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" STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH." BY CHARLES
E. ELDREETR-N., and W. H. K. WRIGHTf"
F. RTHist Soc.
,• • •• •• • • • • ••
• ••• • • • ••••
• • • •
• : ..• ••• • •
T!iC NFW V3?K
ASTOR, LENOX AND
R 1027 L
• • ••••••
.••.•: •.. •
OWO characteristic forces of the times which go hand in hand are the
destruction of the picturesque and the creation of the hideous. This
sweeping assertion is made under great provocation. The few traces
of the past which stand upon the ground whereon old Plymouth
stood are getting fewer day by day. As one by one the old gabled houses
vanish so the ghosts which haunt them are laid, and the legendary or historic
associations of a spot become forgotten when a factory smoke-stack marks the
site. These however are signs which denote a town's increasing prosperity.
Unhappily the old streets where once the wealthy merchants of the town
resided have degenerated into a region of courts and alleys and decajring
tenements given over to squalor and poverty. From crazy casements peer
unwholesome faces, — too often of women, — slovenly, bloated, and unkempt.
The sky-line of the roof-ridge suggests a wave of the sea. The plaster is
falling from the walls in flakes. The windows lean awry in every direction, and
the whole tottering structure is only saved from falling like a pack of cards by
a stout warehouse at its side, against which it leans incapable of self-support
A lamentable state of things, truly; but observe the remedy.
The old houses disappear, to be replaced by a red brick foundry or
foctory. From the confines of the town there shoot forth endless rows of
hastily built dwellings in unsightly and monotonous sequence. They stretch
and multiply like the limbs of some foul hydra, poisoning what they cannot
devour of field and hedgerow. And here you shall in time see multiplied
counterparts of the faces which thronged the courts and alleys of the old town.
If you would raise the ghosts which haunt them, walk through these
narrow streets at dusk. The time-worn corbels supporting the projecting
window-frames or gables will come to life as grotesque carvings. The craftsmen
who chiselled them may have worked on board the ships of Drake or Hawkins
and found inspiration in stories from the lips of the first men to sail round the
It is but a step down to the wharves of Sutton Pool, where on one side
the tawny-sailed fishing boats cluster thick as bees, and on the other grimy
colliers are discharging coal with a rattle of winches in a cloud of exhaust
steam. The little Anglo-Saxon fishing settlement which the Normans discovered
6 HISTORIC PLYMOUTH.
upon the shores of this well-sheltered natural harbour they registered as Sutone
— South Town — which has come to us as Sutton. Its importance as a harbour
slowly but surely increased, until in 1298 we find it contributing a ship to the
King's Fleet. The town's history as a naval port may be considered to com-
mence from this time.
Sutton Pool was the centre about which Plymouth grew, and from the
margin of which the main thoroughfares radiated more or less irregularly. The
most convenient landing place was probably near the end of Southside Street,
for no quays or wharves were built till the days of Drake.
The earliest days of the 14th century witnessed the introduction of the
ducking-stool. The one last in use, and which had its place in this neighbour-
hood, is still preserved in the Municipal Offices of the town.
We may picture the stocks as being somewhere hard by, and can even feel
a certain amount of envy for an occupant as we imagine the scenes he was
privileged to witness. He sees parties of pious pilgrims embarking to journey
to the shrines of France and Italy. They are met, and rudely jostled by the
rough mariners swarming ashore from the ships of war, and riotously disappear-
ing into the narrow streets. Towards nightfall the sound of their roystering and
singing in the taverns is drowned by the shouts and clamour of an approaching
crowd. The cries and exclamations tell of a conflict at close quarters. He
hears the surging mass stumbling over the thwarts of boats. As the splash of
oars dies away it does not need the voices of excited women to inform him
that Sir Reginald Cobham's press-gang has made a successful raid. He counts
himself fortunate that he escaped observation, else would the gang have made
little ado in adding him, stocks and all, to the tale of captives.
These were days, too, when brave pageants fringed the shore, and with one
consent the folk kept universal holiday. As when fresh from the victory of
Poictiers, the Black Prince landed with a company of royal prisoners, chief
among them King John of France himself.
As yet the town maintained no regular garrison, but lay open to the attacks
of marauding French, who, whenever they effected a landing, spread terror
through the district, burning and pillaging houses and taking prisoners to be
held for ransbm. An unusually audacious raid provoked one William Wilford,
then in command of the Western Navy, to fall upon their fleet with such effect
that he captured forty ships laden with wine, oil, soap and iron. Yet not
content with this he landed on their coasts, burning and la3ring waste many
towns and villages. These attacks resulted in a fortified wall being built about
the town, the money being raised by the sale of indulgences granted by Bishop
Stafford. The inhabitants next petitioned Henry VI. to grant a Charter of
Incorporation. It embodied a request that the Mayor and commonalty might
HISTORIC PLYMOUTH, 7
lawfully and without punishment strengthen the walls and fortify and embattle
the towers. This petition was acceded to upon the Prior of Plympton agreeing
to relinquish the ancient rights he held over the town for an annual equivalent
Sutton Pool was at one time part of the Duchy of Cornwall, and was in
161 7 let by Prince Charles of Wales and Duke of Cornwall, for twenty-one
years, at an annual rental of ;^i3 6x. Zd, to be paid in good and lawful money
of England. It entitled the holders, John Hawker and John Howell, to some
curious profits, viz. : —
"Anchorage, keyladge, measuradge or busheladge, fines of fisher boats
and pottage due."
But the most excellent Prince reserved a few perquisites to himself, such as
" prisadge, butteradge, goods of pyrates " and a few other such items.
The name of Plymouth's first Mayor is perpetuated in the saying, "As big
as Ketherich's pie." This "great Pye," to which fish, flesh and fowl all con-
tributed, was made for the feast of the Mayor's installation, and was of so huge
a size that an oven had to be built for its baking.
A few years later a feast took place which must have outdone Ketherich's.
Thomas Greyle, on being a second time chosen Mayor, gave a great banquet
and held a tournament on the Hoe. A brave gathering attended this, of
Knights, Lords and Ladies, of noble family from far and near, who were accom-
modated in a gay pavilion erected at the Mayor's expense.
While Columbus was opening the way to the New World and the Spaniards,
conquering Mexico and Peru, ranged unchallenged lords of the seas, most of
the vessels sailing out of Plymouth were small merchant ships trading with
France, Spain, and Portugal.
Under the direct influence and encouragement of Henry VIII., the seamen
of Plymouth went further afield. One of these, a Captain William Hawkins,
came especially under the King's notice. He undertook a voyage down the
Coast of Guinea, where he loaded with gold and ivory. Then crossing to
Brazil, he established friendly relations with the natives, bringing home the King
as a willing guest.
Another Plymouth captain, Robert Thome, set out in the Dominus
Vobiscutny in a search for the North-West Passage. There was never a lack of
volunteers to man ships for these expeditions, some influenced only by the spirit
of adventure, others by a hope of making their fortunes. Yet whatever their
hopes and motives, the last act of a crew before embarking was to go in a body
to St Andrew's Church and there take the Sacrament together. With their
hopes realised or shattered and their numbers lessened, their first errand on
landing was to repair to the same Church to give thanks for their safe return.
8 HISTORIC PLYMOUTH,
In Looe Street and St. Andrew's Street are houses still standing that may
have sheltered sailors who worked the Great Harry^ that wonder of her day,
manned by a crew of seven hundred men. This ship, and the fleet which
surrounded her, gathered together by Henry VIII. after the Pope's sentence of
excommunication, so drained the seaport of mariners, that for a long time the
fishing-boats went in and out of Sutton Pool worked by the women.
Then merchant ships returning from abroad brought strange stories of how
men of their crew had been seized by the officers of the Inquisition and
thrown into Spanish dungeons or burnt To avenge these, vessels were built
and equipped at the risk and expense of private individuals, and that system of
privateering commenced which developed into piracy and buccaneering and
culminated in the exploits of Drake.
Though men of Plymouth pined in the cruel captivity of Spain, yet the
town lived the life of the times. The May-pole was set up in its season, and
holiday kept, while mummers and morris -dancers performed their antics. Upon
St. John's Day, a company of players performed miracle plays in the Church.
Archery was practised as a sport in the open spaces outside the walls or on the
Hoe. Beggars were kept out of town, — beaten out, — by a man who received
ten shillings yearly for the duty.
Down by the water-side were shops for the sale of astrolabes and cross-
staves, those clumsy implements from which the sextant has been evolved.
Here the earliest problems of scientific navigation were discussed by the pilots.
What heated arguments there must have been concerning the wonderful new
method of rigging vessels which Mr. Fletcher, of Rye, invented, which enabled
them to sail to windward by setting sails fore and aft
The name of Drake was not well known, — although tradition says he lived
in Looe Street, — till the Judith in sorry plight arrived at Plymouth with the
story of the loss of the Jesus^ at San Juan de UUoa, with her rich cargo of
treasure, the proceeds of a slaving expedition. But when he returned from his
voyage in the Dragon^ his ship coming into harbour on a Sunday morning, the
news spread, and quickly reached his family, who were at service in St Andrew's
Church. And the story goes that the people passed out of Church, leaving the
preacher to follow, and streaming down the narrow streets, gathered to await his
landing upon the new quay which had been built under the Castle.
If stones could speak, the unrevealed secrets of the Dragon's mysterious
expedition might be divulged by some of the old houses still standing in Looe
Street or New Street In the trawlers and fishermen who inhabit these to-day
we see the lineal descendants of men who Bailed with Drake.
Plymouth sailors took a part in all the romantic incidents of the PtlicatCs
voyage, witnessed the execution of Doughty, weathered the fierce gales of the
HISTORIC PLYMOUTH, 9
Magellan Straits, and captured the great Spanish treasure ship Cacafuego with
her cargo of pearls, emeralds and diamonds.
The honours showered upon him did not wean his heart from the town
he had made his home, for soon after his return he was elected Mayor of
The sea claimed him again after his year of office, and his first exploit
was the singeing of the King of Spain's beard, by the burning of the Spanish
shipping in Cadiz harbour.
Days of suspense followed when rumours of the overwhelming strength of
the Armada reached the seaports at a time when most of the Queen's ships
were paid off and laid up. The strength of Drake's fleet lying in Plymouth
Sound depended mainly on private enterprise. They were ill-fitted to encounter
an enemy, their crews thinned by sickness through bad and scanty provisions,
their stores and ammunition even being short. Their daily hope was for the
approach of the Spanish fleet. When Fleming the Scottish pirate and outlaw
interrupted the historic game of bowls upon the Hoe he was a welcome
messenger. As the news spread through the town, the men ashore thronged
down to the quay to make their way off to their ships. There was no misinter-
preting the meaning of the beacon fires that flared on tower and hill-top as
darkness set in. Against a contrary wind the vessels had to be laboriously
warped out of the Sound. By daylight a motley crowd was streaming up
through the Hoe Gate, — tradesmen and apprentices, women and children,
merchants whose money had equipped the fleet, — all these mingling on the Hoe
with rustics coming in firom the surrounding country, armed with clubs, bills
The fleet stood down Channel, for the Armada was not yet in sight, and
the town was left to endure a night of suspense. The morrow was Sunday,
when an anxious-faced crowd thronged the Hoe. For there within sight were
the great ships of the invaders in actual conflict with the few little vessels in
which they all had sons, brothers, husbands or friends. And so with a thunder
of far-away cannonading they passed up Channel.
So long as water continues to run down-hill, so long at least will one
undertaking of Drake's remain of lasting benefit to Plymouth. This was the
making of the leat by which an abundant water supply was brought from Dart-
moor into the town. This alone would preserve his name, though all his
exploits on the seas should be forgotten. An annual ceremony called the
I^shinge Feast still survives, upon which occasion the Mayor and Corporation
drive out to the Head Weir and there with due solemnity drink in water from
the stream, — " To the pious memory of Sir Francis Drake," and subsequently in
wine, — "May the descendants of him who gave us water never want wine."
lo HISTORIC PLYMOUTH,
The scene of this ceremony has been very materially altered by the con-
struction of a great storage reservoir, and the conveying of the water through
underground pipes instead of the open leat. Yet the Fyshinge Feast and its
toasts survive, and are not likely to be allowed to lapse. Drake himself, says
tradition, on the day the water ran before his door dipped his scarlet gown
therein for joy that he had accomplished his great desire.
There were other seamen besides Drake who filled the position of Mayor.
Sir Richard Hawkins, after being kept a prisoner for eight years by the
Spaniards, was elected for the office on his release.
Hawkins was succeeded by one Matthews who had formerly been his
servant. Also Matthews's wife had been maid to Lady Hawkins. It fell out
at a civic banquet that a scuffle occurred between these two ladies in a struggle
to sit in the highest place. Lady Hawkins, losing her temper, struck the
Mayoress a box on the ear. The ferment it occasioned was not allayed until
Sir Richard had given the town a house in Market Street At about the same
time Matthews built a conduit near "the great tree at Brittayne Side" at his
Of the many expeditions which set out with the mission of colonising
Virginia, one of the most memorable was that which sailed from Pl]rmouth
under the command of Admiral Sir George Somers. His ship the Sea Venture^
being separated from the rest of the fleet by a violent gale, was driven in the
last extremity of a sinking condition upon the dreaded shores of the Bermudas.
Somers and his company were virtually the first colonisers of these Islands,
which for some time bore his name.
The only known portrait of him, as well as an old lodestone and sea-chest,
remain to this day in the possession of descendants of his in Plymouth.
Not every voyage finished with the clash of bells and the flare of bonfires.
The unfortunate Sir Walter Raleigh returned with a single ship, the Destiny^
the only remnant of a fleet of fourteen which had sailed from Plymouth the
previous year. Some had deserted him, some had been captured, and some
were parted from him by storms. Mischance had pursued him throughout.
Sir Lewis Stukeley, Vice-Admiral of Devon, being sent to Plymouth to arrest
him, busied himself in disposing of the tobacco and cargo of the Destiny to his
own advantage. During this time Raleigh had every opportunity of escaping,
and persuaded by the earnest entreaties of his wife, was actually upon the point
of doing so. At midnight he put off to embark in a vessel which had been
hired to take him to France. He put back before reaching her, to be conveyed
a prisoner to the Tower, passing in sight of his estate and home at Sherborne.
Three events which pressed hardly on the town in succession were the
plague, the press-gang, and a visit from King Charles. The plague, it is said,
HISTORIC PLYMOUTH. n
carried off two thousand victims. The press-gang showed no mercy to the
survivors. And the Mayor was called upon to pay the wages of the King's
retinue, from the jester to the gentlemen ushers.
During the protracted and unsuccessful siege of Plymouth by the Royalist
forces the town received its supply of provisions by sea, and there is a story
of a miraculous shoal of pilchards finding its way into Sutton Pool in such
quantities that they could be taken out in baskets.
Few traces of the fighting remain. Occasionally, a rusty cannon ball used
to be turned up in the fields about Plympton, Plymstock or St. Budeaux. For
all the skirmishing took place outside the town, upon the heights which are
now covered by streets and houses. The only recorded damage was to a
windmill upon the Hoe, which had one of its sails shot away.
A windmill on the Hoe ! What marks its site now ? Was it swept away
by the solid citadel which was built shortly after the siege ? Or is it a band-
stand, or the shaft of an electric lamp, or the pedestal supporting the bronze
statue of Drake that now occupies the spot?
We can trace no record of the disappearance of the windmill, though it is
within the memory of living inhabitants that the Hoe was a rough waste where
rabbits burrowed amongst the furze and bramble bushes.
The rough cliff pathway is now a carriage-drive. The traditional scene of
Drake's bowling-green is an asphalt-paved promenade, and the moat round the
Citadel walls has been filled in and planted with trim evergreen shrubs.
Yet still the fishermen in their generations bring their tanned nets up the
narrow alleys from the Barbican quays, to hang them in festoons over iron
railings which have taken the place of a rough wooden fence round the moat
that their fathers used
1901. CHARLES E. ELDRED.
" STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH/'
r-- -- • -
ST. ANDREWS STREET, THE TURK^S HEAD
AND THE ABBEY.
ST. ANDREWS STREET.
/^"^^ T. ANDREW'S Street may certainly be called one of the oldest
Y^^^J* streets of Old Plymouth. Taking its name from the church
^^^.^ which stands at the top, it was, until recently, full of old-world
interest. Within living memory it contained some good specimens of Tudor
architecture, and some of the best examples in the town. With their high
gabled roofs, and projecting upper stories, these old houses formed a picturesque
feature in the street architecture of Plymouth. Modem improve-
ments and sanitary considerations, have, however, swept away
nearly all that is picturesque, and one Ic
ancient streets which were formerly in evi(
this fine old street has been entirely re
moved, but on the other, or west side, ar
still to be found some notable
examples of ancient buildings,
the one depicted being the best
example. A short time since an
old building was removed to make
room for a modern factory, and
when the site was cleared there
was disclosed an entirely unknown
aspect of this fine old mansion, its
quaint windows and massive chimney
stacks revealing the fact that it was in
old times a building of considerable
importance. Higher up the street,
several good specimens of ancient
architecture still remain.
THE •'TURK'S HEAD,** OR ''ABBOTS HOUSE*'*
BONG since demolished, this picturesque building stood at the top
of St Andrew's Street, and was reputed to be the oldest house
in Plymouth, dating, according to the best authorities, from the
fourteenth century. Its site is now occupied by the Abbey Hotel, a painfully
modern structure as compared with the fine old building which preceded it and
forms the subject of our sketch.
Could we trust the name, we might say that the Turk's Head Inn was a
relic of the later crusading days, but we fear that we must not indulge in the
romantic visions which that fancied connexion shadows forth. How long the
building did duty as an inn we do not know, possibly from the latter part of
the sixteenth or early part of the seventeenth century. We find it entered as
the Turk's Head in the "Picture of Plymouth" (1812) and we can trace no
earlier record. But Harris, in his MS. notes on Old Plymouth, written at
various times during the earlier part of the nineteenth century, calls it the
Abbot's House, and says : —
"This house is now a publick house at the north west comer of Higher
Lane known by the sign of the Turk's Head. It is always called the oldest
house in Plymouth, and there can hardly be a doubt that it is coeval with
the Old Church to which it has always belonged, and the land to the north
east comer of St Andrew's Street by the Church door and behind the
houses on the southern side of the Market Place, being held on leases paying
and yielding certain hie rent to respective vicars, seems as much as to say
it was the garden ground or backlet attached to it and the higher side of
Higher Lane, and I am of opinion that the three lanes were all built on out
of the garden from their being parallel to each other. It is but a small
house, the door-way is of antient Gothic make, the stone composing the arch
is the same as that building in New Street, and there is very great similarity
between this house and the house in Market Street, by the conduit, ye pro-
jection and elevation being the same."
Were we inclined to indulge in a fanciful vein, we might quote from a
STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH,
lengthy article which appeared in a local paper about the date of the demolition
^ of the Turk's Head. It allows the
old house to tell its own story, and
commences as follows : —
" 1 was designed and put upon
my foundations rather more than 400
years ago, and have to thank the Cru-
saders, who beat the Infidels in the
Holy War, for my name. In my youth-
ful days the good town I'm about to
quit for ever hadn't as many hundreds
as it now has thousands of people,
but it had more friars of orders grey,
black, and white, than there are par-
Cn^ CUX1C5 rtfAD IfZiZ ^^^^ic^lT ^^"® °^ ^^^^ shade in all modem
***^ Plymouth. Some of them were early
patrons of mine, and ever and anon gave me a call, liking well my sign, but
better still my sack and my jovial company. A church, a monastery, and a
town cross were my near neighbours, and I thrived well in their company ;
and of my surrounding contemporaries (solid, gabled, and mullioned, and put
together much as I ana), there was hardly one that kept its head (or tiles)
much higher than mine, for the tall and overhanging timbered houses, like my
old friend in Notte Street, had not yet been thought of."
OHE ancient building which still stands close to the old Church of
St. Andrew, at the top of Finewell Street, although locally known
as The Abbey, has really no right to that title, for it was never an
abbey or monastic house, but merely the " prysten " or clergy house attached
to the Church. Although shorn of much of its old-time dignity and converted
into base uses (it is now a wholesale grocery store), it has yet much to
20 STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH.
commend it to the notice of the curious. It is reckoned as the oldest eccle-
siastical building in Plymouth, but it is difficult to give even an approximate
date for its erection. It is however clear that rent was paid to the Corporation
for the " prysten house " in the reign of Henry VII. ; and at a much later
date, early in the sixteenth century, there is a record of a grant by the Corpo-
ration to Sir Thomas Flyte, chantry priest of the " prysten house," for life, in
consideration of his outlay in repairing the kitchen.
Mr. J. Brooking Rowe, in his " Ecclesiastical History of OJd Plymouth," is
somewhat doubtful as to the exact character of the building, for he sajrs : —
"Of all the remains of Old Plymouth, St Andrew's Church excepted,
none is so perfect as its neighbour, the so-called Abbey. I will not weary
you with repeating all the conjectures that have been made as to its origin.
I cannot help thinking with most other persons, that it was in some way
connected with St Andrew's; but there is not the slightest clue, and any
opinion is the purest conjecture, and I have nothing new to say."
Mr. James Hine, another authority on the ancient architecture of Plymouth,
in an excellent paper read before the members of the Plymouth Institution in
i860, speaks of this fine old building thus : —
"On the south side of St Andrew's Church are the remains — in a very
perfect state — of doubtless another religious edifice of a much later period —
(he had been speaking previously of the various monasteries in the town), —
probably of the latter part of the fifteenth century. I am sorry I have been
unable to obtain anything like a satisfactory clue to its history. It goes by
the name of 'The Abbey,' and is said to be connected with the crypt
under the chancel of St. Andrew's Church, by a subterranean passage, now,
I presume, blocked up. It is a bold example of late perpendicular work.
The stone carving, as in all our old buildings here, is of a rude character,
partly owing, no doubt, to the hardness and brittleness of the material,
We regret that this is all we can say in respect to this fine old house
which is still in evidence at the top of Finewell Street.
THE NEW YORK
cjzcy/iccc Co ojp moi^iirtoasf
ST. ANDREWS CHURCH; THE OLD WORKHOUSE,
OR HOSPITAL OF POOR'S PORTION, ETC.
ST. ANDREWS CHURCH.
OO give an adequate account of the venerable Church of St Andrew
would require more space than it is proposed to devote to this
entire work, consequently our readers must be content with a few
Of the early history of the Church we know but little. There was a
vicar here in 1087 nan\ed Ealphege. Between that date and 1260 the names
of five vicars only are known. From 1260 down to the present time the list of
vicars is fairly complete, and includes some noteworthy names. From this it
will appear that the Church of St Andrew was old even in the days of
Elizabeth ; old, when the news of Drake's return from over seas being brought
the Church, all the congregation
shed pell mell to the Hoe, leaving the
»cher severely alone ; old, when Charles
attended service here and touched a
number of persons suffer-
ing from the King's Evil ;
and old, when the Pilgrim
Fathers reverently passed
its sacred portals to
their lodging in the Hos-
The building, as we
know it, consists of nave
and north and south aisles,
S- AttWCtOi^ coatx F|« aU three of equal length,
^^^ ^^ tecmoK Of OLD eaoi^i^noast. north and south chapels,
26 STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH.
with a tower of three stages, buttressed, and with rich crocketed pinnacles.
It is almost entirely of the fifteenth century. In 1385, a south aisle was
built, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and about 1440, a north aisle,
dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The tower dates from 1460, a rich merchant
of the town, named Yogge, "finding the stufie." About the same time the
north chapel was erected, and by the end of the fifteenth century the whole
building was completed. The style of architecture is late perpendicular.
Except the shell and arcades, little of the ancient building remains. Alterations
took place in 1826, but these alterations were very unsightly, and were cleared
away in 1874-5, when the Church was thoroughly restored by the late Sir
Gilbert Scott at a cost of ;^7,ooo.
The Church is 185 feet in length, and 96 feet wide in its widest part.
It will accommodate nearly two thousand persons. The tower is 134 feet
high. The appointments of the church are entirely new and are in excellent
taste. Most of the coloured windows are modem, but there are many ancient
There is an excellent organ, and the service is carried out by a large
Being the ancient parish church, a large number of strangers are drawn to
it, the broad and hearty services being highly appreciated.
OHE Old Workhouse, or Hospital of Poor's Portion, was situated in
Catherine Street, at one time called Workhouse Lane, and occupied
the site upon which now stands the Police Court and Police Station.
It was founded in 161 5, its management being vested in the Mayor and Corpo-
ration. In 1708, the control passed to the Guardians, a body then newly created.
In 1858, a new workhouse was erected at the top of Hill Park Crescent, in the
north part of the town, the old site being a few years later utilized for the
erection of the Guildhall.
The Old Workhouse was a picturesque structure, consisting of a low
STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH,
range of buildings occupying four sides of a quadrangle, and it extended
through into Wcstwell Street The Entrance Gateway, the subject of one of
our illustrations, was a striking feature. It bore a date and an inscription,
"By God's help through Christ."
An adjoining building was the Hospital of Orphans' Aid, or Green School,
established in the seventeenth century by Thomas and Nicholas Sherwell, well-
known Plymouth Merchants.
There were at one time four such hospitals, in which poor children were
clothed, fed and taught, these were named respectively, the green, blue, red
and grey schools; the children wearing distinctive garb. Some of the schools
still exist, but the distinctive clothing has been dispensed with, and some old
and interesting customs connected with the foundations have passed into
The archives of the Plymouth Corporation record that in 1572 "The Free
School of Plymouth was built" This was known in later years as the Corpo-
ration Grammar School. At this time a grant was made by Queen Elizabeth
to the Corporation on condition of their maintaining the Grammar School
The master was paid what would at that time have been considered a liberal
salary of ;£2o per annum.
A century ago the Rev. Dr. Bidlake was the head master — some of whose
peculiar characteristics have been preserved for us in the autobiography of
Benjamin Robert Haydon, the painter.
" Finding," says " Haydon, that I had a taste for art, he always took me
with another boy from our studies to attend his caprices in painting. Here his
odd and peculiar figure, for his back was bent from fever, induced us to play
him tricks. As he was obliged to turn round and walk away to study the effect
of his touches, we would rub out what he had done before he returned, when
his perplexity and simplicity were delightful to mischievous boys."
As it is only some thirty years since the old school building was demolished
in company with its near neighbour the Workhouse, many reminiscences con-
nected with it still linger amongst old Plymouthians who passed beneath its
carved stone archway as schoolboys.
Digitized by VnOOQ IC
OLD HOUSES IN NOTTE STREET.
^^^^^V OTTE Street, or Nut Street as it was sometimes called, was formerly,
1 I like all the old Plymouth streets, very narrow and not particularly
^ Vf straight. It was, however, graced with several fine old houses,
not the least pretentious being the grand old Elizabethan mansion shown in
the accompanying sketch. This was one of the finest specimens of Tudor
architecture that the town possessed, and was a worthy specimen of the many
ancient domestic buildings which existed up to a few years ago to show what
a picturesque old town Plymouth must have been. What is the history of
this old mansion no one can tell; tradition says that it was the residence of
Sir Walter Raleigh, but that is doubtful, and there is no evidence to prove it
The present structure is a very careful restoration of the original building
from which in fact a considerable portion of the actual woodwork has been
retained. That of the principal window and some of the brackets, as well as
the door and the ornamental doorway, were all portions of the old house which
the architect has successfully incorporated with the new structure.
This house may claim one distinction as being the solitary attempt to pre-
serve the ancient and picturesque character of the old streets, and its success
only makes it the more to be regretted that further effort had not been made in
Over the main entrance to the modern block will be noticed an elaborate
coat of arms, representing the present owners, Messrs. Harris and Bulteel, the
proprietors of the Naval Bank.
Not far from these houses stood another even more worthy of preservation,
if possible, but which has disappeared completely. There are yet a few others
retaining nothing but their carved doors and door posts to tell of their former
Another stone-fronted house now re-built on the other side of the street
was known as the house of Cookworthy, the founder of the Plymouth China
industry, and at the angle formed by Notte Street and Southside Street stood
the Monastery of the Dominicans or Black Friars.
CCC1WI2CC Co o]p G^AmoiAn ^noDi
r •-;. r-^
HIGH STREET, NICHOLUS COURT AND
BEW people, perhaps, who pass down High Street towards the quays
realise that for centuries this old thoroughfare was the principal
street of Plymouth. Long before George Street or Bedford Street
were known, centuries before Union Street emerged from the marshes, the
High Street of Plymouth was the very heart and centre of the famous old
town. Up and down this street the brave men who helped to make the
history of Elizabethan days passed and repassed, exchanging greetings with
friends and comrades, and perchance, holding revel in one or other of the
taverns or houses of call with which the neighbourhood abounded.
Little do the dwellers in the now squalid tenements and crowded courts
imagine that generations of fair women and brave men lived and loved in
what were in those olden days mansions, and are now the mere backwaters
of the prosperous life of the modem pro-
gressive town. Here in what are now
designated the slums, lived the merchant
princes and the men of light and leading
of their day, and there were many
prosperous traders who carried on their
avocations in Pljrmouth's High Street:
One of our dramatists, Sir William
Davenant, poet laureate in the reign of
Charles H., once wrote and published a
play entitled " Newes from Plymouth," in
which the following passage occurs, highly
illuminative to the students of Pljonouth
in the reign of the Stuarts. He puts this
GlCftOLL'S roaifi speech into the mouth of Cable, a sea-
captain, who is explaining to his crew on
board ship what they will experience when they have leave to go ashore.
36 STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH,
"This town is dearer than Jerusalem
After a year's siege ; for they would make you pay
For daylight, if they know to measure
The sun-beames by the yard. Nay, sell the very
Aire too, if they could serve it out in fine
China Bottles. If you walk but three turnes
In the High Street, they will ask you mony
For wearing out the Pebles."
And this is the street of which we are speaking. It is even now picturesque,
but squalor goes hand in hand with the signs of ancient dignity, and decay
is visible everywhere. Nevertheless it is still High Street, and to those who
are interested in it for old time's sake, it is still reminiscent of those olden
Elizabethan days. For a time its name was changed, and it was known as
Market Street, the market, or a portion of it, being carried on beneath the
Old Guildhall which stood at the top ; its successor, in fact, stands there
still as a witness and landmark of past generations, although its character is
In dealing with such a subject as this, one feels that ordinary prosaic
language is not sufficiently expressive; romance is in the very air, the whole
neighbourhood teems with suggestions of ancient days ; of the vanished glory
and dignity of this old street, and of those who frequented it in the by-gone
ages. We can picture to ourselves Drake the intrepid, whose town house was
not far away, the courtly and chivalrous Raleigh, who, on his visits to Pljonouth,
is supposed to have lodged in Notte Street, the bluflf old sea-dog Hawkins who
probably had a house in this very street; and all the other great sea captains
of a wondrous age, swaggering up and down " wearing out the Pebles,'' as
Davenant puts it.
It may also be remembered that close to High Street, but really in Still-
man Street, was the fine old building called Palace Court, where Katherine of
Arragon was lodged and entertained by Richard Paynter, a wealthy merchant of
the town. Its glory has departed, the old street has been relegated to the
background of social life, yet still in the quaint old-world houses, the stone
archways, and the signs of departed grandeur, we have the traces of wealth and
dignity, which it will take long for the finger of time to erase.
STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH.
One of the relics of the past which will attract the antiquarian student
who ventures to penetrate into one of the arched recesses on the right side of
the street, going down towards the quays, is what is known as NichoU's Court.
Here will be found a series of stone arches (shewn in the sketch) which
evidently indicate the entrance to some fine old mansion, whose, or even of
what particular period there is no evidence to determine.
At the top of the street stands the Old Guildhall, old only because there
is a newer one, but, as a building, not by any means ancient. It was erected
in 1800, and stands on the site of at least two previous Guildhalls.
This building is now used as a Public Library, and though small and
inconvenient for that purpose, for three quarters of a century it sufficed for the
needs of the town as the head quarters of our municipal government.
As we have said, the Old Guildhall, of which we give an illustration, was
erected in 1800, and superseded a much more picturesque building which dated
from the reign of James II. This
building stood upon columns of
moor stone ; these stone pillars
were afterwards used in the con-
struction of the market and are
now to be found in the colonnade
at Drake's Place. The building
consisted of a large Hall, a Council
Room on the next floor, but not
over the Hall, the staircase of the
Council Room was in the Hall,
and this led also to the Debtors'
Prisons. The Market was under the
Hall and the Green Market, &c.,
Dit 0© ouiQnflLU below to the south. The Prisons
were attached on the east side. There was also a dungeon that came out
under the street on the north. The building taken altogether presented a
venerable appearance, especially from the west. Mr. Whitefield painted both
the east and west views in oil for John Arthur, Esq. ; he also had two views
40 STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH.
etched on a small scale, but these were not quite correct; a superior drawing
was done by Mr. Payne, the original being in the Plymouth Bank ; this faithfully
preserves the eastern view of the Hall, Prisons, &a The above is chiefly from
the Harris MS., but it may be added that an excellent copy of Payne's picture
is in the Public Library, executed by Miss Johns, daughter of a well known
A few words must suffice for a description of the existing building. It
has little or nothing to commend itself to the notice of the antiquary or the
lover of the picturesque. It was erected after the designs of a Mr. Eveleigh, of
Bath, and cost ;^7,ooo. For ugliness it certainly could not be surpassed, and
so men said from the first It contains a Hall, where public business was
carried on and justice dispensed for three quarters of a century; a Council
Chamber, very poor in contrast with that in which the meetings of our
municipal parliament are now held; various offices, and the cells; the "Clink"
being at the rear. Whatever may be said of the structure itself, it was the
centre of Plymouth's municipal life, and in the large hall many historical and
other interesting gatherings have been held, not the least interesting being
the occasion when the Freedom of the Town was presented to George Canning,
Secretary of State, in 1823. At a later date the same honour was conferred
upon Earl Russell, and from that time to the year 1874 when the building was
vacated for the new Guildhall, many interesting ceremonies have taken place
in this halL Since 1876 it has been the home of our Municipal Library.
Digitized by VnOOQ IC J j
'x.::^^'J , .L.KARY
^ MITRE '^ TAVERN AND PALACE COURT.
THE ''MITRE*' TAVERN-
OHE Mitre Tavern stood in Winchelsea Street, now Woolster Street,
and is believed to have formed part of the monastery of the
Grey Friars. It was at one time considered to be one of the
best inns in the town, and a long description is given of it in the Harris MS.
In common with all other ancient buildings in Plymouth, its later years were
spent amidst scenes of penury and dirt; its numerous rooms being let as
tenements to very poor persons.
The buildings extended from Wool-
ster Street in the front to Seven
Stars Lane (now Stillman Street)
at the back, and were undoubtedly
very extensive. It had an inner
court with cloisters, and colon-
nades ; an ancient chapel, the
appointments of which were re-
markably fine. Some very remark-
able pieces of carved work and
mediaeval paintings adorned this
present Exchange was projected,
and the promoters purchased the site of the old tavern, and removed the
greater portion of the buildings. A small portion, with an arched entrance
was however left, but this has since disappeared, and no relics of either the
monastery or the Mitre Tavern now remain. The paintings and other deco-
rations have disappeared, and this sketch, taken from an old drawing is all the
evidence left to us of what must have been a remarkably fine building.
y / V' E have it, on the authority of the well-known antiquary and traveller
M I I Leland, that this house was the abode of a rich merchant named
^.X^.^^ Paynter, who built " a goodly house towards the haven," and here
he entertained, in right royal style, that illustrious princess Katharine of Arragon,
who landed at Plymouth in 1501, and after some vicissitudes of fortune, became
one of the ill-fated wives of that Royal Blue-Beard Henry VIII.
This picturesque old building stood in Catte Street, now a part of Stillman
Street, its site being now occupied by a Board School, which, to keep up the
traditions of the past, is named the Palace Court Board School
Tradition also avers that Charles II., at a much later date, lodged in this
same old mansion; and certainly no more fitting residence could have been
found for a Royal visitor. We well remember it, but, of course, its glory had
departed ; it had fallen upon evil times ; but, as the illustration will prove, it
was, even to the end, a place of considerable pretensions to dignity. Entering
through an arched doorway at the High Street end of Stillman Street, the
visitor found himself in a spacious quadrangle, with quaint buildings on every
side. Arched doorways gave entrance to the various portions of the building,
and even, when most dilapidated, there were to be found in the staircases,
the windows, and the rooms, fine old carvings and charming wood panellings.
Despite the squalor of the surroundings and the general air of dirt and dilapi-
dation, the old building retained to the last, signs of its former grandeur,
both externally and internally. A portion of this fine old house is faithfully
reproduced in one of the Guildhall windows. The incident chosen is the
reception of Katharine by Paynter. The Princess is attended by several
Spanish grandees, and is evidently well pleased with the ofiers of hospitality
extended to her. Two prominent figures are Lord Willoughby de Broke and
the Duchess of Norfolk. Behind Richard Paynter is William Boyle, Mayor of
Plymouth, who is, however, taking a subordinate place in the reception of the
Digitized by VnOOQ IC
f UBIIC LiBKARY
THE OLD CASTLE, THE HOE GATE AND
THE CITADEL GATE.
HT the foot of Lambhay Street is still to be seen a small but very
substantial building, which is all that is left of the Plymouth
Castle, which was built on the rocky spur at the eastern end
of the Hoe, immediately overlooking and commanding the entrance of Sutton
Pool, somewhere in the reign of Henry IV.
When Leland visited Plymouth he found
the entrance to Sutton Pool defended by
a blockhouse on the south-west, and on a
rocky hill hard by "a strong castle quad-
rate, having at each comer a great round
Risdon also speaks of it From this
old " castle quadrate " the town takes its
arms, a saltire between four castles. This
interesting relic is now used as a dwelling-,
THE HOE GATE.
UNTIL the year 1863 this fine old gateway stood at the top of Hoe-
gate Street, and was one of the ornaments of the town as a relic
of by-gone days. It was built in the sixteenth century, and was
the last of the ancient town gates. About the middle of the seventeenth century
it was rebuilt, and in 1657 it was leased by the Corporation, but eventually passed
into the possession of the late Thomas Were Fox, who caused its demolition
at the date named above. There was no adequate cause for its removal ; as a
48 STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH,
Structure it was highly ornamental, the thoroughfare was but little used, and the
sum realised by its sale was little more than the value of the material. More-
over, it was the only relic of the town defences, save the gatehouse in Lambhay
Street, and recalled the time when Plymouth was a walled town, with gates at
convenient intervals. Needless to say the removal of this old landmark evoked
strong expressions of disapproval. It is a pity that the Corporation did not
purchase the structure and so preserve it, but the Corporation at that time
had little or no reverence for antiquities, and certainly none for the aesthetic
features of our streets.
It may not be inappropriate if we here give a brief list of the old town
gates with their approximate dates and the positions they formerly occupied.
Old Town Gate, rebuilt 1759, removed 1809. This gate stood at the
junction of Old Town Street, just below its junction with Drake Street.
West Gate, or Frankfort Gate, removed 1783. Until recently a ublet
was to be seen over the arched gateway leading into the yard of the Globe
Hotel, with the following inscription : — " Near this place formerly stood Frankfort
Gate, which, with others, formed the principal entrance into the Town, then
enclosed by a wall erected for the greater protection thereof by the Mayor and
Commonalty under the authority of the Charter of Henry VI. But in course
of years this mode of defence ceasing to be of any effect, the gate was taken
down in 1783, and the street and avenues adjoining considerably widened and
improved. This tablet was put up by order of the Mayor and Commonalty,
4th June, 1813."
South Gate, at Barbican, built 1602, removed 1831.
Friary Gate, near where is now the Friary Station of the London and
South Western Railway. It was removed in 1763.
East Gate, at Coxside, built 1589.
Martin's Gate, removed 1789. This was at the bottom of Green Street,
in Bilbury Street (now Treville Street) and stood across that part known as
Breton Side. It had two arches, one leading up Green Street the other up
Bilbury Street. This gate was very low and inconvenient, and coaches could
scarcely pass through it There were two or three rooms over the gateway.
North Gate, at the head of Gasking Street, removed in 1768. There is
U/^ ilVW VM^W.
Sthe klv; ycrk
STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH. 51
also a tablet concerning this gate still to be seen on or near its site. "Near
this spot stood a gate called Gascoyne's Gate, and which for the purpose of
its being open and widening the street was taken down in the year 1768 and
thrown into the site of the street adjoining. By order of the Mayor and
Commonalty, 4th June, 1813."
Four of the above gates were built in 1593.
THE CITADEL GATE*
HVERY striking entrance to the Citadel is this elaborate archway.
It was erected in 1670, the main portion of the fortification
which it adorns having been erected between the years 1666 and
1670. Until the extensive alterations made by the Corporation of Plymouth
a few years since, this fine gateway was reached by a drawbridge, through an
outer smaller gate, now rebuilt at the western sally port This, the principal
gateway is a very fine piece of stonework with elaborate ornamentation. On
either side the entrance archway are sculptured trophies between the pilasters,
the arch being surmounted by the arms of Grenville, Earl of Bath, who was
governor of the Citadel, and consequently military governor of Plymouth when
the Citadel was erected In the centre of the next stage over the archway is a
niche with a semi-circular head, which once contained a figure of Charles II.,
now replaced by a pile of cannon balls. On each side are warlike trophies,
and the entablature and cornice are supported on Corinthian pillars, the whole
surmounted by the Royal Arms, within an arch, over which is a globe between
two crowns, while the lion and unicorn, each supporting a shield of the St
George's Cross, stand out clear above the building. The Citadel, as a fortifi-
cation, is obsolete, although it has a few guns mounted on different batteries
which are used chiefly for drill and saluting purposes. A lai^e sum of money
has lately been spent in providing new buildings for barrack accommodation,
the fortress being now the head quarters of the Royal Artillery, attached to the
STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH,
The Citadel was built by command of Charles II., on the site of an old
fort, which had long existed on the spot, and which doubtless, comprised the
"platforms" so often referred to in the Corporation Records as having been
Thus we have in the year 1591, the entry: — "The platforms on the Haw
And, again, under the same year, 1591 : — "About this time divers platforms
on the Haw b^an to be methodized into a fortification r^ular, which was
afterwards made the fort of Plymouth."
And again in 1593: — "The fort built on the Haw Cliffs."
The Citadel was visited and inspected by Charles II., attended by the
Dukes of York and Monmouth and a large retinue, on the 17th of July, 1670,
but since that time many additions and enlargements have been made. Nothing
now is left but the inner fort or keep, the outworks having been removed when
the Corporation regained some portion of the site and laid out the slopes and
glacis, utilizing the trench or moat as a fine drive or promenade. Below the
Citadel, near the Lambhay Point may still be seen a portion of the old fortifi-
cation which is anterior to the erection of the present structure.
souTHSiDE street; pins lane, new street*
/^""^^ OUTHSIDE, or Southside Street, is the street leading to the
Y^^^J* Barbican, and although mudi modernized it is still full of unique
^^^..^ interest. Its chief attraction is undoubtedly the remains of the
house of the Black Friars, now converted into a distillery. These premises may
confidently be described as the oldest existing in the town.
When the Archaeological Society were at Plymouth, in 1882, they visited the
Distillery, and through the courtesy of the Proprietors, the visitors were shown
the remains of the refectory, which is so perfect structurally that though it has
been divided it could be restored to its pristine condition without difficulty.
One part of it is used as a private office and the other as a store. Mr. JL N.
Worth, the historian of Plymouth, who chaperoned the party, stated, " That there
could be no doubt that they were gathered within the walls of the house of the
Black Friars of Plynnouth (the only habitable remnant of their religious houses).
After the Dominicans were ejected it came into the hands of the Corporation,
who long used it as the town
Marshalsea. In 1672, it be-
came the first meeting-place
of the Plymouth Noncon-
formists, after Bartholomew,
under Nicholas Sherwill ; and
later it was occupied by a
congregation of Huguenots,
and for the last century it
has been a distillery."
In Southside Street there
stood until recently another
most noticeable building. It — -
occupied a position fronting <^ou%c cfj Micn^CDC^^cr^,
Southside Street, at the comer of Pins Lane. The entrance from the street was
56 STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH.
by a large stone gateway, and over the inner entrance were the arms of the
Cockes of Plymouth, viz., "Argent a chevron engrailed between 3 cocks* heads
erased sable, on a canton argent an anchor or.'' It is traditionally stated to
have been the residence of Capt Cocke, who did good service, in 1588, against
the Spanish Armada, and was the only English officer of note to lose his life in
the action. The building must have been a large one, as it extended into New
Street, and therefore occupied the whole length of Pins Lane, which connects
the two streets.
In Pins Lane formerly stood the quaint little houses shewn in the sketch,
having outside staircases and old diamond -paned windows. They had become
very dilapitated and were very insanitary, consequently their removal was
necessary. Nevertheless, one cannot but regret that so picturesque a bit of old
Plymouth could not have been preserved.
^^"^^ EW Street has been already mentioned, we need, therefore, only
1 JP add a few words more. Although called New Street, it is one
^ Vf of the oldest streets in the
town, and was, in the eighteenth century,
the residential quarter of some of the
principal merchants and people of standing
in the town. It had, however, very much
deteriorated in the early part of the nine-
teenth century and has gradually gone
lower in the social scale of its inhabitants,
as well as in the ricketty character of its
buildings. Two houses, already mentioned
as near the Barbican, with fine overhanging
gables and carved corbels and doorposts,
are solitary specimens of what Plymouth
houses used to be, and even they are
doomed. ■^•* •••n?"'
30UCrt5W sc^cc " ^'»^
"'i. ■ ';•■•; Y.: -
'^ Digitized by VnOOQ IC
Digitized by Google J-
THE BARBICAN OR SOUTH GATE.
BOR many years the Barbican has been the wholesale fish market of
Plymouth, and was at one time known as Southside, the South
Gale having been near by. As its name implies, the Barbican
formed a part, and an important part, of the fortifications of Plymouth, the
Castle standing on the higher ground immediately at the rear of the buildings
which then, as now, clustered near the waterside. Although nearly all the ancient
buildings have been swept away, yet a few remain, either on the Barbican itself
or in the streets immediately adjoining, notably New Street In fact, two of the
most picturesque houses in the old town may be discovered by turning out of
the Barbican and walking a few steps into New Street. But with these we deal
elsewhere. Interesting as is the Barbican, because of its great antiquity and its
immediate connection with the most memorable events of Plymouth history, it
is also full of interest from
a modem and commercial
The early visitor to the
Barbican will find himself in
the midst of a busy, bust-
ling scene; sturdy fishermen,
loud-voiced fish salesmen,
costermongers, fish women
and the usual hangers-on of
a great industry jostling one
at every turn. The Plymouth
fisheries form a not incon-
siderable factor in the indus-
trial life of Plymouth, and
here may daily be seen hun-
dreds of fishing boats belong-
ing to Plymouth, besides many ^^^ B/«pKViC i^i ^OliCH OACC
62 STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH,
others from distant ports, discharging their catches, which are being sold, packed
and despatched to London or elsewhere by the early or, perhaps, by special
trains. In addition to the ordinary fishing smacks and trawlers, may also be
seen two or more steam trawlers, these vessels venturing much farther afield
than the sailing craft, and it is nothing uncommon for these steam trawlers to
go as far as the Bay of Biscay for fish. Taking it altogether, there is no more
stirring and busy scene in the town of Plymouth than may be witnessed upon
the Barbican in the early hours of the day, not only during the fishing season,
but at almost any time throughout the year.
Turning for a moment to the historical associations connected with the
Barbican, it may be said briefly that from the earliest times it has been the
witness of stirring scenes. The departure of the Black Prince^ as pourtrayed in
the Guildhall window; his return from his victories in France; the raids of the
Bretons, who burnt a great portion of the town; the landing of Katharine of
Arragon ; the coming of the Armada and the preparations for defence ; the
departure of the Pilgrim Fathers, the exciting incidents of the Siege during the
Civil War ; the arrest of Sir Walter Raleigh ; and a host of other events of
more or less historical importance must be associated with this old quay, or
rather with the place itself, for the quay as it now stands is a modern structure,
the whole place having been recently improved at a large expense by the
Corporation of Plymouth.
On the Pier, at the end of the Barbican, is a stone with the simple word
"Mayflower, 1620," as well as a tablet let into the wall recording some par-
ticulars of the sailing of the Pilgrims. This is a spot venerated by Americans.
OLD CUSTOM HOUSE AND THE PARADE.
ON the Parade stands a quaint old building, now used as a store,
everything but its substantial walls being in a state of decay. The
numerous bricked-up arches indicate that it originally presented a
very different appearance. There remain on the level of the street two hand
some doorwa3rs with lintels and posts of carved granite. This was the Custom
House of Plymouth in the seventeenth century, and the immediate predecessor
of the building on the opposite side of the Parade, the latter building having
been erected in 1820, at a cost of ;^8,ooo. We are, however, informed that the
Corporation paid for work on a Custom House so long ago as 1586. From
this, and from other evidence, it appears that the official business of the
Customs has been carried on in the vicinity of Sutton Pool for centuries.
The mediaeval merchants .did not always get on well with the authorities,
and in 1450, they obtained an Act of Parliament to relieve them from the
extortionate demands of the water bailiff.
It is recorded that Henry Harfam, " custemer of Plymouth," was executed
at Tyburn in 1537, but the nature of his offence is not disclosed
When this old building was erected, what is now known as the Parade, was
a creek with private houses and warehouses lining both sides of the way, the
water flowing almost to the bottom of High Street
At what date the New Quay was erected we have not been able to dis-
cover, but it is shown in a plan of the Barbican made in 1677, now in the
British Museum, and in a later plan (that of Benjamin Donn, published in 1765),
the place is plainly marked New Quay, and in the centre stands one of the
town conduits, one of many such structures erected in the town during the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, to be superseded during the nineteenth
century by the more efficient water supply, which the inhabitants now enjoy.
One authority suggests that in olden time the Old Custom House, here
pourtrayed, was used as a barracks for artillery, and that the men used to
parade on the open space in front, hence the name. But however that may
be it is certain that the large open space from High Street to the Barbican,
66 STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH.
reclaimed from the sea, has been at various times the rallying ground of the
inhabitants and the centre of excitement in troublous times as well as in the
more peaceful excitements of modem elections.
One of our most noted Plymouth artists, Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, Presi-
dent of the Royal Academy, was born, it is said, in one of the houses on the
north side of the Parade. The house has recently been replaced by a more
modern structure, and we would suggest that some steps should be taken to
perpetuate the memory of our great and notable townsmen. The only instance
we know of this being done in the town is in the case of the birthplace of
Dr. John Kitto, in Seven Stars Lane, now Stillman Street, where the present
proprietors of the site have affixed to their malt-house or store, a tablet bearing
an inscription to the effect that Kitto was bom in a house which formerly
Cite ois cqscod) nousc
BOOE Street, at one time called Pike Street, is now almost a thing
of the past ; one side has been entirely demolished, and many of
the old houses which in former days made the narrow thorough-
fare so picturesque have been modernized and there is little or nothing now to
attract visitors, save and except two or three quaint relics of Tudor architecture.
Tradition has it that the town residence of Sir Francis Drake was at the
top of this street, close to the Old Guildhall, and other magnates occupied
houses in the immediate vicinity.
An architectural freak which went by the name of Hicks' Lane formed a
thoroughfare between Looe Street and How Street
In this street also, within living memory, was the publishing house of the
Plymouth Herald^ a weekly paper, which had a good circulation.
The " Pope's Head," in Looe Street, was probably for centuries the chief
house of entertainment in the town, where most of the grandees, who came
hither from all
parts of the
world, put up.
In fact, before
the erection of
the Royal Ho-
tel, in 1813, it
the head hotel,
and its landlord
became the first
lessee of the
in Briton Side,
70 STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH.
was also a noted house,, for, being on the, main load to Exeter, the coaches
made that their house of call.
C3niis Redding, in his " Fifty Years* Recollections — Literary and Personal,"
has many interesting stories to tell of Old Plymouth people, places and things.
Here is one which relates to the " Pope's Head " Inn : — " Once, on Incledon's
coming down, some naval men agreed to invite him to dinner at the * Pope's
Head ' Inn. We had an admiral in the chair. I joined the party. The object
was to hear his sea songs, which no one ever sung like him. He was a coarse
man, fond of eating and drinking. The bottle circulated freely. He gave some
of his best songs in excellent style. I had heard that the passage in Samson
Agonistes, beginning ' Total eclipse,' was admirably given by him. He b^an it,
but in a few minutes his head sank on his breast and he ceased to articulate,
becoming totally eclipsed himself. It appeared he had been dining out daily for
a week before. It is probable that his dinings out, and sacrifices to the bottle
which followed, and which he could not resist, aided to shorten his days."
At the bottom of Looe Street formerly stood a picturesque old house of
ancient pattern, the chief feature being that the front was slated; the slates
being of curious shapes. It was almost identical with other houses in different
parts of the town, viz., Kinterbury Street, formerly Colmer's Lane ; Southside
Street and Treville Street. But the most interesting feature of the old house
in Looe Street was a sign with a grotesque carving of a lion fondling a lamb,
and the quaint couplet: —
" The time will be
A Lyon and Lamb 'will agree."
Looe Street had many other interesting features, but these must suffice.
In coaching days it was probably a more important street than at any
other time, and possibly it is destined to become again an important thorough-
fare, the Corporation having widened it and purchased the whole site between
How Street and the Old Guildhall for the purpose of erecting blocks of work-
men's dwellings thereon.
Batter Street, at one time known as Pomeroy Conduit Street, which leads
to the Parade, was the scene of the accident which caused the life-long deafness
of Dr. John Kitto, and his birthplace was in Stillman Street, which runs parallel
with Looe Street, as stated elsewhere.
THE NEW YORK
OLD TOWN STREET.
* y^^^ LD Town," modernized into " Old Town Street," has been termed
m m the germ of ancient Plymouth. It was for centuries a most
X^_^X important part of the town, and is frequently mentioned in old
documents. One of the oldest wards of the town was termed Old Town Ward.
Of course, the designation was not confined to what is now known as Old
Town Street, one of the chief thoroughfares leading out of the town to the
Tavistock Road. In 1653-4, the sum of j£6 14s, 6d, was spent on building
the " Yam Market " in Old Town, and in 1656, shambles were built in the
middle of Old Town, a long narrow range of buildings 200-feet by 12-feet, with
the Leather Hall above, extending about a third of the length, and costing
;^i77 los. gd. Other portions of the market were in Whimple Street, the Fish
in 1693, and
moved to the
was made in
1 60 1-2 against
several old inns,
two of which
are shown in
viz., the "Old
76 STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH.
Four Castles " and the " Rose and Crown.". There were also the " White
Hart " and the " Ring of Bells," the " Cornish Inn," the " Bedford Inn," the
"Noah's Ark," the "Golden
Lion," and others which need
not be particularized.
In the " Rose and Crown,"
one of the oldest Plymouth hos-
telries, we seem to have a sur-
vival of the Wars of the Roses,
and certainly the appearance of
the old inn, as shown in the
sketch, points it out as having
dated from very early times.
" Chubb's " Hotel is but the suc-
cessor of the modest Commercial
In glancing over the list of
names given in an old Directory
of Plymouth (181 2) one meets with a lot of names of traders and others resident
in Old Town Street, in addition to which we find the names of others of the
private and professional classes who resided either in the street itself or in Old
Town Without, which meant without the gate, for there was at that time a gate
at the junction of Old Town Street and Drake Street, and just beyond was one
of the conduits, now to be seen in the ornamental grounds surrounding the
Drake's Place Reservoir. This old street has now been thoroughly transformed.
Once a narrow thoroughfare with low buildings, it is now a broad and hand-
some street, and will be still more so when the Corporation have carried out
the great designs which they have in hand, which promises to be a costly enter-
prise, and will take some years to complete.
HIGHER STREET, BRETON SIDE, FRIARY GREEN
AND PASSAGE HOUSE INN.
IT is not long since, that in Higher Street on the north side of
Exeter Street, and Lower Street on the south side of the same
street there could be seen numerous picturesque houses such as
are shown in the accompanying sketch. In common, with nearly all the old
streets of Plymouth, the hand of the destroyer has been busy, and these fine
gabled houses have been demolished to give place to newer and less picturesque
dwellings. In this way old Plymouth is vanishing, and new Plymouth is arising
in all the glory of new bricks and ugly stucco to the disgust of lovers of the
picturesque on the one hand, but to the joy of the utilitarian on the other.
Not only are the old houses, which form links with the remote past dis-
appearing, but even the street names become obliterated as years go by, and
the march of improvement spreads. It is the duty therefore of those who
venerate the past to do their best to preserve the memorials of old Plymouth —
the Plymouth as known to our fathers and grandfathers. In old maps we
note many street names which are no longer in existence ; thus, in the imme-
diate neighbourhood of which we are treating. Higher Street was >named Hawk
Street (in 1765), and Lower Street does not appear at alL Briton Side has lost
its individuality and has been merged into Treville Street, and Jubilee Lane now
forms part of Exeter Street ; Seven Stars Street (which is of more than ordinary
interest as the birthplace of Kitto) has been amalgamated with StiUman Street;
Duck's Lane is now Week Street ; Butcher's Lane has regained its older appel-
lation of Treville Street (from an old family name) ; Colmer's Lane is now known
as Kinterbury Street ; Pomeroy Conduit Street would scarcely be known as Batter
Street ; and Buckwell Street, which, between 181 2 and 182 1, was known as
Higher Broad Street, has returned to its all^iance to the still older name of
Buckwell Street ; its sister, Bilbury Street, for a time known as Lower Broad
Street, being now merged with Treville Street The name Exeter Street appears
I Digitized by VnOOQ IC
8o STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH.
to have been given to a portion of Briton Side (qy. Bitton Side) as late as
1793, and Friars Lane, now Beaumont Road, once rejoiced in the appellation of
Denham's Lane. Green Street was for a short time known as Little Church Lane ;
then as New Church Lane, and of late years it also has returned to its older
patronymic. Many other changes in our street nomenclature might be men-
tioned, but these must suffice to show that the town authorities have at various
times played fast and loose with our town's traditions, with little or no vene-
ration for the men, the events, or the days of the past
We have nothing particular to say concerning these houses in themselves,
they are merely taken as types of the old architecture of the town, similar to
those already noted as existing in New Street, Notte Street, Southside Street,
High Street, and elsewhere.
BRITON, or Breton, Side is the name still associated with a portion
of the main road leading to Exeter, which now forms part of
Treville Street As noted above, many of the old street names
have been obliterated by the present generation; in some instances they had
immediate connection with town affairs, and, in a few cases, they recorded im-
portant historical events or distinguished men and fomilies. Many instances might
be cited where old names having a significance have been abolished in favour
of new names having little or no significance. Briton Side is one of the most
notable of these examples, and commemorates repeated attacks made upon the
town by the French, or natives of Brittany. These raids extended over nearly
a century, the most notable occurring in 1339, 1377, 1399, 1403 and 1404-5. In
this latter year the invaders destroyed the greater portion of the town, about
600 houses having been burned. But the brave seamen of Plymouth were not
inactive, they did not allow the foreigners to have it all their own way; again
and again they sailed across the channel, and harried the towns on the other
side, such reprisals, in a measure, pa3ring off old scores. These events, and
others having more national and political importance, led to the expedition of
Edward the Black Prince, who sailed from this port with a large fleet and a
' 7 : ".
( y. LhNC^X
STPEJSTS OF OLD PLYMOUTH. 83
Strong anny, and beat the French on their own ground, thereby achieving great
honour to himself and much spoils of war to this country, including many
Thus does the name Briton Side become indissolubly linked with the early
history of our old town, but the name is now as much a memory as the events
The two events narrated above, viz., the Departure of the Black Prince in
1355, and the Descent of the Bretons in 1403-5, are well pourtrayed in the
Guildhall Windows to which we have already alluded in connection with other
OF course, this place takes its name from the Friary,, or Monastery of
the White Friars, whose establishment occupied the ground now
covered by the Friary Station of the London and South Western
The Carmelites, or White Friars, settled down here in 1313. They had
extensive buildings, including a stately church with a tall steeple, and here, in
1387, the Commissioners in the Scrope and Grosvenor controversy, touching the
the right to the arms "Azure a bend or," held a sitting. John of Gaunt was
one of the witnesses, and declared for Scrope. At the Dissolution, the property
passed into private hands, and eventually through the Molesworths and Qarkes
to the Beweses. The steeple was still standing in the latter part of the reign
of Elizabeth, so that it was not the steeple burnt with the "town's evydence"
by the Western rebels. The buildings were used as a hospital for sick soldiers
in the year 1794, and portions were used, as now, as dwellings for the poorer
portion of the community.
Mr. J. Brooking Rowe, in his " Ecclesiastical History of Old Plymouth "
traces the history of the Carmelite or Mendicant Friars, from their establishment
on Mount Carmel, where their monasteries were first situated. He goes on to
say : — " As was usual with the mendicant orders, they made things very lively in
the town and uncomfortable for the quiet, steady-going clergy of the parish, who
84 STREETS OF OLD PLYMOUTH.
did their work in their old-fashioned way. The advent of a party of preaching
Friars in the neighbourhood gave rise to much opposition, ill-feeling and party
spirit .... We thus find the Carmelites firmly established in Plymouth. They
proceeded with their buildings, which extended far east, and on the nort^ to
what we now call Tothill Lane (Beaumont Road), hard by where now another
convent stands, and where a church, but not of so imposing an appearance as
the old one of the White Friars, has recently been erected Almost the
only knowledge we have of the structure is from the map or chart supposed to
have been drawn in the reign of Henry VIII. The Church with its chancel,
indicated by the cross over it, is very conspicuous. The tower and spire must
have been very handsome, and apparently not inferior to that of St. Andrew.
The buildings were very extensive."
Friary Green is a green no longer, but within the recollection of the writer
the tide washed up into the open space now railed in at the junction of Exeter
Street with Sutton Road.
PASSAGE HOUSE INN*
OHIS Old Inn still stands at Cattedown, and doubtless was, in olden
times, a place of considerable importance, as before the erection
of the Laira Bridge, and the introduction of steamboats plying
across the Cattewater, the little village of Cattedown was the chief connecting
link between Plymouth and the villages on the other side of the water. In
fact, long after the erection of the Laira Bridge, foot passengers journeyed to
Cattedown to take the ferry for Oreston, Turnchapel, Plymstock and elsewhere.
We have nothing particular to say about this old inn. It has no history
so far as we can discover. It was merely, as its name implies, the house of
call for persons crossing the Cattewater at this point.
Picturesque it is to a certain extent, and there were several other pic-
turesque houses at Cattedown, but these are all gone and have made room for
the wharves and manufactories which form at the present time the chief charac-
teristics of the village on the Cattewater.
-.7 •■— , Y-'^K
' ■ 7
LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.
Agnew, Thos., Fleet Engineer, r.n.
Aldridge, Charles, m.d.
Aldridge, Miss A.
Alexander, A. Speirs, m.d.
Arrowsmith, Mrs. J. W.
Arthur, R. F.
Bainbridge, Rear-Admiral J. H
Barham, a. J.
». Bellamy, E. W.
Bellamy, G. D., ce. .
Bellamy, John Henry de C.
^Bewes, Cecil E.
Birdwood, Sir George
BiRDWOOD, H. M., C.S.L, LL.D.
Bloye, W. H., F.R.cy.s.
Blundell, C. W.
Bond, J. Kinton
Bond, J. T. .
Brown, J. P.
Burnard, Charles F., j.p., f.c
Byass, I. S. N.
Caley, Rev. W B. Russell, m.a.
Carne, Mrs. A. B. .
Chadwell, Charles .
Chalke, Raymond A.
Charlesworth, H. H.
Clark, Mrs. .
Collins, Arthur E., m. inst. ce.
Collins, Miss Arthurine Trelawny
CoMMiN, Jambs G.
Cornish, J. W.
Croft, Sir Alfred, k.c.i.e.
Cross, J. H. .
Davey, C. O.
Davy, A. J. .
DOIDGE & Co.
Drake, H. H.
4, George Street, Plymouth.
13, Princess Square, Plymouth. [2 copies
19, St Hilary Ter., Devonport '2 copies
Belle Vue House, Plympton. '2 copies
Belle Vue, Plympton. [2 copies
6, Sussex Terrace, Plymouth.
Stowford Lodge, Ivybridge.
Uplands, St. Julian's Rd., Streatham, S.W.
6, Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton.
Wellsboume, Compton Gifford, Plymouth.
Elfordleigh, Plympton, South Devon.
48, Headland Park, Plymouth.
Torr, Plymouth. [2 copies
12, Seymour Terrace, Lipson, Plymouth.
Temperley, Oakhill Park, Liverpool.
Hillside, Plympton. [3 copies
India Office, Whitehall, S.W. [4 copies
Dalkeith House, Cambridge Park,
Ebrington Street, Plymouth.
1 3, The Crescent, Plymouth.
Plymouth. [2 copies
Maristow Avenue, Ford, Devonport.
2, Houndiscombe Villas, Plymouth.
Chatsworth Lodge, Plymouth.
89, The Drive Mansions, Fulham.
ic^ Areyle Terrace, Plymouth.
Hillside, Milton Combe, Yelverton.
5, Coryton Terrace, Plymouth.
780^ Fulham Road, London, S.W.
20, Gatestone Road, Norwood, S.E.
City Engineer and Surveyor, Norwich.
8, Windsor Terrace, Plymouth.
Ham, Devonport [2 copies
230, High Street, Exeter.
Radnor House, Plymouth.
Rumleigh, Bere Alston.
148, New Kent Road, London.
9, Werter Road, Putney, S.W.
18, Endsleigh Place, Plymouth.
170, Union Street, Plymouth.
8, Limerick Place, Plymouth.
43, St George's Avenue, Tufhell Park, N.
Bedford House, Plymouth.
LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS,
Duke, H. E, . . . .
Eldred, Edgar . ...
Eldred, Edgar . ...
Eldred, Edward . ...
Eldred, Miss F. E. . . . .
Eldred, Henry . ...
Eldred, WiLLiNGTON . . .
Emdin, Archie R., Chief Engineer, R.N.,
Controller's Department, Admiralty
Eyre, Miss E.
Eyre, Lieut W. H., r.n.
Foster, Richard, m.a.
Fowler, F. S.
Fox, Charles A.
Frean, M. .
Gameson, John Herbert.
Giles, Lieut.-CoL G. M., lm.s.. Retired
Goodrich, Captain Clifford .
Graham, Charles (Rt. Rev. Bishop), d.
Green, Warwick A. .
Grey, Mrs. .
Guy, Mark .
Haddy, Mrs. E. M. .
Hall, Mrs. H. D. .
Hand, Thomas W., r.m.l.
Harris, Andrew Saunders
Harvey, T. H.
Hearder, Henry Pollington
Hearder, William, f.s.a.
HiGHTON, Francis W., r.n.
HiNE, James, f.r.i.b.a.
..HiNGSTON, Dr C. A. .
HiNGSTON, The Misses
Hobgen, Mrs. G.
HOYTE, p. S.
Hunt, E. A.
Jeffery, Arth. W., f.r. met. soc, &c.
Johnson, Miss A.
Jones, G. H.
Keily, Michael Dominic
Lane, F. Cecil
Layland-Barratt, Francis, m.p.
Lees, Robt. J as.
Lemann, Fredk. C. .
Lethbridge, a. E., C.C., mem. soc. arts., &c.
Lewarne, Rev. N. N.
LONNON, W., Fleet Engineer, r.n.
I, Paper Buildings, Temple, E.C. [4 copies
The Limes, London Road, Spring Grove,
The Gables, Petersfield, Hants.
Castle Dyke, Newton Abbot [2 copies
20, Gatestone Road, Upper Norwood, S.E.
The Court House, Shrewsbury.
The Drive Mansions, Fulham.
8, Foyle Road, Blackheath.
Plymleigh, near Plymouth.
Battisboro' House, Holbeton, Ivybridge.
2, Elizabeth Place, Plymouth. [2 copies
Bishop's House, Plymouth.
Sea View, Holyhead. [2 copies
6, Barton Terrace, Dawlish.
Mt Stone, Stonehouse, Plymouth. [2 copies
2, North Devon Place, Plymouth.
Public Free Libraries, Leeds.
3, Park View Villas, Thorn Park, Plymouth.
Blackhook, Fareham, Hants. [6 copies
26, Westwell Street, Plymouth.
198, Union Street, Plymouth.
12, The Terrace, Devonport Dockyard.
Lockyer Street, Plymouth.
3, Sussex Terrace, Plymouth.
7, Lockyer Street, Plymouth. [2 copies
194, Lewisham High Road, St John's,
London, S.E. [3 copies
Mona House, Coxside, Plymouth.
46, The Drive, Fulham, S.W.
10, Portland Villas, Plymouth. [2 copies
Coldrenick, Liskeard, Cornwall.
Board of Trade Office, Glasgow.
Bronala, 1 1 , Queen's Rd., Criccieth. [2 copies
Hamilton House, TothiU Road, Plymouth.
16, Caprera Terrace, Plymouth.
The Hollies, Mannamead, Plymouth.
8, West Hoe Terrace, Plymouth.
68, Cadogan Square, London, S.W.
6, Alton Terrace, Plymouth.
Black Friars House, Plymouth.
8, Westwell Street, Plymouth.
St. Catherine's Parsonage, Plymouth.
9, Queen's Gate Terrace, Plymouth.
LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.
May, William H.
Mead, Mrs. .
Merrifield, W. V. .
MiCKLEWOOD, E. H. .
Mitchell Library, The
Moore, Dr. D.
Mount Edgcumbe, The Rt Hon.
NORTHEY, E. A.
8, Bedford Street, Plymouth.
ID, Princess Square, Plymouth.
5, Green Bk., Waterloo, Liverpool [2 copies
5, St MichaePs Ten, Plymouth. [2 copies
21, Miller Street, Glasgow.
Cheriton, Cockington, Torquay. [4 copies
51, Manor Road, Brockley, London, S.E.
7, Windsor Place, Plymouth.
North Friary House, Plymouth,
the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe House, Plymouth.
Pearce, Percy T.
Pethybridge, H. M. .
Phillips, N. (Messrs. Turner & Phillips]
Phillips, R. J.
-r^ Phillpotts, Eden
PiCKEN, G. A.
PiCKEN, Rev. Wm. S. .
Pinsent, Hume C
-•^ Piper, Fredk. John .
Pitts, Mrs. Stanley T.
Plymouth Free Public Library
Plymouth Proprietary Library
PONSONBY, The Reverend Gordon, m.a.
POPHAM, Radford & Co*s. Library
R POPPLESTONE, RiCHD. W.
f POPPLESTONE, W. Gilbert
Radford, A. J. V.
Radford, Charles H.
Radford, George H.
Radford, John H.
Reed, W. Cash, m.d. .
Richards, W. J.
Rogers, G. Porter .
Rogers, V. P.
RowE, J. Brooking .
Roy, David .
Royal Western Yacht Club
St. Aubyn, Edward
Sandeman, H. D.
.««»6aunders, a. E.
Seeley, E. L.
Sexton, L. E.
Snell, Henry John
xw SoPER, J. Hawker
Union Street, Plymouth.
16, Princess Square, Plymouth.
12, Courtenay Street, Plymouth.
37, Huddleston Road,Tufhell Part
40, St George's Avenue, Tufncll Park, N.
Briar Tor, Yelverton, S. Devon.
190, Rua da Cerca, Foz do Douro,
Portugal. [4 copies
12, Hill Pk. Crescent, Plymouth. [6 copies
Reservoir House, Plymouth. [4 c^^s
Lordswood, Harborne, Birmingham.
29, Bedford Court Mansions, W.C.
16, Maresfield Gardens, London, N.W.
2, Gleneagle Road, Plymouth.
Whimple Street, Plymouth.
Cornwall Street, Plymouth.
The Rectory, Stoke Damerel, Devonport
Bedford Street, Plymouth.
18, Portland Villas, Plymouth.
2, The Esplanade, Plymouth.
Vacye, North Tamerton, Holsworthy.
2, Queen's Gate Villas, Plynaouth. [4 copies
Chiswick House, Ditton Hill.
Uppaton, Buckland Monachorum,
S. Devon. [6 copies
Sea House, Leigham Street, Plymouth.
15, Prince's Avenue, Liverpool. [3 copies
Riversdale, Torquay. [2 copies
ji, Warleigh Villas, Ford Park, Plymouth.
Castle Barbican, Plympton.
5, Windsor Villas, Plymouth.
The Hoe, Plymouth.
Glynn, Bodmin, Cornwall.
4, Elliot Terrace, Plymouth.
Ibanistall House, Southchurch, Essex.
The Library, Torquay.
17, Collings Park, Plymouth.
26, Caversham Road, London, N.W.
II, The Crescent, Plymouth.
13, Windsor Terrace, Plymouth.
Spearman, Col. W. T.
Square, E. Elliot .
Square, J. Elliot
Stevens, Edgcombe .
^ Sydenham, Lewis John
J Sydenham, E. D., r.n.
\ Sydenham, F. W., r.n.
, Sydenham, L. G.
LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.
Briar Tor, Yelvcrton.
Evelyn House, Plymouth.
to. Princess Square, Plymouth. [2 copies
22, Portland Square, Plymouth.
Staddon View, Salisbury Road, Plymouth.
II, Courtenay Street, Plymouth.
4, Portland Villas, Plymouth.
Thomson, Eustace B., m.d.
Treleaven, G. F.
Tripe, W. K.
Tucker, H. Scott
Turner, G. W.
Ussher, Beverley G.
ViCKERY, Wm. J.
Ward, Dr. J. P. Stephens
Waterfield, W. J.
Wells, H. E.
Westaway, a. E. L. .
White, Wm. Preswell
. Whitfeld, H.
Whitmarsh, Alfred, r.n.
Williams, Fleet-Surgeon J. 0*B.
Williams, Thomas H.
WiNDEATT, Edward .
Woods, W. Herbert .
--WOOLLCOMBE, JAMES YONGE
.Worth, R. Hansford
188, Camberwell Grove, London, S.E.
Norbiton House, Albany Place, Plymouth.
I, Anglesey Villas, Ford Park, Plymouth.
13, Gordon Terrace, Mutley, Plymouth.
Victoria Chambers, Plymouth. [2 copies
23, Westwell Street, Plymouth.
Plymouth High School.
Education Department, Whitehall, S.W.
5, St MichaePs Tcr., Devonport [2 copies
38, Whiteford Road, Plymouth.
Meraficld, Plympton. [2 copies
10, Tothill Avenue, Plymouth.
25, Elm Road, Mannamead, Plymouth.
5, South Lipson Terrace, Plymouth.
St Stephen^s Mount, Saltash.
105, The Drive Mansions, Fulham, S.W.
12, Portland Villas, Plymouth.
5, Saltram Place, Plymouth.
88, Elgin Cres., Kensington Pk. [4 copies
20, Torrington Place, Plymouth.
Athenaeum Street, Plymouth.
41, Whimple Street, Plymouth.
Royal Marine' Infirmary, Plymouth.
I, Gibbons Street, Plymouth.
44, Torrington Place, Plymouth.
6, Queen's Gate, Plymouth.
4, Seaton Avenue, Plymouth.
Printed by jAMES VL KSYS,
at 7, Whimple Street, Plymoutlu
~- ir -'-—^-^^^^^
Digitized by ^
SEP 2 3 1968