice-President 
Mr. Henry deForest Baldwin, Treasurer 
Mrs. Robert F. Shapiro, Secretary 

Mrs. Eli Broad 
Dr. Irving F. Burton 
Mr. Joel S. Ehrenkranz 
Mrs. Walter B. Ford II 
Mrs. Joseph Hirshhorn 

Mrs. Dwight Kendall 
Mrs. Charles Kessler 
Mr. Irvin A. Levy 
Mr. Howard W. Lipman 
Mr. Richard Manoogian 

Mr. John Lowell Jones Mrs. Walter Maynard, Jr. 

Mr. Porter A. McCray 
Mrs. William L. Mitchell 
Mrs. Muriel Kallis Newman 
Mrs. Dana M. Raymond 
Mr. C. Bagley Wright 

382 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Lawrence A. Fleischman Mrs. Edsel B. Ford 

E. P. Richardson 


Mr. Harold O. Love Mr. Russell Lynes Mrs. William L. Richards 


S. Dillon Ripley Charles Blitzer 



Milton Brown, Lloyd Goodrich 

Chairman Eugene Goossen 
Thomas N. Armstrong III James J. Heslin 

John Baur John Howat 

Anne d'Harnoncourt James Humphrey III 

John Dobkin Bernard Karpel 

William Gerdts John A. Kouwenhoven 

Abram Lerner 
Russell Lynes 
Barbara Novak 
Clive Phillpot 
Jules D. Prown 
Joseph T. Rankin 
William B. Walker 


Harley B. Holden, 

Winslow Ames 
Mr. and Mrs. 

George H. Bumgardner 
Carl Chiarenza 
Charles Ferguson 
Wolfgang M. Freitag 

Hugh Gourley 
Elton W. Hall 
Patricia Hills 
Sinclair Hitchings 
John Kirk 
William Lipke 
Kenworth Moffett 
Elliott Offner 

James O'Gorman 
Stephen Riley 
Laurence Schmeckebier 
Theodore Stebbins 
Richard Teitz 
Bryant F. Tolles 
Peter Wick 
Margaret Craver Withers 


Wesley Chamberlin, 

Stanley Andersen 
Herschel Chipp 
Van Deren Coke 
Wanda Corn 

James Elliott 
Albert Elsen 
Bruce Guenther 
Harvey Jones 
Martha Kingsbury 
Margaretta Lovell 

George Neubert 
Don Stover 
Harvey West 
Ian McKibbin White 


Constance W. Glenn, 

E. Maurice Bloch 
Burton Fredericksen 

Richard Koshalek 
Susan C. Larsen 
Earl A. Powell III 
Moira Roth 

Josine Ianco Starrels 
Maurice Tuchman 
Robert R. Wark 


Bernard Mergen, 

Marjory Balge 
Lorraine Brown 
Peggy Burke 
David Driskell 

Charles Eldredge 
Alan Fern 
Lois Fink 
Henry Glassie 
William Homer 
Charles Hummell 

Al Lerner 
Marc Pachter 
Phoebe Stanton 
John Vlach 
John Wilmerding 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 383 


Richard Fiske, 

John Eisenberg 
Roger Kennedy 

Thomas Lawton 
Michael H. Robinson 

David Challinor, 

ex officio 
Charles Blitzer, 

ex officio 


August Heckscher, 

Karen Johnson Boyd 
Rosemary Corroon 
Joan K. Davidson 
Joanne du Font 

Russell Lynes 
Gilbert C. Maurer 
Kenneth Miller 
Amanda Ross 
Arthur Ross 
Robert Sarnoff 

Marietta Tree 
S. Dillon Ripley, 

ex officio 
Charles Blitzer, 

ex officio 


Wilcomb E. Washburn, 

Roger Abrahams 
Richard Ahlborn 

William Fitzhugh 
Lloyd Herman 
Robert Laughlin 
Scott Odell 

Ralph Rinzler 
Peter Seitel 
Richard Sorenson 
Thomas Vennum 


Mrs. Jackson Burke 
Kwang-chih Chang 
Marvin Eisenberg 
Murray Gell-Mann 

Charles A. Greenfield 
Porter McCray 
Norman Y. Mineta 
John M. Rosenfield 

Mrs. Katherine Graham Hugh Scott 

Laurence Sickman 
Priscilla P. Soucek 
John S. Thacher 
Richard Weatherhead 


Daniel P. Moynihan, 

Sydney Lewis, 

Vice Chairman 

Leigh B. Block 1 
Anne d'Harnoncourt 
Thomas M. Evans 
Jerome Greene 

Olga Hishhorn 
Dorothy C. Miller 
Leonard C. Yaseen 2 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 


Jimmie L. Crowe Belva Jensen 

James R. Buckler, 



Edward S. Ayensu Paul Desautels 

James R. Buckler Paul N. Perrott 

Mary Ripley 

1 Through June 1982. 

2 Beginning July 1982. 

384 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Frederick Seitz, 

Whitfield J. Bell, Jr. 

Lee Anna Blick 
Charles Blitzer 

S. Dillon Ripley 
Henry D. Smyth 


S. Dillon Ripley, 

Gen. Lew Allen, Jr., USA (Ret.) 
Phillip E. Culbertson 
Michael J. Fenello 
Lt. Gen. William H. Fitch, USMC 

Donald M. Koll 

Vice Adm. Wesley McDonald, USN 

Lt. Gen. James H. Merryman, USA 

James P. Moore, Jr. 

Jacqueline A. Ponder 

Vice Adm. Benedict L. Stabile, USCG 


Alexander H. Flax 
Gerald K. O'Neill 
Leon T. Silver 

Lt. Gen. James T. Stewart, USAF (Ret.) 
Richard R. Whitcomb 


Andrew J. Goodpaster, Lt. Gen., U.S. Army, retired 

Theodore Ropp 

Caspar W. Weinberger, Secretary of Defense, ex officio 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 


Sol Tax, 

Matthew Huxley, 

Ira Abrams 
T. Berry Brazelton 
Roma Crocker 
William H. Crocker 
Herbert Di Gioia 

Phoebe Ellsworth 
Gordon Gibson 
Edward T. Hall 
Glenn Harnden 
Stephen P. Hersh 
Paul Hockings 
Benetta Jules-Rosette 
Peter Marzio 
Constance B. Mellon 

Norman Miller 
Phileo Nash 
Marion Stirling Pugh 
Jerold Schecter 
Hubert Smith 
George Spindler 
Colin Turnbull 
Carroll W. Williams 
Joan Swayze Williams 


Paul N. Perrot, 

George H. Abrams 
Donald V. Hague 

Watson M. Laetsch 
Thomas N. Maytham 
Jan K. Muhlert 
Paul E. Rivard 

Kenneth Starr 
Joyce Hill Stoner 
F. Christopher Tahk 
Jean Weber 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 385 


Mr. James M. Kemper, Jr., 

Mrs. Joe L. Allbritton 
Mr. Arthur G. Altschul 
Mr. Perry R. Bass 
Honorable Lucius D. Battle 
Mr. William W. Bodine, Jr. 
Honorable Nicholas F. Brady 
Mrs. Jackson Burke 
Mr. David L. Coffin 
Mrs. Justin Dart 
Mr. Gaylord Donnelley 


Mr. James A. Elkins, Jr. 

Mr. W. L. Hadley Griffin 

Mr. Gordon Hanes 

Mr. John F. Harrigan 

Mrs. Parker T. Hart 

Mr. Richard D. Hill 

Mrs. Henry L. Hillman 

Honorable Carla Anderson Hills 

Mr. Samuel C. Johnson 

Mr. Seymour H. Knox III 

Mr. Brooks McCormick 

Mr. Arjay Miller 

Justice Sandra D. O'Connor 
Mr. H. Smith Richardson, Jr. 
Mrs. George M. Seignious II 
Mr. David E. Skinner 
Mr. Roger B. Smith 
Mrs. Edson W. Spencer 
Mr. Malcolm T. Stamper 
Mrs. E. Hadley Stuart, Jr. 
Mr. Vernon Taylor, Jr. 
Mr. Parke Wright 

Mr. William S. Anderson 
Mr. Richard P. Cooley 
Mr. Joseph F. Cullman 3rd 
Honorable Leonard K. Firestone 

Mr. Alfred C. Glassell, Jr. Honorable George C. McGhee 

Mr. William A. Hewitt Mr. Francis C. Rooney, Jr. 

Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson Mr. Merritt Kirk Ruddock 

Mr. Lewis A. Lapham Honorable Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 


Lee Bronson 
David Driskell 
John B. Duncan 
Carl Freeman 
S. I. Hayakawa 
Frances Humphrey 

Richard Long 
Frank Moss 
Milton Ratner 
Thomas Schwab 
Roy Sieber 
Walter Washington 

Franklin Williams 
Charles Blitzer, 

ex officio 
S. Dillon Ripley, 

ex officio 


Joseph James Akston 

Arthur Ashe 

James Avery 

Ernie Barnes 

Saul Bellow 

Julian Bond 

Rep. John Brademas 

Dona Bronson 

Edward W. Brooke 

Joseph Campbell 

Rep. John Conyers 

Ossie Davis 

Lula Dawson 

Rep. Donald Dellums 

Barbaralee Diamonstein 

Charles Diggs 

Ofield Dukes 

Joanne duPont 

Ralph Ellison 

John Hope Franklin 

Buckminster Fuller 

James Gibson 

Dick Gregory 

Chaim Gross 

Lily Polk Guest 

Alex Haley 

George Haley 

Eliot Halperin 

Geoffrey Holder 

Rep. Frank Horton 

Muriel Humphrey Brown 

David Lloyd Kreeger 

Jacob Lawrence 

Vera List 

J. Bruce Llewellyn 

Mary McFadden 

Robert McNamara 

Stanley Marcus 

Rae Alexander Minter 

Clarence Mitchell 

Nancy Negley 

Mace Neufeld 

Dorothy Porter 

Vincent Price 

Benjamin Quarles 

Milton Ratner 

Michael Rea 

Saunders Redding 
Norman B. Robbins 
Harold Rome 
Bayard Rustin 
Sen. Hugh Scott 
Stanley Scott 
Evelyn Sessler 
Mabel Smythe 
Michael Sonnenreich 
David Stratmon 
Lynette Taylor 
Anne Teabeau 
Maurice Tempelsman 
Paul Tishman 
Sterling Tucker 
Mike Wallace 
Barbara Watson 
G. Mennen Williams 
Isabel Wilson 
Lester Wunderman 
Elizabeth Bouey Yates 
Andrew Young 
Nicholas Zervas 

386 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Mrs. Nan Tucker McEvoy, 

Thomas S. Buechner, 

Vice Chairman 
S. Dillon Ripley, 

Donald Anderson 
Mrs. Elizabeth Brooke Blake 
Lloyd Goodrich 
Walker Hancock 

R. Philip Hanes, Jr. 
Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr. 
August Heckscher 
Mrs. Robert Homans 
Thomas C. Howe 
Mrs. Jaquelin H. Hume 
Richard L. Hunt 
David Lloyd Kreeger 
Abram Lerner, 
ex officio 

Mrs. Hiram W. McKee 

Philip Pearlstein 

George Segal 

Mrs. Oliver Seth 

Mrs. John Farr Simmons 

Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth 

George B. Tatum 

Mrs. Charles Bagley Wright 


Martin Friedman 
Henry P. Mcllhenny 
Paul Mellon 

Ogden Pleissner 
Edgar P. Richardson 

Charles H. Sawyer 
Andrew Wyeth 


Robert L. McNeil, Jr. 
Robert H. Morgan 
Barbara Novak 

Senator Barry Goldwater 3 
Barry Bingham, Sr. 
Thomas Mellon Evans 
Katie Louchheim 

J. Carter Brown, Director, National Gallery of Art, ex officio 
Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 




Robert Hilton Smith 
Frank Stanton 
Barbara Tuchman 

Paul N. Perrot, 

Jane R. Glaser, 
ex officio 

Janet Solinger, 
ex officio 

Julian Euell 
Richard Fiske 
J. O. Grantham 
Neil Harris 
Philip S. Humphrey 
Watson Laetsch 

Abram Lerner 
Richard Randall 
Adelle Robertson 
Susan Stitt 
Michael Templeton 


Archeology and Related Disciplines Advisory Council 

Bennet Bronson Daniel M. Neuman William Trousdale 

Thomas J. Hopkins Barbara Ramusack Edward Wente 

Astrophysics and Earth Sciences Advisory Council 

Felix Chayes William Klein Victor Szebehely 

George Field William Melson Louis Walter 

Paul Hodge Thornton Page 

Systematic and Environmental Biology Advisory Council 
Lafayette Frederick David L. Pawson Richard H. Tedford 

Richard Highton 

' Resigned April 21, 1982. 

Beryl B. Simpson 

Charles A. Triplehorn 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 387 


Mrs. Parker T. Hart, Chairman 

Mrs. Townsend Burden III, Vice Chairman 

Mrs. Ray Scherer, Secretary 

Mrs. Malcolm Maclntyre, Assistant Secretary 

Mrs. Frank B. Clay, Treasurer 

Mrs. Edmund Wellington, Jr., Assistant Treasurer 

Mrs. Donald Alexander 
Mrs. Albert Barclay, Jr. 
Mrs. James M. Beggs 
Mrs. Denton Blair 
Mrs. Huntington T. Block 
Mrs. Philip Bowie 
Mrs. Harrison Brand III 
Mrs. Adelyn Breeksin 
Mrs. George Bush 
Mrs. Thomas J. Camp, Jr. 
Mrs. Charles H. Clark 
Mrs. Richard Cobb 
Mrs. James L. Collins, Jr. 
Mrs. James M. Collins 
Mrs. Thomas E. Crocker 
Mrs. John Davidge 
Mrs. Stuart C. Davidson 
Mrs. J. Edward Day 
Mrs. John W. Gill 
Mrs. Robert R. Gray 
Mrs. William T. Hamilton 
Mrs. Karl G. Harr 
Mrs. Walter Hodges 
Mrs. Edgar W. Holtz 
Mrs. Donald W. Jeffries 
Mrs. George W. Jones 
Mrs. Clinton W. Kelly III 
Mrs. Robert Koehler 

Mrs. James Lehrer 
Mrs. William S. Mailliard 
Mrs. Alexander M. Maish 
Mrs. Roemer McPhee 
Mrs. Donald Notman 
Mrs. Lawrence B. Olds 
Mrs. Dudley Owen 
Mrs. Jefferson Patterson 
Mrs. James R. Patton, Jr. 
Mrs. C. Michael Price 
Mrs. Malcolm Price 
Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley 
Mrs. Thomas M. Roberts 
Mrs. Reynaldo Rodriquez 
Mrs. Robert Rogers 
Mrs. Peter T. Russell 
Mrs. Leonard Silverstein 
Mrs. Henry P. Smith III 
Mrs. Howard Smith, Jr. 
Mrs. Wells Stabler 
Mrs. James McK. Symington 
Mrs. Thomas K. Taylor 
Mrs. Robert D. Van Roijen 
Mrs. Charles Verrill 
Mrs. Charles Swan Weber 
Mrs. Philip C. White 
Mrs. John Burke Wilkinson 
Mrs. Robert S. Wilkinson 


William J. Baroody, Jr., 

Robert A. Mosbacher, 

Vice Chairman 
James A. Baker III 
Theodore C. Barreaux 

William J. Bennett 
Daniel J. Boorstin 
Kenneth B. Clark 
Stuart E. Eizenstat 
Max M. Kampelman 
Jesse H. Oppenheimer 

S. Dillon Ripley 
Richard S. Schweiker 
Anne Firor Scott 
George P. Shultz 
Robert M. Warner 
Charles Z. Wick 


Honorary Chairmen 

Mrs. Ronald Reagan 
Mrs. Jimmy Carter 
Mrs. Gerald Ford 

Mrs. Richard M. Nixon 
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson 
Mrs. Aristotle Onassis 

388 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Roger L. Stevens, 

Senator Charles H. Percy, 

Vice Chairman 
Henry Strong, 

Vice Chairman 
Frank Ikard, 

Charlotte Woolard, 

Assistant Secretary 
W. Jarvis Moody, 


Harry McPherson, 

General Counsel 
William Becker, 

Associate Counsel 
James F. Rogers, 

Assistant Treasurer 
John J. Ronveaux, 

Assistant Treasurer 
Henry Strong, 

Assistant Treasurer 

Members Appointed by the President of the United States 

Mrs. Howard H. Baker, Jr. 

Mrs. Edward T. Breathitt 

Marshall B. Coyne 

Richmond D. Crinkley 

June Oppen Degnan 

Mrs. J. Clifford Folger 4 

Abe Fortas 5 

Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 

J. William Fulbright 

Cary Grant 6 

Mrs. William Lee Hanley, Jr.' 

Orval Hansen 

Mrs. Bob Hope 

Frank Ikard 

Melvin R. Laird 

Marjorie M. Lawson 

Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 

Dina Merrill 
Joan Mondale 
Ronald H. Nessen 4 
Donna Stone Pesch 
Gerald M. Rafshoon 
Mrs. Abraham Ribicoff 
Jean Kennedy Smith 
John G. Spatuzza 
Roger L. Stevens 
Mrs. Theodore H. Strauss 
Henry Strong 
Benjamin A. Trustman 4 
Donna Tuttle 6 
Jack J. Valenti 
Lew R. Wasserman 
Mrs. Jack Wrather 
Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. 

Members Ex Officio Designated by Act of Congress 

Richard S. Schweiker, Secretary of 

Health and Human Services 
T. H. Bell, Secretary of Education 
Charles Z. Wick, Director, 

United States Information Agency 
Senator James A. McClure 
Senator Edward M. Kennedy 
Senator Charles H. Percy 
Representative Joseph M. McDade 
Representative Charles Wilson 
Representative Sidney R. Yates 

Honorary Trustees 

Mrs. George A. Garrett 
Ralph E. Becker 
Mrs. Albert Lasker 

Marion S. Barry, Mayor, 

District of Columbia 
S. Dillon Ripley II, Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution 
Daniel J. Boorstin, Librarian 

of Congress 
J. Carter Brown, Chairman of the 

Commission of Fine Arts 
Russell E. Dickenson, Director, 

National Park Service 
William H. Rumsey, Director, District 

of Columbia Department of Recreation 

Mrs. Jouett Shouse 
Mrs. J. Clifford Folger 

4 Term expired September 1, 1982. 

5 Deceased April 5, 1982. 

6 Appointed September 24, 1982. 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 389 

President's Advisory Committee on the Arts 

Herbert Hutner, Chairman 

Los Angeles, California 
Margaret Archambault 

Chicago, Illinois 
Robert D. Bain 

Bismarck, North Dakota 
Charles Camalier, Jr. 

Potomac Falls, Maryland 
Clara Chambers 

Bloomfield Hills, Michigan 
Margot Denny 

Anchorage, Alaska 
William M. Fine 

New York, New York 
Beverly Gosnell 

Charleston, South Carolina 
Cynthia Grassby 

Denver, Colorado 
Carl Halvorson 

Lake Oswego, Oregon 
Leota Hayes 

Jackson, Mississippi 
T. David Higgins 

South Charleston, West Virginia 
Martin B. Hoffman 

Needham, Massachusetts 
Stephen Jernigan 

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 
Gerald Kirke 

Des Moines, Iowa 
Gary Levine 

Bellevue, Washington 
Peggy Mallick 

Casper, Wyoming 
John Marsh 

Gainesville, Virginia 
Alyne Massey 

Nashville, Tennessee 
Julia M. McCabe 

Wilmington, Delaware 
Virginia McCann 

Short Hills, New Jersey 
Lindsay J. Morgenthaler 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Jim Nelson 

Rapid City, South Dakota 
Jeanette Nichols 

Shawnee Mission, Kansas 
H. Davison Osgood, Jr. 

Scarborough, Maine 
K. Voith Penberthy 

Paradise Valley, Arizona 
John Piercey 

Salt Lake City, Utah 
Millie Pogna 

Albuquerque, New Mexico 
Gladys Prescott 

West Palm Beach, Florida 
Chesley Pruet 

El Dorado, Arkansas 
Ann Rydalch 

Idaho Falls, Idaho 
Hugh K. Schilling 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 
William Siems 

Billings, Montana 
Harriet Slaybaugh 

Montpelier, Vermont 
Eileen Slocum 

Newport, Rhode Island 
Charles C. Spalding 

Honolulu, Hawaii 
Richard Taylor 

Potomac, Maryland 
Dr. Paul Tessier 

New Castle, New Hampshire 
James Thompson 

Louisville, Kentucky 
Judith Thompson 

Birmingham, Alabama 
Diane Ushinski 

Shavertown, Pennsylvania 
Dorothy Vannerson 

Sugar Land, Texas 
Joseph Vetrano 

Bristol, Connecticut 
Judith Woods 

St. Louis, Missouri 


Paul Mellon, 

Carlisle H. Humelsine 
Ruth Carter Johnson 

Franklin D. Murphy 
John R. Stevenson 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio 

George P. Shultz, Secretary of State, ex officio 

Donald T. Regan, Secretary of the Treasury, ex officio 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

390 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Margaret A. Santiago, Marilyn J. Hilton, 

Chairperson Treasurer 

Julia Anne Hoover, Ann C. Gilstrap, 

Vice-Chairperson Historian 

Sherrill G. Berger Roberta Geier 

Betty Beuck Margery Gordon 

Constance Bond Linda St. Thomas 

Martha Caopelletti Joanna C. Scherer 

Prudence Clendenning Carolyn Thompson 

Linda Laws Corliss Deborah Jean Warner 

Audrev B. Davis Miriam Weissman 

Linda S. DuBro Edith M. Whiteman 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 391 

APPENDIX 2. Smithsonian Special Foreign Currency Program 
Awards Made October 1, 1981, through 
September 30, 1982 


American Institute of Indian Studies, Chicago, Illinois. Continued support for 
administration; research fellowships; Center for Art and Archeology; publica- 
tions program; Center for Ethnomusicology; the autobiography of Indulal 
Yagnik; editing of Advaita Vedanta volumes. 

American Research Center in Egypt, Princeton, New Jersey. Operation of Cen- 
ter in Cairo; fellowship program in the study of archeology and related disci- 
plines in Egypt; continuation of the architectural and epigraphic survey of 
Egypt; an archeological map of the Theban necropolis; excavations at Hiera- 

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. Tibetan modern history, 
1933-1950; pre- and protohistorical culture development in West Bengal 
(India); excavations at Allahdino (Pakistan); International Congress of Paki- 
stan Archeology. 

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. International Congress of 
Pakistan Archeology. 

Columbia University, New York, New York. Tibetan studies seminar (India). 

Corning Museum of Glass, Corning, New York. Documentation of early glass- 
making tradition surviving in Firozabad, India. 

Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. The oral epic in India. 

Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington, D.C. A corpus of 
the mosaics of Tunisia (Tunisia). 

Herbert H. Lehman College, Bronx, New York. Ceramic production and distri- 
bution in Rajasthan, India. 

Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture, New York, New York. 
Indo-American fellowship program. 

New York University, New York, New York. Ramilila of Ramnager (India). 

Social Science Research Council, New York, New York. Islam, ethnicity and 
the state (India and Pakistan). 

Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. Prehistory of Egypt. 

State University of New York at Oswego, New York. Photographs and history 
of Indian women. 

University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. Changes in the population and ma- 
terial culture of a north Indian village: 1953-1983. 

392 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

University of California, Berkeley, California. Food policy and feeding cities: 
a case study of Guinea; excavations at Opovo-Bajbuk (Yugoslavia); Hima- 
layan region conference (India and Pakistan); paleoclimatic studies of the 
Son Valley, India. 

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Investigation of Near/Far East trad- 
ing sites in South India. 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. Fourth South Asian Roundtable (India); 
Burmese old court language. 

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Vijayanagara: Urban 
space in a medieval Hindu imperial capital (India). 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Translation of the 
verbal and pictorial epic of Devnarayans: scroll painting in Rajasthan, India; 
ancient economic plants of South India; conference on twentieth-century 
literature (India), workshop on Late Cenozoic paleoclimatic changes (India). 

Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut. Ethnographic research in 
north Pakistan. 


Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Paleoanthropological investiga- 
tions of Miocene sediments of Northeastern India. 

Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Herpetofauna 
of South India. 

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Anthropological and paleontologi- 
cal research into the fossil anthropoid sites of the Egyptian Oligocene. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Later Miocene hominoids 

Howard University, Washington, D.C. Cenozoic mammals of Pakistan. 

Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois. Floral biology of Myristica fragrans 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. Studies of Euphorbia (India). 

Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. Managing semitropical wetlands (India). 

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Examination of 
echinoderm collections at Calcutta, India; systematic study of Indian micro- 
lepidoptera; the migratory birds of India. 

National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C. Conference on conservation of 
biological diversity (India). 

Pennsylvania State University, University, Pennsylvania. Comparative study 
of Old World and New World tiger beetle community structure (India). 

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey. Comparative ecology and ethnol- 
ogy of three species of Apis (India). 

Queens College, Flushing, New York. Evolution and ecology of parasitoid- 
drosophilid complex of India. 

Smithsonian Office of Biological Conservation, Washington, D.C. Conservation 
workshop (India). 

Appendix 2. Special Foreign Currency Program Awards I 393 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panama. Comparative statis- 
tical study of social behavior (India); fellowship travel support (India); 
cephalopod behavior in South India. 

Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. The occlusal epidemiological 
transition in populations of North India. 

Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. Studies in Gondwana paleon- 
tology (India). 

University of California, Berkeley, California. Paleontological and paleoan- 
thropological investigation of Cenozoic strata of Burma. 

University of Maine, Orono, Maine. Nanoplankton/microzooplankton preda- 
tor/prey link in the northern Adriatic marine food web (Yugoslavia). 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Fossil mammals in Paleocene 
and Eocene sediments in Pakistan. 


Alcorn State University, Lorman, Mississippi. Development of a program of 
scintillation studies at low-latitute ionospheric stations (India). 

Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. Travel of Indian participants in Hawaii 
workshop and symposium, IGCP Project 163; petrological and mineralogical 
investigation of Indian kimberlites. 

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Investigations of 
Lonar Crater (India). 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Confer- 
ence on high-energy gamma rays (India) ; balloon-borne far-infrared-telescope 
project (India); continuation of operation of Uttar Pradesh State Observatory/ 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observing Station, Naini Tal, India. 


Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Collection 
management workshop (India). 

Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture, New York, New York. 
Joint Indo-U.S. programs. 

394 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

APPENDIX 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded 
in Fiscal Year 1982 


American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee 

Association of Science-Technology Centers, Washington, D.C. 

Calvert Marine Museum, Solomons, Maryland 

Charleston Museum, Charleston, South Carolina 

Congress of Illinois Historical Societies and Museums, Springfield, Illinois 

National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C. 

Southern Arts Federation, Atlanta, Georgia 

Texas Historical Commission, Austin, Texas 


Michael Connolly, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada 

Madeleine W. Fang, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada 

Cathy Giangrande, University of London, London, England 

Kathleen Hansen, Columbia University, New York, New York 

Kristin F. Hoermann, Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware 

Judith Levinson, Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, Maryland 

Janet Null, International Center for Conservation in Rome, Rome, Italy 

Abigail Quandt, Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware 

Paul Rabin, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada 

Marta Rothwarf, The Textile Conservation Center, Ltd., Surrey, England 

Robert Sawchuk, Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware 

J. William Shank, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Pamela Spitzmueller, Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois 

Phillip Sykas, The Textile Conservation Center, Ltd., Surrey, England 

Timothy Vitale, International Centre for Conservation in Rome, Rome, Italy 


Bank Street College of Education, New York, New York 
Columbia University, New York, New York 

Appendix 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded I 395 

Cooperstown Graduate Programs, Oneonta, New York 

New York University, New York, New York 

University of Delaware (Conservation Program, Hagley Museum Program, 
Winterthur Program), Newark, Delaware 

Yale University (University, Art Gallery), New Haven, Connecticut 


Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York 

Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts 

New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 

Northeast Document Conservation Center, Andover, Massachusetts 

Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, Texas 

Rocky Mount Historical Association, Piney Flats, Tennessee 

University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 

Zoological Society of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 


Eastern National Parks and Monuments Association, 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 

Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 

Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, 

Boston, Massachusetts 

University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 
Washington Park Zoo, Portland, Oregon 
Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California 


African American Museums Association, Washington, D.C. 

American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee 

American Association of Museums, Washington, D.C. 

Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas 

National Conservation Advisory Council, Inc., Washington, D.C. 

396 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

APPENDIX 4. Academic, Research Training, and Internship 
Appointments in Fiscal Year 1982 


The Smithsonian offers, through the Office of Fellowships and Grants, research 
and study appointments to visiting scientists, scholars, and students. These 
appointees are provided access to the Institution's facilities, staff specialties, 
and reference resources. The persons — listed by bureau, office, or division — in 
this appendix began their residencies between October 1, 1981, and September 
30, 1982. Predoctoral Fellows are designated as Ph.D. candidates, and Grad- 
uate Student Fellows are marked with an asterisk. Postdoctoral Fellows, Visit- 
ing Scientists and Scholars, holders of special awards, and participants in 
special programs are so listed. The institution where each individual received, 
or expects to receive, the degree, is listed, or the home university or institu- 
tion is given for Visiting Scientists and Scholars. Also given is the title or 
brief description of the project to be conducted at the Smithsonian and the 
name of the Smithsonian advisor. 


Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, Visiting Scholar, Department of History, Morgan State 

University. Black women in the struggles against racism and sexism, 1870- 
1970, with Mrs. Louise Hutchinson, Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, and 
Mrs. Edith Mayo, Department of Social and National History, National 
Museum of American History, from June 1, 1982, through August 31, 1982. 


Thomas E. Jordan, Ph.D., Boston University. The role of plant litter in nutrient 

cycling, with Dr. David Correll, from September 1, 1982, through August 31, 


Anne Sorenson, Ph.D., Oxford University. The influence of plant growth form 

on feeding preference of frugivorous birds, with Dr. James Lynch, Chesapeake 

Bay Center for Environmental Studies, and Dr. Eugene Morton, National 

Zoological Park, from September 15, 1982, through September 14, 1983. 


Marva L. Carter,* Ph.D. candidate, University of Illinois. The life and works 
of Will Marion Cook, violinist, composer and conductor, with Mr. James 
Morris, from June 7, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 


Laurie Berman, M.A. candidate, University of Michigan. The paintings of 

Liang K'ai and their relationship to Japanese ink paintings of the Muromachi 

Period with Dr. Yoshiaki Shimizu, from January 11, 1982 through April 30, 


Carol Bier, Ph.D. candidate, New York University. Dionysiac imagery in the 

art of Iran, with Dr. Esin Atil, from January 1, 1982, through December 31, 


Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 397 

Suzanne Cahill, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. Style and iconog- 
raphy in Chinese bronze mirrors of the Han through Tang periods, with 
Dr. Thomas Lavvton, from April 1, 1982, through June 30, 1983. 
Toshio Ebine, Harold P. Stern Memorial Fund Fellow. Ph.D. candidate, Fac- 
ulty of Fine Arts, Tokyo Geijutsu Daigaku. Relationship between Chinese 
and Japanese ink paintings, with Dr. Thomas Lawton, from July 15, 1982, 
through September 30, 1982. 

Linda Landis*, Ph.D. candidate, Yale University. The relationship between 
optical theory and pictorial space in the work of Degas, Manet, Courbet, and 
Whistler, with Dr. David Curry, from June 21, 1982, through August 27, 

Fumiko Togasaki,* Ph.D. candidate, Indiana University. Calligraphy and 
painting by Koetsu and Sotatsu of the Japanese Rimpa School, with 
Dr. Yoshiaki Shimizu, from May 31, 1982, through August 6, 1982. 


Mostyn Bramley-Moore,* Ph.D. candidate, University of St. Andrews. The 
pop milieu; some critical issues, with Mrs. Cynthia Jaffee McCabe, Depart- 
ment of Painting and Sculpture, from January 12, 1982, through March 19, 

Ellen Todd, Ph.D. candidate, Standford University. The Fourteenth Street 
School; images of New York's Union Square, with Dr. Judith Zilczer, Depart- 
ment of Painting and Sculpture, from September 1, 1982, through Decem- 
ber 31, 1983. 


Gregory Good, Ph.D., University of Toronto. The genesis of geophysics; 
American efforts to understand geomagnetism, 1830-1860, with Dr. Nathan 
Reingold, from February 1, 1982, through January 31, 1983. 


R. E. G. Davies, The Charles A. Lindbergh Chair. The history of air trans- 
port, with the director and staff of the National Air and Space Museum, 
from July 1, 1982, through June 20, 1983. 

Ralph Kenat, Guggenheim Fellow, Ph.D. candidate, University of Maryland. 
Quantum physics and the composition of the stars, with Dr. David DeVorkin, 
Department of Space Science and Exploration, from August 1, 1982, through 
July 31, 1983. 

John Logsdon, National Air and Space Museum Chair in Space History. 
Graduate Program in Science, Technology and Public Policy, George Wash- 
ington University. The development of U.S. space policy from 1969 to 1972, 
with the director and staff of the National Air and Space Museum, from 
September 1, 1982, through August 31, 1983. 

Joseph Tatarewicz, Ph.D. candidate, Indiana University. Space technology 
and the renaissance of planetary astronomy, 1958-1975, with Dr. Allan 
Needell, Department of Space Science and Exploration, from September 1, 
1982, through August 31, 1983. 

Gerald Wasserburg, Smithsonian Institution Regents Fellow. Division of Geo- 
logical and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology. Develop- 
ment of publications on the origins of the solar system and of the results of 
space exploration for the public, and documentation of aspects of the space 
program since the early 1960s, with the director and staff of the National 
Air and Space Museum, from September 15, 1982, through December 15, 

398 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Zakaria AH, Visiting Scholar. Sains University of Malaysia. Development of 
American art in the 1930s, with Dr. Harry Z. Rand, Department of 20th Cen- 
tury Painting and Sculpture, from November 1, 1981, through February 28, 

Martha Anderson,* Ph.D. candidate, University of Maryland. Indigenous 
roots of New York Dada, with Dr. Lillian Miller, Charles Willson Peale 
Papers, National Portrait Gallery, and Dr. Judith Zilczer, Department of 
Painting and Sculpture, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, from 
September 6, 1982, through November 12, 1982. 

Nancy Kay Anderson, Ph.D. candidate, University of Delaware. Albert Bier- 
stadt and the California landscape painters of the 1870s, with Mr. William 
Truettner, Department of 18th and 19th Century Painting and Sculpture, 
from September 1, 1982, through August 31, 1983. 

Elizabeth Ellis, Ph.D. candidate, Columbia University. Art and taste in Bos- 
ton, 1839-1850, with Dr. Lillian Miller, Charles Willson Peale Papers, Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, from November 15, 1981, through November 14, 1982. 
Richard Gruber, Ph.D. candidate, University of Kansas. Thomas Hart Benton; 
the teacher and his students, with Dr. Charles Eldredge, Director, from 
September 1, 1982, through August 31, 1983. 

Katherine Manthorne, Ph.D. candidate, Columbia University. Latin America 
and the American consciousness ; images of Latin America by American art- 
ists, naturalists and travel writers, 1839-1898, with Mr. William Truettner, 
Department of 18th and 19th Century Painting and Sculpture, from Febru- 
ary 1, 1982, through January 31, 1983. 

Nancy Mathews, Ph.D., New York University. The letters of Mary Cassatt, 
with Dr. Adelyn Breeskin, Department of 20th Century Painting and Sculp- 
ture, from June 1, 1982, through December 31, 1982. 

Barbara Melosh, George Mason/Smithsonian Institution Fellow. Department 
of History, University of Wisconsin. The iconography of gender; manhood 
and womanhood in New Deal art, with Mrs. Virginia Mecklenburg, Depart- 
ment of 20th Century Painting and Sculpture, and Dr. Lois Fink, Office of 
Research and Professional Training, from September 1, 1982, through August 
31, 1983. 

Angela Miller, Ph.D. candidate, Yale University. Progress and decay; west- 
ward expansion and the imagery of ruin in America, 1830-1880, with 
Mr. William Truettner, Department of 18th and 19th Century Painting and 
Sculpture, National Museum of American Art, and Dr. William Sturtevant, 
Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, from 
September 1, 1982, through August 31, 1983. 

Richard Powell, Visiting Scholar. Department of Art History, Yale University. 
William E. Johnson, American artist, 1901-1970, with Dr. Adelyn Breeskin 
and Mrs. Virginia Mecklenburg, Department of 20th Century Painting and 
Sculpture, from June 1, 1982, through August 6, 1982. 

Susan Rather, Ph.D. candidate, University of Delaware. Paul Manship and 
Archaism in American sculpture, 1900-1930, with Dr. Lois Fink, Office of 
Research and Professional Training, from September 1, 1982, through 
August 31, 1983. 

Marc Simpson, Ph.D. candidate, Yale University. American artists working in 
the Worcestershire, England, village of Broadway in the 1880s and 1890s, 
with Dr. Lois Fink, Office of Research and Professional Training, from Sep- 
tember 1, 1982, through August 30, 1983. 

Maren Stange, George Mason/Smithsonian Institution Fellow. Ph.D., Boston 
University. Painting, photography, and cultural discourses in the 1930s, with 
Dr. Lois Fink, Office of Research and Professional Training, from January 1, 
1982, through August 31, 1982. 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 399 

Elizabeth Turner, Ph.D. candidate, University of Virginia, American artists in 
Paris, 1920-1929, with Dr. Lois Fink, Office of Research and Professional 
Training, from September 1, 1982, through August 31, 1983. 


William Bayreuther,* M.A. candidate, Texas A & M University. Tool mark 
analysis of the hull of the Continental gondola, Philadelphia, with Dr. Philip 
Lundeberg, Department of History of Science and Technology, from Septem- 
ber 6, 1982, through November 11, 1982. 

Bernard Carlson, Ph.D. candidate, University of Pennsylvania. Artifacts and 
the innovative process; a special study of Elihu Thomson, with Dr. Bernard 
Finn, Department of History of Science and Technology, from February 1, 
1982, through October 31, 1982. 

Patricia Cooper, Ph.D., University of Maryland. From skilled craft to mass 
production; technology, work, and work culture in the American cigar indus- 
try, 1900-1940, with Dr. G. Terry Sharrer, Department of History of Science 
and Technology, from December 1, 1981, through November 30, 1982. 
Rayna Green, Visiting Scholar and Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow. 
Native American Studies Department, Dartmouth College. Modern application 
of Native North American science, medicine, and technology, with Dr. William 
Sturtevant, Department of Anthropology, from August 1, 1982, through 
July 31, 1983. 

Sally Griffith, Ph.D. candidate, Johns Hopkins University. William Allen 
White's Emporia Gazette; a case study in community journalism, with 
Mr. Carl Scheele and Dr. Elizabeth Harris, Department of Social and National 
History, from January 1, 1982, through September 30, 1982. 
David Jaffee, Ph.D., Harvard University. Arts and crafts in the rural North; 
the itinerant artisan, 1790-1860, with Dr. Gary Kulik, Department of Social 
and National History, from September 1, 1982, through August 31, 1983. 
Peggy Kidwell, Ph.D., Yale University. Preliminary studies toward a biography 
of Cecilia Payne-Caposchkin, with Ms. Deborah Warner, Department of His- 
tory of Science and Technology, from September 1, 1982, through August 31, 

Gary Puckrein, Ph.D., Brown University. Classical medicine and social de- 
velopment in early America, with Dr. Ramunas Kondratas, Department of 
History of Science and Technology, from September 1, 1982, through April 30, 

Robert Rydell, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles. America's inter- 
national expositions, 1928-1974, with Dr. G. Terry Sharrer, Department of 
History of Science and Technology, from August 1, 1982, through July 31, 

Holly Shulman, Ph.D. candidate, University of Maryland. The development of 
American overseas radio propaganda, with Mr. Elliott Sivowitch, Department 
of History of Science and Technology, and Dr. Forrest Pogue, Eisenhower 
Institute for Historical Research, from September 1, 1982, through August 31, 

Susan Smulyan, Ph.D. candidate, Yale University. And now a word from our 
sponsors; commercialization of early broadcast radio, 1920-1934, with 
Mr. Carl Scheele, Department of Social and National History, and Dr. Bernard 
Finn, Department of History of Science and Technology, from September 1, 
1982, through August 31, 1983. 


Jay Bernstein,* Ph.D. candidate, University of California, Berkeley. Medical 
and religious paraphernalia from Indonesia, with Dr. Paul Taylor, Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, from July 5, 1982, through September 10, 1982. 

400 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Yvonne Bishop,* M.S. candidate, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Docu- 
mentation and regional comparison of design elements of Near Eastern textiles 
and clothing, with Dr. Gordon Gibson, Department of Anthropology, from 
June 7, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 

Barbara Bocek,* Ph.D. candidate, Stanford University. Ethnographic testing of 
achaeological hypotheses; testing a model of prehistoric subsistence and settle- 
ment in California, with Dr. Bruce Smith, Department of Anthropology, from 
January 4, 1982, through March 12, 1982. 

Sarah Brett-Smith, Ph.D., Yale University. West African textiles; symbolic 
meanings, ritual functions, with Dr. Gordon Gibson, Department of Anthro- 
pology, from March 1, 1982, through February 28, 1983. 

Mario DeVivo,* M.S. candidate, University of Sao Paulo. Systematic revision 
of the genus Callithrix, with Dr. Richard Thorington, Department of Verte- 
brate Zoology, from September 20, 1982, through November 26, 1982. 
Bruno Frolich, Ph.D., University of Connecticut. The skeletal biology of 
ancient Near East human populations, with Dr. Donald Ortner, Department of 
Anthropology, from January 1, 1982, through August 31, 1983. 
Kumar Ghorpade, Ph.D., University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore. Revi- 
sion of Indian Syrphini and review of Syrphidae of Sri Lanka, with Dr. Wayne 
Mathis, Department of Entomology, from September 15 1982, through Septem- 
ber 14, 1983. 

Mark Guagliardo, Ph.D., University of Tennessee. Age changes, dental func- 
tion, and cranial variation in Eskimo, Aleut, and Egyptian skeletal collections, 
with Dr. Donald Ortner, Department of Anthropology, from August 15, 1982, 
through August 14, 1983. 

Marcia Herndon, Visiting Scholar. Native American Studies Department, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley. Eastern Cherokee sacred formulas and medi- 
cinal prescriptions, with Dr. William Merrill, Department of Anthropology, 
from June 28, 1982, through September 28, 1982. 

Reginald Jackson, Visiting Scholar. Department of Communication, Simmons 
College. The visual interpretation of African survivals as witnessed in the 
Orisha tradition of Nigeria, Brazil, and Cuba, with Dr. Richard Sorenson, 
National Human Studies Film Center; Dr. Bernice Reagon, Division of Per- 
forming Arts; and Dr. Roy Bryce-Laporte, Research Institute for Immigration 
and Ethnic Studies, from June 1, 1982, through August 31, 1982. 
Jin Yu-Gan, Ph.D., Nanking Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Academia 
Sinica. Permian brachiopod fauna of the Tibetan Plateau, China, with 
Dr. Richard Grant, Department of Paleobiology, from December 1, 1981, 
through August 31, 1982. 

Gail Johnston,* M.S. candidate, Mississippi State University. Functional 
morphology of the external oral structures of anuran larvae, with Dr. Ronald 
Heyer, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, from June 7, 1982, through 
August 13, 1982. 

Catherine Jolley, Ph.D. candidate, Ohio State University. A comparative anal- 
ysis of certain verbal constructions in Fox and Plains Cree, with Dr. Ives 
Goddard, Department of Anthropology, from September 1, 1982, through 
August 31, 1983. 

Reinhardt Kristensen, Ph.D., University of Fribourg. A revision of the family 
Echiniscidae, Heterotardigrada, on the genus level, with Dr. Robert Higgins, 
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, from September 1, 1982, through 
August 31, 1983. 

Lawrence Liao,* Educational Outreach Program. M.S. candidate, University of 
the Philippines. Research and training in phycology including training in tech- 
niques of curation, sorting and identification of algal taxa, with Dr. Ernani 
Menez, Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center, from June 1, 1982, through 
May 31, 1983. 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 401 

Scott Lidgard, Ph.D. candidate, Johns Hopkins University. Growth and form 
in cheilistome bryozoans, with Dr. Alan Cheetham, Department of Paleo- 
biology, from June 1, 1982, through May 31, 1983. 

Jerry McDonald, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles. Systematics, 
evolution, and zoogeography of North American Ovibovni, with Dr. Clayton 
Ray, Department of Paleobiology, from September 15, 1982, through 
August 31, 1983. 

Kenneth Miyata, Ph.D., Harvard University. Evolution of the genus Enyalio- 
ides (Sauria: Iguanidae), with Dr. Ronald Heyer, Department of Vertebrate 
Zoology, from November 1, 1981, through October 31, 1982. 
Muriel Poston, Visiting Scholar. Department of Botany, Howard University. 
A systematic revision of Caiophora (Loasaceae), with Dr. Stanwyn Shetler, 
Department of Botany, from June 15, 1982, through September 15, 1982. 
V. Louise Roth, Ph.D., Yale University. Systematics and zoogeography of 
African Xerini (Sciuridae: Rodentia), with Dr. Richard Thorington, Depart- 
ment of Vertebrate Zoology, from March 1, 1982, through February 28, 1983. 
Alan Rubin, Ph.D., University of New Mexico. Formation and history of stony 
meteorite breccias, with Dr. Roy Clarke, Department of Mineral Sciences, 
from September 1, 1982, through August 31, 1983. 

Michael Schauff, Ph.D., University of Maryland. Revision of the Nearctic 
genera of the Elachertini and the Euplectrini, with Dr. Karl Krombein, Depart- 
ment of Entomology, from June 1, 1982, through May 31, 1983. 
Scott Shaw,* Ph.D. candidate, University of Maryland. A phylogenetic study 
of the subfamily Euphorinae, with Dr. Paul March, Department of Entomol- 
ogy, from June 7, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 

Katherine Spielmann, Ph.D., University of Michigan. Intercultural interaction 
on the Southern Plains, with Dr. Bruce Smith and Dr. Dennis Stanford, 
Department of Anthropology, from September 1, 1982, through August 31, 

G. Ledyard Stebbins, Smithsonian Institution Regents Fellow. Department of 
Genetics, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of 
California, Davis. Population biology and systematics of the genus Anten- 
naria, with the director and staff of the National Museum of Natural History, 
from December 1, 1981, through March 31, 1982. 

Garland Upchurch, Ph.D., University of Michigan. The systematics, evolution, 
and paleoecology of early angiosperm leaves from the Potomac Croup of 
Maryland and Virginia, with Dr. Leo Hickey and Dr. Francis Hueber, Depart- 
ment of Paleobiology, from November 1, 1981, through October 31, 1982. 
Donald Whitcomb, Ph.D., University of Chicago. Archaeology of Islamic 
southern Arabia, with Dr. Gus Van Beek and Dr. William Trousdale, Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, from September 1, 1981, through November 30, 1981, 
and April 1, 1982, through December 31, 1982. 

Sven Zea,* M.S. candidate, National University of Colombia. Sponges of the 
Colombian Caribbean, with Dr. Klaus Ruetzler, Department of Invertebrate 
Zoology, from June 14, 1982, through August 20, 1982. 

Ulrich Zeller,* Ph.D. candidate, University of Gottingen. A reexamination of 
Wortman's investigations of mammal skulls at the U.S. National Museum in 
1921, with Dr. Richard Thorington, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, from 
August 2, 1982, through October 8, 1982. 


Barbara King,* Ph.D. candidate, University of Oklahoma. Observational 
learnings among a group of captive orangutans, with Dr. Robert Hoage, from 
June 7, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 

402 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Rebecca Ross,* Ph.D. candidate, University of Oklahoma. Foraging behavior 
responses to artificial provisioning, with Dr. John Seidensticker, Conservation 
and Research Center, from June 7, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 


Michael Licht, Ph.D. candidate, University of Texas, Austin. The role of the 
harmonica in American traditional music, with Mr. Ralph Rinzler, from 
June 15, 1982, through June 14, 1983. 

Robert McCarl, Ph.D., University of Newfoundland. Urban firefighting; exam- 
ination of work culture from a folklife perspective, with Dr. Peter Seitel, 
from September 1, 1982, through August 31, 1983. 


Jenny Clement-Metral, Visiting Scientist. Ph.D., University of Paris. Relation- 
ship of Phycobilisomes and photosystem I and II, with Dr. Elisabeth Gantt, 
from October 1, 1981, through June 30, 1982. 

M. Geoffrey Holmes, Visiting Scientist. Plant Physiology, Albert Ludwigs Uni- 
versity, Freiburg. Blue lightl phytochrome interactions in the control of vegeta- 
tive growth in green plants, with Dr. William H. Klein, from September 1, 
1982, through August 31, 1983. 

Hugo Vogel, Visiting Scientist. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. 
Development of a method to measure the production of biomass, CO* assimi- 
lation, and Oi production under reproducible conditions for plants living both 
in and out of water, with Dr. John C. Sager, from November 1, 1981, through 
June 30, 1982. 


Sir David Bates, Smithsonian Institution Regents Fellow. Department of 
Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queens University, Belfast. 
Theoretical studies of atomic and molecular processes, aeronomy, and atomic 
and molecular astrophysics, with the director and staff of the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory, from June 15, 1982, through December 15, 1982. 
Edward Guinan, Visiting Scientist. Department of Astronomy, Villanova Uni- 
versity. Study of surface phenomena in cool stars, with the director and staff 
of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from August 15, 1982, through 
June 30, 1983. 

Maciej Kozlowski, Visiting Scientist. Astronomical Observatory, Warsaw Uni- 
versity. Study of Einstein Observatory data including one or more of the 
following areas; supernova remnants, active galaxies, OSOs, normal stars, and 
cluster X-ray emission, with the director and staff of the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory, from October 1, 1981, through February 28, 1982. 
Peter Meszaros, Visiting Scientist. Max Planck Institut fuer Physik und 
Astrophysik. Research in high energy physics, with Dr. George Rybicki, from 
March 1, 1982, through February 28, 1983. 

Stanley Owicki, Langley-Abbott Fellow. Ph.D., University of Colorado. 
Research in the acceleration and ionization balance of the outer atmosphere 
and winds of cool stars including the sun, with Dr. George Withbroe, from 
December 1, 1981, through November 30, 1982. 

Graeme Smith, Ph.D., Australian National University. Research involving the 
origin of the CN band strength variations occurring among giants within 
individual globular clusters, with Dr. Andrea Dupree, from September 1, 1982, 
through August 31, 1983. 

John Stauffer, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. Survey of the nuclear 
emmission line spectra of field and cluster disk galaxies, with Dr. David 
Latham, from July 1, 1982, through June 30, 1983. 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 403 

Richard White, Visiting Scientist. Department of Astronomy, Smith College. 
Survey of interstellar potassium absorption and observations of interstellar 
absorption toward stars associated with reflection nebulae, with Dr. F. H. 
Chaffee, from July 1, 1982, through June 30, 1983. 

Allan Wirth, Ph.D., University of Illinois. Research into the properties of 
elliptical galaxies, with Dr. David Latham, from August 1, 1982, through 
July 31, 1983. 


Phyllis Coley, Ph.D., University of Chicago. Variation in the physiology of 
leaf development among species of tropical trees and vines and its relation- 
ship to herbivory, with Dr. Alan Smith, from March 1, 1982, through 
August 31, 1982. 

Leonard Freed, Ph.D., University of Iowa. Evolution of clutch size in a tropi- 
cal passerine, with Dr. Neal Smith, from January 1, 1982, through Decem- 
ber 31, 1982. 

Sandra Gilchrist, Ph.D., Florida State University. Hermit crab housing; a 
re-evaluation of the assumptions, with Dr. Egbert Leigh, from September 1, 
1982, through August 31, 1983. 

David Hamill,* Ph.D. candidate, University of Iowa. Relationship between 
dispersal and seedling success in Octea skutchii, with Dr. Alan Smith, from 
May 8, 1982, through August 21, 1982. 

Thomas Kursar, Ph.D., University of Chicago. Variation in the physiology of 
leaf development of tropical trees and vines and its relationship to photosyn- 
thesis, with Dr. Alan Smith, from March 1, 1982, through August 31, 1982. 
Gordon Rodda, International Environmental Science Program Fellow. Ph.D., 
Cornell University .Social interactions among nonbreeding iguanas, with 
Dr. A. Stanley Rand, from July 1, 1982, through June 30, 1983. 
Joshua Schwartz,* Ph.D. candidate, University of Connecticut. Interspecific 
acoustic interactions in three neotropical hylid frogs, with Dr. A. Stanley 
Rand, from June 7, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 

Thomas Spight, Ph.D., University of Washington. Relationships between 
hermit crabs and the snails that supply their shell, with Dr. Martin Moynihan, 
from October 1, 1981, through November 30, 1982. 

Zengh Bao-Lai, Visiting Scientist. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Academia 
Sinica. Natural history of hole-nesting/ 'termitary-nesting birds; trogons, 
motmots, and puffbirds, with Dr. Martin Moynihan, from July 15, 1982, 
through July 14, 1983. 


The Smithsonian offers internship appointments to visiting graduate and 
undergraduate students. The persons, listed by bureau, office, or division, in 
this appendix began their internships between October 1, 1981, and Septem- 
ber 30, 1982. Holders of special awards and participants in special programs 
are so listed. The institution attended, the title, or a brief description, of the 
project to be undertaken where applicable, and the name of the Smithsonian 
supervisor are given for each intern. 


Jacqueline Rouse, Ph.D. candidate, Emory University. Research and work on 
organizing an exhibit on early 20th century Black women, with Mrs. Louise 
Hutchinson, from June 14, 1982, through August 20, 1982. 

404 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Rochelle Anderson, B.S. candidate, University of Maryland. Research assistant 
in the NSF Family Learning Project, with Dr. John Balling, from June 28, 
1982, through September 31, 1982. 

Bernd Bendinger, B.S. candidate, University of Osnabruck. Upland ecology 
study of the role of heterotrophs in salt marsh metabolism, with Dr. Dennis 
Whigham, from August 30, 1982, through December 17, 1982. 
Katherine Betts, B.S. candidate, Yale University. Food preference studies of 
mice and deer in connection with studies of seed predation and plant/animal 
interactions, with Dr. James Lynch, from June 7, 1982, through August 27, 

Eloise Bradham, B.S., University of South Carolina. Studies in upland plant 
ecology, with Dr. Dennis Whigham, from February 8, 1982, through July 16, 

Keith Elwood, M.S. candidate, Pennsylvania State University. Analysis of the 
relationship between visual preference for certain environments and the way- 
finding legibility of those environments, with Dr. John Balling, from June 14, 
1982, through August 20, 1982. 

Karan Forsberg, M.A. candidate, George Williams University. An exploratory 
study of factors associated with continued participation in a family-based 
learning program, with Dr. John Falk, from March 1, 1982, through May 28, 

Jennie Jacobson, B.A. candidate, Swarthmore College. Science activities for 
informal learning, with Dr. John Falk, from June 14, 1982, through August 13, 

Marjorie Marenberg, B.S. candidate, Oberlin College. Program Leader for the 
Summer Ecology Program, with Dr. John Falk, from June 20, 1982, through 
August 20, 1982. 

Amy Michelson, B.S. candidate, Clark University. Study of light availability 
affecting the structure and function of plankton communities, with Dr. Maria 
Faust, from May 23, 1982, through August 27, 1982. 

Kenric Osgood, B.S. candidate, University of Maine. Study to develop meth- 
odology for long-term measurements of fish population dynamics, with 
Dr. Anson Hines, from May 17, 1982, through August 27, 1982. 
Cynthia Trowbridge, B.A. candidate. Cornell University. Work on an estua- 
rine benthic community project, with Dr. Anson Hines, from May 17, 1982, 
through October 22, 1982. 

Kristoffer Van Gieson, B.A. candidate, Evergreen State College. Program 
Leader for the Summer Ecology Program, with Dr. John Falk, from June 21, 
1982, through August 20, 1982. 


Steven Holt, A.B. candidate, Brown University. Sidney and Celia Siegel Fel- 
lowship Student, working with Mrs. Mary Kerr, programs manager, from 
June 14, 1982, through August 20, 1982. 

Paul Kane, B.A. candidate, Yale University. Sidney and Celia Siegel Fellow- 
ship Student, working with Mr. Christian Rohlfing, assistant director, from 
June 14, 1982, through August 20, 1982. 

David Kuhn, B.A. candidate, Harvard University. Sidney and Celia Siegel Fel- 
lowship Student, working with Mr. Robin Parkinson, exhibits designer, from 
June 14, 1982, through August 20, 1982. 

Diana Mendley, B.A. candidate, Yale University. Sidney and Celia Siegel Fel- 
lowship Student, working with Mrs. Elaine Dee, Department of Prints and 
Drawings, from June 14, 1982, through August 20, 1982. 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 405 

Patricia Nuckles, B.S. candidate, Fisk University. Cataloguing project in the 
Wallcoverings Department and a project updating the costume files, with 
Mrs. Ann Dorfsman and Ms. Sheila Smith, from June 14, 1982, through 
August 20, 1982. 


Marquette Folley, Howard University. Studies in Black American culture, with 
Dr. Bernice Johnson Reagon, from June 1, 1982, through December 10, 1982. 
Julie A. Halpin, College of the Holy Cross. Performing Arts production and 
promotion, with Ms. Shirley Cherkasky, from September 1, 1982, through 
December 9, 1982. 

Beth Hurstein, Washington University. Study in media research, with 
Ms. Carson Connor, from October 1, 1981, through December 1, 1981. 
Jennifer B. Stahmer, Middlebury College. Research and study compiling mar- 
keting/communications information, with Ms. Carson Connor, from October 1, 

1981, through February 28, 1982. 

Rene Jean Troop (OESE Intern), Sumter (South Carolina) High School. Study 
in performing arts production and promotion for the Smithsonian Discovery 
Theater, with Ms. Lynn Brice Rooney, from June 21, 1982, through July 30, 

Eric Robert Weiss, the National Law Center, George Washington University. 
Study of the legal and artistic aspects of recording production for the Smith- 
sonian Collection of Recordings, with Mr. J. R. Taylor, from September 13, 

1982, through December 3, 1982. 

Loretta Dawn Whitcomb, University of North Carolina. Study of performing 
arts production and promotion, with Ms. Shirley Cherkasky, from Septem- 
ber 1, 1981, through December 1, 1981. 


Mary Jannotta, Smith College/Smithsonian American Studies Program Stu- 
dent. B.A. candidate, Smith College. Research on Dwight William Tryon, with 
Dr. David Curry, American Art, from September 7, 1982, through Decem- 
ber 17, 1982. 


Catherine Crangle, B.S. candidate, Canisius College. Sorting and photograph- 
ing objects in the collection of Works of Art Done on Paper, with Mr. Frank 
Gettings, Curatorial Department, from June 3, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 
Gordon Crock, B.A. candidate, Kent State University. Work on the Collabora- 
tions exhibition scheduled for 1983-1984, with Ms. Cynthia Jaffee McCabe, 
Department of Painting and Sculpture, from June 7, 1982, through August 13, 

Anne Fehr, B.A. candidate, University of Delaware. Archival research in the 
assigned department, with Ms. Valerie Fletcher, Department of Painting and 
Sculpture, from June 7, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 

Peggy Fogelman, B.A. candidate, Johns Hopkins University. Curatorial studies 
in the assigned department, with Dr. Judith Zilczer and Ms. Phyllis Rosen- 
zweig, Department of Painting and Sculpture, from June 7, 1982, through 
August 13, 1982. 

Amy Gendler, B.A. candidate, Yale University. Learning techniques of label- 
ing, silkscreening, and other skills needed for exhibitions, with Mr. Joseph 
Shannon, Department of Exhibits and Design, from June 7, 1982, through 
August 13, 1982. 

Jessica Nicoll, Smith College/Smithsonian American Studies Program Student. 
B.A. candidate, Smith College. Research on David Burliuk, with Dr. Judith 

406 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Zilczer, Department of Painting and Sculpture, from September 7, 1982, 
through December 17, 1982. 

Other Interns 

Lynne Baer, University of California, Davis Campus. Research and study in 
the Department of Painting and Sculpture, with Ms. Valerie Fletcher. Special 
one-year appointment, from January 11, 1982, through December 31, 1982. 
Frances Betz, Saint Mary's College, Maryland, Research and study in the De- 
partment of Painting and Sculpture, with Ms. Miranda McClintic, from Jan- 
uary 11, 1982, through May 31, 1982. 

Kathleen Emmet, graduate of Boston University School of Fine Arts. Research 
and study in the Department of Exhibition and Design, with Mr. Joseph 
Shannon, from January 11, 1982, through May 31, 1982. 

Margaret Lewis, University of Maryland. Research and study in the Depart- 
ment of Painting and Sculpture, with Ms. Phyllis Rosenzweig, from January 4, 
1982, through May 31, 1982. 

Denise Michelsen, George Washington University, MAT program. Research 
and study in the Education Department, with Mr. Edward Lawson, from 
January 11, 1982, through May 31, 1982. 

Camille Moseley, H. D. Woodson High School. Special six-week appointment. 
Research and study throughout the museum, as summer high-school intern, 
under the supervision of Mr. Edward P. Lawson, from June 21, 1982, through 
July 31, 1982. 

Sophie Orloff, Brussels, Belgium. Research and study in the Department of 
Painting and Sculpture, with Ms. Cynthia McCabe, from February 1, 1982, 
through May 31, 1982. 

Brian Ramer, Assistant Keeper (Conservation), Sainsbury Centre for Visual 
Arts, University of East Anglia, England. Pour-month internship in examina- 
tions and treatments of works of art on paper, with Ms. Toni Owen, from 
September 1982, through December 1982. 

Sandra Smith, University of Maryland special student, from Sydney, Aus- 
tralia. Research and study in the Department of Painting and Sculpture, with 
Ms. Cynthia McCabe, from February 1, 1982, through May 31, 1982. 


Victoria Avery, B.S. candidate, College of William and Mary. Improving and 

updating comparative planetology unit in exploring the planets, with Dr. Ted 

Maxwell, Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, from June 21, 1982, through 

August 13, 1982. 

Anthony Bartelme, B.A. candidate, Northwestern University. Research on 

Blacks in Aviation exhibition, with Ms. Rita Bobowski, Office of Public 

Affairs, from June 21, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 

B. Edward Bleeker, M.A. candidate, George Washington University. Assisting 

in the process of managing progress of gallery design and construction, with 

Dr. David DeVorkin, Department of Space Science and Exploration, from 

September 7, 1982, through November 12, 1982. 

Martin Collins, M.A. candidate, University of Maryland. Development of 

archival procedures and appraisal of archival collections, with Dr. Paul Hanle, 

Department of Space Science and Exploration, from May 24, 1982, through 

August 13, 1982. 

Derek Elliott, Ph.D. candidate, University of California, Berkeley. Work on 

the 1983 Stars exhibition, with Dr. David DeVorkin, Department of Space 

Science and Exploration, from June 12, 1982, through August 21, 1982. 

John Gaertner, Senior, Albemarle High School. Work on packing archival 

materials at the Paul Carber facility, with Mr. Tim Wooldridge, Department 

of Aeronautics, from June 21, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 407 

Martha Hoffman, B.S. candidate, Catholic University. Organizing changes in 
the library computer system, with Mr. Frank Pietropaoli, Library, from 
May 17, 1982, through July 9, 1982. 

Carleton Johnson, B.S. candidate, Lycoming College. Collecting and filing 
materials on ethno astronomy and material for the Sky Interpretation Bulletin, 
with Mr. Von Del Chamberlain, Department of Space Science and Explora- 
tion, from May 17, 1982, through July 9, 1982. 

Susan Lawson, B.F.A. candidate, Maryland Institute College of Art. Cata- 
loguing and photographing art work, with Mr. William Good, Department of 
Art, from June 21, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 

Ann Mahoney, B.A. candidate, Georgetown University. Research in oral his- 
tory and curatorial files, with Dr. Allan Needell, Department of Space Science 
and Exploration, from May 17, 1982, through August 6, 1982. 
Royce A. Martin, B.A. candidate, Indiana University. Work on the Golden 
Age of Flight display, with Mr. Donald Lopez, Department of Aeronautics, 
from June 21, 1982, through July 30, 1982. 

Beatrice Matkovic, B.A. candidate, Washington University. Work with design- 
ers on exhibitions, with Mr. Lucius Lomax, Exhibits and Presentations Divi- 
sion, from June 21, 1982, through August 27, 1982. 

Chris Matthews, B.A. candidate, University of Maryland. Study of marketing 
strategies for the promotion of literature and books, with Ms. Helen Mc- 
Mahon, Office of Public Affairs, from May 17, 1982, through July 9, 1982. 
Kathryn Mayer, B.F.A. candidate, Maryland Institute College of Art. Cata- 
loguing and photographing art collection, with Mr. William Good, Depart- 
ment of Art, from June 21, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 

Alice Meadows, MA. candidate, Manchester University. Archival project on 
collection of ethnographic concepts of the sky, with Mr. Von Del Chamber- 
lain, Department of Space Science and Exploration, from August 16, 1982, 
through December 3, 1982. 

Charles Pepe, B.S. candidate, Georgetown University. Researching documents, 
photographs, and publications related to artifacts, and preparing files on spe- 
cific objects, with Dr. Allan Needell, Department of Space Science and Explo- 
ration, from February 17, 1982, through May 7, 1982. 

Christopher Ross, B.A. candidate, Princeton University. Research and study 
for a bibliography for a book on Flying Wings, with Mr. Robert Mikesh, 
Department of Aeronautics, from June 21, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 
Todd Ross, Senior, Abington Heights High School. Photographic developing, 
printing, and photo reproduction, with Mr. Dale Hrabak, Photographic Lab- 
oratory, from June 21, 1982, through July 31, 1982. 

Krista Strider, M.A. candidate, Wright State University. Work on improving 
accession records, with Mrs. Robin Schroffel, Office of the Registrar, from 
June 21, 1982, through October 9, 1982. 

Eolin Tweedie, B.A. candidate, Wood College. Work on the library serials 
index and corrections on the periodical index, with Mr. Frank Pietropaoli, 
Library, from May 17, 1982, through August 6, 1982. 

Other Interns 

Judith A. Dean, Ithaca College. Videodisc on aircraft restoration research, 

with Mr. Dale Hrabak, Photographic Laboratory, from August 16, 1982, 

through November 5, 1982. 

Irene Endsley, American University. Work on oral history tapes, with 

Dr. David DeVorkin, Department of Space Science and Exploration, from 

November 16, 1981, through May 21, 1982. 

Russell Lee, Southwest Texas State University. Inventory and research in 

aviation-related materials with emphasis on ultra-light aircraft, with Mr. Rob- 

408 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

ert Mikesh, Department of Aeronautics, from January 25, 1982, through 
August 13, 1982. 

Pamela Mays, Georgetown University. Work on 25 Years of Space Explora- 
tion exhibition tour guide, with Mrs. Janet Wolfe, Education Services Divi- 
sion, from November 23, 1981, through January 29, 1982. 


Rosalyn Cambridge, M.A. candidate, Syracuse University. Cataloguing and 
registration of incoming loan objects, with Ms. Lee Williams, Registrar's 
Office, from July 1, 1982, through August 31, 1982. 

Allyson Cook, M.A. candidate, Sangamon State University. Development of 
promotional materials for African Emblems of Status exhibition, with 
Ms. Amina Dickerson, program director, from September 7, 1982, through 
November 26, 1982. 

Jacquelyn Gray, B.A. candidate, University of Virginia. Research and study in 
the photographic archives, with Mr. Edward Lifschitz, Department of Aca- 
demic Studies, and Ms. Bryna Freyer, Library/Archives, from June 1, 1982, 
through August 20, 1982. 

Barbara Hunt, Ph.D. candidate, Northwestern University. Background research 
on color symbolism in African art, with Ms. Roslyn Walker, Curatorial De- 
partment, from June 1, 1982, through August 27, 1982. 

Other Interns 

Julia Carlisle, St. Lawrence University. Work and study in the Photographic 
Archives, with Mr. Edward Lifschitz and Ms. Bryna Freyer, from September 7, 
1981, through December 15, 1981. 

Mary Jo Cole, Rutgers University. Work and study in the Photographic Ar- 
chives, with Mr. Edward Lifschitz and Ms. Bryna Freyer, from January 25, 
1981, through April 30, 1982. 

Afsaneh Firouz, George Washington University. Work and study in the Cura- 
torial Department, with Ms. Carolyn Michels, from March 1, 1982, through 
May 30, 1982. 

Karri Fritz, Marquette University. Work and study in the Registrar's Office, 
with Ms. Lee Williams, from June 10, 1982, through August 6, 1982. 
Helene Gillette, University of Maryland. Work and study in Conservation, 
with Ms. Renee Welfeld, from January 25, 1982, through August 27, 1982. 
Teresa Glisson, American University. Work and study in the Education De- 
partment, with Ms. Amina Dickerson, from September 7, 1981, through 
December 15, 1981. 

Norman Higginson. Work and study in the Operations and Curatorial depart- 
ments, with Mr. Basil Arendse, from January 4, 1982, through April 30, 1982. 
Catherine Johnson. Work and study in the Education Department, with 
Ms. Amina Dickerson and Ms. Gretchen Jennings, from June 1, 1982, through 
August 27, 1982. 

Peter Roberts, George Washington University. Work and study in the Educa- 
tion Department, with Ms. Gretchen Jennings, from January 25, 1982, through 
May 15, 1982. 

Amina Said, Lamu Museum, Kenya. Work and study in the Education Depart- 
ment, with Ms. Amina Dickerson, from December 1, 1981, through Febru- 
ary 15, 1982. 

Tina Singleton, State University of New York. Work and study in the Regis- 
trar's Office, with Ms. Lee Williams, from June 1, 1982, through August 6, 

Judith Sylvester, Indiana University. Work and study in Conservation, with 
Ms. Renee Welfeld, from May 18, 1982, through July 19, 1982. 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 409 


Robert Cottrell, B.A. candidate, New College of University of South Florida. 
Assistant with the summer "Teachers-in-Residence" program in the Lans- 
burgh Art Center, with Mr. Allen Kaneshiro, Education Department, from 
June 1, 1982, through July 30, 1982. 

Kimberly Kelly, B.A. candidate, Catholic University. Development and presen- 
tation of public education programs in conjunction with the exhibition, Cele- 
bration: A World of Art and Ritual, with Mr. Walter Hill, Renwick Gallery, 
from June 1, 1982, through August 27, 1982. 

Michelle Meyers, B.A. candidate, Dartmouth College. Research on the Martha 
Jackson collection, with Dr. Harry Z. Rand, Department of 20th Century 
Painting and Sculpture, from June 1, 1982, through July 30, 1982. 
Katherine Mitchell, M.F.A. candidate, American University. Resarch for the 
exhibition Painters and Painting in Washington, 1800-1915, with Dr. Andrew 
Cosentino, Department of Education, from June 1, 1982, through July 30, 1982. 
Leslie Ranier, B.A. candidate, Bowdoin College. Work in the frame conserva- 
tion laboratory, the exhibits and cabinetmaking shop and the silkscreening 
and graphics studio, with Mrs. Georgine Reed, Department of Exhibition and 
Design, from June 1, 1982, through July 30, 1982. 

Elizabeth Stumbo, B.A. candidate, Carleton College. Research for the prelimi- 
nary proposal for a Puerto Rican poster exhibition, with Mrs. Barbara Shissler 
Nosanow, Department of Education, from June 14, 1982, through July 30, 

Deaderia Warren, B.A. candidate, Spelman College. Work on a data collection 
project, with Mr. Robert Johnston, Office of the Registrar, from June 1, 1982, 
through July 30, 1982. 

Other Interns 
Elizabeth Angel, American University, September 11, 1981, through April 23, 

Efrem Calingaert, American University, September 11, 1981, through April 23, 

Montrose Cones, George Washington University, January 18, 1982, through 

April 23, 1982. 
Paulette Dickerson, American University, September 11, 1981, through 

April 23, 1982. 
Walter Hill II, Sangamon State University, October 26, 1981, through April 23, 

Nancy Iacomini, George Washington University, September 11, 1981, through 

April 23, 1982. 
Michael Reynolds, George Washington University, September 11, 1981, 

through April 23, 1982. 
Elizabeth Tufts, George Washington University, September 11, 1981, through 

April 23, 1982. 
Meredith Weber, Pennsylvania State University, March 24, 1982, through 

June 18, 1982. 
Edith Wyss, George Washington University, September 11, 1981, through 

April 23, 1982. 


Catherine Bond, B.A., Cambridge University. Study of visitors' information 
services and planning and operation of colloquium series, with Mr. Josiah 
Hatch, Office of Public and Academic Programs, from August 30, 1982, 
through September 24, 1982. 

Jennifer Collins, Smith College/Smithsonian American Studies Program Stu- 
dent. B.A. candidate, Smith College. Work on the Life in America and Ideal 

410 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Images exhibitions, with Ms. Fath Barfield Ruffins, Department of Social and 
Cultural History, from September 7, 1982, through December 17, 1982. 
Rosemary Connolly, B.A. candidate, Georgetown University. Object and tex- 
tile conservation, particularly the process of cleaning and conservation of the 
Star Spangled Banner, with Mr. Scott Odell, Division of Conservation, from 
July 12, 1982, through September 3, 1982. 

Patricia Crews, Ph.D. candidate, Kansas State University. Cataloguing and 
conservation of textiles, with Mrs. Rita Adrosko, Department of Social and 
Cultural History, from July 2, 1982, through July 30, 1982. 
Margaret Curtin, Smith College/Smithsonian American Studies Program Stu- 
dent. B.A. candidate, Smith College. Research on women in sports, with 
Mrs. Ellen Roney Hughes, Department of Social and Cultural History, from 
September 7, 1982, through December 17, 1982. 

Donatella DeGiampietro, Diploma Superiore, University of Florence. Conser- 
vation of musical instruments, principally wooden stringed instruments and 
keyboard instruments, with Mr. Scott Odell, Division of Conservation, from 
July 1, 1982, through January 31, 1983. 

Shelby Fleck, Smith College/Smithsonian American Studies Program Student. 
B.A. candidate, Smith College. Survey of the Western Union collection, with 
Dr. Arthur Molella, Department of History of Science and Technology, from 
September 7, 1982, through December 17, 1982. 

Reginald Gougis, Ph.D. candidate, Cornell University. Work on the Ideal 
Images exhibition, with Ms. Fath Barfield Ruffins and Dr. William Pretzer, 
Department of Social and Cultural History, from September 6, 1982, through 
December 17, 1982. 

Joanne Harris, B.A. candidate, Smith College. Research for the Life in 
America project focused on the eighteenth century, with Ms. Fath Barfield 
Ruffins, Department of Social and Cultural History, from June 7, 1982, 
through August 20, 1982. 

Marie O'Shea, B.A., Reed College. Survey of collections for paper and archival 
conservation and storage needs, with Mrs. Diane van der Reyden, Paper 
Conservation Laboratory, from September 13, 1982, through March 13, 1983. 
Julie Reilly, M.A. candidate, George Washington University. Organization 
and treatment of poster collections, with Mrs. Diane van der Reyden, Paper 
Conservation Laboratory, from June 28, 1982, through August 27, 1982. 
Laura Weathers, M.A. candidate, University of Maryland, Baltimore. Work 
on the Afro-American Communities project, with Dr. James Horton, Office of 
the Director, from July 5, 1982, through August 27, 1982. 


Carlos Dennis, B.S. candidate, Georgetown University. Research related to the 
coral reef exhibition, in particular monitoring the nutrient level of algal 
scrubbers, with Dr. Walter Adey and Mr. Timothy Goertemiller, Department 
of Paleobiology, from May 24, 1982, through August 27, 1982. 
Andrew Gordus, M.S. candidate, Humboldt State University. Assist in de- 
veloping an economic methodology for isolating Nucleopolyhedrosis virus 
preparing a freeze-dried product, with Mr. Rolland Hower, Freeze-Dry Labo- 
ratory, from June 21, 1982, through August 13, 1982. 

Debra Key, B.A. candidate, Fisk University. Work in registration techniques, 
in collection rearrangement, specimen preparation, and library research, with 
Mr. Frederick Collier, Department of Paleobiology, from May 17, 1982, 
through July 30, 1982. 


Cynthia Caldwell, Smith College/Smithsonian American Studies Program Stu- 
dent. B.A. candidate, Smith College. Study of Matthew Brady's photographs, 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 411 

with Mr. William Stapp, Curatorial Department, from September 7 , 1982, 
through December 17, 1982. 

Olivia Wallace, B.A. candidate, Howard University. Research and study in the 
area of Black political history, with Mr. Harry T. Jackson, Jr., Education 
Department, from May 17, 1982, through July 9, 1982. 


Ann Dancy, George Mason University. 

Samantha Hawkins, Georgetown University. 

Karl Heinz Teppert, University of Maryland. 

Linda Johnson, Wesleyan University. 

Tonah Kalb, Dartmouth College. 

Martha Kokes, University of California, Berkeley. 

Peg Lewis, University of Maryland. 

Betsy Tyrie, Western Kentucky University. 


Peter Barr, Pennsylvania State University. Research and writing concerning 
evaluation studies, with Dr. Robert Wolf, from June 7, 1982, through 
August 14, 1982. 

Nancy Betschart, University of Toronto, Canada. Development of Native 
American museology materials, with Ms. Nancy J. Fuller, from June 28, 1982, 
through September 30, 1982. 

Jennifer Cave, University of Toronto, Canada. Research and writing concern- 
ing evaluation studies, with Dr. Robert Wolf, from March 9, 1982, through 
April 8, 1982. 

Samuel Giles, George Mason University. Development of Native American 
museology materials, with Ms. Nancy J. Fuller, from February 11, 1982, 
through August 31, 1982. 

Beth Lyle, University of Michigan. Development of Native American muse- 
ology materials, with Ms. Nancy J. Fuller, from September 13, 1982, through 
March 31, 1982. 

Catherine Sands, Georgetown University. Program development, research and 
writing for projects in international educational exchange, with Ms. Mary 
Lynn Perry, from June 7, 1982, through July 29, 1982. 

Halgard Stolte, University of Konstanz, West Germany. Research and writing 
concerning evaluation studies, analysis of conservation information question- 
naire, translation of hook from German into English, with Ms. Mary Lynn 
Perry; and museum registration methods at the Museum of African Art, with 
Ms. Lee Williams and Ms. Lydia Puccinelli, from August 1, 1981, through 
December 17, 1981. 

Gregory Vaughn, University of Maryland. Research and writing and transla- 
tion in French and Spanish for projects in international educational exchange, 
with Ms. Mary Lynn Perry, from January 20, 1982, through April 29, 1982. 


Sable Melles, M.S. candidate, Howard University. Investigation of photo- 
tropism of perithecial beaks in the fungus Neurospora crassa, with Dr. Roy 
Harding, from May 31, 1982, through August 27, 1982. 


Ricardo Arteaga, B.S. candidate, Boston University. Technical work with elec- 
trical schematic drawings and wire lists, with Mr. Larry Coyle, Engineering 
Department, from June 1, 1982, through August 7, 1982. 

412 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Katherine Chambers, Pitzer College. Editorial and publication production 

management, with Ms. Andrea Stevens, from July through September 1982. 

Rebekah Ingalls, Yale University. Survey of publications for dispersal, with 

Ms. Eileen Harakal, from June through August 1982. 

Sherryl Kohr, George Washington University. Development of interpretive 

program for SITES exhibition, The Natural History of Sexuality, with 

Ms. Marjorie Share, January through May 1982. 

Helene Lisy, George Washington University. Development of interpretive 

program for SITES exhibition, The Center Space, with Ms. Marjorie Share, 

June through September 1982. 

Lisa McDermott, University of California at Berkeley. Exhibition assistance, 

with Ms. Elizabeth Driscoll and Ms. Judith Cox, Exhibitions Coordinators, 

June through August 1982. 

Terry Prokopp, George Washington University. Research and implementation 

of new items for SITES exhibition, The Shopping Bag: Portable Graphic Art, 

with Ms. Betty Teller, January through May 1982. 

Alison Roberts, George Washington University. Development of interpretive 

program for SITES exhibition, The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions, 

with Ms. Martha Cappelletti, January through May 1982. 


Tina Galindo-Ramirez, Ph.D. candidate, University of California, Santa Bar- 
bara. Assist in Environmental Sciences Program, with Dr. Donald Windsor, 
from June 7, 1982, through August 27, 1982. 


Scholarly Studies Program 

Catherine Craig, Cornell University. 

Robin Chazdon, Cornell University. 

Theo Jacobs, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. 

Mickey J. Marcus, University of Maine at Orono. 

Jane Sherfy, University of California, Berkeley. 

Educational Outreach Fund 

T. Mitchell Aide, University of Utah. 

Kathleen Cole, University of Alberta at Edmonton 

Noel Michelle Holbrook, Harvard University. 

Rachel Levin, Cornell University. 

James Mallet, University of Texas at Austin. 

Mandy Medvin, University of Washington. 

EXXON Corporation 

Gabriel Abrego, Universidad de Panama. 

Martin Aluja, Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores, Monterrey, Mexico. 

Itzel Angulo, Universidad de Panama. 

Dalys Caceres, Universidad de Panama. 

Axel Calderon, Universidad de Panama. 

Paulina Castillo, Universidad de Panama. 

Orlando Castillo, Universidad de Panama. 

Jose Carlos Chang, Universidad de Panama. 

Marilise Ching, Universidad de Panama. 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 413 

Bianca D'Andria, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela. 

Wilson Devia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. 

Eric Gonzalez, Universidad de Panama. 

Fidel Jaramillo, Universidad de Panama. 

Roberto Ibanez, Universidad de Panama. 

Gustavo Kattan, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. 

Ameth de Leon, Universidad de Panama. 

Maria Elena Leon, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela. 

Marta Lucia Martinez, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. 

Jorge Enrique Moreno, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. 

Luis Moreno, Universidad de Panama. 

Carolina Murcia, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. 

Miguel Perez, Universidad de Panama. 

Cecilio Puga, University of Miami. 

Argelis Ruiz, Universidad de Panama. 

Ligia Rivera, Universidad de Panama. 

Carlos Rodriguez, Instituto Vallecaucano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cali, 

Aby Solis, Universidad de Panama. 
Raineldo Urriola, Universidad de Panama. 
Yira de Ventocilla, Universidad de Panama. 
Janzel Villalaz, Florida Atlantic University. 

414 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

APPENDIX 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 
in Fiscal Year 1982 


Michael Barrier and Martin Williams, editors. A Smithsonian Book of Comic 
Book Comics. 336 pages, 277 color and 7 black-and-white illustrations. 
May 1982. Cloth: $25.00. 

Silvio Bedini, Declaration of Independence Desk: Relic of Revolution, vii + 
112 pages, 36 black-and-white illustrations. January 18, 1982. Paper: $5.95. 

Lynda Corey Claassen. Finders' Guide to Prints and Drawings in the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 210 pages, 37 black-and-white illustrations. November 30, 

1981. Cloth: $19.95; paper: $9.95. 

Tom D. Crouch. Bleriot XL The Story of a Classic Airplane. Famous Aircraft 
of the National Air and Space Museum, volume 5. vii + 143 pages. 132 
black-and-white illustrations. March 22, 1982. Paper: $8.95. 

James Dapogny. Ferdinand "Telly Roll" Morton: The Collected Piano Music. 
Co-published with G. Schirmer, New York, xii + 513 pages, 4 color and 
16 black-and-white illustrations. August 8, 1982. Paper: $23.95. 

William Rea Furlong and Byron McCandless. So Proudly We Hail: The His- 
tory of the United States Flag. 260 pages, 108 color and 82 black-and-white 
illustrations. November 9, 1981. Cloth: $25.00; paper: $12.50. 

William Fitzhugh and Susan Kaplan, inua: spirit world of the bering sea 
eskimo. 296 pages, 8 color plates, 500 duotones, 4 tables, 11 maps. July 26, 

1982. Cloth: $35.00; paper: $15.00. 

Elizabeth Rees Gilbert. Fairs and Festivals: A Smithsonian Guide to Celebra- 
tions in Maryland, Virginia, and Washington, D.C. 160 pages, 18 black-and- 
white illustrations. July 26, 1982. Paper: $4.50. 

Louise D. Hutchinson. Anna ]. Cooper: A Voice From the South. 201 pages, 
7 color and 244 black-and-white illustrations. November 1981. Paper: $17.50. 

Von D. Hardesty. Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945. 
288 pages, 150 black-and-white illustrations, 3 tables, 8 maps. September 30, 
1982. Cloth: $22.50. 

Margaret B. Klapthor and Howard A. Morrison. G. Washington: A Figure 
Upon the Stage. 231 pages, 156 color and 40 black-and-white illustrations. 
February 22, 1982. Paper: $12.50. 

Christopher Lyman. The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: Photographs of 
Indians by Edward S. Curtis. 159 pages, 129 black-and-white illustrations. 
March 29, 1982. Cloth: $22.50. 

Otto Mayr and Robert C. Post. Yankee Enterprise: The Rise of the American 
System of Manufacturers, xx + 236 pages, 45 black-and-white illustrations. 
March 15, 1982. Cloth: $19.95; paper: $9.95. 

Appendix 5. Smithsonian Institution Press Publications I 415 

Office of Folklife Programs and Renwick Gallery. Celebration: A World of 
Art and Ritual. 214 pages, 77 color and 137 black-and-white illustrations. 
April 26, 1982. Paper: $12.50. 

Roger F. Pasquier, editor. Conservation of New World Parrots: Proceedings 
of the ICBP Parrot Working Croup Meeting, St. Lucia, 1980. 485 pages, 14 
figures, 3 tables. February 22, 1982. Paper: $14.00. 

Enayetur Rahim. Scholars' Guide to Washington, D.C. for South Asian 
Studies. (Eighth Guide in the series.) xxxii + 439 pages. January 25, 1982. 
Cloth: $27.50; paper: $12.50. 

Walter Shropshire, Jr., editor. The Joys of Research. 180 pages, 65 black-and- 
white illustrations. March 1, 1982. Cloth: $17.50; paper: $6.95. 

Jay P. Spenser. Bellanca C.F.: The Emergence of the Cabin Monoplane in the 
United States. 95 pages, 6 color and 129 black-and-white illustrations. July 12, 
1982. Paper: $7.95. 

Victor Turner, editor. Celebration: Studies in Festivity and Ritual. 318 pages, 
120 black-and-white illustrations. August 23, 1982. Cloth: $25.00; paper: 

Lawrence Wishner. Eastern Chipmunks: Secrets of Their Solitary Lives. 
144 pages, 24 color and 66 black-and-white illustrations. September 30, 1982. 
Cloth: $17.50. 


Roger Lewin. Thread of Life: The Smithsonian Looks at Evolution. 308 color 
and 44 black-and-white illustrations. Cloth: $27.50. 


Esin Atil. Renaissance of Islam: Art of the Mamluks. Second printing. 1982. 
256 pages, 158 color and 20 black-and-white illustrations, 1 map. Cloth: 
$47.50; paper: $22.50. 

Mary Anglemyer, Eleanor Seagraves, Catherine LeMaistre, compilers. A Search 
for Environmental Ethics: An Initial Bibliography. Second printing. 1982. 
119 pages. Cloth: $9.95. 

Richard E. Blackwelder. Checklist of the Coleopterous Insects of Mexico, 
Central America, The West Indies, and South America. Second printing. 1982. 
1,492 pages. Cloth: $29.95. 

Walter Boyne. Messerschmitt Me 262: Arrow to the Future. Second printing. 
Paper. 1982. 192 pages, 6 color and 136 black-and-white illustrations. Cloth: 
$19.95; paper: $10.95. 

James M. Goode. Capital Losses: A Cultural History of Washington's 
Destroyed Buildings. Second printing. Paper. 1982. xxiv + 517 pages, 460 
black-and-white illustrations. Cloth: $39.95; paper: $19.95; deluxe edition: 

Allan A. Hodges and Carol A. Hodges, editors. Washington on Foot. Second 
edition. Third printing. 1982. 202 pages, 124 black-and-white illustrations. 
Paper: $4.50. 

S. Dillon Ripley. The Sacred Grove: Essays on Museums. Second printing. 
1982. 159 pages. Paper: $4.95. 

Luis G. Lumbreras. The Peoples and Cultures of Ancient Peru. Fifth printing. 
November 1981. Paper: $10.95. 

416 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Holly Edwards and Dr. Karl Signell. Patterns and Precision: The Arts and 
Sciences of Islam. 56 pages, 15 color and 36 black-and-white illustrations, 
1 map. June 1982. Distributed for Islam Centennial Fourteen, Washington, 
D.C. Paper: $6.50. 

Phillip Kopper. The National Museum of Natural History. 496 pages, 460 
illustrations. Published by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. Cloth: $60.00. 

Brendan Gill. The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Pub- 
lished by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 160 pages, 118 color and 63 
black-and-white illustrations. March 1982. Cloth: $25.00. 

Russell Lynes. More Than Meets the Eye: The History and Collections of 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum. Distributed for Cooper-Hewitt Museum, New York. 
160 pages, 37 color and 216 black-and-white illustrations. 1981. Cloth: $18.95; 
paper: $10.95. 

Klaus Maurice and Otto Mayr, editors. The Clockwork Universe: German 
Clocks and Automata 1550-1650. Distributed for the National Museum of 
American History, Washington, D.C. 332 pages, 32 color and 178 black-and- 
white illustrations. Cloth: $19.95. 


Michael Aris. Views of Medieval Bhutan: The Diary and Drawings of Samuel 
Davis, 1783. 124 pages, 13 color plates and 62 black-and-white illustrations. 
Published by Serindia Publications, London. April 1982. Cloth: $35.00. 

Walter Boyne. Boeing B-52: A Documentary History. 160 pages, 200 black- 
and-white illustrations. Published by Jane's, London. April 1982. Cloth: 


American Historical Association, Annual Report, 1980. viii + 198 pages. 
December 1981. 

Office of Folklife Programs, Annual Report, 1980. 8 pages, 3 black-and-white 
illustrations. November 1981. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Annual Report, 1980. 22 pages, 2 
black-and-white illustrations. December 1981. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Annual Report, 1981. 21 pages, 2 
black-and-white illustrations. July 1982. 

Smithsonian Year, 1981. viii + 592 pages, 71 black-and-white illustrations. 
May 1982. 

Smithsonian Year, 1981. Statement by the Secretary, vi + 67 pages, 26 black- 
and-white illustrations. May 1982. 


Freer Gallery of Art 

Thomas Lawton. Chinese Art of the Warring States Period: Change and Con- 
tinuity 480-222 B.C. 202 pages, 20 color and 170 black-and-white illustrations, 
3 maps. September 1982. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Howard N. Fox. Metaphor: New Projects by Contemporary Sculptors. 75 
pages, 50 black-and-white illustrations. March 1982. 

Appendix 5. Smithsonian Institution Press Publications I 417 

Frank Gettings. Raphael Soyer: Sixty-five Years of Printmaking. 87 pages, 
144 black-and-white illustrations. July 1982. 

Abram Lerner. Soyer Since 1960. 17 pages, 18 color illustrations. July 1982. 

Michael W. Panhorst. Samuel Murray: The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden Collection. 32 pages, 49 black-and-white illustrations. May 1982. 

National Museum of American Art 

Merry A. Foresta. A Life in Art: Alma Thomas, 1891-1978. 56 pages, 4 color 
and 47 black-and-white illustrations. December 1981. 

Barbara Shissler Nosanow. More Than Land or Sky: Art from Appalachia. 
127 pages, 15 color and 110 black-and-white illustrations. October 27, 1981. 
Recent Trends in Collecting: Twentieth-Century Painting and Sculpture from 
the National Museum of American Art. 64 pages, 167 black-and-white illus- 
trations. January 31, 1982. 

Michael Shapiro. Cast and Recast: The Sculpture of Frederic Remington. 128 
pages, 111 black-and-white illustrations. December 2, 1981. 

National Portrait Gallery 

James Barber and Frederick Voss. The Godlike Black Dan: A Selection of 
Portraits from Life in Commemoration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of 
the Birth of Daniel Webster. 48 pages, 21 black-and-white illustrations. 
June 1982. 

Margaret Christman. Portraits by George Bellows. 56 pages, 15 color and 
3 black-and-white illustrations. November 1981. 

Frederick Voss. FDR: The Early Years. 32 pages, 36 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. January 1982. 


National Museum of American Art. The Paintings of Frederic Clay Bartlett 
and Evelyn Fortune Bartlett. 6 pages, 7 black-and-white illustrations. Septem- 
ber 1982. 

. William H. Johnson: The Scandinavian Years. 6 pages, 7 black-and- 

white illustrations. September 1982. 

. Roosevelt's America: New Deal Paintings from the National Museum 

of American Art. 6 pages, 6 black-and-white illustrations. March 24, 1982. 

. "In Pursuit of . . ." The Washington Print Club 9th Biennial Mem- 
bers' Exhibition. 8 pages, 7 black-and-white illustrations. 

National Museum of American Art and Office of Folklife Programs. Celebra- 
tion: A World of Art and Ritual, Part I. 120 pages. March 15, 1982. 

. Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual, Part II. 101 pages. August 4, 


. A Guide to Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual. 40 pages, 5 

black-and-white illustrations. March 1982. 


Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies 

Roy Bryce-Laporte and Dolores M. Mortimer. Female Immigration to the 
United States: Caribbean, Latin American and African Experiences, xvii + 
485 pages. October 1981. 

418 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


National Air and Space Museum. Education Services Division. 14 pages. 
November 1981. 

. Exploring the Planets Tour. 60 pages, 20 black-and-white illustra- 

tions. January 1982. 

. National Air and Space Museum Library. 14 pages, 11 black-and- 
white illustrations. May 1982. 

. 25 Years of Space Exploration. 23 pages, 14 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. June 1982. 

National Museum of African Art. Life . . . Afterlife: African Funerary Sculp- 
ture. 15 pages, 12 black-and-white illustrations. November 1981. 

National Museum of American Art. Bernice Abbott: The 20s and the 30s. 
24 pages, 16 black-and-white illustrations. June 1982. 

. Let's Celebrate!: Handbook for Teachers. 40 pages, 5 black-and-white 

illustrations. April 1982. 

. Techniques of Bronze Casting in America, 1850-1900. 15 pages, 

1 black-and-white illustration. October 1981. 

National Portrait Gallery. The National Portrait Gallery. 14 pages, 1 color, 
25 black-and-white illustrations. August 1982. 

Office of Horticulture. Trees of Christmas. 6 pages, 1 black-and-white illustra- 
tion. December 1981. 

Office of Membership and Development. James Smithson Society Banquet. 
16 pages. September 1982. 

Office of Museum Programs. Museum Studies Programs in the United States 
and Abroad, 1982. Ill pages. June 1982. 

Office of Public Affairs. Welcome! Smithsonian Institution. 19 pages, 17 
black-and-white illustrations. Issued in French, Japanese, German, and 
Spanish. May 1982. 

Office of Symposia and Seminars. How Humans Adapt: A Biocultural Odys- 
sey. 16 pages, 20 black-and-white illustrations. November 1981. 

Radiation Biology Laboratory. Solar Radiation Measurements 1980-1981. 
48 pages. September 1982. 


Freer Gallery of Art. The Freer Gallery of Art. Reprint. August 1982. 

National Museum of American Art. Paintings and Sculpture in the Grand 
Salon and Octagon Room. April 1982. 

National Portrait Gallery. Catalog of American Portraits. February 1982. 

Office of Public Affairs. A Guide for Disabled Visitors. November 1981. 

Office of Symposia and Seminars. How Humans Adapt: A Biocultural Odys- 
sey. Program booklet. November 1981. 

Visitor Information and Associates Reception Center. Smithsonian Associate 
Memberships. January 1982. 

Appendix 5. Smithsonian Institution Press Publications I 419 


Freer Gallery of Art. Chinese Bronzes. Revised reprint. November 1981. 

. Ancient Chinese Jade. Revised reprint. January 1982. 

. Islamic Calligraphy and Illumination. Revised reprint. January 1982. 

. Japanese Screens. Reprint. February 1982. 

. Chinese Painting. Reprint. July 1982. 

. Islamic Ceramics. Reprint. July 1982. 

. Japanese Ceramics. August 1982. 

National Museum of American Art. Dear Teacher Letter. November 1981. 

National Museum of American History. The Fall of Parity. February 1982. 

. C. Washington: A Figure Upon the Stage. February 1982. 

. PS4 Pacific Type Locomotive. December 1981. 

Office of Protection Services. Fifth Annual Smithsonian Security Conference, 
February 22-24, 1982. January 1982. 


Freer Gallery of Art. Lecture series. The Dragon as Medium Between Heaven 
and Earth: The Iconography of Chinese Art. January 1982. 

. Lecture series. The Contribution of Technical Studies to the Under- 
standing of Chinese Culture. January 1982. 

. Lecture series. Mamluk Jewelry: Influences and Echoes. January 1982. 

. Lecture series. Disposable but Indispensable: Ritual Pottery in India 

and Japan. January 1982. 

National Museum of American Art. Perkins Harnly: From the Index of Amer- 
ican Design. October 1981. 

-. Good as Cold: Alternative Materials in American Jewelry. Novem- 

ber 1981. 

. Wednesdays at the National Museum, of American Art. December 


. The Inedible Renwick Birthday Cakes. January 1982. 

. Recent Trends in Collecting: Twentieth-Century Painting and Sculp- 
ture from the National Museum of American Art. Invitation and reply card. 
January 1982. 

. Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual. February 1982. 

Prints + Multiples: 79th Exhibition by Artists of Chicago and Vicin- 

ity. March 1982. 

. Wednesdays at the National Museum of American Art. March 1982. 

. First Annual Awards in the Visual Arts Exhibition. April 1982. 

. St. Patrick's Day Festivity and Celebration Special Viewing. April 


Some Observations on the Life and Art of William H. Johnson. 

August 1982. 

. A Life in Art: Alma Thomas, 1891-1978. October 1981. 

420 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Office of Horticulture. Florafest III, "Fantasyland." March 1982. 
Office of Contributing Membership. A Waltz in Space. January 1982. 


Office of Protection Services. Smithsonian Safety and Health Program. 
December 1981. 

Office of Symposia and Seminars. How Humans Adapt: A Biocultural 
Odyssey. October 1981. 


National Air and Space Museum. Sky Interpretation Resource Bulletin. 

May 1982. 

Office of Public Affairs. Smithsonian Institution Research Reports. September 


Office of Membership and Development. Smithsonian Deferred Giving Reply 

Card. October 1981. 



27. James R. Murie. Edited by Douglas R. Parks. "The Ceremonies of the 
Pawnee: Part I: The Skiri; Part II: The South Bands." 497 pages, frontispiece, 
41 figures, 2 tables. October 15, 1981. 

28. Donald J. Ortner and Walter G. J. Putschar. "Identification of Pathologi- 
cal Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains." 479 pages, 765 figures, 14 tables. 
December 28, 1981. 

30. Douglas H. Ubelaker and Herman J. Viola, editors. "Plains Indians 
Studies: A Collection of Essays in Honor of John C. Ewers and Waldo R. 
Wedel." 218 pages, 35 figures, 4 plates, 4 tables. September 14, 1982. 


48. Alan P. Smith. "Growth and Population Dynamics of Espeletia 
(Compositae) in the Venezuelan Andes." 45 pages, 19 figures, 20 tables. 
October 23, 1981. 

50. John W. Nowicke and John J. Skvarla. "Pollen Morphology and Phylo- 
genetic Relationships of the Berberidaceae." 83 pages, 215 figures, 3 tables. 
October 15, 1981. 

51. Harold Robinson. "A Revision of the Tribal and Subtribal Limits of the 
Heliantheae (Asteraceae)." 102 pages, 210 figures. December 21, 1981. 

52. Harold Robinson, A. Michael Powell, Robert M. King, and James F. 
Weedin. "Chromosome Numbers in Compositae, XII: Heliantheae." 28 pages, 
3 tables. October 30, 1981. 


24. Ursula B. Marvin and Brian Mason, editors. "Catalog of Meteorites from 
Victoria Land, Antarctica, 1978-1980." 97 pages, frontispiece, 41 figures, 
13 tables. July 29, 1982. 

Appendix 5. Smithsonian Institution Press Publications I All 


8. Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas. "Distribution of Recent Benthic 
Foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico" (in two volumes). 898 pages, 296 figures, 
3 tables. December 31, 1981. 

9. James N. Norris and H. William Johansen. "Articulated Coralline Algae 
of the Gulf of California, Mexico, 1: Amphiroa Lamouroux." 29 pages, 18 
figures, 1 table. October 8, 1981. 

10. Ernani G. Menez and Arthur C. Mathieson. "The Marine Algae of 
Tunisia." 59 pages, 1 figure. October 1981. 

11. Daniel Jean Stanley, Patrick T. Taylor, Harrison Sheng, and Robert 
Stuckenrath. "Sohm Abyssal Plain: Evaluating Proximal Sediment Prove- 
nance." 48 pages, 23 figures, 5 tables. October 23, 1981. 

12. Klaus Rutzler and Ian G. Macintyre, editors. "The Atlantic Barrier Reef 
Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, I: Structure and Communities." 539 
pages, frontispiece, 232 figures, 5 plates, 47 tables. June 10, 1982. 

13. Christian Blanpied and Daniel Jean Stanley. "Uniform Mud (Unifite) 
Deposition in the Hellenic Trench, Eastern Mediterranean." 40 pages, 15 fig- 
ures, 2 tables. December 21, 1981. 


40. David D. Gillette and Clayton E. Ray. "Glyptodonts of North America." 
255 pages, 96 figures, frontispiece, 70 tables. December 21, 1981. 

41. G. Arthur Cooper. "New Brachiopods from the Southern Hemisphere and 
Cryptopora from Oregon (Recent)." 43 pages, 4 figures, 7 plates. July 29, 1982. 

42. Rex A. Doescher. "Living and Fossil Brachiopod Genera 1775-1979: Lists 
and Bibliography." 238 pages. November 19, 1981. 

43. G. Arthur Cooper. "Brachiopoda from the Southern Indian Ocean 
(Recent)." 93 pages, 30 figures, 14 plates, 1 table. December 21, 1981. 

44. G. Arthur Cooper. "Brachiopods (Recent) from the Gulf of Gascogne, 
France." 35 pages, 5 figures, 3 plates. December 17, 1981. 

45. Richard Cifelli. "Textural Observations on Some Living Species of 
Planktonic Foraminifera." 45 pages, 15 plates. March 18, 1982. 

46. Jessica A. Harrison. "A Review of the Extinct Wolverine, Plesiogulo 
(Carnivora: Mustelidae), from North America." 27 pages, 16 figures. 
December 21, 1981. 

47. Robert J. Emry and Richard W. Thorington, Jr. "Descriptive and Compara- 
tive Osteology of the Oldest Fossil Squirrel, Protosciurus (Rodentia: 
Sciuridae)." 35 pages, 16 figures, 3 tables. July 12, 1982. 

48. Storrs L. Olson, editor. "Fossil Vertebrates from the Bahamas." 65 pages, 
12 figures, 12 tables. August 5, 1982. 

49. Francis M. Hueber. "Megaspores and a Palynomorph from the Lower 
Potomac Group in Virginia." 69 pages, 1 figure, 24 plates. February 22, 1982. 

51. David W. Steadman and Clayton E. Ray. "The Relationships of 
Megaoryzomys curioi, an Extinct Cricetine Rodent (Muroidea: Muridae) from 
the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador." 23 pages, 11 figures, 1 table. August 24, 

422 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

52. Daryl P. Domning, Gary S. Morgan, and Clayton E. Ray. "North American 
Eocene Sea Cows (Mammalia: Sirenia)." 69 pages, 34 figures, 4 tables. 
September 3, 1982. 


318. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. "The Crayfishes of Georgia." 549 pages, 262 figures, 
frontispiece, 3 tables. December 21, 1981. 

319. Louis S. Kornicker. "Revision, Distribution, Ecology, and Ontogeny of 
the Ostracode Subfamily Cyclasteropinae (Myodocopina: Cylindroleberidi- 
dae)." 548 pages, 174 figures, 185 plates, 24 tables. December 31, 1981. 

327. Marcia Little. "Social Biology of the Polistine Wasp Mischocyttarus 
labiatus: Survival in a Colombian Rain Forest." 27 pages, 5 figures, 15 tables. 
October 8, 1981. 

335. Julian J. Lewis and Thomas E. Bowman. "The Subterranean Asellids 
(Caecidotea) of Illinois (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellidae)." 66 pages, 32 figures. 
December 10, 1981. 

336. Melvin E. Sunquist. "The Social Organization of Tigers (Panthera tigris) 
in Royal Chitawan National Park, Nepal." 98 pages, frontispiece, 33 figures, 
31 tables. October 28, 1981. 

338. Brian Kensley. "On the Zoogeography of Southern African Decapod 
Crustacea, with a Distributional Checklist of the Species." 64 pages, 4 figures, 
4 tables. October 19, 1981. 

339. Roger Cressey. "Parasitic Copepods from the Gulf of Mexico and Carib- 
bean Sea, I: Holobomolochus and Neobomolochus." 24 pages, 72 figures. 
October 19, 1981. 

340. Louis S. Kornicker. "Angulorostrum, a New Genus of Myodocopid 
Ostracoda (Philomedidae: Pseudophilomedinae)." 20 pages, 11 figures, 2 
plates. October 19, 1981. 

341. Donald I. Schreiweiss. "A Comparative Study of the Appendicular 
Musculature of Penguins (Aves: Spenisciformes)." 46 pages, 19 figures. 
April 7, 1982. 

342. Roger Cressey. "Revision of Indo-West Pacific Lizardfishes of the Genus 
Synodus (Pisces: Synodontidae)." 53 pages, 44 figures, 4 tables. December 15, 

343. Karl V. Krombein. "Biosystematic Studies of Ceylonese Wasps, VIII: 
A Monograph of the Philanthidae (Hymenoptera: Sphecoidea)." 75 pages, 
89 figures. December 15, 1981. 

344. James G. Mead, William A. Walker, Warren J. Houck. "Biological 
Observations on Mesoplodon carlhubbsi (Cetacea: Ziphiidae)." 25 pages, 11 
figures, 4 tables. February 3, 1982. 

345. Wayne N. Mathis. "Studies of Ephydrinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), VI: 
Review of the Tribe Dagini." 30 pages, 89 figures. January 22, 1982. 

346. Brian Kensley. "Deep-Water Atlantic Anthuridea (Crustacea: Isopoda)." 
60 pages, 35 figures, 9 plates. February 9, 1982. 

347. Wayne N. Mathis. "Studies of Canacidae (Diptera), I: Suprageneric 
Revision of the Family with Revisions of New Tribe Dynomiellini and New 
Genus Isocanace." 29 pages, 77 figures. April 23, 1982. 

Appendix 5. Smithsonian Institution Press Publications I 423 

348. Norman D. Penny and Oliver S. Flint, Jr. "A Revision of the Genus 
Chloronia (Neuroptera: Corydalidae)." 27 pages, 53 figures, frontispiece. 
May 25, 1982. 

349. C. Allan Child. "Deep-Sea Pyconogonida from the North and South 
Atlantic Basins." 54 pages, 15 figures. May 25, 1982. 

350. Wayne N. Mathis. "Studies of Ephydrinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), VII: 
Revision of the Genus Setacera Cresson." 57 pages, 138 figures. July 12, 1982. 

351. Thomas E. Bowman, Anne C. Cohen, and Maura McManus McGuinness. 
"Vertical Distribution of Themisto gaudichaudii (Amphipoda: Hyperiidea) 
in Deepwater Dumpsite 106 off the Mouth of Delaware Bay." 24 pages, 16 
figures. June 16, 1982. 

352. Michael D. Carleton, Don E. Wilson, Alfred L. Gardner, and Michael A. 
Bogan. "Distribution and Systematics of Peromyscus (Mammalia: Rodentia) 
of Nayarit, Mexico." 46 pages, 14 figures, 8 tables. September 14, 1982. 

353. W. Duane Hope. "Structure of the Head and Stoma in the Marine 
Nematode Genus Deontostoma (Enoplida: Leptosomatidae)." 22 pages, 5 fig- 
ures, September 7, 1982. 

354. R. J. Hoage. "Social and Physical Maturation in Captive Lion Tamarins, 
Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae)." 56 pages, 24 figures, 
12 tables. September 9, 1982. 

355. Oliver S. Flint, Jr. "Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XXX: Larvae of 
the Genera of South American Limnephilidae (Trichoptera)." 30 pages, 77 
figures. July 12, 1982. 

357. J. Laurens Barnard and Charline M. Barnard. "The Genus Rhepoxynius 
(Crustacea: Amphipoda: Phoxocephalidae) in American Seas." 49 pages, 
6 figures. July 19, 1982. 

358. Louis S. Kornicker. "A Restudy of the Amphiatlantic Ostracode Philo- 
medes brenda (Baird, 1850) (Myodocopina)." 28 pages, 9 figures, 1 table. 
July 23, 1982. 

359. Thomas E. Bowman and Maura McManus McGuinness. "Epipelagic 
Amphipods of the Family Hyperiidae from the International Indian Ocean 
Expedition, 1959-1965." 53 pages, 87 figures, 5 tables. July 12, 1982. 

373. Richard P. Vari. "Systematics of the Neotropical Characoid Genus 
Curimatopsis (Pisces: Characoidei)." 28 pages, 21 figures. August 27, 1982. 

424 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

APPENDIX 6. Publications of the Staff of the Smithsonian 

Institution and Its Subsidiaries in Fiscal Year 1982 

Publications are by staff members and, in some 
instances, research associates and collaborators. 



Balling, J. D. "Exploring the Psychological Bay." In Ethical Aspects of Chesa- 
peake Bay Use, ed. A. H. Rooney-Char. Hampton, Va. : Citizens Program 
for Chesapeake Bay, Inc., 1981. 

Balling, J. D., and Falk, J. H. "Development of Visual Preference for Natural 
Landscapes: The Savanna Hypothesis." Environment and Behavior 14(1) 
(1982) :5-28. 

Correll, D. L. "Endangered Receiving Waters: Runoff Monitoring as a Tool 
To Determine Sources and Magnitudes of Pollution." In Application of 
Results from Representative and Experimental Basins, ed. D. N. Body, 
pp. 461-73. Paris: UNESCO Press, 1982. 

Correll, D. L., and Ford, D. "Comparison of Land Runoff and Precipitation as 
Sources of Estuarine Nitrogen." Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Science 15(1982): 

Correll, D. L., and Wu, T. L. "Atrazine Toxicity to Submersed Vascular Plants 
in Simulated Estuarine Microcosms." Aquatic Botany 14(1982). 

Falk, J. H. Children in Museums: An International Symposium, pp. 201-6. 
Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution, 1982. 

. "The Response of Two Turf Insects, Endria inimica (Homoptera: 

Ciccadelidae) and Oscinella frit (Diptera: Chloropidae) to Mowing." En- 
vironmental Entomology 11(1)(1982) :29-31. 

"Using Evaluation to Improve Exhibits." In Proceedings of Indo-U.S. 

Natural History Workshop on Exhibition Techniques and Communication 
Strategies, ed. S. M. Nair. New Delhi: National Museum of Natural His- 
tory, 1982. 
. "The Use of Time as a Measure of Visitor Behavior and Exhibit 

Effectiveness." Journal of Museum Roundtable Reports 1(1982) :10-17. 
Faust, M. A., and Sager, J. C. "Effect of Colored Light on Growth and Pigment 

Composition of Prorocentrum mariae-lehouriae." Journal of Phycology 

17(1981) :14. 
Faust, M. A.; Correll, D. L.; Pierce, J. W.; Klein, J. W.; and Goldberg, B. 

"Photosynthetic Pigments and Light Distribution in the Rhode River 

Estuary." Estuaries 4(1981) :299. 
. "Relationship between Land Use Practices and Fecal Bacteria in 

Soils." Journal of Environmental Quality 11(1982) :141-46. 
Faust, M. A.; Sager, J. C; and Meeson, B. W. "Response and Photoadaptation 

of Prorocentrum mariae-lehouriae to Colored Light and Irradiance." Journal 

of Phycology 18(1982) :349-56. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 425 

Faust, M. A., and Norris, K. H. "Rapid Spectrophotometric Analysis of Chlo- 
rophyll Pigments in Intact Phytoplankton." British Journal of Phycology 

Feder, M. E.; Lynch, J. F.; Shaffer, H. B.; and Wake, D. B. "Field Body Tem- 
peratures of Tropical and Temperate Zone Salamanders." Smithsonian 
Herpetological Information Service Publication No. 52, 1982. 

Gopol, B.; Turner, R. E.; Wetzel, R. G.; and Whigham, D. F., eds. Wetlands: 
Ecology and Management, vol. 1. Jaipur, India: International Scientific 
Publications, 1982. 

. "Introduction." In Wetlands: Ecology and Management, eds. B. Go- 
pol, R. E. Turner, R. G. Wetzel, and D. F. Whigham, pp. vi-xvi. Jaipur, 
India: International Scientific Publications, 1982. 

Hines, A. H. "Coexistence in a Kelp Forest: Size, Population Dynamics, and 
Resource Partitioning in a Guild of Spider Crabs (Brackyura, Majidae)." 
Ecological Monographs 52(1982) :179-98. 

Lynch, J. F., and Whigham, D. F. "Configuration of Forest Patches Necessary 
to Maintain Bird and Plant Communities." Maryland Power Plant Siting 
Report PPRD-59, pp. 1-88, 1982. 

Wake, D. B., and Lynch, J. F. "Evolutionary Relationships among Central 
American Salamanders of the Bolitoglossa franklini group with a Descrip- 
tion of a New Species from Guatemala." Herpetologica 38(1982) :257-72. 

Whigham, D. F.; O'Neill, J.; and McWethy, M. "Ecological Implications of 
Manipulating Coastal Wetlands for Purposes of Mosquito Control." In 
Wetlands: Ecology and Management, eds., B. Gopol, R. E. Turner, R. G. 
Wetzel, and D. F. Whigham, pp. 459-76. Jaipur, India: International Scien- 
tific Publications, 1982. 

. "Using Freshwater Wetlands for Waste Water Management in North 

America." In Wetlands: Ecology and Management, eds. B. Gopol, R. E. 
Turner, R. G. Wetzel, and D. F. Whigham, pp. 506-14. Jaipur, India: 
International Scientific Publications, 1982. 

An Ecological Comparison of Six Bog Sites in Anne Arundel County, 

Maryland. Annapolis, Md. : Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 

The Effect of Three Marsh Management Techniques on the Ecology 

of Irregularly Flooded Bay Wetlands. Vegetation and Water Quality 
Studies. Annapolis, Md.: Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1982. 


Office of the Director 

Boyne, Walter J. Messerschmitt Me 262: Arrow to the Future, 1980. Reprint. 
Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

. "Gallic Gunship." Wings 12(3) (1982). 

. "Ingenious Wings." Air and Space 5 (2) (1982). 

"B-52 Once and Future Emperor of Air Power." Air Power 12(2) 


. "Boeing's $40 Million Baby." United Airlines 26 (7) (1982). 

. "North American XB-28." Air Line Pilot 51(2)(1982). 

. "Lockheed XC-35." Air Line Pilot 51(3) (1982). 

. "Northrop YC-125." Air Line Pilot 51(4) (1982). 

. "Curtiss Model 24 B." Air Line Pilot 51 (5) (1982). 

. "Nicholas Beazley NB-3." Air Line Pilot 51 (6) (1982). 

. "Engineering Division USD 9-A." Air Line Pilot 51 (7) (1982). 

. "Hall Aluminum Monoped." Air Line Pilot 51 (8) (1982). 

. "Martin-Baker MB-5." Air Line Pilot 51 (9) (1982). 

426 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Center for Earth and Planetary Studies 

Andre, C. G. "Chemical Rings of Lunar Basins from Orbital X-ray Data." In 
Multi-ring Basins; Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science, Vol. 1, 
Part A, pp. 125-32. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981. 

Andre, C. G., and El-Baz, F. [Abstract] "Deformed Impact Craters on Mars." 
Reports of Planetary Geology Program — 1981, pp. 399-401. NASA TM- 
84211, 1981. 

. "Regional Chemical Setting of the Apollo 16 Landing Site and the 

Importance of the Kant Plateau." In Proceedings of the Twelfth Lunar and 
Planetary Science Conference, pp. 767-79. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981. 

Andre, C. G.; Strain, P. L.; and Dove, W. [Abstract] "Additional Evidence of 
Lunar Terra Volcanism." In Lunar and Planetary Science XIII, pp. 18-19. 
Houston: The Lunar and Planetary Institute, 1982. 

. [Abstract] "Volcanic Resurfacing of the Lunar Nearside Highlands." 

In Press Abstracts of the 13th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 
pp. 3-5. Houston: The Lunar and Planetary Institute, 1982. 

Arvidson, R. E.; Jacobberger, P. A.; and El-Baz, F. [Abstract] "Mapping Oases 
and Soil Types from Landsat Multispectral Scanner Data — Kharga Depres- 
sion, Western Desert of Egypt." In Summaries, First Thematic Conference: 
Remote Sensing of Arid and Semi- Arid Lands, page 73. Ann Arbor: Envi- 
ronmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1982. 

Chemin, M.; Mainguet, M.; and El-Baz, F. [Abstract] "Eolian Dynamics in the 
Western Desert of Egypt as Revealed by Landsat Data." In Summaries, 
First Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing of Arid and Semi-Arid Lands, 
page 103. Ann Arbor: Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1982. 

El-Baz, F. [Abstract] "Science Leads Art — Views of the Planets from Space." 
In Abstracts of Papers of the 148th National Meeting, 3-8 January 1982, 
page 10. Washington, D.C. : American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, 1982. 

. "Egypt's Desert of Promise." National Geographic 161(1982) :190-221. 

. [Abstract] "Desert Terrain: The View From Space." In Summaries, 

First Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing of Arid and Semi- Arid Lands, 
pp. 6-7. Ann Arbor: Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1982. 
-. "Techniques and Results of Remote Sensing of the Moon." In Pro- 

ceedings of the Fifteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of 
Environment, pp. 299-311. Ann Arbor: Environmental Research Institute 
of Michigan, 1982. 

"Sadd El-Halal (Dam at Gebel Halal, Sinai; in Arabic)." The Engi- 

neers' Magazine, Cairo, Egypt, (5) (1981) -.26-27. 

-. [Abstract] "Genesis of Particulate Material in Terrestrial Deserts and 

Applications to Mars." In Lunar and Planetary Science XIII, pp. 199-200. 
Houston: The Lunar and Planetary Institute, 1982. 
. "Arabian Astronomy." The Planetary Report 11(1982) :16-18. 

El-Baz, F., and Mainguet, M. [Abstract] "Dune Forms in the Great Sand Sea 
and Applications to Mars." Reports of Planetary Geology Program — 1981, 
pp. 244-46. NASA TM-84211, 1981. 

El-Baz, F., and Manent, L. S. [Abstract] "Serrated Eolian Deposits in China's 
Northwestern Deserts and Their Comparisons to Dark Splotches on Mars." 
Reports of Planetary Geology Program — 1981, pp. 241-43. NASA TM-84211, 

Hamdan, A. H., and El-Baz, F. [Abstract] "Photolineaments in the Gilf Kebir 
Plateau, Southwestern Egypt." In Summaries, First Thematic Conference: 
Remote Sensing of Arid and Semi- Arid Lands, pp. 122-23. Ann Arbor: 
Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1982. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 427 

Manent, L. S., and El-Baz, F. [Abstract] "Preliminary Comparison of Insel- 
bergs in the Cerberus Region of Mars to Terrestrial Isolated Hills in Arid, 
Humid and Glacial Terrains." Reports of Planetary Geology Program — 1981, 
pp. 305-7. NASA TM-84211, 1981. 

Maxwell, T. A. "Basin Tectonics on the Terrestrial Planets: Moon, Mars, and 
Mercury." NATO Advanced Study Institute, Comparative Study of the 
Planets; Memorie della Italiana 52(1981) :449-53. 

. [Abstract] "Particle Size Variations in Desert Surface Sediments: 

Importance for Remote Sensing of Arid Regions." In Summaries, First 
Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing of Arid and Semi-Arid Lands, 
pp. 207—8. Ann Arbor: Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1982. 
"Particle Size and Spacing Variations in Desert Surface Sediments: 

Importance for Remote Sensing of Arid Regions." In Proceedings of First 
Thematic Conference on Remote Sensing of Arid and Semi-Arid Lands, 
pp. 1239-48, Ann Arbor: Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 

[Abstract] "Orientations of Structural Features in the Lunae Palus- 

Coprates Region of Mars: Influence of Preexisting Structure." In Lunar and 
Planetary Science XIII, pp. 477-78. Houston: The Lunar and Planetary In- 
stitute, 1982. 

Maxwell, T. A., and Andre, C. G. "The Balmer Basin: Regional Geology and 
Geochemistry of an Ancient Lunar Impact Basin." In Proceedings of the 
Twelfth Lunar Planetary Science Conference, pp. 715-25. New York: Per- 
gamon Press, 1981. 

Maxwell, T. A., and Watters, T. R. [Abstract] "Ridge Orientations in the 
Tharsis Province of Mars: Deviations from Tharsis-Related Trends." Re- 
ports of Planetary Geology Program — 1981, pp. 380-82. NASA TM-84211, 

McCord, T. B.; El-Baz, F.; and Adams, J. B. [Abstract] "The Nature and 
Extent of Erosional and Depositional Features and Rock and Soil Units in 
the Kharga Oasis Region, as Determined from Remote Sensing." In Sum- 
maries, First Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing of Arid and Semi- Arid 
Lands, pp. 134-35. Ann Arbor: Environmental Research Institute of Michi- 
gan, 1982. 

Strain, P. L., and El-Baz, F. [Abstract] "Sand Distribution in the Kharga 
Depression of Egypt: Observations from Landsat Images." In Summaries, 
First Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing of Arid and Semi-Arid Lands, 
pp. 101-2. Ann Arbor: Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1982. 

. "Sand Distribution in the Kharga Depression of Egypt: Observations 

from Landsat Images." In Proceedings of the First Thematic Conference on 
Remote Sensing of Arid and Semi-Arid Lands, pp. 765-74. Ann Arbor: 
Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1982. 

Watters, T. R., and Maxwell, T. A. [Abstract] "Ridge-fault Intersections and 
Tharsis Tectonics." In Papers Presented to the Third International Col- 
loquium on Mars, pp. 270-72. Houston: The Lunar and Planetary Institute, 

. [Abstract] "Ridge-rille Intersections in the Tharsis Province of Mars." 

Reports of Planetary Geology Program — 1981, pp. 383-85. NASA TM-84211, 

Department of Aeronautics 

Brooks-Pazmany, K. "Piggyback Aircraft." Air and Space 5(3)(1982). 

Crouch, Tom D. "Bleriot XI: The Story of a Classic Aircraft." Famous Air- 
craft of the National Air and Space Museum, No. 5. Washington, D.C. : 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

428 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

. "91 Hours, 8 Minutes, 10 Seconds: Around the World with Howard 

Hughes." Air and Space. 5(1) (1981). 

"The Wright Brothers." Air and Space. 5(2) (1982). 

Hardesty, Von D. "Lindberghs of the North." Air and Space 5(3) (1982). 
. Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power, 1941-1945. Washington, 

D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 
Lopez, Donald S. "Mr. Kipling's Army." Kipling Journal (1982). 

. "Night Fighting Over Europe." Air and Space 5(2)(1982). 

. "With the Night Mail Revisited." Kipling Journal (March 1982). 

Mikesh, Robert C. Aircraft in Museums Around the World, Sections 1 and II. 

Washington, D.C: National Air and Space Museum, 1982. 
. "B-57 Canberra Leaves the USAF, Part I." Aviation Journal 126 


"B-57 Canberra Leaves the USAF, Part II." Aviation Journal 127 


. "The B-57 Retires." Wings 12(4) (1982). 

. "The Emily Flying Boat — Its Past." Aviation Journal 120(1982). 

. "The Emily Flying Boat — Its Present." Aviation Journal 121(1982). 

. "The Emily Flying Boat — Its Future." Aviation Journal 122(1982). 

— . "Made in Japan, Tested in America, Part I." Wings 12(3) (1982). 

"Made in Japan, Tested in America, Part II." Airpower 12(4) (1982). 

Spenser, Jay P. "Aerial Observation." Air and Space 5(3) (1982). 

. "Bellanca C.F. : The Emergence of the Cabin Monoplane in the 

United States." Famous Aircraft of the National Air and Space Museum, 
No. 6. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 
"Bull's Eye." Wings 12(3) (1982). 

Wooldridge, E. T. Jet Aviation: Threshold to a New Era. Washington, D.C: 
National Air and Space Museum, 1982. 

Department of Space Science and Exploration 

Chamberlain, Von Del. "Interpreting the Sky." In Interpreting the Environ- 
ment, by Grant W. Sharpe, 2d ed., chapter 22. New York: John Wiley & 
Sons, 1982. 

. "Parks Have No Vertical Boundaries." Park & Recreation Resources 

1(1) (1982) :16-21. 

. "Fireball." Air and Space 5(1) (1981). 

. "Constellations." Air and Space 5(2) (1982). 

-. "Observatories: From Sun Watching to Orbiting Telescopes." Air and 

Space 5(3) (1982). 

[Review] The Big Missouri Winter Count, by Roberta Carkeek Che- 

ney. Archaeoastronomy 4(4) (1981). 

. "Counting Days and Years." Air and Space 5(4) (1982). 

"The Skidi Pawnee Earth Lodge as an Observatory." In Archaeoas- 

tronomy in the New World, by Anthony F. Aveni, pp. 183-194. Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press, 1982. 

-, editor. Sky Interpretation Resource Bulletin, Vol. V (1982). Published 

by the National Air and Space Museum. 
DeVorkin, David H. [Review]. Oort and the Universe: A Sketch of Oort's 

Research and Person, by Hugo van Woerden; eds. Willem N. Brouw and 

Henk C. van de Hulst. Isis 73 (1982) :300. 
. The History of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics: A Selected, 

Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1982. 

"The Maintenance of a Scientific Institution: Otto Struve, The 

Yerkes Observatory, and Its Optical Bureau during the Second World 
War." Minerva 18(4) (Winter 1980) :593-623. [Issue appeared in the spring 
of 1982.] 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I ^19 

DeVorkin, David H., and Mack, Pamela. "Pro-Seminar in Space History." 

Technology and Culture (Summer/Fall 1982). 
DeVorkin, David H., and Weart, Spencer, R. "The Voice of Astronomical 

History." Sky and Telescope (February 1982) :124-27. 
Hanle, Paul A. Bringing Aerodynamics to America. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT 

Press, 1982. 
. "Theoretical Aerodynamics at MIT, NYU, and Caltech: European 

Science or American Art?" History of Science in America: News and Views 

(June 1982). 
Joels, Kerry M. [column] "Future of Telecommunications." Transponder, 

International Association of Satellite Users, October 1981-September 1982. 
. "Tomorrow's Learning: Micro-computer in Schools, Museums, and 

at Home." Compcon '82 Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronic 

Engineers, March 1982. 

-. [Session summary] "Social Sciences." Space Manufacturing 4, eds., 

Grey and Hamdan. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 

"One Thousand Channels: A Promise, A Problem, A Parable." Space 

Manufacturing 4, 1982. 

Apollo to the Moon: A Dream of Centuries. Washington, D.C. : 

National Air and Space Museum, 1982. 
-. "Oscar." Air and Space 5(4)(1982). 

Joels, Kerry M., and Harkins, A. "Viewpoints on Space: An On-site Delphi at 

Princeton '81." In Space Manufacturing 4, 1982. 
Kennedy, Gregory P. "Shuttle Carrier Aircraft." Air and Space 5 (4) (1982). 
Needell, Allan A. "Ingenuity in Space." Air and Space 5(2)(1982). 
. "Unmanned Space Craft: 25 Years Listening and Learning." Air and 

Space 6(1) (1982). 

Winter, Frank H. "Observatories in Space, 1920s Style." The Griffith Observer 

46(June 1982) :2-8. 
. "Ari Shternfeld — Space Populariser." Space Education 1 Journal of 

the British Interplanetary Society (December 1981) :88-89. 

. "Step Rockets: Fireworks to Spaceships." Air and Space 5(4)k(1982). 

"Nikolai Alexeyevich Rynin (1877-1942), Soviet Astronautical Pio- 

neer: An American Appreciation." Earth-Oriented Applications of Space 
Technology (1)(1982) :69-80. 

-. "Esther Kisk Goddard (1901-1982)." Astronautics and Aeronautics 

20(9) (1982) :78. 

Winter, Frank H., and van der Linden, Frank Robert [Monthly column], "Out 
of the Past — An Aerospace Chronology." Astronautics and Aeronautics 
(October 1981-September 1982). 

Division of Exhibits and Presentations 

Callen II, Thomas H. "Sky Map." Air and Space 5(1) (1981). 

"Soaring Stars." Ranger Rick's Nature Magazine (1982). 

"Sky Map." Air and Space 5(2) (1982). 

"Sky Map." Air and Space 5(3) (1982). 

"Sky Map." Air and Space 5(4) (1982). 

"Sky Map." Air and Space 6(1) (1982). 

"Albert Einstein's Ragtime Band: Soundtrack Production at the 

Albert Einstein Spacearium." In Proceedings, Sixth Biennial Conference of 
the International Planetarium Society, pp. 22-27. Vancouver, British Colum- 
bia, Canada, July 1982. 
Good, William A. "Our Beautiful Earth." Air and Space 5 (3) (1982). 

430 / Smithsonian Year 1982 


Sorenson, E. Richard. "In Quest of the Expressions of Human Kind: The 

National Human Studies Film Center." In Royal Anthropological Institute 

News 50(June 1982) :12. 
. In Quest of the Expressions of Humankind: the Progress of the 

National Human Studies Film Center. An Occasional Paper. National 

Human Studies Film Center, 1981. 

Jyapu: Industrious Productivity as Lifestyle. A Research Report Film. 

A research paper to accompany the research report film, Jyapu, Industrious 
Productivity as Lifestyle. National Human Studies Film Center, 1982. 

Research Report Film 

Sorenson, E. Richard. Jyapu: Industrious Productivity as Lifestyle. A Research 
Report Film produced jointly by The Royal Nepal Academy and the Na- 
tional Human Studies Film Center, Smithsonian Institution. 1982. Project 
Director and Principal Investigator, E. Richard Sorenson. Film Editor and 
Production Coordinator, Barbara Johnson. Research Filmers, Barbara John- 
son, Ragpa Dorjee and Steven Schecter. 


Department of Anthropology 

Adovasio, J. M. "The Appearance of Cultigens in the Upper Ohio Valley: A 
View from Meadowcroft Rockshelter." Pennsylvania Archaeologist 51(1-2) 
(1981) :63-80. 

Adovasio, J. M.; Alexandrowicz, J. S.; Luff man, N.; and Taft, M. "Perishable 
Industries from Westwater — Five Kiva — (42Sal4) — And Big Westwater 
(42Sa6752) Ruins San Juan County, Utah: A Synopsis." Bureau of Land 
Management Cultural Resource Series, 1981. 

Adovasio, J. M.; Donahue, J.; Stuckenrath, R.; and Gunn, J. D. "The Meadow- 
croft Papers: A Response to Dincauze." Quarterly Review of Archaeology 

Adovasio, J. M.; Fry, G. F.; Gunn, J.; and Maslowski, R. "An Overview of 
Prehistoric and Historic Settlement Patterns in Western Cyprus." National 
Geographic Society Research Reports 13(1981) :53-67. 

Angel, J. Lawrence. "A Commentary." In "Anemia in Ancient Times." by 
Gerald D. Hart. Blood Cells 7(1981) :493. 

. "History and Development of Paleopathology." American Journal of 

Physical Anthropology 56(1981) :509-15. 

Angel, J. Lawrence, and Zimmerman, M. R. "T. Aidan Cockburn, 1912-1981: 
A Memorial." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 58(1982) :121-22. 

. "A New Measure of Growth Efficiency: Skull Base Height." American 

Journal of Physical Anthropology 58(3) (1982) :297-305. 

Asch, Michael I., and Goddard, R. H. Ives. "Synonymy," in the chapter 
"Slavery," in "Subarctic," ed. J. Helm. Handbook of North American In- 
dians 6(1981) :347-48. W. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Washington, D.C.: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press. 

Burch, Ernest S., Jr. The Traditional Eskimo Hunters of Point Hope, Alaska: 
1800-1875. Barrow: The North Slope Borough, 1981. 

. "Sotsiodemograficheskiye korrelyaty struktury zhilischa v trech 

beringiyskikh populyatsiyakh: opyt issledovaniya (Sociodemographic cor- 
relates of dwelling structure in three Bering populations: an experimental 
study.)" In Traditsionnye kultury Severnoy Sibiri i Severnoy Ameriki. 
Trudy sovetskoamerikanskoy gruppy po sotrudnichestvu v oblasti izuche- 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 431 

niya vzaimodeystiviya aborigennykh narodov i kultur Severnoy Sibiri i 
Severnoy Ameriki. Moscow, Nauka, 1981. 

Collins, Henry B. "E. W. Nelson, the Man Who Buys Good-for-Nothing 
Things." In inua: spirit world of the bering sea eskimo, by W. Fitzhugh 
and S. Kaplan, pp. 29-36. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 

Crocker, William. "'Helping Hands' through Life." In Celebration: Studies in 
Festivity and Ritual, ed. V. Turner, pp. 147-58. Washington, D.C: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Denniston, Glenda, and Goddard, R. H. Ives, III. "Synonymy," in the chapter 
"Sekani," in "Subarctic," ed. J. Helm. Handbook of North American Indians 
6(1981) :440-41. W. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian 
Institution Press. 

Ewers, John C. "Artists' Choices." American Indian Art 7(2) (1982) :40-49. 

. "Assiniboin Antelope-horn Headdresses." American Indian Art 7(4) 

(1982) :45-51. 

. "The Awesome Bear in Plains Indian Art." American Indian Art 

7(3) (1982) :36-45. 

"The Image of the White Man as a Glad-hander." American West, 

The Land and Its People 19(1) (1982) :54-60, 69-71. 

"The Use of Artifacts and Pictures in the Study of Plains Indian 

History, Art, and Religion." In "The Research Potential of Anthropological 
Museum Collections," eds. A. M. Cantwell, J. B. Griffin, N. A. Rothschild. 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 376(1982) :247-66. 

Fitzhugh, William W. "A Prehistoric Caribou Fence from Williams Harbour, 
Northern Labrador." In Megaliths to Medicine Wheels: Boulder Structures 
in Archeaology, Archaeological Association, Department of Archaeology, 
University of Calgary, pp. 187-206. 1981. 

. "Smithsonian Surveys in Central and Southern Labrador in 1981." In 

Archaeology in Newfoundland and Labrador, 1981 vol. 2, eds. J. Thomson 
and C. Thomson, pp. 32-54. Division of Historic Resources, Government of 
Newfoundland and Labrador. 1982. 

"Archeologists Report on Frobisher Site." Nunatsiaq News, Octo- 

ber 23, 1981. (Newspaper publication of Smithsonian Archeological Surveys 
at Kodlunarn Island in 1981 : Interim Field Report.) 

Fitzhugh, William W., and Kaplan, Susan A. inua: spirit world of the bering 
sea eskimo. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Fitzhugh, William W., and Selig, Ruth O. "The Smithsonian's Alaska Con- 
nection: 19th Century Explorers and Anthropologists." The Alaska Journal: 
A 1981 Collection, pp. 193-208, 1981. 

Fowler, Don D. "Cultural Resources Management." In Advances in Archaeo- 
logical Method and Theory 5, ed. M. Schiffer, pp. 1-50. New York: Aca- 
demic Press, 1982. 

Fowler, Don D., and Fowler, C S. "The Southern Paiute: A.D. 1400-1776." In 
"The Protohistoric Period in the North American Southwest, A.D. 1450- 
1700," eds. D. R. Wilcox and W. B. Masse. Arizona State University An- 
thropological Research Papers 24(1981) :129-62. 

. "Museum Collections and Ethnographic Reconstruction: Examples 

from the Great Basin." In "The Research Potential of Anthropological 
Museum Collections," eds. A. M. Cantwell, J. R. Griffin, and N. A. Roths- 
child, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 376(1981) -.177-99. 

Frolich, B., and D. W. Von Endt. "Interfacing Micro- and Large Frame Com- 
puters : Conductivity Measurements in an Early Bronze Age Cemetery at 
Bab-edh-Dhra, Jordan." In Computers in Research at the Smithsonian: A 
Symposium, p. 16. Washington, D.C: Scientific Application Division, Office 
of Computer Services, Smithsonian Institution, 1982. 

432 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Gibson, Gordon D., Trans, and ed. The Ethnography of Southwestern Angola. 

Volume 3. The Herero People, by Carlos Estermann. New York: Africana 

Publishing Company. 
Gillespie, Beryl C, and Goddard, R. H. Ives, III. "Synonymy," in the chapters 

"Yellowknife," "Mountain Indians," and "Beaver," in "Subarctic," ed. 

J. Helm. Handbook of North American Indians 6(1981) :288-89, 336-37, 359. 

W. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press. 
Goddard, R. H. Ives, III. "The Historical Phonology of Munsee." International 

Journal of American Linguistics 48(1982) :16-48. 
. "Against the Linguistic Evidence Claimed for Some Alogonquian 

Dialectal Relationships." Anthropological Linguistics 23(1981) :271-297. 

-. "Pyrlaeus's Nanticoke Numbers Again." Algonquian and Iroquoian 

Linguistics 6(1981) :47-49. 

"Other Subarctic Ojibwa and Algonquian Groups," "Holikachuk," 

"Technical Alphabet," "Synonymy" in the chapters "Territorial Groups 
Before 1821: Athapaskans of the Shield and the Mackenzie Drainage," 
"Subarctic Metis," "Chilcotin," "Carrier," "Kaska," "Tahltan," "Inland 
Tlingit," "Tagish," "Han," "Tanana," "Koyukon," "Ingalik," "Kolchan," 
"Tanaina," and Ahtna," in "Subarctic," ed. J. Helm. Handbook of North 
American Indians 6(1981) :243, 615-16, x-xi, 168, 370-71, 412, 430-31, 449- 
50, 465-67, 479-80, 490-91, 511-13, 575-76, 599-600, 613-15, 622, 638-39, 
661-62. W. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution 

-, linguistic ed. "Subarctic," ed. J. Helm. In Handbook of North Ameri- 

can Indians, 6, W. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1981. 

Goddard, R. H. Ives, III, and Slobodin, Richard I. "Synonymy," in the chapter 
"Kutchin," in "Subarctic," ed. J. Helm. Handbook of North American In- 
dians 6(1981) :283. W. Sturtevant, gen, ed. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian 
Institution Press. 

Goddard, R. H. Ives, III, and Smith, James, G. E. "Synonymy," in the chapter 
"Chipewyan," in "Subarctic," ed. J. Helm. Handbook of North American 
Indians 6(1981) :283. W. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Washington, DC: Smithson- 
ian Institution Press. 

Hesse, Brian. "Archaeological Evidence for Muscovy Duck in Ecuador." Cur- 
rent Anthropology 21(1)(1980) :139-40. 

. "The Association of Animal Bones with Burial Features." In "The 

Ayalan Cemetery: A Late Integration Period Burial Site on the South Coast 
of Ecuador," by Douglas H. Ubelaker. Smithsonian Contributions to An- 
thropology 29(1981) :134-38 (Appendix I). Washington, DC: Smithsonian 
Institution Press. 

-. "Searching for the Origins of Pastoralism in Northern Chile." Report 

on Chilean University Life 10(1981) :9-12. 

"Animal Domestication and Oscillating Climates." Journal of Eth- 

nobiology 2(1) (1982) :1-15. 

-. "Bias in the Zooarcheological Record: Suggestions for Interpretation 

of Bone Counts in Faunal Samples from the Plains." In "Plains Indian 
Studies: A Collection of Essays in Honor of John C Ewers and Waldo R. 
Wedel," eds. D. H. Ubelaker and H. J. Viola. Smithsonian Contributions to 
Anthropology 30(1982) :157-172. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution 
Hesse, Brian, and Wapnish, Paula. "Animal Remains from the Bab edh-Dhra 
Cemetery." In "The Southeastern Dead Sea Plain Expedition: An Interim 
Report of the 1977 Expedition," eds. W. E. Rast and R. T. Schaub. Annual 
of the American Schools of Oriental Research 46(1981) :113-36. Cambridge: 
American Schools of Oriental Research. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 433 

Hicks, Sheila, and Sturtevant, W. C. "Junius Bird: An Appreciation." Amer- 
ican Fabrics and Fashions 126(1982) :11. 

Houchins, Chang-su. "Pon O-do wa Kim Hong-do ui p'ungsok hwajip (Smith- 
sonian's Bernadou Collection Introduces Korean Genre Paintings." Misul 
Charyo 29:58-61. Seoul: National Museum of Korea. 

. "Southeast Asian Ethnology Exhibit at the Smithsonian: A Critical 

Review." In the festschrift, Sok Chu-son paksa kohui minsokhak nonch'ong 
(Collection of Ethnological Papers in Honor of Professor Sok Chu-son), 
pp. 345-53. Seoul: Tan'guk University Press, 1982. 

Kaeppler, Adrienne. "The Performing Arts of Papua, New Guinea." The Sixth 
Festival of Asian Arts, pp. 130-35. Hong Kong: The Urban Council, 1981. 

. "Foreword." In Nineteenth Century Hawaiian Chant, by Elizabeth 

Tatar. Bishop Museum, Pacific Anthropological Records No. 34. 

-, ed. "Pacific Issue." In Ethnomusicology 25 (3) (September 1981). 

Lanouette, JoAnne. "Creationism ^ Science." In Anthro'Notes 4(1) (Winter 
1982) :l-3, 13-14, eds. A. Kaupp, J. Lanouette, R. Selig. 

Lanouette, JoAnne. "Dancing with Gibbons: A Museum-University Partner- 
ship." Museum Education Roundtable 7(3) (1982) :8-9. 

Lanouette, JoAnne, and Selig, R. O. "Anthropology for Teachers: A Museum- 
University Partnership." Practicing Anthropology, Summer 1982. 

Lazar, George, and Schulter-Ellis, F. P. "Intramedullary Structure of Human 
Metacarpals." In The Year Book of Orthopedics, ed. M. B. Coventry, pp. 
308-9. Chicago-London: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., 1981. 

Linn, Priscilla. "Chamula Carnival: The 'Soul' of Soul." In Celebration: 
Studies in Festivity and Ritual, ed. Victor Turner, pp. 190-198. Washington, 
D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

McClellan, Catharine, and Goddard, R. H. Ives, III. "Synonymy," in the chap- 
ter "Tutchone," in "Subarctic," ed. J. Helm. Handbook of North American 
Indians 6(1981) :504-5. W. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Washington, D.C: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press. 

Meltzer, David J. "Ideology and Material Culture." In Modern Material Cul- 
ture Studies: The Archaeology of U.S., eds. R. A. Gould and M. B. Schiffer, 
pp. 113-25. New York: Academic Press, 1981. 

. "Paradigms Lost — Paradigms Found?" American Antiquity 46(1981): 


'A Study of Style and Function in a Class of Tools." Journal of Field 

Archaeology 8(3) (1981) :313-26. 

-. "W. H. Holmes and Folsom Finds." History of Anthropology News- 

letter 8(1981) -.6-8. 
Meggers, Betty J. "Archeological and Ethnographic Evidence Compatible with 

the Model of Forest Fragmentation." In Biological Diversification in the 

Tropics, ed. G. T. Prance, pp. 483-96. New York: Columbia University 

Press, 1981. 
. "Introducao." Aspectos da Arqueologia Amazonica, Serie Catalogos 

2:5-7. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto de Arqueologia Brasileira, 1981. 
Meggers, Betty J., and Evans, Clifford. "La Reconstruccion de la Pre-Historia 

Amazonica." Amazonia Peruana 4(7) (1981) :15-29. [Translation of article 

published in 1973] 
. "Un metodo para Reconocer Comunidades Prehistoricas a Traves de 

la Ceramica." Museo Arqueologico de la Serena Boletin 17(1981) :14-31. 

[Retranslation of article published in 1980] 
Ortner, Donald J. "A Preliminary Report on the Human Remains from the 

Bab edh-Dhra Cemetery." Annual of the American Schools of Oriental 

Research 46(1981) :119-32. 
Ortner, Donald J., and Hunter, S. "Hematogenous Osteomyelitis in a Pre- 

434 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Columbian Child's Skeleton from Maryland." MASCA Journal 1(1981): 

Ortner, Donald J., and Putschar, W. G. J. "Identification of Pathological Con- 
ditions in Human Skeletal Remains." Smithsonian Contributions to Anthro- 
pology 28. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981. 

Parezo, Nancy J. "Economic Aspects of Navajo Sandpaintings." In "The 
Atlatl," eds. E. Staski and J. Andresen. Occasional Papers 2(1981) :1-12. 
Tucson: The University of Arizona. 

. "Social Interaction and Learning in the Spread of Navajo Commercial 

Sandpaintings." In "Navajo Religion and Culture: Selected Views, Papers 
in Honor of Leland C. Wyman," eds. D. M. Bruggee and J. C. Frisbie. 
Museum of New Mexico Papers in Anthropology 17(1982) :75-83. Santa Fe: 
Museum of New Mexico Press. 

"Navajo Sandpaintings: The Importance of Sex Roles in Craft Pro- 

duction." American Indian Quarterly 8(1-2) (1982) :38-62. 

"Navajo Singers: Keepers of Tradition, Agents of Change." In Hos- 

teen Klah and Sandpainting Tapestries, ed. S. McGreevy, pp. 4-12. Santa 
Fe: The Wheelwright Museum, 1982. 

Parezo, Nancy J., and Ahlstrom, Richard V. N. Prehistoric Peoples of the 
Southwest. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1981. 

Potter, Stephen R. A Review of Archeological Resources in Piscataway Park, 
Maryland. Washington, D.C: National Park Service, 1980. 

. An Analysis of Chicacoan Settlement Patterns. Ph.D. dissertation, 

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. (Ann Arbor: University Micro- 
films), 1982. 

Savishinsky, Joel S., and Goddard, R. H. Ives, III. "Synonymy," in the chapter 
"Hare," in "Subarctic," ed. J. Helm. Handbook of North American Indians 
6(1981) :324-25. W. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian 
Institution Press. 

Schmidt, Robert G. "High-alumina Hydrothermal Systems in Volcanic Rocks 
of the Carolina Slate Belt [abs.]." Geological Society of America, Abstracts 
with Programs, 1982:80. 

Selig, Ruth O. "Anthropology in the Classroom: Perspectives and Prospects." 
In Teaching Anthropology to Students and Teachers: Reaching a Wider 
Audience, eds. R. O. Selig and P. J. Higgins, pp. 6-20. Athens, Ga.: The 
Anthropology Curriculum Project, University of Georgia, 1981. 

Selig, Ruth O., and Higgins, Patricia J., eds. Teaching Anthropology to Stu- 
dents and Teachers: Reaching a Wider Audience. Athens, Ga. : The Anthro- 
pology Curriculum Project, University of Georgia, 1981. 

Selig, Ruth O.; Kaupp, A.; and Lanouette, J., eds. Anthro'Notes, A News- 
letter for Teachers 3(3) (Fall 1981); 4(1) (Winter 1982); 4(2) (Spring 1982). 

Sillen, Andrew. "Postdepositional Changes in Natufian and Aurignacian 
Faunal Bones from Hayonim Cace." Paleorient VII(1981):2. 

Sillen, Andrew, and Kavanagh, Maureen. "Strontium and Paleodietary Re- 
search: A Review." Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 25(1982). 

Stanford, Dennis. "A Critical Review of Archeological Evidence Relating to 
the Antiquity of the Human Occupation of the New World." In "Plains 
Indian Studies: A Collection of Essays in Honor of John C Ewers and 
Waldo R. Wedel," eds. D. Ubelaker and H. Viola. Smithsonian Contribu- 
tions to Anthropology 30(1982) :202-218. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian 
Institution Press. 

Stanford, Dennis, and Fulgham, T. "The Frasca Site: A Preliminary Report." 
Southwestern Lore 48(1) (1982). 

Stanford, Dennis, and Emery, S. "Preliminary Report on Archeological Inves- 
tigations at the Cattle Guard Site, Alamosa County, Colorado." South- 
western Lore 48(1)(1982). 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 435 

Stanford, Dennis; Rancier, J.; and Hynes, G. "1981 Investigations of Lamb 
Spring." Southwestern Lore 48(2) (1982). 

Stanford, Dennis, and Briolo, F. "Frank's Site: A Study of the Folsom Occupa- 
tion of Blackwater Draw, New Mexico." El Paso Archeological Society 
Special Publication for Mark VJimberly, 1982. 

Stanford, Dennis, and Frison, G., eds. The Agate Basin Site Paleoindian Occu- 
pation of the Northwestern High Plains. New York: Academic Press, 1982. 

Stewart, T. D. "Ales Hrdlicka, 1869-1943." American Journal of Physical 
Anthropology 56(4) (1981) :347-51. 

. "The Evolutionary Status of the First Americans." American Journal 

of Physical Anthropology 56(4) (1981) :461-66. 

-. "Reminiscences." In "Plains Indian Studies: A Collection of Essays in 

Honor of John C. Ewers and Waldo R. Wedel," eds. D. H. Ubelaker and 

H. J. Viola. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 30(1982) :40-46. 

Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press. 
Streitz, J. M.; Aufderheide, A. C; El-Najjar, M.; and Ortner, D. J. "A 1,500- 

Year-Old Bladder Stone." Journal of Urology 126(1981) :452-53. 
Sturtevant, William C. [Testimony on the Human Rights of the Yanomami, 

Delivered 30 June 1981 before the Inter-American Commission on Human 

Rights.] Anthropology Newsletter 22(6) (1981) :23. 
. "R. F. Heizer and the Handbook of North American Indians." In 

Contributions of Robert F. Heizer to California Ethnohistory, eds. W. S. 

Simmons and P. McW. Bickel, pp. 1-5. Berkeley: Archaeological Research 

Facility, Department of Anthropology, University of California, 1981. 

"Animals and Disease in Indian Belief." In Indians, Animals, and the 

Fur Trade: A Critique of Keepers of the Came, ed. S. Krech III, pp. 177-88. 
Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1981. 

-. "Quelques representations de canots et de pirogues, a partir du XVIIe 

siecle." Recherches Amerindiennes au Quebec 11(4)(1981) :297-310. 

"The Ethnographical Illustrations." In The Maps and Text of the 

Boke of Idrography Presented by Jean Rotz to Henry VIII, now in the 
British Library, ed. Helen Wallis, pp. 67-72. Oxford: Printed for Presenta- 
tion to the Members of The Roxburghe Club, 1981. 

-. "Patagonian Giants and Baroness Hyde de Neuville's Iroquois Draw- 

ings." Ethnohistory 27(4) (1982) :331-48. 

-, ed. "John Ridge on Cherokee Civilization in 1826." Journal of Chero- 

kee Studies 6(2) (1981) :79-91. 

-, gen. ed. "Subarctic," Vol. 6, Vol. Ed., June Helm, Handbook of North 

American Indians. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution, 1981. 

Sturtevant, William C, and Washburn, Wilcomb E. "The First Americans." 
American Fabrics and Fashions 123(1981) :60-64. 

Trousdale, William. "A Person of Desperate Fortunes," Chowkidar 2(5) (1982): 
49f. London. 

Ubelaker, Douglas H. "Approaches to Demographic Problems in the North- 
east." In Foundations of Northeast Archaeology, ed. D R.. Snow, pp. 175- 
194. New York: Academic Press, 1981. 

Ubelaker, Douglas H., and Viola, Herman J., eds. "Plains Indian Studies: A 
Collection of Essays in Honor of John C. Ewers and Waldo R. Wedel." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 30. Washington, D.C: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1982. 

. "Editor's Introduction." In "Plains Indian Studies: A Collection of 

Essays in Honor of John C. Ewers and Waldo R. Wedel," eds. D. H. 
Ubelaker, and H. J. Viola. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 30. 
Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Van Beek, Gus W., and Van Beek, Ora. "Canaanite-Phoenician Architecture: 
The Development and Distribution of Two Styles." In Eretz-Israel 15(1981): 

436 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

70-77. (Y. Aharoni Memorial Volume). Jerusalem: Israel Exploration 

VanStone, James W., and Goddard, R. H. Ives, III. "Territorial Groups of 
West-Central Alaska Before 1898," in "Subarctic," ed. J. Helm. Handbook 
of North American Indians 6(1981) -.556-61. W. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Wash- 
ington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press. 

Viola, Herman J. "Tribal Archives Programs: Past & Present." American 
Indian Libraries Newsletter 6(Winter 1982) :5-7. 

Von Endt, D. W., and B. Frolich. "Electronic Data Collection Using an Analog 
to Digital Converter and a 16-Bit Microprocessor." In Computers in Re- 
search at the Smithsonian: A Symposium, p. 24. 

Waselkov, Gregory A., and Potter, Stephen R. "Prehistoric Archeology of the 
Chesapeake Bay: Traces of a Lost Ethic." In Ethical Aspects of Chesapeake 
Bay Use. Hampton, Virginia: Citizens Program for the Chesapeake Bay, 

Wedel, Mildred Mott. "The Deer Creek Site, Oklahoma: A Wichita Village 
Sometimes Called Ferdinandina, An Ethnohistorian's View." Oklahoma 
Historical Society, Series in Anthropology 5, 1981. (Second Printing). 

. "The Wichita Indians in the Arkansas River Basin." In "Plains Indian 

Studies: A Collection of Essays in Honor of John C. Ewers and Waldo R. 
Wedel," eds. D. H. Ubelaker, and H. J. Viola. Smithsonian Contributions 
to Anthropology 30(1982) :118-34. 

Wedel, Waldo R. "William Duncan Strong and Plains Archeology." In "Es- 
says in the History of Plains Archeology," ed. W. Wedel. Reprints in 
Anthropology 24(1982) :l-77. Lincoln, Nebraska: J & L Reprint Company. 

. "Essays in the History of Plains Archeology," Reprints in Anthro- 
pology 24(1982). Lincoln, Nebraska: J & L Reprint Company. 

Wertime, Theodore. "The Origin of Agriculture and Technology: Aarhus, 
Denmark, November 21-25, 1978. I. Introductory Note: Whence Early Tech- 
nology? East, West, or Nowhere?" Technology and Culture 22(1)(1981): 

. "Pyrotechnological Studies in Europe and the Middle East." National 

Geographic Society Research Reports 13(1981) :683-91. 

Whitcomb, Donald S., and Johnson, Janet H. Quseir al-Qadim 1980: Prelimi- 
nary Report. Malibu: Undena, 1982. 

. "Egypt and the Spice Trade." Archaeology 34(6) (November 1981): 


'In the Shadow of the Pyramid: Introduction to the Exhibition." 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 52(11) (November 1981) :3-6. 

Department of Botany 

Ayensu, E. S. "A Worldwide Role for the Healing Power of Plants." Smith- 
sonian 12(8)(1981):86-97. 

Bohlmann, F.; Abraham, W.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "Diterpenes from 
Koanophyllon Species." Phytochemistry 20(8) (1981) :1903-6. 

Bohlmann, F.; Abraham, W. R.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "Heliangolides 
and Other Constituents from Bejaranoa semistriata." Phytochemistry 20(7) 

(1981) :1639-42. 

Bohlmann, F.; Adler, A.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "Ent-labdanes from 

Mikania alvimii." Phytochemistry 21(1) (1982) :173-76. 
. "Germacranolides from Mikania grazielae." Phytochemistry 21(5) 

(1982) :1169-70. 

Bohlmann, F.; Adler, A.; Schuster, A.; Gupta, R. K.; King, R. M.; and Robin- 
son, H. "Diterpenes from Makania Species." Phytochemistry 20(8) (1981): 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 437 

Bohlmann, F.; Ahmed, M.; Borthakur, N.; Wallmeyer, M.; Jakupovic, J.; King, 
R. M.; and Robinson, H. "Diterpenes Related to Grindelic Acid and Further 
Constituents from Grindela Species." Phytochemistry 21(1) (1982) :167-72. 

Bohlmann, F.; Ahmed, M.; Jakupovic, J.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. 
"Labdane and Dehydronerolidol Derivatives from Brickellia diffusa." Phyto- 
chemistry 21(3) (1982) :691-94. 

Bohlmann, F.; Ahmed, M.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "A Germacranolide 
and a Longipinene Derivative from Eupatoriadelphus purpureus." Phyto- 
chemistry 20(8) (1981) :2027-28. 

. "Labdane and Cudesmane Derivatives from Ageratum fastigiatum." 

Phytochemistry 20(6) (1981) :1434-35. 

Bohlmann, F.; Ahmed, M.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "A Kolavane 
Derivative from Latris scariosa." Phytochemistry 20(6) (1981) :1439-40. 

. "A Petasol Derivative from Hoehnephytum imbricatum." Phytochem- 
istry 20(5) (1981) :1157-58. 

Bohlmann, F.; Bapuji, M.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "Kolavenol Deriva- 
tives from Coyazianthus tetrastichus." Phytochemistry 21(4) (1982) :939-41. 

. "New Heliangolides from Calea oxylepis." Phytochemistry 21(5) 

(1982) :1164-66. 

'Unusual Diterpenes from Brickellia eupatoriedes." Phytochemistry 


Bohlmann, F.; Borthakur, N.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "Dihydrodendro- 
idinic Acid from Pleurocoronis pluriseta." Phytochemistry 20(10) (1981) : 

. "Further Prostaglandin-like Fatty Acids from Chromolaena morii." 

Phytochemistry 21(1) (1982) :125-27. 

Bohlmann, F.; Dhar, A. K.; Jakupovic, J.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "A 
Caryophyllene Derivative from Fleischmannia pycnocephaloides." Phyto- 
chemistry 20(6) (1981) :1425-26. 

. "Two Sesquiterpene Lactones with an Additional Propiolaetone Ring 

from Disynaphia halimifolia." Phytochemistry 20(5) (1981) :1077-80. 

Bohlmann, F.; Dahr, A. K.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "A Guaianolide 
from Cuevaria sodiroi." Phytochemistry 20(5) (1981) :1144-45. 

Bohlmann, F.; Gupta, R. K; Jakupovic, J.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. 
"Eudesmanolides and Heliangolides from Calea rotundifolia." Phytochem- 
istry 20(7) (1981) :1635-37. 

. "Seco-eremophilanolides from Senecio macrotis." Phytochemistry 20 


Bohlmann, F.; Gupta, R. K; Jakupovic, J.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. 
"Three Germacranolides and Other Constituents from Eremanthus Species." 
Phytochemistry 20(7) (1981) :1609-12. 

Bohlmann, F.; Gupta, R. K.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "Prostaglandin- 
like Fatty Acid Derivative from Chromolaena morii." Phytochemistry 20(6) 

Bohlmann, F.; Jakupovic, J.; Ahmed, M.; Wallmeyer, M.; Robinson, H.; and 
King, R. M. "Labdane Derivatives from Hemizonia Species." Phytochemis- 
try 20(10) (1981) :2383-87. 

Bohlmann, F.; Jakupovic, J.; Dhar, A. K.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. 
"Two Sesquiterpene and Three Diterpene Lactones from Acanthospermum 
australe." Phytochemistry 20(5) (1981) :1081-83. 

Bohlmann, F.; Jakupovic, J.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "New Germa- 
cranolides, Guaianolides and Rearranged Guaianolides from Lasiolaena 
santosii. Phytochemistry 20(7) (1981) :1613-22. 

. "New Labdane Derivatives from Madia sativa." Phytochemistry 21 


Bohlmann, F.; Jakupovic, J.; Schuster, A.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. 

438 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

"Guaianolides and Homoditerpenes from Lasiolaena morn." Phytochemistry 

Bohlmann, F.; Kramp, W.; Grenz, M.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "Diter- 

penes from Baccharis Species." Phytochemistry 20(8) (1981) :1907-13. 
Bohlmann, F.; Kramp, W.; Gupta, R. K.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. 

"Four Guaianolides and Other Constituents from Three Kaurtia Species." 

Phytochemistry 20(10) (1981) -.2375-78. 
Bohlmann, F.; Kramp, W.; Jakupovic, J.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. 

"Diterpenes from Baccharis Species." Phytochemistry 21 (2) (1982) :399-403. 
Bohlmann, F.; Kramp, W.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "A Norsequiter- 

pene from Senecio humillimus." Phytochemistry 20(7) (1981) :1739-40. 
Bohlmann, F.; Miiller, L.; Gupta, R. K.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. 

"Hirsutinolides from Vernonia Species." Phytochemistry 20(9) (1981): 

Bohlmann, F.; Miiller, L.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "A Guaianolide and 

Other Constituents from Lychnophora Species." Phytochemistry 20(5) 

(1981) :1149-51. 
Bohlmann, F.; Singh, P.; Jakupovic, J.; King, R. M; and Robinson, H. "Three 

Cadinene Derivatives and a Prostaglandin-like Acid from Chromolaena 

Species." Phytochemistry 21(2) (1982) :371-74. 
Bohlmann, F.; Singh, P.; Jakupovic, J.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "An 

Epoxygermacranolide and Further Constituents from Mikania Species." 

Phytochemistry 21 (3) (1982) :705-7. 
Bohlmann, F.; Singh, P.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "New Guaianolides 

from Pseudostifftia kingii." Phytochemistry 21 (5) (1982) :1171-72. 
Bohlmann, F.; Singh, P.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "Epi-ilicic Acid 

from Alcantara ekmaniana. Phytochemistry 21(2)(1982) :456-57. 
Bohlmann, F.; Suwita, A.; Jakupovic, J.; King, R. M; and Robinson, H. 

"Trixikingolides and Germacrene Derivatives from Trixis Species." Phyto- 
chemistry 20(7) (1981) :1649-55. 
Bohlmann, F.; Suwita, A.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "Six Guaianolides 

from Stylotrichium rotundifolium." Phytochemistry 20(8) (1981) :1887-90. 
Bohlmann, F.; Zdero, C; Fiedler, L.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "A 

Labdane Derivative from Chromolaena collina and a p-Hydroxyacetophe- 

none Derivative from Stomatantes corumbensis." Phytochemistry 20(5) 

(1981) :1141-43. 
Bohlmann, F.; Zdero, C; Jakupovic, J.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "Erio- 

lanolides, Eudesmanolides and a Rearranged Sesquiterpene from En'o- 

phyllum Species." Phytochemistry 20(9) (1981) :2239-44. 
Bohlmann, F.; Zdero, C; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "The First Acety- 

lenic Monoterpene and Other Constituents from Senecio clevelandii." 

Phytochemistry 20(10) (1981) :2425-27. 
. "Furanoeremophilanes from Senecio smithii." Phytochemistry 20(10) 

(1981) :2389-91. 

"Germaranolides, a Guaianolide with a B-lactone Ring and Further 

Constituents from Graziela Species." Phytochemistry 20(5) (1981) :1069-75. 
"Germacranolides from Stilpnopappus Species." Phytochemistry 21 


"Heliangolides, and Nerolidol and p-Hydoxyacetophenone Deriva- 

tives from Calea Species." Phytochemistry 20(7) (1981) :1643-47. 

"Hirsutinolides and Other Sesquiterpene Lactones from Vernonia 

Species." Phytochemistry 21(3) (1982) :695-99. 

"Humulene Derivatives from Acritopappus prunifolius." Phytochem- 

istry 21(l)(1982):147-50. 

"Thirteen Kolavane Derivatives from Symphyopappus Species. 

Phytochemistry 20(7) (1981) :1657-63. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 439 

Bohlmann, F.; Zdero, C; Pickard, J.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "New 
Types of Sesquiterpene Lactones and Other Constituents from Trichogonia 
Species." Phytochemistry 20(6) (1981) :1323-33. 

Bohlmann, F.; Zdero, C; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "A Diterpene, a 
Sesquiterpene Quinone and Flavanones from Wyethia helenioides." Phyto- 
chemistry 20(9) (1981) :2245-48. 

. "Germacranolides from Lychnophora Species." Phytochemistry 21(5) 

(1982) :1087-91. 

'A Humulene Derivative Including a Sesquiterpene Acid with a 

Rearranged Carbon Skeleton from Lychnophora columnaris." Phytochem- 
istry 21(3) (1982) :682-85. 
. "Labdane Derivatives from Planaltoa lychnophoroides." Phytochem- 

istry 21(2) (1982) :465-67. 

"Modified Eudesmanolides and Other Sesquiterpene Lactones from 

Wunderlichia mirabilis and Actinoseris polymorpha." Phytochemistry 20 

"Sesquiterpene Lactones from Picris echioides." Phytochemistry 20 

Bohlmann, F.; Ziesche, J.; King, R. M.; and Robinson, H. "Eudesmanolides 

and Other Constituents from Dimerostemma asperatum." Phytochemistry 

20(6) (1981) :1335-38. 
. "Eudesmanolides, Guaianolides, Germacranolides and Elemanolides 

from Zinnia Species." Phytochemistry 20(7) (1981) :1623-30. 
Bohlmann, F.; Ziesche, J.; Robinson, H.; and King, R. M. "A Pseudoguaiano- 

lide and a Hydroxygeranylnerol from Kingianthus paradoxus. Phytochemis- 
try 20(5) (1981) :1146-48. 
Cowan, R. S., and Stafleu, F. A. "The Origins and Early History of I.A.P.T." 

Taxon 31(3)(1982) :415-20. 
. "Rose and Britton: From Brittonrosea to Cassia." Brittonia 33(3) 

(1981) :285-93. 
Cuatrecasas, J. "Miscellaneous Notes on Neotropical Flora XIII." Phytologia 

49(1) (1981) :69-75. 
. "Studies in Neotropical Senecioneae II. Transfers to Genus Penta- 

calia of North Andean Species." Phytologia 49(3) (1981) :241-60. 
Cuatrecasas, J., and Croat, T. "Malpighiaceae: in Flora of Panama. Annals of 

the Missouri Botanical Garden 67(1980) :851-945. 
Dickison, W. C; Nowicke, J. W.; and Skvarla, J. J. "Pollen Morphology of 

the Dilleniaceae and Actinidiaceae." American Journal of Botany 69(1982) : 

Eyde, R. H. "Flower." In McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Tech- 
nology, 5th ed., vol. 5, pp. 478-85 & color plate. New York: McGraw-Hill 

Book Co., 1982. 
. "Reproductive Structures and Evolution in Ludwigia (Onagraceae). 

III. Vasculature, Nectaries, Conclusions." Annals of the Missouri Botanical 

Garden 68(3) (1981) :470-503. 
Fitt, W. K.; Pardy, R. L.; and Littler, M. M. "Photosynthesis, Respiration, and 

Contribution to Community Productivity of the Symbiotic Sea Anemone 

Anthopleura elegantissima (Brandt, 1835)." Journal of Experimental Marine 

Biology and Ecology 61(1982) :213-32. 
Fosberg, F. R. "An Overview of Natural Area Preservation in the World." 

Heritage Record no. 12(1981) :l-6. 
. "A Preliminary Conspectus of the Genus Leptostigma (Rubiaceae)." 

Acta Phytotaxonomica Geobotanica 33(1982) :73-83. 
. "A Revision of the Flora of Ceylon (Sri Lanka)." Spolia Zeylanica 


440 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Fosberg, F. R., and Canfield, J. "Noteworthy Micronesian Plants 3." Micro- 

nesica 16(1980) :189-200. 
Fosberg, F. R., and Dassanayake, M. D., eds. A Revised Handbook to the 

Flora of Ceylon, vol. III. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. 

Ltd., 1981. 
Fosberg, F. R., and Falanruw, M. "Noteworthy Micronesian Plants 4." Micro- 

nesica 16(1980) :201-10. 
Fosberg, F. R.; Falanruw, M.; and Sachet, M.-H. "Additional Records of Vas- 
cular Plants from the Northern Marianas 2." Micronesica 16(1980) :211-14. 
Fosberg, F. R., and Sachet, M.-H. "Clarification of Hygrophila triflora (Acan- 

thaceae)." Baileya 21(3)(1981) :145-48. 
. "Nomenclature Notes on Micronesian Ferns." American Fern Journal 

71(1981) :82-84. 

"Pavonia (Malvaceae) in Society Islands." Bulletin du Museum 

d'Historie Naturelle, Paris, 4 e ser., section B, Adansonia 3(1) (1981) :15-16. 

Fosberg, F. R.; Stoddart, D. F.; Sachet, M.-H.; and Spellman, D. L. "Plants of 
the Belize Cays." Atoll Research Bulletin no. 258(1982) :l-77. 

Funk, V. A. "Special Concerns in Estimating Plant Phylogenies." In Ad- 
vances in Cladistics, eds. V. A. Funk and D. R. Brooks, pp. 73-87. Bronx, 
N.Y.: New York Botanical Garden, 1981. 

. "Systematics of Montanoa (Asteraceae)." Memoirs of the New York 

Botanical Garden 36(1982) :1-13. 

Funk, V. A., and Brooks, D. R. "A Report on the National Science Foundation 
Workshop on the Theory and Application and Cladistic Methodology." 
Systematic Zoology 30(4) :491-98. 

Funk, V. A., and Wagner, W. H. "A Bibliography of Botanical Cladistics." 
Brittonia 34(1)(1982) :118-24. 

Hale, M. E., Jr. "Control of the Lichens on the Monuments of Quirigua." In 
"Quirigua Reports 1," Paper number 3, eds. Robert J. Sharer and W. Ash- 
more, pp. 33-38. University Museum Monograph 37. Quirigua, Guatemala, 

. "A Revision of the Lichen Family Thelotremataceae in Sri Lanka." 

Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany series 8(3) (1981): 

Hunziker, J. H.; Wulff, A. F.; and Soderstrom, T. R. "Chromosome Studies on 
the Bambusoideae (Gramineae)." Brittonia 34(1982) :30-35. 

Kapraun, D. F., and Norris, J. N. "The Red Alga Polysiphonia Greville 
(Rhodomelaceae) from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize," In "The Atlantic Barrier 
Reef Ecosystems at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize 1 : Structure and Communities," 
eds. R. Reutzler and I. G. Macintyre, pp. 225-38. Smithsonian Contribu- 
tions to the Marine Sciences 12. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1982. 

King, R. M., and Robinson, H. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). 
CCVI. A New Genus Cardnerina." Phytologia 49(1) (1981) :l-2. 

. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CCVII. Additional New 

Combinations." Phytologia 49(1) (1981) :3-6. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CCVIII. Additions to 

Badilloa and Bartlettina from Ecuador." Phytologia 49(1) (1981) :7-9. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CCX. A Second Species of 

Vittetia from Brasil." Phytologia 49 (3) (1981) :281-83. 
King, R. M., and Robinson, H. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). 

CCIX. Two New Species of Crazielia from Brasil." Phytologia 49(3) (1981): 

. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CCXI. Three New Species 

of Mikania from Brasil." Phytologia 49 (5) (1981) :488-95. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CCXII. Additions to 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 441 

Austroeupatorium, Flyriella, and Teixeiranthus." Phytologia 50(5) (1982): 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CCXIII. A New Genus, 

Prolobus, from Bahia." Phytologia 50(5) (1982) :385-87. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CCXIV. New Species of 

Chromolaena and Stevia from Bolivia." Phytologia 51 (3) (1982) :172-78. 
-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CCXV. Additions to Austro- 

eupatorium and Cronquistianthus." Phytologia 51(3)(1982) :179-86. 

Lawrey, J. D., and Hale, M. E., Jr. "Retrospective Study of Lichen Lead 
Accumulation in the Northeastern United States." The Bryologist 84(4) 
(1981) :449-56. 

Lellinger, D. B. "Notes on North American Ferns." American Pern Journal 

Little, E. L., Jr. "Distinctive Trees of the Southwest." American Forests 
87(1981) :22-25, 33. 

. "Forest Trees of Oklahoma." Oklahoma Forestry Division Publication 

no. 1, rev. ed. no. 12. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1981. 

Littler, M. M., and Arnold, K. E. "Primary Productivity of Marine Macro- 
algal Functional-form Groups from Southwestern North America." Journal 
of Phycology 18(1982) :307-ll. 

Macintyre, I. G.; Reutzler, K.; Norris, J. N.; and Fauchald, K. "A Submarine 
Cave Near Columbus Cay, Belize: A Bizarre Cryptic Habitat." In "The 
Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystems at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize 1: Structure 
and Communities," eds. K. Reutzler and I. G. Macintyre, pp. 127-42. 
Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 12. Washington, D.C. : 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Macne, W., and Fosberg, F. R. "Sonneratiaceae." In A Revised Handbook to 
the Flora of Ceylon, vol. 3, eds. F. R. Fosberg and M. D. Dassanayake, 
pp. 450-53. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 1981. 

. "Lecythidaceae." In A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon, 

vol. 3, eds. F. R. Fosberg and M. D. Dassanayake, pp. 195-201. New Delhi, 
India: Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 1981. 

Nicolson, Dan H. "Schott's New Taxa Published in the Wiener Zeitschrift fur 
Kunst etc." Taxon 31(1981) :549-51. 

. "Speculations on the Etymology of Achimenes (Gesneriaceae)." 

Bailey a 21(1981) :134-37. 

Nicolson, Dan H, and Sivadasan, M. "Four Frequently Confused Species of 
Typhonium (Araceae)." Blumea 27(1981) :483-97. 

Norris, Daniel H, and Robinson, H. "Stoneobryum, A New Genus of Ortho- 
trichaceae from South Africa and Southern Queensland." The Bryologist 
84(1) (1981) :95-99. 

Norris, J. N., and Bucher, K. E. "Marine Algae and Seagrasses from Carrie 
Bow Cay, Belize." In "The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystems at Carrie Bow 
Cay, Belize 1: Structure and Communities," eds. K. Reutzler and I. G. Mac- 
intyre, pp. 167-224. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 12. 
Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Norris, J. N., and Fenical, W. "Chemical Defenses in Tropical Marine Algae." 
In "The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystems at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize 1: 
Structure and Communities," eds. K. Reutzler and I. G. Macintyre, 
pp. 417-32. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 12. Wash- 
ington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Nowicke, J. W., and Skvarla, J. J. "Pollen Morphology and the Relationships 
of Circaeaster, of Kingdonia, and of Sargentodoxa to the Renunculales." 
American Journal of Botany 69(1982) :990-98. 

Read, R. W. "Hohenbergia: A New Look," Journal of the Bromeliad Society 
32(3) (1982) :99-104. 

442 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

. "A Note on Hohenbergiopsis guatemalensis (L.B.S.) L. B. Smith and 

R. W. Read." Journal of the Bromeliad Society 32(3) (1982) :109, 115. 

Rice, William E.; Smith, Stephen F.; and Wasshausen, D. C. National List of 
Scientific Plant Names. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1982. 

Robinson, H. "Dolichopodidae." Aquatic Biota of Tropical South America. 
Part 1. Arthropoda (1981) :304-6. 

. "New Species of Dimerostemma and Oyedaea from Brasil." Phy- 

tologia 49(3) (1981) :275-80. 

. "A New Species of Vernonia from Brasil." Phytologia 49(5) (1981): 

. "A Revision of the Tribal and Subtribal Limits of the Heliantheae 

(Asteraceae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 51. Washington, D.C.: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981. 

-. "Six New Species of Vernonia from South America." Phytologia 

49(3) (1981) :261-74. 

"Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). XXVIII. Additions to Galea 

and Ichthyothere from Brasil." Phytologia 49(1) (1981) :10-15. 

-. "Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). XV. A New Species of Fer- 

reyranthus." Phytologia 51(3)(1982) :169-71. 
Robinson, H.; Powell, M. A.; King, R. M.; and Weedin, J. F. "Chromosome 

Numbers in Compositae, XII: Heliantheae." Smithsonian Contributions to 

Botany 52. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981. 
Shetler, S. G. Variation and Evolution of the Nearctic Harebells (Campanula 

subsect. Heterophylla). Vaduz, Lichtenstein: J. Cramer, 1982. 
Sivadasan, M., and Nicolson, D. H. "A New Species of Theriophonum Bl. 

(Araceae) from India." Aroideana 4(1981) :64-67. 
Skog, L. E. "Exploring for Gesneriads." The Gloxinian 31(5)(1981):10-13. 
. "Gesneriaceae Chromosome Numbers IV. Gloxinia to Niphaea." 

Crosswords 5(2) (1981) :10-13. 

-. "Gesneriaceae Chromosome Numbers V. Opithandra to Seemannia." 

Crosswords 5(3) (1981) :5-ll; 5(4) (1982) :4-10. 

-. "Gesneriaceae Chromosome Numbers VI. Sinningia to Tydaea.' 

Crosswords 6(1) (1982) :7-15. 

'Cesneria and Other Gesneriads Large and Small (Gesneria et Autres 

Gesneriacees de Petite et de Grande Taille)." In Gesneriacees, Les Floralies 
Internationales de Montreal Colloques Scientifiques, No. 18, pp. 41-62. 
Montreal: Ministere de l'Agriculture des Pecheries et de I'Alimentation, 
Gouvernment de Quebec, Collection Etudes et dossiers de la Documenta- 
tion quebecoise, 1981. 

Skvarla, J. J., and Nowicke, J. W. "Pollen Fine Structure and Relationships of 
Achatocarpus Triana and Phaulothamnus A. Gray." Taxon 31(1982) :244-49. 

Smith, L. B. "Xyris tillettii L. B. Smith." In "Contribuciones a la Flora del 
Cerro Marahuaca, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela," eds. S. S. Til- 
lett and J. A. Steyermark. Ernstia No. 9(1982) :3-4. 

Smith, L. B.; Wasshausen, D. C; and Klein, R. M. "Gramineas, pt. 1." Flora 
llustrada Catarinense pt. 1, fasc. gram. Pt. 1(1981) :l-435, pi. 1-99. 

Solt, M. L., and Wurdack, J. J. "Polygalaceae. Documented Chromosome 
Number Reports LXXII." Taxon 30(1981) :694. 

Soderstrom, T. R. "Cryptochloa dressleri (Poaceae), a New Bambusoid Grass 
from Panama." Brittonia 34(1982) :25-28. 

. "The Grass Subfamily Centostecoideae." Taxon 30(3) (1981) :614-16. 

. "New Species of Cryptochloa and Piresia (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)." 

Brittonia 34(2) (1982) :199-209. 

. "Observations on a Fire-Adapted Bamboo of the Brazilian Cerrado, 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 443 

Actinocladum verticillatum (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)." American Journal 
of Botany 68(9) (1981) :1200-1211. 

"Olmeca, a New Genus of Bamboos with Fleshy Fruits." American 

Journal of Botany 68(1981) :1361-74. 

"Some Evolutionary Trends in the Bambusoideae." Annals of the 

Missouri Botanical Garden 68(1981) :15-47. 

-. "Sucrea (Poaceae: Bambusoideae), a New Genus from Brazil." Brit- 

tonia 33(2) (1981) :198-213. 

"Validation of the Generic Name Olmeca and Its Two Species 

(Poaceae: Bambusoideae)." Phytologia 51(1982) :161. 

Stoddart, D. R., and Fosberg, F. R. "Bird and Denis Islands, Seychelles." 
Atoll Research Bulletin no. 252(1981) :l-55. 

. "Species-Area Relationships on Small Islands: Floristic Data from 

Belizean Sand Cays." In "The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystems at Carrie 
Bow Cay, Belize 1: Structure and Communities," eds. K. Reutzler and 
I. G. Macintyre, pp. 527-39. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine 
Sciences 12. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

'Topographic and Floristic Changes, Dry Tortugas, Florida." Atoll 

Research Bulletin no. 253(1981) :l-76. 
Stoddart, D. R.; Fosberg, F. R.; and Sachet, M.-H. "Ten Years of Change on 

Glover's Reef Cays." Atoll Research Bulletin no. 257(1982) :l-38. 
Stoddart, D. R.; Fosberg, F. R.; and Spellman, D. L. "Cays of the Belize 

Reef and Lagoon." Atoll Research Bulletin no. 256(1982) :l-76. 
Taylor, P. R., and Littler, M. M. "The Roles of Compensatory Mortality, 

Physical Disturbance, and Retention of Substrate in the Development and 

Organization of a Sand-influenced Rocky-intertidal Community." Ecology 

63(1) (1982) :135-46. 
Wurdack, J. J. "Certamen Melastomataceis XXXIII." Phytologia 49(2) (1981): 


. "Certamen Melastomataceae XXXIV." Phytologia 50(5) (1982) :297-308. 

. "Three Species of Tibouchina (Melastomataceae) from Bahia, Brazil." 

Brittonia 33(3) (1981) :304-8. 

Department of Entomology 

Burns, John M. "The Winter's Springtail." Perspectives in Biology and 
Medicine 25(1) (1981) :92. 

"Lychnuchoides frappenda from Central Mexico Joins lunus and 

zweifeli in a lunus Group of Atrytonopsis (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: 
Hesperiinae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 
84(1982) :547-67. 

Cartwright, Oscar L., and Spangler, Paul J. "A New Ataenius from the 
Socorro Islands, Mexico (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae; Aphodiinae)." Pro- 
ceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 83(4) (1981) :785-89. 

Davis, Don R. "Jackh Collection of Microlepidoptera to the Smithsonian." 
Journal of the Lepidopterist Society 35(2) (1981) :160. 

. "A Survey of Chilean Insect Fauna." Report on Chilean University 

Life, No. 11, Fall (1981):11-12. 

Davis, Don R., and Neilsen, E. W. "A Revision of the Neotropical Incur- 
variidae Sen. Str., with the Description of Two New Genera and Two New 
Species." Steenstrupia 7(3) (1981) :25-57. 

Emerson, K. C. "Status of Five Species of Mallophaga Described by 
M. A. Carriker, Jr." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washing- 
ton 83(1981) :137-39. 

Emerson, K. C, and Price, Roger D. "A Host-Parasite List of Mallophaga on 
Mammals." Entomological Society of America Miscellaneous Publications, 
12(1) (1981) :72. 

444 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

. "A New Species of Suricatoecus (Mallophaga: Trichodectidae) from 

Fennec Fox (Fennecus zerda) from Egypt, with a key to the recognized 
species." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 54(1981) -.673-77. 

Erwin, Terry L. "A Synopsis of the Immature Stages of Pseudomorphini 
(Coleoptera: Carabidae) with Notes on Tribal Affinities and Behavior in 
Relation to Life with Ants." Coleopterists Bulletin 35(1) (1981) :53-68. 

. "Natural History of Plummers Island, Maryland. XXVI. The Ground 

Beetles of a Temperate Forest Site (Coleoptera: Carabidae): An Analysis 
of Fauna in Relation to Size, Habitat, Selection, Vagility, Seasonality, and 
Extinction." Bulletin of Biological Society of Washington 5(1981) :105-224. 
"Agra, Arboreal Beetles of Neotropical Forests: erythropus Group 

Systematics (Carabidae)." Systematic Entomology 7(1982) :39-71. 

-. "Agra, Arboreal Beetles of Neotropical Forests: platyscelis Group 

Systematics (Carabidae)." Systematic Entomology 7(1982) :185-210. 

-. "Canopy Beetles: Clarification of Heat Gain and Water Loss." 

Coleopterists Bulletin 35(3) (1982) :315-16. 

-. "Small Terrestrial Ground Beetles of Central America (Carabidae: 

Bembidiina and Anillina)." Proceedings of the California Academy of 
Sciences 42(19) (1982) :455-96. 

Erwin, Terry L., and Adis, Joachim. "Amazon Inundation Forests: Their Role 
as Short-term Refuses and Generators of Species Richness and Taxon 
Pulses." In Biological Diversification in the Tropics, ed. G. Prance, pp. 358- 
371. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. 

Erwin, T. L., and Kavanaugh, D. H. "Systematics and Zoogeography of 
Bembidion Latreille: I. The carlhi and erasum Groups of Western North 
America (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini)." Entomologica Scandinavica 
Supplement 15(1981) :33-72. 

Erwin, T. L., and Scott, J. C. "Seasonal and Size Patterns, Trophic Structure, 
and Richness of Coleoptera in the Tropical Arboreal Ecosystem: The Fauna 
of the Tree Luehea seemannii Triana and Planch in the Canal Zone of 
Panama." Coleopterists Bulletin 34(3) (1981) :305-22. 

Farhang-Azad, A.; Wisseman, C. L., Jr.; and Traub, R. "Studies on Murine 
Typhus Rickettsiae and Xenopsylla cheopis Fleas." In Rickettsiae and 
Rickettsial Diseases, eds. W. Burgdorfer and R. L. Anaker, pp. 363-73. New 
York: Academic Press, Inc. 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr. "Trichoptera." In Aquatic Biota of Tropical South Amer- 
ica, Part 1: Arthropoda, eds. S. H. Hurlbert, G. Rodriguez, and N. D. San- 
tos. San Diego, California: San Diego State University, 1981. 

. "Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XXVII: Anomalopsychidae, a 

New Family of Trichoptera." Proceedings of the Third International Sym- 
posium on Trichoptera (1981) :75-85. 

-. "Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XXXI: Five New Species from 

Argentina (Trichoptera)." Entomological News 93(1982) :43-47. 
Froeschner, Richard C, and Halpin, L. "Heteroptera Recently Collected in 

the Ray Mountains in Alaska." Proceedings of the Biological Society of 

Washington 94(2)(1981) :423-26. 
Heppner, John B. "Two New Dichrorampha (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from 

Florida." Florida Entomologist 64(1981) :271-76. 
. "Revision of the New Genus Diploschizia (Lepidoptera: Glyphipteri- 

gidae) for North America." Florida Entomologist 64(1981) :309-36. 

"Neomachlotica, a New Genus of Glyphipterigidae (Lepidoptera)." 

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 83(1981) :479-88. 
"Acleris maccana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); Distribution Notes and 

a New Record for Virginia." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 
Washington 83(1981) :802-3. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 445 

. "The Dates of E. J. C. Esper's Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen 

. . .," 1776-(1830). Archives of Natural History 10(1981) :251-54. 

"A New Tortyra from Cocos Island, Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Cho- 

reutidae)." Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 19(1981) :196-98. 

"Synopsis of the Glyphipterigidae (Lepidoptera: Copromorphoidea) 

of the World." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 
84(1982) -.38-66. 

'A World Catalog of Genera Associated with the Glyphipterigidae 

Auctorum (Lepidoptera)." Journal of the New York Entomological Society 
89(1982) :22-294. 

-. "Millieriinae, a New Subfamily of Choreutidae (Lepidoptera: Sesio- 

idea)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 370. Washington, D.C.: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

-. "Description of a New Cydia (Tortricidae) from Southern Florida and 

Cuba." Journal of the Lepidoptera Society 35(1982) :278-280. 

-. "Dates of Selected Literature of Lepidoptera for the Western Hemi- 

sphere Fauna." Journal of the Lepidoptera Society 35(1982) :135-59. 

Heppner, John B., and Duckworth, W. Donald. "Classification of the Super- 
family Sesioidea (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia)." Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology No. 314. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981. 

. Addendum to "Classification of the Superfamily Sesioidea." Journal 

of the Lepidoptera Society 36(1982) :101-2. 

Huang, Yiau-Min. "A Redescription of Aedes (Stegomyia) calceatus Edwards 
and Description of a New Afrotropical Species, Aedes (Stegomyia) ledgeri 
(Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics 13(1) (1981) :92-113. 

Huang, Yiau-Min, and Ward, R. A. "A Pictorial Key for the Identification 
of the Mosquitoes Associated with Yellow Fever in Africa." Mosquito 
Systematics 13(2) (1982) :138-49. 

Krombein, Karl V. "Biosystematic Studies of Ceylonese Wasps, VII: A Mono- 
graph of the Philanthidae (Hymenoptera: Sphecoidea)." Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Zoology No. 343. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1981. 

Lakshminarayana, K. V. and Emerson, K. C. "Evolutionary Trend in Two 
Sympatric Species of Goniocotes (Phthiraptera: Ischnocerophthirana) with 
Remarks on Host Phylogeny." Bulletin of the Zoological Society of India 
1(1978) :151-56. 

. "The Smithsonian Insect Project in Sri Lanka, 1969-1975." Spolia 

Zeylanica, 35(1981) :119-35. 

Mathis, Wayne N. "Proposed Use of the Plenary Powers to Grant Precedence 
to the Family-group Name Ephydridae Over Hydrelliidae (Diptera)." Bulle- 
tin of Zoological Nomenclature 38(3) (1981): 201-4. 

. "Ephydridae." In Aquatic Biota of Tropical South America, ed. 

S. H. Hurlbert, pp. 312—16. San Diego, California: University of San Diego 
Press, 1981. 

"Studies of Ephydrinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), VI: Review of the 

Tribe Dagini." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 345. Washington, 
D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

-. "Studies of Canacidae (Diptera), I: Suprageneric Revision of the 

Family, with Revisions of New Tribe Dynomiellini and New Genus 
Isocanace." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 347. Washington, 
D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

"Studies of Ephydrinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), VII: Revision of the 

Genus Setacera Cresson." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 350. 
Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 
. "Canacidae of Israel, with a Review of the Palaearctic Species of the 

446 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Genus Canace Haliday (Diptera)." Entomologica Scandinavica 13(1982): 

Mathis, Wayne N., and Wirth, Willis W. "Hydrellia tritici (Diptera: Ephydri- 
dae), New to Hawaii." Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 
23(3) (1981) -.371-73. 

McElravy, E. P.; Resh, V. H.; Wolda, H.; and Flint, O. S., Jr. "Diversity of 
Adult Trichoptera in a "Non-Seasonal" Tropical Environment." Proceedings 
of the Third International Symposium on Trichoptera (1981) :149-56. 

Oniki, Yoshika, and Emerson, K. C, "A New Species of Picicola (Mallo- 
phaga, Philopteridae) from the Crescent-chested Puffbird, Malacoptila 
striata (Spix) (Piciformes, Bucconidae)." Revista Brasileira de Biologia 
41(1981) :511-13. 

Penny, Norman D., and Flint, Oliiver S., Jr. "A Revision of the Genus 
Chloronia (Neuroptera:CorydaIidae)." Smithsonian Contriutions to Zoology 
No. 348. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Solomon, J. C., and Froeschner, R. C. "Notes on Food Resources and Behav- 
ior of the Family Coreidae (Hemiptera) in a Semi-deciduous Tropical 
Forest." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 83(3) 

Spangler, Paul J. "Sphaeriidae in Mollusca and Insecta: Comments on 
Proposal to Remove the Homonymy. Z. N. (S)1892 (see Bull. Zool. Nom., 
32:60-62,201-204)." Bulletin Zoological Nomenclature 38(3) (1981) :157-61. 

. "Two New Genera of Phraetic Elmid Beetles from Haiti; One Eyeless 

and One with Reduced Eyes (Coleoptera: Elmidae)." Bijdragen tot de 
Dierkunde (Contriutions to Zoology) (Amsterdam), 51 (2) (1981) :1-13. 

"Supplement to the Aquatic and Semiaquatic Coleoptera of Cuba 

Collected by the Academies of Science of Cuba and Romania." Resultats 
des Expeditions Biospeologiques Cubano-Roumaines a Cuba 3(1981) :145-71. 

Spangler, Paul J., and Brown, Harley P. "Discovery of Hydora, a hitherto 
Australian-New Zealand Genus of Riffle Beetle in South America (Coleop- 
tera: Elmidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 

Spangler, Paul J., and Huacuja, Aurea. "Deltostethus scitulus, a New Hydro- 
philid Beetle from Mexico (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae)." 
Entomological News 93(1) (1982) :l-7. 

Spangler, Paul J., and Vega, Alberto. "The First Record of Hydrovatus horni 
Crotch from the Antilles with Notes on Its Known Distribution and Status 
(Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)." Entomological News 93(2) (1982) :37-41. 

Thompson, F. C, and Mathis, Wayne N. [Book Reviews] A Catalogue of 
Diptrea of the Afrotropical Region by the British Museum (Natural 
History), Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 27(3) (1981): 

Traub, R., and Jellison, W. L. "Evolutionary and Biogeographic History and 
the Phylogeny of Vectors and Reservoirs as Factors in the Transmission of 
Diseases from Other Animals to Man. In Rickettsiae and Rickettsial 
Diseases, eds. W. Burgadorfer and R. L. Anacker, pp. 517-46. New York: 
Academic Press, Inc., 1981. 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology 

Barnard, J. L. "The Genus Rhepoxynius (Phoxocephalidae, Amphipoda, Crus- 
tacea) in American Seas." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology no. 357. 
Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

"Redescription of Iphiplateia whiteleggei, a New Guinea Marine 

Amphipod." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94(1982) 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 447 

Barnard, J. L., and Barnard, C. M. "The Amphipoda Genera Eobrolgus and 
Eyakia (Crustacea :Phoxocephalidae) in the Pacific Ocean." Proceedings of 
the Biological Society of Washington 94(1981) :295-313. 

Barnard, J. L., and Clark, J. "Huarpe escofeti, New Genus, New Species, a 
Burrowing Marine Amphipod from Argentina (Crustacea, Amphipoda, 
Urohaustoriidae)." Journal of Crustacean Biology 2(1982) :281-95. 

Barnard, J. L., and Clark, J. "Puelche orensanzi, New Genus, New Species, a 
Phoxocephalopsid Amphipod from the Shores of Argentina (Crustacea, 
Amphipoda, Phoxocephalopsidae)." Journal of Crustacean Biology 2(1982): 

Barnard, J. L., and Drummond, M. M. "Three Corophioids (Crustacea: Amphi- 
poda) from Western Port, Victoria." Proceedings of the Royal Society of 
Victoria 93(1981) :31-41. 

Barnard, J. L., and Karaman, G. S. "Classificatory Revisions in Gammaridean 
Amphipoda (Crustacea), Part 2." Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington 95(1982) :167-87. 

Bayer, Frederick M. "On Some Genera of Stoloniferous Octocorals (Coelen- 
terata: Anthozoa), with Descriptions of New Taxa." Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington 94(3)1981) :878-901. 

. "Key to the Genera of Octocorallia Exclusive of Pennatulacea (Coe- 

lenterata: Anthozoa), with Descriptions of New Taxa." Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington (94(1981) :902-47. 

"Some New and Old Species of the Primnoid Genus Callogorgia 

Gray, with a Revalidation of the Related Genus Fanellia Cray (Coelen- 
terata: Anthozoa)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 
95(1) (1982) :116-60. 

-. "Status of Knowledge of Octocorals of World Seas." Seminarios de 

Biologia Marinha. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, 1981: 
. "Utilization and Conservation of Plexaura homomalla." Seminarios 

de Biologia Marinha. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, 1982: 

-. "Recent Advances in Research on Octocorals." Seminarios de Biologia 

Marinha. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, 1981:19-28. 

"Bibliography of Octocorallia 1469-1977." Seminarios de Biologia 

Marinha. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, 1981 :29-102. 

Black, J. J.; Harshbarger, J.; Zeigel, R. F.; and Bock, F. G. "Tumors in Fish 
from a Copper Contaminated Lake." Proceedings of the Seventy-second 
Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research and 
Seventieth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 
22(1982) :134. 

Bowman, T. E. "Calasellus longus, a New Genus and Species of Troglobitic 
Asellid from Shaver Lake, California (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellidae)." Pro- 
ceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94(3)1982) :866-72. 

. "Cephalocarida" and "Mystacocarida." In Synopsis and Classification 

of Living Organisms, vol. 2, ed. Sybil P. Parker, pp. 174 and 202. New 
York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1982. 

"Speocirolana pubens and S. endica, New Troglobitic Isopod Crus- 

taceans from Mexico (Flabellifera: Cirolanidae)." Association for Mexican 
Cave Studies Bulletin 8(1982) :13-23. 

"Three New Stenasellid Isopods from Mexico (Crustacea: Asellota)." 

Association for Mexican Cave Studies Bulletin 8(1982) :25-38. 

Bowman, T. E., and Abele, Lawrence G. "Classification of the Recent Crus- 
tacea." In Biology of the Crustacea, ed. Dorothy E. Bliss, vol. 1, Chap. 1, 
pp. 1-27. New York: Academic Press, 1982. 

Bowman, T. E.; Bruce, Neil, L.; and Standing, Jon D. "Recent Introduction 

448 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

of the Cirolanid Isopod Crustacean Cirolana arcuata into San Francisco 
Bay." Journal of Crustacean Biology 1(4) (1981) :545-57. 

Bowman, T. E.; Cohen, Anne C; and McGuinness, Maura McManus. "Verti- 
cal Distribution of Themisto gaudichaudii (Amphidopa: Hyperiidea) in 
Deepwater Dumpsite 106 off the Mouth of Delaware Bay." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology no. 351. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press, 1982. 

Bowman, T. E., and McGuinness, Maura McManus. "Epipelagic Amphipods 
from the International Indian Ocean Expedition, 1959-1965." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology no. 359. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press, 1982. 

Bruce, Niel L., and Bowman, T. E. "The Status of Cirolana parva Hansen, 
1890 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cirolanidae) with Notes on Its Distribution." 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 95(2)(1982) :325-33. 

Cairns, S. D. "Antarctic and Subantarctic Scleractinia." Antarctic Research 
Series 34(1982) :l-74. 

. "Stony Corals of Carrie Bow Cay, Belize." In Smithsonian Contribu- 
tions to Zoology no. 12, pp. 271-302. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Press, 1982. 

-. "A New Subfamily of Operculate Stylasterine from the Subantarctic." 

Journal of Natural History 16(1)71-81. 

Cavanaugh, Colleen M.; Gardiner, Stephen L.; Jones, Meredith L.; Jannasch, 
Holgar W.; and Waterbury, John B. "Prokaryotic Cells in the Hydrothermal 
Vent Tube Worm Riftia pachyptila Jones: Possible Chemautotrophic Sym- 
bionts." Science 213(1981) :340-41. 

Child, C A. "Deep-Sea Pycnogonida from the North and South Atlantic 
Basins." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology no. 349. Washington, DC: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

. "Pycnogonida from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize." In "The Atlantic Bar- 
rier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, 1 : Structure and Commu- 
nities," pp. 355-80. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology no. 12. Wash- 
ington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

-. "Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands I. The Marshall Islands." 

Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 95(2)(1982) :270-81. 

Child, C. A., and Nakamura, K. "A Gynandromorph of the Japanese Pycnogo- 
nid Anoplodactylus gestiens (Ortmann)." Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington 95(2) (1982) :289-92. 

Cohen, Anne C. "Ostracoda." In Synopsis and Classification of Living Orga- 
nisms, ed. S. P. Parker, pp. 181-202. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 

Cressey, R. "Revision of Indo-West Pacific Lizardfishes of the Genus Synodus 
(Pisces: Synodontidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 342. 
Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981. 

. "A New Genus of Bomolochid Copepod from Indo-West Pacific 

Nemipterid Fishes." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 
95(2) (1981) :503-12. 

Dawe, C J.; Harshsbarger, J. C; Kondo, S.; Sugimura, T.; and Takayama, S., 
eds. Phyletic Approaches to Cancer: Proceedings of the Eleventh Interna- 
tional Symposium of the Princess Takamatsu Cancer Research Fund, Tokyo, 
1980. Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press, 1981. 

Deiss, William A., and Manning, Raymond B. "The Fate of the Invertebrate 
Collections of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition." In History in the 
Service of Systematics, eds. Alwyne Wheeler and James H. Price, pp. 79-85. 
London: Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 1981. 

Fauchald, Kristian. "Two New Species of Onuphis from Uruguay." Proceed- 
ings of the Biological Society of Washington 95(1) (1982) :203-9. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 449 

. "Some Species of Onuphis (Onuphidae: Polychaeta) from the Atlan- 
tic Ocean." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 95(2) 
(1982) :237-49. 

"Revision of Onuphis, Nothria, and Paradiopatra (Polychaeta: Onu- 

phidae) Based upon Type-material." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 
No. 356. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Harshberger, John C. "Closing Remarks." In Phyletic Approaches to Cancer: 
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium of the Princess Taka- 
matsu Cancer Research Fund, Toyko, 1980, eds. C. J. Dawe, J. C. Harsh- 
barger, S. Kondo, T. Sugimura, and S. Takayama, pp. 385-89. Tokyo: 
Japan Scientific Societies Press, 1981. 

. "Epizootiology of Leukemia and Lymphoma in Poikilotherms." In 

Advances in Comparative Leukemia Research, 1981, eds. D. S. Yohn and 
J. R. Blakeslee, pp. 39-47. New York: Elsevier-North Holland, 1982. 

Harshbarger, J. C; Charles, A. M. ; and Spero, P. M. "Collection and Analysis 
of Neoplasms in Sub-Homeothermic Animals from a Phyletic Point of 
View." In Phyletic Approaches to Cancer: Proceedings of the Eleventh 
International Symposium of the Princess Takamatsu Cancer Research Fund, 
Tokyo, 1980, eds. C. J. Dawe, J. C. Harshbarger, S. Kondo, T. Sugimura, 
and S. Takayama, pp. 575-84. Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press, 1981. 

Hart, C. W., Jr., and Manning, Raymond B. "The Cavernicolous Caridean 
Shrimps of Bermuda (Alpheidae, Hippolytidae, and Atyidae)." Journal of 
Crustacean Biology 1(3)(1981) :441-56. 

Higgins, Robert P. "Kinorhyncha." In Synopsis and Classification of Living 
Organisms, vol. 1, ed. Sybil P. Parker, pp. 873-77. New York: McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, 1981. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr. "The Crayfishes of Georgia." Smithsonian Contribu- 
tions to Zoology No. 318. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 

. "A New Crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from the State of Puebla, 

Mexico, with New Locality Records for Procambarus (Villalobosus) xochit- 
lanae and Entocytherid Ostracod Symbionts." Association for Mexican 
Cave Studies Bulletin, 8:39-44; Texas Memorial Museum Bulletin 28(1981): 
39-44. Austin, Texas: The Speleo Press. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr., and Grubbs, Andrew G. "Description of a New Trog- 
lobitic Crayfish from Mexico and a List of Mexican Crayfishes Reported 
Since the Publication of the Villalobos Monograph (1955) (Decapoda, Cam- 
baridae)." Association for Mexican Cave Studies Bulletin, 8:45-50; Texas 
Memorial Museum Bulletin 28(1981) :45-50. Austin, Texas: The Speleo 

Hoover, K. L.; Harshbarger, J. C; Lee, C. W.; Banfield, W.; and Chang, S. C. 
"Intranuclear Inclusion Bodies within Neurons of Spinal and Cranial Gan- 
glia in Three Cyprinodont Species." Cell and Tissue Research 218(1981) : 

Hope, W. D. "Structure of Head and Stoma in the Marine Nematode Genus 
Deontostoma (Enoplida: Leptosomatidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology No. 353. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Hope, W. D., and Gardiner, S. L. "Fine Structure of a Proprioceptor in the 
Body Wall of the Marine Nematode Deontostoma californicum Steiner and 
Albin, 1933 (Enoplida: Leptosomatidae)." Cell and Tissue Research 225 
(1982) :1-10. 

Houbrick, Richard S. "Systematic Position of the Genus Clyptozaria Iredale 
(Prosobranchia: Gastropoda)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington 94(3) (1981) :838-47. 

. "What is Diastoma? Systematic Position of the Diastomatidae." Bul- 
letin of the American Malacological Union, Inc. (1981) :31. 

450 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Jones, Meredith L. "Riftia pachyptila Jones: Observations on the Vestimenti- 

feran Worm from the Galapagos Rift." Science 213(1981) :333-36. 
. "Magelonidae." In Sedentariate and Archiannelid Polychaetes of 

British Columbia and Washington, eds. K. D. Hobson and K. Banse, pp. 

46-48. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 209, 1981. 
Karaman, G. S., and Barnard, J. L. "The Synonymization of Triodos K. H. 

Barnard with Ampelisca Kroyer (Crustacea, Amphipoda)." Annals of the 

South African Museum 84(1981) :255-64. 
Kenk, Roman. "Freshwater Triclads (Turbellaria) of North America. XIII. 

Phagocata hamptonae, New Species, from Nevada." Proceedings of the 

Biological Society of Washington 95(1) (1982) :161-66. 
Kensley, B. "A New Genus and Species of Interstitial Isopod from Curcao, 

West Indies (Crustacea: Isopoda: Paranthuridae)." Bijdragen tot de Dier- 

kunde 51(1981) :131-34. 
. "On the Zoogeography of Southern African Decapod Crustacea, with 

a Checklist of the Species." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 338. 

Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981. 

-. "A New Genus and Species of Asellote Isopod from the Great Barrier 

Reef, Australia (Crustacea: Isopoda: Pleurocopidae)." Journal of Crusta- 
cean Biology 2(1982) :255-60. 

"Deep-Water Atlantic Anthuridea (Crustacea: Isopoda)." Smithsonian 

Contributions to Zoology No. 346. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press, 1982. 

-. "Anthuridea (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Carrie Bow Cay, Belize." In 

The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrier Bow Cay, Belize 1: Struc- 
ture and Communities, ed. K. Riitzler and I. G. Macintyre, pp. 321-54. 
Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences No. 12. Washington, 
D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Kornicker, Louis S. "Revision, Distribution, Ecology, and Ontogeny of the 
Ostracode Subfamily Cyclasteropinae (Myodocopina: Cylindroleberididae)." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 319. Washington, D.C.: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1981. 

. "Range Extension and Supplementary Description of Bathyconchoe- 

cia deeveyae (Ostracoda: Halocyprididae)." Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington 94(4) (1981) :1237-43. 

-. " Angulorostrum, a New Genus of Myodocopid Ostracoda (Philo- 

medidae: Pseudophilomedinae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 
No. 340. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981. 

"A New Bathyal Myodocopine Ostracode from New Zealand and a 

Key to Developmental Stages of Sarsiellidae." New Zealand Journal of 
Marine and Freshwater Research 15(1981) :385-90. 

"A Restudy of the Amphiatlantic Ostracode Philomedes brenda 

(Baird, 1850) (Myodocopina)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 
No. 358. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

-. [Review] Fossil and Recent Ostracods, eds. R. H. Bate, E. Robinson, 

and L. M. Sheppard. Halsted [Wiley] New York. Science 217(4561) (1982): 

Kornicker, Louis S., and Cohen, Anne C. "Relative Position of the Left and 
Right Lamellae of the Furca in the Order Myodocopida (Crustacea: Ostra- 
coda)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94(3)(1981): 

Lewis, Julian J., and Bowman, Thomas E. "The Subterranean Asellids of 
Illinois (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology No. 335. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981. 

Lewis, S. M., and Kensley, B. "Notes on the Ecology and Behavior of 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 451 

Pseudamphithoides incurvaria (Just) (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ampithoi- 
dae)." Journal of Natural History 16(1982) :267-74. 

Macintyre, I. G., Riitzler, K., Norris, J. N., and Fauchald, K. "A Submarine 
Cave near Columbus Cay, a Bizarre Cryptic Habitat." In The Atlantic 
Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize 1: Structure and Com- 
munities, eds. K. Riitzler and I. G. Macintyre, pp. 127-41. Smithsonian 
Contributions to the Marine Sciences No. 12. Washington, D.C.: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Manning, Raymond B. "First Record of Kempina zanzibarica (CHOPRA 
1939) from the Red Sea, with Notes on Lenisquilla gilesi (KEMP 1911) 
(Crustacea: Stomatopoda)." Senckenbergiana biologica 61(3/4)(1981) :297- 

Manning, Raymond B. "West African Brachyuran Crabs." National Geo- 
graphic Society Research Reports 13(1981) :431-34. 

. "Stomatopods." In FAO Species Identification Sheets for Fishery 

Purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic Fishing Areas 34, 47 (in part), eds. 
W. Fisher, G. Bianchi, and W. B. Scott, 9 pages. Ottawa: Department of 
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 1981. 

'Hoplocarida." In Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms, 

ed. Sybil P. Parker, pp. 237-41. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 

Manning, Raymond B., and Camp, David K. "A Review of the Platysquilla 
Complex (Crustacea, Stomatopoda, Nannosquillidae), with the Designation 
of Two New Genera." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 

Manning, Raymond B., and Hart, C. W., Jr. "Conodactylus lightbourni, a 
New Stomatopod Crustacean from Bermuda." Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington 94(3) (1981): 708-12. 

Manning, Raymond B., and Lewinsohn, Ch. "Selection of a Neotype for 
Cancer falcatus Forskal, 1775 (Stomatopoda)." Crustaceana 41 (3) (1981): 

Manning, Raymond B., and Reaka, Marjorie L. "Conodactylus siamensis, a 
New Stomatopod Crustacean from Thailand." Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington 94 (2) (1981) :190-200. 

Nakamura, K., and Child, C. A. "Three New Species of Pycnogonida from 
Sagami Bay, Japan." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 

Pawson, David L. "Holothuroidea." In Synopsis and Classification of Living 
Organisms, ed. Sybil P. Parker, pp. 813-18. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 

Pawson, David L., and Gust, Cynthia. "Holothuria (Platyperona) rowei, a 
New Sea Cucumber from Florida." Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington 94(3) (1981) :873-77. 

Perez Farfante, Isabel. Review of "El Mar de Puerto Rico. Una Introduccion 
a las Pesquerias de la Isla." By Jose A. Suarez Caabro. Editorial Universi- 
taria, Universidad de Puerto Rico. Ciencia Interamericana 22(1-2) (1982) :68. 

Perez Farfante, I., and Ivanov, B. G. "Mesopenaeus mariae, a New Species 
of Shrimp (Penaeoidea: Solenoceridae), the First Record of the Genus in 
the Indo-West Pacific." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washing- 
ton 2(2)(1982):303-13. 

Pettibone, Marian H. "Annelida and Polychaeta." In Synopsis and Classifica- 
tion of Living Organisms, ed. S. P. Parker, vol. 2, pp. 1-43. New York: 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1982. 

Reaka, Marjorie L., and Manning, Raymond B. "The Behavior of Stomatopod 
Crustacea, and Its Relationship to Rates of Evolution." Journal of Crusta- 
cean Biology 1(3) (1981) :309-27. 

452 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Rehder, Harald A. "A New Species of Volutocorbis (Volutidae) from Soma- 
lia." The Nautilis 95(4) (1981) -.169-70. 

. "A Note on Colubraria soverbii (Reeve) and a Comment on Noto- 

peplum translucidum?" . Hawaiian Shell News 30(5) (1982) :5. 

Roper, C. F. E. "Cephalopods of the Southern Ocean Region: Potential 
Resources and Bibliography." In Biological Investigations of Marine Ant- 
arctic Systems and Stocks. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 
BIOMASS 2(1981) :99-105. 

Roper, C. F. E., and Boss, K. J. "The Giant Squid." Scientific American, 
246(4) (1982) :82-90. 

Roper, C. F. E., and Sweeney, M. J. "Eastern Central Atlantic Cephalopods." 
In FAO Species Identification Sheets for Fishery Purposes; Food and Agri- 
cultural Organization of the United Nations, vol. 6, 92 pages. 

Rosewater, Joseph. "Malacological Journey into Cuba." The Nautilus 95(4) 

. "A New Species of Hippopus (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae)." The Nautilus 

96(1) (1982) :3-6. 

-. "A New Species of the Genus Echininus (Mollusca: Littorinidae; 

Echinininae) with a Review of the Subfamily." Proceedings of the Bio- 
logical Society of Washington 95(1) (1982) :67-80. 

Rosewater, Joseph and Kadolsky, Dietrich. "Rectifications in the Nomencla- 
ture of Some Indo-Pacific Littorinidae — II." Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington 95(4) (1981) :1233-36. 

Riitzler, K. "An Unusual Bluegreen Alga Symbiotic with two New Species 
of Ulosa (Porifera: Hymeniacidonidae) from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize." 
Marine Ecology 2(1982) :35-40. 

Riitzler, K., Archibald, P., and Santavy-Robertson, D. "A New Species of 
Lyngbya emend. Bourelly (Cyanophyta, Oscillatoriaceae) Cause of Black 
Band Disease of Tropical Reef Corals." [Abstract] International Phycologi- 
cal Congress, St. John's Newfoundland, August 1982. 

Riitzler, K., and Bromley, R. G. "Cliona rhodensis, New Species (Porifera: 
Hadromerida) from the Mediterranean." Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington 94(1981) :1219-25. 

Riitzler, K., and Ferraris, J. D. "Terrestrial Environment and Climate." In 
The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize 1: Structure 
and Communities, eds. K. Riitzler and I. G. Macintyre, pp. 77-91. Smith- 
sonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences No. 12. Washington, D.C.: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Riitzler, G„ and Macintyre, I. G., eds. The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at 
Carrie Bow Cay, Belize 1: Structure and Communities. Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to the Marine Sciences No. 12. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1982. 

. "Introduction." In The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow 

Cay, Belize 1: Structure and Communities, eds. K. Riitzler and I. G. Mac- 
intyre, pp. 1-7. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences No. 12. 
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

"Habitat Distribution and Community Structure of the Barrier Reef 

Complex near Carrie Bow Cay." In The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at 
Carrie Bow Cay, Belize 1: Structure and Communities, eds. K. Riitzler and 
I. G. Macintyre, pp. 9-45. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 
No. 12. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Williams, A. B., and Chace, F. A., Jr. "A New Caridean Shrimp of the Family 
Bresilidae from Thermal Vents of the Galapagos Rift." Journal of Crusta- 
cean Biology 2(1) (February 1982) :136-47. 

Wittenberg, Jonathan B., Morris, Roger J., Gibson, Quentin H., and Jones, 
Meredith L. "Hemoglobin Kinetics of the Galapagos Rift Vent Tube Worm 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 453 

Riftia pachyptila Jones (Pogonophora: Vestimentifera)." Science 213(1981): 

"Oxygen Binding by Hemoglobin of the Galapagos Rift Vent Worm 

Riftia pachyptila Jones (Pogonophora: Vestimentifera)." Biochemica et 
Biophysica Acta 670(1981) :255-59. 
Zibrowius, H., and Cairns, S. D. "Remarks on the Stylasterine Larva of the 
West Indies, with the Description of a New Species. Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington 95(1) :210-21. 

Department of Mineral Science 

Batiza, R.; Simkin, T.; Lonsdale, P.; and Vanko, D. [Abstract] "Petrology of 
Young Volcanoes Near the East Pacific Rise at 20°48'N. Studied by 
Submersible." EOS 63(18) (1982) :472: 

Clarke, R. S., Jr. [Book review] "Brazilian Stone Meteorites." by Celso B 
Gomes and Klaus Keil." Ceochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45(1981) :2296 

. "Description of Iron Meteorites" and "Overview of Antarctic Irons." 

In "Catalog of Meteorites from Victoria Land, Antarctica 1978-1980," eds. 
U. B. Marvin and B. Mason. Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sci- 
ences No. 24. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

. "Meteoritic Metal from Antarctica." Antarctic Journal 16(5) (1981): 


Clarke, R. S., Jr.; Jarosewich, E.; and Almohandis, A. A. "Composition and 
Metallography of Two Recently Recovered Wabar Meteorite Specimens." 
Meteoritics 16(1981) :303. 

Dunn, P. J. "Akrochordite, a Second Occurrence: Sterling Hill, New Jersey." 
Mineralogical Record 44(1981) :235-36. 

. [Book review] "A Manual of New Mineral Names." American Min- 
eralogist 66(1981) :440. 

-. "Copper Acetate Hydrate with Native Copper." Mineralogical Record 

12(1981) :49. 

"Holdenite from Sterling Hill and New Chemical Data." Mineralogi- 

cal Record 12(1981) :373-75. 

"Magnesium-Chlorophoenicite Redefined and New Data on Chloro- 

phoenicite." Canadian Mineralogist 19(1981) -.333-36. 

"Ogdensburgite, a New Calcium Zinc Ferric-Iron Arsenate Mineral 

from Sterling Hill, New Jersey. Mineralogical Record 12(1981) :369-70. 

"Sterlinghillite, a New Hydrated Manganese Arsenate Mineral from 

Ogdensburg, New Jersey." American Mineralogist 66(1981) :182-84. 

Dunn, P. J., and Bentley, R. E. "Mineral Fraud." Mineralogical Record 
12(1981) :194. 

Dunn, P. J.; Bentley, R. E.; and Wilson, W. E. "Mineral Fakes." Mineralogical 
Record 12(1981) :197-219. 

Dunn, P. J., and Leavens, P. B. "Sjogrenite on Pyroaurite from Sterling Hill, 
New Jersey." Mineralogical Record 12(1981) :371-72. 

Dunn, P. J.; Leavens, P. B.; Norberg, J. A.; and Ramik, R. A. "Bannisterite: 
New Chemical Data and Empirical Formulae." American Mineralogist 
66(1981) :1063-67. 

Dunn, P. J.; Peacor, D. R.; Nelen, J. A.; and Norberg, J. A. "Crystal-Chemical 
Data for Schallerite, Caryopilite and Friedelite from Franklin and Sterling 
Hill, New Jersey." American Mineralogist 66(1981) :1054-62. 

Fleischer, M. "Memorial to Sterling Brown Hendicks, 1902-1981." Geological 
Society of America Memorial Volume, 1982. 

Fleischer, M., and Schaeffer, C. "Ford-Fleischer File of Mineralogical Refer- 
ences." U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, no. 81-1174, 1981. 

Fleischer, M, and Schaeffer, C. "Ford-Fleischer Files of Mineralogical Refer- 
ences." U.S. Geological Survey Open-Tile Report, no. 85-1169, 1981. 

454 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

Fiske, R. S., and Shepard, J. B. "Deformation Studies on Soufriere, St. Vin- 
cent, between 1977 and 1981." Science 216(1982) -.1125-26. 

Fiske, R. S., and Sigurdsson, H. "Soufriere Volcano, St. Vincent: Observations 
of its 1979 Eruption from the Ground, Aircraft, and Satellites." Science 
216(1982) :1105-6. 

Fredriksson, K. [Extended abstract] "Chondrule Compositions in Different 
Type Chondrites." Lunar and Planetary Science XII, Pt. 1(1982) :233-34. 

. [Abstract] "Elemental Correlation Anomalies in Individual Chon- 

drules from Chondrites of Different Types. Seventh Symposium on Ant- 
arctic Meteorites, National Inst, of Polar Research (1982) :40. 

[Abstract] "The Chondritic 'Regolith': Survivors and Creations. 

Workshop on Comparisons between Lunar Breccias and Soils and their 
Meteoritic Analogs, Lunar Science Institute, Houston, Texas (1981). 

Fredriksson, K.; Jarosewich, E.; Beauchamp, R.; and Kerridge, J. [Abstract] 
"Sulphate Veins, Carbonates, Limonite and Magnetite: Evidence on the 
Late Geochemistry of the C-l Regoliths." Meteoritics 15(1980) :291-292. 

Fredriksson, K.; Mason, B.; Beauchamp, R.; and Kurat, G. [Abstract] "Car- 
bonates and Magnetites in the Renazzo Chondrite." Meteoritics 16(1981): 

Fredriksson, K.; Miller, J.; and Nelen, J. "The Tambakwatu Chondrite." 
Meteoritics 16(1981) :77-81. 

Fredriksson, K., and Peretsman, G. S. "Glangang and Selakopi: Two New 
Paired(?) Indonesian Chondrites." Meteoritics 17(1982) -.77-56. 

Fredriksson, K.; Reid, C. G. R.; and Fredriksson, B. J. "Grier(b), A 'Mono- 
mict,' Brecciated Chondrite." Meteoritics 16(1981) :129-37. 

Keller, P.; Hess, H.; Dunn, P. J.; and Newbury, D. "O'Danielite, NaZn 3 H= 
(AsO-Os, a New Mineral from Tsumeb, Namibia." Neues Jahnbuch fur 
Mineralogie (1981) :155-60. 

Keller, P.; Hess, H.; and Dunn, P. J. "Bartelkeite, PbFe 2+ Ge 3 8 , a New Ger- 
manium Mineral from Tsumeb, Nambia." Chemie der Erde 40(1981) :201-06. 

. "Jamesit, PbiZn^Fe^sCh, ein neues Mineral von Tsumeb." Chemie der 

Erde 40(1981) :105-9. 

"Otjisumeite, PbGe^o, ein neues Mineral aus Tsumeb, Namibia." 

Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie (1981) :49-55. 

Keller, P.; Paar, W. H.; and Dunn, P. J. "Lammerite, Cu3(AsC>4)2, ein neues 
Mineral von Laurani, Bolivien." Tschermaks Min. Petr. Mitt. 28(1981): 

King, E. A.; Jarosewich, E.; and Daugherty, F. W. "Tierra Blanka: An Un- 
usual Achondrite from West Texas." Meteoritics 16(1981) :229-37. 

Lonsdale, P.; Batiza, R.; Simkin, T.; and Vanko, D. [Abstract] "Submersible 
Study of Active Hydrothermal Vents and Massive Sulphide Deposits on 
Young Off-Ridge Volcanoes Near the East Pacific Rise at 20°48'N." EOS 
63(18) (1982) :472. 

Marvin, Ursula B., and Mason, Brian, eds. "Catalog of Meteorites from Vic- 
toria Land, Antarctica, 1978-1980." Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth 
Sciences No. 24(1982). Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 

Mason, Brian. "Descriptions of Antarctic Meteorites." Antarctic Meteorite 
Newsletter 4(2)(1981); 5(1)(1982). 

Mason, Brian, and Clarke, R. S., Jr. [Abstract] "Characterization of the 
1980—81 Victoria Land Meteorite Collections." Seventh Symposium on 
Antarctic Meteorites, Tokyo, Japan, 1982. 

McClelland, L., and Simkin, T. "Volcanology : Review of 1981." Ceotimes 27 

Melson, W. G. "Composition of Coexisting Oxides in the March, 1982 Erup- 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 455 

tion of Mount St. Helens." U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin on Mt. St. 
Helens, 1982. 

[Abstract] "Geochemical, Petrologic, and Gas Emission Studies as 

Volcanic Prediction Methods: Some Latest Developments Being Applied to 
Cascade Volcanoes." Volcano Hazards Workshop, California Department 
of Conservation, 1981. 

Melson, W. G., and Hopson, C. A. "Preemption Temperatures and Oxygen 
Fugacities in the 1980 Eruptive Sequence. U.S. Geological Survey Profession 
Paper 1250, 2980 Eruptions of Mt. St. Helens, pp. 641-648. 

Rambaldi, E. R.; Fredriksson, B. J.; and Fredriksson, K. "Primitive Ultrafine 
Matrix in Ordinary Chondrites." Earth and Planetary Science Letter 56 
(1981) :107-25. 

Reid, C. G. R., and Fredriksson, K. "The Madiun, Indonesia, Chondrite." 
Meteoritics 17(1981) :27-30. 

Roberts, A. C; Ansell, H. G.; and Dunn, P. J. "Comancheite, a New Mercury 
Oxychloride-Bromide from Terlingua, Texas." Canadian Mineralogist 19 
(1981) :393-96. 

Robinson, P. T.; Melson, W. G.; and O'Hearn. [Abstract] "Volcanic Glass 
from the Troodos Complex, Cyprus." EOS 62(1981) :1087. 

Rona, P. A.; Bostrom, K. L.; Widenfalk, E. G.; and Melson, W. G. [Abstract] 
"Preliminary Reconnaisance of the Carlsberg Ridge, Northwestern Indian 
Ocean for Hydrothermal Mineralization." EOS 62(1981) :914. 

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L. [Abstract] "Arc Volcanism in Space and Time: 
A Look at the Global Historic Record." Arc Volcanism Symposium, Inter- 
national Association of Volcanology, Tokyo, 1981, pp. 342-43. 

. [Abstract] "Explosive Eruptions in Space and Time: A Look at the 

Holocene Record." EOS 62(45) (1981) :1081. 

"Holocene Volcanoes." In Plate-Tectonic Map of the Circum-Pacific 

Region (SW, and Antarctic Quadrants). Tulsa, Oklahoma: American Asso- 
ciation of Petroleum Geologists, 1981-2. 

[Abstract] "Large Historic Explosive Eruptions: How Much Warn- 

ing?" EOS 63(18)(1982):459. 
Sturman, B. D.; Mandarino, J. A.; Mrose, M. E.; and Dunn, P. J. "Gormanite, 

Fe 2+ 3 Al4(P04)4(OH)6*2H20, the Ferrous Analogue of Souzalite, and New 

Data for Souzalite." Canadian Mineralogist 19(1981) :381-87. 
Sturman, B. D.; Peacor, D. R.; and Dunn, P. J. "Wicksite, a New Mineral 

from Northeastern Yukon Territory." Canadian Mineralogist 19(1981) : 

Sturman, B. D.; Rouse, R. C; and Dunn, P. J. "Parascholzite, a New Mineral 

from Hagendorf, Bavaria, and its Relationship to Scholzite." American 

Mineralogist 66(1981) :843-51. 

Department of Paleobiology 

Adey, W. H. [Project Interim Report] A Resource Assessment of Gouldsboro 
Bay, Maine, submitted to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- 
tration Marine Sanctuary Program, 47 pages. Washington, D.C. : Marine 
Systems Laboratory, Smithsonian Institution, 1982. 

Adey, W. H.; Townsend, R. A.; and Boykins, W. T., Jr. "The Crustose Coral- 
line Algae of the Hawaiian Islands." Smithsonian Contributions to the 
Marine Sciences No. 15. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 

Anastasakis, G. C, and Stanley, D. J. [Abstract] "Mediterranean Sapropels: 
Their Diversity and Difficulties in Correlation." International Workshop on 
Vine-Grained Sediments. Halifax, Nova Scotia: August 1982. 

Behrensmeyer, A. K. "Vertebrate Paleoecology in a Recent East African Eco- 
system." In Communities of the Past, eds. Jane Gray, A. J. Boucot, and 

456 / Smithsonian Year 1982 

W. B. N. Berry, pp. 591-616. Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, 
Inc., 1981. 

"The Geological Context of Human Evolution." Annual Reviews of 

Earth and Planetary Sciences No. 10 (1982) :39-60. 

[Book Review] Quaternary Palaeoecology, eds. H. J. B. Birks and 

H. H. Birks. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 58(1) (1982) :119- 

[Abstract] "Patterns of Natural Bone Distribution on Recent and 

Pleistocene Land Surfaces: Implications for Archeological Site Formation." 
Fourth International Conference on Archaeozoology, Abstracts of Papers. 
London: April 1982. 

[Abstract] "Time Sampling in the Vertebrate Fossil Record." Journal 

of Paleontology vol. 56, supplement to number 2, North American Paleon- 
tological Association III, Abstracts of Papers (1982) :3. 

'Time Sampling Intervals in the Vertebrate Fossil Record." Third 

North American Paleontological Convention, Proceedings Volume I, com- 
piled and edited by Bernard Mamet and M. J. Copeland, pp. 41-45. Mon- 
treal, Quebec: Departement de Geologie, Universite de Montreal, and Geo- 
logical Survey of Canada, 1982. 

"Time Resolution in Fluvial Vertebrate Assemblages." Paleobiology 

8(3) (1982) :211-27. 

Behrensmeyer, A. K., and Boaz, D. D. "Late Pleistocene Geology and Paleon- 
tology of Amboseli National Park, Kenya." In Palaeocology of Africa, vol. 
13, eds. J. A. Coetzee and E. M. van Zinderen Bakker, Sr., pp. 175-88. 
Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, 1981. 

Behrensmeyer, A. K., and Tauxe, L. "Isochronous Fluvial Systems in the Mio- 
cene of Northern Pakistan." Sedimentology 29(3) (1982) :331-52. 

Benson, R. H. "The Odds on 'Ode' in Ostracode, or the Omicron and Omega 
of Chancy Spelling." Journal of Paleontology 55(6) (1981) :1200-1206. 

. "Comparative Transformation of Shape in a Rapidly Evolving Series 

of Structural Morphotypes of the Ostracod Bradleya." In Fossil and Recent 
Ostracods, eds. R. H. Bate, E. Robinson, and L. M. Sheppard, pp. 147-64. 
British Micropalaeontological Society Series. Chichester, England: Ellis 
Horwood Limited, 1982. 

"From Conversations with Peter: Reminiscences of the Philosophy of 

P. C. Sylvester-Bradley." In Fossil and Recent Ostracods, eds. R. H. Bate, 
E. Robinson, and L. M. Sheppard, pp. 480-86. British Micropalaeontological 
Society Series. Chichester, England: Ellis Horwood Limited, 1982. 

Blackwelder, B. W.; Macintyre, I. G.; and Pilkey, O. H. "Geology of Conti- 
nental Shelf, Onslow Bay, North Carolina, as Revealed by Submarine Out- 
crops." American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 66(1) (1982): 

Blanpied, Christian, and Stanley, D. J. "Uniform Mud (Unifite) Deposition in 
the Hellenic Trench, Eastern Mediterranean." Smithsonian Contributions to 
the Marine Sciences No. 13. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1981. 

Boardman, R. S. "Coloniality and the Origin of Post-Triassic Tubular Bryo- 
zoans." In Lophophorates, Notes for a Short Course, ed. T. W. Broadhead, 
pp. 70-75. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Studies in Geology 5, 1981. 

Brawley, S. H., and Adey, W. H. "Coralliophila abbreviata: A Significant 
Corallivore!" Bulletin of Marine Science 32(2) (1982) :595-99. 

Cheetham, A. H. and Thomsen, Erik. [Abstract] "Morphology and Strength 
of Some Tertiary Arborescent Cheilostome Bryozoans." In Recent and 
Fossil Bryozoa, eds. G. P. Larwood and Claus Nielsen, p. 310. Fredens- 
borg, Denmark: Olsen and Olsen, 1981. 

. "Functional Morphology of Arborescent Animals: Strength and 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 457 

Design of Cheilostome Bryozoan Skeletons." Paleobiology 7(3) (1981): 

Cifelli, Richard. "The Relationship of Clobigerinoides bisphericus Todd 1954 

to Praeorbulina sicana (de Stefani) 1952." Journal of Foraminiferal Research 

. "Early Occurrences and some Phylogenetic Implications of Spiny, 

Honeycomb Textured Planktonic Foraminifera." Journal of Foraminiferal 

Research 12(2) (1982) :105-15. 

"Textural Observations on Some Living Species of Planktonic Fora- 

minifera." Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology No. 45. Washington, 
D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. 

Cuffy, R. ]., and Cheetham, A. H. [Abstract] "Reconstruction of Bryozoan 
Colonies from Measurements of Branch Fragments." Geological Society of 
America Abstracts with Programs, Northeastern and Southeastern Com- 
bined Section Meetings 14(1-2) (1982) :13. 

Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A. "Recent Benthic Foraminiferal Provinces on 
the Atlantic Continental Margin