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Full text of "The Southern planter"

. N 




1875 



ahr a 11 Hill library 




Sarth CEarnlma $tatr llninprsity 

SI 

S6 

v. 35 no. 5-6 1874 

v. 36 no. 2, 6-8, 10-11 1875 



This book must not be taken from 
the Library building. 



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THE SOUTHERN 

PLANTER AND FARMER, 



DEVOTED TO 



Agriculture, Horticulture and the Mining, Mechanic and Household Arts, 







-Hculture is the nursing mother of the Arts. — XENOPHON. 
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State. — Sl'LLY. 


L. 


R. 


DICKINSON, 






Editor and 


Proprietor. 


f. 


L. 


PATXE, 




i ate Editor and 


- AtiEXT. 


New Series- 


RICHMOND, VA., 


, MAY, 


1874- 


No. 5. 



The general spirit of enquiry and enterprise whieii i^ gradually 
diffusing itself among the farmers of the South, is especially gratify- 
ing to the agricultural journalists of this section. Whether this is to 
■ be attributed to the popular organization which has spread itself so 
rapidly among the farmers of the West and South., or to a conviction 
that the modes of culture hitherto practiced are unprofitable if not 
ruinous, or to the influence of the agricultural press, which has so 
earnestly advocated such a change as we now see gradually iioing on 
amongst us. or whether it is the effect of all these combined, it is alike 
gratifying to all who take a patriotic interest in 'the welfare of their 
country. In Virginia, along the lines of the railroads, we see many 
evidences of improvement. In some, indeed, in many instances emi- 
grants from the North and from Europe have purchased farms and 
put up new buildings and planted orchards and made other improve- 
ments apparent even to the most casual observer. But by far the 
greater part of the land is still held by those to the manor born, and 
it is among this class that we see so much improvement in the way of 
culture. Most Northern men especially who come amongst us. bring 
with them notions and ideas of farming imbibed in the North, where 
the soil, climate and system of labor are entirely different from that 
they meet with here. With true Yankee persistency they stick to 
these ideas, notwithstanding the repeated failure of those * who have 
preceded them, and the result, in nine cases out of ten. is disappoint- 
ment and disgust, if, indeed, financial embarrassment and even ruin 
do not follow. The natives, upon the contrary, are well acquainted with 
the soils they have to cultivate and also the cheapest and easiest mode 
of improving them, and they know, too, how -to manage the ne^ro. 



D. H. HILL LIBRARY 
it C. STATE UNIVERSITY 



THE SOUTHERN 



•who is the only laborer available, and then, too, they proceed cau- 
tiously and generally ol considerable risk, the object 
aime 

While, then, we welcome those who come among: us. and anx: 

1 immigration illy of the class who are able to 

buy our was and improve them : yet. we look mainly to the 

population for permanent, paying improvement. The intelli- 
.nd enteq>rising of oni - are now fully awake, and vr 

confident from u in the last twelve months ti. 

are on the way to an agricultural prosperity hitherto unknown 
in the most favored days of our ante-bellum experience. 

But ther g in which most even our best farmers are defi- 

cient and in which the Yankees we do not use the term in an offen- 

very far ahead of us, that - Very few 

of our best farmers hav i of culture, and fewt 

keep accounts and know what tl. em in money and 

labor. Thisifl _ need it for our- 

we may know e :e doing, and we need it for th: 

efit of r ho wish to kno^ Dther 

drawback to progress with us is the general i:. •not our farm- 

ers to in>i i the information they have attained through 

experience. The sn as or failure of ar. if published would 

serve as a guide to others, and. perhaps, insure success or, at least, 
frequently avoid di~ zood farmer has som- 

cialty with which he is particularly successful. If now he wou. 
down and write out his mode of preparation, planting, manuring and 
cultiv t particular crop and publish it to the world, it would 

certainly be of benefit to his less e ssful friends and to the farm- 
ers at large. Such contributions impart increased value and inter- 
est fee nd enable the Editor to provide a vast 
fund of information for hislhousan Is of reade - 



THE CENTRAL WATER-LINE. 



The a time a national question, the completion 

of the James River and Kanawha canal to the Ohio is a matter of vital 
dome- ginia. We believe that it would do more to 

advance the intt the agricultural classes of our State than all 

other schemes combined. Could the large surplus corn prodi; 
the West be cheaply brought to our doors - uld feed si 

enough to enrich our lands, the prairies of Illinois would soon | 
a surer, safer and more economical source of manure than the Chin- 
cha islands have been. We believe that should the government under- 
take the is line that its opening will prove the 
beginning of a new era in Virginia farming. It would cert, 
a wonderful change in the pres. y crops which we 
now cultivate from nece- an actual loss, would be disear : 
once and others more valuable substituted for them. Could we buy 
ten cent Western corn at a fair rate here to enrich the worn wheat- 
fields of V :.e Richmond mills could again supply the South 
American ports with their favorite brand of flou: - ..e tobacco 






1874.J PLANTER AND FARMER. 205 

crop, the money crop of Virginia, might be doubled if we could 
obtain a cheap and sure fertilizer by feeding stock upon our farms. 

The farmers of Virginia should, we think, bring all their influence 
to bear upon the national legislature, to ensure the completion of this 
great work. 



MIXED FARMING. 



We feel disposed again to urge upon our farmers the propriety of 
diversifying their products. The fact that wheat and tobacco have 
heretofore, and may for the future, continue to be the staple products 
of Virginia, does not make it unprofitable to cultivate other crops. 
Our own experience, and that of our friends satisfies us that there is 
not a sufficient variety of crops cultivated to insure the highest 
degree of profit. 

There are quite a number of other products equally as well adapted 
to our soil and climate, which might be raised at a profit if our peo- 
ple would only give their attention to it. We need hardly say to our 
farmers that if their lands were properly prepared, a ton of hay could 
be as cheaply raised here as at any point in the North, and that there 
is more clear profit in selling two tons of hay from an acre of land at 
$25 a ton than there is in almost any crop we can cultivate when risk, 
labor and all are calculated. The great mistake with our farmers is 
that the} r sow grass on their poor lands and take the best for cultiva- 
tion. If, upon the contrary, they would seed their best lands to clo- 
ver and grass and make the poorer parts, which would then be 
brought into cultivation, rich by the application of manure, they 
would have a crop of grass over and above what they now make upon 
their farms, and the land producing that crop would be constantly 
improving. 

To grass we might add many crops not now cultivated to any con- 
siderable extent. But most of our people know to what crops their 
lands are best adapted if they would only give the subject the though* 
and attention it deserves. 

We again urge upon our farmer friends to carefully note every 
thing of importance in the cultivation of their crops, and let the result 
of their observations, whether they be successful or not, be known 
through the columns of the agricultural press. If you have failed, 
others becoming acquainted with the cause of your failure, may avoid 
it. If you have been successful, others may follow you to success. 



THE CURRENCY 

question is one of so much interest to our farmers that we append the 
following statistics of the currency of four of the leading nations of 
the world. It was compiled by Mr. Ott, the gentlemanly Secretary of 
the Southern Fertilizing Co., and kindly furnished by him for publi- 
cation : — 

The currency proper of this country, specie payments being' suspended, is 
only the outstanding legal tender issue of §381,330,327. The national bank cir- 
culation, amounting to 1342,500,000, is only the expansion of bank credits, 



206 THE SOUTHERN [May 



bank notes, of course, having the quality of Currency, but not that of money 
which has been to a certain extent legislated into the • "legal tender. 

The following statement, compiled from data furnished by the Bureau of Sta- 
tistics, will show how its volume compares with that of some other countries : 

THE UNITED KINGDOM, (CLOSE OF 1S72.) 

Gold coin in the country £84,500,000 

Silver coin in the country lo.<« K),00 

Bronze coin in the country 1,100,000 

Bank notes, less coin reserve held against them 40.500,000 

Total active circulation £141.100,000 

Equivalent in dollars $683,000,000 

• 
FRANCE IN 1873. 

(Victor Bonnet's Estimate on coin.) 

Francs. 

Gold coin 4,000,000,000 

Sil vor.coin ■ 1,500,000,000 

Notes of Bank of France, k Dec. 26. 1873 2,807,000,000 

8,307,1 I 
Deduct coin reserve in Bank of France, Dec. 20, 1873 759,900,000 

Total active circulation 7,547,100,000 

Equivalent in dollars $1,5 8,000,000 

* GERMAN CONFEDERATION. 

Thalers. ' 

Coin circulation in 1870 630,000,000 

Coined since 1870 335,000,000 

Bank note circulation, Jan. 1. 1872 320,000,000 

1,285,000,000 

Deduct — 

Legal reserve of hanks 100,000,000 

Coin in government military chest 40,000,000 

Retired silver 167.000,000 

*• 307.000,000 

Total active circulation 978,000,000 

Equivalent in dollars 8701,000,000 

Tn this estimate the coin reserve is deducted from the current circulation. 
Applying the same rule to this country and reducing our paper money to specie 
we have the following result.— 

CTBCDTiATION OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1873. 

Legal tenders $356,000,i00> 

Fractional currency 48,500,000 

Bank notes " 342,500,000 

Coin certificates 37.500,000 

Total $784,500,000 

Deduct — • 

Depreciation of $747,000,000 of currency below par. .$81,000,000 

Specie in hanks, as reserve 18.000,000 

Legal tenders required as bank reserve 07,000,000 

190,800,000 

Active circulation $587,700,000 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 207 

Comparing the active circulation of the respective countries with their popu- 
lation, we have the following result as to the amount of currency per head :— 

Active Popular Circulation 

circulation. Hon. per capita. 

'Great Britain $ 683.000,000 32,000.000 $21 34 

France 1. 509,000,000 30.000.000 41 91 

'Germany 704.000.000 39.400,000 17 87 

United States 587,700,000 41.000, uOO 14 33 

Thus placing the circulation of the several countries on a gold basis, which is 

necessary to a true comparison, we find that the amount in this country is $14.33 

per head ; in Germany, $17.87 ; in Great Britain, $21.34, and in France, $41.91. 

Taking population into account, our circulation is about one-third that of 

,Urance, two-thirds that of the United Kingdom, and four-fifths that of Germany 

In this connection it will be interesting to look at the matter of gold and sil- 
ver in this country. The following table (U. S. Bureau of Statistics) will ex- 
hibit its movement from 1SG1 to 1873, inclusive : — ' 

Exports. Imports. Re-exports. 

1861 $ 23,799.870 $46,339,611 $ 5,991,210 

1S62 31,044,651 16,415,052 5,842,989 

1863 55,993,562 9,584,105 8,163,049 

1864. 100,473,562 13.115,612 4,922,979 

1865 64,618,124 9,810,072 3.025,102 

1866 82,643.374 10,700,092 3.400,697 

1867 54,976,196 22,070,475 5,892,176 

186S 83,745,975 14,188,368 10,038,127 

1869 '. 42,915,966 19,807,876 » 14,222,414 

1870 43,8S3,S02 26,419,79 14,271,864 

1871 84,403,359 21.270.024 14,038,629 

1S72 72,798,240 13,743,0S9 7,079,294 

1873 73,905,546 21.4S0.937 10,703,02S 



Total $815,202,227 $244,945,092 $107,591,558 



Total exports $81 5,202,227 

Add re-exports 107.591,558 

Gross total sent out of the country '. 922.793.7S5 

Deduct total brought in 244,945,092 

And we have actually parted with in the space of thirteen years. .$677,848,693 
As long as our purchases abroad are as much in excess of the value of the 
products we give in exchange, as to necessitate the shipment, to pay for this 
excess, of the amount in hard money, as shown above, or an average of $52,- 
142,207 per annum, the prospect of an early resumption of specie payments in 
this country can hardly be expected. The present annual product of gold and 
silver, in the United States and Territories, is about $62,000,000. (Report U. S. 
Treasury Dep't.) We know that the consumption for jewelry and plate is large. 
This, added to the annual export, as above, will exhibit how impossible it is 
for the precious metals to accumulate rapidly in this country ; and until this 
takes place, our paper money must continue without a hard basis. It will bo 
observed that the banks, all told, hold but $1S,000,000 coin. 

"We add a comparative statement showing the volume of bank circulation, and 
the amount per head, in the several sections of this country, in 1862 and 1873. 
It will exhibit the great disadvantage, in the general race for prosperity, under 
which the South labors, as compared with the North and West : — 



208 THE SOUTHERN [May 



Bank Circulation. Circulation 

per capita. 
1862. 1873. 2. 1S73. 

Maine. New Hampshire. Vermont, 

Massachusetts, Rhode Island and 

Connecticut 65,616,156 110,489,966 30.90 31.68 

New York. New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania^ Delaware and Maryland.... 82,372,091 124.601.393 0.97 12.82 
District of Colombia, Virginia, 

"West Virginia, North Carolina. 

South Carolina, Georgia, Florida. 

Alabama. Mississippi, Louisiana, 

Texas, Arkansas. Kentucky, 

Tennessee and Missouri ....71,098,408 38,160.3'OS 0.1-7 2.91 

Ohio. Indiana, Illinois. Michigan. 
sconsin, Iowa. Minnesota. 

Kansas. Nebraska. 19,684,564 78,785,148 7.09 

Nevada, Oregon and the Territories. 

— California never having had any 

paper circulation, does not come 

into the account 1,924,688 .... 1.82 

^bfe.—Virginia 19,817.143 3.902.342 12.41 3.18 

West Virginia . 7 5.34 

North Carolina 5,215,598 1,819,300 6.26 1.70 



NOTES FOR THE MONTH. 



With the opening; of the month the labors of planting press more 
urgently than ever upon the cultivator of the soil. Nature is clothing 
herself rapidly in her beautiful habiliments of green, and vegetable 
life everywhere assuming such a vigorous form, that we are warned if we 
wish to make a crop the seed must soon be deposited in the warm and 
genial soil. 

cor.x. 

The seeding of oats and grass should have been completed some 
weeks since in the latitude of Richmond, and a good part of the corn 
crop already in the ground by the first of this month. But it is still 
time to plant corn, and we believe that could all our planting be done 
in one day, we would as soon plant on the first day of May as any in 
the year. Twenty years experience has satisfied us that there is 
nothing gained by putting seed corn in cold ground, provided it can 
be put in immediately after the ground gets warm. Our preference 
would be to plow our land four inches deep, at least three weeks 
before planting : let it have a good heavy rain to settle it thoroughly ; 
then harrow finely, and cross-plow eight inches deep and leave it until 
ready for planting ; then harrow finely and plant immediately. Thus 
giving the land two good workings before planting. In this way many 
troublesome weeds will be gotten rid of, and the soil will be so mel- 
low that the young rootlets will easily penetrate it in every direction 
in search of food. The soil best adapted to the growth of corn is a 
deep, sandy loam, such as we find in alluvial deposits along our rivers 
and creeks. But every one cannot have this kind of soil, and we must 
substitute the best we can by making such as we have as deep, loose 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER, 209 

and rich as possible. It is the height of folly to attempt to make a 
crop of corn upon shallow, poor and ill prepared soil. The manures 
best suited to the production of corn are such as are rich in ammonia, 
phosphate and potash. Stable manure, when obtainable, will gen- 
erally give the best and most satisfactory results, but where this cannot 
be obtained, some good fertilizer combining the above ingredients 
should be applied, unless the land is rich enough to produce a good 
crop without any aid. Soon as possible, after the corn is up, the har- 
row should pass over it, and the same process again repeated in a 
week or ten days. . The surface will thus be kept fine and mellow, and 
weeds and grass destroyed. Corn may be safely harrowed until ten 
or twelve inches high ; after that, we prefer to use the cultivator, or 
coulter, though many of the best farmers still claim the old-fashion 
of hilling up the corn with a mouldboard plow is the best. We will 
not discuss the matter here, but simply say that whatever instrument 
is used, the surface should be kept clean and mellow until the corn 
begins to shoot and tassel. 

TOBACCO. 

We presume, of course, that every one who expects to raise tobacco 
has made provisions for a supply of plants ; if he has not, it is now 
too late to supply the deficiency. Presuming therefore, that the plants 
are at hand, the ground should now be thoroughly plowed and har- 
rowed until perfectly fine. If stable manure is to be used, it should 
be applied broad cast and well-raked in. In the absence of stable 
manure, some well-tested fertilizer should be applied at the rate of 
from two hundred to five hundred pounds per acre. If dnly a small 
quantity is used it is best to put it in the hill, but if a large quantity, 
then let it be sown broadcast and well-harrowed in. The land should 
then be thrown in beds, 3| feet apart, and as soon as all danger of 
severe frost is past and the plants are large enough, generally about 
the 10th of May commence planting on the ridges 3£ feet apart. In 
the cultivation of tobacco, the great object is to keep the surface 
loose and free from weeds. This can only be accomplished by the 
diligent use of the plow and hoe. We refer to several articles on the 
subject of tobacco in this number of the Planter. 

millet. 
This is a good time to sow millet for hay. The land should be nicely 
prepared, made rich and half bushel of seed sown to the acre. 

SWEET POTATOES 

Should be planted out as soon as possible now as well as all other 
tender garden and marketing crops, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, 
melons, squashes, beans, cornfield peas, &c. 



We call attention to the very favorable terms on which we are 
offering the Planter and Farmer to clubs, and urge upon our friends 
that they go to work at once and get up clubs. If each one who is 
now a subscriber would induce his neighbor to subscribe also, we 
would soon run our circulation up to 10,000. We want to make the 
Planter and Farmer the farmers' vademecum, and can do so if our 
farmers will only write out their experience and send it to us. We 
wish to have a correspondent in every neighborhood in the State. 



210 THE SOUTHERN [May 



Agricultural Department. 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer 
MOXASKON FARMERS- CLUB. 



Met at the residence of Mr. James H. Chowniug. Thursday the 5th 
of February. 

President A. L. Carter occupied the chair. 

Subject of Sh mdry was introduced by Mr. Jas. II. C'howu- 

ing, who said ; — Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Club. I think 
the subject before the Club to-day does not receive the attention among 
the farmers generally that itjshould. There isja handsome profit to be 
realized from sheep raising with judicious treatment. Nor do I know 
of any business affording so much pleasure as that of Sheep Hus- 
bandry ; but while it is pleasant, it is true that comparatively but few 
farmers understand as they should. I have been somewhat of a 
shepherd from my boyhood, and could easily tell all of my fathers 
sheep by name, (for I had a nam? for each.) 

I will give you the benefit of my experience, although it may not 
be worth much. I think the best breed for us is the Cotswold, both 
for mutton and wool ; they fatten easily and produce more fleece than 
any other of my acquaintance. I have often clipped nine pounds of 
wool from my ewes, raising at the same time one or two lambs, which 
will do pretty well for this section of country. I have no doubt that 
with good pasturage and proper treatment as much as twelve pounds 
could be gotten. The Leicester, in my opinion, will not do ; they are 
too delicate : their wool is too short to make it profitable. With the 
Merino I have no experience ; from what I have seen and read, I like 
a cross between the Cotswold and Southdown. F^very farmer ought 
to be able to tell the age of sheep. A lamb has a full set of small 
teeth in the lower jaw, and any one unacquainted with sheep might 
pronounce a lamb an old sheep. At one year old a lamb sheds two 
front teeth and two more comes in their place, and two is shed every 
year until his mouth is completed, and the teeth are large, white and 
sharp. They then gradually wear away, and when the sheep is six or 
seven years old. should be turned into mutton. 

The diseases of sheep are numerous and difficult to cure. They rarely 
ever recover from the second attack of the same disease. Many reme- 
dies have been prescribed. The best course perhaps is to be governed 
by circumstances, as no one remedy will answer for all cases. Foot 
rot, tail rot, and maggots and rottening poisonous scabs are more 
generally the complaints we have to deal with. Sheep require fre- 
quent change of pasture and salting once or twice a week, unless 
they have access to salt water, and in winter when pasturage is lean 
should be fed on turnips and small grain. I have tried sheltering at 
night, but have abandoned it, except in stormy weather. As to the 
time of lambing. I once^ was of the opinion that lambs should lie 
dropped late. Recentlv I have had cause to change my mind. In the 
first place, lambs that come early are sooner ready for market and com- 
mand a higher price. 2d. Ewes are in better condition and not so weakly 
at the time of lambing. 3d. Our winters are more favorable than spring, 
when stock of all kinds seem to suffer most. The greatest drawback 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 211 



perhaps attending the raising of sheep are the mean and worthless 
dogs that are allowed to run at large and often take to sheep-killing. 
I have not the statistics before me, but I am sure there are more dogs 
than sheep in this State. I cannot see why a tax is not imposed upon 
dogs. I am told they are not property and it would be unconstitu- 
tional to tax them. If dogs are not property, why are so many worth- 
less curs allowed to run at large ? I contend, sir, that dogs are pro- 
perty and should be subject to tax as well as other property, and would 
vote a heavy tax be put upon them and rid the State of thousands of 
useless curs. I hope the present Legislature may take the matter 
in hand. Then, and not till then, may we hope to do something in 
sheep raising. 

Mr. J. C. Towles said the subject for contemplation before the Club 
to-day, is one of great interest to every Virginia farmer. I find my sheep 
for the past year, ending July. 1873. has paid me over fifty per cent., 
clear of all expense. From the experience I have had in sheep hus- 
bandry. I have come to the following conclusion : — 1st. They make 
the quickest returns for the investment in them, being ready to eat at 
three or four months old and yieldiftg a valuable fleece of wool at one 
year old and perhaps a lamb also. 

2d. Their subsistence is cheaper than that of any other domestic 
animal, and they supply the family at all seasons of the year with a 
most wholesome and delicious meat. 

3d. An investment in them is self-sustaining and grows rapidly by 
their annual increase. 

4th. They have but one enemy, and that the dog. Our Legislature 
does not comprehend the subject. It allows the dog to run at large, un- 
restrained by law. and thereby this inestimable value is almost entirely 
lost to the State. I do assert, that it is a disgrace to any State to 
protect its curs so well that they expell to a certain extent the only 
animal which can cheapen the meat and clothing of her people. 

Mr. J. C. Euell : — There has been some contention as to whether 
dogs are property or not. It would be better to tax the dog as a nni - 
sauce, than to tax them as property ; because the most useless curs 
would only produce a few cents tax. while if they were taxed a? a 
nuisance, they might be made to yield any amount of tax the Leg- 
islature might see fit to impose upon them, and also be very beneficial 
to sheep raisers in getting rid of the number of dogs. 

Mr. A. L. Carter : — In 1869 I had two flocks of sheep, one at each 
of my farms. In 1871 I sold one of my flocks : the other has gradually 
increased. Last year my sheep averaged 6f lbs. of wool in shearing 
in general. I cut the coarse and dirty wool off and kept it to itself, 
not allowing it to become mixed with the better quality of wool, as it 
will injure the sale of it. From 1869 to the present time my lambs 
have increased 25 per cent, each year. The lambs and wool have paid 
the value of the old sheep. 

Mr. TV". T. Sneed : — Much has been said by the Club about sheep, 
but no one as yet has said anything about wintering them. My ex- 
perience teaches me for the past few years there is great economy in 
housing sheep in winter. Then you can attend to the lambs when 
they drop. Before housing my sheep, I frequently lost lambs during 
stormy weather, many of them perishing in the cold, but since I have 
kept them housed bad weather and nights, I have not lost one. No 



212 THE SOUTHERN [May 

animal delights more in a good, dry warm bed. And I am sure it will 
pay. As there are so many worthless curs running about at large, it 
will be a protection to herd them with the cattle, as this will keep the 
dogs off. ~^, 

The following resolutions were unanimously adopted by the Club : 
"Whereas, the raising of sheep has been ascertained by practical 
experience to be the most profitable source of revenue to the farmers 
of this section of country, and whereas, there is but one serious im- 
pediment to the increase of profits therefrom and its more general 
extension viz. : the depredations thereupon by worthless dogs, there- 
fore, be it 

Resolved, By this Club, that the Legislature of this State be and is 
hereby petitioned to impose a tax of not less than one dollar i)er 
head on dogs, and to enact such laws as in their wisdom would best 
protect their interest in sheep husbandry. 

Vice-President. Jno. A. Rogers, offered the following resolution : — 
Viz. : that we invite the farmers of the State, all the Agricultural 
Clubs and the Press of the State, to unite with us in this petition. 
Subject for discussion at the n»xt meeting : "Immigration." 
Club then adjourned to meet the 1st Thursday in March, at the res- 
idence of J. C. Towles. J. C. Towle.s, Cor. Secretary. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.J 
FARMERS' CLUB OF KING GEORGE. 

The 17th meeting of the Farmers' Club of King George was held 
at Farley Vale. January 26th. 1874. 

There was a full attendance of members, and Mr. Mortimer Rogers, 
of Baltimore, was a visitor. 

The annexed report on "Cedar Grove" was presented and ordered 
to be inserted in the minutes and printed. 

Mr. Fielding Lewis reported that he had los.t recently twenty-one 
sheep, killed by dogs in four nights. lie killed the curs. 

Mr. Smith has lost in the same way fifteen or sixteen lambs. Mr. 
"Win. R. Taylor lost two lambs and others were maime 1. 

It was resolved, that the farming interest of Virginia demands the 
protection of sheep from the depredation of dogs, and that our Sen- 
ator and Delegate be requested to endeavor to obtain legislation to 
guard this great interest of the State. 

Resolved, That this Club co-operates cheerfully "with the Monaskon 
Club, of Lancaster county, and requests our Senator and Delegate to 
exert themselves to obtain such legislation as to require owners to 
restrain their stock from depredating upon the lands of others. 

The 'Cultivation of Potatoes'' being the subject, several members 
expressed their opinions. 

Mr. Cawood thinks the white Peachblow the best potato. It proved 
far superior to the Peerless. 

Mr. Dickinson's white Peachblow was hollow in the heart. It was 
agreed that all large potatoes are liable to be hollow. 

Dr. Ashton said, that his crop had proven one-third larger by run- 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 213 



ning the shovel plow after the earth had been thrown to the hill by 
mold-board plow. He planted very deep. 

Mr. Dickinson would guard against the use of unfermented manure. 

Mr. H. B. Lewis said, that the smallest quantity of salt destroyed 
the vitality of the seed. It ought never to be put in a bag which has 
had salt in it. 

The President read a long and "interesting extract from Compton's 
"Prize Essays on the Cultivation of the Potato." 

The subject for consideration at the next meeting is. "What means 
of co-operation among fanners shall best promote their interests." 

Edw. T. Tayloe, Secretary. 

The plantation of Farley Vale is under the skillful management of 
Major J. D. Rogers. It has improved very much. The wheat looks 
very promising and a dressing of plaster will ensure fine clover upon 
the last year's wheat-field. The Major is nearly ready to plant corn. 

Our wheat crops are very promising. Many peach buds were killed 
by recent freezes. It is hoped that those in bloom not open will 
escape. 

The committee appointed to inspect the Cedar Grove plantation, 
report that they regard it unnecessary to enter into details, as a com- 
prehensive report was made to the Club a twelve months ago. It was 
evident that this fine plantation is in an improving state, recovering 
rapidly from 'its neglect during the war. 

The wheat crop was the best seen by any of the Club. It excited 
the surprise and admiration of all. Sown with the drill, and one 
hundred pounds per acre of four kinds of fertilizers applied to differ- 
ent portions of the field. The crop seemed equally good in all its 
parts. It is rare to see any so uniform as this was. The Fultz wheat 
was the variety sown. The winter has been verj- favorable for its 
growth, and if no disaster befall it, there is ever}' prospect of a heavy 
yield of wheat. 

Dr. Stuart had made good progress in plowing for the corn crop. 
In this respect our farmers have generally been active, availing them- 
selves diligently of the mild and open winter, — one unusually favor- 
able for farm work. 

"We had the most satisfactory evidence of the excellence of the 
Doctor's flock of sheep in the saddle of mutton exhibited on his table. 
It was taken from the flock, — not stall-fed — and in size, fatness and 
flavor, it could not, in the opinion of your committee, be surpassed by 
any from the Piedmont section of Virginia. Sheep are a profitable 
stock in King George county, and if the numerous vile curs which 
prey on so many flocks and deter fanners from raising sheep in larger 
numbers, could be exterminated, or not allowed to go at large, they 
would be a source of large emolument, increasing the comfort and 
purses of the people. If our legislators would do their duty, they 
might, by legislation, increase largely the number of sheep in our 
State, enrich our lands, eradicate the weeds and briers, and, at the 
same time, contribute to the educational fund and extend the useful- 
ness of our schools. 

Upon this plantation, we were shown the inutility of efforts to drain 
the pocosens which abound in tide-water, Virginia. Doctor Stuart 
pointed to an extensive marsh, which his father had drained at great 



214 THE SOUTHERN [May 



expense. In the earliest volumes of the American Farmer, Mr. 
Stuart gives in detail his successful effort at draining this land — or 
rather, this water. The result was, that he made one fine crop of corn 
and raised some coarse, heavy tobacco on a part of this reclaimed 
marsh. In a year or so, the soil settled so low that the banished 
waters returned, and have never again been exiled. Such has been 
the fate of like attempts on the James and Rappahannock rivers. 

To illustrate the energy and practical skill of even our elderly 
farmers at this day, we are bound to notice an excellent gate, made 
of thin plank and riveted with bolts and screws, the work of the Doc- 
tor's own hands. We commend it as an example to others, who 
oblige us in passing through their farms, to alight to open a pole gate, 
dragging on the ground, and perhaps sustained by one inferior hinge. 
This may fit some of our Club, whom we advise to mend their ways 
and gates, or. at least, remove the nuisance. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Edw, T. Tayloe, Chairman, 
Wm. Taylor Smith, 
jxo. p. robb. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
TsEST USE FOR STRATT— CULTIVATION OF HAY, &c. 



Mr. Editor, 

All observant, intelligent farmers admit the benefit derived from 
the use of straw or other roughness, as a covering or protection to 
any growing crop. If converted into manure in the stable or barn- 
yard, it covers but a small space, compared with what it would do if 
used direct from the stack. Then the labor to haul the wheat to the 
barn and the manure back, half of it water, and to a remote part of 
the farm, is no small expenditure of time and capital. To thrash the 
crop near where the straw ought to be used, and to apply it to the 
land as soon as convenient after seeding, is the plan adopted for sev- 
eral years by Col. D. S. Bell of this county, one of our best farmers. 
His farm is a dark slate, rolling, and some of it steep. The improve- 
ment in eighteen years, since he bought it, is very great. Besides 
large crops of corn and wheat, he has for a number of years made 
hay a specialty. Last year he sold 150 tons of baled hay, and fed to 
sheep he fattened, and to his other stock, perhaps, 75 to 100 tons. 
He made 112 bus. of nice clover seed. Except his work horses and 
oxen and a few milch cows, he keeps no other stock. His wheat and 
grass fields are top-dressed with straw, as far as it will go, and on the 
thinnest and northern exposures. After mowing no stock runs on the 
land to eat off the aftermath, as the English call the second crop. His 
average yield of hay I have no doubt will reach three tons per acre. 
He sold it at 75 cts per hundred at home, an average of $45 per acre. 
His wheat and corn crops are equal to any of his neighbors. On the 
4th Monday in May last, riding through his farm, he called my atten- 
tion to a piece of clover at a quarter of a mile in distance, and asked 
me if I observed anything peculiar about it. I remarked it had a dark 
luxuriant appearance as though it would fall down. He said "it was 



1874] PLANTER AND FARMER. 215 

one of the thinnest spots in the field, and last fall he nad straw spread 
thickly over it. In March a year ago, we had an intensely cold spell, 
the mercury falling below 0. In a few days the ground thawed six to 
eight inches in depth, followed by a heavy rain with wind, thunder 
and lightning. The ground being loose, the rain penetrated to the 
depth of the thaw, and not sinking deeper, ran off carrying the soil, 
and in wheat fields particularly, made gullies where the ground was 
steep, to the depth of six to eight inches. I had several acres in this 
condition. As soon as the ground was dry enough, I had the washed 
places covered plentifully with straw. Little wheat could be seen. 
On the 10th of April I sowed clover and timothy seed, one-third of 
the latter to two-thirds of clover. ' At harvest the most luxuriant 
wheat in the field was on the part spread with straw, and after harvest a 
neighbor begged me to permit him to cut the grass for hay." 

I was not aware until lately that a friend and acquaintance on James 
River is a worthy competitor of Col. Bells in the cultivation of hay. 
Some weeks ago I met with a communication, I think in the Whig, 
giving the figures, and regret I can't produce it to render to this gen- 
tleman the credit due to him' in so praiseworthy a success as he has 
achieved in raising hay. I have reference to Col. Henry Gantt 
near Scottsville. IS ever having seen his farm, I can only describe it 
as consisting in part of James River low-grounds, and the table and 
rolling uplands adjoining. 

Many of your readers have not forgotten the late Richard Sampson, 
who made his impress on the Agriculture of Virginia, as scarcely any^ 
one man has been able to do in one generation. So successful was 
he that he demonstrated it as beyond contradiction, that every bale 
of hay brought to Richmond, from any point north of tlie Potomac, 
ought to cause a blush to suffuse the cheek of the James River, or 
Appomattox, or Staunton River farmer. Col. Gantt has proved 
himself to be a worthy pupil of the venerable Sampson. He is not 
only making the culture of grass highly remunerative, but is rapidly 
adding to the fertility of his land. I have had no communication with 
him on the subject, but know that in the past he was successful in 
tobacco culture, yet I venture the assertion if he was to give his expe- 
rience, he would say that hay is more remunerative. Tobacco is not 
only the most troublesome and expensive crop to raise, and besides 
being exhaustive, the farmer waits nearly eighteen months before he can 
realize the proceeds of the crop. In the cultivation of hay, he can 
often put it in market in from six to nine months. It is due to the 
farmers of Virginia, that these gentlemen, who are in this regard 
representative men, should give them, through the medium of your 
journal, their experience and the mode of cultivation in detail, each, 
perhaps being best adapted to the part of the State in which he lives. 
If greater profits can be realized at less cost than in raising tobacco 
and wheat and the lands at the same time increasing in fertility, 
many will be disposed to adopt it. • * 

See for a moment the immense advantage Col Gantt has over Col. 
Bell in the question of transportation, not only in sending his hay to 
market,but in carrying back from your city ashes,street-sweepings, oyster 
shells and much else in the shape of fertilizers, at a tithe of the cost 
that the Chesapeake and Ohio and most of the railroads in Virginia 
charge on hay. It amounts almost to prohibition to the farmer 50 to 



216 THE SOUTHERN 

100 miles in the interior when he seeks a market for hay. "Tis one of 
the most difficult things to compress — and the railroads •: 
bulk. The farmer near the canal can find his own boat, something in 
the shape of a flat, on which large quantities of hay in bales can be 
piled, covered with a Tarpaulin, and carried safely to market cheaper 
than the Maine and New York farmers can put it into Richmond. 
The farmer in the interior, if induced to build his own car. must make 
it a I o. •■ : a flat will expose the I ;rks from the engine. 

apart from the relative eherr, r over rail, the boat can be 

built and run cheaper and safer than the car. It can be demonstrated 
beyond the possibility of a contradiction, that the lands on the Rap- 
pahannock, York. James. Appomattox and Staunton. w hay 
more profitably than any other crop, and find a market in Richmond, 
Norfolk and Baltimore, at prices fully as remunerative as the corn, 
wheat or tobacco now grown on the same lands, and with this marked 
difference in its favor of a constant improvement in the land. Water 
transportation can be availed of to put most of it in market. Permit 
this suggestion. The Grange is spreading rapidly th: g Virginia, 
and is constituted of the most intelligent and public-spirited cL 
our farmers. — always of those at least who make up the farmers 
clubs. May we not hope that all questions of the relative advan- 
tages of crops, mode of cultivation, the most economical plan of put- 
ting them in market. &c, &c, will constitute subjects of discussion 
in them, and greater benefit be derived by the many than n 
comparatively few who make up the clubs I 

Respectfullv. 

J.'M. McCi 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

PROTECTIVE LEGISLATION AGAINST FRAUDS IN FER- 
TILIZERS. 



Once more I must crave the indulgence of the Editor and re 
of the Planter and Farmer, for a few more last words on this 
important subject : which I had thought finally to disi th the 

brief and general remarks, by which I so -how. in your Feb- 

ruary number, the existence of a grave abuse, and the n- 
some legal remedy. 

I would have it understood that I don't believe in writing, as Dr. 
Johnson used to say "he talked for victory." — certainly not in a: 
cultural journal, which should find no place for fringes? em 
Nothing but the hope of some good result could tempt me to cope 
with such odds ; and I am sure the Editor is animated by the same 
spirit, and widely as he differs with me as to the question at issue. 
agrees in desiring the fullest discussion of all imp 
the present, there is no hope of securing that end. to which, in the 
interest of all Virginia, my efforts have been sincerely, though feebly 
directed. The movement has received its quietus, for th 
at the hands of the accredited organs of the farmers themselves : — 
"slain in the house of its friends." But. whatever of immediate 
interest the subject may have lost, is but adjourned to the ne\ 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 217 



sion of the Legislature. By that time the conservative public opinion 
of our people (the safe guard of the Commonwealth) will have taken 
the one step needed in advance. Indeed, I am pretty confident it has 
already done so. while "the leaders,"' as usual, are bringing up the 
rear. One word more, and that by way of apology, as to the impor- 
tance of the subject. 

The utilization of the waste and garbage of towns as fertilizers, is 
the opening of a mine richer in real wealth than all the treasure of 
California. It means *two blades of grass where one grew before, 
goklen harvests from barren fields, deep-laden ships, crowded marts, — 
in a word, new life infused into every interest of our sorely-burthened 
community. Indeed it is the nearest conceivable realization of the 
creation of something out of nothing. 

Such will be the result of the success of this grand experiment. 
So far, however, let us bear in mind it is but an experiment, depend- 
ing for success on patient, vigilant, judicious labor. Much remains 
to be learned as to the preparation, yet more as to the application of 
fertilizers. The great question is. can we make it certainly pay ? The 
slenderest margin of profit or loss can alone, and must determine, 
whether this great discovery shall bring us prosperity or ruin. 

The cost to the producer, the value to the consumer, are to be 
determined and adjusted. The latter condition, alone of the great 
problem belongs to the farmer. The agricultural value of fertilizers 
is to be determined — obviously by experiment ; by a long series of 
experiments. 

So far, the friends and opponents of protective legislation move on 
harmoniously together. But, at the very next step, their paths 
diverge. The Editor, the committee of the Farmers' Council, and 
perhaps many others, are content to make the brand of the packages 
the basis of their experiments on fertilizers ; others placing no reli- 
ance in a name which rarely has any pretentions to significance pre- 
fer to trust to a statement of the active constituents, made by the 
manufacturer, and verified by chemical analysis. 

As to the trust-worthiness of analysis, I can form no original opin- 
ion. I respect that of the Editor; but, it is not supported by the 
eminent authority he adduces. The sum of Dr. Voeleker's testimony 
(please refer to it) is simply, that calculations based on a comparison 
of analysis with valuation tables frequently convey wrong impressions. 
But the Committee of the Farmers' Council and the Editor, interpret 
Dr. Voeleker's testimony to mean that the value of a manure cannot 
be inferred with certainty from a knowledge of its constituents. But 
this clearly implies that the constituents may be known by anatysis. 
The S3'stem of valuation fails to stand the test of experiment. But 
experiment could afford no test, were the analysis worthless or defec- 
tive. * 

The Editor proceeds to infer from Dr. Voeleker's testimony ruin- 
ous results to all concerned, from the impossibility of compliance, on 
the part of manufacturers, with a law requiring them to maintain, in 
their preparations, a uniform standard of quality or value. 

Dr. Voeleker expressly declares the reverse. It is, comparatively 
speaking, easy to prepare a manure, say at £8 a ton, the calculated 
value of which amounts to the same sum." 

This seems to %ie, a strange oversight on the part of the Editor ; 



218 THE SOUTHERN [May 



yet. concurring with him, as to the supreme value of experience, 
it appears to me still raor ng. that he should have over looked 

the fact, that the law of which he makes such a bugbear to Virginia, 
with great benefits to the consumer, has never cane . :est 

inconvenience to the honest manufacturer in any country or State in 
which i: •■•:; its. Let the reader take Connecticut for example, and 
investigate its manufacture of fertili 

si to the farmers to call them 'willing victims of irrespon- 
sible agents/' The farmers are -ap hum- 
bugs described, and when they buy them, buy of that class of high- 
minded, reliable men whom the Editor recommends. The Rosunda 
(or Redonda) guano, the greatest sell ever put upon this community, 
emanated from some of the first houses in Richmond. They, too, 
probably were deceived. If sk em now make common cause 
with the farmers in the prevention of such occurrences in future. 

"High character' and "unimpeachable honesty," will not serve 
instead of law. They are the mask of all the villainy in this evil 
world. "L .tended not to trust to what men will do, but to 

guard against what they may do." 

The Editor refers the farmers for relief, to experience, to competi- 
tion, and to the future work of the Grange- 1 - two former have 
been sufficiently tried, and we feel the result in the existing state of 
thir. _ - 

I: : he Granges, as the agents of the "farmers in this collective 
ould do anything to "detect and punish" frauds of this 
kind, they must do it through lannels of legislation/* 

for it is thus, the Editor assures us. they i "audible 

ends. Should they depart from this mode ure and attempt 

I supercede the regular operation of the laws, the remedy might lead 
to disordv than the 

The farmers have in the Legislature and Executive Power of the 
State a more efft -han any voluntary organization, and if 

they do not obtain from it all that they ought to have the heir 

C WBL. 

The Editor again alludes to this subject in complimenting, very 
justly, the experiment of ml But I cannot agree with him 

in thinking that the publ: I such experiments will superc 

the necessity of legislation. In the circulars of various dealers in 
fertilizers hundreds of experiments are laid b cultural 

public, just as authentic and just ac . as to the superiority 

of certain manures, as the experiment of Mr. Hobi - differs 

only in being unusually exact, and all information has 

i only'to perplex and i 

Four years ago I could have reported an experiment attesting the 
- . :.- 'A Pacific to Peruvian Guano as a wheat manure, but for 
the fact that a small quantity of genuine Peruvian, saved from the 
Spring purchase and applied near the othe 1 the worth. 

- - of the other Peruvian and the great inferi : : - one to G 

of the Pacific. 

phosphate applied by Mr. Hobson may have been exceptionally 

good article sent out to advertise a worthless one. Such things are 
done. Above all, after testing the value of the phosphate for one 
season, no one can fc hat it will be the next. • It is idle to talk 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 219 

of the character of the proprietors. They would do a poor business 
were their sales limited to personal acquaintances, and the most 
extended experience of the quality of their manures would afford no 
guarantee for the future. 

The reputation of Rhodes" Super-phosphate was well earned, and 
enabled the proprietor to realize a fortune b} T degrading the standard. 

Your "Reviewer," who seems to have become, like myself, a fixture of 
the establishment, demands " Why does not the writer tell us what 
fertilizers to use, or give us some of the details of a law to be passed?" 
&c. Should I advise my sick friend — sinking fast — to call in the doc- 
tor forthwith, what would be thought of him if he insisted that /should 
prescribe for him before he would act on my advice ? I see and feel 
the soil ; I believe it is not without a remedy ; but should I presume to 
dictate to the " assembled wisdom of Virginia l M This law-making is 
a business which calls for much varied information and some little 
experience. 

Laws cannot be run up by plain and square like masonry ; if you 
would have them live they must grow by gradual accretions of strength, 
striking deep root ere it spreads abroad its protecting branches, and 
yielding fruit at last only as the recompense of patient, judicious culture, 
and in the beginning some humble husbandman must prepare the soil. 
Above all, it must be borne in mind that no law can be thoroughly 
effective without the sanction of public opinion. For such reasons 
too much should not be attempted at first. To fix by law the price of 
anything, even money, is arbitrary and unwise. Nor is there any 
necessity for a legal standard of value in fertilizers. But the adultera- 
tion of fertilizers with worthless materials is a fit subject of legisla- 
tion, and there can be no doubt that, if carried to any extent, if can 
be detected by analysis. But the great object should be to secure 
uniformity of quality in every package of fertilizers under the same 
brands, and that year after year, so long as the brand shall be main- 
tained. By such means, aud by no other, can both farmers and manu- 
facturers learn, through experience, how to make, buy and apply arti- 
ficial fertilizers. 

An experiment made with unknown materials is an experiment 
only in name. There should be no restriction on the manufacturer as 
to price or quality, but the latter should be maintained unchanged. A 
sample of every manure offered for sale in the State shouldbe sub- 
mitted by its proprietor to the State Chemists for analysis, the analy- 
sis to be published and to be attached to each package. Then, from 
time to time, the chemist should make and publish other analyses of 
samples of the same fertilizers, taken from different sources, in a 
manner prescribed by law ; and, as to the authority of analysis 
again, would it not be easy to make out as strong a case against 
experiment ? Take the most familiar experiment — say one in plant- 
ing potatoes or plowing, and see how very often the results are con- 
tradictory ; yet we dont discredit experiment, if it be true that the 
same manures, not in name only, but in fact, submitted by the same 
chemist to the same tests, affords essentially different results at dif- 
ferent times, there is an end of this plan at once. But such is not 
the general testimony of chemists. 

The Planter and Farmer has published a good deal of testimony 
to the salutary operation of such laws as I have indicated above, 
2 



220 .THE SOUTHERN [May 

based on the reliability of analysis, some of which I procured nryself. 
I see no reason why we cannot do in Virginia what has been done in 
England, Germany, and Connecticut ; nor do I see why this most con- 
clusive evidence of the practicability of legislative protection should 
be ignored by its opponents. Such a law, so far from injuring the 
manufacturers, would make an experiment like that reported by Mr. 
Hobson so conclusive as to be the means of selling hundreds of tons. 
I am startled when I look baclc at the length of this paper, but can 
abridge it only by omitting the introduction which contains my apology 
for attempting to write at all. T. P. L. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

ON THE PROPER METHOD OF PRESENTING PHOSPHATIC 
MATERIALS TO THE SOIL. 



In the Rural New Yorker there appeared, some months since, an 
article of which the following contains the substauce : 

" As a modification of the opinion which has generally prevailed, 
that phosphatic materials, such as bones, guano, rock phosphates and 
apatite, requires to be treated with sulphuric acid, to be dissolved, as 
the term is, or made into super-phosphate before they are quite avail- 
able as fertilizers, the view is now taken by some experts that the 
soluble phosphoric acid of a superphosphate, as soon as it is applied 
to the soil, is taken up by the lime, alumina, magnesia or iron, which 
is found therein ; and that neutral salts are formed, so that there is 
found only phosphate of lime, alumina or magnesia, the only differ- 
ence from its condition before the action of the dissolving agent being 
the finely divided state of its particles. It follows that this condi- 
tion, if produced in any other way and at less expense, is a desirable 
object." The writer then goes on to say that this may be accomplished 
by grinding, but that as yet no mill has been found that would reduce to 
extreme fineness over six or seven tons per day. 

Now, if any cheap mechanical contrivance could be made to per- 
form a work as effective as sulphuric acid, in making insoluble phos- 
phatic materials readily available for plant food, it would result in 
great gain to the farming community. The matter, being backed by 
respectable names, was deemed worthy of inquiry ; and it was accord- 
ingly brought to the attention of, perhaps, the greatest agricultural 
authority in the world, (now that Baron"Liebig is died) Dr. Voklcker, 
chemist' of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. It was 
believed that, with his exhaustive knowledge in this behalf, he could 
give a decisive answer. The following communication from him to 
the Southern Fertilizing Company, of this city, contains this answer. 
It is certainly very clear : 

Analytical Laboratory, ~) 
11 Salisbury Square, V 
London, Dec. 1, 1873. ) 
Mr. John Ott, Secretary, &c. 

Dear Sir : — It is quite true that the soluble phosphoric acid of a 
super-phosphate, as soon as it is applied to the soil, is precipitated 
and rendered insoluble by the lime, magnesia, oxide of iron 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 221 



. and other basic soil constituents, and I go a step further, and 
maintain that unless the soil, to which a super-phosphate is applied, 
contains naturally sufficient proportions of basic constituents, in 
order to precipitate and neutralize rapidly the acid soluble phosphate 
of a super-phosphate, the super-phosphate may do more harm than good 
on such soils. 

I have repeatedly found that on peaty soils, abounding in mimic 
and similar organic acids, and showing an acid reaction when tested 
with blue litmus paper, and also on poor, purely sandy soils, the 
worst super-phosphates, that is to say, super-phosphate poor in solu- 
ble phosphoric acid, have a decidedly better effect upon the crops to 
which they are applied, than super-phosphate rich in soluble phos- 
phoric acid. The latter, under these circumstauces, indeed, sometimes 
do positive mischief. 

For all that, the business of treating raw phosphatic mineral 
materials with acid will not be revolutionized in a hurry : quite the 
contrary, it will grow as steadily in your country, and become more 
extensive from year to year, as it has in England and other countries of 
Europe. 

It does by no means follow that, because on some soils, a phos- 
phatic marl, or what amounts to the same thing, finely ground phos- 
phatic minerals, applied to the land in large quantities, is a more 
desirable dressing than a few hundred weights of a rich super-phos- 
phate, it is a bad plan to treat mineral phosphates with acid. 
Nor does it follow, from the fact that soluble phosphoric acid must 
again be rendered insoluble in the soil before it can benefit vege- 
tation, that it is more advisable, as a rule, to use mineral phosphates 
in a finely ground state than to use them in the shape of super-phos- 
phate. 

However fine a mineral phosphate may be ground, it can never 
be obtained in anything like the state of minute division in which the 
phosphate is deposited in the soil, if it is applied to the land in the 
shape of superphosphate. It is the deposition in a chemically divided 
or precipitated state, in the soil itself, which constitutes the value, and 
I believe the true economy, of treating mineral phosphates by acid. 
By this means one hundred weight of phosphate of lime is made to 
do the work of at least ten times the quantity of phosphate merely 
ground into a fine powder. 

The soil may be compared with cloth that has been prepared with 
a mordaunt, for the purpose of fixing throughout its substance the 
coloring matter which is applied to it in a state of solution, and which, 
by the alumina, or whatever the active constituents of the mordaunt 
may be, is precipitated uniformly and in a most minutely divided 
state in the substance of the cloth. Cloth may be dyed by applying 
to it an insoluble coloring matter, but in this case it cannot be dyed 
so effectually as it is when it is first impregnated with a mordaunt 
(that is, a substance which precipitates soluble coloring matter) and 
subsequently drawn through a solution of the coloring matter. In 
the one case, the coloring matter is mechanically deposited on those 
parts of the cloth with which it comes into contact ; in the other, it is 
obtained in a chemically divided state in all parts of the substance 
with which the solution comes into contact, and thus a comparatively 
speaking small quantity of coloring matter will effectually dye cloth. 



222 THE SOUTHERN [May 



when the coloring matter can be applied to it in solution, or be depos- , 
ited in the substance of the inordaunted cloth. 

We do not want soluble colors in cloth, for they are indeed as objec- 
tionable then as soluble phosphoric or any other acid in a cultivated 
soil : but what we want, and do affect in chemical dyeing and in the 
chemical treatment of phosphatic minerals, is to make the best and 
most economical use of the raw materials, which in the Arts, as in 
Agriculture, have to do a certain work. Believe me, 
Yours faithfully, 
Augustus Voelckee. 

Afl cumulative testimony in the same direction, the following 
extract from a communication, under date of the 11th January last, 
to the same company, by M. YiLLE,of the Imperial Farm, at Vincennes, 
France, (another authority of the highest order) is presented : 

u In calcareous soils the superiority of the super-phosphates is well 
established, and it is a general rule that a small quantity of it pro- 
duces a greater effect, or at least as great an effect, as a much larger 
quantity of natural phosphate. In the great majority of soils the 
super-phosphate of lime is the one which combines the best : but in 
•damp and marshy soils the precipitated phosphate is preferable." 

Hereafter we propose to present some late investigations on the 
same subject, made by Prof. Johnson, of Yale College author of 
■* How Crops Feed" and '• How Crops Grow"). The length of this 
article prevents it njw. 

It is our desire to make this journal thoroughly useful to our peo- 
ple, and we will spare no pains to secure information that will work 
to this end. If our State prospers, it must be through the intelli- 
gent use of the means placed at our command, and that this may be 
done the more effectually, we must avail ourselves of the good coun- 
sel of those who are able to advise. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

MESSRS. T. a. ERHARD AND MANY OTHERS FROM THE 
NORTH. NORTHWEST. SOUTH AND SOUTHWEST. 



De ir Sirs : — Your favors received, mostly in February, asking if Vir- 
ginia is the desirable country you had seen it represented by my 
articles in the A Farmer, of Baltimore, and the Planter and 

Fabmee. of Richmond, Virginia, why are our people so in debt, our 
lands so dilapidated, our crops so short, and some who have settled 
among us have done so badly 1 These inquiries are so numerous, I 
cannot, in my feeble and crippled condition, undertake to answer them 
separately, but will endeavor to do so the best I can through both of 
those good papers in which you read my other articles, with which 
you seem pleased, fondly hoping you may be more pleased with this, 
my humble defence of Virginia, my own native land. I would have 
replied sooner but for my hand being severely injured by a fall from 
my horse, and for some time could not write at all, and now write in 
much pain, for I am now no chicken, being over sixty-three years 
old, and- very badly worn at that. Yet I will now try honestly and 
fairly to give you the desired information, so when you come to exam- 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 223 

ine and see for yourselves you may have confidence in whatever I tell 
you. I have traveled over seventeen of the States of America. I 
have owned and worked lands in Virginia and in Alabama, and 
decidedly prefer Old Virginia to any State I have ever yet seen. 
Take into consideration the soil, water, climate, health and warm- 
hearted people. I have never seen older nor healthier, and more pros- 
perous and generous people any where than I have well known in 
Albemarle county, Virginia, and before our late unfortunate war, 
there breathed not on this globe a more generous, warm-hearted, pros- 
perous people than we of Albemarle county were. But, believing we 
were right, we went into that wicked and ruinous conflict with all of 
our heart and soul, body and mind, and we did in every respect all we 
could, fairly to secure our success, entirely forgetting our homes, our 
debts and oiirselves, up to the surrender of our great and good Chris- 
tian Chief, General Robt. E. Lee, whom we all adored with a fervid 
heat, not less than that adoration which so characterized the Ameri- 
can people for the God-sent Father of our country. 

When General Lee surrendered, he did it like a great and good man, 
(as he most truly was) fairly and honestly, and at once as the tender- 
hearted father of us all generously set the good example of strictly 
attending to his own private business. And we, like devoted children, 
endeavored to follow him in his pure private example, as we did in his 
brilliant career, through our late unfortunate conflict. Such a good 
example, so strict and closely followed, is not recorded in all history, 
sacred or profane, from good old Adam the first, to General Robt. E. 
Lee the first. At once every gallant soldier and civilian (and they were 
nearly all truly gallant) quietly laid down their war-worn weapons, 
disrobed themselves of their tattered martini cloaks, and like their 
own truly Christian Chief, retired in peace to look after their own 
private matters, if perchance any could be found in the great and 
general wreck in which we all alike were so ruinously involved. Many, 
ah, too many thousands of these war-worn gallants, after days and 
weeks of wearied travel and hunger, with the rugged roads and 
rocks well marked, as was the snow and ice of Trenton by the travel sore 
feet, of the unshod veterans of our revolution with Great Britain, on 
reaching the heights over-looking the spot where once stood their 
sweet and happy homes, paused to. catch the first glimpse of the 
house and } T ard endeared by childhood's fondest memory. All, all was 
gone, and not a vestige left to tell where it once so beautifully stood 
(but the charred chimnies) with its doors ever open, wide open to wel- 
come under its hospitable roof, the wearied and oppressed from any and 
every clime. There they too often thu3 stood sad and pale, with their 
proud and gallant spirits droopiug over the sad reality ; a home nor a 
country remains not to them ; there they lingeringly paused and 
moaningly strained every power of their quick perceptive eyes to 
catch, if catch they could, sight of any, even the least article to 
memory so dear in the wreck and ruin before them. The dew of a night's 
long-wearied travel to enjoy the first cheering ra} r of the rising sun on 
the happy home of their childhood, and the comfortable shelter of 
their feeble and aged parents, was thickly mingling with the clammy 
sweat oozing fnga every pore, and oft gathering so thickly on their 
heavy brows haa to be wiped away by their brawny hands, to see, if 
possible, was there not some little left of the much of beauty and 



224 THE SOUTHERN [May 



comfort they had left there. But ah, too often not a remnant remained, 
and many a gallant, beardless, war-worn, armless soldier, at twilight's 
reflecting hour, after days and nights of wearied travel, in hunger and 
mud. reached the endeared spot where his sweet home once was, found 
it all thus robed in the dark and saddening pall of total ruin. Thus 
like unto Campbell, poor Exile of Erin, the dew on their thin robes 
hauging heavy and chilled, for their country they sighed, when at 
twilight repairing to wander all alone over the wind-beaten hills. A 
; country nor a home remains not to them. My dearest of mothers, 
my fond father, my sweet little innocent sisters too, did ye perish in 
its flames, or now homeless wanderers weeping for its fall? 

The civilian, after the first shock of hearing our own General Lee, 
with his sadly thinned ranks of Young Guards, had surrendered man- 
fully, turned, and quietly in sadness, slowly approached their once 
happy homes, and cautiously broke the sad news to those they so 
fondly loved, and the best they could, prepare them all to meet and bear 
their ruined condition. All, all resolved, and all, all did, most scru- 
puously follow the good example of their beloved leader into retire- 
ment to examine their own private affairs. 

Not a cannon nor rifle, or a pistol was fired — all was quiet as the 
tomb — peacefully and fondly hoping for the best. Then came on the 
military authorities, here a squad and there a squad, thickly dotting all 
over our whole country, too often commanded by some bumb-proof 
officer, who had no more judgment, brains, nor feelings than a Florida 
alligator, and in the wake of these, came thick and fast squad after 
squad of the contemptible carpet baggers, along whose plundering 
route was too often sadly to be seen a vile scallawag sneaking into 
their ranks, to help plunder their fellow-citizens of the little left them 
by four long years of bloody war and wicked strife. Such times as 
we of the South then did see and feel, I fondly trust in God no other 
civilized people ever endured before, and I fervently pray God none 
may ever be thus doomed again. These vile menials of power, who 
never dared meet a Southerner in battle array, did in every way all 
they could to rob, wrong and insult us all. Helpless old women and 
children often not spared, and feeble old men often under false pre- 
tence, uselessly dragged from their homes. And the gallant war- 
worn soldier in his tattered gra}^, the only suit he had on earth, most 
rudely halted on the streets to be trimmed of the few brass buttons 
remaining. Great God ! I often wondered, could this great country 
over which the stars and stripes had so long so gloriously waved, thus 
stoop to such childish insults ; or was it the mere whims of these 
ungallant scamps to show off their brief authority. And yet, not a 
row, not one single disturbance. Not because they were afraid. No, 
no, — not so ; for I have seen the muscle of the proud and gallant sol- 
dier swell, and his unflinching eyes look so keenly and contemptuously 
on the contemptible operator, until his trembling knees, like old Bel- 
shazzar's, would shake him to the miserable falsehood, of begging not 
to be blamed for what he could not help. They quietly submitted for 
the sake of peace and their helpless country's good, which oft times 
required more cool, deliberate christian courage than that they so well 
displayed on the heights of Gettysburg. 

Then came on the convention of jack asses of every hue and color. 
Then the stay law ; the bankrupt law, and the homestead. All of 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER, 225 



which most sadly worsted us all, — our labor lost to us, and demoral- 
ized to themselves and every body else ; and by the miserable selfish 
plundering carpet bagger decoyed into politics for their own advance- 
ment, and the ruin of both us and our former faithful slaves. 

Thus were we rudely dealt with when called upon to settle up old 
accounts with interest. What an awful looming up ; how awfully big 
and unwieldy these once little things had so wondrousiy grown. 

Now, under such circumstances and in such a deplorable condition, 
can you, gentlemen, be at all surprised at many of us becoming wildly 
excited and ruinously dejected, when all hopes seemed perfectly pros- 
trated, every prospect blasted, and confidence in all and every thing 
totally destroyed, and crowd after crowd madly rushing headlong into 
law, and thus uselessly tugging at each other, feelings became 
embittered, of which some of the old grannies at the law far on the 
wane of a living practice, and the youngsters too easily beguiled one 
after another to wickedly enter the list for plunder by a ruinous com- 
promise, rather than a more ruinous defence of their well-known 
rights where not a shadow of doubt existed, and the innocent oft 
were compelled to pay ruinous fees to establish their rights, and too 
often the victor at the expensive and uncertain game at law to his 
sorrow found the little which could be collected had been so liberally 
divided between his counsel, the clerks and sheriff, there was oft no 
alternative left him, but in sack cloth and ashes sorrowingly to walk 
side by side with him he had so lately conquered at the law, into the 
chilly embrace of bankruptcy. These are, my dear sirs, I think the 
true reasons of our great indebtedness. 

And now for the dilapidated appearance of our country, our short 
crops and the failure of some who have located in our midst. During 
the war our lands were sadly neglected and most severely strained to 
sustain the immense armies bitterly contesting every inch of our soil, 
which, of course, prevented our using much of the good lands in Vir- 
ginia. At the close of the war we found ourselves minus all of our 
slaves, with a very scant supply of well-worn implements, and feeble 
teams, often none at all, all nearly, without provisions, and too many 
entirely without, little or no money to refurnish these absolute 
necessaries, and all of every thing in such a confused condition we all 
became sadly dejected. For the wisest could not imagine what the 
next would be, or when, where or how a yet greater calamity might 
befall us. 

Now, my dear sirs, can you, or any other sane fellow-being,be at all 
surprised under such a deplorable state of affairs, that even we Vir- 
ginians became sad and desponding, and really lost our energies for 
which we once were so justly renowned. And yet under all of these 
sad afflictions, we perhaps unfortunately too zealously hugged with 
tender filial affection to our dear old homesteads and its broad acres, 
prefering rather to part with every thing else, and even risk all, under 
the oft delusive hope by an extra effort, fine seasons and great good 
luck, we might save our lands, and thus we freely bit at every delu- 
sive bait thrown to us. Humanity oft induced us to hire too freely 
our faithful old slaves, and we bought liberally of labor-saving imple- 
ments, of which neither we nor our labor knew anything, and our 
labor too oft induced wilfully to destroy for the benefit of their own 
craft, as the skeletons now to be seen in so many of our fields well- 



226 THE SOUTHERN [May 

testifies ; then three or four of the most unpropitious seasons we have 
ever known, and then to top the climax far above them all, came the 
kind-hearted vendor of what they called manures, which to too many 
of us were any thing else, and for which they got their millions of our 
hard-earned dollars, and we got little or nothing in crops, money or 
improvements of our lands. Thus for the appearance of our country 
and our crops. 

Now for the failure of some who have located in our midst. Most 
of these, I think, had made their money during and out of the war, 
and came here as mere adventurers, with but little more monev than 
brains, feeble judgments and perfectly ignorant of every thing about 
farming, stock or implements : a mere set of swell-headed braggado- 
cios smoking large cigars, drinking freely of strong drinks and splut- 
tering about how they whipped us. Failing to meet their engagements, 
or to be received in our families, they left unregretted by any, unless 
by those they failed to pay. 

Now, my dear sirs, is there any where to be found on God's favored 
domains one spot on which such a set could hope to succeed I They 
are gone back to defame, if they can, our people and our lands, of 
which they know just about as much as you or I know of what con- 
diments they will use in the moon. A good many most worthy citi- 
zens from the Northern and Western and Southern States, and from old 
England and Germany, have located in our county, and have proved 
to be exactly the sort we are in so much need of. They are of that 
class which would be most warmly welcomed by all good men every- 
where. We would so gladly welcome with out stretched arms and 
open hands many, many thousands like unto them. And I rejoice to 
say, most of them are so well pleased with our people and county 
that they and we fondly hope this summer and next fall a groat many 
of their friends will follow them up and pitch their tents among us in 
this, our most favored land, where all, who will, can so surely well 
succeed. 

I was introduced to a most intelligent gentleman from the North, 
who made a large purchase in our county a year ago, and last fall 
made another large purchase, in all amounting to some fifty -five or 
sixty thousand dollars in land. I said to him, I hoped he was pleased 
with our county and its people. He very warmly replied, I am more 
than pleased with both, and all are equally pleased with him. Some 
of these are doing as well as they could hope to do any where. Most 
of them doing well. A few good fellows made too heavy a purchase, 
leaving no capital for carrying on the farm, and to their sorrow, find it 
as necessary to have cash to farm here, as I believe it is every where 
else. A few Englishmen clubbed together and purchased two adjoin- 
ing farms at twenty-five thousand dollars each, only paying ten thou- 
sand cash, bought recklessly heavy of stock, crops, farming imple- 
ments, manure and grass seeds ; hired very heavily at extravagantly 
ruinous wages ; began heavy improvements on the faith of much 
money coming from England. As yet none has reached their creditors . 
They had a very fine crop of corn. Hired freedmen to gather it, 
while they were otherwise sporting. After it was in the crib, the 
freedmen called for pay. They said our country made a great show 
in the field, but woefully small in the crib. Sold out on one field of 
stalks, fodder and shucks, cut up and stacked in the field. They got 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 227 



between 27 and $30, from which I learn the purchaser got sixty bar- 
rels of corn, left there, no doubt, by their hirelings for their winter 
rations. These have left, no doubt, to abuse us and our country. 

A Northern gentleman, with about $2,000 in cash, made a large pur- 
chase of poor land at seventeen dollars per acre, paid the $2,000, leav- 
ing no money in hand to work the farm for the deferred payments, 
tugged on for several years, then wisely gave up the land, and lost 
his $2000. Now if he had purchased 200 acres of better land at five 
dollars per acre, which he could have done, and paid the $1000, got 
his deed of title, worked it judiciously with his re maining $1000, 
he would now be the happy, thriving owner of his own snug and thrifty 
home. 

Another bought at $30 per acre, because of its large and handsome 
house and buildings. He now wishes his investment had been made 
in better land and less of buildings. Another set with very limited 
means, or none at all, made a large purchase and were never able to 
repair the outside fence. Never paid a dollar, had to give up, and 
have gone no doubt to abuse us and our lands. 

Now is it fair to judge us and our country by such an indiscreet set 
as these? For we have in Albemarle county, Virginia, as strong kind 
productive lands, as pure water aud delightful climate as any reason- 
able man should desire, or can find any where, and for the cash, are 
as cheap as can be had any where. Take irrto consideration our 
churches, schools, railroads, canalai markets our people, and those 
who confine themselves within their means and work judiciously, are 
now doing as well as any people any where. Such are better off now in 
my own neighborhood than they were before the war. 

It is the large unwieldly estates which have to be kept up by too 
much hired labor that are not doing so well. They must be cut up 
into smaller farms, or pass int 3 other hands. 

I have explained, I hope satisfactorily, and now extend for myself, 
and for every true Virginian, an earnest heart-felt invitation to come 
see and judge for yourselves, and help us to divide out our lands to 
the mutual benefit of all and the rebuiding of our dear old Virginia. 

Yours truly, 

Geo. C. Gilmer, 
Charlottsville. Va. 



[For the Southern Planter and Fanner. J 
DEEP vs. SHALLOW PLOWING. 

An article in the American Agriculturist for January, from the pen 
of Col. Waring, among other very sensible observations on farming in 
general, referring more particularly to his recent European observa- 
tions and the opportunity there afforded for testing the value of dif- 
ferent modes of cultivation, he says of the oft and much mooted 
question of deep or shallow plowing : 

" In view of this I applied myself during my recent trip to the 
obtaining of light on the much vexed question of deep plowing, one 
which has always had a prominent place with our writers, and about 
which no definite early conclusion seems probable. It has certainly 



226 THE SOUTHERN [May 

not been less talked about and written about and quarrelled about in 
England. When agricultural writing first commenced there it once 
took a prominent position, and the columns of the British agricultu- 
ral journals are to this day more taken up with it than with any other 
topic on which opinions differ widely. Arguments on both sides are 
plenty — on either side, viewed by themselves, they seem convincing 
— and it is at least difficult to decide which has the best of the dis- 
cussion. In practice, the deep plowers find comparatively few adher- 
ents, for there as well as here it is the almost universal custom to 
plow only to the depth of about six inches. Personally, I have always 
sided with the deeper faction, and I am not now disposed entirely to 
abandon their position. At the same time, the more I investigate the 
matter the less am I inclined to urge the adoption of their recom- 
mendations. There is much force in the statement of a recent 
English writer that if by deep plowing you convert the upturned sub- 
soil (by the aid of manure) into a surface soil, you by covering up the 
surface soil convert it into a subsoil, and place its greater fertility 
beyond the reach of the developing action of the atmosphere and thus 
lose its effect. On the other hand, there is no getting around the fact 
that gardeners and nurserymen have great faith in the efficiency of 
"trenching," a process whereby the surface soil is completely buried 
beneath the upturned subsoil. In their cases, however, the quantity 
of manure used is much greater than is possible in the larger opera- 
tions of the farm. % 

In this matter it would certainly be safer to advise that all attempts 
at deep plowing be very carefully made. Many instances can be 
cited where it has been decidedly injurious. Ogden Farm offers one 
of a serious character, where nearly ten acres of land was so far 
injured by turning up a few inches of poor cold clay that five years' 
time and expenditure of manure and labor to the value of more than 
the original cost of the land have been insufficient to make good the 
damage. Perhaps corresponding cases of benefit may be adduced, 
though I know of none that appeals so strongly to my judgment. 

After considering the question on all sides, what should be our 
practical recommendation I It seems especially clear to me after a 
careful examination of the farming of some of the best parts of 
Europe. It is certainly true that, taken as a whole, the best European 
agriculture, like the best American agriculture, does not depend on 
deep plowing. The men who succeed the best, there as well as here, 
are generally shallow plowers rather than deep plowers. Many of 
them no doubt believe, theoretically, that deeper plowing would be 
better ; but whatever their theory may be, their practice is to confine 
the turning of the soil to the first five or six inches, and to keep their 
manure near the surface. The only thing of general value that has 
been proved about the question after all these years of argument is 
that it has two sides to it, and I do not hesitate to recommend my 
readers to be very cautious how they enter into the discussion with 
their own plowshares. Stud}', investigate and theorize as much as 
you like, but be very slow to abandon a custom that is known to be 
successful for one that is of uncertain promise. I do not myself 
desert the deep plowing party, but, on the other hand, I do not recom- 
mend its teachings for general and immediate adoption. In many 
cases it will do good, but first trials should in all cases be made on a 



1S74.J ^PLANTER AND FARMER. 22a 

yery limited scale, for on many soils it does great harm. There are- 
channels enough open for the introduction of improved processes 
which will pay without question, and the laudable energy of enthusi- 
astic men need never lack for an object. It is the safest plan to stick 
to the best customs of the best farmers, until they fail to satisfy, and 
then to amend or alter them only as careful experiments shall prove 
the change to be a good one. The truth is that we know by far too- 
little of the how and the why of vegetable growth to decide on the 
value of any improvement in advance of its actual trial. The way 
in which agricultural writers have been forced to abandon their recom- 
mendation for the immediate plowing under of stable manure, and to- 
content themselves with finding out the reason why the opposite cus- 
tom of farmers (to spread manure on the surface and leave it there) was 
better, is too fresh in mind for any prudent man to insist that deep, 
plowing is to be or ought to be the universal panacea of agriculture, 
while he can count on his fingers the really successful farmers who 
have adopted it, or, who having once adopted it, have found it worth 
their while to keep it up. Of course, the expense of deep plowing 
has had much influence in retarding its spread, but the expense is or 
itself no argument against it, and it has not been taken up where (as 
on the larger farms of England) mere expense is no argument against 
any process that is sure to pa}-." 

Col. Waring is one of the most practical of all the advocates of 
high farming, now writing for the agricultural press of the country. 
Evidently a man of considerable attainments, he has applied himself 
earnestly to agriculture, and every thing he writes indicates close 
observation and patient investigation. 

The subject here treated of is of very much interest to the South- 
ern farmer. It is true that at present there is very little of what 
might be styled deep plowing done in this section. But it is so often 
urged upon the farmer that he can never succeed unless he stirs 
his soil to the depth of ten or twelve inches, that we may consider it 
a great relief to find that six inches has proven in the majority of cases 
the best depth to plow. 

But there is another side still to the question, and one which we 
have all along advocated, (i.e.) the use of the subsoil plow, which will 
give us all the advantages of deep plowing, so far as depth of seed 
bed is concerned, and comes with it none of the disadvantages fol- 
lowing the bringing to the surface a crude and unproductive subsoil. 
We are still more with the light of Col. Waring's European experi- 
ence, the advocate of deep stirring of the soil without, however*, 
investina: it. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
AGRICULTURE. 



The subject of most interest to three-fourths of the whole popula- 
tion, and requiring as good judgment in its operations as most kinds 
of manufacturing and mercantile pursuits. And after all the efforts 
to prosper, failure attends a large portion of agriculturists. But no 
such word as failure should stop the industrious farmer. Early and 



230 



THE SOUTHERN 



[[May 



iate, through all seasons his plans should be thoroughly carried out. 
Ben Franklin is reported to have said ''that tilling the soil was the 
only honest calling, and if judiciously pursued, success was guaran- 
teed." 

"Without going to this extent, the intelligent farmer will prosper in 
the end, provided his land improves visibly every year : and this is 
only accomplished by replacing more elements of fertility than is sub- 
tracted by the crops. To do this by the use of fertilizers, a large out- 
lay of money is required. It is reported that ten millions of dollars 
.-are annually spent in commercial fertilizers in the Southern States. 
Were this amount, or at the least three-fourths of it spent in perma- 
nent fertilizers, each succeeding year, would find the soil improved 
and more means in hand to continue enriching the land. But as in 
the past, so at the present day, not one-fifth of this large amount 
of money is spent to improve the soil, but only to make a crop. 

Suppose one field in every five be given to a pea fallow, and another 
to clover, to stand two years, the remaining two fields to be devoted 
to other crops, the result would be far different from the usual rota- 
tion. Seldom having either clover or peas as a fallow. 

If the old system continues, what will be the gain permanently ? 
If a farmer makes nothing by only eight bushels of wheat or sixteen 
bushels of corn to the acre, of what use is it to go through the forms 
of carrying on a farm with all its harrassing care?, when you know 
the result with a great degree of certainty before-hani I 

It is very easy for reviewer to say that manure, ashes and lime will 
improve the soil. No one doubts this truth ; but a slight reference to 
the facts will illustrate my views. By barn-yard manure, the process 
is a slow one. Two horses make about fifty cart loads of manure in 
twelve months — about enough for one acre of land. Any one can 
calculate how long it would take to improve one or two hun lre.1 acres 
of land. Instead of this let every farmer put in ten a?res of bla 
or yellow peas, for each horse on the farm, and the results would be 
visible. By reference to a table published a year or t*vo since, with 
some modifications — the whole subject is better illustrated. 

Crop. Value. Cost. dun to soil. Loss to the Lossfotht 

soil. 

Cora, 16 bus. $0 00 $12.00 Bperct. 62.40 

Wheat, 8 " 16.00 8 " " 2.40 

Gats, 12 •• 10.00 G.OO 1<J " '• Gain 4.00 

Fea*. 16 " 16.00 8.00 Soperct " 8.00 

•Clover, 1 ton 16.00 4.00 25 " " " 12.00 

If half the peas and clover are removed then the land is yet a 
gainer. 

Good farmers estimate a heavy fallow to contain 100 tons of vege- 
table matter to the acre, or a ton of clover (which is a small fallow), 
to be as valuable as a ton of ordinary manure. If one crop of peas 
does not answer to produce a good stand of clover, continue a second 
crop. When the soil becomes sufficiently fertile to produce clover, 
by all means put in the land and keep it for two or three years. The 
old saying attributed to the Germans is strictly true — ••no grass no 
stock, no stock no manure, no manure no farm.'' 

By the use of green manures with plaster and lime the sand hills of 
Eastern Virginia can be restored, and it becomes every farmer to 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 2gj 

make greater sacrifices to accomplish this object than in making a 
temporary crop by high priced fertilizers. It is cheaper, it is quicker 
— it is more certain — and inoi'e easily done than by the use of chemi- 
cal manures. Every one who has spent years of time and a large- 
amount of money knows these statements to be sadly true to the 
letter. 

As to the use of ashes, (either oak or hickory) every body uses all 
he can obtain, but no one can make more than twenty bushels during 
a winter for each fire-place. This quantity is too small as a fertilizer 
for a farm. Town lots and gardens can be benefited, but the only 
way to improve a farm in the quickest way with the least amount of 
time and money is by fallows of peas and clover. 

Another suggestion may not be inappropriate. In a few years the 
cost of transportation of grain from the West may be greatly reduced 
by the enlargement of the Erie and James River Canals, and by sim- 
ilar enterprises through other States. Should this be done wheat may 
be reduced to $1.40 per bushel and corn to fifty cents. In that event 
can the Virginia farmer afford to raise these staples at all, and if not> 
what crops can be substituted 1 In less than ten years this may be. 
a serious matter to look in the face, and it may then be too late to 
commence improving the soil, when prices are below the cost of mak- 
ing these crops. C. R C. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.1 

Mr. Editor : — In the communication sent you some clays since on- 
" Straw as a Manure, the Cultivation of Hay, &c," there were some 
omissions I would supply if they will reach you in time for your 
next number when the article referred to will appear. 

It is of the greatest importance in the preparation of ha}' for mar- 
ket, that it should be done with the greatest care. First, it must be- 
the pnre timothy, free from all admixture of meadow grass, spear 
grass or any other kind of grass not even clover. Then the fastidi- 
ous dealers talk as knowingly about the delicate shade it must bear 
when properly cured, as the tobacco men do in discussing the shade 
and qualities of the high priced wrappers that oftimes command such 
extravagant figures. All observant farmers know how difficult it is to- 
raise pure timothy hay without an admixture of other grasses. I had 
supposed it easier in Eastern Virginia, or on the bottom lands of 
James River, than in the Valley, but in a conversation with Dr. 
Walker, the intelligent and public-spirited farmer at Dover, son-in-law 
and successor of the late Richard Sampson in the management of 
that fine estate, he informes me that it is very difficult if not impos- 
sible to preserve their meadow grounds clean. He is one of the 
largest and most successful hay-raisers in Virginia, yet alleges that 
our Valley lands would produce two tons per acre, whilst their best 
lands will produce little more than one. He referred to the change 
in Ricnmond since the war, in the manner of marketing hay, that 
operates to the serious inconvenience and always to the loss of farmer?. 
Formerly the hay was unloaded from the boats and put in store. 
Now the merchant refuses to receive it in store. Often it is sent on 
flats by the canal covered with tarpaulin, if covered at all, and 'n SO 



232 THE SOUTHERN [May 

• 
insecure a way, in the event of rain, that it must be injured. Let the 
boat arrive in the dock say Thursday evening, and Friday is an incle- 
ment day. nothing is done towards a sale. Saturday is always a busy 
day, the commission merchant alleges he can't get buyers together, 
■or if so, they contend it does not possess the delicate shade referred 
to. or has gotten wet. or some other pretext staves off the sale until 
Monday or later : the boatman then makes his charge in proportion to 
the time the hay is on his boat, and some one of the many pretexts 
for cheapening the price is used as a lever to cut down the farmer, 
who is bled at every pore, and by all sorts of unreasonable and dis- 
honest pretexts. Is it at all strange. Mr. Editor, that with this sort 
of experience in the past, he is willing to rush with open arms into 
the organization of the "Patrons of Husbandry*" as a relief to some 
of the ills, not that flesh but his purse is heir to ? Permit me before 
closing to extend to you as a "Patron" my thanks not only for the 
very able address my esteemed friend, Maj. Gaines, as chairman of 
the committee, published on the "Patrons of Husbandry,'' but also for 
the pithy, sensible, forcible editorial from your own pen on the "Duty of 
the Hour," in the April number of the Planter. Heaven speed the 
hour, when the farmer, who has in the past been -a hewer of wood and 
drawer of water" for other classes of society, may reap the reward of 
his own labor, instead of being fleeced at every turn as is now the 
case. Respectfully yours, 

J. M. McC'rE. 



(For the Southern Planter and Fanner.] 
TOBACCO. 



Much has been said and written on tobacco. It has been more 
praised and more abused than any other article, and has been more 
widely cultivated and used than any other single product not neces- 
sary to support life. It is a narcotic stimulant, it soothes and calms 
the weary husbandman, the tempest tossed mariner, the soldier in the 
field, the peasant and the prince, and is safer and more reliable than 
wine or ardent spirits to drive dull care away. Wherever civilization 
has carried her graceful steps tobacco has followed, and semi-civilized 
and savage nations have cultivate 1 and used it. Though considered a 
luxury, if is now so widely diffused and so firmly established, as to be 
considered like tea and coffee a necessity. The federal government 
has imposed a tax on it. wh : ch in Virginia alone yields a larger reve- 
nue than the whole of the New England States pay. 

While it can be produced in some quantity and quality all over the 
civilized world, it is only in the Piedmont region of Virginia, North 
Carolina and a portion of Maryland that it is made in perfection for 
chewing. Climates more North and more South produce good smok- 
ing tobacco which is destitute of body, strength and oil. and is, on 
that account, preferred. Our climate and soil are peculiarly adapted 
-to raising tobacco of the finest and best quality, and no part of the 
world can successfully compete with us, if we bestow the necessary 
labor and pains to produce it. Our more Southern "States have a 
'juo.$> monopoly of cotton as we have of tobacco. We can raise cot 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 233 

ton, but we cannot compete with the cotton belt ; we can raise grain, 
but we cannot compete with the Western States, and tobacco must be 
our staple for market and for money, and we cannot glut the market 
with a No. 1 article, for the demand will keep up if it does not exceed 
the supply. 

I will therefore make a few remarks on the cultivation and manage- 
ment of the tobacco crop, which, while it may not benefit experts, 
will give some ideas to novitiates. 

It is all important, in the first place, to raise strong and early plants. 
The beds may be prepared at any time from 15th November to 15th 
March, but the best time is from 15th November to 25th December. 
Then the ground is in good order, seldom frozen or too wet, and it 
will require much less wood and labor to burn. I am inclined to 
thiuk that a great deal of wood and labor have been needlessly 
wasted in burning plant beds. Good and early plants can be made 
by raking off the leaves in the woods, where. the soil is rich 
and moist, and reducing it to a tine tilth, adding hog's hair, hen- 
house manure, or stable manure if you have it clear ot grass seed, 
as when corn-todder and grain only is led in the stables. A heap- 
ing tablespoonlul of seed should be fowd to each 100 square 
yards, and soon after the plants begin to come up, half the quan- 
tity should be sown on the same beds, — the first sowing should be 
done as 60011 as the beds are prepared. During the growth of the 
, plants they should be frequently manured with hen-house manure, 
ashes, plaster, tobacco dust or any rich manure clear of grass 
seeds, and if unfortunately grass and weeds should infest the 
beds, they should be carefully picked out. If you will cover an 
old bed with leaves or straw so as to smother all vegetation, the 
same bed may be used successfully for many years without the 
necessity of burning. To make good tobacco the land should be 
rich or well-manured, for which purpose there is nothing equal to 
stable manure. I have succeeded very well by covering the thin 
land with wheat-straw or leaves from the woods, fallowing it in 
during the fall, or as early as practicable; then in the spring, 
before planting time, giving a top dressing of stable manure, not 
heavy, because few have enough to go over once the quantity of land 
they cultivate in tobacco All kinds of domestic manures, com- 
posts, farm pen manures, dunghill scrapings, ashes, lime and 
plaster may be used to supplement the stable manure, but carry 
that over as large a space as you can. If you want to spend two 
dollars to make one, save trouble and buy commercial fertilizers, 
and apply them. 

After your land is manured refallow, harrow and get the soil 
fine and light, to be ready to plant as soon as the plants are large 
and strong enough to live when transplanted. Bottom land not 
subject to freshets or sobbing makes the very best tobacco, and 
seldom needs much manure. 

Some plant in drills, but I prefer hilling, which can be done 
rapidly, if properly prepared for it. The rows should be 3^ feet 
apart, and hills 3 feet in the r«ws. After planting, as soon as any 
grass or weeds come up, commence working the ground and repeat 
it often, so as never to let the grass get a start. As soon as the 
tobacco gets large enough to top, commence by priming off the 



234 THE SOUTHERN [May 

boltom leaves up to five inches and leave ten leaves during the 
month of July, then to 15th August leave nine, then to 15th Sep- 
tember leave eight, after that time do not prime any, but take out 
the burl, leaving as much as is likely to make leaves of good size, to 
be put when stripped with the lugs. They will increase the good 
appearance and value of the Ings. Meanwhile the worms and 
suckers should be taken off at least once a week or oftener. Sav- 
ing the priming leaves wiil hardly pay for the labor. If they and 
the suckers are left on the ground they enrich it and help to make 
a good crop of wheat, which rarely fails on tobacco land, and a 
stand of grass is almost certain. 

As soon as the tobacco is ripe, cut it, but not before, except 
when positively threatened by frost, for green tobacco is better 
than none. The cuttings should be repeated in good seasons, 
v. As far as you can, put all of each cutting together or in 
the same house. There is apt to be a shade of difference in the 
color and quality and curing, which will increase with every cut- 
ting. When cut in hot weather, it should be picked up very soon 
and secured from the direct rays of the sun, which is apt to burn 
it and set a green color in it. It should be handled carefully, 
avoiding bruising or breaking it, and if you have a sufficiency of 
house room, hang it in the house without crowding on the sticks 
or tiers. It should be examined every day, and if it sweats or the 
stems become rigged or mouldy, build small charcoal fires under it, 
just enough to warm it moderately and yellow it, and gradually 
it, thus curing it sound and sweet. It you cannot get char- 
coal, a little dry seasoned old-field pine wood may be substituted 
for the same purpose carefully and moderately. It has very little 
smoke or scent, and answers the intention next, to charcoal. After 
oacco is thoroughly cured, stems included, you may take it 
down in pliant order and strip it, tieing it in small neat bundles 
with leaves of the same length and color. 

In assorting, four kinds should be made, the long, heavy dark 
or brown, the bright of good s : ze. the short and the lugs. If high 
in order it should never lie in bulk long, except in 'the coldest 
weather. It should be hung up in the Bi of moderate damp 

weather, and thoroughly dried and taken down in good order in a 
warm spell in February or March. It may then lie in bulk until 
the weather becomes uniformly warm in May or June. Then it 
should be re-assorted, straightened and classed, putting all sep- 
arately of the same lengths and colors together, and all the very 
or inferior with the lugs. It is highly impoitant to prize 
each c-isss to itself, so as to make each hogshead as uniform in 
color and quality as possible. This plan will pay a large 
profit for the labor. This, however, is difficu't for small planters 
who have half a dozen sorts and only one, two or three packages. 

t'ome have been accused ol nesting, and justly so in a few 

instances, but mauy do it unavoidably or from ignorance, putting 

in the same package every kind they have until they put all in, 

and the buyers generally pay the value of the worst part they see 

a '.:s~ comes to the unwary. Planters must be educated 

ught What is expected of them in the market, and it will pay 

to an observing man to visit the market and see for himself 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 235 



when he sells his crop, and not leave his interests, his years' labor 
too much in the hands of a middleman. 

To the industrious and skilled planter, there is yet promise and 
hope — he will succeed if he will but use his opportunities wisely. 
"Seest tbou a man diligent in his business, he shall stand before 
kings, he shall not stand before mean men." — Solomon. 

W. A. G. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
Editor Southern Planter and Farmer : 

On the 27th of May 1870, I selected a portion of the border in my 
garden, of uniform fertility and equal advantages, had it well broken 
and leveled nicely, and with a trowel made four trenches four feet 
apart, one, two, three and four inches deep, and in each I dropped 
eighty-five cotton seed in a straight line one inch apart and covered 
acourately. 

At sunrise, June 1st, I noticed the seed in the first row, one inch 
deep, had cracked the surface the whole line, and in the afternoon (71) 
seventy-one seed unfolded above ground — shed seed caps above 
ground. The plants looked very vigorous. 

June 2d — Noticed that the seed in second row had cracked the sur- 
face, in one place and on the 3d of June twenty-four (24) seed unfold- 
ed above ground ; failed to crack the whole line ; shed seed caps 
above ground near the surface ; plants looked less vigorous than those 
of the 1st row. 

June 5th — Noticed that twelve (12) seed unfolded above ground in 
the 3d row ; failed to crack the surface and shed seed caps below the 
surface ; plants looked less vigorous than either of the first or second 
rows. 

June 6th — Noticed that three (3) seed unfolded above ground ; 
shed caps below surface ; plants resembling those of the third row. 

RECAPITULATION. 

71 up. 71-85 

24 " 24-85 

12 " 12-85 

3 " 3-85 

Total up 110 Total planted 340 

The maturity and growth in favor of the shallow planting. 

From this experiment I am convinced that to secure a good stand 
of cotton it is only necessary to plant very shallow, half inch if pos- 
sible, and only one seed to the inch in straight line. 

Very Respectfully, 

W. L. Faison. 



1st Row, 


1 inch deep. 


June 1st. 


2d " 


2 " " 


" 3d. 


3d " 


3 " " 


" 5th. 


4th " 


4 u k 


" Gth. 



Lord Bacon on Gardening. — God Almighty first planted a garden, 
and indeed it is the purest of all human pleasures. It is the greatest 
refreshment to the spirits of man, without which buildings and pal- 
aces are but gross handiworks, and a man shall ever see that when 
ages grow to civility and elegance, men come to build stately sooner 
than to garden finely, as if gardening were the greater perfection. 
S 



236 THE SOUTHERN [May 

Horticultural Department. 

MANURING TREES AND VINES. 

It has been a favorite method with most writers on the subject 
to manure trees and vines in the fall. Most of them recommend 
spreading manure over the roots at the beginning of winter and 
working it into the ground in the spring. This is, perhaps, good 
advice where manure is plenty and cheap, but we should never 
think of following it if manure was an object. Much of the fer- 
tilizing properties of the manure would of necessity be washed 
out, some into the ground and some, alas, away upon the surface 
to adjoining lands or roads. It would be far preferable to apply 
the manure upon the freshly worked surface in the spring, mixing 
it with the top soil by using the hand-rake or harrow. The spring 
rains would dissolve it and carry it down to the roots just as they 
needed it for vigorous early spring growth, and they would thus 
have supplied. to them, at the very time it was most needed, the 
food necessary to perfect the fruit and form wood for bearing 
another year. Peter Henderson, in " Gardening for Profit," gives 
a case exactly in point. In manuring an asparagus bed with 
super-phosphate, he put on part of the bed in the fall and being 
interrupted did not dress the remainder until spring. The same 
amount was used on each plot, if we remember aright, and yet 
that dressed in the fall showed no perceptible increase from the 
dressing, while that dressed in the spring nearly doubled in size 
and quantity of product. The most palpable benefit we have ever 
witnessed fell under our observation last year upon a peach orchard 
set in April. Super-phosphate was sown in June at the rate of 
about one pint per tree, worked into the surface around the trees. 
The trees thus treated made double the growth made by those not 
dressed — two rows, 32 trees being left to test the value of the fer- 
tilizer. The fertilizer used was Powhatan Raw-bone and the test 
was eminently satisfactory. 

Kamit is an excellent fertilizer for peach trees and grape vines, 
and we believe it would pay very well to use it at the rate of 400 lbs. 
per acre. Stable manure is of course the best of all upon poor 
land, but there are many places where the use of commercial fertili- 
zers would be cheaper and more satisfactory in their results. Our 
own experience, extending through nearly twenty years, convinces 
us that about 100 lbs., mixed nicely with the surface soil in the 
spring, will give better results than twice that amount applied to 
the surface in the fall. 

After writing the above we found the following from Thomas 
Meehan, published in the Weekly Press. We need not say that we 
consider Mr. Meehan the very highest authority upon this subject: 

"People often argue whether it is better to manure trees in the 
fall or in the spring, but we think that any one who tries it will 
find that the summer is as good a time as any. 

It is only a few years ago that it has been discovered that plants 
are like animals in this — that they, while appearing to be expend- 
ing their daily nourishment on continuous growth, are really at 



18 74. J PLANTER AND FARMER, 237 



the same time laying up food for to-morrow. Those who have 
examined vegetable cellular structure with a microscope, tell us 
that the formation is exactly like that of a honeycomb, the cells 
lying together of a hexagonal shape, as it made by bees. But it 
proves that this structure is more like the illustration than those 
that used it suspected, in this — that as in the honey-comb, honey 
is stored up for use at a further time, so matter is stored up in 
these little plant cells tor the future use of the plant. There are 
in almost all plants two growths during the season. The first 
growth is formed almost wholly from the matter stored up in the 
cells of the previous year. After midsummer, especially in the 
apple tree, the whole of the force derived from the past year is 
expended, and it stores up a little for a new growth, which is soon 
after made. As the season progresses, the latter or secondary 
growth also in turn lays up some matter in its cells, for the next 
season, as the past season has done. 

Trees always like fresh food as well as animals ; and thus it is 
with this explanation, that one can readily understand how it is 
that a top-dressing of good marure put under the trees soon after 
midsummer, when the second growth is about to take place, pro- 
duces the marked good results we have before recorded." 



RAISING LIMA BEANS. 



ihis is a favorable vegetable with many, and yet the trouble of 
raising them deters persons from attempting to do so. The ground 
selected should be such as will produce a good crop of corn. — 
L ,- ght loamy land is best and if heavily manured for some crop 
the previous year it will be better than to apply fresh manure 
directly to the crop. Break the land well in April and lay off the 
rows five feet apart, passing at least twice in a row to make the 
furrow deep and clean as possible. Take an iron bar, or if you 
have none a wooden stob will do, and make holes in the bottom of 
the furrow for the sticks. These should be set four feet apart and 
at least seven feet long, as they will be sixteen inches in the 
ground. Set the sticks firmly 1 in the holes and leave every thing 
in this condition until planting time, which will be as soon after 
the 1st of May, as the weather gets settled and warm. When 
ready to plant, take a plow and throw two furrows on each side to 
the poles and plant from seven to ten beans around each. If the 
ground is inclined to bake, it will somewhat facilitate their com- 
ing up, it the beans are placed in the earth with the eye down. 
"When all are fairly up, thin to' three in a bill; cultivate well and 
keep the vines up to the poles and when they reach the top pinch 
out the end bud and keep them down to that height. It is best to 
set aside a few hills for seed and take no beans from them. The 
remainder should be picked as fast as they get in condition to eat, 
as they will bear a great many more than if permitted to ripen 
the first crop. 



THE SOUTHERN [May 



Stock Department, 

WHAT STOCK WILL SUIT US BEST ? 

In answering the above question, which comes to us irom a 
valaed correspondent, there is a great variety of possible cir- 
cumstances to be considered. In the first place, much depends 
upon the quality and condition of land, the amount ot capital at 
hand to be invested in stock, and the available form to take care 
and provide feed, &c, ior the stock. But we do not propose to 
return a special answer to the query, but to g ; ve some general 
thoughts upon the subject applicable to the condition ot the land 
and land owners of Eastern Virginia and North Carolina. 

It is generally conceded that the raising of horses, mules and 
hogs beyond a sufficiency tor home supply cannot prove profitable 
here, except in a lew favored localities, and our choice in the 
selection ot stock is between sheep and cattle. 

It is a question of interest to know at the start the relative 
amount of feed necessary for the keeping of these animals. Fre- 
quent experiments have established the fact that it requires about 
three per cent, of the live weight of either of these animals, of 
good hay or its equivalent per day to keep them in good condition. 
Assuming the average weight ot our cattle to be 700 lbs. aud of 
the sheep 66 lbs., it would require 21 lbs. ot hay for each cow and 
two lbs. for each sheep per day. In other words, one cow will eat 
a little more than ten sheep. 

But we do not think this a fair comparison. It should be remem- 
bered that sheep eat a much greater variety of plants than cattle, 
and as our pastures are thin and the herbage scattered the distance 
to be traveled by an animal in filling itself should be considered. 
In this respect, the sheep have decidedly the advantage, as each 
one would only be required to graze over one-tenth the ground the 
cow must necessarily go over in order to make a living. Sheep 
also crop closer than cattle, and where the pasturage is kept close 
they will thrive much better and improve the herbage by encourag- 
ing the growth of the finer grasses, or at least repressing that of 
the coarser growing kinds. 

A short time since, we were in company with an old farmer, 
•who remarked that wherever his 6heep ran, the white clover soon 
sprang up, even though none had ever been seen there before, and 
he expressed a desire to know where the seed came from. We 
then said that we supposed the sheep gathered the seed in their 
rounds and deposited it with their litter. But this he seemed dis- 
posed to doubt, as his cattle ranged over precisely the same 
ground and they brought no clover home. The subject was drop- 
ped at the time; but, subsequently, when passing through the old 
broom-straw field where bis sheep and cattle ranged, we stooped 
down and examined closely, and there growing not more than an 
inch in height — far too short for the cattle to bite — were perfect 
plants of white clover, bloom and all. Here the sheep gathered 
the seed, and dropping them with their litter, set every place 
where they were accostumed to lie in white clover. This advan- 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER, 239 



tage to be derived from the keeping of sheep over that of cattle is 
very great, as it is one of the greatest difficulties we ot Eastern 
Virginia have to contend with in improving our farms. 

We cannot, without very expensive manuring, secure a good sod 
upon our pasture lands. But it is a well known tact that sheep 
soon establish a good sod wherever they are kept. We are satis- 
fied from a careful inquiry and very close observation, that upon 
the ordinary farms ot Eastern Virginia twelve sheep can be kept 
more easily than one cow. It is more difficult to estimate the 
relative return, likely to be realized irom the two. It is very hard 
to tell what would be the gross yield of cows in Virginia, as the 
amount of labor necessary for their care, the feed given, &c, dif- 
fers in almost every family. We leave this for every farmer to 
estimate for himself. With sheep it is somewhat different. If the 
flock consists chiefly of ewes, they may be expected to almost, if 
not quite double their numbers every year, and the wool 4 lbs. per 
head, at from 40 to 60 cents per lb., would much more than pay 
all expenses. 

It is apparent to us that sh«ep, must of necessity, yield a much 
greater profit for the labor and capital involved than cows, and 
under present circumstances, we hardly think that the keeping of 
sheep in small detached flocks will prove remunerative. Dogs are 
far too plenty for sheep, unless protected by the constant watch- 
fulness of the shepherd to prove profitable. But still we tbink 
there is a way of surmounting this difficulty, even should the Leg- 
islature fail to pass such a law as will give the protection required. 
Two or three farmers can very readily club together and buy 
enough sheep to justify the emploj-ment of a shepherd to take care 
of them, and thus utilize the waste land lying out and yielding no 
revenue, not even enough to pay taxes. 

Upon farms that are fenced, sheep can be kept safely by bringing 
them up near the house every night and putting them in a small well- 
littered lot, enclosed by a six foot picket fence with the bottom plank 
sunk into the ground twelve inches. If the flock has a dozen or so 
bells upon a flock tends also to keep dogs away and the noise they 
make will give the farmer warning when danger is at hand. Sheep 
kept in this way require very little actual labor in their attendance, 
and after trying it several winters we think that, personally, we would 
rather attend one hundred sheep than two cows. It requires compar- 
atively a small amount of capital to stock a farm with sheep, and 
even a few purchased and judiciously managed will soon, by their 
natural increase, give a good flock. In conclusion, we think that no 
stock with which we are acquainted is so well adapted to the condi- 
tion of the farms and farmers of the county referred to as sheep, and 
further, that with the general introduction and keeping of sheep upon 
our farms will begin a new course of improvement and prosperity 
among the land-owners of the State. 



GOATS. 



There is still another kind of stock whose name has long since 
become a synonym for every thing that is mischievous and provoking 



240 THE SOUTHERN [May 

upon a farm, and which is nevertheless adapted to meet the wants of 
some sections, and which might be made profitable. We refer to the 
common goat. These animals are valuable for their hides, which are 
made into morocco for shoes and kid for gloves. The hides, at any 
age, are worth one dollar a piece, and the demand for them is good. 
They are hardy, easily kept, and very prolific ; generally bringing 
forth at least twice a year, and more frequently twins than otherwise. 
They do not require as much grass as sheep, as they subsist through 
the summer almost exclusively upon browse. In districts where there 
is a great deal of rough broken, wooded land they would thrive bet- 
ter than sheep, and they are far less liable to incursions from dogs or 
foxes than sheep. They will travel much farther for their food, and 
will be sure to return to the fold at night and upon the approach of a 
storm. They require less food and attention than sheep, and are 
recommended when on account of the roughness and wooded charac- 
ter of the land sheep cannot be well kept. 

CASHMERE GOAT?. 

These have been kept to some extent in Missouri. Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee and Georgia, and by a few persons in Virginia. They are 
claimed to be more profitable than the common goat, or even sheep. 
They yield a fleece of soft, fine hair, weighing from three to eight 
pounds, and worth from $1 to 1.50 per pound in New York. They 
are hardy and about as prolific as sheep and require about the same 
care. They cross readily with the common goat, and the third cross 
gives a very good fleece. They have not been bred extensively 
enough to test their value as farm stock, but we are inclined to think 
very favorably of them from what we have seen. 

We will be obliged to any of our readers who will give us more 
information about l;hem. It is apparent to all of us that we must find 
something beyond the animal product of the ground to increase our 
incomes and enable us to keen the sheriff at bay. We can think of 
nothing that will so readily meet our wants and secure at the same 
time what ought to be the great aim of every farmer, the permanent 
improvement of the land as the keeping of some kind of stock. With 
this view, we invite a discussion through the pages of the Planter 
of the merits of the different kinds, and also the best ways of caring 
for them. 



[For the Southern Planter and Fanner.] 
A LAW AGAINST DOGS. 

But for being unwell I should have written an article for your April 
number of the Plaster and Farmer. When one looks over the many 
warm appeals so ably and earnestly made from all over our State to our 
representatives in the Legislature and Senate, to give us the protec- 
tion so justly due to the great interest Virginia now has in sheep, and 
not a movement having been made in its behalf worthy of statesmen 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 241 



in so weighty a matter as it most certainly now is to protect our 
sheep from the worthless dogs, and too often their more worthless 
owners, is it not now time for us all to resolve and unite ourselves 
into a full working force to secure our protection in the quickest 
and most effectual manner we can 1 I think it is now full time for 
us so to act, as either to secure a more respectful hearing from 
them, or to look to some other power to give us the full protection, 
which will enable us all over Virginia to reap the full benefit 
which our lands and climate so justly entitle us to hope to be 
able fully to realize from a full stock of sheep on our ample grass- 
lands. The Legislature must be sorely perplexed in looking up sub- 
jects for taxing when they stoop to the unheard of and unpaying arti- 
cle of churches, which could yield but little, and that little forced ont 
of a set of good people already so sorely weighed down by their own 
individual taxes and then the volunteer support of the ministers, the 
Sunday schools, and which we all know and so sadly regret, have 
been so poorly» provided for in these last several years, when there 
looms up all over Virginia and America the greatly remunerating sub- 
jects for taxation in dogs, whiskej 7 , and almost an innumerable num- 
ber of small and big rogues now so busily swarming throughout our 
whole land. 

Suppose we put the dog tax at one dollar for the first, and two for 
the next and four for the next, and thus keep on doubling, what an 
amount could and would be thus secured for our dear old State, now 
trembling under the dread of repudiation for want of increased taxes. 
Not only this great amount would be secured, but what a vast healthy 
addition would be cheerfully added on to it in a few years when all of 
our lands would be (as it then would) thoroughly stocked in the 
grasses and our improved and greatly increased flocks of the best 
sheep the world can produce. But some of the little fry cry out if 
this is done, the foxes will soon be as fatal, not only to our lambs, but 
our pigs and poultry. Could not this be perfectly secured against by 
permitting one proper person selected by the people in each ten miles 
square (or five miles), who should be allowed to keep a good pack of well- 
trained hounds at one or two dollars each, which would be so cheer- 
fully paid by those whose sheep he would protect by catching the 
foxes, this selection to be made only by those who would agree to 
pay the taxes on said pack. This would be a paying tax to Virginia 
and to each and all of her citizens in greatly relieving the State, by 
its immense income and furnishing her citizens with the best of meats 
and warmest raiment the world affords, at so cheap a rate all might 
luxuriate most freely in both. 

Great God, in tender mercy, please endue our representatives of 
Virginia with brains enough thus to see its vast importance, and long 
enough to devise and pass such a law for the good of our oppressed 
people ! Should our Legislature refuse, then can't the farmers of all 
America unite and petition the Federal Congress to make the tax on 
dogs and take the revenue from it ; it will amply pay them and greatly 
bless every citizen. If this can't be done, why not get our Legisla- 
ture to pass a law making the death of every dog from home lawful, 
and requiring all dogs on the public roads to be killed, which would 
require every man to keep his dog at home, where alone he is worth 
any thing, if of any value any where. If none of these can be done. 



242 THE SOUTHERN [May 

■ — ... . , . # 

then can't some plan be devised for shortening the crop of dogs now 
vastly too great for the peace, safety and prosperity of ns all. 

Now for whiskey, that is an article a vast majority can do far bet- 
ter without than with, and the higher it can be taxed the better for a 
vast many. Then the little rogues of every hue and color now 
swarming in such destructive numbers every where to the great annoy- 
ance of the quiet, peace, prosperity and happiness of every good 
peaceable, honest citizen in every part of our country, in every ham- 
let, town and city of America, nightly fearing lest his house should 
be burnt or entered, his store or grocery, meat-house, corn-house, barn 
or mill, stable, hennery, sheep fold, pig stye be broken in and tde 
honest earnings of his daily labor be appropriated to the sumptuous 
revelries of these nocturnal pests, who are either asleep or busily con- 
cocting cunningly devised schemes each and every day, to be adroitly 
executed whilst the honest wearied are at rest. 

Now suppose we wake up and fully arouse our Legislature and call 
their attention especially to these numerous and rapklly increasing 
petty pilferers, and get them to pass some stringent laws by which 
the theft of a single pullet shall fully entitle him or her to a link in 
the chain-gang for one month's hard and careful labor on our county 
roads, and for a pig or mutton some six or twelve months, and so on 
and upwards. 

Bless me ! my friends, only think of what an immense army of profit 
table laborers we would soon have on our expensive' and imperfectly 
worked county roads, if this scheme could he fairly and honestly put 
into full operation. as it can and should be. Soon, very soon our county 
surveyors would be called out and busily employed in carrying out 
new and better located roads for this army of cheap labor to perfect 
greatly to their benefit and to the groat benefit of our whole State, 
because it would be making honest and good citizens of these now 
abandoned rogues, and rendering it a pleasure for we farmers to drive 
our own fine teams with their heavy loads so safe and easily over these 
wisely graded and well constructed roads. What a great universal 
blessing this would be to us all. Fifteen or twenty miles to market 
then would not be so much as four or five now are : then our lands 
would at once rise fully up to or beyond the good old prices, and be 
dirt cheap at that : then our once the best labor on earth, but now 
wasted into idle wandering rogues, would rapidly be reinstated to an 
honest faithful reliable help of which Virginia would again be proud, 
and we all marching on hand in hand together, rapidly rebuilding our 
dear old State up to and far beyond what she once was. the happy, 
happy home of the good and the great. Then we would no lor. 
want a donation from our impoverished treasury to outfit commis- 
sioners to electioneer in foreign ports for immigrants to come to ours, 
the most favored lands of all America. For then just as certain as 
lovely, cheering spring follows dreary winter, just so certainly will 
the good and the great from every where crowd the vessels which can 
most speedily, safely land them on Old Virginia's shores. This is no 
fiction, no fancy of a bewildered brain : it is a stupendous fact, and 
certainly within our reach, if we can only wake up our representa- 
tives, and clear their minds so they can know their duty, and folly 
arouse them that duty promptly and fully to perforin. 

Now only compare this system with the penny wise and pound fool- 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 24S 

ish sj-stem which our tinkering Legislatures have been trying. This 
system under the supervision of such men as the old Roman, Mr. 
Joseph R. Beal, of Scottsville, Albemarle county. Va.. with a paying 
salary, would very quickly put all of our roads in apple-pie order, at 
a very slight cost and. at the same time, would perfectly manufacture 
out of these now abandoned and most worthless rascals the very best 
of honest, faithful laborers and good reliable citizens. Whereas the 
present plan of hunting up the rogue, getting out the warrant, sum- 
moning witnesses, getting him committed to jail, to be tried next 
court or a court or two afterwards, at heavy expense, and great labor, 
trouble just to be imprisoned a few weeks or take thirty-nine stripes, 
as he may choose, the latter most often selected, and he is taken to 
the whipping-post, surrounded by crowds of young rascals to see how 
manfully he takes the dose which they applaud, and the culprit turned 
out a far worse man than before — thus exposed to what he can so- 
easily repair by a little mutton-suet, which he selects out of some 
flock on his way home — thus making a more cautious rogue of him,, 
and encouraging many others to go and do likewise. A miserable 
farce, unworthy of a Legislature of school boys, and totally unequal 
to the pressing necessities in which we are so deeply involved. 

Query : I wander if that colored representative was not wrongly 
quoted in saying when we touch whiskey and dogs, we touch every 
man. Rather did he not say when we touch whiskey and degs we 
rudely probe to the quick a large majority of this, our body, one 
would certainly suppose so from the childish play of that body of 
late, in taxing bachelors, marriages, churches and licensing grog 
shops, fan-o-banks and lottery dealings, as if they were afraid the 
dear people would become too sober and purely honest to send them, 
back to their six dollar cribs. Respectfully, 

Geo. C. GroiEE, 
Charlottsville, Va. 



MUIRKIRK HERD. 



We regret to learn that the sale of this valuable herd of Short 
Horns advertized to take place on Wednesday the 13th of May, is 
the result of a determination on the part of Mr. Coffin to discon- 
tinue the business of breeding Short Horns. Mr. Coffin is so sit- 
uated that he is compelled to subsist his large Stock entirely by 
soiling which requires so much of his time and attention that for 
the sake of his other business he is compeled to dispose ot his 
cattle. 

His stock are exceedingly well bred, combining strains of the 
very finest blood in the country. The herd has been carefully 
selected trom the best breeders of England and America. Among 
the females are four Gwynnes now so popular among Short Horn 
breeders everywhere. One of these, Masterpiece, is getting along in 
years, but is still a very fine animal; the others are young. The 
upper crosses of these animals are generally with Bates bulls, but one 
of them, a calf, is by Royal Britton, a pure Booth Bull, will show the 
effects of this cross. Mr. Coffin believes strongly in the Booth bloo d 



244 THE SOUTHERN [May 



and after seeing his two bulls, Lord Abraham and Royal Britton, both 
of this strain, we are very much inclined to coincide in his choice. 
There are also two females descended from imported Red Rose, hav- 
ing a large infusion of Princess blood, perhaps the best milking stock 
among the Short Horns. 

Imported Portulacca, an exceedingly fine red cow, is full sister to 
Potentilla. a celebrated prize heifer. 

Two heifer calves of Portulacca, one by Lord Abraham (29056), 
the other by Royal Britton ;27351), are also offered for sale. 

"We have only space to refer to a few more of the more prominent 
animals. Elvina 3rd, a very fine red and white cow, bred by S. W. 
Robins, Withersfield, Conn. 

Water Nymph, bred by Walcott & Cowbell. Rosamond 9th, an 
extraordinarily fine animal, bred by the same gentlemen and gotten by 
Royal Britton, and many others equally as worthy of special notice. 

There are in all 42 females offered and we think that there are very 
few herds, either on this or the other side of the water, that would 
not be improved by the addition of almost any of them. 

At the head of the list of bulls stands Lord Abraham (29056), bred 
by Mr. Torr of Aylesbury Manor, England. He is deeply bred in 
the Booth blood aud is a handsome, low, well quartered animal and 
an excellaut breeder. There are 1 1 other bulls offered, making in all 
fifty-four head of very finely bred animals. 

Muirkirk is on the Washington branch of the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad, and trains pass from the respective cities within 100 yards 
of the dwelling every hour in the day. There will be no delay on 
account of weather as ample shelter has been provided for all who 
may come. We hope to see Virginia largely represented and a great 
many of the animals of this splendid herd brought home by our 
breeders. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
THE PROPOSED LAW FOR TAXING DOGS. 



I am perfectly willing to see dogs taxed in any way you can reach 
them, because they may be made to yield revenue either by the 
amount of the tax, or, if their numbers are decreased by the taxing 
in consumption. But I think too much stress has been laid upon the 
tax in connection with its supposed influence on sheep and wool grow- 
ing. Suppose the tax is paid, then the number of dogs is not reduced, 
and it is to the sheep just as if the dogs had not been taxed at all. 

Now in my experience, and no very short one, I am convinced that 
sheep can be raised successfully at present, when we are overrun with 
<logs. I grant that they are in one sense an evil ; but if their exist- 
ence and their depredations cause farmers to take precautions against 
them, i. e.. to take care of their sheep, there is pro tanto an advan- 
tage in them. But really there are other effective means of getting 
rid of the nuisance, at least to a great extent, means that I have 
employed, and shall continue to employ, no matter what law may be 
passed to remedy the evil. These means all resolve themselves into 
the one simple expedient of killing the dogs. This may be done 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 245 

either before or after they have killed the sheep ; and I prefer to do 
it before. 

My rule is a very plain one. Any decent white man is at liberty 
to hunt on ray land any sort of game he pleases., foxes, hares or birds. 
I never object if he does not take his dogs among in}'- sheep, or shoot 
too near ury dwelling or other houses or my straw or hay ricks. But 
in consideration of this free permit, I expect him to keep his dogs 
from my plantation at all other times, and if the}' are ever caught on it 
without their master, I kill them or have them killed. So far I have 
never had any serious trouble with any one ; for all admit that the 
rule is a reasonable one. Negroes are not permitted to hunt on the 
preinises under any circumstances. 

Notwithstanding that a goodly number are generally killed under 
this rule each year, I still surfer occasionally by the killing of my 
sheep, especially in the yeaning season when dead lambs, &c, attract 
the dogs. But whenever a sheep is killed by a dog I make a pen — 
occasionally keep one for sometime — into which the sheep is put, 
being dragged along the ground so that the carcase can be trailed by 
the dog. that is sure to come after him after he has killed him. This 
pen is a trap of rails — one with a rail floor is best, so that the dog 
cannot scratch out — made about twelve rails high, each course being- 
drawn in so as to have a small opening at top, down which the dog 
may jump, but up and out of which he can neither crawl nor scuffle. 
The carcase of the sheep may be poisoned, or scraps- of fried meat 
poisoned with str}-chnine may be scattered outside ; or the dogs may be 
killed in the pen. It is very true that some dogs may be destroyed 
in this way that had not killed the sheep. But what business have 
they on my premises 1 And what right have their owners to require 
that my property shall be exposed to risk because they do not choose 
to look after them 1 Any man who values his clog and respects my 
rights, can protect both b}- putting a chain and clog on the dog, worth 
at the outside fifty cents, or one-sixth the value of an average sheep. 

But important as the tax on dogs may be, I am enabled to declare, 
as far as m} r experience may form a basis for the opinion, that the 
injury done by dogs is very much less than is supposed. I mean that 
as compared with the loss on the crops usually grown, the loss in 
sheep by dogs is not as heavy an item as is generally thought. One 
illustration of this may suffice to explain my view. At one period 
since the war I had for three years an average of rather more than 
200 ewes per annum, or the equivalent pf, say, 600 for one year. The 
lambs raised from them were about 80 per cent, of the whole number, or 
in all 1,080 head. For two of those years I lost not one by dogs. The 
third year I lost 17 ; all at one time ; worth, at $4.00 per head, $68. 
The entire flock at the same price would be worth $4,320. So that 
the loss was only 1^ per cent. I need not enter into any calculation 
to show that the fluctuation in anv crop we grow is far greater than 
that. 

I leave out of this account the sheep stolen by negroes. Though I 
think I lost in the same time less by theft of sheep than by theft of 
crops and of other live stock, including one horse, worth fifty sheep. 

I well recollect that some twenty years ago I lost 54 sheep out of 
a flock of 150 by a good neighbor's hound puppies. This was about 
one-third of my flock. But more than once have I lost by casualty 



246 THE SOUTHERN [May 



of the seasons not less than one-half of my wheat, corn and oats., 
and lost thereby more than the profit on the crop. 

Whilst I say then tax dogs, to death if yon choose. I say with more 
emphasis do not commit the error of believing that you cannot raise 
sheep until you lay such a tax. It is well at least to increase our 
staples by prudently the item of sheep, and make ourselves in 
so far independent of our labor demoralized as it is by freedom. 
Radicals and railroads. 

Frank G. Ruffes*. 

Summer Hell, Chesterfield, April, 1874. 



Mr. Editor : — "Will you or some of your correspondents give us a 
cheap, safe and efficient recipe for killing ticks on sheep and much 
oblige Sieepeceed. 

Axs. — Dip the sheep after shearing in a decoction of tobacco and 
taking care to prevent its getting into the eyes ; or, a weak solution of 
carbolic acid — good strong suds made with carbolic soap. 



We have been, informed that our friend. Dr. T. J. Wooldridge of 
Hanover count}*, has recently received a very fine Essex Boar, bred 
in England by Gr. M. Sexton, Wherstead Hail, Suffolk, who is now 
acknowledged to be one of the most successful breeders of Essex 
hogs in that country. We have not seen the animal in question, but 
from the reports of parties who have, we learn that he is a beautiful 
specimen of this favorite breed. This together with former importa- 
tions of the Doctor from England and Canada, will make his collection 
of Essex swine very complete. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
PROFIT OF SHEEP RAISING. 



You request I shall give my opinion and experience in sheep husban- 
dly. I kept a small flock of sheep before and since the war. as was 
then the custom to supply the family with wool for clothing, but not 
as a revenue. In June 1870, having only 9 sheep remnant of my old 
flock left by rogues and dogs. I bought and added to them 200 Western 
sheep ; 60 of them bucks and young weathers, at a cost of S3 a piece or 
S'327 for the flock of 209 sheep at home. They were not selected with 
much care. The loss that fall by rogues and death was considerable. 
The ewes were tupped by the Western bucks and 2 young Cotswold bucks 
that autumn. In December the bucks and weathers were separated 
from the ewes and given about one half bushel corn per day till 
middle of March. The yearlings, bucks and weathers did not fatten 
well ; grazing was pretty good without hay : sold March loth for 
$200, lost 3 b}* carrying on cars : a low price and heavy market. 
Sold 100 lambs for $250 and wool for $200 in June ($650 ; have left 
134 ewes and late lambs. In June 1872 sold lambs and wool from 
this flock for $750, leaving 158 ewes and lambs. In November follow- 
ing added 45 very common lambs and old sheep at a cost of $100, 



1874. j PLANTER AND FARMER. 247 

> 

and in June 1873 sold lambs and wool for $613, leaving me 190 sheep 
and late lambs. In this report there is no account of loss by death, 
rogues or butchered at home, which amounted to fully an average, under 
any circumstances where there was not special attention given. The 
sheep left were worth $3 a piece or $570. Give below statement of 
account including sales and costs of grain fed and interest on capital 
invested : 

Sales of mutton (57) in March 1871 $200,00 

Sales of 100 lambs and wool in June 1S71 450,00 

Sales of lambs and wool in June 1872 750.00 

Sales of lambs and wool in June 1873 513.00 

Value of 190 sheep left (1873) at $3 a piece 570.00 

$2,583.00 

Cost of 209 sheep in June 1870 $027.00 

45 sheep in November 1872 100.00 

Value of 45 bushels corn fed muttons in winter 1871 , at GOc .... 27.00 

Value of 100 bushels of oats fed ewes in winter 1871, at 50c 25.00 

Value of 400 bushels oats fed ewes in winter 1872 200.00 

Value of 3,000 lbs hay fed ewes in winter 1872 at 50c 15.00 

Value of 300 bushels corn fed ewes in winter 1873, at GOc 1S0.00 

Value of 600 lbs hay fed ewes in winter 1873, at 50c 30.00 

$1,204.00 

$1,379.00 
Interest on, $627 two years $75.24 and $727 $40.62 $115.86 

$1,263.14 
The haj r was not all eaten, sheep were permitted to stacks at will 
to feed and shelter, so a considerable quantity was trampled down 
and converted into manure. 

I omitted to state the ewes after the first year were tupped by Cots- 
wold bucks generally though my neighbors common bucks did get in 
with them each of the two last seasons and yeaned generally during 
the month of February.* 

You will see the balance due sheep $1,264.14, which is a greater 
profit than I could have made from any other stock. I did not include 
in the account against sheep any charge for grazing or attention, for 
I am satisfied the improvement to lands by manure is fully equal to 
that. Sheep usually seek the highest and driest places to rest where 
the manure is most needed and in this the transportation of manure 
is saved. I fully agree with my friend Col. F. Ruffin that we should 
sell off our lambs as early as possible, so as to give time to fatten 
ewes for the market the following autumn and in this way change our 
flocks every year. My experience is that after 3 years the same 
flock of sheep will naturally decline and die off rapidly. 

R. P. Graves. 
Orange county, Va. 

* I omitted to state the sheep were grazed with about one hundred head of 
cattle and thirty head of horses entirely upon 275 acres of land, divided into 
three fields, changing them from one field to another. 



248 THE SOUTHERN [May 

Poultry Department. 

How to Succeed with Poultry. — Mr. B. Tegetmeir. in the 
"Journal of the Bath and West of England Society.'" say 

'■The grreat drawback against most of the farmyard poultry, is the 
want of size. This may be remedied by keepiug better breeds, pro- 
vided the chickens are well fed from the very first. It cannot be too 
strongly impressed upon the rearers of market poultry., that large 
framed birds cannot be hoped for if the chickens are not well fed 
from the very first day they leave the nest. It is not enough to put 
the hen and newly-hatched brood under a coop, and throw them some 
tail wheat two or three times a day : such treatment will never make 
large birds. During the hatching the hen should be left undisturbed ; 
the young chickens should not be removed from under her as they are 
hatched : but when all are out. and quite dry and strong, the hen 
may be cooped in a dry. sunny spot, and a good feed of corn and soft 
food given to her. The chickens want no food for inany hours after 
they are hatched, as they are then digesting the yelk of the egg, 
which constitutes their first food, and acquiring strength to run about. 
When they begin to peck, they should be fed with soft food, and very 
small crrain. Unquestionably, the best soft food is an egg beaten up with 
a tablespoonful of milk, and heated in the oven, or by the side of the 
fire, until it sets into a soft custard. Chickens fed or partially fed on 
this, make wonderful progress. Another point often overlooked is 
the time at which the chickens are fed. If they are to make large 
fowls they must be fed soon after daylight ; if. as is too often the 
case, they are left hungry for three hours in the morning, they are 
always stunted in their growth. They must be fed the first thing, 
and, whilst they are young, even* two or three hours during the day. 
ge lump of soft food, such as oat, or barley meal, mixed with 
milk or water, is often put in the hen's coop, and it is thought that it 
will suffice for the day : in a short time it becomes trodden on and 
defiled, and it is then no longer wholesome food. The right plan is 
to give no more soft food, than the chickens can eat at once. Over 
night a supply of grits, ground oats, or small wheat may be put down 
to serve as the first meal in the morning. Many poultry keepers are 
partial to keeping the hens with the chickens under coops for some 
weeks. I am decidedly opposed to the plan. By so doing the natu- 
' ral insect food that the hen acquires by scratching — the worms, grubs, 
small seeds, and flies. &c. — are denied to the chicken, and no artifi- 
cial diet will compensate for the loss. Xor can the hen dust, to free 
herself from vermin that feed sumptuously on the young chicks at 
night. It is said that the hen, if not cooped, will draggle the chickens 
through the wet grass and tire them out. A half-starved hen may 
possibly do so : but if she is well fed with corn, there is no danger of 
her so doing. If preferred, she can be shut up until the dew is off 
the grass ; but the finest and heaviest chickens I have ever bred, have 
been those that have been with hens that were never shut up in 
houses or coops, but, being under open sheds, could go out at all 
hours. If the hens are allowed to scratch for the chickens, the chop- 
ped meat and meat broth, which are requisite for them when closely 
confined, is altogether unnecessary. It is the custom of some game 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 24& 

rearers to hang up in the woods any dead waste animals to supply 
maggots for the young pheasants. This is not desirable near a home- 
stead ; but any refuse animal remains may be utilized without offence 
by allowing them to become thoroughly fly-blown, and then burying 
them in the fowl-run ; the maggots attain their full size underground, 
and previous to turning into flies, work their way instinctively to the 
surface, furnishing an abundant supply to the j'xnmg chickens. 



Thorol t giibred Fowls. — So many persons well informed on gene- 
ral subjects are at a loss to know the meaning of thoroughbred, that it 
may be proper at this time to give some explanation, so that those 
who for the first time are about to breed fowls may understand what 
a thoroughbred fowl is. 

Every animal as it grows up tends to develop in a particular way 
like its parents or ancestors near or remote, or like the average of its 
ancestry ; but circumstances during development crowd it this or that 
way every instant of its existence, so that it has many obstacles to 
prevent an exact copy of its ancestors — the weather, diet and many 
other influences more or less remote tend to this result. No domestic 
animals have ever yet been bred strictly true in color, size, form, &c, 
yet where they breed nearby true they are called " bred true." When 
they really are not perfectly thoroughbred, offspring tend to resemble 
the average of their ancestors ; the more even the ancestor, the 
stronger the influence over tl e offspring ; so that in the breeding of 
fowls, we desire to breed to produce the form, color, size by care in 
selections for generations. Selecting with these three objects in view, 
discarding all but the best types, we eventually produce fowls that 
will in a large degree produce form, size, color. We then have 
thoroughbred fowls as far as these three qtmlities are concerned. We 
may add other points if we desire and when we have these points 
established in such a manner that the offspring will be a true fac-simile 
of the parent, these points will be thoroughbred, having with great 
care obtained the several points of excellence desired. We must not 
forget that continued care and study are necessary to retain these 
points, there being so many circumstances that tend to weaken the 
ancestral influence. The progressive breeder continues to breed from 
his perfect birds only each generation, and by so doing he retains the 
ancestral influence with more strength and certainty and more full 
development ; hence the true honest breeder of thoroughbreds becomes 
identified with his thoroughbred of whatever variety and these are 
known as his "strain" of blood. 

In fowls as in other domestics there are humbug breeders who have 
no established strain. But there are many who are not humbugs that 
have not obtained a high degree of excellence. Many of them from 
want of study or care, fail to establish the desired points, hence the 
oft-repeated assertion that high priced fowls are all " fancy." Many 
who undertake the raising of fowls do not give to it the time and 
attention necessary, hence the result is failure and the blame is 
charged to the fowl. In a future article I will give discriptions of the 
different varieties and also some statistics as to products. — Exchange, 



250 THE SOUTHERN fMay 



Household Department, 

Post Up Your Wife. — Keep them posted, duly, prornply, cheer- 
fully. Impart to them all the light you can. Do you. husbands, post 
them up on subjects of importance ; interests and reform : collect 
facts, passing events, things interesting, profitable, edifying : things 
moral, intellectual and political ? Sensible, intelligent, virtuous wives 
highly appreciate this, especially those pressed with domestic cares 
and duties, who have very little time for extended reading and inves- 
tigations. Some husbands are very remiss in this benevolence ; 
others, we are pleased to say, are happily communicative, take special 
pains and delight in posting their wives and children, in imparting 
life and information. At the table, during meal-times and on every 
suitable occasion, they open their minds freely, cheerfully, give a con- 
densed, succinct, bird's-eye view of all their book and paper readings 
and all the interesting and important facts, gathered variously daily, 
weekly, monthly. 

Thus wives and all present are cheered, gratified, benefitted, ena- 
bled also to impart the information to others : this generus imparta- 
tion of things profitable, interesting and edifying, produces a salutary 
effect on the minds and hearts of the husband, deepening and rivet- 
ing virtuous principles and important facts. " He that watereth shall 
be watered also himself.'* Husbands, do you think of this ? Will 
you think of it 1 This method also produces sociability and com- 
panionship between husbands and wives most pleasantly, hopefully 
and profitably, which would otherwise be lost. — Golden Ride. 

Housekeeping Hints. — A bit of glue dissolved in skimmed milk 
and water will restore old crape. 

Strong ley put in hard water will make it as soft as rain water ; a 
piece of borax will have the same effect. 

A wad of cobwebs will, it is said, immediately stop the flow of 
blood if bound on a freshly cut wound. 

Ink spots on floors can be extracted by scouring with sand wet in 
oil of vitrol and water. When the ink is removed rinse with strong 
pearlash water. 

A good article of prepared glue, so useful to have about every 
house, may be made with gum arabic dissolved iu strong vinegar. It 
will keep in good condition a long time if kept closely corked. 

A cement of great adhesive quality, particularly serviceable in 
attacliing the brass mountings on glass lamps, may be prepared by 
boiling three parts of resin with one part of caustic soda and five 
parts of water, thus making a kind of soap which is mixed with one- 
half its weight of plaster of paris. 

Paste for Wall Paper. — In pasting wall papers, posters, etc., 
especially where successive layers are put on, there arises a most dis- 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 251 

agreeable effluvium, which is particularly noticeable in damp weather. 
The cause of this is the decomposition of the paste. In close rooms 
it is very unwholesome, and often the cause of disease. In large 
manufactories, where quantities of paste are used, it becomes sour 
and offensive. Glue, also, has a very disagreeable odor. If, when 
making paste or glue, a small quantity of carbolic acid is added, it 
will keep sweet and free from offensive smells. A few drops added 
to ink or mucilage prevent mold. In whitewashing the cellar and 
dairy, if an ounce of carbolic acid is added to each gallon of wash, it 
will prevent mold and the disagreeable taints often perceived in meat 
and milk from damp apartments. Another great advantage in the 
use of carbolic acid in paste for wall paper and in whitewash, is, that 
it will drive away cock-roaches and other insect pests. The cheapest 
and best form of carbolic acid is in crystals, which dissolve in water 
or liquify at an excess of temperature. — American Homestead. 

Lime Water for Wasp Stings. — Dr. Danverne writes to a French 
journal that some time ago he was stung on the head and face by a 
number of wasps. The pain was great, and he had no ammonia at 
hand, nor was there a druggist near by. Recollecting the fact that 
lime water was good for burns, it occurred to him to tr} r it for the 
relief of the burning sensation produced by the stings. It answered 
the purpose perfectly, and he has since advised its use in some twenty 
cases of wasp stings, and it has always caused an instant cessation of 
the pain. The remedy is a simple one, and worth " making a note 
of." 

To Make Good Buckwheat Cakes. — To one pint of sour milk or 
buttermilk add one teaspoon of soda, two eggs, salt to taste, and 
enough buckwheat flour to make a batter ; bake at once. This recipe 
will hardly fail to give satisfaction if fairly tried. 

Buttermilk Custard. — One cup of sugar, one cup of molasses, 
one cup of buttermilk, one cup of flour, two-thirds cup of butter, one 
half teaspoon of soda, a little salt. Bake with one crust. 

Snow Pudding. — Pour one pint of boiling water on half a box of 
gelatine, add the juice of one lemon and two cups of sugar. When 
nearly cold strain ; add the whites of three eggs, beaten to a froth ; 
then beat the whole well together and put in a glass dish. Take the 
yelks of the three eggs, one pint of sweet milk, one teaspoou corn 
starch, flavor with vanilla, and cook as soft custard, then pour round 
the jellied part. 

Jelly Rolls. — Two cups of powdered sugar, two-thirds cup of 
butter, six eggs, well beaten, one teaspoon soda, two teaspoons cream 
tartar, one cup sweet milk, two cups flour. Bake in long tins, spread 
each cake with jelly, and roll while hot. 

Cream Cake. — One cup of butter, one cup of cream, two cups of 
sugar, three cups of flour, four eggs, one teaspoon soda, two of cream 
tartar. Mix as you would pound cake, and bake in shallow tins. 
4 






252 THE SOUTHERN [May 

Correspondence. 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.) 
APRIL NUMBER OF THE SOUTHERN PLANTER AND 

FARMER. 

The first article in the April number of the journal, " The Duty of 
the Hour." bears on the much mooted subject of the " Granges." If 
it -is. as stated, that " after all the great object to be secured by the 
Patrons of Husbandry is the bringing together of the farmers in 
clubs for the discussion of agricultural and social questions and the 
mutual improvement thereby secured to all." then why may not the 
object be as well secured by the ordinary " Farmers" Clubs" now in 
existence ? And why may not these clubs experiment with the 
•'various fertilizers" as well as the granges? And another thing, why 
may not the clubs secure co-operation in buying and selling, whicb 
appears to us, one ot the greatest benefits which the Granges 
promise to secure to the farmers ? 

"Notes for the Month," as usual, practical and sensible. While 
believing that ''50 bus. ashes or 200 lbs. potash watts" will very 
much benefit the oat crop, we are not prepared to admit "they will 
double the crop on ordinary soils." 

The advice for using the subsoil plow after the turning plow 
in preparation of the land for "corn" is good. The difficulty in 
the way usually is that the farmer rarely has an extra team for 
this purpose, for in our experience, it requires a double team to 
work the subsoil plow successfully, and particularly to keep with 
the turning plow. It this cannot be accomplished at the time of 
breaking up the land, then we advise that the subsoil plow or coul- 
ter, be run close to the corn in the first working, using one horse 
one-half the day, and then another in the other half, as the labor is 
too much for one horse the whole day. 

preparation advised for manuring corn in the hill is a good 
one; but where are we to get one of the constituents in sufficient 
quantity ? — viz. : hen manure. In advising the use of plaster on 
clover, the writer should remember that on a great deal of land in 
Eastern Virginia, 'below the Piedmont region) that plaster does 
not "act," and ia thrown away. 

The writer on "Commercial Fertilizers," believes they do not 
pay, and we believe he is about right. 

The proceedings of the "Tuckahoe Farmers' Club" are interest- 
ing. We were present at the meeting, but did not understand in 
reference to "gas house lime," that the club were not inclined to 
favor it as a fetilizer. Mr. Warren, we think, confessed that his 
experience with it was limited. Dr. Pollard did not agree with 
Dr. Crenshaw in advising against its use on the growing plant of 
any kind in the spring; but, stated he had dragged it in with oats 
at the rate of nearly 100 bus. to the acre, and along with clover, 
with the best results on the oats and clover ; the latter being one 
of the very best first crops of clover to be met with. He also 
alluded to Mr. E. B. Cook's use of it, dragged in along with 
wheat, producing most excellent results: the wheat being nearly 
a loot tallei where it was used than where it was not. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 253 

Dr. Perkins preferred the use of the ordinary lime to the "gas 
lime," because we know what we are using in the former, but not 
in the latter ease. But analysis has proved to us what gas lime 
contains and what we are using. 

Next follow interesting proceedings of two more Farmers' 
Clubs. The members of the "Rappahannock Club" seem to 
believe the use of chopped or ground feed does not pay. In this, 
we agree with them. Particularly, we do not believe in cutting 
up feed and wetting it, except shucks, which should be wetted 
twelve hours before feeding. 

In the "Farmers' Remedy for hard Times," the writer says, "to 
cut all the forage for a large stock ; it is doubtful whether the effi- 
cient labor of a farm can be spared, unless in bad weather. 

The writer of "Sowing Grass" believes that in this latitude, 
grass succeeds best sown alone, and that wheat and oats are no 
protection to it against the heat and sun. He gives some very 
good reasons and experiments for his position. We had always 
been disposed tothink the stubble of wheat and oats, particularly 
if not cut too low, was a protection. 

Mr. Price's article on "Fruit Culture" comes next, and is very 
practical and good, as far it goes, but there is not enough of it. 
He should, particularly, have pointed out the fruits best suited for 
this latitude. This is a subject in which all fruit-growers are 
interested, and one not well understood. What, with the love of 
worthless and free introduction of new varieties by the nursery- 
men and their Laudation o< them, fruit-growers have been induced 
to plant out very many worthless kinds. This involves both los3 
of time and loss of ground in establishing profitable orchards. It 
is a matter we feel disposed to discuss if we have time, in a sep- 
arate and well cons'dered article. 

In regard to Mr Price's remedy for "peai blight," it is evident 
he has not encountered that iatal variety of the disease, where 
"death begins at the centre." In such instances, to "use the knife 
freely," will do about as much good as for the surgeon to ampu- 
tate the limb of a mortified patient, or a patient where disease is 
invading the vital centres, the head, the lungs, or the heart. 

This disease, so much dreaded by the cultivators of the pear, 
was particularly fatal the past season, killing in some orchards in 
the vicinity of Richmond, as many as 200 trees out of 1,000, or 
20 per cent. We have reason to dread a recurrence of it the 
present year, and we design trying the remedy (lime and sulphur) 
said to have been found effectual in the "experimental gardens'' 
at Washington. 

An article commending the "Essex Hog," states they attain the 
same weight as the Berkshires at twelve months. We supposed 
the latter would outweigh the former at any age, with the same 
treatment. They are a large hog, and for that reason partly we 
have had a preference for the Berkshire, thinking the Essex rather 
small. 

We have, in this number, another very sensible article from Mr. 
Hill Carter, advising the farmers ''to make less grain and more 
grass, and raise stock, cattle, sheep, hogs, mules, fowls, fruit, and 
live more economically." Good counsel. 



254 THE SOUTHERN [May 

There are other articles worthy of notice in the number, but for 
fear of being tiresome, we close. Reviewer. 

Erratum in the Review of the March Number. — In the notice 
of the article on "Liquid Manures," (p. 194) for "convert it into 
humors" read "convert it into humus.'''' 






[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

Your April number is quite rich with the doings in your State of 
the Patrons of Husbandry. I am glad that Virginia is alive to this 
great move. You mention in your editorial that you are constantly 
in receipt of letters inquiring the aims and purposes of the Grange 
movement, and the means they intend to adopt to secure those aims. 
I can enlighten those enquirers without any violation of pledge or 
good faith, and I take pleasure in doing so. 

Our aims are : Personal and Nat tonal prosperity. There is no harm 
in this, I am sure. If I can, by uniting with my friends, insure to 
myself greater prosperity, why not do so ? But can this be done 1 
I will only name a few instances occurring in the Grange over 
which I have the honor to preside, and a neighboring Grange, and 
these are only two or three out of many such that I know of. 

A few gentlemen in the Grange I refer to, wished to purchase fer- 
tilizers. They made application to the agent of the particular manure 
they wanted, and he asked them fifty-five ($55) dollars cash per ton, or 
sixty-five ($65) payable 1st November. This Grange appointed a com- 
mittee and sent them to the agent and arranged for seventy five tons 
at forty-eight (48) dollars cash, or fourteen (14) per cent, per annum, 
interest added, on the responsibility of the Grange Seal. Here was 
seven dollars per ton saved ; over five hundred dollars in one article 
in one neighborhood. 

In my own Grange the same thing occurred as to manures, and also 
in the article of coffee. We could not buy coffee for less than thirty- 
eight cents per pound, cash, some weeks ago in this country, and we 
clubbed together and sent an order to New York to a Grange House, 
and obtained it at twenty-six, (26,) I think. (I have not the bill by 
me.) Certainly not exceeding twenty-eight. 

Our aims, then, are to cheapen every thing, from a pin up, and ulti- 
mately to cheapen the carrying trade and labor too. These are a 
part of our aims, and the means we intend to adopt to secure those 
aims can be stated in two words : Patience — Perseverance. 

There is no antagonism in our Order to good government, either 
domestic, State or National, it is simply a combination to stop extor- 
tion and imposition, and to cultivate economy and a more intimate 
social relation between neighbors engaged in the same business. I 
give you, therefore, briefly, our aims and the means we intend to 
adopt to accomplish them. 

I am not surprised that politicians should dread the Grangers, espe- 
cially the corrupt ones, but I cannot see why the merchants should 
feel unkindly to us. Merchants are indispensable, aud I for one, 
and so will the Order, ever patronize them, but they must lessen 
profits, and bankers and money-lenders must lessen interest. 
And we intend to have it so, for when we make what we need at 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER, 255 



home, we shall have no occasion to buy, and if I buy nothing, I 
need no money, and if the people need no money, interest will be 
low. It will take time to accomplish this, hence I say, patience 
and perseverence are the levers to accomplish this great work. 

The increase of the Order is marvellous. Two months ago 
there were 395 Granges in Georgia, they number to-day 544, an 
increase in sixty days of one hundred and forty-nine. 

I see that " Reviewer," in the April number, gives you a rap 
over the knuckles for typographical errors. I am glad of it. The 
same writer makes a thrust (a faint one, it is true,) at the Grangers 
on account of their secret feature, and the introduction of "our 
wives " into the Order. That is the surest guarantee of* the purity 
of the Order. Let me entreat " Reviewer " to take his lady and 
daughters and try the Grangers. 

Permit me to give a word of counsel to all persons who propose 
to form a Grange. Select for your officers the best men you have. 
Gentlemen, who not only have good standing socially, but who 
are good business men and read well. Especially should this be 
the case with the Master and Chaplain. Your Secretary and 
Treasurer should be tried men. Guard your Seal. Begin right. 
Do all your work accordingly to the law, rigidly, without regard 
to consequences, it will save you much trouble. 

S. Wyatt, W. M. County Line Grange. 

Forest Hall, P. O., Burke Co., Ga. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer. J 
YOUR REVIEWER. 



The Patrons who read your paper must feel greatly edified at the 
covert attacks of your " Reviewer," who " hoping and believing this 
movement will do good," yet " cannot see the necessity of a secret 
order, or of bringing into the public arena the wives of the farmers." 
Well, suppose he can't see the necessity of a secret order, if others think 
they see the necessity what is it to " Reviewer"? The people have 
tried time and again clubs, societies, &c, yet they have essentially 
failed to unite the country. While exerting to some extent a benefi- 
cial influence on the agricultural interests, they cannot of necessity 
bind together and cement the whole body of farmers in a permanent 
organization. The Patrons of Husbandry can bring them together. 
No better evidence could be desired than the fact, that more granges 
have been organized in Virginia since the first day of January than 
there have been clubs in ten years.. Whether it will unite them per- 
manently remains to be seen. If farmers are fools, as some seem to 
think, then its existence will be ephemeral, but if they are wise and 
prudent, then a noble structure may be erected which will be as 
enduring as any human institution can be. 

In reference to farmers' wives being brought into the public arena : 
the remark, taken in connection with his previous allusion to it as a 
secret order, seems to be somewhat paradoxical. The Grange, one would 
suppose, is anything but a public arena. But let it be so ; who has the 
right to say that the farmer shall not take his wife wherever he 



256 THE SOUTHERN [May 

pleases ? It is none of the business of " Reviewer" or anybody else 
where I carry my wife, so long as he is not forced to carry Mrs. 
Reviewer with him into the " public arena," or even go himself. 

" Reviewer," speaking of the woman and secrecy questions, says 
it " is not in accordance with the taste of the Southern people." Take 
reviewers generally they are Solomons, in their own conceit, knowing 
a great deal about every conceivable subject. But our " Reviewer," 
like the celebrated Rip Van Winkle, has been evidently asleep for 
some time. There is no danger of transcending the truth in assert- 
ing that there are largely more than 150,000 members of the order in 
the Southern States, composed of the very best men and women in 
society, showing conclusively that both Woman and Secrecy, the 
great bulwarks of the Order, are in accordance with their tastes. 

If " Reviewer" really believes, as he sa3 7 s he does, that the Grange 
movement will do good, it would be far more consistent with that 
belief if he would put his shoulder to the wheel and assist in the 
effort, than to excite the prejudice of those who like himself do not 
and cannot know what the intrinsic merits of the institution are. 

Will " Reviewer" be kind enough to tell us why women should not 
be admitted to membership and why the Order of Patrons of Husbandry 
should not be secret? Henrico. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer. 

April 20th, 1874. 

We have now fourteen Granges in the county of Augusta, com" 
posed of the best and most influential farmers. There are many 
now on the eve of organization. The Order is spreading rapidly 
and the tarmers take hold of it with that zeal and determination 
which mark the character ol that class of people, and their works 
will follow them. We find here too, the iron sinews of remorse- 
less monopoly and consolidated capital arrayed against the wasting 
tissues of individual and unorganized labor. We have long held 
our hands upon our mouths and our mouths in the dust ; but the 
chain which bound us to the post is broken, and the events of the 
future will speak with a cogency which no human logic can refute, 
and with an eloquence which no human tongue can equal. 

The Patrons of Augusta are about forming a County Grange. 
Wo shall soon begin the work of organization in the counties of 
Bath and Highland. The spirit of right and reform is moving 
amongst those honest sons of toil, and we predict the Order will 
grow and propagate with the health and vigor that exists with 
those people. 

The History of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry moves in its 
rapid work in common with all genuine history under the influ- 
ence of two generic ideas : The conservative (not political) which 
desires to secure all the good of the present by fidelity to its 
results in the past, and the progressive which looks out in hope 
to a better future. Reformation is the great harmonizer of these 
two principles Sober judgment and sober means characterize the 
conservatism of this Order. 

The agricultural classes suffer and always have suffered from 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 257 



the rapacity of aggregated and centralized capital. The Order 
means business, and will labor to bring the greatest good to the 
.greatest number, by mutual instruction and the lightening of 
labor ; by diffusing a better knowledge of its aims ; by bringing 
nearer together the producer and consumer; by mutual protection to 
husbandmen against sharpers and middle men. 

The wheat crop is growing rapidly, and looks very well. The 
harvest will be advanced this season. G. W. K. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 



Please insert in your valuable paper the following Granges 
•organized by me since April 1st : 

Melrose Grange, near Warren ton Junction, Fauquier county, 
April 4th. Geo W. Meetze, Master ; J. W. Mann, Secretary. 
Eleven males and ten females. 

Jefferson Grange, Hillsboro, Albemarle county, April 7th. Wm. 
H. Lipscomb, Master ; W. T. Rea, Secretary. Sixteen males and 
four females. 

Rapid Ann Grange, Somerset, Orange county, April 17th. Col. 
N. J. Hinkle, Master ; Strother Newman, Secretary. Twenty 
male and nine females. 

There is considerable inquiry throughout the Piedmont district 
at present, for information in regard to the organization of Patrons 
of Husbandry. In less than twelve months, I believe four-fifths 
of the farmers in this district will belong to the Grange. 

You will please send me a few copies of the Southern Planter 
and Farmer, as in almost every section they desire to make up a 
club for it. 

We have had so much rain during this month the farmers are 
very much behind with planting corn. Scarcely any planted yet, 
-and at present, the land is as full of water as it can be, and will 
be sometime before it will be in condition to plant. 

Wm. McComb, 
At sn 18th, 1874. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



The veteran seedsman and florist, Peter Henderson, has sent us 
a copy of the edition of his work on "Practical Floriculture." 
The first edition of 20,000 having been long since exhausted. Mr. 
Henderson is eminently a practical writer, and the pages of his 
book reflect his own experience of many years. He dissolves the 
mystery that has hung around green house and general flora cul- 
ture, and gives his readers plain and simple directions for the cul- 
tivation of flowers. He has now written two books : "Practical 
Floriculture" and "Gardening for Profit," which, it it does no more, 
will entitle him to the thanks of the American people, for they 



258 THE SOUTHERN [May 



contain more simple, plain, practical information than all the 
other books on the subject we have ever seen. The book bears the 
imprint of Orange, Judd & Co. Is gotten up in good style, well 
illustrated. Price $1.20. 

Hubbard Bros., Philadelphia, have seut us one of their popular 
subscription books. The title: "Ocean's Story ," is a comprehensive 
one, and we find in it descriptions of maritime adventures, achieve- 
ments, explorations, discoveries and inventions. A history of the 
rise and progress of navigation and ship building, with detailed 
accounts of many remarkable voyages, including those of Magel- 
lon, Columbus, Capt. Kidd, Capt. Cook, and others. Also descrip- 
tions of diving and deep sea navigation. The author is Frank B» 
Goodrich. It contains over two hundred handsome illustratsons,. 
and is printed on excellent paper, making altogether a handsome 
book of over seven hundred pages. Book agents, we should think y 
would do well with this book. 

Introduction to Roman Law. — By James Hadley, L. L. D., late 
Prof, of Greek literature at Yale college. Published by D. Apple- 
ton & Co., New York. 

One of the great wants of the schools has been a plain, concise 
and correct treatise on the Civil Law. Without making any very 
great pretentions, this little book meets this want. It is simply 
the printed report of twelve lectures on the Roman or Civil Law y 
repeated several times before the senior class of under graduates 
at Yale college. We have derived great pleasure from the brief 
sketch we have been able to give them, and we are confident that 
a careful perusal of this book will give a very clear insight into 
this subject, hitherto much shrouded in darkness. The book is 
decidedly interesting to any one of enquiring mind, and will be 
particularly valuable to students of law and history. It is neatly 
gotten up by D. Appleton & Co., and will meet with ready sale- 
Harper & Bro. have placed us under obligations for their pub- 
lications, the Weekly, the Bazar and the Monthly Magazine. All 
bearing the name of Harper's are always welcome to our fireside 
and come filled with information and amusement. 

We believe in pictures, and in The Aldine, published by James 
Sutton & Co., is filled with the most beautiful we have ever seen. 
As an art journal, it has no equal. The April number is particu- 
larly good. The scenery of Lake George depicted is perfectly 
beautiful, and, indeed, the whole number is filled with the choicest 
specimens of art. 



FARMERS' NEWS AND ITEMS. 

The amount of the cotton crop of 1873., thus far marketed abroad, 
is 2,030,000 bales against 1,803,000 last season. The stock now in 
port is 701,000 against 531,000 last year. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 259- 

H. R. Smith, of Springfield, Erie county, N. Y., is the sole pro- 
prietor of 11 cheese factories, which during the past year have- 
received the milk ot 4,700 cows, made 25,500 cheese weighing 
1,400,000 lbs., and sold for $185,550. 

South Carolina complains that her Legislature, which has just 
adjourned, have appropriated $1,798,270.55. Of this amount, 
$400,971.13 was for public printing; $365,000 for legislative 
expenses. Claims for furniture, &c, $279,069.42; contingent 
fund, $45,000; sundries, 52,180; salaries, $192,200; public schools, 
$300,000; asylums, $193,850. 

There seems to be a growing disposition among the farmers 
along the North Carolina border to engage in the culture of cot 
ton instead of tobacco. It is claimed that it is less exhaustive to 
the land, and does not require such close attention, or at least 
does not suffer so much from neglect as tobacco. 

The weather has been so wet and cold that many farmers have 
not finished seeding oats, and very little corn has been planted up 
to the 23rd of April. 

Fall seeded grain, especially wheat, is looking remarkably well. 
The surface seeded was not large, but the prospect for a good 
yield is very flattering. 

Seed corn soaked in a weak solution of nitrate of potash, (salt 
petre,) is said to send op stronger shoots, and grow more rapidly,, 
than if soaked in pure water; the experiment is worth trying. 

Corn planted 4 feet apart each way, will give about 2,500 hills 
per acre, allowing one stalk to a hill, one ear to each stalk, and 
70 ears to a bushel, we will have some thing like 35 bushels per 
acre, a very fair yield for poor land. David Dickson, ot Georgia, 
a most successful planter, says he always estimates the amount of 
corn his land ought to yield, and plants accordingly, near or far, 
to suit, never allowing more than one stalk in a bill on ordinary 
soils. 

Tobacco is slowly advancing in price, and farmers are realizing 
good returns for their labor, when their crops are well prepared 
for market. It pays well to sort tobacco carefully, and this part 
of the business should only be confided to experienced and care- 
ful hands; frequently one or two hundred weight taken out of a 
hogshead will add very much to the aggregate sum realized for 
the whole. 

The following recipe for killing the tobacco fly we copy from an 
essay, by Major Ragland, published by S. Fertilizing Companyr 

"Dissolve an ounce of cobalt of the shops in a pint and a half 
ot water, and mix it with molasses, or other syrup, bottle it, and 
drop it through a quill into the heart of the blossom. It should 
be done about sundown, and the poisoned flowers pulled off next 
day, otherwise the plant will be destroyed. It has been found 
that this weed, so treated, planted around the edge of the tobacco 
lot, and here and there through the patch, will prevent, to a great 
extent, the ravages of the tobacco worm. All the planters, how- 
ever, in one neighborhood must act together, and this can be 
arranged through the local agricultural club." 



260 THE SOUTHERN 'Mav 



"We have received from Chas. M Stieff, of Baltimore, bis illus- 
trated catalogue and price list of Pianos, Organs, &c. 

The elder StiefF, lather of the gentlemen who are now in charge 
of this business, established an enviable reputation as the manu- 
facturer of one of the very best Pianos in use in this country, and 
the sons have fully sustained and, indeed, added to and extended 
this reputation. They have now on hand a complete assortment 
of instruments varying in price according to style of finish, but 
all possessing that exquisite tone which characterizes the Stieff 
Piano. They are also agents for the Burdell Organ and other 
equally good instruments. 

Persons desiring to purchase, and especially school teachers, 
will do well to send and get one of their catalogues at least before 
purchasing elsewhere. 



VIRGINIA DEPUTIES. 



The following Deputies have been appointed by the Master of the State Grange 
of Virginia. The list embraces the post office of the Deputies, with the Dis- 
tricts assigned to each. Parties organizing Granges in these Districts will 
apply direct to the Deputies. Where parties are organizing Granges in coun- 
ties not embraced in this list, or counties where there is no Deputy, they will 
apply direct to J. W. White. Master of the State Grange. Eureka Mills. Va. 

WM. McCOMB, Gordonsville, Va. District— Albemarle. Greene and Madi- 
son. 

^ F. W. CHILES, Tolersville. Va. District— Louisa. Orange. Caroline and 
Spotsylvania. 

ADDISON BORST. Passpatanzy. Va. District— King George. Richmond, 
Westmoreland. Lancaster and Northumberland. 

T. 0. GRAVES. Marksville. Va. District— Shenandoah and Page. 

A. M. MOORE, Summit Point, W. Va. District— Warren, Clarke and Fred- 
erick. 

S. B. CARNEY, Portsmouth, Va. District — Princess Anne. Norfolk and 
Elizabeth City. 

J. P. SOHERMERHORN. Richmond, Va. District— Henrico. 

E. D. PHILLIPS, Chuckatuck. Va. District— Xansemond. Isle of Wight 
and Southampton. 

W. H. BASDARN. Jarratt's Depot. Va. District — Surry, Sussex and 
Greensville. 

W. B. WESTBROOK. Petersburg, Va. District— Dinwiddie, Prince George 
and Chesterfield. 

J. 0. FEATHERSTONE, Lynchburg, Va. District— Bedford. Amherst and 
Campbell. 

J. J. WILKINSON. Laurel Grove. Va. District— Pittsylvania. 

J. 0. CHAPPELL. Mountain Roads. Va. District— Halifax. 

S. A. W1LLSON, Lexington. Va. District — Rockbridje. 

G. W. KOIXER. Fishersville. Va. District— Augusta" Bath. Highland and 
Rockingjbam. 

E. B. GOOPE. Boydton. Va. District— Mecklenburg and Brunswick. 

D. S. WATSON, Issequanna. Va. District — Goochland and Fluvanna. 

J. HASKINS HOBSON, Powhatan 0. H.. Va. District— Powhatan, 
Cumberland and Amelia. 

T. T. TREDWAY. Hampden Sidney. Va. District— Prince Edward, Buck- 
ingham and Appomattox. 

T. N. MERRILL, Keysville, Va. District— Charlotte and Lunenburg. 



HERMITAGE NURSERIES, 

Pticliraoiid., Virginia. 

JOHN - wTkISOIST, 

PROPRIETOR OF 

Hermitage WmrseyteSsj 

RICHMOND VIRGINIA. 

1,500,000 
APPLE AND PEACH TREES, 



FOR SALE THIS SPRING AT REDUCED PRICES. FIRST-CLASS APPLE 

TREES, $16 per hundred. FIRST-CLASS PEACli TREES, 

$14 per hundred. 

These Trees are warranted true to name and is strictly first -clas3 stock. 

SSSB STSBE MSB ©FFIGE, 

909 Is/Lauin Street Riclimond, Va. feb 



FOR, SALE, 



ITALIAN BEES, 

BEE HIVES, &C. 



I am prepared to famish, at short notice, 
Swarms of Black Bees at $5 per swarm, Hives 
extra. 

Swarms of Italian Bees at S10 per swarm, 
Hives extra. 

Italian Queens (with a few workers), by mail 
or express, So. Sa'e arrival guaranteed. 

A cheap Movable Comb Hive without sur- 
plus boxes $3 00 

A better Movable Comb Hive with two 

surplus boxes 3 75 

Triumph Bee Hive, Movable Comb, and 
upper or surplus chamber, or six sur- 
plus boxes (trade mark included to use 

one Hive), painted, and with feet 5 00 

Peeds for individual rights to make and 

use the Triumph Hive 5 00 

Deeds for individual rights to make and 

use the American side. opening Hive... 5 00 
Bee Vail for protecting face and head.... 1 00 
Cheap Honey Extractor, Virginia made.. 9 00 
Large Honey Extractor with cog wheels 13 00 
Peabody Honey Extractor at factory 
prices, freight to be added 15 00 

W. K. POLK, 

Real Estate Agent and Auctioneer. 

No. 7 Shaffer's Bnilding, Tenth St., bet. Main 
and Bank Sts., Richmond, Va. ap- 



F0R SALE.— Thoroughbred Stock, etc. 
I have for sale a lot of thoroughbred 
Devon Cattle. Essex Pigs from improved 
Stock. Also a lot of Light Brahma 
Fowls. Persons ordering from me can 
rely upon getting as good stock as any in 
the State. My herd of Devoc are ot 
the most improved breed. I took five 1st 
premiums on a portion of them at our 
last Virginia Fair. For further particu- 
lars address, 

F. W. CHILES, 
feb-6m Mansfields, Louisa Co., Va. 



Cranberry Plants 

FOR SALE. 
$4 per 1,000. $12 per bbl. 

Apply to 
EDITORS PLANTER <fc FARMER. 



EDW. J. EVANS & CO., 
Nurserymen and Seedsmen, 
York, Penn. 
A complete stock of Fruit and Orna- 
mental Trees, Garden and Flower Seeds, 
Seed Wheat, Seed Oats, Seed Corn, Seed 
Potatoes, Grass Seeds, «ic. Seed for 
Catalogue and price lista. feb-lOt 



SOLUBLE 

SEA ISLAND GUANO. 



■ o- 



Reduction of Price to $55 Per Ton, Cash. 



-o- 



With a view of meeting the necessity of the Planters at large, under the present 
depression of agricultural interests, the proprietors, (R. W. L. Basin & Co.,) of 
this valuable and -well tried fertilizer, have promptly yielded to my appeal, by re- 
ducing the price- from $58£ to $55 per ton, cash. 

The accompanying circular affords (from the many favorable testimonials given 

by my own customers) the best proofs of the superior worth of the SOLUBLE SEA 

ISLAND GUANO. 

JOHN BOOKER, Agent, 

1310 Cary street, Richmond, Va. 

p. S. — I am the >gent also for the Holston Special Fertilizer. Price $9, at 
Saltville. ap 2m 

PIEDMONT AIR-LINE RAILWAY. 

Richmond and Danville, Richmond and Danville R. W-, N- C. 
Division, and North Western N. C- R- W- 

CONDENSED TIME TABLE. 

In effect on and after Sunday, October 12th, 1873. 



GOING NORTH. 




GOING SOUTH 




STATIONS. 


MAIL 


EXPRESS. 


STATIONS. 


MAIL. 


EXPP.E88 


Leave Charlotte, 


10.00 r 


V. S.15 A. M. 


Leave Richmond, 


1.25 P. M. 


5.00 A. 11 


" Air-Line Junction 


10.06 


" 8.30 " 


Burkvilie, 


4 45 " 


5.2? " 


'« Salisbury, 


10.06 A. 


M. 10.21 " 


" Danville, 


9 18 " 


12 45 p. M 


'* Greensboro, 


3.30 


' 12 45 p.m. 


" Greensboro,' 


i2.-:o a. m. 


3.50 " 


" Danville, 


6.20 


' 312 " 


" Salisbury, 


2 35 " 


6.06 " 


" Bnrkville, 


11.35 


' 7 36 " 


" Air-Line Junctior 


,4 29 " 


8-l« " 


Arrive at .Richmond, 


2 17 P. 


M. 10.17 " 


Arrive at Charlotte. 


4.35 " 


8.16 " 


GOING EAST. 




GOING 


WEST. 




STATIONS. 




JS MAIL. 






MAIL 


Leave Greensboro' 




| 3.:o a. m. 
o- 4.45 " 


£ Arrive 




12.90 a. m 


" Co. Shops, 




s 




9.35 '« 


" Raleish, 




§• 5 05 " 


•e 




5.26 " 


Arrive at Goldsboro,' 




| 11.15 " 


= Leave 




2.30 P. M 



NORTH WESTERN N C R- R- 

Saiem Branch. 

Leave Greensboro, 430 p. M.; arrive at Salem 6.25 p. m.; leave Salem 8 a. m.; arrive a* 
Greensboro' 10 00 A. M. 

Mail trains daily, both wars. ... 

On 8undavs, Lvnchbnrg Accommodation leave Richmond at 9.45 a. m. ; arrive at burKvm* 
12.45 p. m., leave'BurkTilie 5.35 a. M.. arrive at Richmond 8 45 a.m. 

Pullman Palace Cars on all night trains between Charlotte and Richmond (trithont change). 

Papers that have arrangements to advertise the schedule of this Company wih please print a» 

For further information, address 8. E - A kLEN,, _ 

General Ticket Agent, Greensboro IS. C. 
T. M. R. TALCOTT, Eng'r & Gen'l Bup't. nor— tf 



WM. C. WILSON'S Descriptive Cata- i 
Loar/E forlS74of Choice Greenhouse and 
Bedding Plants, Evergreens, Fruit Trees, etc., 
will be mailedto all applicants. 

WM. C. WILSON, 
P. O. Box 98, Astoria, L. I. 
City Office— 43 W. Uth St., N.Y. ap- 

MAGNOLIA NURSERY, " 
(beook turnpike, neae city,) 
richmond, -vjl. 

For sale, a large assortment of Shade 
and Ornamental Trees, Evergreens, Flow- 
ing Shrubs, Creepers, «fec; also Grape- 
vines and other small Fruits, Roses, etc., 
etc. Price-list furnished on application 
in person or through post-office 

L.J.HARVEY, 

Nursery grounds open to the inspec- 
tion of visitors during business hoars* 

ap tf 

W. C. SMITH, 

MANCFA' TtTRER OF AND DEALER IN 

CHILDREN'S CARRIAGES, 

CHINA GLASS A>D WILLOW WARE, 
Tots of Every Destkiptiun, Afghans, 
MATT8, &c. 
Invalid Chairs made to order, also repairing 
neatlv done. Salesrooms 4!2 Broad Street, and 
737 Main Street, Factory 3u8, 312 and 314 Fifth 
Street, Richmend, Va. Ap-12m. 



A 



UOTION SALE OF THE 



MXTXRIvTRIv HERD. 

The Subscriber his been retained hv Mr. 
CHARLES E. COFFIN", Muirkirk, Prince 
George County, Md., to sell his entire herd of 
Short- Horns, 
ON WEDNESD AY, 13th DAY OF MAY NEXT. 

Mr. COFFIN founded his herd with animals 
either direct or strongly in-bred to Bates, Booth, 
Princess, Gwynnes and other good strains, im- 
ported and home bred. Having a personal 
knowledge of the H rd, I can recommend them 
to all gentlemen wishing good individuals well 
bred. The bulls last in use are imported Royal 
Briton* and Lore Abraham, Booths; Lord 
Mayor of the Pr.ncess trib°, ard the extra good 
BATES BOLL dTH EARL OF OXFORD 

Muirkirk is a station on the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad, 15 miles from Washington, D. C 
Three trains each way in the morning. 

TbrSs. — Cash on sums under $2 0. Over 
$200, aprrovad paper at 6 per cent, or a discount 
for cash of .5 per eent. No postponement, no 
reserve. Residence 200 feet from railroad. 

Catalogues ready early in April, for which 
address owner or Salesman. 

JOHN R. PAGE, 
Sennett, Cayuga Co., N. T. 

The SSle of C. C. Parks, Esq., Waukegan, 
111., occurs on Wednesday, May 2oth. Col- 
Kintg's Sale, at Drxter Park, Chicago, on Thurs- 
day, .May 21. ap-2t 



y ELL'S ENCYCLOPEDIA. 

It is a Dictionary op Languagb. It con- 
tains every word in the English language, with 
its derivation and definition. 

It is a Biographical Dictionary. It has a 
sketch of every noted person of all ages, many 
of them with portraits. 

It is a Complete Gazetteer. It has a des- 
cription of every country, sea, lake, river, 
mountain, town, &c, in the world. 

It is a Mbdical Dictionary. It contains a 

description of diseases, remedies, instruments, 
surgical operations, &c, &c. 

It is a History of the World. It contains 

a description of the migration of races, the 

progress of nations, their customs, laws, reli- 
gions, &c. 

It is a Complete Natural History. It 
describes all animals, birds, insects, fishes and 
reptiles. 

It is a Complete Workon Botany. It de- 
scribes every plant, flower, vegetable and tree, 
witn their properties, uses, &c. 

It is a Complete Work on Mechanics. It 
describes all new inventions, engines, machi- 
nery, tools, &c. 

It is a Complete Church History. It de- 
scribes impartially the various divisions of the 
church of at. ages. 

It is Equal to a Whole Library of Works. 
It describes every material or non-material 
thing that is capable of description in language. 

It is well Illustrated. It contains nearly 
three thousand engravings of persons, animals, 
plants, trees, flowers, machines, buildings, &c. 

A specimen number, containing forty pages, 
■will be sent to any address on the receipt of 10 
cents. Sold on 'y by subscription. Agents and 
canyassers wanted 

All communications respecting agencies and 
subscriptions should be addressed to 

AARON JONES, Jr., 
General Agent for Virginia, 
ap- 1115 Main Street, Richmond. 



L. POWERS & SON, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

AND 
WHOLESALE PRODUCE DEALERS. 
1510 East Main Street, Richmond, Va., 
Flour. Grain, Hay, and all kinds Seed 
and Eating Potatoes. Foreign and do- 
mestic Fruits. Seed Potatoes a specialty. 



BF. LEWIS, Gwynedd, Montgomery Co., 
a Pa , Importer, Breeder and Dealer in 
tine Fowls, Pigeons, Pets, etc., of the purest 
and best quality . Berkshire and Chester White 
Figs. Large Bronze and White Holland Tur- 
keys. Konen, Alesbury, and other fine Ducks. 
China, Bremen, and other Geese. Asiatics, 
Spanish, Dorkings, Hamburgs, White and 
Brown Leghorns, Polands, Houdans, and sev- 
eral varieties of Bantams ; also Eggs for Hatch- 
ing in season. Greyhounds, Newfoundland, 
and Hunting Dogs. Hlack and White, French, 
and Blue Maltese Cats, also many other speci- 
mens of rare Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbit-, and 
other Pets. My Stock has been awarded 190 
Premiums in five months. I would also call the 
attention of Breeders to my celebrated Chicken 
Powder, which will cure as well as prevent 
Cholera, and other diseases in Fowls, as well as 
promote their health and vigor. Sold at 60 cts. 
per pound. A liberal discount to the trade. 
Every one should try it. For Catalogue a'id 
Price-List, address with stamp. ap.tf 



THE CR0T0N GRAPE. 

Fine two-year old Plants of this variety 
by mail or express. Send for Price-List. 

S. W". UNDERHILL, 
ap- Ctoton Landing, P. 0., N. Y. 



JOHN LAIRD, 

FLOEISTj 

Grace St., Gardens and 733 Main Street. Cor. Eighth St. 

Offers to the Public a Large and fine Assortment of 

Greenhouse and Hardy Plants, 



AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

irabg. Flower 8e eda and Gra: i Visa in great variety, at reduced 
-.:■• L-.'..--.'ii :z r.-.j free if BbngB. Paddag tad SlupjHagj ;i<r- 



ap-2t 



FOR TOBACCO AND ALL SPRING CROPS 

USE 

IB^TJGrl-I'S 
T ftADE MAF 



RAW BONE 

.;,.:. '•.j :/.z\\- ::;r:vr:. mi 
barer. Rich in amaoaia and 

ZIXG SUPPL1I 3 . 



;z . - 



SUPER-PHOSPHATE. 

standard warraDted to eTery 
solnt .id, es je- 

an d • g — also, PURE 

.and FEETlLr 
BAUGH <fc SC 
Delaware Axe., Philadelphia, 




EGGS FOE HATCHim 

I -. :■:- :i:i.rr ::.<■:■! :;: .-_''- '-< :rc~ :ir :':'. ;- z.g BLEEDS OF POE'LTRl . 
I S 3 S to 1 1 in 

MARCH, APEIL AXD MAY. 
LIGHT BRAHMA, £2 per oV i 

DARK BRAHMA, 2 " 

PARTRIDGE COCHIX, 

RX, 4 «' 

HOUDAX, 3 " " 

ROUES' DCC: 3 " 

SILVER SPA5GLE HAMBUJ 3 " " 

Cask to accompany order. Eggs delivered in rotation, commencing with 1st of 
Haw*. T. L. PAYNE. 

■ •*- I Farmer, Richmond, Ya. 



TO THOSE INTERESTED 

IN THE 

PROPAGATION OF GAME FOWLS. 



We have at Mount Erin the following described Game Fowls, to wit : The IRISH 
RED, BALTIMORE MUFFS, and GEORGIA. DOMINICKE— all of them tried 
Fowls in the pit, and known to be Genuine Game, which we offer for sale at the 
price of Five Dollars a pair. Any iriend desiring to propagate from such stock, 
•who will 6end their orders enclosing $5 to Publishers of Southern Planter and 
Farmer, No. 1115 Main Street, Richmond, will be promptly attended to. 

JAMES DUKE. 

nov— 6m MOUNT ERIN, Henrico County, Va. 



A VERY FINE 

BERKSHIRE BOAR, 

NINE MONTHS OLD, SIRE AND DAM 
IMPORTED FROM ENGLAND. 
A few Superior SOUTH DOWN EWES and EWE LAMBS, and a very large 

BBONZE TURKEY GOBLER. 

PRICE OF TURKEY *5. 

A.M. BOWMAN, Bellevue Stock Farm, 

jan— tf WAYNESBORO, Augusta Co.. Va. 



We have purchased the Photographic Gallery formerly owned by Mr. W. G. R.. 
Fratser, 1011 Main St., opposite Post-office. 

Having thoroughly refitted and added all the recent improvements, we respectfully 
inform the public "that we are prepared to execute every first-class style of PIC- 
TURES (from minatnre to life-size} known to the art. Our establishment is the 
most extensive and perfectly appointed one in the South, consequently we are enabled 
to offer our patrons superior facilities for obtaining the very best results that the Art 
is susceptible of. We retouch elegantly all negatives made in OUR GALLERY. Our 
facilities for copving and restoring old Pictures are not equalled by any establish- 
ment in the country. Persons t'esiiing first class work, in our line, will find it to 
their advantage to'call and examine our aitistic productions.' You will find our 
prices as reasonable as first-class work caa be produced. 

[nov— ly] M. J. POWERS & CO. 

35 Packages of Flower or Vegetable 
Seeds free by mail for one dollar. One 
beautiful Illustrated Catalogue of seeds 
and plants for 1874, free to all. Plants 
by mail specialtv. Address, 

GREEN, BEACH & CO., 
Seedsmen and Florists, Oil Citv, Pa. 
Box 1775. mar-lOt 

THE NEW CLIFTON FRUIT CRATE and VEGETABLE CRATE the best thing 
known for transporting Fruits and Vegetables. Will supersede all other arti- 
cles used for these purposes. Took first premium and diploma at Maryland State 
Fair, 1873. First Premium and Diploma at Frederick Fair, 1873. First Premium 
or Medal at Virginia State Fair, 1873. 

State, County, Farm, and Individdal Rights for sale by 

E, B. GEORGIA & CO., 
nov — ly CliftoD, FairfaxC o ,Va. 




SEEDS! BULBS! PLANTS! 

VEGETABLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, 

LILIES, 
GIADIOLUS, TUBEROSES, 

And all other Summer Flowering Bulbs. ROSES. Greenhouse and Bedding 
Plants. Every requisite for the VEGETABLE GARDENS, FLOWER GARDENS, 
GREENHOUSE and WINDOW GARDENS. Catalogues sent free to all applicants. 



feb— 3 m 



W. S*. ALLEX, 

Seed, Bulb and Plant Merchant, 

QUEENS. N. T. 




THE WATT PLOW 

CONTINUES TRIUMPHANT ! 

No CHOKING when bright and smooth ; 
no LABOR to the plowman ; ONE-THIRD 
LE<S DRAUGHT to the team ; thorough 
BURIAL of Weed?, Grass. <tc; great 
STRENGTH, Durability and Economy in 
its use, and complete pulverization of the 
soil. 

B&" I have, within the past eighteen 
months, made great improvements in the 
WATT PLOW, and can, with, greater confi- 
dence than ever, commend it to the farming 
community everywhere. 

GEORGE WATT. 

Premiums received during the last three 
weeks of October, 1873 : 

Yirgin'a and North Carolina Fair, at 
w»e** wmt. «„,. Norfolk, October 7, 1873— ALL FIR ST 

PREMIUMS AWARDED ON PLOWS. 

The test of plows took place in a sandy loam, with weeds, <tc, from four to six 
feet high. The Watt Plow did not choke at all, and buried the vegetation per- 
fectly." 

North Carolina State Fair, at Raleigh, October 14, 1873— ALL PREMIUMS 
AAV ARDED ON PLOW S. 

Piedmont Agricultural Fair, Culpeper Courthouse, Va., October 14, 1673 — ALL 
PREMIUMS AWARDED ON PLOWS. 

The test took place in a hard, stiff clay soil not plowed since the war. and cov- 
ered with running briers. The Watt Plow was run seven inches deep without diffi- 
culty, and never choked, burying everything under. 

Virginia State Fair, Richmond, October 28, 1S73— ALL THE PREMIUMS ON 
EACH SIZE, RIGHT AND LEFT HAND. 

Also, two special premiums from the Society. Also, two special premiums from 
the city of Richmond. 

The Plows were tested in a sodded and heavy pipe soil. The working of the 
Watt Plow was admired bv all. 

Western (N. C.) Fair at"Salisbury, October 7. 1873— HIGHEST PREMIUM. 

Darlington (S. C.) Fair, October *11, 1S73— HIGHEST PREMIUM. 

The WATT PLOW of all sizes, from oi e to four horses, warranted to do better 
woFk, with more ease, than any plow in use. If they do not prove so after one 
week's trial, they may be returned to U6, and the purchase money will be refunded. 

HARROWS, CULTIVATORS and ALL KINDS OF FARMING IMPLEMENTS 
for sale on the best terms. Send fdr Circulars. 

WATT &L, CALL 7 

dec Sole Manufacturers, Richmond, Ya. 



POWHATAN RAW BONE 

SUPER-PHOSPHATE, 

MANUFACTURED BY 

J"a,mes Gr. Downward & Go. 
o 

TO THE PLANTERS OF 



We again respectfully call the attention of those intending to use fertilizers on 
their Bpring crops to ihe Powhatan Raw Bone Super-Phosphate, and particularly 
those who want a reliable fertilizer for tobacco and cotton, as we intend in the 
future, as in the past five years, ta furnish an article which has no rival, regardless 
of price. Wherever it has been used by the side of any other fertilizer whateveri 
not excepting the deservedly popular and higher priced tobacco fertilizers of th,a 
day, it has in every case proved itself superior. 

A few out of many of our certificates from our patrons : 

Blacks and Whites, Nottoway Co., Va., Jan. 1, 1872. 
Dear Sirs,— This is to certify that I have used the Powhatan Phosphate along 
S de of three other kinds of fertilizers, each of which cost more than the Powhatan, 
and the difference in my crop ot tobacco was greatly in favor of the Powhatan 
Phosphate. From my experience last year I think it a No. 1 manure, and recom- 
mend its general use. Very truly yours, 

SAMUEL F. EPES. 

Lunenburg Co., Va., Jan. 29, 1873. 
Gentlemen, — I used your "Powhatan Raw Bone Super-Phosphate" last year on 
tobacco with perfect success and entire satisfaction. 

Very respectfully, R. H. ALLEN. 

Dinwiddie Co., Va., Jan. 13, 1872. 
Dear Sirs,— In reply to your request, I have no hesitation in saying that I pre- 
fer the Powhatan Raw Bone Super-Phosphate, bought of you last spring, to any 
preparation that I have ever used on tobacco. I wish you to furnish me again this 
spring. Yours truly, WM. B. COLEMAN. 

Powhatan Co., Va., Jan. 30, 1878. 
Gentlemen, — YouiB^r24ih, asking my opinion of the Powhatan Phosphate ,« 
to hand. In reply, I have to say it acted well on my tobacco— better than a mor 
costlv fertilizer that was applied by the side of it. 

Yours truly, Z. G. MOORMAN. 

Amelia Co., Va., Jan. 16, 1872. 
Dear Sirs, — In regard to the Powhatan Phosphate bought of you last spring, I 
take pleasure in saying that I am much pleased with its action on my crop. I used 
it on very thin.^land, 200 pounds to the acre, and my tobacco weighed better than 
anv crop I have ever raised. I wish vou to furnish.jme again this spriDg. 

Yours, &c, GEO. H. WILLS. 

Harmony, Halifax Co., Va., Jan. 20, 1872. 
Gentlemen, — You request me to give you the result of my experience in the use 
of Powhatan Raw Bone Sup^r-Phospbate. I have used it successfully for two 
years, 1870 and 1871, and 1 think it the cheapest fertilizer I have ever used, and 
expect to use it acrain the coming season. 

Youis truly, EDWARD MOORE. 

5 



MUST RAISE EVERY DOLLAR I CAN ! 

FOE WHAT? 
TO OO NORTH. 

f the merchant, and yet the same 
iucidal policy is pursued year alter yeiir, draining the c-ounlry of money. 

THE REMEDY. 

I . Mirage manufacturing enter;, - :^te, and keep your money at 

home, by bujiDg the superior goods mr. 

The Charlottesville Woolen Mills. 

Thos* M» Aliriend & Son 5 

LIFE, FIRE A.1VD MARINE 

INSURANCE AGENTS, 

Office Ho. 1 North 10th Street 'Shafer's Bailding). 

PETERSBURG SAVINGS AND INSURANCE CO., 

ASSETS, - - - OVER 8400,000- 
D ; ARCY PAUL, President. D. B. DUGGER, Secretary 



Farmville Insurance and Banking Co. 

OF FARMVILLE, VIRGINIA. 

Assets, $115,000 00. 

WM. D. RICE, President. I. H. MOTELER, Secretary. 

Firemen's and Merchants' Insurance Company 

OF PETERSBURG, VIRGINIA. 
Assets, .... Over; $100,000 .00. 

J. ANDREW WHITE, Pi J. B. STEVEN- 

O 

GENERAL AGENTS FOB VIRGINIA OF THE 

BROOKLYN LIFE INSURANGECO. 

OF NEW YORK. 

Assets, - - ,000, 000, and Rapidly Increasing. 

WO IN VIRGINIA REGISTERED BONDS, DEPOSITED WITU TREAS- 
URES SINLi, for Security of Virginia Policy-Holders. 
LIFEPO^ the Most Approved Plans, with the MOST LIBERAL 
Feature;. 

. HARGE FOR POLICY OR STAMP. 
^The guarantee of A CASH SURRENDER VALUE TO EVERT PARTICI- 
PATING POLICY e :ii is definitely stated in dollars and cents, 
nLd is endorsed on *6o 

GOOD LIFE AGENTS WANTED everywhere in Virginia, who will be liberally 
dealt with. my — 



CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 



On and after SUNDAY, April 19th, 1874, passenger trains will 
run as follows : 

FROM RICHMOND: 

8:30 A. M. MAIL TRAIN.— For Gordonsville, Charlottesville, Staunton, White 
Sulphur, Hiuton, and all intermediate Stations, daily (except Sundays), arriving at 
Hiutou at 10:10 P. M. This train connects at Go.donsville for Orange, Culpeper, 
Warrenton, Manassas, Alexandria, Washington, and the North, and at Charlottes- 
ville for Lynchburg, Bristol, Knoxville, Chattanooga and the South. 

4:45 P. M. AC 30MMODATION TRAIX — For Gordonsville and all intermedi- 
ate Stations, daily ( except Sunday), arriving at Gordonsville 8:30 P. M. 

9:30 P. M. CINCINNATI EXPRESS For Gordonsville, Charlottesville, Staun- 
ton, Goshen, Miilboro,' Covington, White Sulphur, and all Stations -west of White 
Sulphur, daily (except Sunday), arriving at Huntington, 5:30 P. M. This train 
conned 6 at Gordonsville for Washington, Baltimore find the North, and for Lynch- 
burg, Bristol, and the South, and at Huntington with the Steamers Bostona and 
Fleetwood for Cincinnati and all points West and Southwest, arriving at Cincinnati 
G A.M. 

Baggage cheeked through. 

FOR THROUGH TICKETS, rates, and information, apply at 826 Main street, Bal- 
lard and Exchange Hole!, or at Company's Office, Broad Street and Sixteenth. 

A. H. PERRY, General Sup't. 
Edgar Vliet, General Passenger and Ticket Agent. [my — tf 

EGGS (THAT WILL HATCH) AND CHICKENS TO SELL ! 
BY AN AMATEUR TO PAY EXPENSES. 

The most attractive and beautiful of all LAWN PETS is the POLAND FAMILY 
with TOPKNOTS, as large as oranges. Colors : Jet black, Pure White. Black with 
White Crests, Silver and Golden, both perfectly pencilled. All PREMIUM BIRDS 
purchased and imported at high cost. Also the beautiful Black Cochins, Light and 
Dark Brahma3 and Games. General Sante Anna stock. 

Eggs carefully packed. Chickens to sell after July. 

FRAXK EVANS, 

my — tf. No. 5 South Paul S'reet, Baltimore, Md., 

EGGS THAT WILL HATCH! 

AN AMATEUR TO PAY EXPENSES OFFERS HIS EGGS AT $2.50 DOZEN. 
THE POLISH FAMILY A SPECIALTY. 

While Crested, Black, White, Sdver and Golden, Light and Dark Brahmas, Buff 
and Black Cochins, all bred from premium chickens, carefully packed and delivered 
at express. FRANK EVANS, 

No. 5 South Paul St., Baltimore, Sid. 
To sell— 1 trio White Cochins $10. 
2 trios Buff " 10. 

2 " Light Brabmas 7.50. 
Order- received for all kinds delivered by July 1st at low prices. [my — 2m. 

B. A. HANCOCK, 



MANCHESTER, T\Al., 

Will practice in the Courts of Chesterfield, Powhatan and Henrico Counties ; the 
city Courts of Richmond and Court of Appeals. Special attention given to case* 
in Bankruptcy and to collections in Richmond. mar-= 



fCPThe Oldest and most Reliable Application for the Tobacco Crop- 



Q 


/^~1 


r \ 


> 




( M 


1 c? N 






\ k 


A / 


h-t 


f±f£ 


\ % 


A / 


l-H 


P3 


^j 


v/ 


o 




PATENTED. 





TOBACCO FEETILIZEE, 



PREPARED BY TRE 



SOUTHERN FERTILIZING CO., 



RICHI^OlSriD, V-A.., 



O- 



Apply to loial Agents, or any commission merchant in Richmond. 
Where Agricultural clubs or Associations wish to purchase in large lots, the rate 
at which it will be supplied will be indicated on application, ap 3m 



BUY i OUR DRY GOODS OF 

LEVY BROTHERS, 

nnd save money by doing so. Great reductions have been made in the prices of 
DRESS GOODS in order to close out the whole stock. 

Satteens at 35, 50, 65, 70, and 75c. — a reduction of twenty-five percent. ; Empress 
Cloths at 35, 50, and up to 75c. per yard ; Silk -corded Poplin* at 7oc per yard, 
worth $1.25; Poplin Alpacas — best quality — at 40c. per yard, sold everywhere at 
50c. ; Corded and Plain Alpacas at 25c. worth 35c. per yard ; Black Brocaded Ala- 
pacas at 25c worth 50. per yard; Black Alapacas, Mohairs, and Briiliantinesat all 
prices ; 

Bombazirus from 1.25 to $2 per yard ; Australian Crepe a' 50c. worth 75c. per 
yard; 

Handsome Brocaded Poplins, all silk and wool, at $1 per yard, reduced from 
$1.75 ; Handsome Silk and Wool-Striped Poplins, 18J yards in a pattern, for $15, 
reduced from $25; 

Doubled-faced Cotton Poplins at 14c. per yard, worth 25c. ; 

Doubled-faced Cotton Poplins at I6§c per yard, worth 30c. ; 

Calicoes at 6}, 8J, 10, and 12£e. ; 

White Flannel, full yard wide and all wool, at 45c. per yarJ worth 60c. ; 

White Flannels, in all qualities, from 20c. up to §1 per yard ; 

Colored Flannels in all qualities ; 

Bleached and Unbleached Canton Flannel from 12J to 45c. per yard ; 

Domestic Ginghams at. 17, 12£, and l6^c; 

Cheviot Shirting at 16§c. worth 25c. per yard; 

Linseys from 15§ to 40c. per yard ; Bed-Tick from 10 to 35c. per yard : 

Doeskin Casimere at$l per yard worth $1.25 ; 

Excellent Satinets at 50, 60, and 75c. per yard; Kentucky Jeans from 16§ to 50c. 
per yard ; 

Charlottsville Ca r simeres at a very small advance on manufacturers' prices ; 

Water-Proof Cloths at 75c, 1, 1.25, 1.50, and $1.75 p^r yard ; Black and Brown 
Velveteens at 50c worth 75c. per j'ard ; 

Black and Colored Velveteens in all qualities ; Trimming Velours, in all colors, 
at $1, and $1.50 per yard; Silk Velvbt, black and colored, for trimming and mil- 
linery use ; Table-Cloths, pure linen, two yards long, at 81 worth $1.50; 

Linen Doylies at 50, 60, 75c and $1 per dozen — all 25 per cent, below regular 
prices ; Huckaback Towels from 1.25 to $9 per dozen ; We call particular attention 
to our Towels at $2.25 and $3 per doztn ; Napkins at 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, $2, and up 
to $6 per dozen ; Linen Damnsk fo" table-cloths from 50c. up to $2 per yard; Extra 
Long Table Cloths from $8 up to $20; Cotton Diaper at $1.23 and $1.50 for a piece 
of ten yards, worth 1.75 and $2; Linen Bird's Eye Diaper at 30c. worth 40c. per 
jard; A full assortment of Ladies' Cloaks, Water-Proofs and Shawls, all at great 
bargains; Gentlemen's Shawls and Gardigan Jackets, very cheap ; White and Col- 
ored Bed Blankets, all sizes aud qualities, at extremely low puces; Calico Com- 
fortables, home manufacture, at 2 and 2.50 worth 3 and $3.50; Carpets, Matting, 
Oil-Cloth, Rngs Mats, and Window Shades at reduced prices; Children's Carriage 
Blankets at 81.50 worth $3 ; Silk, Linen, and Cotton Hankeichieis, in all qualities; 
Nubias, Hoods, Breakfast-Shawls, Leggins, Scarfs, and Saiques ; Genuine Bu«k Mits , 
Gloves, Gloves and Gauntlets ; Bobbin Edging. 18 yards in a piece, for 5Uc wcrth 
5c per yard ; Worked Dimity Bands at 10c. worth 20c. ; Clark's and Coat's Spojl 
Cotton at 70c. per dozen ; Machine Needles from 40c. to 50c. per paper of ten nee- 
dles ; Best Machine Oil at 15c per bottle; Tidies at 35 and 50c worth 75c. and 
$1 ; Gilt and Jet Jewelry in great variety; Ladies' Linen Collars at 50c per dozen, 
$lso Collars at I, 1.25, and up to $2.50 per dozen ; Gentlemen's Linen Collars at 60, 
c7 and $1 per dozen worth 2 and $2.50 ; Gentlemen's Recherche Cuffs at 1 worth 
•45per dozen ; Crochet Edgings at 15, 25, and 50c for a piece of twelve yards, worth 
a gand 10c per yard ; Neck Scarfs at 25, 40, 50e. and up to $1.50— all much be'ow 
jS ular prices ; "Full-width Unbleached Sheeting at 28c; Full-width Bleached 
♦heating at 33c. : New York Mills and Wamsutta Cotton at 18c. per yard ; Excel- 
lent yard-wide Bleached and Unbleached Cotton at 10 and 12£c. per yard, and 
thousands of other bargains at 

LEVY BROTHERS 
feb.] 10i7 & 1019 MAIN STREET, RICHMOND, VA. 



Fertilizers and Seeds for 1873, 



SOLUBLE PACIFIC GUANO. 

NO. i PERUVIAN GUANO, 

FLOUR OF R^-"W BOISTE, 

Ground Plaster, Lime, Agricultural Salt, &c. 

FIELD, GRASS, AND GARDEN SEEDS, 

SEED POTATOES 

Of the Early Rose, Eaklt Goodrich, Peerless, and other choice varieties. 
For further information and supplies, address 

ALLISON & ADDISON, 

SEED AND GUANO MERCHANTS, RICHMOND, VA. 



J.Pfi.THORBURN&CO., 

15 JOHN ST. NEW YORK. 

Will mail, upon application, their New 
Catalogue of Vegetable and Agricultu 
ral Seeds for 1874. t 



F 



RESH 



GARDEN and FIELD SEED 
At the old stand cf Palmer & Turpin, 
1526 Main street, Richmond, 
Orchard Grass, 

Timothy, ILrds, Clover, 

Kentucky Blue Grass 
Send for Catalogue, 
leb-tf W. II. TURPIN 



Eggs, Cream, Milk and Lemon Biscuits 
and every kin 1 of Crackers, made t 
specialty. Pound and fancy Cakes 
Ginger Snaps, Lemon Snaps, Jumbles 
<vc, <fec, <fcc, 

EICHARD ADAM, 

Richmond Steam Bakery, 12th St., Rich- 
mond, Va.. manufacturer of ell kinds ol 
Bread, Cakes and Crackers, wholesale 
and retail. Orders from the country at 
tended to promptly. ap—ly 



FOR SALE. 

150 150 150 150 

acres ! acres ! acres ! acres ! 

A FINE FARM FOR SALE. 

Every convenience and impiovement. Choice 
Fruit. Jii a splendid farming community, six 
miles east of Nashville, Illinois, For full par- 
ticulars and price address, 

J. W. UOGHILL, 
Beancoup, Washington Co., 111. 
my— It 



BUCKEYE POULTRY YARDS, 

OFFER FOR SALE, 

EGGS FOR HATCHING 

From the followingvarieties of Pure-Bred 
Land and Water Fowl*, at $2.50 perdoz.: 

Dark and Light Brahmas ; Buff. Black. 
While and Partridge Cochins ; Brown and 
While Leghorns; White and Silver-Grey 
Dorkings ; Plymouth Rock*; Houdans; 
Black, Red, Earl Derby, and Pile Games; 
Rouen and Aylesbury Ducks; Toulouse 
and Bremen Geese. 

I warrant one-half of each dozen Eggs 
to hatch ; if they do not I will replace 
them at 50 cts. per dozen. Send stamp 
for Circul r. Eggs sent, C. O. P., if de- 
sired. Address, iSAACLYNDE, 
ap 3t Marlboro, Staik county, O. 

SEED POTATOES. 
"Red Jacket." — A seedling from the Mercer, 
which it resembles in flavor, quality and habits 
of growth — ihout ten days later than the Rose, 
vields twice as much as Peach Blow; white 
flesh an 1 perfectly hardy : in color, thape, size 
and gene al appeaaance. l:a- no equal, heceived 
1st. Premium at the Western A'. Y. and Pa. 
state Fairs, for best variety. 3 lhs. bv mail, 
*100; 30 Its. $5.00 ; 60 lhs. SSOO; bbl," $15.00. 
Free at Chili or Kochester Station. Circular 
free. 

A. S. JOHNSOX, North Chili, N. T. 



E. Y. TEAS & CO., 

RICHMOND, IND., Offers 

5 nice Everblooming Roses, mailed free 551. '"0 
16 •' " " 16 sorts, " 2.00 

6 Geraniums, 6 " " 1.00 
12 " double and single " 2.00 
12 Verbenas, named, " 1.00 
12 Gladiolus, various colors, " 1,00 
1,OCO,000 Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 

Plants mailed any distance with success. 
Our new Catalogue free to all applicants. 
my— It. 



SEEDS 

O'JR BEAUTIFULLY ILLUSTRATED 

[CATALOGUES for 1874, ot 



WtimM 



Numbering I 75 PACES, and oyntamnj: 
^ 2 fine large colored plates, are now ready. 
£ To our patrons tuiy will be mailed a3 usual 

Efree; to all otaers, on receipt of 25c, wuicl 
we return in Seeds or Plants, with first order. 
D AU parch isera m our Booths, either 

S Gardening for Profit, 
or Practical Floriculture 
Price $1.50 each (prepaid bj m:iiU) havi 
•their nanus entered on our lists, and toil I 
ireeeive above Cataiojuta annual.::, free o. 
Zcharji. 

Seedsmen! 3 5 Cortlandt Stree t, New York. 
I PLANTS 




CP FL OREN CE 

Tlie long-contested Suit of the 
FL.01tK.NCI-: SEHlMi MACHINE CO. 

against the Singer, Wheeler i Wileon, 

and Giover & Baker Companies, inTblvinjr over 

$250,000, 

Is finally decided by the 

Supreme Court of the United States 

,in favor of the FLORENCE, which al no has 

Sroken the Monopoly of High Prices. 

THE NEW~FLORENCE 

Is the OXIY tnacJiine that seics bacJ:- 

tcard and forward, or to right and left. 

Simplest— Cheapest— Mest. 

Sold top. Cash Only. .Special Teems to 

CT.mS and DFALKRS. 

April, 1S74. Florence, Mass. 



STANDARD SUPER-PHOSPHATE OF LIME, 

MANUFACTURED FROM BONE, 

Warranted to contain 10 per cent. Soluble Ph< sphum Acid and 3 percent. Ammonia! 

THE CHEAPEST MANURE IN THE MARKET. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

LISTER & BROTHERS, 

AT 

PASSIAO AGRICULTURAL WORKS.,. 

NE W A R K, N. Y. 

Established 1850. 

Sole Agent fur RICIItfQtfD, VA., 

No. 1 Tobacco Exchange. 



BONE DUST, BONE MEAL, AND FLOUR. lfeb-tf 




GRAND, SQUARE, AND UPRIGHT 

FI^TNTOS 

Ilave received upwards of FIFTY FIRST PREMIUMS, and are among the best 
now made. Every instrument fully warranted for five years. Prices as low as the 
exclusive, use of the very best materials and the most thorough workmanship will 
permit. The principal Pianists and composers and the piano-purchasing public, 
of the South especially, unite in the unanimous verdict of the superiority of the 
feTIEFF PIANO, The DURABILITY of our instruments is fully established by 
over SIXTY SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES in the South, using over 300 of our 
Pianos. 

Sole Wholesale Agents for several of the principal manufacturers of Cabiuet an 1 
Parlor Organs ; prices from $50 to $600. A liberal disjount to Clergymen and Sab- 
bath Schools, 

A large assortment of second-hand Pianos, at prices ranging from $7o to $300, 
always on hand. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue, containing the names of over 2,000 Southerners 
who have bought and are using the Stieff Piano. 

CHAS. M. STIEFF. 
Warerooms, No. 9 North Liberty Street, 

Baltimore, Md. 
Factories, 8-T& 86 Camden street, and 46 & 47 Pe:ry street. my— ly. 



* 
IMPORTANT FACTS FOR ADVERTISERS I 

LARGE RETURNS FOR A SMALL OUTLAY. 



THE) SOUTHERN 

PLANTER- AND FARMER! 

THE OLDEST AGRM VLTIRAL JOl RNAL TLBLISHED I> VIRGINIA, 

(ESTABLISHED IN 1840 ) 

HAS BEEN TI1E ORGAN (TF STATE AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETIES EVER SINCE THtltt ORGANIZATION. 

, o, 

SUBSCRIPTION REDUCED TO $1 50 PER ANNUM 

Clubs of five or more fl.'iO each. 

As an ADVERTISING MEDIUM through which to reach the fanne eof Virginia, 
W«t Virg : nia, North Carolina and East Teuness.-e, it has no equal, being a firm" 
cuss rai'ER, and taten by tbe wealthiest and most enterprising laruier&anl busi- 
ues» men in tho j e sections. It has 

THE LARGEST CIRCULATION 

of any strictly' Agricultural paper published at the South. Great car* will be 
taken to exclude all but reliable advertisers— snoh as we can commeud to the confi- 
dence of our readers — and attention will, from time to time be called to the adver- 
j semente, in o.der that our j>atron9 may realize the g-eatest possible benefit from 
litem. 

f&* Importers and dealr:c in fiqe Stock and Poultry, Insurance Com nauies, Bank- 
ers, Machinists, Fertilising Companies, Nurserymen, Seedsmen, Commission Mer- 
chants, Ac., who wish to rewh the best class of people in tbe country, will find i* 
to their interest to adve.tise in th's £>urnal. 



TERMS FOIl AT>V13TITI£SI>-G. 

] square. 10 lines or less, one insertion. ..$ 1 50 Half pag", six months.. .$ 45 00 

1 square of 10 lines for six months 8 00 Half page, one } ear. .. . 80 00 

I square of 10 lines for one year 12 0) One page single insertion 15 00 

Quarter page, six months 25 00 One page, six months. . . 80 0O 

Quarter page, one year.. 45 0U One page, one year... .. 1,0 l»0 

PAYMENTS : 

Subscription —in advance. Adverti-ing — annua 1 . — quarterly in adv nee. All 
others in advance. 

All badness comm-jni >atuns to bo addressed to 

L. R. DICKINSON", 
Editor and Proprietor, 
1115 Main Street, Richmond, Va. 



THE SOUTHERN 

PLANTER AND FARMER, 

DEVOTED TO 

Agriculture, Horticulture and the Mining, Mechanic and Household Arts. 

Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts. — Xexophon. 
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State. — Sully. 

L. R. DICKIXSOX. . .. . . Editor and Proprietor. 

T. L. PAYNE, . . . Associate Editor and Business Agent. 

New Series. RICHMOND, VA., JUNE, 1874- No. 6. 



In the view which we have hitherto taken of the condition and pro- 
gress of the agricultural interests of the South, we have been disposed 
to present it in its most flattering aspect, and at all times have aimed 
to take a hopeful view of the situation. But there are difficulties and 
dangers in the way of progress, which did we fail to note, we would 
fall very far short of our duty as a citizen, a fanner and a journalist. 
One difficulty which meets us at the very threshold is the disinclina- 
tion among the better class of our people to engage in any pursuit 
that requires manual labor for its successful prosecution. This indis- 
position, which in many cases amounts to aversion to labor, exhibits' 
itself more prominently among the very class to which we look for 
improvement than any where else, — we refer, of course to the wealth- 
ier and more refined among our farmers and their well educated sons. 
So long as these young men, at once the hope and pride of the State. 
are encouraged to leave the farm and rush into the alread}' over- 
crowded professions, or even to accept a second rate clerkship, 
rather than engage in the more laborious, but far more independent 
avocation of tilling the soil. We cannot hope to make a progress 
equal to that made by States whose best and most intelligent men are 
not only identified with the farming interest, but are actually engaged 
in the arduous duties of the farmers' life. 

But the young men are not very much to blame after all. It must 
be confessed that the prevailing sentiment among the higher classes 
even of our rural population has been until recently, if it is not still, 
averse to labor, and our society has frequently been rather inclined to 
look down upon those compelled to labor for a livelihood, and in cases 
where persons above the necessity chose to labor it was considered an 
unfortunate idosyncracy rather to be pitied than emulated. 

All this thing must be changed. Our sons must be reared to labor 
and to think that labor is honorable. Our daughters must be taught 
that the bronzed face and hard hand of the farmer who designs to 



262 THE SOUTHERN f June 



hold the plow or drive is not degraded by his occupation. And soci- 
ety at large must learn to respect the class whose labor and efforts 
must lay the foundation of all our prosperity. This change of senti- 
ment must begin at home among the farmers. They must respect 
themselves and their calling. No one is likely to place a higher esti- 
mate upon a man's occupation than he himself does, and unless we 
ourselves feel the dignity and importance of our calling we cannot 
blame others for not doins so. 



THE IMMIGRATION QUESTION AGAIN. 



Our Legislature has again adjourned without making any adequate 
provisions for publishing abroad the advantages offered by our State 
to emigrants from abroad. The plea that we are too poor to incur 
the expense is hardly admissible, inasmuch as it is confessed even 
by those who are opposed to Legislative appropriation for that pur- 
pose, that any reasonable appropriation, properly managed, would 
soon bring in a hundred fold more capital, the taxes upon which would 
re-imburse the State in one year. Our farming population are suffer- 
ing now more from want of available capital than anything else. 
All their capital is invested in land, which is lying unproductive for 
the want of money and labor to improve it. Could one-half the land 
of the State be sold to foreign capitalists, or to persons who would 
locate upon it and cultivate it, and the money thus obtained applied 
to the cultivation and permanent improvement of the other half, the 
tax paying ability of our people would be far rnore than doubled and 
the general prosperity of the whole people greatly promoted. 

We do not know, however, but that this advertising abroad of the 
a of the State might be accomplished by the farmers alone in 
their associated capacity, either as a State agricultural convention or 
through the instrumentality of the Granges and the State Grange. 

We would like to have the views of those most interested on this 
subject for the next number of the Piaster. 



FARM LABOR. 



h the opening of the spring the ever important question of 
resents itself again. It is well known that hitherto we have 
considered the negro the best, as he is the only available farm laborer 
for the South. But each year, while it increases the demand, dimin- 
ishes the supply of this kind of help. Various causes operate to 
bring about this result. The demand for labor and higher prices paid 
in the cotton States has induced a constant stream of emigration 
Southward ever since the war. The public works, including mines 
and quarries, paying higher wages than the farmers could afford to 
pay. have drawn many others away, leaving generally upon the farm 
the laziest and least enterprising, and hence the least efficient class of 
laborers. 

Our own experience induces us to believe that the time is rapidly 
approaching, if indeed, it has not already arrived, when we will have 



1S;4.i PLANTER AND FARMER. 263 



to look elsewhere for our laborers. There are two ways of meeting 
this difficulty, both of which should be measureably adopted by our* 
farmers. One is for the farmers themselves and their families to do 
more of the work themselves, and by the introduction of labor-savins 
implements, lighten and facilitate the seeding, cultivation and harvest- 
ing of their crops. By this means the labor now at our command, 
would be rendered more productive and there would be less necessitv 
for resorting to the other remedy, which is the introduction of foreign 
laborers. Though opposed to the indiscriminate introduction of for- 
eigners, especially of the lower classes, amongst us, wo still believe 
that there is a large number of poor laborers and tenant farmers in 
England, Scotland and Germany, and perhaps other countries of 
Europe, who would be greatly benefited by coming among us, and 
whose coming would add greatly to the supply of skilled and intelli- 
gent labor. After trying almost every nationality and seeing them 
tried by others, we can confidently recommend to the farmers of Vir- 
ginia the laborers of the countries above mentioned as the most docile. 
faithful and best calculated to meet the wants of the farmers. As 
stock men, the Scotch and English surpass all others, and the German 
is perhaps the best gardener and cultivator of the soil to be found 
anywhere. It is true that with the employment of such labor there 
would, of necessity, be a great change in the general management of 
the farm, and that the price of farm labor would be considerably 
advanced. But we also believe that the increased efficiency and 
honesty of the service given would more thau compensate for the 
additional cost. While we do not recommend or desire an entire aban- 
donment of the old system, nor desire that we ma}- be ridden of the 
negro, yet we would like to see an effort made to supply the constantly 
increasing deficiency of farm labor by the introduction of foreign 
laborers. 



WE SHOULD NOT DEFEND UFON ONE CROP. 



The recent sales of tobacco in Richmond and elsewhere have not 
been at prices calculated to remunerate the Plaxtek and many of 
our friends who depended almost exclusively upon the proceeds of 
this crop to discharge last years liabilities and to provide for the 
expenses of the current season, go home disappointed and despondent. 
This is another lesson for us. and should teach us how very unsafe it 
is to rely entirely upon one crop for money and success. We must 
certainly have some other resource than this. The farmers along the 
tide-water rivers have long since learned to diversify their products, 
and there is no part of our State so prosperous as the trucking districts, 
while the farmers of the upper country away from railroads and rivers 
cannot profitably engage in raising fruit and vegetables for the north- 
ern market. The} 7 can raise hay and stock profitably, so far as imme- 
diate return is concerned and very profitably when we consider the 
ultimate improvement of the land. There is no hope for the fanners 
of Virginia, unless there is a change for the better. If we continue 
to cling to the time honored system of our money crop only, and that 
an almost exhausting one, and clear up and wear out and clear up and 



2C4 THE SOUTHERN [June 

wear out more land every year, it is only a question of time, and not 
a very long time either, when the sheriff will sell us out and pay a 
-mall per cent, on our indebtedness. 



NOTES FOR THE MONTH. 

We have never, we believe, seen so much cold, wet weather through 
April and May as we have this Spring. Farmers generally are very 
backward with their work and unless the season henceforth is pecu- 
liarly favorable, there will undoubtedly be a short crop made. Espe- 
cially will this be the case with corn and tobacco, the planting of 
Avhich has been much delayed and will necessarily be late. 

THE QORN CHOP. 

It is hoped that most of our farmers have completed the planting 
of this crop, yet there will doubtless be many places yet implanted 
owing to the wet and backwardness of the season. Of course these 
should be planted immediately if possible and if delayed too long, to 
be sure of maturing a crop, it would, perhaps, be well to drill in corn 
very thickly and insure a fodder crop. 

This is one of the best, most inexpensive and surest crops we can 
make, and more food for cattle can be raised in this way than in any 
other on the same land. 

We are diposed to recommend the crop Aery highly from our own 
experience, which has been very favorable. The land should be pre- 
pared as for any other crop and then laid off in perfectly straight rows, 
from 30 inches to 3 feet apart, and drilled in at the rate of about two 
bushels per acre, about 12 grains to the foot, and then scatter as much as 
possible over the width of the furrow will be about right. The seed 
may be sown by a corn planter or wheat drill, but we prefer hand 
sowing because it can be spread out across the entire furrow giving 
more distance to the plants in the rows. As soon as the plants are 
well up pass over the whole with a harrow and afterwards with a coul- 
ter or cultivator stir the soil once or twice is all that is necessary. 
We have found that cultivation pays as well on this crop as any and 
generally stir our soil frequently. , 

The greatest drawback to the sowing of corn is the difficulty of 
curing it. This difficulty arises from the fact that it is generally sown 
too late and too thickly and never reaches that condition of maturity 
when it is easily cured, and also when it contains the greatest amount 
of nutriment. If it is drilled in, however, any time in June, or if the early 
varieties or northern seed be used, in July it will mature sufficiently 
to cure easily. 

When the entire crop is in bloom, the earlier blooms having began 
to dry up, and the small ears that will form on many stalk are in the 
dough (i e., good roasting ear), is the proper time to cut up the crop. 
We usually use the ordinary corn knife, laying the stalks as cut in 
small piles to cure awhile, but never leaving any down at night. One 
precaution is perhaps necessary here. It should never be cut when 
there is any external moisture, either dew or rain, upon it. 

Set up in medium sized shocks and after a few days tie them firmly 
'jcar the top and they will usually keep well all through the winter in 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 265 



the field. A better plan, and the one we usually adopt, is to sit up in 
small shocks at first and after a few days or a week put two or more 
shocks together according to size and tie them. We have depended 
largely upon sowed corn for feed during the last two years and have 
not lost 5 per cent, from spoiling in the field. The amount of feed 
that can thus be made upon an acre of good land would astonish any 
one. 

Millet or Hungarian Grass may be sown now and on good land 
will yield from H to 2 tons of hay per acre. Prepare the land as for 
oats and sow £ bushel of seed per acre, harrow and roll so as to have 
smooth surface to cut over "when mowing. 

Peas for Fallow should be sown as early in June as possible. 
The subject has been so frequently discussed in all its bearings that 
we give no directions here, simply referring to former numbers of the 
Planter. 

tobacco. 

The planting of this important crop has been much delayed, and 
there is a general complaint of failure in plants. Every thing should 
now be done to facilitate the completion of this work where it is 
not already finished, and when planted, the hoe and the plow should 
keep down the weeds and grass and keep the surface mellow. 

SWEET POTATO SLIPS. 

if not already out, should be gotten out and as soon as possible, and 

LATE IRISH POTATOES 

had better be gotten in the ground as earl}'' in the month as convenient. 
Fresh manure should not be used with this crop if it can be avoided, 
And if used should be broadcasted instead of putting in the drill. It 
should be remembered that the potato is a potash plant and manures 
rich in potash will greatly improve the crop. 

THE STOCK 

will require very little attention during this month. Early lambs 
should go to market as soon as large enough, which should be in May 
and very early in June. The price declines as the season advances, 
and a week will frequently make a difference of a dollar in the same 
lamb. Farmers should understand this and act accordingly. 

Stock on pasture should be regularly salted at least once a week, 
and alwavs have access to cool, clear running water. 



266 THE SOUTHERN [June 

Agricultural Department. 

[The following Essay, written by our Associate Editor, received 
■he premium of thirty dollars and Diploma, at the last meeting of the 
Agricultural Society of Virginia. — L. R. D.] 

THE BEST METHOD OF CULTIVATING A FARM OF TW< > 
HUNDRED ACRES IX THE GRANITE SECTION OF VIR- 
GINIA. 



That the present average of production on the lands of Eastern 
Virginia is below the point of profitable culture is acknowledged by 
all who are cognizant of the facts. The causes which have led to this 
condition are also apparent to those acquainted with the method of cul- 
vation practiced for generations in this section. 

Long continued cultivation of a thin stratum of the surface in crops 
that took everything from the soil and returned nothing, has together 
with the washing of the rains and snow, deprived that part of the soil 
actually brought in contact with the roots of plants of every mineral 
element of fertility, and the suppression of every form of vegetable 
growth, except such as is intended for removal and sale, has left it 
nearly equally destitute of humus. 

The question then is sirnply one of abandonment or improvement. 
We cannot continue long to live under the present conditions of pro- 
duction. 

How shall we cultivate these lands so that they will yield the 
largest immediate returns, and at the same time, most rapidly improve? 
Is a question of importance both to the individual owners and the 
State at large. Xor is it so difficult a matter after all ; the soil con- 
tains within itself great power of recuperation. The reversal of the 
system by which the laud has been exhausted will in time without 
any outside aid restore its lost fertility. Deep and thorough culture 
bringing up from the subsoil the mineral elements which the rains and 
snows of a hundred winters have washed down and deposited there : 
returning to the land in the shape of manure from stock even-thing 
except its most concentrated and valuable products. Plowing under 
green crops grown for that purpose to restore the humus, and with 
it ammonia to the soil, and if we add to all this the purchase from 
abroad and application of mineral fertilizers to restore the wastage of 
such crops as are sold : all this with the practice of a suitable rota- 
tion in crops will in time make farming in Eastern Virginia both 
pleasant and profitable. 

"Without further introduction, we will suppose then the farcn to con- 
tain 200 acres of the light gray land with clay subsoil common to the 
section under consideration. Thirty acres should be left in timber and 
twenty acres more in permanent pasture, and enclosed together with a 
strong fence, giving together a range of fifty acres for the loose stock 
of the farm ; ten acres immediately around the house will be used for 
orcharrl. yard, garden and barnyard, leaving 140 acres for general 
culture. This we would divide into seven shifts, to be cultivated 
as follows: forty acres in wheat, twenty in corn, twenty in oats and 
:ty in peas for fallow, and forty in clover. A diagram is here 



1874.] PLANTER AXD FARMER. 26; 



with furnished, showing the way in which these crops will succeed 
each other ou the respective fields. In the arrangement of the 
various fields, care should be exercised that each may be easily 
accessible from the barn without passing over the growing crop 
on any other field. This will necessitate the making of road- 
ways along the lines of division. These roadways should be located 
at once, and should be thrown up by back plowing at least twice and 
the ditches made broad and shallow. The space occupied need not 
exceed twelve feet from the centre of the ditch on either side, and 
the whole land occupied need not exceed sixteen to eighteen feet in 
width. This should be thoroughly prepared, and sown in grass with- 
out any grain. The following mixture is recommended for this as 
well as for the permanent pasture, mentioned elsewhere : 1 bushel 
orchard grass, \ bushel redtop (herds grass). 4 quarts tiniothy and 4 
quarts red clover, for each acre seeded. The orchard grass to be 
sown alone, the others mixed and sown on the freshly harrowed sur- 
face, and the whole nicely rolled. This should be done as early in 
the fall as practicable — say September. By this management the 
roadways will become about the most productive portions of the farm. 
The grass can be regularly mown when not pastured, and should 
receive an occasioual top-dressing, — with a little care the grass des- 
troyed by the passing of the farm teams will amount to very little. 

We will suppose ourselves now at the beginning of the cropping 
year the first of September. All the farmers' energies should be direc- 
ted to the preparation of the land for wheat. Old lines of fencing- 
interfering with the new plan of operations should be removed : such 
rails as are fit. transferred to other lines and remainder carted to the 
wood-pile or burned upon the spot. Stumps, grubs and everything 
interfering with the perfect cultivation of the land should be dug up 
by the roots and burned. Two good, strong horses or mules to a 
two-horse Watt plow, or Farmers' Friend plow, should open a furrow 
seven inches deep and be followed by one horse attached to a subsoiler, 
walking in the furrow and loosening the subsoil to the depth of five 
inches more. After trying various subsoil plows, we are inclined to 
recommend to the farmers as one cheap and available on most every 
farm, the common one-horse cast plow, either Watt. Farmers' Friend 
or Dixie, (the latter best on account of its greater weight), with the 
wing or mould-board removed, using nothing but the point and land- 
side. 

About the 1st of October the ground having been previously tho- 
roughly prepared by the diligent use of the harrow, the seeding of 
wheat should commence. The use of the drill is urgently recom- 
mended, both on account of economy in seed and superiority of crops 
so seeded. Where the drill is used, from four to five pecks will be 
amply sufficient for the acre ; in broadcasting at least one peck more 
should be sown. The wheat having been seeded, all the available 
manure should be scattered evenly over the surface as soon as possi- 
ble. Of course, if the means is at hand, some good commercial fer- 
tilizer should be used, especially on that part intended to be sown in 
clover in the spring. Taking advantage of the dry spell that is likely 
to occur late in February or in March, a light sharp-tooth harrow, the 
teeth slightly inclined backward, should pass over the wheat, twenty 
acres should then be sown in red clover, at the rate of eight quarts to 



268 THE SOUTHERN [June 

the acre and the whole nicely rolled. As soon as the clover is up, 100 
lbs. of plaster' per acre should be sown upon it. 

After finishing the seeding of wheat, the farmer will have some 
leisure to make permanent improvement. If in a section requiring 
it, the outside fencing around the entire farm should be made good — 
circumstances alter cases, but when there is no special reason against 
it, a ditch opened either with the spade or plow, the dirt thrown on 
the inner side, and post 9^ feet apart on the embankment with split 
slats, three or four in number, nailed to them, is recommended as the 
most efficient and economical fence for Eastei-n Virginia. The land 
for spring crops will now claim the farming attention. Whenever 
during the winter the condition of the ground will admit of it, the 
plows should be going. Old sod land should, if available, be planted 
in corn, or it may be planted on wheat stubble. The preparation 
should be the same as for wheat, and the manure accumulated during 
the winter should be applied broadcast to this crop. 

As early in the spring as the season will allow, (generally indicated 
by the bursting into leaf of the hickory buds), the land should receive 
a final harrowing, and be immediately laid off and planted. The 
rows should be perfectly straight, and running lengthways the field, 
making them as long as possible ; unless the ground is very hilly it 
will not pay to grade the rows, making the curve with the inequalities 
of surface. The corn should be planted in rows four feet apart, three 
grains in a hill two feet apart in the rows, and thinned to one stalk in 
a place at the second working. If the rows are opened with a plow 
the corn can be easily covered with a two-tooth cultivator. As soon 
as the corn is up, pass over the rows lengthways with the same harrow 
used on the wheat in the spring, and repeat the process every week 
or ten days until the corn is eight or ten inches high. If the rows are 
not too short, so as to make a great deal of turning, a man with a 
brisk team and a boy to uncover the stalks, will go over twenty acres 
in two daj's. The next cultivation should be given with the one-horse 
plow, with the wing removed just as it is used for subsoiling, running 
the bar side close to the corn, after that, the seven-tooth cultivator 
will usually do all the work needed. Corn should be cultivated as 
soon as practicable after every rain that runs the surface together, 
and at any rate, every ten days during its growth, until it begins to 
bloom. 

The oat crop should be sown upon the corn land of the previous 
year. The surface should be made fine and mellow, and from six to 
eight pecks of seed sown per acre and raked in, unless the drill is used 
in which case one-fourth less seed will answer. 

Early in June the land to be sown in wheat, should be prepared 
nicely and five pecks of black peas sown per acre broadcast, or three 
pecks drilled in, it will be found that if each alternate tube of the 
drill is stopped, and the peas as thus planted in rows eighteen inches 
apart are once coultered, the crop, both of vine and pea, will be 
heavier and the saving of seed will nearly pay for cultivation. 

We now have all our crops planted, and with a few brief directions 
for harvesting we will pass to other subjects. Wheat and oats should 
be cut before fully ripe, tied in moderately sized bundles and set up 
twelve to sixteen together, until cured and then stacked or hauled 
into the barn as soon as possible. Corn should be cut up by the roots 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER, 260 



as soon as the grain is glazed and set up in straight close shocks, six" 
teen rows together, shock twenty steps apart in the rows. In the 
course of from four to six weeks the shocks should be taken down, the 
corn shucked off and carried to a rat-proof crib, and the fodder again set 
up and tied firmly around the top with grapevine or stalks. A better 
plan if there is room, is to haul the corn, stalk and all to the barn and 
shuck it during inclement weather. 

Of the peas a sufficiency should be gathered for seed, and if the 
farmer can then turn his hogs upon them for a few weeks he will make 
some ver} 7 cheap pork without materially lessening the value of the 
fallow. 

The stock to be kept on a farm of this size would vary, of course, 
with circumstances. The team actually necessary need not exceed 
three first-class animals, and it is recommended that these should be 
two good, large, brood mares and a strong, active horse. The 
mares should be regularly bred, and would produce a foal almost 
every spring, worth, if a mule, at least $50 at five months old. This 
will not at all interfere with their general usefulness on t\e farm. The 
horse could do all the carting and fast work. 

Of cattle, at least four good cows should be kept, and their breed- 
ing so arranged as to have two fresh in the spring and two in the fall. 
For the general purposes of the Virginia farmer the Ayrshires and 
Devons are believed to combine more desirable qualities than any 
other pure breed. Grade Shorthorns are also excellent animals for 
general utility. 

Of hogs, no more should be kept than necessary to supply the 
family with meat. Two good sows, either Essex or Berkshire, and a 
boar, which should always be the very best of his class, will be all 
the stock needed. Pigs should come in February and August, and 
protected from the cold of the one and heat of the other. The Feb- 
ruary pigs, if pushed as they should be, will net 200 lbs. by the mid- 
dle of November, and the August pigs will make nice roasters and 
shoats before cold weather comes. There will thus be no surplus 
stock to carry through the winter. The best food for pigs, in our 
experience, is mvsh and milk. Brown-stuff, potatoes, cymlins, the 
refuse of the garden and orchard all go to make up a good bill of 
fare for his pigship. 

The remaining stock of the farm should be sheep ; fifty good, strong 
common ewes should be purchased and bred early in the fall to a 
thoroughbred buck of some one of the mutton breeds. The ewe lambs 
from this cross should be preserved and bred to another fine buck of 
the same breed with the sire. In this way a large flock of high grade 
sheep can soon be established. The buck lambs should be sold off 
from time to time and will always bring remunerating prices ; a farmer 
may very safely calculate on a net income of from five to six dollars 
from every good ewe well kept. If the keeping of sheep is found 
desirable it would be well to make a change in the rotation, so as to 
give at least three, if not four fields to grass. This can be readily 
done by omitting either the peas or one field of wheat, or both. 
Another change which can be advantageously made when a full stock 
of sheep is on hand, is to sow rj r e in the corn in August to be pas- 
tured during the winter. Not less than one hundred breeding ewes 
should be kept upon a farm of this size, yielding an income of from 



270 THE SOUTHERN [June 



$500 to $800. As the stock increases the old ewes may be sold oil', 
young ones taking their places. 

Of the ten acres reserved around the house, three acres will be 
occupied by the yard, garden and barnyard : four acres should be 
planted in apple trees, three-fourths of which should be standard win- 
ter varieties. This would require 200 trees. 170 select peach trees 
should occupy the spaces between in the rows. Not less than two 
acres should be occupied by pears, grapes, currants. &c. <$£•.. and one 
acre planted in plum and cherry trees, and enclosed with a «ix feet 
picket fence and used as a poultry yard where the poultry can be 
confined when desirable. 

The buildings required for a farm of this size should consist of a 
good and convenient dwelling with all the modern improvements with 
water convenient : a barn sufficiently large to give shelter to all the 
animals and tools kept upon the farm, with storeroom overhead for 
the straw, hay and stalks. A good manure shed, where a bountiful sup- 
ply of good, dry litter should alwaj-s be kept and where the manure niay 
be deposited as it is removed from the stalls to be worked over by the 
hogs. A good rat proof corn crib : a wood shed large enough to hold 
a half years supply of wood : smoke house, poultry, &c. $io plan 
will here be given for a barn. As a general suggestion aslio the 
amount of space needed to accommodate the stock, we would say that 
each horse should have from 80 to 100 square feet of standing room, 
cows from 50 to 60 feet and sheep 10 feet. The building should be 
so arranged that feeding can all be done from a passage-way without- 
going among the stock. The floor overhead should be tight so as catch the 
grass seed. I omitted to state in the proper place that clover should 
be cut when the largest part of the crop was in full bloom and cured 
and stored away as soon as possible, a direction that applies equally 
to every kind of grass. 

Two or three comfortable dwellings for laborers should be built con. 
venientby close to the dwelling, yet far enough away and from each 
other to afford sufficient privacy and enable the occupants to keep a 
few chickens and have every comfort of home. Generally laborers 
well treated and their wants and comforts supplied will be more 
diligent and accommodating. 

Of the amount of labor necessary on a farm of this kind it is utterly 
impossible to form an}* correct estimate. For the mere cultivation and 
saving of the crops, the other work, including harvesting, being done 
either by the job or day labor, one man and a boy large enough to plow 
'the owner himself lending a helping hand) will be found sufficient. It 
is equally difficult to estimate the return to be expected : but after it 
lias been under this svstem for seven or eisdit vears we should be very 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 271 



much disappointed if the income aggregated less than three thousand 
dollars. 

The items we should expect to be about as follows : 

40 acres of wheat 20 bushels, 800 bushels at Si. 75 . . $1400 

100 bbls. apples at £4 400 

Reaches, pears. &c 200 

GOO lbs. butter sold - - - 200 

2 colts sold . 100 

100 sheep and lambs sold 500 

400 lbs wool sold 200 

4 head young cattle, the steirs fatted at 3 3 r ears and heifers sold 

with calves, 150 

Poultry, eggs, &c 50 



$3200 

If the land iu the orchard and garden is highly cultivated, as it 
should be, four or five hundred dollars might be added to the above 
for potatoes, cabbage, &c. 

I have said nothing of tobacco, because it is a crop that cannot be 
introduced into a general rotation, but requires special preparation 
and extra force. If cultivated at all it should occupy part of the 
field devoted to pea fallow, and being highly manured with some com- 
mercial fertilizer, will leave the ground in good condition for the suc- 
ceeding wheat crop. It is also recommended that the oat stubble 
should be plowed immediately after harvest and corn for fodder drilled 
in thickly on a large part of it. This should be cut when in bloom and 
after curing tied in bundles and stored for winter use. Ruta-bagas 
and turnips may occupy part of the stubble. Commercial fertilizers 
should be used on these crops. Of fencing we would recommend as 
few inside lines as possible. A light portable fence may be used, suffi- 
ciently strong to restrain the cows and sheep during the day and they 
should all be returned to the barnyard or permanent pasture at night. 
The manure heap will thus be largely increased and the improvement 
of the farm greatly accelerated. I have already intimated that the 
best way to apply manure to these lands is to broadcast it upon the 
•flreshly plowed surface. This we firmly believe will give fifty per 
cent, better return than any other mode of application. 

If upon the farm there are au} r wet swampy spots they should be 
drained and possibly laid down permanently in grass. 

The following table will show at a glance the rotation proposed to 
be practiced, together with such variations as are recommended else- 
where. One more suggestion. In feeding stock all the long food 
should be cut except, perhaps, hay, and that is best cut if the labor is 
attainable. Sinclair & Go's Masticator is recommended. 

Stock should be regularly fed under the immediate supervision of 
the owner. Milk cows should receive a moderate allowance of meal 
night and morning throughout the } r ear and everything kept upon the 
farm should always be in a thriving condition ; nothing is a surer 
index of bad farming than lean and hungry stock. Stock of every 
kind to be profitable must have their wants all supplied and be made 
comfortable at all times. 



THE SOUTHERN [June 



f field. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


•"> 


6 


- 


1874. 


Wheat. 






Corn. 


Wheat. 






1875. 


Clover. 


w 


p 


o 


e 


w 




1876. 


clo 


clo 


w 


P 


o 


c 


\Y 


1-77. 


w 


clo 


clo 


V." 


1' 


o 


o 


1878. 


c 


>v 


clo 


clo 


w 


p 


... 


1870. 


o 


c 


w 


clo 


clo 


w 


1' 


1880. 


p 


o 


c 


w 


clo 


clo 


w 


If more stock 


should be kt 


spt then 


as follow- 


the per 


is mav 


be 



omitted and the corn planted after wheat on clover : 

No. of field. 12 3 4 .'. 6 7 

Wheat. clo o c clo clo clo 

clo w p o c clo clo 



[For the Southern Planter and Fanner. 1 
SToCK AND INCLOSURES. 



When I reflect upon the evils of our present system of care with 
regard to stock and enclosures, I am tempted to exclaim with Cicero. 
-•Inamdin abutere nostra patientia !" Farmers have Clubs. Societies 
and Granges for the protection of their interest, but seem to ignore 
to a great extent this heavy burden upon agriculture in Virginia and 
many other States. We are continuing a system handed down to us 
from early settlement of the country, which has ceased to be adapted 
to our wants and interests. We are constantly told by agricultural 
and newspaper writers, especially amongst our Northern friends, that 
we keep and attempt to cultivate too much land. This, to a great 
extent is true, but as long as we have our present laws with regard to 
stock and inclosures, it will be difficult to bring about a change. 
Farmers, whether they own stock or not. whether they k eep up or 
turn out their stock, don't like the close proximity of those who 
habitually run their stock at large, and. as is too generally the case 
with this class, give but little attention to their care and feeding. 
They know from experience, how difficult it is to protect themselves 
from ill-fed stock habitually using around their fields. Reason and 
experience also teach us that it is relatively much more expensive to 
inclose small than large areas. It takes half as much material to 
inclose one acre of land as it does to inclose four, and twice the cptan- 
tity necessary to inclose four will inclose sixteen and so on in geo- 
metrical proportion. 

If all the land now cultivated in Virginia was divided into small 
farms, the expense and labor of inclosing it would be enormous. 
Farmers are compelled to keep too large a per centage of their lands 
in forest, to supply the heavy and constantly recurring demand for 
fencing material. Who can estimate the value of the timber annually 
destroyed for this purpose '. The average duration of the ordinary 
worm rail fence is about ten or twelve years. From experience and 
observation, I am inclined to think that it takes an average of one- 
sixth of tlie labor employed in agriculture to make and keep the 
fencing in good repair. Our system was, to some extent, endurable 
during the existence of slavery. Labor was then permanently attached 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 



to the farm, and could be combined for the culture of large areas. 
Agriculture was more homogeneous, and farmers needed and kept the 
same domestic animals and required the same kind of inclosures. 
With the abolition of slavery, a new state of things has been brought 
about. There is no longer the same similarity of agriculture. Farm- 
ers are turning their attention to special crops and industries, and no 
longer need or keep the same domestic animals. Hence a conflict of 
interest has arisen and must continue to increase and ultimately end- 
as it has done in all old settled countries, by devolving upon the 
owners of all stock the burden of keeping and providing for them. 

The only question for us then in Virginia is, has the time arrived 
for this change ? If not ready for a thorough change, can't we have 
some modifications ? Can't we at least stop the smaller domestic 
animals — viz. : hogs, sheep and goats from running at large, or at any 
rate make the owners of them responsible for damage done by them to 
others. Is it not bad economy to run them at large, more expensive 
than to keep them up ? Do the benefits of the outside range to 
these animals compensate for the heavy expense of protecting 
our crops from destruction by them? Would not the labor now 
employed in this way, if employed in producing food for these 
animals, procure for us a cheaper and more abundant supply of 
meat? Sheep are not held in common by our farmers, and it is not 
right or just to require the large majorit}- who do not keep sheep to 
fence for the benefit of the small minority who do. Horses and 
mules are but seldom permitted to run at large, and if relieved from 
the necessity of fencing against the smaller stock, especially hogs, 
the great majority of the farmers would soon find it to their interest 
to keep up their cattle. The means and meterial required to restrain 
the larger stock would be very different from that now used to protect 
against hogs, and the cost of fencing would be diminished one-half or 
two-thirds of its present amount. Ditches, hedges, stone, post and 
rail, and various other things would be substituted for the present 
expensive, insecure and very perishable worm fence. An immense 
amount of valuable timber would be saved, and inclosures more per- 
manent, and occupying less space would be introduced. Hogs, with 
their present privileges in Virginia, are an unmitigated nuisance, cost- 
ing in the aggregate more than they are worth. 

Much complaint is made of the evils arising from the multitude of 
dogs. I concede these to the fullest extent, but as long as hogs are 
permitted to run at large, farmers will keep dogs to protect them- 
selves from them. I am aware that the privilege of running stock at 
large is thought by many to be one of especial value to the poor and 
small farmers and housekeepers. If right in my view of the subject, 
this class are most interested in a change. I have already shown 
that large farmers fence at less relative cost and, consequently, gen- 
erally have their fields better protected. Tenants and small farmers, 
on the, contran% fencing at greater cost are not usually so well pro- 
tected and more liable to suffer from roving stock. I have also shown 
that our system is not only opposed to a sub-division of the lands, 
but creates and keeps up a tendency to the absorption of the smaller 
farms by the larger ones. Besides if, as I contend, it is a tax upon 
production, it diminishes the profits of labor and adds to the cost of 
consumption. The subject is a very expansive one. and I have only 



274 . THE SOUTHERN [June 

touched upon a few salient points. It needs discussion, ventilation 
and legislation. Politicians are proverbially afraid of new issues and 
we need not expect anything to be done until the farmers move in the 
matter. They are more immediately interested and all other classes will 
await their action. . Let the subject then be made one of public and 
private discussion, and we may hope ere long to secure such change^ 
or modification as will ojeatlv diminish the evils of our present sys- 
tem. X. Y. 



• [For the Southern Planter and Fanner. 
APPLICATION OF MANURES. 



From observation, it seems to me that we should pay special atten- 
tion to the application of water — the air always applying itself when 
the conditions are right. No matter how rich our soil may be — no 
matter how much valuable manure we may put on it — without water 
we can obtain no results. "We must either apply our manures in a 
liquid form, or else see that enough water is present to dissolve the 
manure and put it in condition to become food for our plants. They 
live by drinking, and not by eating. They do not devour the soil : 
they only absorb the liquids and gasses that come through the soil. 

Here is ■ very important point that should be kept well in mind 
when deciding on the best way to apply manures. No solid manure 
of any kind, dung or anything else, can ever enter the roots and be 
carried to the different parts of a plant as used by it. but must be dis- 
solved or so far decomposed that it will enter in a liquid or gaseous 
state. Manure, as applied, is not the food of plants as used by them, 
but contains the elements of food of plants, and must be so far decom- 
posed that it can be dissolved and presented to the different portions 
of the plant in a solution, so that the kind and amount of these ele- 
ments may be presented to every part of the plant in such condition 
that the different elements needed to build up the structure of the 
plant may be appropriated as wanted. Nothing can be carried into 
the plant in any other way. Even the silex that is found in the ashe^ 
of plants must be dissolved before it can be taken up and appropria- 
ted by the plants. The structure of the roots and plants also makes 
this necessary : for the pores or openings in the roots., through which 
all plant food must pass, are too small to be seen, except with a 
microscope, and of course, can pass no hard substance. This being 
the case, that manure is applied to the best advantage which is most 
readily dissolved and presented to the roots of plants. If turned to 
the bottom of the lurrow.only the heavier rains will reach it : those will 
be as apt to carry it down as bring it up. although the roots of plants 
are nearly, and when small, are in the mellow portion of the ploughed 
soil. Tnis is especially the case where manure is turned under a sod : 
if ploughed under in a mellow soil that brakes up fine, it is more gen- 
erally mixed in where it will be reached by the rains and roots as 
wanted, but still a large share is at the bottom of the furrow, where 
it is not so readily found and used. Hence cultivating and harrow- 
ing it in is better than ploughing it in. as it more thoroughly mixes it 
with the soil that is mainly occupied by the roots, applying manure 
where the most work is done is also a good plan for the same reason. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 



while it has this additional advantage, that the well-worked arid mel- 
low soil more readily admits the rains which are needed to dissolve 
the manure. 

Two things are very essential : first, that the manure should be dis- 
solved — should be ready to be taken up by the roots of plants. Sec- 
ond, that-it should be thoroughly and evenly presented to all the roots 
of all the plants. This, a little consideration will show, can be best 
secured by surface manuring. The rain, as it falls, is evenly distri- 
buted, an 1 it soaks into the ground, if it is all alike mellow, as evenly 
as it falls. If the manure is finely and evenly spread on the surface 
all the rain that falls absorbs a portion in its way into the soil, and all 
that reaches the roots of plants will contain a portion of this dis- 
solved manure. If the manure is worked three inches into the soil, 
and a portion of the roots of plants, as is always the case, are found 
in this three inches, then all the water that reaches the roots before it 
has a chance to get to the manure will be takeu i p by the roots before 
it receives any benefit from the manure. If the manure is six inches 
deep the roots will be mainly supplied before the moisture reaches it. 
while muny small showers that are of great use to plants ! : never 
reach it at all. If on the surface, every small shower dissolves a por- 
tion, which if not taken up by the plants, will be retained by the meb 
low soil, as the latter is so constituted as to allow scarcely any fertil- 
izing matter to pass off by evaporation. Thus the portio: of manure 
not taken to the plant by one shower may be presented by another. 
Again, the roots of plants, except to a very narrow limit, are station- 
ary : they cannot go about the lot like cattle or sheep to look up food. 
Hence their food must be presented to them as wanted, and water and 
air are the carriers from which they receive it. This is another proof 
of the great use of water as a means or medium for conveying food 
to plants : and. with the above, shows the great advantage of having 
manure in the best place and condition to be most readily and cer- 
tainly conveyed by water to the plants as wanted. Keastai:. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

Mr. Editor : — Some of your readers may be interested in ihis list 
ol Granges organized by me since April 1st. 

Green Bay Grange, 7th April, Prince Edward county, with 
twelve males and eight temales. P. B. "Wilson, Master; J. T. 
Johnson, Secretary 

Liberty Grange, 7th April, Prince Edward county, with eleven 
males and ten females. E. M. Wing, Master ; G. S. Wing, Sec- 
retary. 

New Store Grange, Buckingham county, with fifteen males and 
ten females. L. D.^Jones, Master ; C. Y. Hooper, Secretary. April 
15th. 

Smyrna Grange, Buckingham, with seventeen males and ten 
females. H. C Boughan, Master ; "W. M. G. Ranson, Secretary. 
April lGth. 

Plank Road Grange, Buckingham, with nineteen males and seven 



276 THE SOUTHERN [June 

females. J. W. Hebditch, Master ; E. V. A-clerson, Secretary. 
April 18th. 

Gold Hill Grange, Buckingham, with eighteen males and nine 
iemales. Dr. Charles F. Moseley, Master ; W. M.'Hall, Secretary. 
April 30th. 

Union Grange, Appomattox coanty, with sixteen males an . 
females. Gen. W. M. Elliot, Master ; 0. H. Chilton, Secretary. 
May 5th. 

Stonewall Grange, Appomattox, with nineteen males and nine 
females. liev. Wm. Fisher, Master : T. J. S:ra:ton, Secretary. 
May 6th. 

Tower Hill Grange, Appomattox, with eleven males and ten 
females. Jas. A. Walker, Master ; Jas. H. Featberston, Secretary. 
7th May. 

James River Grange, Buckingham, with sixteen males and six 
May. 

females. Geo. Booker, Master : G. W. Patterso: . . 

eral other Granges will be organized soon in Buckingham — 
there are now eight in that county. 

Generally, in the counties just named, the wheat looks well, for- 
ward in growth and of fine color. But in several places, it is back- 
ward and pale ; and I heard of the presence of chinch bugs. The 
common remark, that the crop is exceptionally fine is only in fact 
correct. It is not as forward, or as promising as it was at the 
same date in either of the years 1365 and 1869. 

Some of the very finest wheat I have seen grows on the hand- 
some farm of Mr. Thomas Homer, an English farmer who ha 
tied in Prince Edward, and who bids fair to take the lead here ; 
both in the rapid improvement of the farm and in the successful 
growth of our staple crops. 

I have ever; where heard statements, and in many places have 
seen evidences of so great a failure in the plant beds as justifies 
the belief that the tobacco crop of 15 74 wili be both light and 
late. In deed, so great and so general a failure of plants is not 
remembered, it it ever occurred, within the recollection of a: 
iarmer among the many who have spoken to me on the sub; 

The best lot of clover I have seen in these counties was seeded 
in March 1875, while a considerable flock of sheep was running on 
the wheat. The seed were well tramped into the soil. The sheep 
continued to run on the lot until the last week in March, and the 
lot was as bare of any green growth as the public road, yet the 
crop of wheat was a very fine one, in quantity and quality. But 
a similar experiment, the same season, on another field in the 
vicinity, resulted in manifest damage to the crop of wheat. The 
chief difference in the two cases was that the latter field was 
grazed by the sheep two weeks later than the other. In this con- 
nection, 1 remember that the late Capt. Xathaniel Price, of Prince 
Edward, was more ?uccessful than any of his neigbors in growing 
wheat. His crops averaged better than others, in any term of 
years, and his practice was to put his ewes and lambs on his wheat 
in February and March, and keep them there while the earth was 
". Yours truly, 

pden Sidney, May 14th, . T. T Tkeijwat. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
Allow me to say that I consider your May number more valuable 
than any number yet published for the year. It is truly worthy of 
the managers, filled as it is with valuable correspondence as well as 
news. &c, that is interesting. I am glad, truly glad, to see the 
farmers of old Virginia determined to have a journal, which shall 
be worthy of old Virginia and her people. 

Allow me too to say that I read with true pleasure and gratifica- 
tion the letter of Mr. Gilmer to the Messrs. T. G. Erhard and 
others. Mr. Gilmer, in that letter, proves his loyalty and devo- 
tion to his mother State as well as to his profession, and by his 
letters in the Southern Planter and Farmer and the American 
Farmer, of Baltimore, sets an example well worthy of imitation by 
old as well as young. 

Mr. Gilmer, in another paper, gives"', us his views on the ques- 
tion of the Dog Tax, and none can deny that they are truthful and 
to the point. What, indeed, is the use of making any more 
appeals to our Legislature? Have we not already made appeal 
after appeal to no effect? Does not the world know that our Leg- 
islature would willingly give us the help we so much need and the 
condition of our treasury so much demands, if then v:ere not afraid ! 
They tax our horses, cattle, sheep — in fact every thing, except our 
worthless dogs. 

No wonder that repudiation stares us in the face ; no wonder 
that Messrs. T. G. Erhart and many others write to know if our 
lands are as desirable as we represent them, why we are so much 
in debt, and why some have come among us and gone back ; no 
wonder that they hesitate to come among us ; no wonder that the 
farmer can't support his family by hard, hard work ; no wonder at 
anything tchen ice have a Legislature afraid to do its duty ! Afraid 
to relieve our honest, hard working farmers, by whom they were 
sent to Richmond, because they well know (by instinct perhaps), 
that if they do their duty they will lose the vote of every Radical 
voter. 

So it has been in regard to the fence law, no one can estimate 
the amount of our very best land occupied by ugly and zigzag 
fences. Since the adoption of the fence law our farmers are clean- 
ing up and cultivating their many hedge rows, which they find 
enriched and the appearance of our country is improved. Should 
the fence law ever be abolished, it will be an evil day for our 
farmers, who, trusting in the good faith of their Legislature, have 
removed most of their long and expensive fences and made sim- 
ply one or more good pasture fences and are cultivating most of 
their crops without any protection from other people's stock — 
which there should never be any need of. 

But in regard to the dogs, as says Col. Rufrin, do not let the dog 
law or any other law prevent your raising sheep. Don't think the 
farmers of Virginia dependent on a weak Legislature. Let us 
take our guns, watch the advent of the sneaking and worthless 
cur across the borders of our own domain and execute justice 
speedily ; or else, as Col. Rufiin says, build a pen and we shall 
soon be rid of sheep-killing dogs. 

In regard to Deep vs. Shallow Plowing, I am convinced that we 
2 



278 THE SOUTHERN [June 

frequently do turn up too much of the subsoil on top and I have 
recently been satisfied of the correctness of Col. "Waring's views 
on the subject. Last week I attempted to re-fallow some land 
which last fall had been plowed very deeply with a Starke 3 horse 
plow, turning under weeds and all trash. It was a rough job, the 
top was as hard and crusty as a brick, while a few inches below 
was soft and mellow. I am satisfied we should be more cautious 
as to deep plowing, but not as to deep subsoUing, which is always a 
benefit. 

I see many composts recommended, but I will give you one I 
think I can use to advantage on most crops. Here it is — 

15 bushels leached and unleached ashes. 

5 bushels hen manure. 

1 bag Pacfic Guano. 

1 bag Flour of Raw-Bone. 
4 bags Plaster. 

2 bags Agricultural Shell Lime. 

I have found this good, a handful to each hill of corn, splendid 
for potatoes, peanuts, &c, as it contains in a more or less degree the 
necessary ingredients for each. I have used it on each one of the 
crops mentioned. I shall drop a thimbleful of plaster on each 
bud of corn when it comes up, believing it will mitigate to some 
extent the effects of drought. Very truly, 

Glenmorlan, Va., May 8th, 18*4. H. W. Cosby. 



CULTIVATION OF COPvX. 



Maise or Indian corn has been cultivated in Virginia since its 
first settlement and the intrinsic value of the plant has made it 
our most important crop. The Mondamise of the Indian furnishes 
the civilized man with bread, hominy and whiskey for his own 
palate, material for his bed and grain and forage for all the 
domestic animals that minister to his comforts. 

The land intended for corn should be well plowed, the depth 
corresponding with the fertility and depth of the soil, amount of 
manure to be used, status of drainage, etc. It stiff clay, it should 
be plowed in beds in early winter, and great attention paid to the 
direction of the furrows, so that no water may remain on land 
during the winter. If sandy and clean, it may be plowed just 
before planting and in any way to suit the surface. 

As soon as the land is dry enough in Spring preparation should 
be made for planting. If it has been plowed early it may be foul 
or baked with the rains, in which case the land should be re-plowed 
with a single plow to the depth of three or four inches and har- 
rowed before planting. This is important, too, because it is equal 
to a good working of the corn and can be done with much less 
expense than after planting. After the frost is out of the ground 
the corn should be planted. The time in this climate is very un- 
certain, extending from April 1st to July 1st. I have made good 
corn planted July 6th. 

The distance apart at which corn should be planted, depends 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 27 

entirely upon the tertility of the soil. In old times, upon large 
fields of moderate fertility, the rows were laid off five feet apart, 
and from three to five grains of corn dropped by hand in the rows 
three feet apart, covered with the hoe, harrow or foot; the last, we. 
think, the best instrument ever invented for the purpose, if ap- 
pended to a judicious body. More corn is made in a series 
of years, by giving the plant reasonable room, and, in every 
case, the ears are larger and grains more perfect where it is not 
planted too thick ; this is especially so in seasons ot drought. 

After the corn has been planted two furrows should be thrown 
up in a ridge in the middle of the row. This may be done before 
the corn comes up, the sooner the better, as the land thus thrown 
up becomes pulverent for future use. After the corn is of suffi- 
cient size for weeding, two more furrows should be thrown off 
from the corn to the two already in the middle. The plow should 
be run as close to the corn as possible, as it leaves less land to be 
worked by the hoe. The plant now is hoed and thinned out to the 
number of stalks deemed best. This should be done by careful 
hands for, though corn is very tenacious of lite, if this operation 
is not done carefully the corn is checked in its growth. The 
stalks not wanted should be dug up by the roots. 

After weeding and thinning the corn is left to attain sufficie t 
size to " take the dirt ;" in the meantime should the ground be- 
come hard and baked, the cuff coulter may be used with great ad- 
vantage. 

The after cultivation consists in reversing the land ; two fur- 
rows are first thrown to the corn high enough to reach in the mid- 
dle and fall around the stalks, care being taken not to cover them up. 
After this two more furrows in like manner, then split out the 
middles when the corn is considered " laid by." This working 
should not be done rapidly,but as the corn needs soft earth for the 
extension of its roots, besides a fresh surface is favorable to the 
absorption of fertilizing gases and moisture and causes rapid 
growth. Even after the corn is "laid by" a working with the cul- 
tivator is of great service if the land becomes baked. 

It will be seen from the above that we prefer ridges and the use 
of the turning plow in the cultivation of corn. The soil absorbs 
in proportion to its surface and ridges furnish a wider area. They 
do not bake so easily as a flat surface, and drainage to the plant in 
early life, is more easily effected. The rain falling upon the earth 
isjquickly dissipated by the atmosphere which is the great storehouse 
from which moisture is obtained, and as large and as fresh a sur- 
face as possible should be presented for its action. The turning 
plow does not cut the roots of the plants if used as above ; the 
extension of the roots follows the plow, but, even when cut there 
is still a compensation, as the cut roots throw out a greater num- 
ber of points in search of food. The plow is by far the most effi- 
cient instrument for killing grass. All manures should be scat- 
tered near the surface ; if applied to the hill they should be made 
to cover as large a space as practicable or they will not exert their 
greatest efficacy, after the plant begins to send out its rootlets. 

The Prolific is the best corn for our use, it can be planted thicker, 
sjives a greater number of good ears to the stalk and yields more 



280 THE SOUTHERN [June 



sound corn to the hill. The grain is white, hard and very free 
from rot. It is earlier than most of other kinds of white corn. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
TUCKAHOE FARMERS' CLUB. 

The April meeting of this club was held at "Linden," the resi- 
dence of J. A. Lynham. 

The farm was first inspected, and the owner commended for the 
general improvement apparent, as well as the promising condition 
of his clover, winter oats and wheat. 

After dinner a discussion arose as to the origin of the '-Norton 
seedling grape," which was elicited upon reading to the club, by 
Maj. Harvie, of the accompanying communication from Dr. Pal- 
mer. The view there taken of the origin of this grape was corn- 
batted and claimed to be incorrect by Dr=. Pollard, Beattie, Mr. 
Johnston and others, who expressed the sense of the club that 
while this communication was of an interesting character, it did 
not give the correct information as to the origin of that vine. 

Your reporter could not be present during the entire discussion 
add Dr. Pollard promises to furnish to your journal the theory 
entertained of the origin of this important grape. 

The May meeting of this club was held at "Sunnyside," the 
residence of Maj. Vaughan. 

The farm being first inspected, the crops and garden were 
declared to be in good condition. The wheat promising and the 
Irish potatoes particularly good. 

After dinner, the Committee on Constitution and by-laws 
reported, and their report unanimously adopted. 

The corn crop and its culture then engaging the attention of the 
club. 

Dr. Perkins, by request, read to the club some notes prepared 
by him on the subject of the "Cultivation of com," only. This 
essay was incomplete and in the form of notes to elaborate. But 
the club deemed the views given as of value as a practical treaties 
on this '"Cultivation, " and I herewith send the same to you. 

The necessity of proper distance to afford ventilation and the 
sun for this crop was discussed, and especial attention was called 
to the "thinning" and removing the suckers by the root. The two 
stalks in a hill where the land will admit of it, or two in every 
other hill, was recommended, particularly having in view a plen- 
tiful supply of the all important "pollen" was referred to by Dr. 
Beattie and others. 

The resolution offered by your reporter as to the improving and 
cleansing of our lands by the use of the black or "fallow pea," 
and as to the mode of seeding so as to produce the best results 
as a manure was adopted for discussion at our next meeting, and 
a committee consisting of Dr. Beattie, Dr. Perkins and J. A. Lyn- 
ham appointed to prepare an essay on that subject. 

We have frequent informal discussions as to the "Granges/' 
:h is fast increasing in popularity and interest with us. 

Yours ttc, 

Reporter. 



18T4.J PLANTER AND FARMER. 231 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
TUCKAHOE FARMERS' CLUB— APRIL MEETING. 



The club assembled at the handsome residence of Mr. J. A. 
Lynham, where they were most hospitably and bountifully enter- 
tained. 

Among the proceedings of the meeting was the reading of a let- 
ter from Dr. Wm. P. Palmer on the origin of the "Norton seedling 
grape," which is here appended. * * 

After the reading of the letter Dr. Beattie remarked that he had 
examined carefully the fruit of the^vine at Gen. Johnston's, and 
was convinced that it was not the "Norton seedling grape." 

Dr. Pollard remarked that this grape was generally believed 
now not to be a seedling, but that it was a native of the county of 
Hanover, saying such was Gen. "W. H. Richardson's statement 
some time since to the club, the General asserting he had frequently 
seen the vine near Powhite, Hanover, from which the Norton seed- 
ling was propagated. In further confirmation of this, Dr. Pollard 
remarked that a grape was occasionally brought to the Second 
Market in Richmond, which was scarcely distinguishable from the 
cultivated Norton. 

A discussion then ensued on "Machinery in Farming." Several 
members agreed in the opinion that for machinery to be used to 
advantage on the farm, that it should be managed by skilled and 
experienced labor. 

Dr. Beattie spoke of "Thomas' smoothing harrow," which he 
used, and praised it very highly. 

Mr. Channing Robinson remarked that with eight cradlers he 
could do the work of any wheat reaper, and believed this the most 
economical plan of harvesting wheat. 

The corn planter was spoken of, but not commended, except on 
well prepared land and large farms. 

An incidental discussion then followed on corn culture. 

Dr. Beattie preferred the level culture. 

Dr. Crenshaw recommended the old system of mold board cul- 
ture, and said that the old Veteran Virginia Farmer, Hill Carter, 
preferred this to any other plan, and had discarded the shovel 
plow. 

Corn Culture was then adopted for next meeting. P. 



[For the Southern Planter and Fanner.] 
CUTTING, CURING AND STORING PIAYS. 



The time is at hand when such of our farmers as are fortunate 
enough to have meadows, either of clover or the more permanent 
grasses, will have the pleasant, yet laborious duty of cutting and 
storing the hay to attend to. Having had considerable experience 
in the management of hay, we give it for the benefit of such of 
our readers as are just attempting the management of their first 
crop. We are happy to say that there are very many individuals 
who though farmers of many years' standing, have never attempted 



THE SOUTHERN [June 

J raising of hay, -who this year have some to cut, and we con- 
sider it one of the surest, as it is one of the most potent evidences 
of improvement, that almost every farmer has a small patch at 
: of clover or grass. 
Clover should be cut as "soon as the earlier blooms begin to 
turn brown. If growing alone, and the crop is heavy and there is 
a great deal to cut in proportion to the available force, it is better 
commence earlier — say when the bloom is brightest. If it can 
be had, a mowing machine should always do the cutting. In point 
of economy it may be safely averred that a ton of heavy clover 
can be cut by a machine for about one third what it would cost to 
cut it with a sc \ the, and if the ground is in proper condition from 
one-eighth to one-sixth more hay will be obtained. The machine 
in cutting leaves the clover nicely scattered in the best possible 
condition for curing ; thus saving the immense amount of labor 
involved in scattering it and turning in the swathe when cut by 
hand. Clover should never be cat. when damp with dew or rain ; 
and if this precaution is observed it will require very little time 
to fit it for storing. 

The machine should starrjjre o'clock A. M. if clear, and by 
'2 o'clock the rake may follow, jJutting the hay in windrows. If it 
continues fair and dry, and especially if a brisk breeze be stirring 
the grass cut one morning may be safely stored the next evening. 
The horse rake should be invariably used instead of the hand, 
and unless bad weather intervenes, or it is desirable to leave the 
• in the field tor several days it should not be put in cocks. In 
curing clover alone it is important to watch and turn it, or gather 
.it into windrows before the leaves become scorched by the sun. 
In very bright, still weather this will frequently occur in two or 
three hours after cutting. It is very important that no rain should 
fall upon clover after the process of curing has commenced, and 
to avoid this we have upon several occasions stored considerable 
quantities the same day it was cut. In cases of this kind we are 
careful to distribute the hay as evenly and lightly as possible over 
the entire mow and apply two quarts of air slaked lime and one 
q^fK-t of salt to each ton of grass, sowing it over it as evenly as 
^ble. We have never lost any hay thus treated. Upon the con- 
e have usually found it sweeter, or at any rate more rel- 
ished by stock than any other. 

Clover hay should never be stacked out unless there is straw or 
-ong grass at hand to cover it and protect it from the weather. 
Some persons add considerably to the bulk of their clover hay by 
storing it in alternate layers of a foot or two in thickness. If this 
is done, the clover mav be put away quite green, the dry straw 
absorbing the surplus moisture and becoming impregnated with 
juices of the clover and being much more relished by cattle 
than when not so treated 

Immediately after the clover harvest comes that of timothy. .If 
this grass has been sown alone it will not be difficult to cure. " We 
usually let it lie twenty-four hours after cutting if the weather is 
favorable and then put in medium size cocks where it may remain 
several days or even longer before being hauled in. When ready 
to store or stack it, the cocks should be opened and the bottom 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 283 



exposed to the sun an hoar or two. Pare timothy can be readily 
stacked to keep, but we prefer, when practicable, to put hay of 
every kind under shelter. It should always be remembered when 
cutting timothy that there is a small bulb formed upon the stalk 
an inch or two and sometimes even three inches above the surface, ■ 
which should not be cut, as it contains provisions for the next 
growth, and if cut off the entire plant will be very much weak- 
ened, if not killed. It is therefore best not to cut this grass so 
close as orchard grass or clover, may be cut with impunity. 

The best time to cut timothy, in our opinions, is directly it sheds 
the bloom, or when the larger part of the heads are in what wheat- 
growers call the dough. If intended for food for milch cows or 
young cattle or sheep, it is perhaps better to anticipate this period 
a few days, cutting when in full bloom. It, however, it is intended 
for food for horses it may even be riper still, many experienced 
horsemen preferring hay, the seed of which are mature, for feed- 
ing horses that labor. We confess our own experience is not by 
any means conclusive on this point, the condition in which the 
hay is saved making more difference than its degree of ripeness 
when cut. 

For all stock, except horses, intended for hard or fast work we 
prefer well cured clover hay to timothy, and the manure from one 
ton of clover is worth double as much as. from the same quantity 
of timothy, an item which should not be lost sight of in the econ- 
omy of the f3s;m. Especially when the growing of clover enriches 
the ground even when the entire crop is removed, while timothy 
is an exhausting crop. We have before remarked that it is best 
to store all hay under shelter if possible. There are several good 
reasons for this. In the first place, the loss from wet and spoiling 
stacks is frequently sufficient to pay for the necessary shedding, 
and another advantage which every practical farmer "and feeder 
will readily appreciate, is that you can store any quantity at a time 
from a load to a dozen loads. When stacking out farmers fre- 
quently lose an opportunity of having several loads, when the 
weather is threatening and there is danger of the stock being 
caught before finishing; this difficulty may be avoided to some 
extent by having at hand a large tarpaulin to throw over unfin- 
ished stacks in case of rain. Another advantage is that any quan- 
tity may be taken out for feeding purposes without leaving the rest* 
exposed. The sheds for the protection of hay need not be expen- 
sive. One sufficiently large to store thirty tons Ave had built for 
fifty dollars, expenses all told. With the assistance of the ordi- 
nary farm labor, it would cost even less than this. Good, strong 
"oak or cedar posts, four feet in the ground and sixteen feet above 
it, with a plain roof is all that is absolutely necessary. 

«ew old rails make a very good bottom to put hay upon, and a 
care will make the sides shed all the wet that beats in upon 
When hay is a specialty and largely made for market pur- 
poses a shed should be provided for baling for market purposes. 
Timothy is preferred to any other grass, and it may be permitted 
to ripen more thoroughly than when intended for home consump- 
tion. It sells equally as well and weighs heavier. 



364 THE SOUTHERN 



AMERICAN MANURES AND FARMERS' AND PLANTERS' 

GUIDE. 

:nerican Chemist.) 



Comprising a Description of the Elements and Composition of 
Plants and Soils, the Theory and Practice of Composting, the 
Value of Stable Manure and Waste Products, etc., etc.*^ etc. 
Also Chemical Analysis of the Principal Manufactured Fertil- 
izers, their Assumed and Real Value, and a Full Expose of the 
Frauds Practiced Upon Purchasers. By James Bennet Chyno- 
Weth, late Superintendent of Baugh *fc Sons' Fertilizer Manufac- 
tories, Philadelphia and Chicago, and Wm. H. Bruckner, Ph. 
D., Analytical and Consulting Chemist. Philadelphia, Chvno- 
weth & Co., 1871. 

From the above specious title, the reader might suppose this 
book to have been written with a sincere desire to impart infor- 
mation to planters and farmers, and to instruct them in those 
essential principles of agricultural chemistry, which are so impor- 
tant in their application to the operations of the farm. A very 
different object, however, appears to have animated the authors. 
The first few chapters, indeed, seem intended to elucidate the 
chemical theories of manures and their effects, but the information 
thus conveyed, is totally devoid of originality, and meagre in the 
extreme ; aud serves merely as an introduction to the main part of 
the work, which consists of a violent attack on American commer- 
cial fertilizers as a class, in which individual manufacturers — 
some of them of eminent respectability — are fully aspersed, and 
the products, by imperfect and garbled analysis and are arrogant 
assumptions, are rated at prices far below their actual worth. . 

The methods of estimating the money value of commercial man- 
ures, are arbitrary in the extreme. No allowance is made for 
fluctuations in the price of raw materials, or for labor, for wear 
and tear of apparatus, or the many other sources of expense inci- 
dent to the business. Manufacturers have many just grounds of 
complaint at the summary way in which self-elected censors 
assume their product to be worth certain prices. Reasonable 
chemists, while using these valuations pimply for purposes of com- 
parison, admit that they are no real criteria as to their actual 
money value ; and agree that it is unjust to enforce such assump- 
tions. The authors of this book, with an effrontery which would 
be amusing, were it not offensive to good taste, reject the more 
liberal valuations of such eminent chemists as Avery, Stockhardt, 
Voelcker, Johnson and others, calling them "simply ridiculous/' 
and state they "shall proceed to estimate from a different 1 
This "basis" seems to have been selected for the ex- 
of assailing well-known manures, and villifying reputable manu- 
facturers. By the "basis" thus arbitrarily as ^soluble 
phosphoric acid is declared to be worthless, and in the tables of 
analytical results of the fertilizers which the authors examined. 
the only ingredients to which anv value is assigned, are soluble 
phosphoric acid, ammonia [potential and actual] and potash. In 
this view of the case, the value o£ purcjground bone would be 



1874.] PLANTER AXD FARMER. 285 



estimated simply from its percentage of nitrogen, leaving the 
phosphoric acid wholly out of consideration, winch is a manifest 
injustice. As chemical analysis can merely estimate the quantity 
of insoluble phosphoric acid in fertilizers, without positively indi- 
cating its source, whether from bones, bone ash, or mineral phos- 
phates, it must be clear to any reasonable mind, that to make a 
sweeping assertion that it is entirely valueless, is an unwarranta- 
ble presumption. Moreover, the phosphoric acid which naturally 
exists in soils, invariably occurs in its insoluble form, in which 
condition it is available for plants. 

The opinion prevails among the most eminent agricultura 
chemists, that soil analysis are of no practical benefit to the 
farmer, except, perhaps, in certain instances where abnormal 
results are observed. The authors of this book, on the contrary, 
assume that soils should be analyzed, "so that the farmer may 
know the amount of fertilizing substances he has on hand. This 
would be analogous to taking an account of stock by the merchant 
or manufacturer, only it need not be done so often." They like- 
wise make the remarkable assertion that the price of farming lands 
should be rated by their composition ! This brilliant idea would 
introduce a new element into the business of buying and selling 
farms ; and in the event of its being accepted, the novel spectacle 
may be witnessed, of real estate agents appending analysis of soils 
t<> their descriptive advertisements of lands placed on their iegis- 
ters. 

The methods of analysis which the authors used in their exam- 
ination of fertilizers are crude and faulty ; and while they are 
open to grave objections on this score, they are exposed to the 
suspicion that more accurate results were not desired, as they 
would not, perhaps, have afforded the opportunity — apparently so 
earnestly relished — of indulging in the intemperate language they 
have employed. Honest criticisms may be severe, and yet be free 
from calumnty. When it degenerates into personal invective, it 
loses much of its force, and leads to suspicions that other motives 
than those professed, inspire the detractor. The authors of this 
book have attempted to produce a sensation by publishing a 
defamatory work, under the flimsy pretext of offering valuable 
advice to farmers. They have succeeded in at least a part of their 
endeavors by issuing a volume which renders them liable to pros- 
ecution for libel, and which cannot be read by any chemist with- 
out regret that one claiming to belong to the profession should 
assume the sponsorship of such a diatribe. 



MISTAKES IX WHEAT GROWING. 

Most farmers aspire to raise wheat. It is the great staple crop 
of the country. There is sure to be a market for it. A man feels 
prouder over a good yield of wheat than he does over any other 
farm product, without it be a fat Short-horn steer, of mammoth 
size, concerning which he can say that he both bred and fed it. 
But while most farmers have an ainb : tion to grow wheat, only here 



!86 



THE SOUTHERN [Ju 



and there one really knows how to do it ; and there is, perhaps, 
no crop grown in the country, which so often disappoints the 
hopes of the husbandman. In the majority of cases, this is the 
result of mistakes which may be corrected and avoided. 

A very common mistake is that of supposing that any sort of 
land wili. grow wheat. There are adaptations of soil which ought 
to be carefully studied, so that each variety may be devoted to 
such purposes as best suit it. While most farm products have a 
faculty of accommodating themselves to circumstances, and wili 
grow after a fashion, anywhere, it will pay to make everything as 
favorable as possible to their best development. In selecting a 
piece of ground for wheat, the two extremes of light sand and 
stiff clay should be avoided, and a good strong loam chosen. A 
clay loam is better than a sandy loam. Province has given us 
abundance of the very best wheat land in the world, but there are 
soils not so well adapted for it, whereon other products should be 
cultivated. Why fight nature when it is easier and better to act 
in harmony with her provisions and laws ? 

Another and most grievous mistake is attempting to grow wheat 
on poor land, land that has been exhausted by hard cropping. To 
grow this grain to the best advantage, even a suitable soil requires 
to be in a state of fertility. There should be aduudant stores of 
both mineral and organic plant-food in it, and that too in an elab- 
orated state, readily availing for use. The soil should be mellow 
and well-pulverized, even the manures that are applied being 
reduced to the greatest possible fineness. This is best secured by 
letting it follow a root crop. In a well-managed rotation, the 
place of wheat is next after roots. Nothing so completely mel- 
lows land, and so fines down manure, as thorough culture of a 
root crop. In this way, too, the land is cleaned of weeds, an 
important pre-requisite lor wheat growing. The root crop is to 
be heavily manured. Both turnips and wheat will show the good 
effects of it. So also will the succeeding yield of grass, for wheat 
is an excellent plant for seeding down with, and as it should be 
preceded by roots, it should be followed by grass. Wheat is an 
exhaustive crop, the most so of any crop grown on the farm, and 
it is the height of folly to sow it on poor land. A large propor- 
tion of the disappointments connected with wheat culture may be 
traced to this cause. 

Insufficient preparation of the soil is a very common mistake in 
wheat growing. To obtain the best results, wheat ground should 
be well drained. It will not flourish on wet land. If there is 
stagnant water about the roots, the tissues of the plant become 
soft and watery, and though there may be a great show of straw, 
there will be but a small yield of grain. It tile-draining cannot 
be accomplished, the next best thing is to loosen the subsoil with 
a subsoil plow. Many farmers hardly know the name or use of 
this implement — the more's the pity. The subsoil plow follows 
:n the furrow made by the common plow, not making a second fur- 
vow, but loosening and tearing up the hard pan, so that it will be 
light and open, admitting air, and giving free passage to moisture., 
in exhalation upwards, and in drainage downwards. When land 
is snmmer-fallowed for wheat, every effort should be made by 



874.] PLANTER AND FAEMEE. 287 



repeated use of the harrow or cultivator, to destroy weeds and to 
keep the soil mellow and friable. It should be ploughed in May 
to the depth of about eight inches, and the subsoil plow run down 
six or eight inches deeper. During the summer, an occasional 
harrowing or cultivating should be resorted to as a means of erad- 
icating weeds. Then just before the time for sowing, the land 
should be re-ploughed with both common and subsoil plows. Let 
those who think this "over-doing it," fairly try the experiment of 
thorough cultivation and see whether the results do not prove that 
it pays. 

It is a mistake in wheat culture to bury the fertilizing material 
deeply in the ground. VTe have known great pains taken to do 
this, and the consequence has been sad disappointment. The 
wheat plant inclines to spread out its roots horizontally near the 
surface of the ground, and that is where it should find a supply 
of nutriment ready for use. If the food of the young plant is 
deeply buried, its roots must alter their natural course and strike 
downward instead of spreading abroad near the surface. This 
is, no doubt, one of the chief causes of winterkilling. The roots 
are torn and broken by the alternate processes of freezing and 
thawing. When the roots of the growing grain spread out hori- 
zontally near the surface, the expansion and contraction caused 
by freezing and thawing affect the whole plant, heaving it bodily 
and letting it settle altogether, whereas when the roots are obliged 
to strike dowu deeply in search of nutriment, the changes of 
weather are felt only by that portion of the plant which is near 
the surface. The lower portion of the plant remaining firmly 
imbedded in the ground, when the top soil undergoes upheaval, 
the obvious result is destruction to part of the roots and the con- 
sequent weakening of the plant. It is well known that the best 
crops of wheat are grown on new land. The trees have just been 
chopped down, burnt, and the ashes distributed over the surface 
of the ground. In addition to this fertilizing material, there is 
the leaf-mould, which contains an accumulation of choice plant 
food. It is impossible to plough the ground, because it is full of 
green, tough roots of trees. Hence the seed is "dragged in," i. e., 
harrowed with an imperfect surface scratching. The roots of the 
wheat plant can follow their natural inclination under such cir- 
cumstances, and spread out close to the surface of the soil which 
is richly stored with the best possible food. Have we not here 
plain proof that in order to successful wheat culture our fertili- 
zers must be distributed at or near the surface of the soil ? This 
is no argument for shallow ploughing. Stir the soil deeply, but 
let its treasures of plant food be near the top. 

Broad-cast sowing is a mistake made by nis.ny. Drill-sowing is 
more economical, saving seed by its more uniform distribution, 
and lessening the liability of the young plants to winter-kill. 
There is a better and more even distribution of light and heat } 
and freer circulation of air, — important considerations in connec . 
tiosa with the best welfare of the crop. It is not the least of the 
advantages of the drill-sowing, that a little concentrated manure 
may be applied in the drill, the influence of which will be felt in 
hastening forward and strengthening the young plants. 



THE SOUTHERN [June 

It is a mistake in wheat culture to sow inferior seed. Indeed 
this is very foolish in regard to any and every crop. Like begets 
like. Weakness and disease are propagated in the plant world, 
very much as they are transmitted from parent to child in the 
world of human beings. The greatest pains should be taken to 
procure the choicest seed that can possibly be had. It will pay a 
farmer who depends on his own growing of seed, to cull out the 
best portions of a field, when there is perceptible difference, and 
devote them to this important use. Indeed it is a wise policy to 
select the earliest and] finest heads, and from these grow seed. 
It is also well to obtain a chaDge of seed from time to time, as 
successive sowing in the same soil and climate, seems to induce 
more or less degeneracy. The farmer should never grudge a lit- 
tle extra outlay in the purchase of choice seed. Such outlay is 
pretty certain to be well rewarded. 

TTe have not enumerated all the mistakes that are made in wheat 
culture, but these will suffice for the present article, and others 
can be taken up hereafter. — Cincinnati Farmer. 



Horticultural Department. 



MULCHING, WATERING, AND PRUNING TREES! 



A recent article in the New York Sun presented the results of 
my experience in mulching and watering, in so much better form 
than I can give it myself, that I laid aside the paper with the 
intention of sending it to you, and requesting the republication of 
the article in question. But, having mislaid the paper, were it 
merely by way of penance for my neglect. I will offer my testi- 
mony for what it is worth. 

And I will state at the outset. I don't think I ever saved a tree 
by watering. Certainly. I have lost a good many which I watered 
assiduously. The Sun writer attributes this to the baking 
of the soil about the roots, and this seems the most satisfactory 
explanation. Yet I have sometimes kept the ground always moist, 
and still lost my trees. I suspect I commenced watering too late, 
and that the trees had already begun to decline, although it was 
not yet perceptible. Still, the effect must be to strengthen yet 
more the conclusion against watering at the root. 

On the other hand, with mulching there is no such word as fail. 
I have transplanted small trees in full leaf successfully, by remov- 
ing most of the branches and foliage, watering when planted, 
mulching, and then moistening the mulch, and the top of the tree 
tonally. An occasional sprinkling of the boughs and body 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 289 

of young trees daring dry spells in spring has the happiest effect 
in starting the sap and buds. 

A few years ago I planted fifty apple trees in March, and tested 
the comparative advantages of mulching and cultivation. "With 
the most thorough cultivation and high manuring I secured, on a 
portion of the trees, a growth of from one to two feet. The re- 
maining trees, planted in a lot sown in qflts, moderately manured, 
well mulched, and left undisturbed throughout the year, grew 
from two to four feet, and are ahead to this day. 

Trees are oftener pruned too much than too little. Low heads 
suit the intense heats of our summers. 

Peach trees may be cut down to the ground, and grown some- 
what like shrubs, with from three to five stems. By this method 
you will have no splitting off of overloaded branches ; you can 
cultivate close to the tree ; you escape the evil of a scaly, hide- 
bound, sun-baked trunk, and you may, from time to time, cut away 
one or more old stems, and have them replaced by new and vio-,> 
rous ones, as in a rose bush. 

Try this plan on a few trees, and you will be likely to keep it up. 
Of course it is not every tree that admits of it, but simply the 
youngest. 

Another advantage— it greatly facilitates the gathering of the 
fruit. L. 



Richmond, April :20th. 1874. 
Majob John 13. Hakvie, Jr. : 

Dear Sir — 1 promised to give you the account I have fre- 
quently heard from my late fathers lips (Mr. Charles Palmer) of 
the origin of what is known as the "Xorton Seedling Grape-vine." 
It is as follows : Soon after Mr. Monroe's return from France, lie 
occupied the house on Franklin street, now owned by Mrs. Bayly. 
"While living there, he made a gift to my aunt, Mrs. Price, of a 
Burgundy grape-vine root, which she planted in the garden of the 
residence now owned and occupied by Gen'l Bradley T. Johnson. 
From early childhood I recollect that vine. At one time it was 
very large, growing from two canes as large as a man's arm, and 
never failed to bear profusely. It was often broken down, and 
was once burnt down almost entirely. But it was never killed : 
it seemed to have more than "nine lives." When the propertv 
passed from my hands into those of Gen'l Johnson, I told him the 
history of this vine ; whereupon he at once took steps to perpetuate 
it. And now he has it supported upon an arbor, having first 
trimmed out all the old dead wood. 

I have often heard my father say that Dr. Norton got from this 
vine the grafts which he used upon the wild native vine of this 
State in the neighborhood of Richmond, and which originated 
the •• Norton Seedling." This fact I hear is also known to Mr. 



290 THE SOUTHERN J" June 



Jessee Willams, the father of Air. A. D. Williams of the firm of 
Grubbs it "Williams. Whether it be true or not — the charac- 
teristics of the two varieties of fruit, viz : the fruit of the old 
vine and that of the ''Norton Seedling" are very much alike, so 
much so. that it is almost impossible to distinguish the one from 
the other. They bear alike, they ripen alike, they taste alike, 
thev arc hardy alike — cannot be propagated except from die root : 
flourish in rich, moist spots : produce a dark, slightly astringent 
juice or wine, cannot recommend as a table grape, but now con- 
sidered the safest for wine. I give you this statement, as I have 
often heard it, but of course cannot vouch for its accuracy. It is 
well worth further investigation. It is enough to say. that the aid 
vine to which I refer has been where it now flourishes for more 
than sixty years, and is now a "merry old plant." 
Very respectfully and truly yours, 

Wm. P. Palmes. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

PEAR CULTURE FOP PPOFIT. 

A very practical work with above title has just been issued by 
Orange Judd cv: Co., of New York. A former edition of the 
same work was published some years ago by the Tribune associa- 
tion we believe, and the author, General P. T. Quinn, of New 
Jersey, has revised and added to it, and it now comes out under 
the care of this great agricultural publishing house. The author 
is perhaps as thoroughly competent as any one man in the country 
to write such a book. For many years a practical cultivator of 
the pear, and withal a thorough-going fruit-raiser, he deals only 
in facts and experience. The book before us contains very little 
theory : and while we do not agree with the author in many par- 
ticulars, we cannot but commend the plain, common-sense manw 
iu which he treats his subject; so different from many writers 
who seek to bewilder rather than inform, and who advise so many 
and such heavy out-lays of money and labor as absolutely neces- 
sary to success in pear culture that most ordinary farmers are 
deterred from engaging in it. Air. Quinn is decidedly opposed to 
the planting of dwarf pears, except one variety— the l)ucF 
Here we think him wrong. It is true that there are comparatively 
few varieties which do well as dwarfs, if kept so: but by planting 
the point of union between the pear and quince three or four 
inches below the surface the pear stock will soon throw out roots 
and become a standard, to all intents and purposes, retaining at 
the same time all the advantages of the dwarf — early bearing and 
productiveness. Though not an extensive grower, we have had 
an experience dating back to '61 ; and we are now planting a 
young pear orchard of 1000 trees, one-half of which will be 



1874J PLANTER AND FARMER, 291 

dwarfs. Our reasons for this are simply these: The original 
cost of the trees is about one-half for dwarfs what standards 
cost— the one s25 per hundred, the other $50. Secondly, in 
transplanting dwarfs are much less liable to die than standards. 
and are not so much checked in their growth. Thirdly, the 
dwarfs will bear at least two years earlier than the standard, aud 
even a half-peck of first-class fruit from each of 500 trees will 
bring a considerable sum for a poor man. Fourthly, by planting 
the trees deeply the pear stock will soon take root, and at the end 
of ten years our orchards will all be standards. 

Mr. Quinn recommends very few varieties of pears, and we are 
disposed to agree with him in every particular on this subject. 
There is a great disposition among tree planters to multiply vari- 
eties upon their grounds; and the result is the planting of many 
that are utterly worthless, and having so few ripening at a time 
that they will not pay to take to market. 

We wish we had space to copy whole chapters of this work for 
the benefit of our readers, especially those upon planting, ma- 
nuring, pruning, &c. As the season for planting approaches, 
however, we will try and make such extracts as we deem of most 
general practical interest. Every man. however, who pretends to 
raise fruit — especially rears — should have the book itself. 

Asso. Editor. 



Stock Department. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

THE BEST BREED OF CATTLE FOR VIRGINIA. 



Editors Southern Planter and Farmer: 

The raising of cattle has now become a source of profit in many 
sections to a great exteaiVand^ it becomes a matter of great prac- 
tical importance to our farmers to select the breed best adapted 
to the. locality in which they reside. The question is asked every 
day, Which is the best breed, and where the best crosses? 

The time lias passed away when the intelligent practical farmer 
will be willing to put his cows to a ■"scrub" of a bull simply be- 
cause his services can be had gratis. The calf of a blooded bull 
is worth more for any purpose than one from a " scrub.'' Blood 
has a money value which will be appreciated. I think the best 
breed of cattle for Piedmont and Eastern Virginia is the Devon 
crossed on our native stock; they will give more and richer milk. 
and will make better beef than any other stock that II know of, 
and at the same time they are herdy and will make the quickest 
and best work-oxen in the world. Thev will winter on one-third 



292 THE SOUTHERN [June 

less than the short-horn or Alderny. Stock raisers should 
more judgment in selecting such heifer calves as are to be reared. 
Select those whose mothers are good milkers and wi. - have 

come from good milking stock : at the same time the calf 
should have those characteristics that indicate an aptitude to de- 
velope good milking qualities — viz: small fine head, rather long 
in muzzle, bright eyes, thin tapering neck, small well-shaped legs, 
long body, large hind quarters. i, fine hair, the milk-mirror 

or udder-veins should be large and well developed. The raising 
of bull-calves f< :>r breeders had better be left to those who have 
time and means to devote to it. But there is no reason why a 
portion of the male calves at least should not be reared as bullocks, 
either for team or butcher: and it is important that such as are 
reared for this purpose should .-ertain points indicative of 

future excellence — viz: well-shaped head, small ears, short thick 
neck, deep brisket, broad chest and shoulders, fine bone, lung 
body, -well rounded behind the shoulder, straight back, wide loins, 
full fluajter^tail thin and tapering, skin soft and not too thin. 

It ist«oV)i*enr4l5e feis6 H|at^Miiiqal&are selected for breeding 
from their being of £ pretty cofo% * ^vot nnfrequently valuable 
calves are fatteae^fqr veals sifhpTy because their color is unplea- 
sant to 1 the\4ye^^Tnje\ ^t^RppSjpa ch of wring suggests many 
questions of importance in regard to tlTe care of stock, to get them 
to summer in such a condition that none of the years' growth will 
be lost. Cows that come in at this season of the year need 
special care, or they will not yield through the season the expected 
profits. 

Food amounting in nutritive qualities to an equivalent of milk 
secreted must be given, or there will be a draft upon the system, 
reducing flesh and strength, and so checking the constitution that 
full recovery will not be made during the entire season. Ground 
feed, or vegetables with plenty of pure water, are indispensable. 
Cold storm of rain and sleet are not uncommon near the opening 
of spring — at a time when feed is likely to become reduced in 
quantity. 

The sheds and other buildings must not be allowed to get ont 
of repair: for stock may be so much reduced in flesh, that they 
cannot endure these severe seasons without sacrifice. 

Good cows have three important qualities — viz: They give rich 
milk, yield it in large quantities, and hold out well through the 
year. It is not the quantity given, but the quantity profitably 
given, which determines the value of a cow: a good milker does 
not, in my judgment, constitute a good cow; neither does a _ 
breeder, nor a good feeder: it is the three qualities combined 
that make the cow. Cows of extraordinary milking properties art- 
found as often among grades as among thorough-bred animals. 
The greatest milker that I have ever known is a grade D 
She will yield four gallons of excellent milk at a milking, namely, 
e a day. making an aggregate of eii r ht gallons per day. C. 



1S74.J PLANTER AND FARMER, 293 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

DOG TAX, SHEEP RAISING, &c. 



The relationship th-at has existed between the man and dog 
creation from a veryremote period, is a peculiar one. " Love rue, 
love my dog," is a phrase we are all acquainted with, and many 
of us, perhaps, have witnessed a fight or two between men about 
their dogs. We find also, by reference to the Old Testament, 
that the Israelites were prohibited by special enactment from 
making dogs a matter of commerce. 

A good dog, "whether he be kept specially for the chase or 
sport, in the fields or only as a yard clog, is a valuable animal, and 
it is just here that the jyeculiarity of his position towards man is 
most striking, or is it man's position towards the dog? While we 
are willing to quarrel about them, nay, sometimes actually fight 
about them, yet we permit them to roam about the country at 
will, absolutely without protection so far as the law is concerned, 
and scarcely regarding the improvement of their species at all. 

And in the meantime an interest of high importance to the 
whole country suffers severely from the no-laio system of dogs. 
I refer to sheep-raising, which is entirely prohibited in some sec- 
tions, and carried on in others with the profits arising from that 
lucrative and i?nportant branch of industry sadly diminished by 
the loose morals of the neighborhood dogs. Especially is this the 
case around our cities and towns and villages, where, on the 
smaller but richer and better provided farms, those larger and 
finer breeds of sheep are most likely to obtain a foot-hold — from 
thence to be distributed among our flocks in the mountains and 
on the plains beyond us. But this will never be the case as long 
as our people suffer the dogs to kill the sheep with impunity, and 
the best remed}" is a tax per capita, say of 25, 50 or §1.00 for the 
first dog, double the tax for the second, and $5.00 for each dog- 
more than two kept on one farm or lot; for females, double the 
tax on males. Then require their owners to muzzle them securely 
against damage to persons and property, and that they shall be 
kept muzzled or confined at all times, and I think we will have 
the dog matter safely and satisfactorily arranged for the good of 
the dogs, as well as their owners ; and the difficulty (so far as they 
are concerned, at least,) about raising sheep removed. 

The money arising from this tax on dogs I would appropriate 
ro extending our school facilities or improving our county roads. 
<>r both, as the revenue from this sonrce would probably be suffi- 
cient. 

I have seen much opposition offered by the people to the feeble 
efforts of our legislators hitherto made for taxing dogs; but I 
believe it was the spirit animating those who favored the plan, or 
at least their manner of presenting it, rather than any well-con- 



204 THE SOUTHERN [June 

sidered reason on* the part of the people for opposing, which caused 
its failure : just as we see people opposiug the law requiring them 
to fence in their cattle from the highways and their neighbors" 
crops. This, as well as the dog tax v\ hich we may yet hope to 
obtain from our Legislature as something at least in the line of 
u value received*' for the enormous cost of their ''sitting," are both 
innovations on a time-honored custom, which in the days gone by 
I am told made law, and will be opposed just as the introduction 
of labor-saving machinery was, and upon very like grounds. The 
man who attempts to argue in favor of allowing cattle to run at 
large by law, argues at the same time in favor of the proposition 
that an indifferent cow or hog is letter than a good one, which is 
simply ridiculous ; and he who opposes taxing dogs for the pur- 
poses named, surely holds that his dogs are more important than 
the education of his children and improved highways, or confesses 
to the sin of feeding away bread from the months of hungry 
women and children to a parcel of worthless dogs, not worth 
paying taxes on. 

No, Mr. Editor, I feel assured that a wholesome law passed by 
our Legislature taxing dogs, and protecting them from being 
harmed by others or each other, and preventing their doing harm 
to people and property, would be hailed with delight by all ; and 
those aspirants for higher places may vote for such a law with 
perfect impunity ; there need be no fear of its detracting from 
their majority for Congress, Governor, or President of the United 
States, or what is better, a great railroad corporation monopoly a 
single vote. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

BEES. 

J/c-^;v. Ed'd<>,:>: 

As you have published various articles on the subject of bees 
from my pen year before last, and I now have frequent letters 
asking why I do not continue to write for your journal, I thought 
I would ran off a short article. 

I the past month moved my family to the city of Richmond, 
and with them brought ten swarms of bees in Triumph and 
American hives, fearing to bring more. • I left twenty-two swarms 
with the tenant on the farm I moved from, and placed ten swarms 
on another farm about four miles from town, which is all the bees 
I have left after having sold off near twenty swarms this spring 
at prices ranging from -$7 to $16 for swarm and hive and honey 
in the hive, the prices varying according to the kind of hive and 
bee. I sold to one L r entleman over $f>0 worth. So yonr readers 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 295 



can see there is money in raising- bees if yon throw away the 
honey; but I consider the honey far the most profitable part of 
the business, if it is properly attended to. 

Having these ten hives of bees in the city I propose reporting, 
from time to time, their history as to number of swarms and yield 
of honey; for 1 am inclined to think bees on a large scale in a 
city uncertain, although I must say they have commenced un- 
usually well; for I have already (May 9th) had seven Italian 
swarms from the eight Italian swarms I brought in — as follows : 
April 22d, one Italian swarm ; April 27th, two swarms ; May 1st, 
one swarm; May 7th, one; and May 9th, two; which is very 
good for eight hives so early in the season, when last vear I did 
not have the first swarm until May 1st ; and in 1872 my first 
natural swarm was not thrown off until May 13th. My two 
apiaries in the country have also had a number of Italian swarms 
already, while none of my black or common bees have yet thrown 
off a swarm; so it proves conclusively, from three years' experi- 
ence, that the Italian bee throws off earlier swarms than the 
common bee, which is another advautage the Italian bee has over 
the common bee ; and my experience is, they gather much more 
honey, and protect themselves much better from moth-worm, and 
they are a much handsomer bee to look at, with their golden 
bands, as well as being much more docile, or not so much inclined 
to make an attack when you pass amongst the hives or open them 
to extract the honey, or otherwise manipulate with them. Thev 
also do not so quickly leave a sheet of comb when you lift a frame 
of comb or young brood from the hive. The queen being of a 
golden or leather color, is much easier found. 

I am now, after over three years' trial of some ten or twelve 
different kinds of hive, using the Triumph hive, and a modifica- 
tion of it and the Simplicity hive. The frames in the hive I am 
using most are deeper than either the Triumph or the Simplicity, 
but the same length on top as the Triumph; and without division 
boards or surplus boxes I can sell them for three dollars and fifty 
cents each, which makes them a very cheap hive. The Simplicity 
hive, with thirteen frames and without bottom or surplus boxes. 
1 can sell for three dollars each. This last named hive is so made 
that the top of one hive will answer for the bottom or the top of 
any other hive of the Simplicity pattern ; and when one hive is 
full you simply set another hive either over the full one or under 
it, as your judgment may decide best; and if the swarm is very 
large and gathering much honey, you may set three or more of 
these hives one over the other, and the bees will work in all. In 
that way I think it is an advantage to have no fixed bottom or 
top. I find, by experience, a little quilt to fit the hive nicely over 
the top of the frames is a great convenience, and much to be pre- 
ferred to a plank or wooden honey-board ; for when you cover up 
he bees you do not kill any, as a wooden honey-board would, and 
t lets the dampness evaporate, yet it is sufficiently warm for 



296 THE SOUTHERN [June 

winter or summer. With Triumph hive you can ventilate the 
hive as thoroughly as you desire. 

This communication is somewhat scattering, but it replies to 
numerous letters of inquiry, and will save me some letter- writing. 

I must close for the present, with best wishes for the success 
of your journal. Respectfully yours, 

May 11th, IS U. W. R. Polk. 



Correspondence 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

MAY NUMBER OF THE SOUTHERN PLANTER AN1> 

FARMER. 

Before resuming our review we wish to say that the May num- 
ber of the Planter we consider to be an excellent one. If some 
Southern farmer were to find in a Northern agricultural journal 
the same amount of valuable, practical matter, with the plates 
and embelishments which usually accompany these journals, we 
believe he would pronounce this Northern periodical one of the 
best (if not the best) farmers' paper in the whole country. The 
writer takes and reads several Northern agricultural journals, and 
is conscious that he derives more useful information from the 
Southern Planter than from any or all of them. We believe- 
it literally true that every farmer in Virginia should take the 
Southern Planter. What is $1.50 in comparison with the in- 
formation he would obtain by reading it '. 

This much we feel to be due to one Virginia journal, and i& 
said by one who has no pecuniary or other interest in it. except 
to see merit rewarded and Southern enterprise successful. What 
is said in these reviews is paid for in no manner or form, the 
writer only desiring to add his mite in building up and sustaining 
a valuable Southern agricultural journal. 

The first article in the May number puts forward the encourag- 
ing belief that agriculture in Virginia is decidedly improving, 
and expresses the opinion that Northern farmers who come to the 
the State fail of their expected success because their soil, climate, 
and system of labor are totally different from that they meet with 
here. We suspect this is true. But the Northern man, the writer 
ays, is far ahead of us in system. This is very manifest, and this 
>ystem which is not characteristic of the Southern farmer is all 
important. We have been often struck with the want of system 
on our Southern farms in the one particular of not having "a 
place for every thing, and every thing in its place." How often* 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 297 

do we hear the saying of "where this thing or that thing is;'' 
and much valuable time is lost in hunting up things which are 
kept in no particular place. 

The " Virginia Water Line," which if completed would be one 
of the greatest works of the age, and the most important work of > 
internal improvement on the continent, is destined still to wait 
for aid by the general government, and for the present " hope is 
deferred." If this great canal were to wash Northern territory 
an appropriation would not long be doubtful. 

" Mixed Farming " and the cultivation of grasses is again very 
properly urged upon our farmers. The cultivation of grasses and 
the pea-fallow are all important to Virginia farmers in improving 
their lands. 

" The Currency" contains some interesting statistics, and shows 
how far we are behind most other nations in the amount of cur- 
rency per capita, and is an argument in favor of increase of our 
currenc}*, or " inflation," as the opponents call it. The paper 
contains many other practical statements, is quite detailed and 
perspicuous, and needs no analysis at our hands. 

In " Notes for the Month" the writer says he would prefer to 
plough his laud the first time at least "three loeelts before planting." 
This depends on the soil. In heavy clay lands we prefer to plough 
four or five months, or the fall before planting. This gives oppor- 
tunity for the freezes to pulverize and make friable the soil, and, 
besides, expedites labor and enables the farmer to be beforehand, 
or in time, in the spring. The mode of cultivation is touched on, 
and the harrow after the corn is up, and then the cultivator or 
coalter is advised. Mr. Hill Carter, a standard authority in farm- 
ing in Virginia, prefers the old system — the culture with the 
mould-board. It is the best system for killing the grass, and we 
doubt if any system will ever be desired for cultivation of corn 
better than this. On the cultivation of tobacco we are not pre- 
pared to speak, not being a raiser of " the weed." 

The proceedings of the " Monaskon Farmers' Club" contain a 
practical article on sheep, and there we have a debate on the old 
question of " Dog vs. Sheep." We suppose as long as the owners 
of dogs can give more votes than the owners of sheep we shall 
have no tax on dogs and no abatement of this great evil. 

The " King George Farmers' Club " take up the old cry of 
"Dogs vs. Sheep," and Mr. Fielding Lewis reports twenty-one 
sheep killed by dogs in four nights, and the killing of the curs — 
some satisfaction, but no pay for the lost sheep. 

In the " Use of Straw " we are advised to apply it at once to 
the poorer portions of our lands. Good advice ; but as much as 
is needed to keep the farmers' animals clean and comfortable, and 
to absorb the liquid manure, should be used in the stables and 
farm pens. 

" Protective Legislation Against Frauds in Fertilizers " has 
•very little point or practical suggestion in it. Legislation to this 



208 THE SOUTHERN [June 

end in this country lias not been efficient. So states Hon. Fred. 
Watts, commissioner agriculture, and so we believe. But if the 
State was willing to incur the necessary expense much might be 
accomplished. To make the plan available to the farmer it would 
be necessary to have not only one " State chemist/' but many 
chemists distributed through the State at different points. One 
chemist could not do a tithe of the work necessary ; and besides, 
chemists should be situated in the different portions of the State, 
that the farmers might apply in person to them. Probably one 
for each Congressional district might suffice. We believe that 
Congress should make the appropriation for this purpose, on con- 
dition perhaps that the farmers' clubs and granges should aid in 
defraying the expenses. Agriculture being the great interest of 
the country, and constitutional difficulties being not much re- 
garded in modern times, we see no objection to the plan — a plan 
somewhat similar to that used in Germany. In aid of this plan 
perhaps it miglit be well to charge each farmer who applies to 
the chemist for analysis a small fee. This, too, would prevent 
useless applications to the chemist. 

"On the Proper Method of presenting Phosphoric Materials to 
the Soil," the question having arisen as to whether it was not 
better to use these materials in a finely ground state than dissolved 
by sulphuric acid, the testimony of Dr. Voelcker and M. Ville in 
favor of the use of the acid is adduced. 

Next comes a very interesting letter (rather too long, however,; 
from Geo. C. Gilmer, of Albemarle, commending Virginia and 
his county to settlers. It is in reply to numerous inquiries on 
this point, and like this gentleman's other communications, is well 
and pleasantly written. 

" Deep vs. Shallow Ploughing" contains a long extract from 
the '" Ogden Farm Papers" on "this subject. It appears to us the 
solution of tins' question is found in the variety of soils and the 
use of the sub-soil plough, which in common parlance "splits the 
difference." The latter gives us a deep soil, without any danger 
of upturning a bad sub-soil. Of the propriety of deep ploughing 
on land with a good red clay sub soil, no one doubts, after ex- 
aming the effect of throwing down the batteries near the city and 
cultivating them. This has been done in some cases next the 
river, and on these levelled batteries are found the best clover, 
wheat, &c, though the sub-soil is alone on the surface, and the 
super-soil varied. 

The writer of "Agriculture" gives us some good advice — viz: 
touse green manures (clover and peas), and lime and plaster. If 
this advice was followed there is no doubt that we should in a 
few years see decided improvement in the lands of Virginia — 
much more rapid than we shall ever see by the use of " commer- 
cial fertilizers." 

Next we have some experiments on deep and shallow planting. 
The season of the year, and the dryness or wet of the weather 



18I4.J PLANTER AND FARMER. 299 

prevailing, lias much to do in settling this question. The writers 
experiments favor shallow planting. 

The authority of William Thomas Meehan is adduced in the 
article on "Manuring Vines and Trees" in favor of using the 
manure in midsummer. 

The writer of "What Stock Will Suit Us Best" advocates 
" sheep," and adduces some strong arguments in their favor. The 
trial of "goats" as a stock for farmers to raise is recommended. 
They will live on less than sheep or any other stock. Their 
hides are worth always $1 a piece, the young kid is very eatable, 
the milk is good and nutricious, particularly for infants ; and 
butter is by some made of the milk. They propagate very rapidly, 
are not attacked by dogs, and we think the farmers should give 
them a trial as a farm stock. The cashmere goat should un- 
doubtedly be further tried in Virginia. The writer says they 
yield a fleece weighing from three to eight pounds, which sells 
in New York for $1 to $1.50 per pound. 

Then we have an article on "Dogs vs. Sheep" again. This 
time from the pen of Mr. Geo. C. Gilmer, who not only discusses 
this subject, but. " Quibusdam alus" Can't the "granges" stretch 
out their briarian arms and help the farmers in this matter? But 
the trouble is, that every where the dogs outvote the sheep. 

Then again we have more on this subject from F. G. Ruffin, 
with his plan of killing dogs, and his statement that sheep may 
be profitably raised in spite of the dogs ; and that the casualties 
from the dogs is not greater than crops sustain by bad seasons, &c. 
But then to this must be added the diseases which sometimes 
pervade flocks of sheep, and the loss occasionally by rogues. 

" Shepherd " wishes to know a remedy .for killing ticks on 
sheep, and is informed that decoction of tobacco will do it. This 
may sometimes kill the sheep. We do not know it will, but we 
knew a cow once killed by it. The best remedy for insects of 
all kinds on animals is mercury in some form — mercurial oint- 
ment, or ointment of red precipitate ; the latter is particularly 
efficacious for lice on hogs. 

An article from Mr. R. P. Graves shows the profit of sheep 
raising. If the dogs could be gotten rid of there is no doubt that 
the business of sheep raising will increase yearly, and ultimately 
become a great interest in Virginia. 

Then follows " How to Succeed With Poultry," from the stand- 
ard author on this subject, Tegetmeir. An} r thing practical on 
poultry is always important to the farmer ; and we are convinced 
that the farmers are not paying the attention to this subject that 
it deserves. 

Next we notice " Your Reviewer." "Henrico" seems in bad 
humor with " Reviewer," and appears to take counsel rather from 
a captious disposition than from reason. Why " Reviewer's" ob- 
jections to the " Granges," honestly entertained and plainly stated, 
should be called "covert," is hard to conjecture. Is it a "covert 



300 THE SOUTHERN [June 



attack," because at the same time it is hoped and believed that the 
order will do good I Then one conscious that a friend or other 
person may have some defects may not wish him success in life. 
;: Henrico'* seems no believer in the line " "With all thy faults 1 
love thee still." The order must indeed be immaculate and in- 
fallible if one may not in a journal, where its claims are brought 
forward for popular approval, state objections honestly entertained 
by himself, and he knows many others, without having imputed 
to him insincerity and conceit. "Reviewer" sincerely hoped and 
believed the order would do good (for whatever benefits the farmer 
will benefit " Reviewer " as one of them), and has not made up 
his mind that he will never become a member of the Granges. 
The secresy feature he could surmount ; he is not certain he can 
the other. What is meant by bringing our wives into the "public- 
arena" any 'reader can easily understand, though, the mixing of 
females with the rougher sex in their meetings may not be as 
' ; public arena " as some others, and the expression may not be 
literally that. It is to be hoped that the order will put forward 
more politic and fairer-minded defenders of their principles than 
" Henrico," if they wish to gain adherents to their cause. 

Other articles deserve comment, but we fear we have already 
consumed too much space in the Plaxtee. Reviewer. 

Eratem ix last xeaebee of Review. — In commenting on Mr. 
Price's article, for "mortified" patient, read "moribund:'' 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

AMELIA PLANTATION OBSERVATIONS— THE TEN- 
DENCY TO RUN EVERYTHING AGROUND. 

Whether consciously or unconsciously, there exists a universal 
tendency to run every new idea to death. "When men get a new 
idea and successfully reduce it to practice, it becomes their uni- 
versal panacea, and they seem oblivious to all other causes that 
have been and continue to operate. Thus a class of writers now 
see the plowing under of green crops, especially of clover, as the 
all-sufficient remedy and restorer of worn-out lands. Now that 
clover is a great and valuable improver and one of the cheapest 
we possess, I have no doubt at all. But it does not follow that 
therefore it will effectually restore fertility to every elas> of soil. 
In some cases, where the soluble organic elements of plant life 
are all that the soil needs to perfectly balance its elementary 
constituents, it may — and does frequently — prove the all-sufficient 
remedy. But we must not forget that the fertility of a & il 
results from the equilibrium or balance of each of the constituent 
elements of plant life in the soil; and though it may have either 
of the most valuable soluble elements of plant life in great excess, 
unless the inorganic or mineral constituents of plants exist in 
proportionate quantities, the soil cannot be fertile or productive. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 301 

When, for instance, General Lee fell back from Petersburg he 
ordered quite a considerable magazine of ammunition to be ex- 
ploded about a quarter of a mile from our Court-house, and large 
quantities that remained unexplored had the out-casing of the 
cartridges destroyed by the weather, and the nitre or nitrogen of 
the powder washed by the rains into the soil. The result is that 
the place has been ever since perfectly barren, like a perfect 
waste; and yet there can be no doubt that that soil is excessively 
surcharged with nitrogen. 

Six years ago I seeded my wheat land to clover. I had sowed 
on some portions of my wheat 400 lbs. of Boston Milling Co.'s bone 
flour, and six bushels of salt to the acre, and on other portions I 
mixed 200 lbs. of the bone flour with 200 lbs. of soluble Pacific 
guano. Of course I had an elegant plant of clover. The second 
season the clover was not used or cut till late in the fall, and left 
on the land, when 200 lbs. of plaster was sowed and the land rolled, 
the clover remaining on the surface as a mulch. I then sold the 
place and removed from the county, and cannot say what have 
been the subsequent crops, only I learn that the land has been 
seeded to clover since, and a clover soil was fallowed for wheat 
last fall. Upon the theoiy of our friends the wheat ought to be 
first-rate and the land highly improved, which is not the fact; 
fur the wheat is very sorry, and there is very little clover making 
its appearance. 

Professor Ville's is undoubtedly the true theory — namely, take 
pains in choosing and marking out carefully plots of equal size 
and quality of soil in the field, treat the whole precisely the same 
as far as cultivation is concerned, then sow equal quantities of 
the specific elements of commercial fertilizers separately on each 
plot by themselves. On others sow them combinedly — -that is to 
say, two of the separate elements on one plot, three on another, 
and so on until all the variations necessary to make the test com- 
plete is made, treat all with perfect equality in subsequent culti- 
vation, and thus learn practically what each field needs. Do not 
forget that soils are very diverse in their constituents, and what 
may be true of one is not true of another. Be. impressed with 
the inexorable truth that there is not and cannot be any universal 
specific for lack of fertility. Do not let us be like the dupes of 
quack-medicine venders in believing their representations that 
their medicines meet every case. 

We must be patient, persevering and persistent first in learning 
the character of the disease of our soils, then we may intelligently 
apply the remedy at comparatively a small cost, and I feel assured 
we may be practical and successful physicians, bringing our soils 
up to as high a state of cultivation as any in the country, if, 
instead of relying upon one thing as a specific, we, by small and 
inexpensive tests, as advised above, first determine what we 
need, and act accordingly. G. B. S. 



THE SOUTHERN [June 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

1 notice the " Reviewer" of the March number of the Planter 
and I '.links the rearing of poultry as a farm product. is nor 

profitable, and gives as his reasons, so many dying with cholera. 

I would like to give " Reviewer"' a little of my experience, and 
hope I may he able to convince him he is wrong ; and that poul- 
try as a farm product, or the poultry business alone, will pay and 
ay handsomely. There is a preventative if not a cure for 
this terrible disease of chicken hood, and if strictly adhered to will 
save the lives of thousands of tine fowls. 

w for the preventative. The first and most important is 
cleanliness : keep every coop, roost) run. etc.. scrupulously clean : 
use as disinfectants carbolic acid, lime, copperas, or any other 
which may be convenient (I prefer the acid (; dust the bottom of 
every sitting-hen's nest well with finely-powdered sulphur (the stick- 
sulphur or brimstone is strongest and best) ; keep the drinking- 
troughs well supplied with pure fresh water, with a piece of 
assaf<:etida as large as an hickory-nnt in the bottom of the trough : 
and to keep it (the assafoetida) from being misplaced, tie it in a 
piece of cloth and tack it to the trough : this will last a good long 
while ; give the fowls plenty of good sound grain (corn the best) 
twice a day. morning and evening: pepper dough once a week; 
and give yourself no uneasine- as t the health of your fo 

I myself have lost numbers of fine fowls, and all for the want 
of necessary attention. Since adoptiug the above plan my fowls 
are always healthy, while I hear of those around me losing them 
ins and twenties. 

I believe there has as yet no remedy been found for this terri- 
ble d: it there is certainly a preventative, and I need no 
I etter ; i x>£ of the assertion than the health of my fowls. Let 
who discredit this statement give it a trial, and I am certain 
they will be convinced that poultry as a farm product will pay: 
and that the poultry business exclusively can be made a source of 
great pi fit and wealth. 

Clifton Hill, Caroline county. Ya. W. T. B. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
Mr. Ld'r 

At this writing (30th May), the weather is cmite cool ; nearly 
cold enough for frost last night. The oat crop on the low lands 
of the Cape Fear is almost an entire failure, owing tu so many 
freshets late in the spring. Owing to the continuous cool nights 
and heavy rains, the stand of corn is bad ; much to be planted over 
yet. The cotton crop in this section will fall far behind last year. 
K I near as many acres planted : but little guano used, and the 
Q for planting is near three weeks later than common. Fer- 
tilizers did not pay us last year, and many farmers have decided 
H use any more. Dse compost and barn-yard manure: it is 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 303 



the only safe plan. Laborers are in great demand, and farmers 
are offering fair prices. Will write you again as the season fur- 
ther advances. Duffie. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

Editor Planter and Farmer: 

Dear Sir — In my former letter to you I promised at some future 
time to tell about a crop of roots 1 grew last year ; not that there 
was anything extraordinary about it, but being experimental, as 
far as this county is concerned, I thought it would be well to let 
my brothel* farmers kflow through the medium of your admirable 
publication the way the work was done, and the results as far as 
I can tell. 

The way in which the land was prepared and the crop culti- 
vated is but a modification to suit circumstances of the system of 
root growing commonly pursued in the British Islands. I com- 
menced in the spring plowing a piece of bottom land out stubble 
with three mules abreast to a 11-ineh cast-steel plow, following 
in the same furrow with a 10-inch Dixie plow drawn by two 
stout mules, throwing about 8 inches with the first and 3 or 1 
inches with the second plow, thus loosening the soil to 11 or 12 
inches depth on the land side of the plow ; and I may as well 
remark here that had the stubble been very shallow plowed and 
harrowed early in the fall, that the seeds of weeds might sprout, 
and afterwards been double plowed just before winter, it would 
have left the land cleaner, and probably in better condition other- 
wise for bearing a first-rate crop. 

I had the ground harrowed, and drills made by throwing two 
furrows together something like the old-fashioned corn rows, in 
vogue here yet, but much closer — say 3 feet 3 inches apart from 
top to top— and it is not practicable to work much closer unless 
the ground is very well prepared, and the after tilling done by a 
well-skilled hand — just such a thorough, pains-taking fellow as 
Mr. George Geddes takes occasion to sneer at in a recent number 
of the New York Tribune. The furrows, as opened, were filled 
with well-rotted manure ; and on part where I planted early -rose 
potatoes — say § of an acre — the sets were dropped 12 or 11 inches 
apart along the rows under the manure ; the drills were then split 
with a two-horse Dixie plow, the same I used to open them, thus 
leaving a ridge where there had been a furrow. The drills where 
I sowed mangels and carrots — say about 2-| acres— were then 
rolled flat on top, and a little furrow made straight along the top 
with the handle of a fork; the seeds were sown and covered up 
immediately, the weather being dry ; there was a little guano 
sown with the seed on the tops of the drill. After the plants had 
come up well, I sent the best hand with the gentlest mule to plow 
between the rows; the slight hollow left was a good "alley" for 
them to walk in, and I had put a revolving coulter and a small 



304 THE SOUTHERN [June 

mouldboard on a one-horse Dixie plow: the former severed the 
ground and grass roots with a downward cut, and at the same 
time hindered all clods from rolling on the young plants, thus 
allowing the plow to run with the land side much closer to the 
plants than would be otherwise practicable ; the broad hoe was 
then used, cutting the bone of the drill through, and leaving but 
little tufts of mangels; every 12 to 16 inches along these were 
then singled out by hand ; they were hoed twice in the course of 
the season, and when large had a little earth thrown against them. 
All grew well until the extreme hot weather, which seemed to 
check their growing a little; then the striped potato-beetle eat the 
leaves of the mangold-wurzel. After the rains began to fall 
again in the latter half of August they regained their leaves, and 
the carrots got new tops, all growing off finely until frost in No- 
vember, when they were harvested by cutting off the tops with a 
sharp hoe. and carting to a pile pointed at top, and cover it with 
straw during the winter; they were fed to milch-cows and fatten 
ing hogs, and the white Belgian carrots to horses: the mangels 
were of the Yellow globe and the Leroy red varieties. The land 
was too wet for them, and toward the last the lower ends of the 
roots began to decay. I was sick at the time of harvesting, and 
in consequence cannot tell the exact yield, but it was at the rate 
of 400 bushels per acre, or nearly so. In June I sold the produce 
of 4- an acre of the early-rose potatoes for nearly $60, the pur- 
chaser picking them and paying $2.50 per barrel. After they 
had been removed, the piece of land was plowed and harrowed 
and let stand until near the middle of July, when I had it sown 
broadcast with 100 bushels of super-phosphate, and then opened 
in small drills and sown to rutabaga turnips, in a manner similar 
to the mangels ; they were over-plowed and thinned, and produced 
between 300 and 400 bushels of beautiful turnips. [N. B. There 
is not a particle of wire-grass to be seen where they grew; the 
dense shade seems to have killed it entirely.] 

About May 1st, '73, I plowed and sub-soiled a piece of upland 
wheat stubble in the manner already described, harrowed and re- 
plowed twice during the summer ; manured in drills as for man- 
gels, had everything ready for sowing, so that when the rains 
began to fall in August I had only to put in the seed. I plowed, 
hoed, and singled over, and harvested between 2000 and 2500 
bushels of turnips ("Aberdeen'') from 5 acres, which I fed to 
sheep and fattening cattle during the winter. 

I have not sown any mangels nor carrots this year, but expect 
to sow about S or 10 acres of ruta-baga and Aberdeen turnips 
for sheep, the greater part of which I do not intend to gather, 
but throw to a furrow out of the alley on the roots from each side, 
and uncover as needed by the sheep to eat on the ground, thereby 
saving the most expensive thing connected with this crop — viz : 
the harvesting. Very respectfully yours, 

Whitemarsh, Gloucester Co.,Va.,May 20. Joshua Fraxklix. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 305 



Poultry Department, 



POULTRY KEEPING. 

The gross value of the poultry products of the whole country in a 
single year reaches an amount greatly in excess of the ordinary esti- 
mates of casual observers. The amount consumed by farmers and 
other residents of rural districts is certainly equal to the amount sent 
to the markets of cities for sale, and this moiety of the whole pro- 
duction is lost sight of in estimating the gross amount. When we 
remember that 20,000 barrels, or about 15,000,000 eggs, are not an 
unusual weekly receipt in the markets of the chy of New York alone, 
and that occasionally a week's receipts are considerably over that quan- 
tity, the total value of the egg production of the United States can 
be readily supposed to be of great pecuniary interest to the farmers. 
In addition to this there is the business in poultry, both living and 
dressed, which must certainly be of equal value, at least, to the pro- 
duction of eggs. And yet nearly all this vast production is depend- 
ant only upon irregular effort and the spontaneous labors of farmers' 
wives and children. It is never looked upon as a regular branch of 
the industry of the farm, nor is it brought under studied supervision 
as a special industry. It may be supposed that this remark does 
injustice to the large number of enterprising breeders of fancy poul- 
trj', whose efforts to raise the character of our feathered stock have 
so greatly increased the profits of the business. But this branch of 
the business is altogether distiuct from the production of eggs and 
flesh for food, and it is very rareby that a prize fowl or its eggs appear 
upon any tables but those at the exhibitions. The remarks we have 
here to make are not intended for those persons who are breeders of 
poultry for stock purposes, but for the greatly more numerous class 
who might learn many useful lessons from the care and skill with 
which their flocks are managed. 

Notwithstanding the large extent of our poultry business, it might 
very profitably be trebled or quadrupled. Farmers very rarely kill 
poultry for their own use. The constant pork upon their tables 
during all seasons of the year might very well be banished in great 
part, and poultry be substituted. If pork is a cheap food, so is poul- 
try. Every reason for keeping pigs applies with greater force in favor 
of poultrv- If the same care to provide sufficient shelter and food 
were given to fowls that are now given to hogs, a largely increased 
production would result. Poultry flesh can be produced as cheaply as 
pork, and for a considerable portion of the year fowls are most active 
consumers of predatory insects. If their instincts in this direction 
were given full scope, iheir services would be of great value. But 
very strangel} r , both their value as insect destroyers and as producers 
of food for domestic purposes and for the markets is ignored. Their 
habits are not studied, their necessities are not considered, and their 
presence upon the farm is simply tolerated because they are favorites 
with the women and children. A man who will carefullv nurse a lit 



THE SOUTHERN [June 

ter of pigs vrill feel it beneath his dignity to give any attetnion to a 

brooding hen or a nest of chicks, and he will wring the neck of a hen 

which rua : it in his feed-box without mercy or scruple : yet if 

ould count the real value of the two, he may find that the 

leaps] hri bens will bring him more money for the same 

outlay than the pigs. From very careful teste are satisfied that if 

moderate care and attention to a few needed details are given to a lot 

of poultry they may be brought to market with double the profit that 

me value of pork may be ; also, if any person will give his sole 

::on to producing poultry upon a farm he may do so with little 

labor and great profit. Having succeeded in carrying a flock of 300 

breeding hens through two seasons with safety, and having raised and 

sold an average of nine chickens and nearly 100 eggs per hen in each 

season by adhering to a few simple rules, we here repeat them for the 

benefit of those of our readers who are weekly inquiring how to go 

and do likewise. These rules apply equally for a few fowls as for a 

large number, and it was simply by experience with a few that we 

learned how to succeed with a larger number. 

Only young fowls should be kept. All over three years old should 
go to market at such seasons as prices may be satisfactory. No 
weekly or sickly fowls should be kept : all such should be separated 
at once and treated until cured, when they should be sold. All trou- 
blesome, nervous "squawking" fowls should be promoted to domestic 
- kept young,vigorous,healthy, tame, and easily 
handled. The treatment should be gentle, kind and regular, so that 
the fowls are eduesj heir owner's methods, and they readily fall 

into the discipline established. The food should be varied and given 
pilar rations, ling should be av i I care taken to 

apportion their feed to their actual wants. A quarter of a pint of 
grain a day or its equivalent of other food is about the need of a fowl. 
- . water needs to be provided always ready for use, especially 
mg chicks. The rooeta should e airy, well ventilated, not less 
than eight fee' _ earthen floor- — - indeed, should be all 

;ses — we t too warm. The laying-houses may 

lie made warmer than the roos*-. _- . see should be 

i ally for this I - - All the houses should 
out daily, the walls should be whitewashed at least twice 
g-poles sh t greased ~ith a inix- 

r, and kerosene oil — one pound of the first, and 
ones of each of the latter is the proper proportion — and every 
: and crevice should be filled wit re brushed in while 

■ floc-k free from vermin and 

bed properly, there i- : more 

healthy than p I i the re lually true when they are 

improperly cared for. A run of grass land should be provided for 

the fl: - the orchard should be fenced with pickets 

six ft ad appropriated solely for the use of poultry. Here 

nay be pent up when the grain-fields need to be protected, and 

lo the most valuable service. We have found the most 

convenient location for the fowl-houses to be adjoining the orchard. 

with the doors opening into it which may be opened or closed at 

pleasure. This arrangement is about what is needed upon the farm. 

where abundant room. Upon small village lots, where space 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 307 



is less ample, poultry-keeping becomes more difficult, because there 
is always temptation to enlarge the flock bej^ond the capacity of the 
ground. One hundred fowls to the acre is the extent bej 7 ond which 
no one should go who would succeed in making poultry profitable. — 
Upon smaller lots of ground the greatest care and watchfulness will 
be required to prevent loss and disease. Twenty-five to fifty fowls 
might be kept upon a quarter of an acre or less by providing two 
inclosures with the buildings between them. The fowls should be 
changed from one to the other weekly. While one is vacant it should 
be carefully cleaned and dug over at least a foot in depth, to bring up 
fresh, clean soil. The houses should, in this case, be cleaned daily, 
and lime-washed at least monthly. Sick fowls should be weeded out 
of the flock on the first symptom of disorder, and either put in quar- 
antine or killed. One rooster to twenty-five fowls is sufficient. 
During the warm weather a plentiful supply of chopped cabbage or 
bunches of fresh clover should be given, and a shady retreat should be 
provided. The houses and nests should be made of smooth, closely 
fitting boards, and every crevice should be carefully filled with the 
lime-wash. Then if young fowls are kept one may expect a constant 
supply of eggs during the greater part of the year, and during the 
summer a fair supply of young chickens for consumption, and to 
replace the old stock, which should be renewed each year. If the 
grand requisites of roomy apartments, perfect cleanliness, a moderate 
supply of food, varied occasionally, fresh water, occasional doses of 
sulphur, pounded oyster-shells, and quietness with perfect regularity 
in the treatment, so that the fowls are contented and kept healthful, 
are attended to, any person of ordinary tact may provide without dif- 
ficulty for all- the contingencies that may arise after a very short ex- 
perience. As a pi-oof of what may be done toward the profitable 
improvement of poultry, we append the following weights of birds 
exhibited at a recent English exhibition : 

Weight of Turkeys — Single Cock — First prize, 41 pounds ; second, 
36 pounds 4 ounces ; third, 33 pounds 4 ounces. Pair of hens — First, 
38 pounds 4 ounces ; second, 38 pounds 10 ounces ; third, 34 pounds 
12 ounces. 

Geese — White Gander — First, 31 pounds 8 ounces ; second, 26 pounds 
10 ounces ; third, 25 pounds 4 ounce. Pair of Geese — First, 49 pounds 
12 ounces ; second, 42 pounds 12 ounces ; third, 41 pounds 4 ounces ; 
Gray Gander — First, 26 pounds 8 ounces ; second, 24 pounds 6 ounces : 
third, 18 pounds 14 ounces. Pair of Geese — First, 44 pounds ; sec- 
ond, 40 pounds 14 ounces ; third, 36 pounds. 

Ducks — Rouen Drake — First, 11 pounds ; second, 11 pounds ; third. 
10 pounds 12 ounces. Pair of Ducks — First, 20 pounds 6 ounces ; 
second, 19 pounds 8 ounces ; third, 16 pounds 2 ounces. Aylesbury 
Duck and Drake — First, 17 pounds 4 ounces; second, 16 pounds 12 
ounces ; third, 15 pounds 4 ounces. 

How much the income from a lot of fowls upon a farm may be 
increased may be judged by comparing these weights with those usual 
in ordinarv flocks. — New York Time*. 



308 THE SOUTHERN [June 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

GAMES AGAIN. 

Who can beat it '. One hundred and six chicks hatched from 
one hundred and twenty-seven eggs. The time embraced in this 
statement embraces the three worst months in the year, viz : Jan- 
uary. February and March; the number of hens employed, nine. 
My experience may be interesting, so I give it. The first four 
hens were set as follows: 1 on the 1st and 1 on the last day of 
January, and 1 on the 4th and 1 on the 10th day of February. 
Number of eggs set, 67; number of chicks hatched. 40 — an ave- 
rage of upwards of 12 chicks to the hen. The remaining five 
hens were set as follows, and cannot be beat, by Brahinas, Cochins. 
Hamburgs or Houdans : 2 set the 27th of February on 15 eggs 
each, and hatched 30 chicks: and 3 set the 10th day' of March, 2 
on 13 eggs and 1 on 14 eggs. Total number of eggs for the last 
5 liens, 70 ; number of chicks hatched. 67 — an average of very 
nearly 14 chicks to the hen. 1 ask again the readers of this book, 
who can beat it '. For when we take into consideration they were 
set the three worst months of the year, it is very hard to beat. 

In my first I spoke for my Games : they now speak for them- 
selves, and will boast of speaking louder than any other breed 
until tliev see something to compete with them. 

Clifton Hill, Caroline Co., Ya. W. T. B. 



COST OF SUPER-PHOSPHATES. 



A letter I wrote you a year ago on artificial fertilizers, enclosing 
one from Mr. J. B. Lawes, of England, both of which you pub- 
lished, excited much comment in your and other papers by reason 
of its statements as to the cost and quality of foreign super-phos- 
phates. This matter has since been further investigated, and the 
result appears in Part II. of the Bulletin of the Bussey Institution 
of Harvard University, where Mr. F. X. Storer, Professor of 
Agricultural Chemistry, gives the crsts and analysis of several 
English and German super-phosphates. It appears that the Lawes 
super-phosphate-, containing say 13 per cent, of soluble phosphoric- 
acid, is sold at their works for £3 15s., or say $20.63 per ton, and 
that it should be landed on wharf in B< >.-ton by sailing vessel from 
London, in quantities of not less than ten tons, for $36 per ton. 
or say 12J cents for each pound of soluble super-phosphate acid. 
Also that English superphosphate of higher grade than that of 
Lawes\ yielding 16 and IS per cent, of soluble phosphoric acid, 
would cost, landed here, respectively 13 and 14 cents per pound 
of the acid. In Part I. of the Bulletin of the Bussey Institution, 
issued in January, Professor Storer has given analyses and values 
compared with selling prices, of eleven of the best known com- 
mercial super-phosphates sold in Boston, and after allowing it 6 
cents for each pound of their insoluble phosphoric acid, and 2" 



18 74. J PLANTER AND FARMER, 300 

cents for each pound of their nitrogen of uncertain value, it 
appears the average cost to the purchaser of each pound of soluble 
phosphoric acid that these eleven phosphorates contain is 31.80 
cents, and that the average quality is 6.65 per cent, the highest 
being 10.23 per cent., and the lowest 1.46 per cent. 

The researches of Professor Storer show that the American- 
made super-phosphates hitherto available to New England farmers 
are of too high cost and too little value to be bought and used to 
advantage, and that it is possible to make and sell a better article 
at a lower price, still leaving a fair profit to the makar or im- 
porter; and the correspondence elicited by his publication has 
also brought to light facts confirmatory of his conclusions, and 
encouraging to the many who are compelled to use artificial ma- 
nures. For instance, Mr. George E. White, of 160 Front street, 
New York, writes to Professor Storer, April 13, that he will sell 
to such as wish to buy in lots not less than ten tons, a super-phos- 
phate yielding 10 per cent, soluble phosphoric acid, at $25 per 
ton of 2,000 pounds, delivered on cars or vessels at New York, in 
bags or barrels at his cost ; and on April 30 he writes : " I offer to 
deliver in Boston a soluble phosphate of lime of high grade, 
guaranteeing 37 per cent, of anhydrous phosphoric acid, soluble 
in water, at §90 per ton." This is a highly concentrated fertilizer 
of foreign manufacture, and great excellence. The cost of the 
soluble phosphoric acid in these two articles would be about 12£ 
cents a pound, or as low as the Lawes super-phosphate can be im- 
ported for, and very much less than in any commercial fertilizer 
hitherto available here. Mr. White says : " It seems as though 
we ought to be able to compete with the foreign manufacturers, 
and it is my opinion that both plain and ammoniated super-phos- 
phates can be made in the neighborhood of this city as cheaply as at 
any point in the world. I say this with a full knowledge of the 
cheap supply of sulphuric acid, which foreign makers command." 

This is certainly most encouraging, and if farmers hereafter 
will persist in buying an inferior article at 850 or $60 a ton, when 
they can get a better article for about half the money, and the 
result is a failure, they will have only themselves to thank for it. 
One trouble is, that many farmers buy and use something of 
which they only know that it is sold as a fertilizer, when it may 
not be what they need for their land or crops. One might as 
well go into a druggist's shop and take a dose from the first bottle 
he sees, kill or cure, as use a commercial manure of which he 
does not know the properties and adaptability to his present needs. 
Professor Storer, in the Bulletin above referred to, has begun a 
work which I confidently hope and believe will be— and indeed 
in the numbers already issued is— of the greatest value, as sup- 
plying from scientific and practical data, and in language clear, 
concise, and free from technicalities, the information we must all 
have before we can select the best materials, and use them to the 
best advantage. — II S., in Country Gentleman. 



310 THE SOUTHERN [June 



Household Department, 

Hints Concerning Health. — The warm suns will tempt many 
inconsiderate persons to make changes in their under-clothing which 
may prove ver}- detrimental to their health. Flannel next the skin 
should by no means be removed until after the cold spell which always 
comes near the middle of May, and then thinner flannel or raw silk 
should lie worn in place of what is taken away. In India, the British 
army is clothed in flannel the year round, and this regulation has been 
found effectual in preventing those summer complaints which formerly 
cost so many lives in that tropical country. We commend the sug- 
gestion herein to mothers of }'onng children. Those living on the 
seacoast cannot with safety dispense with flannel entirel}', even daring 
the heated term. An east wind or any sudden change should find the 
safe covering read}- to be put on at a moment's notice. A close 
observer will find that he takes cold not when the weather changes 
from warm to cold, but from cold to warm. Thrown off his guard by 
the mildness of the temperature, he neglects the necessary precau- 
tions, and suffers the inevitable consequences. "When the difference 
in the height of the mercury at noon and midnight is greatest, then 
care is most necessary in the regulation of one's clothing as to amount 
and warmth. "The greatest sensation of cold which we ever experi- 
enced," says a writer on health topics, '-was in the morning at five 
o'clock, with the thermometer at 56° in Texas, where we were accus- 
tomed to ride under a sun heat of 150° during the day." 

Persons of good constitution and sound health are apt to think they 
can violate hygienic laws with impunity ; that they can eat at irregu- 
lar intervals, and do a^-thing they fancy ; can sleep as much or as 
little, and when they please : can sit with damp feet, and do, in gen- 
eral, exactly as the}' please, :.nd it will be all the same. As well 
might a Rothschild fanc} r that his vast fortune needs no looking after ; 
that extravagance will not waste it : that panics will not affect it. He 
knows better than that, and every possessor of fine health should 
know that this invaluable gift is to be cherished, cared for and pre- 
served, or, like other riches, it will take to itself wings and fly away. 

To those who live in close or crowded rooms, we mention an experi- 
ment made by a physician in England : — "I have repeatedly taken 
organic matter from the windows of a crowded room and experimented 
with it. This matter condenses on the glass and walls in cold weather. 
and may be taken up by means of a pipette. If allowed to stand 
some time it forms a thick, apparently glutinous mass ; but when this 
is examined by a microscope it is seen to be a clearly marked confer- 
void (resembling sea-weed) growth. This matter in the air is as inju- 
rious to health as organic impurities in water, and acts as a ferment 
by which diseases of the nature of fever are engendered. — New York 
Tribune. 

The Housekeepers' Table. — The following is a very valuable 
house-wife's table, by which persons not having scales and weights at 
hand, may readily measure the article wanted to form a recipe with- 
out the trouble of weighing. Allowance should be made for an extra- 
ordinarv dryness or moisture of the article weighed or measured. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 311 



Wheat flour, one pound is a quart. Indian meal, one pound two 
ounces are one quart. Butter, when soft, one pound is one quart. 
Loaf sugar, broken, one pound is one quart. White sugar, powdered, 
one pound one ounce are one quart. Best brown sugar, one pound 
two ounces are one quart. Ten eggs are one pound. Flour, eight 
quarts are one peck. Flour, four pecks are one bushel. Sixteen 
large tablespoonfuls are half a pint. Eight large tablespoonfuls are 
one gill. Four large tablespoonfuls are a half a gill. Two gills are 
half a pint. Two pints are one quart. Four quarts are one gallon. 
A common sized tumbler holds half a pint. A common sized wine 
glass holds a gill. A teacup is one gill. A large wine glass is two 
ounces. A tablespoonful is half an ounce. Forty drops are equal to 
one teaspoonful. Four teaspoonfuls are equal to one tablespoonful. 

Pie Plant Pies. — Never stew your pie plant before making your 
pies. Peel the stems of rhubarb and slice them in half-inch lengths, 
holding several stems in the hand at one time. With these fill the 
pie, sweetening it generously— »about the same as for a lemon pie, a 
small teacupful of sugar for a medium-sized pie — moisten with a great 
spoonful of water, dust over this a little dry flour, to thicken the 
juice a little, cover it with the upper crust and bake it slowly and 
thoroughly. Such a pie is too rich for some stomachs, and there is a 
way of dispensing with part of the sugar, without having the pie too 
sour. Not by the use of soda ! No, indeed ! But pour boiling 
water over your sliced rhubarb, letting it stand ten or fifteen minutes. 
Pour this off and make your pies of the rhubarb, with less sugar. If 
you stew pie plant for sauce, you can pour off a part of the juice 
before it is done, using it to make jelly if you like and supply its 
place with more water, thus economizing sugar. 

Gum Arabic Starch. — Take two ounces of white gum arabic pow- 
der, put it into a pitcher, and pour on it a pint or more of boiling- 
water (according to the degree of strength you desire), and then, hav- 
ing covered it, let it set all night. In the morning pour it carefully 
from the dregs into a clean bottle, cork it and keep it for use. A 
tablespoonful of gum water stirred into a pint of starch that has been 
made in the usual manner, will give lawns (either white, black or 
printed), a look of newness, when nothing else can restore them after 
washing. It is also good, much diluted, for thin, white muslin and 
bobinet. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



History of the Grang tor Tin- Farmers' War Against Monopolies. 

By J. D. McCake. Je. Published by the National Publishing Co., Phila- 
delphia. 

This hook is what it pretends to be, which is more than can be said 
of many similar publications now-a-days. It enters into many interesting 
details of the way in which monopolies, especially railroads, have managed to 
defrau le. How public lands arc secured and appropriations of money 



312 THE SOUTHERN [June 

and credit procured from Congress, and how. after the -whole road is made and 
paid for by the people, the original charter holders manage to secure the road 
to themselves and leave the people to pay extortionate rates of transportation 
over the railroads they have built. It is the only complete work on this inter- 
esting and popular subject we have seen, and any one who wishes to make him- 
self thoroughly acquainted with this interesting movement should not fail to 
secure it at on . 

Maternity. A Popular Treatise for Young Wives and Mothers. Bv T. S. 

Verde. M. P. J. B. Ford &jCo. Publishers, New York. 

It is frequently very difficult in reading the popular medical treatise of the 
time to tell exactly where medical science ends and quackery begins, and we 
always take up a book professing to disclose to the popular mind the mysteries 
of medical science with many misgivings either as to the ability of the author 
or his honesty. This book, however seems to be an exception to this rule. When 
we received it several weeks since, we gave it to a married lady, the mother of 
a large family, and this is what she says of it: 

" It is one of the most complete and instructive books of the kind that we 
have ever seen. It treats with great delicacy of delicate subjects, and contains 
many valuable suggestions and a vast amount of information of great impor- 
tance, not only to every wife and mother, but to all who have the "care of chil- 
dren. It gives a very plain description of all the diseases of childhood and the 
best method of treating them, and also minute and valuable dietic and hygienic 
directions which if observed would prevent a large part of the diseases now so 
fatal to childhood." The lady in question is perfectly capable of judging of 
the merits of such a book, and we do not hesitate to endorse her opinion. For 
sale by the publishers. 

"Out of the Hurley Burley" Afax Adder. — The getter up of this laughable 
collection of fanny peices has been for years contributing these articles to the 
press. They have now been collected and published in a neat volume by " To- 
Day PubkshingCo.."' Philadelphia. The purchaser of this handsome volume 
will have an admiral opportunity of reducing to practice the old adage "laugh 
and grow fat." It is one of tho"se books that may be kept on the table all the 
time to be taken up and read after dinner to the immense benefit of our diges- 
tion. Long life to l)io Lewis the Laughing Philosopher and all the jolly crew of 
the To-Day Company. They try hard to keep humanity in a broad grin, and if 
tltey issue a few more books like this thev will be in a fair war for success. 



CROP NEWS. 

It seems that this is a great year for insects. In our own ground we have 
never seen them so abundant in all our lives. Oar melon vines, despite all rem- 
edies heretofore effective, have fallen a pre} - to the spoiler. Our early tomatoes 
have been cut otf by the Cut worm or defoliated by a little black bug. Our 
eabbage plants are like sand sifters, and the tobacco plants are being chawed up 
before their time. This is an almost universal complaint in Virginia. We have 
heard from a dozen or more tobacco growing counties, and all "complain in the 
-ame way. The warning of an old darkey just sounded in our ear that •• bet- 
ter look out; heap of chinch bugs in de air." is, we fear, prophetic. From 
other States come similar complaints. The peach growers in Maryland and 
I'eleware are complaining of the destruction of their trees by a little "black bug 
hitherto unknown. 

Accounts from Southwestern parts of Minnesota represent that the ground is 
literally alire with grasshoppers, which have already commenced eating the 
vegetation. 

The wheat crop, though falling short of the splendid promise of early spring. 
is much better than any made for years in Virginia. With favorable weather 
for the next few weeks we may expect a large yield of this most important 
crop. 

Winter oats are also looking remarkably well. Spring sown oats though 
usually late, are very good, and promise a large yield. 

Corn was planted late and the Cut worm is unusually bad in many localities- 
making replanting necessary. 



HERMITAGE NURSERIES, 

Richmond, Virginia. 

JOHN - W7EISON", 

PROPRIETOR OF 



RICHMOND VIRGINIA. 

1,500,000 



FOR SALE THIS SPRING AT RI-.DUCE1* PRICES. FIRST-CLASS APPLE 

TREES, $16 per h-indred. FIRST-CLASS PEACH TREES, 

$14 per hundred. 

These Trees tire warranted true to name and is strictly first -class stock. 



909 :M!ain Street. Richmond., "Va,. feb 



FOR, ©A.LE, 

ITALIAN BEES, 

BEE HIVES, &C 

I am prepared to furnish, at short notice. 
Swarms of Black Be«s at $5 per swarm, Hives 
■extra. 

Swarms of Italian Bees at $10 per swarm, 
Hives extra. 

Italian Queens (with a few workers), by mail 
■or express^ 85u. Sa'e arrival guaranteed. 

A cheap Movable Comb Hive without sur- 
plus boxes $3 00 

A better Movable Comb Hive with two 

surplus boxes 3 75 

Triumph Bee Hive, Movable Comb, and 
upper or surplus chamber, or six sur- 
plus boxes (trade mark included to use 

one Hive), painted, and with feet 5 00 

f)eeds for individnal rights to make and 

use the Triumph Hive o 00 

Deeds for individual rights to make and 
use the American side. opening Hive... 5 00 

Bee Vail for protecting face and head 1 00 

Cheap Honey Extractor, Virginia made.. 9 on 
Large Honey Extractor with cog wheels 13 I'O 
I'eabody Honey Extractor at factory 
prices, freight to t>e added 10 00 

W. K. TuLK, 
Real Estate Agent and Auctioneer. 

No. 7 Shaffer's Building, Tenth Si ., bet. Main 
.and Bank Sts., Richmond, Va. ap- 



FOR SALE.— Thoroughbred Stock, &c. 
I have for 8ale a lot of thoroughbred 
Devon Cattle. Essex Pigs from improved 
Stock. Also a lot of Light Brahma 
Fowls. Persons ordering from me can 
rely upon getting as good stock as any in 
the State. My herd of Devon are ot 
the most improved breed. I took five 1st 

f>remiums on a portion of them at our 
ast Virginia Fair. For further particu- 
lars address, 

F. W. CHILES, 
feb-6m Mansfields, Louisa Co., Va, 



€raiato©s°ry Plants 

FOR SALE. 
$4 per 1,000. $12 per bbl. 

Apply to 

EDITORS PLAKTER& FARMER. 



EDW. J. EVANS & CO., 
Nurserymen and Seedsmen, 
York, Penn. 
A complete stock of Fruit and Orna- 
ment al Trees, Garden and Flower Seeds, 
Seed Wheat, S>-ed Oats, Seed Corn, Seed 
Potatoes, Grass Seeds, etc. Send for 
Catalogue and price lists. feb-10t 



iCP The Oldest and most Reliable Application for the Tobacco Crop- 



' i 




o 



PATENTED. 



TOBACCO FERTILIZER, 



PREPARED BY THE 



SOUTHERN FERTILIZING CO. 



RicmvroisriD, v-a.., 



d. 



Apply to local Agents, or any commission merchant in Richmond. 
Where Agricultural clubs or A? - ^":sh to purchase in large lots, ll 

at which it -will be supplied will be iccicatrd on rpplie ;p csa 



BUY i OUR DRY GOODS OF 

LEVY BROTHERS, 

nnd save money by doing so. Great reductions have been made in the prices of 
DRESS GOODS'in order to close out the whole stock. 

Satteens at 35, 50, 65, 70, and 75c. — a reduction of twenty-five percent. ; Empress 
Cloths at 35, 50, and up to 75c. per yard ; Silk-corded Poplin? at 75c. per yard, 
worth $1.25; Poplin Alpacas — best quality — at 40c. per yard, sold everywhere at 
50c. ; Corded and Plain Alpacas at 25c. worth 35e. per yard ; Black Brocaded Ala- 
pacas at 25c. worth 50. per yard ; Black Alapacas, Mohairs, and Biilliantinesat all 
prices ; 

Bonibaziues from 1.25 to §2 per yard; Australian Crepe at 50c worth 75c. per 
yard ; 

Handsome Brocaded Poplins, nil silk and wool, at 81 per yard, reduced from 
£1.75 ; Handsome Silk and Wool-Striped P.>|>lins, ISf yards in a pattern, for $15, 
reduced from £25; 

Doubled-faced Cotton Poplins at lie. per yard, worth 25c; 

Doubled-faced Cotton Poplins at lt>|c per yard, worth, 30c. ; 

Calicoes at 6^, 8 J, 10, and 12$c ; 

White Flannel, full yard wide and all wool, at 45c. per yard worth 60c: 

White Flannels, in all qualities, from 20c. up to $1 per yard ; 

Colored Flannels in all qualities ; 

Bleached and Unbleached Canton Flannel from 12 1 to 45c per yard ; 

Domestic Ginghams at 17, 12i, and 1 6 Jo . ; 

Cheviot Shirting at 16§C worth 25c per yard; 

Linseys from 15§ to 40c per yard; Bed-Tick from 10 to 35c. per yard ; 

Doeskin Casimere at $1 per yard worth si. 25 ; 

Excellent Satinets at 50, 60, and 75c per yard ; Kentucky Jeans from 16| to 50c. 
per yard ; 

Cliarlottsville CasimereB at a very small advance on manufacturers' prices ; 

Water Proof Cloths at 75c, 1, 1.25, 1.50, and $1.75 p«r yard ; Black and Brown- 
elveteens at 50c worth 75c. per yard ; 

Black and Colored Velveteens in all qualities ; Trimming Velours, in all colors, 
at si, and si. 50 per yard; Silk Velvet, black and colored, for trimming and mil- 
liner}- use ; Table-Cloths, pure linen, two yards long, at $1 worth si. 50; 

Linen Doylies at 50, 60, 75c and $1 per dozen — all 25 per cent, below regular 
prices ; Huckaback Towels from 1.25 to $9 per dozen ; We call particular attention 
to our Towels at $2.25 and $3 per doz-n ; Napkins at 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, $2, and up 
to $6 per dozen ; Linen Damask for table-cloths from 50c up to $2 per yard; Extra 
Loug Table-Cloths from $8 up to $20 ; Coilou Diaper at f 1.25 and si. 50 for a piece 
of ten yards, worth 1.75 and $2; Linen Bird's Eye Diaper at 30c worth 40c per 
yard; A full assortment of Ladies' Cloaks, Water-Proofs and Shawls, all at great 
bargains; Gentlemen's Shawls and Gardigan Jackets, very cheap ; White and Col- 
ored Bed Blankets, all sizes and qualities, at extremely low prices; Calico Com- 
fortables, home manufacture, at 2 and 2.50 worth 3 and $3.50; Carpet*, Matting, 
Oil-Cloth, Rugs, Mats, and Window-Shades at reduced prices; Children's Carriage- 
Blankets at $1.50 worth s3 ; Silk, Linen, and Cotton Hankerchiels, in all qualities; 
Nubias, Hoods, Breakfast-Shawls, Leggins, Scarfs, and Sacques ; Genuine Buck Mits, 
Gloves, Gloves and Gauntlets ; Bobbin Edging, IS yards in a piece, for 50c worth 
5c per yard ; Worked Dimity Bands at, Inc. worth 20c ; Clark's and Coat's Spool 
Cotton at 70c. per dozen ; Machine Needles from 40c to 50c. per paper of ten nee- 
dles ; Best Machine Oil at 15c per bottle ; Tidies at 35 and 50c worth 75c. and 
$1 ; Gilt and Jet Jewelry in great variety; Ladies' Linen Collars at 50c per dozen, 
slso Collars at 1, 1.25, and up to (2.50 per dozen ; Gentlemen's Linen Collars at 60, 
c7 and si per dozen worth 2 and $2.50 ; Gentlemen's Recherche Cuffs at 1 worth 
.45per dozen ; Crochet Edgings at 15, 25, and 50c. for a piece of twelve yards, worth 
a gatnd 10c per yard ; Neck Scarfs at 25, 40, 50c and up to £1.50 — all much below 
,iS alar prices ; Full-width Unbleached Sheeting at 2Sc ; Full-width Bleached 
cheating at 33c ; New York Mills and Wamsutta Cotton at ISc. per yard ; Excel- 
lent yard-wide Bleached and L'ubleached Cotton at 10 and 12$c. per yard, and 
thousands of other bargains .-.: 

LEV^T BROTHERS 
feb.] 1U17 & 1019 MAIN; "KEET, RICHMOND, VA. 



S 







CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO RAILROAD, 



On and after SUXDAY, April 19th, 1874, passenger trains will 
ran as follows : 

FROM RICHMOND: 

8:80 A. If. MAIL TRAIX. — For Gordonsville, Charlottesville, Staunton, White 
Sulphur, HintoD, and all intermediate Stations, daily (except Sundays), a-riving at 
Hinton at 10:10 P. M. Tbis train connects at Go/donsville fur Orange, Culpeper, 
Warrenton, Manassas. Alexandria, Washington, 'and the Xorth, and at Charlottes- 
ville for Lynchburg, Bristol, Knoxville, Chattanooga and the South. 

4:45 P. M. ACCOMMODATION" TRAIX.— For Gordonsville and all intermedi 
-rations, daily ( except Sunday), arriving at Gordonsville 8:30 P. M. 

?. M. CINCINNATI EXPRESS.— For Gordonsville, Charlottesville, Staun- 
ton, Goshen, Millboro,' Covington, White Sulphur, and all Stations -west of White 
Sulphur, daily (except Sunday), arriving at Huntington. 5:30 P. M. This train 
connects at Gordonsville for Washington, Baltimore and the North, and for Lynch- 
burg, Bristol, and the South, and at Huntington with the Steamers B-xtona »od 
Fleetwood for Cincinnati and all points West and Southwest, arriving at Cincinnati 
CA.M. 

Baggage checked through. 

FOR THROUGH TICKETS, rates, and information, apply al 826 Main street, BjI 
lard and Exchange Hotel, or at Company's Office, BroaJ Street and Sixteenth. 

A. H. PERRY, General Sup't. 
Edgae Vliet, General Passenger and Ticket Agent. [my — tf 

EGGS (THAT WILL HATCH) AND CHICKENS TO SELL ! 
BY AN AMATEUR TO PAY EXPENSES. 

The most attractive and beautiful of all LAWN PETS is the POLAND FAMILY 
with TOPKXOTS, as large as oranges. Colors : Jet black, Pure White. Black with 
White Crests, Silver and Golden, both perfectly pencilled. All PRF.MIUM BIRDS 
purchased and imported at high cost. Also the beautiful Black Cochins, Light and 
Dark Brahmas and Games. General Sante Anna stock. 

Eggs carefully packed. Chickens to sell aiter Julv. 

FRAXK EVANS, 

my— tf. No. 5 South Paul Street, Baltimore, Mi, 

EGGS THAT WILL HATCH! 

AN AMATEUR TO PAY EXPENSES OFFERS HIS EGGS AT $2.50 W ZEN. 
THE POLISH FAMILY A SPECIALTY. 

White Crested, Black, White, Silver and Golden, Light and Dark Brnhmas. Buff 
and Black Cochins, all bred from premium chickens, carelullv packed and delivered 
at express. FRANK EVANS. 

N.i. 5 South Paul St.. Baltimore, Md. 
To sell— 1 trio White Cochins $10. 
2 trios Buff " 10. 

2 " Light Brahmas 7." 
Order- received for all kinds delivered by July 1st a' low prices. [my- 

B. A. HAXCOCK, 



3IANCHESTEU, % '.V., 
Will practice in t of Chesterfie'd, Powhatan and Henrico Counties ; the 

city Courts of Richmond an.l Court of Appeals. Special attention given to cases 
n Bankruptcy :. - in Richmond. mar- 



Fertilizers and Seeds for 1873, 



SOLUBLE PACIFIC GUANO. 

NO. 1 PERUVIAN GUANO, 

FJL.OXJR OF !R,^"W r BONE, 

Ground Plaster, Lime, Agricultural Salt, &c. 

FIELD, GRASS, AND GARDEN SEEDS, 

SEED POTATOES 

Of the Early Rose, Early Goodrich, Peerless, andot'ier choice varieties. 
For further information and supplies, address 

ALLISON & ADDISON, 

SEED AND GUANO MERCHANTS, RICHMOND, VA. 



J.M.THORBURN&XO., 

15 JOHN ST. NEW YORK. 

Will mail, upon application, their New 
i atalogue of Vegetable and Agricultu- 
ral Seeds for 1874. t 



FRESH 
GARDEN and FIELD SEED 
At the old stand of Palmer & Turpin, 
1526 Main street, Richmond, 
Orchard Grass, 

Timothy, ILrds, Clover, 

Kentucky Blue Grass- 
Send for Catalogue. 

feb-tf W. H. TURPIN. 



Eggs, Crenm, Milk and Lemon Biscuits, 
and every kind of Crackers, made a 
specialty. Pound and Pancy Cakes, 
Ginger Snaps, Lemon Snaps, Jumbles, 
«fcc, <tc, &c, 

BICHARD ADAM, 

Richmond Steam Bakery, 12th St., Rich- 
mond, Va.. manufacturer of all kinds of 
Bread, Cakes and Crackers, wholesale 
and retail. Orders from the country at 
tended to promptly. ap-ly 



SEED POTATOES. 
"Red Jacket." — A seedling from the Mercer, 
which if resembles in flavor, quality and habits 
of growth — about ten days later than the Rose, 
yields twice as much as Peach Blow; white 
flesh and perfectly hardy ; in color, shape, size 
and gpiie a I appeaaance, has no equal. H eceived 
1st. Premium at the Western N. Y. and Pa. 
State Fairs, for best variety. 3 lbs. bv mail, 
$1.00; SO lis. *5.00; 60 lbs'. 85.00; bbl, $15.00. 
Free at Chili or Kochester Station. Circular 
free. 

A. S. JOHNSON", North Chili, N. T. 



L. POWEIIS «fc SON, 
COtlMISSIOiSr MERCHANTS 

AND 

WHOLESALE PRODUCE DEALERS. 

1540 East Main Street, Richmond, Va., 

Flour, Grain, Hay, and all kinds Seed 
and Eating Potntoes. Foreign and do- 
mestic Fruits. Seed Potatoes a specialty. 



FOR SALE. 

150 . 150 150 150 

acres ! acres ! acres ! acres ! 

A FINE FARM FOR SALE. 

Every convenience and improvement. Choice 
Fruit. In a splendid farming community, .-i>: 
mile* east of Nashville, Illinois. For full par- 
ticulars and price address, 

J. W. uOGniLL, 
Beancoup, Washington Co., III. 

111V — It 



BF. LEWIS, Gwtnedd, Montgomery Co. 
, Pa , Importer, Breeder and Dealer in 
fine Fowls, Pigeons, Pets, etc., of the purest 
and best quality. Berkshire and Chester White 
Pigs. Large Bronze and White Holland Tur- 
kevs. Rouen, Alesbury, and other tine Backs. 
China, Bremen, and other Geese. Asiatics, 
Spanish, Dorkings, Hamburgs, White and 
Brown Leghorns, Rolands, Houdans, and sev- 
eral varieties of Bantams; also Eggs for Hatch- 
ing in season. Greyhounds, Newfoundland, 
and Hunting Hogs. Hlack and White, French, 
and Blue Maltese Cats, also many other speci- 
mens of rare Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, and 
otheT Pets. My Stock has been awarded 190 
Premiums in Bve months. I would also call the 
attention of Breeders to my celebrated Chicken 
Powder, which will cure as well as prevent 
Cholera, and other di-jfasea in Fowls, as well as 
promote their health and vi^or. So d at 50cts. 
per pound. A lilteral discount to the trade. 
Every one should try it. For Catalogue and 
Price-List, address with -tamp. ap.tf 



THE WATT PLOW 

CONTINUES TRIUMPHANT ! 

CHOKING wb<-n bright and smooth ; 
do LA] e plowman ; ONE-THIRD 

- DRAUGHT lo the team; thorough 

J; I" RIAL of Weeds Grass, <fcc; great 

STRENGTH. Durability and Economy in 

Be, and complete pulverization of the 

toil. 

J&Sf^ I have, -within the past eighteen 
improvements in the 
WATT PL'jW, and can, with greater confi- 
dence than ever, commend it to the farming 
community everywhere. 

GEORGE WATT. 

Premiums received during the last three 

- of October, 1673 : 
Virginia and North Carolina Fair, at 
Noifolk, October 7, 1873— ALL FIRST 




four to six 
egetation per- 



3 AWARDED OH PL 

The test of plows t*ok place in a sandy loam, with weeds, <fcc, fro 
-igh. The Walt Plow did not choke at all, and buried the ve 

Lb Carolina State Fair, at Raleigh, October 14, 1873— ALL PREMIUMS 
AWARDED ON PLOWS. 

Piedmont Aericnltu.-al Fair, Culpeper Courthouse, Va., October 14,1873 — ALL 
PREMIUMS AWARDED OX PL 

The test took place in a hard, stiff clay soil not plowed since the war. *nd cov- 
ith running briers. The Watt Plow was run seven iuches deep with .ut diffi- 
culty, and never choked, burvir.g everything under. 

giaia State Fair, Richmond, October 28, 1873— ALL THE PREMIUMS OX 
EACL - SHT AND LEFT HAND. 

Also, two special premiums from the Social . two special preni'ums from 

the city of Richmond. 

The Plows were tested in a sodded and heavy pipe soil. The working of the 
Watt Plow was admired by all. 

Western N. C.) Fair at Salisbury, October 7. 1873— HIGHEST PREMIUM. 

Dar. .) Fair, October 11, 1873— HIGHEST PREMIUM. 

The W'ATT PLOW of all m ore to four horse-, warranted to do better 

woFk, with more ease, than any plow in use. If they <io not prove fo after one 
week's trial, thev may be returned to us, and the pnrcha- money will be refunded. 

HARROWS, CULTIVATOR- and ALL KINDS OF FARMING IMPLEMEXTS 
..e on the befit terms. Send for Circulars. ** 



lee 



WA _ 



&o 



Sole Manufacturers, Richmond, Va. 



EGGS FOR HATCHIaCt. 

I will now leceive orders for EGGS from the following BREEDS OF POULTRY. 
EGGS lo be shipped in 

MARCH: APRIL AXD MAY. 
LIGHT BRAHMA, |2 per dozen. 

DARK BRAHMA. 2 " " . 

PARTRIDGE COCHIN, 3 " " 

'• X LEGHORN, 4 » " 

IIOUDAN, 3 " 

ROUEN DUCKS. 3 " 

3 " 
Cash • Eggs . tation, commencing witb 1*1 

Marh- T. L. PAYNE. 

S. P. and Farmer, Richmond, Va. 



POWHATAN RAW BONE 

SUPER-PHOSPHATE, 

MANUFACTURED BY 

James Gr. Downward &c Co. 
o 

TO THE PLANTERS OF 



We again respectfully call the attention of those intending to use fertilizers on 
their spring crops to the Powhatan Raw Bone ifuper-Phosphate. and particularly 
those who want a reliable fertilizer for tobacco and cotton, as we intend in the 
future, as in the past five years, to furnish an article which has no rival, regardless 
of price. Wherever it has been used by the side of any other fertilizer whateveri 
not excepting the deservedly popular and higher priced tobacco fertilizers of th,a 
day, it has in every case proved itself superior. 

A few out of many of our certificates from our patrons : 

Blacks and Whites, Nottoway Co., Va., Jan. 1, 1 S 7 2 . 
Dear Sirs, — This is to certify that I have used the Powhatan Phosphate along 
S de of three other kinds of fertilizers, each of which cost more than the Powhatan, 
and the difference in my crop ot tobacco was greatly in favor of the Powhatan 
Phosphate. From my experience last year I think it a No. 1 manure, and recom- 
mend its general use. Very truly roars, 

SAMUEL F. EPES. 

LtXEXBCRG Co., Va., Jan. 29, 1ST3. 
Ge.vti.emex, — I used your "Powhatan Raw Bone Super-Phosphate" last year on 
tobacco with perfect success and entire satisfaction. 

Very respectfully, R. H. ALLEN. 

Dinwiddie Co., Va,, Jan. 13, 1872. 
Dear Sirs, — In reply to your request, I have no hesitation in saying that I pre- 
fer the Powhatan Kaw Bone Super-Phosphate, bought of you last spring, to any 
preparation that I have ever used on tobacco. I wish you to furnish me again this 
spring. Yours truly, " WM. B. COLEMAN. 

Powhatan Co., Va., Jan. 30, 1S73. 
Gentle'men, — Yours of 24th, asking my opinion of the Powhatan Phosphate ,e 
to hand. In reply, I have to say it acted well on my tobacco — better than a mor 
costly fertilizer that was applied bv the side of it. 

Yours truly, Z. G. MOORMAN. 

Amelia Co., Va., Jan. 16, 1872. 
Dear Sirs, — In regard to the Powhatan Phosphate bought of you last spring, I 
take pleasure in saying that I am much pleased with its action on my crop. I used 
it on very thin^land, 200 pounds to the acre, and my tobacco weighed better than 
any crop* I have ever raised. I wish vou to furnish me again this spring. 

Yours, &c, GEO. H. WILLS. 

Harmony, Halifax Co., Va., Jan. 20, 1S72. 
Gentlemen, — You request me to give you the result of my experience in the use 
of Powhatan Raw Bone Sup-er-Phosphate. I have used it successfully for two 
years, 1S70 and 1871, and I think it the cheapest fertilizer I have ever used, and 
expect to use it again the coming season. 

Youis truly, EDWARD MOORE. 



MUST RAISE EVERY DOLLAR I CAN! 

FOE WHAT? 
TO O-O NORTH. 

What farmer is not familiar -with these -words of the merchant, and yet the same 
sucidal policy is pursued year after year, draining the country of money. 

THE REMEDY. 

Encourage manufacturing enterprises of your own State, and keep your money at 
home, by buying the superior goods made at 

The Charlottesville Woolen Mills. 

Thos« M. Alfriend & Son, 

LIFE, FIRE A.TS-JO MJLRI1VE 

INSURANCE AGENTS, 

Office No- 1 North 10th Street (Shafer's Building-). 

PETERSBURG SAVINGS AND INSURANCE CO., 

ASSETS, - - - OVER §400,000- 
D' ARCY PAUL, President. D. B. DUGGER, Secretary. 



Farmville Insurance and Banking Co. 

OF FARMVILLE, VIRGINIA. 

Assets, $115,000 00. 

WM. D. RICE, President. I. H. MOTELER, Secretary. 

Firemen's and Merchants' Insurance Company 

OF PETERSBURG, VIRGINIA. 

Assets, .... Oven 6100,000 00. 

J. ANDREW WHITE, Pres't. J. B. STEVENS, Sec'y. 

O 

GENERAL AGENTS FOR VIRGINIA OF THE 

BROOKLYN LIFE INSURANCE GO. 

OF NEW YORK. 

Assets, - - 62,000,000, and Rapidly Increasing. 
$40,000 IN VIRGINIA REGISTERED BONDS, DEPOSITED WITH TREAS- 
URER OF VIRGINIA, for Security of Virginia Policy-Holders. 
LIFE POLICIES issued on the Most Approved Plans, with the MOST LIBERAL 

Features. 

NO CHARGE FOR POLICY OR STAMP. 

E30"The guarantee of A CASH SURRENDER VALUE TO EVERY' PARTICI- 
PATING POLICY", the amount of which is definitely stated in dollars and cents, 
and is endorsed on each policy when issued. 

GOOD LIFE AGENTS WANTED everywhere in Virginia, who will he liberally 
dealt with. my— 



MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



Located on the Washington Branch of the B. & 0. R. R., nine 
miles from Washington and twenty-eight from Baltimore. 

The next session will commence on the 15th of September, 1874, and end the la6t 
week in June 1875. It is divided into two terms of twenty weeks each. 

In addition to Agriculture and the Seiencss pertaining thereto, a fall Collegiate 
Course is taught. Students who do not desire to take the whole course are allowed, 
within reasonable limits, to select such studies as their parents or guardians may 
designate. 

THERE IS NO CHARGE FOR TUITION. 
Charge for board, including fuel, gas, washing, <fcc, $100 per term, and a matri- 
culation fee of $5. 

The following is the Board of Trustees: 



Hon. A. Bowie Datis, Prest. 
Hon- Janes L. Earle, 
E. W. Whitman, Esq. 
Colonel Edward Lloyd. 
J. Howard McIIexry, Esq. 
Allen Dodge Esq. 
Hon. John F. Lee. 



His Excellency James B. Groom, Gov-c 

of Md. 
Hon. Joun LtE Carroll, President 

of the Senate. 
Hon. J. T. Hines, Speaker House of 

Delegates. 
Prof. M. A. Newell, Prest. State School 

Commissioners. 



June-3t 



For further information apply to 

Gen'l SAMUEL JONES, Piusident. 
P, 0. address College Station, Pr. George Co., Va 



. FOE THE HOUSEWIFE. 

Hofmann's and Littlewood & Co's London (Englanl) Royal Washing Crystal a a 
used by the Royal Houshold saves time, labor, money and soap. Makes hard water 
soft. For washing linen and heavy goods it is unequalled. Washes flannels and 
colored goods perfectly, without injury to colors. Try it. SAMPLE3SENT FREE 
BY MAIL with full directions for use. None genuine without the name of Henry 
Hofmann <fc Co. on each paper package. One gross (1U packages) $3. 10 per- 
cent, commission allowed to travelling agents. Address, 

HOFMANN & CO., 

166 DuaneSt., X. Y. 



ju-3m 

MAGNOLIA NURSERY, 

(BROOK TURNPIKE, NEAR CITY,) 
RICHMOND, VA. 

For sale, a large assortment of Shade 
and Ornamental Trees, Evergreens, Flow- 
ing Shrubs, Creepers, Ac.; also Grape- 
vines and other small Fruits, Roses, etc., 
etc. Price-list furnished on application 
in person or through post-office. 

L. J. HARVEY, 

Nursery grounds open to the inspec- 
tion of visitors during business hours - 

ap tf 



Score Fifty Dollars! 

THE NEW FLORENCE. 



PRICE, 820 below / any other first-clns* Sew- 
VALUE, §30 above > ing JMachiue. 

SAVED $50 bv buying the Florence. 

EVERT MACHINE WARRANTED. 

SPECIAL TERMS TO CLUBS AND DEALER-. 

SEND FOR CIRCULARS TO THE 

FLORENCE S. M. CO., FLORENCE, MASS., OR 

49 N. CIIARLE8 ST., BALTIMORE, MD. 



PIEDMONT AIR-LINE RAILWAY. 

Richmond and Danville, Richmond and Danville R. W., N- C- 
Division, and North Western N- C R. W- 

CONDENSED TIME TABLE. 

In effect on and after Sunday, October 12th, 1^73. 
GOIXG NORTH. 

STATIONS. MAIL. EXPRESS. 

Leave Char. 10.00 P. m. 8.15a.m. 

•• Air- Line Junction, 10.06 " 8.30 " 
" Salisbury, 10.06 a. m. 10.21 " 

" Greensboro, 3.30 " 12 45 p.m. 

• Danville, 6.20 " 312 " 

" Burkville, 11.35 " 7 36 " 

Arrive at Eichmocd, 217 P. M. 10.17 " 

GOING EAST. 

:055. ^ MAIL. 

Leave Greensboro' Z SUOa.1. 

•• Co. Shops, - 4.4.3 " 

" Raleigh, r B OS " 

Arrive at Goldsboro,' 5 11.1-3 •• 



NORTH WESTERN N -C R. R. 

Salem Braxch. 
Greenjboro, 4 30 P. m. ; arrive at Salem 6.25 p.m.; leave Salem 8 a. v.; arrive at 
Greensboro' 10-00 a. m. 
Mail trains daily, both ways. 

On Sundays, Lynchburg Accommodation leave Richmond at 9.45 a. m. ; arrive at Burkvil'.e 
.45 p. M., leave Burkville 5.35 a. m., arrive at Richmond 8 45 a. m. 
l2Pullman Palace Cars on all night trains between Charlotte and Richmond (without change). 

Papers that have arrangements to advertise the schedule of this Company will please print as 
above. 
For further information, address 8. L. ALLEX. 

General Ticket Agent, Greensboro' Jf. C. 
T. M. E. TALCOTT, Eng'r & Gen'l Sup't. nov— tf 



GOIXG 


SOUTH 




STATI :. = . 


MAIL. 


EXPEESS. 


Leave Richmond, 


1.2SP. M. 


5.00 A. M. 


Burkviile, 


4 45 •• 




" Danville, 


9 18 " 


13 ,? p. ::. 


" Greensboro,' 


12.20 A. M. 


3.50 " 


" Salisbury, 


2.3- •' 


6.06 •' 


" Air-Line Junctior 


,4.29 " 


8-10 " 


Arrive at Charlotte, 


4.33 " 


S.15 " 


GOING 


'•■'1,7. 


MAIL. 


£. Arrive 




12.20 A. M. 


s 




9.35 " 


_ 




5.26 " 


5 Leave 




2.30 P. M. 



JOHN LAIRD, 



Grace St.. Gardens and 733 Main Street. Cor. Eighth St. 

Offers to the Pnblic a Large and fine Assortment of 

Greenhouse and Hardy Plants, 
AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

•::ing Shrubs, Flower Seeds and Grape Vines in great variety, at reduced 
rates. All orders delivered in City free of charge. Tacking and Shipping care- 
fully attended to. 

Catalogue on application. ap-2t 



TO THOSE INTERESTED • 

IN THE 

PR0PAGATI6N0F GAME FOWLS. 



We have at Mount Erin the following described Game Fowls, to wit: The IRISH 
RED, BALTIMORE MUFFS, and GEORGIA DOMINICKE— all of them tried 
Fowls in the pit, and known to be Genuine Game, which we offer for sale at the 
price of Five Dollars a pair. Any iriend desiring to propagate from such stock, 
who will send their orders enclosing $5 to Publishers of Southern Planter axi> 
Farmer, No. 1115 Main Street, Richmond, will be promptly attended to. 

JAMES DUKE, 

nov— 6m MOUNT ERIN, Henrico County, Va. 



1 



A VERY FINE 
BERKSHIRE BOA-R,. 

NINE MONTHS OLD, SIRE AND DAM J|([ [^[^ 

IMPORTED FROM ENGLAND. 

A few Superior SOUTH DOWN EWES and EWE LAMBS, and a very large ^fy^* — « 

BBONZE TURKEY GOBLER. . 

PRICE OF TURKEY $5. 

A. M. BOWMAN, Bellevue Stock Farm, 
jan— tf WAYNESBORO, Augusta Co.. Va. 



\P 



We have pu: chased the Photographic Gallery formerly owned by Mr. W. G. R. 
Frayser, 1011 Main St., opposite Post-office. 

Having thoroughly refitted and added all the recent improvements, we respectfully 
inform the public that we are prepared to execute every first-class style of PIC- 
TURES (from minature" to life-size) known to the art. Our establishment is the 
most extensive and perfectly appointed one in the South, consequently we are enabled 
to offer our patrons superior facilities for obtaining the very best results that the Art 
is susceptible of. We retouch elegantly all negatives made in OUR GALLERY. Our 
facilities for copying and restoring old Pictures are not equalled by any establish- 
ment in the country. Persons desiring first class work, in our line, will find it to 
their advantage to call and examine our artistic productions. You will find our 
prices as reasonable as first-class work can be produced. 

[nov— ly] # M. J. POWERS & CO. 

35 Packages of Flower or Vegetable 
Seeds free by mail for one dollar. One 
beautiful Illustrated Catalogue of seeds 
and plants for 1874, free to all. Plants 
by mail specialty. Address, 

GREEN, BEACH & CO., 
Seedsmen and Florists, Oil City, Pa. 
Box 1775. mar-lOt 

THE NEW CLIFTON FRUITCRATE and VEGETABLE CRATE the best thing 
known for transporting Fruits and Vegetables. Will supersede all other arti- 
cles used for these purposes. Took first premium and diploma at Maryland State 
Fair, 1873. First Premium and Diploma at Frederick Fair, 1873. Fir6t Premium 
or Medal at Virginia State Fair, 1873. 

State, Coun'y, Farm, and Iudividdal Rights for sale by 

E, B. GEORGIA & CO., 
nov — 1/ ' Clifton Fairfaxo ,V 








O THE I£LD PCT-Z?. 

CURES 






Iir.nPITREYS' nOMEOPA' 

VETEKI^VAKY SPECIFICS 

For Hi utle, -Sheep, 



UTSMJ2N. 

">orr.e*t and fii!e?t- 

be found in Vir- 

Se Irish upon the Ene- 

1 7th of July ne.v 

••loi.ths old) I shall be able 

er a limited number of puppies of 

:ed at th~ iice 'folers- 

he fol- 

will begin to hnut well io 
ror beauty of color Ca 
ick) and for staunch: 
i high action : 

■>., Ya. 



Ai" 



C. C. 






r.F. -c 



. 



100 
100 






<;.G. tened Loss of 

n.n.-tui 



I. I.-C 



and 



SHEEP FOR SALE. 

na waritiugetoe'-: 
. any Lumber, all 
Jambs lor Kale, by apph 
': Rl H. 

THE CROTON GRAPE. 

variety 

•.--List. 

:rhill, 

Croton LandiL- . Y. 

A GENTS WANTED.— V. 

'* :-.'W firet-clasa 5ALZSMKX 

rzk in various parte of 

We w:mt men of good 

c-r. habit* aDd ;>acity, 

who can famish undo rences , 

o will give their wL 



i innry Case, in Blcck TValnnt, 
: y Jlumi. 



I free by Kxpi ■ 
>untry. on re< 
orders of &."> or u;> . 






who cannot fur 
To such we tan 
•rnent with a zood 



Homeopathic Medicine Co., 

Ir'oi fc ale by all Dnigt i - 1 

w c7 SMiTHp] 

maxcfa'.tcbef. : ealeb nT 

CHILDREN'S 0A£RIA^L 

fHLVGL.i ILLOWWARE, 

: e to order, al- 
I road 

Va. Ap 



I#I^S 




%)e/&vf&vic/eAJ 



Seedsmen, 35 CcrtJandt Street, Ne ■* 




Subscription REDUCED to $1.50 Per Annum in Advance. 



TO CUBS OF FIVE OR MORE. ONE DOLLAR EACH. 



E ST A-BLISPIE ID I3ST 1840. 



PLANTER AND PARMER 



DEVOTED TO 



Apaltnre, Horticulture, ait tie Meciaaic ai HonsehoM Arts. 



L. R. DICKINSON Editor and Proprietor. 

T. L. PAYNE Associate Editor. 



RICHMOND. YL 



NOVEMBER. 1874. 



1. 11. 



CONTENTS. 



To our Readers, 209 

To the State Grange of Virginia, 210 

Prospectus. 211 

What is a Grange? 212 
The Inspectorships of Tobacco, and 

ernor Kemper's Action, 217 
A Comparative Failure in Sheep 

Raising, 218 

Fly in Wheat, 219 

Demand Taxes, 220 

Debt of Virginia, 220 

Failure, 226 

Effect of Drought in the West, 228 

Wheat without Manure, 229 

Wheat in California. 230 
Red Clover the Cheapest and I 

Fertilizer, 
In and In Breeding, 
The Position of Windows in Horse 

Stables, 235 



Experiment to Test the Propriety 

of pulling Fodder, as compared 

with cutting up Corn, 
The Butter Trade, 
Potatoes and Muck, 
Farm Pens. 
Nearly Twenty- eight Tons of Grass 

from Seven Acres of Land, 
Address to the Farmers of Virginia 

and North Carolina, 
Grange Work in California, 
Tuekahoe Farmers^ Club, 
New Things and Old Things, 
Alkali for an Old Apple Tree, 

of Pork, 
Labor Saving in the Culture of To- 

Officers of State Granges, 
Rules for the Care of Sheep, 
Two Queens in one Hive, 
French Washing Fluid, 



235 
236 
239 
240 

241 

242 

245 
246 

247 
248 
249 

250 

254 

256 




GRAND SQUAEE, f UPRIGHT 

PIANOS 

Have received upwards of FIFTY FIRST PREMIUMS, and are among the best 
now made. Every instrument full}' warranted for five years. Prices as low as 
the exclusive use of the very best material and the most thorough workmanship 
will permit. The Principal Pianists and composers and the piano-purchasing 
public, of the South especially, unite in the unanimous verdict of the superiority 
of the STIEFF PIANIO. The DURABILITY of oar instruments is fully estab- 
lished by over SIXTY SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES iu the South, using over 
300 of our Pianos. 

Sole Wholesale Agents for several of the principal manufacturers of Cabinet 
and Parlor Organs ; prices from $50 to $600. A liberal discount to Clergymen 
and Sabbath Schools. 

A large assortment of second- hand Pianos, at prices ranging from $75 to $300, 
always on hand. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue, containing the names of over 2.000 Souther- 
ners who have bought and are using the StiefF Piano. 

CHAS. M. STIEFF, 
Warerooms, No. 9, North liberty Street, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 
Factories, 84 & 86 Camden street, and 45 and 47 Perry St. 



TIHUE 

Howe Machine Company 

HAYE RE-OPENED IN RICHMOND AT 

OSS nVEstixx £3t=reet, 

AND OFFER TO THE PUBLIC THEIR 

New Improved, Light-Running 
SEWING MACHINES 

ON THE 

MOST LIBERAL TEBMS. 

W. D. GOODRICH, Agent. 



N. B. — Our old customers will please call for needles, parts, kc. 

oct 



THE SOUTHERN 

PLANTER & FARMER, 



DEVOTED TO 



Agriculture, Horticulture, and tie liuii, Manic ani Honseliolfl Arts. 

Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts. — Xehophoh. 
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State.— Stjlly. 

L. R, DICKINSON, Proprietor 

FRANK G. RUFFIN, ....---- Editor. 

New Series, RICHMOND, VA., NOVEMBER, 1874, No, 11. 

'(Mortal geprtmcnt. 

TO OUR READERS. 

Our readers will see from the following circular of Maj. R. V. 
Gaines, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the State Grange 
of Virginia, that the Southern Planter and Farmer has been se- 
lected by that Committee as the Organ of the Patrons of Husbandry, 
with Col. Ruffin as their editor. It will also be seen from Col. Ruf- 
fin's prospectus that he has accepted and assumed this duty, com- 
mencing; with this number. Col. Ruffin needs no introduction from 
us to our readers. His connection with this journal before the waiv 
and his long and prominent connection with all the leading agricul- 
tural interests of the State, has made him one of our best known 
representative men. 

We believe our grange friends will unanimously endorse this action 
of the Executive Committee, by at once securing us clubs of sub- 
scribers in their respective granges. Maj. Gaines, in his circular, 
says: "The paper is placed before you on its merits alone, as a 
means of supplying a long-felt and generally acknowledged want,, 
and claims the support of the Order upon the ground that we have 
secured for our purpose one of the most respectable and largely cir- 
culated papers in the State, under the management of a gentleman 
of first-rate intelligence and capacity, of large experience, both as an 



212 THE SOUTHERN [November 

the advantages of enlightenment and education — which includes the 
experience of all ages — may be supposed best able to point the way 
out of our present troubles. 

It is but just to the gentlemen who have invited me to assume this 
relation to the agricultural public, to say that they no more expect 
this paper to become the vehicle of any special views of their own, 
as indeed "hey have none, than of any clique, faction or party in the 
Order or out of it. But they do expect, and I certainly do intend, 
as far as I am able, that the farmers, whose interests have been 
hitherto disregarded in nearly everything, shall hereafter be heard 
and felt as a power in the State. To this great duty, thus briefly 
outlined, I am willing to dedicate myself; if adequately supported, 
I hope I shall discharge it efficiently; and so to have done it will fill 
the measure of my ambition. 

It is enough to add that I shall attempt to make the best paper I 

can with the resources at my command. 

Fkank G. Rotin. 



WHAT IS A GRANGE? 

" No pent up Utica confines our powers, 
But the whole boundless continent is ours." 

The above question is often asked me, in the same tone, and with the 
same air of curiosity with which a similar question would be asked 
in regard to any new invention, to which some enterprising trader 
had criven a fancy name. To men who approach such a subject, in 
such a spirit, it is exceedingly difficult to give reply. The truths 
which have forced the Order of " Patrons of Husbandry" into exist- 
ence, have never been studied by such enquirers, and when told that 
the very fact of the existence of the Order is conclusive proof of its 
necessity, they turn away, little heeding any explanation which n 
be given. 

Believing that I shall address myself to a different class of men 
through your journal, I propose to answer the question in the hope 
that I may induce others to study the subject. 

First let me say, that the name " Granger " is one only applied 
outside of our gates ; and a better idea of our objects, in this coun- 
try particularly, will be impressed upon the minds of our people, by 
the use of the true name of the Order, that of " Patrons of Hus- 
bandry." 

Secondly, we aim at, and intend to accomplish the elevation of 
husbandmen and their families in all the land. 

Thirdly, as the means to accomplish our end we seek to improve, 
foster and encourage, by every honest means, good husbandry in all 
its aspects. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 213 

1st. By binding in a bond of brotherhood, all farmers. 

2nd. By protecting their material interests. 

3rd. By teaching true morals. 

4th. By raising a high social standard, to be impressed on all 
farmers and farmers' families. 

These are useful, pure ends ; and it may be asked, how are they 
to be attained ? 

It is one of the greatest boasts of this "progressive age," that 
the great principles of combination and co-operation have pro- 
duced wonderful results — results only to be limited by the brain 
power brought to bear in any enterprise where these principles are 
put into active operation. 

Out of, in round numbers, the twelve millions of active business, 
working men, in the limits of this government, there are within a 
fraction of six million engaged in agricultural pursuits. We find 
that in every other calling of every kind, whether it be professional, 
mechanical, mercantile, or manufacturing, each body of men, having 
an identity of interests, has some bond of union, by which to aid, 
encourage, and protect every individual who is a member of such 
union. 

Every husbandman knows and feels the powerful results of such 
unions when he buys his supplies, or sells.the products of his labour. 

Who then is justified in raising the cry of "class" in order to 
deny to the husbandman the right to use the same machinery, the 
effects of which he feels in every article he uses and in every pro- 
duct he sells ? And who can doubt that he will avail himself of it, 
when'he is taught that it can be used by himself in his calling, as it 
is used by others in their callings ? 

As in all his operations, a good husbandman thinks it of the first 
importance to have a good team we find we have this in the (nearly) 
six millions of men we propose to engage in this work .! and as to 
the brain power, without claiming anything for ourselves, Ave have 
only to point to the "editorials " and communications all the year 
round in every newspaper and periodical, and to hear the everlasting 
doses of eloquence, from the most gifted in the land, to be satisfied 
of our "intelligence," "our wisdom," and our "virtue." 

For ourselves we find, that at the end of a year's labour, all our 
profits are absorbed by others, and as a rule nothing is left — hence 
we have to buy on credit and time prices, which yearly add to the 
mortgages and debts encumbering our efforts and our farms. By a 
slight effort of our " intelligence " we find that while we sink money, 
large classes of men are making 'money out of our labour: and by 
usinc our "wisdom" we are led to conclude, that if money can be 
made out of the products our labour, we are better entitled to it than 
any one else, and feel that our wives and daughters ought to share the 
comfort and consequent refinement which that product properly man- 
aged would afford, now enjoyed by the wives and daughters of others; 
and we can only preserve the " virtue " we are given credit for, by 
manfully looking into the question of what becomes of our profits, and 



214 THE SOUTHERN [November 

so manacrincr as to retain them in our own pockets. We find further, 
that upon the articles we are obliged to use, the manufacturer, the 
importer, then the jobber, then the commission merchant, then the 
carrier, then the retail merchant, each and all make handsome livings, 
out of what we buy from them, and in addition a heavy per centage 
for bad debts and time on the interest we have to pay — upon many 
of the articles we are bound to have we are astonished to discover 
we pay from one dollar and forty cents to two dollars, for what 
oucht to cost only one dollar, and we ask cannot we rid ourselves of 
this extortion, and if we do is not the saving between the true cost 
and the actual cost, equivalent to placing the difference in our own 
pockets, or an increase in the market price of our products ? Then 
we look at the mode in which our produce is sold, and find that we 
come directly in contact with those, who for mutual aid and protec- 
tion are members of Corn Exchanges, Flour Exchanges, Tobacco 
Exchanges and other associations of the kind, and of course the hus- 
bandman "goes under " when he undertakes to contend as an indi- 
vidual with these brotherhoods, when besides he has to meet " com- 
missions, costs and charges," which every husbandman knows are 
heavy items in his returns. 

Home clubs, agricultural societies, State fairs have all been tried, 
and not one of them has reached, or can reach these evils, and though 
the troubled husbandman is often patronizingly given a free lecture 
upon the "laws of the trade," "demand and supply," &c, he finds, 
learned as they may be, they do not touch the case he is con- 
sidering or solve the problem he seeks a solution for. Just here the 
Patrons throw light upon the subject by teaching him to combine 
and co-operate with his brother farmers who retain in their own 
pockets the difference between wholesale and retail prices, be: 
cash and time purchases, between exorbitant and moderate commis- 
. between high and low freights, and thus have for their own 
use, and that of their families, the means wrung from his labours, 
upon which so many middlemen live and thrive. "\\ ith the motto ""In 
essentials, unity ; in non-essentials, liberty ; in all things, charity.'* 
the Patrons invite him into their gates as a refuge from the evils he 
seeks to avoid. He finds there no ill-will to any one, but the simple 
fact, we can do better with our own machinery and prefer to use it, 
because it costs us less. 

Anv farmer who deserves the name keeps a regular account. Let 
him cast this up, and see the difference in the costs of the articles 
at wholesale and retail. Let him also see what he would have 
saved in the sale of his crop on the same principle. Let him look 
into his family expenses and "note the diversity" there too, and he 
will find the "margin" in savins well worth his serious attention, 
and let him bear in mind that under the system of the Patrons, "the 
more the merrier" is logically true. 

It a manufacturer can by his skill and the use of improved ma- 
chinery, reduce the cost of production or get his products to market 
at a cheaper rate, does he not have the moral right so to do, and does 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER, 215 

he hesitate so to do, because some one may raise the cry that he in- 
jures other classes ? Should any farmer do so, and how often is the 
secret of the manufacturer kept as the most precious of his posses- 
sions, and yet the objection is made that of Patrons is a secret 
one — true it is secret, it is necessary for the proper working 
of our machinery that we should keep it secret ; our business is on so 
large a scale, so many interests conflict with it, that as prudent men 
we must exclude from our factory, all those whose interests would 
interfere with our machinery either by breaking it, as has been done 
in some factories where improper persons were allowed access, or by 
throwing in obstructions, which might prevent our machinery from 
working fairly, and as it is our own business we keep it to ourselves. 
This secrecy is not one of our own seeking, so far as our mere busi- 
ness is concerned, but a necessity forced upon us by others. As to 
other matters, secrecy is essential for similar reasons ; because we 
have the right to know who are our brothers and our sisters, and we 
cannot know them, and they cannot know us, without the aid of the 
secret signs and tokens, by which we can claim the brotherly offices 
due from one to another. In the ordinary relations of life you have 
other means and public means, by which you can test the right of 
those who set up claims upon you. As Patrons we huve no means 
save those we ourselves devise, and they must be secret to be effectual. 
In order to accomplish our ends, we establish in every farming 
community, selecting the best material, organizations which we call 
subordinate granges, in whose hands we place the interests of the 
locality in which the Grange is, and the selection of those whom they 
deem worthy to assist in the work. These subordinate Granges are 
represented in the County Grange — the County Grange in the 
State Grange, and the State in the National Grange, in perfect 
analogy to the theory of representation in the State and Federal Leg- 
islatures; each Patron as he advances in his work, being endorsed by 
each separate Grange in the order I have mentioned, until he is 
brought directly in communion with the colossal power, and the 
mighty energies, which our Order develops, for the good not only of 
the Order itself, but for this M boundless continent." And here it 
may be well to notice the inuendo often made, that we have " polit- 
ical views"' and are liable to be "used by politicians," or "may become 
political bodies." I can let you inside the gates far enough to see 
that these insinuations made in various forms are the merest "Bosh."' 
Examine the list I have given you, and see how impossible it must 
be, for any man, however skillful, to pass through the various bodies 
I have named, without showing his cloven foot, and how easily he 
can be arrested in his progress ; for any one of the bodies I have 
named, can and must "put a spoke in the wheel" of any enterpris- 
ing gentleman who entertains the idea of making us political tools, for 
he is forbidden to discuss any political question in any way. or even 
the merits of a candidate in any step, in any one or all of these bodies 
at anv and at all times. With the known open and avowed objects 
of the Patrons, acted on and taught publicly and privately, the in- 
sinuation of political objects is simply absurb. 



216 THE SOUTHERN [November 

Having laid the foundation for the improvement of the pecuniary 
condition of the farmer, and shown how that can he done by the 
Order, placing him in the independent condition which will lift him 
above the petty expedients and small acts, which poverty and de- 
pendence often tempt men to commit, we view the next of the ben- 
efits which the Order confers, by urging that it brings into actual 
contact the best among the farmers, with those, who from want of 
proper training, may be in danger of not having a sufficiently high 
standard of morals, and opening thus the best of all schools, the 
day by day teaching of true men, to those who by their brotherhood 
will look up with proper respect to their conduct, and thus be led to 
imitate and emulate the virtues of those, who have the highest 
position among them — whose opinions they will be bound to respect, 
from a benign regulation among us, by which all causes of difficulty, 
all questions as between man and man, may be under their decision, 
and all questions of disregard of true morality must be laid before 
them, where a brother is involved. 

In this view it is proper to say, that every true Patron is the ad- 
vocate, and a true worker in doing all that he can, to dispense the 
blessings of education to all around him — a duty the Order requires 
of him which he must discharge. 

And lastly, to crown this good work, it is impressed upon the 
Order, always and under all circumstances, to build up and maintain 
a high social standard, to be shewn, not only in their regular meet- 
ings and social gatherings, but to be taught in their daily walk in 
life ; and one of the highest ends in view in our introduction of 
females in our Order, and placing them in office, is to have this 
object obtained by their influence and example, to keep them in the 
position which they ought to occupy, as help-meets and counselors to 
husbands, fathers, brothers and sons ; to stamp respect for them upon 
the very souls of every Patron, — to teach our young men the purity 
which woman's very presence brings — and with it the chivalrous de- 
votion which is woman's right. Allow me to say to those who 
object to this feature of our noble Order, that we know, that to 
make high men, we must have them under the influence of high 
women, — would that such an objector would look on one of our 
matrons — see how 

" In the calm heaven of her delightful eye, 
An Angel guard of loves and graces lie," 

— mark her gentle, noiseless, teaching of faith, hope, charity and 
fidelity, which surround her as her constant attendant ; see how her 
pure influences shed light upon the bronzed cheeks of those who 
heed her gentle, pure, quiet teaching — see the hardened hand 
raised in respectful homage to her worth — and he would turn away 
abashed at his own folly, and unite with us in thanks to God, that 
such influences as hers — true, gentle, pure and high, can be shed 
upon tho^e who rise higher and higher in the scale of humanity, at 
every touch of the magic wand a true hearted woman wields. 

W. M. Ambler. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 217 

THE INSPECTORSHIPS OF TOBACCO, AND GOVERNOR 
KEMPER'S ACTION. 

It affords us very great pleasure in the first issue of this paper under 
its present control to record that one public officer has considered the 
interests of the planters in his appointments to office. A slight breeze 
has recently rippled the ordinarily placid surface of the Tobacco Ex- 
change in Richmond, because Governor Kemper did not re-appoint 
those officers as inspectors on the part of the State who were pressed 
upon him by the owners or lessees of the warehouses in which they 
had been respectively placed by previous appointment of Governor 
Walker. The law, not Governor Kemper, had vacated their offices, just 
as much as it will vacate his at the end of his term ; and the inspectors 
or their friends have no more right to complain if at the end of their 
term they are not appointed again, though each may have made an 
excellent officer, than he will have to complain if the people shall see 
fit to let him return to private life at the end of his term, no mat- 
ter how good his administration will have been. Least of all should 
the lessees or owners complain in this case. The same law gives 
them the nomination of one inspector for each of their warehouses ; 
and it is the duty of the Governor to confirm their nominations, or 
give his reason for declining to do so. This, one would think, should 
be satisfactory; and it would seem that each might say, "I have one 
inspector to attend to my interests, and that ought to be enough. 
Let the planter's interests be represented by an appointee of the 
Governor." This seems so obviously the suggestion of propriety 
that one wonders at even a momentary discontent except from the 
very worthy gentlemen who have been rotated out by law; and 
even they will probably quiet down when they remember that they 
were once rotated in by the same process. 

We do not know how it may have been in other places, but here in 
Richmond the four appointees are gentlemen of character and business 
capacity, and represent, as nearly as it may be done, the great sec- 
tions whence tobacco seeks a market in Richmond; and we presume 
the same considerations guided Governor Kemper in all his appoint- 
ments. At all events it was a recognition of Planters as a class in 
the community, and an attempt to reach certain things in the trade 
as conducted in Richmond, which a good many people think should 
be reformed. 

We do not propose to discuss them now. Our object is merely to 
chronicle the fact we have stated. 



218 



THE SOUTHERN" 



'■ N : vember 



Since the above was written, public notice has been given by the 
proprietor of one of the warehouses. Mayo's, that that house will be 

red od the 24th of December, in order that he may make.it a pri- 
vate warehouse. As the inspector appointed for that warehouse by 
the Governor is not only a gentleman of perfect integi ::y. but skilled in 
tobacco, it is fair to presume that the purpose of the proprietor is to 
control the appointment of both inspectors. ~Whv ? 



A COMPARATIVE FAILURE EN SHEEP RAISING. 

It may be remembered by some of the readers of the Planter 
that I contributed to the January number of the Planter an article 
on the "profits of sheep-raising on James river — including tl_. 
ing of lambs in New York." In that I stated two ventures in sheep 
and lambs that had been made by myself and my neighbor. Captain 
James B. Jones, in the years 1S72 and ISTo. The first of mine 
showed a nett profit in sales on each ewe that raised a lamb of 
per cent. : and the second showed a similar profit of 237^ per cent., 
st which any one might charge what expense account he might 
choose upon his own valuation of the items of such charge as I then 
gave them. The results of Captain Jones were the same as far as he 
went; but he kept his ewes over; whereas I sold mine each year at 
an advance of fifty per cent, on cost. 

The results of this year are very different, as will appear from 
the following statement: 

1S74. 
Apl. 15, 8 old sheep, barren, at $4 per head. 
May 15. BO iambs, at 80.50. 
June 3, 707 lbs. wool from 154 sheep, netc, 
9, 39 lambs, at $5, 

" 22, 41 " at S3. 50. . 
July 22. 22 " (sold in Richmond), at 83.25. 

" 10 " consumed at home, at S4, 

Oct. 13, 170 ewes on hand, at S3." . 

Total. 
C rat of 200 ewes, at $3.50, 
Interest from 1st October, l s 73. to date, say 
15th October, at 810 per cent., 

Balance, 4 22 

which is, in round numbers, a little under one hundred per cent, on 





$32 




195 00 




194 15 




1,5 00 




143 50 


, 


71 50 




40 00 


• 


- g oo 




1.4-7 15 


700 00 




72 93 






77° 93 







1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 219 

the investment; against which must be charged feed, including pastu" 
rage and attendance. 

"Whatever others may think, I regard this as a comparative fail- 
ure, as it comes so far short of what I have done before. The ex- 
planation of it is as follows : 1st. The price paid for the ewes was 
too high; 2nd. They were delivered to me at least one month after 
I should have received them ; 3d. They were worried by dogs ; and, 
4th. The season was very unfavorable. 

The ewes came to me, some too old and some mere lambs, though 
I had expressly stipulated for two or three year olds. In conse- 
quence of coming so late and in bad order, they were not impreg- 
nated in time to yean in all the month of February and early in 
March. Once or twice they were worried by dogs, and though I 
lost very few from this cause, the scare affected their condition for 
a long time, so that they did not give as much milk as they other- 
wise would have done, though they were better fed than any lot I 
ever had. Then the season when the lambs should have been 
fattening was so wet that the grass was too sappy, as the graziers 
call it — a cause of bad condition, as my live-stock broker assured 
me, that extended clear to New York. And finally, like all other 
things, the tightness of the times affected the ability of consumers. 

Contrasting the business, however, with the failure of the wheat 
crop this year, the failure of the oat crop, the reduction of the corn 
crop — from drought, cool weather, and chinch-bug — and the failure 
of my hay crop, which was burnt by incendiaries, I think I may 
assume that there are elements of certainty in results from sheep that 
are not to be found in any of the other staples I have named. In 
stating, therefore, the facts in this last venture, which is but fair to 
those who have been induced by my previous statements to look with 
favor on this branch of sheep husbandry, I see no reason to retract 
anything I may have said before, or to regret having said it. On 
the contrary, I am more and more convinced by each year's expe- 
rience that this branch of farming has been too much neglected by 
us; and that in all its varieties it well deserves the attention of our 
people, each selecting that kind which best suits his peculiar circum- 
stances. Frank G. Ruffin. 



FLY IN WHEAT. 



It is a fact tested by experiments off and on for more than thirty years, 
not numerously, but sufficiently and satisfactorily made, that one or two, 



220 THE SOUTHERN [November 

not more, bushels of lime sowed over the wheat when tne fly makes 
its appearance will destroy them. The like quantity repeated in the 
spring, utterly destroys them. That much lime cannot cost any one 
much, not mote than from §20 to 840 per acre. The fly often costs us 
$10 per acre, interest about 2,000 per cent, which beats that form of 
extortion, politely called banking, all to pieces. And then, on most 
soils, the lime is an independent benefit greater than its cost. "W ill 
gas-house lime answer as well ? Can't say ; suppose you try it. 



DEBT AND TAXES. 

As we think the financial condition of the State interests cur 
farmers quite as much as dissertations on practical agriculture, and 
is really of as much moment to men, many of whom are likely to be 
sold out at any time to pay their taxes, we make no excuse for asking 
special attention to an article on that subject which, at our request, 
was furnished by a gentleman who has given the subject much atten- 
tion. We were the more solicitous to get this article because his 
facts go to sustain our own conclusion, that not 3 per cent, of what 
is called the debt of Virginia can now be paid. And an attentive 
reading of the paper submitted, which deserves to be studied by every 
reader of the Planter, will, we think, lead all to this conclusion. If 
not. let us hear from the dissentient. 

"We heard a gentleman say the other day that he thought the price 
of coupons should be considered as a mitigation of the tax. Perhaps 
he did not know that some of the brokers had been making "comers' 
in them, whereby there price was enhanced ; and he could not have 
heard of that princess of France, who when she was told that people 
were dying of hunger, said compassionately. " dear me ! why don't 
the poor creatures live on bread and cheese?" "Your Highnt 
was the reply, " the poor creatures have not the money to buy 
bread and cheese." It takes money to buy coupons as well as bread 
and cheese. 



DEBT OF VIRGINIA. 
Charge of dishonesty preferred by creditors on the authority of her 
late Governor — Action of Council of Foreign Bond-holders — 
Virginia and Virginians to be excluded from the money marts of 
Europe — Charge of dishonesty considered — Result — What interest 
can Virgin ia pay f 

The failure on the part of Virginia to meet the interest on her 
debt, and the resolves of the Council of Foreign Bond-holders to 
close the doors of European capital against her and her citizens, on 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 221 

the ground that she is a d shortest debtor, able but not willing to pay 
her debts, coupled with a call by her Governor and Treasurer for a 
conference with her creditors in November next, invest with interest 
the enquiry into her real ability to meet her obligations. 

Governor Walker in his financial message, March^Sth, 1870, un- 
dertakes to show her ability, with a tax of 40 cents on the hundred 
dollars, to carry on her State Government, pay six per cent, interest 
on her ante-bellum debt of 46 millions, and yet have a surplus in 
her Treasury. Upon the faith of this message the Council of Foreign 
Bond-holders based their action, declaring that Governor Walker 
had afforded the most incontestable evidence of her capacity, and of 
the unwillingness to meet in full every -liability. 

Governor Walker's message has proved to be a most un eliable 
document, his figures of imagination having been overcome by the 
figures from, the record, and his anticipations falsified by actual results. 

The first noticeable fact is that, in 1870 (after the date of his mes- 
sage), the Legislature of Virginia raised the State tax 25 per cent,. 
from 40 to 50 cents on the hundred dollars, (which received the sanc- 
tion of Governor Walker), evincing, in the most practical manner, 
an honest desire and a sincere purpose t<> provide for her obligations. 
Yet, so far from verifying the Governor's prediction that 40 cents on 
the hundred dollars would maintain the Government, pay 6 per 'cent. 
interest on 46 millions of debt, and leave a surplus in the Treasury, 
the result has been a failure to pay 4 per cent, on 32 millions, the 
portion of the ante-war debt, which she assumes to herself; that is 
to say, Virginia has not been able to pay 8 per cent, much less 6 on 
her ante-war debt. But the Bond- holders still following in the wake 
of Governor Walker, declare that if the assessments of taxable values 
had been honestly made, his prediction would have been realized. The 
response to which is, first, that the assessments were made by sworn 
officials, skilled in that kind of business, with no inducements to 
make false returns ; and, secondly, that the sales of property, both land 
and personalty, at public outcry, on terms of credit, rarely have real- 
ized the assessed values ; and that judgment liens, amounting to 
millions upon millions of dollars, remain unsatisfied, because the lands 
will not sell for two-thirds of their assessed value — the law of Vir- 
ginia forbidding the sale of land under execution for a sum less than 
two-thirds of its assessed taxable value. Assessments are and can' 
only be made On the estimated cash value. It is hardly credible then 
that the assessments of Virginia lands are too low, since they rarely 
find a purchaser at two-thirds of their assessed values. 

The Bond-holders assert, however, that if the assessments be fair 
and proper, still heavier rates of taxation should be imposed. Let 
us see. The records both of the Federal and State Governments are 
vouched to explain the measure of depreciation in the taxable values 
in Virginia, and to show that her people cannot bear a heavier bur- 
then in the shape of taxation. 

By the Federal record, the assessed value of real and personal prop- 
erty in Virginia in 1860, was $917,117,852 and the estimated real 



222 THE SOUTHERN [November 

value was $1,270,830,426, and in 1870, the assessed value was only 
$365,439,917, and the estimated real value was $409,558,133, showing 
a falling off in the assessed values of $551,677,935, and in the real 
value of $861,1145,293. The record shows further that of the sum 
of $551,677,935, the amount of $446,310,076 represented the assessed 
or taxable value of personal property, and $105,367,859 represented 
the taxable value of the land. 

The State record shows that the value of the slaves manumitted 
by federal usurpation reached $245,000,000: and it is an undisputed 
fact that this slave property was not only a marketable wealth and 
the most convertible of all property, but that it was the labor of the 
State, the cheapest and most reliable in the world, and that by the 
loss thereof the improved lands in Virginia were depreciated over 
one hundred millions of dollars in value, entailing a perpetual and 
continuing injury, which the State can neither avoid or repair ; that 
this sum of $557,000,000 at the then rate of taxation (40 cents on 
the hundred dollars), would maintain the Government and, within a 
fraction, pay 4 per cent, on 32,000,000 of dollars, and that the same 
rate on the $861,000,000 the real value, could after meeting the ex- 
penses of Government pay 4 per cent, on the ante-war debt of 
46,000,000. 

But the records of the State show further that the assessment of 
1873, (relied on by Governor Walker to prove the under assessments 
of the taxable values of the State) is $30,000,000 less- than that of 
1870, and within two millions of dollars of Virginia's portion of the 
ante-war debt — making the present difference between the assessment 
of 1860 and 1873 of $581,000,000: the taxable values of 1873 
being only, in round numbers $336,000,000. 

The levies for the support of county and township organizations 
are more than double those laid by the State, and the Federal tax 
on agricultural productions is in excess of $5,000,000 per annum. 
In pursuit of the enquiry, can Virginia bear heavier taxation ? it 
will be proper first to arrive at the sum now paid by the people of 
Virginia in the shape of taxes. 

The Federal Tax on Tobacco, &c, . . . $5,000,000 
State Tax (J per cent, on 336,000,000), . . 1,680,000 

County and township levies (1 per cent on same), . 3,360,000 

An annual drain of . $10,040,000 

on a people, who have lost 60 per cent, of their properties, with their 
labor system destroyed, and their individual liabilities unsatisfied ; 
a drain equal to 3 per cent, upon the taxable values of the State, 
and 30 per cent, of the market values of the productions of her soil, 
taking the yield of 1871 as the basis. 

If the real. value of the property in 1870 be considered, it would 
distribute $334.31 to each head of population, which sum invested 
at 6 per cent, interest would yield $20 per annum (it was $80 in 
1860.) Assuming five persons to a family, they would represent 100 



1784.J PLANTER AND FARMER. 223 



acres of land (at the average price of $12 per acre), and §417 worth 
of stock, implements, &c. Two hundred and sixty thousand families 
(the population being 1,300,000) at 100 acres each would figure 26,- 
000,000 acres, being 8,000,000 more than Virginia has in farm lands, 
18,000,000 more than she had in improved land, and 24,000,000 
more than she had in cultivation in 1871. Of her 18,000,000 acres in 
farm lands 44.9 per cent, only are improved, or arable acres, and of 
these, for the year mentioned only 225,000,000 acres were in culti- 
vation. The investments in land, stock and implements were repre- 
sented by 253,000,000, and the market price of the yield was $33,- 
000,000, equal to $1.82 per acre of farm lands, and $25 per capita 
of population. Deducting 66§ per cent, for cost of cultivation, and 
the sum of 60 cents per acre marks the net income to the farmers. 

In 1860 there were 92,705 farms in Virginia averaging 324 acres ; 
in 1870 there were 73,849 farms averaging 246 acres, a decrease in 
the ten years of 18,856 farms and 12,000,000 of acres. The net 
yield of 60 cents per acre, multiplied by 2460 acres will give to the 
farmer §147.60. The assessed value of this land, including -the 
necessary stock and implements, was §13.87 per acre, or §3,412.02 
as the value of the farmer's investment, on which §147.60, his net 
raceipts, would be equal to 4.33 per cent. 

It has already appeared that the Federal, State, County, &c. taxes 
sum up 3 per cent, on the taxable values of the real and personal 
property of the State. Three per cent, tax on the farmer's invest- 
ment taken from the net yield of his farm, 4.33 per cent., will leave 
to him only 1.33 per cent., or about 45 dollars ; and this accords 
with the generally received opinion that the farmers of Virginia 
rarely realize 2 per cent, upon their input. 

Again: In 1871, there was in corn two-thirds of an acre per 
capita of population, and the average yield was 22.6 bushels per 
acre, or 4.4 bushels per head, and the average market price was 67 
cents per bushel, or §9.64 in money value per head. In wheat there 
was three-fifths of an acre to each inhabitant, and the average yield 
was 8 bushels per acre, equal to 4f bushels per capita, and the ave- 
rage market value was §1.39 per bushel, or $6.67 in money value 
per head. But in the same year there were 1,429,400 head of 
horse,, mules, cattle (exclusive of sheep and milch cows), and hows, 
and allowing to each head only 20 bushels of grain, much less than 
is necessary for a thrifty keep, there was a demand for 28,588,000 
bushels of grain for the live stock of Virginia, outside of her cities 
and towns — the whole crop, however, of corn, oats, rye, barley, 
buckwheat, and potatoes aggregated only 26,614,000 bushels, show- 
ing yet a deficiency upon the scanty allowance of 20 bushels per 
head of 1,964,000 bushels. So Virginia has to buy food for her 
farm stock, exclusive of sheep and milch cows, or they have to wo with- 
out; as is really the case in a majority of instances. From the above 
number of live stock, not only are excluded the sheep (1,044,630) 
and milch cows (234,000) of the farmer, but the horses and all other 



224 THE SOUTHERN [November 

live stock within the cities and towns, which were fixed by the De- 
partment of Agriculture at 77.448 head (16,039 horses and 61.409 
milch eowB . Of wheat, as above appears, only 4i bushels per head 
bushels) was raised, less than by li bushels than is al- 
lowed per head to the inhabitants of Great Britain. So Virginia 
has also to buy bread-stuffs for her people, or put them on short 
rations. 

Again, the market value of the productions of the soil for l x 71 
was. as per report of the U. S. Agricultural Bureau, to be precise, 
(33,302,092. There are 1,300,000 inhabitants in Virginia, of whom 
at least 300,000 are male adults. At a charge of 30 cents a Jay, 
i: would cost to feed each man $1.9.50 per annum, or $32,850, 
for the male adult population, leaving $452,092 to feed the one mil- 
lion of women and children, or 45 cents per head per annum, or 
about one-eighth of a cent per day. 

But of this 33 millions worth of produtts. we have already seen 
that 10 millions are required in the shape of taxes for support of 
a ernment — Federal. State, fee. — i that the proper distribution 
would be to each male adult 21 cents per day, and to each other 
person less than one mill per day. Thus the following propositions 
may be considered as established: That the assessments of lands in 
A irginia, whether tested by the products in kind, or marketable 
value, or by the more certain test of the unsatisfied judgment-liens, 
are not only not below, but in fact are :heir marketable cash 

values: that Virginia does not raise grain enough to feed her people 
and their live stock; that if all of her productions of the soil were 
reduced to money at market rates, the proceeds would only feed 
300,456 adu":- I cents each per day, with nothing for the re- 

maining population; that the farm lands, stock, be., yielding only 
1.33 per cent, net on their values, can bear not another straw in the 
shape of taxation; that it is a mere delusion to talk of grinding out 
of the farmers six per cent, interest on the State debt until blood 
can be extracted from turnips; that if full interest most -all 

be paid, the means must come from some other source than the lands 
and personal property of the State (cities and towns included), as- 
1 at 336 millions of dollars. 
each this last result there must be raised on State account, 
per annum : 

To maintain the government. .... $1,500, 

To pay 6 per cent, interest on debt of $32,000,000, 1,92 ), 



3,420,000 



Bv i of one per cent, on assessed values of real and 
'personal property, 8336,000,000, . . . 1,680,000 

Annual deficit, . $1,740,000 

to be supplied from taxable subjects other than land and personal 

property. 

The annual receipts from these other subjects can only be esti- 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 225 



mated. In 1870 they amounted to $577,156.93; in 1871, to 
$398,963.17; in 1873, to $570,561.57. The tax bill of 1874 im- 
posed what is deemed an oppressive burthen on merchants, and 
added something to the former taxes on railroad, express, telegraph 
and insurance companies. In some of its features — in respect to 
merchants' licenses — it has been ruled to be unconstitutional, and 
though the case will go to the Supreme Court of Appeals, it is not 
likely that much will be realized from them. But ignoring all ob- 
jections, and admitting that full collections will be realized under 
the tax bill, it would be an excessive estimate to expect as much as 
50 per cent, advance on the receipts of 1873 from similar sources. 

It will be observed that the receipts from the general 
taxes exceed the demand for the support of gov- 
ernment by the sum of $180,000 

50 per cent, on receipts of 1873 from special taxes, 855,842 

Utmost to be relied on to pay interest on public debt, 1,035 842 

3 per cent, on $32,000,000, .... 960,000 



Surplus to cover delinquents, . $75,842 

An unsuccessful attempt at revolution has deprived Virginia of 
two-thirds of her taxable values — destroyed her labor system — 
crippled all of her existing industries, some even to death — and 
estopped all new enterprises. In the pride of her poverty, her very 
efforts to meet her obligations have increased her liabilities and 
added to her embarrassments. In an earnest desire to maintain her 
honor, she placed 25 per cent, additional tax upon her impoverished, 
almost hopeless people, and yet, withal, it appears, if facts, figures 
and results can prove anything, that it is indeed problematical,°with 
the greatest struggle, whether she can pay even 3 per cent, interest 
upon her debt. It is absolutely certain, unless there be some large 
advance upon her present condition, that she can pay no more. 
She must carry on her State government. She must maintain her 
county and municipal organizations. The Federal tax she must 
pay; her people must be fed and clothed; something must be al- 
lowed to meet individual indebtedness. All of these obligations 
must be met before the State creditor can reasonably expect the 
call for his interest to be answered. Virginia is not able now to, 
meet and satisfy all, and it does not exactly appear how the depriv- 
ing her of the means to utilize her present, and to create and prose- 
cute new, industries, to develop her undoubted and inexhaustible 
hidden treasures, can hasten the happy time when, out of the abun- 
dance of her wealth, she can say to each and to all of her creditors, 
"Here is thine own, with usury." Capital is needed — population 
is wanted. With them her waste places will blossom as the rose — 
without them she must pine and dwindle — and finally must become 
a bankrupt to her own irremediable damage, and, to the irretrievable 
loss of their debt to the bondholders. Possibly the Council of For- 
2 



226 THE SOUTHERN [November 

eign Bondholders may see a virtue in binding Virginia band and 
foot — in excluding ber and ber people from the money marts of Eu- 
rope, as their fathers thought they did in casting their debtors into 
the fleet. As their fathers learned wisdom by their experience that 
imprisonment would not discharge a debt due by a friendless and 
impoverished debtor, possibly these descendants of theirs, in time, 
may find that they, too, have erred, and that policy, if not justice 
and mercy, would induce a helping hand to lift the unfortunate from 
the slough of misfortune and put him upon solid ground, from which 
he may rake a new departure. Virginia is not a dishonest* but an 
impoverished debtor, struggling under almost insupportable trials to 
pay something, if not all. To treat her as dishonest, is as cruel as 
It is unwise — as unjust as it is untrue; and so the bondholders may 
find out when the knowledge may avail them nothing. 

The writer is one of those who is for paying the debts of the State, 
who is willing to tax the people to their capacity to this end, and 
who would be rejoiced to believe that their ability was equal to their 
whole indebtedness. A careful examination into the question of her 
ability, in all of its phases, some of which are here presented, has 
satisfied him that the utmost limit of her present ability is measured 
by 8 per cent, interest on her public debt, and that it would be un- 
safe to undertake more. 

A word to the bondholders, and we dismiss the subject. You 
know that every new way opened to market, every old industry en- 
larged, every new enterprise undertaken and successfully prosecuted, 
every new water-power utilized, every new mine opened, adds to 
the taxable values of a State. You know as the taxable values in- 
crease, so the capacity of the State to meet her obligations is en- 
larged : and so e contra. With such knowledge on your part, does 
a business intelligence dictate the help of a liberal hand in aid, or a 
stern, unrelenting policy in depression, of an already over-burthened 
debtor? This question is not to be solved by resolves, the result of 
disappointment, but upon the identical principles which govern mer- 
chants in settling with their unfortunate debtors. A sober second 
thought, resulting in a revocation of your edict of exclusion, and in 
extension of aid to all proper enterprises, will go much further to 
advance the certain payment of interest on your debt, and its re- 
tirement at maturity, than, we venture to say, the unwise policy 
which dictated your action in April last. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

FAILURE. 

Mr. Editor, — As very many valuable articles appear in your col- 
umns teaching us farmers how to succeed, you will pardon me for 
expressing a few thoughts relative to the most direct route to a com- 
plete failure in the pursuit of our calling. First, and important it is, 
that a farmer should buy more land than he can pay for, giving his 
bond for the deficit, with an obligation in some way assumed to pay 
at least ten per cent, interest thereon. Again, if he owns more land 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 227 

than he can manage successfully himself, he should sell everything 
off the farm year after year, and continue to pay taxes on many su- 
perfluous and non-productive acres. Let quantity rather than qual- 
ity be his motto. He should never produce his own supplies, bear- 
ing in mind that the merchant and the city will furnish him with far 
better articles. Just now it is so refreshing to the farmers of Hen- 
rico, and doubtless many other sections of the State, to pay the 
modest price of a shilling for bacon and a dollar and twenty cents 
for meal. Again, many small producers (and some large ones, too) 
haul their hay and oats to market in the summer, and the following 
winter buy it back again. Generally they receive about 75 cents 
per hundred, and pay, say from $1.25 to $1.50 for it. Of course, 
this is a paying operation. And it is just by such profitable man- 
agement that so many succeed in failing. 

Again, I would advise that produce be taken to the city in the 
greatest possible bulk — transportation, storage, and handling are 
small expenses. Never take it there in the shape of prime beef, 
bacon or butter. Lately the writer sold prime seed to a city mer- 
chant for 25 cents per pound ; one of my neighbors bought some of 
the same seed from the merchant at 80 cents per pound. Don't 
grow your own seed. Facts prove we can save as good seed pota- 
toes as any we can buy, but don't credit facts. Fancy you can't, 
and pay the merchant next spring as much for one barrel as he will 
give you for three a few months later. Never place any faith in 
stable manure, or try to save it yourself, nor in pure bone dust and 
lime.* Fancy guanoes and phosphates are far cheaper. Shut your 
eyes to the fact that the component parts of these latter articles on 
the average do not cost the manufacturer half what they cost you ; 
never plow a field of green peas or clover under to improve your 
land; you can't afford it. Whilst on the subject of seeds, I should 
have stated that the most successful gardener in this vicinity saved 
this season from 60 heads of cabbage planted, not only his own 
seed, but sold enough to pay him 20 cents each for the cabbage. 
But don't you try it; recollect the merchant knows his business and 
ours too. He will tell you Northern or foreign seed are so much 
better ; will mature so much sooner, &c. You attempt to argue, but 
he can beat you talking. He offers as your particular friend to let 
you have a liberal credit of say 90 days. You consider a second, 
conclude he is a jolly good-natured man, and your friend. You 
buy If you don't meet your engagements promptly, or you make 
your future purchases elsewhere, how soon his friendship and seem- 
ing good nature vanish ! Facts prove that the farmer is more uni- 
versally robbed of the honest fruits of his labor than any other class. 
But fancy and believe it is not true, or if true, can't be remedied. 
Lastly, don't take any papers, or read them if you do. If, however, 
you are determined to do otherwise, recollect that political papers 

*What guarantee has Jack that the Bone Dust is pure? There can be as much 
fraud in that, and as much extortion as in any other sort of artificial fertilizer. — 
Ed. 



228 THE SOUTHERN [November 

are filled principally with the speeches of ambitious office-seek 
intent only on exciting the public mind to honor them with some 
office, for "which they probably have no claims or qualification; 
whereas agricultural papers and journals generally admit to their 
columns only such articles as the editor thereof fa 

teficial to the farmer; bearing in mind that fa journal- 

ism depends upon the support he can derive from us 3~ he 

is. therefore, or rather his paper is. thi y which our inter- 

ests as a class are protected and advanced to the exclusion of otL 

Jack. 

EFFECT OF DROUGHT IN THE WEST. 

The following extract from the regular Illinois correspondent of 
the Albany Cultivator, whom we have read after with pleasure for a 
good many years, is very suggestive. — [Ed. 

We are still in need of more rain, and the cattle and the pasturage 
are so disproportionate that few graziers and farmers have good 
grass for their stock. The whole Western country for this time of the 
r is sadly deficient in a surplus of agricultural production, and by 
the arrival of seed time next spring it will be about as bare as a 
desert. ' 

Writing as long ago as July 2S. with a full sense of the crop 
failure and consequent scarcity upon me. I - (see page Bar- 

rent vol.): "Let the farmer in the West sell no old corn for less 
than 75c. and no new short of 50c. per bushel. New oats otight 
be worth 4<Jc. and wheat three times that sum. Every farmer should 
think the matter over before he accepts an offer of less than Tc. for 
live hogs, and 6c. for good fat cattle." Prices for grain have already 
reached these figures as an average, though hogs are not above Tc. 
in Chicago,.unless they are very good, and there ie - I no new 
corn in the market: but sales have been extensively made : \ 
in the stook, standing in the field. What prices will be next Mi 
is difficult to conjecture, but it is impossible they should be other- 
wise than high, beyond all recent experience. It e to 
remember that at this time in 1872 old corn was worth 20(S 23c. per 
bushel, and other Illinois agricultural products in relative proportion. 
I another important fact for grain and produce buyers and deal; -. 
and for such railroad managers as are something more than tha:. 
bear constantly in mind is. that while railroads increase production 
to a great extent, they stimulate and increase consumption to an ex- 
tent still greater. Thus as to the surplus which had accumulated in 
in this State the series of fruitful corn years, which terminated with 
), it required, notwithstanding the stimulus of war. four or five 
years to dispose of it ; yet the surplus of the grain-producing years 
3 with 1^74 was taken out of the State in less than fifteen 
months. 

The legal standard by which grain is sold in this State is — wl 

* - 

60 pounds to the bushel; corn, 5'3 pounds; and oars. 32 pool 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 229 

One day last week, wheat sold in Chicago at 98c., corn 82c, and 
oats 52ic Estimating corn and oats at the standard weight per 
bushel of wheat, we have the following result. 

Wheat, 60 pounds, ..... 98 cents. 

Oats, do. 981 

Corn, do. 88" 

Thus oats are worth per 60 pounds, 10|c. more than corn, and 
half a cent more than wheat, while corn is worth only 10c. less than 
wheat, and lO^c. less than oats. 

Should the drouths which have characterized the last four years 
become a permanent condition — which there is great reason to fear — 
that condition, while it will largely increase the already immense 
wheat area, will correspondingly diminish the corn-growing one; and 
corn, instead of being cheaper per pound than wheat, oats or barley, 
will become the dearest of the four. The subject is an interesting 
one. 

WHEAT WITHOUT MANURE. 

Our readers have been frequently advised of what has been done 
by Mr. Lawes, of England, in the way of raising repeated crops of 
grain upon the same land year after year, both without and with 
manure. But Mr. Lawes' labors have been experimental. We 
have now before us a report of the sales of the standing crops of 
wheat, oats, and clover upon two farms in England, upon which these 
crops have been raised successfully for a dozen years, and sold stand- 
ing, to be cut and carried away by the purchasers, both straw and 
grain together. No stock is kept upon these farms. No manure is 
used upon them. Deep plowing by steam, and draining to further 
deepen the soil, are the only means by which these crops are pro- 
duced year after year. One of these farms is owned and cultivated 
by Mr. Prout, of Sawbridgeworth, and consists of 150 acres. The 
present season's crop was chiefly wheat, which, sold by the acre as it 
stood, realized from $45 to $89 per acre, for grain and straw. The 
purchaser in all cases does the harvesting. The average prices were, 
for wheat, $54.40 per acre ; oats, $49 per acre ; and clover, $52 per 
acre. The whole proceeds of the 450 acres were $23,111, an ave- 
rage of $53.30 per acre. The average result of the last seven year's 
crops has been $51.25 per acre. The farm was purchased twelve 
years ago, and was then in poor condition. It was drained, and 
$1,000 worth of chemical fertilizers were used to bring it into a pro- 
ducing state. Since then it has been cultivated deeply by steam 
each year, but no fertilizer has been used, nor has the straw even 
been retained upon the farm. The other farm is owned by Mr. Mid- 
dleditch, of Wiltshire. It has been managed upon the same plan. 
The crops upon this farm brought from $18 to $86 per acre, 
on an average of $55. The aftermath of some fields of sanfoin, 
which were to be pastured by sheep, sold for $10 to $18 per acre. 
There are ,500 acres in this farm. Both farms have a clay soil, 



230 THE SOUTHERN [Novtmbei 

and are fairly .good wheat lands, but at the commencement of this 
cropping were much ran down. The farmers who purchased the 
crops, and some who had taken them for several years, said that 
those of the present year were the best crops for several years, and 
Mr. Prout expressed the opinion that he could thus farm u as long 
as he lived, and his son after him." We do not pretend to make 
any application of this anomalous kind of farming, but mere]" gi 
the facts. At the same time we cannot refrain from comparing it 
with some farms we have seen, in the rich valleys of Ohio and west- 
ward, where for twenty years the merest scratching of the deep, rich 
soil, and the raising of wheat upon the unplowed corn-stubble, year 
after year, has made farmers comfortable, if not rich, and thinking 
at the same time it is possible, if those rich lands were better treated, 
and farmed more with the plow, and less with the harrow, that they 
might produce better crops than they now do. and remain profi 
to their owners for an indefinite number of years to come — Exc . 



WHEAT IN CALIFORNIA. 

The large proceeds of the sale of wheat in the last two years have 
contributed greatly to the present abundance of money in California. 
The San Francisco Atla speaks as follows on the topic : In two 
years, ending with June, the amount of money realized for wheat 
been in round numbers $10,000,000, which has enriched nearly all 
parts of the State, and added to the immense production of the 
mines, only two of which have given $80,000,000. against very lit- 
tle in the two previous years, making of wheat and the produce of 
two mines only, a result of $70,000,000 in two years, against $16, 
000,000 from the same sources in the two previous years. This 
shows a very large addition to the money capital of the State. 
Other branches of agriculture and other mines have produced also 
largely, but we call attention to but two Bounces. There have been 
undoubtedly, losses in some of the mines, and many farmers have, 
even in a prosperous year, lost money by injudicious handling oi I 
crops — that is by making experiments on interested and unsound ad- 
vice — but, nevertheless, the whole "value realized for the bullion and 
wheat has added to the resources of the State, and the new crop 
year opens with a larger supply of both wheat and bullion in pros- 
pect. — Exchange. 

(For the Southern Planter and Farmer.) 
RED CLOVER THE CHEAPEST AND BEST FERTILIZER, 

That the Red Clover plant is the cheapest and best fertilizer, is 
established by the evidence of both practical men and men of science. 

1. Practical men toy so. Mr. Hill Carter, of Shirley, in g 
to the Southern Planter in 1870 the results of fifty-four years" expe- 
rience in farming says : "Clover is the basis of all permanent improve- 
ment on our lauds. If plaster acts well. I can. with clover, make land 
rich enough for any crop. I never knew a good clover ley fail to 
make a good crop of wheat. Clover is good manure above and under 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 231 

the ground both, the roots as much as the hay or summer growth. 
All I ever made was by clover and plaster." Mr. H. M. Magruder, 
of Albemarle, reported to the same Journal last year the instance of 
a farmer in his county who had grown large crops of wheat for 
twenty years continuously by alternating clover with wheat. He ob- 
tained a stand the first year on thin land, by the application of Peru- 
vian guano, but afterwards used no other manure but plaster. The 
leading farmer of the North, the veteran John Johnston, has most 
successfully alternated clover with wheat, heavily manuring his wheat 
with farm-yard manure, and applying plaster to the clover. An Or- 
leans county, N. Y., correspondent of the Country Gentleman in 
proof of his exalted opinion of the beneficial effects of clover as a 
fertilizer, cites numerous instances and facts that have come under 
his observation, and that have been noticed by trustworthy farmers. 
He says : First — in regard to wheat : I can name quite a large num- 
ber of fields of wheat that ha. e ranked among, if not ahead of the 
best crops in this section, where it was very plain to see that good or 
extra crops were mainly due to the excellent effects of growing clover 
The average [yield of their crop ranges from 20 to 45 bushels per 
acre, nostly varying from 25 to 40 bushels per acre. Wheat and 
clover are frequently grown alternately, until the land is so rich or 
full of vegetable matter that wheat lodges badly. Similar results 
have been realized in growing corn. Ploughing under a good clover 
sod, generally without other manure, except in some cases a dressing 
of plaster and ashes in the hill has given from 100 to 150 bushels 
of ears to the acre. 

One of the very best examples of making and keeping land very 
rich by the growth of heavy crops of clover, of which I have seen 
any account, is the farm of Mr. George Geddes, of Onondaga county, 
N. Y. It appears, by different accounts, that a large portion of this 
farm has been in constant cultivation over 60 years, without any other 
manure than clover and plaster ; and that the fertility and produc- 
tiveness of the soil has been constantly increasing. In referring to 
the practice of manuring with clover, in the discussion at the State 
Fair at Watertown, in 1861, Mr. Geddes stated that "he thinks 
clover manure of the utmost importance. It gives a crop of corn that 
needs no hoeing, but horse cultivation only. Has thus raised 67 
bushels to the acre, and the land was left cleaner than in other 
fields with hoeing. Clover also forms an excellent manure for 
other grain crops, oats, barley or wheat. Has had wheat on clover 
sod at the rate of 33 bushels per acre for 20 acres, and regarded the 
clover at the bottom of this heavy product." 

Hon. G. W. Patterson, then Lieutenant-Governor, is represented 
as saying in the Legislative Farmers' Club (Trans. S. Ag. So., 1849, 
p. 660) that the cheapest manure for wheat is clover, though he would 
use all of the manure from the barnyard. Considers a good crop of 
clover equal to 20 loads of ordinary yard manure per acre. Could 
never see that plaster benefited the wheat, but it makes the clover, 
and the clover makes the wheat. His wheat crops have sometimes 
been 40 bushels per acre on 60 acres. 



282 THE SOUTHERN [November 

Mr. D. A. Nichols (Cultivator, 1858, p. 357) states that of glu- 
tei- wheat he "had 4| acres, and harvested 151J bushels, or 31 
bushels and 27 quarts by measure per acre, or 33 bushels and 13f 
quarts by weight — 60 lbs. per bushel. In 1847 it yielded S T % bushels 
of wheat per acre ; but by sowing plaster and turning under clover, 
it has reached its present fertility." 

In the Country Gentleman, December 13th, 1860, it is stated a 
Mr. Goldsboro, of Ellenboro, Md., had "a field of 27| acres, that 
yielded 55 bushels of wheat per acre ; it was grown in a rotation of 
corn, wheat and clover." 

In the Transactions of the New York State Agricultural Society 
for 1858, is an account of nearly five acres that had been in clover 
and mowed two years, that well plowed the last week in xlugust, and 
without any other manure gave a yield of 33^ bushels of wheat per 
acre. Evidence of the same character could l5e further extended if 
space allowed. 

2. Scientific 7nen say so. It will be sufficient to cite the evidence 
of Dr. Yoelcker, Chemist to the Royal Agricultural Society of 
England, and the highest living authority on scientific agriculture. 
In a lecture delivered at the rooms of the Society in May. 1868, he 
gave a report of his field experiments with the clover plant and at- 
tendant chemical investigations. Among many other things of the 
greatest value he said: 

'•It is well known to most practical farmers that if they can succeed 
in growing a good crop of clover, they are almost certain to get a 
good paying crop of wheat. You see how all agricultural matters 
depend upon each other. If we can by chemical means enable a 
farmer, on land which otherwise would not grow clover, to produce 
a good crop of clover, we shall thus place him in the very best posi- 
tion for afterwards obtaining paying crops of corn. I have come to 
the conclusion that the very best preparation, the very best manure, if 
you will allow me thus to express myself, is a good crop of clover. 
Now at first sight nothing seems more contradictory than to say that 
you can remove a very large quantity of both mineral and organic 
food from the soil, and yet make it more productive, as in the case of 
clover. Nevertheless it is a fact, that the larger the amount of min- 
eral matter you remove in a crop of clover, and the larger the amount 
of nitrogen which is carried off in clover hay, the richer the land 
becomes. Now here is really a strange chemical anomaly which can- 
not be discarded, and invites our investigation, and it is an investiga- 
tion which has occupied my attention, I may say, for more than ten 
years. 

"I believe a large amount of mineral manure is bi'ought within 
reach of the corn crop by growing clover. It is rendered available 
to the roots of the corn crop, while otherwise it would remain in a 
locked-up condition in the soil, if no recourse were had to the intro- 
duction of the clover crop. Clover by means of its long roots pen- 
etrate- a large mass of soil. It gathers, so to speak, the phosphoric 
acid and the potash which are disseminated throughout a large por- 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 233 

tion of the soil, and when the land is ploughed, the roots are left in 
the surface soil and in decaying thev leave in an available condition 
the mineral substances which the wheat plant requires to enable it 
to grow. Although in clover hay these mineral matters are removed 
in great quantity, yet the store of mineral food that we have in six 
or twelve inches of soil is so great that it is utterly insignificant in 
comparison with what remained; in other words, the quantity of 
mineral matter which is rendered available and fit for the use of the 
succeeding crop is very much larger than the quantity which is re- 
moved in the clover hay. 

" But the accumulation of nitrogen after the growth of clover in 
the soil is extremely large. Even when the clover crop is insignifi- 
cant, a large quantity of nitrogen amounting to tons is accumulated 
in the surface soil, and the better the clover crop the greater is the 
accumulation of nitrogen. The accumulation takes place chiefly in 
the surface soil, and I believe it is principally due to the droppings 
of the leaves. When we grow clover for seed, those leaves continually 
drop and enrich the surface soil ; and if it be the case, which I think 
is likely, that the clover tube of plants is satisfied with the ammonia 
which exists in the atmosphere, we can at once account for the accu- 
mulation of nitrogen in the soil. The clover planes take the nitro- 
gen from the atmosphere and manufacture it into their own substance, 
which, on decomposition of the clover roots and leaves, produces 
abundance of ammonia. 

''The clover roots and leaves are not all at once changed into am- 
monia ; but there is a gradual transformation of the organic matter, 
first into ammoniacal salts, and a gradual change from ammoniacal 
salt into nitrates resulting from oxidation, and you have a complete 
series of chemical transformations which is highly conducive to the 
gradual development of the plant. Nitrate of soda may readily be 
washed out; but you will notice that the benefit that you obtain from 
clover roots is that you have a continuous source from which nitrates 
can be produced. I should like more indirectly to accumulate nitro- 
gen on my land and not go to any great expense in buying nitrate 
of soda when my land is in poor condition. In reality the growing 
of clover is equivalent, to a great extent, to manuring with Peruvian 
guano ; and in this paper of mine I show that you obtain a larger 
quantity of manure than in the largest dose of Peruvian guano which 
a farmer would ever think of applying; that there is a larger amount 
of nitrogen accumulated in the first six or twelve inches of soil, 
than there is in the heaviest dose of Peruvian guano that any per- 
son would think of using. '' 

3. Sow to secure a stand of Clover. If the soil is too poor for 
clover, it must be enriched up to the clover bearing point by means 
of one or two crops of peas or by application of manure, domestic or 
commercial. The most profitable application of the costly artificial 
fertilizers is to use them in obtaining a good set of clover, th<m with 
care the land will continue to improve. The seed should be applied 



234 THE SOUTHERN [November 

thickly, say two gallons to the acre, and will be surer to stand- if 
rolled in plaster. Then sow after oats — the oats being seeded thinly. 
say one bushel to the acre. Some have been more successful by 
seeding after barley or buckwheat, and some prefer to sow the seed 
on wheat, but it is believed that the seeding with oats is most conve- 
nient to farmers. 

Sow a bushel of plaster to the acre on the young plants the first 
season, and the same quantity the second year. Plaster has often 
been known to double the yield of clover. All the farm-yard putres- 
cent manure of the farm should be applied upon the clover of the 
second year when it first begins to show the influence of spring in its 
growth. The clover is thus enabled to enlarge its leaves and roots. 
and draw more abundant supplies of nitrogen from the air and min- 
eral manure from the soil and subsoil. 

This mode of application was ably recommended by the late 
eminent agriculturist, Edmund Rufiin, in his writings and exhibited 
in his practice. It has received the approbation of the most suc- 
cessful farmers of Virginia and other States. 

On poor, sandy soils the addition of the salts of potash, say 2 
cwt. or 3 cwt. of Kainit would be a very material aid to other ma- 
nures, as such soils are deficient in potash. 

Dr. Yoelcker found clover most improved by mineral manures. 
In his experiments, and in those of Lawes and Gilbert, it was found 
to be benefited by the application of nitrogenous manures. 

^_ . A. 

Ix and Ix Breeding. — The Western Farmer says Mr. George 
Butts, of Manilas, N. Y., has practiced in-breeding of Short-horns 
to a greater extent, perhaps, than any other American breeder. His 
bull Treble Grloster was sired by Apricot's Grloster, dam a heifer sired 
by the same bull as had been her dam. Treble Gloster was bred to 
his own dam, and the result was a fine heifer. He was then bred to 
this heifer, and the produce was an extra fine heifer — May Beauty. 
He is now breeding Treble Gloster to all females in the herd without 
regard to relationship. If the cow to which Apricot s Gloster was 
first bred had no relationship to him, the heifer, May Beautv, has 
27-32 of his blood. 

This reminds us of the success of Mr. Levi Ballou, of Woon- 
gocket, R. I., who bred from one pair of pigs ten years without in- 
troducing any fresh blood. Over a thousand pigs were raised during 
tbe time, and without producing a single imperfect specimen. 



Nature is sent to teach us by her autumnal parables : and every 
fading leaf on every tree, with its bud of future growth hid behind it, 
becomes a solemn text, warning us to " secure while the leaf is yet 
green, the germ that shall live when the frost of death has destroyed 
both fruit and flower." — Macmillan. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 235 

THE POSITION OF WINDOWS IN HORSE STABLES. 

We find in a German exchange some curious observations on the 
manner in which the position of the windows in the stable affects 
the eyes of a horse. In one instance the horses of a farmer, — fine 
animals, celebrated for their excellent condition, were kept in a sta- 
ble lighted only by a small window at one side. When light was 
needed for work, the door was temporarily left open ; the result was 
that nearly all of these animals had eyes of unequal strength, and 
in time a number of them became blind on the side toward the win- 
dow. A strong light directly in the horses' faces has been found to 
weaken the sight. The worst position of all for a stable window is 
in front of the horses and much higher than their heads. An officer 
had bought a perfectly sound mare from a gentleman whose stable 
was lighted by windows at the rear of the stalls. The animal was 
sound and perfectly satisfactory. After three months she became 
suddenly " ground shy" ; on examining her eyes they were found 
directed upward, and this was explained by the fact that the win- 
dows of the officer's stable were situated above the head of the stalls, 
the eyes being generally drawn in that direction. She was removed 
to another stable, where the light was admitted from all sides, and 
in three months the difficulty had disappeared. 

Another officer reports that during the campaign of 1870, in 
France, he rode a horse that was a capital jumper. On his return 
from the war, he placed this animal in his stable, the windows of 
which were above the front of the stalls, and in a short time the 
horse became so shy of the ground that he had to sell it. He had 
had a similar experience with other saddle-horses, all of which be- 
came ground-shy in his stall. One animal in particular, a thorough- 
bred mare, renowned for her jumping qualities, refused in a short 
time to cross the smallest obstacle, and when forced to cross a foot 
wide gully, made a leap that would have cleared a ditch fourteen 
feet wide. Owners of horses who find that their animals shy at 
objects on the ground, or at their side, would do well to look to the 
windows of their stables for an explanation of the evil. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

EXPERIMENT TO TEST THE PROPRIETY OF PULLING 
FODDER, AS COMPARED WITH CUTTING UP CORN. 

In tae July number of your journal for the year 1872, there is a 
report of an experiment made on fodder-pulling, ordered by the 
Hillsboro Farmers' Club. It was made to test the truth or error of 
the almost universal opinion of farmers that gathering fodder lightens 
the corn. Three lots of corn were selected in a field, as near equal 
as possible. One was cut off at the ground and put up in a shock ; the 
next one was left with tops and blades all on ; and the third had blades 
and tops taken oft'. These three lots were kept separate and housed, 
and the spring following they were shelled out and carefully weighed 



B36 THE SOUTHERN [November 

■when this rather unexpected result "was obtained : the corn that 
had the fodder taken off weighed 59 lbs. ; that left with fodder all on 
:. : while that which "was cut and shocked 
lily 56 ": i . '2 oz. In your U N tea for the Month," Sep- 
sr number. 1S74, which I have just received, you say it is inju- 
rn tt pull the fodder, and you recommend cutting the 
re : ; . Did you get your idea from actual experi- 
ju adopt it because the old farmers all say it is 
Y i rrespon lent "B " in the last number of the Planter and 
Farmer, "writing on the subject of "Winter Food for Stock " says he 
rs has his fodder pulled, but he knows it "lessens the yield of 
grain and lightens the weight." Permit me to ask him how he came 
to know that ? Was it the settled opinion of all the old experienced 
farmers, based on their scientific knowledge of the principles of vege- 
table circulation '. or did he prove it by actual experiment ? In these 
- f experimenting it is well to try the old theories by actual test, 
and especially where there is so much to be lost or gained as in 
ing fodder, and where the test is so easy and so unmistakable as 
in fodder saving. The test we made shows that the grain is not only 
not made lighter, but that it is made nearly three pounds heavier to 
the bushel than when cut off at the root and shocked — an increase 
that would pay well for the labor of saving the fodder, giving you 
t .e fodder as a clear gain, and I suppose this result would be uniform 
■ class of circumsiances, including the variation of seasons. 

S. M. Shepherd. 
AXbemarit Co.. Va. 



THE BUTTER TRADE. 



The k 7 s condences from the report of the committee 

appointed by the Produce Exchange in New York to regulate the 

trade. Af::: g that the annual consumption of butter 

in this : ntry is 1, -.. . . ),000 pound? for table use, and one-third 

as much more for culinary purposes, it says : 

I Idition, the exports are estimated at 53, 333, 333 pounds, 
making the produ:. igg . te 1.440.000.000 pounds, which, at 
thirty cents per pound, amounts to $426, 

The importance of facilitating the dealings in this immense amount 
of prolu: Hitherto there have been various irregular- 

ities and difficulties which need correction. 

T. first . -" -erious irregularity existing was the erratic 

and conflicting market reports consecpuent upon various classifica- 
- f which there were nearly as many as there were merchants. 
The various grades were defined by one class as " fancy." "fair to 
good." •": : n to fair," and another class "good to choice." "fair to 
prime.' fcc, "with quotations attached to suit individual interests 
without representing the general market. Press and circular market 
reporters were compelled to adopt scattering and conflicting terms 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 237 

and quotations as best they could gather from the different merchants 
and branches of the trade. 

The term " Orange County" used in the market reports with the 
highest quotation attached, has constantly misled. The quantity of 
butter made in Orange county is but a trifle, and is still decreasing, 
and considerable of that is of inferior quality. This term, Orange 
county, has of late years been made use of in connection with the 
pail butter trade which was formerly confined to the jobbing and re- 
tail business, and the supply was mainly from Orange county. It 
was customary for the dealers in it to raise or lower the price five 
cents per pound, and by quoting it in the general market reports 
gave the impression that a radical change had taken place in the 
New York market for butter from all the dairying sections, whereas 
it sometimes occurs that the radical change of five cents per pound 
made in Orange county, does not affect materially the price of the 
bulk of the stock. • 

Within the past few years the trade in pail butter has gradually 
changed, and it is now received from all dairy sections of New York, 
New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, by wholesale houses, and much of it 
is sold by the invoice, the same as other classes of butter. So much 
of the product is being marketed in this manner that it constitutes a 
material feature of the market and market reports. But it is only a 
very small proportion of the butter crop of the country or of the 
supply in this market, hence the action of the wholesale dealers on 
Exchange, resulting in this class of butter being sold and quoted like 
any other grade, and ignoring the absurd system of raising or low- 
ering the price five cents per pound at any change. 

The terms " Goshen Butter" is likewise a misnomer in the classi- 
fication of butter, and is so understood in this market, and is only m 
use and abuse in connection with the Southern trade, where from 
custom this brand is insisted on as designating genuine Goshen But- 
ter, whereas there is no such article in the market, and from com- 
mon custom and usage the name is generally applied to all kinds of 
butter distributed to Southern trade. 

Your committee, after thorough consideration, have adopted the 
classification submitted. It first classifies butter as Eastern and 
Western, and next into Extras, Firsts, Seconds and Thirds, of each. 
Eastern constitutes the supplies from the Eastern States, and West- 
ern is the product west of New York and Pennsylvania. This is 
nece sitated by the wide differences in the qualities and prices actu- 
ally existing between the productions of the Eastern States and the 
bulk of those supplied from Western States. This method of grad- 
ing!:by Extras, Firsts, Seconds and Thirds is simple, practical, and 
not'experimental, it having been long in practice in older countries. 

The general division of butter into Eastern and Western recog- 
nizes what already has always existed, and without detriment to 
either section, especially so under the new classification, since it is 
the same for both Eastern and Western, and the prices obtained and 
quoted will more surely determine and represent the quality and 



233 THE SOUTHERN [November 

value as a guide to the producers of the two great dairying sections. 

While the importance of and rapid improvement in dairying in 
the West is fully recognized and encouraged, still there exists so 
wide a difference in the quality of the general productions of the two 
sections as to require a division in the classification in order to 
do justice to both. To place all Western upon the same basis as 
Eastern would result in a comparatively small portion of it being 
sold and quotable at the price of State, and at the same time tend 
to misrepresent the actual market value of the great bulk of Western 
butter. This is a qestion of so much importance and so little under- 
stood, that the reason should be here fully explained, and set forth 
for the first- time under the authority of the Exchange of the differ- 
ence in quality between Eastern and Western butter. In order to 
explain it and encourage improvement in Western dairying in the 
adoption of the best method and process of manufacturing, it is ne- 
cessary to describe the system of making and other circumstance? 
that cause the differences in quality generally in the productions of 
the two sections. In the Eastern dairy States, as the cultivation of 
cereals become less profitable and lands enhanced in value, the de- 
mand for dairy products increased, and being 'more profitable lead 
to special attention to their production as a main source of income. 
Extensive and improved herds were introduced, the pasturage was by 
cultivation freed from weeds and wild grasses, and close turfed mea- 
dows of the finest grazing were afforded, and the springs and streams 
of water purified by changes. These are indispensable conditions 
for the production of choice dairy products. Skilled manufacturers 
were employed, and from large herds greater masses of the p oduct 
were yielded, and being consequently less exposed to the atmosphere, 
whether packed for future use or marketed immediately while fresh, 
was superior in quality. 

One creamery dairvman in the State of New York during the sea- 
son of making, markets 15.000 pounds per week, and at an average 
of 3T|c per pound realizes 85,625 weekly. One farmer in this State 
annually markets his season's product in this market toward spring. 
Year before last it aggregated 22,136 pounds, from which he realized 
50 cents per pound, or (11,068. The celebrated fine State dairies 
held in reserve for winter market are made only in the finest dairy 
districts, are most skillfully and perfectly made, and packed in uni- 
form packages, numbered as packed, and kept in good dairy cellars 
expressly fitted, and in many instances cooled bv running streams of 
water. Until this system of dairying, with the requisite conditions 
of pure water and grazing are introduced in the Western States, 
their product will not compare with that of the Eastern States. This 
can be accomplished by increasing and improving the herds and graz- 
ing, and the adoption of the New York dairy system, or by the 
creamery system of taking the milk, where the dairies are small and 
scattering to a common factory for the manufacture of butter of a 
uniform quality, the same as the factory system in cheese-making. 

Of Western butter arriving in this market, it is estimated that less 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 239 

than two per cent, is made on the system followed in the State of 
New York. In the Western States, as a whole, the herds are com- 
paratively small, and the water and grazing in many sections impure. 
The butter is gathered in small parcels, and reworked together in 
order to have it uniform in character, all of which is more or less 
injurious to its keeping qualities. While great strides of improve- 
ment have taken place to the extent of an enhancement of its market 
value, some forty per cent, in two or three years, there is still room 
for great progress by the adoption of the Eastern system, and co- 
operation with the transportation companies in recommending and 
encouraging improved facilities for safe and quick transportation. 
For it should be remembered that the Western products have a seri- 
ous difficulty to overcome in being transported from 1,000 to 2.000 
miles, to which the Eastern butter is not subjected. Already in 
many dairy sections of the Western States qualities are produced 
nearly equal to Eastern, and give evidence beyond question that if 
made and marketed by the same process would be quite as good. 

No greater service can be rendered to the Western farmers than 
the dissemination of these facts in relation to the production of dairy 
products, and the financial and commercial interests in connection 
therewith. The farmer who labors throughout the season to pro- 
duce a crop of grain from a middling-sized farm situated distant from 
the railways or markets, has the bulk of his crop absorbed in trans- 
portation to the railroad and to the market. One bushel of corn 
fed to milch cows yields two pounds of butter, worth in New York, 
say fifty cents. A car load of corn containing 20,000 pounds, or 
359 bushels, pays $90 freight from Chicago here, and at present 
prices realizes $385.60, and, less freight, nets $195.60. A car load 
of butter, containing the same weight, pays $220 freight, and realizes 
at 25 cents per pound, $5,000, or nets $4,780. In other words, 
corn pays 33 per cent, of its value for transportation and butter 
five per cent. — Rochester Rural Home. 



Potatoes and Muck. — I find that in this very dry season pota- 
toes only yield well when there is most vegetable remains in the soil. 
No matter how much you ameliorate a clay loam with sand it becomes 
so hard in very dry weather that potatoes can only be dug with a 
fork ; and it is only where vegetable matter is in such force as to 
keep the soil loose and moist that large potatoes are grown ; and 
although a sandy loam is better than clay for potatoes, yet sand 
without decomposing vegetable matter is no better than a rich loam. 
—N. Y. World. 



The farmers of the United States annually expend $20,000,000 
in reaping and mowing machines. The annual production is esti- 
mated at about 125,000 machines. 



240 THE SOUTHERN [November 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

FARM PENS. 

Having been a constant reader of your valuable paper for 
a year, and not seeing any thing on the above subject, I have 
thought to give you my ideas upon it. In my section most of the 
farmers would be at fault to give the meaning of Farm Pen ; yet 
how important for all good ' ; Live" farmers to know what they are 
and to adopt their use. Most men say that if they feed their proven- 
der upon the land, it will finally find its way back into! the soil. This 
is all true, or may be so, but not all that they may be able to say 
about it, if they were to think a little or notice some. Now when 
the plan of feeding on w rn-out places here and there upon a farm 
is followed, it is true that some, and very often marked results are 
obtained, but even then a good deal of manure is washed off of the 
land and is deposited on land that does not need it. Now to pre- 
vent this waste of manure I propose that I put up a good pen, suffi- 
ciently large to pen all my stock, not excepting sheep, in which I 
feed all of my long feed, so that the stock may tread it down and mix 
it through and through, and any droppings that may find lodgment 
there; in fact I prefer keeping my stock penned from the commence- 
ment of feeding time (which will vary with locality) till, say from the 
1st to loth of May — save when being driven to and from water; by 
this system one can save a good deal of manure, for the stalks 
of corn which do not rot if scattered upon the land becomes cut 
up by the hoofs of the cattle; and if it does not make very 
good manure, it mixes with that which is good and helps to in- 
crease the bulk. By hauling leaves and weeds that have been cut 
before the seed ripened and throwing into the pen when need to keep 
the stock in a good bed, much more manure can be made, and when 
it is made you have it all in one place, so you can take it to such 
thin spots as you may intend to put in cultivation, thereby saving a 
good deal of manure that would, as I have said before, be washed on 
to places that did not need it. I do not know how much a man could 
save by feed, say 5 head of cattle and 25 sheep in this manure, but I 
feel confident that he who tries it one winter will find that he will 
save enough to manure ten acres of wheat land better than he could 
were he to use a ton of 60 dollar guano, and that it would not cost one 
half, counting the time it takes h m to put it under shelter in the 
spring time to await seeding time. How many of the readers of 
your paper will profit by these rambling thoughts this winter ? Many 
I hope. Try the Farm Pen farmers for a few years and you will 
force the fertilizing men " to shut up shop," for you will buy no more 
such stuff. I have tried both, and I am rooted and grounded in my 
faith of the good of one and the bad effects of the other. 

" Keastor." 

Will "Keastor" favor the Editor with his address. A blurred post 
mark prevented him from getting it from that. — Ed. 



1874] PLANTER AND FARMER. 241 

NEARLY TWENTY-EIGHT TONS OF GRASS FROM SEVEN 
ACRES OF LAND. 

The following remarkable statement is from the Watertown (N. Y.) 
Ti?7ies, of a yield of grass from a meadow that has been seeded down 
30 years, belonging to Mr. John Gifford : 

"Mr. John Gifford, who owns a farm two and a half miles from 
this city, believes he has in his practical experience very conclusively 
solved two or three important problems in agriculture. When he 
went upon his farm in 1844, it was almost valueless as a grass farm, 
and after working it a year or two, and finding it impossible to 'make 
the two ends meet,' he got discouraged and came near giving it up. 
While trying to sell he encountered a gentleman who had spent a 
considerable time in Europe, and who advised him to try this plan 
of fertilization : To spread four loads of common barn-yard ma- 
nure on every acre of his meadows every year and on alternate years, 
one bushel of plaster to the acre. Mr. Gifford adopted this sugges- 
tion and has acted upon it ever since. He gets out his manure in 
March, if possible. He is not a believer in rotting manure, but 
thinks it should be applied while green. The plaster assists to de- 
compose the manure, as does a wet season. For this reason the 
present season has been a favorable one. The manure should be 
finely pulverized, as it may be when plaster is spread with it. Mr. 
Gifford has followed this plan for over 30 years, and the result is his 
yield of grass has been very large, and some years immense. This 
year the crop is an extraordinary one. He must have many acres 
which will yield three tons to -the acre ; he has meadow land on which 
there was scarcely any clover a year a2:o, but which contains nothing 
but clover now. Mr. G.'s idea is that a field that has once been seeded 
to clover continues seeded for all time, and that in favorable seasons, 
such as the present has been, the clover will come up on lands treated 
as above described, assert its supremacy, and choke out whatever 
else may be upon the soil. 

"As already stated Mr. G.'s impression is that a meadow once 
seeded does not require re-seeding. If farmers will only be careful 
to return what they take from their lands — to restore as much as 
they take off — they can be kept up for an indefinite period. This, 
at least, is so, that Mr. G.'s meadows are in a better condition than 
they were 25 years ago. He has one piece that has not been plowed 
in 45 years, and it makes two tons to the acre this year. If this 
theory is correct, what an immense saving would be effected in the 
matter of grass seed. Some farmers are constantly plowing and re- 
seeding meadows at a very heavy cost. Instead of doing this, Mr. 
G. applies his manure and plaster, and takes off his two or three tons 
per acre year after year. Mr. G. has tried his system on his plowed 
lands with similar results. He has a magnificent crop of corn — one 
of the handsomest in the country." 

Four persons out of five in Switzerland are landed proprietors.. 
3 



242 THE SOUTHERN [November 

ADDRESS TO THE FARMERS OF VIRGINIA AND NORTH 

CAROLINA. 

We publish below the address of the Farmers' Council, which it 
will be seen convenes in Petersburg on the fourth Tuesday in this 
present mouth. We hope there will be a full attendance, a full de- 
termination to do something, and a great success in doing it. Prop- 
erly organized and conducted, the Farmers' Council ought to be of 
oreat service to agriculture. And now that it has had time to be- 
come organized, and it is natural to expect it will do something with 
the fine working material it contains, it will be a reproach to its 
members if they do nothing. We hope for the best, and will cheer- 
fully co-operate in their efforts, which, we presume, will - ble, 
practical and energetic. — [Ed. 

Office of the President o? Virginia and North Carolina, 
Petersburg. Ya., October 8th, 1674. 
To: " Virginia and North Carolina: 

I be^ leave to remind you that the annual session of our Council 
will be held in the city of Petersburg, on the 4th Tuesday in Novem- 
ber. 1874 

The )rganic law of our association provides for representation 
from every county and city in the two States. Each township and 
each ward' are entitled to two delegates, or a larger number at their 
option, and as many alternates to act in the absence of their princi- 
pals. It is provided in the Constitution that the delegates first 
chosen thereunder were to be elected on the 1st Saturday in Octo- 
as a oon thereafter as practicable, and every second year 
thereafter. Under this' arrangement, 280 delegates were accredited 
from Virginia, and 23 from North Carolina, to the first annual ineet- 
ino-. under the permanent organisation, which assembled in Peters- 
burg in November. 1873. Quite a large number of delegates were 
in actual attendance. It was a matter of regret, however, that many 
portions of both States were unrepresented in the body. 

In the opinion of your Pres is not too late for all constit- 

uent bodies desirous of participating in our farmers' movement, to do 
so at our approaching session. Where elections have been once held 
and delegates chosen to the extent of the constitutional number, the 
:' election is exhausted during that term. But in many coun- 
1 - and cities of both States, no action seems to Lave been taken, 
looking to representation in the Council. In such cases, it is still 
competent for the farmers in those localities to choose their delegates 
at auv time, whose term of service will continue for the unexpired 
period of the existing Council and until their successors are chosen. 
I. therefore, most earnestly suggest to the great body of farmers in 
botl St tea, still unrepresented, the propriety of proceeding at once 
and without delay, to fill up their delegations. I would, also, most 
respectfully and emphatically, urge upon all delegates chosen and 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER, 243 

hereafter to be chosen, the duty of attending at our next meeting. I 
need not remind you of the fact that there exists a serious crisis in 
our agricultural fairs, the solution of "which requires the most en- 
larged consideration. And "while I do not arrogate for the Farmers' 
Council a wisdom and power superior to other kindred and organized 
bodies looking to the farmer's welfare, I may, without presumption, 
assert its equality of title to respectful consideration and further 
trial. Its source of power and mode of organization, proceeding 
from the fountain head of all representative authority, are features 
that strikingly recommend it to popular sanction, and invoke in its 
behalf the public interest. It was not organized in any spirit of ex- 
clusiveness or purpose of hostility toward any existing association 
professing to advance the general good of the farming community. 
Nor was it designed to dictate terms of peace and fraternity between 
itself and the other classes of the business community. In a broad 
and catholic spirit, its doors are wide open for the admission of the 
various industrial interests of the two great States whose associated 
names it bears. Here all may meet and consult on matters of gen- 
eral concern. 

While .the organic interest is, by our organic law, justly accorded 
a preponderance, others more remotely interested in the great work 
of agriculture are not excluded from participating in its delibera- 
tions. 

A discriminating public will not fail to observe that the Farmers' 
Council of Virginia and North Carolina differs essentially and ma- 
terially from all other agricultural bodies with which our people are 
familiar, in this, that it has no power or authority to enlarge its own 
membership; that it cannot determine by the exertion of its own will 
and pleasure, whether it will "live or die," "survive or perish." The 
decisions of these questions abide and remain with the constituent 
bodies. If they feel no concern for the healthy vitality of a Far- 
mers' Council, because it has no authority to enforce its decrees; no 
monied funds constantly and regularly accruing to work in its behalf, 
and no spells with which to charm and bind its members; if they 
choose to abandon the child of their own creation for every real fault 
or imaginary weakness which may be imputed to it; if they prefer to 
build other structures and hold other councils under more captivating 
names, it is their unquestioned right so to feel and act. As for my- 
self, I cannot perceive or recognize any real antagonism or even 
competition of a hostile nature between a "Farmers' Council." com- 
posed of delegates chosen by the body of farmers, without reference 
to any particular creed or ritual, and the " Order of Patrons of Hus- 
bandry," which seems to be drawing within its expanding circle a 
considerable portion of the farming community. There is nothing 
that I know of, in the objects and purposes of either, that need in- 
terrupt their cordial co-operation for the good of their patrons. 

The enquiry is sometimes propounded by very intelligent farmers, 
as if doubtful of the answer, What will become of the Farmers' 
Council? Will it continue to maintain an independent existence or 



244 THE SOUTHERN [November 

will it become merged in the Order of the Granges ? A little reflec- 
tion and a slight examination into the modes of their respective organ- 
ization will satisfy the curiosity of the speculative and dissip-ue the 
fears of the doubtful mind. 

The Farmers' Council being a representative body, proceeding 
from the "whole people, has no authority, express or implied, to abdi- 
cate in favor of any successor. If its members — its delegates. 
choose to connect themselves in their private capacity with any other 
order or association, they can do so — as many have already done. 
Their constituents can do likewise. But in neither case does such 
a step ii'so facto operate a dissolution or destruction of the Far- 
mers' Council. This can only be done by the delegates failing to 
discharge the trust with which they have been honored, coupled with 
the concurrent or continued failure to elect or choose their suocese • 

I invite your attention to the address of the Executive Committee, 
which appeared in The Rural Messenger of October 8th. 

I have heretofore appointed and caused to be published the com- 
mittees who were charged with special business which required early 
attention. 

Appended hereto will be found a further list of committees, who 
will be expected to report when the Council meets in November. 

Edward Dromgoole. 



STANDING COMMITTEE. 

1. Finance. — Captain W. E. Hinton. Jr., Petersburg; General 
Win. Mahone, Petersburg : B. C. Friend. Esq.. Prince Gee . 

1. Immigration. — John Dodson, Esq.. Dinwiddie: Maj. S. H. 
Boykin, Nansemond : Jno. Washington. Esq.. Caroline. 

'3. Fertilizers. — Judge W. H. Mann, Nottoway ; Colonel F. G. 
Ruffin. Chesterfield; J. J. Mitchell. Dinwiddie. 

4. Labor, Transportation, fc. — General Wm. Mahone, Peter- 
burg ; Major Mann Page, Prince George ; Col. J. B. Zollicoffer, 
North Carolina. 

b. Tobacco. — Major R. V. Gaines, Charlotte; Dr. J. M. Hurt. 
N ttoway; R. 0. Gregory. Esq.. North Carolina. 

6. Cereals. Grapes. £c. — General W. H. F. Lee. New Kent: W. 
D. Hamlin. Esq.. North Carolina: T. L. Payne. Esq.. Chesterfield. 

7. Horticulture and Pomology. — Capt. George B. Clarke, Bruns- 
wick : W. D. Kitchen, Esq., Isle of Wight ; Dr. George B. Ste- 
phens, Albemarle. 

8. Cotton. — W. B. Westbrook, Esq., Petersburg; Colonel George 
Harrison, Brunswick ; Captain W. H. Briggs, Greenville. 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES. 

1. To carry into effect report of Committee on 'Fertilizers about 
establishing Manufactories of Fertilizer*. — Judge W. H. Mann. Not- 
toway ; John Dodson, Esq., Dinwiddie ; J. M. Hurt, Nottoway ; H. 
G. Williams, North Carolina : W. D. Hamlin, North Carolina. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 245 

2. To carry into effect the recommendation of Tobacco Com- 
mittee. — Major R. L. Ragland, Halifax: Major R. Y. Gaines, Char- 
lotte; Dr. Jos. A. Flippin, Caroline; R. 0. Gregory, North Caro- 
lina; Captain W. E. Hinton, Jr., Petersburg. 

3. Committee to Write Summary of Doings of Council. — W. B. 
Westbrook. Esq.. Major R. V. Gaines, ami Major R. L. Ragland. 

In regard to these committees mv memorandum states that thev 
were forwarded but not published. I therefore send their names 
again for publication. 



GRANGE WORK IN CALIFORNIA. 

The Mural World, of St. Louis, contains in a letter from T. W. 
A. Wright, of Borden, Berno county, California, some account of 
what Granges have done and expect to do in that State. Gentlemen 
who say that nothing can be done will please read, for the most 
part, with spectacles : 

We now have over 230. Our State Agency was established Au- 
gust 8th, 1873, with the noble shipping firm of E. E. Morgan's 
Sons (a branch of the New York house), whose independence and 
fidelity to principle has done so much to revolutionize the vast grain 
trade of this coast ; who have almost shattered the powerful ''grain 
ring," and through whose instrumentality our various granges have 
loaded and are now loading some fifteen ships on their own account 
for Europe. Should our work continue as prosperous as it has been 
for two months past, it will not be many months before the sails of 
fifty or sixty ships, composing "the grange fleet of California." 
will whiten the ocean between San Francisco and Liverpool. Ore- 
gon, too, is following suit, and our brothers there are shipping grain 
direct to Europe. Ever will the farmers of this coast be grateful 
for the gift of the grange. It has been a "God send" to us. 

As you will see from our papers, we now have our grangers' bank 
of California (capital §5,000,000), and local farmers' banks in va- 
rious counties (the genuine article) ; a wool agency : a dairy agency : 
a fruit- growers' association, with their numerous drying establish- 
ments, which will at last make fruit-growing profitable here by pre- 
venting an immense waste ; a very successful purchasing agency, 
■which we hope to improve soon by more direct trade with your 
Western manufacturers. We have a farmers' mutual fire insurance 
company, and hope soon to have a "mutual life" on as economical 
and safe a plan, and the grangers' narrow gauge railroad from Sa- 
linas to Monterey (18J miles), will soon be completed. We have 
large, substantial and well filled grange warehouses along our rail- 
roads and rivers ; ban Isoine tw.o-story grange halls, with large store 
rooms below, in some instances, in which trusty merchants friendly 
to our cause, are invited to open stores, also some independent 
grange stores where local merchants have not shown much inclina- 



24 TEE SOUTHERN [November 

tiots ro accommodate. We now have low rates of at r ge, lower 

- rer priced sacks, lower commissions, aud more 

m erate and just profits in trade. Last but not least, our me- 

are cordially uniting with the grange in ma: 

of mutual intei ; : r instance, the proper development of the col- 

_ riculture and mechanic arts in our State I Diversity. As 

far as this latter point is concerned, however, the line of interests of 

..ers and the line of interests of mechanics, lie entirely parallel 

in State I Territory, when properly understood. 

price of wheat with us now is d> _ :.y low. but this is 

the fault of the Liverpool market, and we have the consolation of 
knowing that though wheat : ; sixty and sev nty rnts per 

I pounds lower in Liverpool now than it was this time two ye 

. our farmers are £e:tin£ onlv ten or fifteen cents less a hundred 
ii S than they did at this time in 18*2. -are 

this is cause! by the organization of our farmers in the grange. "W e 
b . sea as winter advances. 



For th-r S them I ter a LI rmer.) 

rUGKAHOE FARMERS' CLUB. 

OF HE>~P.ICO COUNTY. 

et on the Tth of October at the residence of Mr. 
Charming M. Robinson. 

- being first viewed, the Club was satisfied with his 
mode of cultivation. He had made a very fine crop of winter oats 
and also clover. His corn crop was also good, though somewhat in- 
jured by the "chinch bu;. Borne of his corn, planted as la: 
the 6th of July, of tue variety known, I believe, as "Rare ripe," 
« . _ e and promising. 

The afternoon was occupied in the discussion of the subject 

: a :?ared to grazing. 

Dr. Beattie advocated the soiling of our stock: Is:. On account 

of our present want of fences ; and. 2dly. As a great saving of 

manure. These points he elaborated to some .nd contend- 

ei that one acre of ground on the soiling system would support five 

: seven head of stock, while pasturing will only support one to the 

acre. By the rai g g F stock, too, by irregularity and dissipation 

bv atmosphere, the important article of manure > .:: red and lost. 

Alsc confining our stock we could make availa- 

■:• the weeds and bushes of our he g 1 ditch 

..id in this expense of cutting and carrying to them, one man 

could attend - ty head of cattle. 

Mr. Aiams. in his book on this subject, contends that it takes 

: r fifteen cows. In sailing, he could keep 

:i four acres, and raise crops on the surplus, by this means 

s well: and that from r \d of cattle 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 247 

one hundred and fifty loads of manure can be annually made. In 
addition, Dr. Beattie thinks we can raise much larger and better 
stock by feeding than grazing, and mentioned an instance of a 
neighbour keeping twenty cows well on four acres of land, and his 
land made rich, and recommended soiling as follows: First with our 
lawn grass, weeds, &c. ; next with our rye crop, then clover, winter 
oats and corn sown broad cast. Sorghum also was suggested as an- 
swering a fine purpose in this respect. 

Dr. Crenshaw differed from the views expressed in favor of soil- 
ing, and gave his experience in the management, feeding, &c, of a 
large number of cows. 

The Doctor contended that grazing was by far the better plan, 
and the only means of avoiding disease, which would certainly result 
if this plan of confining large numbers of cows or other stock to- 
gether in lots or pens was adopted; that cows particularly must be 
allowed the freedom of pasturage to keep them in health. His 
practice is to seed twenty-three acres, as a standing farm, for rye, 
and upon it graze his stock. It was also urged that our clover and 
grass lands generally derived great benefit from the tramping of the 
land by our stock. 

I give you but the leading points in this discussion, pro and con, 
knowing that you admire brevity. 

Yours. 

J. A. Lynham, Reporter. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

NEW THINGS AND OLD THINGS. 

There are far too many farmers who are willing to be humbugged. 
We are all making too much haste to be rich ; are all on the lookout 
for short and easy methods of success ; are all anxious about large 
returns on small investments ; therefore we are easily persuaded by 
promises of large premiums to take a ticket in any new lottery that 
turns up. 

It is the best thing about agriculture that there is no lottery in it ; 
it does not open any royal road to wealth, or any fast way to be rich. 
Its ways to success are the honest way of straight forward, hard 
work, the safe way of "little by little," the same way of constancy, 
diligence and perseverance. 

Shed upon these paths the light of educated intelligence and the 
revelation of science, and having done all that man may do, the sure 
blessings of a bountiful harvest awaits us. 

The'-'rain may descend, and the floods come," but as sure as the 
promise of seed time and harvest, is the assurance of ultimate suc- 
cess to the man who stands truly and faithfully to his work. Let 
us not become excited then over new things; either new seed, or new 
plants or new lands. Wheat is an old thing, but wheat will do, though 
it has its enemies, if we work it right. Grass is an old thing and 



24S THE SOUTHERN [November 

its enemies, of which we. the cultivators of the soil, are the 

greatest, for we kill it constantly with an over amount of stock ; yet 

grass is a v -. _• | thing. Corn is an old thing, and is treated by 

::_an anything we plant, but what farmer in ten thousand 

. ish as not to plant corn ? This is universal testimony to its 

value. 

■pplee are old, peaches, pears, grapes, and all sorts of fruit ; 
but are they not good? Finally, our lands are "old"' as we say in 
these old States, and so they are in the sense that the "everlasting 
hills"" are old. but. "worn-out'' they are not. They are good lands; 
- I thev mav have been, but thev are srood: and it is onlv an- 
other phase of the folly which is craving after new things, which 
is tempting our young men constantly to seek new lands. Wise men 
will be I with the old things and strive to do better with their 

::.. tobacco, cotton and other crops, and will especially 
stick to and improve their old lands ; but those who will make haste 
and be rich will be forever after new seed, new plants, and new 
lands, and their brother farmers will profit by the experience they 
so dearly bou^- : 

I frequently hear the expression "worn-out lands." Let it be un- 
:d that there is no such thing as '"worn-out lands;" that such 
an expression conveys a falsehood. That even with our present 
- _ t, it sa very practical thing, with a moderate degree of intelli- 
gence and skill, and no very large amount of means, to restore these 
lands to any degree of fertility they have ever possessed. This les- 
son has been well learned in Maryland and a portion of Virginia, 
but our Southern friends of the Atlantic States appear to be slow 
to make much - g - in that direction. 

Let our farmers be told everywhere and constantly that they have 
orn-out lands," that in fact their lands were intended to last 
forever, and will last forever, and feed and clothe them and tbeir 
children for a thousand generations. T. W. C. 

L.aisa County, Va., Oct. ~th. 1*74. 



ALKALI FOR AN OLD APPLE TEEE. 

In considering the growth of organisms, the action of the alkalies 
is to be looked upon as scarcely less important than that of air and 
water. Lime is the great animal alkali, and potash the vegetable 
one; its old name of vegetable kali expressed that fact, all the potash 
of commerce is well known to be derived from wood ashes. The im- 
portance of potash as a manure has been frequently overlooked by 
farmers, who rarely know the large amount of this material found in 
zrain crops, leaves, barn-yard manure, roots and fruits. How 
potash acts in plants, in conjunction with carbon and silex. to form 
£bre. starch, sugar and oil. is yet unknown to 'chemical ob- 
ut the fact of its action is beyond a doubt. 
Liebig long since pointed out that the chief cause of barrenness 
is the waste of potash carried off by rich crops, especially tobacco, 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 249 

with no replacement by proper manure. How many mil 1 ions of 
pounds of potash have been sent to Europe from the forests of Ame- 
rica, and in the grain, tobacco and hemp ! Luckily one alkali may 
be replaced by another, and we have received a considerable quan- 
tity of soda from European seaweed, and in the shape of salt. Lat- 
terly, nitrate of soda from natural deposits in South America is 
brought to us at a cheap price. 

The point to which we now call attention is that our farmers and 
fruit growers have ignored, or rather have been ignorant of the im- 
portance of wood ashes as a vegetable stimulant and as the leading 
constituent of plants. Even coal ashes, now thrown away as useless, 
have been shown, both by experiment and analysis, to possess a fair 
share of alkaline value. According to our observation, if the prac- 
tice of putting a mixture of wood and coal ashes around the stems of 
fruit trees and vines, particularly in the spring, were followed as a 
general rule, our crops of apples, grapes, peaches, &c, would be 
greatly benefited in both quality and quantity, and the trees and 
vines would last longer. We will relate only one experiment. 

Some twenty-five years ago, we treated an old hollow pippen apple 
tree as follows : The hollow, to the height of eight feet, was filled 
and rammed with a compost of wood ashes, garden mold, and a little 
waste lime, (carbonate). The filling was securely fastened in by 
boards. The next year the crop of sound fruit was sixteen bushels 
from an old shell of a tree that had borne nothing of any account 
for some time. But the strangest part was what followed. For 
seventeen years after filling, the old pippin tree continued to fLurish 
and bear well. — Scientific American. 



COST OF PORK. 

Your correspondent, J. B. S., asks how much pork costs per 
pound. This of course depends in a great measure on the kind of 
pig and manner of feeding. After some practical experience, I am 
satisfied that, other things being equal, a cross between a good Ches- 
ter White sow and Berkshire boar will make more pork from the 
same amount of food than any other breed ; they may not be as 
large at the same age as a full grown Chester, but they will consume 
less food and keep in better condition. 

An old and very successful pork producer once told me that his 
rule was that when the price of both corn and pork commenced with 
the same figure, it was safe to feed to good hogs. Or in other words, 
when a bushel of corn was worth sixty cents, the pork must bring 
six dollars per hundred. By inference I conclude that the result of 
his experience was that ten bushels of corn would make one hundred 
pounds of pork. By referring to my note book, and a record of ex- 
periments, I find that in one case twenty pigs gained 837 pounds by 
eating 83 bushels of corn. In this case the corn was shelled and fed 
whole in the trough. In another case I find that the same number 
of pigs ate 47 bushels of meal (with water to drink) in 14 days, and 



250 THE SOUTHERN [November 

gained 553 lbs. In the third experiment, 20 pigs ate ooi bushels 
of meal, made into thick slop with eold water, in 14 days, and gained 
731 lbs. In the first case the gain was a trifle more than 10 lbs. 
per bushels, in the second one llf lbs., and in the third 13 1-G lbs. 
At the price of pork at the time, the corn in the first experiment 
brought 50 2-5 cents, in the second 58f cents, and in the third 
65 5-6 cents. 

In a fourth experiment the hogs (20 in number) were fed 46| 
bushels of meal (boiled into thick mush) in 14 days, and sained 696 
lbs.; gain 15 lbs. per bushel, and corn brought 14 4-5 cents per 
bushel. 

In my own experiments I have found that five bushels of old shell- 
ed corn fed to good pigs of the cross before mentioned (fed in No- 
vember), made me 47f- lbs. of pork — or gain in weight. For pigs 
well selected and cared for and economically fed without cooking, it 
is probable that twelve pounds per bushel is as much as can be safe- 
ly counted on, and probably the average of those actually fed will 
not be more than eight or nine. J. B. S. knows the price of both 
pork and corn, and can cipher out my answer. — Cultivator and Co. 
Gent. 



LABOR SAVING IN THE CULTURE OF TOBACCO, &c 

As cause must ever precede effect, so every continued and perma- 
nent success in business pursuits, farming included, must be preceded 
by a sound theory. Every successful man has in his mind maturely 
considered and well arranged plans, though he may never have re- 
duced them to writing. It is true that in reference to many things, 
there are more visionary theorists than practical successful men, be- 
cause generally it is easier to plan than to execute. The wise man 
discarding the pride of opinion, is willing to learn things he does not 
know, even from his inferiors ; and if he be not selfish will communi- 
cate his knowledge to others. In some respects we all know better 
than we do, not for want of will, purpose, and desire, but because of 
casualties, and adverse circumstances that interpose, and prevent the 
full consummation of our best arranged plans. This however should 
not diminish, but increase our desire for more knowledge, that we 
may be the better prepared to overcome all difficulties in our way. 

V ith this, as I think, not inappropriate preface, I now present my 
theory and practice for labor saving in the culture of Tobacco, to- 
gether with some remarks concerning the advantages of saving and 
applying the manure to the land. To demonstrate the advantages 
of the plan which I, together with some others, have adopted, it 
must be contrasted with the antecedent customs, when all tobacco* 
land was hilled before being planted. This method, I suppose, had 
its origin with the first growers of tobacco in this country, when the 
land was being cleared, and the stumps, roots, &c., prevented thor- 
ough preparation by the plow. For such land, and only for such, it 
is still, doubtless, the most effective method of preparation. There 



1874.] PLANTER 'AND FARMER. 251 

are some advantages in having tobacco plants slightly elevated to 
prevent their being covered and killed, when small, by hasty and ex- 
cessive rains. But these can be secured more cheaply and more 
easily, by bedding with the plow, than by hilling with the hoe. It 
is of the first importance to plow, harrow, and thoroughly refine the 
land, otherwise the clods Avill be turned by the plow, when bedding 
into the bed, and cannot be removed, even by the hilling process, 
without extra work which the present laborers will not faithfully per- 
form, and by the neglect of which, I have seen the growth of to- 
bacco, on rich land, retarded, and light and inferior crops made, 
which yielded no profit. 

Our springs of late years being backward, and our summers dry 
and shorter, the planter should do, impossible, every thing necessary 
to accelerate the growth, and hasten the early maturity of his crop, 
by which an advantage is secured in both quantity and quality. I 
have been a grower of tobacco for 30 years. Before the war, not 
being owner, I was of necessity the hirerer of all the labor I em- 
ployed. This Jnecessity Jinduced a vigilant eye to expenditures, and 
the abating of all unnecessary labor. The heaviest item remitted in 
the cultivation of tobacco was hilling the land. Dispensing with this 
I found to be equivalent to the saving of 8 days labor for [five ha ids, 
at hilling time, and 6 days labor for 5 hands to cut off the hills, at 
planting time, for a crop of 100,000 plants. The average yieldof my 
land during the period of the hilling process, was 5 to 6 plants to the 
lb. Under my present system 3J plants to the lb. I do not attribute 
this gain alone to the planting in beds instead of hills, but in part to 
this, and more to better manured, fertilized, and prepared soil. 

Before plowing my land for tobacco the first time, I apply broad- 
cast all the manure I can raise. In order to do this in time, I some- 
times begin in the fall, and continue to haul out, and plow in, so that 
the manure may have time to decompose, and become incorporated 
with the soil. Much of the best properties of the manure is lost by 
fermentation, and by leaching, which would be saved and utilized in 
the manner above stated. I endeavor in this way to manure and 
plow all my land for tobacco by the 1st of April. 

During the month of April I harrow and well refine the surface ; 
then re-plow, harrow, and thoroughly refine — breaking and pulveriz- 
ing the clods. From the 1st to the 20th of May I bed the land. 
This is done by running off the rows with a single shovel plow, the 
distance desired, say three feet a part. The guano is then applied in 
the furrow. Then follows the double plow, running twice to each 
row, and bedding upon the guano. When ready to plant, these beds 
are struck off two at a time, by a scraper attached to shafts, and 
drawn by a mule or horse walking between the beds. The planting 
is done without further preparation by the hoe or otherwise, by set- 
ting the plants in the centre of the bed, in a straight line with each 
other the distance desired, say 30 to 36 inches. The land is thus left 
in a fine condition to facilitate the cultivation of the crop. Instead 
of being in hills, as under the old system, requiring nearly the whole 
surface1;o be cut by the hoe, there is but little hoe work needed. As 



252 THE SOUTHERN [November 

% — 

soon as the grass comes through the surface, the three-tooth Culti- 
vator should be put to work, running twice to each row and with 
care, by which the grass will be effectually killed, and only a narrow 
strip in the centre of- the bed to be cut by the hoe. This is now a 
critical period in the growth of tobacco, and it is very important that 
this work with the cultivator be done as soon as the grass appears, 
making true the saying, " a stitch in time saves nine." 

The cultivator should be followed by the hoes, to cut the strip of 
soil left in the centre of the bed, and break the crust around each 
plant, and 'put a little fine soil around each. This done the tobacco 
will need no more work until it attains the size of a summer hat, or 
has pretty well covered the top of the bed, when it should be plowed 
with the single shovel plow, by running a furrow on each side as 
close to the plant as possible, to avoid loosening it. The hoes should 
follow, putting to each plant a moderate sized hill. The season being 
favorable the growth will be rapid, and about the time the plants gene- 
rally are large enough to top, it should be again plowed, and this time 
with a single-horse mould-board plow, running twice to each row and 
turning the soil to the tobacco. This should be followed in three 
weeks, or when grass appears, by a light scraping with the hoes, 
when the cultivation of the season is done. I think I have shown 
that the cost of -cultivation under this system is greatly reduced, 
and also is made more effectual. A few general remarks and I am 
done. 

First it does not pay under our present market to grow small to- 
bacco, except for bright wrappers. Large tobacco cannot be grown 
on poor land, if 500 lbs. of guano alone were applied to each acre. 
Use guano in connection with stable, farm-pen, and all kinds of ma- 
nure that can be raised on the farm. Make the land rich — plant 
early, and work well, and you will be recompensed for the labor ex- 
pended. Those who reason from the low price of tobacco when slavery 
existed, to prove that it must and will sell as low under present cir- 
cumstances, reason, I think, from wrong premises, and consequently to 
erroneous conclusions. These profits were estimated more with 
reference to the increasing value of negroes, than from the surplus 
productions of crops. 

Now all labor has to be paid for, or done by the land owner, con- 
sequently as soon as the net proceeds of any article of produce falls 
below a price that will pay a profit on the cost of its production, 
necessity controls, and as a consequence the price advances. I there- 
fore conclude that the price of tobacco must rule higher in the future. 

J. M. Baker. 

Louisa county, October 15th, 1874. 



To clean paint without injury and with very little labor, take a 
damp cloth and dip it in common whiting and rub over the paint ; 
when it begins to dry wash it off with clean cold water. 



1874.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 253 

OFFICERS OF STATE GRANGES. 

Illinois — Master : Alonzo Golder, Rock Falls. Secretary : 0. 
E. Fanning, Gait. 

Iowa — Master : A. B. Smedley, Cresco. Secretary : N. W. Gar- ■ 
retson, DesMoines. 

Minnesota — Master : George L. Parsons, Winona. Secretary : 
Wm. Paist, St. Paul. 

Wisconsin — Master: Col. John Cochrane, Waupun. Secretary: 
H. E. Haxley. 

Indiana — Master: Henley James, Marion. Secretary: M. M. 
Moody, Muncie. 

Kansas — Master : T. G. V. Boling. Secretary : George W. 
Spurgeon, Jacksonville. 

Nebraska — Master: Wm. B. Porter, Plattsmouth. Secretary: 
Wm. McCaig, Elmwood. 

Mississippi — Master : Gen. A. J. Vaughn, Early Grove. Secre- 
tary : W. L. Williams, Rienzi. 

South Carolina — Master : Thos. Taylor, Columbia. Secretary : 
Col. D. Wyatt, Aikin, Cokesbury. 

Vermont — Master : E. P. Colton, Irasburg. Secretary : E. L. 
Hovy, St. Johnsbury. 

Ohio — Master: S. H. Ellis, Springboro. Secretary: D. M. 
Stewart, Xenia. 

Michigan — Master : S. F. Brown, Schoolcraft. Secretary : J. 
T. C obb, Schoolcraft. 

Missouri — Master: T. R. Allen, Allenton. Secretary : A. M. 
Coffey, Knob Noster, Johnston county. 

Q-eorgia — Master : Col. T. J. Smith, Oconee. Secretary : E. 
Taylor, Colaparchu. 

Tennessee — Master : Wm. Maxwell, Maxville. Secretary : J. P. 
McMurray, Trenton. 

North Carolina — Master : W. S. Battle, Tarboro. Secretary : 
G. W. Lawrence, Fayetteville. 

Arkansas — Master: John T. Jones, Helena. Secretary: John 
S. Williams, Duvall's Bluff. 

California — Master : J. M. Hamilton, Guenoc. Secretary : W. 
H. Baxter, Napa City. 

Colorado — Master : R. Q. Tenney. Secretary : P. M. Hinman. 

Oregon — Master : Daniel Clark, Salem. Secretary : J. H. 
Smith, Harrisburg. 

Pennsylvania — Master : D. B. Mauger, Douglassville. Secre- 
tary : R. H Thomas, Mechanicsburg. 

Virginia — Master : J. W. White, Eureka Mills, Charlotte. Sec- 
retary : M. W. Hazlewood, Richmond. 

West Virginia — Master : B. M. Kitchen, Shanghai. Secretary : 
J. W. Curtis, Marti nsburg. 

New York — Master : Geo. D. Hinckley, Fredonia. Secretary : 
Geo. Sprague, Lockport. 



254 THE SOUTHERN [Xovtmbei 

Dakota — Master: E. B. Crew. Lodi. Secretary : 0. F. Stevens, 
Jefferson. 

Texas — Master : J. B. Johnson, Fairfield. Secretary : H. H. 
Parker. Salado. 

Alabama — Master: "W. H. Chambers, Oswichee. Secretary: E. 
M. Law. Tuskegee. 

'da — Master : B. T. TVardlow. Madison. Secretary : W. A. 
Brinson. Live Oak. 

Kentucky — Master: W. D. Davie, Beverly. Secretary: J. Eu- 
gene Barnes. Georgetown. 

Massachusetts — Master: T. L. Allis. Conway. Secretary: Beuj. 
Davis. Ware. 

New Jersey — Master: Edward Howard, Hammonton. Secre- 
tary: R. W.Pratt, Xewfield. 



RULES FOR THE CARE OF SHEEP. 

A circular issued by F." C. D. McKay, the General Agent of the 
American Emigrant Company, gives the following: 

The company have already ten thousand sheep scattered among 
the farmers, who purchased land of them in flocks ranging in size 
from fifty to two hundred head. 

1. Keep sheep dry under foot with litter. This is even mere 
necessary than roofing them. Xever let them stand or lie in mud or 
snow. 

2. Take up lamb rams early in the summer, and keep them up 
until December 1st following, when they may be turned out. 

3. Drop or take out the lowest bars, thus saving broken limbs. 

4. Count every day. 

5. Begin graining with the greatest care, and use the smallest quan- 
tity at first. 

6. If a ewe loses her lamb, milk her daily for a few days, 
and mix a little alum with her salt. 

7. Let no hogs eat with the sheep by any means, in the spring. 

8. Give the lambs a little mill feed in the time of weaning. 

9. Never frighten sheep, if possible to avoid it. 

10. Sow rye for weak ones in cold weather if you can. 

11. Separate all weak, or thin, or'sick, from those strong, in the 
fall, and give them special care. 

12. If any sheep is hurt, catch it at once and wash the wounds, 
and if it is fly time, apply spirits of turpentine daily, and always 
wash with something healing. If a limb is broken, bind it up with 
splinters tightly, loosening as the limb swells. 

13. Keep a number of good bells on the sheep. 

14. Do not let the sheep spoil wool with chaff or burs. 

15. Cut tag-locks in early spring. 

16. For scours, give pulverized alum in wheat bran ; prevent by 
taking great care iu changing dry for green feed. 



1784.J PLANTER AND FARMER. 255 

17. If one is lame, examine the foot, clean out between the hoofs, 
pare the hoofs if unsound, and apply tobacco with blue vitriol, 
boiled in a little water. 

18. Shear at once any sheep commencing to shed its wool, unless 
the weather is too severe, and save carefully the pelt of any sheep 
that dies. 

19. Have at least one good work by you for reference. This will 
be money in your pocket. — Indiana Farmer. 



TWO QUEENS IN ONE HIVE. 

"We recently copied from the Agricultural Gazette, published at 
London, England, an account of two Queens occupying amicably 
one hive. Another correspondent sends that paper the following 
additional particulars of this singular fact three weeks later than the 
date at which the former article was written : 

"In your impression of the Agricultural Gazette of August 22, 
you ask for further information respecting Mr. Boulton's hive of 
bees in which two queens have been residing. As the case in point 
is, I believe, unprecedented in the annals of bee-keeping, I will 
endeavor to give you as concise a history of it as possible, in order 
that it may remain as a public record and reference hereafter. 
About the commencement of July, Mr. Boulton called my attention 
to it, and requested me to send it to the prominent journals treating 
on bee-culture. Mr. Boulton is a tradesman of Ulverston, and has 
for many years been a bee-keeper. The event was one so strange to 
him that he courted the fullest publicity, and the phenomenon has 
been seen by many bee-keepers, who are unable to reconcile it with 
past experience of the habits of bees. I must premise that my own 
knowledge of bees is limited, and that my information is drawn from 
others. The hive in question is one of pure Liguirians, and is a last 
year's swarm. Mr. Boulton had several other swarms, and all were 
doing well in the spring of this year, this especial one being partic- 
ularly strong, and was enclosed in one of Woodbury's bar box hives. 
Later on, however, it was noticed by the owner that whilst the other 
swarms continued to do well, this one seemed to be retrograding, 
and the belief was that the queen was dead. About the middle of 
June an examination was made, and a queen's cell found, in which 
a young queen had been hatched, which was seen going about 
amongst the bees. At this time there was no worker brood in the 
hive, nothing being visible but a little drone brood. On June 28, in 
the presence of several friends (all bee-keepers), the hive was again 
examined, to see how the young queen was breeding. The first bar 
taken out was found to be full of brood on each side, and a young 
queen was upon it. Being anxious to see. how much brood the hive 
contained, the next bar was taken out, but it had no brood on. On 
removing the next bar, it was found to have a sheet of brood on 
each side, and, to the astonishment of all present, another young 



:\ THE SOUTHERN [November 

queen was upon it. They continued to remain on their separate 
bars for about a week, and on July 3 I was present when the hive 
again examined, and the two queens were on the same bar. but 
on opposite odes. In the lapse of another week I again accompa- 
nied Mr. Boulton to his garden, when the queens were on the same 
side of the bar. and distant only about an inch from each other in 
the midst of the bees, all working amicably together. Subsequent 
examinations have shown them in different positions on the same 
bar. sometimes on separate ones. The fact of the empty bar being 
between them when first discovered, showed that both queens had 
been impreg fertile. The broods were also in the 

same state and of the same age, proving that both queens were 
young and had commenced laying at the same time. One que^n 
was a verv fine large one, and of a beautiful vellow color ; the other 
was leas, and the color not so good. Since the beginning of Aug 
the lesser queen has not been seen, and as the hive was very full, I 
have refrained writing to you on the subject, thinking it possible 
that further search might discover her. On Monday last, however, 
a searching examination was made, but without discovering her. 
The hive is very full of bees, and they are fast making honey. Mr. 
Boulton was advised to separate the hive, but this he refused to do, 
being determined and anxious to see the result of so strange an oc- 
currence. The supposition is that when the old queen died, thj bees 
hatched two queens, and before these began laying the hive would 
necessarily be weakened, thus the bees resolved to retain both to 
g : • up the strength of the hive. This has now been accomplished, 
and th*e smaller queen has been d The present occupants 

of the hive are very — Farmer. 



Young pigs ought to get the richest and best of food. There is 
nothing so good as skimmed milk with cooked corn meal. 



Fbbhcb Washihg Fluid. — Dissolve one pound of sal soda in one 
quart of hot water, and add four quarts of lime water : let it settle, 
and pour off the clear water carefully ; then dissolve three ounces :: 
borax in one quart of hot water, and when dissolved add to it the 
five quarts of clear water in which the soda and lime were dissolved. 
"When the mixture is cold, dissolve in it two ounces of carbonate of 
ammonia. Bottle, and keep tightly corked in a place where it will 
not freeze. TTse half a pint or less to five or six gallons of water. 
Put the clothes into soap suds, and let them soak over night, adding 
some of the fluid to the suds : or it can be added to the suds before 
boiling the clothes. It makes a strong, thick suds, saves more than 
half of the soap, and nearly all the rubbing. After boiling, the 
clothes should be rinsed well in clear water. 



THE WATT PLOW 

CONTINUES TRIUMPHANT! 

No CHOKING when bright and smooth; 
no LABOR to the plowman; ONE-THIRD 
LESS DRAUGHT to the team ; thorough 
BURIAL of Weeds, Grass, &c. ; great 
STRENGTH, Durability and Economy in 
its use, and complete pulverization of tY^ 
soil. 

B@«,I have, within the past eighteen 
months, made great improvements in the 
WATT PLOW, and can, with greater 
confidence than ever, commend it to the 
farming community everywhere. 

GEORGE WATT. 




Premiums received during the last three 
weeks of October 1873: 

Virginia and North Carolina Fair, at 
^ Norfolk, October 7, 1873— ALL FIRST 
PREMIUMS AWARDED ON PLOWS. 

The test of plows took place in a sandy loam, with weeds. &c, from four to 
six feet high. The Watt Plow did not choke at all, and buried the vegetation 
perfectly. 

North Carolina State Fair, at Raleigh, October 14, 1873— ALL PREMIUMS 
AWARDED ON PLOWS. 

Piedmont Agricultural Fair, Culpeper Courthouse, Va., October 14, 1873 — 
ALL PREMIUMS AWARDED ON PLOWS. 

The test took place in a hard, stiff clay soil not plowed since the war, and 
covered with running briers. The Watt Plow was run seven inches deep without 
difficulty, and never choked, burying everything under. 

Virginia State Fair, Richmond, October 28. 1873— ALL THE PREMIUMS 
ON EACH SIZE, RIGHT AND LEFT HAND. 

Also, two special premiums from the Society. Also, two special premiums 
from trie city of Richmond. 

The Plows were tested in a sodded and heavy pipe soil. The working of the 
Watt Plow was admired by all. 

Western (N. C.) Fair at Salisbury, October 7, 1873— HIGHEST PREMIUM. 

Darlington (S. C.) Fair, October 11, 1873-HIGHEST PREMIUM. 

The WATT PLOW of all sizes, from one to four horses, warranted to do bet- 
ter work, with more ease, than any plow in use. If they do not prove so after 
one week's trial, they may be returned to us, and the purchase money will be re- 
funded. 

HARROWS, CULTIVATORS and ALL KINDS OF FARMING IMPLE- 
MENTS for sale on the best terms. 

Send for Circulars. WATT & CALL, 

dec Sole Manufacturers, Richmondj V$. 



FOR SA.TLE 

Several very fine Short Horn Coius and Heifers, one Yearling 
Bull and four Bull Calves. Fifty Cotswold Ewes and Lambs, 
all either imported or bred direct from imported stock, Lambs by 
Imported King Briton. 

Thirty Berkshire Pigs out of imported sows, " Hillhurst Rose," 
"Rosedale," and "Wharfdale Rose 2d," and sired by imported 
"Wharfdale Chief," and "Canada Prince." 

jgSSP Satisfaction guaranteed. Prices Moderate. 

A. M. BOWMAN, 

Bellevue Stock Farm, 
aug Waynesboro, Augusta Co., V 



WHATAI EiW B 

SUPERPHOSPHATE, 

MANUFACTURED BY 
JAMES Or. JDO^XTlXrWJ^ttlD Sc CO. 



To the Planters of Virginia and North Carolina: 

"We again respectfully call the attention of those intending to use fertilizers on 
their sprii - the Powhatan Raw Bone Super-PL id particularly 

-thos- t a reliable fertilizer for tobacco and cotton, as we intend in the 

future, as in the past are years, to furnish an article which has no rival, regard- 
less of price. When -. used by the side of any other fertilizer what- 
ever, not exet - "-rservedly popular and higher priced tobacco fertilizers 
of the day. it has in every case proved itself superior. 

A few out of many of our certificates from our patrons : 

Blacks axii Whites. Nottoway Co.. Va.. Jan. 1, 1872. 
Dear Sirs. — This is to certify that I have used the Powhatan Phosphate alon^ 
triads of fertilizers, each of which cost more than the Pow- 
hatan, and the difference in my crop of tobacco was greatly in favor of the Pow- 
hatc . From my experience last year I think it a No. 1 manure, and 

recommend its general use. 

Very truly yours . SAMUEL F. BPE 



LrxESBCRG, Co.. Va.. Jan. 29, 1S73. 
Gentlemen. — I used your ' ; Powhatan Raw B^ne Super-Phc - ; t year 

on tobacco with perfect success and entire on. 

Ve:; ally, R. H. ALLEN. 



DiywrDBiE Co., Va., January 13. 1872. 
Dear Sirs. — In r j\ ~ our request. I have no hesitation in saying that I pre- 
fer the Powhatan Raw B S --Phosphate, bought of you last spring, to any 
n that I have ever used on tobacco. I wish you to furnish me again 
this spring. - us truly, WM. B. COLEMAN. 

Potthatax Co. , Va. . Jan. 30. 1878. 
Gentlemen. — Yours of 24th. asking my opinion of the Powhatan Phosphate, to 
hand. In reply. I have - -ell on my tobacco — better than a more 

to fertilizer that was applied bv the side of it. 

Yow Z. G. MOORMAN. 



Amelia Co., Va., Jan. 16, 1872. 
Bear Sirs. — In regard to the Powhatan Phosphate bought of you last spring, I 
take pleasure in saying that I am m - action on my crop. I 

used it on very thin land. 200 pounds to the acre, and my tobacco weighed better 
than anv crop I have e L I wish vou to furnish me again this spring. 

GEO. H. WILLS. 



Hakmoxy. Halifax Co., Va.. Jan. 20, 1872. 
Gentlemen. — You request me to give you the result of my experience in the 
use of Powhatan Raw Bone Suj -ate. I have used it successfully for 

ears, 1870 and 1S71. and I think it the cheapest fertibzer I have ever used, 
and ex ..jain the coming season. 

Yours truly, EDWARD MOORE. 



mm be mm 

CHEAP TO EFFECT SALES. 



m, e -v -^ b:r,ot:h:e23,s 



have, therefore, marked the whole of their stock at the lowest possible prices. 
They only enumerate a small portion of their stock, but will state that they have 
everything in tbe way of Foreign and Domestic Dry Goods, Trimmings. Notions 
Carpets. Matting, xc. 

Striped and Plain Mixed Wash-Poplins, twenty-seven inches wide. 16fc. per 
yard worth 25c: Striped Wash Poplins, twenty- four inches wide, at 14c. worth 
20c; Mixed Wash-Poplins at 32$ per yard worth 16f. ; 

East-colored Lawns at 12Ac per yard worth 18c: Seersucker, twenty-seven 
inches wide at Vlhc. per yard worth 20c; Black Grenadines with colored* stripes 
at 12Jc per yard worth 25c; 

Black Grenadines with colored silk stripes at l»3|c would be cheap at 30c; 
Japanese Poplins at 16fc. per yard worth 25c; Japanese Poplins at 20 and 25c 
would be cheap at 30 and 35c ; 

Japanese Poplins, silk warp, at 40 and 50c per yard worth 60 and 75c. : Striped 
Silks at 75c. 85c, $1 and $1.25 per yard— all 25c. a yard below regular prices ; 
Black Silks from 60c. to $3.50 per yard — all much below regular prices ; Colored 
Silks in great variety at lower prices than at any time since 1862 : 

Striped Muslins at 25c. per yard, would be cheap at 35c;- Checked Muslin, 
large patterns, at 30c per yard worth 50.; Victoria Lawn from 20 to 50c per 
yard — all very cheap ; Linen Lawns at 25c worth 35c. per yard : 

Grass- Cloth Suitings with side bands for trimmings all yard-wide at 20c 
worth 25c; A large variety of Linen Suitings at very low prices ; Bombazines 
and other dress material for mourning ; 

Alpacas. Mohairs, and Brilliantines, in all qualities, at lower prices than 
ever ; Excellent Calicoes at 8£ 10, and 12Ac per yard ; Swiss Muslin from 12$ 
to 50c. — great bargains in this line ; 

Nottingham Lace, for curtains, at 20. 25. 30 and 35c and up to $1.25 pei 
yard : Tucked Cambrics in all widths and qualities ; Shirred Muslin at 50c per 
yard, worth 61 ; Full- Width Linen Sheeting at 75c. per yard worth $1 : 

Pillow-Case Linea, l\ yards wide at i30c. worth 75c; Table Cloths, warranted 
all linen, two yards long, at $1 worth $1.50 : White Matting, one yard wide, at 
25, 30. 35. 40. 45 and 50c. per yard — all excellent quality for the price : 

Red Check Matting at 30c and up to 60c per yard ; M-4 White Matting at 40c 
per yard, worth 50c; 6-4 Red Check Matting at 45c. per yard worth 60c; 

Victoria Lawn Dress Patterns in white and buff skirts, ready-made with suffi- 
cient material for a sacque or basque at 62 — cost double the money to import; 
Black Lace Scarfs, now so fashinable. from $1 up to $6 : 

Black Lace Points and Sacques in all qualities at remarkably low prices ; 
Printed Cambrick Frilled Collars and Cutfs at 15c a set. worth 50c.; Ruffling 
and Euffs in great bargains — some extraordinary bargains in this line ; 

A large stock of Striped Cotton Hose for women and Children ; Crepe Veils in 
all sizes — some extra large and heavy : 

Great bargains in Cotton Trimmings. Laces, Embroideries, Jewelry, Fans, 
Parasols. Fan Chains, Satchels, Trunks. Baskets. Shawl Straps. Xc. kc. 

Particular attention paid to orders. Goods sent by express C. O. D,, or upon 
receipt of post-office order or registered letter. 

LEVY BROTHERS, 

1017 and 1019 Main Street, 
July RICHMOND, VA. 



EST^-ZBLISHIIEID 1S39. 



TO FARMERS, PLANTERS and GARDENERS 




MANUFACTURED AXD FOR SALE BY 

JOHU BULLOCK & SON, 

Factory: Washington Road, Baltimore, Md. 
Store: No. 61 S. Gay Street, Baltimore, Md. 



P. 0. Box 636. 



For more than thirty years we have been engaged in the manufacture 
of ''Pure Ground Bone , our crude stock being gathered daily from the 
butchers here, with whom we have yearly contracts. We have com- 
pleted our new factory, and with the addition of the latest and most ap- 
proved machinery, will be able to fill all orders sent to us at short notice 
and guarantee at all times to the purchaser a first-class article at the 
lowest market price. 

Respectfully 

JOHN BULLOCK & SON. 



The attention of those desiring to purchase 

Evergreens, Ornamental Trees and Shrubs 



Is called to the 



MAGNOLIA NURSERY 



AT 



RICHMOND, "ViHG-INTA.. 



The stock generally is well grown and the assortment complete, 
comprising everything that is desirable for shade or ornamental pur- 
poses ; also all the leading varieties of 

Grapes, Currants, Strawberries and other Small Fruits. 

Our prices are low, considering the quality of the stock, which 
we feel confident will give general satisfaction. 

The Nursery, which is situated on the Brook Turnpike near the 
city, is open to the inspection of visitors during business hours. 
J^r** Descriptive Catalogue furnished on application. 
Address all letters to 

L. J- HARVEY, 
se — tf Nurseryman, Richmond, Ya. 

FRUIT TREES & VINES 



For Sale Claeap. 



$12.50 per 100. 

100.00 " 1000. 

25.00 " 100 



50,000 Apple Trees, 

« a it 

A large lot of Cherries, 

Concord Grape Vines, 

Norton Seedling, 

Maxatawny, 

Delaware, 

Catawba, 

Scuppernong, 

Isabella, 

Lenoir, 

A.LIL, FIRST-CLASS STOCK:. 

For further particulars, address 

JAMES VIA & SONS, 

ge tf West Hampton, Henrico Co., Va. 



10 ce 

25 

10 

10 

10 

20 

10 

10 



ts. 



i^Vii 1 ': 1 !"'. ':'! If 



p 



'• jfe 



' ^ 



Illllllfilllll'lill, 









9 : i]J 



HAZLETON, LUZERNE COUNTY, PA., 

BREEDER AND DEALER IN 

Pure Bred Fancy Poultry and Pigeons, Song and Ornamental Birds, 
Lop-Eared Angora, Himalayan Rabbits, Guinea Pigs, Ferrets, White 
Mice, Gold Fish, Aguaria, Aquatic Plants, Premium Chester White 
and Berkshire Pigs, Jersey and Ayrshire Cattle. 

Particular attention given to Orders from a distance. Satisfac- 
tion guaranteed. Stock not on hand furnished at Short Notice. 

B&- SEND FOR CIRCULARS. =^n 

Fertilizers and Seeds for. 1874. 



SOLUBLE PACIFIC GUANO, 

ETo. 1 Peruvian G-uano^ 

FLOUR OF JEU^^KT BOISTE, 

Ground Plaster, Lime, Agricultural Salt, &c. 

FIELD, GRASS, AND GARDEN SEEDS, 

SEED POTATOES 
Of the Early Rose, Early Goodrich, Peerless, and other choice varieties 
For further information and supplies, address 

ALLISON & ADDISON, 

Seed and Guano Merchants, Richmond, Virginia. 



OCEAN EXPOSURE. 

(ESTABLISHED 18o4.) 



A. HANCE & SON, 

Nurserymen and Florists, 

RED BAXffK, N. J. 



The following Catalogues are published for gratuitous distribu- 
tion, viz : 

No. 1 — Descriptive Catalogue of trees, shrubs, vines, &c. 

No. 2 — Descriptive Catalogue of plants. 

No. 3 — Wholesale Trade-list, (for nurserymen and dealers.) 

Peach Trees and Ornamental Stock, specialties. 
A fine stock of Early Beatrice Peach, Concord and Martha Grape 
Vines, and other Peach Trees and Grrape Vines for Southern 
Planters. oct 

ROBT, J. FARRER & CO., 



PRODUCE & CATTLE SALESMEN. 

Agents for the Sale and Purchase of 

WELL-BRED CATTLE, 

SHEEP, PIGS, POULTRY, &C. 

EngM Siuerpliospliate, $40 Per Ton 

COMPLETE GUANO, $07.50. 

JfSg^Commissions across the water executed. 

6 Fourteenth Street, Richmond, Va. 

oct 



2 to 3 
Apple " 4 to 7 

3 to 4 
Standard Pear.4 to 6 
Dwarf " 2h to 4 



^ArtGU STOCK OF FIRST-CLASS 

FMT AID ORNAMENTAL TREES 

FOR SALE. 

SMALL FRUIT, HEDGE PLANT, ASPARAGUS, k, 

Peach trees, 3§ to 6 feet $10 per 100 ; per 1000 $ 80 00 

5 per 100 ; per 1000 40 00 
15 per 100 ; per 1000 100 00 
5 per 100; per 1000 40 00 
40 per 100; per 1000 350 00 
25 per 100; per 1000 225 00 
Osage Hedge Plants, 2 years, per 1000, $3 50 ; Honey Locust 
Hedge Plants, 2 years, per 1000, $7 ; Wilson's Albany Strawberry 
Plants, per 1000, $3; Concord Grape Vines, 1 year, No. 1, per 
1000, $30 ; Concord Grape Vines, 1 year, No. 2, per 1000, $20 ; 
Silver Maple trees, 9 to 12 feet, per 100, $40 ; Silver Maple trees, 
7 to 8 feet, per 1000, §20. 

m*SEND FOR A CATALOGUE. «©a 
augtf 

BRONZE TURKEYS, 

(From 62 pound parents.) 

FANCY CHICKENS, POLANDS. Those everlasting 
layers and most beautiful lawn ornaments, PURE WHITE, 
BLACK WHITE CRESTS, SILVER and GOLDEN, 
LIGHT DARK BRAHMAS, WHITE, BLACK COCH- 
INS and GAMES. 

If ordered at once will close out my stock at reduced prices. 
F. EVANS, No. 5, St. Paul Street, 
oc— BALTIMORE, MD. 

F*J±TL,TLm STYLES, 1874. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE WOOLEN MILLS 

SAMPLE CARDS 

Are now ready for mailing. Our assortment embraces 
TWENTY-FOUR PATTERNS. 

Merchants desiring samples, will please address, 

CHARLOTTESVILLE WOOLEN MILLS. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA. 




MALTBY HOUSE, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

C.R. HOGAN, Proprietor. 



Has just received a series 
~Z of costly and elegant im- 
_provements, embracing every 
;;,,,. department of the Hotel, ma- 
king it one of the finest Ho- 
tels in the city. 

Board reclncecl to $2.50 per flay. 

sep — 2f 



BATJG-H'S STANDARD 3VL" A ZST XT IR E S . 

BAUGH & SONS 

High Grade Manure for Tobacco and Grain 

BAUGH'S RAW BONE TPA° E MAR 1 SUPER-PHOSPHATE Of LIME. 



The old established article 
ys«. Also Pure Ground Bones, 
line of chemicals for making 



sep — 6t 




sold under a guaranteed anal- 
Pure Bone Meal, and a full 
super-phosphates. 

BAUGH & SONS, 
No. 103 South Street, Baltimore, Md. 



Piedmont A-ir-Line Railway. 

Richmond and Danville, Richmond and Danville R. AY., N. C 
Division, and North Western N. C. R. W. 

COKTDENSED TIIVTE TA.BX.E. 
In effect on and after Sunday, October 12th, 1873. 



GOING NORTH. 




GOING SOUTH. 




STATIONS. 


SIAIL 


EXPRESS. 


STATIONS. 


SIAIL. 


EXPRESS. 


Leave Charlotte, 


10.00 p. 


M. 8.15 A. SI. 


Leave Richmond, 


1.28 p. si 


5.00 A. M. 


" Air-Line Junction, 


10.06 ' 


8.30 " 


" Burkeville, 


4.45 " 


8.29 " 


" Salisbury, 


10.06 a. 


si. 10.21 '• 


" Danville, 


9.18 " 


12.4S p. SI. 


" Greensboro, 


3.30 ' 


' 12.45 p. si. 


" Greensboro', 


12.20 a. si 


3.50 " 


K Danville, 


6.20 


' 3.12 " 


" Salisbury. 


_ • 


6.06 " 


" Burkeville. 


11.: 3-5 ' 


7.36 " 


" Air-Line Junction 


, 4.29 " 


8.10 " 


Arrive at Richmond, 


2.17 p 


M. 10.17 " 


Arrive at Charlotte, 


4.35 " 


S.15 " 


GOING EAST. 




GOING 


WEST. 




STATIONS. 




fa SIA1L. 






MAIL. 


.fceave Greensboro' 




g 3.3IJ a. M. 


£. Arrive 




12.20 A . ll. 


" Co. shops, 




& 4.45 '• 


3 




9.35 " 


" Raleigh, 




§■ 846 " 


— 




5.26 " 


Arrive at Goldsboro,' 




=; 11.15 " 

a 


S Leave 




2.30 P. M. 



NORTH WESTERN N. C. R. R. , 

Salem Branch. 

Leave Greensboro' 4.30 P. si. ; arrive at Salem 6.25 p. si. ; leave Salem 8 a. m.'; arrive at Greens- 
boro' 10.00 a. >i. 

Mail trains dailv, both wavs. 

Ou Mintlavs Lvnehburg Accommodation leave Richmond at 9.45 a. St., arrive at Burkeville 12.45 
P. si., hjave Burkeville 5.:>5 a. si., arrive at Richmond B;45 A. M. 

Pullman Palace Cars on all night trains between Charlotte and Richmond (without change). 

Papers that have arrangements to advertise the schedule of this Company will please prip.t as 
above. 

For further information, address S. E. ALLE> , 

G«neral Ticket Agent, Greensboro', N. C. 

T M. R. TALCOTT, Eng'r & Gen'l Sup't. hot— tf 



immu 



i 



,MIDDI>MEN. 



come Enterprising, Useiul citizens. EASTMAN BGSINESS COLLEGE. I >". Y.. 

On-the-Hudson. the enly Institutioo devoted to \\ - 1 si and only : 

Coimn-r'- - : PatroLf a: 

uaie? in I city aod town. A y Jut. Add • iiid cat- 

■logui i ffi, H. G. EASTMAX, LL. D^ Potighkeepsie, N. Y. 

—It 

LATEST VARIETY KNOWN. 

LEATMEBBUBTS BAKU. 

The 1st Premium was awarded to this Peach by the Pennsylvania Horticultu- 
ral Society, October 23. 1872. The Fruit Bbcoraek of November. 1872, thus 
describes it: :. The Peaches were duly received, and without -: 
finest specimen of et late sort we have ever seen or tasted. The specimens meas- 
ured from eight to eight and one-! alf inches in circumference, and were of a 
gileish yellow collor. tinged with a rich scarlet over the faurgesl a of the 

each. Pitts very small. Flesh three-fourths to one inch thick, and of a light 
yellow, tinged with red. Near the pit. exceedingly juicy and rich. We should 
consider out - rtunate if we could have one hundred \: 

sort in our orchard, for as plenty as the fruit Las been this fall, such peaches 
would sell quickly for $3.00 per crate, when ordinary late peaches were bringing 
but $1.50. The trees are now offered foi | 5-00 per dozen by 

J. H. PETERSON, 
se — tf Smyrna. Kent Co.. Delaware. 

TREES! TREES! TREES! 



A VERY LARGE AND UNUSUALLY FINE STOCK OF 

PEJ1R | *1PPLE TREES, 

CHERRIES, CRAB APPLES, CURRANTS, &00SEBERRIES, 

Evergreens, Elms, Maples, Shrubs, Roses, 

And a general Nursery Stock, ar the 

SYRACUSE NURSERIES, 

SMITH & POWELL. 

Syracuse. New York. Sep. 11th, 187-4. 



CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO R. R. 



On and after SUNDAY, April 19th, 1874, passenger trains will 
run as follows : 

FROM RICHMOND : 

8:30 A. M. MAIL TRAIN.— For Gordonsville, Charlottesville, Staunton, White 
Sulphur, Hinton, and all intermediate Stations, daily (except Sundays), arriving 
at Hir.ton at 10:20 P. M. This train connects at Gordonsville for Orange, Cul- 
peper, Warrenton, Manassas, Alexandria, Washington and the North, and at 
Charlottesville for Lynchburg, Bristol, Kuoxsville, Chattanooga and the South. 

.4:45 P. M. ACCOMMODATION TRAIN.— For Gordonsville and all inter- 
mediate Stations, daily (except Sunday), arriving at Gordonsville 8:30 P.M. 

9;30 P. M. CINCINNATI EXPRESS.— For Gordonsville, Charlottesville, 
Staunton, Goshen, Milboro', Covington, White Sulphur, and all Stations west of 
White Sulphur, daily (except Sunday), arriving at Huntington, 5:30 P. M. This 
train connects at Gordonsville for Washington, Baltimore and the North, and for 
Lynchburg, Bristol, and the South, and at Huntington with the Steamers Bostona 
and Fleetwood for Cincinnati and all points West and Southwest, arriving at Cin- 
cinnati (3 A. M. 

Baggage checked through. 

FOR THROUGH TICKETS, rates and information, apply at 826 Main Street 
Ballard and Exchange Hotel, or at company's Office, Broad Street and Sixteenth 

A. H. PERRY, General Sup't. 
Edgar Vliet, General Passenger and Ticket Agent. 

JOHi r ~LAIRI^ 



Offers to the public this Fall a large and fine assortment of 

green house plants, roses, evergreens, grape 

VINES and FRUIT TREES. 

Also a large variety of HYACINTHS, CROCUS, TULIPS, 
and all other Fall bulbs at low rates. Catalogues on application. 

Garden on Broad and Grace, bet. Henry and Smith, 
Seed Store, 733 Main St. near Eighth RICHMOND, VA.' 

35 Packages of Flower or Vegetable 
Seeds free by mail for one dollar. One 
beautiful Illustrated Catalogue of seeds 
and plants for 1874. free to all. Plants 
by mail a specialty. Address 

GREEN. BEACH & CO., 
Seedsmen and Florists, Oil City. Pa. 
Box 1775. mar — lOt 

TTHE NEW CLIFTON FRUIT CRATE and VEGETABLE CRATE, the 
best thing known for transporting Fruits and Vegetables. Will supersede all 
other articles used for these purposes. Took first premium and diploma at 
Maryland State Fair, 1873. First Premium and Diploma at Frederick Fair, 
1873. First Premium or Medal at Virginia State Fair, 187:5. 
Sta'e, County, Farm, and individual Rights for sale by 

E. B. GEORGIA & CO., 
nov — ly Clifton Fairfax, Va. 




T7~P~T7 , "p* t0 a ^ applicants, mv 
JL -lAi-J-L* Nursery and Bulb Cat- 
alogue. F. K. Phcexix, Blooming-ton, 
1^ —2 

AGENTS WANTED.— We are in 
want of a few first - *es 

to sell Nursery Stock in various | 
of the country. We want men of good 
character, habits and business capacity, 
who can furnish undoubted referen 
and who will g "-hole time and 

the busiii' 
e need apply who cannot furnish 
ces and bond. To such we can 
aslant emr>lovment with a good 
salary. CHASE BROTH! ' 

r W. P. BISSELL, Manager, 919 Bank 
St.. Richmond. Va. m — 



THE CROTON GRAPE 

Fine two-year old Plant: 
riety by mail or express 



of this va- 

8 id for 

Price-List. 

3. W. UNDERHILL. 
Croton Landing P. 0.. X. Y 



■P 




HOG RI\GER. 

15,000.000 King*. 
> 70,000 RingerS, 

8,5O0 Tones S^old. 

Bard-nare DealeTS £fll Them. 

: O50cts. 

1 1. -5. by mail, posl iiaid, 

- 

H. W. Hill & Co., Decatur. Hi. 



FORM 2. 



See Pluck and 
LanL'h ! 

Buy PLUCK and 
be Sappy. 




i^.#>'^ 



"■ most 
roli cki ng. and 

plucky story ever told by painters' brush, 
is faithfully copied in 'these Chromos. 
They are 16 by 22 inches in size. Price 
$10 the pair. Send orders to the pub- 
lisher. J. F. RYDE 
2*9 Superior St.. Cleveland, O. 



FORM 3. 



LAUGHABLE and; 
interesting in the highest 
degr^- e Chromos 

Pluck. _ They should have 
a jAa: v counting 

room, office, and school 
house in the land. The 
lesson they teach is good 

r. Price. $10 the pair. 
Send orders to J. F. RYDER. 

Publisher, Cleveland. 0. 




FORM 4. 




THERE is more fun in 
the Chromos PLUCK 
than any painted or printed 
story that has been given 
to the public for years. 
Never before has been ac- 
corded to any picture or set 
"ares, the popularity 
'hromos have attain- 
ed. Size. 10 by 22 inches, 
repair. Address 
order to 

J. F. RYDER, Publisher, 

Cleveland, O. 



Thoroughbred Stock for Sale. 

I am breeding Thoroughbred DEVON 
CATTLE. ESSEX PIGS. SOUTH- 
DOWN SHEEP, fee; also LIGHT 
BRAHMA FOWLS, 

Persons ordering from me can rely 
on getting as good stock as any in this 
country. My herd of Devon; are of the 
• improved strains. They took a 
number of first premiums at our last 
State Fair. 

For further particulars, address 
F. W.. CHILES, 
aug — Bt Louisa C. H.. Ya. 

W. C. SMITH, 

Manufacturer of aiid Dealer in 

CHILDREN'S CARRIAGES, 

China, Glass and billow Ware, 

Toys of Every Description, Afghans, 
Mats. <5cc. 

Invalid Chairs made to order; also 
repairing neatly done. Salerooms 412 
Broad Street, and 737 Main Street. 
Factory 308, 812 and 314 Fifth Street, 
Richmond, Ya. ap — ly 

1010 Ills. PRIME HEW CROP 

TURNIP SEED 

Of all the most approved varieties. 
A large stock of FIELD and 
GARDEN SEED. 

C. B. EOGERS, Seed Dealer, 
133 Market St., Philadel'ia. 

Aug — It 

Q.) [A AGENTS READ. One 
O^xUt Canvasser made S240 in one 
week. Samples sent free to all. Ad- 
a W. H. CHIDESTER, 265 Broad- 
way, N. Y. aug — 4t 



R. SINCLAIR <£ CO, ? 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

inn, mam i iumnr. 

ALSO, GROWERS AND IMPORTERS OF 

GARDEN AND FIELD SEEDS, 

Dealers in FRUIT TREES and PLANTS 

Would call the special attention of our friends and customers to the following 
first-class Machinery and Implements, which we guarantee to be equal to any arti- 
cle of the kind made in this country, being all of our own manufacture. 

We name in part, such machines as are required by the Farmer and Planter 
for the Winter and Spring seasons, viz: SINCLAIR'S PATENT MASTI- 
CATOR, of which we make four sizes, viz: Hand, Steam and Horse Power. 

Sinclair's Patent Screw Propeller, Hay, Straw and Fodder Cutters, 

of which we make four sizes, viz . Light Hand Power, Hand Power, several sizes, 
and Horse Power three sizes. All of the above-named Cutters are our own 
Patents and Manufacture, and are such as we can recommend. 

Reading's Patent Horse-Power Corn Sheller, with Fan Attachment. 

Sheller, plain. 

Double Spout Hand or Power Sheller Single Spout SheUers— 
ell kinds. 

Corn and Cob Mills, Grist Mills, for Farm and Plantation use. 
WHEAT AXD CORN FANNING MILLS. 

" Anderson's " Agricultural Steamer, for preparing feed for Stock. 
The best in use. 

Threshers and Separators— different kinas and sizes. 

Horse Powers, all sizes and patterns. 

Ox-Yokes and Bows, Horse Power Road Scrapers, Hay and 
Straw Presses. 

Plows, different kinds and sizes, Harrows, Cultivators, and all kinds of 
Farming and Horticultural Tools. Address, 



Seply 



B. SINCLAIR & CO., 62 Light Street, Baltimore. Ml. 

EVERGREENS! 

How, when, and where to plant, with Cata- 
logues mailed for stamp. 

200,«>00 Arbor Vitae (transplanted), only §10 
per 1,000. 

50 assorted Evergreens sent by mail for SI. 
Address WM. MORTON & SON, 

Allen's Corner, "Cumberland Co.," Maine, 
se— ly 

Tie Fruit Recorder & Cottage Gardener 

will be sent free for 3 
months to all who will pay 
postage at office of delivery. 
We do not ask any one to j 
subscribe for our paper un- J 

», til they know what they 

are to get. It speaks for itself. Price onlv SI per 
year. Our SMALL FRUIT INSTRUCTOR is a 
"work of (54 pp. that tells in simple language just 
how to grow fruits in abundance for home use 
or market. Price 25 cents postpaid. 

A. M. PrRDT. 
se — 3t Palalmyra, N. Y 

NH. BUSEY, Photographic and Art Gallery, N. W. Charles and Fay 
, ette Streets, Baltimore. 
Every description of Fine Photographic and artistic work in the highest style 
of art. Portraits in Oil, Pastel and Crayon. Photographs in water colors, India 
ink, &c. Also a fine stock of frames, chromos, stereoscopic views, ^cc. 

Particular attention given to copying and enlarging from old daguerotypes, &c. 
of deceased persons. se P " 



13 



FREE. 





i ii 



- • 

c ' lit >li 




BUY NEAR HOME AND GET GOOD STOCK. 



LIGHT and DARK BRAHMAS, 
AND PARTRIDGE COCHEN FOWLS, 

FROM PEDIGREE AND PREMIUM STOCK. 

Cold Spring Poultry and Stock Yard. Baltimore Co.. Md. 

' Address J. E. LLOYD. Richmond Market, 

BALTIMuRE. MD. 



Fowls sent C. 0. D. if desired. Refer by permission to 
Editor of this Journal. Send for circular. 



HERMITAGE NURSERIE 



JOHN W. RIS02K, 

PROPRIETOR OF 

HEBMITAG-B ITTJRSERIES, 
RICHMOND, TIE GIXIA . 



1,500,000 

.Apple and Peach. Trees, 

FOR SALE THIS FALL AT REDUCED PRICES. FIRST-CLASS 
APPLE TREES. $16 per hundred. FIRST-CLASS PEACH 
TREES, $14 per hundred. 

To Clubs ordering 1000 trees and sending the money with order, I will put 
Apple trees, $12 50 per 100; Peach trees. SlO 00 per 100. 

These trees are warranted true to name, and are strictly first-class stock. 



Orders should be addressed to 



feb 



JOHN W. RISOTST, 
Richmond, Virginia. 



To Nurserymen, 

TREE DEALERS AND PLANTERS. 

Our Wholesale Catalogue for Autumn 

1874, now ready, and sent FREE to all appli- 
cants. KLI,H'A.\«.ER * BARRY, 

Mt. Hupe Nurseries, Rochester. KT. Y. 
Aug. 1. 1874. augli. 




EDW. J. EVANS & CO., 
Nurserymen and Seedsmen, 
York, Penn. 
A complete stock of Fruit and Orna- 
mental Trees. Garden and Flower Seeds, 
Seed Wheat, Seed Oats. Seed Corn. 
Seed Potatoes. Grass Seeds. &c. Send 
for Catalogue and price lists. feb-lOt 




PrcminnL Farm 
Grist Mill. 



Is simple, chi 
durable, and grinds all 
kinds of grain rapid- 
ly. It is adapted to all 
kinds of horse powers. 
Also Union Railway 
Horse Powers, requir- 
^inga very low eleva- 
\ ^ \ tion and yet eiving 
more power than others. Also every variety of 
approved Implements. Send fob Descriptive 
< ikcilar. WM. L. BOYEB & BEO.. 

oc— 2t Philadelphia, Pa. 



OPIUM 

for treatment until 

Hi! John Street, 
oc— 3t 



MORPHINE HABIT speedily 

cured by Dr. Beck"s only 
known and sure Remedy. 

NO CHARGE 

cured. Call on or address 

DR. J. C. BECK, 

CLNCLNSATI, OHIO, 



IHORO PHIIiliIPS, 

MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS, 

MANUFACTUEEK OF 

ACIDS AND OTHER CHlMICAIiS, 

o 

MORO PHILLIPS' SUPER-PHOSPHATE, Price $50; the 
best grain producer in the market. 

MORO PHILLIPS' PURE PHUINE, Price $50 ; the best fer- 
tilizer for truckers we know of. 



MORO PHILLIPS' TOBACCO INVIGORATOR, Price $60 ; 
prepared especially for tobacco. 

SEWANO GUANO, a natural organic deposit. 



{110 S. Delaware Av., Philadelphia, Pa. 
95 South Street Baltimore, Md. 
And by trade generally. Discount to dealers. 



sep — Gt 



THE CENTENNIAL 

Is the LIGHTEST RUNNING SEWING 
MACHINE, without any exception. It is used 
by many of the best known families in Balti- 
more, and in many parts of Virginia. 

Price only $40 for No. 1 Machine. 
" . " 45 " 2 " 

And upwards according to style and finish. 
-The working pads being the same in all. 
Thev are fully equal to any of the §tio and $75 Machines in the 
market. 

They are all made of the best material, with fine long walnut 
tables/ and run so lightly and noiselessly and work so beautifully 
that it affords pleasure to use them. 

Grranges in Maryland and Virginia are adopting them, and Mas- 
ters will do well to write for circulars and samples to 

J\ S, O-IRIIFIFITH, 

a#p — tf 85 Lexington Street, Baltimore, Md. 




iu|i=fjiy*-siq 
Qliiiiipgl 

2.2m • — *■ • = — ' :> 

" C > = -— -si 1 ;- 30 
5 - - af ■ ~- < Ji 




FRESH 
GARDEN and FIELD SEED 
At the old stand cf Palmer St Turpin, 
1626 Main street, Richmond, 
Orchard Grass, 

Timothy, Herds. Clover, 

Kentucky Blue Grass. 
Send for Catalogue, 
feb-tf W. H. TURPIN. 

Eggs, Cream, Milk and Lemon Bis- 
cuits, anJ every kiud of Crackers, made 
a specialty. Ponnd and Fancy Cakes, 
Ginger Snaps, Lemon Snaps, Jumbles, 
&c, &c, &c. 

KICHAKD ADAM, 

Richmond Steam Bakery, 12th St., Rich- \ 
mond, Va., manufacturer of all kinds of 
Bread, Cakes and Crackers, wholesale 
and retail. Orders from the country j 
attended to promptly. ap — ly 

L. POWERS & SON, 
COMMISSION MERCHANT, 

AND 

WHOLESALE PRODUCE DEALERS, 
1540 East Main Street, Richmond, Va. 

Flour, Grain, Hay, and ali kinds Seed 
and Eating Potatoes. Foreign and Do 
mestic Fruits. Seed Potatoes a Specialty. 

ap — ly 



FOB S-AXiIE. 

AYRSHIRE^ STOCK! 

I offer For Sale 2 thoroughbred BULL- 
CALVES, -t COW-CALVES, selected 
from the best milking families in the 
U. S.. and partly acclimated, having 
been ou my place since last summer. 

CHAS. PETERS. 
Mechanicsville Farm, 
nov Richmond. Va. 

A FINE ESTATE 

FOR SALE ! 

Containing one thousand acres, on which there 
is a good twe-story dwelling situated in a beauti- 
ful grove. The out-houses, stables, barns, labo- 
rer s cottages complete ; good, water from a pump 
and spring not far from the residence. There is 
also a running stream through the Farm. The 
estate is well situated in a geiiteel neighborhood 
with churches convenient. Mail communica- 
tion is regular by Railroad and Canal tri-weekly. 

The estate is susceptible of being divided into 
four farms. There are two hundred and seventy 
acres cleared land, the balance in original growth. 
There is a £ood producing garden, all under a 
good enclosure. 

For further particulars from those who want 
to purchase applv to JAMES G. BROOK?, or 
P. JOHNSTON, Richmond. Va. 
nov 

TART IN LIFE. 

Bryant, Stntton & Sailer, 
Business College, 

l ^B Xo Vacation— Enter 3ny Time. 

1 ^B ,«5=-For Documents. Money. Specimens 
I V p a trons and Terms, address 

Mf. H. Sailer. Pres, .Baltimore, 




PE4R TREES FOK THE MIEEIOX. 
Latest stock in the West: fine assortment ; 
extra quality : peeked to go safely any distance. 
Satisfection guaranteed. Prices low by hun- 
dred or thousand. A full assortment ot other 
trees, shrubs, plants. Ac. Illustrated Ogtakgu 
maik-d free to applicants. R. G. HANiOiiU 
Columbus Nursery. Columbus, Ohio. 
sept—., 



SHEPHERD PUPS. 

3 Scotch Colly Shepherd Pups (dogs) direct from im- 
portation, for sale at $IQ each. A. M. BOWMAN, 

Bellevue Stock Farm. 

Waynesboro, Va. 



IE. 3D. ZETA-LILiOCiK:, 
GARDEN. fTeLD'aXD FLOWER 



* 



No. 172 West Pratt Street, BALTIMORE. 

The subscriber would respectfully inform the Farmers, Gardeners, and th 1 1 be has 

■ov in store a complete stock of SEEDS, of all the varieties Baited to this n 
care, is which he onfexs at wholesale and retail, in quantities to suit, on a' 
other reliable house. He solicits an examination 

.■."". ■;"::■ ii.-.-; ■ i I-Z ■ — ._. --.:-..-: -_-i .._.:--:.-_::. :_ f Flower Seed from Mx. Jakes Vi k, 
:-'". :-•:.•.---: :■" Y :;--.-',- :-. . ?:. XX EARLY gEST PEAS aWKVillty. 

znnoniated Bone Phosphate, price $50, cash per ton of 2,000 lbs. 

BeL Matty Home and LigU St. E. D. HALLOCK, 172 W. Pratt St. 



JOHN G. HACHTEL & CO, 



* 



Hachtel's Ammoniated Superphosphate, 

Hachtel's Pure Dissolved Bone, 

Hachtel's Tobacco Fertilizer, 

IB DUSl JLDS HALL KAIKTT (German Potash Salts), 

MURIATE 01 E HASH, BOXE MEAL, and FERTILIZING 
MATERIAL- ALLY. 

Liberal discount to dealers and otL -.: ■ adba bj largely fin cash. 

JOHN C HACHTEL & CO.. 

sep — 8t 14 Booty's Wharf, Baltimore. 

SEED WHEAT! SEED WHEAT! 

Am eric an Fruit firiers, Grain Drills and Thrash- 
ing Machines. 

CHOICE POULTRY AND OTHER CHOICE STOCK 

KTUHSER^ STOCK, 
Piloses a Specialty.^ 
Addi GEO. A. DEITZ, 

— : : Oh a m b erzbu ra. Pa . 



■ED^YAEDS 



SUPER-PHOSPHATE. 

■■■-■THE CONCENTRATED MANURE."ii—" 

"HEAT. RYE. OATS, 
TOBA . POTATOES 

B^CASH PP. TON 2 LBfi ... Delirered on 



i '..-.".-. . . 



E. Q, EDWARDS <£ CO,, 

No. 21 Cheapside, BALTIMORE, HE. 

X. B. — Oar Phosphate P n prorninenf farmer? 



PERFECTED 



^L_ A 



wmtoiks n:vm 



^liiii W^' 



: i™i ; ^ ; v-^,^::; w.,-1 V;...^ %„■<;* "^i* 



:W1 




PRXGE 


; ZbZST. 


EIGHT HAND. LEFT HAND. 


No. 5, . $5.50 

No. 7, . 7.50 
No. 8, . 8.00 


No. 7, . . . $ 8.00 
No. 8, . . . 10.00 
No. 10, . . . 13.00 


We have exclusive control of the above celebrated Plows for this 


market. 



THE STUDEBAKER 




The Cheapest, Finest Finished, and Most Substantial Wagon made 

in this Country. 

For FARM USE, we recommend the 3} Thimble Skein Wagon, with 
drop pole, spring seat, and top body, with whiffletree, neck yoke and stay 

chains. 

PRICE $120. 

BRAKES furnished when desired at an addi- 
tional cost of $5. 

H. M. SMITH & CO., 

flfc^~ Agents ibr Virginia and the Carolinas. RICHMOND, VA. 



EOR SALE A.T THE 

Manchester Tile Works. 



TILES of all sizes at low prices. 
Address 



oct 



S, D. ATKINSON, 

Manchester, Va 



WATERS' NEW SCALE PIANOS, 

SQUARE and UPRIGHT, are the best 
made. The touch elastic, the tone powerful, )>ure 
and even through the entire scale, yet mellow 
and sweet. 

' WATERS'iCONCERT© ORGANS, 
cannot be excelled in tone or beauty; they defy 
competition. The Concerto Stop is a fine imita- 
tion of the Human Voice. 

Warraated for 6 years. Prices Extremely 
Low for cash or part cash, and" balance in 
monthly payments. AGENTS WANTED. 
A liberal discount to Teachers, Churches, Minis- 
ters, Schoois, Lodges, &c. Illustrated Cata- 
logues mailed. 

HORACE WATERS & SON, 
P. O. Box 3567. 481 Broadway, N. Y. 

nov — 2t 



PURE 3BRED 

DARK BRAHMAS, 

CHEAP. 

$2.25 per pair, 3.25 per trio — 
cooped and delivered at Swoope's 
Depot, with feed to destination. 
Terms Cash. 

G. W. SHUEY, 
Swoope's Depot, 
nov — It Augusta Co 



TIHIIEi SOUTHERN 

PLANTER AND FARMER 

HAS NO SUPERIOR IN THE SOUTH, HAVING A LARGE CIRCULATION 
AMONGST THE MOST SUBSTANTIAL FARMERS AND BUSINESS MEN, 

In the country — the best customers to every trade, not only on account of 
the substantial character of those to whom it is sent, but likewise by the fact 
that possessing the additional advantage of being in book form and stitched ; 
it is, therefore, more apt to be preserved than an ordinary newspaper, 
and gives ADVERTISERS A BETTER CHANCE OF KEEPING 
THEMSELVES BEFORE THE PEOPLE! 

TEIE^IMIS POU .iLID-VIEilE^TISIILSra-- 

One square, 10 lines or Jess, one insertion. ..82 00 I 

1 square of tea lines for six months 10 00 I 

1 square of ten lines for one year 15 00 | 

J4 page six months 30 00 l 

% page one year 55 00 | 



V^.page six months «55 00 



page one year 100 00 

page single insertion 20 00 

page six months 100 00 

page ono year 180 Ou 

Outside back Cover, double rates ; inside back Cover, 50 per cent, added to rates. No advertise- 
ments taken for front cover. No editorial notice given to advertisements on any consideration, 
but notices, &c. may be put in Pulishers' Department at contract prices. 
No charge for advertisements,of less than two dollars. 

Bills of regular advertisers payable quarterly, if inserted for three or more months. 
Payable monthly if inserted for less than three months. Transient advertisers, cash in ad- 
vance. 

To insure insertion, we should receive advertisements by the 25th day of the month preceding 
taat in which they are to appear. We adhere strictly to our printed rates. 

All communications to be addressed to 



L. R. DICKINSON, Proprietor, 

P. 0. Box 54, Richmond, Va, 



ESTA.BL.ISKCE3D 1833. 




s^n 



PATENTED. 

WHEAT FERTILIZES 



PREPARED BY THE 



SOUTHERN FERTILIZING CO. 

RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, 



PRICE, $55 PER TON, IN RICHMOND. 



This article is prepared for the latitude of Virginia and 
North Carolina, and can be obtained at every point of 
importance in the two States. 

July— 3t. 



TO WHEAT PLANTERS, 

THE CONTINUED SU »F THE 

Soluble Sea Island Guano 

t convince cal farmer :-. wheat manure. 



Mr. • 

Deai i request me to give you m in relation to the Soluble 

Sea Island Guano. I used it on the tobacco _ 10 pounds per 

acre, and am as we. ;no I have used. I 

shall use it in preference v> any of the Fr: 

H. T. GOODy 

Mr. J. A. F. Neal, of Talbo: form you that I 

can refer to all Bold to las - . .rood word ; inc- 

in set - luble Sea Island Guano has t ed in 

the c: 

Prince Edward Co 
To Z. A. Blaxtox. Fannville. Va. : 

This is to certify that I used on tobacco during- the yer.: e and a half 

tons of Sea Island Guano, and it came up 
ticular. It acted for m-r 
with it that I i 
to us r it to any I b . me. 

P.. rr. 



5TB. R. vr. L. 7 

1 Guano for 

three years, and n uano has 

- 

en- 
. and am ■ • 

IN H. POWELL, 



H. P. Por- i Guano. 

Peruvian Guano, and 
a coufidei. .han 

any other. 

DR. C. D. BARHAiL 



Do not hesitate to say it is a good Guano. 

die Co. 

•? : — I have tried yoi ad Guano 

.no. W M. 



R. W. L. RAISIN & CO,, 

BALI 
Cor. ; - 7 , VA. 



THE SOUTHERN 

PLANTER & FARMER, 

DEVOTED TO 

Agriculture, Horticulture, and the Mining. Mechanic ani Household Arts. 

Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts. — Xenophon. 
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State. — Sully. 

L. R. DICKINSON, Proprietor 

FRANK G. RUFFIN, ....---- Editor. 

New Series. RICHMOND, VA., FEBRUARY, 1875. No. 2. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 

The proceedings of the late annual meeting of the State Grange 
of Virginia, Patrons of Husbandry, will be found below. They are 
not as fully reported as I could have desired, for a reason which the 
humanity of all readers will appreciate. On the first night of the 
meeting a stable, carriage and horses of the editor were burned by 
an incendiary. This made in actual, complete conflagrations, in 
fires, (including two upon my mansion in the dead of night, which 
had made dangerous headway before they were subdued,) and in 
attempts, abortive, but actual, thirteen distinct acts of incendiarism. 
It is obvious that it was my duty to remove my family from a scene 
of so much disturbance and real danger ; and I was compelled to 
inaugurate arrangements to that end at once. The time occupied 
in these arrangements, and in others growing out of it, has been 
that much abstracted from the Planter and Farmer. — The Editor. 

ANNUAL MEETING OF THE STATE GRANGE OF VIRGINIA. 

The second annual meeting of the State Grange of the Patrons 
of Husbandry of Virginia met in Richmond on the 13th of January. 
About 150 delegates were in attendance at the opening, but during 
the progress of the meeting many more appeared, who had been 
prevented by stress of weather from appearing at the roll call. 

The Grange was called to order at 11 o'clock, by Master J. W. 
White. 

The following officers answered to their names : faster, J. W. 
White ; Overseer, pro tern., J. W. Southall ; Lecturer, J. W. Mor- 



G2 THE SOUTHERN [February 

ton : Steward, William McComb ; Assistant Steward, pro tern.. C. 
T. Sutherlin: Chaplain pro tern.. Dr. William T. Walker; Treas- 
urer. TN . B. \\ estbrook : Gatekeeper. J. J. Wilkinson. 

William Tavlor. of Clarke county. Overseer of the State Grange, 
tendered his resignation, which was accepted. 

The examination of credentials occupied much of the time of the 
Grange during the morning session. 

The Master made his annual report, an abstract of which we pub- 
lish below : 

MASTER^ ANNUAL REPORT. 

Brothers of the State Grange : 

Through the beneficence of an all-wise Providence, we, tillers of 

the soil, are permitted to assemble for the first time in annual session 

in the history of our Order, to examine, deliberate, and discuss que3- 

- -.ating to our peculiar interests and daily avosati- -. C ing 

we do from every quarter of this great Commonwealth, represent- 
ing every portion of the State from the seaboard to the mountains, 
united in one common interest, it is most mete and proper that we 
invoke harmony and concord, practice forbearance and charitv, cul- 
tivate hope and fidelity. I congratulate you to-day on the rapid 
progress of our Order in the State. One year ago the State Grange 
was organized with ten Granges Since then the number of subor- 
dinate Granges within our jurisdiction has increased to . 

In consequence of this large increase in our numbers it was 
thought it would be necessary to adopt the expedient offered by 
the Executive Committee of the National Grange, which allows the 
Executive Committees of the respective Granges to reduce the num- 
ber of representatives of the State Grange upon such basis as the 
circumstances of each case might require. Your Executive Com- 
mittee concluded, though the number would be large and unwieldy, 
that the interest and good of the Order might be promoted and ad- 
vanced by not interfering with its representation, and allow each su- 
bordinate Grange to be represented at our first annual meeting. 

Some legislation reducing your representation in the State Grange 
for your future sessions will be necessary. 

It must be apparent to all. with the rapidity the Order is growing 
in the State, it would be utterly impossible in an assemblage com- 
posed of one representative from each Subordinate Grange to tra - 
act business with either wisdom or dispatch. Besides, the expenses 
of such a convention would be too heavy a tax upon the members of 
the Order. 

The constitutional amendments submitted to you and voted upon 
at an extra session held in this city on the olst of March, l v 74, 
have not yet been ratified by the required number of Granges. This 
unavoidable delay has very much impeded our progress in effecting 
our business relations. The establishment of County and District 
Granges authorized by those amendments has not been perfected. 
The necessity for some organization intermediate between the 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 63 



e are 

in re* 

'hey 
' in- 



State and subordinate Granges has been so generally felt through- 
out the Order that I have recommended the establishment of such 
Granges, which have been found of great value in accomplishir.fr the 
auxiliary designs of the Order. 

Where they have been formed the Order has been strengthened, 
and much pecuniary benefits received by the members. There is but 
one opinion as to the necessity of these"' organizations, and soon thev 
can be established with full constitutional authority. I would sug- 
gest, to facilitate these organizations, that you adopt this or some 
similar resolution: "As soon as the secretary of the State Grange 
is notified of the ratification of the amendments to the constitution 
of the National Grange by the proper authority, your Executive 
Committee be authorized to establish regulations for the organization 
of County and District Granges." 

The report of your Executive Committee will inform you as to what 
has been done in the matter of agencies and co-operation. This has 
been the most difficult part of our work, and has occasioned more 
disappointment than any other feature of our Order. Ther 
two prominent reasons that have led to this disappointment : 

1st. There is a misunderstanding which seems to prevail , 
gard to duties of Patrons to each other and to the Order. Thev 
seem to forget that our organic law provides for an associatio i in- 
tended for co-operative purposes, each part of which is dependent 
upon some other to make it effective. These parts, taken singly, are 
weak ; but when all are combined make a machine of wondrous power 
and utility. They lose sight of our business purpose. It is promi- 
nently set forth— that of "meeting together, talking together, work- 
ing together, buying together, selling together, and, in general, acting 
together for our mutual protection and advancement." 
^ 2d. The system adopted by your Executive Committee is totally 
defective. It fails to furnish the members with the necessary business 
information, and cannot make the necessary business negotiations 
that the interest of the Order demands, and totally fails in co-opera- 
tive action with the agents of other States. 

These defects are to none more glaring than to your Executive 
Committee, and while it was unsatisfactory to them, they knew they 
had no constitutional authority to adopt a better, but have waited 
with impatience your meeting, hoping you would take hold of this- 
subject and adjust it to meet the wants of the Order. 
_ It will be necessary to make some change in your system of depu- 
ties, and provide some additional mode of paying them. During the 
past year we have employed deputies in the dissemination of the 
Order, and the rapid multiplication of the Granges in the Stat- is 
largely due to their efficiency. Up to this time these positions have 
often been sources of revenue to the State Grange, and have always 
been self-sustaining by the dues the deputies received from the new 
Granges ; but such will not be the case in many of the counties that 
have the full number of Granges. In such counties in the future 



64 THE SOUTHERN [February 

the prosperity of the Order is to be expected in conser.ing and 
strengthening the Granges already in existence. 

I have for some time been impressed with the importance to the 
machinery of our Order of a medium of communication through 
which matters of general interest might be transmitted to our members 
without the tedious, expensive, and laborious process of private cor- 
respondence. The necessity of some such medium induced the Ex- 
ecutive Committee to issue a circular letter to the subordinate 
Granges tending to the establishment of an organ to the Order. 
The proposition received favor from many of the Granges, but find- 
ing it would not be possible to establish such a paper before this our 
annual meeting, induced them to make terms with Dr. Dickinson, 
the proprietor of the Southern Planter and Farmer, with Colonel 
F. G. Ruffin as editor, to be used as the organ until our meeting, 
when we were induced to believe it would receive that consideration 
and favor at your hands that would result in permanently establish- 
ing a paper for the Order. It is needed not only as a channel of 
communication between the officers of the State Grange, but the 
members of the Order feel the want of an organ, through which they 
may confer with each other. The tendency of a common organ will 
be to unite the farmers and build up the Order throughout the State. 
We shall through its columns become better acquainted, and be 
brought more in svmpathv with each other. Its regular visits will 
increase our interest in the Granges by keeping us constantly advised 
of its progress. I do not propose to discuss the advantages of an 
organ, or the plan upon which one shall be conducted, but to ask that 
it receive such consideration at your hands as its importance demands. 

I call your attention to the necessity of taking some action by 
which your State, district, and county subordinate Granges can be 
cheaply incorporated. It would afford protection and security to the 
property of the Grange, and patrons would be indemnified against 
any loss in their business transaction with their business agents. 

Among the subjects that will claim your attention, there is probably 
none of more practical importance than that of commercial fertili- 
zers. The amount of money annually expended by the farmers of 
Virginia in their purchase, and the extent of fraud which is being 
practiced upon them by speculators in the sale of worthless com- 
pounds, is startling and alarming. Still, I feel confident that com- 
mercial fertilizers will be largely used by our farmers, notwithstand- 
ing all the frauds practiced upon them. I feel satisfied that success- 
ful agriculture in our State can only be attained by a liberal use of 
an honestly made superphosphate, sold at reasonable rates. I claim 
it is a duty we owe ourselves and the whole agricultural interest of 
the country to attempt some means of reforming the frauds and 
abuses of the trade in the articles. 

I am aware this subject received much of your attention in the 
subordinate Granges. Your Executive Committee has disposed of 
this 8 abject in its sessions, and have taken steps as far as they could 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 65 

to protect you ; but they had no authority to inaugurate means to 
entirely relieve you. And if they had they would have been unable 
to pledge your co-operation and support, which would have been 
necessary to have insured success, but were confined in their labors 
to making the best terms they could with existing manufacturers to 
furnish you their own superphosphates, made by their own formulas, 
trusting and believing when you met in annual session you wonld 
give this great subject the consideration its importance demands - 

I return you my sincere thanks for your prompt and timely relief 
rendered the destitute and suffering members of our Order in Louis- 
iana. Little do we know the suffering and grief that was turned to 
gladness in those destitute sections of our Southern countrv bv the 
timely assistance rendered by our Order. Again are we called upon 
by our destitute and suffering brotherhood in Nebraska, caused bv 
the ravages of the grasshopper. Many sections of the State were 
left a perfect waste. Without timely aid none can tell the suffering 
of those people during the present winter. I know you will be swift 
in discharging so holy a duty, and in so doing exhibiting the truth 
of holy Scripture, when it declares that it is more blessed to give 
than to receive. Such acts of brotherly kindness will commend our 
Order to the patriot and philanthropist. 

The year just closed (the first of the Order in the State) has been 
one of organization. It has taken almost our entire time. With 
thorough organization our business relations would be more"easilv 
adjusted. Now, to you, gentlemen, the chosen representatives of 
the Order, is assigned the duty of shaping and perfecting our busi- 
ness relations. This is an important and responsible trust. In your 
hands is the destiny of this Order in Virginia. With you it rests to 
be seen if agriculturists can form co-operative associations. The 
Order is looking anxiously, but with confidence, and hope you can, 
and in your wisdom will, inaugurate some system of agricultural re- 
form that will work their own sustenation, and instill new life and 
energy throughout this old and great Commonwealth. Patrons, I 
believe we can. We have already much to encourage us in this 
great work in which we are engaged. 

My confidence is unshaken and increasing in this Order. L'pon 
the agricultural prosperity of the country rests all true natural pros- 
perity. A more enlightened and higher development of agriculture 
does not only benefit the agriculturist, but throws a corresponding 
benefit upon all other trades and professions. I firmly believe this 
Order, with the blessing of Providence, is destined to do much to- 
wards renovating and restoring society, and purifying the political 
atmosphere of this whole country. Already is seen sectional preju- 
dices receding under the influence of its enlightened rays. If we, 
as agriculturists, identified in one common interest, united in one 
common brotherhood, knowing no North, no South, no East, and no 
West, go forward in our co-operative strength with an honest pur- 
pose of retrenchment and reform, and be true to ourselves and the 



66 THE SOUTHERN [February 



obligations we have taken, no one can tell the career of usefulness 
that await? this great Order. Then let me, in the name of the Order 
and the great interests you represent, invoke your earnest attention 
to the business before you. 

REPORT OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

The Executive Committee made quite a lengthy report, -which our 
limited space prevents us from publishing. It urges the procurance 
of a charter from the Legislature for the State Grange, reciting the 
advantages which will accrue therefrom ; notices the appointment of 
certain business agents : states that the State Grange of North Car- 
olina has adopted the agents appointed in Richmond, Norfolk, and 
Petersburg : states what has been done in the matter of an organ 
for the Order, and gives a general review of the business done by 
the committee since the last annual meeting and the business arrange- 
ments for the future. 

Adjourned to 10 A. M.. 14th January. 

SECOND DAY. 

The Grange was opened by Master J. W. White at the time to 
which it adjourned. 

A number of members presented themselves and had their names 
enrolled. 

TiwTreasurer and Secretary each made their annual reports, and 
they were respectively referred to their appropriate committees. 

The Special Committee to whom was referred the report of the 
Executive Committee made a report which is crowded out. 

Quite an animated discussion arose during the morning hour upon 
sundry propositions memorializing the National Grange to so alter 
the law as to allow other than Masters of subordinate Granges to 
represent them in the State Grange. The memorials were finally 
adopted. 

TRANSPORTATION COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 

Tne Committee on Transportation made the following report, which 
was unanimously adopted and ordered to be printed : 

The Committee on Transportation made the following report, 
which was unanimously adopted and ordered to be published : 

Tiie Committee on Transportation have had under consideration 
the subject referred to them, and beg leave to submit the following 
report to the Convention: 

One jrreat evil under which the agriculture of our State and of the 
whole country is languishing is the want of proper facilities for 
transportation. The expenses of transportation in some instances 
are so great as to prohibit absolutely the movement of the products 
of the soil ; in others, a large portion of the value of such products 
is paid to the transporter. In the remote West and Northwest it is 
not uncommon to burn corn for fuel. The farmer cannot afford to 
send his corn to the Eastern market, and he cannot afford to pay the 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 67 

cost of moving to his farm the coal or the wood which he requires. 
We are told in the report (see page 147) of the Senate Select Com- 
mittee on Transportation routes to the Seaboard that it costs now 
more than 45 cents to send a bushel of wheat from the Mississippi 
to the seaboard ; and the Western farmer represents that, with 
proper transportation facilities, it ought not to cost more than 20 
cents. This is for a distance of (say) 1,500 miles. Forty-five 
cents a bushel for 1,200 miles is $15 a ton and 1J cents per ton 
per mile. This the Western farmer complains of, and justlv ; 
for it is perfectl\ r true that the work ou^ht to be done, as he 
alleges, for 20 cents a bushel, which is but little over 5 mills 
per ton per mile. The Virginia farmer pays on his wheat and 
corn, and other products, on an average from 4 to 5 cents per 
ton per mile to get them to market. For a hundred miles the aver- 
age charge is about 85 per ton, or about 15 cents a bushel. If the 
charge for transportation were only 1 cent per ton per mile, instead 
of 5, the saving on each bushel for 100 miles would be 12 cents. If 
we suppose the average wheat crop of Virginia to be 10,000,000 
bushels, and that only one-third of it is moved one hundred miles, 
the annual tax on the farmer in this article alone amounts to $400,- 
000 — the exorbitant charges on our corn, and our tobacco, and all 
of our other farm products to be added. It is a reasonable conjecture 
that the farmers of Virginia, in their present struggling and impov- 
erished condition, pay an annual tax of this sort of a million and a 
half or two millions of dollars to the railroads. It is replied by the 
railroad companies that they cannot work at lower rates and main 
tain their roads. It is true, however, that at the present time, the 
Chesapeake and Ohio railroad is transporting wheat from Huntington 
to Richmond for 15 cents a bushel, which (the distance being 421 
miles) is about 11 mills per ton 'per mile. And yet, from Louisa 
Courthouse, or Charlottesville, or Staunton, the charge is, we believe, 
about 5 cents a ton a mile. It is the same with coal : The Chesa- 
peake and Ohio road is delivering Quinnimont coal at its wharves in 
Richmond to vessels at the rate of 1 cent per ton per mile for the 
transportation. It appears, therefore, that our railroads are work- 
ing for 10 or 11 mills per ton per mile for those outside of the State, 
while our own people have to pay five times these prices for the 
transportation of their products and that of the commodities 
purchased and consumed by them. It it evident that either 
the railroads can work for 1 cent per ton per mile, or that the losses 
incurred by them on their through traffic are made up by laying ad- 
ditional burdens on the farmers of the State. In the State of New 
York the Erie Canal has always been the regulator of the railroads, 
and invariably, as the winter sets in, and the canal is blocked by ice, 
they put up their rates 40 per cent. It is believed that the comple- 
tion of the James River Canal Avould have a similar effect in Vir- 
ginia. The rates of transportation by water are necessarily cheaper 
than the railroads can afford ; and a river-course or a canal has this 



68 THE SOUTHERN [February 



marked advantage over a railroad or a number of railroads ; that 
the latter invariably become a monopoly, while the water-course is 
like a public highway on which all may travel. The rates of trans- 
portation on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers when there is plenty of 
water are not more than H or 2 mills per ton per mile. The pre- 
sent rates on the Erie canal, exclusive of tolls, are about 8 mills per 
ton per mile by the horse-boats. But the rates on this canal are 
considerably greater than they would otherwise be, in consequence 
of the boats being compelled to lie idle four and a half months in the 
year. The season of navigation i=; only some two hundred and twenty- 
five days. The charge on a bushel of wheat from Buffalo to New 
Y ork has been for the past five year3 about 12 cents, including tolls. 
A great revolution is now in progress, however, on the Erie canal. 
After continued experiments for five years, it has been demonstrated, 
beyond all doubt, that steam can be successfully substituted for 
animal power, and already there are some ten or twelve steam-pro- 
pellers running on the canal. These during the past season have 
been, it is stated by a New York paper, carrying wheat from Buffalo 
to New York for 5 cents a bushel, which is less than half the charges 
by the horse boats. These steamers make also double the speed made 
by the horse-boats, and are securing return cargoes of general mer- 
chandize, which have heretofore been monopolized by the railroads. 

The scheme for the completion of the James River and Kanawha 
eanal contemplates much larger boats than those now used on the Erie 
canal; and this will also materially diminish the cost of transportation. 
It is believed that with boats of 34 and 35 tons and steam on the canals, 
the charges, including the tolls, would not exceed 4 mills per ton per 
miles; while the opening of such a communication between tide-water 
and the iron-fields of Virginia, and the coal-fields of West Virginia 
would develop branches of industry in the valley of James river whose 
beneficent influences would strengthen and add to the prosperity of 
the whole State. Every day is adding new confirmation to the won- 
derful character of the mineral deposits which extend from Louisa 
and Orange and Buckingham to the capital of West Virginia. The 
Quinnimont coal vein, which has been just opened between the 
Hawk's Nest and Meadow river, is yielding a coal which is regarded 

superior to the Connellsville coal for cooking purposes, and as supe- 
rior to the Cumberland coal for steaming purposes. The tobacco man- 
ufacturers in Richmond are discarding the Cumberland coal and 
using the Quinnimont. One iron furnace, yielding 10,000 tons of 
pig-iron a year, is said to be worth $100,000 in the way of annual 
revenue to a railroad which passes by it. And if it be true, as we 
have reason to believe it is, that pig-iron on the line of the canal can 
be manufactured for far less than the present cost outside of Virginia, 
we may fairly calculate on seeing such furnaces springing up, as they 
are now doing on the line of the Chesapeake and Ohio railroad. 

While it is obvious from the foregoing statement that the comple- 
tion of the water line to the Ohio river would greatly diminish the 



1875.J PLANTER AND FARMER. 69 

cost o:' transportation in and through the State, it is equally plain 
that it can only be constructed by the Federal Government, for not 
only is the State prohibited by its Constitution from making ap- 
propriations to works of internal improvement, but the impoverished 
condition of our peopler enders all investments in any such enterprise 
hopeless. Nor "will it do to rely on the old and hackneyed recourse of 
of appealing to the communities, in and out of the cities, to guarantee 
the bonds of a bankrupt company that has long ceased to meet its' 
obligations, and whose receipts barely suffice to meet its necessary 
expenditures. Indeed, other considerations apart, the interest on 
the debt of the incorporated cities becomes every year more and 
more onerous, and no hope can be entertained of constraining or in- 
ducing them to make such guarantee except by arraying the united 
vote of the pauper class against the property-holders. If any ap- 
propriations can be made to works of internal improvement by the 
General Government it is easy to demonstrate that this great water- 
line is entitled to paramount consideration by that Government, as 
it must become the chief highway from the great West to the sea- 
board. 

The abuses of the present railroad system are too notorious to re- 
quire proof. They are run in the interest of companies — most of 
them foreign to the State — and thev have never been known to have 
been visited by a generous impulse, or to feel either remorse or pity. 
Thev are ready (it is the genius of trade) to sacrifice the State, the cities 
of the State, and the individual citizen, to any arrangement which 
will benefit the limited rings who control them. One of them has 
spent (on paper) fabulous sums of money to reach its terminus — a 
sum so great that none of us (who are mere lookers-on) can by any 
ingenuity account for the expenditure. The city of Richmond was 
frightened into making it a present at the last moment of $300,000. 
In favor of another the State has practically surrendered within a 
few years §400,000 on the express condition that it should complete a 
connection running west ; and the first spade has not yet been stuck 
in the ground, although the period set for the completion of the work 
has passed. One is owned in Baltimore, two in New York, a fourth 
in Pennsylvania, and two others are owned by a majority of stock- 
holders residing in the northern States and in Europe ; and, while 
remote from each other, are under the same management and con- 
trol. One of them, having been guaranteed by the State against 
competition for thirty years, needs no protection now, and defies op- 
position. Most of them disregard their obligation and utterly ig- 
nore the maturity of their bonds ; and three of them have failed to 
meet their interest ; while the fourth only accomplished this labor by 
systematically neglecting to pay its employees, and came among us 
originally with a parade of virtue which the other Northern companies 
did not pretend to. 

It is a notorious fact that notwithstanding the exorbitant charges 
on transportation over all of these roads no effort is made to economize 
their expenditures, but, on the contrary, the cost of administration 



70 THE SOUTHERN [February 

is increasing steadily and enormously. No dividends are declared to 
the stockholders, as the tendency of exorbitant charges is necessarily 
to drive off business, and the management, which absorbs all of the 
profits, seems to be satisfied if their salaries are paid. On some of 
these roads the salaries have been greatly increased, if not doubled, 
since the close of the war, and are greatly disproportioned to those 
paid for similar, and in many instances greater services, requiring 
higher qualifications and the discharge of more important. duties to 
the State and the country. The salary of the Governor of the 
State is 3-5,000 ; that of Attorney-General, $2,000 ; the Judges of 
the Court of Appeals, $3,000 each, with the addition of $200 to be 
paid to the president ; while the salaries paid to railroad presidents 
in this State before the recent panic ranged from $5,000 to $25,000 
each per annum ; the counsel for the railroads are paid as much as 
$5,000 per annum with assistant counsel at the rate of several thou- 
sand dollar in addition And some of these roads have vice-presidents, 
also receiving large salaries, besides members of the Board of Directors, 
who are also paid officers. In addition to these extraordinary expen- 
ditures each road has an army of friends riding ad libitum on free 
passes, and, perhaps, subsidized thereby to sustain them whenever 
and wherever necessary, and burdening the cost of transportation to 
the detriment of those who pay for it in money. These privileged 
classes embrace officers of the Government, and particularly mem- 
bers of the Legislature and their families during their term of ser- 
vice. Is it remarkable that the legitimate owners and patrons of 
these roads should reap little or no profit under the above condition 
of affairs, or that our legislative bodies should present a scene of 
bitter and acrimonious railroad contests and struggles, periodically, 
concerning which charges are rife, and generally credited, impugning 
the honor and integrity of members, ,and degrading our State in the 
estimation of the world ? Is it not manifest that large sums of 
money are expended by these railroad corporations in paying law- 
yers and lobbyists, if not in bribing members themselves, to pro- 
mote their schemes by corrupt legislation ? Where does the money 
come from for these purposes if not from the earnings of the roads ? 
And when and upon what road have the stockholders authorized 
such expenditures? The fact is that the people in many counties of 
the State, elect, but do not control, their delegates, who practically 
take service under the several railroad organizations in the State, 
and look to them for reward in one shape or another. Public 
opinion has ceased to be strong enough to prevent or control this 
evil, and one of the paramount duties of the Patrons of Husbandry 
is to use their immense power to cleanse the legislative branch of 
the Government of this festering sore and moral leprosy. 

We congratulate our Order that with singular unanimity at the 
last annual meeting; of the Grange it voted down a motion to ask or 
accept free passes from the railroads for the use of its members. 

Lewis E. Harvib, \ „ ... 
William M. Ambler, j 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 71 



At the hour of 12 the special order of the day being the consid- 
eration of the constitution and by-laws, was taken up, and proceeded 
with to the hour of adjournment. 

EVENING SESSION. 

During the previous sessions a large number of resolutions rela- 
tive to the inspection-laws, dog-laws, immigration, &c, &c, had been 
read and appropriately referred. Up to the close of the session 
last night, only one or two of these committees had reported. 

Last night resolutions of sympathy with Col. F. G. Ruffin in the 
destruction of his stable by incendiarism on the night before were 
presented and passed. 

The resolution also looked to memorializing the Legislature to 
pass more stringent laws to stop this crime. The last resolution, 
as was also one offering a reward for the incendiary, were referred. 

The committee appointed to present to the committee of the 
Legislature the resolutions adopted by the Grange on the subject 
of Inspections of Tobacco, reported that they had performed that 
duty. 

The further consideration of the constitution was resumed, and 
continued up to the time of adjournment without having reached a 
vote on it as a whole. 

At 10 o'clock the Grange adjourned until January 15. 

THIRD DAY MORNING SESSION. 

The constitution adopted by the Grange Thursday night having 
to some extent altered the duties of officers, and they having been 
elected one year ago for two years, in order to leave the Grange un- 
trammelled, all the permanent officers resigned, and the Grange 
went into the election of officers with the following result : Master, 
Col. J. W. White,* of Charlotte county ; Overseer, Thomas T. 
Tredway, of Prince Edward ; Lecturer, J. W. Morton,* of Char- 
lotte ; Steward, Gen. Wm. McCorab, of Louisa ; Assistant Steward, 
J. B. Dunn, of Washington county; Chaplain, Rev. John C. Black- 
well, D.D., of Bubkingham ; Treasurer, W. B. Westbrook, of Pe- 
tersburg ; Secretary, M. W. TIazlewood, of Henrico ; Gatekeeper, 
Martin B. Hancock, of Charlotte ; Ceres, Mrs. Thomas Homer,* 
Flora, Mrs. J. W. Lewellen ;* Pomona, Mrs. M. W. Hazlewood ;* 
Lady Assistant Steward, Mrs. T. 0. Graves.* 

Before concluding the election of officers the Grange took a recess 
until 3 o'clock. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

At this session the Grange proceeded to fix the salaries of the 
several officers of the body. Much time was consumed in this pro- 
ceeding, but they were finally placed at the following figures : 

Master : $500 per year and expenses. 

* Re-elected. 



-■:. THE SOUTHERN [February 

hirer : $&per diem and six cents per mile traveled in the per- 
formance of his duty. 

T- ■•' ■- : $600 per year and expert 
$1,000 per year. 

hairman, $300 per annum; the other 
members. $2 

- concluded all the amendments to the -titution which had 
ration, and the question then recurring on 
its acceptance as a whole, it was unanimously adopted. 

7 N8T1TUTMHT. 

le I — yam-e. — ill be known and distinguished as 4i The 

V;: : State Grange of I Husl andry." 

Akticle II — T. -he Order of the Patrons of Husbandry." 

as publish Grange. :• ted and adopted as the 

fund . subordinate Granges, so far as the same 

may be a: 

DDE — Members. — The State Grange shall be composed of Masters of 
Sabo: _ are Matrons. 

ind their wi tie honorary members, and 

shall be eligible to ofEce. but n I to vote. 

[V — Meetings. — This Grange shall hold regular annual meet: 
second Tuesday in Jannary, at such place as the Grange may, from time to 

ga may be called by the Master, with the approbation of the Ex- 
I be called by the Master upon the application of 
fifty Masters of 9 _ -. In either case, written notice shall be 

given 1 B ibordinate - receding. 

I. at any time, by a Tote of the Grange at 
ng. 

red and fifty members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction 
• a less number may adjoarn from day to day. 
— . — The offi :.nge shall be the same in name 

and - nal and Subordinate Granges. They shall be chosen 

.re elected and installed. 

- - a or otherwise, must be filled by a special election 

Officers so chosen shall serve during the unex- 

m filled. 

"I. — hull l — £ 1- It shall be the duty of the Master 

to open and preside at all meetings of the Grange, and with the concunence of 

. the application of fifty Masters of Subordi- 
_ . i He shall see that all or- 

ders and reaola : ~d by the State Grange are duly executed ; decide ques- 

tion- -.al law during the re ! give general super- 

m to all n »rder, and report in full ail his official 

. _ recommendations for the good of 
:3eras may occur to hiru. 
2 Q the duty of I Jerta assist the Master in preserving 

ord- :. from death, resignation or otherwise, 

he s:- m all the duties of that office. 

Hie dot rer shall be to visit, for the good of the Order, 

such ■• ' bS " " if " r the Grange may direct : he shall in- 

uties in the unwritten work of the Order, and shall report to the 

F Sabc rdinate Granges with regard to the Ritual and un- 

- e duty of the Steward to have charge of the inner gate. 
"•. The Assistant Steward shall assist the Steward in the performance of 

" shall be the duty of the Chaplain to lead in the devotional services 
of the Grange. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 



73 



c'Jtn% If JL p i £ °f - he Treasure . r t0 audit - adjust and certify all ac- 

counts ot the Grange, and all claims against it, previous to their bein°- paid • to 
receive from the hands of the Secretary all moneys coming into his°hands at d 

n LT" eyS remitt6d T him ^ T ; eas , urers of Subordinate Granges, and from any 
other source, giving his receipt for the same. y 

«^ e f 8h ?" de f osit , a11 funds of th e Grange in such bank or banks as may from 
time to time be selected by the Executive Committee, and shall pay them out 
only on the order of the Master, countersigned by the Secretary 
therefor r6mit pr ° mptly a11 dueS to the Natioiial Grange, and obtain receipts 

He shall render a full account of his office to the Grange at each meeting, and 
' w u i, i succes 1 sor a11 moneys, books and papers pertaining to his office 

He shall also send receipts for moneys received from Subordinate Granges to 
the Ireasurers of the Subordinate Granges and duplicates to the Secretaries of 
Subordinate Granges, who shall forward such duplicate receipts to the Secretary 
ot the Mate Grange in their quarterly reports. 

Before entering on the duties of his office, he shall give bond in a sufficient 
amount to secure the moneys that may be placed in his hands, with securities to 
be approved by the Executive Committee. Said bond shall be held by the Mas- 
ter, m trust tor the Grange. 

Sec. 8. The Secretary shall keep an accurate record of all the proceedings of 
the Grange, and make out all necessary returns to the National Grange He 
shall keep the accounts of the Subordinote Granges, and pay over monthly to 
the Ireasurer all moneys coming into his hands, and take a receipt for the same. 
Me shall also keep a complete register of the numbers and names of all Subor- 
dinate Granges, and the names and addresses of the Masters and Secretaries 
and furnish the Treasurers and Secretaries of Subordinate Granges with the ne- 
cessary blanks for making their reports. 

He shall be present at all meetings of the Executive Committee, and act as 
their Secretary. He shall also give bond in such amount as the Executive Com- 
mute e may determine, said bond to be adjusted, secured, approved and depos- 
ited with the Master, as in case of the Treasurer. P 

erl SeC uard I d Sha11 ^ ^ dUtJ ° f ^ Gatekee P er to see that tne g at es are prop- 
Sec. 10 When a Chorister has been chosen, it shall be his duty to provide 
music and lead in singing, as indicated in the Ritual, 
shalf eS YU ~ I]lections -~ A]l Sections shall be by ballot, and a majority vote 

Article VIII— Committees— Sec. 1. All committees, unless otherwise ordered, 
shall consist of three members, and shall be appointed by the Master. 
A ♦ % \ l\\ eacn meeting, a committee on Finance shall be appointed, whose 
duty it shall be to audit all accounts with the Grange quarterly, and report an- 
nually. Io it shall be referred the reports of the Secretary, Treasurer and Dep- 
uties tor examination. v 

♦*, S c C / 3 " ^ here sha11 be an Executive Committee, consisting of the Master of 
kill I ran f e ' and four additional members elected by ballot, one of whom 
shall be elected for one year, one for »wo years, one for three years, and one for 
tour years, and at each succeeding regular annual meeting of the State Grange, 
one member shall be elected to take the place of him whose term then expires 
Ihe chairman of the Executive Committee shall be chosen by the committee 
each year. It shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to provide for the 
good ot the Order in business matters, and they shall have authority to act in all 
J^u <L whe £? actl0Ii may be necessary, to carry out the resolves and directions 
oi the Mate Grange, but in no other matters. 

_ All action on the part of the Executive Committee shall be decided on only 
in a regular meeting of the committee, and composed of a majority of its mem- 
bers All the acts of the Executive Committee shall be subject to the approval 
ot the State Grange, to which they shall make a full and detailed report in writ- 
ing not later than the third day of each meeting. 

Article IX— Quarterly Dues.— The Secretary shall see that the Secretaries 
and Ireasurers ot Subordinate Granges make their quarterly reports promptly 
and that the quarterly dues of Subordinate Granges are promptly paid, and in 
case the dues remain delinquent two quarters, the delinquent Grange shall be re- 
ported to the Master of the State Grange. On receiving such notice, it shall be 



74 THE SOUTHERN [February 

the duty of the Master to warn the delinquent Grange : and if the dues are not 
forwarded within thirty days it shall be the duty of the Master to advi ? e the Mas- 
ter of the National Grange of such delinquency and recommend the revocation 
of the charter of the delinquent Grange. But any Grange whose charter has 
been thus revoked may petition the State Grange tor re-instatement. 

Secretaries of Subordinate Granges, in their reports to the Secretary of /he 
Grange, shall report: 1st. total number of members ; 2d. amount due for 
quarterly dr.es : 3d. number and names of persons on whom degress have been 
conferred since last report; 4th. amount due for degrees conferred since last re- 
port: 5th. number and names of members withdrawn to join other Granges; 
6th, the number and names of members allowed to withdraw from the Order ; 
8th, the number and names of members dismissed from the Order; 9th, the 
amount paid to the Treasurer of the State Grange. 

Article X — Withdrawal. — Any member of a Subordinate Grange who is in 
good standing and clear on the books of the Secretary, shall be entitled to a 
withdrawal card upon the payment of twenty-five cents, which card shall be valid 
six months. Persons bearing such cards may be admitted, within the period of 
six months from the date thereof, to membership in another Subordinate Grange 
without additional fees, but shall be subject to the same forms of petition, inves- 
tigation and ballot as those first applying for membership, except that a majority 
vote elects or rejects them. 

Article XI — Visiting Cards. — Visiting cards shall be granted to members in 
good standing and clear on the books of the Grange, upon application made in 
open Grange at any meeting, provided the ones shall be paid in advance for the 
term for which said visiting card shall be granted. 

Article XII — Applications. — Sec. 1. Persons making applications for mem- 
bership in our Order shall apply to the Subordinate Grange nearest to them, un- 
less good and sufficient reasons exist for doing otherwise. In such case the 
Grange applied to shall not proceed to ballo: upon the application until the con- 
sent of said nearest Grange shall be obtained. 

Sec. 2. Any person applying for membership in a Grange and being rejected, 
shall not be eligible to membership in that or any other Grange for six months 
after such rejection. 

Article XIII — Location. — Granges shall not be formed nearer than six miles 
to each other, except by the consent of all the Granges interested, and with the 
approval of the Master of the State Grange. 

Article XIV — Consolidation. — Two or more Granges desiring to consolidate 
under on? charter may do so by the unanimous consent and approval of the Mas- 
ter of the State Grange. In such cases, the surrendered charter, or charters, 
shall be transmitted to the Secretary of the State Grange, with the fact of such 
consolidation endorsed upon it. signed by the Masters of all the Granges inter- 
ested, and by the Master of the State Grange. 

Article XV — Deputies. — There shall be appointed by the Master of the State 
Grange one Deputy in each county, when a proper person can be found, whose 
duty it shall be to organize new Granges on application, and to install the officers 
at the time of organization. 

Deputies shall receive for organizing new Granges within their counties six 
cents per mile for each mile necessarily traveled, and five dollars for each 
Grange organized, to be paid from the charter fee of the new Grange. For ad- 
ditional labor required by the Master of the State Grange, Deputies shall re- 
ceive three dollars a day and six cents a mile each way, to be paid from the 
treasury of the State Grange. Deputies shall be appointed for one year, but 
shall be subject to removal for cause by the Master of State Grange. 

Article XVI — Business Bureau. — One Chief of L'ureau shall be elected by 
the State Grange. He shall have the power to appoint clerks and agents in his 
Bureau at such points as he may deem necessary, subject to the approval of the 
Master of the State Grange. He shall assign appropriate duties to such agents, 
and remove such agents and change such localities for cause, to be reported to 
the Master of the State Grange. He shall re| ort quarterly to the Executive 
Committee nil his operations, to be laid before the Grange at the annual meet- 
ings thereof, and shall have charge of such business operations in. selling and 
purchasing as may be placed in his hands by the members of the Order. He 
shall be removable from office upon the motion of the Master by a four fifths 
vote of the Executive Committee for misfeasance or malfeasance iu office only. 



1875.] 



PLANTER AND FARMER. 75 



He shall have the general oversight of all the business connected with his Bu- 
reau ; shall prepare and send out monthly to each Subordinate Grange in the 
State confidential price-lists, giving the best terms upon which Patrons can buy 
and sell in the different markets of the United States, with the expense of 
freight as far as practicable; and he shall act in concert with business agents of 
other State Granges. For his compensation, he shall receive a salary of two 
thousand dollars per annum, payable out of the treasury of the State Grange. 
Before entering upon the duties of his office, he shall give bond in such penalty 
and with such securities as may be prescribed and approved by the Executive 
Committee, conditioned for the faithful performance of the duties of his office. 
He shall hold his office for two years, and until his successor is duly elected and 
qualified, unless removed therefrom as above provided for. In case of the re- 
signation, death or removal of the Chief of Bureau, his place shall be filled upon 
the nomination by the Master and the concurrence of four-fifths of the Executive 
Committee. The successor so appointed shall hold his office only until the 
next annual meeting of the State Grange. 

The clerks and agents appointed by the Chief of Bureau shall give bonds for 
the faithful performance and discharge of their several duties, the amouut of 
said bond and securities thereon to be fixed by the Executive Committee, and 
they shall be paid by a percentage upon the business transacted by the Bureau, 
such percentage in each case to be fixed by the Executive Committee. The said 
clerks*and agents shall also pay into the treasury of the State Grange a tax upon 
the commissions thus received. Such tax shall be fixed in each case by the Ex- 
ecutive Committee, and shall be in the aggregate enough to pay the salary and 
expenses of the Chief of Bureau. 

The Chief of Bureau and all persons appointed by him in the business of his 
Bureau shall be members of the Order. 

Article XVII — Order. — " Cushing's Manual, 1 ' as recommended by the Na- 
tional Gra: ge, shall be the authority for all points of order in this Grange. 

Article XVIII — Salaries — Sec. 1. The Master of this Grange shall receive 
for his services a salary of five hundred dollars per annum, and expenses. 

See. 2. The Lecturer shall receive for his services three hundred dollars per 
annum, and 6 cents per mile travelled in the performance of his duty, to be paid 
quarterly out of the treasury of the State Grange. 

Sec. 3. The Treasurer shall receive for his services a salary of six hundred dol- 
lars per annum and expenses, to be paid quarterly from the treasury of the State 
Grange. 

Sec. 4. The Secretary shall receive for his services a salary of one thousand 
dollars per annum, to be paid quarterly from the treasury of the State Grange. 

Sec. 5. The chairman of the Executive Committee shall receive a salary of 
three hundred dollars per annum, to be paid quarterly from the treasury of the 
State Grange ; and each of the other members of the Executive Committee shall 
receive a salary of two hundred dollars, to be paid in like manner. 

Article XIX — Amendments, — This Constitution may be amended or revised 
at any regular meeting of the State Grange by a vote of two-thirds of the mem- 
bers present. 

Lewis E. Harvib, ") 

W. M. Ambler, > Committee. 

Ho r ace P. Lacy, J 

Under the constitution thus adopted it became necessary to elect 
a general agent, to whom much of the mercantile interests of the 
members of the Order throughout the State was entrusted. The 
Grange then proceeded to fill that office, and the choice fell upon 
Mr. J. C. Featherston, of Campbell county. The headquarters of 
this officer will be in this city, with agents appointed throughout the 
State, with whom the office there will be in constant correspondence, 
and in close intercourse and communication. 

The Grange then went into the election of members of the Exec- 
utive Committee, with the following result: First year, L. R. Rag- 
land, of Halifax county. Second year, A. M. Moore, of Charlotte 



76 THE SOUTHERN [February 

county. Third year, R. V. Gaines, of Charlotte county. Fourth 
year, A. B. Lightner, of Augusta county. 

[Mr. Lewis E. Harvie was nominated and voted for, but stated 
before the vote was taken that he could not serve.] 

This and other matters, reports of special committees, &c, occu- 
pied the time of the Grange until 8 o'clock, at which time it took a 
recess for an hour. 

EVENING SESSION. 

The subjects of fertilizers and banking occupied the attention of 
the Grange throughout the entire evening, and the hour for adjourn- 
ment arrived before any conclusion was reached or definite action 
taken on either subject. 

Adjourned to 10 A. M., 16th January. 

FOURTH DAY. 

The Committee on Insurance reported that they had not, had 
sufficient time to mature a plan for the establishment of a bureau of 
insurance, but at their suggestion it was referred to a special com- 
mittee with orders to report a plan to the Executive Committee at 
an early day. 

The question of an organ was, on motion, referred to the proper 
authority for it to mature some plan for the establishment of a paper 
devoted to the objects of the Order. 

Major R. V. Gaines offered a lengthy preamble and resolutions on 
the financial distress of the agricultural interests, which were briefly 
discussed, and for want of time to consider them, were laid on the 
table. 

A GRANGE BANK. 

A resolution was passed recommmending to the subordinate 
Granges throughout the State the necessity of considering the sub- 
ject of the establishment of a central bank in the city of Richmond 
under the auspices of the State Grange of Virginia as affording a 
means of relief to the financial necessities of the members of the 
Order, and to instruct their several Masters to report to the next 
meeting of the State Grange the amount of stock which has been 
secured in the several subordinate Granges. 

A committee of five was appointed to memorialize the Legislature 
on the subject of immigration. 

There was, as usual at the close of all deliberative bodies, a large 
number of resolutions, motions. &c, offered. Most of them were of 
no interest to the general reader, and are, therefore, omitted from 
this report. These, with personal explanations, the consideration 
and passing of sundry bills for expenses, See., occupied the attention 
of the Grange until 3 o'clock, when it adjourned sine die. 



The Grange Insurance Company, at Muscatine, Iowa, is carrying 
risks to the amount of $200, QUO. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 77 



COMPOSTS. 

A short time ago a friend requested us to give him some directions 
on composts, and in answering his request it occurred to us that the 
subject was worth laying before our readers, whose notions on it must 
be quite crude. If the practice has anywhere obtained of making 
composts cheaply and profitably, we would be greatly obliged if some 
correspondent conversant with the details would furnish them for 
publication. Before the war, Edgecomb county, N. C, had a great 
reputation for success in composts, but we have not had time to hunt 
up the report of it. Here is a copy of the letter we wrote : 
To Thomas Edmunds, Esq., Charlotte: 

Dear Sir: I have your message by Mr. B. asking me to send 
you specific directions for making a compost. I would do it with 
great pleasure if it were possible to give specific directions in the 
absence of specific data. Looking into my books for assistance I 
find Morton's Cyclopedia of Agriculture devotes eight double-col- 
umn folio pages to the subject; and Stockhardt — Chemical Field 
Lectures — devotes fourteen pages octavo to it. Hence it will be seen 
that it is impossible for us to give here more than a few general 
ideas on composts until your wants are more specifically stated. It 
may illustrate the scope of a general inquiry to state that Morton 
says a writer in the Gardener's Chronicle describes the preparation 
of twenty different composts for garden purposes. And the author 
of British Husbandry, tells us/vol. I, p. 433, " There are numberless 
receipts scattered throughout the writings of various theorists, in 
which the quantity and quality of each ingredient in these various 
mixtures are as accurately stated as if they were the medical pre- 
scriptions of physicians. But these are mere qurc^eries, which do 
not merit the attention of practical men." 

A compost is a "manure in which the effects of the aggregate mass 
is greater than the total effect of the several parts would be, if applied 
singly." The substances that go to make composts are earthy re- 
fuse, such as ashes of wood, building rubbish, clay, mud from ditches,. 
lime, plaster, &c. ; vegetable refuse, such as straw, cornstalks, leaves, 
weeds, saw dust, spent tan bark, &c. ; animal refuse, such as dea& 
cows or horses, offal from slaughtered animals, &c. ; and liquid re- 
fuse, such as house and kitchen slops, soapsuds, &c. How shall any 
of these be made into a compost? Not by a haphazard mixture'; 
for certain of them antagonize certain others, and by their influence 
on each other diminish to a serious extent the positive value of the 
2 



78 THE SOUTHERN [February 



whole. Thus the addition of quick time to stable manure -would 
expel ammonia: and the incorporation with it of animal offal would 
produce the same effect by causing a too active fermentation. But 
the addition of an inert earth, which would check, if not wholly 
hinder fermentation, may preserve the volatile parts and enable them 
at the same time to unite with or modify the nature and action of 
other parts. If. for instance, we do not wish to use stable or farm 
pen manure until sometime i fter it has been made; to keep it, per- 
haps, as a top-dressing for wheat or hay grounds, we can preserve it 
by a covering of earth ; and if we have a successive accumulation 
<>f such manure, as from the stable, then we can preserve it by mix- 
incr periodically lavers of manure and lavers of earth. This has 
been sometimes our own. and a doubtful, practice in the winter, when 
the season gave leisure to haul the dirt — alwavs from a short dis- 
tance — the purpose being to break up the mass so that, applied in 
the fall and winter, it would not interfere with gathering the hay by 
the horse rake the next mowing season. 

Some composts enable us to use substances that contain valuable in- 
gredients, which otherwise we would lose. Weeds and leaves which 
sometimes may be conveniently collected in large quantity may be 
retted in compost, especially if quick lime be added, by sprinkling, 
over the successive layers : and in this way the soil may receive lime, 
potash, and a small portion of phosphate of lime, and at the same 
tsme have its mechanical condition improved. Artificial fertilizers 
may sometimes be advantageously composted with a modicum of dry 
clay or leached ashes, and be distributed through a drill with less 
trouble and more effect than in any other way. 

But such processes are. as a rule, very expensive. For generally 
the quantity of the main ingredients is considerable ; and to make 
the mass fully operative it must be watered from time to time with 
manure water or some liquid to promote fermentation, and be turned 
completely several times. Then the amount to be applied to each 
acre is very considerable, and the value of team work involved may 
take away all positive, and more probably, all comparative profit. 
Assuring "says Stockhardt. p. 2o'4," that a cart load of earth isay 
15 cwt.i, is watered five or six times during a summer with good 
urine, perhaps we may be able to incorporate with the former an 
equal weight of the latter. 15 cwt.; how large will be the amount of 
nitrogen which the earth thereby receives, after this has become aga^n 
as dry as at first ? Answer : at most f per cent.; thus it will be only 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 79 

M8th as rich in nitrogen as Peruvian guano. A cart load of this 
strong compost will consequently not be able to exert as much stimu- 
lating effect as 1 cwt. of guano «****» A verj rich ^ 
which a Saxon farmer had prepared from excrement of fowls and 
pigeons, cesspool manure with gypsum, wood ashes and coal ashes 
with frequent moistenings with drainings from a dung-heap, showed 
only a proportion of 11 per cent, of nitrogen (with 4-5ths per cent 
of phosphate of lime and 18 per cent, of organic matter), so that 
1- to lo cwt., or in regard to soluble nitrogen, double the quantity 
ot it, gave a manuring equivalent to 1 cwt. of Peruvian guano * 

Among us 10 to 12 four-horse wagon loads of farm-pen or stable 
manure-60 bushels to the load-is considered a fair dressing for 
land in fair heart under ordinary crops: much more, of course for 
vegetables or heavy tobacco. But the addition of the same amount 
ot earth will not make the manure doubly as rich; and though it 
may help the quality by saving waste of ammonia, quicken certain 
inert substances in the general mass, and aid the effect of the whole 
by a more uniform distribution, yet whether all this will balance the 
cost of the extra labor is a question which the judicious farmer must 
decide for himself. 

Here is the result in Scotland, where labor is cheaper, and skill 
both in head and hand greater than with us. Stephens Farmers' 
Omde vol. 1 p. 472, "speaking from experience" tells us that 
though most favorably situated, with the command of abundant ma 
terials, vegetable and mineral, collected at a season of comparative 
leisure, put together in the best manner, and turned at the proper 
times with the greatest care, forty or fifty cart loads-tons-of com- 
post and did produce as much effect as twelve cart loads " (about one- 
fourth) « of good muck "-farm manure. « The manual labor " he 
says, he "managed easily enough, but the horse labor was overpower- 
ing, and, "he concludes," to incur such an expense for the pro- 
blematical good to be derived from composts above guano or bone- 
dust, which are easily carried, i. e. handled, is more than the most 
sanguine farmer is warranted in bestowing." 

With such statements from high authority, the farmer among us 
who wishes to make composts on any large scale, should consider very 
carefully the relations of land, labor and production, as well as the 

*These extracts may throw some light on the subject-the failure ofThTTnT 
nure from earth closets-on which our Henrico friend M. wrote a short « 
mcation in the last number of the Planter Prolnhlv th » „„„ f V' 101t c oi ? ma - 
too small, the bulk and not the qua^y being tnegu^e qUaDtl * y aPphed Was 



80 THE SOUTHERN [February 

constituents be may wish to add, and the degree of amendment his 
labor will produce. He would do well to confine himself to accurate 
experiments on a small scale. These would be cheap and instructive; 
and some of them might be very valuable. 

We hear occasionally of another kind of compost, perhaps it would 
be more proper to say compound, that is contemplated by some of our 
farmers, mainly those who have been cheated in the kind or quality 
of certain commercial fertilizers, or who think the best are too dear 
at the price. Their wish is to purchase in a concentrated form the 
various ingredients they think their land needs, and compound them 
for themselves. It cannot be done. The honest men who make ferti- 
lizers have found out the cheapest sources of these ingredients, and 
use them without addition or adulteration. Blood, flesh, fish, dried 
to a proper degree, phosphates in some of their combination.* as bone — 
fossil or mineral — and sulphuric acid are what they nse : some of 
them adding to their mixtures more or less of potash in the shape of 
kainit or German salts, of more or less potash strength. A man who 
buys in quantities just sufficient for his own use. sulphate of ammonia 
or nitrate of soda, (the richest practical ammonia substances), and 
Charleston rock and sulphuric acid, and kainit, and makes his own 
fertilizer, will pay more because he buys at retail, is just as apt to be 
cheated through his own ignorance or the design of dealers, and will 
be apt to have an inferior fertilizer from want of proper appliances, or 
from ignorance of the formula he should employ. Or let such a man, if 
he wants to come doAvn to essences, inquire of the druggists, who alone 
can tell him the prices of ammonia, phosphoric acid and caustic potash, 
and if he can afford to buy them, as he cannot, let him try to work 
them up with lime and earth. We think he will find that he might 
as well attempt to save money by buying pure alcohol and diluting it 
down to the ''proof" of good whiskey. The cost of concentrating 
such things to an essence is greater than the cost of transporting the 
substances from which the manufacturer distills them. 

The man who thinks otherwise had hotter invest at first in a small 
experiment and note the comparative result. 

F. G. Ruffin. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

BAD EFFECTS OF FERTILIZER.-. 

The majority of the farmers in the State of Virginia are spend- 
ing large amounts of money in the purchase of manipulated guanos, 
to be used upon their wheat, corn and grass crops, and in doing this 



1875.J PLANTER AND FARMER. 81 

they are surely erecting the stumbling block upon which many must 
in the end fall and be crushed. They are sowing to failure, and a 
failure they will surely reap. ''Let us reason together " about the 
good and bad effects produced by the continued use of the much 
praised guanos. Do they do the land any real good? You will 
say that by an application of from 250 to 500 pounds per acre you 
will be enabled to raise 20 to 30 bushels of wheat per acre. Admit 
it. Is your land in as good condition after the crop has been taken 
off as it was before the application 1 I think it exceedingly doubt- 
ful. It is an admitted fact that when a man is suffering, if you will 
give him a little chloroform he will be relieved from all pain in a few 
moments, but when the effects of the chloroform has worn off. the 
man suffers more than he would have had it not been administered 
to him. So (I contend) it is with land that has been fertilized from 
year to year, it will not produce anything, not even " hen grass" 
without a goodly application of some of the fertilizers, and perhaps 
it will take the very best guano to make it do that. I think if any 
one doubts my statement, all he has to do to be convinced that I am 
on the right track, is to visit the tobacco raising regions of our State, 
where he will find that from the continued use of some one or the 
other kinds of guanos, the farmers have been enabled to raise small 
crops of tobacco yearly: but ask the same farmers what their lands 
will produce without the guanos, and they reply nothing. Now the 
guano acts upon the land in such a way that it forces their land to 
put forth all its strength in producing that single crop, and of course 
when it is made the land is not as strong as it was, thus stimulating 
land with manipulated guanos has the same effect upon the land 
that is produced upon man by stimulating him, viz: weakens him 
instead of strengthening him. I will admit that the application of 
fertilizers to a poor field will pay if you can get a stand of grass 
and will then drop the stimulant and bend all your energies to the 
improvement of the land by the use of plaster and clover alone. 
When I say alone I mean without the aid of artificial fertilizers, but 
sprinkle on a little stable manure, for it will do it (the land) good. 
Most farmers in their eagerness to get some pet standard of fertili- 
zer seem to have forgotten that their forefathers raised better crops 
than are raised now. and they used clover and plaster to keep up the 
fertility of their land. Let us go back to the theory and practice of 
farming "in ye olden times," and determine to use clover, plaster 
and what manure we can make on our farms, and escape the doom 
that certainly awaits us, viz : Bankruptcy. Oh Virginians ! look 
about you and see if you are not in the wrong track, when you per- 
sist in using this fertilizer, which, in my opinion, has proven the 
greatest curse to Virginia that can befall a people — and then flee 
from the coming destruction. You can make Virginia a blooming 
garden by your energies. Then let us attempt it, and it will be 
done. Farmers choose ye this day which you will do, kill your land 



82 THE SOUTHERN [February 

by physic, or make it grow fat by the use of plaster, grass and ma- 
nure ? " Keastar." 
Culpeper Co., Ya. 



Note by the Editor. — With perfect deference to the opinions of our esteemed 
correspondent, he will pardon us if we make a few observations. He condemns 
wholly, as ruinous to the planter, the use of concentrated, or as they are usually 
styled, " commercial manures." Without inquiry into the special merits of any 
of them, we will consider some of the facts in connection with their use. It is a 
fact that the consumption of these manures in Europe, where land is high, farm 
stock abundant, and population dense, is enormous. Their use began thirty 
years ago under the advice of Baron Liebig, and it has increased to such an ex- 
tent, from year to year, that now it is no uncommon thing for a single factory to 
produce 100,000 tons per annum. It is a fact that, by the judicious use of these 
manures in conjunction with what the farm produces, and good cultivation. Great 
Britain has increased her average of wheat per acre from 14 to 28J bushels. It 
is a fact that, by their use, there is produced in France as much a3 30 tons of 
beets per acre, to say nothing of other crops. It is a fact that it is found 
to pay the planter in Mauritius for him to give £16, or $80 in gold, per ton at the 
factory in England for such a manure to be applied to his sugar-cane some 2.000 
miles away. To come nearer home, it is a fact that, despite the utter destruction 
of farm arrangements in the cotton States by the war, including its labor system, 
her cotton crop, through the use of these manures, is as large now as it was be- 
fore the war. We might continue to multiply instances to show that the esti- 
mate of our correspondent of these aids to agriculture is not generally enter- 
tained throughout the agricultural world. 

A man may die of apoplexy from eating too much of the most wholesome 
food. It is not just to blame the food for the abuse of the laws governing hig 
body. So, if a man depends solely upon concentrated manures, and neglects 
what is equally necessary — the proper cultivation of his land — and the use of such 
domestic manure as he ought to have at hand, or to restore to his land, by clover 
or peas, the vegetable matter taken from it by his grain or other market crops — 
he should not visit his failure to continue to farm with profit wholly upon the fer- 
tilizer he applied, it may be, to a barren soil, but consider that something is due 
also to his poor management. These manures cannot supply men witn brains, 
and we know of no calling which requires a better exercise of this part of a man 
than the business of farming. These manures, indeed, are intended not only as 
labor-saving machines, but used in conjunction with manures of the farm, a corn- 
ered that provides very fuliy the elements lost to the land by the 
crops sold ofF. While we do not, any more than our correspot dent, decry the 
value of clover and plaster, we believe our lands require more. The good crops 
of our fathers, we expect, had their foundation quite as much in the constant 
taking up of new land, and the abandonment of the old, as in anything else. 



When a fair degree of skill is used, it is said that a lot of poultry 
may be marketed with double the profit that would be derived from 
raising the same value of pork. Fowls digest ^rain more thoroughly 
than swine do ; no portion capable of being assimilated is wasted. 
If it will pay to produce poultry for the market, it will pay the far- 
mer to raise it for use upon his own table. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 83 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
ESSAY ON FERTILIZERS. 

The following Essay on the question " What kind of Fertilizer i» 
most suitable for our lands, if it be advisable to use any," was pre- 
pared and read tender resolution of the Cuckoo Grange, Louisa 
county, Va.: 

This question directly and deeply concerns us all, because, as a 
rule, we all have an excess of poor land, too poor for cultivation with 
any reasonable hope of profit, without a free use of fertilizers; and 
perhaps it might with truth be said, that the best of our farmers are 
tilling, year after year, large areas of land, in expensive hoed crops, 
which, with good seasons and under the most favorable circumstances, 
barely pay the cost of cultivation ; and yet, perchance, we might 
afford to do this for an indefinite length of time, if we could be cer- 
tain of always having fruitful seasons and no accidents to the crop ; 
but, unfortunately, the business of farming, like any other call- 
ing, is subject to very many accidents, and while it is true that the 
risks which the farmer take's in the year's round of cropping is not 
so great as that of some other enterprises which men embark in, as, 
for example, that of merchandize, it is also true that his margin for 
profit is smaller, and for that reason he cannot afford, as a prudent 
business man, to take the risks of the many accidents to which any 
given crop is liable, on any land that will not, under favorable cir- 
cumstances, a good deal more than pay the cost of its production. 

A neglect to make the necessary estimates of the probable amount 
and cost of production, is one of the great sources of failure and 
loss to our farmers. It is not because farming well followed is not, 
in the long run, as good a business as merchandise, for on the con- 
trary, the statistics show that more men succeed at the former than 
at the latter profession. Nor is it because that, as a general rule, 
our farmers are wanting in industry and enterprise, nor because of 
the high price or inferior quality of negro labor, but the great and 
deadly bane of our system, that which poisons and saps the whole 
and makes success impossible is our inveterate and persistent habit 
of cropping on land, which, in an average of seasons fails, and ivill 
ever fail, down to the end of time, to pay a profit on the outlay. We 
blindly ignore the plain fact that free labor is more costly than slave 
labor, that it costs a good deal more to cultivate an acre of ground now 
than it did in former times, and that the bill of farm expenses, 
always heavy, has to be paid invariably in money. In ante-bellum 
days the farmer, as a general thing, paid nothing for his labor, and 
he did not trouble himself much to know whether his farm netted 
him any thing or not. The raising of negroes was an important 
item. They were one of the staple products of the farm, and it only 
much concerned him to devise the ways and means of making the 
two ends meet, which he generally managed to do, whether he made 
much or little, for it was, at last, with him only a matter of home produc- 
tions and home consumption, and while, at the end of each year, like 



84 THE SOUTHERN [February 

Mr. Triptolimus Yellowby, he very often had to confess, as his sad 
experience, that " the carls and the cart avers* make it all, and the 
carls and the cart avers eat it all," he yet had the satisfaction of 
knowing that with a regular annual increase of negroes, he was yearly 
increasing in wealth and prosperity. 

But since the wartimes have changed, and it becomes us to change 
with them, so far as to adapt our system of farming to the circum- 
stances which surround us, and the following are some of the changes 
which seem obviously and imperatively demanded by our circum- 
stances : 

1. We must practice a greater economy in the item of hired labor, 
and cut down our farm expenses generally. 

2. Cultivate much less land in hoed crops, have it richer and 
work it better. 

3. Grow more grass and sow more hay, that we may thereby do 
with much less grain in the feeding of farm stock. 

4. Raise all the stock needed for the farm, such as cattle, horses, 
hogs, &c, and thus save all the money usuually expended in the 
purchase of these. 

But what is to become of all of our waste lands, and how are our 
arable lands to be so enriched as to make them a great deal more 
productive? Shall we make large applications of artificial fertili- 
zers, or will it pay in average of seasons to use them at all? These 
are puzzling questions, very hard indeed to answer, and in attempt- 
ing any solution of them, I confess the task to me is very like 
that which the universalist preacher undertook, when he attempted 
to show that the word everlasting in the Bible, does not mean ever- 
lasting. Well it chanced one day as he was taking his text, an old 
sailor, who was, no doubt, a very great sinner, staggered in and he 
heard him read, " and these shall go away into everlasting punish- 
ment," and then the preacher began to comment on the word ever- 
lasting, which he said he was prepared to prove from the Bible did not 
mean everlasting at all, but at this point the sailor stopped him and he 
said to the preacher, "well my good friend I want you to make that 
out if you can, for if you cant, Ijist tell you I'm a gone sucker," 
and so I say to my brother farmers of Louisa, if we can't devise 
some more economical way of enriching our lands and of making 
better crops of corn, wheat and tobacco, and at less money expense 
than heretofore, we are gone farmers — gone beyond redemption, for 
it is a stern reality with the most of us, that for the past ten years, 
we have been losing money by farming, nearly every year, and yet, 
strange to say, we never seem to lose our courage and hope, but, 
Macawher like, we are always looking for some good lunk to u turn up" 
for us somewhere, which, somehow, never does turn up, and each New 
Year finds us as buoyant and hopeful as ever, with our sails all gaily 
trimmed, and our flag flying, and so we drift along right bravely 
and merrily down and down the stream to — ruin. 
[concluded in our next.] 

Cuckoo. P. B. Pendleton, 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 85 

fFor the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

MANURING WITH CLOVER. 

In the November number of the Planter and Farmer, is an article 
upon this subject, which might mislead farmers into the idea that clover 
alone, as a manure, is sufficient, not only to support the fertility of 
the soil, but will actually increase it, and this to an indefinite length 
of time. Mr. Hill Carter's experience is quoted, in which he says, 
that " If plaster acts well, I can, with clover, make land rich 
enough for any crop." That depends, perhaps, very much upon the 
character of the soil. Other instances are quoted, where the fer- 
tility of land has been kept up and increased for 50 or 60 years. I 
can point out farms on the Shenandoah river, that have been under 
cultivation for one hundred years with scarcely a stalk of clover 
growing, or ever having grown upon them, and yet they are appa- 
rently as fertile to-day as ever. I have in my mind to-day a small 
farm of upland, which, for 40 years perhaps, was farmed by renters, 
and which never had a stalk of clover upon it, unless the seed was 
carried upon it accidentally, and yet the soil sustained its fertility 
in a remarkable degree without an external aid, except an insignificant 
supply of barn-yard manure. 

I do not wish to be understood as undervaluing the use of clover 
as a manure. I think, on the other hand, that farmers do not pro- 
perly appreciate the value of the red clover as a manure, and I 
would urge them to extend their efforts to improve their lands by 
the growth of this valuable grass, but what I wish to say is, that 
clover alone is not sufficient to maintain the fertility of soils gene- 
rally. The instances I have referred to, are cases where the soil has 
large storehouses of the elements of fertility in almost inexhaustible 
supply. Probably, that is the case with the instances quoted by A. 
Land may become exhausted upon the surface by superficial cultiva- 
tion, while the subsoil may contain large supplies of fertilizing ma- 
terial in a soluble condition, but beyond the reach of ordinary crops. 
Clover is sown upon it, and if you can get it to stand, it sends its 
long roots down into the subsoil, imbibing these fertilizing elements, 
and bringing them up to the surface, within reach of the roots of 
wheat, oats, barley, &c. But the time is coming, sooner or later, 
when this supply in the subsoil must fail, the length of time depend- 
ing upon the supply contained in the soil. Some soils contain very 
large quantities of phosphates and potash in a soluble condition, suf- 
ficiently so to keep up the fertility for many years, while others con- 
tain but a limited supply, or a sufficiency in quantity, perhaps, but in 
an insoluble condition. Most of our soils are in the latter condition, 
containing a fair supply of the elements of plant growth, but not suf- 
ficiently soluble to maintain their fertility under constant cultiva- 
tion, without the addition of artificial means, or by suffering the land 
to rest for a length of time until nature restores the loss by a gradual 
dissolution of phosphatic and potash rocks. 

Doubtless, " the cheapest and best fertilizer " we possess, is barn- 



86 THE SOUTHERN [February 



yard manure, but unfortunately the supply is inadequate to the de- 
mand. Can we depend upon clover alone? As well might we ex- 
pect to sustain the fertility of the land by using plaster or lime alone. 
Barn-yard manure contains all the elements that a plant needs, so 
does clover; but the clover derives its support from the soil, and can- 
not return but a portion of what it derives, therefore, as a large por- 
tion is carried off by the following crop, Prof. Johnston, in his Agri- 
cultural Chemistry, in answer to the question "Will green manuring 
alone prevent land from becoming exhausted," says, " If we plough 
in only what the land produces and carry off occasional crops of 
corn, the time will ultimately come when any soil thus treated will 
cease to yield remunerative crops." The rains wash away a consid- 
erable portion of this fertilizing matter, and the crops carry it off, 
and the supply in the subsoil must ultimately fail, unless the supply 
comes from foreign agencies, such as artificial manures. It is true 
that poor land may be improved to the clover bearing point by the 
use of commercial manures, but it is not true that by the use of 
clover alone the land will continue to improve without the occasional 
use of other manurial agencies. 

D. W. Prescott. 
Edinburg, Va. 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

PAPERS OF THE VA. STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

To this Essay, by Mr. Bowman, a medal was awarded by the 
Committee on Essays. 

Report of an Experiment on Underdraining, made by A. M- 

Bowman, near Waynesboro, Augusta County, Virginia., in th e 

Spring of 1874. 

In making this report it is necessary to say that the ground 
drained was an old meadow of 30 acres, abounding in numerous 
springs and swamps, producing mainly what is commonly known as 
" sour grass " and weeds ; and over one-half of which had not been 
in cultivation within the recollection of the oldest inhabitants of the 
vicinity. 

This meadow is an oblong square and is almost equally divided by 
a small creek running from one end to the other, with about six 
inches fall to the hundred yards. The ground on each side of the 
creek is very little inclined towards the creek, and in many places 
the inclination is from the creek at the rate of two inches to the hun- 
dred yards. The entire meadow was interspersed with swamps and 
small springs, so that a large portion of it was covered with water 
all the year round. 

The first thing that was done towards draining it was the grading 
of the creek, or in other words, cutting out the bottom of it to a 
uniform depth of three feet, so as to enable us to get sufficient fall 
and depth to the side drains, which were to run into the creek at an 
angle of 45 degrees. The cost of grading the creek was 37| cents 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 87 

per rod. The creek being graded, the next thing in order was the 
draining proper. 

The ditches were cut from the creek out, leaving the bottom, at 
the mouth, about three inches above the level of water in the creek, 
and then grading so as to give a fall of from four to six inches to 
the hundred yards. 

Wherever the ground was of such nature as to allow a ditch of 
uniform three feet depth, the drains were placed about forty feet 
apart; when less than three foot ditches were cut they were not 
placed more than twenty-five to thirty feet apart. The material 
used for draining was one and a half inch tile, except where drains 
came in contact with a spring, when two inch tiles were used. The 
cost of the one and a half inch tile was $18 per thousand feet, and 
that of the two inch tile $23 per thousand feet. Immediately after 
the tiles were laid, they were covered with the same earth that was 
taken out of the ditches. 

Cost of cutting ditches, laying tile and filling in ditches, 32 cents 
per rod. 

It is necessary to state that the drains were so managed, as, in all 
cases, to run immediately over the springs, and in laying tile over 
springs, they were in all cases covered with loose stones to the depth 
of five or six inches before the earth was thrown in. This is done to 
enable the water to pass more freely into the tile, and is only neces- 
sary in case of springs. The average cost of draining the entire 
meadow of thirty acres, was $20 per acre, by which was reclaimed a 
tract of land which was not worth over $25 per acre, and which is 
worth $100 per acre since. The meadow was plowed up and planted 
in corn, and the crop is estimated at from sixty to ninety bushels per 
acre. 

It is necessary to state that a few drains were laid with stone, cost- 
ing about the same as tile, and are not near as efficient, being more 
liable to be filled up by the bottom of the drain rising up in them. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. M. Bowman. 



State of Virginia, 

Augusta County, to-wit: 

Personally appeared before me A. M. Bowman, A. J. Brown and 
John Thacher of the county aforesaid, and made oath that the above 
statements are correct. 

October 16th, 1874. Johnathan Koiner, J. P. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
TO PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 

Having seen several letters from members of the Patrons of Hus- 
bandry in your columns, I shall endeavor to write a short piece, giv- 
ing my views upon the subject. There has been combination, and 



THE SOUTHERN [February 



always Avill be of other societies, and why not the farmers have com- 
bination of their own, excluding all but their own profession ? There 
is one thing, Brother Patron, that has been, and will be, with the 
farmers, and that is, the profession claims to be farmers upon half- 
way ground, and when they get in, they claim the lion's share, as 
they have always done. 

Ours is a farmer's institute, and as farmers we claim the right to 
"paddle our own canoe." Therefore do not let then: beat us down, 
nor carry off the honors of our cause. 

Stand by. the farmer and defend the cause, and the day is not far 
distant when the world will say that the farmers are able and com- 
petent to defend their own rights. Some well informed Patron 
please answer. Has a Master the right to act as Master and Secre- 
tary ? Respectfully, 

A. Granger. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

SOME REMARKS ON THE APPLE TREE. 

The time, distance, and most important, the kinds of this fruit to 
plant, are the main things to be considered by those rearing orchards. 

The fall is decidedly the best time to plant, and this may be con- 
tinued during the mild weather to the 1st of January, and some- 
times later. 32 or 83 feet apart is as near as the apple tree should 
be planted. When it is designed to cultivate for a number of years, 
between the trees the distance should be 40 feet. 

In considering the kinds to plant we refer principally to East 
Virginia, where our observations have chic-flv been made. And in 
this respect, we think our forefathers, in the main, have been wiser 
than the children. Many, and perhaps a large majority of the 
modern apples, particularly those introduced from northern latitudes, 
will not succeed in our latitude. We think it may safely be said that 
about one-half of the trees set out in our modern apple orchards are 
worthless. The old varieties have naturally enough been neglected, 
through the influence of puffing new varieties, and the exaggerated 
statements of tree agents sent through the country. ■ 

For Eastern Virginia early apples have been found most profitable 
for marketing. Of the early apples then, we would plant the old- 
fashioned "June," (sometimes called May) "Early Harvest," "Striped 
Julj-," and "Red Astrachan," and some of the "Early Ripe," 
which is a very fine, promising apple, coming in just after the Har- 
vest. We have seen the apple, but cannot speak with certainty of 
its productiveness. 

For the fall, we would plant principally "Fall Cheese," and for 
cider the "Virginia Crab." The Cathead, one of the largest fall 
apples, is not a full bearer. "Maiden's Blush," the prettiest of 
apples, if, perhaps, we except the " Strawberry Apple," is a shy 
bearer. The "Smokehouse " is a promising fall apple, though wo 
are not posted about its productiveness. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 89 

For winter, we would advise three- fourths "Winesap." Then 
comes the "Virginia Greening," " Carthouse " (or Romanite), the 
"Limber Twig" and perhaps " Cannon Pearmain,/ which we know 
to be a profuse bearer in Piedmont Virginia, and a great keeper. 
The "Limber Twig" is a great bearer and keeper, but an inferior 
apple. The " Shockley," much cultivated farther South, deserves 
a trial in Virginia. It is said to be a full bearer, excellent keeper, 
but not of first quality. The "Big Hill" (or Pryor) is an excel- 
lent winter apple, but poor bearer. 

The soil best suited for the apple is a deep, good soil, with clay 
subsoil, chocolate soil the best. It is said that this fruit succeeds 
best when transplanted from a poor to a good soil, and we believe this 
is true, for this reason : In a light, thin soil, the roots seek the sur- 
face, with little tap root, and many fibrous roots, which a stiff nur- 
sery soil does not permit to grow well. In removing the young tree 
from this thin soil, scarcely a fibre is broken. We were much struck 
with these facts recently in procuring some trees from Via & Sons, 
on the Westham Road, near this city. His nursery is on light land, 
and we never saw prettier trees for transplanting, and in fact never 
saw trees with such excellent fibrous roots, scarcely one broken. 
We may be permitted to add, without intending disparagement to 
other excellent nurseries in the same vicinity, and without any per- 
sonal interest in the matter, except to see merit rewarded, that Mr. 
Via is perhaps the oldest nurseryman in Virgina, and has had great 
experience, particularly in rearing trees for Eastern Virginia. His 
variety, of apples particularly, is very good, and as a nurseryman 
his reliability is unquestioned. 

Thomas Pollard. 

Henrico. 

P. S. — Mr. Via recommends highly " Carter's Seedling " (raised 
by the late Curtis Carter from Winesap seeds) and Via's seedling — 
both, I think, winter apples, also Haglo Crab. 



E. B. A. CLUB, 

OF NORFOLK COUNTY. 

At a meeting of the E. B. A. Club, of Norfolk county, held 
December 3d at the residence of Capt. C. P. Poindexter, W. II. 
C. Lovitt, President — inspecting the farm being the first business 
in order, which showed signs of improvements upon last year's visit — 
we retired to hear from the committee appointed at last meeting 
upon "labor." The chairman, Mr. Leighton, arose and read as 
follows : 

Mr. President and G-entlemen, — The subject of labor, which was 
discussed at our last meeting, and is so replete with interest, was to 
be further considered at this meeting. 

We regard the resolution requiring a certificate from the last em- 
ployer as inexpedient under existing circumstances. 



90 THE SOUTHERN [February 

Our organization is too limited to influence the action of the gen- 
eral employers in this region. Some five years since the Horticul- 
tural and Poraological Society passed a resolution establishing the 
rates for picking strawberries. Some of the members adhered a 
while to the resolution, while others who voted for it found that their 
interest called for a step across the resolution, which was ultimately 
disregarded by all. I had the privilege of losing forty dollars by 
adhering to it, which served as a reminder to this policy, and made 
up my mind that until there was a radical change in human nature, 
it was safest to leave all points of the labor question un trammeled. 
At the risk of being regarded as an alarmist, I predict that each suc- 
cessive generation of the colored population will become less reliable, 
and our agricultural interest should be shaped accordingly. 

In corroboration of this position, I will cite two instances of ne- 
groes transferred to localities of supposed good influences. 

(1). In the year 185-i, while on a visit to St. Johns, N. B., a 
merchant called me to a window to see a negro who was passing by 
riding: on two trucks sawed from a huge log, and drawn bv one ox. 
He remarked that he belonged to a remnant of a settlement of ne- 
groes made at the close of the revolutionary war, taken by the Bri- 
tish fleet from Virginia, and that the Home Government decided to 
give them a large tract of well-timbered land in that vicinity for their 
benefit. He said that they did well at first, but had gradually de- 
generated in numbers and habits until they were a perfect curse to 
the community. 

(2). Some eighteen or twenty years ago a squad of about twenty- 
five nesrroes were sent from the interior of Virginia bv their master, 
a Mr. Burnett, to Hardin county, Ohio, who provided them with 
farms which were contiguous. They did well at first, but subse- 
quently disagreements set in and they commenced selling out and 
going into towns, and this day there are only two known to remain in 
the county. It is from these and similar facts that have come under 
my observation that I have made my deduction. The present genera- 
tion is working under the healthful influences of its former condition. 
And now that the intoxication occasioned by their freedom has sub- 
sided, we find their labor the most economical, and the best adapted 
to our wants for plain farm work of any we can procure. 

As it becomes less efficient, I know of no better remedy than to 
divide and sub-divide our large farms, and instill into the rising gene- 
ration the importance of putting their hand to the plow with a nerve 
and determination that shall preclude all looking back. 

Frederick Wilson, Esq., offered the following resolution which was 
unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, By this Club, that we heartily approve of the resolu- 
tions adopted by the farmers' council held at Petersburg, at its third 
annual meeting to the effect that a committee be appointed to memo- 
rialize the Legislature upon the necessity of enacting a law to better 
protect the farming interest by making it a penal offence to hire a 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 91 

laborer already under contract. At the end of the discussion the fol- 
lowing preamble and resolution were adopted: 

Whereas, no opportunity should be overlooked for encouraging the 
consumption of our early vegetables and fruits at the north ; and 
whereas, the cheapness to them and increased returns to us can be 
best reached by 'a more direct communication between the producers 
and consumer; and whereas, there are many cities and large towns 
on the route commencing at Albany and ending at Buffalo, N. Y., 
now supplied from second, third or fourth hands with our products, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That our President be requested to open correspondence 
with N. L. McCready, Esq., President of the Old Dominion Steamship 
Company, urging the importance of putting on a tri-weekly line of 
steamers from New York to Albany, in connection with the Norfolk 
boats, to receive the freight from the docks upon the arrival of the 
boats from Norfolk, and proceed without delay to Albany for distri- 
bution to points beyond. 

The subject of ''drainage" was selected for discussion at our next 
meeting, which takes place at Mr. F. Wilson's, on the 29th of Decem- 
ber. 1874. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

Fred'k M. Halstead, 
Secretary Eastern Branch Ag'l Club, 
Norfolk Co., Va. 



SHIPPING POULTRY AND GAME. 

In answer to numerous inquiries as to the best mode of preparing, 
dressing and packing poultry and game for shipment to the New York 
market, we desire, in this general way, to communicate the following 
instructions ; and from twenty years' experience in the produce busi- 
ness in this city, we think we can do so understandingly. Possessing, 
as we do, ample facilities and a location unsurpassed for handling all 
kinds of produce, we offer our services with great confidence in being 
able to serve our correspondents satisfactorily : 

First: Poultry of all kinds should be well fattened, on yellow 
corn if possible, but should not be fed for at least twenty-four hours 
before killing, as a crop filled with food sours and turns black, injur- 
ing the appearance and sale very materially. 

Second: Experience has shown that the best mode of killing is, 
to cut the head off with as little of the neck bone as possible; then, 
as soon as scalded and picked, cut off as much of the protruding bone 
as will enable you to draw the skin down over the end of it, and tie 
tightly with a cord. 

Third : For scalding poultry, the water should be as near boiling 
as possible, without actually boiling. The advantage in this is, the 
outer skin becomes cooked or set, and so does not peel off with the 
feathers and look ragged or skinny as they say here. The fowl, 



92 THE SOUTHERN [February 

being held by the legs should be immersed and lifted up and down 
into and out the water three or four times, then, continuing to hold 
in the same war. with the other pluck off the feathers without a mo- 
ment's delay after taking out of the water. If skillfully handled in 
this way. the feathers and pin feathers may all be removed without 
breaking the skin. Wherever the skin is broken, exposure of the 
flesh to the air injures its appearance, and consequently its sale. 

Fourth : The intestines should not be taken out at all for this 
market. 

Fifth: After the feathers are removed, dip into water just at the 
boiling point, for about two seconds, then immediately into cold 
water for about five minutos ; then hang up till thoroughly dry. and 
the animal heat is entirely out. Care should be taken not to let it 
freeze before packing. 

Sixth : Turkeys and chickens dry picked sell to a limited extent 
in the market very well, but none except the choicest kind should be 
dressed in that way. When they are, they should be picked imme- 
diately after killing and while yet warm, and not put into »vater 
either before or after picking, but hung up until the animal hea: is 
entirely out before packing for shipment. 

S • enth : Ducks and geese should always be scalded and steamed 
by covering with a blanket for a short time before picking — in other 
respects handle as turkeys and chickens. 

Eighth: In packing, use clean dry straw; if this cannot be had, 
wheat or oat straw will answer, but be sure that it is free from rust 
and dust. Place a layer of straw at the bottom, then alternate 
layers of poultry and straw, taking care to stow or pack snugly, back 
or belly upwards — never on the side — filling vacancies with straw, 
until the package is full so that the cover will draw down very snugly 
upon the outside, to prevent shifting about in transit to market. 

Ninth: Wild game of every description should not be dressed, 
either picked or skinned. Quail, partridge, grouse and woodcock 
should be wrapped in paper to keep the plumage smooth and straight, 
and packed snugly into boxes or barrels head down. Venison : The 
intestines should be taken out clean, and the carcass hung up. washed 
thoroughly with cold water, and left hanging till dry. with the skin 
left on. Pigeons should be picked and packed in ice. 

Tenth: Boxes that will hold 150 or 200 lbs., are the best packages 
for poultry or game: clean, new barrels will do very well — old flour 
and sugar barrels should not be used. 

Eleventh : Live poultry can be sent to market in roomy coops to 
good advantage between June 1st and November 1st. but not later. 

Notice to shippers : In regulating your shipments, we suggest that 
thev be made frequently and in small lots all through the season, as in 
that wav you secure an average market price and run but little risk in 
the extreme fluctuations in our market. Sen 1 vour large fat tur- 
keys for Thanksgiving and New Tear; large fat geese and chickens 
for Christmas — and ship so as to have your consignment get here at 
least three days before the holidays ; they had better arrive ten days 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 93 



after than only the day before. Always send by mail to the con- 
signee, and invoice of each shipment. — Strong's Poultry and Game 
Circular. 

BEST SIZE FOR A HORSE. 

Considering the number of persons 'who own horses, how long 
they have been in use and how much use is made of them, it is really 
astonishing how little real horse sense there is among our people at 
large. The want of any real knowledge of the horse is the source of 
many erroneous opinions, which are doing and have done serious in- 
jury to those who entertain them, and which is to be more regretted 
to the horse. 

We wish to point out one of these erroneous opinions this morn- 
ing, but it is one of the most injurious of the lot. It is the very 
common preference for large horses. The extreme of this error 
does not prevail in Tennessee as yet, and it may be that a kind cli- 
mate will forever protect us from the horse elephants.just now grow- 
ing into such high favor in some of the northern states. Neverthe- 
less, the preference for large horses prevails too widely. 

For all the purposes for which horses are uSed, blood, form, and met- 
tle are of far greater importance than size. That the thoroughbred 
horse possesses all of these qualities more uniformly, aud to a greater 
degree than any other breed, does not admit of debate. This su- 
perior speed, endurance and courage is an admitted fact. We need, 
then, to only refer to the ascertained size of the stoutest racers of 
the world to establish the truth for which we contend — that the 
blood, shape and mettle of the thoroughbred furnishes the very best 
horse for the saddle or harness. 

The following table includes only a dozen of the great turf kings 
of the olden times, and we have named only those that were noted 
alike for their stoutness and their speed : 

Name. Height. Age. 

Hands. Inches. 

Godolphin Arolin 15 1 29 

Darby 15 — 

Flying Childers 15 26 

Fearnought 15 4 — 

Cade.. 15 22 

Gimcraek 14 1 27 

Blaze 15 23 

Bav Bolton 15 31 

Matchem 15 32 

Waxy 15 1 28 

Babraham 16 20 

Eclipse 15 26 

These were famous horses in their own day, and still more famous 
in their descendants. They were full size, too, of their kind. 

Coming down to later times, we find the famous horses gradually 
but very slowly increasing in size until the average reaches 15:2, 
but rarely ever going up to 16 hands. 

On the turf, the small horse — small, at least, in comparison with 
3 



94 THE SOUTHERN [February 



the C mestogas, is without a rival. The big - of racing blood 

are almost invariably left floundering in the rear in all tests of speed 
or endurance. 

Turning from the turf to the battle field, and our position is. if 
" - en more triumphantly b No broader or better 

field could be i' virtues, than the late Amer- 

ican -war offered. An . fact which not the most loyal of I - 

L gainsay, that the horses that carried the southern cavalry- 
men were incomparably superior to those that were brought from the 
north to meet them. Almost invariably the northern horses were 
large fr ibed and clumsy. The south- 

ern horses v.. were small, light, clean made, active and 

enduring. I . differences are characteristic of the breeds — the 
thoroughbreds being small and raw-boned, the scrubs large and 
coat- 

_■ ' ver all sons of ground, the small 

hor» nd all c a superior to the large, clumsy horse. 

. _• this :s true in harness, in all icept for slow heavy 

draught. Tne light, active, upheaded, high stepping horse is better 
for carriage or buggy, while for heavy work, the mule is the thing. 
The practical out that if a horse has the blood, shape and 

is a matter of indifference. The mare, in fact, 
has more to do w f the foal than the b B ) if you 

are afraid of small horses, do not rr^ ; shallow bellied mares. 

it, that in speaking of large horses, we refer to the great 
C nestogaa and Percherons now being imported into the northern 
States 

me of our many well posted readers would collate the 

B a » and ages «'>f the more recent kings of the turf, as well in har- 

under the saddle. We are of opinion that the trotters will 

average a fra • >n h gher and heavier than the gallopers. — Colman's 

World. 



DRYING BOOTS. 

T :" rail is near at hand. Men who are 

obliged t in the field. :iere much out of doors, will come 

t night with 1 bs well soaked. In the morning there is pull- 
ing _• - . . . -■ the pal nee of the owner, be- 
fore he can get them on. If dry, the boots are hard and uncom- 
fortable; if still wet, the lisagreeable. Some genius, how- 
ever, j j its the f 3 to get rid of the trouble : 

B boots are taken off fill them quite full with dry oats. 
This grain has a great fondness for damp, and will rapidly absorb 
- _ : from the wet leather. As it quickly and com- 

pletely takes up the moistur :1s and fills the boot with a 

tightly fittau _• last, keeping its form good, and drying the leather 
Without hardening it. In the morning, shake out the oats, and hang 



1875.] PLANTER AXD FARMER. 



95 



them in a bag near the fire to dry, ready for the next wet ni*ht ■ 
draw on the boots and go happily and comfortably about the day's 

This is an oat "corner" to which no man can object. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer ] 
CULTIVATION OF SHIPPING TOBACCO FROM THE PL INT 
BED TO THE WAREHOUSE. 
[We very rarely have as good anfarticle, that is, appropriate to the subieot ii 
treats of, as the one below, so plain, condensed and complete -Ed ] J 

The following is offered as the result of fifty years' experience in 
the cultivation of this staple: 

THE PLAXT-BED. 

The writer since the war has used only raw beds. Some time be 
tween the middle of February and middle of March a spot is selected 
m the woods with a south or south-east exposure, exhibiting a post oak 
growth, and thin black soil with tenacious clay subsoil. This .pot is 
cleaned thoroughly and hoed up with grubbing hoes— care beinsr taken 
not to bring up any of the subsoil to the surface. It is chopped 
over two or three times with the grubbing hoes until the tilth is very 
hue, and all the roots are raked out. The bed is then laid off both 
ways to secure uniform distribution of the guanos, which is sown at 

niilin^ ho°es.*° P ° t0 the 10 ° SqUai ' e JanlS ' aDd Ch0pped m ™ h 

The bed is then raked and again laid off both wavs for the <=eed 
which is sown at the rate of a tablespoonful-and-a-half to the"" 100 
square yards. The seed is put in by whipping the bed or draggimj 
a brush over it Fresh stable manure derived from the chaff ofVf 

in.T) aS K°^ f 6 fr ° m See / S is then a PP ]ied in a libe ™ ] dress- 
ing. Ihe bed is then covered not very thickly with bru*h Late 
beds do not require re-sowin^. 

As soon as the plants are large enough to require pushing, I apply 
a mixture of plaster and guano or hen-house manure. If The fly an - 
pears I use kerosine oil mixed with corn meal and plaster sowed on 
liberally. Ihese dressings are repeated whenever the plants seem 
to require them. In sixty days from the time of sowing I have had 
plants large enough to set out, 

PREPARATION OF THE LA.VD. 

I plant only old land and on a different lot every year so as gradually 
to improve the whole farm. I select a clover sod which is plouXd 
with a hree-horse plough in the fall always. It is aimed to throw 
one or two inches of the subsoil to the surface soil at this time with 



90 THE SOUTHERN [February 

April and part of May, which is spread as carried out. I aim to put 
about 25 loads of manure to the acre. After the manure is spread, 
I run Smith's three-horse seven-tooth cultivator over the land to 
pulverize the soil and to intermix the manure thoroughly with it. I 
then cross the land thus cultivated with harrows; it is then 
laid oft* with a scoop in rows 3J feet by 3 feet. I apply in the drills 
at least 200 lbs. to the acre of the best commercial fertilizer attain- 
able; then I apply broadcast just before the land is listed one bushel 
of plaster and two of salt to the acre. The salt protects from the 
cutworm, and prevents the firing of the tobacco. I list with two-horse 
ploughs, throwing all the manure into the drill. In planting season 
when the ground is not too wet, single mules drag rakes between 
the rows to pulverize — a roller is then passed on the top of the 
lists covering two beds and striking the distances for the plants with 
pegs. Thus three boys do the work of many of the most efficient 
men and a very great economy of labour is secured. 

CULTIVATION. 

As soon as the grass begins to show a little, I side with the single 
plough, bar next to the plant. - As soon as the plant will bear the 
dirt it is thrown back with the same plough, and the middle ploughed 
out. As the tobacco is sided the hoes follow on trimming from the 
tobacco such grass as the ploughs fail to destroy. When the grass 
begins to show again, I sometimes use the cultivator, if that is insuf- 
ficient, I always use the mouldboard plough. I generally plough 
once again with the mouldboard plough and trim with the hoes when- 
ever it appears necessary. Not much time is lost by hoe work. The 
crop is almost entirely made by the team. 

TOPPING. 

Topping commences as soon as the plant is of sufficient size, and 
before it begins to button. My plan is different from that of any 
other planter 1 ever met in this, that I top before priming to avoid 
splitting the top or having curled leaves on the top, which very often 
occurs if the reverse plan is followed.* My object in priming is 
to take off the plant-bed leaves that have gotten their growth at the 
time of topping. 

CUTTING AND HOUSING. 

The tobacco is cut as soon as ripe. The cutting is repeated as the 
crop ripens, and is generally completed by the 10th of October. 
After that time the improvement does not pay for the risk of stand- 
ing longer in this locality. The cutting is continued from the time 
the dew is off in the morning till about 1 o'clock P. M. As soon as 
the tobacco can be handled it is packed and covered to prevent burn- 
ing by the sun. All hands then go to the tobacco house except 
enough to attend to the team. The tobacco is then carried directly 

*Will our correspondent please be a little more definite at this point. How do 
you in this case select the bottom leaf, by which you are guided to the top leaf 
without counting? and what is meant by "splitting the top or having curled 
leaves?" — Ed. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 9T 

into the house as it is hung. Large tobacco being put eight plants 
to the stick, small tobacco ten to twelve to the stick. Before the 
cutting begins the next day the tobacco is all regulated. The dis- 
tance on the tier pole depends upon the size of the tobacco; if it is 
very large, the distance is ten inches; if email, the distance is less 
according to size. 

CURING. 

The tobacco remains hung in the house for several days according 
to the weather. If the weather is warm two or three days are suffi- 
cient to make it yellow enough for the fires. I then commence with 
very small fires, which are kept up at a moderate heat until the leaf 
begins to cure ; the heat is then increased until the curing of the 
leaf is complete. The fires are then put out, and no firing is then 
done until a warm season comes. I then go and dry the tobacco 
out by means of fires. 

STRIPPING. 

As soon as the curing is complete I proceed in November and 
December to bulk for stripping. I bulk by only lapping the tails — 
putting from 2000 to 3000 pounds in a bulk. 

I select the hands of best judgment for sorting. In sorting I 
make four classes — long, good short, indifferent short, and lugs. 

I have the bundles tied neatly — four leaves to the long tobacco — 
six to the good short — eight to the indifferent — and fourteen or fif- 
teen to the lugs. The tiers are required to be particular in having 
the bundles of uniform length. 

I weigh and bulk down every night what has been stripped during 
the day, handling about four bundles at a time in bulking. 

When the bulks are completed I put a small weight upon them. 
When the stripping is completed, all the tobacco is carried to one 
house, straightened and rebulked, two bundles at a time. 

After bulking is completed I commence prizing, unless I conclude 
to put the tobacco in shipping order, which I have not done since the 
war. In prizing I have two or three hogsheads under the prize at 
the same time* so as to have the separate grades from the same bulk 
selected by an experienced hand and put in separate hogsheads. 

It is designed to put 1400 or 1500 pounds of soft tobacco to the 
hogshead. Hogsheads of lugs may contain as much as 1600 to 1800 
pounds. The chief aim of the planter should be to secure excel- 
lence of quality. The means to attain this end are thorough culti- 
vation, bountiful manuring, and skillful handling. 

John S. Nicholas, Sr. 

Seven Islands, Buckingham county, Va. 

*How do you manage that if you have only one or two prizes? — Ed. 



The Saratoga agreement by which the railroads were to combine 
against " granger" influence may be considered dead. 



98 THE SOUTHERN [February 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

THE COW PEA AS A FERTILIZER. 

After some observation and many experiments, I am forced to 
the conclusion that the cow pea. as a fertilizer, is cheaper than any 
of the commercial fertilizers that have yet been introduced. It is 
to the South what clover is to the Middle and Northern States. 
We have in the pea a perfect manure for all crops grown in the 
South, at trilling cost, and that is what our down- trodden, poverty- 
stricken country (made so by exclusive cotton culture and high 
priced fertilizers, bought on time at exhorbitant prices and a high 
rate of interest.) most needs. Quite a number of remedies have 
been suggested for the renovation of our exhausted lands and wasted 
fortunes, but in my opinion no remedy yet suggested meets the case 
so well, at so small an outlay of dollars and cents, (which is a very 
scarce article in Dixie, ! as the pea. Will grow on the poorest land 
without manure, and in this latitude two crops can be grown in a 
season, for soiling purposes, which is equal to 250 fibs, of the best 
commercial fertilizer. Cost of sowing and turning pea vines will 
not exceed §3.50, which would be a saving to the farmer of 85.00 
per acre. Another advantage claimed for this process of fertilizing, 
is. that the labor of sowing and turning can be done after crops are 
laid by. when hands and teams are idle. My custom is to sow stub- 
ble land from the 15th to the 30th of July (or later if I can't get it 
done by that time) and turn under before frost, which prepares the 
land for any crop, without further outlay for fertilizers. When it is 
desirable to follow wheat with oats or oats with wheat, a heavy harrow 
run over the land is all that is necessary when the pea vines have 
been turned under. In localities where wheat and other small grain 
crops are the staple productions, the pea is indispensable to success- 
ful croping. Sowing peas broadcast, after wheat or oats, would 
keep down noxious weeds and plants and at the same time store 
away food for the following crop. Try it. I cut down an old 
orchard, land naturally poor and sandy.; with clay and sandy subsoil. 
Had been in cultivation and orchard 25 years. Sowed in oats, fal- 
lowed with cotton, sowed with oats again ; when planting cotton the 
last time, made 600 lbs. seed cotton per acre, made a good crop of 
oats ; after cutting oats, sowed peas broadcast with 125 lbs. Peruvian 
Guano; best pea crop I ever saw; don't know what it made per 
acre, as I fed off with hogs. Last year sowed broadcast 15 bushels 
cotton seed per acre, on same lot. in February, drilled 200 lbs. 
Stono Guano 1st April, made 1,731 lbs. seed cotton per acre ; think 
it was cut off 15 or 20 per cent, by drouth. Have sowed other 
plats of land that have been reclaimed in the same way : am making 
1,000 ft>s. seed cotton and 20 to 25 bushels corn per acre on lands 
that a few years ago would not make one-fourth that amount with- 
out manure. This has been done principally by sowing and turning 
pea vines. The man who has not an eye to the improvement of his 
land does not deserve the name of farmer. The improvement of 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 99 

our lands is the first step towards material prosperity ; this effected, 
intelligence, refinement and power, will follow in the wake. Then, 
fellow farmers, let one and all of us address ourselves to the task of 
building up the waste places, beautifying our homes and make this 
beautiful land, on which nature has showered her richest blessings, 
the pride and glory of those who come after us. 

Unionville, S. C. S. C. Farmer. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

VIRGINIA AGRICULTURAL MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 

REPORT OF THE PROFESSOR OF AGRICULTURE, SUBMITTED TO THE 
BOARD OF VISITORS, JAN. 6, 1875. 

Va. Ag. & Mech'l College, Dec. 9. 187 i. 

Hon. Board of Visitors, — It is my duty to present a brief report 
of the operations of the Department of Agriculture. A large class 
of our best students have studied the course of Agriculture the first 
half-session, and have made very gratifying progress. I am happy 
to report that the operations of the farm for the current year have 
been successful. All our crops were planted in due season, well 
cultivated, and yielded good returns. The hay and oats were some- 
what shortened by an unusual drought which prevailed here in May 
and June. We got, however, fair yields of each, which were saved 
in good condition. The cattle grazed were sold for the top price of 
the season, and to the leading dealer of the country, and the profit 
realized was within a fraction of 100 per cent. Besides, a consid- 
erable amount was realized from the rental of pasturage. All the 
farm stock are going into the winter in the best condition. The 
wheat crop yielded above 20 bushels per acre, of superb quality. 
The varieties were Fultz and White Blue Stem. The land being 
corn land, we used 200 lbs. per acre of the following fertilizers on 
different portions of the field, viz : the Wheat Fertilizer of the 
Southern Fertilizing Co., Richmond, Patapsco Guano and Turner's 
Excelsior, Baltimore. Our experiments show that these manures 
more than doubled the yield of w T heat. Experiments made to test 
their relative value were vitiated by the previous treatment of the 
land, not known to me at the time the plats were selected. Experi- 
ments made for the purpose, showed that of the kinds of wheat named, 
and for our soil one bushel per acre, is the best quantity of seed. 
One half-bushel yielded less than one bushel ; one and a half bushels, 
less than either, and least of all from two bushels ; so that we sowed 
the present crop at the rate of one bushel per acre, and I have never 
seen the crop present a handsomer appearance at this season. 

I have most carefully prepared upwards of twenty experimental 
plats to test the relative value of different kinds of fertilizers and 
different modes of culture for wheat, as well as to determine the 
proper quantity of each fertilizer to use per acre, which experiments 



100 THE SOUTHERN [February 

will be reported when complete. In order to thresh these plats 

v that we should have a small horse 
power and thresher on the farm, and I ask for the appropriation of 
§400 to purchase it. 

Our corn crop received all the farm yard manure. It yie 
abo bushels per acre, and is all housed in good condition. 

Th r not above thirty bushels of nubbins in the entire field. 

We have ~-:ured also, for -winter use. a very fine crop o: 

Experimental culture is very expensive, if undertaken on a large 
mere measuring of the plats and separate harvesting, 
threshing, cleaning and weighing of the occupies an amount 

of time that few -who have not tried it conceive of. The work, to 
be worth anything, must be done in the most thorough and complete 
manner, and. therefo. up the time of the best hands. I fear, 

therefore, we shall not be able to enlar, fy our operations 

til some progress has been made in the proper enclosure and 
equipment of the farm. 

The working details of students have performed their duties with 
entire cheerfulness, and, I think, increased efficie le those 

•who have been hired to work in their own time have performed a 
large portion of the work of the farm in the most satisfactory man- 
ner. As at present managed, I have no question of the value of 
the system of details, as far as the benefit of the stud con- 

cerned. Our obji " dignify and enlighten labor, and there can 

be no question of the propriety of requiring every student to work 
in his turn. I have, myself, often joined the working details with a 
view to encouraging a proper spirit.' It is certain, I think, that no 
lent here feels himself. y other, in any manner degraded by 

•work. That any of our best people have ever felt thus about work, 
is a calumny so often repeated by our enemies, that some of us be- 
gan to believe it of oui- It is not true, and never was true. 
Very respectfully, 
.S ; _• .■: \ M. G. Ellzey, 

Prof, of Agriculture. 



Tz: -laughter of Sheep et Dog.?. — We learn from a 

d that on the night of the 18th instant that the sheep-flock of 

Mr. E. V.". Crockett, of the C re, wan v:-::ed by more worth- 

gp, and twenty-two fine sheep killed. A few days before they 

were killed, Mr. C i skett refused $10 per head for them We have 

always advocated a dog-tax for the protection of the sheep, wbich is 

fitable to the country when properly managed ; but as there 

is no protective law it is almost useless to call attention to the sub- 

The people can straighten the thing by sending no man to 

the Legislature who is opposed to a heavy dog-tax. By doing this the 

firmer will be enabled to raise sheep. Otherwise he cannot. — 

Dispatch. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 101 

THE CHICKAHOMINY LOW-GROUNDS. 

HOW THEY MAY BE RECLAIMED AND MADE PRODUCTIVE. 

Many plans have been suggested for cleaning out and deepening 
the bed of the Chickahominy, which has become greatly filled up by 
fallen trees, gathering every year obstructions at different places, 
thereby preventing the free flow of the water in the 'channel of the 
river. I tried a plan to get rid of some of those obstructions which, 
I am happy to report, proved a success, at a very small outlay of 
money ; and which, if carried out, will reclaim perfectly one of the 
most valuable and productive large bodies of land in the State. Its 
near proximity to Richmond, and its perfect adaptation to grass- 
growing, must, or ought to, make those lands a mine of wealth to 
their owners in supplying this section of the country and the coun- 
try south of this with a superior article of hay superseding that 
now brought from the North and distant sections of this State. 

The value of these thousands and thousands of acres of lands now 
not only idle, but requiring taxes to be paid on them annually, and 
breeding, year after year, sickness, insects and vermin to destroy sur- 
rounding families and crops, would, in a period of years, if attended 
to at proper periods of the year, at 

AT A VERY SMALL OUTLAY, 

as before stared, be both immense in amount, and astonishing to the old- 
est and wisest landowner in this country. The mode of treatment I 
suggest is as follows: In the summer when the water is at its lowest, 
and the leaves and other dead vegetation, fallen logs, etc., (all of 
which form the obstructions referred to), are all dry, let each owner 
of lands on the river (by concert with his neighbor, if necessary) 
set fire to the combustible material on his lowlands and burn out 
clean everything that will burn. One day will make a clean sweep 
of all the obstructions referred to, and besides will kill out every bit 
of the young growth of bushes, briers weeds and grass, and leave 
these lands, though in timber growth, in splendid condition for seed- 
ing among the trees herds, orchard and Peruvian grasses for pastures 
and for hay ; for this timbered alluvial land will, if not too densely 
shaded, produce more and better crops than the open lands. Simply 
sow the grass-seed on the hard, unbroken surface among the large 
trees ; in the spring of the year, after frosts, it will come up. 

And now for the obstructions of logs, &c, in the channel. When 
the water is at its lowest, as before stated, cut them up into short 
lengths of from five to six feet, and leave them there for the water, 

WHEN THE FLOODS COME, 
to carry them out of and away from the channel ; for it is true that 
when the water is rising that in the centre of the channel is higher 
than on the sides, and hence it flows outward from the centre and 
carries with it everything that floats, and leaves it generally a good 
distances from the channel on the flats that are overflowed. When 
the water begins to fall in a stream, the water is lowest in the centre, 



102 THE SOUTHERN [February 

and hence the water is drawn to the same from the overflown lands, 
leaving the mass of debris high and dry on the land, some distance from 
the river, where the next annual burning, in dry mid-summer or 
early fall, is sure to consume the whole of it. Thus, in two or three 
years, with a little com non sense and a judicious uie of the axe and 
fire, the work of millions of men may be saved and thousands and 
thousands of the most valuable acres of land maybe cleared up and 
reclaimed at ■ a small as not to be really felt. 

I have s:iven these facta for the general good, knowing them to be 
facts. They are applicable to all low-lands with running streams 
through them. — Richmond Whig. 

Burx and Cut. 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

A SMALL EFFORT AT HIGH FARMING. 

You ask me to repeat the details of an effort towards "high farm- 
ing." made by me many years ago. A full statement of the facts 
was published in the Phx ter ■::' 1866 a; I think, and I regret that 
you cannot recover the number that contained it. Of course you. and 
your readers, will make all proper allowances for any discrepancy or 
lack of accuracy due to the number of years and such years ! that 
have fallen upon us since the experiment was made. 

In the spring of 1856 I selected a piece of land so poor as to sug- 
gest, by analogy, the "«e Uum in eorpore vili" of the spec- 
ulative surgeon. It was divested of its natural growth, sassa:'. is, 
persimmon, and the usual varieties of briers — and ploughed to an 
average depth of seven inches. The harrow and roller was then 
passed over it persistently until the tilth was perfect A few 1 
of farm yard manure were put on the poorer portions, but the main 
reliance was in the application of guano — 250 of Peruvian, and 250 
of Columbia — the whitest and best Phosphatic Guano I ever saw. 
The land was planted, mainly, in tobacco, but the crop was so poor that 
I kept no account of it. though I must have made enough to pay for 
the guano. 

In October. I was prevented, by illness, from superintending the 
sowing of the wheat, and when my manager asked permission to apply 
more guano tashe expressed it. "jus: to peerten up the land)," I re- 
luctantly consented to his putting on 100 pounds of Peruvian, to the 
acre. When I got out. I found ^from the number of empty bags) 
that he had put on at leas: . orads! and fully e; :hat the 

wheat, long before harvest, would lodge — and such, doubtless, would 
have been the result, if the spring had been wet. Fortunately, how- 
ever, as regarded this experiment, the spring months of 1857 were 
exceptionally dry. and the season in every way favorable to the 
growth and maturity of the wheat. The variety was that which had 
as many aliases as an old rogue, but oftener s:yled " Little Red" and 
" Early Purple Straw." Tne average height of the straw in this 
particular crop was about four feet. The quantity of land <as found 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 103 

by accurate survey after the crop of wheat had been harvested) was 
37 acres, and the yield was a full average of 33 bushels to the acre, 
or 1221 in the aggregate. I may mention that I was induced to 
measure the yield of 7 acres obviously superior to the average of the 
field, and the result was 280 bushels, an average of 40 to the acre. 

I sold the wheat from the last in question about $1.50 nett, mak- 
ing say $19.50 per acre. The Peruvian guano cost about $55 per 
ton, the Phosphatic about $30. I remember that after deducting the 
cost of the guano, and allowing a very flattering discount for the 
natural production of the land my estimate was that I cleared about 
$30 per acre. Of course in those days we took no account of the 
labor, which we fondly, but foolishly thought, belonged to us! 

In the fall of 1857 this land was again sown with wheat — 80 
pounds of guano to the acre, applied with the drill. The result was an 
average of 20 bushels to the acre. Grass-seeds were sown with this 
crop but failed to take well. The land, however, shows that it has 
not entirely forgotten the extraordinary treatment it received in 1857, 
to this day it produces better than the contiguous lands, and has 
never thrown up a tithe of the pests (in the shape of sassafras, &c.) 
which formerly disfigured it. 

In offering this statement to my brother- farmers, I hope it night, 
in some small measure, go to prove that a reduction of area by no 
means involves, as a necessity, a reduction of crops. . Deep tillage 
is of more importance than broad acres, and I trust my brethren 
will hearken to this dictum none the less kindly and considerately 
because the writer, with some shame, and a good deal of sadness has, 
in parting, to echo the peasant poet — 

" May you better reck the rede, 
Than ever did the adviser." 



Raise More Clover and Grass — As it is in order now for 
farmers to lay- their plans for the next crop, I would suggest a 
change in our practice. We are confining ourselves too much to the 
production of corn, wheat, cotton and tobacco, thereby greatly im- 
poverishing our farms, and often producing more of those staples 
than the markets demand, thus forcing prices below the actual cost 
of production. Wheat, at present prices, is barely paying the cost 
of production, and from present indications, the crop of the present 
year is likely to sell at actual loss to the producer. Let us learn 
from the past, and diversify our crops so as to avoid in future the 
possibility of such an event. We should sow a greater breadth of 
land in clover and grass ; grow a greater quantity of fruits and 
vegetables ; bring our farms up to a higher degree of fertility, and 
enrich rather than exhaust them. We might learn a useful lesson 
from the recent action of the pig iron manufacturers, and, like them, 
resolve to work on half time, rather than be guilty of the folly of 
over production. Then let us resolve to so diversify our crops as to 
realize a fair remuneration for their production. — Arlington, in 
Mural World. 



104 THE SOUTHERN [February 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
THE BEST COTTON SEED TO PLANT. 

The importance of planting the best seed cannot be overestimated. 
For five years I have been engaged in improving my cotton seed, 
and I have at last gotten them to my liking. I have discarded the 
old idea that the seed of the first picking should be put into the 
manure pit. I save the seeds of the lower and middle crops and 
throw out the top. The consequence is. that my seed will mature 
all of two weeks earlier than any I know of. Besides, the staple is 
vastly superior, and is more prolific than any with which I am ac- 
quainted. This cotton was called, in Alabama, years ago. the "sugar 
loaf," because it grows in that shape and is desirable on that account, 
as it can be planted closer and plowed more easily. My crop this 
year averaged within a fraction of a bale of five hundred pounds to 
the acre, notwithstanding the killing out in spring, bad stand, and 
the destructive drought and hot weather in July and August. Had 
the season been as good the two years previous the results would 
.have been far better. Of course the crop was well manured and the 
grass was not allowed to grow. The little fertilizer I bought was the 
English Stonewall, sold by Flannagan, Abill & Co.. of Savannah, and 
better bought manure cannot be had, but I raise the fertilizer I like 
better in my stable and barn-yard. With regard to these cotton seed, 
I have never sold a pound of them, but have given some to my less 
favored neighbors, and exchanged with others, but that operation has 
become burthensome, and besides, after years of pains taking to per- 
fect these seed, I see no reason why I should not get some return. 
I have not now, more than one hundred bushels that I could spare. 
I have never advertised, nor shall I, but if my Virginia and North 
Carolina friends would like to avail themselves of these seeds, if 
they will order them immediately I will send them. 

The charge will be two dollars and fifty cents per bushel of 32 
lbs. sack included and delivered at the railroad station at "Waynes- 
boro, Ga. The money can be sent by express prepaid or Post Office 
or money order. My seed I have named Wyatt's Early Prolific. 
The name imports just what they are, nothing more nothing less. 

Professor Pendleton, of Georgia University, and the chemist for the 
State, has given me a recipe for making a cheap and reliable manure, 
which I intend to try this year, and I give it to other farmers : 

Eight tons of rich earth ; one* ton Peruvian guano; four tons dis- 
solved bone. 

Lets try it; it will not cost over eighteen dollars per ton. 

S. Wyatt. 
Waynesboro, Ga. 

Patrons in Kansas are saving 25 per cent, on their corn, by pur- 
chasing it through the agency of the Iowa State Grange. 

The Grange Insurance Company, at Muscatine, Iowa, is carrying 
risks to the amount of $200,000. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 105 

Amelia County, Dec. 15th, 1874. 
Col. F. G. Ruffin : 

Dear Sir: At the request of Dr. Cheatham, I furnish you with the 
results of heavy manuring on plot of four acres of laud. In the year 
1868, I took up four acres of land of moderate fertility. Applied to 
about half of the plot stable and farm-pen manure, pretty liberally. 
The plot thoroughly prepared for tobacco, and 200 lbs. Gilliam's tobacco 
fertilizer applied in the drill to the acre before planting, and 200 lbs. 
more of same fertilizer applied to the acre broadcast when the tobacco 
was hilled and coming in top. Yield of tobacco 500 lbs. to the acre 
(exceedingly dry season). 

After taking off crop of tobacco, then prepared the plot for wheat 
and applied 200 lbs. to the acre of a preparation or mixture made by 
Col. Gilham, I think of equal parts of German potash and plaster. 
(You cau consult Mr. John Ott. He may find Col. Gilham's recipe for 
makiug the preparation referred to above. Prepared 1868.) [After 
diligent inquiry, Mr. Ott cannot find the recipe, — Ed.] 

The wheat crop of 1869 following the tobacco was very fine, making 
forty bushels per acre of good wheat. The clover that followed the 
wheat was the finest I have ever seen, measuring from 3 to 5 feet high. 
Next crop of tobacco land prepared, and 300 lbs. " Wilson's Tobacco 
Grower" applied broadcast per acre — the four acres making 5,000 lbs. 
of first-class shipping tobacco. The wheat crop following made 110 
bushels, or 27 ? bushels per acre — fine crop of clover following the 
wheat. The land appears to be in high state of fertility at present. 

Yours truly, F. Morgan. 



MEXICAN OR EL PASO ONIONS. 

TTe had another visit this morning from Mr. B. G. Andrews, of 
Atascosa Post-office Bexar county, who is giving special attention to 
the raising of the above onions. He first obtained the seed from 
Mexico, or El Paso, we forget which, and then preserved them from 
degenerating by proper cultivation, and allowing no other sort of 
onions to grow on the place. The soil he cultivates is a black sandy 
loam. He breaks the ground with a turn -plow, and then sub-soils 
with a bull-tongue. He then beds up the ground in the usual way, 
as for cotton or vegetables, with the rows about two feet apart. The 
ground should be as clean as possible, and the soil finely pulverized; 
by the use of rakes, rollers, etc. He then plants the onions in two 
ways. 

About the first of September, or any time during that month, he 
sets out the onions in the rows, from about the size of a hen's egg 
to that of a medium turnip. He sets them close together in the 
rows. In about six weeks, or two months, they will have grown and 
sprouted sufficiently to separate the sets and transplant them. Each 
onion will have divided into several sets, from a h'alf dozen to twenty. 
These are carefully separated and set out in the rows, leaving about 
a foot or fifteen inches between them. In good ground and with 
proper cultivation, these will have grown into a large onion and be 
ready for market by April or May, according to the time they have 



106 THE SOUTHERN [February 



been planted or transplanted, and also according to the season, 
where there is no irrigation. 

Another plan, carried on at the same time as the foregoing, is to 
sow the seed in the same sort of rows, and about the same time, in 
September. This is done by making a small drill furrow in the top 
of the bed, sowing the seed in it and tramping or pressing the earth 
down over them. By the spring time these will have produced 
onions of small size, which carefully preserved, are to be set out in 
the following September, and then managed as in the first plan de- 
scribed. 

In this country manure is scarcely ever needed, the soil being suffi- 
cient of itself. But when used the stable or barn yard manure is 
not put upon the ground in its raw state. It is either burned upon 
the ground, and the ashes spread upon the rows. or. what we think 
is better, it is put in a tank, and kept wet, and, at the proper time, 
it is poured upon the ground in a liquid state. 

This onion, as those who have never seen it may know, grows to a 
very large size, the aveiage ones weighing one pound, and some of 
them reaching as large in circumference as a breakfast plate. It is 
perfectly white — almost milk white — with delicate green shading, 
and is of a mild delicious taste. No other onion in the state can 
compare with it. There are many bastard onions of this species, 
where the onions have been set out in the fall, and have sprung up 
iato numerous sets, which have not been separate 1 and transplanted, 
and the result is a mass of flat three sided and other misshapen 
things, instead of large, round smooth onions. 

All this western countrv can grow these onions in the greatest 
abundance, and they will prove very profitable to the producer. — 
San Antonio Express. 



A Perfect Home. — The most perfect home I ever saw was a lit- 
tle house into the sweet incense of whose fires went no costly things. 
A thousand dollars served as a year's living of father, mother and 
three children. But the mother was a creator of a home; her rela- 
tions with her children were the most beautiful I have ever seen; 
even the dull and commonplace man was lifted up and enabled to do 
good work by the atmosphere which this woman created ; every in- 
mate of her house involuntarily looked into her face for the key 
note of the day. and it always rang clear. From the rose bud to 
the clover leaf, which, in spite of her hard housework she always 
found time to put by our plates at breakfast, down to the story she 
had on hand to be read in the evenig. there was no intermission of 
her influence. She has always been and always will be my ideal of 
a mother, wife and a home maker. If to her quick brain, loving 
heart and exquisite face, had been added the appliances of wealth 
and the enlargement of wider culture, hers would have been abso- 
lutely the ideal home. As it was, it was the best I have ever seen. 



1875.J PLANTER AND FARMER. 



107 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer ] 
AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF VA. 

LETTER FROM PROFESSOR PAGE, SUGGESTING EXPERIMENTS TO TE^T 
THE VALUE OF CERTAIN CLAYS IN DESTROYING INSECTS. 

I take the liberty of calling your attention to a paragraph which 
occurs in Professor WHkam R. Roger's « Report of the* Geolo^i al 
Reconno.ssance of the State of Virginia," made in January, 1836 
On page 31 of the Report while speaking of the Green Sand, 
(silicate ot potash and iron), sulphate of iron, sulphur and other 
matters associated with the miocene marl beds in the miocene ter- 
tiary formation of Tidewater Virginia, he says: "In some parts of 
the Miocene district there occur beds of clay more or less sandy, 
and usually of a dark color, containing Sulphate of Iron and Sul- 
phur in a minute, but still appreciable quantity. Such matter, there 
is reason- to believe, could not prove beneficial to the soil The 
former has been thought positively detrimental to vegetation; and 
certainly when applied in considerable quantity, this is its effect. 
What agency it m lg ht exert in a more diluted state, and mingled 
with other matter, we are without the means of determining * * * 
let in some well authenticated cases, the action of these copperas 
and sulphur clays has been found strikingly beneficial. 

In these instances, however,^ would se'ern that much, if not all 
the benefit was produced by the effectual protection which even mi- 
nute quantities of these substances— especially the sulphur— afford 
against the attack of insects. In a cotton field in which all the al- 
ternate rows were lightly sprinkled with earth of this description, 
the plants so treated grew up vigorous and healthy, while the others 
became sickly and were nearly devoured bv insects. 

Much careful observation is required to determine the kind and 
mode ot influence which these substances exert; and it would be 
premature, in our present ignorance of the matter, to assert any 
convictions on the subject. The presence of the former of these in- 
gredients (sulphate of iron) if not recognized by the copperas flavor, 
will be readily discovered by steeping the earth in water— decanting 
the clear l.quid-boiling it down to a small volume, and then adding 
tincture of galls or prussiate of potash. A black or brown colo? 
with the former, or a blue one with the latter, would indicate its pre- 
sence. Ihe experiment, however, should be made in a gla^s or 
chma vessel The sulphur becomes manifest to the smell when the 
clay is heated; and even at ordinary temperatures its peculiar odor 
may otten be perceived." 

In view of the increased depredations of insects injurious to vege- 
tations (generally) during the past year, and the increasing cultiva- 
tion of cotton in Tide-water and South-side sections of the State 
where an abundance of the clay containing these substances exists, 
it seems to me to be proper to call the attention of the farmers in 
those sections to this subject, that they may decide the matter by the 
test of observation and experiment. I will, therefore, ask that you 



108 THE SOUTHERN [February 

■will call their attention to the subject, by a short paragraph in your 
valuable journal. 

Pardon me for troubling you at such length, and believe me, very 
respectfully yours. &c, 

Jxo. R 

Dogs vs. Sheep. — Something ought to be done by those having 
the power to protect the sheep interests of the country from the de- 
predations and ravages of worthless curs. All intelligent men who 
have given serious thought and attention to the subject must admit 
that there is no enterprise in which the farmer can engage that is 
more fruitful of profitable results than the business of sheep-raising. 
In this section it could be made a source of wealth to all those who 
might be disposed to engage in the business. As it is, however, it is 
one of the most perplexing and uncertain enterprises in which the 
farmer can invest his capital and his labor. 

There ought to be a remedy for this evil, but until some plan is 
devised and adopted by which the country can be rid of the thousand 
and one miserable dogs which now infest it the evil will still remain 
in full force. We know of a number of our best farmers who have 
abandoned their flocks altogether on account of the fact that there 
is no protection afforded their folds ffnder the laws of the country. 
There are others who will be forced to pursue the same course un- 
less there is a change for the better. On the other hand, we know 
of many who would gladly embark largely in the business if they 
could be assured that an effective dog-law would be enforced for 
their protection. 

We throw out these hints for those who think. That the preva- 
lence of so many good-for-nothing dogs is a crime against the best 
interests of the country, and all classes therein, is a proposition 
which cannot successfully be controverted. We know that a rei: 
can be found for the evil, if those in authority would summon to 
their aid sufficient moral courage to meet the issue. — Exchange. 



Moffett's Creek. Ya., Jan. i~ U 
At a regular meeting of Moffetrs Creek Grange. No. 33. P. of H., 
the following were installed officers for the ensuing year : X 
T. M. Smiley ; Overseer. Wm. C. McKemmy ; Lecturer. Henry 
Wright ; Steward. Wm. M. Buckanan ; A. S., J. W. Berry : Chap- 
lain, C. G. Berry ; Treasurer. J. C. East ; Secretary, T. J. Martin ; 
G. K.. J. A. Lucas: Ceres. Mrs. Ellen Berrv ; Pomona. Mrs. M. E. 
Berry; Flora. Miss L. R. Smiley; L. A. B., Miss M. E. East. 

Secretary. 

The address of the Master and Secretary is Moffett's Creek, Au- 
gusta County, Ya. 



Subscription REDUCED to $1.50 Per Annum in Advance 



TOCLl'BS OF FITE OR MORE ONE DOLLAR EACH. 



ESTABLISHED 1 1ST 1840 



TIHIIE SOTTTHIIEIE^IENr 

PLANTER AND FARMER 



DEVOTED TO 



Apalture, Horticulture, aid Rural Affairs. 



L. R. DICKINSON , Proprietor 



RICHMOND. 7A„ 



ME. 1875. 



1.6. 



COHSTT 

Extravagance, 

Maryland Mechanical and Agricul- 
tural Association — Manure, 287 
Prolapsus of the Uterus, 289 
The Peanut. 291 
Bellevue Shorthorn Breed, 292 
Grange Irfluences, 
The Cleve Estate. 
Tuckahoe Farmers' Club. 
The Potato, SOJ 
On the Value and Culture of the 

Southern ( Agricultural; Tea. 
From Kentucky, 310 

Turnip. oil 

Leaping without Looking, 314 

iltural Paper vs. L>ogs — Cul- 
ture of Peanal 315 
<— What they 

iil Flowing. • ;'>17 

38 on the Roadside. 



EIXTTS- 

What I would do, were I a Young 
Farmer, 

Sowed Corn for Forage, 
.Poultry Raising, 

More about Orf 1 " *rd Grass, 

How often may we Eat? — An Im- 
portant Source of Profit, 

The Love and Culture of Flowers, 
: Virginia, 

Horses vs. Mules — Not the Highest 
Priced Beef, 

The Melon. Crop — Where the 
Money Goes to, 

Why Manure Corn in the Hill — 
Keep them Fat-s-Good Advice, 

Bath C'ty — Bear-Swamp Grange, 

Editorial — Noies for the Month 

The Virginia Patron. 

Another Old Virginian Gone — 
'."Mallet. 

Miscellaneous Notices 



319 
320 
321 
322 

328 
324 
825 

326 

327 



3:J0. 
334 

7-8 




GRAND SQUARE, # UPRIGHT 

FIAHOS 

Have received upwards of FIFTY FIRST PREMIUMS, and are among the best 
now made. Every instrument fully warranted for five years. Prices as low as 
the exclusive use of the very best material and the most thorough workmanship 
will permit. The Principal Pianists and composers and the piano-purchasing 
public, of the South especially, unite in the unanimous verdict of the superiority 
of the STIEFF PIANIO. The DURABILITY of our instruments is fully estab- 
lished by over SIXTY SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES in the South, using over 
300 of our Pianos. 

Sole Wholesale Agents for several of the principal manufacturers of Cabinet 
and Parlor Organs : prices from $50 to $600. A liberal discount to Clergymen 
and Sabbath Schools. 

A large assortment of second-hand Pianos, at prices ranging from $75 to $300, 
always on hand. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue, containing the names of over 2,000 Southern- 
ers who have bought and are using the StiefF Piano. 

CHAS. M. STIEFF, 
Warerooms, No. 9, North Liberty Street, 
BALTIMORE, MD. 
Factories, 84 & 86 Camden street, and 45 and 47 Perry St. 

ap — tf 

EUREKA 

Ammoniatefl Snprpliosjliate of Lime, 

MANUFACTURED BY 

The Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizing Company, 

Near 0EIENT, L. I., 

Always proves to be the best fertilizer when accurately tested, i. e. by the applica- 
tion of equal values, by the side of any other, whether on tobacco, wheat, corn, 
cotton, grass or vegetables. 

See the report of Mr. A. M. Bowman, President of the Baldwin Augusta Ag- 
ricultural Society, to the Virginia State Agricultural Society, published in this 
number of the Planter and Fanner, and note the fact that the i- Eureka 1 ' is not 
only much the best of the six fertilizers he tried, but that it was also the cheapest, 
and bear in mind that at the time he tried it he did not even know who was manu- 
facturing it- and followed his example in ascertaining what is the best and also 
in letting the farmer know which is the best. The value of accurate experiments, 
and the purchase from reliable manufacturers, cannot be overestimated. 

WM. G. CRENSHAW, Pres. FRANK G. RUFFIN, Supt. State of Ya. 

If there is no agent for the sale of "Eureka" in vonr immediate neighbor- 
hood, write to any of the following General Agents: W". N. RUFFIN, Rich- 
mond, Va.: JNO. ARRINGTON & SONS. Petersburg, Va.: HOOE & .IOHN T - 
STO\ r . Alexandria, Va.; JOSHUA WALKEll, Baltimore. Md.; WILLIAMS & 
MURCHISON, Wilmington. N. C; W. C. COURTNEY & CO., Charleston, S. 
C; J. W. LATHROP & CO., Savannah, Ga. 
"Send for Circular. 



THE SOUTHERN 

PLANTER & FAKMEK, 

DEVOTED TO 

AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND RURAL AFFAIRS 

Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts. — Xenophon. 
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State.— Sully. 

L. R. DICKINSON, .... - Proprietor 

New Series. RICHMOND, VA., JUNE, 1875. No, 6 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

EXTRAVAGANCE. 

" We complain of the scarcity of money, hardness of times, and 
have come to the erroneous conclusion that farming will not pay. 
But much of the fault is in ourselves. We continue to live in the 
same luxurious style as when we were in affluent circumstances, in-- 
stead of regulating our expenses according to our incomes." — Ex- 
tract from communication in May No. 

This charge reminds me of one not wholly dissimilar, which is 
quoted and answered by General Johnston in his " Narrative " : 

" Another, a class of Southern people, attribute our defeat to a 
want of perseverance, unanimity, and even loyalty, on our own 
part." And the reply: " As to the charge of want of loyalty, or 
zeal in the war, I assert, from as much opportunity for observation 
as any individual had, that no people ever displayed so much, under 
such circumstances, and with so little flagging, for so long a time 
continuously." 

The self-condemnation quoted above, from the letter of a farmer, 
is doubtless intended as a friendly admonition that we should nerve 
ourselves to make the exertions and bear the privations which the 
exigency of our situation demands. Yet it scunds like a reproach ; 
and none, I am convinced, from my opportunity for observation, 
which has made me acquainted with the way of life in several coun- 
ties and towns of Virginia, could be less deserved. The failure of 
Virginia farmers to retrieve their fallen fortunes has hitherto been 
as signal as the failure of our efforts in the cause of self-government. 
For such a result there must be an adequate cause, and that class of 
people who undertake to furnish us solutions of all such problems, 
sought it and found it, as usual, on the surface. What more natural 
than that the blame should fall where the suffering fell, and the 
farmers should have to bear, in addition to their other burdens, the 



286 THE SOUTHERN [June 



reoroach of unthrifty habits, the want of industry, economy, perse- 
verance. It is a feeble expression of what I believe and feel, to say 
that I heartilv accept General Johnston's noble vindication of the 
Southern people f which ought to be read by everybody in the restored 
Union.) against the injustice done them by a class of themselves: 
not a deliberate injustice, but an almost involuntary utterance wrung 
out of them bv the agony and bitterness of defeat and ruin. As to 
this question there no longer remains the world over any difference 
of opinion. And was it then to be expected that a people who 
provel themselves in a disastrous war the peer of any that ever ex- 
isted, in all the solid as well as brilliant qualities which combine to 
form the highest type of manhood, would prove recreant in the ob- 
scure and desperate struggle which awaited their return to their des- 
olated homes ? A struggle literally for life against the reluctant 
powers of nature, and such an accumulation of adverse circumstances 
as scarcelv any people of modern times — certainly not since the 
Thirty Years War — have been called to encounter. That some have 
succumbed to the later test who by the aid of moral stimulants bore 
themselves bravely must be admitted. It was to be expected. But 
that the Southern people generally, and Virginians especially, have 
worked like they fought, and suffered with equal fortitude in peace — 
even the peace of desolation — as in war, is the testimony of all im- 
partial observers : the cordial testimony of our late enemies. Surely 
we mav afford, without vanity, to " see ourselves as others see us " ; 
to do ourselves and each other the justice they cannot withhold, 
rather than indulge in morbid self-depreciation. The example of 
General Lee is often held up to us as a model, and we all know his 
career in war and in peace. But it is permitted us to remember, for 
our encouragement, that General Lee, like Washington, or Henry, 
like bis own father, or his sons, was a representative Virginian — the 
noblest of all it seems to me ; but just such a man as the best Vir- 
ginia influences must turn out working on the best Virginia material. 
That there have been hundreds and thousands like him, and thou- 
sands vet remain, differing only as "one star differeth from another," 
history and experience forbid us to doubt. 

I regret to trouble you with a long communication on a subject so 
barren. But " my soul is weary " of this absurd and mischievous 
talk about the extravagance of men who literally " eat their bread 
in the sweat of their brows." The newspapers are full of it, we hear 
it from the stump and the pulpit, and the charge is echoed by all who 
have not felt the shoe pinch, until even a class of farmers, who get 
their opinions ready made, though they may be struggling for bare 
existence themselves, accept the current theory that the root of our 
misfortune is luxury and profusion. Having shown the improbability 
of the charge on general grounds, I would briefly state the result of 
my own observations, admitting at the same time the instances which 
your correspondent doubtless had before his eyes. That many farm- 
ers live beyond their income is indeed true, for their income is noth- 
ing, or not enough to provide the plainest food and clothing. But I 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 287 

have vet to meet with the first farmer, whatever his former affluence, 
or even the present extent of his investments in agriculture, who 
failed to practice strict and judicious economy both from necessity 
and choice. The only difference I perceive in those whose circum- 
stances were formerly affluent is that they, as in duty bound, suffer 
and labor most contentedly. No people ever displayed, under cir- 
cumstances so disheartening, a more earnest, patient, intelligent de- 
votion to duty — to the duty of toiling, hoping, and waiting. Each 
seems to feel that he toils and saves not for himself alone but for all, 
for the common weal. Among the hardest and most cheerful workers 
are th^se who work for posterity with no hope of better days for 
themselves. The time may come when the farmers of Virginia will 
practice even greater economy and industry than at present, for they 
have proved themselves capable of any exertion, any sacrifice. But, 
instead of farther trials, I trust we may look forward to some not 
very distant reward for those so nobly borne already. Apart of the 
reward we may confer now : unstinted praise for all that has been 
done, charity for unavoidable weakness and failure, and encourage- 
ment to persevere to the end. This charge of extravagance may 
obtain credence among other classes with whom the farmers have 
important relations, and for their benefit it might seem desirable that 
the real causes of agricultural distress and failure should be pointed 
out. But they seem to me sufficiently obvious, and having already 
been tempted to write too much, I will leave them, as I would fain 
have left this vindication of the class with whom I am temporarily 
identified, to some abler pen. T. P. L. 

Fluvanna, May 7, 1875. 



MARYLAND MECHANICAL AND AGRICULTURAL ASSO- 
CIATION—THE MANURE QUESTION. 

The Maryland Mechanical and Agricultural Association met yester- 
day afternoon at their room, Eutaw and Fayette streets, Allen Bowie 
Davis. president, in the chair, and T. B. Dorsey, secretary. There 
was a good attendance, and much interest was shown in the discus- 
sion, which was on the subject of the application of barnyard ma- 
nure to soils. The participants in the discussion were Col. Wrn. 
Webster of Baltimore county. A. B. Davis and Mr. Warner of Har- 
ford county, J. J Myerly of Howard county, and W. A. Bennet, 
Ezra Whitman and Samuel Sands of Baltimore county. 

Mr Sands said that in feeding cattle the question of replacing in 
the land those constituents taken away was to be considered. The 
manure intended to nurture the land should contain just such con- 
stituents as the land needed. If phosphoretic elements were taken 
away they should be replaced. Animal manure is deficient of that 
much needed constituent, and hence as the best nutriment for land 
the speaker recommended a raixaire of phosphate matter with ma- 
nure. This would give the greatest yield in return. This was a 
Bubject that failed to receive the attention it deserved here in Mary- 



288 THE SOUTHERN [June 

land. In Ohio the farmers at first built their stables over running 
streams and got rid of their manure, forgetful that their lands would 
be eventually impoverished. 

At the present time, notwithstanding the longer time cultivated. 
Maryland land was about as good as that in Ohio. Pennsvlvania 
land is good because the farmers attend to this matter and keep their 
soil rich. Farmers must learn to regard cattle in a measure as ma- 
nure manufacturers, and if only straw is fed to cattle, what can be 
expected ? They must have meal and rich food. The liquid excre- 
tion of cattle was the most valuable of all animal evacuations, and 
should by all means be utilized. 

Mr. Ezra "Whitman, in answer to a question, said that unfortu- 
nately on his own farms he was unable to get enough barnyard ma- 
nure, as he had but little stock. He bought it from his neighbors, 
however, and used it in preference to anv commercial fertilia 

The chair said that inasmuch as Mr. Whitman waslariie:v 
::> the business of manufacturing fertilizers, the society could not but 
appreciate his candor. 

Mr. Sands, continuing the subject, said he thought bone dust the 
best phosphoretic matter to unite with barnyard manure. 

Col. Webster said he believed bone dust a cheap application for 
the purpose, but he did not think the application of phosphates at 
all nectssary. The barnyard manure, with the phosphoretic acid 
found in salt and other such substances, was sufficient. It had been 
ascertained that on the first farm ever cultivated in the Stare of 
Maryland the yield per acre was now double what it was in the time 
of Lord Baltimore. In all parts of the world where attention is 
given to manuring, the crops at present are about double what they 
were five hundred years ago. It had I ■ nts 

worth of plaster as much good could be wrought on land five 

dollars worth of phosphates. The soils of Harford county lack 
lime, and therefore that is a good application. 

Mr, Davis said that when plaster was first used its effects were so 
good that farmers thought they would be rich immediately. Plaster 
soon exhausts itself. Mr. J. B. Matthews, of Howard county, a 
most successful farmer had found plaster over manure a benerkial 
arrangement. 

Mr. Sands said one great trouble was that if your next door neigh- 
bor used plaster and you manure and phosphates, he would reap all 
your benefits, as plaster will attract from a distance the ammoniated 
elements so nourishing to farm land. Prof. Stockbridge. of Massa- 
chusetts. State Superintendent of Agriculture, had ascertained by 
careful experiments that he could ascertain the exact amount of com- 
mercial fertilizers necessary to any land in order to secure the yield 
of a given number of bushels of grain. That is to say. he had taken 
certain land yielding fifteen bushels of corn per acre, and determined 
that a certain amount of mineral manures added to the land would 
give a yield of twenty-five bushels per acre. An increase in : 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 289 

amount of manure -was sure to bring a proportionate increase in ratio 
to the yield. In conclusion, he was convinced that if the nitrogen 
element was present in land the other ingredients would be found in 
the air and elsewhere. 

Mr. Davis presented the following resolution, which was unani- 
mously adopted: 

Resolved, That the true object of the farmer should be not only 
to draw from the land an annual revenue, but also to increase the 
value of the funded capital invested in the soil, the increase of the 
invested capital being necessarily an increase of the periodical 
revenue. 

It was resolved to appoint a committee of ten, active members to 
make preliminary arrangements for the September exhibition at Pim- 
lico. Before adjournment it was announced that at the next meet- 
ing the subject would be the feeding of cattle, when Mr. Wm. Mosher 
of Harford county, a great cattle feeder, and other gentlemen, will 
express their views. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] • 

PROLAPSUS OF THE UTERUS. 
(falling of the womb.) 

Prolapsus of the uterus is one of the most annoying phenomenas 
liable to follow parturition. It consists in the womb passing outside 
through the vulva. This condition occurs principally in animals 
which give birth to only one young — as the mare, cow, and ewe — as 
the uterus in these animals is more particularly brought into play 
in the expulsion of the young during birth. It is commonly seen 
in debilitated animals and in stall-fed cows that are constantly kept 
in the stable. Among the causes I would state colic, retention of 
the urine, tympanitis, overfeeding, general weakness of the animal 
as the result of ill-feeding, and lastly, the position of the mother, 
standing on a depending floor during the period of carrying the 
young. [If the length of the stall is 10 feet, the fall in the floor 
should not exceed 3 inches.] It appears usually immediately after 
birth — rarely after two or three days. The first indication for treat- 
ment is the replacement; this should be done as quickly as possible, 
as the parts are liable to become inflamed and swollen, thereby ren- 
dering the replacement in time difficult. [If it is not done at all, 
gangrene will set in, which will end the life of the animal.] Another 
reason why in nervous mares it should be replaced quickly is, that 
their kicking and rubbing may produce severs injuries, thereby 
causing inflammation of the womb and the lining membrane of the 
abdomen (peritonitis), which often proves fatal. Coffs are not so 
susceptible to the latter diseases as mares, but prolapsus of the uterus 
occurs more commonly in cows than in mares. 

First, all dirt requires to be removed with blood-warm water, and 
if any after-birth should have remained, this should be carefully re- 



290 THE SOUTHERN [June 

moved. If any is attached to the cotyledoines they should be mois- 
tened and carefully loosened by bathing with warm milk. Before 
manipulating, the operator's finger nails should be cut and ra.sped, 
so as not to irritate the parts more than is necessary; also oiling his 
arm before introdueing it. In order to render ths animal quiet for 
the operation, an infusion of chamomile flowers (about one handful 
to a pint of hot water) with an ounce of laudanum might be given. 
In some parts of Europe it is common to give cows a pint of whis- 
key with a couple of spoonfuls of sugar. It will usually suffice by 
putting on a twitch, or forcing the mouth open to prevent or relieve 
partly the straining of the cow. This being done, the operator 
places two assistants on each side of the falling womb to raise it. by 
means of a piece of clean cloth, to the height of the vulva. Then 
with half-closed hand the operator pushes the same from the lowest 
point back into its place, progressing slowly and cautiously, making 
use of the moments at which the animal is at ease, taking care to 
replace it completely. In difficult replacements it is, perhaps, best 
to first empty the rectum, either by means of the hand or injections, 
and the bladder by the introduction of a catheter. In all cases it is 
better to operate on the animal whiie standing up. The closed hand 
should remain in the cavity and respond to the straining, which will 
lessen considerably in fifteen or thirty minutes. In slight cases, 
where the prolapsus has only existed for an hour or so, the hand 
may not need to remain any longer than half an hour or an hour, 
if the straining has entirely stopped. But it usually requires two, 
three to four hours. In a couple of cases where the prolapsus had 
lasted for sixteen to twenty hours, it required ten to twelve hours 
before the hand could safely be removed. When one arm gets tired, 
it has to be carefully changed. 

In cases where it is not convenient to employ a person at the posi- 
tion for any length of time, a bandage should be made.. consisting of 
a broad, thick piece of leather, with a cut above to allow its adap- 
tation under the tail; a pair of straps going over the back forward, 
to be fastened to a surcingle; a pair of straps below, passing between 
the legs right and left, to be attached also to the surcingle ; a round 
opening corresponding to the anus allowing the passage of dung, 
while a narrow, longitudinal opening below, corresponding to the 
vulva, gives exit to the urine. The bandage can be removed in a 
quiet animal after two to three days, while in a restless beast it may 
not be safe to remove it before ten to fourteen days. The animal 
should not be allowed to lay down during the first twenty-four hours. 
Occasional injections of weak soapsuds are of service to loosen the 
bowels, which will prevent unnecessary straining. If the straining 
remains very severe, injections of cold tvater into the uterus may be 
tried. One ounce of laudanum may be given in one pint of an in- 
fusion of chamomile flowers, or three or four onions fried in good but- 
ter, and then cooked in about one pint of the cow's own milk, and 
half given at intervals of half an hour. The animals should be kept 



1875] PLANTER AND FARMER. 



291 



on low diet, and, on bettering themselves, be slightly exercised It 
is also a wise precaution to have the back of the floor of the stable 
somewhat elevated. p < Peters V S 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

THE PEANUT. 

This crop has made so great progress in the last few years as to 
attract the attention of all who own lands adapted to its growth. It 
is stated, in an article upon the cultivation of the peanut in the re- 
port of the Department of Agriculture for 1868, that during the 
late war its "merits became extensively known among the soldiers- 
so that when the armies weie disbanded a knowledge of them was 
carried to every part of the country." Hence the large increase 
1 f v ? I lvatlon of the Peanut, and in its shioment from the port 
aI } t0 NeW lork — estimated then at several hundred thou- 
sand bushels, and believed at the present time to exceed a million 

It is believed that the soil of large portions of Eastern Virginia 
is well adapted to this crop. It is, at least, well worth a trial in 
those parts of our own country which seem to possess the necessary 
requisites tor its successful production. 

The chief essential is a light gray soil, not over sandy. This soil 
gives to the pea its light, bright color, which is esteemed its finest 
quality in the markets. As the land should be clean, it is deemed 
best to plant after corn— but better still, after a crop of stock peas 
It is highly important to secure for seed the best quality, and this, 
too, when it has been carefully protected from exposure to bad 
weather. The use of lime on the land is esDecially recommended 
lhe land should be plowed to the depth of four to five inches; fur- 
rows opened three feet apart, and deposit in them 125 pounds of 
Peruvian guano, or 150 to 200 pounds of super-phosphate of lime ■ 
cover up with the plow into three feet beds, which should then be 
levelled for the reception of the seed about the middle of Mav 
lhe pods should be shelled with great care, so as not to break the 
shell of the pea, and all defective ones be rejected. Plant two seeds 
eighteen inches apart, covering to the depth of one to one and a haif 
inches. About two bushels are required per acre. Some rows 
should be planted closer to furnish plants for any missing bills; this 
replanting should be done in about two weeks after the planting 
Keep the land perfectly clean with plow, cultivator, and hoes espe- 
cially. In a wet season, three workings may be necessary to clear 
away weeds and grass, all of which must be eradicated before it is 
laid.by. Avoid covering up the vines, which by that time will have 
spread widely, and the first fruit then fprming. 

The next work will be the harvesting^ the crop. This should 
be done after the first frost— about the 1st to the 10th of October 
in our section. First loosen the vines with a three pronged fork • 
then pull them up and shake off the dirt, and leave them to dry* 
If dry, they can be shocked in two days after. Lay two fence rails 



292 THE SOUTHERN [June 

upon supports high enough to promote a free circulation of air under 
them; upon these shock around stakes seven feet long, making the 
diameters of the shocks about the length of the vine. Protect the 
shocks with straw caps. In two weeks the ripe pods may be picked 
from the vines; dry, fan, and clean them. A skillful hand will 
pick two and a half to three bushels per day. Care is necessary to 
keep the nuts from becoming heated or mouldy, stir them, then, 
until the hull is seasoned thoroughly. 

The usual product is from twenty-five to one hundred bushels per 
acre. Even larger crops have been made by the best cultivators. 
The prices are not so high as they were a few years ago, but they 
are still remunerative. For a prime fancy article $2.50 may be 
obtained per bushel, while those of ordinary and inferior quality 
range from one to two dollars. At these prices peanuts are more 
profitable than cotton at twenty-five cents per pound, or tobacco at 
ten cents. 

The vines make excellent provender for stock, but they may be 
used to greater advantage in enriching the land for a second crop to 
be raised from the same land. 

For the foregoing sketch of the culture of the peanut I am in- 
debted to the article in the report of the Department of Agriculture, 
and mainly to an excellent treatise on the same subject by Mr. 
Doothat, of Weyanoke, on James River. The first may be seen in 
the January number of the '• Southern Planter and Farmer" for 
1870, and the other in the succeeding April number of that year. 
To those who propose to engage in the culture I recommend these 
two articles. The few trials made in our county justify us in be- 
lieving that the peanut may become a valuable crop upon soils suited 
to it; at least, it may be a profitable auxiliary to our standard 
cereals. Ed. T. Tatloe, Chairman. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

BELLEVUE SHORT-HORN BREED. 

An account of a recent visit to Bellevue Stock Farm, the property 
of Mr. A. M. Bowman, the president of our Baldwin Augusta Agri- 
cultural Society — one of our best farmers as well as the prominent 
breeder df short-horn cattle in the Valley — will not be without in- 
terest. 

Bellevue is situated on the north bank of the South river, which, 
it will be remembered, skirts the Blue Ridge at its western base, 
and about three miles south of Waynesboro, on the Chesapeake and 
Ohio railroad. The farm is in the form of a parallelogram, extend- 
ing for some distance along the river, and having every field watered 
by it, thus furnishing a pleasing combination of gently rolling upland 
and river bottom in each enclosure. The residence is near the 
river, about midway of the farm, sufficiently elevated to secure good 
drainage, and flanked by a mammouth barn, affording ample room for 
his numerous herd of cattle — which, I may add, are staunchioned in 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 293 

the capacious and comfortable stables. There is a capital piggery, 
where the Berkshires are comfortably housed, and hard by is the 
" Prindle Steamer," which is used in preparing food for hogs and 
cattle. Mr. B. uses a horse-power to cut his corn-fodder, hay. &c, 
before steaming, and finds both arrangements are very economical. 
His wheat crop is promising; looks as though he intended adding 
the State Agricultural Society's premium for "the largest yield " 
to that already obtained for corn, oats, and hay. The farm, taken 
as a whole, is evidence of good management and successful culture. 
Mr. Bowman is an earnest advocate of orchard grass : says " he was 
raised on it (?), and therefore knows of what he speaks."' 

In regard to stock, he unites with spirit and intelligence a love 
for the business, elements which guarantee success. A thorough- 
bred has no charm for him simply because it has a pedigree, and its 
name has been offered to the public through the columns of a herd- 
book ; but his selections are made with particular and single ref- 
erence to such strains of blood as' for some intelligent purpose he 
desires to infuse into his own herd, or because of some intrinsically 
valuable characteristic which he wishes to make available in the con- 
struction of that ideal short-horn which is ever before his mind's eye. 

Among his Berkshire swine the two imported sows. Hillhurst Rose 
and Rosedale are splendid specimens: but it is particularly of the 
short-horns of which we would speak. 

The herd consists of seventeen (17) females and three (3) males. 
At their head the Earl of "Weldon, 14.175. a ; Duke upon a Rose 
of Sharon foundation, coming three years old; rich red, with some 
white, mellow hide, good handler of truly grand style. 

Of the Bates-Cragg family there are three representatives. Lady 
Craggs — Handsome ren-roan, fully developed, weighs over 1,800; 
remarkable for widfti of hip. This cow has been recently bred to 
2d Earl of Oxford, a pure Oxford bull. 

Lady- Craggs 2d — by duke of Onandaga, 6,778; like her dam, 
with all her good points. 

Miss Craggs — colored like dam, out of Lady Craggs and by Al- 
bert Edward, 11,278 : a very promising four-months old heifer. 

Of the Rosamond family there is the massive white cow Rosa- 
mond 9th, got by Royal Briton. 27,351, out of Rosamond 7th by 
Weehauken, 5.260. This cow will soon calve to Don Bernardo, 
11,641. Mr. William Marfield, of Kentucky, says of her: " She 
is one of the best specimens of a short-horn I ever saw. - ' This is 
compliment enough. 

Of the Lonaws — justly so celebrated — Greenwood Lonaw 2d is 
his only specimen. She was by Jeremiah Duncan's show bull, Duke 
of Airdu, 2,743. Though eleven years old, she has proved a great 
breeder, and numbers many celebrated animals among her offspring. 
Roan in color, and nearly due to calve to Sheldon's Duke, 7,260. 

There are two Elvinas (Mr. Coffin's family) — Elvina 8th by Plan- 
tagenet, out of Elvina 3d by the 11th Dude of Thorndale — a red, 



294 THE SOUTHERN [June 

and her daughter a roan, bj Earl of Muirkirk, 14,170. This family- 
have no less than five Bates and Princess crosses upon an excellent 
milking foundation, and are the descendants of imported Pansey by 
Blaize (76). 

Amongst the show animals of the herd, Jenny O'Gaunt by Red 
Duke, half-sister to the famous Fanny Forrester; and Cindirella 2d 
by Royal Bellville, son of imported Royal Briton, are specimens 
which have more than once worn the ribbons in successful competi- 
tion at the great exhibitions North, West, and South. 

There are some eight specimens of short-horns which properly 
belong to the useful kind, e. g., while combining the intrinsic quali- 
ties of form, color, and general characteristic, lack those extrinsic 
attributes which so much enhance the money value of the animal. 
To one not familiar with pedigree, as individual specimens they com- 
pare well with the most highly prized animals in the herd. 

The cattle are in fine condition, showing they have been well 
wintered; but Mr. B. claims notto be a high feeder. If he does 
not pamper or use the curry-comh as much as might be advisable, he 
could readily find excuse for this delinquency in the precept and 
example of another of Virginia's distinguished short-horn advocates. 

Too much credit cannot well be accorded to one who thus gives 
talent, time and means to the building up af so handsome a herd of 
thoroughbred cattle. The needs of the dear old State are realized, 
the solid groundwork upon which her future prosperity must rest is 
appreciated, and could Ave only boast of a greater number of live 
young men, the near future would realize our most sanguine expec- 
tations. Delivered from the thraldom of poverty, clothed with the 
elements of power, resulting from the increased value of her agricul- 
tural and stock products, supplemented by her mineral and manu- 
facturing resources, she would again advance todlie foremost ranks, 
the leader in peace as she has been the embattled queen in war, and 
the ''mother of States and statesmen." W. G. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

GRANGE INFLUENCES. 

The principles upon which the confident expectations of success, 
in the movement of the Patrons of Husbandry, rest, and their effica- 
cy, efficiency, and certainty are generally acknowledged. In almost 
every department of human life among us, they are in daily practi- 
cal operation, to the benefit of those who use them, and, unfortu- 
nately for the farmer, to his detriment. The chief difficulty in our 
use of them is the intense individuality impressed upon us by our 
pursuits, each farmer having been, under the force of circumstances, 
constrained to form the habit in his daily operations of thinking and 
acting for and within himself; hence it is extremely difficult to im- 
press upon those who have not given thought to the subject, the fea- 
sibility and propriety of throwing off the effects of this habit of 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. g 95 



height, and introducing the principles of combination and coopera- 
tion m a thousand form., in matters heretofore looked on bv the 
• tanner as exclusively to be decided on and acred on bv his ow/i,, di- 
vidual judgment and will, and to be carried out bv his own individual 
exertions Tins habit of thought is stronger among our own people 
perhaps than elsewhere, from the -peculiar institution " which so 
recently prevailed among us. and hence we have the greater difficul- 
ty in presenting properly the logical results of Grange influence. 

1 have found more difficulty in inducing those who were formerly 
large fanners to give attention to the subject than any other class 
simply because the habit of mind formed by being able" to command 
the combination and cooperation which wealth gave, has preve. ted a 
fair consideration of the new processes and combinations which the 
new order of thinga requires. Hence a Grange Lecturer is often 
placed m the position, when he undertakes an exposition of our prin- 
ciples, of going over the demonstration of truths, winch every one 
acknowledges to be true in the abstract, but which it is often neces- 
sary to go over ,n their simplest forms, in order to show their prac- 
tical application to the direct objects of our noble Order. Truth 
too. travels slowly and it is almost a necessitv. fairly and properly 
o present the truths we teach to the mass of* the fanners, that those 
truths should be presented in a practical form, thus eliminating from 
he demonstration the side issues resulting from opposing habits of 
thought and action, and this can best be done to practical men only 
ford ° Ur gateS ' and WUh Uie facilities wbicb acrual practice af- 

We teach, what we honestly believe, that the principles we profess 
embodied in our organization, must of necessitv produce the greatest 
good to the greatest number. That high morals can and must be 
infused into all belonging to our Order and made to characterize 
eacn ratron. 1 hat an improvement in social intercourse must result 
from our principles as applied by us. That a new impulse mnst be 
given to true education if Grangers discharge their duty, and that a 
wise superintendence and supervision is carefully guiding and ward- 
ing them in the discharge of that high dutv. That in every form we 
present, to the extent of our ability, the best models of business 
moral, social, and educational improvement, to each and every Patron 
by his own hearth-stone, in his domestic circle, and in Grange- that 
as far as human power will allow, we lift the humblest man of woman 
in the Order to all the advantages and facilities possessed bv the 
most elevated, the best informed, and the purest within our .ates 
and in doing so, by wise provisions, we exclude to the extent of our 
ability, any degrading influences ; and that we do this bv the volun- 
tary action of those who unite with us. without one restraint upon 
individual action to which any reasonable being could obiect. em- 
bodying only the influences of love and kindness to accomplish our 

The mode by which the material interest of each Patron is sought 



296 THE SOUTHER* .[June 

■ -I and guarded. > -irily more or less public, 

and for them'.- generally understood, and its efficiency, to a 

great degree, demonstrated among ourselves, by results already ob- 
tained, but the recent introduction of the Order, the ; f our 
people, and other hindrances, in distance from the place of meeting 
of subordinate Granges, the want of bu bo our pur- 
. andthenece- k put the machinery in mo- 
tion, to develop the moral, social, and educational influences of the 
Order, have caused delays, which it may be well to take adra 
of, in order to enable us when fully organized to develop 
fluences in the most attractive and at the same time most useful form. 

The moral teachings and the result of :.. things must be each 

ore or less, brought out in the daily business transactions be- 
tween man and man, and in the active exercise of the nobler chari- 
ties of life, to be shown in the exact justice and wise liberality meted 
out to all, as it ought to be demanded and insisted on by each Patron 
for himself, and be impressed upon the public mirrd in all our acts, 
and thus ensuring that we will bury in t! d of contempt, any 

futile efforts which may be made to turn our influences in channels 
where the only results would be for personal objects and dirty gains. 

Of necessity we are forced to bring prominently forward our ma- 
terial objects, because upor ~ in that view emphatically rests 
the building we propos in which the moral, social, and edu- 
cational benefits we seek may have a permanent abiding place : and 

is f the first importance to impress upon every Patron in Virginia 
that in the development of the bus in : m we are now inaugu- 

rating Patron ought to be bound by his own sense of duty to 

the Order, by his own interests, and by the aid and protection 
his duty to give to -:er members of the Order, to throw his 

influence and his bn : om the - to the greatest matter, 

into the bands of the capable bu- ther in whose care we have 

placed this important trust; I no skill on his part, no devoid 
the cause, can ensure success in his delicate and difficult task with- 
out this aid heartily and freely given. 

For our moral and social advancement we can rest in confident 
hope upon the influences necessarily brought into play when both 
mind and body are relieved by - - in our material objects, from 
the continued tern pf tfant attrition of our highest hopes 

and aspirations, by depressing want and absorbing care, the conse- 
quent upspringing of the mind and the ardent desire for improvement 
becomes intensified in its force, and causes good to grow and bear 
rich fruit in every mind, and when minds in this condition in con- 
stant intercourse and communion with other minds, enlarged, ex- 
panded, invigorated, and powerful, from the accumulation of k 
edge, must grow u -t to an appr the higher level of 

those thus improved, and the benefits of education not only as it is 
commonly defined, but in its enlarged and true sense, must impress 
on all Patrons its benign res a though the more humble among 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 297 



us may not be able to follow step by step the process by which the 
more gifted arrive at conclusions. We may be able, under these in- 
fluences of our Order, to master the results, and follow with confi- 
dent steps the lights which knowledge throws upon all, even to that 
far boundary where science stays her proud step, and bows in awe 
and reverence before that inscrutable veil which mortal hand may 
never lift. W. M. Ambler. 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
"THE CLEVE ESTATE.' 

Your committee whom you appointed to examine and report on 
the li Cleve Estate," belonging to Maj. H. B. Lewis, most respect- 
fully submit the following to the King George Agricultural Club. 

This Estate which was purchased from the descendants of King 
Carter, lies immediately on the Rappahannock, distant some twenty 
miles from the city of Fredericksburg, and makes up in part, the 
valley of the fertile Rappahannock, which ranks second to no lands 
in Tide-water Virginia. 

Cleve comprises 530 acres open land and 180 in wood and timber; 
also, a marsh valuable for ducks and trapping. 

The brick mansion which is situated but a few score yards from 
the river, in front of which is a wharf, can but attract all passers by 
river and land, as both substantial and tasteful, having been erected 
in the olden time, when both material and structure were more solid 
than in these late days of progress. 

It contains 20 large and comfortable rooms, spacious hall, afford- 
ing ample room for all to enjoy the genuine hospitality ever dis- 
pensed by the Major and family. 

The out buildings are in good order and keeping with the mansion, 
all enclosed in a beautiful lawn, in which are growing shade trees 
of various kinds. 

The Major, who has an eye to profit as well as the ornamental, 
makes good use of this lawn during the summer months. "We found 
his blooded sheep, young Alderny and Devon calves enjoying the 
fine grass. 

There are two apple orchards on this Estate, both having been 
set out some 18 years ago; one from the State of New York, and 
the other from Virginia. Maj. Lewis informed us that in his opinion 
it was more profitable to select winter apples from Virginia, and 
early fruit from the North. The winter apple from the North ma- 
tured too soon, and therefore became a summer or fall apple in this 
climate. 

The cattle, horses and oxen, we found in good order, though the 
horses indicated that the owner was fond of large crops. He thinks 
the Devon stock are best adapted to this section, "though nut equal 
to the Aldernj for richness of milk." They are good for the dairy, 
beef, and best work oxen. 

The fencing on this Estate is good, though not much is required. 
We would call attention to a three plank fence on ditch bank, six to 



298 THE SOUTHERN [June 

eight inches wide, nailed to cedar post or locust, which is simple, 
cheap and durable. 

The garden was well filled with summer and winter vegetables, and 
showed what Mrs. Lewis was doing with her part of the domestic 
duties, as it is the case with most wives in this section. 

Your committSe in riding over the Estate found the corn field, 
which had just been laid by, in most beautiful order, being much 
struck with the size, evenness, and free from grass and weeds. We 
requested the Major to give us the practical working. He informed 
us, he first fallowed the land with three-horse ploughs — planting the 
corn early in April as practical with Bickford & Hoofman's drill, 
arranging the tubes to plant two rows at a tiaie, and if desired, to 
place with the corn a small quantity of fertilizer, which will hasten 
up the com, thereby enabling one to commence working sooner than 
otherwise. By drilling the corn it is distributed so that it can be 
readily thinned out with the hoe, one to one stajjp in the hill, by 
which operation it is both t'ninned and weeded, in about four days 
after planting, the land is run over with a three-horse b-arrow. When 
the corn is well up, the two-horse cultivator is used— the two front 
teeth being removed ; with this implement, one man can do the work 
of two single cultivators; the corn is then thinned with a hoe ; when 
18 inches high the earth is thinned with single ploughs. In his 
opinion for laying by the corn, the plough is better than the culti- 
vator, destroying the grass and weeds more effectually. He gene- 
rally gets it laid by before going into harvest. We must call atten- 
tion to- the disposition of the fodder and stalks on this Estate, and 
bey leave to say, that if the M;jor i; correct, much time and expense 
is saved by his new departure from his brother of the plough. 
"After gathering the corn from the stalk and housing with care he 
turns upon the field all kinds of stock — having am eye to one or 
more shifts, in order to manage them, thus saving hauling food. He 
says his stock come out of the winter much better than under the old 
plan. We see one great advantage, which is, the regular deposit of 
the manure made by them, and tramping in good iveather must im- 
prove the land for wheat 

We the nexamined the wheat, which had, to the eye of most farm- 
ers been badly treated during the past winter, by stock of all kinds ; 
yet the growth of straw was good, and every promise of a happy 
yield of twenty bushels per acre. 

He informed us that when practicable, he greatly prefered to fal- 
low his land for wheat than sow on corn land, not only less tax on 
the land than by following a corn crop, but the summer ploughing 
is more destructive to king sassafras and other pests by which our 
patience is sorely tried ; and again, not attended with the heavy ex 
pense of cutting off, and shocking the corn. 

He thinks with most practical men of this class, that good three- 
horse ploughs are economy, prefers to sow the wheat between 21st 
September and loth October, in order that the wheat may have suffi- 



' J«re:] PLANTER AND FARMER. 299 

Jno. D. Rogers, Chairman. 

-f™& e , ?^ ern banter and Farmer. 1 
1UCKAHOE FARMERS' CLUB 

«W^^V 1 J W8hl, i, 61 "y on the Culti ™ tio « of the 

at n ' S ° we1lad som e talk about it. 

Mr. Charming Robinson thought the essentials wpVp mn i j 
good season, and plenty of manure- r W 7lf g °° (1 Seed ' 

wasas neir fhp lif t ■ t maimre ' that the proper time to plant 

H P.V S ,' ™ rae U P <« unfinished business, when Dr A 
line 61 inches apart, which wi.1 S^SftgttlK 



300 THE SOUTHERN [June 

holes with a two-inch augur 6J inches apart and 6 inches deep, com- 
mencing and ending far enough from the ends (say 2 inches) so that 
the holes will not break out. After the holes are bored and pins 
driven in, the log should be sawed across the middle into two parts. 
The first pin hole On the second line should be in the centre of the 
space above, thus* alternating the positions; and some care should be 
taken so as to bore the holes near where it is to be cut, so that they 
will be two inches from the ends. Take a piece of tough white oak, 
saw it into sections of 10 inches long, split these sections into square 
pins about two inches in diameter, reduce the size of one end a little, 
and drive them square into these holes six inches deep, leaving four 
inches out of the log. After driving the pins into the log it should 
be sawed into two sections and the ends banded with iron. A hole 
should be bored through the centre of the logs from one end to the 
other ; in this hole run an iron axle with lynch pins and washers at 
the ends. Upon this axle the roller revolves. A two-inch rod for 
axle is strong enough with a frame of tough scantling three by four, 
giving room for the log with its pegs to revolve. To the two corners 
of the frame attach an ox-chain, and to the middle of said chain the 
necessary bars for two horses. Any farmer can make this roller of 
large or smaller size as preferred. 

The Doctor has long and practical experience with this roller, and 
says that the "Peg Roller" as an efficient instrument for compact- 
ing and pulverizing land is much superior to the smooth roller. It 
leaves the land as if a large flock of sheep had been driven over its 
surface, and the indentations 4i feet apart are fine receptacles for 
seeds of either gras's or wheat : and. furthermore, the uneven surface 
is an advantage as it furnishes protection and fresh earth to the 
plants during the freezing and' thaws of winter. 

Mr. Cowardin was not present to further enforce these views as 
expected, and the Club adjourned to meet at your Reporter's home 
next month. J. A. Lynham, Reporting Secretary. 

Henrico county, Va., May 13, 1875. 



POTATO. 

From each successive year's experience, the shrewd farmer draws a 
practical lesson, which, if properly applied, will materially assist in 
making his special calling a success. There is very little to be made in 
farming or gardening by the game of chance, or, as it is sometimes called, 
"good luck/' but industry well directed, will eventually be rewarded, 
while carelessness and mismanagement are just as certain to reap their 
reward. 

Every branch of industry has, from various causes, to battle against 
a " blue" season, and farming or gardening forms no exception to the 
rule. At present, farm wages are high, with no indications of any 
change for the better. My neighbor asks, " How, under existing cir- 
cumstances, are farmers to make ends meet ?" My reply is. substitute 
horse for hand-labor, adopt better methods of culture, concentrate the 
work, and manure on fewer acres, so as to produce maximum crops, and 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 



301 



by these means lessen the cost per bushel of producing. The expense of 
cultivating is the same, whether the yield is one hundred or three hun- 
dred bushels of potatoes to the acre. 

The potato crop is an important one in every State and territory in 
this country. Two hundred bushels to the acre is not a large return 
from well fertilized and properly tilled ground ; still we find that the 
average crop of the country is not quite one hundred-, even in favorable 
seasons. Taking the price of potatoes at seventy-five cents per bushel 
by adopting better methods of culture, the increased value in the United 
btates of this crop alone would amount to over seventy-five millions of 
dollars a year. 

Although the price of potatoes has only advanced a trifle within the 
past ten years, and farm wages and other expenses have nearly doubled 
yet 1 feel confident that I can make as much per acre now, cultivating 
potatoes, as in 1860 ; simply by making use of the methods named, and 
planting varieties of potatoes that are more productive than the Mercer 
or Prince Albert. There is no system of farming so perfect as not to be 
susceptible of improvement; and the intelligent farmer is alwavs ready 
to make a change or follow a new method of culture, when it is evident 
that by so doing he will increase the product per acre or lessen the ex- 
pense of producing. 

Our method of cultivating potatoes, which has given entire satisfac- 
tion for the last three years, is substantially as follows. The around 
which is a heavy clay and naturally very poor, is fall-ploughed* throw- 
ing it into lands about twenty feet wide, and left in this state until 
spring. W hen the soil is dry enough to be worked' in April it has a 
second ploughing, crosswise— never turning the soil less than ten inches 
deep lhe manure is then spread broadcast on the surface, the quality 
of the soil regulating the quantity. . However, we seldom use less than 
twenty two-horse loads of barn-yard manure or compost to each acre. 
When fish guano is used, it is mixed with soil for a week or two before 
planting-time, and then spread over the surface at the rate of from three- 
quarters to a ton to the acre. When barn-yard manure is used, the 
ground is harrowed before spreading the manure and with special fer- 
tilizers, such as phosphate, bone-dust or guano ; the harrowing is done 
after applying the manure, giving the ground only one "scrape" to 
level the surface. We change the seed every two years. For seed I 
prefer large sized potatoes, cut into two, three, and four pieces, a fort- 
night at least before planting, and then dusted with wood-ashes. This I 
have done in wet or inclement weather during the month of March 
when the men cannot work to advantage out of doors. With everything 
m readiness for planting, the seed potatoes are put into barrels, carted 
to the held aud placed at convenient distances across the lot, so that the 
person " dropping " will lose no time and waste no strength in carrying 
the potatoes from one end of the field to the other. This may appear 
trifling, but I find, when this plan is carried out, the work goes on more 
rapidly, and two persons will drop as much as three, when no system is 
practiced. From the effects of the fall ploughing, the alternate freezing 
and thawing during winter, and with a ploughing in spring, the ground 
will turn up kind and mellow, just in the right tilth for planting The 
potatoes are put in at the third ploughing, in the following manner • 
Commencing at one side of the field, twenty or thirty feet from the fence' 
the ploughman with his horses strikes a straight furrow and returns with 
A 



302 THE SOUTHERN [June 

a back furrow. On the second time around, the droppers follow the 
plough, placing the potatoes from fifteen to eighteen inches apart in the 
loose ground just turned over, and in a position so that the next furrow- 
slice will cover the seed about four inches deep. The furrow-slices will 
average from ten to twelve inches in width, and the seed is planted in 
every third furrow on either side of the starting point ; this will leave 
the rows of potatoes about three feet apart. This is wide enough to ad- 
mit a horse-hoe for cultivating during the early stages of growth. By 
the system of back-furrowing there is no time wasted, either by the per- 
sons dropping or the man with the plough. We employ two German 
women, who drop as fast as the two horses will plough the ground and 
cover the potatoes. On loose, mellow soil, this force will plant, on an 
average, two acres a day, working ten hours. In this way, the soil is 
left in better condition to facilitate the growth of the young potatoes than 
bv anv of the methods in general use, that I have heretofore practiced 
in growiug potatoes for market. The seed is placed in the side of the 
furrow-slice, and is not displaced by the horse that walks in the furrow. 
Occasionally the plough is thrown out by the point striking a stone, and 
one or two of the seed left without covering, but in the next time around 
this can be repaired and the seed properly covered. 

With a very little practice the ploughman will run each furrow as 
straight as a " bee-line." I never have had rows of potatoes come up 
more evenly than for the past three years, when planted in this way. 

Another "method is, when the ground is ready to open the furrow with 
a on3-horse plough, spreading the manure in the furrow ; then the pota- 
toes are dropped in place along the bottom of the furrow, and by means 
of the plough again are covered about three inches deep. When the 
young stocks are just coming through the surface, the field is harrowed, 
running the harrow in the line of the rows. We use for this purpose a 
blunt-toothed harrow, which levels the surface, destroys the first crop of 
young weeds, and as far as I am capable of observing does no injury to 
the potatoes. I am aware that mauy 4 potato-growers condemn the har- 
row for this purpose as doing more harm than good. When I am con- 
vinced that this is the fact, I will at once abandon its use and adopt 
some other improved implement to do the same kind of work. 

When the young plants are well above the surface, I run Howe's 
horse-hoe or Perry's Scarifier between ihe rows, going twice in each space, 
and as close to the stocks as it is possible, without cutting them. This 
operation is repeated once at least every two weeks, until the potatoes 
come into blossom, when the cultivation is stopped. Sometimes a few 
heavy showers of rain will compact and harden the surface ; in such a 
case we use Mapes's one-horse lifting sub-soil plough to run once in the 
middle, between the rows, and loosen the soil three or four inches deep. 
Our plan is to prepare the soil thoroughly before planting, and then, 
durino- the growing season, to keep merely two or three inches of the 
surface loose and free. There is little or no hard labor required by fol- 
lowing this system of culture. In an ordinary season, the horse-tools 
will do all the work necessary to keep the surface loose and free from 
weeds. I make it a rule, however, to go through the field once with the 
hand-hoes, cutting out any weeds that may be growing in the lines of 
the rows where the horse-tools cannot reach. Under good management, 
potatoes should be kept free from weeds and grass, until they are in full 
blossom. After this date cultivation may be suspended, for any weeds 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 303 

that may then come up do little or no injury to the crop. The stalks 
shade the ground so that the growth of weeds is sparse ; although it is 
often advisable to have some scattering tall weeds pulled by hand before 
the potatoes are dug. 

In cultivating early varieties of potatoes on strong ground they cau 
be harvested in time to get a crop of turnips off the same ground, which 
may prove as profitable as the crop of potatoes. 

We grow on our farm from one thousand to one thousand five hundred 
bushels of potatoes a year for market. During the past ten years we 
have sold none for less than seventy-five cents per bushel by the quantity, 
and a large proportion of them would average one dollar a bushel. 

On ground well manured and tilled, two hundred bushels of market- 
able potatoes to the acre is about an average crop in our section ; these 
are worth one hundred and seventy-five dollars. Deducting the expense, 
there is left from one hundred to one hundred and twenty-five dollars. 
With early potatoes, harvested in time to sow a fall crop of Yellow Stone 
Turnips, which often yield as much as the potatoes, there will be a net 
from both crops of about two hundred dollars an acre. Last summer 
we dug from an acre of Early Rose one hundred and ten barrels, and 
sold them at three dollars and twenty-five cents per barrel, for table use. 

Harvesting. — Although we have tested numerous potato digging 
machines, there is none that has given us satisfaction. We still hold to 
the old method of removing the stalks, then with a plough throwing a 
furrow away from either side of the row, and turning out the potatoes 
with the digging-fork. By this method a man can easily get out thirty 
bushels a day, at an expense of from five to six cents a bushel. 

Storing Potatoes. — Potatoes for table use should be stored in a cool, 
dry, dark cellar. They will keep better if a small quantity of soil is 
mixed in with them at the time of putting them away. When potatoes 
are left exposed to the sunlight they soon turn green, a bitter principle 
is evolved, and when cooked they have a nauseating and unpleasant 
taste. Every observing farmer knows that it often happens, either from 
the washing away of the earth, or from careless hoeing, that a portion of 
the potatoes in a " hill " is left exposed to the light. These potatoes soon 
change color, and are worthless for table use. This kind of exposure 
also hastens decay, no matter where the potatoes are kept. Even when 
purchased for family use, in small quantities, say a barrel or a bushel at 
a time, they should be kept in a dark corner of the cellar. 

Varieties. — There is a long catalogue of varieties of potatoes, many 
of which have only a local reputation. The old favorite Mercer is no 
longer cultivated to any extent, The Carter, too, has passed away, with 
twenty other kinds that once were popular. The seedlings of the late 
Professor Goodrich are quietly dropped from the approved lists for gen- 
eral culture, and their places filled by other and more promising sorts. 
How long these varieties will hold their place in public estimation ex- 
perience only can tell. 

Among the most popular early varieties may be named the 

Early Rose, a seedling introduced by Mr. Breese, of Vermont. With 
three years' trial it has attained a national reputation. It is well worthy 
of it, for it is the best early variety that we have at present, either for 
family use or for market. 

The Rose is a large-sized potato, smooth skin, few eyes, flesh white, 
and steams or boils mealy. 



304 THE SOUTHERN [June 

Dykemas is an old standard, cultivated by Loug Island gardeners 
extensively for the New York market. 

Peerless is more productive and larger than the Early Eose, equal 
to it in quality, and is. for a late variety, what the Eose is for the early. 

Peach Blow has always been a favorite, and a standard of excel- 
lence in quality. It is a large, round potato, takes the whole season to 
mature, and is difficult to boil even on account of its shape. It is also 
subject to the rot. 

Gleasox is a seedliug of the Garnet-Chili. It grows large, roundish 
and has a peculiar roughness of skin, by which it can always be distin- 
guished. It is a late variety and of good quality. 

Kipxey. — Medium size, productive, of tine quality for home use. It 
keeps well, retaining its good quality through the winter. 

Jackson White is cultivated extensively as a late variety for mar- 
ket. It is long, the eyes deeply set, quality good when grown on dry 
ground. 

Early Mohawk is an early variety, recently introduced, very pro- 
ductive, but inferior in quality — about equal to the Harrison for cooking. 

Ixsects. — The potato is liable to the attacks oi various insects, both 
in the foliage as well as the tubers. For a number of years past the 
English wire-worm has seriously injured the potatoes in New Jersey. 
The grub feeds upon the youug tubers, disfiguring them so much as to 
make them unsalable. The grub of the Elaten, that injures the potato, 
is long and slender, having a "hard, smooth skin, of a brownish yellow 
color, and. according to Harris, lives in its feeding state five years. 

An application of ashes has been recommended as a remedy : but we 
have nut found it to be of any service. Eape cake, broken into small 
pieces and scattered in different places through the field, attracts the 
grubs ; they collect to feed upon it, and large numbers may be destroyed. 

The Colorado Potato bug < Doryphora Utieata has been doing mischief 
in the West, but as yet it has not reached New Jersey or any of the 
Eastern States. These bugs appear in great numbers, dest: _ the 

foliage and injuring the crop very seriously. Dusting with powdered 
"White Hellebore is said to check them. A. D. Compton recommends a 
solution, made of one part salt, ten of soap, and twenty of water, for 
syringing the vines and effectually checking the bugs. 

A correspondent of the Farmers' Club recommends one part of Paris 
green and twenty parts of flour of bone, mixed and sifted on the v. 
an excellent remedy. One pound of the green will be enough for an 
acre. 

The directions given for the field management of potatoes can easily 
be adopted in garden culture. 

One bushel of seed will yield about twenty bushels of potatoes if 
planted on good ground and well tended. P. T. Onxx. 



There were in the Union 19.492 subordinate Granges on the 1st 
of June. Granges are being organized at the average rate of twen- 
ty-five per day. which, up to the present, would swell the number to 
20,000. These Granges, on an average, number fifty votes. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 305 



ON THE VALUE AND CULTURE . OF THE SOUTHERN 
(AGRICULTURAL) PEA. 

We are having frequent applications for information on the above 
subject, and find it impossible to answer as much in detail as we 
would like. We have prepared the following article, made up en- 
tirely from the essay of Mr. Edmund Ruffin which received the 
prize offered by the Virginia State Agricultural Society in 1854, 
which we offer for publication in the Southern Planter and Farmer, 
as the best means of reaching those desiring information. 

Mr. Ruffin says : This Southern Pea is properly a bean. Its 
value as a grain, fodder, and fertilizing crop has not been known 
until within the last thirty years, and even now is not fully appre- 
ciated in Virginia. The greatest benefit from its use is limited to 
the region in which cotton may be grown, but it is very profitably 
used a little farther north when the early varieties are cultivated. 
For regions entirely away from the cotton limit the English pea is 
more suitable. 

The general characteristics of the whole Southern pea family are 
the following: 

The seeds of nearly all the varieties are kidney-shaped ; the 
growth trailing, or in vines, sometimes twelve or fifteen feet in 
length, running on the ground and matting with each other, or 
climbing by twisting around any elevated support. The leaves are 
in three together, and very large. The main or tap-root descends 
perpendicularly and deeply into the earth. The vines and leaves 
are tender and succulent while green; the seeds are in long pods, 
usually containing from ten to fifteen seeds. 

There are numerous varieties, which are more or less strongly 
marked for distinction, in the color, size, and flavour of the seeds, 
the different kinds of pods, in the size and growth of the vines and 
leaves, and in the early or later maturing of kinds that might other- 
wise be undistinguishable. 

The variety or varieties to be preferred for culture will depend 
on the uses designed for the crop. If cultivated solely or mainly 
for table use, the best flavored, and also the earliest kind of good 
flavor, will be preferable ; the greater or less production will be of 
much less importance than early maturity and delicate flavors. 

If the great object of a pea-grower is to obtain provender for 
live stock, then the peas most productive in grain or seed, and of 
which also the pods will remain longest sound in the field through 
bad weather and in winter, will be most valuable. 

If the main purpose for which the pea crop is grown is to manure 
the land, then the kind most desirable is that having the most luxu- 
riant or heavy growth of the entire plant — in root, vine, and leaf, 
as well as seed — though, of course, the seeds are by far the most 
valuable for manure as well as for food. 

The colored peas — black, red, buff, &e., are the best vine-bearers, 



306 THE SOUTHERN [June 

and best for general growth of the entire plants. These are mostly 
late in maturing — with some exceptions, however. 

The most productive kinds of peas for North Carolina, and far- 
ther south, are not suitable for Virginia, because of our more northern 
latitude and shorter summers. Lower Virginia is rather too far 
north for the best returns of this crop, or the general maturing of 
the later and more productive kinds of peas. It is the opinion of 
the best pea farmers that the most valuable manuring portion of the 
plant is the ripe seeds ; and that until they generally ripen the pea 
crop has not reached its best condition as manure. For these rea- 
sons the varieties once most preferred have latterly been substituted 
by the early black pea. The earlier maturing of any particular 
kind of pea, if desired, may be obtained, in a series of years, by 
regularly saving for planting the earliest ripened seeds only. 

The early black pea has perfectly black large seeds ; is a good 
vire-bearer, but riot equal in that respect to the buff and some orher 
late peas. The ripening on broadcast sowings begins, in this lati- 
tude, in the latter part of August. Contrary to the general rule as 
to colored peas, this kind is deemed the richest and one of the 
most palatable of eating peas. Although (upon general reasoning 
only) I infer that this pea is less valuable for manuring than some 
later kinds, I have for some years deemed the early black as best 
for my culture, and still more so for any northern or western 
locality. 

It has long been understood by practical men that peas and beans 
of all kinds make very nutritious food for man or beast ; and the 
investigations of chemists have found in these plants, or their seeds. 
constituent parts which indicate much more nutritive value than in 
wheat, corn, or any other grain, root, fruit, or herb used for food. 
A peculiar vegetable product, called by chemists legumin* is found 
most abundant in the seeds of peas and beans. This product is a 
vegetable albumen, approaching to animal matter in character, and, 
like animal matter, is rich in nitrogen, and nitrogen is the source 
and principle of what is understood commonly by the term rich: 
of either food or manure. What has been said as to tne nutritive 
qualities of peas and beans applies to them as food for man, and 
with much force to sustain the claim of equal value (and superiority 
over corn) as food for beasts. I deem it quite safe to suppose, that 
a bushel of peas is, for feeding purposes and farm consumption, 
worth full as much as one and a half bushels of Indian corn. But 
for feeding stock, there is another important part of the crop — the 
vines and leaves — which has not come under consideration. Hay 
made from the Southern pea vines is more palatable to farm animals 
than perhaps any other forage. 

It has long been a generally received opinion among practical 
farmers, that certain plants — of which red clover was the most 
noted — were less exhaustive, or more productive of fertility, than 
any other plants known. All of these plants are of the botanical 
order of Leguminosce, of which a plain distinguishing character is 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 307 



to bear its seeds in pods like peas or beans. The red clover will 
be found to bear its seeds in pods, with a single seed in each, while 
the white clover has several, and each pod is in appearance a minia- 
ture garden pea. 

Wherever the growth of the Southern pea has been permitted to 
exercise its manurial power the effects have been as marked, and 
have become as well established, as those of clover in more northern 
regions. The same greater contents of nitrogen which makes these 
crops more nutritious as food makes them also more nutritious, or 
fertilizing, as manure. 

In the germination of seed and growth of plants, so situated that 
they could obtain no supply of nitrogen except from the air, Bous- 
singault found that leguminous plants and crops, in addition to 
drawing supplies of carbon from the air, and of oxygen and hydro- 
gen from water in the air and in the earth, also derive a portion of 
their richest nutriment (nitrogen) from the atmosphere. This, then, 
shows why leguminous plants must (as they are known to do by ex- 
perience) draw more support from the air, and less in proportion 
from the earth, than any others; or, in other words, that, as manure, 
they must return to the earth more of manuring principles, and 
especially of the richest, in proportion to the quantities drawn from 
the soil to sustain their growth. 

In 1848, afteT some previous years of experiment, I reached the 
extent of giving an entire field — that being one-sixth of my arable 
land — to peas, sown broadcast, and mainly for manure. Previously 
the land had been in five shifts. The change of rotation gave the 
same area divided into six shifts, of which one was in wheat after 
clover, and one in wheat after pea-fallow, and one in corn — in all, 
three-sixths under grain crops. The first objection that has been 
made by all to this change is, the expectation of reduced products 
from reduced extent of culture. In practice, I found the general 
product of the farm in wheat to be increased throughout, and that 
of corn not lessened, except in the first year, and since increased, 
and increasing, as is the general state of fertility. I have found the 
field of wheat after pea fallow, to be more productive than that after 
clover fallow; yet the latter, in my practice, has the great benefit of 
having had all the putrescent winter-made manure of the farm ap- 
plied to the preceding year's clover as top-dressing; and the pea 
has the disadvantage of the ploughing not being begun until all the 
clover fallow has been completed. The pea growth just referred tc 
is the primary and sole crop for the time, 'and has entire possession 
of the ground. In this way the crop attains full growth and matu- 
rity, and is most beneficial as manure. But much the most extended 
and usual mode of pea-manuring is as a secondary crop, grown 
under and among corn, and therefore, neither producing fully or 
maturing well, and, of course, furnishing far less manure. Yet even 
in this less efficient manner of operation nearly all who have tried it 
testify to the valuable effect produced by such manuring. 

The plant prefers sandy or medium soil and subsoil. Like all 



308 THE SOUTHERN [June 

other leguminous plants, it does especially well on calcareous or 
limed land: but though greatly preferring naturally calcareous, or 
limed or marled land, the pea will grow pretty well also on non- 
calcareons soil. On lands suitable to gypsum, that manure, in very 
small quantities, produces the like wonderful effect on peas, as it 
does on clover. The pea does not generally produce better in grain 
(or seed) by occupying very rich land. On such, though producing 
greater growth of vine and leaf, there will be fewer pods and pets 
than on land of but moderate fertility. If climate and season are 
highly favorable, peas will produce well in grain nn stiff land. All 
land to produce pea? well should be well drained. Early planting 
or sowing is also unfavorable to the best growth of vines as well as 
of pods and seeds, even when the very young plants escape the 
usual fatal effects of cold. If peas are sown early (say 15th to 20th 
of May. in Virginia.) and cold weather soon follows, the young 
plants are checked in growth, and will be greatly injured, if not 
mostly killed, by numerous little speckled beetles, which eat all the 
seed-leaves before any of later growth come out. The plant is very 
impatient of cold, and also of wet weather when young, and is as 
much favored by warm weather through all its growth. 

In Virginia there are three usual modes of planting or sowing 
peas : — 

1. The oldest and most extended culture is to plant the peas after, 
and among, corn. When the corn is mostly about eight or ten 
inches high, and has been just ploughed and hoed, the peas are 
planted, either in the narrow intervals between the stations of corn, 
if in drills, or in a ploughed furrow, the last made by the plough in 
the middle of the wide intervals between the corn rows. In either 
case usually ten to fifteen peas are dropped together, and come up 
and grow in a cluster. So many see 1 are put together to enable 
the young plants to better force their passage through the earth ; 
but some experienced cultivators think five or six plants together 
will produce better than a greater number. One more ploughing 
only is afterwards given to the corn, which, at very little trouble, is 
all the culture required for the peas. 

This is the primitive mode of raising peas, practiced where the 
savins of the ^rain was the onlv or main object. It is still general 
on the lightest and poorest lands in southeastern Virginia, because 
po.ir as is the usual product (about two bushels per acre), it is greater 
for such land than any other crop which could be made as cheaply. 
Rich land would produce much less than poor, in proportion to fer- 
tility, as the growth would go mostly to vines, and the corn on such 
land would shade the peas too much. It has been thought that the 
corn crop would be diminished to the extent of the production of 
peas on the same ground. I deem this to be a mistake. One care- 
fully made and observed experiment was so clear on this head as to 
leave me no doubt on the question. I will say. however, that 
whether the peas are injurious to the corn depends on the previous 
advancement of the growth of corn. If the corn is made, or nearly 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 309 

matured, -while the pea plants are still quite small, then the latter 
will have done little or no injury to the former. And if the corn is 
cut off and shocked so as to give all the ground and sunshine to the 
peas while they are yet young, they will not have been so injured 
by the overshadowing corn as to prevent their afterwards yielding a 
moderate and important manuring crop. 

2. The next most extensive mode of culture is also as a secondary 
crop amongst corn, but made by sowing broadcast when giving the 
last horse-tillage, and covering the seeds more or less perfectly by 
that tillage process. The crop all goes for manure, and is seldom 
ripe enough in Virginia even for manure. The sowing is usually 
done with us early in July, and about the time that the corn is be- 
ginning to tassel. 

3d. The third mode, and, as I think, the cheapest and best, to 
raise the pea crop for manuring, is to sow the seed broadcast on a 
separate field (without corn). This is my general procedure on the 
six-field rotation — first year, corn ; second, peas sown broadcast ; 
third, wheat on pea fallow ; fourth, clover ; fifth, wheat on clover 
fallow: and sixth, volunteer clover, grass, or weeds, partially grazed. 

In North Carolina, when land is under a pea crop only, it is 
usually planted in rows or drills, and tilled very slightly with ploughs, 
and sometimes also with slight hand-hoeing. No doubt this will 
make a cleaner and much better crop. The seeds are said to be 
more perfect, and the gathering of the pods to be much easier. 

It is much the best that the ploughing for the pea crop shall not 
begin before May 1st, and still better if not before the 15th. If 
much earlier, and not ploughed a second time, weeds will start and 
will greatly hurt, and sometimes smother, the peas. The first good, 
and warm and settled weather after the middle of May (in the lati- 
tude of Richmond) the sowing of peas should be begun on the latest 
ploughed land, and the harrows immediately covering the seed on 
that and also on the ground previously ploughed. This early sowing 
may be hazardous if the weather should become wet and cold, but 
some risk must be incurred to forward so large and laborious an 
operation. The seeds sown on fresh ploughed land, from 1st to 15th 
June, on my farm, will usually make the cleanest and best crop ; 
they may be sown and do well as late as July 15th. on wheat stub- 
ble, after removing the wheat crop, and the sowing may continue 
even later, though to less profit. 

In sowing the seed of peas broadcast, it is important that the 
ground shall be moist enough for germination; andifon drier ground, 
that the seed shall be sown as quickly as possible after the fresh 
ploughing, and immediately harrowed in before the upper earth dries. 
The ploughing under of green pea vines to prepare for wheat is a 
troublesome operation, on account of the frequent choking of the 
plough, but not laborious to the team. The vines should be combed 
straight in the designed direction of the ploughing, to prevent worse 
choking. The best implement for this purpose would be a large 
horse-rake, and next, a large triangular drag or harrow, with wooden 



£10 THE SOUTHERN [June 

teeth. In the absence of both, a common harrow will serve, though 
not so well. The first severe frost kills every green pea vine, and 
then the ploughing becomes much easier. I have never observed 
any certain and obvious difference of appearance in the wheat grown 
on the peas ploughed under before and after the vines were killed 
by frost. 

In peas among corn, and in broadcast growth, in North Carolina, 
laborers gather and beat out one and one and a half bushels a day 
as tasks. On drilled peas they can as easily gather two or three 
bushels, and sometimes go to twice these quantities. 

So far we extract from Mr. Ruffin's essay. "We will only add that 
for table use the black-eyed pea is generally cultivated, and that in 
Virginia and the greater part of North Carolina the early black 
pea has, at this time, so far superseded all other varieties for general 
agricultural purposes that there is practically no other variety to be 
had in any quantity. One and a half bushel per acre is the quan- 
tity usually sown broadcast. When it is intended to sow peas 
among corn, it is important to plant the rare ripe or some other 
early variety of corn, and thereby give both peas and corn a better 
chance. Allison & Addison. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
FROM KENTUCKY. 

It may interest some of your readers to hear how we as far- 
mers are getting on in this portion of Kentucky. Ours is an en- 
tirely planting community, crops being diversified, raising corn, 
wheat and tobacco. Corn grows well, usually producing from 30 to 
50 bushels per acre, which is generally fed to hogs for market. Our 
best lands, when wheat ripens well, will bring from 15 to 30 bushels 
per acre. Logan county is embraced in the district of country where 
the celebrated Tobacco known as Clarksville Tobaccoes are grown. 
We usually raise from 800 to 1200 pounds per acre without any fer- 
tilizer, except what little is made in our stables. We rely mainly 
upon clover to keep our lands up. The severe cold weather in April 
destroyed all our fruit, and very seriously damaged all wheat that 
was jointing, and putting back late wheat so much that it is feared 
it will be cut off by the rust, which usually attacks wheat when ripen- 
ing after the twentieth of June. This year we won't commence cut- 
ting before the twenty-fifth. Tobacco plants are plentiful, though 
nearly three weeks later than usual. There will be very little set before 
the first of June if the weather is favorable from this time on. Hogs 
are scarcer than usual. As we had a poor crop of corn last year, it 
is now worth four dollars per bushel. I am greatly in favor of diver- 
sifying our labor, so we shall always have something to sell, and I 
think I will write you how I keep in pocket change by keeping a 
dairy of eight cows, and not letting it interfere with my usual crops. 

Logan county, Ky. D. Y. Winston. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 311 

TURNIP. 

The turnip crop is an important one to the farmer, as well as to 
the market-gardener. But, as yet, its culture is nothing like as ex- 
tensive as the value of this root for feeding stock and for culinary 
purposes would warrant. 

In the milk and beef-producing districts of the Middle States 
turnips can be grown with profit fcr winter and spring feeding of 
stock. Sheep will thrive well when fed in part with turnips through 
the cold weather. 

We are inclined to believe that the time is not far distant when 
the good husbandman will be forced to accept this proposition, and 
devote more acres to the production of this root for stock-feeding. 

Within the last dozen years the culture of turnips has very con- 
siderably increased in this country; it will no doubt go on steadily 
from year to year, but more rapidly when farmers will make use of 
some of the improved horse-tools. These, when properly applied, 
will reduce the expense of cultivation at least one-half. 

The main crop of turnips is grown in the fall, and very commonly 
as a second crop. Those who grow early potatoes for market, har- 
vest them in. time to sow turnip seed, and by this method produce 
two crops from the same ground in one year. In locations where 
this plan can be carried out, the crop of turnips will often give as 
much profit as the crop of potatoes. We have frequently grown a 
crop of Strap-leaf red-top turnips on the same ground with corn, 
by sowing the seed broadcast in July, just before the corn was culti- 
vated the last time. We have often had, in this way, three or four 
hundred bushels of good-sized turnips in November, from sowing 
only one pound of seed to the acre. 

Soil. — The turnip will grow freely on any kind of soil — from a 
light sandy loam to a heavy clay, provided the ground is mellow 
and fertile when the seed is sown. This is the important point in 
growing turnips. As a matter of course, those kinds that have to 
be cultivated in rows can be grown with much less expense on a free 
soil without stones, than on a heavy clay soil with stones. Nor does 
the soil need to be very rich to produce a full crop. When sown on 
rich soil the growth of tops will be too large, without a correspond- 
ing growth of the roots. 

On ground well manured in the spring for early potatoes, and 
after these have been dug, in July, ploughed and harrowed, a crop 
of, turnips can be grown without any additional manure. But we 
usually, before harrowing, spread broadcast two or three hundred 
pounds of superphosphate to the acre. In garden culture, on 
ground where pototoes, peas, beans, &c, &c, have been taken off, 
some wood-ashes, bone-flour, or superphosphate, may be applied in 
the same way with advantage, before sowing the turnip-seed. 

Culture. — The ground should be well worked before sowing the 
seed. When a summer crop of potatoes has been grown, one 
ploughing, in most instances, will suffice ; but otherwise two plough- 



312 THE SOUTHERN [June 

iiigs will be found to give the most satisfactory" returns. The time 
of sowing for the main crop will depend on the location and the 
kind to be grown. At our farm in New Jersey we sow the Ruta 
Baga from the 20th of June until the loth of July, as the case 
may be. 

"V\ ith the Yellow Stone, Aberdeen, Long White Cow-horn, and 
Strap-leaf Red-top, we sow them in the order named; in relation to 
time, from the middle of July to the 1st of September. The last- 
named sort, which is very extensively grown, will, on well-prepared 
soil, attain full size in much the shortest time. In 186*; we sowed a 
field of this kind between the 10th and loth of September, and in 
ninety days we gathered a fine crop of turnips. 

In growing turnips for market or for feeding purposes, the Ruta 
Baga is most highly valued. This variety is always grown in rows : 
in field culture they should be two feet apart, so as to admit of 
horse-tools in cultivation. We ridge the ground before sowing the 
seed, in the same way and for the same reasons as recommended for 
Carrots. The seed is sown with a machine, using one and a half 
pounds to an acre. If the seed is fresh and the weather favorable, 
in twelve days from the date of sowing the plants will be up ; then 
a "root-cleaner" should be run between the rows at once, running 
twice in each space : this should be repeated in ten or twelve days. 
The cost of cultivation is trifling, if the ground between the rows 
urbed often enough to prevent the weeds from starting. "A 
stitch in time saves nine ": for if neglected at this stage of growth 
the expenses will amount to five times as much, and at the same 
time the crop will be lessened. 

When the plants are two or three inches high thev mav be thinned 
out to four inches apart in the row. The thinning can be done more 
quickly by one person going in advance of the others, with a hoe 
four inches wide, and chopping out the young turnips, leaving three 
or four in a bunch every four inches apart. These are removed by 
hand, allowing only one to remain in a place. When timely care is 
taken with Ruta Bagas. this is the only hand-labor called for during 
their growth. It is frequently recommended to sow the Ruta Baga 
in seed-beds, and then, at the proper time in favorable weather, 
transplant into rows at the distances named. We have tried this 
method time and again, and always with the same result; that is, 
an increased expense in growing this crop, under our management. 

The Yellow Stone and Aberdeen we sow two and three weeks 
later, treating them in the same way as Ruta Bazas. On verv mel- 
low ground we sometimes sow the seed on the level, marking the 
rows three inches wider, so as to give more room for the horse-tools. 

The Cow-Horn and Strap-leaf will yield more to the acre when 
sown in rows ; but. as a rule, farmers sow these two kinds broadcast, 
because there is no "bother" in cultivation. Last year a friend of 
the writer raised eight hundred bushels of the Cow-Horn on an acre. 
The seed was sown broadcast during the first week in August, using 
only three-quarters of a pound of seed. When sown broadcast and 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 313 

scattered evenly, three-quarters of a pound of fresh seed will be 
found a full complement for an acre. 

In garden culture, turnip seed should always be sown in rows 
twelve or fifteen inches apart, and the plants thinned to three or 
four inches apart in the row. For table use, a medium-sized turnip 
is preferable. 

Two ounces of seed, comprising two or three sorts, will ^ive 
enough for family use during the fall, winter, and spring. 

Harvesting. — In the latitude of New York turnips are pulled 
in November, by hand, throwing three or four rows together, the 
roots all one way. The tops are then cut off and the turnips placed 
in a root-cellar, or pitted, in the same way as carrots and beets. If 
grown for stock-feeding, the white kinds should be used first. The 
yellow sorts and Ruta Bagas can be kept, if necessary, until spring. 

Profits. — These will depend on the locality and the purposes 
for which turnips are grown. Where we. are located. Ruta Bagas 
and Yellow Stones are worth, by the quantity, from forty to sixty 
cents a bushel, and sell readily at these prices. All through the 
past winter Yellow Stones sold for one dollar and seventy-five cents 
per barrel, and Ruta Bagas for two dollars. At these rates turnips 
pay handsomely, when grown as a second crop, with a yield of from 
four to six hundred bushels to the acre. 

Varieties. — Of these there can be found a long list on seeds- 
men's catalogues, but, like most other kinds of vegetables, only a 
few kinds are grown by those who have experience. Among the 
best is the — 

American Improved Ruta Baga. — This variety is cultivated 
both for market and stock, and is the best on the list. The flesh 
is solid, tender, and of delicate flavor when cooked. 

Laings Improved is a more vigorous grower than the foregoing, 
and, if on strong ground, the roots will average a third larger in 
size. They are purple above ground, and yellow below. The flesh 
is solid and yellow. 

Yeilow Stone is one of the most profitable and popular varieties 
that we grow for market or for table use. The root is nearly round, 
medium-sized, color light yellow. The flesh is yellow and sweet. 

Yellow Aberdeen grows to a large size. It is generally grown 
for feeding cattle; for this object it is a valuable variety. 

Cow-Horn. — This kind grows rapidly, forming a long root, not 
unlike the white carrot. The Cow-Horn is cultivated exclusively 
for feeding stock, and when sown in good ground the yield is very 
large — from eight hundred to one thousand bushels are frequently 
produced from an acre. 

Strap-leaf Red Top is well and favorably known in almost every 
part of the country. It is purple above and white below. The 
flesh is white, and very tender when cooked (p. 252). 

Flat Dutch, or Spring. — The Flat Dutch is sown in the spring, 
as an early variety for table use. It is grown on a large scale by 



314 THE SOUTHERN [June 

gardeners, in the vicinity of a market. It is a white turnip, and 
when of medium size the quality is good. 

Turnips are subject to the ravages of the same kinds of insects 
that injure cabbages. We have known instances where the whole 
crop was badly injured by club-root. The black flea (Haltica strio- 
lata) destroys the young plants when they appear above the surface. 

The same remedies recommended for cabbages will answer for 
turnips. — Quinn. 



LEAPING WITHOUT LOOKING. 

Some of the agricultural and "secular" papers make their col- 
umns lively with advice to all good husbandmen to engage in various 
enterprises " with millions in them," and thousands of farmers, one 
after another, a perennial crop, are acting on the suggestions. The 
strawberry speculation is, perhaps, widest spread, and stacks of plants 
are set each year without ever bearing fruit enough to pay for what 
they cost. Fancy poultry is tempting, and high-priced eggs are 
bought, and may be a few chickens are hatched, but in the end it is 
discovered that no hen will lay two eggs a day. .Then bees are re- 
commended, especially for women, and a good deal of studying is 
done, but the honey is not abundant, and year after year the com- 
plaint is made that " this is the worst season for bees we ever had." 
Some undertake to raise mushrooms, without knowing a mushroom 
when they see it; others, reading that ducks are sent to the London 
market by the ton, get eggs and go to hatching, Avhile others still 
plant grape vines by the acre, or dwarf pears by the thousand, and in 
most cases the conclusion reached is that corn is a good crop, that 
potatoes always sell, and that nothing is much better than a few 
three-year-old steers to turn off in the spring, unless it be the value 
of the same in wool. 

The continued disappointments are due almost wholly to a want of 
knowledge in regard to details, and to acquire this is to acquire what 
may be called a trade. Nothing would seem more simple than to 
raise strawberries, and yet the majority fail generally for want of 
well prepared ground and the necessary cultivation, and it is proba- 
bly true that it will take a man five or six years before he can find 
out what is the matter. And so it is in regard to all other pursuits 
and enterprises. It would be " splendid," as the girls say, if one 
could be born with hereditary experience, so as to take up the thread 
where the old folks left off, and many an aged and broken man knows 
that if he could have had this inheritance, with all the checks and 
safeguards that it brings, he would now be rich and happy, instead 
of poor and acquainted with grief. The next best thing, in the ab- 
sence of such hereditary gift, is to feel our way and look before 
leaping. — New York Tribune. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 315 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
AGRICULTURAL PAPER versus DOGS. 
I would like through ''the columns of your excellent journal, the 
Farmer and Planter, to suggest to the tillers of the soil a plan 
whereby each one may be enabled to become a subscriber to your 
journal, and at the same time be pecuniarily benefited. In these 
times of financial pressure we see and realize the fact that it is 
proper and necessary for us to economize, but unfortunately we do 
not always begin at the right place; we too often pursue the ''penny 
wise and pound foolish " policy. But to my suggestion : Let every 
farmer estimate the annual cost of the worthless dogs he is keeping 
include all the scraps, slops, and waste generally about the kitchen 
consumed by the dogs ; then let him take to the yard a pier f some 
good stock— say Chester or Berkshire, or better still, a cross of the 
two; let piggie have for twelve months everything before consumed 
by the dogs, and if he feeds him anything besides, charge to account 
ot the pig and when he is slaughtered deduct the amount of the 
extra feed from the value of the pork, and if he has not enough left 
to pay two years' subscription to the "Planter and Farmer," then he 
may say I am a bad calculator. 

^7 28^,1875. G.H. Winfrey. 

m in. 15.— it will be seen that I have. said nothing of the e^s (which 
is our currency) and of the sheep destroyed by the do°s? which I 
know, by sad experience, are no unimportant items. I neglected 
also to say when your estimate is made and your pig brought to 
the yard, Ml the dogs. G. H W 

Culture of Peanuts —A correspondent of the Country Gen- 
tleman writes upon this subject as follows : 

We first get our land into the best possible condition by plowing 
and harrowing, finishing with the smoothing harrow. Then we la? 
off rows with a marker, drawn by two horses ; the driver standing on 
the marker and drives the stakes, so as to lay a straight row. The 
marker makes two rows, three feet apart, and attached to each run- 
ner is a small wheel, which makes a sign or mark at sixteen to eigh- 
teen inches apart. Hands follow immediately, dropping two kernels 
at every mark Then follows a hand, covering with a hoe, one to 
one and a half inches deep, and pressing the back of the hoe down 
solid on the hdl after covering. The plant will be up in six to twelve 
days. As soon as the row can be seen, we throw the dirt away 
with a turning plow. When the plant is well up we work the ground 
around the plant with hoes, and cultivate between the rows with cul- 
tivators. The ground should be kept mellow and free from weeds by 
constant use of cultivator and hoe. Four hoeings are not too many. 
Ihe plant should not be disturbed after the 1st of August In this 
section we plant from May 10th to June 1st. It is better to have all 
planted by May 22d. If crows or moles are troublesome, use tar 
on the seed, as you would for corn. Seed dug after a heavy frost is 



816 THE SOUTHERN [June 

not reliable. It will take about three bushels of seed to plant an 
acre. Great care should be used in selecting seed, and none planted 
but smooth and plump kernels. Stiff soil will not produce a first- 
class nut. The soil should be sandy loam, and well limed. Choco- 
late-colored soil produces the most desirable colored nuts. If dug 
before frost the vines make excellent fodder for cattle and horses, but 
the nuts are better filled and heavier if dug a few days after frost. 



AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES.— WHAT THEY XEED 

At the present time, when our Agricultural Societies or some of 
them at least, seem to be going to decay, the following ideas of Prof. 
Rodney Welch upon this question, as published in the Chicago Times, 
may not be without their lesson. We commend them as worthy of 
the consideration of the officers of Agricultural Societies generally: — 

" What we want is an agricultural society which shall do some- 
thing to develop and improve Agriculture, which shall render it at- 
tractive and exert an influence to cause men of wealth and education 
to, at least, take an interest in farming, orcharding, stock raising. 
To do this, something else is wanted besides an annual fair. To do 
this, it is necessary to make experiments in the productions of all 
the crops now growing in the vicinity, and to record them ; to test 
the value of fertilizers of every description, and the various ways of 
applying them to produce the most good; and to examine in a scien- 
tific and practical manner the capacity of every soil. 

But more than these things need to be done. We want to intro- 
duce new crops that are grown in other countries of about the same 
latitude, and to acclimate others that grow in countries warmer or 
colder than our own. We want to learn more about the construction 
of drains, the storage and distribution of water, toe preservation of 
meats, fruits and vegetables, the economy of feeding animals for the 
production of beef and milk, and the relative value of the different 
breeds of animals. To accomplish all these things requires the united 
efforts of men of ability and means — requires the formation of a so- 
ciety of men working for a purpose. 

The Royal Agricultural Society of Great Britain employs a chem- 
ist with a number of assistants, maintains a botanical department 
where the acclimation of vegetables is carried on and the diseases of 
domesticated plants are examined ; publishes reports on the progress 
of Agriculture in Great Britain and other parts of the world, and 
conducts experiments in everything that promises to reward the labor 
of investigation. It does not neglect the matter of holding fairs, but 
it does not make them the leading object of the organization. 



Every farmer ought to raise his pork. He can do this by raising 
clover and peas to save corn. Keep but few hogs, and let them be 
of the best stock. Keep them within your enclosure, and push their 
growth from the start, and at twelve to fourteen months old they will 
weigh two hundred pounds. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 317 

SUBSOIL PLOWING. 

From the days of Jethro Tull until within the last twenty-five or 
thirty years, farmers were generally content to stir the immediate 
surface of the soil, and did not seem aware that a greater depth of 
disturbance ^yould produce larger and better results. Indeed, it was 
generally believed that the whole matter which went to fertilize 
plants, belonged to the immediate surface, or that portion known as 
ham — a name given, until very recently, to the disturbed portion 
only — which, by the combined influences of sun, air and deeav of 
vegetation, changes its color. The fact that the components of the 
soil beneath those points were all to be found as part of the integrants 
of plants was scarcely known, and still less so that they could net be 
absorbed by them, and thus go to make up their structure, until 
acted on by a series of influences caused by atmospheric contact and 
the presence of humidity, not the result of stagnant water. Liebig 
first exposed the true value of the organic substances of the soil, or 
those parts which were not the immediate result of plant decay; and 
farmers slowly yielded their long cherished belief that the black por- 
tions of the soil alone could make plants. These new doctrines gave 
rise to the use of a subsoil plow, which, without elevating die subsoil 
to the surface, disturbed it, and permitted a free circulation of at- 
mosphere between its particles. The deep cuts made by the plow 
also acted partially as under-drains, and permitted, under some spe- 
cial conditions of surface — such as the slope of hills, etc. — redundant 
water to pass away. Air necessarily entered, and chemical changes 
occurred ; the surface of the particles of the subsoil were soon con- 
ditioned so as to sustain roots, and they passed into it greater depths 
than had been before known. These, in turn, absorbed from the ' 
subsoil larger quantities of inorganic matter, rendered soluble by 
chemical changes consequent upon moisture and air. The constitu- 
ents were taken into the plants above, and portions not marketable 
as crops, decayed in the upper sod, adding to the greasy, unctuous, 
organic matter new portions of inorganic food for future crops. 
Plants had longer roots as well as greater number of fibres, .and 
larger crops was the consequence. The decay of these roots in the 
soil left tubes to great depths; the atmosphere could come in laden 
with gases, resulting from vegetable decomposition, required by 
plants; rains and dews, which wash the nitrogenous exhalations -of 
all organic nature from the atmosphere, descended into the subsoil, 
which gradually changed color so as to make deep, loamy soils in lo- 
calities where before only sparse, shallow-rooted crops could be 
grown. All this was heard of by the American farmer long before 
he was awakened to action ; and even now. when every truly practi- 
cal farmer owns a subsoil plow, he can tell you of some neighbor who 
cautioned him against its use, and insisted that the deep disturbance 
of his soil would let all the manures filter downward, forgetting that, 
if that were true, every well would be the receptacle of the results of 
decay, every spring would be a cesspool, and every rivulet but an 
3 



318 THE SOUTHERN [June 



organic charnel house. Nature, in the wisdom of her laws, has ren- 
dered the carbon and alumina of the soil, after proper exposure to 
atmospheric influences, capable of receiving and retaining all the re- 
sults of decay ; and the value of a farm must, to a great extent, de- 
pend on the depth to which its surface by disturbance is rendered 
capable of performing this peculiar function. 

Thoroughly subsoiled-plowed lands soon become capable of deeper 
surface plowing, without injuring the crops; and, if under-drained, 
which is but the perfection of the very principles presented in theory 
of subsoil plowing, then all the mechanical conditions necessary for 
maximum results are secured ; and when these exist, the chemical 
on litions follow as a natural consequence. 

Among the advantages arising from subsoil plowing, may be enu- 
merated the following: The value of land for agricultural purposes 
is, in many instances, double, especially when substances are not 
disturbed too deeply, which might, for the time being, be unfriendly 
to vegetation ; the relative amount of manure required, as compared 
with the amount of produce, is lessened; the farm is essentially pro- 
tected from the effects of drought; all future labor of the farm is 
materially lessened, and thus the expenses of teams, wear and tear 
of agricultural implements, are all decreased, while the quality of 
crops, and their quantity, are so augmented that, per bushel or per 
pound, they take a preference in every market. 

We clip the above from the Pen and Plow, and commend its 
careful perusal to our readers. In connection with subsoiling, we 
would mention other advantages. To a great extent it prevents sur- 
face washing by absorption, holding and feeding out to the growing 
plants during the after and drier portions of the year the spring 
rains, instead of allowing them to run on the surface, as is the case 
in shallow plowing carrying off with it the surface soil. — Southern 
Farmer. 



TREES ON THE ROADSIDE. 

Continuous rows of stately trees along the roadside add much to the 
appearance of a farm or country residence. Bui it is urged that 
shaded roads remain wet and muddy much longer after heavy rains 
than those fully exposed to the sun. This is doubtless true, but as 
an offset we may claim that they are less liable to become dusty, and 
between the two evils there is not much choice. Deciduous trees 
only should be planted along roadsides in cold climates, because they 
afford shade during the season when most needed, if at all. Road- 
side trees may also interfere with the growth of crops in the fields 
adjoining by shading, as well as by absorption of moisture by the 
roots, but as we can scarcely secure anything without some loss, 
perhaps the pleasure derived from passing over a shady road during 
the hot weather in summer, as well as the beautiful appearance of 
stnh highways, more than compensate for the slight losses which 
they entail. 



1 = £fi_____ PLANTER AND FARMER. 

WHAT I WOULD DO, WER E T7 : r0UNG^lRMER 

rfwTL 1 W ° ul , d « et marrie ? J am sure I would if I had fifty acres 
ot Jand, a cow and horse, was healthv and will.™ *« 1 v y . 

vided a nice, well raised girl could be f oun Vbravf enou.°l',\n Pr0_ 
• poor man, and net be sorry for it afterwards S *" 7 

T J i? "I te ". '° thirtJ aCres of Iand coulJ be spared from cultivation 
I would plant ,t ,n pecan nut trees, which would, in twenty yea™ I ™' 
a source of income to mc. When past middle age, I wodd cultWnte 
bees to obtain honey for home consumption at lrast and ,f ». 
turage was good, for market also ; should certain v' %L, !f T 
an ampl le supply of miIk and b U «er; ZrT* fe *£££ 
milk and butter; not much digestion, and but liftle per eft heallh 
cattle f eCP S r heeP a ' S °' S ^ four ° r fire »»«>P to each e a d of 

extending fro™ North fiarolina to AuLt.ol^^LtX' 

dollars for sheep and cattle, and would keep as many as I co ,1 „ 7 
er or t at could winter themselves, if the'number To ,1 1 rea h To" 

herd Oatil": A"!'"'" t 1 "?/ be Proportioned tothes^Zl- 

*£ dog fniftt: P *« aM herd .^'"0r, to protect the ? tte 
um uogs, ami it the pasture was within two miles thev shmiM h* 

driven up, and penned in portable pens every n ,Vht for 7h Z U 

the W £? ?■" ° kl ratt \ ns wa « on t0 haul '"'». and hen E 

minder, and sft in my house MVWfc SL* !*? 
from a cool piazza, through an object glass. 7 Where neve lei th„ 
one five hundred pound bale of lint cotton per acreT/rnwn 2 
three is quite practicable, I should want bu/few laborrsfand but . 



320 THE SOUTHERN June 

little while at a time. Splitting rails, ploughing, hoeing, planting, 
cutting oats, grinding sugar- cane — can all be done by job, or day 
labor. For whenever the plan of making large yields from small 
areas, when the old plantation system, with a dozen mules, and its 
- two or three dozen careless, lazy, thievish, and destructive "hands." 
shall become everlastingly obsolete, all enterprising men, who take 
hold of high farming and stock growing at the right end, will find 
themselves emancipated from Sambo's destructive clutches, and per- 
fectly able, without the aid of exhaustive and crushing liens, to begin 
safely, and carry out successfully the only system of agriculture that 
can redeem the South and save its people from destitution. 

Men of small capital should begin on a small scale, always within 
their means. Let it be one cow and calf, an u four sheep, if no more. 
Instead of hiring a man to drive up this miniature herd, better hire 
the herd to come without driving, by paying it every evening a few 
peas, oat sheaves, or fresh cut grass. Stock are more faithfully re- 
sponsive to regular paid wages than eight-tenths of our hirelings. 
Pen them in a movable pen forty by forty feet, and move the pen 
every ten days ; this will enrich land faster, for the outlay, than any 
other method known to me. True, it covers less than an acre in one 
year of eight months, but if this area be increased each year from 
fifty to one hundred per cent., it will in ten years develop a snug 
farm, and its owner will find that he has been slowly but surely 
growing comfortable and independent. — Dr. J. W. Ogilvie. in Mu- 
ral Carolinian. 

SOWED CORN FOR FORAGE. 

The experience of the past year has given rise to the question of 
the merits of corn sown in drills, for feeding purposes during the 
drouths which frequently occur, and which lessen the hay crop to 
such an extent as to render a substitute for it necessary. The 
practice of sowing corn as a reserve crop for feeding purposes when 
needed, is too much neglected by the majority of farmers. Fow crops 
yield a greater return for the labor of producing it, and in no other 
way can so much wholesome and nutritious feed for stock be pro- 
duced as by sowing corn. We have already alluded to Hungarian 
grass as a reserve crop, but for dairymen, a crop of sowed corn is 
just the thing for mid-summer and winter use. 

The corn crop may be sown from the first of June to the middle 
of July. The yield varies from five to ten ton3 per acre. The 
quantity of seed required is three and one half bushels of the large 
Dent corn to the acre. This crop, like the Hungarian, requires that 
the land should be well enriched. It is a good plan ordinarily to 
plow the land twice — once very early, then again early in June. 
Harrow well and mark out in furrows with a shovel plow, from two 
and a half to three feet apart. Cover with the harrow, running first 
lengthwise then crosswise. But little after culture is needed. It 
will be well up in eight or ten days after planting, when the shovel 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 321 



plow can be run between the rows, and if done again about two 
weeks thereafter, the corn will completely cover the ground, and no 
after cultivation will be necessary. 

As soon as the ears (nubbins)begin to get hard, cut and bind 
the crop in small bundles, shock them up together and tie the tops 
well. This crop may be cut with a common scythe. A cradle , 
having a short scythe like the one for brush, with two strong fingers 
of corresponding length, makes a good implement to cut it with. If 
well put up it can remain in the field until wanted. In this climate 
it is better to have plenty of shed room in which to stow it, so that 
whatever the weather may be, there will always be a liberal supply 
on hand for immediate use. All kinds of stock eat this crop with 
avidity, and eat it up clean, and thrive upon it better than upon any 
other kind of dry feed, and it is much cheaper. Farmers would do 
well to sow at least two acres annually. If sown to feed to cows 
during a drouth in mid-summer, of course a much larger area should 
be sown convenient or adjacent to the pasture or feeding lot. It is 
one of the crops that will pay. 



POULTRY RAISING. 



As I have made poultry raising a specialty for a few years past, 
I will give you some of my experience in the business. I have 
raised from one to three hundred chicks a year, and wintered from 
fifty to one hundred in different years. My success has been such 
that I shall tax my time and yards to their full capacity. Brahmas, 
especially the light variety, have been my favorites, although I have 
had good success with the Cochins, Plymouth Rouks, and other varie- 
ties. For summer layers, the non-setters are superior ; but in win- 
ter, when eggs bring the highest prices, my Brahmas have invariably 
outlaid them. 

In regard to profits, I find with eggs and fowls sold at market 
prices, an income of $2.50 to each hen wintered. And here, let me 
say, in ray locality (central New Hampshire) dressed poultry ranges 
from fifteen to thirty cents per pound, according to season and 
quality of the poultry, and eggs from twenty to forty cents per 
dozen — eggs being highest from November to February, and poultry 
from March to September. The price of corn averages one dollar 
per bushel, and the prices of other grain is in proportion. By actual 
experiment, I find I can raise a Brahma chick to the age of six 
months for forty cents. It will then bring, if an early spring chick, 
one dollar or more. A friend made the same experiment, and came 
three cents below me. I have made no account of the manure, ex- 
cept as an offset to the interest on money invested. In rearing a 
large flock, it will not do to crowd them at night; and if more than 
one hundred chicks are reared, they will do better if separated by a 
partition or fence — or what is better, if you have plenty of land, 
have your coops far enough apart so that they will not get together. 
Keep the chicks away from the old fowls; select the weak ones and 



322 THE SOUTHERN [June 

give them a better chance, and as soon as they are fit for market 
kill them off, as you need to breed from your most robust stock. 

Keep your breeding stock yarded, and from eight to ten hens 
only with each cock, to insure the fertility of the eggs. In winter, 
keep in small flocks — say twenty-five in each coop or apartment; if 
a fowl should show signs of disease, take it out, and if a little extra 
care and treatment does not bring it round, it had better be con- 
signed to the compost heap. Have the coops dry and warm, and 
keep free of vermin by sprinkling a decotion of tobacco on the 
nests and roosts. Provide a dust bath for the fowls; give a variety 
of food, with plenty of raw, broken bone, oyster shells, and fine 
rouen of clover hay. One hundred hens will eat five hundred 
pounds of fine clover hay m one winter, saving more than its value 
in other food, and give you more eggs than if deprived of it. Have 
a supply of pure water and clean gravel to which they can have 
free access. 

These directions followed, there is no trouble in raising a large 
flock of chicks. Ten men, occupying as many contiguous acres, 
would not hesitate to keep fifty adult fowls and rear one hundred 
chicks each. One man can just as well keep five hundred adult 
fowls and rear one thousand chicks on the same amount of land, if 
he gives the same care and attention to each individual flock that 
each individual would give to his own flock. — Calvin P. Couch, in 
the Mural Southerner and Plantation. 



MORE ABOUT ORCHARD GRASS. 

In reply to a question for n ore complete information about orchard 
grass, I will state that orchard grass is more sure to stand the drought 
than timothy or clover, nowithstanding we fail sometimes to get a 
"set " by reason of a very severe drought. But we apprehend no 
danger after the first year, for the roots become deeper set in the 
ground. It will do as well sown on wheat or rye as on oats, if well 
harrowed in ; but in all cases sow in the spring — about March — and 
if you sow about two bushels to the acre you are pretty sure of a 
stand. It makes a very strong sod, rendering it hard to either freeze 
or dry out, even after the grain has been cut off; therefore, if your 
grass gets through the first hot season unhurt, you can go on your 
way rejoicing in hope of a good crop. 

Some of your Western readerstell me that the hot, dry winds kill 
their clover and timothy after they have mowed the hay off, and they 
fear it would be the same with orchard grass. Now I can't say how 
that will be out there (I have not tried it); as the winds are more 
severe in the West than in Kentucky, it may be that it will damage 
it to some extent; therefore, I would advise the Western farmers to 
first bow" a few bushels — say four or five — and see how it performs; 
then they can judge for themselves whether or not it will pay to sow 
larger crops. It pays us more than a third more than any other 
grass we can sow. 

Springfield, Ky. Thos. G. Hawkins. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 323 

HOW OFTEN MAY WE EAT? 

It has been demonstrated that, at certain intervals, when food is 
received into the stomach, gastric juice is secreted to digest it, and 
that no more gastric juice is secreted than is required for the diges- 
tion of the proper quantity of food. 

If a person eats twice or thrice a day, at regular periods, the gas- 
tric juice is secreted by the stomach to digest the food it has received. 
If, while the food is being digested more food is introduced in the 
stomach, digestion, in relation to the food already in the stomach, is 
arrested. For instance : a person takes, in the morning, a piece of 
bread and several potatoes ; now, it will take about three hours for 
the stomach to dispose of that food. Suppose the person, about an 
hour after eating this food, take3 a piece of bread and an apple or 
two; what would happen? The digestion that was going on in the 
stomach would immediately stop, and not be resumed until the food 
that was received last was brought into the condition of the first. 
Suppose he took food every hour, what would be the consequence? 
The stomach would become prematurely worn out, and could do nothing 
perfectly — working all the time without rest. But if the person pos- 
sessed a good constitution and a large amount of vital power, he would 
not feel, at first, this drain upon his system, but sooner or later he 
would have to pay the penalty of outraged nature. Some persons 
have an enormous amount of vitality — good constitutions. It is said 
of these persons nothing hurts them; they can eat and drink any- 
thing with impunity. This is a fatal mistake. — Science of Health. 



AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF PROFIT. 
We often see minute estimates of the profit in eggs, chickens, 
and even feathers, from poultry ; but very seldom is the important 
item of manure mentioned. If hens are fed upon a rich and varied 
diet, the manure is really one of the principal items. Let us take 
the ordinary estimate that a hen will produce one bushel of manure 
in a year. This would contain, at least, one and one-half pounds of 
ammonia, which would be worth as a fertilizer twenty-five cents, 
and the phosphates and other elements are worth as much more. 
The result is cheap manure at fifty cents, and, as compared with the 
price of commercial fertilizers, is worth $1.00. The hen will pay 
at least one-half of her keeping in manure. This manure being 
composed largely of volatile matter, it should be mixed with road 
dust, dry muck, land piaster, or other good absorbent, to prevent 
the loss of ammonia, and enable it to be sown more evenly. — Live 
Stock Journal. 

Granges in Wisconsin have on hand $250,000 toward a State 
Agricultural Improvement Society. They have already established 
forty-one co-operative associations for selling goods and manufactur- 
ing, and twenty-nine insurance companies, all in a flourishiug condi- 
tion and representing capital to the amount of $1,000,000. 



324 THE SOUTHERN [June 

THE LOVE AXD CULTURE OE FLOWE] 

Noth ag is ;;. pleasant and en: . ... _* a.? success, and no success 
qui:- - g as sarcess in the culture of flowers. It i= a pie - 

ure witu n~> compens . — :<ne which pu 

oq the beaut fat pla is cdui- 

inin_ . imiration and love. Tnev are : ing of our 

fire .care — anew. :>us and glorious creation. 

The" : — truly; but very like the stare and the rainbow. A 

she :he brown earthy beds were bare and lifeless: now 

thev are peopled with the fairest and frailest of earth's child: 
We hare Jx I all this grace: moulded the earth, th 3 - . and the 

rain intc :" 8 of matchless beauty, and crystallized the dew-drops 
int. 33. Pheri - g ter pleasure than this in all 

the that sweetest and noblest of pleasures, the fruit of 

goo 

T- nay be hard-hearted, selfish people who lov rs, we 

gup: . e were bad angels in heaven, and very unreliable 

people in the first and best of all gardens: but it ha- . een our 

ill fortune to meet with one such — and if by aceidc aid dis- 

f this kind, we would be more frig han 

we were a long time ago at what we though: - Ring on a 

ceme 

T Fere, however, because of their - 

and companionship, as the wonderful work of a I ther'e - hand, 

is wl . when we speak of the lov« . .Iti- 

1 a desire to excel their neighbors, or as an e 
of : md culture, who know nothing of the absorbing 

love that erases a man almost involuntary to raise the hat and bow 
the he^d in the presence of so much heaven-' se ove 

of flowers - : ~ned to no age or station : w - I and 

peasant, it is shown by the aged father, tottering near the grave, 
who seems almost to adore the fragrant flower in his button-hole, and 
by the little ones. who. withcb - glee, search the meadows for the 
dan I is early spring. The love of flowers, we : is the 

mosl tnd absorbing with the young. The innocent and pure 

can love the pure flowers, we think, with an ear: - :iOn 

unkn me of us that are older. — Vtcift 1 



An obligation is sacred. How careful then should every one be 
in incurring an obligation, but when once incurred pi 
punct lonld be practiced at all hazard- 

Pay as you go, and make money before ; 1 S] I it I ren "er the 

fulfillment of obligations easy, and save a wonderful sight of abuse, 
of secret ill-feeling, and a continual poking of on< - - into other 
I --. Our industries must be worked up. Ther-: 

liking ibout peace and happiness and prosperky until this 
way ■ from hand to mouth is put an end to. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 325 

KEEPING EGGS. 

An agricultural paper published at Ontario, Canada, recently of- 
fered a prize for the best plan by which "to keep eggs over winter." 
The following took the first prize : "Whatever excludes the air pre- 
vents the decay of the egg. What I have found to be the most suc- 
cessful method of doing so is to place a small quantity of salt butter 
in the palm of the left hand and turn the egg round in it, so that 
every pore of the shell is closed; then dry a sufficient quantity of 
bran in an oven, (be sure you have the bran well dried, or it will rust). 
Then pack them with the small ends down, a layer of bran and 
another of eggs, until your box is fall ; then place in a cool, dry 
place. If done when new laid, they will retain the sweet milk and 
curd of a new laid egg for at least eight or ten months. Any oil 
will do, but salt butter never becomes raucid, and a very small quan- 
tity of butter will do for a verv large quantity of eggs. To insure 
freshness I rub them when gathered in from the nest ; then pack 
when there is a sufficient quantity." 

An unsuccessful competitor says : " I have tried several experi- 
ments, but find none to answer so well as the following : I have kept 
eggs for two years, and found them perfectly .good when used: Two 
pounds coarse salt boiled ten minutes in one gallon rain water; pour 
off into an earthern jar ; when nearly cold, stir in five tablespoons of 
quicklime ; let it stand till next day ; then put in the eggs and keep 
them tightly covered until wanted for use." 

In the list of the plans competing for the prize we notice that all 
depend upon the exclusion of air by grease, salt water or loose 
packing, and no doubt this is the most important point, the agent 
not being very material. A majority of them seem to place great 
stress upon packing the eggs away with the small end down. We 
should be glad to have the experience of any of our readers upon the 
point. — Farmer s Friend. 



SHEEP IN VIRGINIA.. 

A correspondent in Culpeper county, Va., in a private note, says 
on this subject : 

"As to sheep, I never lose an opportunity to tell my people that 
they are the lever that is to raise this country to the highest state 
of prosperity. Many are beginning to see the great advantage of 
them, and more farmers are keeping them than formerly. Flocks 
are springing up here and there all over the country. When we 
begin to appreciate the great service sheep are to do us, away goes 
the dog, and we will have an effective if not a popular dog law. 
Here lies the great trouble — the dog. But let two-thirds of us 
keep sheep, be it ever so few, and then we can in a measure over- 
come the dogs." 



S26 THE SOUTHERN [June 

Horses vs. Mules. — Much has been said in agricultural papers 
about the advantage of mules. I have raised some of the best I ever 
saw. and have had some means of comparing them "with the horse. 
It is very true that the mule will climb a steep hill, if it is free from 
mud, with a bigger load according to his weight than a horse. It is 
true that he will rough it through a hard winter better than a horse, 
and it may be also that he is less liable to disease than a horse, but 
he is slow and lacks spirit. In deep mud he is almost worthless. 

He seems to have but little power to draw his feet out of sticky 
soil, and the exertion tires him and he loses heart. In a slough where 
the spirit of the horse prompts him to a gallant struggle to regain 
the solid ground, the mule gives up and lies contentedly down in 
the mud. Of course some mules are worse than others in this re- 
spect, but none are equal in mud to. the most average horse. 

For very hard, heavy work, where there is no mud, the mule will 
always be valuable, but as long as it remains true that time is money 
we must prefer the horse to the mule. 

The rage for mules commenced in the United States about seventy- 
five vears ago, and has been revived at different periods since ; but 
the horse stiil continues to bear sway, and falsify the oft-repeated 
predictions made many years ago that the mule would eventually 
supersede the horse in the general work of the farm. For heavy 
hauling and rough usage on the hard streets of cities, I have no 
doubt but that the mule is the most economical. For this sort of 
work there is a demand for him, and he may be raised for the mar- 
ket with profit ; but it is simple folly for any one now, after seventy- 
five years of experience with mules in the United States to talk about 
their taking the place of horses. — Cor. Iowa Fine Stock Gazette. 



Not the Highest Priced Beef. — Mr. Calvin Fletcher, traveling 
in Europe, writes the Indian Farmer, an interesting letter concerning 
his wanderings in Scotland. He says : "Much to my astonishment 
I found that Short-h'orns always stand second in price per pound to 
three or four kinds of cattle. I have the market reports of twenty 
best centres of the trade for several months in succession, and in no 
instance do the Short-horns stand first. None of the above goes to 
prove that the profit to the raiser of beef is more or less in any par- 
ticular case or breed. '' "VVere I r '°t too old to be inspired to experi- 
ment, I think I should decide some questions that have arisen in my 
mind on this subject." 



Germany, alarmed at the great number of her people emigrating 
to other countries, is trying to devise means to prevent the exodus. 
One means suggested is to prohibit the enlistment of ..emigrants on 
foreign account by the payment of premiums. Another and far 
more sensible suggestion is to facilitate the acquirement of small es- 
tates at home. 



1875.] PLASTER AND FARMER. 327 

THE MELON CROP. 

A large proportion of the melons which are needed to supply the 
markets of Xew York and Boston, are said to have come *rom a sin- 
gle county in Maryland. The first lots of this fruit are grown as 
far south even as Georgia ; but after the melon season fairly sets in, 
the supply is principally drawn from Anne Arundel county. Mary- 
land. It is estimated, says the Advertiser, that the crop will be 
larger than ever before, something over 2,500 acres hav ng been 
planted, from which the yield will probably be upwards of 2.500,000 
melons. The varieties mostly cultivated are the Gypsies, Georgians, 
Taylor- Grays and Mountain-Sweets, the first named being the favor- 
ite with dealers in this city and New York, as they Avill retain a 
bright and fresh appearance for a week after being picked. The 
farmers usually ship their melons to Baltimore in pungies. and it is 
no unusual sight at this season of the year to see three or four score of 
these vessels Iving at a single wharf in that citv, all loaded to the 

■TOO * ' 

water's edge with this often abused but delicious fruit. The season 
may now be said to be at its height, as the Maryland fruit begins to 
appear in the markets by July 25, while the crop is exhausted by the 
first of September. The producer gets about ten dollars a hundred 
for good sound fruit, and realizes a handsome profit at this price — 
so handsome, indeed, that melon culture on an extensive scale is. 
rapidly spreading northward into New Jersey. The effect of this 
movement will be to lengthen the season somewhat, and to lower the 
price of the fruit — for both of which results the public will be grate- 
ful. 

WHERE THE MONEY GOES TO. 

Some people cannot understand why it is that the residents of the 
Southern States are so crippled, financially. Let them ponder over 
two facts, and then they will see more clearly. Georgia alone paid 
$24,000,000 for grain, meat, flour, meal, horses and mules, in 1^73, 
and Alabama about 818,000,000. That's what went with the mon- 
ey. It will not be so again. The amount this year has already been 
reduced in Georgia to about 810,000.000, and in Alabama to 8S, 000, 
000, and but for the meat, neither State will have occasion to spend 
more than 85,000,000 for subsistence next year. — Mobile Grapliie. 



The following experiment is vouched for by the Kansas Farmer as 
coming from a good and reliable farmer. As showing the relative 
value of corn and wheat for fattening hogs, it is valuable : He took 
one hundred hogs and put them in pens and fed corn, and fifty and 
fed wheat, with the following result : the fifty with corn made eleven 
pounds per bushel; the fifty with wheat made seventeen pounds of 
good solid pork per bushel of wheat. The wheat was ground like 
meal, boiling water poured over it, and then let stand forty-two 
hours. 



328 THE SOUTHERN [June 

WHY MANURE CORN IX THE HILL? 

"We have seldom seen any soil where, in addition, a little stimulus 
was not needed in the corn hill, and could be used to great advan- 
tage. A crop of corn often depends absolutely on this early driving 
ahead. With our very late spring weather and sometimes early 
- in the fall, corn is kept busy. There is no crop, which so re- 
quires forcing from first to last. The small fibres of the first germi- 
nation cannot stretch far, and they need, at once, concentrated and 
active plant food. After feeding on this, which causes them to take 
root vigorously downward and spring up strong, then the roots can 
and do spread, and the broadcast manuring comes in to support and 
make the crops. We have known cases, as suggested by our cor- 
respondent, where a fertilizer was applied only in the hill, causing a 
check afterwards to vigorous growth, and consequent stunting, so 
that the crop in maturing, very far from realized the promise in the 
beginning. Corn has been properly called the "hog crop." a vora- 
cious feeder, and we have very seldom seen any manuring too great 
for it. — Practical Farmer. 



Keep them Fat. — A practical farmer, in communicating his views 
in the columns of our exchanges, says : 

Keep your hogs fat : the good farmer gives all his young stock a 
good fat start in life : because he knows it always takes n\ice or thrice 
as much to feed a poor horse, cow, or hog, as it does one in good 
condition. It ought never to be necessary to keep " killing hogs " 
in the "fattening pen " longer than a week or ten days — just long 
enough to harden their fat with corn. The hogs ought to be fat to 
begin with. In fact, the good farmer never has a poor animal of any 
kind on his place. It pays well to push young pigs from the word 
"go" — that is. as soon as they are able to crack corn. We knew 
once a litter of thirteen half Berkshires dropped in February that, 
under this plan, without going into the fattening pen at all, eleven 
months later averaged 175 pounds net meat — total 2,276 pounds; 
and the heaviest one was a "runt" at the start. 



GOOD ADVICE. 

If you cannot speak well of your neighbors, do not speak of them 
at all. A cross neighbor may be made a kind one by kind treatment. 
The true way to be happy is to make others happy. To do good is 
a luxury. If you are not wiser and better at the end of the day, 
that day is lost. Practice kindness, even if it be but little each day. 
Learn to control your temper and your words. Say nothing behind 
one's back, that you would not say to his face. 

Poland starch is a fine cement for pasting layers of paper or fancy 
articles. To clean bed ticks, however badly soiled, apply Poland 
starch by rubbing it on thick with a wet cloth. Place it in the sun, 
and when dry rub 'it with the hands. Repeat it, if necessary. The 
soiled part will be clean as new. — Montville. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 329 

[For the Southern Planter and Farmer. J 
BATH COUNTY. 

This county is seldom alluded to in agricultural journals, and has 
been overlooked by those in search of new homes. Lands are cheap, 
very productive, and many desirable places are offered for sale at 
reasonable prices. 

So far the seasons have been unpropitious. No rain for nearly 
four weeks, and until the last five days we have had frost every 
morning. The mountains in every direction have been on fire, and 
much valuable timber and fencing have been destroyed. 

The grass crop, which is the principal reliance, will be very 
short. Do your readers cure clover hay with lime ? It is the cus- 
tomary method here. It can be stacked — or put in a mow, which is 
better — immediately after cutting, if orie gallon of air-slacked lime 
is sprinkled over every four-horse load as it is put up. No one, 
however, should attempt to save clover hay without putting it under 
shelter. Timothy or any other hay can be saved in the same man- 
ner. If the farmers generally would adopt this plan they would 
prefer it, even if they could be assured that they would have a plenty 
of sunshine. There must be no dew or rain on it, which is the only 
precaution necessary. 

A REMARKABLE SHEEP. 

The proprietor of the Warm Springs has a remarkable ewe. On 
the 22d April, 1874, it had four lambs; two were raised by hand, 
and the other two she raised. On the 5.th of November, same year, 
she had two more, which she raised and are now nearly full grown. 
And on the 15th of the present month she had two more, which can 
now be seen with her, and are very lively ; making eight lambs in 
twelve months and twenty-three days. Who can beat it ? 

But this letter is already too long to be read. 
Warm Springs, Bath Co., Va., May 25, 1875. Farmer. 



[For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 

BEAR-SWAMP GRANGE. 

At a meeting of Bear-Swamp Grange, No. 128, held in their hall 
April 3, 1875, on motion of Thomas H. Bossieau, Esq., the follow- 
ing preamble and resolutions were adopted, and requested to be sent 
you for publication : 

Whereas, we as a part of an organization known as the Patrons 
of Husbandry, which was organized to war upon no class of those 
engaged in the other necessary callings of the country ; but to pro- 
tect ourselves from unjust legislation and speculation, and thereby to 
enjoy an equitable share of the advantages incident to wholesome 
laws and well-directed mercantile and agricultural pursuits ; and, 
whereas, in our judgment to embarrass the legitimate mercantile 
business of any portion of the country, will most assuredly impov- 



330 THE SOUTHERN [June 

erish the agricultural interest ; and, whereas, to concentrate our trade 
in any given direction, through unnecessary agents, is contrary to 
the spirit of the organization, and therefore fatal to its existence : 
Therefore, be it 

Resolved, 1. That we instruct our delegates, who may hereafter 
represent us in the District Grange, to give the vote of this Grange 
in opposition to unnecessary haste in the recommendation of a suita- 
ble person as an agent of the District Grange to which we belong. 

2. That in the event it becomes necessary to recommend an agent, 
that his qualifications should be, among others, a fourth degree mem- 
ber of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, and whose interest in 
farming is paramount. 

3. That the duty of the agent should be set forth and so guarded 
as not to infringe upon any legitimate and necessary interest or to 
embarrass the same. 

4. That the secretary transmit a copy of these resolutions to the 
Petersburg Rural Jfessetiger, Virginia Patron, and Southern Plan- 
ter and Farmer, with the request that they^ publish the same. 

J. H. Pursell, Secretary. 
Ford's Depot, Va., April 6, 1375. 



itorutl gtpartmcnt. 



NOTES FOR THE MONTH. 

We endeavor to make our "Notes for the Month" practical and 
useful, and wish our readers to understand that they are not written 
merely to fill up space. We shall endeavor hereafter to make them, 
if we can, more useful and instructive, and hope they will constitute 
an attractive feature in our journal. Whatever concerns the farmers 
concerns us, in a double sense ; for, besides being our patrons, we are 
one of them in our calling. And while not professing to any great 
skill in agriculture, we have almost daily opportunities of consulting 
very experienced farmers, and getting their advice and instruction. 
While the farmers are our patrons we look upon them in some degree 
as our proteges, for we endeavor, to the best of our ability, to protect 
their interest. 

Well, this is Madam Juno's month, and while having no evidence 
that she was a Patron of Husbandry, we have reason to know that, 
like the rest of the fair sex, she was a great admirer of flowers, whose 
myriads of blooms crown this month of June ; for we are told by 
Homer that she wore " a crown beset with roses and lilies." 

But to the work for the month. The season thus far has not been 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 231 

propitious, and no doubt the cold and backward season has militated 
very much against the timely planting of corn and retarded its 
growth. Where corn was planted early, the corn has no doubt rotted 
much in the ground, and much replanting has been necessary. There 
is still time to make a good crop if thorough cultivation be practiced, 
and it is not yet too late to manure around the plant in the poorer 
parts of the field. These additional items of labor must, however, 
detract from the profits. Where corn has yet to be put in, as may 
be the case on cold, wet lands, a quick growing variety, such as is 
used in Canada and the Northern States, must be selected to plant. 

The winter oat promises well. Spring oat badly ; so of the hay 
crop. Wheat is said to be generally promising, and not materially 
injured by the cold weather. Tobacco plants in some localities were 
badly killed, but in most places not seriously injured ; though the fly 
is said to be destroying many plants now, and the cool, dry weather 
in the month of May prevented their growing out of the way of the 
fly. Is there no remedy for this fly ? Have any of our planters 
tried "Paris Green " ? 

The suggestion has been made to raise tobacco plants under glass, 
and we hope it will be tried another year. The glass would probably 
not cost more than getting up and burning the plant beds, which re- 
quires a great amount of wood. Then the glass sash would protect 
the plants in a great measure from the fly, and if necessary the 
plants could be forced by manure at the bottom of the plant beds. 
These sash can be ordered in Richmond in any quantity, or any car- 
penter can prepare them in the country with a few simple directions. 

Corn must be replanted as soon as thoroughly up. Where it ia 
not yet done, we advise the replanting to be done with some forward 
corn — " Canada Flint," or long yellow corn — unless it is designed to 
keep the kind already planted free from admixture for seed corn. 
By planting the earlier corn, there is time to make good ears, and 
the tassel comes out in time to furnish pollen for the main crop in 
case of drought, which sometimes withers the tassel before it has im- 
pregnated the ear. Corn must be kept thoroughly stirred, and the 
grass killed as often as it puts up. We are trying on a portion of 
corn this year, the fine, long-tooth cultivator, frequently run in the 
row, and design to use it exclusively on a portion of the field, and 
compare the result with the old mould-board system. The cultivator 
keeps the ground soft and well pulverized, and kills the weeds, and 
seems thus far to answer a good purpose. It may, when the corn gets 



332 THE SOUTHERN [June 

larger, injure the roots, but as it is the expanding cultivator it can be 
narrowed so as not to run too near the corn, and by withholding 
pressure may be run less deep. 

Root Crops — The first of June is the time to sow mangold 
wurtzel, sugar beet, and ruta baga. They do better sowed the last 
of May, but will yield well if put in between the 1st and 10th of 
June. Mangolds yield better than the sugar beet, but the latter con- 
tains more sugar and is more nutritious, and is of finer texture, and 
is eaten more eagerly by stock than the former. The ruta baga is 
uncertain in our experience and difficult to raise. For all three, the 
soil should be made rich, plowed deep, and be thoroughly prepared. 
Lav off in drills from 28 to 30 inches apart: scatter along well rotted 
stable manure, or some reliable fertilizer. Then cover with two fur- 
rows of the plow, which leaves a ridge, that must be broken down 
and left flat. On this drill the seed. As soon as they come up 
dust over with ashes and soot, to protect from the fly. and at the first 
and second workings sprinkle over the entire surface a few bushels 
of refuse salt or kainit. Thin out to eight inches, and keep the 
ground well worked with the double wing coulter and cultivator, the 
former being the best for the first working, particularly if the ground 
should be baked and hard. The ruta baga requires a deep, rich, 
sandy loam if it can be had. and if not, that which is nearest to it in 
quality. The '"roots" come in admirably for winter feeding, though 
in our climate they are not very certain, and will not generally yield, 
we think, as much as if the land were sown in corn or millet, taking 
into calculation the cost of production, and that, particularly, if the 
same labor and manure were applied to a larger surface for the corn 
and millet. 

Corn and Millet and Sorghum should be sown this month, if 
not already in the ground. The land should be rich and thoroughly 
prepared. The corn and sorghum should be drilled, and the millet 
sown broadcast. Sorghum is particularly useful for hogs, and may 
be cut twice in the season if sown early. It makes also good winter 
forage if cut before the stalk is hard and glazed. Stock prefer it to 
corn fodder, and no doubt it is more nutritious. If some is suffered 
to go to seed it makes good grain for fowls. 

Cutting Grasses for Hat. — All the grasses, and clover, also, 
should be cut when in blossom ; the latter as soon as the first brown 
heads appear. Great attention should be given to curing, remem- 
bering that grasses, and particularly clover, are injured by becoming 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 333 

too dry. They should be cured with as little sun as is compatible 
with their keeping. Clover should be salted in putting away, and 
if there is fear of its not keeping, sprinkle over each load some air- 
slacked lime, probably about two quarts each of salt and lime to each 
wagon load. 

Potatoes for winter use should be planted as soon as possible, if 
not done the last of May. The ground should be manured broad- 
cast with good stable manure, or coal ashes, orkainit. Potash. is an 
important fertilizer for this crop, and we have found coal ashes (not 
too coarse), either broadcast or in the drill, to be as good as stable 
manure. We once tried coal ashes in the drill alongside stable ma- 
nure in the drill, and found the former to produce at least as well as 
the latter. Never cut the potato when planted at this season. 

Killing Grass and Weeds. — This is the month for killing grass, 
and hence no doubt has arisen the saying of "a dry June for corn," 
as dry weather enables us to kill the grass. An experienced trucker 
in the vicinity of Richmond informs us that even wire grass may be 
killed effectually in this month by repeated plowings. 

Insects must be followed up this month also. The striped bugs 
upon melons, cucumbers, and other vines must be killed early in the 
morning, and soot or fine tobacco, which may be gotten at the fac- 
tories, sprinkled over the plants. * This fine tobacco, principally ob- 
tained in the manufacture of snuff, must also be sprinkled over the 
plant beds of cabbage. 

We stated in "Notes " for May that cabbage seed for winter use 
should be sowed the middle of May. We are since informed by some 
of our experienced truckers around the city that they should be 
sown between the 1st and 6th of May. 

So June is a busy month too ; no holiday yet for the farmer. He 
must press on ; work his corn and tobacco, and cut his hay, and 
work potatoes, melons, cucumbers, cymlings, and vegetables generally, 
fight the weeds and insects, keep the ground well stirred and mellow. 
When the hay and wheat and oat harvest is over and the corn laid 
by, we may consent that our proteges shall take some relaxation, and 
probably a trip to the seaside, or to our glorious Virginia mountains. 
We will see. But our consent cannot be obtained to a trip to North- 
ern watering places and Northern cities. This money must be kept 
within the borders of our impoverished old mother. Too much has 
already, in times past, been squandered in pleasure trips to Northern 
towns and bathing places, and Saratoga, &c. 
4 



384 THE SOUTHERN [June 

THE VIRGINIA PATRON. 

Our May number contained a courteous and respectful criticism 
on the action of the Master of the State Grange, in selecting only 
one paper as the medium through which he would officially com- 
municate with the members of the Order. The State Grange having 
referred the entire subject to the Executive Committee, and they 
having decided that it was inexpedient to have any regular medium, 
for the reason that every agricultural paper in the State was friendly 
to our Order, and were willing to publish whatever the grange inter- 
est required ; we thought, and still think that the Master had 
overstepped the limit of his authority, and used his official influence 
in direct opposition to the judgment and decision of the Executive 
Committee. 

In confirmation of our position, we published letters from brothers 
Moore and Ragland, who were present when this action was taken. 
These letters the Virginia Patron has omitted to publish in comment- 
ing upon our criticism, but simply referred to them as " irre- 
sponsible persons," when in fact, they as members of the 
Executive Committee, shared with the other members the entire re- 
sponsibility of deciding this matter. 

The Patron farther says: "It seems somewhat singular that Dr. 
Dickinson, who is not a member of the Grange, should undertake to 
expound the constitution to the highest official in the State." 

We made no pretei sions to expounding "the constitution" to any 
one, but simply stated the fact that the Master had assumed the auj 
thority to disregard the action of the Executive Committee. This is 
the whole question at issue. But the editor of the Patron says we are 
"not a member of the Grange," which statement he has seen fit to re- 
iterate in several issues of his paper. "We supposed we were "a member 
of the Grange," as we had received all the four degrees of the Order 
from Grange No. 16, of which the editor of the Patron is Master, 
and who has given us a withdrawal card, signed by himself as Mas- 
ter, stating that we were in "good standing," &c, for the purpose of 
joining a more convenient Grange, which card has been deposited 
with Grange No. 186. What plea can he have for such misrepre- 
sentations with such personal knowledge of the facts ? 

The editor of the Patron disregarding all the facts in the case, and 
makincrita personal matter with himself, devotes at least three columns 
to a personal attack upon us, evincing throughout an unmitigated malig- 
nity, expressed in the most scurrilous language, not hesitating to 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 335 



make statements which he knew were false and indeed with- 
out the slightest foundation in fact. We do not propose to 
to bandy epithets with the Editor of the Patron, nor do we propose to 
continue this discussion any farther with him, as he has persistently 
misrepresented us in every thing he has published on this subject. 

If we have wronged the Master, or any other officer or member of 
the Order, we are ready at all times through our columns to make 
such reparation as justice and fraternal feeling requires. 

In conclusion, we still think our reference to the matter was 
proper and appropriate, and we will hereafter express our views on 
measures which we think will be for the good of the Order, " without 
fear, favor or affection," regardless of the malevolent attacks of the 
editor of the Patron. 

Another Old Virginian Gone. — The death of Col. Hill Carter, 
of Shirley, is announced in the secular papers. There was no more 
strongly-marked character in Virginia than this lamented gentleman. 
Of the best Virginia stock, he inherited ample fortune and the hio-h- 
est social position. But, without these advantages, he would have 
made his mark. A more resolute man never lived, nor one more 
loyal to country and friends. 

Col. Carter was one of the best and most enthusiastic farmers in 
the State, and a regular correspondent to the Planter and Farmer. 



Prof. J. W. Mallet.— We are indebted to Prof. J. W. Mallet, 
of the University of Virginia, for a catalogue of the department of 
Industrial Chemistry, civil and mining engineering, and agriculture. 

It will be remembered that the late Samuel Miller, of Lynchburg, 
gave a hundred thousand dollars in trust for the establishment of a 
department of this kind, which bequest is being carried out under 
the direction of Dr. Page and Prof. Mallet. We are glad to know" 
it is likely to prove a great success. 



Major John D. Rogers, in a private letter, says: 

" Our season has been any thing but advantageous to we farmers, 
but we can but submit to God's will and make the best of it. Our 
fruit is much less injured in this section than was supposed by the 
murmurers; but corn planting and gardening very backward, some 
of our early planting having to be furrowed out and re-planted. Our 
county is plethoric in candidates for county offices, and will remain 
so until after 27th May." 



336 THE SOUTHERN [June 

Messrs. Allison & Addison, have kindly furnished us vrith a con- 
densed resume* of the essay on the Cow Pea, written by the lamented 
Edmund Ruffin. We doubt very much if any man knew more of this 
iubject than did Mr. Ruffin, and Messrs. Allison & Addison have 
fery well brought out all of general interest that he wrote, without 
giving the details .which made the essay somewhat too long for our 
columns. Messrs. Allison & Addison have a fund of valuable infor- 
mation on this and kindred subjects, which they will furnish gratis 
to those who desire such information. 



Mr. Wm. James Walton, Louisa county, Va., has just sold eight 
hogsheads of tobacco (a portion of his crop) in this city, at an aver- 
age of 8-5 per hundred. He is the most successful grower of 
tobacco in that county, and says he makes more money now than he 
did before the war. We will publish in our next issue an article 
from him on his method of cultivation, &c. 



Editor Planter and Farmer, — In the April number of your 
journal you published 'an article on the culture of broom corn. 
Several typographical errors crept in. Will you make the following 
corrections? For " eight or ten bushels" read "eight or ten bar- 
rels." For "up to this much" read "up to this mark." For 
''■bush" read " brush" passim. 



The Southern Magazine, published by Turnbull & Brother, of 
Baltimore, is in every way worthy of the patronage of our people. 
In point of literary merit, and especially its adaptation to Southern 
ta9te, it is decidedly the most successful enterprise of the kind ever 
undertaken by a Southern publisher. Every number is full of choice 
reading matter, and as it is the organ of the Southern Historical 
Society, it contains much that is especially interesting to those who 
take an interest in the details cf the recent conflict between the 
sections. 

Mr. Samuel Ayres of this city, is the inventor and manufactu- 
rer of a truss that is highly recommended by the medical faculty. 
Mr. Ayres is a reliable business man, and will give satisfaction to 
those who deal with him. Persons wishing trusses will do well to 
correspond with him. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 337 

We had occasion recently to visit the Nursery of Mr. L. Har- 
vey, on the Brook road near the city, and were very much gratified 
at the splendid appearance of all his surroundings. No where south 
of the Potomac can such a variety of choice ornamental trees and 
plants be found, and the excellent cultivation they receive keeps 
them in the thriftiest condition. Mr. Harvey deserves credit for the 
wonderful improvement he has made in the few years he has occupied 
the place, and for the energy and skill he exhibits in its cultivation. 
Our people ought to pay more attention to ornamental planting, and 
we think a visit to Mr. Harvey's would convince them of it. 

We are under obligations to Mr. John Saul, of Washington, D. 
C, for a box of flowers, consisting of every variety of bedding plants. 
These came by express, and were so carefully packed, that after 
three days they were opened and found just as fresh as if just out of 
the green-house. They were set out in the open ground, and, with 
one or two exceptions, are living and give promise of great beauty. 

Mr. Peter Henderson, of New York, has also sent us a basket 
of flowers, which arrived in excellent condition, and are growing 
finely. 

We wish to impress upon our readers the fact, that for a few dol- 
lars they can have delivered at their, door, either by mail or express 
any variety of the most choice plants grown by either of these gen- 
tlemen; and no one in the United States offers a greater variety, 
.lust as fresh and as sure to live as if taken by hand from the green- 
house and planted at once in the ground. Beautify your homes.! 
No investment pays so well, especially where children are growing 
up. Flowers exercise a refining influence, which will last through 
life. 

The Manhattan Life Insurance Company, of New York, is an 
established and reliable company; and as it is the recognized duty 
of every man who has a family to provide for them in case of his 
death, it would be well for our readers to consider, in this con- 
nection, the subject of life insurance, and look into the merits of 
this company. The General Richmond Agent of this company is 
too well and favorably known to need any commendation from us. 

Our little boys should look at the advertisement of Georgie Payne, 
and send for a pair of fancy rabbits. 



THE SOUTHERN June 

M?.. C. T. Palmer offers to our farmers the Valley Chief Reaper 
and Mower. When we find an implement combining every excel- 
lence, manufactured at our very door, economy and patriotism should 
induce us to use it. Mr. Palmer's business, we are glad to know, is 
rapidly increasing, and we hope that he will soon have to increase 
his already extensive facilities for the manufacture of machines. 

We take pleasure in recommending the Maltby House, Baltimore, 
to our readers. Situated in the busines#*Jentre of the city, it offers 
every accommodation one could desire on the most reasonable terms. 
The proprietor and employees all devote themselves to the comfort 
of their guests, and we have found it one of the most agreeable 
places we have ever stopped at. 

The St. James Hotel. — This is a new and elegant hotel, situated 
in the heart of the city, fronting on the Capitol Square. It is fitted 
up in elegant and convenient style, with all the modern improve- 
- The proprietor,Mr. Hoenniger, and the veteran hotel-keeper 
J. P. Ballard, his assistant, know how to run a hotel perfectly. The 
accommodations are first-class in every particular, and the charges 
i 



Ashes for Orchard.?. — The Scientific American says: "The 
which we now fall attention is, that our farmers and fruit- 
-growers have ignored, or rather have been ignorant of. the importance 
of wood ashes as a vegetable stimulant and as the leading constitu- 
of plants. Even coal ashes, now thrown away as useless, have 
been shown both by experiment and analysis to possess a fair share 
of alkaline value. We will relate only one experiment ; Some twen- 
ty-five years ago we treated an old hollow pippin apple tree as fol- 
. - : The hollow, to the height of eight feet, was filled and rammed 
with a compost of wood ashes, garden mold and a little waste lime 
(carbonate . The filling vms securely fastened in by boards. The 
next year the crop of sound fruit was sixteen bushels from an old 

ill of a tree that had borne nothing of any account for some time, 
and for seventeen years after filling, the old pippin tree continued to 
flourish and bear well/' 

V> I'iam Saunders, who has charge of the public grounds at Wash- 
ii gton. gives the following as a remedy which he has found effectual 
for pear blight. It is cheap, and should be tried : To half a bushel 
of lime add four pounds of sulphur; slake to the consistency of 
whitewash, and when it is applied add to each gallon of the wash 
:' an ounce of carbolic acid. Apply this to the diseased parts. 
T^ -ere the bark is diseased, remove the outer portion before making 
the application. 



CARDWELL'S 

THRESHER AND CLEANER 




J. "W. "vest A-L's 

DOLLAR COLLECTIONS of PLANTS for 1875. 



We will send any ODe of the following collec- 
tions of plants by express, no charges for box- 
ing or packing; or by mail, post paid. (Larger 
plants can always be sent by express.) Plants 
guaranteed to reach their destination to anv 
point in the United States or Canada - 
from heat or frost at all seasons, on the receipt 
of OXE DOLLAK, upon the following condi- 
tions: 

1st. The different Tarieties to be entirely our 
selection. 

2d. That orders simply name the number of 
the collection and date of this list. A detailed 
list of plants not being necessary. 

3. That no request be made for changes in any 
collection at these low rates. All who wish to 
select their own plants can do so at the prices 
per single plant in our descriptive catalogue, 
which will be furnished gratis to all who apply. 

No. 1 — Eight Roses, profuse flowering sorts. 

No. 2. — Tm Zonale double scented and varie- 
gated Geraniums. 

No. 3. — Ten Fuchsias double and single, dis- 
tinct colors. 

No. 4. — Ten Coleus. distinct sorts. 

No. 5. — Twelve Basket plants. 12 varieties. 

No. 6. — Twenty Verbenas, distinct colors. 

No. 7. — Eight Dahlias, large and Pompone, 
flowering. 

No. 8. — Eight Carnations, perpetual flowering 
sorts. 

No. 9. — Four Roses, 10 Verbenas. 

No. 10. — Two .Roses, 3 Verbenas, 3 Geraniums, 
3 Fuchsias. 



Address, 



june 



No. 11. — Two Roses, 5 Verbenas, 4 Geraniums, 
2 Lantanas. 

No. 12. — Three Geraniums. 1 Fuchsia, 1 Helio- 
trope, 1 Eantana, 1 Salvia, 1 Cuphea, 1 Le- 
mon Verbena, 1 Carnation. 

No. 13. — One Trieolored Geranium, 2 Fuchsias, 
2 Salvias, 1 Cuphea, 2 Double Violet, 2 Co- 
leus, 1 Double Petunia. 

No. 14.— One Rose. 1 Verbena. 1 Geranium, 2 
Fuchsias. 1 Coleus. 1 Carnation, 1 Dahlia, 
1 Heliotrope, 1 Salvia. 

No. 15.— One Tuberose. 1 Double Violet. 1 Pe- 
tun'ajjjfcalvia, 1 Musk Plant, 1 Lemon Ver- 
bena,^ Cuphea, 1 Gladiolus, 1 Begonia, 

1 Bouvardia. 

No. 16. — One Petunia, 1 Lantana, 1 Ageratum, 

2 Ruelia, Formosa, 1 Tuberose, 1 Lobelia. 
1 Rose. 1 Salvia, 1 Glad: s 

No. 18. — One Caladium Esculentum, 1 Alter- 
nanthum, 1 Coleus, 1 Achyranthus, 1 Ko- 
niga, var.. 1 Canna, 1 var. Balm, 1 Pyre- 
thium Golden Feather, 1 Variegated Gera- 
nium. 1 Striped Verben3. 

No. 18. — To any one remitting ($15.00) fifteen 
dollars at one time, we will send the whole 
of the above 17 collections to one address, 
varying the plants that no two will be 
alike. 

No. 19.— Or to any one sending us a club of 
not less than ten of the above collections, 
and remitting the full price for each, we 
will send any one of the above as a pre- 
mium, anJ mail or express the plant* 
separately to each member, provided not 
less than one collection goes to each. 

JOSEPH W. VESTAL. 

Cambridge City. Indiana. 



M A. N EC A.T T .A. TsT 

Life Insurance Company 

OF NEW YORK. 

Assets January 1st, 1875, - - $9,690,750 48 
Undivided Surplus, - ' - - 1,808,329 22 

All its policies are incontestable, and non-forfeitable from 
the second year. 



Dividends Annually. 

$5,500,000 Paid in Losses during Twenty-Four Years, 
and no Claims Unpaid. 

Premiums may be paid Annually, Semi-Annually, or Quarterly, as 
best suits the convenience of the policy-holder. 

P. T. MOORE, 
J. ADAIR PLEASANTS. Agent City of Richmond. 

General Agent. 

Office : 1200 Main Street, under Planters Nat. Bank. 




THE WATT PLOW 

VICTORIOUS ON EVERY FIELD ! 

A combined TURNING PLOW, CUL- 
TIVATOR, SUBSOILER, ROW-OPEN- 
ER, PEANUT-DIGGER, TOBACCO and 
COTTON SCRAPER and SWEEP. 

No CHOKING when bright and smooth; 
no LABOR to the plowman; ONE-THIRD 
LESS DRAUGHT to the team ; thorough 
BURIAL of Weeds, Grass, &c. ; great 
STRENGTH, Durability and Economy in 
its use, and complete pulverization of tte 
soil. 

FARMERS WHO USE IT WILL USE 
NO OTHER. 

Awarded all the Premiums at every 
Fair attended in 1873. 

Awarded First Premiums at every 
CM5CUP* west. p H ,i_ ~~ea Fair attend 'ed in 1874. 
Virginia State Fair. Richmond— FIRST PREMIUMS ON THREE AND 
FOUR- HORSE PLOWS. 
Right and Left Hand -ALL PREMIUMS AWARDED THEIR SIZES. 
Also at the Plowing Match ALL PREMIUMS AWARDED WHITE PLOW- 
MEN were taken with W r ATT PLOWS of ONE, TWO, THREE and FOUR- 
HORSE SIZES; and COLORED PLOWMAN by ONE, TWO and THREE- 
HORSE SIZES ; being 

SEVEN PREMIUMS OUT OF EIGHT. 
The superior work done by the WATT, and the complete ease with which it is 
handled, was apparent to all. 
NORTH CAROLINA STATE FAIR, Raleigh, October 10th; 
GEORGIA STATE FAIR. Atlanta, October 19th; 
SOUTH CAROLINA STATE FAIR, Columbia. November 10th ; 
STAUNTON, VA., October 13th; 
LYNCHBURG, October 20th ; 
WELDON. N. C, October 20th; 
ORANGEBURG, S. C, November 3rd ; 
CHARLOTTE, N. C, November 3rd ; 
DANVILLE, VA., November 3rd; 
POINT PLEASANT, W. VA., October. 

Thus, with its great reputation before, it has gained new laurels this year, 
which must convince every farmer of its vast superiority over other plows. 

We warrant every plow sold to be as represented or to be returned to us. We 
solicit a trial. Catalogues sent to any address. 

WATT & CALL, 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS, 
1452 Franklin St., Richmond, Va. 
Special Agents for "The Best" Spring-Tooth Horse-Rake and Gleaner; also 
for sale of our own manufacture. HARROWS, CULTIVATORS, and all kinds 
of IMPLEMENTS at lowest prices— all warranted. 

I have a NEW BURDETT ORGAN which I will sell for $150— 
Manufacturer's price $175 — Boxed and delivered at any Depot or 
Wharf in Baltimore. Terms of payment accommodating. 

L. R. DICKINSON. 

Also, THREE FIRST-CLASS SEWING MACHINES which 
will be sold at a discount of forty per cent, on Manufacturers' 
prices. 



THE IMPROVED 

WHITNEY 

Uf IK MACHINES, 

PATERSON, NEW JERSEY. 
Solfl Direct fin tie Factory at GREATLY REDUCED PRICES. 

EKDORSEMEXT OFEXECrTlTECOMMlTTE 
OF IXDIAXA. 

After a thorough examination 
and test of the Improved Whit- 
Sewing Machine, we find it 
simple and durable in its con- 
struction, the material and 
workmanship first-cla-s. The 
machine runs exceedingly light, 
and at a high rate of speed. 
It is capable and will do all 
PEta. jjy £5, isii. varieties of family sewing in a 

superior manner. We heartily recommend the Improved Whitney 
Sewing Machine to members of ou r Order requiring a modem and 
reliable sewing machine. By referring to our national executive cir- 
cular we find that the Whitney Mfg. Co.. through C. G. Akam, was 
the first standard sewing machine to make a nationial proposition to 
members of our Order, and we trust Patrons will give them the liberal 
port they justly deserve. — J. Q. A. Xewsam, John F. Hall, Robt. 
Mitchell. Anson B. Line, B. C. McWilliams, Lindal Smith. 

I hereby certify that the above is a true copy of the action of the 
comix. M. M. Moody, Sect'y Indiana State Grange. 




"""hiTiiey Sewing Machine possesses all the requirements of a perfect Family Sewing Ma- 
chine. It is a perfected Shuttle Lock-Stitch Machine. It is constructed upon sound and -well 
mechanical principles. The workmanship is of the highest character. It is adapted to 
every varkty of sewing for family wear from the lightest muslins to the heaviest cloths. It will 
Hem. Fell, Bind, Cord, Braid, Seam, Tack, Buffle, Hem-stitch, Gather and sew on at the same time 
and will work equally well on Linen, Silk, Woolen and Cotton goods. 

Why the Whitney Mfg. Co., are Great Public Benefactors? 

Because they are the Pioneers in breaking the co:nhination prices in Sewing 
Machines, and putting this faithful servant within the reach of all. The Whitney 
iE the best and now the cheapest First-Class Sewing Machine ever offered to the 
public. - i for circular giving all particulars, 



The Whitney Manufacturing Company, 



ap-tf 



PATERSON, NEW JERSEY. 



SUPER-PHOSPHATE, 

MANUFACTURED BY THE 

POWHATAN PHOSPHATE COMPANY, 

J. G. DOWNWARD, President. JOHN WHANN, Secretary aud Treasurer. 



To the Planters of Virginia and North Carolina: 

We respectfully call the attention of those intending to use fertilizers 
on their spring crops to the Powhatan Raw Bone Super-phosphate, and 
particularly those who want a reliable fertilizer for tobacco and cotton, 
as we intend in the future, as in the past five years, to furnish an article 
which has no rival, regardless of price. Wherever it has been used by 
the side of any other fertilizer whatever, not excepting the deservedly 
popular and higher priced tobacco fertilizers of the day, it has in every 
case proved itself fully equal. 
Send for Circular. 



SOtUBLE PACIFIC GUANO, 

FOR TOBACCO, CORN' AND OTHER CROPS. 

After ten years' continuous use, throughout Virginia and the South, Soluhle Pacific Guano has 
acquired a reputation for reliability equal to that formerly enjoyed by the Peruvian Guano, and 
the quantity used annually exceed.- that ol any other fertilizer. 

It luis been the aim of all connected with "this Guano to produce the best possible fertilizer at 
the lowest possible cost, and we claim that the unusual resources and facilities of the manufactu- 
rers have enabled Lhem to approach this more nearly than has been done in any other fertilizer 
with which we are acquainted. Those who have been using it unite with us in the opinion, that 
by its use the consumer gets 

THE GREATEST BENEFIT FROM THE SMALLEST OUTLAY. 

We offer it with great confidence for use on the Tobacco and other crops to be grown in 1875, 
with the assurance that it is, in all respects, equal to what it has been in the past. 



PURE PERUVIAN GUANO, 

AS IMPORTED. 

We have a full supply of No. 1 Gnanape Pernviau Guano, from the Government 
Agent in New York, selected from one of the finest cargoes ever imported. It is dry and in beau- 
tiful order, and contains within a fraction of 13 per cent, of Ammonia, which is within 
two per cent, of what the old Chincha Peruvian used to contain — in fact, it would be difficult to 
tell one from the other. 

We offer these standard and thoroughly tested fertilizers for Tobacco, Corn, and all Spring 
Crops, and are prepared to sell them at such prices as will make it to the interest of consumers and 
dealers to purchase their supplies of us instead of sending their orders to New York, or elsewhere. 

For fu.-ther information and supplies, address, 

ALLISON & ADDISON, 

mar— tf Seed and Guano Merchants, Kichmond, Va 



GRAND OPENING 



-OF- 



-AND- 




-AT- 



LEVY BROTHERS, 

1017 & 1019 Main Street Richmond, Va. 



ALL THE NOVELTIES OF THE SEASON, COMPRISING 

PLAID and INVISIBLE CHECK MOHAIRS, 
DUNKIRK MOHAIRS, 
MATELASSE SILKS, 

STRIPED and CHECKED JAPANESE SILKS, 
CHENE MIXTURES, 

SILK-WARP PONGEE, 
PLAIN PONGEE, 

MOHAIR DIAGONALS. 

MATALASSE ALPACA, ■ . 

GRAY MIXTURES, 

PRINCESS MIXTURES, 

CHECKED and STRIPED SILKS, 
PLAIN SILKS, in exquisite shades, 

A full line of BLACK GROS-GRAIN SILK. 

All of the above goods are offered at prices particularly attrac- 
tive. The assortment is such as will please the most fastidious. An 
examination of our stock is respectfully solicited. 

LEVY BROTHERS. 



A new lot of RED-CHECK MATTING, just received. 



ap — lyr 



I7RESH 
GARDE J and FIELD SEED 

At the old stand cf Palmer & Turpin, 
1626 Main street, Richmond, 
Orchard Grass, 

Timothy, Herds, Clover, 

Kentucky Blue Grass. 
Send for Catalogue, 
feb-tf W. H. TURPIN. 



STABLISHED 1.816. 



CHA3. SIMON & SONS, 

68 NORTH HOWARD ST., BALTIMORE, MD. 
Dealers in 

FOREIGN & DOMESTIC DRY GOODS, 

would call special attention to their splendid stock 
of Dress Goods, Linen Goods, Embroideries, Laces, 
and Hosiery ; the best assortment of Mourning 
Goods in theeity. 

SAMPLES SENT FREE! 
All orders amounting to $20.00 or over, 'will be 
seat free of freight charges by Express, but parties 
whose orders are not accompanied by the money, 
and having their goods Bent C. O, D., must pay for 
return of the money. 




ELLERSLI& FARM. 

Thoroughbred HORSES; 

Half Bred HORSES ; 

Pure SHORT HORN CATTLE. 

Improved BERKSHIRES 

For sale, 

Price, $10 apiece. 
Address, 

R. J. HANCOCK, 
Overton, Albermarle Co., Va. 



Daisy, Queen Victoria 

Plants of this beautiful flower can now be 
furnished in large or small quantities. Send for 
descriptive priced circular, and notices of the 
press. One plant SI ; ten small plants $4; free 
by mail. A. H AKCK «V SON, 

up Nurserymen and Florists, Red Bank, N. J. 

GRAPE VINES, 

Grown especially for the Trade, very fine, and 
at low prices. CONCORD, HARTFORD, PRO- 
LIFIC and MARTHA, in large quantities. 
A. HANCE &, SON, Nurserymen & Florists, 
apl Red Bank, N. J. 



Strawberry Plants 

By the 100, 1,000, 10,000, or 100,000. Wilson's 
Albany, Charles Downing, Triompe de Gand. 
Also Monarch of the West, Col. Cheney, Boy- ' 
den's No. 30, Black Defiance, Kentucky, Len- 
ning's White and BROWN'S WONDER, in 
large quantities. 

A. HANCE & SON, Nurserymen & Florists, 
apl tf "Red Bank, N. J. 

~J. Y. BICKNELL, 

Westmoreland, Oneida Co., N. Y., 

Won premiums on ALL VARIETIES shown 
at the New York State Fair last September, viz : 

BRAHMAS, Light and Dark, 

COCHINS, Partridge and White, 

UAMBURGS, Silver Spangled, Golden Span- 
gled and Pencilled, and Black, 

DORKINGS, Colored, 

HOUDANS, LA FLECHE, GOLDEN POLISH 

GAMES, Black-breasted Red and Duckwing, 

GAME BANTAMS, Black-breasted Red and 
Duck win r. 

GOLDEN SEBRIGHT and AFRICAN BAN-' 
TAJIS, 

DUCKS, Rouen and Aylesbury, 

PIGEONS, all varieties. — All first premiums 
but four. — FOWLS and EGGS for sale from the 
same stock. Circulars free. apl tf 



LIME. 

20,000 bushels best OYSTER SHELL 
LIME of my own manufacture, for sale 
low. I am also Agent for the Cumber- 
land Tobacco Fertilizer, which has given 
great satisfaction in the Connecticut 
Valley, also Berry's Superphosphate 
made exclusively from Raw Bone. 

GROUND PLASTER, AGRICUL- 
TURAL SALT, Building Lime, Hy- 
draulic Cement, Calcined Plaster, &c, 
constantly on hand at wholesale and 
retail. 

A. S. LEE, 
Virginia St., Near Danville Depot. 

mar — 6m 



*5 

& Co 



to 



Per Day at home. Terms 
free. Address G. Stinson 
Portland, Maine. feb — ly 



r. x.' 



CELEBRATED 



Tobacco Fertiliser. 

Prepared expressly for this crop. The most popular Fertilizer in use. For 
sale by agents and dealers throughout the country. 



MUTED B0\E Sl'PER-PBOSPBATt 

Unrivalled for Cotton. Wheat, and all Grain and Root Crops. For sale by 
agents and dealers throughout the country. 



BONE SUPER-PHOSPHATE. 

Supplied to manufacturers and dealers at low figuresr 

We are prepared to furnish the different Granges with an ;{ Ammoniated Bone 
Super-Phosphate '' of a standard quality, adapted to all crops, at very lowest 
price. 

P. ZSLL & SOX£S,1 

MANUFACTURE 
ap— 4m 30 South St., Baltimore, 31(1, 

JOHN C. HACHTEL & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Hachtel's Ammoniated Superphosphate, 

Hachtel's Pure Dissolved Bone, 

Hachtel's Tobacco Fertilizer 

BONE DUST. GENUINE LEOPOLDSHALL KAINIT [German Potash Salts), 

MURIATE OF POTASH, BONE MEAL, and FERTILIZING 

MATERIALS GENERALLY. 
Liberal discount to dealers and others who buv largely fl^msh. 

JOHN C HACHTEL & CO., 

sep — 8t 14 Bo'd'ii Wharf, Baltimore. 

IFVA-IjIj STYLES, 1874. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE WOOLEN MILLS 

SAMPLE CARDS 

Are now ready for mailing. Our assortment embraces 

TWENTY-FOUR PATTERNS. 
Merchants desiring samples, will please address, 

CHAELOTIESYILLE WOOLEN MILLS. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA. 



IMPORTANT TO FARMERS. 



GREAT DOMESTIC INSTITUTION. 



Recipe for making Artificial Guano, 



No. 1. Clean "Virgin Soil -.20 bushels. 

" 2. Wood aahes 3 

" 3. Fine Bone Dust 3 

" 4. Calcined Plaster 3 

" 5. Nitrate of Soda 

" 6. Mur. Ammonia 

7. Sulph. " 

Soda? 

►Magnesia.. 

Iton Salt 







Directions for Mixing. 

Mix Nos. 1, 2 and 3 together ; then, in a barrel two- 
thirds full of water, dissolve the chemicals, Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, 
9 and 10 ; when thoroughly dissolved add the liquid grad- 
ually to Nos. 1, 2, 3, and lastly add No. 4, (the Calcined 
Plaster) which will bring the whole to a powder. The 
soil used should be perfectly dry and mixed under cover. 

The above recipe will make one ton, which will manure 
seven and a half acres of land. We will furnish the in- 
gredients from No. 3 to 10 inclusive for twenty dollars, 
which, when mixed with Nos. 1 and 2 will make one ton. 

This compound, containing, according to analysis, all 
the principal ingredients of the genuine Peruvian Guano, 
has been tested by a number of practical farmers (many 
thinking it equal to natural Guano), and for Grain, Vege- 
tables, and particularly Tobacco, it has been found the 
cheapest and best fertilizer now in use. 

All orders carefully and promptly executed. 

BODEKER BROS., 

DRUGGISTS, 
1444 Main Street, Richmond, Vol- 



CHESTNUT GKOYE 



YARDS. 



EASTON, PA. 



Fine Bred and English Draft Horses. Thoroughbred Short Horn Cat- 
tle, Asiatic Poultry and Fancy Pigeons. 

Draft Stallion took First Premium at Pennsylvania State Fair, and 
Warren County Fair, X. J. 

The herd of Short Horns took three Herd Premiums, twenty-six first 
and seven second premiums in the fall of 1875. 

Poultry took fifteen Society and nine Special Premiums in Fowls and 
Chicks, and seven on Pigeons at Lehigh Valley Poultry Exhibition, held 
at Allentown. January. 1875. 

Colts. Cattle and Poultry for sale. Eggs from high-class light and 
dark Brahmas. Buif, Partridge and White Cochins at $5 per setting of 
thirteen, securely packed. 

Catalogues and Circulars upon application. 

Having purchased of S. S. Cooper hi* entire herd of Short Horns, I 
am prepared to sell fine cows, heifers and calves at reasonable pri 
Come and see them. No trouble to show the stock. East n can be 
reached by N. P. Railroad from Philadelphia, or by N. J. C. Railroad 
from New York, several trains a dav running each wav. 

THOS. S.McKEEX. 

mv-6t Easton. Pa. 



S^ r W. C. SMITH, 



MANUFACTURER OF 





SPRING WAGONS. BUGGIES.&C 



Am prepared to furnish at short notice Spring Wagons, with especial 
reference to the wants of Farmers. Light running and strong, of any 
desired capacity. Workmanship and material guaranteed. Prices 
lower than the same quality of work can be bought at in this or any 
other city. Orders solicited. Letters of inquiry promptly answered. 

Repairing promptlv and reasonablv done. 

W. C. SMITH. 
my-6m 308 Fifth Street, Richmond, Va. 



The subscriber has on hand 

of various descriptions, that he wishes to dispose of on very mode- 
rate terms, and is still manufacturing others, and solicits a call from 
all in want of any article in his line, and he guarantees good work- 
manship, and first-rate material. 

A. B. LIPSCOMB, 
my 116 Cary Street, between Adams and Jefferson. 




BALTIMORE STEEL HOE WORKS. 

Manufacturers of the 

"L0CKW00D HOE." 

BLADE ALL STEEL. 

Every Hoe Irate! 

This superior Hoe can be had of any first-class dealer. 

LIGHT,, CHEAP, EFFECTIVE. 

The Clebeated Lockwood Hoe, Steel Blade, Maleable Iron Eye 
The Best Hoe in Use. For sale Wholesale and Retail by 

WATT &, CALL, No. 1452 Franklin Street, 

RICHMOND. VA 

ONE THOUSAND transplanted Arbor Vita? 4 to 8 inches 
M^'high, delivered free to any part of the United States for only 
I^Fiftee^ Dollars. 

£g|| 500 ARBOR YITM (transplanted) 4 to 8 inches high, free 
" j|£ :o :11IV P art of the United States for only Tex Dollars. 

lo ARBOR VITJG and 10 WEEPING SPRUCE, nice 10-inch 
p'ants, delivered free to any part of the United States for only 
One Dollar. EVERGREENS — how, when, and where to plant — 
mailed free for stamp. 

Remit money by draft, registered letter, or money order on Portlar.d 

Address, WM. MORTON & SON, 

ap — tf Allen's Corner, "Cumberland Co.',' Maine 

Steanj Engines aijd otljer Jjjacljinery For Sale, 




In addition to a full line of New Engines, Saw Mills, and other Machinery of our own improved 
build, which we, keep constantly on hand or build to order, we have now For Sal? the following 
tiecond-Hand Machinery . all in perfect order, which we will sell at very low figures, viz: 

Double-Hoisting Engines, Up-horse power, with drums and other hoisting gear, compl 

4-horse Stationary Engines, good as new; 

Flue-Boiler 2(j feet long, 42 inches diameter, with 2 flues, 14 inches diame;er, iron front and ot'ier 
fittings complete; 

150-horse Bower Stationary Engine; Tubular Boilers, 50-horse power each ; 30-horse power Sta- 
tionary Engines ; 8-horse Portable Engine, as good as new ; of our own make ; 16-horse Stationer? 
Engine with n -\\ vertical boiler ; several steam Pumps and Pan Blowers of various sizes ; Pngiues 
for threshing, grinding and ginning, mounted on wheels or not, as may be preferred by the dut 
chaser ; Repair WorR Solicited. WM E. TANNER & CO., 

mar— Rt Metropolitan Works, Richmond Va 



EST-AJBLISHEID 1839. 



TO FARMERS.PLANTERS and GARDENERS 



o 





MANUFACTURED AND FOR SALE BY 

JOHU BULLOCK & SOU, 

Factory: Washington Road. Baltimore, Md. 
Store: No. 61 S. Gay Street, Baltimore, Md. 



P. 0. Box 636. 



For more than thirty years we have been engaged in the manufacture 
of M Pure Ground Bone , our crude stock being gathered daily from the 
butchers here, with whom we have yearly contracts. We have com- 
pleted our new factory, and with the addition of the latest and most ap- 
proved machinery, will be able to fill all orders sent to us at short notice 
and guarantee at all times to the purchaser a first-class article at~the 
lowest market price. 

Respectfully 

JOHN BULLOCK & SON. 
se — ly 



THE OEY RELIABLE SOURCE OF RICH POTASH SALTS. 

Fot Cotton, Tokcco, Com, Wheat, Suo.ar-fc.no, Potatoes, Fruits 



an 



c) (cm 



ass. 



w^hSSMKS^ LeopoldshaH Kainit," (Potash Salts) as 
as Sole Agent and Importer ' Lxeimaa - r ' and ™P<>rted into the United States by myself 

The Richest, only Reliable and most Extensive Deposit of Natural "Kainit " known 

to the world. 

and upS PrePal ' ed t0 *" ° rderS f ° r the Farmers a °* Pinters direct, in quantities of one ton 

«?6SW5S!*£lSSS2aa *SdSS baeU P™« 8e ?<?P™ the Farmland Plant- 
lieve they «re gettingthe Gm uin, Le > ml, £f- n 5 me ,! rf Kainit (thus leading them to be- 

commonWuse calcined a,tf the attention of ill J*2$ ^3* laot "jevwere only getting a 
lowing ' aclentl on ot all agriculturists is respectfully solicited to the fol- 



c^^^r^a®n ! 



manutactuaed ^nM^^yes^Xn^nv^y?^^ im tatlon thereof, the vendors of 
above or a glaringly ^mX name in th^f^Tfn^T^ 1 n0t to offer their compounds under the 
grades and "almost VorfihK^ far as laSt.^Li 5 "^, are - n<m seekin * a ma rket for their low 
them to the United States." agneultuial value is concerned) materials, by shipping 

H^^rftaff&SS fte world VH2 gi I e ^V he ^ Piai0ns of some ° f ^e most re- 
"G. L. Kainit," and aLso how to apply it ' * r6gardS the benefits to be derived f™ni the use of 

mStt f0 b r 3 S de 11 c?!ved and ^^^ y ° MSelveS with toe appearance of «G. L. Kainit," so that you 

Genuine Leopoldshall Kainic shouSalTbltld^^^^ 

WINFIULD S 3DXTlsrA3Sr 
Sole Agent and Importer for the United States. 2 ° ^ 22 & "^ ^ reei; ' Baltim ^ re - 




DBAURS 



POKE BONE FLOtnt PORE DISSOLVED BONE ASH. POEE DISSOLVED BAW BOHE 
JStISi Si pric^St? P0TAS ? SALTS ' P " re Ch ™"*' s «« """-S Saperpho.ph.te 

R. J. BAKER & COS. 



"ii^*5S 




MALTBY HOUSE, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

C. R. HOGAN, Proprietor 

Has just received a serie 
of costly and elegant im" 
- provementd, embracing every 
department of the Hotel,ma- 
king it one of the finest Ho- 
tels in the city. 

Board reduced to $2.50 per fla 

may 



SOUTHERN FERTILIZING COMPANY 



AXCHOR 




BRAXD. 



TOBACCO FERTILIZER, 

)MMONLY KNOWN AS •• GILHAM'S.") 

RETAIL PRICE REDUCED TO 

$65 PER TON AT FACTORY 
LIBERAL DISCOUNT ON CLUB LOTS 



ALSO, 



STANDARD FERTILIZERS 

FOR 

Cotton, Corn, Peanut and Truck Crops, 

MORO PHILLIPS 

MANUFACTURING CHEMIST, 

MANUFACTURER 0* 

3 Afl IL 



I _ . . „ 

:0: 

MORO PHILLIPS' SUPER-PHOSPHATE. Price $60— the 
^raiu producer in the market. 



MORO PHILLIPS" PURE PHUIXE, Price $60— the best fer- 
tilizer for truckers we know of. 



MORO PHILLIPS TOBACCO IXYIGORATOR. Price 
prepared especially tor Tobacco. 



SERENA GUANO, a natural organic deposit. 

f 110 S. Delaware A v.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
For sale at Depots < 

{ 95 South Street, Baltimore. Md., 
And by trade generally. Discount to dealers. ap-Gt 



FARM LANDS. 






The subscriber offers for sale Severn 1 tracts of lana, va-' 
rying in size and quality. That on which he resides is an 
excellent little farm with rare advantages. Terms very 

liberal - THOS. P. LILLY, 

Kent's Store, Fluvanna County, Va. 

[The above Tracts of Land are very desirable and are offered at 
low rates. — L. R. D.~] 



apl 



G. F. WATSON'S 




RICHMOND. 

Having timber tracts! n this State sufficient to last several years, with a comnlete lumberin- 
rafting, and saw-mill organization of fifty men, together with one of the most 'complete facto! 
ries in the country located in this city, can furnish Poplar and hard wood (no soft pine) low- 
prictd FURNITURE as cheap as any factory North or West-and fine Walnut FURNITURE 
cheaper. A stock of one million feet of lumber insures seasoned work, warranted in this and 
every respect. Manufacture MATTRESSES of all kinds. 

Lumber-mill, Indiantown, Va. ; Factory, Rocketts street; luniber-vards, Ash and Popla* 
streets; warerooms, No. IS Governor (Thirteenth streets,) Richmond. apl 




BLATCHLEY'S 

Improved Cucumber 
Wood Pump is tli.> ac- 
knowledged Standard 
cf the market, by pop- 
ular verdict, the best 
pump for the least 
. Attention is invited to 
■gg-Klatchley's Improved Bracket, the 
IHhHD P ro P Check Valve, which can be with- 
HlP drawn without disturbing the joints, 
and the copper chamber which never 
cks, scales or rusts and will last a 
-a''':'j h / e time. For Sale bv Dealers and 
gjgU the trade generally. In order to be 
k„„ r , s " rethat you get Blatchlev's Pump, 
be careful and see that it has my trade mark as 
above. If you do not know where to buy de- 
scriptive circular, together with the name and 
address of the agent nearest you, will be prompt- 
ly furnished by addressing with stamp, V 
(MAS. G. BLATCBLEY, Manufacturer 
mar O 06 Comme rce St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

TO FARMERS, 

Bowery & fljercer's Super Phosphate 

REDUCED TO 

«40 for single ton ; $38 for five tons and over; 

»3o for ten tons and over . • ' 

«3r» Warranted Equal to any Manufactured. 

Send for pamphlet of testimonials, 

BOWEN & MERCER, 
mar— ly S. Gay Street, Baltimore.) 




|1L Will not make a Uo K ' 8 

5LJ- ' Hardware Dealers sell them. 

- --Kmger, tl; Tin KicgE (100). 

^^aLgpe; Copnered Einps, 60e; 

• «l/\M ur - ^©i^^loaes, S1.25 ; by mail, poat- 

dccaturju paid. Circulars free. 

WALNUT GROVE FARM. 

THOROUGHBRED and GRaDE JERSEY 
CATTLE. BERKSHIRE and ESSEX SWINE 
BRONZE TURKEYS and BRAHMA FOWLS, 

I took 1st. premium on Thoroughbreds, (Male 
and Female,) and 1st premium on Grade Jerseys, 
also, 1st on Bronze Turkeys at Va. State Agicul- 
tural Society, 1874. 

Prices moderate— Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
Address, 

G. JULIAN PRATT, 

mar — ly Waynesboro, Augusta co., Va. 




For spring of ISTo will be readv in February 
with a colored plate; Free to all my customers. 
to others price 25 ets. ; a plain copy to all appli- 
cants tree. Washington City D C 
apl " 





\ BAUGH'S STANDARD 3IANURES. 

BAUGH & SONS, 

High Grade Manure for Tobacco Sf Grain 

BAUGff S RAW.BONE rpA DE MARK SUPER-PHOSPHATE of LIME. 

The old established ***f®fjfE8j$W% article sold under a guaranteed 
analysis. Also, Pure Of "vH Ground Bones, Pure Bone Meab 

and a full line of chem-. f\ ^^Sf icals for making super-phos 

BAUGH & SONS, 
ap — 6t No. 103 South Street, Baltimore, Md. 

MassilloiiHamster 

Buy the Best. 

TWO men bind 
Tell Acres dailv. 
Binders cn:i SIT 
Br STAND. A 1- 
dr KI>\VI> 

B.VYI.I-S. 

Munition, O. 

Ttioronfflred Stock for Sale. 

I am breeding Thoroughbred Devon 
Cattle. Poland China, and Essex Hogs. 
South Down Sheep. &c. Also Light 
Brahma Fowls, and have for sale seve- 
ral pairs of White and Black Guineas. 
Persons ordering from me can rely on 
getting as good stock as any in this 
country. My herd of Devons are of 
the most improved strains. They took 
7 first premiums at our last Virginia 
State Fair. For further particulars, 

F. W. CHILES. 

feb— 6m Louisa C. H.. V a . 

CAXCM ! CAXCER ! ! 

Attention is called to the great suc- 
cess which has been achieved in the per- 
manent cure of this loathsome disease, 
bv the use of 

"Benipfl's Enreta Cancer Salve. 

Hitherto it lias baffled the best medical skill. 
and the poor unfortunates with this leprosy. 
clinging to their bodies and eating out their 
vitals, are left to drag out a miserable existence. 
Testimonials of the most convincing character 
are accumulating daily, and many" heretofore 
incredulous, are now entirely satisfied as to its 
inestimable value. 

F. II. ROBERTSON & SON. Index-Appeal 
Office, Petersburg. Va., are the General Agents, 
to whom all letters for information, and orders 
for Salve should be addressed. 

March tf 

Farmers Protect your SHEEP 

At night from dogs, by putting them in 

in a fold of sheep nets. For particulars I 
address. 

WM. ADAMSON, 
Gainesville. Prince William Co.. 
mar— tf Virginia, 

March 



Wenster's Uuatiriupfl Dictionary. 

•• Thk Best Practical English Dic- 
tionary extant. — London Quarterly 
Iter inc. October, 1ST3. 

A NEW FEATURE. 

«To the 3.00ii Illustrations heretofore in 
: s Unabridged we jave recently added 
four pages of 

COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS, 

Engraved and Printed expressly for the work, 
at large expense, viz- 

ARMS <»F THE STATES anp TERRITORIES. 
ARMS OF VARIOUS NATIONS. 
FLAGS OF VARIOUS NATIONS. 
UNITED STATES NAVAL FLAGS, 4c 

Thus adding anothe r to the many useful and 
attractive features of Webster's Unabridged. 

«**The Authority of Everybody. 

PROOF— 20 TO 1. 

The sales of Webster's Dictionaries throughout 
the country iu 1ST::, were 'Jo times as large as the 
sales of any other Dictionaries In proof ol' this 
we will send to any person, on application, the 
statements of more than 100 Booksellers, from 
every section of the country. Published bv 
ti. A- <'. MEKRI.VM. Springfield, Mass. 
mar 

Rabbits for Sale 

English Rabbits, 82 per pair 

Lop-eared Rabbits, 5 " 

boxed anil delivered at Express of- 
fice. Address 

Master G. W.PAYNE, 
Black Heath P. O.. 
my CheStertield county, Va. 



THE 



YALLEY CHIEF 



H- 



3111 






REAPER AND MOWER 

The only Machine made in the South, and every Ma- 
chine warranted. 

GRAND SILVER MEDAL 

AT 



AT 



CULPBPBR C. H., VA., 1874. 

We ask a comparison of workmanship 
and price of the home production. 

IT CANNOT BE EXCELLED. 

All inquiries cheerfully answered. 
Catalogues furnished on application. 

CH/*S, T. PALMER, 

1526 Main Street, Richmond, Va. 



Pleasantly located on Twelfth Street, facing Bank Street and the Capi- 
tol Square. In the centre of the business portion of the city, within 
one square of the Post Office and Custom House, it is, by its retired 
location opposite the southeast corner of the beautiful park surrounding 
the Capitol of Virginia, the most quiet hotel in Richmond. 

The proprietor having had a life long experience in hotel business — 
first at the Everett House, Xew York, and afterwards as proprietor of 
the Spotswood Hotel, Richmond, in its best days — and now assisted by 
Mr. JOHX P. BALLARD, the popular veteran hotel-keeper of Vir- 
ginia, assures visitors of the ST. JAMES that no effort on his part will 
be spared to make them comfortable and to keep the house in first-class 
style. Coaches will attend the arrival of all trains. Elegant carriages 
are at all times at the service of the traveling public. 
june T. W. HOENNIGER, Proprietor. 

BERKSHIRE PSSS FOE BALE. 

Another lot of PIGS from imported sows "Rosedale," "Car- 
lotta," and "Hillhurst Rose 2d." ALSO. 

SHORTHORN BULLS. COWS & CALVES 

A. M. BOWMAN, 

je — 2t Bellevue, near Waynesboro', T a. 

R. SmCLiAXR <£ CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

fflUML IMPLEMENTS 5 lUDEHT. 

ALSO, GROWERS AND IMPORTERS OF '' 

GARDEN AND FIELD SEEDS, 

Dealers in FRUIT TREES and PLANTS 

W ould call the special attention of our friends and customers to the following 
first-class Machinery and Implements, which we guarantee to be equal to any arti- 
cle of the kind made in this country, being all of our own manufacture. 

We name in part, such machines as are required bv the Farmer and Planter 
for the Winter and Spring seasons, viz: SINCLAIR'S PATENT MASTI- 
CATOR, of which we make four sizes, viz: Hand. Steam and Horse Power. 

Sinclair's Patent Screw Propeller, Hay, Straw and Fodder Cutters, 

of which we make four sizes, viz . Light Hand Power, Hand Power, general sizes. 
and Horse Power three sizes. All of the above-named Cutters are our own 
Patents and Manufacture, and are such as we can recommend. 

Reading's Patent Hoi'se-Power Corn Sheller, with Fan Attachment. 
" " " Sheller, plain. 

Double Spout Hand or Power Sheller Single Spout Shellers — 
v\\ kinds. 

Corn and Cob Mills, Grist Mills, for Farm and Plantation use. 
WHEAT AND CORN FANNING MILLS. 

" Anderson's " Agricultural Steamer, for preparing feed for Stock. 
The best in use. 

Threshers and Separators— different kinds and sizes. 

Horse Powers, all sizes and patterns. 

Ox-Yokes and Bows, Horse Power Road Scrapers, Hay and 
Straw Pressos. 

Pldws, differ|nt kinds and Sizes, Harrows, Cultivators, and all kinds of 
Farming and Horticultural Tools. Add 

*■* R. SINCLAIR & CO. , 62 Light Street, Baltimore,, Mi. 



TEE BEST CULTIVATING IMPLEMENT IN THE WORLD. 




m 



lug MALTA DOUBLE SHOVEL PLOW. 

PRICE LIST FOR 1875. 
Double Shovel Plow .$8 00 | Single Shovel Plow $6 00 

EXTRAS. 



Mould Board Plow §1 50 

Cultivating Shovel 1 25 



Bull-tongue Shovel $1 00 

Clod Fender 1 00 



We have exclusive control in this market of the above celebrated plows. 

H. M. SMITH &, CO. 



r 



SMITH'S IMPROVED 

§£ II 



ifi 



FACTORY PRICE—TWENTY DOLLARS, 

Invented, Patented, and sold by H. M. SMITH & CO., Manfs. 



NOTICE TO PATRONS. 
We control in this Market. 

THE CHAMPION REAPERS AND MOWERS, 

THE BEST IN THE WORLD. 

E STUBEBMBR FARM Wftfi 

Celebrated for lighntness of Draft, Strength, Capacity and 
Durability. 



THE GEISER THRESHER, CLEAXER A.\D BAGGER. 

The fastest Thresher, the cleanest Cleaner, and the best made'Machine in use. 
t&- CATALOGUES FOR 1875 NOW READY. 

feb-tf 15S2 Main Street, Richmond, Va. 



FlRTIliIZEBi. 



Soluble Sea Island Guano, 

"' OF UNDOUBTED EXCELLENCE FOR COTTON AND TOBACCO. 



Amiuoniated Alkaline Phosphate, 

The Granger's Manure, we refer to t> 

Boiie and Meal Fertilizer. 

This article is combined with Potash, and contains all the elei 
necessary for the'growth of plant, and maturity of fruit. 

Lone Star Brand of Flour of Bone, 

From our Extensive Factory at Fulton, Texas. 

Ammoiiiaeal Matter, 

Of uniform quality, prepared from the flesh of cattle, at our Texas 

Factory. 

Dissolved Bone. 

Bone Phosphate dissolved in Sulphuric Acid, containing 13 per 
cent, of Soluble Phosphoric Acid. 

Potash Salts 

Of our own importation. 

Sulphuric Acid, 

And all necessary articles to make a good Fertilizer. 

For Sale at 
I Water Streets, - - BALTIMORE, 

AND 

- PETERSBURG. VA. 

R. W. L. RAISIN & CO. 



Subscription REDUCED to $1.50 Per Annum in Advance. 



TO CH'BS OF FIVE OR MORE OXE DOiLAR EACH. 



E S T A. BL I S K E ID I 3ST 1 8 4 O 



THE SOTITHB^Isr 




DEVOTED TO 



Apiltire, Horticnltnre, ai Bnral Affairs. 



L. R. DICKINSON Proprietor 



RICHMOND, VA„ 



JULY. 1875. 



HO. 7. 



CONTENTS. 



Sheep Husbandry and the Renova- 
tion of the Soil, 

Priming Tobacco : A few Words on 
the Labor Question 

Why Sam Simpson Sold Out, 

The Loneliness of Farming Life in 
tica. 

The Element of Pluck, 

Sheep on a Poor Farm, 

How to Escape Tobacco Worms, 
"What, is High Farming ; Plaster 
a Tobacco Fertilizer, 

Fertilizers — The Credit System and 
High Pi- 

Communication from Col. Knight, 

• in the Use of Green Crops for 
Manure. 

Curing Yellow Tobacco, 

Cutting, Scaffolding, Housing, Cur- 
ing and Preparing Shipping and 
acco for Market, 

Tuckahoe Farmers' Club, 

Confidence Needed ; Letter from 
Fluvanna. 

What 1 Know of Long Wools, 

Mellow tSoil Around 1 i 

Manure from a Ton of Hay, 



339 

341 
344 

340 
348 
350 



351 

352 
353 

857 



367 



Women, Agriculture and the Grange, 368 
The Last State Fair and the Nes 
Lucerne. 370 

Our Wheat Trade, 371 

Black Hawk : Walking v. Trotting 

Hors 373 

Cattle for Fattening; Butter Pro- 
duct of a Short horn Heifer. 374 
Cure for Kicking Cows': South- 
down Sheep, 375 
When to Buy Sheep ; Raising Hogs, 376 
Dog Tax ; The Dog Warfare, 
A Hint to Farmers: Work as a 
Remedy ; Remedy for Cabbage 
Worms, 
Bees for Farm. 

Study to Save Steps; Make the 
Farm Self-Sustaining ; 'Contin- 
ued Supply of Guano, 
The Patrons" Object ; Catholics can 

Join the Order. 
Happy Husbands; Madame Jerome 

Bonaparte. 
Pruning the Raspberry, 
How to make Good Apple Dump- 
lings; Chen- 
Editorial — Notes for the Mouth 



378 
379 



3"80 

381 

38i' 
383 

884 

380 




GRAND SQUAEE. # UPRIGHT 

PIANOS 

Have received upwards of FIFTY FIRST PREMIUMS, and are among the best 
now made. Every instrument fully warranted for five years. Prices as low as 
the exclusive use of the very best material and the most thorough workmanship 
will permit. The Principal Pianists and composers and the piano-purchasing 
public, of the South especially, unite in the unanimous verdict of the superiority 
of the STIEFF PIANIO. The DURABILITY of our instruments is fullv estab- 
lished by over SIXTY SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES iu the South, using over 
300 of our Pianos. 

Sole Wholesale Agents for several of the principal manufacturers of Cabinet 
and Parlor Organs : prices from $50 to §000. A liberal discount to Clergymen 
and Sabbath Schools. 

A large assortment of second hand Pianos, at prices ranging from $75 to $300, 
always on hand. - 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue, containing the names of over 2.000 Southern- 
ers who have bought and are using the Stieff Piano. 

CHAS. M. STIEFF. 
WaFerooms. No. 9, North Liberty Street. 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

Factories. S4 & c Camden street, and 45 and 47 Perry St. 
ap — tf 



ii 



EUREKA 



?? 



Ammoniatefl Superpliosphate of Lime, 

MANUFACTURED BY' 

The Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizing Company, 
Near 0BIENT, L. I,, 

Always proves to be the best fertilizer when accurately test-. :he applica- 

equal values, by the side of any other, whether on tobacco, vchtai, corn, 
cotton, grass or < 

See the report of Mr. A. M. Bowman, President of the Baldwin Augu- 
ricultural Society, to the V .:e Agriculture. published in this 

number of the Pfanfr wr, and note the fact that the " Eureka " is not 

only much the best of the six fertilizers he tried, but that it was also the cheapest; 
and bear in mind that at the time he- tried it he did not even know who was manu- 
factuiing it: and followed his example in ascertaining what is the best and also 
in letting the farmer know which is the best. The value of accurate experiments, 
and the purchase from reliable manufacturers, cannot be overestimated. 

WM. G. CRENSHAW. Pres. FRANK G. BOFFIN :e of Va. 

If there is no agent for the sale of '• Eureka" in your immediate neighbor- 
hood, write to any of the followii.g General Agents: W. N. RUFFIN. Rich- 
mond. Va.; JNO. ABBINGTON 3, Petersburg. Ya.: HOOE ft JOHN- 
STON. Alexandria, Va.; JOSHUA WALKER, Baltimore. Md- WILLIAMS A 
MURCHISuN. Wilmington. N. C: W. C. COURTNEY ft CO., Charted 
C; J. W. LATHKOP ^ CO.. Savanna] . 

8®" Send for Circular. 



THE SOUTHERN 

PLANTEE & FARMER, 

DEVOTED TO 

AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND RURAL AFFAIRS 



Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts. — Xf.nophos. 
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State. — Sully. 




Proprietor 


New Series. RICHMOND, VA. f JULY, 1875. 


No. 7 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY AND THE RENOVATION OF THE 

SOIL. 

A correspondent of our late cotemporary, the Southern Farm and 
Home, after declaring that, in his opinion, no land is worth cultiva- 
ting, or will pay expenses and yield a revenue, which is not fertile 
enough to produce ten bushels of corn, eight bushels of wheat, or 
between 300 and 400 pounds of seed cotton per acre, because in the 
present condition of agriculture, and with the present system of labor, 
it is wiser to throw out all such land, if we cannot do anything else with 
it, than try to raise corn and cotton, proceed to show how lands of 
that kind may in a few years be restored to a high state of fertility, 
and produce in the meantime a good interest on the capital invested, 
by converting them into sheep-walks. The way to do this he details 
as follows : 

Let us suppose a plantation of 1,000 acres, well fenced and supplied 
with every thing needed except the sheep. I would divide it into 
three parts, two of which should be set apart for grazing, and the 
third, including woods, house lots, etc., should have from 10 to 150, 
of arable land for cultivation and renovation. In February and the 
early part of March, having previously repaired and built all the 
requisite fences, I would prepare well from forty to fifty acres, half 
of which I would sow in oats in the end of February, and plant the 
rest in corn in March. Having done this, I would then sow eight or 
ten acres more in oats, on which I would fold my sheep at night during 
the summer and fall, in pens enclosing about half an acre. 

The sheep should be bought in April or May ; oOO will do to 
begin with, increasing until the number is 1,000. 

The folding the sheep is the source of improvement and profit, and 
should therefore be looked after with the utmost care. They should 
never be put in pens until after sundown and turned out before sun- 
rise, and if cattle are penned with them, they will not suffer from 
disease, and will be protected from dogs. 



340 THE SOUTHERN [July 

The first half acre folded will be sufficiently manured in ten days, 
and then the pen should be removed, and the manured ground thor- 
oughly ploughed, and sowed in oats and ruta baga turnips ; and the 
same process should be followed with each successive pen until the 
beginning of August, care being taken to plough under all that part 
of the land set apart for folding on which the oats have ripened, be- 
fore the folds have reached them. 

In the beginning of August the sheep ought to be divided into 
two flocks, one consisting of the breeding ewes and stock weathers, 
and the other of the lambs and such old ewes and wethers as may be 
intended to prepare for market. The folds may now be brought 
back to the ground first penned and sown in oats and turnips, now 
covered with fine growth of both for the second folding. In this 
second folding there should be two pens for the two flocks, the lambs 
and fattening sheep being allowed to occupy each pen three or four 
days before the stock sheep, and allowing the latter to remain for four 
or five days before removal. 

The land folded before the middle of September, may be ploughed 
and sown in turnips for use of sheep in winter and spring, and the 
subsequent pens can be sown in rye and wheat or any other quick- 
growing crop for spring grazing. 

When winter comes, the fat sheep should be disposed of as soon 
as possible, the breeding ewes put in one field to themselves, and the 
rest of the flock in the other. They should be brought up at night 
and put in separate lots, provided with good sheds for shelter, and 
fed night and morning on hay or fodder and turnips. When the 
ewes begin to drop their lambs, in March, they should be separated 
from the rest of the flock, fed twice a day on chopped sheaf oats and 
allowed to run on land prepared for them the previous fall. 

The work of each succeeding year, differs only from that of the 
first, in that instead of breaking new ground for oats, they shall be 
sown in the twenty or twenty-five acres of corn land and the ten 
acres of manured land of the previous year, and these ten acres of 
the manured land should at the same time be seeded heavily in nlover 
and grass. Thus ten acres of clover and grass land would be added 
each year to the resources of the farm. When the 100 or 150 acres 
first set aside for cultivation have been by this process converted into 
clover and grass pastures, fifty acres may be taken in from each of 
the pasture fields first set aside, and the same system pursued until 
they are redeemed. Thus in a few years the whole farm will be 
raised to a very high state of fertility, and the increase and sales of 
the sheep will yield a good revenue, with very small expenses for 
labor. An experienced shepherd and a couple of smart boys are all 
the labor permanently required. In shearing time and harvest, extra 
labor would be necessary for a few days. 

I have no doubt that by the adoption of a system such as I have 
indicated above, or one substantially like it, our poor red hills may 
be reclaimed, the comfort and prosperity of the people promoted, 
and the value of the real property of the State immensely increased. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 341 



PRIMING TOBACCO. 

The relative advantages of priming and of not primintr tobacco 
can only be tested by trial and experience. Many years a^o I 
made tobacco without priming, and succeeded very well, but the prac- 
tice was ridiculed by my neighbors and I abandoned it, in part, by 
priming the earlier part of the crop, and not priming the later plants. 
When you prime you have the advantage of making a coarser 
richer, heavier leaf for stemming or shipping, if the soil is suitable 
for such tobacco, and red or stiff lands of good fertilitv answer best 
for that kind of tobacco. But if you have light gray Or sandy land 
it is best adapted to making manufacturing tobacco. Now I contend 
(and my experience proves it) that by not priming, and topping to 
eight, ten or twelves leaves above the place on the stalk of ordinary 
priming, you make more .tobacco and of a finer qualitv, and more 
disposed to cure, of a bright color. There will be verv few and 
stunted suckers, principally at the three top leaves — so there is an 
actual saving of labor in suckering and worming. When tobacco is 
large enough to top, the priming leaves have attained their fall size, 
and draw but little from the plant afterwards, besides you save the 
drawing of luxuriant suckers which grow on the primed tobacco and 
exhaust what ought to go in the leaves. The unprimed is much 
cleaner of dirt and sand, is not near as liable to break from rains or 
storms, is finer and brighter, and sells for a better price. Livino- 
in a section where little, if any, shipping or stemming tobacco i° 
made, I am not priming any now, and will "show my faith by my 
works." W. A. "'Gillespie. 

A PEW WORDS ON THE LABOR QUESTION. 

" Farming don't pay," has been a cant throughout the South since 
Lincoln's emancipation proclamation, and almost as universal has 
been the accusation, " our labor is too unreliable," meaning of course 
negro labor. Both observation and experience teach me that "white 
labor" is as unreliable, and perhaps more so than "negro labor" 
on the farm. 

To labor systematically six days in the week is no luxury, or the 
curse would not have been imposed on Adam to earn his bread by 
the sweat of his -brow ; and the farm employee that does not require 
watching, stimulating, encouraging, and the force of example, is a 
treasure too valuable to be utilized simply as a farm hand. And 
yet most Southern farmers, who ought to know the negro's charac- 
ter well enough to control him as a farm laborer, are clamorous for 
better labor; for the introduction of foreigners to cultivate our 
crops, a sprig which they have never seen in their lives, believing 
that-white laborers, less treacherous and more reliable than negroes 
will renovate matters in a trice, and make the South blossom as the 
rose under their improved labor. 

Never, in my judgment, was a graver mistake entertained. Turn 
for a single season the tide of immigration from the Northern to 



342 THE SOUTHERN [July 

Southern ports, and before a crop could be harvested, we would be 
afflicted by worse than a Persian famine. A myriad of consumers 
thrown upon the South would be worse than the grasshopper plague 
of the Northwest. The South has an abundance of material out of 
which to make laborers, and needs only the introduction of the power 
to fashion, shape, and control that material. I have often asserted, 
the negro is the best farm laborer this generation of farmers will 
ever see, and it is wrong for us to attempt to introduce a competitive 
class who know nothing of our crops, our natures or our language. 

But what are we to do, asks every one ? We can't control the 
negro; he is naturally lazy, treacherous and faithless, and depend- 
ence upon him is worse than idle. I am not the champion of the 
negro, for in this State, I think, I am regarded by them as their 
enemy ; but I have so far succeeded in utilizing their labor as to in- 
duce the belief they suit me better than any white men could. 

Before publishing my plan of management, let me ask, do not 
Southern farmers expect too much of the negro ? We say. he won't 
work unless he is watched and made to work. Have we ever learned 
that laborers act differently anywhere on earth ? I have frequently 
heard the remark, "Northern men get more work done with fewer 
hands, than we at the South, with more hands." Is there not a 
reason for this ? The Northern farmer says, come, let us 20 do so 
and so. The Southern farmer says, go boys, and do so and so. 
Leading and driving are too different occupations, and the farmer 
that leads the negro gets more work out of him for less money than 
can be got from any other employee. Consequently those men who 
from childhood have been inured to work, who can hold the plough, 
or throw the grain cradle, are annually pocketing more net money 
from their investments in Southern farms than any other class of 
agricultural laborers in this or any other country. 

Can the same be said of large land-owners, who, because they 
cannot have work done as of yore, or because they cannot control 
affairs around and about them just as thev wish, are continually 
abusing the negro, and asserting that farming at the South don't pay ? 
Not at all. Such men deserve our sympathy, for to my mind (to use a 
vulgarism), the unreconstructed Southern farmer is of all men most 
miserable. He hankers after the flesh pots to no purpose. 

What more common than to hear, that in the North lands are 
worth twenty-five to one hundred dollars per acre, and that farming 
pays better there than at the South ? The whole thing is a delu- 
sion. Lands at the North are high priced because they are in de- 
mand, and they are in demand because there is a population able to 
buy. Bring into the South a population of moneyed men able and 
willing to buy, and let Southern farmers put a phase upon their 
farms that makes them desirable, and Southern lands will become 
high priced too, because purchasers will be found who are willing 
to buy. Let each reader ask himself the question, how many farms 
do I know that would appear attractive to a purchaser ? A mono- 
syllable will answer the question in a majority of instances. No, the 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 343 

high priced lands of the North are no evidence of agricultural thrift. 
Those farmers live very well it is true, but they work much harder, 
and are more troubled with unreliable labor than we of the South. 
I have heard Northern farmers say, time and again, that during their 
busiest season, they have to-day had all the '"help" they wanted, 
and to-morrow it was gone. In the Northwest labor sets its own 
price and receives it every night and the teeming hordes of laborers 
that are constantly migrating westward through the Northwestern 
States, are less reliable than the weather itself; for fervently believ- 
ing, that just a little further westward is that Eldorado for which 
they have long sought, and the accounts of which brought them to 
this 4i land of the free," they sojourn and labor here to-day to ''raise 
the wind" to take them yonder to-morrow. Had Ave to deal with 
such a people our crops would seldom be planted, much less culti- 
vated and harvested. Far better to depend upon the laborer we 
have, whose local attachment at least fixes him almost invariably for 
one year. 

But the Northern farmer makes more money than we do, say 
those who know nothing about it ; but it is alia mistake. They 
make less and handle less money than we do, and if they lived 
the lives we do, they would be far more poverty stricken. The 
Northern farm that will sell for one hundred dollars per acre, "will 
produce, perhaps, an average of thirty bushels of wheat or its mar- 
ketable equivalent in grass, worth probably thirty dollars. Out of 
this must come ten dollars for interest on investment, half as much 
more for taxes and labor, and when the subsistence of the family is 
deducted, there is precious little left. True, employees are less nu- 
merous constantly, but day labor is doubtless valuable, and all 
Northern farms require double the amount of plough stock we do at 
the South, and everywhere the annual expense of a horse is almost 
equal to that of an average hand. 

The net income from a first-class Northern farm is not five per 
cent., and I consider a similar Southern farm as a failure that does 
not double that income. I have repeatedly seen farms in South 
Carolina of from one to five hundred acres, sell from five to twenty- 
five hundred dollars, and no sooner had they changed hands than 
they were leased to negro farmers for twenty-five per cent, on the in- 
vestment. And just here is where we of the South have a great 
advantage over Northern farmer, if we could only so accommodate 
ourselves to the times as to utilize our advantage. Lands are cheap 
and labor is abundant, and we must learn to control it. Concessions 
must be made, and if properly made, will invariably redound to our 
profit. If, as owners of the soil, possessors of what little capital 
there is in the South, and with a superior intelligence, we do not con- 
trol the labor of our land, the fault lies at our own doors. We have 
no system, no concert of action. To the contrary, we are constantly 
pulling against each other. We are the employers, but every farmer 
has his own notion of things, and cares nothing for his neighbor's 
plans. If I hire hands for wages, one of them may at any time 



344 THE SOUTHERN [July 

conclude to leave. If so. he only goes across my line fence and my 
_• ibor hires him. If I give my employees a portion of the crop, 
iy savs they will steal more than their share. You may as well 
kill a dog as to give him a bad name. So. a? a practical farmer, I 
have never adopted this policy, nor did I hire for wages longer than 
I found I had to become a day laborer myself to enable me to con- 
trol the labor to suit me. Hence, since 1869 I have simply tenanted 
my lands and ha- -ee a reason for not doing so. 

lot the land, the laborers furnishes everything else, and pays 
all e . If he is unable to carry on the farm 

alone. I assist him for the year, with the hope he will be able the next 
r. If he makes nothing, and I think he is to blame, I discharge him, 
have no difficulty in securing others. My rents are reasonable, 
and have never failed to be forthcoming, except in two instances, 
where two men contracted store accounts without my knowledge, and 
being threatened by the merchant with a law suit, they stole my cot- 
ton to pay the accounts. I blamed the merchants more than I did 
the nee - I have never had a hand, but in these two instances, 
to fail to make more than the rent and the expenses of his portion 
of the farm. 

Jnd no people ever had a fairer opportunity of becoming 
lordlv land owners, or of establishing a system of agricultural ten- 
antry, unsurpassed in the history of the world, than have the South- 
ern farmers a: this present time. Whether as a race we will ever 
see it, and practice it, is another thing. — D. Wyatt Aike^; in 
Union. 

WHY BAM. SIMPSON SOLD OUT. 

neighbor Sam. Simpson has sold out and is going West. There 
has been a plain, honest, industrious, economical German — Hans 
Leibenstein — hanging around Simpson for some time trying to pur- 
se his farm. At last Hans got it. Simpson thinks he sold it at 
a bargain. Doubtless Hans thinks he got it at a bargain. I had an 
1 Sii son's the other night. I had not heard that he 
ha " farm ; but upon my entrance into the house, I saw by 

tbe look on the faces of the famiiy that some unusual excitement 
was animating them. 

"Well, Crumple, you're going to lose me for a neighbor," was 

'a first w< rda after I had got settled in the splint-bottomed 

chair his daughter Sally handed me : and the whole Simpson family 

looked at me as if they expected I would jump out of that chair on 

ant of the news, with a suddenness and force only equalled by 

an don of nitro-glycerine under me, but I didn't. I simply 

..:. -Tve sold." "Sold what?" "The farm." 

"Hans." That t was the whole story. I didn't need 

any further explanation ; but Simpson proceeded to say : 

"Yon see the old farm is completely run out. I can't make the 
ends meet tL :f years. I've got tired tumbling around 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 345 

among the stones, and I'm going where there's some virgin soil that 
will produce something. So I struck up a trade with Hans. He 
has been after it, off and on, for a year or more. I wanted $40 per 
acre for the old place. He offered me $25. Finally, he offered me 
$80; and, after considering the subject, I told him I would take it 
if he would pay me cash down. Hadn't any idea he would do it; 
but he said if I would throw in the stock and farm implements he 
thought he could raise the money. I finally told him I would; and 
what do you think, sir ? . He hauled out of his greasy old pants 
pocket a $1,000 bill and handed it to me to bind the bargain, and 
said as soon as the papers were receipted he'd pay me the balance, 
which he has done to-day. I feel kind of sorry to part with the old 
place ; but the thing is done and there's an end on't! What d'ye 
think?" 

All this time my Crumple nature had been rising within me like 
an inspiration. Here was this man Simpson who inherited this 
farm — one of the fi est in the neighborhood — who had skinned it 
without scruple until it would scarcely raise white beans under his 
system of treatment. And he had got to leave, or mortgage the farm 
of his ancestors to live on. 

Then here was Hans, who came into the neighborhood with his 
frau five years before, with only his wife's strong and willing hands, 
economy and industry. They had rented a worn-out farm which 
they had finally purchased and paid for, and had saved $3,000, with 
which to pay for Simpson's 100 acres. So in answer to "What d'ye 
think?" I was ready to respond ; and did it in this wise : 

"What do I think? I'm glad you're going, neighbor Simpson ! 
I'm glad Hans has got the farm. He deserves it, you don't. He 
has got brains and industry; you havn't got either. Under your 
management the farm is a disgrace to the neighborhood ; Hans will 
make it a credit. Your farm lying next to mine depreciates the value 
of my land ten per cent.; the same land owned by Hans will add to 
the value of mine 20 per cent. I shall be the richer for your going 
and the poorer for your staying. I am glad you're going." 

You should have seen Simpson's and his family's faces. They 
grew cloudy and long. Indeed, I believe they began to scowl at me. 
Simpson said : 

"You're pretty rough on an old neighbor, Crumple, now that he 
is going. I thought you and I had always been friends. I've tried 
to be a good and accommodating neighbor. You've been a good one 
to me, and I'm sorry to leave you; but if you're glad I'm going, I'm 
not sorry either." 

"Simpson," I said, "let us understand each other. As a neigh- 
bor, so far as neighborly intercourse is concerned, I've no fault to 
find, and am sorry you are going. In talking about you as a farmer, 
you are and always have been a poor one. No man with such a farm 
as yours ought to want to sell — at least there ought to be no neces- 
sity for selling. But you are not a farmer. You havn't got a single 



S46 THE SOUTHERN [July 

quality essential to make a good farmer. In the first place you de- 
test the business ; you don't take any pride or interest in it ; you 
don't care whether your land improves under cultivation or not; you 
want to get all off it you can without taking the trouble to pay 
anything back ; you skin it year after year, and cry out against the 
seasons : you denounce every man you deal with as a sharper or 
swindler, because you do not get the prices for your products other 
people do, and yet you no not seem to know that the reason is that 
your products are poor in quality, and put on the market in miserable 
shape ; your stock has been running down ever since your father 
died ; you havn't built a new fence and scarcely repaired an old one ; 
your manure has not been hauled out and judiciously used on the 
farm ; your pigs have bothered your neighbors more than they have 
benefited you ; your cattle have become breachy, and I have had to 
shut them up in my stables in order to keep them out of my grain ; you 
have distributed from your fence corners more weed seeds than any 
farmer I know of, and thus given your tidy neighbors more trouble 
than your favors to them would compensate. In short, it is time for 
you to move. You ought to have a virgin farm ! It will take you 
but a few years to strip it of its fertility ; then you'll have to move 
again, and keep moving. You belong to a verv large class of farm- 
ers who are a curse to any country. The fact is, you are not, never 
was, and never will be a farmer in the right sense of that word. 
You are only a guerilla. You live by robbery — robbery of the soil. 
And it is not right, neighbor Simpson. You had better seek some 
other vocation, now that you've got the cash to start with. You like 
horses : you know horses ; you can talk horses from daylight till 
dark ; you can't be fooled with horses ; you like to trade horses ; 
you had better go into some smart town and start a livery stable. 
You'll make money at it; you'll never make money farming ; you'll 
grow poorer and poorer the longer you attempt it." 

Just then Sally Simpson clapped her hands and said : "That's so, 
father! Havn't I told you so ? Mother and I have often talked 
it over, Mr. Crumple, and you are just as right as can be ; and father 
knows it too if he would only say so. I know you too well (and 
you've done us too many kindnesses for us to ever to forget them), 
to believe that you have talked to father in the way you have out of 
any unkind feeling. It is true, every word of it, father, and you 
ought to thank neighbor Crumple for talking just as he thinks ; I do; 
and I don't think the less of him either." — Neiv York Tribune. 



THE LONELINESS OF FARMING LIFE IN AMERICA. 

An American traveller in the Old World notices, among the mul- 
titude of things that are new to his eye, the gathering of agricultural 
population into villages. He had been accustomed in his own coun- 
try to see them distributed upon the farms they cultivate. The iso- 
lated farm-life, so universal here, either does not exist at all in the 
greater part of continental Europe, or it exists as a comparatively 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 347 



modern institution. The old populations, of all callings and profes- 
sions, clustered together for self-defence, and built walls around 
themselves. Out from these walls, for miles around, went the tillers 
of the soil in the morning, and back into the gates they thronged at 
night. Cottages were clustered around feudel castles, and grew into 
towns; and so 5 Europe for many centuries was cultivated mainly by 
people who lived in villages and cities, many of which were walled, 
and all of which possessed appointments of defence. The early set- 
tlers in our country took the same means to defend themselves from 
the treacherous Indians. The towns of Hadley, Hatfield, Northfield 
and Deerfield, on the Connecticut River, are notable examples of 
this kind of building ; and to this day they remain villages of agri- 
culturists. That this is the way in which farmers ought to live, we 
have no question, and we wish to say a few words about it. 

There is some reason for the general disposition of American men 
and women to shun agricultural pursuits which the observers and 
philosophers have been slow to find. We see young men pushing 
everywhere into trade, into mechanical pursuits, into the learned 
professions, into insignificant clerkships, into salaried positions of 
every sort that will take them into towns and support and hold them 
there. We find it impossible to drive poor people from the cities 
with the threat of starvation, or to coax them with the promise of better 
pay and cheaper fare. There they stay, and starve, and sicken, and 
sink. Young women resort to the shops and factories rather than 
take service in farmer's houses, where they are received as members 
of the family ; and when they marry, they seek an alliance, when 
practicable, with mechanics and tradesmen who live in villages and 
large towns. The daughters of the farmer fly the farm at the first 
opportunity. The towns grow larger all the time, and in New Eng- 
land ac least, the farms are becoming wider and longer, and the 
farming population are diminished in numbers, and, in some locali- 
ties, degraded in quality and character. 

It all comes to this, that isolated life has very little significance to 
a social being. The social life of the village and the city has intense 
fascination to the lonely dwellers on the farm or to a great multitude 
of them. Especially is this the case with the young. The youth of 
both sexes who have seen nothing of the world have an overwhelm- 
ing desire to meet life and to be among the multitude. They feel 
their life to be narrow in its opportunities and its rewards, and the 
pulsations of the great social heart that comes to them in the rushing 
trains, and passing steamers, and daily newspapers, damp with the 
news of a hundred brows, thrill them with longings for the places 
where the rhythmic throb is felt and heard. They are not to be 
blamed for this. It is the most natural thing in the world. If all 
of life were labor— if the great object of life were the scraping to- 
gether of a few dollars, more or less — why, isolation without diver- 
sion would be economy and profit ; but so long as the object of life 
is life, and the best and purest and happiest that can come of it, all 



348 THE SOUTHERN [July 



needless isolation is a crime against the soul, in that it is a surrender 
and sacrifice of noble opportunities. 

We are, therefore, not sorry to see farms growing larger, provided 
those who work them will get nearer together; and that is what they 
ought to do. Any farmer who plants himself and his family alone — 
far from possible neighbors — takes upon himself a terrible responsi- 
bility. It is impossible that he and his family should be well devel- 
oped and thoroughly happy there. He will be forsaken in his old 
age by the very children for whom he has made his great sacrifice. 
They will fly to the towns for the social food and stimulus for which 
they have starved. We never heard of a colony settling on a Western 
prairie without a thrill of pleasure. It is in colonies that all ought 
to settle, and in villages rather than on separate farms. The meet- 
ing, the lecture, the public amusement, the social assembly, should 
be things easily reached. There is no such damper upon free social 
life as distance. A long road is the surest bar to neighborly inter- 
course. If the social life of the farmer were richer, his life would 
by that measure be the more attractive. 

After all, there are farmers who will read this article with a sense 
of affront or injury, as if by doubting or disputing the sufficiency of 
their social opportunities we insult them with a sort of contempt. 
We assure them that they cannot afford to treat thoroughly sympa- 
thetic counsel in this way. We know that their wives and daughters 
and sons are on our side, quarrel with us as they may; and the wo- 
men and children are right. ''The old man," who rides to market 
and the post-office, and mingles more or less in business with the 
world, gets along tolerably well; but it is the stayers at home who 
suffer. Instead of growing wiser and better as they grow old, they 
lose all the graces of life in unmeaning drudgery, and instead of 
ripening in mind and heart, they simply dry up or decay. We are 
entirely satisfied that the great curse of farming life in America is 
its isolation. It is useless to say that men shun the farm because 
they are lazy. The American is not a lazy man anywhere; but he 
is social, and he will fly from a life that is not social to one that is. 
If we are to have a larger and better population devoted to agricul- 
ture, isolation must be shunned, and the whole policy of settlement 
hereafter must be controlled or greatly modified by social considera- 
tions. — Dr. J. G. Holland, in Serihner's Monthly. 



THE ELEMENT OF PLUCK. 

People in pecuniary misfortune, in estimating their liabilities and 
resources, seldom consider among the latter the element of pluck. 
The tendency with nearly all unfortunates is to magnify difficulties, 
and underrate or wholly forget their power to overcome them. A 
man in good health, with unsullied character, need fear no evil, nor 
be robbed of his happiness, no matter how adversely things may 
appear. If he is heavily in debt, and can satisfy the community 



1875. PLANTER AND FARMER. 349 



that he is straining every nerve and appropriating all his resources 
to discharge his obligations, there is no danger of his losing a well- 
earned reputation, and there is no reason why he should not be 
cheerful in his family and joyous in his own heart. The self- 
consciousness of integrity, coupled with the approving smiles of the 
Father above, should enable a man to face every foe and surmount 
every difficulty. If, instead of burdensome debt, he is overtaken by 
fire or flood, so that the accumulated comforts of years are swept 
away in an hour, he gains nothing by sitting down, folding his arms, 
and\veeping over his misfortune. "Up and at it," is a familiar but 
expressive phrase. Pluck is a lever that upheaves difficulties. Be- 
fore a resolute man the green withes of adversity snap like threads 
of tow. It is not enough that a man in trouble has physical force 
to execute, and mental clearness to plan, but behind both he needs 
the impelling power of pluck. The steam engine may be ever so 
perfect and bright, the engineer ever so competent, but both would 
be unavailable to draw the long line of cars if steam were lacking. 
Pluck is to a man what steam is to the railway train. 

A farmer, a short time ago, came to a well-known citizen for ad- 
vice. He was in low spirits ; matters had gone wrong with him 
through loans to friends, and speculations outside of his farming 
business, until his debts became exceedingly burdensome. Unaccus- 
tomed to such interruptions in his hitherto unwavering success, his 
spirits gave way. Brooding over his troubles, he became morose 
and gloomy; he had no cheerful words for family or friends; he al- 
lowed trifling causes to keep him from church, and instead of listen- 
ing to the encouragement of the Gospel, he moped on Sundays 
around his house and barns. Wherever he went he carried a " hang- 
dog look," and whatever he did was done feebly, as though strength 
and ambition were both gone. In this condition of things a friend 
advised him to open his mind to the citizen above mentioned, whose 
long familiarity with trials made him capable both of sympathy and 
counsel. The conversation soon developed the fact that the farmer 
owned a property worth thirty thousand dollars; that his entire in- 
debtedness did not exceed thirteen thousand dollars, and that his 
income exceeded his outgoes, including interest on his indebtedness, 
by one thousand dollars. "Why," said the citizen, "have you been 
disheartened over such a condition of affairs as this? What! a sur- 
plus of $17,000, and a net income of $1,000 per year to applyto 
your debts, which will grow less and less burdensome as successive 
payments are made. Why, my friend, thousands of poor fellows 
struggling Avith debts, without any surplus income, would be happy 
to step into your shoes and sing like a lark over their good fortune. 
There is but one thing that is the matter with you, my friend; you 
have simply lost pluck! Yes! one other — professing faith in a 
Divine Providence, you have also lost trust." So after many en- 
couraging words on the part of the citizen, he bid him good-bye with 
a strong grasp of the hand, and with the parting'words, "thank you, 
sir, I feel better." And so he did; his eyes were opened to realize 



350 THE SOUTHERN [[July 

that, as in the case of thousands of others, his troubles were imagi- 
nary. How different the spirit of a furniture dealer of my acquaint- 
ance, whose entire property above ground was recently destroyed by 
fire in a single night. Three buildings, a stock of furniture, house- 
hold comforts, wardrobes, keepsakes, indeed everything, so that 
morning found the family dispersed in friendly dwellings with noth- 
ing saved but the garments in which they fled. . 

But see this man's pluck. In answering a friend's sympathizing 
letter, he writes : "Your kind letter of sympathy at our late mishap 
was duly received. I have so much to tell I hardly know where to 
begin. Well, thank Providence, we are all well, in excellent health 
and full of pluck. We have almost forgotten about it, and are tired 
of talking fire, and are on the go-ahead track only. In less than 
twenty-four hours Ave had a store rented, and commenced to get 
ready for a new start. Some folks could not understand how I could 
take it so coolly, and if our loss had not been so complete and total, 
I might have been suspected from my coolness of having a hand in it. 
I have been rusting for two years, my son ran the business, Avhile I 
did the playing. But now the rust is pretty well rubbed off, and I 
am about as bright as ten years ago." To any one in pecuniary dis- 
tress, let me suggest that the way out of difficulties is not by hang- 
doggedness, but pluck. — C. 0. JV., in American Agricultural. 



SHEEP ON A POOR FARM. 



Some farmers of our acquaintance feel an antipathy to sheep, for 
the reason that they "bite close." We consider this their chief re- 
commendation. They can only bite close where the pasture is shoit, 
and the pasture is short only on a poor farm. A poor farm will 
necessarily be encumbered with briers, weeds and brush, in the fence 
corners. Under such conditions, Ave would say to a farmer Avho has 
twenty dollars or upAvards in cash (or credit for it, and then let him 
borrow the amount if he has to pay one per cent a month for the use 
of it), invest it in as many eAves, not older than three years, as you 
can get for that money. Put them this summer in such a field as 
we have described, and give them, in addition to Avhat they can pick 
up, a pint of wheat bran and oat-meal daily, with free access to Avater 
and salt. They Avill first "go for" the briers and clean them out; 
every portion of that field Avill be trodden over and over again, and 
the Aveeds Avill have no chance. Fold them on that field during win- 
ter, and carry to them feed sufficient to keep them thriving. Get 
the use of a good buck in season — South-Down would be preferable — 
and in the Spring, if you have luck (that means if you give them 
proper attention and feed regularly), you will raise more lambs than 
you have ewes. The money will be more than doubled, and the 
wool and manure will pay for their feed and interest. In the Spring 
you may put that field in corn, with the certainty of getting fifty 
per cent increase of crop. — American Agriculturist. 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMRR. 351 

HOW TO ESCAPE TOBACCO WORMS, 

Every person who lives in a tobacco country knows how trouble- 
some to planters the horn-worm is, and what labor it requires to 
destroy these insects and so prevent them from riddling the tobacco 
leaves as they ripen on the hill. Some of our North Carolina neigh- 
bors, we learn, have of late adopted an easy method of protecting 
their tobacco crops against this worm. They simply use a solution 
of cobalt (or fly-stone), to be had at all drug stores, which destroys 
the tobacco fly that lays the egg that hatches the worm. The com- 
mon Jamestown weed, which vegetates everywhere, is allowed to 
grow in limited numbers in the tobacco grounds and in the fence 
corners, and the cobalt in a powdered state, mixed in a solution of 
honey-water, is dropped in the blossoms of the plant. As the tobac- 
co-flies feed freely from the flowers of this weed, they imbibe the 
poison, which kills them almost instantaneously. We are told that 
where the specific is used the dead flies may be seen laid out on the 
ground far and near. Of course, the fly being dead, the egg is not 
laid, and the worm is not hatched. — Tobacco Leaf. 



What is High Farming? — An American farmer of note, after 
visiting England and examining with the critical eye of a practical 
and experienced agriculturist the system pursued there, says : 

I am thoroughly confirmed .in my old faith that the only good 
farmer of our future is to be the "high farmer." There is a widely 
prevailing antipathy among the common farmers of our country 
against not only the practice of high farming, but against the use 
of the phrase by agricultural writers. This is all wrong and should 
at once be corrected. Through some misconception of the meaning 
of the phrase, and also of its application, they have come to believe 
it synonymous with theoretical " book farming," " new-fangled no- 
tions," boasted progress, followed by disappointment and final fail- 
ure. This is all an error. High farming simply means thorough 
cultivation, liberal manuring, bountiful crops, good stock, good feed, 
and paying profits therefrom. It is not strange that misconceptions 
have arisen in the minds of doubting farmers who have been eye- 
witnesses to some of the spread-eagle experiments of enthusiastic 
farmers, better supplied with money obtained in a business they know 
how to manage than with practical experience on the farm. Boun- 
tiful crops and paying profits of course are what all farmers who are 
depending upon the farm for an income are striving to obtain ; and 
every year as it passeth is re- confirming the opinion that the profits 
are small, and will grow "beautifully less" where high farming is 
not practiced. 

Plaster as a Tobacco Fertilizer. — We are assured by those 
who have tried it, that this fertilizer has a very fine effect on tobacco 
— increasing its weight and quality, but not its surface. It enables 
it to stand drouth much better. A tablespoonful should be put in 
the bud of the young plant sometime before topping. 



852 THE SOUTHERN [July 

FERTILIZERS, THE CREDIT SYSTEM AJTO HIGH PRICE 

Professor Ville. in his admirable work on • 
observes very truthfully that all successful farming de] pon 

heavy manuring. 

The great fault with our Southern farmers is that they cultivate 
too much surface and too much poor land. They - :» much 

money in labor and not enough in manures. Our old fog • 
stantly going back upon the past, contending that in the olden times 
they made good crops without fertilizers, and that we - ild do so 
now. They ignore the fact that the most unaccountable changes 
have taken place, and that it is much more difficult to farm it success- 
fully now than it was fifty years ago. Take wheat for : If 
the same system were attempted now that prevailed then, most of oor 
lands would scarcely yield seed. But while these import I changes 
have taken place a kind Providence has not lef: edy 
to meet them. The concentrated or chemical manures have h 
providentially placed within our reach, and it is both our duty and 
interest to use them. These fertilizers have become ..nd 
there is but little successful farming without them. In: :an- 
tities of these fertilizers are now being used, 1 I ■:- of 
the extensive adulterations practiced in their manufacture and the 
high prices prevailing, thus far but little profit has been realized from 
their use. There is no denying the fact that the pri lesc fer- 
tilizers are much too high; but this evil is not du-r tot :or 
manufacturer alone. It is chargeable in a great (leg rm- 
ers themselves. Thev will buv on credit, and the c: :em 
necessitates immense cost and heavy losses in the shape of bad debts, 
which must be anticipated by a wide margin of profits. It may be 
safely estimated that a credit business involv,- lIoss of at least 
twenty-five per cent, upon the gross amount of gales. This immense 
loss, which falls mainly upon the farmer, might all be Bared by the 
general adoption of a cash system : r ash 
system is altogether impracticable, because the farmer can:. 
the cash. One of the most prominent frailties of our fallen natures 
is to be constantly magnifying prospective difficult:-^- 1 :btless a 
too sudden change from a credit to a cash system would cause con- 
siderable interruption in the general current of trade, and many 
would be unable to procure their usual supplies for a while, but the 
difficulties would be much less than are generally anticipated. A 
little pinching ne -.onally is ve:; ihooling 
the character and forcing us into habits of self-denial and economy. 
It has the further effect of sharpening the wits and stimulating the 
energies in a most wonderful manner. If credit were generally de- 
nied the farmer, a little pinching necessity would soon prompt him 
to raise the ways and means necessary, and the natural flow of trade 
would soon set in again. Co-operation is the great remedy for these 
evils, but the co-operative system is impractical . upon a ca»h 
basis. Co-operation not only brings down prices, but it breaks up 



1875]. PLANTER AND FARMER. 353 

monopolies and unfair and unjust combinations of other interests. 
Many farmers who cannot raise the cash necessary for their guano 
purchase can make arrangements equal to cash. Let them arrange 
-with their commission merchants to accept their drafts on time. 
There is scarcely a respectable farmer in the country who cannot 
effect such an arrangement if he would make the proper efforts. Let 
the farmer pledge his crops, and let it be distinctly provided that 
when he draws upon his commission merchant on time he is to put 
his crops in the hands of the merchant in time to meet his draft at 
maturity, so that he will not be compelled to advance the money. 
But in carrying out this arrangement good faith and punctuality are 
indispensable on the part of the farmer. The acceptance of the 
commission merchant can be used as cash, for the moment it falls 
due it is paid. 

If the farmer is compelled to buy on time, it is much better that 
he should get his accommodations at the hands of his commission mer- 
chant than anybody else, because, in the first place, he makes his 
commissions for selling the farmer's crops, and when they are sold, 
he has the proceeds in his own hands with which to meet the farmer's 
drafts. This arrangement enables the farmer to get some benefit 
from our banking institutions, which is generally denied him. Credit, 
as conducted in the cities, is a good thing, but it is ruinous in the 
country, and it is particularly hazardous at this time, when so much 
demoralization exists amongst the masses, and the homestead and 
other exemptions cover three-fourths of the personal property of 
the State. — American Farmer. 



• [For the Southern Planter and Farmer.] 
[We publish the following article of President Knight with pleas- 
ure, and fully concur with him in his views as to the necessity of 
publishing the Transactions of the Society and scattering them among 
our farmers for the benefit of both the Society and farmer. The 
Virginia State Agricultural Society of Virginia has been a power in 
the past, and under its present administration, its prospects are 
brighter than it has been since its organization.] 

Your kind offer to publish any communication I may send you in 
relation to the affairs of the State Agricultural Society induces me 
to trouble you with a brief article on the proposed publication of a 
Monti ily Journal of Transactions. It has always been the object 
of the Society to keep its work well before the people and never to 
hide its light under a bushel. Those who will trouble themselves to 
read its constitution and enquire how its means are spent will easily 
understand this purpose. The Society has large resources for val- 
uable information of practical worth to its members and others, which 
should be made available in some convenient and proper manner. 
It has therefore been proposed by the Executive Committee to issue 



3-54 THE SOUTHERN [July 

a Monthly Journal, commencing not later than the first of the next 
year, of which a Prospectus has already been published and circu- 
lated throughout the State. Such of your readers as may not have 
seen this paper may be interested to know something in regard to 
the proposed publication. The first number will contain a brief his- 
tory of - ety and its operat'ons from its formation to the date 
of its : and afterwards the Journal will be devoted to the follow- 
ing Bobje 

1. A full record of the proceedings of General Meetings of the 
Society and of the Execative Committee, together with all official 
reports require 1 by the constitution. 

2. An official record of all premiums awarded at the last preced- 
ing Fair wniea will be continued though the twelve numbers when 
the prejiiuns of the next succeeding Fair will in like manner be 
reported. Tiiese reports will be: i by photo-engraved cuts 
of the premium anim aachinea and implements, thus in- 
creasing the interest of the readers and exhibitors. To carry out 
this idea, arrangements will be made to have, taken on the F 

Q -un h. photographs of the premium animals and articles, and as 
this work will be commenced for the first time at the next Fair (for 
which the services of a first-class artist will be secured) it is hoped 
exhibitors will bear the subject in mind. 

3. All premium essays on subjects pertaining to practical agricul- 
ture, horticulture, mechanics, mini and all premium experi- 
ments on like subjects. 

4. The best reported analysis of soils, crops, fertilizers, kc. 

5. Statistics of crop3 and market reports. 

6. Articles on the minerals of the State, their location, extent, kc. 

7. Contributions and reports from the Associated District So- 
cieties of the State. 

8. Communications and selectei articles on agriculture, horticul- 
ture, fruits, stock-breeding, mining, mechanic arts and domestic 
economy. 

It is thus seen that a jirst-elazs Journal, devoted to all the pro- 
ducing interests of the State, is contemplated: and the printed mat- 
ter will be so arranged that the Transaction* proper of the Society 
and of the Associate! L> istrict Society, can. at the close of each 
year, be bound into a sufficient number of volumes, under the ap- 
propriate title of " Annual Transactions " for exchange with similar 
■:ies of other States, and distribution amongst the district socie- 
3l ■■■:. and the State and other public libraries. Adver- 
tising sheets will be added for the benefit of those engaged in man- 
ufactures, merchandise, the production and sale of fertilizers and 
thoroughbred stock. 

It is probable that the terms announced in the Prospectus will, at 
next meeting of the Executive Committee, be reduced to the 
uniform price of one dollar per year, the object being to limit the 
subscription price to the actual cost of the publication. 

The superintendents of public schools in the counties have been 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 355 

appointed agents of the Society, and it is hoped that not less than 
ten thousand names will be left with these agents before our next 
Fair, so that the paper may be issued under the most favorable aus- 
pices immediately thereafter. 

We shall, also, hope to have from these agents a large list of new 
life-memberships, and that the means of the Society, before the 
close of the present year, will be greatly increased for the practical 
and good work in which it is engaged. 

W. C, Knight, 
President Agricultural Society. 



ON THE USE OF GREEN CROPS FOR MANURE. 

Your correspondent from Cumberland 'Co., Va. (page 311, Sept. 
No., 1874), gives us a lengthy article entitled " Depression of the 
Agricultural Interest — Its Main Causes, and the Remedy." I do 
not wish to be understood as criticising, in the least, your corres- 
pondent's well-written article. But the grievances set forth can 
best be remedied by an improved system of farming. I will only 
touch on one point of the subject, which I think is very important, 
and it is one which I have learned by experience, and after a tour 
of several hundred miles through Eastern Virginia. I am confident 
that it can be made to work, and, if your readers will try it, I think 
they will find themselves in a more prosperous condition at the end 
of a few years. 

Mr. Holman puts his estimate at 5 bushels, or thereabout, as the 
yield per acre. Suppose, then, instead of sowing 50 acres in wheat, 
which produce, at 5 bushels per acre, 250 bushels, you sow only 25 
acres. You then save 50 bushels of seed, which, I will say, was 
formerly thrown away, and is worth about §60. The cost of break- 
ing, harrowing and seeding 25 acres saved, say about $75, which 
gives you now about $125 saved. Take this amount, which will buy 
you about three tons of a good superphosphate, and drill this in with 
a good drill with your wheat. The ground should have been pre- 
viously thoroughly prepared, and, if the season be favorable, the 
yield should foot up thus : 25 acres, 300 bushels, (instead of 50 acres, 
250 bushels.) You then, instead of having the following season 50 
acres to cut over, have only 25 acres — a considerable saving both 
in capital and labor. We now have 50 more bushels of wheat from 
25 acres than we formerly had from 50 acres, to say nothing of the 
plight the ground will be left in for a crop of that good old standby, 
clover — the good farmer's backbone, if you please. Now take the 
capital and labor you saved in going over only one-half of the ground 
you formerly went over, and sow the remaining 25 acres, which 
were not seeded to wheat this year, in buckwheat and oats, say one 
bushel buckwheat and one-half bushel oats, mixed, per acre, as 
early next spring as the ground can safely be worked and seeded. 
In July it should be turned under with barshare plow. Sow imme- 
2 



356 THE SOUTHERN [Jolv 

diatelv a^ain with buckwheat, usin^ this time only buckwheat, which 
will be plenty thick for the purpose. The buckwheat should then 
be plowed under again about one week before seeding time, the 
ground leveled with harrow, then sledded, or di gg v ith a plank- 
sled, which is far better than rolling, and you are now ready for the 
drill. If properly put in. you may look for a crop that will give a 
fair return for capital and labor expended. 

If some ashes and a little plaster, or air-slaked lime, can be sown 
with the wheat, all the better, especially if the soil is in want of pot- 
ash, as most soils are ; the yield will be fully one-third more by the 
use of a liberal supply of the above mixture. ; the quantity of which 
must be determined by the farmer hims: - - s require m 

others less. A system similar to this will soon show the solvency 
of the farmer, and place him in a position, if he will use economy 
and a little self-denial, to balance accounts at the end of the y 
We are well aware that the combination of farmers has proven to be 
a masterpiece in remedying certain grievances, but the farmer of the 
present day has to be wide awake to the importance of the impro 1 - 
ment of his land, and as he feeds the soil, so will it feed him. and the 
host that look to him for food. No farmer will long find himself in 
a very prosperous condition, if he continues the ruinous practice fol- 
lowed at the present day. of cropping the land witho ; _ . pro- 
per return for the materials taken off. There are but few who 
make manure enough to even maintain the soil as it is. tc say noth- 
ing of improving it. 

Green crops, turned under, form a good basis for any crop to fol- 
low. For instance, I will relate, that after plowing gree: 
preparatory to planting strawberries, raspberries and fruit trees. I was 
persuaded by the results thus obtained, to make further experim:: 
The land selected had been in corn the year previous, the four a : 
only making a little over 4 barrels of corn, all told. In the spring 
of 1874, the ground was broken up and sown in oats andbuckwL 
mixed ; in August, the whole was turned under, and 2'J bushels of 
spent tan-bark ashes per acre were spread, and rye sown broad; si 
and harrowed in. The crop of rye was fully seven feet high. I did 
not measure the crop, but was induced by a neighbor to take some 
to our country fair, for which I was awarded the premium. From 
the same piece of ground, last year, we got a good crop of clover 
hay. with a fair prospect for another crop the coming season — and 
this on ground that was said to be barren. So much for cheap ma- 
nuring. Turning green crops under is not a new invention, yet how 
few avail themselves of the opportunity. The t ^otto should 

be to make all the manure you can, keep if roof till wanted; 

feed your land to its heart's desire, and there will be a satisfactory 
dividend at the end of the year, after all obligations have been dis- 
charged. — M. C. Carpehtkr, , \er. 

F -■/:".. Jan. 19. 187 " 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMRR. 357 

CURING YELLOW TOBACCO. 

[We hope Mr. Hatchett will excuse us for publishing the following private 
letter, as we know it wi'l be of great service to our tobacco growers.] 

Yours of the 9th instant is to hand requesting me to " revise an 
article of mine published in the Southern Planter and Farmer years 
since, on curing tobacco." 

I know not that I can give you any further information than what 
is contained in that article. The method of curing fine yellow tobacco 
originated with Mr. Slade of Caswell County, N. C, who is still 
living, and his formula of curing tobacco is now spread far and 
wide. The mode of curing as published in the Planter in 1370, is 
the one practiced by Mr. Slade, and having spent much time in Cas- 
well since the publication of my communication, and part of the tinre 
whilst the planters were curing their tobacco, I found that they still 
adhered to jMr. Slade's method, who universally obtained the high- 
est prices 'till the planters learned his mode of curing ; and if any 
improvement has been made on his mode of curing I know it not. 

I find that you receive so many communications on the cultiva- 
tion of tobacco, that I presume I cannot give you any additional 
information relative thereto. I prefer beds on which to plant to- 
bacco, as they will hold moisture longer than a hill, and you can 
trim them down in half the time that you trim down hills, always 
putting a little loose earth around the plants after trimming them 
down. 

Since the conclusion of our fanatical war, I have quit farming, as 
I am in my 81st year, and too old to labor, and rent out my farm ; 
though if I had my former hands, I should still delight in farming. 

I thank you for the back numbers of the Southern Planter and 
Farmer, which is an old friend, as I was a subscriber to it in by 
gone days for 10 years. 

A man in this section made 2,600 pounds of orchard grass hay the 
past year from one-fourth of an acre of land. 

Yours respectfully, 

Wm. R. Hatchett. 

CURING YELLOW TOBACCO. 

Your correspondent, S. 0. D., in the April Planter and Farmer, 
requests some person versed in curing yellow tobacco, to give his 
modus operandi, that others might profit thereby. Now, I do not 
profess to be an adept in this art, although I have had years of ex- 
perience ; but will give the practice of a most successful curer, who 
generally obtained the highest prices in Danville. 

To cure yellow tobacco, you must use charcoal for the leaf; the 
stalk and stem may be cured with seasoned wood. The body of the 
barn should be made as close as possible. Many planters around 
Danville have cabin roofs on their barns, covered with boards, which 
permit the escape of heat much better than a shingle roof. When 



858 THE SOUTHERN [July 

you cut your tobacco, put eight plants on a stick, and place the 
sticks eight inches apart on the tier poles. . If your tobacco ripens 
yellow, commence the heat, by a thermometer, at 90 degrees, and 
keep up this heat until the tobacco is yellow enough to commence 
drying the leaf; then raise to 100 degrees, and keep it up for three 
hours ; and then to 110 degrees, and hold on to this heat till you see 
that the tobacco is well "sapped," and the tails begin to turn and get 
a little dry at the ends, (for you cannot cure yellow tobacco until you 
get the sap out of the leaf) ; then raise to 120 degrees, and keep 
up for three hours ; and then to 130 degrees for the same length of 
time; and then up to 140 degrees, which must be continued until 
the leaf is cured. You may then take out the thermometer, and 
make your fires as hot as you please, to cure the stalk and stem 
thoroughly. A wet season will cause a redundancy of sap in the 
tobacco, and will exercise the curer's patience in yellowing and 
drying ; early curing is the most successful, whilst the weather is 
warm. 

By letting the doors remain open in yellowing tobacco it is not 
liable to get into a sweat ; but should it get into a sweat with closed 
doors, open the door and let the fires go down, and after the sweat 
subsides, then go ahead. 

If your tobacco ripens green, commence at 80 degrees, and keep 
it at that point for half a day ; then at 90 degrees; and proceed as 
above. I have succeeded admirably by letting the tobacco hang in 
the barn till it was as yellow as necessary, and then starting the 
fires at 120 degrees, and proceeding as directed. 

For a barn sixteen or twenty feet square, have three rows of fires, 
and three fires in a row. As soon as the tobacco comes in order, 
crowd it together as close as you can, or put it in bulk on the sticks, 
and let it remain until the weather becomes cool, by which time the 
color will be fixed ; for if you let it get in high order soon after 
being cured, the leaf will turn red. 

It was once the custom among the planters in the region of coun- 
try around Danville, to keep their doors shut when yellowing and 
drying the leaf ; but a planter in that section told me last year, that 
this practice was giving way to one more rational, which consisted 
in letting the doors remain open during the yellowing and drying 
process ; in consequence of which the tobacco was not subject to so 
severe a sweat, and the leaf dried more speedily — the necessary re- 
sult of the admission of air. 

Relative to the open-roof theory of J. V. B., in curing tobacco, I 
have witnessed the experiment so far as the removal of several courses 
of shingles from the apex of the roof, but it was a failure. 

I agree entirely with W. A. G., that tobacco is not an impoverisher, 
but an improver of the soil; for I have observed all my life — and 
I am now an old man — that corn, wheat, &c, succeeded better after 
tobacco than any other crop. The finest high-land corn I have ever 
made was on fresh land, which had been in tobacco the two preced- 



1875]. PLANTER AND FARMER. 359 

ing years no manure having been applied to the land. Old tobacco 
lots were alike successful. 

Years ago, some of my servants had a patch of tobacco in a 
bottom, at the foot of a hill, applying no manure, which had been 
in- cultivation for at least fifty years ; the tobacco was inferior, of 
course. The next year this field was put in corn, and I could tell 
the difference as far as I could see the corn ; that portion on which 
the tobacco was grown being of a dark green color, and very thrifty. 

An intelligent neighbor had previously observed to me that he 
thought we might put poor land in tobacco, giving it the necessary 
cultivation, then follow with corn, and the result would be satisfac- 
tory. The above fact sustains his views. 

Respectfully, W. R. Hatchett. 

Keysville, April 23, 1870. 



CUTTING, SCAFFOLDING, HOUSEING, CURING AND PRE- 
PARING, SHIPPING AND STExMMING TOBACCO FOR 
MARKET. 

In this region of country (the Upper James) we make almost en- 
tirely shipping and stemming tobacco, and the following s} r stem is 
only applicable to the cultivation of these two varieties. This writer 
has been a tobacco grower for thirty years. He has noted and tested 
carefully the numerous changes and improvements that have been 
adopted from time to time in the cultivation and management of to- 
bacco, and he has finally settled down upon the following system as 
the best, in his humble opinion at least. 

First, as to the proper time of cutting: 

Tobacco should not be allowed to become dead-ripe before cutting. 
The proper time is when the plant is just fully ripe. AVhen cut 
dead- ripe, the leaf will be a little heavier, it is true; but is apt to be 
coarse, rough, brittle, ragged, and sometimes blistered. On the con- 
trary, when cut just ripe, the leaf will be clean, supple, elastic, of 
fine texture, and much better suited for stemming purposes, — the 
stemmers and manufacturers both requiring a tough leaf. 

The tobacco having been cut, I greatly prefer hanging and scaf- 
folding in the field. The main objection urged against the plan is, 
that it is troublesome and expensive making the scaffolds thus. 
Nothing valuable can be accomplished without labor and attention, 
but if the necessary arrangements are made in advance, it is not so 
troublesome after all. I use stobs and pine poles in making the 
scaffolds, and these materials are all gotten and put in place before 
the day of cutting. To make a quick and easy job of this operation, 
I take a couple of men, with maul and wedges, axes and cross-cut 
saw, and go into the woods. Having selected a tree that splits easily, 
it is cut down and sawed into blocks 4| feet in length. These are 
split into stobs, which are sharpened upon the spot. In this way a 
heavy wagon-load of these stobs can be prepared in a couple of hours. 



360 THE SOUTHERN [July 

They are then haaled immediately to the tobacco field, and pin 
where they can be had conveniently. With these all in place, the 
scaffolds can be put up by a couple of hands in a few minutes. The 
scaffolds being once made, there is no more trouble. I should have 
stated, in the proper place, that the poles are gotten pretty much 
in the same wav. The wagon and a hand are taken into the we 5, 
(old field pines) the poles gotten 12 feet long, and hauled and put in 
place Avith the stobs. In putting up the scaffolds, care should be 
taken to arrange the poles so that the tobacco sticks will range North 
and South, in order that the sun may shine between the sticks in the 
middle of the day. 

After the cutting has been completed, then stobs and poles are 
all gathered together and put under shelter for the nex: seas >n, and. if 
taken care of. will last several years. In hanging the tobacco, the 
plants should not be crowded on the sticks, and space enough should 
be left between the sticks to admit the air and sun freely. 

If the weather be favorable, the tobacco is allowed to hang on the 
scaffolds from three to four days. It is then hauled to the tobacco 
house and housed and fired three to four days, moderately. 

This finishes the curing pi --. .xeept that it is fired afterwards 
oeeasionly. when the weather becomes damp and the tobacco : 
When the weather is open, the doors of the tobacco-house should be 
kept open during the day. and a free access cf air allowed. 

I prefer always making my cuttings during the first part of the 
week, in order that the tobacco may have the benefit of three or four 
days' sunning, and be ready to be housed the latter part of the week. 

I claim for this plan several very decided advantages over the one 
of cutting and putting immediately in the house. 

1st. More tobacco may be cut per day. and better secured. 

2d. The sunning process toughens and lightens the plant, so that 
it can be hauled up and housed with much less labor, and no risk of 
bruising. 

3d. The whole force of the sun's rays falling upon the stalks and 
the largest parts of the stems, these parts of the plants, which require 
so much firing, are cured in a great measure by the sun. 

4th. In the firing process, the heat from the fire is brought to 
bear mainly upon the ends of the leaves, and the part of the plant 
becomes perfectly dry before the other parts are half cured. 

5th. There is not half the danger of burning the L 

6th. It takes just about half the time and half the wood to effect 
the curing. In other words, the heat of the sun and the open air 
are utilized and made to do half the work of curing: thus conse- 
quently, economizing one half of the expense. 

When the tobacco is cut and put immediately into the house, it 
requires from six to eight days hard firing. Under the scaffolding 
system, three days are generally sufficient. But it may be objected 
that there is danger of the tobacco being caught in the rain. I have 
had my tobacco caught in the rain frequently^ but I have never dis- 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 861 

covered that it was at all injured by it. An ordinary rain falling 
upon the tobacco while it is in the green state does not injure it in 
the least. A very protracted raining spell might do some injury; 
but these spells occur very rarely during tobacco-curing season. 
When tobacco is allowed to remain on the scaffolds until it has been 
partially cured, it may be seriously injured by alternate showers and 
sunshine. 

The crop having been well cured, the first good season should be 
availed of to take it down and put in bulk for stripping. I prefer a 
warm season for this operation, and the tobacco should be in soft 
order, otherwise it will become too hard when the weather gets to 
be cold. In bulking the tobacco, there should be only two layers, 
the leaves lapping in the centre, and the stalks remaining on the 
outside. The stalks should never be placed in the centre of the bulk, 
as there is always danger of their heating. 

Now commences the most important operation in the cultivation 
of tobacco — its preparation for market. The first step in this direc- 
tion is to secure the services of a sufficient forc£ of good and reliable 
assorters and strippers, particularly the former. Very few negroes 
are sufficient judges of tobacco to become good assorters, and they 
should, in the start, be well instructed in their duties. " The law 
bearing upon the case" should, in the beginning, be well laid down, 
distinctly understood, and strictly enforced, at all hazards ; for a 
little neglect here might cause the loss of half the year's work. The 
tobacco must be well assorted as to quality, length and color, and 
care taken all the time to keep separate. Nothing looks worse than 
a bundle with long and short leaves mixed in it; or with dark and 
bright ones so mixed. In the process of assorting, the assorter 
should be required to open every leaf and run the hand quickly but 
gently down it, with the fingers on the outside, and the thumb on 
the inner side, in order to stretch it out to its full length. I usually 
divide my tobacco into four and sometimes five classes. In the strip- 
ping process, the tobacco should be neatly tied up, well sized (that 
is, all the leaves in the same bundle should be of the same length) 
and kept straight. The bundle should be of medium size. The 
number of leaves to be regulated by the size of the tobacco. In or- 
dinary size tobacco, about six leaves will be about right. A short 
head looks the best, and about one inch is the right length. 

7 O O 

In every step of this process of stripping, the constant presence 
and attention of the master is indispensable. He must be constantly 
on the alert, making the round occasionally, and examining the work 
of every hand, to see that it is well done. I always engage my 
hands by the day, so that they may have no inducement to hurry 
over or slight their work, as they are apt to do, when engaged to 
work by the hundred pounds, or the hundred bundles. 

It is very difficult to get ordinary hands to size the tobacco well, 
and have the leaves of the bundles of uniform color, and it requires 
much firmness and the strictest attention to get them to do it. 



362 THE SOUTHERN [July 

During the last few years, I have adopted the plan of prizing the 
inferior grades, whilst the stripping is going on, and I like it very 
mnch, as it saves some labor, and gets it out of the way ; but in 
order to do this, the prizes should be in-doors, and closely connected 
with the stripping-room. At the close of each day, the inferior 
grades are taken to the prize and put right into the hogsheads. 
Platforms having been previously prepared, the higher grades are 
carefully straightened out and bulked down, one bundle at a time. 
As soon as the stripping has been completed, then the bulks are 
covered over with plank and heavily weighted. After remaining 
under weight a few days, the tobacco is ready for prizing. I never 
re-bulk. If the work is well done at first, there is no necessity for it. 

When the prizing process commences, three hands are put at the 
prizes, and a couple of the best judges of tobacco are put in the strip- 
room to re-assort the top from the bulk. 

For this purpose, a couple of light boxes, large enough to contain 
50 pounds, are provided. Then two hands are required to take each 
bundle separately and examine it carefully, and^every inferior leaf 
found in a good bundle, or a yellow one in a dark bundle, or a short 
one in a long bundle, is taken out and thrown aside. The bundles 
thus assorted, are run through the hands, straightened out and laid 
carefully in the boxes, which, when filled, are taken to the prize. 

It is all-important to have the tobacco of uniform quality, length 
and color, and these different grades should never be put in the same 
bundle, or even in the same hogshead, if it can be avoided. 

Here, in this region of country, where we make exclusively the 
shipping and stemming varieties, our best policy is to manure our 
lands heavily and make large tobacco. 

There is much economy in this, both in time and labor. It requires 
no more labor to cultivate a plant weighing half a pound than one 
weighing one-eighth of a pound. Long tobacco well handled, always 
sells well, whether the quality be good or bad. With this idea in 
view, I always cultivate the "white stem" variety, because it is a 
heavy tobacco, and has a very long leaf, and it is for this reason, 
also, that in the process of assorting, I require the leaves to be opened 
and drawn out to their full length. The tobacco leaf is very elastic, 
and may be thus elongated several inches. 

One word abcut the time of selling. Here, where we are conve- 
nient to market, and can ship our tobacco at any time, we find it 
best, generally, to put our crops in market as soon as possible, and 
we are generally able to do this by the first of March. When this 
is done, it is prized from the winter bulk, and not hung up and or- 
dered. When the tobacco is large, long, and suitable for stemming, 
and can be put early in market, it is best to have it moderately soft, 
as it facilitates the stemming process. 

If, however, the crop cannot be placed in market sooner than 1st 
of April, it should be put in safe-keeping order. 

There are some very decided advantages in being able to sell early, 



1875.] PLANTER AXD FARMER. 363 

and in winter order. The tobacco weighs more, all the time and 
labor of re hanging, ordering. &c, are saved, and the crop is gotten 
out of the way for subsequent operations. And in addition to all 
this, nine times out of ten, it brings just as much money. 

Before closing this article, allow me to say a word to tobacco- 
growers, everywhere, touching the nest crop. Now that prices are 
ranging high, do not fall into the common error of over-cropping, 
and thus glut the market with an inferior article, and bring down 
prices again. But cultivate moderate ctops, manure your lands well. 
work them thoroughly, and in this way make a good article, and 
keep up prices. — Upper James, hi American Farmer. 



TUCKAHOE FARMERS' CLUB. 

The club met this day at ''Linden, " the home of your reporter. 
There was a full attendance, and in the absence of any lengthy or 
formal discussion — a very pleasant and profitable day was spent in 
a general intercourse and interchange of opinion on the various sub- 
jects now especially claiming the farmer's attention. 

The importance of our hay crop cannot be overestimated, and the 
next week brings with it that important harvest. With a well stocked 
barn of good clover hay. how much more cheerfully the farmer looks 
to the approach of the winter season, visions of fat horses, ever ready 
for work, and an abundance of rich milk and butter instinctively 
appear. We conclude therefore that our clover should be cut when 
the stalk is green and succulent, before the hard fibre appears and 
when some of the blossoms begin to brown. Some of the club con- 
tended for the curing by the old method of the '*hay cock" and sev- 
eral days drying in the sun. but your reporter, sustained by a few, 
contended for the cutting and turning in the morning, and the cart- 
ing to the hay-house in the same afternoon and packing away with 
free use of salt, and thereby avoiding the hardening by exposure, and 
the loss in the consequent shattering of the bloom. We were suitably 
admonished to strain every nerve, get through our corn, plant our late 
potatoes deep into the ground, be ready to cut our winter oats and 
wheat both in the " stiff dough state " and both by the 20th of this 
month. So there is no time to be lost. To increase this work and 
to provide against a necessarily short crop of hay, as well as oats, 
your reporter advised the sowing now (or as late as July) of two or 
three acres in Hungarian grass. A fine growth of it already well 
covering the ground was here shown to the club, and it mav not be 
too egotistic to say that it, as well as the winter oats, clover, «S:c., of 
fine growth, being inspected by the club, they expressed gratification 
and approval. 

At our next meeting we may give you an essay on Hungarian and 
other grasses in July. Excuse this meagre report. 

J. A. Lynham, Reporting Secretary. 

Henrico county, Va., June 3d, 1875. 



364 THE SOUTHERN [July 



CONFIDENCE NEEDED. 

All over this fair land of ours one universal wail is going up in re- 
gard to the universal dearth in business and the stri gency in money 
matters, and grown men (who consider themselves wise) are each 
asking the other what is the pause of this condition of things, and 
whv don't the times grow easier and better, as if it were a mystery 
hid beyond the ken of man. And again the wail goes up universally 
evervwhere that labor is not remunerative and cannot be relied on, 
and that farming does not pay. .jcc, kc. I am of the opinion that 
there is a cause for the existence of everything good or evil that 
does exist in this world. And to my mind the cause of both evils 
are the same, and that cause is the want of confidence of men in men, 
growing out of villainy of man to man, produced by the examples of 
what used to be called our servants, but now our rulers at Washing- 
ton city, in the bad and villainous government of the people of this 
country since the close of the war in 1865 — coupled with the demor- 
alization of army life and army influences, oppressions wrong and 
vile, long continued as thev have been upon the people of the South, 
have produced in the South a reckless disregard of and distrust in the 
laws that have been enacted to make the negro a white ruler and the 
white man a black slave, and to accomplish these unnatural and 
unjust purposes, no limits have been set by law beyond which those 
in power have not gone in injustice to carry out these unnatural im- 
possibilities. These things, and these alone, have by degrees shaken, 
blasted, and uprooted confidence to the extent we now see and 
lament, and those who have a spare dollar will let it rust and rot in 
their pocket rather than risk it in other hands at legal, or in many 
instances at illegal interest. Cheating, prevarication and lying oppres- 
sion* by this government have blotted out love and honesty for, and 
implanted in the heart of the people hatred and dishonesty in their 
stead: and just this and nothing else is the cause of all which the 
people this day complain of, and until this unnatural condition of 
things is changed, there can be no prosperity nor abiding peace in 
Land. G. H. ISexer. 



LETTER FROM FLUVANXA. 



I am surprised how some men can sit back, perhaps in contentment 
and ease, and write such nice plans how we farmers should manage, 
and what we should do. I believe the majority of farmers do the 
best they can, and at that it is a poor do with some. As to myself, I 
delight in nice farming : but I find it very difficult to carry it out at 
all times. Give the farmers reliable labor, and they will soon put a 
new face upon agriculture. I am cultivating a rented farm on the 
James. I work three regular hands, with myself, hiring some extra 
day labor. Last year I made 710 bushels of wheat from a seeding of 
GO, and 440 barrels of corn, oats and hay in proportion. I cultivated 
no tobacco, owing to making a sacrifice in a nice crop the winter 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 36S 

before. This year I ara cultivating 35,000 hills; planted 8.000 the 
25th day of Mar. which is now spreading the hill, and I am to-day 
scraping down. I listed my high land and checked it. hilling it also, 
as I believe, in a nice preparation for tobacco. I can. by checking, 
work it both ways, requiring less hoe work. I finished planting 
my crop the 3d day of June. I think I have now, the 12th, a perfect 
stand, with any amount of plants left over. I always burn in the fall 
if I can, and hoe deep, and sow the seed at the same time. I find 
that burning the same bed the second time is much safer for forward 
plants. I burned over this year a last years bed of 350 square yards 
and am sure I could have planted out of that bed 50,000. By the 
15th of Jan. I sowed old ashes freely, as it keeps the plants from 
burning. I see some of your subscribers writing very beautiful let- 
ters about how tobacco should be managed from the plant-bed to the 
hogshead. It is very nice to read, and equally as nice to write : but 
planning and executing are two different things. I have had some 
experience in tobacco, and think the two most important items in culti- 
vating tobacco, are — first, good size, plant in time; and second, is a nice 
preparation as land in nice order retains moisture longer than land 
in a rough condition. We have too manv rough farmers. I find 
the old maxim true. " that what is not worth doing well is not worth, 
doing at all." I believe tobacco should be worked deep. I am 
going to run a new ground coalter four times in the rows as 
deep as it will go, and after every rain the crust should be broken, 
Secondly, corn. I have this year only 35 acres planted in corn; 
it is now an average of half leg high, and verv clean. I shall get 
over to day putting the dirt to it. and properly thinned. I shall 
commence laving bv next week. I alwavs lav bv mv corn bv the 
last day of June if I can : and think, with a common season this 
year, to make 325 barrels. I seeded last fall 50 bushels of wheat — ■ 
one half Wicks, the rest Lancaster : think I shall make 650 bushels 
if I can save it. I commenced seeding the 23d of September, and 
finished the 9th of October. I find, from one year to another, that 
forward seeding is the best. Crops in this county are generally 
sorry. B. H. B. 

Fluvanna county, Va. 



WHAT I KNOW OF LONG WOOL?. 

"W hat I know of long wooled sheep, and short wools, coarse 
wools, or fine wools, is that neither will thrive and be profitable, ex- 
cept they are provided with the proper food to develop their qualities. 

Care is the first essential quality in a flock-master. He should 
see his sheep every day in the year. During the pasturing season 
he should salt and count his flock twice per week and see that none 
have the scours. If there are any so affected, they should be re- 
moved from the flock and fed on dry hay and oatmeal for a couple 
of days. During heavy rains sheep should be provided with shelter, 



366 THE SOUTHERN [July 

either sheds in the pasture that the sheep can use at their own plea- 
sure, or when sheds are not provided, the sheep should be brought to 
the stock barn and housed until after the storm. When grass be- 
gins to fail they should be fed either sowed corn, pumpkins, roots 
or grain. 

It is poor economy to allow sheep to half starve and lose flesh in 
the fall. From October 1st until January is the trying time. If well 
cared for during that period, ordinary care will keep them doing well 
the rest of the year. 

When the hay is harvested the clover hay should be cut in the 
blow, well cured, so as not to must, and put in the sheep barn, or where 
it can be got at any time. 

When the sheep are brought in for wintering, feed them the clover 
hay until they are wanted to eat hay; then other hay can be fed to 
them once per day. They should have also a daily feed of oats, at 
the rate of one quart to every ten sheep for fine wools, and double 
that for coarse wools. A box that will hold a peck or more should 
be fastened in the shed low enough for a sheep to eat from easily, 
and fine salt kept continually in it, never letting the salt get used 
out. It will need replenishing every few days. * 

When the winter has well set in and the sheep have acquired good 
appetites, add to your oats one bushel of peas to three bushels of 
oats for breeding ewes ; for fattening sheep corn is better. Corn 
should never be fed to breeding ewes : it has an overheating ten- 
dency and produces a congestion of the bowels in the lambs ; thou- 
sands die every spring, from that cause alone, that might have been 
raised if the ewes had been fed peas instead of corn. 

Provide loater in the yard that the sheep can have access to any 
time of day. Do not compel them to quench their thirst by eating 
snow ; it is cruel, niggardly and poor economy. 

Be kind to your sheep ; use no loud and boisterous language nor 
allow others to do so. Never frighten them. Treat them kindly 
and they will show an appreciation of it and will pay you in wool 
and mutton, more than an hundred fold. 

Study the habits of your sheep. Learn from them what they 
want and provide for their wants intelligently, and do not rest con- 
tent until every lamb can be raised and every sheep produce for you 
the most and best staple of wool of which it is capable. Then, 
when you have attained that perfection, jot down your experience 
and give it forth to the world to guide others in their attempts ; and, 
though they may reach a still more exalted position, you will be con- 
scious of having performed a.duty and be remembered as a benefac- 
tor of mankind. Miles H. Delosg. 

Washington Co., JF. Y. 



MELLOW SOIL AROUND TREES. 
Unless the surface of the ground is mulched around young trees 



1875.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 367 

over an area of six to ten feet in diameter, the ground should be kept 
clean and mellow. Every farmer knows that a hill of corn or pota- 
toes will not amount to much unless cultivated, and yet there are 
many who will neglect to give the same care to a tree which is worth 
a hundred hills of either of the former. In rich soil trees may grow 
rapidly without cultivation, and no amount of grass or weeds will 
retard them ; but there are other things besides growth to be looked 
after. If the weeds and grass are allowed to grow up around the 
stems of apple, peach or quince-trees, the bark will become soft near 
their base by being shaded, and thereby be in a suitable condition 
for the reception of the eggs which will eventually become peach or 
apple borers. Take any dozen young apple trees in sections where 
the apple-borer is abundant, and allow a portion to be choked with 
weeds and the remainder well cultivated, and then watch the result. 
From our own experience, we believe that the chances are nine to 
one in favor of those cultivated being exempt from this pest. — JVat. 
Agriculturist. 



>9.64 


Bran wheat, 


$14.50 


6.43 


Corn, 


6.65 


2.68 


Oats. 


7.70 


3.90 







MANURE FROM A TON OF HAY. 

I see in the Rural Neiv Yorker, a question from H. Ostrum, as 
to what is the value of the manure from a ton of hay. It is impossi- 
ble to give him an answer, as to how much it is worth to him, indi- 
vidually, as that depends on how cheap he can make or procure it 
from other sources. But I will attempt to give him the value of it 
in proportion to commercial fertilizers, and that made from some 
other farm products, as derived from the experiments of J. B. Lawes, 
Rothamstead, England. 

Clover Hay, 
Meadow " 
Wheat straw, - 
Oats " ' - 

He must remember that this is not the value of a ton of the ma- 
nure, but the manure produced from the consumption of a ton of the 
article. They may not really be worth this amount to Mr. Ostrum ; 
but if he contemplates purchasing fertilizers, then they are worth 
this much. 

It would be well enough to state that the bran owes its increased 
value over clover hay, to the presence of phosphoric acid, the most 
needed and most valuable article in our fertilizers. Of all the arti- 
cles we can the least spare, at the prices generally prevalent, if ma- 
nure is any item, is, first, bran, and secondly, hay, especially clover. 
—J. H. B. 

The sons of Stephen A. Douglas are at last in financial luck. A 
recent decision of the court of claims gives them $267,000 on an old 
cotton claim. Cotton is still king with Robert and Stephen Jr. 



368 THE SOUTHERN [July 

WOMEN, AGRICULTURE, AND THE GRANGE. 

I wish that our American ladies would adopt one of the few aris- 
tocratic tastes and habits which sit so gracefully upon republican 
women, and which would be of equal advantage to the interests of 
agriculture, and to their own delicate physical organizations. A 
great deal of cant is uttered in these days about the mission of wo- 
man, but whenever I hear an attenuated, dyspeptic female talking 
in this wise, I feel sure if she were to become a member of a Grange, 
and attend its meetings with regularity, take an interest in the dis- 
cussions, and what she learns by theory, put ic to practice in her 
kitchen and flower-gardens, I feel sure it would put her on the 
track most useful for herself and society. 

When Rome was young and virtuous, the garden was always 
placed under the care of the daughters of the family. "In Sparta," 
the women, fit to be the mothers of heroes, cultivated the soil ; whilst 
the men were fighting the battles of their country. Indeed, from 
the earliest period in the annals of our race, woman has aided by her 
labors in bringing agriculture to a state of perfection. 

The laws which "Osiris" gave to "Egypt," were not as valuable 
to that country, as those precepts in agriculture, those instructions 
in embankments, irrigation and drainage which Isis, -his "Queen," 
gave the "Egyptians," and which enabled them to derive so much 
benefit from the fertile valleys of the "Nile." " Ceres." defied by 
the Greeks, made her people acquainted with the use of wheat, and 
the mode of cultivating it. I believe to an Empress of China, we 
are indebted for the mulberry tree, and the rearing of silk worms. 
Women of late years have demonstrated their capacity of shining in 
many spheres, once considered the peculiar province of man. 

Miss Herschel has discovered comets ; Mrs. Somerville laid open 
the mathematical structure of the universe. Some have analyzed 
the.relations of nature in the laboratory, and others investigated the 
laws of social relations. With such a grace, and variety of power, 
may I not argue the most beneficial results to agriculture, if the 
women of our country, by their sympathy, encouragement and co- 
operation, by their studies and counsels, would prove themselves, as 
did the women of old, helpmates to him whom God has ordained to 
cultivate the earth. 

Let us hope that our organization known as Patrons of Husbandry, 
which has spread with such rapidity through the country, will result 
in attracting universal attention to the encouragement of agriculture. 
"W hile nine-tenths of the American population live by agriculture, 
the word can scarcely be found on the statutes of the nation. There 
is no end of the provisions for the protection of manufacturers, and 
corporations — questions which have occupied as large a space in 
public attention as if nine-tenths of the population were engaged in 
that vocation instead of agriculture. 

A\ e hear of large appropriations being made by Congress for 
nearly every conceivable purpose, yet not one dollar has been given 



1875. PLANTER AND FARMER. 369 

for the direct encouragement of agriculture, a calling by which our 
countiymen live, and upon the success of which in America, the 
world sometimes depends for deliverance from starvation. 

Let the Grangers throughout the United States see to this, and if 
the matter cannot be remedied by our present representatives, then 
see that we have a representative that will attend to it. F. W. C. 

Louisa county, Va., April 19th, 187c. 



THE LAST STATE FAIR AND THE NEXT. 

One thing I am not able to understand is why the premiums 
on short horns should be higher than on other thoroughbred cattle. 
Three fourths of Virginia is not suited to the rearing of that breed ; 
yet on referring to the premium list for 1874, I find the Society 
gave as premiums on best bull, short horned breed, §50 ; best cow, 
short horned, $40, and so on; yet a little farther on I see first pre- 
mium on D3vons, Ayrshire, Alderney, Herefords, and all other 
thoroughbreds — Best bull, $30 ; Best cow, $25. 

Now I ask why is this discrimination in favor of the short horns? 
when only a small portion of Virginia is suited to the raising of that 
breed ? We in a short grass section have to breed cattle more suit- 
ed to our grasses, and justice to the breeders of other cattle in the 
State demands this change, unless the Society wishes to be run in 
interest of short horns to the exclusion of all other breeds. 

The last exhibition of the Virginia State Agricultural Society, whilst 
fully equal to any which has preceded it, when regarded as a whole, 
was certainly inferior as an exhibition of the products of the farm, 
the flower garden, the kitchen garden, and the orchard. There 
were but few exhibitions in this department, and those chiefly indivi- 
duals residing near the city of Richmond, and hence the fact de- 
veloped by the list of premiums awarded, that nearly every prize 
was taken bv persons living in counties contiguous to that city. It 
speaks well for the people in that section, but poorly for them in 
other portions of the State, as this ought not to be, and I hope will 
not be the case this year. It is discreditable to the farmers, garden- 
ers, and people of the State at large. There is no department of 
the Fair which could be so well supplied and with such little cost 
and trouble to the exhibitors. It is a matter of considerable expense, 
trouble and annoyance for breeders of stock, in a distant portion of the 
State, to bring to the Fair their stock ; but it would cost compara- 
tively nothing to bring a pot of pickles, a jar of honey, a dozen or 
so of fine apples, a bushel of superior potatoes and turnips; a pound 
of nice butter, a cake of home made cheese, a bottle of domestic 
wine, and such like articles. Not only could these things be readily 
brought to the Fair, but could as readily be procured. 

It is expected that some of the largest breeders will have some of 
their fine stock on exhibition, and also the manufacturers a variety 
of their wares. Yet nine-tenths of the people who attend an Agri- 



370 THE SOUTHERN [July 

cultural Fair, appear to think that their whole duty is done when 
they come to look upon what is exhibited by others. This is a most 
erroneous view to take of the matter. We have very successful 
Fairs, and our Society is well managed ; the grounds are large and 
commodious, and in every way well improved. 

There is one great annoyance that might be dispensed with; it is 
the introduction of negro minstrels, fat women, big babies, four 
legged children, deformed animals, riding nuisances, &c, &c, to the 
annoyance of visitors, and to the disgust of those who believe that 
such exhibitions should not be tolerated at such a place. Part of 
the grounds become worse than a beer garden, and the noise and 
confusion are enough to drive quiet people out of the grounds. Be- 
sides, the exhibition distracts the attention of the young, and some 
older people from the real object of the Fair, and tend to educate 
people in the wrong direction. They degrade and debase rather 
than instruct and improve. I hope such abominations in future will 
be excluded from our Fairs. F. W. C. 



Lucerxe. — This invaluable plant stands by far at the head of all 
forage plants for the South. Its uses are for soiling and hay. It 
grows in all parts of the State where the soil is dry and rich. It is 
much less injuriously affected by sand in the soil than clover. Ten 
pounds of seed are sowed to the acre. It is sometimes sowed broad- 
cast and sometimes in drills. Where land is perfectly clean the 
broad-cast method is perhaps the best. But where land is at all foul, 
drilling is preferable, as it .can be cleansed with a narrow plough. 
The land should be broken with a two-horse or three or four-horse 
plough, and in the same furrow followed with a subsoil plough. The 
roots of Lucerne will penetrate three to four feet in depth. The 
ground should then be manured very heavily with a fertilizer which 
has in it no seed of weeds, either perfectly rotted barn-yard manure, 
or a fertilizer in which there is a little ammonia and a large proportion 
of potash, phosphate and sulphate of lime. Lucerne, according to 
Ville, draws more ammonia from the atmosphere than any other plant 
whatever. It therefore enriches land. The Lucerne on this farm — 
some five acres — was destroyed by the grazing of the Federal horses 
and cattle during the war. The roots which were as large as moder- 
ate sized carrots, withering, the ground was left almost honey combed. 
It was as loose as an "ash-heap T ' vastly improved in fertility. 

If Lucerne is cultivated on a small scale for soiling work horses, 
a lot should be selected adjoining the stable. The Lucerne cut one 
day should be left to wilt and used the next day. From the middle 
of March or first of April there will be no further use for corn fodder 
during the season. It will be found that the horses and mules will 
eat all the Lucerne in the trough before they touch the corn. In 
fact a horse will do light work, or answer for riding on Lucerne 
without corn. 



1875.J PLANTER AND FARMER. 371 

Lucerne makes the very best of hay. On very rich land it can be 
mowed five times during the season, yielding a ton at each cutting, 
and sometimes more. This is five tons to the acre. Ten acres would 
yield fifty tons. This at three dollars to the ton would be fifteen 
hundred dollars. A good mower will cut these ten acres in a day. 
Is there any other plant which grows out of the ground that will pay 
as well ? Observe, the whole labor employed after the first cost is 
one day's work of a mower and the necessary labor of curing and 
hauling to the barn. How much labor does it take to make fifteen 
hundred dollars worth of cotton or corn ? Yet with this possible, 
nay, practicable, extraordinary product, the Western and Atlantic 
railroad brought down between one and two millions of Tennessee 
and Kentucky hay last year, and the wharves of our ports were 
loaded with Northern hay. When shall we learn wisdom ? 

There are some English and some Northern grasses which do not 
thrive with us. But neither England nor the North can grow Lu- 
cerne, one, because it too wet; the other, because it is too cold. If 
we could raise no other plant for hay than Lucerne, we still should 
never buy a pound of hay grown out of the State. It alone would 
be ample for all our wants. 

Lucerne should be cut very close, leaving as little stubble as pos- 
sible. It sometimes turns yellow. This is the work of an insect and 
the Lucerne should be immediately mowed over. The field is ready 
for the scythe when the blossoms begin to appear. If left longer it 
becomes woody. — Extract from Prize Essay, in Southern Farm 
and Home. 



OUR WHEAT TRADE. 



The accumulation of the extraordinary stock of five millions of 
bushels of wheat in Chicago is, we believe, an unexampled phenom- 
enon in the history of the grain trade in this country. Now, that a 
" break " has at length been reached in the prices at which wheat 
has been held in the interior, there has been a brisk revival in the 
shipments from this and other ports, and prices ought to reach what 
may be called their normal equilibrium. The " grasshopper "scare," 
which has been carefully nursed for speculative purposes, has lost 
any further power to influence the market, and the largely increased 
area of land under wheat in northwestern Nebraska, and Kansas, 
and elsewhere, joined to the most favorable reports of .the appear- 
ance of the crop in these districts, has convinced the majority of 
producers of the folly of holding any longer for a rise. 

The possibilities of our wheat exports during the next three 
months can be most correctly gauged by a reference to the English 
demand, and to the extent to which it has already been supplied. 
For the harvest year beginning Sept. 1, 1874, and ending August 
31, 1875, it was estimated by the best English judges that the de- 
mand would be 22,700,000 quarters. The yield of the last wheat 
harvest of the United Kingdom has been, with the nearest attaina- 
3 



372 THE SOUTHERN July 

ble approach to accuracy, set down at 13,700,000 quarters. The 
importation required for the twelve months ending August 31, is 
therefore nine millions of quarters, or seventy-two millions of bushels. 
During the eight months between September, l x 74. and April 30th, 
1875. the United Kingdom had already received nearly forty-six mil- 
lions of bushels of foreign wheat, leaving twenty-six millions of 
bushels to be supplied during the four months between May 1, and 
August 31. Of the forty-six millions above noted, twenty-five and 
one-half millions of bushels were received during the closing four 
months of the last year, and twenty and one-half millions during 
the first months of this year. 

The question which immediately interests the wheat-growers of 
the United States is what proportion of the British demand is likely 
to be drawn from this country. Of the twenty and one-half mil- 
lions of bushels of wheat imported daring the past four months of 
1875, nearly twelve and one-half millions, were drawn from the 
United States. Of the twenty and a half millions imported during 
the last four months of 1871, a somewhat larger proportion was 
contributed by this country. But taking the ratio maintained Jan- 
uary and the end of April, our proportion of the British wheat im- 
ports up to the end of August ought to be about sixteen 
millions of bushels. The present stock of wheat in the country "in 
sight," as it is called, that is. practically on the market, is not less 
than ten millions of bushels. In the face of a more extensive de- 
mand last year, stocks were about two millions of bushels less. 

Trustworthy estimates about the amount of land under wheat this 
rear in the United Kingdom are not yet forthcoming. As the 
acreage of 1874 was 3,833,000, or pretty near the maximum area 
of available wheat land in that country, the British harvest of this 
rear cannot be perceptibly affected by the increased quantity planted. 
The average yield per acre of British wheat was, last year, thirty- 
one bushels, or one and a half bushel above the "standard average." 
As the average yield of the last nine years has been one and a half 
bushel below the standard average, it may fairly be expected that 
the total yield of 1875 will fall short of that of 1874. The increased 
consumption consequent upon low prices must also enter in the ques- 
tion of future demand. Add to these considerations the fact that 
all our rivals in the British wheat trade, are. with the exception of 
Russia, practically out of the race. Even Russia, which used to 
send to England twice as much wheat as we did. has, even under the 
stimulus of a superabundant harvest, sent during the last eight 
months but a little over a third of the amount of our imports. 
While, therefore, the prospects of our export wheat trade cannot be 
called brilliant, they are certainly re-assuring. Only producers must 
make up their minds to a pretty long period of almost stationary 
prices, while they may reasonably expect to find some compensation 
in the increased purchasing power of their money. — New York 
Times. 



1875]. 



PLANTER AND FARMER. 



.-) — a 
Ol O 







TROTTLNG AXD RIDING STALLION, BLACK HAWK.— 
Black, foaled in Vermont, 1850, out of a fine Black Hambletonian 
mare, and by Hill's famous old Black Hawk, be by Sherman Mor- 
gan, in 1833, he by the original Morgan in 1808 or 1809 ; he by 
True Briton, in 1793. Black Hawk'is a half brother to Ethan 
Allen, Ticonderoga, and most of the best trotters of that day. 
Owned by 

Maj. S. VT. Ficklix, 

Charlottesville. Va. 



WALKIXG versus TROTTIXG HORSES. 
A writer in the Prairie Farmer complains that all the premiums 
offered at agricultural fairs for the performance of horses go for trot- 
ting or running and none for walking. He says the various agri- 
cultural societies •• say nothing of walking, which is the gait farmers 
are most interested in. I have often wondered why that was over- 



374 THE SOUTHERN [July 



looked, and had hoped that some one would bring it before the socie- 
ties. What benefit is a race horse to a farmer ? If he wants to 
run or trot him for premiums or stakes, it will not do to work him 
as farm horses have to work. Besides, fast torses, generally, are 
not able to stand heavy work, and are not apt to be extra walkers. 
What the farmer wants is a close-made, muscular horse, weighing 
to 1,200 pounds, that can walk at least four miles an hour 
with a cultivator, or at that rate while crossing the field. It costs 
no nnre for a hand to drive a team that will plough three acres per 
dav. than it would to drive one that would plough only two acres ; 
and a good hand, or one that tries to earn his wages would." 



CATTLE FOR FATTENING. 

S. W. Ficklix, in an address on feeding cattle to the Belmont 
club of Albemarle county, Virginia, says he has no hesitation in 
giving the preference to short-horns, and their grades, in all that 
constitutes the animal suited to a fair grass region of country, except 
that the Devons and their grades excel all as work oxen for activity, 
uniformity of style and color. 

With the same keep, they will not mature by a year or more as 
the short-horns and their grades will do. The mode to fatten, and 
the age, is very varied, depending upon the localities and the breeds 
that can be raised or purchased, the aftermath of meadows and late 
pastures in the fall, and how the farmer may be situated with forage, 
shelter, age of animals, and their capacity to accumulate flesh and 
fat ; if at a mill, or convenient to one, and the certainty that the an- 
imals get the meal and bran intended for them, and with regularity, 
care and kind treatment. 



Butter Product of a Short-horn Heifer. — In looking over 
your paper from week to week, one would suppose that the Jer- 
sey cows were ahead of all other breeds in the State for making 
butter. I think it is a great error; I think there are