Skip to main content

Full text of "Transactions"

See other formats

MwnranjsiMARi ]9g , 

nol . ' ' 


Canadian Mining Institute 


Edited by the Secretary 




" The Institute as a body shall not be responsible 
for the statements and opinions advanced in the 
papers which may be read or in the discussions 
which may take place at its meetings." — By-Lazes, 
Par. xxxix. 

Published by Authority of the Council at the Secr/etary's Office, 
413 Dorchester Street, W., Montreal, August, 1908. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of Toronto 


List of Officers and Members of Council since the 

Establishment of the Institute showing the 

years during which office has been held. 



Coete, Eugene, 1903, 1904. 
Fergie, Charles, 1901, 1902. 
Fowler, S. S., 1900. 
Hardman, J. E., 1899. 

Keffer, Frederic, 1907. 
Miller, Dr. W. G., 19ns. 

Smith, G. R.. 1905, 1906. 


Adams, Dr. F. D., 1901, 1902, 1903, 

1905, 1906. 
Barlow, Dr. A. E., 190S. 
Cantlev, Thomas, 1905. 
Carlvle, W. A.. 1899. 
Chambers, R. E., 1903, 1904. 
Coste, Eugene, 1902. 
Dawson, Dr. G. M.. C.M.G., 1899. 
Donkin, Hiram, 1899, 1900. 
Drummond. Geo. E., 1899, 1900,1908. 
Duggan. G. H., 1905, 1906, 1907. 
Fergus, Chas., 1900. 

Eraser, Graham, 1901, 1902. 
Goodwin, W. L., 1905. 
Hedlev, R. R., 1901, 1902. 
Hobson, J. B.; 1903, 1904. 
Keffer. F., 1905, 1906. 
Kirbv, E. B., 1904. 
Leekie, R. G., 1905, 1906. 
McArthur, James, 1900, 1901. 
.Miller. Dr. W. G., 1907. 
Porter. Dr. J. Bonsall, 1907. 1908. 
Robertson, W. F., 1907, 1908. 
Smith. G. R., 1903, 1904. 


Adams, F. D., 1899, 1900, 1904, 1907. 

Aldridge. W. H., 1905, 1906, 1907. 
Barlow, Dr. A. E.. 1905. 1906, 1907. 
Bennett, B., 1902, 1903.' 
Blue, Archibald, 1899. 
Blue, John, 1905, 1906. 
Brent, Charles, 1899, 1900. 
Brewer, Win. W.. 1908. 
Brock, R. W., 1907, 1908. 
Browne, David II., 1907, 1908. 
Cantlev, T., 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906. 
Chambers, R. E., 1901, 1902. 
Cirkel, F., 1903, 1904. 
Cole, Arthur A., 1908. 
Coll, C. J.. 1905, 1906. 
Coste, Eugene, 1899, 1900. 
Cowans, J. R., 1899, 1900. 

Craig, B. A. C, 1905, 1906. 1907. 
DeKalb. Courtenev, 1901, 1902. 
Dimock, C. 1899. * 
Drurv, H. A., 1908. 
Duggan, G. H., 1903, 1904. 
Fergie, Chas., 1908. 
Fowler, S. S., 1898, 1899. 
Fraser, Graham, 1904. 
Gait. E. T., 1899, 1900. 
Gilman, E. W., 1907, 1908. 
Gilpin, Dr. E., 1903, 1904. 
Goodwin, Dr. W. L., 1903, 1904. 
(iwillim, J. C, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908. 
Hardman, John E., 1908. 
Haultain, H. E. T., 1907, 1908. 
Bay. Col. A. M.. 1905, 1906, 1907. 
Hedlev, Robt. R.. 1900, 1905. 
Hobson, J. B., 1899, 1901, 1902. 


The Canadian Mining Institute 


Hopper, R.T., 1899, 1900,1905,1906, 

1907, L908. 
Keffer. Frederic, L902, 1903. 
Kerr, L). (1.. 1903, 1904. 
Kirby, E. B., 1900, 1901, 1903, 
Kiddie, Thos., 1905. 1906, 1907. 
Kirkgaard, P., 1901, 1902. 
LecHe, R. G., 1901, 1904. 
Lewis, James F., 1900, 1901. 
Libbv, W. L., 1899, 1902. 
Little, W. F., 1901, 1902. 
Macdonald, Bernard, 1900, 1901. 
.McArthur, James, 1899. 
McCall. J. T., 1901, 1902. 
McConnell, R. G., 1900, 1901. 
McEvov, J., 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 

McXab, A. J., 1908. 
McNaughton. G. F., 1900, 1901. 
Meissener, C. A., 1899, 1900, 1905. 
Miller, Dr. W. G., 1904, 1905, 1906. 
Obalski, J., 1898, 1905. 

Parrish, S. F., 1903, 1904. 

Parsons, W. F. C, 1908. 

Poole, H. S., 1900, 1901. 

Porter, J. Bonsall, 1902, 1903, 1905, 

Kobb D. W., 1901, 1902, 1905, 1906, 

1907, 1908. 
Robbing, Frank, 1902. 
Robertson, \V. F., 1904. 
Shields, Cornelius, 1902, 1903. 
Siostedt, E. A., 1902, 1903. 
Smith, F. B., 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908. 
Smith, Geo. R., 1899, 1901, 1902. 
Smith, J. Burley, 1900, 1901. 
Smith, O. B., 1908. 
Stewart, R. H., 1908. 
Tonkin, J. H., 1903. 
Turn 3 r, A. P., 1902, 1903. 
Tvrrell, J. B., 1908. 
Williams, H. J., 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906. 
Willmott, A. B., 1905. 


Bell B. T. A., 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, Coste, Eugene, (Acting Secretary) 
1903. 1904. 

Lamb, H. Mortimer, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908. 


Brown, J. Stevenson, 1900, 1901,1902 Stevenson, A. W., 1899. 
1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 




Report of the Annual General Meetings, Ottawa, March 4th, 5th, and 6th. . 3 

Western Branch Meetings, reported by E. Jacobs 72 

Cobalt Branch Meetings, reported by G. R. Hardy 86 

Montreal Branch Meeting 87 

McGill Mining Society, reported by H. H. Yuill 88 


C. K. LEITH— The Iron Ores of Canada 91 

A. B. WILLMOTT— The Iron Ores of Ontario 106 

Discussion 124 

J. G. PARMELEE— The Iron and Steel Industry of the Province of On- 
tario 125 

X. L. LEACH — The Moose Mountain Iron Ore Deposits 148 

J. E. HARDMAX — A New Iron Ore Field in the Province of New Bruns- 
wick 156 

R. H. SWEETZER— The Blast Furnace Fuel for Ontario 165 

R. TURXBULL — The Reduction of Iron Ores in the Electric Furnace . . 175 

Discussion 178 

A. STAXSFIELD— Possibilities in the Electric Smelting of Iron Ores. . . 181 

P. Mc X. BEXXIE — Progress with the Grondal Process of Concentrating 

and Briquetting Iron Ores 189 

Discussion 199 

R. W. ELLS — Carbonaceous and Bituminous Minerals of Xew Brunswick 204 

Discussion 227 

D. B. DOWLIXG— Classification of Coal 220 

Discussion 227 

E. NYSTR* )M— The Utilization of Peat for Industrial and Metallurgical 

purposes 230 

H. P. H. BRUMELL — Modes of Occurrences of Canadian Graphite .... 236 
Discussion 243 

J. < tBALSKI — Gold in the Eastern Townships of the Province of Quebec 251 

Discussion 254 

A. E. BARLOW — The Origin of the Silver of James Township, Montreal 

River Mining district 256 

Discussion 273 

R. E. HORE — Origin of Cobalt Silver Ores of Xorthern Ontario 275 

A. A. COLE— The Sampling of Silver-Cobalt Ores at Copper Cliff, < >ntario 287 

The Canadian Mining Institute. 


1'. N. \ \.\ W Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt, Ontario 292 

I". C. LORING Mining al Cobalt 335 

G I SANCT< IN- Methods of Concentration at Cobalt, Ontario 340 

.1. B. TYRRELL- Minerals and Ores of Northern Canada 348 

1 discussion 364 

T. L. WALKER- The < >ecurrence of Tungsten < >res in Canada 367 

W H HO YD — Topographical Methods used for the Special Map of Ross- 
land, B. C 372 

F. KEFFER — Notes on Costs of Diamond Drilling in the Boundary Dis- 
trict 385 

( !. M. ( AMPBELL— Granby Mining .Methods 392 

Discussion 413 

A. B. H. HODGES— Handling Three Thousand Tons of Ore per day at 

the Granby Mines and Smelter 408 

\Y. M. BREWER — Some Notes on the Copper River district. Alaska . . 41") 

('. CAMSELL — Observations on the Geologv and Ore Deposits of Camp 

Hedley. B. C 423 

J. C. GWILLIM — A Partial Bibliography of Publications referring to the 
Geology and Mineral Industry of Alberta, British Columbia and the 
Yukon 433 

C. S. BAKER — Notes on the Practice of Assaying in B. C 445 

E. JACOBS— Mineral Production of B. C. in 1907 452 

H. H. CLAUDET — A few notes on the Elmore Vacuum Process of Ore 

Concentration 4(30 

E. P. JENNINGS — Secondary Copper Ores of the Ludwig Mine. Yerring- 

ton, Nevada 463 

J. D. KENDALL— The Duties and Rights of Engineers 467 

W. CAMPBELL — Metallography Applied to Engineering 471 

E. D. INGALL — Note on a System of Conventional Signs for Mineral 

Occurrence Maps 4S7 

H. H. STOEK — Secondary Mining Education 504 

Discussion .521 

H. H. YUILL— The "White Bear Mine," Rossland, B.C 525 

A. A. PARE — Mining and Mining Methods of the Yukon 545 

L. STEWART— The Creighton Mine of the Canadian Copper Co., Sudbury 

district, Ontario 5(i7 

B. NEILLY — Refining of Silver Bullion containing Arsenic and Antim- 

ony 586 

F. NICOLAS— General Index 593 

Dr. WlLUBT G. MILLER, Provincial Geologist of Ontario. 
Elected President Canadian Mining Institute, March, 1908. 



Ottawa, March 4th, 5th & 6th, 1908 

The tenth Annual General Meeting of the Institute was held 
at the Russell House, Ottawa, on Wednesday, Thursday and 
Friday, March 4th, 5th and 6th, 1908. 

The members in attendance assembled in the drawing-room 
of the hotel, on Wednesday morning at 10 o'clock. The meeting 
was called to order by the President, Mr. Frederic Keffer, En- 
gineer of the B.C. Copper Co., Ltd., Greenwood, B.C., who in 
opening the proceedings said: "We are honoured to-day by the 
presence of the Minister of Mines, the Hon. William Templeman, 
who has kindly consented to address you (applause). It is scarcely 
necessary to inform the Honourable Minister that this Institute 
is a very representative body. It has now a membership of, in 
round numbers, seven hundred, and we include on our roll virtually 
all the mining men of standing of the Dominion. It has already 
played a very important part in promoting the welfare of the 
great industry it represents. Its purpose in bringing together the 
mining engineers of the country is to disseminate technical know- 
ledge, to raise the standard of achievement and, in general, to foster 
an industry which — already important — is but on the thresh- 
hold of a development which possibly, nay probably, will make 
Canada the greatest mineral producing country in the world (ap- 

"Another and parallel aim of the Institute is to serve the cause 
of education. Ever since our organization, many years ago, 
we have done our best to aid young men entering the profession. 
By offering annually prizes for competition, by establishing college 
branches, and by other means, we have secured the interest of these 
young men and many of them are now members of the Institute, 
while at present we have a student membership of over a hundred. 
You, Mr. Templeman, and your government have been liberal and 
consistent in aiding our development and our work, and it is the 

The Canadian Mining Institute. 

ambition of the Council and the members at large to prove to you 
by our works that your assistance has been wisely bestowed. 

"Now, gentlemen of the Canadian Mining Institute, I have 
the honour to introduce the Honourable William Templeman, 
Minister of Mines, who will welcome you to the capital city of 
the Dominion." (cheers). 


The Honourable William Templeman, (Minister'of Mines), 
who was greeted with applause, said: "-It was the intention of 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier to be here to-day to welcome you to the city 
of Ottawa, but I regret to say he has been compelled on sudden 
notice to leave the city, and so is unable to be present on this 
occasion. I have very great pleasure indeed in being here to 
welcome the members of the Canadian Mining Institute to the 
city of Ottawa. I understand from what you have just said, Mr. 
President, that the Institute has grown in numbers and influence 
very considerably during the last few years. The Department of 
Mines of Canada, of which I have the honour to be the head, is as 
yet young and inexperienced and it is a satisfaction for me to 
know that we have an organization of this high character, com- 
posed as it is of mining engineers, geologists, men versed in the 
technical and practical side of mining, in short so thoroughly rep- 
resentative of the mining industries of the country, to give us aid 
and counsel at all times, (hear, hear). I appreciate what you 
have said, Sir, that Canada is destined to become one of the leading 
mining countries in the world. It is because, coming as I do from 
the province of British Columbia (which we are vain enough to 
sometimes think is one of the leading mining provinces of the 
Dominion) and having a more or less superficial knowledge of the 
mining resources of that province and the development that has 
taken place there during the last fifteen } r ears, that I induced my 
colleagues to constitute a Mines Department, (hear, hear). 
The Mines Department of the Dominion of Canada has not yet 
been completely organized; we hope to greatly extend its field 
of usefulness. We have had some difficulties to contend with, but I 
am glad to say these are being rapidly overcome and I know that 
there is in the minds of my colleagues a desire to foster and en- 

Proceeding <>f 10th Annual Meeting 

courage the mining industry of Canada. The Dominion Mines 
Department occupies a somewhat different position from that 
occupied by the Mines' Departments of the .several provinces. We 
have not, of course, anything to do with legislation affecting min- 
ing in those provinces, which control and own their own minerals; 
but in the new provinces of the West — in Manitoba, Alberta and 
Saskatchewan — in which the Dominion Government controls the 
mining rights, we continue to exercise jurisdiction. But the Do- 
minion Mines Department has, apart from this, a great and useful 
work to carry out. For example, we can encourage mining along 
educational lines, and that I can assure you is one of the main 
objects we have in view; moreover, we purpose encouraging by 
experiment and investigation the great interests you are assembled 
to promote. I am not at the moment prepared to say more to 
you; I am a novice facing experts; I cannot speak about mining 
from the standpoint of experience or technical skill. I can, how- 
ever, assure you again that in so far as the Mines Department of 
Canada is concerned we stand to help in the development of the 
mining industries of the country, (applause). We know enough 
about those resources of Canada to believe, as the chairman has 
said, that we will soon become one of the greatest mining countries 
in the world. I extend again a cordial welcome to you on behalf 
of the Prime Minister and of myself. I trust that your meetings 
will be interesting and profitable to yourselves and to the country, 
and that the results will be beneficial to the interests you have so 
much at heart. I would, however, counsel you not to imitate 
Parliament too closely and have all night sessions, for in my opinion 
that is not a very desirable thing. I offer my best wishes for the 
success of this meeting: and of the Canadian Mining Institute.'' 

letters of regret at inability to attend. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Templeman's address the Secretary 
read letters of regret at inability to be present from Dr. J. F. Kemp, 
Columbia University, X.Y.. Mr. John Duer Irving, of Yale Univer- 
sity, Mr. S. F. Emmons, Geological Survey of the United States, 
and Mr. Alfred C. Lane, State Geologist, Lansing, Michigan. 

The Canadian Mining Institute 


Di. J. Bonsall Porter then asked permission to move that 
the secretary be instructed to despatch a telegram to Dr. A. P. Low, 
Deputy Minister of Mines, at present convalescing in the West 
Indies, expressing the sympathy of the Institute in his illness and 
its thanks for the interest he had always shown in the work, and the 
assistance he had been ever ready to afford, the Institute in the 

The resolution was seconded by Mr. Geo. R. Smith, and was 
carried unanimously. 


The following papers were then read and discussed: 

the classification of coal, by D. B. Dowling, Ottawa. 



on secondary education, by H. H. Stoek, Scranton, Pa. 


Walker, Toronto, Ont. 


rossland, B.C., by W. H. Boyd, Ottawa, Ont. 


Upon re-assembling at 3 o'clock, the President announced that 
Dr. J. Bonar, Deputy Master of the Royal Mint, at Ottawa, had 
kindly intimated that members of the Institute would be welcome 
to visit that institution at any time during their stay in the city. 

The following papers were then read and discussed : 


Quebec, Que. 

Canadian graphite, by H. P. H. Brumell, Buckingham, Que. 


by A. B. W. Hodges, Grand Forks, B.C. 

Paper read by Mr. R. R. Hedley in the absence of the author. 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 


district, B.C., by Frederic Keffer, Greenwood, B.C. 


At the evening session, 8 p.m., Dr. Wm. Campbell, of Columbia 
University, New York, delivered a most interesting address on 
the subject of "Metallography as applied to Engineering." The 
lecture was admirably illustrated by lantern slides. At the close 
of his address Dr. Campbell extended a hearty invitation to mem- 
bers of the Institute visiting New York to inspect his laboratories 
and apparatus at Columbia University. 


The President: — I, and I am sure all here, have listened with 
a great deal of pleasure to the very excellent address of Prof. Camp- 
bell, and on behalf of the Institute I am pleased to extend to that 
gentleman a very warm welcome to our convention. 

Dr. Stansfield: — I wish to say a few words in appreciation 
of the address of Dr. Campbell, and especially in appreciation of 
his beautiful-photographs. Dr. Campbell began working on metal- 
lography a number of years ago in a laboratory of which I was 
in charge, and I believe that his original work in that line was on 
a piece of work I had originated, that of the constitution of the 
copper-tin alloys, which I had worked out with the acid 
of the recording pyrometer, taking cooling curves. At my sug- 
gestion Dr. Campbell proceeded to complete the work by means 
of the miscroscope. although at that time I could not give him very 
satisfactory apparatus. After that he went to New York, where 
he has ultimately obtained the very satisfactory results we have 
seen this evening. Dr. Campbell began his work at the Royal 
School of Mines in London, where they now have a very satisfac- 
tory apparatus for this line of investigation. The Metallurgical 
Laboratories at McGill are also well equipped for such work. 

Dr. Porter: — This is a matter of immense importance to 
geologists and students of ore deposits. We 1 ave with us several 
people eminently qualified to speak on this subject, in relation to 
the question of steel rails, for instance, which is an affair of crying 

The Canadian Mining Institute. 

importance. We have also petrographers and geologists, and I 
think we could have a very interesting discussion on this paper. 

The President: — I would suggest a few words from Dr. 

Dr. Adams: — I am afraid that I am scarcely competent to 
adequately discuss this subject, Mr. Chairman, but I may say that 
the point which has always struck me in connection with this vfery 
interesting metallographic work is that it brings out so strikingl}' 
the resemblances in structure which exist between alloys or com- 
pounds of metals and rocks. The structure of cementite, as we 
saw it so beautifully on the screen this evening, is strikingly similar 
to that of graphic granite. There are many other structures which 
are developed in these metallic rocks, if we may so style them, 
which are precisely similar to those we are accustomed to see 
under the microscope in ordinary rocks made of minerals. I 
desire to convey my sincere congratulations to Dr. Campbell for 
his excellent paper, and to express my great admiration of the 
photographs which he has thrown upon the screen and by which 
his remarks were so admirably illustrated. 


Mr. D. B. Dowling, then read a paper on "A Prospecting 
Trip in the Rocky Mountains. " in which he gave an entertaining 
account of a summer spent in the hills and valleys of that section of 
country, and showed a series of very beautiful slides, many of which 
were coloured. 

In moving a vote of thanks to Mr. Dowling, Dr. Porter said: 
" We have listened with great pleasure to Mr. Dowling's very 
interesting address, but I think we should compliment him in part- 
icular upon his very excellent slides, which are very tastefully 
coloured, and I should like to ask who was responsible for that work? 
It is about the best I have seen. 

Mr. Dowling: — I did it myself. To colour my slides I used 
a dye which I obtained from a Chicago firm, and which I applied in 
the ordinary way with a brush, diluting the dyes as needed with 

The vote of thanks was seconded by Dr. Adams and unani- 
mously carried. 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 9 

Mr. E. D. Ingall, then read a short paper entitled "A 
Note on a System of Conventional Signs for Shewing Min- 
erals Occurrences on Maps, Etc. " 

thursday morning session. 

The session opened at 10 o'clock, and was devoted to matters 
of business detail in connection with the affairs of the Institute. 

The President, Mr. Frederic Keffer, delivered his annual 
address as follows: 


In reviewing the past year it is gratifying to be able to note 
a substantial increase in the membership of the Institute. At 
our last meeting the roll included some five hundred names, 
whereas at the present time we have, in round figures, a member- 
ship of seven hundred. The professional standing and character 
of the gentlemen we have admitted to membership during this 
period is also a matter for congratulation, since the list includes 
so many men actually engaged in building up the mining industry 
of Canada — men widely known in their several fields of work. 

One of the important tasks undertaken during the year by 
the Council of the Institute, is the establishment of branch libra- 
ries in the more important mining centres, a work which cannot 
fail to add to the usefulness of the Institute. 

Another important business now before the Institute is the 
coming visit (next Fall) of distinguished representatives of the lead- 
ing engineering and mining societies of Great Britain, who will 
come out asg ests of the Canadian Mining Institute to participate 
in a proposed tour of the mineral regions of the Dominion, inclu- 
sive, if possible, of the Province of British Columbia. As a resi- 
dent of the latter pruviuce, I think that I may safely promise, on 
behalf of my fellow, members in that field, that we will do all in 
our power to make that visit a pleasant and profitable one for 
our London gue- 

Last January there was organized at Xelson, B.C., a Western 
Branch of the Institute, in order that members resident in the 

tern Provinces, of whom verv few indeed can attend the 

10 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

annual meetings usually held in Eastern Canada, may enjoy the 
advantages of personal association and interchange of ideas. About 
thirty members were in attendance, and although there were 
fewer present than had been hoped, still those who did attend 
included many of those foremost in the mining industry of the 
Province, and the meeting was thoroughly representative. Mr. 
A. B. W. Hodges, the Acting Manager of the Granby Cons. M. & S. 
Co., Ltd., owning the greatest copper mining and smelting works 
in Canada, was elected President, and Mr. E. Jacobs, Editor of 
"The Mining Record," of Victoria, a gentleman well and favour- 
ably known throughout the Dominion by his journalistic work in 
connection with mining, was elected Secretary-Treasurer. A 
strong council of nine members, representing Alberta, British 
Columbia and the State of Washington, was also elected. It is 
the intention to hold meetings every four months in various parts 
of the territory covered by the branch, so as to give members an 
opportunity to attend a meeting at least once each year. It was 
felt that in this way only could the proper spirit be fostered, and 
a lively interest in the Institute maintained. 

That this interest needs to be awakened was amply demon- 
strated when notices were being sent out to members in respect to 
the Nelson meeting. Although a return addressed postal card 
was sent to every member, and all required of him was to reply 
"Yes" or "No" to the questions asked, but fifty per cent, of the 
members responded; while to the notices sent out last September 
the response was even less satisfactory. We hope to change all 
this in the West and make the Institute and its work a live issue; 
and its meetings so valuable that members will realize that they 
cannot afford to remain away. And if this Institute is to occupy 
the position it can and should, it is imperative that the interest of 
all members should be enlisted and that we should all work to- 
gether as for a common cause. 

In conclusion, it is related that when the Declaration of In- 
dependence was signed in 1776, some wag amongst the subscribers 
said — "Gentlemen, we must all hang together now, for if we don't 
we shall assuredly all hang separately." It is much the same 
with our organization. We must all hang, work and strive to- 
gether for a national Canadian Mining Institute of which we can 
all be proud. Nothing short of this is worth while, (applause). 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 11 

The Secretary (Mr. H. Mortimer-Lamb) then read the annual 
report of the Council for the year 1907-1908, as follows-— 



The Ninth Annual Meeting of the Institute was held at the 
King Edward Hotel, in the city of Toronto, on March the 6th, 
7th and 8th, 1907. The attendance was the largest in the history 
of the Institute and the occasion was also noteworthy in that the 
members were afforded the privilege of entertaining a number of 
distinguished guests from the United States, who took an active 
interest and part in the proceedings. Other meetings have been 
held during the year under the auspices of the local branches of 
Cobalt and Toronto; whilst an important meeting of Western 
Members, for the purpose of organizing a Western Section and 
for the reading of papers, was held at Nelson, B.C., on Jan. 15th, 

Five regular meetings of Council have been held at Head- 
quarters, the attendance having been generally above the average 
of former years. 


Thirty-five papers were presented at the Annual Meeting, 
and these with the discussions thereon, and a Report of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Meeting, now constitute Vol. X. of the Journal of 
the Institute, which has been issued to members in good standing. 

At a meeting of the Council in October last, it wes decided to 
publish thereafter advance proofs of papers contributed by mem- 
bers, reports of Branches and Affiliated Societies and other matter 
of general interest to the membership, in the form of a quarterly 
Bulletin. The first number of this Bulletin has been placed before 


The increase in the membership during the year is exception- 
ally gratifying, there having been elected since the last Annual 
Meeting one hundred and sixty one members, thirty-four associate 

12 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

members, thirteen corresponding members, and four student mem- 
bers, or a total of two hundred and two, representing an increase 
in membership for the year of over forty-five per cent. 


This large increase in membership is mainly attributable to 
the interest that has been awakened in the work of the Institute 
in the Provinces of British Columbia and Alberta, and in the Cobalt 
District of Ontario. In the latter District, a Branch was success- 
fully organized on the 15th of April last, Mr. Arthur A. Cole 
having been elected Chairman and Mr. G. R. Hardy, Secretary. 
The branch holds regular monthly meetings for the reading of 
papers and for the discussion of questions of local interest. The 
Western Section or Branch, to which already allusion has been 
made, was organized at Nelson, B.C., on Jan. 15th, 1908, with 
a membership in round figures of a hundred and fifty, including 
members residing in British Columbia, Alberta and the adjacent 
United States territory. A vote having been taken, Mr. A. B. W. 
Hodges, General Manager of the Granby Consolidated Mining, 
Smelting and Power Co., Ltd., of Grand Forks. B.C., was elected 
Chairman, and Mr. E. Jacobs, of Victoria, B.C., Secretary of the 
Western Branch. The Council desires to record its appreciation 
and to express its grateful acknowledgment of the valuable ser- 
vices rendered, in connection with the organization of the Western 
Branch, by the President of the Institute, Mr. Frederic Keffer, 
who undertook and carried out all the arrangements for the meet- 
ing, the success of which may be almost entirely credited to his 
personal efforts and zeal. 

On Feb. 13th, 1908, a Montreal branch of the Institute was 
organized with Mr. George E. Drummond as Chairman, and Mr. 
J. W. Bell, Secretary. This branch contemplates holding monthly 
meetings during the Winter months. 


The Council records with profound regret the deaths of the 
following members: — Mr. John Blue, Eustis, Que.; Dr. W. H. 
Drummond, Montreal; Dr. E. Gilpin, Jr., Halifax, N.S.;Mr. T. R. 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 13 

Gue, Halifax, X.S.: Mr. George T. Marks, Port Arthur, Ont, and 

Mr. Tyndall Phipps, Reno, Nevada. 

The following gentlemen have resigned their membership: — 
Messrs. F. Bacon, T. B. Bacon, Thomas Barnes, W. Caldwell, 

\Y. J. Chalmers, H. E. Coll, D. Ford, H. W. Hixon,H. W. Machines, 

H. Montgomery, Robert Murray, F. N. Speller and J. J. Campbell. 


The library and reading room at headquarters have been freely 
used by members and visitors during the year. Upwards of two 
hundred volumes have been added to the library shelves, including 
transactions of technical and learned societies, official reports, 
periodicals, and exchanges. The Secretary is now engaged in 
arranging for the establishment of libraries, at all the principal 
mining and industrial centres of the Dominion, for the convenience 
of members residing elsewhere than at headquarters; and it is hoped 
that this proposal, which has already met with much encourage- 
ment, will be carried into effect within the next few months. 


Acting under instruction of the Council, Messrs. Adams, Porter 
and the Secretary, last November, waited on the Honourable the 
Minister of Mines and the Honourable the Minister of Finance, at 
Ottawa, and urged that the vote annually granted to the Institute 
by the Federal Parliament be increased from three to five thousand 
dollars. This additional assistance was asked for in consideration 
of the extension of the Institute's field of usefulness, and of further 
proposals looking to that end. The Council has much pleasure 
in stating that the larger sum has in consequence been included in 
■this year's estimates. 

Deputations have also waited on the Honourable the Minister 
of Mines for the Dominion, Mr. Templeman, and on the Honourable 
the Minister of Mines of Ontario, Mr. Cochrane, to ask for financial 
assistance in connection with a proposal to invite representatives 
of the leading mining and engineering societies of Great Britain and 
the Continent to visit Canada this summer as the guests of the 
Institute to take part in a general excursion of members to all 

14 The Canadian Mining Institute 

the important mining regions of the Dominion, from Ocean to 
Ocean. The Council has every reason to believe that substantial 
financial assistance will be given the Institute in carrying out this 


The creation by Act of Parliament last spring of a Federal 
Department of Mines, the desirability and need of which has been 
persistently urged by the Institute on frequent occasions in the 
past, is worthy of special remark. This department has been 
placed under the Ministerial control of the Honourable William 
Templeman, who, as is well known, has keenly at heart the welfare 
of the mining industry of the Dominion, and is earnestly desirous of 
promoting its growth and prosperity. In this desire he has the 
loyal support and active co-operation of Dr. A. P. Low, the Deputy 
Minister, (whose present disability in consequence of long and 
severe illness, the Council notes with profound regret) ; and of the 
Director of Mines, Dr. Eugene Haanel, and the acting Director of 
the Geological Survey, Mr. R. W. Brock, the executive heads of the 
two branches of, respectively, Mines and Geology. The good 
service the Department has already rendered the country in gen- 
eral, and the mining industry, in particular, is already evidenced in 
the publication of the several valuable monographs and other 
reports of an economic nature issued during the past twelve months. 


After receiving the report of the judges, Messrs. Charles B. 
Going and Frederick Hobart, the Council awarded the President's 
gold medal, for the best paper submitted by a Student Member 
during the year, to Mr. Frank E. Lathe, of McGill University, 
Montreal, in addition to a cash prize of twenty- five dollars. Cash 
prizes of twenty dollars were also awarded to the following gentle- 
men: Mr. G. R. McLaren, of the School of Mining, Kingston, 
Mr. W. J. Dick, of McGill University, Montreal, and Mr. C. V. 
Brennan, of McGill University, Montreal. 

The following extract from the Report of the judges may be of 
interest to members: "The undersigned, appointed by you 
judges of the student papers submitted to the latest annual meeting 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 15 

of the Institute, would respectfully report as follows: The first 
place should be accorded to the paper on 'Basic Open-Hearth 
Steel Manufacture as carried out by the Dominion Iron and Steel 
Company at Sydney, Cape Breton,' by Frank E. Lathe. This is 
an excellent monograph, carefully written, with full attention to 
details, and especially to the costs and expenses of manufacture; 
a point in which many technical papers are deficient. It shows also 
a fair sense of proportion; that is, of the relative importance of the 
various parts. This paper unquestionably takes the first place. 
It is to be regretted that it cannot be published in full, as some of 
the details of costs, etc., were given to the writer on condition that 
they should not be made generally public. The two papers 'The 
Cariboo Consolidated Hydraulic Plant, Bullion, B.C.,' by W. J. 
Dick, and 'Underground Mining Methods at the Quincy Copper 
Mine, Michigan, ' by G. R. McLaren, appear to be of nearly equal 
excellence. The former should, perhaps, have the preference, as 
relating to a Canadian topic. The Quincy paper has a number of 
sketches which serve to illustrate its text, but which might have 
been more carefully executed. The paper on 'The Oldham Ster- 
ing Gold Mine, Nova Scotia,' by C. V. Brennan has merit, and only 
falls a little below the two mentioned in this paragraph. The 
paper by G. D. Drummond on 'The Use of Chemical Analysis 
in Iron Blast Furnace Practice and some notes on Laboratory 
Methods' is a monograph constituting a record of practice and 
experience of considerable value. " 

H. MORTIMER-LAMB, Secretary. 

The Secretary added: — 

In reference to the increased membership I might also add that 
during the year the membership of the two Student Societies, name- 
ly, those of McGill University and Queen's, has in each case 
doubled, largely as a result of the energy and enthusiasm of the 
Secretaries of these branches. The Council desires to congratulate 
these gentlemen on their exertions. 

The Treasurer (Mr. J. Stevenson Brown) then read the follow- 
ing report: — 

The Canadian Mining Institute 

Year Ending February 1st, 1908. 

Balance from last year 


Subscriptions— *mnn . $4,050.00 

405 Ordinary Members at $10.00 ' 16.00 

8 Student Members at . JJ.UU ^ 

72 University Members at $1.UU 924 00 

\rrears collected ! — 4,302.00 


Sale of Publications. 3,000.00 

Dominion Government Grant • 1,500.00 

Ontario ...... 50 . 80 

Interest ..... 6.10 


\nnual Meeting— $415.50 

Banquet Tickets, etc. 660.00 

Cobalt Trip Subscription 1,075.50 




Disbursements per Statement __ 

Balance on hand 


J - ^ Treasurer. 

Audited and Certified Correct, 


Chartered Accountants. 

.Montreal, February 17th, 1908. 


s _ — «,-*-— sat v r- WOEK AND 

Publication— _ $1,917.05 

Transactions, Vol. A. 197 .92 

Postage and Express 243 . 14 

Sundries $2,358. 11 

Library— $500.00 

Rent 40.00 

Telephone 40 .63 

Binding 17.50 

Sundries 598.13 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 17 

Mfftixp % 

Annual Meeting and Cobalt Trip $2,267 . 56 

Other Meetings 165. 10 

Secretary's Office — 

Secretary's Grant $500.00 

Printing, Stationary, etc 100.25 

Postage, Phones and Telegrams 58.84 

Travelling Expenses 756 . 25 

Sundries 57 . 13 

Treasurer's Office — 

Treasurer's Grant $500.00 

Printing, Stationery, etc 53.75 

Postage, Telegrams, etc 66.78 

Bank Charges on Cheques and Drafts . 92 . 40 

Sundries 70 . 61 

Sundries — 

Deputations 30 . 25 

Advertising 45 . 84 

Prizes 85.00 

Subscriptions paid twice 20 . 00 

Various 97 . 51 







In connection with the financial statement it may be remarked 
that the year just closed has been one of unusual activity; the 
receipts and disbursements have far exceeded those of any pre- 
ceding year, while the cash balance at the credit of the Institute 
is the largest in its history. 

The only liability outstanding at the close of the fiscal year 
is balance owing for printing and binding in connection with Vol- 
ume X of the Transactions, the account for which had not been 
rendered before the books and accounts were closed. 

It is gratifying to note the marked increase in the revenue 
derived from membership fees, amounting to $1,160.00 or nearly 
forty percent., and which increase is largely due to the energy 
displayed by our Secretary in obtaining new members. The 
figures compared with last year are as follows: — 

For year ending 1st February, 1907 $2,978 .00 

For year ending 1st February, 1908 4,138.00 

Increase $1,160.00 

18 The Canadian Mining Institute 

The net balance at the credit of the Institute at the close of 
each fiscal year since 1900 is shown in the following table: — 

1900 $484.87 

1901 630.61 

1902 957.40 

1903 1,682.49 

1904 1,909 . 58 

1905 658.52 

1906 1,191.84 

1907 1,354.20 

1908 3,472.69 

Less Liability 700.00 2,772.69 

Respectfully submitted, 



The Treasurer added: — I may say in reference to the balance 
of $3,474.69, that there is an unpaid account due in respect to 
Volume X of about $700, and the balance shown will be reduced 
by that amount as shown above. 

auditor's report. 

The President read the report of the Auditors as follows: — 

Montreal, Feb. 19th, 1908. 
To the President and Councilors of the 
Canadian Mining Institute, 
Gentlemen: — 

We beg to report that we have audited the receipts and dis- 
bursements made by your Treasurer on behalf of the Institute for 
the year ended on the 31st January, 1908. 

The revenue for the year according to the books has been pro- 
perly accounted for, while the cash disbursements have been pro- 
perly covered by satisfactory vouchers which have been properly 

We have checked the detail of the amounts as they appear 
under their respective heads in the Statement to be presented to 
your Annual Meeting and have certified the Statement as correctly 
setting forth the transactions of the Institute according to the 
Books of Account. 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 19 

We have also checked the Bank Accounts throughout the 
year and verified the balances at the date of the Statements. 

The recording of the transactions has been done in a very clear 
and concise manner, and the interests of the Institute in this direc- 
tion have been wel 1 guarded. 

All of which we have pleasure in reporting. 

(Signed) P. S. ROSS & SONS, 

Chartered Accountants. 

The Peport of the Council was adopted after some discussion 
in the course of which. Mr. Coste, Chairman of the Toronto Branch, 
stated that the members of the branch met regularly once a month, 
and sometimes more frequently, the attendance being generally 
between twenty-five and thirty. Members visiting Toronto were 
always welcome at the meetings. The branch had been no charge 
on the Institute. 

In connection with the Treasurer's Statement, Mr. J.B.Tyrrell 
suggested that it would be an advantage if in future the accounts 
and balance sheet were published in advance of the meeting and 
distributed to members. 


(Report of Committee appointed at annual meeting held in 
Toronto on March the 6th, 1907, to confer with the Ontario Gov- 
ernment regarding "An act to supplement the revenues of the 
Crown," which was at that time in discussion by the Govern- 

Your Committee, consisting, of Mr. R. W. Leonard, representing 
Coniagas Mines, Cobalt; Mr. David H. Browne, representing the 
Canadian Copper Co; Mr. A. B. Wilmott, representing The Lake 
Superior Corporation, Co. ; Col. A. M. Hay, representing The Trethe- 
way Silver-Cobalt Mining Co.; Mr. John E. Hardman, representing 
The Canadian Iron and Furnace Company and the Drummond 
Mines, Limited, and Mr. A. D. V. Adler, Chairman of The 
Cobalt Mines Committee, with power to add to their number, 
discussed the subject with the Premier, The Minister of Mines, 
and the Provincial Secretary on the 6th of March, 1907, and 

20 The Canadian Mining Institute 

presented the resolution passed by the Canadian Mining Institute 
at that Meeting. 

The result of this conference was that the Institute was re- 
quested by the Minister of Mines, through the Committee, to cease 
all opposition to the Bill on assurance — which was given by the 
Minister — that the government would amend the Bill at its next 
session to make it more nearly meet the wishes expressed by the 
Committee, as it was too late then to undertake any amendments 
during that session. 

We were also requested to present to the Minister of Mines, 
during the ensuing autumn, some suggestions that would assist in 
such a revision. 

The proposed " Act to supplement the revenues of the Crown" 
was passed, exacting a royalty of three percent, on the gross output 
of all mines yielding a profit of over $10,000 per year after allowing 
of certain deductions for cost of labour, etc., involved, which roy- 
alty this Institute disapproved of in the resolution presented to 
the Government on the occasion referred to. 

With the object of assisting the Department by suggesting 
amendments as requested by the Minister, your Committee, 
through its Chairman, entered into correspondence with the Min- 
ister of Mines in August last requesting information to enable 
the committee to consider the subject intelligently. The in- 
formation desired included the acreage in the province held as 
mining land; revenues from the same; the acreage taxed as mining 
lands, and that exempted from taxation; the revenues from this 
possible source; the number of mining companies incorporated in 
Ontario, with their capitalization; the revenue derived from them 
in various ways; the total revenues of the Crown (from various 
forms of taxation) from the mining industry, etc., etc. 

After much correspondence (copies of all of which are in the 
hands of the Secretary) and several interviews with the Depart- 
ment, your Committee failed to obtain much information to assist 
them in their efforts; but learned that such information is not in 
the possession of the Department in such form that it can be read- 
ily referred to. The following facts were obtained, however, 
which, though incomplete and therefore unsatisfactory, are worthy 
of noting: — 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 21 

The Province received from mining alone in 1906 a revenue of 

As this was before any large revenue was received from the 
Crown from Cobalt properties, it may perhaps fairly represent the 
income of the Province in taxes on mining only up to that time. 

In 1906 there were 263 mining companies organized in On- 
tario, with a total capitalization of .$184,677,000.00, and 18 
foreign mining corporations licensed with a total capitalization of 
si 2.536,000. 

The Deputy Minister of Mines in conversation with the chair- 
man of your Committee, stated that he estimated roughly that 
there were probably about 800,000 acres of land held as mining 
property in the province. 

With such scanty information available your Committee de- 
cided that it would be unwise to make any recommendations other 
than to request that a Royal Commission be appointed to investi- 
gate the subject in its entirety, and a resolution to this effect was 
presented to the Minister of Mines in November last after receiving 
recommendations from the Cobalt and Toronto branches of the 
Institute, endorsing that suggestion. 

The request of the Committee was not favourably received by 
the Minister of Mines, who considered it a reflection on the Govern- 
ment and on his Department; but your Committee is nevertheless 
in the hope that legislation amending the Act (as promised by the 
Government a year ago) partially — at least — removing the just 
ground of dissatisfaction of the mining industry, will be passed at 
this session. 

Signed, R. W. LEONARD, 

Chairman of the Committee. 

On a motion of Mr. Craig, seconded by Mr. Hobart, the report 
of the Committee was adopted. 


The following gentlemen were appointed by the meeting 
scrutineers of the ballots for the annual meeting of Officers and 
Council: Messrs. Frederick Hobart, New York; Mr. R. W. Brock, 
Ottawa, and Dr. A. W. G. Wilson. Montreal. 

22 The Canadian Mining Institute 

amendments to by-laws. 

Dr. J. Bonsall Porter, Chairman of the Committee appoint- 
ed by the Council to offer suggestions for amending the By-laws, 
presented the Committee's recommendations, notification of which 
had been issued by the Secretary prior to the meeting. 

Dr. Porter: — " At the February meeting of the Council it was 
decided that in view of criticisms of certain by-laws and the friction 
arising from inadequate and defective regulations it would be 
desirable to carefully revise the by-laws with a view to improving 
their efficiency, and of affording lesser opportunity or occasion for 
differences of opinion. A Committee consisting of Dr. Barlow, the 
Secretary and myself was appointed to study the by-laws and make 
such recommendations as we thought fit. We held many sessions 
and began by considering the by-laws of similar societies of this and 
other countries, and our recommendations are based on the 
information so obtained." 

Dr. Porter then read the proposed amendments clause by 
clause, and the following were adopted: — 

2. To amend Section 2, lines three and four to read: "Asso- 
ciate Members shall be entitled to vote, but may not hold office. " 

7. After the word Field Parties, add: — "And the principal 
officers of the Mines Branch of the Federal Department of 
Mines, etc. " 

8. Amend the last three lines as follows: " On the election of a 
candidate he shall be immediately notified by the Secretary. On 
the receipt of the notification he must pay to the Treasurer the 
regular fees before he can be entitled to the privileges of member- 
ship. Should he fail to do so within six months from the date of 
the notification of his election, such election shall be void. Mem- 
bership shall date from the day of the election. " 

12. After the word "Council," line two, add "or of any ten 
members in good standing. " 

13. After the word "year," line three, add "Persons elected 
after six months of any fiscal year shall have expired shall pay only 
one half of the dues for that fiscal year. " 

16. Add as follows: "Any member who, for non-payment of 
dues, has been struck off the roll of membership, may again, if the 
Council approve, join the Institute on payment of all arrears. " 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 23 

16a. Add as follows: "Any member may compound his fee 
and become a life member on payment of a sum of $100, which is 
to be invested by the Council, the interest only to be used for 
current expenses. " 

166. "The Council may, for sufficient cause, exempt from pay- 
ment of dues any member distinguished in his professional career, 
who, from ill-health, advanced age, or other good reason assigned, 
is unable to pay such dues. " 

18. Strike out the words "Secretary and Treasurer" on second 
and third lines. 

25a. "The Council at the first regular meeting after the close 
of the Annual Meeting shall appoint a Finance Committee, a Com- 
mittee on Publications and a Library Committee and shall proceed 
to appoint a Secretary and a Treasurer or a Secretary-Treasurer and 
such subordinate officers as may be necessary for the proper con- 
duct of the business of the Institute at such salaries as it may deem 
fit. The appointment of a Secretary and of a Treasurer or a Secre- 
tary-Treasurer shall be conducted by letter-ballot of the whole 
Council, and such candidate or candidates as shall receive a major- 
ity of votes shall receive the appointment. " 

It was decided after discussion that the Amendment 25a 
should not become operative until a vacancy should occur in either 
or both offices. 

A vote of thanks was then passed to the Committee for the 
excellent work they had done in connection with the revision of 
the by-laws. 


The session opened at 3 o'clock, when the following papers 
were read and discussed: — 

the iron ores of Canada, by Dr. C. K. Leith, University 
of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

the iron ores of Ontario, by A. B. Willmott, Sault Ste. 
Marie, Ont. 

electric smelting in Canada, by R. Turnbull, St. Cather- 
ines, Ont. 

possibilities of electric smelting, by Dr. A. Stansfield, 
McGill University, Montreal. 

24 The Canadian Mining Institute 

the smoking concert. 

Under the auspices of the local Reception and Entertainment 
Committee, a Smoking Concert was given in the Dining Room of 
the Russell Hotel, on Thursday evening. A capital programme 
of songs and dialogues was arranged and refreshments were also 
provided. Mr. E. Drew Ingall, of the Geological Survey of Canada, 
acted as chairman, and performing the duty of the office in a 
most acceptable manner. 


The first business of the day was the discussion of the follow- 
ing resolution, moved by Mr. Geo. R. Smith and seconded by Mr. 
John E. Hardman: 


"That the Canadian Mining Institute in annual meeting 
"assembled, in continuation of its policy and action taken in the 
"past does hereby endorse the request of the Lead Miners and 
"Smelters of British Columbia, now before the Government, for 
" an extension of the Lead Bounty Act for a further period of five 
"years, with an increase in the minimum price of lead, fixed by 
"the bounty from £16 to £18 pounds per 2,240 lbs." 

Mr. J. E. Hardman: — This is a matter that can very well 
attract the attention of the Institute for a few moments, and I 
shall have great pleasure in seconding this motion. A few words 
may be said to illustrate the matter a little more clearly than it 
has been illustrated in the press. When you realize that the lead 
mining industry of British Columbia, which has been the only 
lead mining industry of the Dominion, was, five years ago, without 
any bounty or any help whatever, when the duty on lead imported 
into the United States was such as to interfere very materially 
with the success of the mines, particularly of the Slocan district, 
and when you further understand that after the granting of the 
Government bounty the production rose at once from 6,000 tons 
per annum to 22,000 to 23,000 tons per annum, that the amount 
of labour employed, to the consequent benefit of the Dominion as 
a whole, was thereby very greatly increased, and when you further 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 25 

consider that during five years out of the appropriation granted 
by the Dominion Government of $2,500,000 es a maximum, only 
$750,000 was claimed under the statute, and that by help to that 
extent from the Dominion Treasury the output has increased to 
something over $9,000,000 worth of lead and, including the silver, 
to $14,000,000, I think you will all concede that this is a matter of 
truly national importance. Our charter says we are incorporated 
for the purpose of taking concerted action upon such matters as 
affect the mining and metallurgical industries of the Dominion 
and the encouragement and promotion of these industries by even- 
lawful means, I can conceive that it is the duty of this Canadian 
Mining Institute to do ail in its power to assist the Minister of 
Trade and Commerce and the Minister of Finance to make up 
their minds that the request of the lead miners and smelters of 
British Columbia is a legitimate one and is backed up by the 
concensus of mining opinion in the Dominion of Canada as repre- 
sented by this Canadian Mining Institute. (Applause.) We have 
here gentlemen from British Columbia, who, I am sure, will give 
us additional facts and figures, but as a member of this Institute 
representing the whole of the Dominion of Canada, and coming 
personally from the Province of Quebec, I have great pleasure 
in extending my sympathies to the men who are struggling to 
to develop this industry. 

Mr. Louis Pratt, of Sandon, B.C.: — We feel that a resolu- 
tion of this nature if passed by the Institute would be of great 
assistance to us in obtaining what we think is a very fair demand. 
We are asking the Government to extent the Lead Bounty Act 
for another period of five years, and to raise the stable minimum 
price of lead on which the bounty is paid from £16 sterling to £18 
per long ton. I may explain that five years ago we asked the 
Government to make the limit £16. This they granted. We 
thought at that time that this provision would be sufficient, and it 
was. Since then, however, conditions have changed somewhat. Two 
or three years ago the by-product we were selling to the U.S. was 
a source of revenue to us; and in some cases represented our profit, 
but at the present time we are unable to sell our lead in that market. 
Meanwhile a duty of 20 percent, has been imposed by the U.S. 
Government not only on zinc, but on zinc and its contents. The 
duty is 20 per cent, on the silver contained in the zinc, and our 

26 The Canadian Mining Institute 

zincs carry fairly high values in silver. That product we cannot 
ship at any price, and we have no market for it. We are asking the 
government for this increase in the price, but we are not asking 
for any more money. The limit of the bounty paid is $500,000 in 
any one year, and when that is earned it is no longer operative for 
that year. We ask merely that the earning capacity of the 
bounty be increased. We have placed before the members of the 
Institute, copies of the memorial which we have sent to the Govern- 
ment and that affords a fair explanation of the whole situation. 
We would feel very grateful if the Institute would pass this Reso- 
lution. We are merely asking for a continuation of the bounty 
which has been in force for nearly five }^ears and which ceases on 
the 1st June next. I shall be glad to answer any questions. 

Mr. McNaughton: — I am not at all familiar with the condi- 
tions of the lead industry in British Columbia. I would therefore 
like to ask if there is at present a profit in mining and smelting 
lead in British Columbia. If there is a profit it seems to me the 
industry should stand on its own feet. 

Mr. Pratt: — In so far as lead is concerned there is no profit. 
It has been demonstrated that were it not for the silver contents, 
it would be impossible for us to mine a ton of lead and sell it in the 
Canadian market at a profit. Every ton of lead that is mined, is 
mined at a loss. It is the silver in the lead that has helped us 
through. To relate the difficulties under which the B.C. lead 
industry labours, would be a long story; but one of our principal 
difficulties is to find a market. We are at the extreme end of 
Canada and our marketing charges are very high, and now we 
are cut off from the American market by H cents on lead ores, and 
2^ cents per lb. on pig lead or $42 a ton. The freight rates on 
lead to markets other than the United States make it impossible 
for us to mine the lead itself at a profit. 

Mr. T. M. Gibson: — I would like a little further and clearer 
understanding of the matter. My impression at the present time 
is that the bounty which is to expire shortly provides that the 
bonus is payable upon lead when the selling price of pig lead in the 
London market is under £12 /10s. per ton. It is proposed that 
that standard price shall be changed? 

Mr. Pratt: — Yes, it is changed in this way: The bounty will 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting. 27 

be paid up to £14 /10s. and ceases entirely at £18. When the 
London market is £18 there will be no bounty payable. 

Mr. Hedley: — It guarantees a minimum price of £18 to the 
producer of lead. 

Mr. Gibson: — Is the bounty sufficient to raise the price to 
£18 in any case? 

Mr. Hedley: — It is sufficient to raise it to that and no more. 

Mr. G. R. Mickle: — What they are asking for is the extension 
of the time during which the money already voted maybe available. 
And at the outset of the memorial, it asks for a continuance of the 
bounty. I think that is misleading. 

Mr. Retallack: — I wish to correct Mr. Mickle. The specific 
request is for a continuation of the bounty period for five years 
with a vote of $500,000 in each individual year. We are asking for 
a further bounty for five years, $500,000 a year earning capacity 
and with the price of lead fixed at £18 instead of £16. 

Mr. Haultaix: — Is there any increase in the bounty payable? 

Mr. Retallack: — No. 

Mr. H. Mortimer-Lamb (Secretary): — The lead mining in- 
dustry in British Columbia has laboured in recent years under a 
good many disabilities. Some few years ago it was in a more or 
less flourishing condition and there was a very considerable pro- 
duction of lead. Then suddenly the lead market in the United 
States was closed by restrictive duties and at the same time an 
agitation came about to change the hours of labour from 10 hours 
to 8 hours a day. That had a disastrous effect on the lead industry 
and it languished. In view of the principle adopted by the 
Dominion Government in dealing with the steel industry of this 
country, British Columbian operators felt they were as much en- 
titled to a bounty for the stimulation of the lead industry, as were 
the iron and steel men of the east, whose industry was thus sub- 
sidised; and it was the unanimous wish of the Boards of Trade of 
British Columbia that this bounty should be granted and it was 
granted. In the last -two or three years the London price of lead 
has so increased that it has not been necessary to utilize anything 
like the amount available for bounty purposes, but since we have 
had a depression the price has lowered, and the last state of the 
industry is worse than the first. Unless this bounty is renewed 
I think I am quite correct in saying it would be impossible that the 

28 The Canadian Mining Institute 

development which is now going on as a result of this bounty 
system should continue. I believe that ultimately the lead mining 
industry will be on an independent footing, if it has sufficient 
encouragement at the present time. Unless this bounty is granted 
the development of the lead industry in Canada will cease. I 
think it is up to the Canadian Mining Institute to accede to this 
request of our western members, (applause). 

Mr. Eugene Coste: — There is no question but that a great 
many of our industries, even our mining industries, need some help 
to promote their development, and this is clearly one of the cases 
in which an industry does need help. I think our friends from 
British Columbia are absolutely entitled to this vote for the 
encouragement of the lead industry. 

Mr. J. C. Murray: — There is a purely provincial matter 
appertaining to British Columbia that has an indirect bearing on 
the lead bounties. There recently has been put in force in British 
Columbia an enactment abolishing coal royalties altogether and 
imposing a flat tax of 10 cents on coal, and 15 cents a ton on coke. 
To my mind that creates a somewhat anomalous situation. That 
tax will inevitably fall upon metallurgical and mining industries 
and its tendency will be to offset the benefit of the bounty. I 
think that in this discussion that might be given some attention. 

The resolution was put to the meeting and unanimously 

Mr. Mortimer-Lamb: — Now that we have passed this resolu- 
tion I think it would help these gentlemen who are with us to-day, 
if a deputation were appointed to wait on the Government in 
connection with this matter and present the views of the Institute. 
I suggest that the President should appoint a deputation from the 

Mr. Eugene Coste: — That is a very good suggestion. 

The suggestion of Mr. Lamb was put in the form of a motion 
and unanimously agreed to. 

Mr. Pratt: — I wish to extend to the Institute the thanks of 
the silver lead miners of British Columbia, for this action, and I 
feel sure that this resolution coming from this national body will be 
a great help to us in our undertaking. I thank you very much. 

Mr. Eugene Coste: — I think our British Columbia friends 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 


may always depend on the help of the members of this Institute 
for the encouragement of any mining industry in their province. 


Mr. J. McLeish, of the Geological Survey Ottawa, presented to 
the meeting the preliminary report for the year 1907 on the 
Mineral Production of Canada. 

The statement placed the value of the aggregate production of 
the year at $86,183,477. The two following tables show the 
total increases and decreases in value of the more important 


Increase Decrease. 





Gold, Yukon 

Gold, all other 

Pig iron, (from Canadian ore) 



Silver ( 2,669,766 

Other metallic products 137,930 

Asbestos 444,900 


Coal j 4,828,219 

Corundum I 


Natural gas 


Portland cement . . . 
Other net increases . 







Total increase . 



It becomes interesting at times to compare the relative im- 
portance of the various industries in respect of their total values, 
and the following table has been compiled to show for the years 
1907 and 1906, the position in the scale of importance of a number 
of mineral products, constituting together about 95 per cent, of 
the total. 


The Canadian Mining Institute 








Metallic — 







Pig iron (from Canadian ore 



Pig iron (from both home 

and imported ore) 










Non-metallic — - 

Asbestos and asbestic 










Natural gas 






Portland cement 

"It will be observed that a slight increase is shown in copper 
output, a decrease in British Columbia being more than offset by an 
increase in the copper contents of the Sudbury nickel-copper ores. 
A very large decrease in gold production — over 28 per cent. — 
practically represents a falling off in every district, with the possible 
exception of Nova Scotia. 

''In pig iron production, a substantial increase is indicated. 
New furnaces were in operation at Hamilton and Port Arthur. The 
production of lead was less by about 13 per cent. Nickel shows 
but little change. The output of silver was over 50 per cent, 
greater than in 1906, and this despite a falling off in British Colum- 
bia, the large increase being entirely due to the shipments from the 
Cobalt district. 

"Amongst the non-metallic products, the asbestos industry 
shows substantial progress, an increase of 10 per cent, in quantity 
with higher prices. Coal mining also shows a steady growth in all 
fields, with higher prices realized. Natural gas and petroleum 
production also shows large increase, and this is particularly 
gratifying as indicating that these fields in Ontario have not yet 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting. 31 

reached the exhaustion point. Portland cement, with incomplete 
returns, shows an increase of nearly 12 per cent. 

Mr. McLeish then addressed the meeting as follows on the 
subject of 

"Methods of Collecting Statistics" 

Mr. McLeish : — Although I am down upon your programme for 
a paper on the "Compilation of Mining Statistics, " I must frankly 
confess I have not prepared a paper on the subject. I have been 
so busy with the actual labour of compiling statistics, that I have 
been unable to find sufficient leisure to write upon the subject, 
which is not only a broad one, but requires careful thought and 

" I informed your worthy Secretary some time ago, however, 
that in presenting a Statement of Mineral Production during 1907, 
I might perhaps be able to say a few words on the subject of collect- 
ing and presenting or publishing Mineral Statistics in Canada. 

"In this country, as you all know, we have nine separate and 
distinct Provincial Governments, each of which, with one or two 
exceptions has entire control of its Mining Lands and Mining Laws 
and Regulations; while the Federal Government controls the Mining 
Lands and administers the Mining Laws in the unorganized terri- 
tories, and, to a limited extent, in the new Provinces of Alberta 
and Saskatchewan. 

"From the Provinces of Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario and 
British Columbia, we have Annual Reports of the Mining Bureaus 
and these reports include amongst a mass of information concerning 
the mining industry, annual statistics of production. I think I 
am probably safe in saying that in no two of these Provinces are 
the mineral statistics collected and presented in exactly the same 
way. There is no co-operation between the Provinces for the 
purpose of presenting the information in a uniform way, nor is 
there any machinery for bringing about such co-operation. 

The Federal Government also through the Department of 
Mines provides for the collection and publication of Mining Statis- 
tics, there is no clearly defined or well-understood co-operation 
between this branch and any of the Provincial Bureaus. 

"The result, gentlemen, is very disconcerting, particularly 
to the British or foreign student of our Mineral Statistics. When 
he consults the various reports, he is at a loss to understand the 

32 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

different results, unless he has a great deal of leisure to thoroughly 
study and understand the actual meaning of the different state- 
ments presented, and as a rule the differing statements are quite 
explainable by the different methods adopted in collecting and 
publishing the results. All the provinces do not use the same 
year, as for instance, in Nova Scotia the year used is the period 
of twelve months ending with September. In British Columbia, 
while the year used is ostensibly the Calendar year, the figures of 
production of metals represent the smelter return received during 
the year. Then again in some cases, the total output whether 
shipped or not, is included as production, while in other cases only 
the actual sales or shipments are included as production. Methods 
of valuation also differ. In Nova Scotia the production is not 
valued at all. In Ontario the shipping value or the value compu- 
ted at the selling prices of the products of the mines or works is 
used. In British Columbia, the average price of the metal for the 
year in the New York metal market is the basis, with a deduction 
of from 5 to 10%. 

"The Federal Department of Mines uses the average value of 
the metal for the year without any deductions for metallic ores, 
and shipping values for non-metallic ores. 

"This subject has been brought up many times before, and 
has, I believe, received much attention at the meetings of the 
Canadian Mining Institute. 

"At the annual meeting of the Institute in 1903, a large com- 
mittee was appointed to look into the whole question, and although 
some members of the committee did a great deal of investigation, 
no practical results have been achieved. At least no report has 
been made. Nevertheless, I think the subject is worthy of fur- 
ther attention, and I think also that a great deal of assistance 
could be obtained from the mining men themselves in the solu- 
tion of the problem. 

"It must be somewhat irritating to the mining accountant to 
have a number of differing schedules of questions "thrown" at him 
for answer in January, making it necessary perhaps for him to go 
over his books as many times as he has enquiries, and particularly 
if he has other important duties to perform for his firm, such as 
getting out annual statements. I am not surprised that our cir- 
cular requests for information are not always promptly answered. 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 33 

"It is not merely the Dominion and Provincial Mines Depart- 
ments who collect statistics. The Census Bureau, various labour 
bureaus, the mining journals, the American Iron and Steel Asso- 
ciation and perhaps even the Secretary of the Mining Institute, all 
combine to worry the mineowner. The Government will not 
even pay bounties without very detailed information as to produc- 

"A beginning towaids the solution of the difficulty might be 
made by securing, if possible, uniformity in the schedules of ques- 
tions asked by the different Mining Bureaus and by the Dominion 
Department, and this uniformity might perhaps be most easily 
secured by combining all the questions asked by the different bu- 
reaus into one schedule. That is to say, obtain as much detail as 
possible, instead of merely asking output, or sales and shipments, 
only, ask for both, and stock on hand also if advisable. In this con- 
nection I would commend our statistics on cement production. It 
has been our experience that if we ask for output only, some will 
make returns showing output, while others will make returns 
showing shipments and the result will therefore be less correct 
than if more detailed information is asked. 

"Another important question arises as to the desirability or 
otherwise of making prompt publication of results at the expense 
of accuracy, this method of publication of course to proceed only 
and not supercede the publication of complete and final statistics. 
It is well known that for metallic ores, smelter returns are seldom 
received until from one to three months after shipment, therefore 
complete returns cannot be expected until well on in the year 
following the one covered. 

"If a preliminary report, then, is advisable — and I think 
that it is — could that not best be secured by systematically making 
two collections of statistics of metallic ores, the first a partial esti- 
mate obtained late in December or early in January, and the second 
a complete report obtained when available? 

"In fact, in order to secure statistics of production in the 
Cobalt district in time for publication on the first of March, we 
have had to follow this very method. 

"There are many other important features connected with 
the collection and publication of mining statistics that I should 



The Canadian Mining Institute 

like to discuss, but I am afraid I shall have to leave them till some 
other time." 

Mr. Gibson (Deputy Minister of Mines, Ontario): — "I have a 
statement here which gives the Mineral production of Ontario for 
the past year. 

"Returns to the Bureau of Mines show that the output of 
the mines and general works of Ontario for 1907 was as given in the 
following tables. The aggregate value of the production, based 
upon the selling price of the products at the place of production, 
was $24,949,475 being $2,561,092 in excess of the value for 1906. 
The returns are not absolutely complete, and the figures are 
therefore subject to revision. 

"Returns to the Bureau of Mines show that the output of the 
mines and mineral works of Ontario for 1907 was as given in the 
following table. The aggregate value of the production, based 
upon the selling price of the products at the place of production, 
was $24,949,475, being $2,561,092 in excess of the value for 1906. 
The returns are not absolutely complete, and the figures are there- 
fore subject to revision. 





Gold, oz 

Silver, oz. . . . 
Cobalt, tons . 
Nickel, tons . 
Copper, tons. 


Iron ore, tons. 
Pig iron, tons. 

Less value Ontario iron ore 
(120,177 tons) smelted into 
pig iron 















Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 




Arsenic, tons 

Brick, common, number. . . 

Tile drain, number 

Brick, pressed, number. . . . 
Brick, paving, number 
Building and crushed stone 

Calcium carbide, tons 

Cement, Portland, bbls. . . . 
Cement, Natural Rock, lbs.. 

Corundum, tons 

Feldspar, tons 

Graphite, tons 

Gypsum, tons 

Iron pyrites, tons 

Lime, bus 

Mica, tons 

Natural gas 

Peat, tons 

Petroleum, Imp. gallons. . . 


Quartz, tons 

Salt, tons 

Sewer pipe, tons 

Talc, tons 



















Add metallic production. 




























Mr. Gibson: — As Mr. McLeish has pointed out there is a very 
decided difference in the method of computation employed as be- 
tween the Ontario Bureau of Mines and the Dominion Geological 
Survey. Both of these methods differ in turn from the methods 
employed in British Columbia, in Nova Scotia and Quebec. I 
quite a.cree with the sentiments expressed by Mr. McLeish that 
there should be a nearer approach to uniformity in the method of 
presenting the statistics of the various provinces. I am quite 
ready at any time to co-operate with the Dominion Geological 
Survey and with the officers of the various Provincial Departments 
to secure these results. I can conceive of no reason why the Pro- 
vincial Bureaus should not be quite ready to furnish the Geological 
Survey with the information that they may receive. I have 
always been ready and am now ready to assist in securing co- 
operation to that end. The different methods adopted by the 
different Provincial Bureaus are productive of different results; 

36 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

and comparisons based upon these different results are necessarily- 
misleading. For instance in the item of nickel — Ontario being 
the only nickel producing province in the Dominion — if you look at 
the results presented by Mr. McLeish for last year and the returns 
presented by the province of Ontario you will find they agree very 
nearly as to the quantity of nickel produced, but they differ very 
materially in the value attached to that item. For instance in the 
Dominion statistics we find the quantity of nickel produced last 
year is 21,189,000 pounds or roughly speaking 10,594 tons. The 
statistics for Ontaiio give 10,968 tons which corresponds very 
closely with the quantities as given by Mr. McLeish; but in Mr. 
McLeish's figures, I do not think he includes the nickel contents of 
the Cobalt ores which accounts for the difference in figures. But 
the value that is given in the Dominion statement is $9,535,000, 
while the value of nickel in our statement of returns is $2,271,000. 
The explanation of this is that in the preparation of our figures we 
take what may be regarded as the selling price of the nickel in the 
form in which it is produced, while the Dominion report adopts the 
price of the refined metal in the New York market. I think there 
are reasons to be given for and against both methods of computa- 
tion; but I conceive that the object of statistics is to present a fair 
and accurate and honest statement of facts. It does not seem to 
me that it is quite fair to take the credit for the money and the 
labour that is expended in a foreign country in refining the metal, 
s'eeing that we do not get the benefit of that in Ontario. The 
actual value to the country, from the public point of view, is that of 
the nickel in the form in which it leaves the country, and the cap- 
ital and labour expended in the further treatment of the mattes in 
England or in the United States should not be credited to Ontario, 
and it is not strictly accurate to claim the benefit of these in the 
returns. That difference of principle in calculation leads to a 
difference of results. The same thing applies to copper, and, more 
or less, to many of the other items. As one of the leading purposes 
of statistics is to furnish a basis for comparisons, the results will be 
necessarily vitiated if the methods of preparing these statistics are 
discordant. It is a little difficult once a certain system or standard 
has been adopted to change from that system or standard, because 
if you do so it is difficult to make a comparison of one year with 
another. So far as I am concerned, I would be quite 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 37 

willing to meet with the officers of the Dominion Geological Survey, 
and with the officers of the various Provincial Bureaus, to see if we 
cannot agree upon some common scheme both of collecting and 
presenting these statistics with a view of obtaining something like 
uniformity of results. I have referred to nickel and copper as 
illustrating the point I am endeavouring to make; I might also 
mention iron ore and pig iron. The production of iron ore in 
Ontario last year was 200,000 tons, and the production of pig iron 
286,216 tons. Both of these items are included in the Ontario 
statement of production with their values attached to each. But 
in arriving at the value of the metallic production we deduct the 
value of the iron ore which is smelted into pig iron in Ontario so as 
to avoid duplication of the value of the iron ore. Having included 
it as iron ore it is not fair to include it again when it is converted 
into pig iron. The Dominion Statistics treat the matter differently. 
Only the exports of Canadian ore are reckoned in the table of 
values, and only the quantity of pig iron produced from Canadian 
ore. There is probably room for difference of opinion as to what is 
the proper method to be adopted; but the manufacture of pig iron 
is a metallurgical industry and whether the ore is of domestic or 
foreign origin, surely the product of that metallurgical industry 
should be included in the value of the total metallurgical products 
of the country. The various non-metallic products are treated by 
the Dominion Department and by the Ontario Bureau of Mines in 
a very similar manner and there is not the same difference of results. 
The value of the crude oil is given in each case so far as the petro- 
leum is concerned. There is some difficulty, as those who have to 
deal with mineral statistics will acknowledge, in drawing hard and 
fast lines between raw and finished products, because what is one 
man's raw material is another man's finished product; and if you 
are going to reckon the value of the raw material only, when you 
come to the manufacture of an article such as cement and bricks 
and products of that class, then you will exclude them altogether; 
because the raw materials are of very little value, and it is 
practically the labour expended on them that gives them any value 
at all. (applause). 

Mr. Obalski: — -I quite endorse everything that Mr. McLeish 
and Mr. Gibson have said regarding the advantage of uniformity 


The Canadian Mining Institute. 

in collecting statistics. I beg to present the following statistics for 
the province of Quebec: 


Kind of Minerals. 
(Tons of 2,000 lbs.) 




or Used 


iron ore 

Calcined Ochre 

Raw ochre 

Chromic iron 

Copper ore 



Mica, trimmed, pounds. . 

Mica, untrimmed 




Slate (square) 

Flagstones (yards) 

Cement (barrels) 

Granite (cubic yards) . . 

Lime (bushel) 


Tiles and pottery 

Limestone (cubic yards). 








. 15.000 





















































The production of Mica shipped, may be summed up as follows 
for 1907. 



1/2 Thumb trimmed 







Total thumb trimmed. 

Crude mica having undergone a first classification, 
150 tons (2,000 lbs. to a ton) 

Total value 
























Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 


The Mica Industry in the Province has employed 275 work- 
men of which 150 have worked on the mines and the others to the 
classification. The work has been done during periods of 3 to 
12 months and a sum of $100,600 has been paid in salaries. 

The production of Chrome for 1907, has been as follows (2,240 
lbs. tons.) 

Gross Tons. 


1st Class in lumps . 
2nd Class in lumps. 
Concentrated .... 


Ho I 1,925.00 

3.536 33.485.00 

2.040 27,720.00 

5,721 §63,130.00 

Corresponding to 6,407 tons of 2,000 lbs. 

70 workmen were employed during periods of 4 to 11 months. 


The production during the year of 1907, from the different 
districts of the Province, is as follows: — 

Tons of 2,000 lbs. 


1st Class (crude) 






2nd Class (crude) 









Total value 


2,081 workmen have been employed, and $915,061 represents 
wages paid. The principal mines have been operated through- 
out the year. 

Mr. Obalski (continued): — Our mineral production in Que- 
bec seems to be very low, but if you study the manner in which 
the statistics are compiled, you will find the explanation. In 
Ontario they place a value on the pig iron less the value of iron 
ore and the same way with other metals. We do not do that. 

40 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

Our returns are relatively small, but if calculations were made on 
the basis adopted by Ontario we should show a valuation of eight 
instead of four and a half millions. I quite agree with these gentle- 
men that it is desirable there should be a uniform method of com- 
puting these statistics. I think a committee should be appointed 
to bring that about, and for my part I would be pleased to give 
the Federal Government any statistical information I may possess 
relating to Quebec. I think we should do something towards 
making our returns comparable; for, at present, they are not com- 
parable. The return from each province should agree with the 
total shown by the Federal Government for all Canada. 

Major Leckie: — The basis for preparing these returns should 
be the quantity and not the value. For instance a year ago copper 
was 25 cents a pound while now it is only half that price, and, 
when, therefore, you give the returns in values they are misleading. 
When you speak of a certain amount of nickel being in the ore, 
whether it is an average of one per cent, or anything else, it is a 
nuisance; it is of no value; in fact it costs something to get rid of it; 
it is not to be taken into consideration at all in the way of values. 
In the case of the nickel in the Cobalt ore it is much the same thing. 
The separation of the nickel from the copper is rather an expensive 
metallurgical operation and therefore I think the matter of values 
is a very indefinite sort of thing. These statistics should be based 
simply on quantity. 

Dr. Goodwin: — This question has been brought up on several 
occasions and discussed and yet nothing has been clone. It seems 
to me that from the facts stated this morning something should be 
done and what may be done is for the Institute to memorialize 
the Minister of Mines to authorize the Geological Survey to arrange 
for a conference with the Provincial authorities. The initiative 
would naturally come from the Dominion Department. The 
Dominion officials could meet with the proper officials of the diff- 
erent provinces and see if they cannot devise some common system 
of valuing the different mineral products so that the statistics 
given out by the provinces shall be concordant with the statistics 
given out by the Dominion. I would therefore be glad to move: 

"That the Canadian Mining Institute in annual meeting 
" assembled would respectfully suggest to the Minister of Mines 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 41 

"that a conference be arranged between the Deputy Minister of 
'.Mines and the Deputy Ministers of the Provinci?l Bureaus to 
''devise, if possible, an uniform method of compiling statistics and 
"valuing mineral products." 

Mr. Tyrrell: — I second that motion, and think that some 
such plan should be adopted as soon as convenient. There should 
be some definite plan of valuation. If the Dominion government 
is wrong it should get away from its error as quickly as possible. 
If the Dominion system is right the provinces should lose no time 
in adopting it too. It seems to me that the Canadian plan of 
valuation should approximate as nearly as possible the United 
States' methods. 

Mr. McLeish: — I am pleased to know that Mr. Gibson and 
Mr. Obalski are willing to lend their assistance towards the se- 
curing of more uniform statistics. A willingness and desire for 
more uniform results on the part of those responsible for the col- 
lection of the statistics is a large step forward in securing the 
desired object. The question, however, is scarcely one of right 
or wrong methods, as is sometimes argued, but rather one of point 
of view. In publishing statistics in the Department at Ottawa 
we have practically adopted the same system as is used in the 
United States. In Great Britain, however, the system used is 
more analogous to that used by Mr. Obalski for the Province of 
Quebec, that is to say, giving in a general table the output of the 
crude ore, thus with nickel, instead of giving the amount of matte 
or nickel in the matte, the quantity and value of the ore only 
would be given, and further detailed information would be given 
in other parts of the report. 

The subject — nickel — selected by Mr. Gibson as an illustra- 
tion of the different methods of valuation used, is unfortunate 
and not quite representative, inasmuch as nickel is only produced 
in one district in Canada, namely Sudbury, including Victoria Mines, 
and the operations are all of the same class, the ore being roasted and 
smelted and matte produced and shipped. With copper, however, 
the material is shipped out in several different forms, in some cases 
as ore, in others as matte and again as blister copper. If we take 
the value of the copper in the ore, add that to the value of the 
copper shipped as blister copper, and then to the copper con- 

42 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

tained in the matte shipped and state the production as so much 
copper with such and such value, we have a total valuation which 
has but little meaning. That is one of the reasons why a uniform 
system of valuation has been adopted, so that comparisons be- 
tween various countries and districts might be made. This sub- 
ject has often been thrashed out before, but there is one point at 
least upon which I am sure we can all agree, and that is, as Dr. 
Leckie has stated, that after all quantities are the most important. 

If we can secure uniformity in quantity and the method of 
valuation is distinctly stated, we shall have achieved some pro- 

Mr. Fr aleck : — One thing is clear, the methods are entirely 
opposed to each other. There can be no compromise, although 
each method of computation possesses its own merits. I could 
never understand why we could not have the results given to us 
by both methods; that is by two columns showing values by dif- 
ferent methods of computation with an explanation stating how 
the results are arrived at. It seems to me the extra clerical work 
envolved would not be very great. 

Mr. T. W. Gibson: — In the report of the Bureau of Mines 
last year that method was adopted. First a table was given based 
on the methods heretofore followed, and a second table giving the 
values of the metals as refined, thereby attempting a comparison 
on both bases. Tables of that kind serve a useful purpose and 
there is no difficulty in compiling them. 

Mr. Leish: — The difficulty is that with six or seven different 
provinces it would mean as many tabled columns. 

Dr. Woodman: — Would it be possible for the Committee sug- 
gested by Dr. Goodwin to take into account the scope to be covered 
by the statistics. In Nova Scotia in the '60s and '70s some serious 
attempts were made to find out the amount and value of all the 
metallic and non- metallic materials produced in that Province. 
The custom lately, however, has been to take notice of only such 
materials as pay a royalty to the Government. The non- metallic 
minerals, such as gypsum, brick clay, in fact practically everything 
except coal, iron and gold, were exempt from royalty. In the case 
of iron especially there arose an anomalous situation due to the fact 
that a large proportion of the small amount of iron produced in the 
Province came from districts where the mineral rights went with 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 43 

the land, so that there was no royalty and no sworn reports, and the 
government did not take the trouble to find out with any 
accuracy the amount of iron ore produced. This year in the 
Report of the Mines Department, some effort has been made to 
return to the old basis, and there has been a partial reorganiza- 
tion of the clerical end of the Mines Department. But this still 
leaves much to be desired and I would like to see the proposed 
committee try to persuade the Nova Scotia Government to 
include in it all its economic mineral products. They are not 
large outside of coal, and that is all the more reason why we 
should keep accurate account of what we have. Private protests 
have done no good, but an inter-provincial committee such as 
suggested would have a weight because of its character which no 
local organization could hope for. I think they would get what 
they want, as it is not so much a matter of expense as of method. 

Mr. Willmott: — May I suggest a difficulty which should be 
provided for. That is that we are mining different grades of iron 
ores in the various provinces, and therefore a comparison by ton- 
nage is misleading. Would it not he possible to add a column 
showing the average per cent, of iron in the ore mined? There 
is, moreover, a tendency to bring on lower grade ores, and it 
would be interesting to be able to make that comparison later on. 

The resolution was then unanimously adopted. 

In the absence of the author the Secretary then read a paper 
by Mr. E. Jacobs, of Victoria, B.C.} entitled, "Mineral Produc- 
tion of British Columbia in 1907." 

cheap transportation for prospectors. 

The following resolution was then moved by Mr. J. B. Tyrrell, 
seconded by Mr. T. L. Walker: "That the Canadian Mining Insti- 
tute ask the various railways of Canada to issue tickets to pros- 
pectors at reduced rates, similar to the tickets now sold to home- 
seekers; the records of such tickets to be endorsed on the Miners' 
Licenses held by such prospectors. 

Mr. Tyrrell: — It seems to me that this is a matter which the 
railways would only require should be brought to their attention 
to take action thereon. For years they have been issuing tickets 
at a rate of about a cent a mile to home-seekers with a view to en- 

44 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

couraging the settlement of the agricultural sections of western 
Canada. It seems to me that certainly similar aid should be 
given to encourage the exploration and development of the mineral 
areas. I believe if this Institute will place itself on record as re- 
commending the proposal the railway companies would act on the 

Dr. Walker: — Clearly the railways should be approached in 
this matter. The prospectors would of course be defined as men 
holding mining licenses. 

The resolution was put to the meeting and unanimously 
agreed to. 

The following papers were then read and discussed: — 

Progress with the Grondal Process of Concentration 
and Briquetting of Iron Ores, by P. McN. Bennie, Niagara Falls, 

A New Iron Ore Field in Eastern Canada, by J. E. Hard- 
man, Montreal, Quebec. 


The Session opened at 3 o'clock and the following papers were 
read and discussed: — 

Minerals and Ores of Northern Canada, by J. B. Tyrrell, 

Origin of the Silver in James Township, by Dr. A. E. 
Barlow, Ottawa. 

student papers. 

Dr. J. Bonsall Porter announced that a number of students 
had been present with papers, but had been compelled to return 

The Secretary: — We had thirteen student papers this year 
and two more have been sent in, making a total of fifteen, which is 
the largest number of Student papers ever received by the Insti- 
tute in any one year. 


Dr. A. E. Barlow, of Ottawa, then presented the following 
resolution in regard to the removal of the headquarters of the 
Institute from Montreal to Ottawa: 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 45 

"Resolved that it is in the best interests of the Canadian 
Mining Institute that its headquarters should be moved from 
Montreal to Ottawa." 

Dr. Barlow: — In explanation of this motion, I would observe 
that the question of the location of headquarters is determined by 
Article 5 of the Charter of the Canadian Mining Institute which 
was adopted by the Parliament of Canada in 1898. This 
article recites that "the head offices of the Institute shall be 
in the city of Montreal or in such other place as may from 
time to time be determined by a vote of two-thirds of the members 
of the Institute." To obtain such a vote necessitates a refer- 
endum, by letter ballot, addressed to all of the members of the 
Institute. I do not intend this afternoon to go at length into the 
various reasons which to my mind make such a move highly de- 
sirable, but would simply ask this meeting for the necessary 
authorization to send out a circular letter addressed to all the 
members of the Institute and thus determine the wish of the majo- 
rity in regard to this matter. I do not care at this moment to mention 
the primary object for this removal, but I may be permitted to 
point out that as all of our printing is done in Ottawa (where it 
can be done to better advantage and cheaper), the Secretary has 
been obliged to make frequent and, in some cases, prolonged visits 
to this city. In addition to this it may be mentioned that of late 
years we have not only received a very substantial annual grant 
from the Dominion Government to aid us in our work and publi- 
cation, but also occasional grants for certain special objects, such 
as that for which we are at present asking to aid us in entertain- 
ing certain representative European mining men whom we have 
invited to Canada this summer. To secure such very necessary 
assistance requires very considerable attention and explanation 
on the part of the Secretary and certain members of the Council. 
During the discussions at Council in regard to the selection of the 
place for the present annual meeting, and in answer to my 
invitation extended on behalf of the Ottawa members of the In- 
stitute, one of the main objections raised was as to the adequacy 
of our hotel accommodation. This was not very serious, as I 
pointed out that surely men, who in the daily pursuits of their 
profession were accustomed to "roughing it," could doubtless 

46 The Canadian Mining Institute 

overlook any disadvantage in this respect if such really existed, 
in consideration of the many other advantages and attractions 
offered by the capital. Now, however, gentlemen, that you have 
experienced the hospitality of the Russell hotel I hope you will 
go away with a much more favourable impression of the capital's 
ability to look after visitors. I may repeat, moreover, that there 
is a deep-rooted conviction amongst many of the members that 
the Institute, being a national one, should have its headquarters 
at Ottawa. There are many members in the Mines Department 
of Ottawa who are brought into very close touch with tie 
mining development of Canada, whilst the presence of the head- 
quarters of the Institute here would be a constant reminder to 
the Department of the real reason of its existence. Our Sec- 
retary at headquarters would then be surrounded by a great num- 
ber of men with intimate knowledge of the mining development 
in the several localities covered by their examinations, men who 
are altogether unbiassed and interested only in the true develop- 
ment of the mining interests of the whole Dominion, and, as a 
consequence, of the well-being of this Institute. I therefore leave 
this matter in the hands of this meeting and move that a refer- 
endum be agreed upon and submitted at the earliest opportunity 
to the whole of our membership, the vote to be taken by letter 

This motion was seconded by Mr. Coste, who in speaking 
thereto said: — "Dr. Barlow has put the matter very clearly and 
forcibly. In view of the fact that Ottawa is the capital of the country 
it seems to me impossible to get away from the fact that this city 
is the natural headquarters for a national institution such as ours. 

Mr. J. E. Hardman: — While acquiescing in the sentiments 
expressed by Dr. Barlow as to the advantage of having at the same 
place as the headquarters, a body of educated scientific men with 
whom the Secretary might frequently consult, I submit that this 
question like every other has two sides. I think, speaking as one 
of the oldest members of this Institute, and one who has had a fair 
share in its past history, that one of the objects of the Canadian 
Mining Institute is to maintain, so far as is possible, its independence 
in all matters pertaining to the mining and metallurgical industries 
of the Dominion. I remind you of this, because it must be con- 
sidered in connection with the question of the proposed removal of 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 47 

headquarters. Ottawa is the seat of the Dominion Government and 
by having our headquartess here, the Institute would come, more 
or less, for good or ill, under the influence of the Department of 
Mines divided into the branches of Geological Survey and of Mines. 
I submit that it is a matter worthy of careful consideration whether 
under these circumstances the Institute could maintain its indepen- 
dence of character. 

"In regard to the matter of our annual grant from the Dom- 
inion Government, we have heard the Treasurer's report, in which 
we have, or did have at the end of the fiscal year, a favourable 
balance of $3,000. We have also heard the report as to the greatly 
increased membership during the past year or two. I submit, as a 
critical Institution, which we are entitled to be, our independence 
apart from these grants is greatly to be desired, and I think we can 
fairly say that with our rapidly increasing membership, we may 
hope during the next few years to derive a sufficient income from 
membership fees to render us independent of Dominion or Pro- 
vincial grants. 

"I mention this to give you thought before the final referendum 
is made. I have no objection to the referendum, but wish to 
impress upon you the necessity for consideration before you decide 
one way or the other. A great many reasons could be adduced, 
with success I think, why the headquarters of the Institute should 
remain where they are. 

"At Montreal you are in closer touch with the east and west 
than is the case in respect to any other city in the Dominion. We 
have a considerable number of members in the Maritime Provinces, 
and they can reach Montreal more readily than any other city in 
Central Canada. Those from British Columbia are in as close 
relation with Montreal as with any other city in Canada. 

"There is another feature which in the Institute's earlier years 
was of importance, and will be again in } r ears to come; namely, that 
a great many people arriving in Canada from England, France, 
Germany and other. European countries, especially in summer, 
land directly at Montreal. It seems to me theiefore that Montreal, 
which by your charter is at the present time your headquarters, and 
must remain so until two-thirds of the members decide that it shall 
be removed, is geographically a good location for your head- 

48 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

"Referring again to the desirability of the Institute maintaining 
its independence, I submit that it is of first importance that we should 
as far as possible remain free from the suspicion of being in- 
fluenced by any government or bureau. In the past the Institute 
has had occasion to offer suggestions to the Dominion Government 
in matters touching the welfare of the mining industry, and to 
oppose legislation which appeared to be prejudicial to our interests; 
and it seems to me we might lose that independence of attitude if 
our Secretary, Treasurer and prominent officials resided in Ottawa 
and thus came more directly under government influence. 

Dr. Goodwin: — As a very old member of the Institute I 
sympathize more or less with Mr. Hardman's view touching the 
independence of the Institute. Yet I think he has exaggerated the 
danger of a loss of independence by this proposed move. The fact 
is, our former Secretary lived for many years and transacted his 
business in Ottawa, and in Mr. B. T. A. Bell's time we had no fear of 
undue influence biasing him to the disadvantage of any pressure 
we might desire to bring to bear upon the government. It seems 
to me that that consideration need not trouble us. The point to 
consider is whether Ottawa is more advantageously and conveni- 
ently situated than Montreal to warrant the proposed change. 

Dr. Porter: — There is no doubt that the headquarters should 
be where the majority of members of the Institute wish. Mr. Hard- 
man, however, has called attention to several matters which should 
be carefully considered before any decision is arrived at. An 
additional reason has occurred to me which, together with those 
advanced by Mr. Hardman, seem to me sufficiently strong to justify 
us in leaving well enough alone at present. One very desirable 
feature of the Institute is its national character. In order to 
preserve this to, perhaps, the greatest possible degree it seems to 
me we should keep our members, and particularly the members of 
the Council, interested in the affairs of the Institute. I contend 
that Montreal as the business centre of the Dominion is more likely 
to be visited during the course of a year by members of the Insti- 
tute and Council than any other city. A large number of members 
of the Council and our most prominent mining men, are managers 
or directors of mining companies having their headquarters at 
Montreal, and require to attend their directors' meetings there. In 
consequence these members representing the large concerns of the 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 49 

Maritime Provinces and also of the West, visit Montreal in the course 
of the year, and the Secretary and staff can thus keep in touch 
with a greater number of the members of Council than if the head- 
quarters were moved to Ottawa. It has been said that as long as 
the headquarters remained at Montreal a few of us, of whom I am 
spoken of as one, take an undue part in the affairs of the Institute. 
Wherever the headquarters may be, certain members will be more 
active than others, who, living at a distance, can only occasionally 
attend the meetings. But if the headquarters were removed to Ot- 
tawa, I think the result would be that a still smaller average number 
would attend the meetings of the Council and the society would be 
more than ever under the control of a few. I believe it would be a 
mistake to move to Ottawa. Ottawa is very easily reached from 
Montreal, but is no nearer to Toronto than Montreal, hence just as 
now the interested members would attend the meetings and vice 
versa. I am, however, prepared to second Dr. Barlow's motion for 
a referendum. All I ask is that the members have the facts on 
either side and consider them thoroughly before voting. 

Mr. Gwillim: — -We, western members of Council, have been 
under some disability in being obliged to attend meetings in 
Montreal. If Ottawa were headquarters, the members from both 
east and west would travel there, and thus counteract any suspicion 
of local influences. Also Ottawa is not a university town. If the 
headquarters are in a university town, that university has advan- 
tages over the others. As to the contention that more people go to 
Montreal than to Ottawa I should imagine that Ottawa as the 
Capital would bring as many men from the wider portions of the 
Dominion as Montreal. If Westerners go to Montreal it is not to 
remain long; while if they come to Ottawa they stay here some 
time and are more likely to attend meetings. Quebec is not so great 
a mining Province as Ontario which has come into great promin- 
ence of late, and the large membership from the latter province 
should not be obliged to travel to one corner of the country. Obvi- 
ously Ottawa is the more central. 

Mr. Leonard: — I conceive that Montreal is at present the 
metropolis and business centre of the Dominion. The majority of 
members of the Institute are business men. They occasionally 
have business with the government at Ottawa, but for once my 
business calls me to Ottawa it calls me to Montreal half a dozen 


50 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

times. Montreal certainly would be more central to me although 
I live at St. Catherines, and I am thus in closer touch with the 
headquarters at Montreal than if it were at Ottawa. Montreal is 
also a university city, and although I am not a McGill man I think 
it a good argument to advance that one college should derive the 
benefit of the Institute headquarters rather than that this advant- 
age should be denied to all. 

"Then again a number of the members of the Institute are 
members of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. I for one am. 
I may say my own experience is that mining and civil engineering 
go very closely together, and should continue to do so more and 
more. I advocate an affiliation of some sort between this Institute 
and the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, with a view to the 
joint publication of transactions. During the past few years the 
head offices of the Institute have been in the Civil Engineers' 
building, and this has been a great advantage to me when visiting 
Montreal. This may not benefit many others, but I think it is a 
point that should be remembered." 

Col. Hay: — If this matter had come up yesterday I should 
have voted to remove to Ottawa. But last night all differences 
that would have influenced me in that direction were sunk, never, I 
hope, to be raised again, and under these circumstances I do not 
think there is any comparison as between Montreal and Ottawa for 
headquarters. For one thing Montreal has good hotels and the 
accommodation in this town is not to be compared with that of 
Montreal. But apart from that, business men only require to 
travel where business calls them, and the headquarters of this 
Institute would be in that respect much more convenient to me in 
Montreal than in Ottawa. I think we are all now assured that the 
Montreal members have no selfish reason for desiring the head- 
quarters to remain there, and we owe a deep debt of gratitute to 
those Montreal gentlemen who have devoted so much of their time 
to the work of the Institute. We cannot therefore do better than 
allow the headquarters to remain in that city. 

The Secretary: — It was remarked yesterday that a vote 
by letter ballot was unsatisfactory, since many members not 
present at the meeting at which the subject to be voted upon was 
discussed, refrained from exercising their franchise, for the reason 
that they failed to thoroughly understand the matter at issue. I 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 51 

suggest, therefore, that a committee be appointed in connection 
with this matter, to include the mover and seconder and such other 
members as hold strong views one way or the other, and that they 
prepare a statement giving the pros and cons of the case for the 
consideration of the membership at large. If you submit a refer- 
endum without affording this information you will probably only 
get replies from those who know already how they intend to vote. 

Dr. Porter:- -Mr. Leonard spoke of a matter to which I 
should also like to refer, that is the possibility of a closer relation- 
ship between this society and the Civil Engineers' Society at 
Montreal. The possible rivalries and disagreements between the 
two societies are now matters of ancient history. It has been the 
hope of many of us, including a considerable minority of the 
Institute council, that the two societies should arrive at some work- 
ing arrangement in regard to the publication of their reports, etc. 
Last year a report was presented to the effect that it would be 
possible without increasing the fees of either society to arrange for 
a common distribution of the transactions. This would be mutual- 
ly helpful. It could be done by pooling the editorial work. If 
the headquarters were removed from Montreal to Ottawa any 
effort in this direction would be out of the question. We hope 
before long to be able to submit a proposal to this end and for that 
reason I should like to see matters left as they are. It is a world 
wide custom to have the headquarters of all learned societies at the 
national metropolis, and we cannot tret away from the fact that 
Montreal is the metropolis of Canada. 

Mr. Coste:— The first point raised by Mr. Hardman that if the 
Secretary and Treasurer were to reside at Ottawa, they would 
come under governmental influence is not well taken, especially now 
that we have decided that in future these officers shall be appointed 
by the Council, which is the supreme directing body; and we can 
trust the members of the Council to preserve their independence of 

It has also been suggested that Council meetings shall be held 
at places other than the headquarters. But that cannot be done 
without changing the by-laws. Meanwhile it is hardly fair to compel 
members of the Council who live away from Montreal to go so far to 
attend the meetings. It means that Toronto members for example 
must each spend $30 or $40 on each occasion, besides the loss cf 

The Canadian Mining Institute. 

their time. The directing body must meet at headquarters, and 
these should be at the most convenient point to all concerned. 
From that criterion we find that the Council meetings at Montreal 
have not been well attended. Members from the east scarcely 
ever attend, and it has been very difficult at times to secure a 
quorum. A majority of us believe that Ottawa would be more 
convenient, while, too, Ottawa would be neutral ground. 

Dr. Barlow: — In regard to what Mr. Harclman said in refer- 
ence to a possible danger to our independence of action by the 
removal of headquarters to Ottawa, he is well aware that the late 
Secretary lived here a great many years, and he was not accused of 
being influenced. While the Hon. Mr. Templeman emphasized 
that he gave us this aid as a body, he has never even hinted that he 
desired to interfere with our independence, but tendered it because 
he knew we would use the grant to advance the mining interests of 
the Dominion. As to the attendance of members from the east, I 
have heard that argument used so often in favour of Montreal, 
when any change has been mooted, that I am tired of it. If these 
eastern men attend the Council meetings occasionally, it has been 
so occasionally that I have not appreciated the fact. We want to 
get away from these sectional jealousies as far as possible, and it 
would be in the best interests to move to Ottawa, for here you 
would have "Peace, perfect Peace." (Laughtei.) 

The motion to take a referendum vote on the question of 
transferring the headquarters to Ottawa was then adopted unanim- 

Dr. Barlow: — I strongly approve of the Secretary's sugges- 
tion to appoint a joint committee to place the question in a fair 
light, and on both points of view before the whole membership. 

The President: — That may be very properly left to the 
Council as a whole, and I think the case will be faiily set forth. 


Dr. W. G. Miller, in introducing the discussion on this sub- 
ject, said that he desired to lay stress on certain basic principles, 
which are important to the mining industry in all parts of the 
Dominion. He did not wish to discuss points in connection with 
mining laws, which are of interest only in individual provinces 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 53 

or districts. Mining men may differ in details on mining laws, 
but he believed it would be found that they were agreed on the 
broad principles on which the laws governing the industry should 
be based. 

Dr. Miller said that there was a tendency, in Eastern Canada 
especially, to deal with mining lands and mining rights on the 
same basis as agricultural rights, but he held that agriculture 
and mining should be considered to be two distinct industries. 
Mineral rights should be dealt with in such a way as to encourage 
mining as much as possible. If one man will not work a mineral 
deposit, another should be given a chance to do so, and no one 
should be allowed to tie up mineral properties indefinitely. 

The best way to keep the titles of mineral lands clear is by 
having an annual acreage tax. Certain men in some parts of 
the Dominion now hold mineral rights of hundreds or even thou- 
sands of acres of land. The owner of the surface rights, in many 
jases, pays the taxes, while the owner of the mineral rights may 
hold them indefinitely, without working them, which tends to 

•urage the industry. 

Dr. Barlow: — In Ontario the fact that a certain part}' has 
applied for a working permit is made known to the public by a 
notice posted at the Recorder's office. You are not granted the 
permit for 60 days, during which time anyone has a right to pros- 
pect on the territory applied for and if he makes a discovery during 
this time which can be passed by the Inspector, he secures the 
location, even although you have been working zealously and in- 
telligently to make such discovery. I do not think that this is 
a good system, because a competent man who is generally well 
known as such, advertises the fact that he considers the area in 
question a promising one and many men are watching and 
waiting for just such information which they hope to be able to turn 
to advantage. I do not think such publicity should be given to 
the granting of these permits. It is this fact that prevents many 
from applying for what seems at best a very doubtful advantage. 

Mr. Gwilli.m: — The working permit seems to be somewhat 
misunderstood. The provision is made for a working permit 
chiefly for lands on which a discovery cannot be made without a 
great deal of work. The sixty day interval prevents the blanket- 
ing of lands before they have been prospected in the ordinary way. 

54 The Canadian Mining Institute 

The man who has the working permit has at least as good a chance 
to make a discovery within the sixty days as has any one else. 
It is taken advantage of in that district at any rate. 

Mr. Tyrrell: — The greatest difficulties that we have to 
contend with are the complexities of the present mining law in 
Ontario, and the great uncertainty of the interpretations tl at 
will be given to it by the judges and lawyers. Until each section 
is so interpreted everything is hazy and indefinite, and by the 
time they are so interpreted the miners will have less chance of 
understanding it than they have at present. It will probably be 
too complex to be understood by any one. At present the only 
safe man is the man who keeps close to the officials who interpret 
the law. 

For instance the law would appear to make the discovery of 
valuable mineral the very first requisite to the acquisition of a 
mining claim, and consequently a claim that is staked with- 
out actual discovery of some sort is not validly staked at all. 
But in the case of Cashman vs. The Cobalt and James Mines it was 
held that any claim which has been staked, whether a discovery 
has been made or not, remains closed to others until it is thrown 
open to staking by the Mining Recorder, whether the claim is 
within an inspection area or not. Another man may dispute the 
right of the first staker, as provided by the Act, but he gets no 
advantage from this. The claim may be thrown open for staking ; 
and he may join in the stampede to restake it, but that is all. He 
cannot hold any discovery that he may have made on the claim 
thus fraudulently held by the first staker, and of course he will 
not waste his time disputing claims that he cannot obtain except 
by collusion with officials. 

Secondly I favour the final disposal of ground to a miner after 
he has done a certain amount of work. Men cannot interest 
capital in mining enterprises unless they are given a good title to 
the ground on which they are working, so that it is very essential, 
as a final condition of the mining laws, that an absolute patent 
should be given to the ground. The leases that were given by the 
Dominion government for mining areas in the Yukon Territory did 
enormous injury by almost entirely preventing the introduction 
of capital to install large works. But a patent is only necessary 
where large mining enterprises are undertaken, or where a con- 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 55 

siderable amount of money has been, and is being spent on the 
mine. Therefore before a patent is issued it is only reasonable 
that a considerable amount of money should have been expended 
in development. 

Poor people working mines should be allowed to hold 
them on leases at a small rental and to work them from year to year 
without being required to take out a patent unless they wish to do 

Thirdly, as far as staking and holding property are concerned. 
I am strongly in favour of this first condition — and it seems to me 
that it is a condition that appeals to every mining man who is 
attempting to develop a claim — namely, that as long as a man is 
definitely at work on his claim he should be allowed to hold 
it, and that no inspector or anybody else should be able to go on 
the property and say to the locator "You have no discovery and 
you must get off." If a man has faith enough in a mineral 
location to spend his time and money in its development, that 
should be sufficient evidence of his bona fide intentions. It is 
entirely contrary to all ideas of a rational mining policy having in 
view the development of a new country, for the Government to 
demand a statement of discovery as long as a man is living on the 
ground and working it. When the locator has made a discovery 
he can report that fact to the government and, if necessary, an 
inspector may be sent to verify it. Then such holding conditions 
as are proper may be imposed. But so long as a man is working 
his ground and developing it, he should not be turned off it, 
whether his discovery is real or imaginary. 

What I may think to be a discovery, nine out of ten men may 
consider is not one; and we know perfectly well that some of the 
greatest mineral discoveries were made by enthusiasts whose efforts 
were originally ridiculed. It is therefore a good policy to encour- 
age and not discourage the enthusiast. Let him go on and work 
the ground and discover minerals if he can. His work will , in the 
long run, redound to the benefit of the whole community. 

Mr. Willmott: — I agree with Dr. Miller in advocating the 
keeping of the surface and the mineral rights separate, and I think 
the Ontario Government is making a mistake in transferring the 
mineral rights with the land to the farmers. 

Also I agree with the idea of the increased land tax, which 

56 The Canadian Mining Institute 

will tend to stop the tying up of large blocks. But I do not agree 
with the provision requiring discovery. I always disagreed with 
that, and think my opinion is being justified b}^ the way in which 
that provision of the law is being dropped. It was originally 
"discovery" over the whole province, but this was never enforced 
except near Cobalt, and it is now being withdrawn there. In that 
connection I have further to criticize the present Ontario law, 
which is so largely a matter of "orders in council" that it is im- 
possible for the ordinary man to keep in touch with it or know at 
any given time just what is the state of the law. 

For example I was lately in Cobalt, and was surprised to find 
that inspection was no longer required there. I do not take the 
Ontario Gazette, and do not suppose many prospectors do; but 
unless you take the Gazette you cannot keep in touch with what 
the government is doing. The recorder's office was the only place 
where I could learn that inspection was now being applied only 
to the Montreal river division and to a portion of the Coleman 
division. The system is far too complicated. We have alto- 
gether too many legal difficulties to overcome in securing titles 
to our properties and the law should be so simple that all can 
understand it. 

I take the position that when a man goes on to a property, if 
he is the first comer it should be his as long as he works it. It is 
commonly remarked by investors that our titles are bad, and that 
the difficulty of securing title is so great that people will not invest 
in Ontario mines. That is a very serious charge. It may be 
difficult to substantiate it but that is the belief. It is absolutely 
necessary that titles should be beyond suspicion and that any man 
with a legitimate claim to a property should be able to get it with- 
out a lawsuit. As matters stand to-day if you buy a valuable 
property you buy a lawsuit with it. 

Mr. J. M. Clark: — The remarks of Mr. Tyrrell call for certain 
comment. He suggested that the courts created the difficulties by 
their interpretation of the mining law. That is not the case. The 
judges, of course, gave decisions in conformity with the Act and of 
its provisions as applied to inspection. The whole difficulty arose 
from introducing an utterly wrong and indefensible principle into 
the mining laws of Ontario, and this was done by the Legislature. 
The judge had no option but to carry out the statute and interpret 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 57 

it as best he could. But when a mischievous principle is intro- 
duced into a law, as the principle of inspection necessarily is, the 
mischief has much more far reaching consequences tl an can pos- 
sibly be anticipated when the law is introduced, and I think that 
is the history of the whole matter. Recently, I met a gentleman 
from Mexico who said he had read the Act six times over in an 
effort to find out what our Ontario mining law really was, and after 
each .study he came to the conclusion that re could not tell where 
he was at. The difficulty is not with the judges but with tie 
defective law, which is so uncertain that it is difficult for anyone 
to interpret what it means. Trat difficulty would be eliminated 
if the act were made to enunciate only sound principles of mining 
law, set out in understandable language. This I am sure could be 

These difficulties will always occur in Ontario until you Lave 
a definite, clear and certain law. You can have no certainty of 
title if the law can be changed from day to day by order in council. 
Therefore if you would avoid these difficulties you must talk not 
to judges and lawyers, but to the Legislature in order to secure a 
mining law, which is intelligible and understandable to the lay 

Major Leckie: — It is not only necessary to have the rights 
of the miner clearly defined and separated from those of the agri- 
culturist, but also, in Ontario, from those of the lessee of the timber 
limits. We have great trouble with these men who hold leases of 
the timber. Another thing, it should be clearly understood that 
once the government grants a lease or patent under certain con- 
ditions that these conditions shall not be changed either by order 
in council or by the Legislature. Our rights should be clearly 
defined and unchangeable, otherwise it will be impossible to in- 
terest capital in the development of our mines. The mining in- 
dustry is risky enough in itself without incurring the worry of a 

Mr. Coste:— -I fully endorse Mr. Willmott's remarks. Our 
worst troubles are undoubtedly the uncertainties of the law, ac- 
centuated by orders in council. But Major Leckie to my mind 
goes rather too far when he says that title should be unalterable, 
even by the Legislature. That is an impossibility, since the Legis- 
lature has always power to amend the law. 

58 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Major Leckie: — When we receive a deed from the Crown 
it should be couched in clear and distinct terms and should be in- 
violable. If I secure such a title, it should not be within the power 
of even Parliament to take it from me. 

Dr. Miller: — In presenting this matter I did not intend to 
go into details but to enunciate broad principles which might 
apply to the various provinces and to the Dominion. It has been 
argued that when a man stakes out a piece of ground he should 
be allowed to hold it as long as he works there. But the answer 
to that is that the miners at Cobalt in the early days asked for 
inspection. The later arrivals felt that the whole of the promising 
area had been blanketed. They complained that there had been 
blanketing, and asked the government to insist upon discovery. 
They feared that without this, large corporations might hire men 
for the purpose of holding vacant ground and thus blanket the 
whole country. 

Major Leckie has also referred to the fact that patents should 
not be cancelled. That seems to me pretty strong, as under such cir- 
cumstances, the Crown would not have the power to cancel patents 
granted in cases when fraudulent representation could be proved. 

Mr. Fox: — We had that argument with the Ontario Depart- 
ment, and our answer was that if the mining officer took the same 
care before the title was issued as he did afterwards there would be 
no chance of fraud. Once then a title is issued it should be always 
inviolable. As long as this uncertainty prevails it will be difficult 
to interest capital in the Province. 

Col. Hay:— With regard to inspection, the Government was 
simply misled by the demands of a howling mob at Cobalt in the 
summer of 1905, who found that the most desirable lots had been 
taken up by earlier arrivals. The result of the Inspection Law 
was that men, while working on what they thought were their own 
locations by priority of discovery, found stakes were being planted 
all over their properties, and every stake meant a lawsuit. I always 
opposed inspection as long as working conditions were complied 
with, and am glad to hear that it is being done away with in the 
township of Coleman. If a miner applies for ground that has not 
already been taken up, it should be his subject to reasonable 
conditions of work. 

Dr. Miller: — The government must consider the prospector 
as well as the capitalist. It has been said that men who ask for 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 59 

inspection in Cobalt were only the late arrivals. But the chairman 
of the meeting referred to was Marty Wright, who made the 
second important discovery iu 1904, and a number os the "old 
timers" were also present. 

Col. Hay: — Marty Wright accompanied me on a deputation 
to Toronto to oppose that same inspection. 

The following resolution was then moved by Mr. A. B. 
Willmott and seconded by Mr. J. M. Clark: — 

Whereas, in view of the increasing importance of mines and 
mineral lands subject to the jurisdiction of the Dominion Parlia- 
ment, be it therefore resolved, that the Canadian Mining Institute 
in annual meeting assembled, do hereby memorialize the Dominion 
Government to appoint a Royal Commission to secure evidence 
concerning the requirements of the mining industry in this regard 
and to draft mining laws to be submitted for the consideration 
of the Dominion Government. 

"And as an argument in support of the appointment of such a 
Royal Commission, it be urged, that when a statute to be enacted 
by the Dominion Parliament declares with clearness, conciseness 
and certainty the laws relating to mines and mining under Federal 
control, such a statute would, as far as local conditions permit, 
be followed by the various Provincial Governments, thus, ensuring 
as far as practicable, a uniform system of mining laws throughout 
the whole Dominion." 

Mr. Clark: — In seconding that resolution I wish to emphasize 
the necessity of making the mining law clear, concise and certain. 
If we had such law a great many of the difficulties we now have to 
face would be eliminated. 

Mr. Coste: — This resolution now before the Institute is a 
most important one. Our worst troubles are undoubtedly the 
uncertainties of the mining law, complicated by the practice of 
passing Orders in Council. By this practice the law as it stands 
is not stable, since at any time entirely new regulations may come 
into force by Orders of Council. Especially is this the case in res- 
pect to Dominion lands at the present time. The Dominion lands 
in Saskatchewan, Alberta, Manitoba and the Yukon have always 
been governed, so far as mining is concerned, by departmental reg- 
ulations approved by Order in Council, and sometimes not even 
by that, but simply by regulations of the Minister of the Interior 

60 The Canadian Mining Institute 

without the sanction of the Council. I had a personal experience 
of such a case in connection with the development of oil prospects in 
the North-West. That system is totally wrong. We are supposed 
to be a democracy under parliamentary government, but in all 
mining affairs we are absolutely in the hands of the Governor-in- 
Council, or of the Minister of the Interior independent of the 
Conucil. For instance, when we made application for these 
petroleum lands, we were told we were the first applicants and 
having made the necessary deposit, were entitled to the property; 
but should get the homesteader to sign a lease urider the form 
prescribed by the Department, which lease stipulates that a royalty 
should be paid to the homesteader, while the Order in Council 
states that the royalty is payable to the government. We refused 
to pay this double royalty, and as a result the development of that 
property has been delayed during the past nine months. If the 
request in this memorial is accepted by the Dominion Government 
and the Hon. the Minister of Mines, is, I understand favourable 
thereto, all these points may be settled and a proper mining law 
passed. It would then be possible to carry on operations under 
reasonably favourable conditions in respect to title. 

The resolution was adopted unanimously. 

The following paper was then read: "The Moose Mountain 
Iron Ore Deposit," by N. E. Leech, Sudbury, Ont. 


Mr.Hobart, on behalf of the scrutineers, then presented their 
report on the ballots for the election of officers. He stated that 
316 ballots had been cast, by far the largest number in the history 
of the Institute. Of these 24 had been rejected for various causes. 
The election resulted as follows: — 
President— Dr. Willet G. Miller, Toronto, Ont. 
Vice-Presidents — 

Mr. W. Fleet Robertson, Victoria, B.C. 
Mr. Geo. E. Drummond, Montreal, Que. 
Secretary — Mr. H. Mortimer-Lamb, Montreal, Que. 
Treasurer— Mr. J. Stevenson Brown, Montreal, Que. 
Council — 

Mr. Charles Fergie, Glace Bay, N.S. 
Mr. J. E. Hardman, Montreal, Que. 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 61 

Mr. R. H. Stewart, Rossland, B.C. 
Mr. Arthur A. Cole, Cobalt, Ont. 
Mr. Wm. M. Brewer, Victoria, B.C. 
Mr. A. J. McNab, Trail, B.C. 
Mr. J. B. Tyrrell, Toronto, Ont. 
Mr. H. A. Drury, Montreal, Que. 
Mr. R. T. Hopper, Montreal, Que. 
Mr. 0. B. Smith, Phoenix, B.C. 
Mr. R. W. Robb, Amherst, N.S. 
Mr. F. C. Parsons, Londonderry, N.S. 

After a hearty vote of thanks had been accorded the scrutin- 
eers, the President, Mr. Keffer, invited the president-elect, Dr. 
Miller, to address the meeting. 

Dr. Miller: — Gentlemen, I wish to sincerely thank the mem- 
bers of the Institute for this honour. All I can say is that 
I shall try to do everything in my power to promote the welfare of 
this Institute and of the mining industries of the Dominion dur- 
ing my term of office. (Applause.) 

Mr. Coste: — I would remind the assembly that according to 
our constitution we must now proceed to the election of another 
vice-president to fill the vacancy created by Dr. Miller's election. 
I have therefore much pleasure in proposing the name of Dr. 

This was seconded by Mr. Hedley and carried unanimously. 

The Secretary : — Before we adj ourn I think that a very hearty 
vote of thanks is due to the local committee to whose efforts we 
may largely attribute the success of this meeting. The chairman 
of that committee, our friend Dr. Barlow, has been most assiduous, 
and we owe him in particular an expression of grateful acknowledge- 

The vote of thanks was carried unanimously and the pro- 
ceedings then terminated amid cheers for the retiring president, 
Mr. Keffer. 


The Annual Banquet of the Institute was held in the large 
dining-room of the Russell Hotel, at 8 p.m., on Friday evening, 
and proved to be a most enjoyable affair. Among the guests of 

62 The Canadian Mining Institute 

the evening were the Hon. William Templeman, Minister of Mines, 
Mr. T. Luginmara, Japanese Consul General, the Hon. Senator 
Bostock, Mr. Duncan Ross, M.P., Mr. A. C. Bovce, M.P., Mr. 
Cockshutt, M.P., Mr. McDonald, M.P., Dr. J. Bonar, Deputy 
Master of the Royal Mint; Dr. R. M. Coulter, Deputy Postmaster 
Genera' ; Dr. Eugene Haanel, Director of the Mines Branch, Federal 
Depart meat of Mines; and Mr. R. W. Brock, Acting Director of 
the Geological Survey. Letters of regret at inability to attend 
were received from the Premier, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the Hon. Mr. 
Pugsley, the Hon. Clifford Sifton and others to whom invitations 
had been issued. 

Covers were laid for a hundred and twenty, and an excellent 
menu was provided. The retiring President, Mr. Keffer, presided, 
and had on his right the Hon. the Minister of Mines, and on his 
left, the President-elect, Dr. Miller. Col. A. M. Hay, of Toronto, 
acted as toast-master. 

The formal toasts of "The King" and the "President of the 
United States" having been received with musical honours, the 
toast-master proposed the toast of the "Dominion and Provincial 

The Hon. William Templeman upon rising to respond to the 
toast was received with loud cheers. He said: — 

"On behalf of the numerous governments you have just toast- 
ed so heartily I beg to return their several and collective thanks. 
But for a few minutes, I would prefer to speak to you of the great 
mining industry whose interests you have so much at heart, rather 
than of these governments and of their merits. 

"I notice on the back of your menu cards a ladder dating from 
1877 to 1907 showing the growth of the mineral output of Canada. 
As I remember it 20 years ago there was little, if any, successful 
quartz mining in Canada. Perhaps I am putting the date too 
recently, but 25 years ago British Columbia, from which province I 
come, had no quartz mining at all, and the entire mineral industry 
ot our province has developed since that time. When I resided in 
Ontario some thiity years ago, we had then a few small lode mines 
in operation, but they were relatively unimportant. 

"Your statistics show that in 1877 Canada produced minerals 
to the value of approximately $11,000,000. In 1897 you produced 
$28,000,000, while last year your products amounted to no less 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 63 

than $87,000,000. Thus the ratio of increase during the past 
decade as compared with previous years is very great indeed, 
and there is every reason to believe that during the next ten years 
this ratio will be still greater; and with the improvement in trans- 
portation facilities, you should ere long be making an annual 
production not far short of $250,000,000. 

"A few years ago we boasted that British Columbia was the 
foremost mining province of the Dominion, but I am now told that 
Ontario is leading British Columbia by four or five million dollars, 
in consequence of the development of the rich Cobalt mines. We, 
in British Columbia, are glad to see this development in Ontario, 
but we intend to run her a close race, knowing as we do the great 
mineral resources of our own province. 

"It is 34 years ago since I left Ontario for British Columbia, 
and up to 20 years ago there was no quartz mining there. Last 
year from quartz mining alone, British Columbia's production 
represented $17,000,000 or $18,000,000. 

" Seventeen years ago there was not a smelter in British Colum- 
bia. To-day, we are the smelting province of Canada, with eight 
large smelters handling millions of tons of ore every year. 

"Again in the east, in Nova Scotia and Quebec, there is great 
minin» activity, and it is most gratifying to know that in Canada 
we have so vast an are j. of mineral bearing country, which should 
in a few years make the Dominion one of the world's great mining 

"I recently read that in the United States the economic value 
of the various minerals produced amounted to no less than $2,000, 
000,000 a year. We have as great and probably as rich an area in 
Canada, and the time should not be so far distant when our mineral 
production will equal that of the United States. There is no in- 
dustry the government can better afford to assist by the estab- 
lishment of a special department and by the aid that such a special 
department can give, than the mining industry of this country. 
There is nothing the government can do of greater benefit to the 
country than to encourage the development of our mineral 
resources. (Loud applause). 

"The Department of Mines is still young. It was only organ- 
ized a year ago. We do not claim that our organization is yet 
complete, but we hope to branch out, and by additions to the 

64 The Canadian Mining Institute 

staff and by extending our investigations, to render a valuable 
service to the mining interests of the country. Already I think 
you will admit, the Mining Department has been of considerable 
service. (Applause). It was constituted for the benefit of the 
mining industry, just as the agricultural department was for the 
benefit of farming, and in my opinion great things will be accom- 
plished by it in the years to come. As to the Minister of Mines I 
can promise you, that in so far as he has it in his power, he intends 
to do everything that seems advisable for the permanent benefit 
of this great industry. (Loud applause). 

Hon. Mr. Bostock, of Ducks, B.C., in responding for the 
Senate, applauded the action of the government in constituting the 
Department of Mines. 

Mr. Duncan Ross, M.P. for Yale-Cariboo, B.C., responding 
for the House of Commons, said: As a representative of a 
mining district I am very glad of this opportunity to meet 
the representatives of the mining industry of the Dominion. 
I represent a district which has possibly the biggest smelter on this 
continent, grinding out 3,500 tons of ore a day; and coming from 
such a country I naturally feel at home with you. I regret that 
the exigencies of political life prevented my attending all 
your meetings, but I was with you this afternoon to hear Prof. 
Miller, of Toronto, telling you something about what perfect mining 
laws ought to be. The thought occurred to me at that time that 
the mining men were the real pioneers, the path finders of any new 
country. You can not show me a section of Canada or the United 
States that was not originally discovered b'/Mhe o^ospector, with 
his pack on his back, who went out and found things. Then later 
came the fruit growers, the agriculturists, and lastly the professional 
men who live on the farmers and mining men. (Laughter). 

"The thought occurred to me that the fundamental principle in 
mining is that the man who discovers things should have what he 
discovers. (Applause). And I am bound to say, that the most 
perfect mining laws in the world are those of British Columbia, 
where they allow a man to plant his stakes and get possession of 
what he stakes out. In the older settled portions of this country 
every man has an indefeasible right to the title of his property and 
you cannot disturb it. With regard to the unsettled lands the 
policy I believe in is to encourage men to go there and find things, 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting. 65 

and give them what they discover so they can hold it against all 

"That is our British Columbia practice. We allow a man to 
plant his stakes, but fine him for holding it against everybody else 
by saying he must do assessment work or pay $100 a year. And 
after he gets the crown grant he must pay so much a year for hold- 
ing the land against everybody else. That is the true basic prin- 
ciple which should prevail in every country and province in respect 
of its mining laws. Further I think that principle should obtain 
in respect of coal and timber. In the Mackenzie basin we have 
some of the most valuable timber properties in the world as well 
as some of the richest mineral areas in Canada. It is all owned by 
the Dominion Government, and I would encourage people to go 
into this unknown land and discover things by giving them every- 
thing they find. We shall not give breadth as well as length to 
Canada by figuring our wealth in undeveloped resources. Our 
strength is in the people who exploit things, and I would give 
them every opportunity to do that." (Applause). 

Mr. Cockshutt, M.P. for Brant, the next speaker, strongly 
endorsed Mr. Ross' argument that the prospector should be entitled 
to his discoveries. Although not a mining man he considered 
that there must be money in mining because he had put a good 
deal into it and could not get it out. (Laughter). 

Referring to the Ontario mining laws the speaker said: — "I do 
not like the idea of putting a royalty upon the output of the mines. 
(Loud Applause.) I think that when men have set their ingenuity 
to work and have gone over the face of the earth staking out claims 
that may or may not be good, and that when finally they strike one 
that is good, it is not fair for the government to step in and de- 
mand ten or twenty per cent, in royalties. Although I am a 
strong supporter of the Whitney government I do not think 
this taxation of the output of the mines is a fair proposition. (Loud 
Applause.) The business is risky enough in any case, and to my 
thinking any man who has the snap to put his time, energy, 
ingenuity and money in it is entitled to all he can get." 

Mr. Edwin Harkin then sang "The Trumpeter" in excellent 

Mr. McDonald, M. P. of Pictou, Nova Scotia, responding 
for that province, said: — 

66 The Canadian Mining Institute 

"We have heard a good deal about British Columbia, but I 
represent a province which leads them all so far as mining is con- 
cerned. Not only have we lead, copper, zinc and gold, but we have 
what none of the other provinces have, we have iron and coal. In 
fact I was one of the counsel in the coal and steel dispute, and per- 
haps that is why I am so strong for the mining industry. (Laughter.) 

" I come from the province which is the parent of the Canadian 
mining industry, and my own constituency of Pictou saw the first 
coal dug, and there also the first railway on this continent was 
built. Since then Nova Scotia has maintained her position as the 
leading coal mining province of the Dominion. We do not make 
so much out of our gold mines, which are low grade ores, and we 
find ourselves unable to float such huge companies as British 
Columbia has done, and that is one thing I hope British Columbia 
will teach us — how to earn an honest dollar by capitalizing a hole 
in the ground. (Laughter.) 

"There are millions of miles of undiscovered mineral lands in 
our great northland, and the young men I see here to-night will not 
merely reap a personal reward from their devotion to their profession, 
but will render a much nobler service to Canada in increasing her 
wealth and power. I recognize in you, men who are doing that for 
Canada in your own profession which none else can do, and we look 
to you to develop and people Canada so that in the years to come 
she may take that place in the mineral world which awaits her in 
every other industrial direction. (Applause.) 

Mr. Obalski, superintend of mines, Quebec, briefly responded 
on behalf of Hon. Charles Devlin, Minister of Mines of that Province. 

On rising to respond for Ontario, Dr. Miller, was received with 
loud and prolonged applause. 

He said: — "I may say on behalf of the Legislature of Ontario 
that I am sure its members appreciate very highly the work of the 
Canadian Mining Institute, and recognizes its educational value, 
and we may look to assistance from the Ontario Government. 

"As a member of the Institute I desire to add, and in this I think 
I voice your views, that we appreciate very highly the interest taken 
by Hon. Mr. Templeman, in the mining industry. We all con- 
sider him our very good friend, and one of the first appointments 
he has made, that of Mr. Brock, as Acting Director of the Survey, 
met very strongly with our approval. 

Proceedings of 10th Annual' Meeting 67 

"So far as the Ontario Legislature is concerned I believe I am 
safe in asserting that it may be depended on to encourage the 
Institute and its work at all times." (Applause.) 

The toast of "The Mining Industry" was then proposed and 
enthusiastically received, all joining in the chorus of the time 
honoured anthem " Drill, Ye Terriers, Drill. " 

Mr. Eugene Haanel, Director of the Mines Branch respond- 
ing to the toast, said: — It is very important that we should secure 
capital for the development of our mineral resources. This can be 
done in part by publishing monographs dealing with the important 
economic minerals of Canada, from the mining, engineering and 
investor's standpoint. This work has been commenced, and we 
have issued several such monographs upon mica, asbestos, graphite, 
etc., and another is ready for press on the chrome iron ores. The 
difficulty we experience in the Department is in securing experts to 
write these monographs, since industrial pressure is so great that the 
best men are not available for the Government service. 

Our provinces labour under somewhat peculiar difficulties. 
When I first came to assume the duties of the Superintendent 
of Mines, my attention was arrested by the large amount of iron 
in the crude and manufactured state imported into Canada. 
Iron is the foundation of all industry, and a country which has 
to import its iron, either in the raw or manufactured state, is 
severely handicapped. In the middle provinces we have the 
iron ore deposits, but no metallurgical fuel, and it occurred to 
me that some other process than the blast furnace process might 
be made available for the extraction of the metal from the ores. 
The central provinces are richly endowed in the possession of 
numerous water powers, which might be made available for con- 
version into heat for smelting operations. 

To gain all needed information as to what had been done in 
this direction in Europe, the Government appointed a Com- 
mission to investigate the subject. Since the publication of the 
report of this commission, some 17 electric steel furnaces have 
been set up in Europe, and on account of the economic success 
of the electric process in producing an excellent quality of steel 
it is gradually displacing the crucible process. 

Regarding production of pig-iron by the electric process, 
it may be stated that the experiments at Sault Ste. Marie, con- 

68 The Canadian Mining Institute 

ducted under Government auspices, have established the metal- 
lurgy of the process and the further important discovery has 
been made, that by the electro-thermic process, sulphur up to two 
and more per cent, maybe eliminated without making a basic slag, 
a fact which will make many ore deposits which cannot be handled 
by blast furnaces commercially available. The furnace employed 
in the experiments at Sault Ste. Marie was provided with a 
central electrode, which prevented the mechanical charging of the 
furnace and permitted the escape, without utilization, of the 
carbon monoxide resulting from the chemical action within the 
furnace. What is now needed, is the invention of a commercial 
furnace, permitting the use of labour-saving machinery and the 
utilization of the carbon monoxide evolved. Improvement in 
these directions is now being prosecuted at Welland, Ontario, 
where an experimental electric furnace has been set up by the 
Electro-Metals Company. 

The experiments made at Sault Ste. Marie have been watched 
with intense interest by the Swedish iron masters, and no sooner 
had our report been issued than 200,000 kronor were subscribed 
by the iron masters for further experiments in Sweden to solve 
the problem presented in the construction of an economical, 
commercial electric furnace. 

The next important and very grave question for the central 
provinces is the securing of an adequate supply of fuel. Although 
we have no coal in these provinces, they are, however, richly 
provided with extensive peat bogs. The utilization of this low 
grade fuel has been recognized as an important problem and much 
money has been spent in this country in experimentation to render 
peat a marketable fuel. Many of the failures are due to the fact 
that this experimentation has been undertaken without a proper 
knowledge of what has already been done in this direction in 
countries which have employed peat as a fuel for many years. To 
furnish this necessary information, an expert was sent by the 
Department to Europe to examine into the peat and lignite in- 
dustry and report upon the same. This report will soon be ready 
for distribution. 

During the summer, the Department has undertaken in 
the interest of the peat industry the investigation of the various 
accessible peat bogs, and reports will be issued of their extent, 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting. 69 

depth. best method of draining, quality of peat therein contained, 
and the best methods adapted to their exploitation. When this 
has been done, one of the most rational methods of utilizing our 
peat bogs will consist in setting up gas producers for power pur- 

- upon the peat bogs and utilizing the energy in a similar 
manner as that furnished by water powers. 

The solution of these two problems for the middle provinces, 
that of the iron industry and the utilization of peat, will render 
us independent to a great extent of outside sources for these two 

As regards the future prospects of the mineral industry of 
Canada, we have every reason for optimism. In the exploita- 
tion of the resources of the country to the south of us it is now 
recognized that it has been extravagant and accompanied by 
waste, and a note of warning is being sounded throughout the 
country by an intelligent press. The time will come, and is re- 
garded to be not far distant, when their ore deposits will be 
worked out. and they will look with longing eyes to Canada with 
its magnificent resources for the supply of that necessary metal, 
iron, without which modern civilization cannot be maintained. I 
hope the lesson thus taught us by our neighbours early in the 
history of our development will render us more prudent regarding 
the exploitation and utilization of our resources. Especially 
would I plead for such action as would prevent our iron ores 
from passing out of our country. Our country is extensive in 
area, has a brilliant future before it, and for its development we 
shall need every ounce of iron ore with which it is endowed. 

Mr. R. W. Brock. Acting Director of the Geological 
Survey, in a brief speech, expressed the desire of the mem- 
bers of the Mines Department to serve the mining industries 
of the country. 

Mr. A. B. Wilmott. of Sault Ste. Marie, also responded to the 
toast. He referred to the immensity of the "'claim" that Canada 
had staked out for herself on this continent. " As to discoveries," 
he continued, "I would point out that the Cordillera region is 
divided into three sections. There are 1,500 miles in Mexico, 
rich in silver; 1,500 in the United States, with gold and silver. We 
have 1,500 miles in Canada, and know that along the boundary 
and to the extreme north it has proved very rich, and we may 

70 The Canadian Mining Institute 

justly infer that our fifteen hundred miles is as rich as either of the 
others. Then we have the Sudbury district, the greatest nickel 
camp in the world, and Cobalt; while in Quebec we have corundum, 
asbestos and many other valuable minerals, while on our eastern 
and western coasts we have abundant coal. To the north again 
we have gold areas of which practically nothing is yet known. 
That north region is bound to become a valuable asset to Canada. 
These are merely a few of the reasons I have for feeling confident 
that our great Canadian claim will ' pan out' well." (Applause). 

Mr. Louis Pratt responded on behalf of the mining industry 
of British Columbia. 

"The Retiring President" was then proposed by Mr. J. E. 
Hardman of Montreal, who said: — " It gives me very great pleasure 
to propose this toast, both as an old member of this Institute, and 
as an old friend of many of your past presidents. The position of 
president of this Institute is by no means a sinecure, especially 
when, like your immediate past president, he resides in British 
Columbia, and requires to travel across the continent to attend a 
meeting. In proposing this toast I crave permission to tell you 
something about Mr. Keffer which you may not know. Going 
to British Columbia in 1896, when there was one log cabin in 
Greenwood, he began his work on the "Mother Lode," unassisted, 
without any large capital. He developed that property from a 
prospect to what it is now, the second largest producing mine in 
British Columbia. He was undoubtedly the pioneer of the Bound- 
ary country of British Columbia, and as the pioneer engineer of 
the Boundary country he has steadily upheld a standard of moral 
integrity amongst his people. It is to his credit that during the 
time he was general manager of that company there was no dis- 
sension and no strike amongst his employees, and this I conceive 
to be as bright a crown as a man can wear. It is needless to say 
that he has most worthily maintained the dignity of the Insti- 
tute during his term of office as President. 

Mr. Keffer, on rising to reply, was greeted with loud cheers. 
In a few well chosen words he returned thanks, and added that 
he would continue to take a warm interest in the Institute, and 
would promote its welfare by every means in his power. 

Proceedings of 10th Annual Meeting 71 

"Our Guests" was responded to by Messrs. Sakemure, Act- 
ing Consul General for Japan; Dr. J. Bonar, Dr. W. Campbell, Mr. 
Turriff, and Dr. R. M. Coulter, Deputy Postmaster General; and 
"The Press, " by Mr. Frederick Hobart, Mr. Farr and Mr. J. C. Mur- 

72 The Canadian Mining Institute 


Reported by E. Jacobs, Secretary. 

The proposal to form a western Branch of the Institute was 
taken up with enthusiasm by a number of members resident in the 
Province, conspicuous among them, Mr. Frederic Keffer, of Green- 
wood, engineer in charge of the several mines of the British Colum- 
bia Copper Company, who in March of 1907 was elected president 
of thelnstitutefortheyear 1907-8, and Mr. A. B. W. Hodges, of Grand 
Forks, general superintendent of the mines and smelters of the 
Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power Company. The 
movement received a decided stimulus as the direct outcome of the 
visit to the West last autumn of Mr. H.Mortimer-Lamb, of Montreal, 
secretary of the Institute, who stirred up general interest in the 
proposal to organize a Western Branch. The result of the efforts 
of these several gentlemen an4 ©f-otker- members who heartily sup- 
ported them, was seen in the successful organization of the branch 
at Nelson on Wednesday, January 15, on which day and that fol- 
lowing a satisfactory and successful meeting of members was held. 

proceedings on the first day. 

The Court Room at Nelson having been kindly placed at their 
disposal, the members first met there on Wednesday morning. 

Mr. Frederic Keffer, as president, made an address in which he 
stated the object of the meeting, which was primarily the formation 
of a Western Branch of the Institute. 

It was then moved by Mr. S. S. Fowler, and seconded by Mr. 
C. P. Hill, that " we now constitute ourselves a Western Branch of 
the Canadian Mining Institute." This was carried unanimously. 

The next order of business was the election of permanent 
officers, with the following result: President, Mr. A. B. W. Hodges; 
secretary, Mr. E. Jacobs ; Executive Council: Messrs. P. S. Couldrey, 
R. H. Stewart, L. Hill, 0. E. S. Whiteside, W. M. Brewer, J. C. 
Haas, E. C. Musgrave, J. McEvoy and S. G. Blaylock, and the 
western members of the Council of the Institute, ex-officio. 

While the scrutineers were examining the ballot papers, Mr. 

Western Branch Meetings 73 

E. Jacobs stated that the provincial mineralogist had requested 
him to express his regret that his official duties just now prevented 
him from leaving Victoria, so that he was unable to attend the 
meeting. He also apologized for the unavoidable absence of .Mr. 
John Hopp, of Cariboo, who had intended being present, but had 
been prevented by business engagements. 

After announcement of the result of the ballot, the president 
of the branch, Mr. A. B. W. Hodges, took the chair and in his open- 
ing address thanked his fellow members for the honour they had 
done him. He said: " I have belonged to the Institute many years, 
but have been so busy that I have never had time to attend a meet- 
ing in the East. When the Council of the Institute suggested this 
plan. I was heartily in favour of a branch out here, and I know all 
the gentlemen present are interested enough to endorse my senti- 
ments. But an endeavour should be made to increase the mem- 
bership as soon as possible. It will require hearty co-operation to 
make a success of this branch. The whole reason of the formation 
of the Western Branch is that the busy members out West cannot 
attend the meetings of the Institute held in the East. 

"I think we should have a committee of three appointed to 
look into the by-laws of the Canadian Mining Institute and report 
to-morrow on such changes as they shall consider it advisable to 
make. I appoint on that committee, Messrs. S. S. Fowler, L. Hill 
and J. C. Haas." 

Mr. E. Jacobs, the newly elected secretary, thanked the mem- 
bers for his election, and went on to say that there were already 
nearly 150 western members of the Institute, including those 
resident in Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon Territory, and the 
State of Washington, and he thought it probable that within a 
year there would be a membership of at least 200. He then 
pointed out that the Government of the Province was paying a 
great deal of attention to agriculture, but not so much to mining. 
The new branch of the Institute might induce it to make a differ- 
ence in this regard. 

The president next stated that it was not the intention that 
afternoon to proceed with the reading of technical papers, but 
rather to have an informal discussion as to the best method of 
carrying on the newly formed branch of the Institute. 

Mr. F. Keffer thought it would be well to have small local 

74 The Canadian Mining Institute 

branches of the Institute in the different mining centres, to meet 
every month or so. 

Mr. S. S. Fowler thought that there would be hardly a suffi- 
cient membership present in any one of these centres, with the 
possible exception of the Boundary, to make such meetings inter- 
esting. He was of opinion that there should be quarterly or semi- 
annual meetings. This suggestion led to some discussion, and 
finally the general opinion seemed to be that the meetings of the 
Western Branch of the Institute should be held thrice yearly. 

Mr. Keffer agreed with Mr. Fowler that the oftener meetings 
could be held the better the members could get together. 

Mr. J. C. Haas suggested the reading of papers at such meet- 
ings, but thought the procedure of the meetings should be, as far 
as possible, informal. 

Mr. T. Kiddie agreed as to the non-formality of the meetings, 
and thought that meetings three times a year would be ample. 

Mr. E. Jacobs called attention to the fact that the annual 
meeting of the Institute would be held this year in Ottawa, open- 
ing on March 4, and that it would be in order for the Western 
Branch to prepare for that annual meeting anything that the West 
particularly thought desirable for discussion. He next read, for 
the information of the meeting, the by-laws of the Institute as to 
membership and associate membership. Continuing, he remarked: 
"In view of the fact that a Dominion Department of Mines had 
been organized, it would be politic for the meeting to pass a resolu- 
tion congratulating the Dominion Government upon its establish- 
ment, and expressing appreciation of the useful work done in the 
West by the Geological Survey Department and, as well, with 
reference to the exhaustive labours of the Zinc Commission, and 
the work of Mr. R. R. Hedley in gathering for the Department of 
Mines, for publication, statistics and other data relative to the 
mining and smelting industries of the West. " Further, he called 
attention to a statement published in the press to the effect that 
the Canadian branch of the Royal Mint would not be able to use 
for coinage purposes metals smelted in Canada until after these 
shall have been further refined. He thought the Institute should 
call attention to the fact that such a statement is quite erroneous, 
since at the refinery at Trail, owned and operated by the Consoli- 

Western Branch Meetings 75 

dated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, the silver pro- 
duced is of fineness averaging over .999 and the gold about .995. 

The secretary was requested to prepare resolutions along the 
lines sugested, for consideration the following day. 

Mr. Fowler, on behalf of the Nelson members, invited the 
visiting members together with their lady fiiends to be present at 
a complimentary dance arranged to take place at the Hume hotel 
that night. 

At five o'clock adjournment was made until the following 
morning at 11 o'clock. 

proceedings on second day. 

The first business taken up on Thursday morning was the 
consideration of the following two resolutions, which were unani- 
mously adopted: 

Proposed by Mr. E. Jacobs and seconded by Mr. T. Kiddie: 
"That the Western Branch of the Canadian Mining Institute 
hereby expresses its satisfaction at the establishment of a Dominion 
Department of Mines, with its 'Geological' and 'Mines' branches, 
under the control of a minister of mines and directed by his several 
chief officials, the deputy minister of mines, director of the Geo- 
logical Branch and director of the Mines Branch respectively. It 
also expresses its appreciation of the valuable work heretofore 
done in western Canada by the Geological Survey, particularly in 
the Crow's Nest Pass coal fields, and later in Kootenay, Boundary, 
Similkameen and Skeena districts, and the comparatively large 
amount of geological and topographical work done in Yukon 
Territory. Further it places on record its recognition of the sys- 
tematic and thorough work of the Zinc Commission and that of 
the more recent efforts of the Mines Branch to collect and compile 
for publication statistics and other useful information concerning, 
the mining and smelting industries of Western Canada. Finally, 
it notes with satisfaction the considerable increase in the amount 
placed by the Dominion Government on the estimates for the 
ensuing fiscal year for the purposes of continuing and extend- 
ing the valuable work of the respective branches of the Depart- 
ment of Mines, and it respectfully commends to the favourable con- 
sideration of the hon. the minister of mines and his chief officials 

76 The Canadian Mining Institute 

the great need existing for field work operations in Western Cana- 
da on an adequate scale, so that the development of the enor- 
mous mineral resources of this very important part of the 
Dominion may be further encouraged and facilitated." 

It was further resolved that the secretary forward copies of 
the foregoing resolution to the right hon. the prime minister, the 
hon. the minister of mines, the deputy minister of mines and the 
directors of the Geological and Mines branches respectively. 

Proposed by Mr. S. S. Fowler and seconded by Mr. Frederic 
Keffer: "That, in the opinion of the Western Branch of the Can- 
adian Mining Institute, the mining industry of British Columbia 
has attained to such comparatively large proportions in regard to 
annual total value of its mineral products, and gives such promise 
of continued steady increase in activity and productive results 
as to call for larger annual appropriations for the practical pur- 
poses of the Provincial Bureau of Mines, so that the examination 
of mining districts and the dissemination of useful information 
relative to their mineral resources, may be on a scale more in 
keeping with the fast growing importance of the mining industry 
than has been reasonably practicable during recent years. It is 
therefore respectfully urged that, while much good work has already 
been done, the great benefit the adequate development of the min- 
ing industry will be to the Province at large, as well as to the dis- 
tricts more directly interested, be fully recognized, and that the 
Provincial Government make more liberal provision for the work 
of the Bureau of Mines, so that this serviceable department may 
be enabled to. considerably extend its effective work, thereby en- 
suring that the mining industry shall enjoy the benefit of similar 
liberal treatment by the Government as has been, and is being, 
given to the agricultural and fruit-growing industries of the Pro- 

The secretary was directed to send copies of this resolution to 
the hon. the premier and the officials of the Provincial Bureau of 

The committee on by-laws, appointed the previous day, made 
a verbal report to the effect that the by-laws of the parent Insti- 
tute must govern the conduct of this branch, though such modifica- 
tion as shall be considered necessary may be recommended by the 
local council to the council of the Canadian Mining Institute. 

Western Branch Meetings 77 

Mr. S. S. Fowler here extended to the members, on behalf of 
that company, a cordial invitation to visit the reduction works of 
the Canada Zinc Company now in course of construction within 
a short distance of the city. The invitation was accepted with 

This completed the general business of the morning. Mr. 
W. A. Davidson, engineer of the West Canadian Collieries, Limited, 
Blairmore, Alberta, read some notes on the "Utilization of Waste 
at Lille Colliery, and how it is accomplished." An interesting 
discussion followed, which occupied the attention of the meeting 
until the session was adjourned for luncheon. 

At two o'clock some 20 members left by electric car for the 
Canada Zinc Company's works, over which they were shown by 
rhe resident officials. Upon return to the city the afternoon session 
was opened at half-past three o'clock. The several papers read 
and discussed were as follows: "Notes on Cost of Diamond Drill- 
ing in the Boundary District," by Frederic Keffer; "Handling 
3,000 Tons of Ore Per Day at the Granby Mines and Smelter," by 
A. B. W. Hodges; "Mineral Production of British Columbia in 
1907," by E. Jacobs. 

Other papers were read by title. 

This concluded the business, whereupon hearty votes of thanks 
were tendered to Messrs. Keffer and Hodges for having been lar- 
gely instrumental in bringing about the holding of the meeting 
and the resultant organization of the new branch; to the committee 
of Nelson members of the Institute, particularly Messrs. Campbell 
and Fowler, for having made arrangements for the conven- 
tion, carrying out of the local arrangements for holding the 
meeting, and for the entertainment and hospitality provided for 
the enjoyment of the visiting members and the ladies accompanying 
some of them; to the Canada Zinc Company for the opportunity 
to inspect its works, and to the Daily News and Canadian news- 
papers for the publicity they have given the proceedings. 

In conclusion it may be said that the meeting was decidedly 
successful, both in point of attendance and as regards its repre- 
sentative nature. Nine signed applications for membership were 
received and others were promised. The attendance of members 
was as follows: W. B. Bishop, A. B. W. Hodges, C. T. Mitchell 
and W. St. John Miller, Grand Forks; F. Keffer and C. Yarcoe, 

78 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Greenwood; C. Rundberg, Phoenix; W. E. Zwicky, Kaslo; A. W. 
Davis, Sandon; Jas. Buchanan, Trail; E. C. Brown-Cave, Van- 
couver; E. Jacobs, Victoria; W. A. Davidson, Blairmore, and C. P. 
Hill, Frank, Alta.; J. C. Haas, Spokane; T. Kiddie, Northport, 
Wash. The Nelson members in attendance were: G. H. Barn- 
hart, S. G. Blaylock, J. J. Campbell, S. S. Fowler, A. C. Garde, 
A. H. Gracey, Leslie Hill, B. A. Isaac, A. L. McKillop, G. A. Revell 
and E. W. Widdowson. The non-members present were: A. D. 
Wheeler, Ainsworth; J. A. Whittier, Kaslo; L. Pratt, Sandon; F. W. 
Guernsey, Trail; Thos. Brown, L. Crawford, Frank Fletcher, E. F. 
Miltenberger, A. Bruce Ritchie and C. H. Rowlands, Nelson. 


Reported by E. Jacobs, Secretary. 

The Western Branch of the Canadian Mining Institute held 
its second general meeting at Rossland on Thursday, May 14. 

Mr. A. B. W. Hodges, of Grand Forks, general superinten- 
dent of the Granby Mining, Smelting and Power Company, 
Limited, was in the chair. 

The following members were present: From Nelson: S. S. 
Fowler and C. H. Rowlands. Grand Forks: W. B. Bishop, A. B. 
W. Hodges, Frank E. Lathe, W. St. John Miller and C. T. Mitchell. 
Phcenix: C. M. Campbell. Trail: F. W. Guernsey and J. M. 
Turnbull. Vancouver: J. West Collis. Victoria: E. Jacobs. 
Northport, Wash.: Thos. Kiddie. Rossland: D. J. Browne, T. W. 
Cavers, H. H. Claudet, P. S. Couldrey, Graham Cruickshank, Geo. 
W. Dunn, A. G. Larson, A. J. McMillan, M. E. Purcell, J. M. 
Sands, R. H. Stewart and C. Varcoe. Dr. J. Bonsall Porter, pro- 
fessor of mining at McGill University, and Mr. John A. Dresser, 
instructor in geology, both members of the Institute, who were in 
the Kootenay with the McGill summer mining school, also attended. 
The visitors at the meeting included J. A. Macdonald, M.P.P. for 
Rossland; A. B. Mackenzie, secretary of the Associated Boards of 
Trade; J. S. C. Fraser, manager of the Bank of Montreal, Ross- 
land; W. S. Rugh, office manager of the Le Roi Mining Company, 
Limited; H. P. Dickinson, district representative of the Giant 
Powder Company; K. C. Allen, J. C. Fuller and F. S. Peters. 

The secretary read an account of the proceedings at the Nelson 
meeting last January, and this was taken as the minutes of that 
meeting, and on resolution was so adopted. 

The chairman then asked Mr. J. A. Macdonald, member for 
the Rossland district in the Provincial Legislature, who was 
present by invitation, to address the meeting. 

80 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Mr. Macdonald said that the citizens of Rossland had been 
honoured by having the second meeting of the Western Branch 
of the Canadian Mining Institute convened in their city. He 
thanked the Branch for the honour done him in inviting him to 
be present and to address the meeting. He knew the work the 
branch was doing was entirely one of unselfishness — to give others 
the benefit of the experience each had obtained in his own sphere. 
In mining there was no selfish competition, each mine owner being 
glad to see his neighbour prosper and none succeed at the expense 
of others. This spirit had been carried into the work of the 
Canadian Mining Institute, and was being used for the purpose 
of disseminating the knowledge individual members had gained, 
thus exemplifying the unselfishness of their motives. 

Mr. A. J. McMillan, managing director of the Le Roi Mining 
Company, was next called upon. He expressed pleasure at seeing 
members of the Canadian Mining Institute meeting in Rossland, 
and hoped the proceedings would be found profitable to those 
taking part in them. The visitors would be given opportunity 
to go through the large m^nes of the camp. Those in charge of 
the mines had not lost faith in them — they believed there still 
remained large bodies of good ore, and although there were still 
difficulties to be met, these would doubtless be overcome as others 
had been in the past. 

The chairman then announced that an intimation had been 
received from the secretary of the Institute, in Montreal, that 
several British and foreign institutes connected with engineering, 
mining and metallurgy had been invited to join the Canadian 
Mining Institute in an excursion through the mining sections of 
the Dominion next September, and that it was proposed to visit 
the chief mining camps of British Columbia. The members of 
the Western Branch would be expected to unite in entertaining 
the visitors, and he asked that as many as possible would join in 
the excursion when the party should come west and proceed to 
Victoria, where a formal meeting of the Institute would be held. 
He understood the Provincial Government had already been in- 
formed that it would be asked to make an appropriation towards 
the cost of entertaining the visitors. He hoped Mr. Macdonald 
would endeavour to help them to secure some such assistance 
from the Government. 

Western Branch 81 

Mr. Macdonald enquired whether the Canadian Mining Insti- 
tute received a grant from the Provincial Government. He 
thought that if application for it were made the Legislature would 
support a grant to assist in carrying the useful work of the Institute. 

The secretary said that so far as he knew no financial assist- 
ance had yet been given the Institute by the Government of 
British Columbia. The statement of the treasurer of the Institute, 
presented at the annual meeting in Ottawa in March, shows that 
the Dominion Government gives an annual grant of S3 ,000 and 
the Ontario Government one of $1,500, and he understood that 
the Dominion Government had been asked to increase its yearly 
grant to $5,000. As a matter of fact there had been no official 
recognition by the Government of British Columbia of the existence 
of the Institute. The Dominion Government and the Provinces 
of Quebec and Ontario had all been officially represented at the 
annual meetings of the Institute, and had supplied information 
relative to their mineral production, but British Columbia had had 
only the benefit of the attendance at the annual meetings of two 
or three members from the Province, and such information con- 
cerning mineral production as he, the speaker, had supplied for 
submission to the meetings of 1907 and 1908 respectively. 

Mr. McMillan suggested that the Institute should apply to 
the Provincial Government for a grant, which should not be less 
than the amount received from Ontario. 

Mr. Macdonald did not anticipate that the Institute would 
have any difficulty in obtaining a grant from the Provincial Gov- 
ernment if the proper information concerning the work and posi- 
tion of the Institute were supplied. The Province had been fairly 
liberal in giving aid to the agricultural and fruit-growing indus- 
tries, so he thought the mining industry would be similarly assisted 
if the necessary representations were made. 

The secretary mentioned that the total value of the mineral 
production of the Province in 1907 was not far from $26,000,000, 
which was as large as or larger than that of the combined value of 
two or three others of the chief industries of British Columbia. 
It was true the Province had the benefit of the work of the pro- 
vincial mineralogist and the provincial assayer, but in his opinion, 
the mining industry did not receive from the Provincial Govern- 
ment adequate aid or recognition. It was gratifying to find the 

82 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Dominion department of mines doing so much work in the West, 
and he had received assurances from the minister of mines, and 
the directors of the geological survey and mines branches, respec- 
tively, that their work in the West would be continued on at least 
as large a scale as during the past few years. 

The secretary here mentioned, as good news, to those inter- 
ested in the zinc mining industry, that the appeal to the United 
States courts, against the decision of the General Board of Ap- 
praisers in favour of admitting zinc ores into the United States 
duty free, had not been successful, the court ruling that no duty 
is legally chargeable upon them, except as to their lead contents. 

The chairman expressed his pleasure that the question of 
applying to the Provincial Government for aid to the Institute 
had been brought up, and that Mr. Macdonald had been present 
and heard the views expressed in this connection. Bearing in 
mind the relative importance of the several industries and the 
value of their products, he thought the mining industry should 
receive from the Government twice the amount of the assistance 
given to any one of the others. 

An adjournment to the afternoon was here made. 


The business was resumed at 2.30 o'clock p.m., and the 
following resolutions were unanimously adopted after a brief de- 
bate: — 

Proposed by Mr. P. S. Couldrey, seconded by Mr. Thomas 
Kiddie, "that in order to make the council of this branch more 
fully representative, the number of elected members thereof be 
increased from nine to twelve, in addition to the president and 
secretary. " 

Proposed by Mr. R. H. Stewart, seconded by Mr. F. W. 
Guernsey, "that Messrs. R. W. Coulthard, Fernie, and John L. 
Retallack, Kaslo, be and hereby are elected members of the 

The secretary reported that "the council recommends that a 
committee be appointed to request the Provincial Government to 

Western Branch 83 

make an appropriation towards the expense of suitably entertain- 
ing the British and foreign and other visitors who will next Sep- 
tember visit British Columbia as guests of the Canadian Mining 
Institute, such committee to consist of Messrs. A. B. W. Hodges, 
W. H. Aldridge and S. S. Fowler, with power to add to their 
number. " 

Dr. J. Bonsall Porter, who is senior vice-president of the 
Canadian Mining Institute, at the request of the chairman, gave 
some information as to who were these invited guests, who include 
a number of eminent members of British and foreign societies, and 
the scheme of the proposed excursion. 

On motion of Mr. A. J. McMillan, seconded by Mr. M. E. 
Purcell, the recommendation of the council was adopted. 

Proposed by Mr. S. S. Fowler, seconded by Mr. J. West Collis, 
"that a committee of five be appointed by the president to make 
suggestions to the council of the Institute in connection with the 
itinerary in western Canada of the British and foreign visitors 
next September." Carried unanimously. 

The reading and discussion of papers was then proceeded 

Mr. E. Jacobs read some brief notes on a "Matte Separating 
Forehearth" in use at the Tyee Copper Company's smelter at 
Ladysmith, Vancouver Island. He said that Mr. W. J. Watson, 
manager of the smelter, had informed him that so far as he knew, 
he, Mr. Watson, was the first to use this particular adaptation of 
the old Orford settler to a water-jacketted receiver, and that 
during the two years it has been in use the matte compartment 
has only frozen up three or four times, and then on account of the 
high zinc contents of the matte. The settler has more than paid 
for itself by reason of the slag made being cleaner. Among other 
advantages which this arrangement of the settler affords are the 
following: The wear and tear of the matte pots is reduced by 
the stream of matte not striking the side of the pot as it does in the 
ordinary tapping methods; tapping clay is saved; the danger of 
men being burned when tapping slag is obviated; the services of a 
tapper are dispensed with and a consequent economy is effected 
in not having to pay this extra man's wages. 

84 The Canadian Mining Institute 

The notes were discussed by Mr. Thomas Kiddie, who was 
familiar with the conditions under which Mr. Watson had worked, 
and by Messrs. Guernsey and Hodges. 

Mr. H. H. Claudet contributed a "Few Notes on the Elmore 
Vacuum Process of Ore Concentration." The discussion that 
followed was participated in by Messrs. Porter, S. S. Fowler, F. W. 
Guernsey, A. B. W. Hodges, Thos. Kiddie and J. M. Turnbull. 
Samples of several concentration products were passed around 
for inspection. 

Mr. C. M. Campbell's paper on " Granby Mining Methods" was 
a clear and comprehensive description of the methods followed 
by the Granby Company at its big copper mines at Phcenix. A 
number of excellent drawings and large photographs illustrated 
the text of the paper, which was generally commended as being 
a distinctly creditable production. As the time was short, 
discussion was brief. 

The chairman here announced that he had been requested by 
Mr. Frederic Keffer, engineer in charge of the mines of the British 
Columbia Copper Company in the Boundary, and who was last 
year's president of the Institute, to present to Mr. Frank E. Lathe 
the president's gold medal for the best paper submitted by a 
student member last year. Mr. Lathe, who is now with the 
Granby Company, was then at McGill University. 

Mr. Lathe was heartily applauded as he went forward to 
receive the medal, in addition to which he had already received 
from the Institute a cash prize of $25. 

The secretary then read some notes he had made on "Ore 
Hoisting Appliances at the Tyee Copper Company's Smelter," 
when visiting those works a fortnight ago. In particular he des- 
cribed a trolley designed by Mr. W. J. Watson and found to work 
effectively in connection with hoisting ore from vessels into the 
bunkers on the wharf. Illustrative photographs were shown. 

On the request of the chairman Dr. Porter briefly outlined 
the work in progress in McGill laboratories to test the coals in 
Canada. These tests are being made under the auspices of the 
Dominion Government. 

Western Branch 85 

On motion of Mr. S. S. Fowler, seconded by Mr. M. E. Purcell, 
the president and secretary were appointed to urge upon the 
Dominion Department of Mines the desirability of completing 
as soon as possible Mr. R. W. Brock's full report on his structural 
survey of Rossland camp, with maps, the necessity of having these 
made available being pressing. 

Votes of thanks to the local committee for its services in pro- 
viding for the entertainment of the visitors; to the district press 
for the publicity given the meeting, and to local officials for the 
use of the court room, were passed, and the meeting then ad- 


A most enjoyable smoker was tendered the visitors at the 
Rossland Club in the evening. The chairman of the club, Mr. 
J. S. C. Fraser, presided over the proceedings and he and Mr. J. A. 
Macdonald, M.P.P., cordially welcomed the visitors, on whose 
behalf Mr. Hodges responded. Speeches were also made by Mr. 
A. J. McMillan, Dr. J. B. Porter, Mr. A. S. Goodeve, Mr. P. S. 
Couldrey, Mr. S. S. Fowler, Mr. M. E. Purcell, Mr. Thos. Kiddie, 
Mr. F. W. Guernsey, and others. 

In the course of the evening an excellent programme of vocal 
and instrumental music was rendered. 

The next day was spent in inspecting the Le Roi, Le Roi No. 
2, and Centre Star mines, under the escort of the various mine 
officials. Most of the visitors left for home by the evening train. 

The committee on entertainment consisted of Messrs. A. G. 
Larson, J. S. C. Fraser, R. H. Stewart. W. S. Rugh, P. E. Couldrey, 
Graham Cruickshank and H. P. Dickinson. 

86 The Canadian Mining Institute 


Reported by G. R. Hardy, Secretary. 

A regular meeting of the Cobalt Branch was held Friday, 
December 20, 1907. 

Present: — A. A Cole, E. L. Fraleck, Capt. Leckie, C. Campbell, 
H. J. Deyell, R. W. Brigstock, Carl Reinhardt, W. H. Prest and 
G. D. Hardy. 

Mr. Cole occupied the chair and after a few preliminary re- 
marks, called upon Capt. Leckie, who read an interesting paper 
entitled, " The Mispickel Deposits at Arsenic Lake. " Capt. Leckie 
showed some good specimens of mispickel, also maps showing the 
location of the deposits. A brief discussion followed the reading of 
the paper. 

The meeting closed with a vote of thanks to Capt. Leckie, 
proposed by Mr. Brigstock and seconded by Mr. Fraleck. 

A meeting of the Branch was also held during the month of 
May, when interesting papers were presented by respectively 
Mr. E. L. Fraleck, on "Early Mining Endeavour in the Province of 
Ontario," and by Mr. G. H. Sancton on "Methods of Concentration 
at Cobalt, " which was productive of a lengthy discussion. 

Montreal Branch Meeting 87 


On Tuesday evening, March 31st, the members of the Mont- 
real Branch entertained at dinner at the Engineers' Club, Montreal, 
the President of the Institute, Dr. Willet G. Miller, Provincial 
Geologist of Ontario, and Mr. R. W. Brock, the Acting Director of 
the Geological Survey of Canada. Mr. Geo. E. Drummond, Chair- 
man of the Branch, presided, and was ably supported by the vice- 
chairman, Mr. John E. Hardman. The toast of the evening, 
"Our Guests," was proposed by Mr. Drummond and Mr. Hard- 
man. Both speakers paid a warm tribute to the magnificent work 
accomplished by Dr. Miller in the field of economic geology in 
Ontario, and added that the Institute had every reason to be 
proud of having this year as its presiding officer, a man of such 
sterling worth and high professional standing. Mr. Hardman 
referring to Mr. Brock's recent appointment to be Acting Director 
of the Geological Survey, remarked that the selection of that 
gentleman to fill this important post was an eminently judicious 
one. Mr. Brock, the speaker added, enjoyed the confidence and 
esteem of the mining communities of Canada, and had established 
for himself an enviable reputation as a geologist, more especially 
in connection with his valuable work at Rossland and in other 
British Columbian districts. Other toasts given were: "The Man- 
ufacturing Interests," responded to by Messrs. T. J. Drummond, 
MacDougall and Peacock; "Financial Institutions," responded to 
by Mr. Hal Brown; "The Western Branch of the CM. I.," responded 
to by Mr. R. R. Hedley; "The Mining Industry of Australia," 
responded to by Mr. Marshall; " McGill University," responded 
to by Dr. F. D. Adams; "The Secretary of the Institute," and 
"The Chairman of the Montreal Branch." During the evening 
Mr. Strangways sang several songs, while Mr. Stevenson Brown 
recited one of the late Dr. Drummond's poems in a very accept- 
able manner. The Dinner was pronounced a great success and 
was most thoroughly enjoyed by all present. 

The Canadian Mining Institute 


(Reported by H. H. Yuill, Secretary) 

A meeting of the Society was held in the Lecture Hall in the 
Mining Building of the University, on March 15th, to elect officers 
for the coming year. The results of the elections were as follows: — 

Honorary President: — Dr. J. B. Porter. 

President:— ft. ft. Yuill. 

Vice-President: — H. B. Gillis. 

Secretary-Treasurer: — J. Penney. 

Second year Representative: — C. Fortier. 
The retiring President, Mr. C. V. Brennan thanked the mem- 
bers for the support he had been accorded during his term of office. 


By C. K. Leith, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 
(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

I hasten to disclaim intention of attempting a comprehensive 
discussion of all known Canadian iron ore deposits. While I have 
seen most of the principal deposits in Canada and Newfoundland, 
and others have been examined by associates and assistants, I 
cannot claim to have sufficiently detailed knowledge of a consider- 
able part of them to warrant detail discussion. Attention will 
be called rather to certain general features of comparison of Cana- 
dian ores with the several types of deposits of the United States 
which have been more fully exploited and studied, and thus view 
the Canadian iron ore situation with a perspective not otherwise 
easily gotten. For the purposes of this discussion, the New- 
foundland ores are included with the Canadian ores, because they 
are controlled, mined and largely used by Canadian inteiests. So 
far as is necessary, information will be drawn from the various 
careful descriptions of Canadian ores published by the Dominion 
and Provincial Geological Surveys or Mining Bureaus. 

The classification of iron ore deposits we shall use is partly 
a new one based upon recent detailed studies of the Lake Su- 
perior ores and ores of the western United States. 

All metallic ores are derived ultimately from the interior of 
the earth, whence they are delivered by igneous eruptions near 
or to the surface, there to undergo various distributions and con- 
centrations under the influence of meteoric waters and gases. The 
variations in composition, shape, and commercial availability of 
an ore are controlled by variations of conditions under which the 
ores have reached the surface and have been distributed. The 
variations have developed the following types of North American 
iron ore deposits: — 

(1) Magmatic segregation type. — Ores brought to the outer 
part of the earth in molten magmas but retained in them during 

92 The Canadian Mining Institute 

crystallization, with the result that the ores form part of the rock 
itself, just as do the feldspar and other minerals. Such are the 
titaniferous magnetites, containing refractory silicates, and fre- 
quently sulphur and phosphorus, in deleterious quantites. While 
known in enormous quantities over North America — in Canada 
principally along the Lower St. Lawrence river, and in the Chaff ey 
and Matthews mines of Lower Ontario — smelting is not beyond 
the experimental stage and they are nowhere used at a profit. 

(2) Pegmatite type — Ores which are carried to or near the 
surface in magmas and are extruded from them, in the manner of 
pegmatite dikes, after the remainder of the magma has been par- 
tially cooled and crystallized. They are deposited from essentially 
aqueous solutions mixed in varying proportions with solutions of 
quartz and the silicates. To this class belong some, and perhaps 
all, of the magnetite deposits along the contacts of limestone and 
igneous rocks constituting the greater part of the iron ores of the 
western United States, and most of the magnetite ores of Vancou- 
ver and Texada Islands and elsewhere in British Columbia. The 
assignment of the British Columbia magnetites to this type is 
based on a personal comparison of them with ores in southern 
Utah believed to be of this type, the origin of which is discussed in 
some detail by Mr. Harder and myself, in Bulletin No. 338 of the 
United States Geological Survey. The essential features of these 
deposits are their highly crystalline, magnetic character, their 
content of garnet, amphibole and other silicates, local abundance 
of sulphides and of apatite. The area of these deposits at the 
surface varies up to about 0.2 of a square mile. They are easily 
located by their outcrops or by the fragments strewn down the 
slopes, but it is not so easy to determine the shape and extent of the 
deposits when found, because of their extremely irregular association 
with wall rock. It is not safe to assume that they extend a foot 
beyond the zone of direct observation. Their vertical dimensions 
and shape and their mineralogical composition at depth are rela- 
tively unknown. Mining operations in the west on this class of 
deposits have not been extensive enough to determine these facts, 
such deposits having been mined principally in but few localities, 
at Texada Island, at Fierro, New Mexico, and in the Monterey 
and Durango deposits of Mexico. In the United States and 

The Iron Ores of Canada 93 

Mexico certain similar deposits, but not all, have been found to 
take on pyrites and garnet with depth. 

A small amount of ore has been mined from Texada Island. 
The better ore averages about 55% iron content, and from this 
down; much of it is below Bessemer limit in phosphorus, and sul- 
phur is in amounts requiring roasting. Garnet and amphibole 
are both abundant, locally requiring hand sort'ng. Silica varies, 
inversely as the iron, up to about 11 per cent. All of the ore 
contains a small amount of copper, locally as much as 4 per cent. 
The shapes of the deposits are extremely irregular. Seldom do 
the widths exceed 100 feet. In depth they are best shown by a 
tunnel 300 feet below the surface which discloses ore with essenti- 
ally the same width and composition as at the surface. 

The ores on the west coast of Vancouver Island have had only 
a little development work done on them. They likewise vary 
widely in iron content; phosphorus is low, sulphur is usually high, 
silica varies up to about 26 per cent. 

Making due allowances for lack of development and possible 
shallowness and change of character with depth, it is still certain 
that there is a large known tonnage available in British Columbia, 
which will be used when West Coast demands warrant the estab- 
lishment of a local steel industry, instead of the importation of 
finished products from the east. There are indications that this 
time may not be far distant. While suffering somewhat from 
their composition, they are easily and cheaply mined, and being 
located directly upon the coast, will have the cheapest transporta- 
tion. So far as the ores have thus far been used, it has been in 
Washington, and the recent rapid development of the north- 
western United States suggests that their further immediate use 
will be in Washington, notwithstanding duty, at least until such 
time as sufficiently large ore reserves in this part of the United 
States become developed or until the population of British Colum- 
bia requires a steel industry of its own. 

To the pegmatite type are provisionally assigned the ores of 
the Attikokan and Hutton districts, of Ontario, where the magne- 
tites have the mineralogical and chemical constituents of this class 
and show such intimate relations with greenstones as to suggest a 
direct derivation from them. They lack the bedded structures, 
characteristic of ores of class (3) to be described, though in the Hutton 

94 The Canadian Mining Institute 

district the bedded iron formation rocks are also present. The 
extremely irregular association of the ore with greenstone makes 
it difficult to outline the deposit even a few feet in advance of ex- 
ploration. The Attikokan deposits are high in sulphur, 2 to 5 
per cent., requiring roasting. At Hutton the sulphur is low so 
far as explorations yet go, and phosphorus runs about 1 per cent. 

To this class of ores also may belong at least a part of the 
magnetites in the pre-Cambrian Grenville series of New Jersey (a), 
some of the magnetites of the Adirondacks of New York (6), some 
of the magnetites in the Grenville series of southeastern Ontario (c), 
and the magnetites of Cornwall, Pa. (d), and Cranberry, N.C. (e). 

These deposits have essential features in common and mineral- 
ogical and chemical similarities to the western ores of this class. 
It may be that part of the Ontario Grenville ores belong rather 
with the following class (3), suggested not only by their character- 
istics, but by Dr. Miller's recent correlation of certain associated 
rocks with the Keewatin series of the Lake Superior region, which 
contains ores belonging to class (3). 

The Grenville ores of lower Ontario are interbanded lenses 
of magnetite, gneisses and amphibolites, closely associated with, 
and partly in direct contact with, crystalline limestones of the 
same series. The ores vary from lean unworkable magnetite 
gneiss, carrying a small percentage of magnetite ribs as compared 
with gneissic ribs, to deposits of nearly pure magnetite. The iron 
formation bands are lens shaped and discontinuous. Their great- 
est width is probably less than 150 feet and usually under 50 feet, 
and their greatest length perhaps 1,500 feet. They have been 
mined to a depth of 350 feet, but most of the workings are less 
than 100 feet. The better grade ores average much the same in 
iron as the better grade western magnetites of this class, that is 
about 55 per cent, and from this down. Phosphorus is usually 

(a) Spencer, A. C. Genesis of the magnetite deposits in Sussex county, 
N.J. Min. Mag., vol. 10, 1904, pp. 377-381. 

(b) Kemp, J. F. The geology of the magnetites near Port Henry, N.Y., 
and especially those of Mineville. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Engs., vol. 27, 1898, 
pp. 146-203. 

(c) Brock, R. W. Personal communication. 

(d) Kemp, J. F. The ore deposits of the United States and Canada. 
New York, 3d ed., 1900, pp. 175-179. 

(e) Keith, Arthur. Iron ore deposits of the Cranberry district, North 
Carolina-Tennessee. Bull. U.S. Geol. Survey No. 213, 1902, pp. 243-246. 

The Iron Ores of Canada 95 

below the Bessemer limit, adding much to the availability of the 
ores. Sulphur is usually too high to allow the ore to be used 
without roasting, seldom running less than .05 per cent, though 
by hand cobbing the sulphur content may be kept down some- 
where near this limit. Concentration of certain of the leaner grade 
ores is likely to be commercially feasible in the future, though 
this is yet a mooted question, especially with reference to the 
satisfactory elimination of sulphur. In a few places titanium is 

Hematite has been mined at Wallbridge, Dalhousie and 
McNab in eastern Ontario in similar geological relationships. 
According to Willmott, (a) there is reason for believing that they 
are oxidized portions of iron pyrites bodies lying below. 

A deposit of magnetite not far from Bathurst, New Bruns- 
wick, seems from its available description (6) to belong with this 
class of pegmatite ores, but I do not have sufficient information 
to discuss it. 

(3) Lake Superior sedimentary type. — Ores brought to the 
surface by igneous rocks and contributed either directly by hot 
magmatic waters to the ocean or later brought by surface waters 
under weathering to the ocean or other body of water, or by both; 
from the ocean deposited as a chemical sediment in ordinary 
succession of sedimentary rocks; and, still later, under conditions 
of weathering, local enrichment to ore by percolating surface 
waters. To this class belong most of the producing iron ores of 
the Lake Superior region, those of the Michipicoten district of 
Canada, and most of the non-producing banded iron formation 
belts of Ontario and eastern Canada. The Lake Superior ores 
constitute the world's largest reserve of high grade hematite, more 
or less hydrated, much of it of Bessemer grade, and little of it high 
either in phosphorus or sulphur. 

The ores of this class differ in origin from those of the preced- 
ing classes in that the iron, instead of being directly deposited 
near igneous rocks as ore, is distributed by the aqueous sedimenta- 
tion and deposited with a large amount of interlayered silica in 

(a) Willmott, A. B. The Iron ores of Ontario. Jour. Canadian Min. 
Inst., vol. XI, 1908. 

(b) Hardman, John E. A new iron ore field in eastern Canada. Jour. 
Canadian Mining Institute, vol. XI., 1908. 

96 The Canadian Mining Institute 

banded "iron formation," containing about 25 per cent, of iron, 
too poor to be used directly as ore, and requiring that the silica 
be locally taken out before they are of value. This ore may or 
may not show close areal association with the parent igneous rocks. 
It is obvious that gradation phases are to be expected between 
groups (2) and (3), and that many ore deposits can with difficulty 
be assigned definitely to one or to the other. 

It has long been known that the lake Superior ores were 
concentrates in certain sedimentary iron formations. It was 
believed that these sedimentary iron formations were derived from 
the weathering of basic shores containing much basic igneous 
rock usually called "greenstone." As a result of further study 
it has been found necessary to conclude that the iron formations 
have not only been derived from greenstone by weathering, but 
have actually been contributed by greenstone magmas directly to the 
water in magmatic solution and that theie are all intermediate 
stages between the two processes. It begins also to appear that 
the iron, copper, nickel and silver ores of the Lake Superior and 
Lake Huron districts are related in a great metallographic pro- 
vince in which the characteristics and distribution of the different 
ores are initially controlled by igneous rocks. 

This conclusion has an essential bearing on exploration, for 
if the iron is specifically related to certain greenstones, just as 
the Sudbury ores are to the norite, then it follows that its distri- 
bution may be somewhat freakish, as it is in any ores related to 
igneous activity, as for instance, the gold ores of the west, and that 
it cannot be concluded from similarity in succession or structure 
that iron ores should necessarily be found in a distant district, 
though the redistribution as sedimentary rocks which the iron 
ores alone have undergone has greatly increased their area and 
the chances of finding them. 

As first deposited the iron formation consisted essentially 
of chemically precipitated iron carbonate or ferrous silicate 
(greenalite) with some ferric oxide, all minutely interlayered with 
chert. When these were exposed to weathering, the ferrous com- 
pounds, the siderite and greenalite, oxidized to hematite and li- 
monite, essentially in situ, although some of it was simultaneously 
carried and redeposited. The result was ferruginous chert 
called taconite or jasper, averaging less than 30 per cent, of iron. 

The Iron Ores of Canada 97 

The concentration of the iron to 50 per cent, and over has been 
accomplished principally by the leaching of silica bands from 
the ferruginous chert and jasper. Infiltration of iron has been 
mi a .smaller and more variable scale. The leaching of the silica 
develops pore space, and allows the iron layers to slump, thereby 
enriching the formation sufficiently to constitute an ore. 

It has been found, further, that during this leaching of silica 
the character of the iron bands has not essentially changed and 
therefore that the nature of the ore deposits is determined largely 
by the character of the ferruginous chert. The phosphorus is in 
the iron bands, rather than in the chert, and therefore the leaching 
of the chert tends to raise the percentage of phosphorus in the ore, 
but there has been also later introduction of phosphorus, making 
the phosphorus content of the ore considerably higher than that 
of the parent rock. 

For fiat-lying formation such as the Mesabi from 4 to 8 per 
cent, of the surface of the formation and less than 2 per cent, of 
the volume of the part of the formation lying vertically 
below this exposed surface have been altered to ore. For steep 
dipping formations like the Gogebic, about the same percentage 
of the volume has been altered to a depth of 2,000 feet. . 

I have discussed the Lake Superior ores only so far as neces- 
sary to bring out certain essential features of this class of ores 
in Canada and their bearing upon availability. There are many 
iron formation belts of this class, but they have been found to 
have undergone local enrichments to important ore deposits only 
in the Michipicoten district, and to some extent in the Animikie 

In the Michipicoten district the ores are principally non- 
Bessemer and in portions of the deposits high in sulphur. Their 
occurrence beneath the peculiar Boyer Lake basin with walls of 
chert, tuff and carbonate, is well described by Coleman and 
Will mot t. (a) 

In the Animikie district the iron formation is an eastward 
continuation of the Mesabi iron formation, but it is less than 200 
feet thick, as compared with 700 to 1,000 feet in the Mesabi, and 
has undergone enrichment only in thin layers interbedded with 

(a) Coleman, A. P., and "Willmott, A. B. The Michipicoten iron region. 
11th Report of the Ontario Bureau of Mines, 1902, pp. 168-169. 


98 The Canadian Mining Institute 

cherts and along a few fault planes. The thickness of the ore beds 
that may be mined will depend on how low a grade can be used 
and the success of hand sorting in keeping the ore up to this grade. 
Under any conditions much rock must be handled. On the other 
hand, the ores have great horizontal extent, are near the surface, 
are red hematite, low in phosphorus, with low sulphur, and prac- 
tically on the shore of Lake Superior, justifying the hope that they 
may be used. 

Two significant questions remain to be solved in connection 
with the lean iron formation of the Lake Superior type so widely 
distributed in Ontario and elsewhere in Canada: (1st) Is their 
apparent lack of second concentration a real one; and (2nd) if 
so, what has caused it? On the assumption that the apparent 
lack of concentration is a real one, Van Hise has suggested that per- 
haps a part of the enriched portions has been removed by deep 
glacial erosion. Another alternative is that the structural con- 
ditions have not favored abundant flow of surface waters necessary 
f or the leaching of the silica. A third possibility here most favored, 
is that the original texture of the iron formations or proportions 
of the original constituents have been somewhat different from 
those of the Lake Superior region, and that they have not allowed 
access to the waters necessary to leach the silica. The formations 
are principally Keewatin and in general are more dense, crystalline 
and magnetic than the Huronian iron formations of the Lake Superior 
region. Some of these differences are doubtless due to secondary 
alterations, but it is not easy to account for all of the differences 
in this way. Another possible reason for deficiency of ore in the 
Ontario iron formations is that their yet known area is so small, 
as compared with that in the Lake Superior region, that even if 
the same percentage of the formation were concentrated to ore, 
the total amount of ore to be discovered would not be large. The 
Keewatin formations of the Lake Superior region occupy only 
about 9 per cent, of the area of all the iron formations, and have 
produced only 7 per cent, of all the ore mined to date (a). There 
may be unfavorable significance, therefore, as noted by Willmott, 
in the fact that the Canadian formations thus far discovered are 
largely Keewatin. 

(a) Iron Ores of Ontario, cit. 

The Iron Ores of Canada 99 

All these explanations and possibly others may apply. On 
the other hand, much more exploration is necessary to show that 
there really has not been concentration of large ore deposits in the 
known Canadian iron formations. The fact is again cited, that, 
in the producing Lake Superior districts, the proportion of ore, 
even under most favorable conditions, constitutes less than 8 per 
cent, of the surface of the iron formation and usually much less, 
and in volume it constitutes less than 2 per cent. Only rarely 
have the ores been discovered at the surface. Underground ex- 
ploration through drift and rock has been necessary. In but few 
localities in Canada has there been adequate search for these local- 
ized concentrations within the iron formations. This fact is some- 
times lost sight of because of marked tendency to use the term "iron 
ore" for the banded, unconcentrated "iron formation," and to 
speak of such formation as "lean, banded ore." In the Lake 
Superior region "iron formations" and "iron ores" are discrim- 
inated. It is not impossible that mechanical concentration of the 
iron formation may result in the production of ore, but it is un- 
necessary to argue the commercial advantage of finding some part 
of the iron formation in which nature herself has done the concen- 

(4) . Clinton sedimentary type. — Sedimentary ores deposited in 
oceans from weathering of the land areas in which the iron is either 
disseminated in igneous rocks or has undergone some of the con- 
centrations outlined in (1), (2) and (3). To this class belong the 
"flax seed" ores of the Clinton and other beds of the Appalachians 
and Wisconsin, the ores of the Torbrook and Nictaux areas of 
Xova Scotia, and those of Belle Isle in Newfoundland. They 
have now been discovered in Missouri, (a) They are believed to 
differ in origin essentially from those of the preceding classes in that 
they are immediately derived by weathering processes, that they 
were deposited in the ocean as iron oxide rather than as ferrous 
salts, and that they have undergone no further concentration, 
being mined essentially in the condition in which they were depos- 
ited. There has long been some doubt as to whether or not these 
ores might not represent two concentrations, but work in 
the south-eastern United States by Eckel, Burchard and others, 

(a) Buckley, E.R., State Geologist of Missouri. Personal communication 

100 The Canadian Mining Institute 

(a) for the U. S. Geological Survey, and our own observations 
in Wisconsin, seem to show one concentration. 

On Belle Isle the ores are beds dipping about 9° to the north- 
west, in two main seams. The lower or Dominion seam averages 
about 10 feet in thickness, though variable, and extends across the 
island for about 3 miles along the strike and down the dip for 
perhaps half a mile, covering an area of 818 acres, although not 
productive for this entire area. The upper seam occupies an area 
about 1 by i mile (240 acres) averaging 7 feet in thickness and is 
not all productive. The mining has been largely open pit, but is 
becoming more largely underground as the ore is followed down the 
dip. They are now being followed under the ocean by drifting. 
Much of the upper bed averages about 52 per cent, in iron, and the 
lower bed about 50 per cent. Recent shipments are reported to 
be under 50 per cent. Phosphorus averages 1 per cent. The ores 
are adapted to basic Bessemer or open hearth treatment, and for 
the former receive a bonus for high phosphorus from some Euro- 
pean consumers. 

In the Torbrook and Nictaux areas the ores are of similar 
kind, but the beds differ from those of Belle Isle in being thinner 
and inclined, requiring deep mining and handling of waste rock. 

Ores of this kind occupy a definite stratigraphic position, are 
easily explored for, and so far as their future in Canada is concerned, 
they have already been pretty well discounted. 

(5). Carbonate ores, derived from weathering of rocks, trans- 
ported and deposited with organic reducing material in bogs; now 
found in thin I)eds usually associated with coal seams or carbona- 
ceous shales. These have been extensively mined in the coal bear- 
ing and adjacent areas of the eastern United States, but not in 
Canada. Their present production in the United States is almost 
nil. Wheie exposed to weathering the}' alter to limonite or brown 
ores, considered under the following heading. Iron carbonates 
constitute minor phases of class (3). 

(6). Broiun or hydrated ores, developed either from the 
weathering of iron carbonates mentioned in the preceding head- 

(a) Eckel, E. C. The Clinion ore red ores of northern Alamba. Bull. 
U.S. Geol. Survey No. 285, 1906, pp. 172-179. 

Burehard, E. F. Clinton ores of Birmingham District, Ala. Bull. U.S. 
Geol. Survey No. 315, 1907, pt. I, pp. 130-151. 

The Iron Ores of Canada 101 

ing, or of limestones containing carbonate or other iron minerals, 
or by replacement of limestones or by deposition in glacial drift, 
or by log deposition, or by some combination of them. The 
few limonites in class (3) are not here included. Being often residual 
products of weathering, they are characteristically mixed with 
other residual products of weathering, particularly clay. To use 
these ores it is necessary to wash out the other residual products, 
a process which nature neglected to attend to. The ores are 
characteristically hydrous and high in phosphorus, but when 
washed aie found highly suitable for open hearth furnace practice. 

The bog ores of Quebec presumably belong to this class. 

Related to classes (5) and (6) are the Londonderry ores of Nova 
Scotia, consisting of carbonates of iron, calcium and magnesium, 
showing more or less alteration to limonite in irregular vein-like 
masses, in slate and quartzite. These ores are low grade, fairly 
high in phosphorus, manganese and silica, and are extremely 
irregular in their shape and distribution. Their origin is in doubt. 

(7). Magnetic sands. — Magnetic sands are developed from the 
erosion of classes of (1), (2) and (3). As exposed along the lower 
St. Lawrence river they seem to be principally from classes (1) 
and (2), and are therefore high in titanium. They form beds from 
^ inch to 2 feet in thickness, with wide extent. Their availability 
is still in doubt. 

Commercial importance of the several classes of ores. The 
proportions of the several classes of ores mined in the United 
States, Canada, and Newfoundland, for 1906, appear in the sub- 
joined table. Where the origin of the deposits is in doubt, 
the classification of their production is in doubt but the produc- 
tion from such types is too small to introduce any essential 
error into the figures sriven. 


The Canadian Mining Institute 

Production of Different Classes of Iron Ores in 1906 in Terms of 
Percentage of Total Production. 



Class 1. Magmatic segregation (magnetite) 

Class 2. Pegmatite type (magnetite) 

5.2 "I 
80. J 

5.8 J 

Class 3. Lake Superior sedimentary type (hematite) 
Class 5. Carbonate type 


Class 6. Brown ore type (limonite) 


The dominances of class (3) (Lake Superior ores) in the United 
States production shows how desirable it is to have the ores go 
through nature's concentrating mill. These are the only ores 
which have undergone second local enrichments. That the less 
desirable grades of ore should compete at all with the Lake Superior 
grades is due largely to lower freights between ores and furnaces, 
between fuel and fluxing materials and furnaces, and between 
furnaces and consuming centres. Iron ores differ from most other 
metallic ores in that their great bulk, as compared with their 
value, required cheap transportation, which operate to develop 
certain low grade deposits well situated in this regard at the ex- 
pense of better grade ores. 

Turning to the Canadian production, it appears from the table 
that the proportions of different classes of ores mined are quite 
different from those of the United States, and that a far larger pro- 
portion of Canadian ores is being drawn from less desirable 
classes. The class which produces 86 per cent, of the United States 
production produces only 12. 29 per cent, of the Canadian produc- 

It appears, therefore, that in order to compete with the United 
States on equal terms so far as grades of ore are concerned, Cana- 
dian ores of the Lake Superior type must be more largely developed. 
The proportions and amounts of ores of the Lake Superior type 

The Iron Ores of Canada 103 

now mined in Canada are not far different from those of the 
United States fifty years ago, before the advent of high grade 
Lake Superior ores had revolutionized the industry. It is not 
meant to imply that Canada is fifty years behind the times in this 
regard, but rather to call attention to its latent possibilities for 
the future and probable direction of development. It does not 
follow that the production of ores other than of the Lake Superior 
class may not also increase, because of low freights or artificial 
aids in the way of tariff or for other reasons. 

Similar conclusions seem to follow from a consideration of ore 
reserves. I fully realize the uncertain nature of estimates of un- 
developed deposits and the wide variety of figures that may be 
gotten by conscientious observers with different points of view or 
different methods, but certain essential features of our knowledge 
concerning reserves are fairly well established and a brief summary 
of them will help to bring the Canadian iron ore situation some- 
what more definitely before us. 

The titaniferous ores of class (1) not being mined, there is no 
point in attempting estimates, indeed, they are not sufficiently 
well developed to warrant estimates. 

The British Columbia magnetites of class (2) have been subject 
to a wide range of estimates depending upon how low a grade of 
ore is included, upon the depth arbitrarily assigned and upon the 
extent to which isolated portions of deposits are assumed to be 
continuous. Using only the extents and depths known, the ton- 
nage of ore of commercial grade may be measured in a few tens 
of millions. 

The difficulty of estimating the Attikokan and Hutton ore of 
class (2) is due to their mixture of greenstone, making it impossible 
to predict in advance of exploration the extent of the deposits. 
In both districts the explorations show at least several millions 
of tons. 

For the Lake Superior ores of type (3) in the Michipicoten 
district, Coleman andWillmott have estimated a reserve of possibly 
two millions of tons. Some of this reserve is of doubtful value 
because of high content of sulphur. In the Animikie district the 
tonnage is problematic because of conditions described for that 
district, but at best the ore to be recovered is not in large amount. 
The reports of hundreds of millions of tons of ore of the Lake Su- 

104 The Canadian Mining Institute 

perior type in various parts of Canada so frequently seen in print 
are without foundation except as they cover commercially non- 
available lean iron formation rather than ores. Even under the 
best conditions but a small fraction of the iron of these formations 
is likely to be in ore of commercial grade. 

The Grenville ores of lower Ontario show wide variations of 
estimates depending upon the factors chosen. The known dimen- 
sions of commercial grades indicate not more than a very few mil- 
lions of tons. 

I have little knowledge on which to base an estimate of the 
Londonderry carbonate and linionite ores, but no one claims these 
deposits to be of the first magnitude. 

The ores of the Clinton type of Newfoundland (class 3) are 
sharply delimited on Belle Isle and the reserve tonnage carefully 
estimated. The doubtful features are the amount of ore below 
present commercial grade and the amount of available ore in the 
beds known to extend under the ocean. The ore on the island 
alone has been estimated at about thirty millions of tons. The 
amount available beneath the ocean is now being demonstrated 
by drifting and may be several times this figure. The reserve 
is large because the ores make up the entire beds, rather than 
concentrations within the beds. 

The similar beds of Nova Scotia are so thin that only a part 
of them can be counted as commercially available. A commercial 
estimate has been four million tons to level of 700 feet on the 
principal group of properties. 

It appears in general, then, that the proportion of reserve of 
Canadian ore of the Lake Superior type to the total reserves is 
probably not greater than the proportion of their annual produc- 
tion to total annual production. It is not held for a moment that 
the tonnage of some of these deposits to be ultimately developed 
may not be considerably larger than here indicated, but whether they 
be increased or decreased, it will be because of introducing factors 
of depth or grade partly common to all of them. This is not likely 
to change their proportion sufficiently to obscure the fact that the 
most desirable ores of the Lake Superior type of class (3) are not 
yet developed in large enough tonnage to insure the future com- 
petition of Canadian iron ores with those of the United States on 
an equal basis. In competition with the great reserves of high 

The Iron Ores of Canada 105 

grade ores of the Lake Superior region the principal Canadian 
reserves thus far developed suffer handicaps in grade and in con- 
tent of deleterious constituents. These handicaps are and will 
be overcome to a certain extent by bounties or locally by favor- 
able conditions of transportation, but that they exist is shown by 
the extremely vigorous search for iron ore of the Lake Superior 
type by Canadian mining interests, by the importation of 
Lake Superior ore to the amount of 4 /5 of the ore used in Ontario, 
and by the recent increase in proportion of ore imported to home 
production, due to Canadian demand for finished products having 
gone ahead of the production from Canadian ores. 

That ores of the Lake Superior type are in larger quantities 
in Canada than are now known seems likely, in view of the position 
of the Lake Superior region as a mere southern fringe of the great 
Canadian area of the pre-Cambrian rocks. Their discovery will 
require closer search than has been previously made in any but 
isolated localities, for it is not only necessary to find the iron form- 
ation, but to find the small fraction of this formation which happens 
to have been concentrated. The vast area, the difficulties of 
travel, and the drift covering, requiring drilling, all combine to 
make the task a difficult one and partly explain why the search is 
not farther advanced. On the other hand, exploration may never 
develop abundant ores of the Lake Superior type for geological 
reasons discussed under class 3. 


(By A. B. Willmott, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.) 
(Ottawa Meeting, 1908.) 

This article, like many of its predecessors, must be a record of 
what we are going to do in the development of the iron ore re- 
sources of Ontario, rather than of what we have accomplished. It 
will be a statement of the opportunities open for the iron-ore 
miner, rather than a statement of results attained. The pro- 
duction of iron ore in Ontario has been as follows: — 

Tons. Value. 

1869-1896 582,542 $1,445,225 

1897 2,770 4,996 

1898 27,409 48,875 

1899 16,911 30,951 

1900 90,302 111,805 

1901 273,538 174,428 

1902 359,288 518,445 

1903 208,154 450,099 

1904 53,253 108,068 

1905 211,597 227,909 

1906 128,049 301,032 

1907 , 200,185 471,127 

2,153,998 $3,892,960 


Hematite. — We have in Ontario all the usual varieties of 
merchantable iron ore. Of the total production by far the larger 
amount, namely, about one and a half million tons has been of 
hematite ore. So far as this has come from the Helen Mine there 

Note by the Author: — 

*This paper is written at the request of our energetic secretary who 
thought that a compilation of our present knowledge of the iron ores of Ontario 
would be of value in view of the proposed visit of the members of the British 
Iron and Steel Institute. This must be my apology for burdening the already 
large literature on the subject with still another paper. 

The Iron Ores of Ontario. 107 

has been mixed with the pure hematite a certain amount of limon- 
ite and goethite which would make the product of that mine strictly 
classed as brown hematite. An average analysis of 20,000 tons of 
the earliest shipments from the Helen, runs as follows: — 

Moisture at 212° F 6.610 per cent. 

Iron 58.70 

Silica 5.660 

Alumina 0. 730 " 

Lime (CaO) 0.210 

Magnesia (MgO) trace 

Phosphorus 0. 114 

Sulphur 0.047 

Organic matter and combined water 9 . 670 " 

Insoluble 6.040 

The average cargo analysis for 1901 was 58.709% iron, and 
for 1907 just a shade better, showing that this property has main- 
tained its grade as depth has been attained. Ores similar to the 
Helen have been discovered and explored at several other points, 
as Steep Rock, Frances, and Josephine, but as yet there has been 
no production. From a number of properties in eastern 
Ontario, of which the Wallbridge, Dalhousie and McNab are the 
chief, about 150,000 tons of hematite have been produced. These 
ores have been good in their iron, phosphorus and sulphur contents, 
and carried small percentages of lime which was an additional 
advantage. All these eastern deposits have so far proved small 
and there is reason for believing that some of them, if not all, are 
oxidised portions of iron pyrites beds lying below. From the 
Stobie Mine in Aberdeen township, a few small cargoes of specular 
hematite of good quality were shipped some years ago. Similar 
specular hematites occur in the quartzites of the Lower Huronian 
at a number of points, as at Killarne3 r , Algoma Mills, and around 
Echo Lake. In Aberdeen township a vein of high grade hematite 
occurs at the contact of a quartzite and slate conglomerate, and 
has been traced by pits at intervals for over a mile. 

Analysis shows as as follows : — 

Iron 65.60% 

Managanese 10 

Silica 1 . 73 

Alumina 1.31 

Lime 39 

Magnesia trace 

Phosphorus . 045 

Sulphur .005 

108 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

A somewhat slaty hematite occurs on the Williams property 
a few miles north of Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. A silicious hematite, 
but otherwise of excellent quality, occurs in the flat lying Upper 
Huronian at Loon Lake east of Port Arthur. 

Magnetite. — Of the total production of the province about 
600,000 tons have been of magnetite. For the most part these 
ores have been high in iron, low in phosphorus, high in sulphur, 
and with titanium absent. The average of ten samples of Belmont 
ore taken by Prof. Miller, runs : — 

Iron 60.02% 

Phosphorus 015 

A shipment of 800 tons from the same mine averaged : — 

Iron 57.38% 

Phosphorus 01 

Sulphur 08 

A shipment of 8,514 tons of Farnum ore ran iron 54.05, 
phosphorus .018, and sulphur .059, titanium nil. A pile of 
7,000 tons of ore from the Wilbur Mine averaged 57% iron, and 
under .01 phosphorus. Thirty-seven determinations for phos- 
phorus made by Ingall on magnetites from the vicinity of the 
Kingston and Pembroke Railway ran from a trace to .17, averag- 
ing .022. 

From the northern part of the province magnetites have been 
mined this past year, and will be shipped in an increasing amount 
next year. Atikokan ore from mining locations E. 10 and 11, has 
been smelted this season in the furnace of the Atikokan Iron Com- 
pany, at Port Arthur. Surface samples from this property run, 
iron 66.5, silica 3.2, phosphorus .015, and sulphur .01, according 
to sampling and analysis by Hille (1). An average of seven 
samples of the best ore from a number of diamond drill cores 
is given by Hille as iron 59.3, Phosphorus .069, sulphur 1.09, 
and this probably fairly represents the ore when below the zone of 
oxidation. The ore is being roasted by blast furnace gas before 
being smelted, and is giving excellent results in the manufacture 
of foundry pig. 

(1) Jour. Can. Min. Inst. 9-1906. 

The Iron Orks of Ontario 109 

A property a short distance to the west has been explored this 
past year by the United States Steel Corporation, and purchased by 
them. Surface samples show magnetite running from 53% to 67% 
in iron, .007 to .058 in phosphorus, and .07 to .5 in sulphur. 

Another property which will this year begin shipping magnetite 
is the Moose Mountain lying north of Sudbury, of which the guar- 
anteed analysis is, iron 55.5, phosphorus . 10, and sulphur .011. 

Titaniferous Magnetite. — There are throughout Ontario 
a number of considerable ore bodies of titaniferous magnetite, such 
as the old Chaffey Mine, and the Matthews Mine on the Rideau 
Canal, from which several thousand tons were shipped years ago. 
Near Gooderham, Ont., is a similar deposit, in connection with a 
large gabbro intrusive. Near Chapleau, Ont., a magnetite deposit 
carries 10% titanium. The Orton Mine in Hastings county, an 
undeveloped prospect, carries from 1% to 3% titanium. In 
twenty-five samples of magnetites taken by Ingalls along the 
Kingston and Pembroke Railway, titanium was absent in 13, and 
12 went between 1.03% and 16.45%. Numerous other occur- 
rences are known, but in practically every case titanium is absent 
from the magnetites and hematites of Ontario except where the 
deposit is connected with basic eruptives. 

Limonite. — Bog ore occurs at many points throughout the 
province as deposits resulting from the leaching of the glacial drift. 
There are also numerous deposits resulting from the weathering 
of iron pyrites, and some from the weathering of iron carbonate. 

Back as far as 1813 small quantities of bog ore from Norfolk 
County were smelted in a small furnace at Normandale. In more 
recent years bog ores from Oxford county and vicinity have been 
smelted in small quantity at Hamilton. As already mentioned a 
percentage of limonite is mixed with the Helen ore, which has been 
classed as a hematite. Bog ores resulting from the oxidation of 
pyrites occur at Paint Lake in western Michipicoten, Goudreau 
Lake near Missanabie, and in the vicinity of the Josephine. Similar 
ore is seen near some pyrites deposits near Steep Rock Lake, and 
also in Parkin township north of Sudbury. Eleven cars of limon- 
ite, from what afterwards became the Bannockburn Pyrites Mine, 
were smelted at Hamilton. The better class of such ores run from 
50% to 55% in iron, and under .5% in sulphur. On the Mattag- 

110 The Canadian Mining Institute 

ami River, there is a limonite deposit resulting from the oxidation 
of iron carbonate occurring in the Devonian limestone. This ore 
runs from 48% to 57% in iron, and about . 1 in sulphur, and from 
. 1 to . 2% in phosphorus. Similar ore is found at a number of 
points in the valley of the Moose River, and its branches, origina- 
ting in a similar way. 

Siderite. — In connection with a number of hematite deposits 
in Ontario, quantities of siderite are found which may yet become 
of commercial value. On the hill back of the Helen Mine, there 
are exposed siderite lenses aggregating a width of 136 feet, and 
averaging 34.94% in iron, and 7.7% insoluble. A picked speci- 
men yielded: — 

Insoluble 4. 38% 

Carbonate of iron 78 . 57 

Carbonate of magnesia 12 . 84 

Carbonate of lime 4 . 09 

Alumina trace 

Total 99.88 

Metallic iron 37.71% 

Ore of this character in considerable amount is found at the 
Josephine, at Steep Rock Lake, and at other points throughout 
the province. It is almost always contaminated with sulphur up 
to 1% or 2%, and but for this might be considered a fair ore of 
iron. It is low in phosphorus, and on roasting would yield a 
product running 50% in iron, and the roasting would eliminate 
the sulphur. The magnesia and lime present would serve as useful 

In the vicinity of Port Arthur in the Animikie formation are 
considerable bands of siderite somewhat lower in iron content, 
and correspondingly higher in silica. The bands correspond to 
the taconite of the Mesabi range, though they are higher in carbon- 
ate of iron. One deposit north of Port Arthur is said to be 500 feet 
long by 100 feet wide, by 12 feet deep, and to average 33 per cent, 
iron. On the Opazatika River, and on other tributaries of the 
Moose, iron bearing limestones are found. These carbonates are 
probably too low in iron ever to be of direct value as an iron ore; 
possibly, however, bodies of hematite may yet be found in their 
vicinity. (1) 

(1) Bur. of Mines, Vol. 13, pages 150-152. 

The Iron Ores of Ontario 111 

Magnetic Sands. — At many points in the province iron sands 
are being, or have been, concentrated by the waters of the Great 
Lakes. Such a deposit is found in the vicinity of Peninsula Har- 
bour on the north shore of Lake Superior. On the north shore of 
Lake Erie a small amount of such sands was smelted in the funace 
at Normandale nearly 100 years ago. It is improbable that these 
sands can be made of commercial value at the present time. 


The geological formations occurring in Ontario, beginning at 
the most recent, are as follows: — 

Cenozoic Pleistocene 



r Devonian 

J Upper Silurian 

(Lower Silurian 

Keweenawan or Nipigon 
Animikie or Upper Huronian 
Middle Huronian 
Lower Huronian 
(Laurentian Eruptives) 

In this classification the recommendations of the International 
Committee on the succession in Lake Superior region have been 
followed (1). The Laurentian granites, etc., which used to 
be considered the base of the geological column are now recognised 
as eruptives, always later than the Keewatin, and very frequently 
later than the Middle Huronian. In the eastern section of the 
province, the international committee recommended the following 
succession from below, Laurentian, Grenville, but Miller has shown 
(Bur. of Mines, Vol. 16, page 221) that rocks undoubtedly Keewatin 
occur in that section of the province, and that the Grenville is 
really an upper portion of the Keewatin. Miller further finds an 

( 1) Journal of Geology, 1905, or Bur. of Mines, Vol. 14, page 269. 

112 The Canadian Mining Institute 

overlying formation carrying pebbles of the Grenville, which he 
considers Huronian. His classification corresponds closely with 
that adopted for the Lake Superior region, and permits an orderly 
arrangement of many facts, which did not fit with the previous 

In the Pleistocene we have only the insignificant deposits of 
bog iron. In the Devonian there are some siderite deposits now 
altering to limonite in the valley of the Moose River, which are as 
yet unknown, and so far of no commercial value. The Clinton 
formation of the Upper Silurian is in Ontario commercially barren, 
although a small deposit has been found near Cabot Head. The 
base of the Medina of the Upper Silurian is marked by red ocherous 
clays, which are, however, of no value. At the base of the Potsdam 
of the Cambrian, there are some deposits of impure hematite, such 
as that at Dog Lake, north of Kingston. At the base of the Keween- 
awan again, there are some ocherous clays which in places almost 
approach iron ores, but are so far of no commercial value. In the 
Animikie there are possibilities of commercial ores. This forma- 
tion is the one which on the United States side of Lake Superior 
carries the Mesabi, Gogebic and Menominee iron ranges. It is 
found in Ontario in the triangular area between the Port Arthur, 
Duluth, and Western Railway, Lake Superior, and the American 
boundary. At numerous points in this area indications of ore 
have been found, and large ore bodies have been developed 
at Loon Lake. In the vicinity of Sudbury is another Animikie 
area, but so far as known carrying no iron deposits. Except these 
two areas, and a few other very small areas the Animikie is un- 
known in Ontario. North of the province on the eastern shores of 
James Bay, rocks apparently of the Animikie series are found on 
the Nastapooka Islands. Here very considerable bodies of iron 
ore have been, found, and when transportation difficulties are 
removed these ores will undoubtedly come on the market. 

The Lower Huronian formation is widely distributed through- 
out Ontario, the typical region being that north of Lake Huron. 
It should be noted that all the older geological maps and reports 
by Canadian Geologists, use the term Upper Huronian for what 
is now called Lower Huronian, and similarly Lower Huronian 
•was used in the older reports for what is now termed Keewatin. 



" I»«U«H TtUAl 


3H T 10 M0ITA30J 3HT 3 1' 

2Ti2oq3a w 


Q * 3 S 3 J 

£ SVIT4UH3 ' T 

JAMES l~\B A Y i 




The Iron* Ores of Ontario 113 

On the accompanying map the areas of Keewatin and Lower Hu- 
ronian are outlined with as great accuracy as our present knowledge 
of the unsettled regions of Ontario will permit. It has not proved 
possible to show them separately on a small scale map even when 
the information was at hand to do so. So far little iron ore of 
commercial value has been found in the Lower Huronian areas. 
In Deroche township north of Sault Ste. Marie, some prospecting 
has been done with fair results. In Long and Rutherford town- 
ships, deposits of specular hematite have been found in small 
quantities. In Aberdeen township a more promising prospect 
occurs. All of these deposits are associated with quartzite or slate. 
The banded jasper and hematite of the Marquette range is for the 
most part absent in the typical Lower Huronian area. In Harrow 
township the typical iron formation does, however, occur in the 
Lower Huronian, and at two other points iron carbonate has been 

In the Keewatin the most promising iron deposits of Ontario 
are found. This formation is very widely distributed and in prac- 
tically every place where Keewatin or Huronian are marked on 
the various geological maps, bands of sedimentary iron formation 
can be found. These may be small inextent, representing only the 
hist remnants of a large area, or they may be long and narrow belts. 
Usually the bands are only a few hundred feet wide; almost always 
less than half a mile. Most frequently there are a series of lenses 
ranged in a row or occasionally in a few parallel rows. At times 
the iron belt extends for many miles enclosed on either side by 
green schists. The Nipigon-Long Lake belt is almost continuous 
for 70 miles. 

The ores associated with the basic intrusives may occur in 
different periods, but seem to be all pre-Cambrian. 

The iron ranges on the American side of Lake Superior show a 
close similarity geologically to those in Ontario. As seen on the 
map the various producing ranges occur in the Keewatin. Huronian, 
and Animikie series of the Archean. These formations occur as 
narrow belts between the eruptive granites, just as in Ontario. 
The characteristic association of banded jasper with ore is true on 
both sides of the lake. In the following table the total production 
of the different ranges is given. 

114 The 


Canadian Mining 







84, 849,280 

63, 806,652 







per cent. 

22 3 












Marquette . 
Vermilion. . 
Mesabi . . . . 
Ontario. . . . 

The Ontario production is made up mainly of shipments from 
the Helen Mine on the Michipicoten Range, and the McKellar 
property on the Atikokan. Both of these properties are in the 
Keewatin formation, as also are the mines in the Vermilion. The 
mines of the Menominee, Gogebic and Mesabi are all in the Ani- 
mikie, and most of the Marquette production comes from the 
Lower Huronian, although a portion of it is at the base of the 
Animikie, practically at the contact with the Lower Huronian. 
Assuming that the whole of the Marquette production is from the 
Lower Huronian, one finds that of the total production of iron ore 
from around Lake Superior, 70 . 3% has been produced from the 
Animikie, 22.3 from the Lower Huronian, and 7.4 from the 


In the transactions of the American Institute, 1907, a classi- 
fication of the Scandinavian Iron Ores is given by Prof. Sjorgen. 
Considering the similarity between the general geological conditions 
of Scandinavia and northern Ontario, a comparison is of interest. 

1. Ores of the Archean Crystalline Schists. 

A. Apatite Ores. 

B. Mixed Hematite and Magnetite. 

C. Quartz Banded Ores. 

D. Skarn Ores. 

E. Limestone Ores. 

2. Ores of the Porphyries. 

3. Magmatic Segregations in Basic Eruptives. 

4. Iron Ores of Metamorphosed Cambro- 

Silurian Schists. 

5. Contact Deposits in the Christiana Region. 

6. Lake and Bog Ores. 

The Iron Ores of Ontario. 115 

Of these groups numbers 2, 4 and 5 are not found in Ontario. 
While eruptive porphyries occur, so far we have no iron ores 
associated with them. In Ontario there are no metamorphosed 
Cambro-Silurian Schists, nor eruptives of the post-Silurian age, so 
that groups 4 and 5 are impossible. The other groups 1, 3 and 6 are 
found in Ontario, and closely resemble the corresponding deposits 
in Scandinavia. The Apatite ores of group 1, resemble closely the 
ore mined in the Lake Champlain region of New York State, which 
again is closely paralleled by some deposits in eastern Ontario. 
The mixed hematite and magnetite deposits free from banded 
material are not common in Ontario, but the deposit north of 
Cartier would seem to resemble corresponding deposits in Scandi- 
navia. The quartz banded ores are extremely common in Ontario, 
more so than in Scandinavia. Typical occurrences are those of the 
Mattawin, Michipicoten and Temagami ranges. The Skarn ores 
and Limestone ores of groups D. and E. can be paralleled from 
some of the minor deposits in eastern Ontario. Magmatic segre- 
gations in basic eruptive rocks, group 3, are very common in On- 
tario, and titaniferous as in Scandinavia. The Lake and bog ores 
of the two countries are naturally similar. 


As previously stated the majority of the Ontario ores occur 
in the Keewatin formation. At the base of this series is a mass of 
greenstone frequently ellipsoidally parted, which is the oldest 
known rock of the Lake Superior area. Overlying this are various 
green schists, and towards the top of the series the iron formation 
proper. This consists of ferruginous cherts more or less banded 
with" hematite and magnetite, iron carbonate and iron pyrites. 
Carbonated schists frequently border the iron formation. Origin- 
ally these belts seem to have been a chemical sediment, but are 
now found in nearly every case closely folded, and standing nearly 
vertical. Transverse folding has been a very common occurrence, 
and the anticlines have been frequently eroded until the formation 
has been cut off into separate lenses, varying from a few feet to a 
few miles in length. In most cases the width of the formation is 
a few hundred feet, and occasionally up to half a mile. Folded 
with the iron formation there is usually a bed of green schists which 

116 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

forms an impervious layer at the bottom of the basin. The 
American geologists who have closely studied the Vermilion and 
other south shore ranges are of the opinion that the ores associated 
with these ranges have resulted from descending water concen- 
trating the leaner ores from above, in the bottoms of these basins. 
Iron carbonate is supposed to have been the most frequent source 
of the ore, but both iron silicate and iron pyrites have also con- 
tributed. Probably in our Ontario ranges iron pyrites is a larger 
contributor than in the ranges to the south, as it occurs much more 
frequently in the iron ranges to the north of Superior than to the 
south. In some few cases the original deposits in connection 
with the formation seem to have been rich enough to make an iron 
ore without further concentration. In other cases there are lean 
silicious magnetites up to 40 and 45%, which can hardly be classed 
as commercial ore bodies, and which might well represent original 
deposits without secondary concentration. In these the silicious 
bands are absent, the silica being more evenly distributed through 
the whole mass. Another class of ore bodies includes those which 
are regularly banded, consisting of either hematite or magnetite, 
alternating in narrow bands from | in. to 2 in. in width, with bands 
of quarte which may be white chert, or red or black jasper. It is 
with the more granular cherts that the hematite ore bodies so far 
discovered have been found. 


An attempt has been made to show on the map the principal 
areas in which iron ores have been found, and to add here a very 
brief description concerning them. It is probable that in every 
area shown on the map as containing Keewatin rocks, the iron 
formation will be found when search is made. In the following 
descriptions the numbers after the names refer to the corresponding 
numbers on the map. 

The Dry den and Wabigoon area (1) shows a number of bands 
of lean silicious magnetite with assays running in the vicinity of 
40% iron. Kaiarskons Lake deposits (2) of silicious magnetite 
with some higher grade lenses have been slightly explored. Par- 
allel to it is a belt of iron pyrite characteristic of the Keewatin 
ranges. At Bending Lake (3) a number of locations have been 

The Iron Ores of Ontario. 117 

taken up on a silicious magnetite somewhat similar to the two 
previous ones. In Watten and Halkirk townships on Rainy Lake 
(4) a band of the iron formation has been found, containing mag- 
netite and particularly rich in sulphides. It is traceable at inter- 
vals for some miles either way, and is really part of one belt ex- 
tending from Fort Frances up the valle} T s of the Seine and Atikokan 
as far as Magnetic Lake, a distance of slightly over 100 miles. At 
Steep Rock Lake (5) the formation has been considerably bent. 
Diamond drilling on the eastern arm of Steep Rock Lake, and also 
on Strawhat Lake has disclosed fair bodies of hematite ore. In 
these cases, as in several others in Ontario, bodies of iron pyrites 
are found in close contact with, but not contaminating, the hema- 
tite ore. Considerable bodies of siderite also occur. Through the 
valley of the Atikokan (6) are a number of deposits of magnetite 
standing out as low hills in the valley, and accompanied by various 
green schists. These magnetites are low in phosphorus, but high 
in sulphur. The deposit of McKellars is now being worked by 
the Atikokan Furnace Company, and a property a short distance 
west of this, after careful exploration, has been bought the past 
3 r ear by the United States Steel Corporation. On Fire Steel River 
(7) bands of pyrites are known which represent the iron formation 
in that belt of Keewatin. On Hunters Island (8) there are several 
parallel belts of the iron formation which may represent a folding 
of the Keewatin, but possibly as suggested by Leith some of the 
belts are Huronian. The Hunters Island range is in line with the 
Vermilion, and distant from the closest part of it about 20 miles. 
There has been little exploration beyond surface work, but it is 
reported that the little drilling done was fairly successful. At 
Greenwater Lake (9) is a continuation of the Vermilion-Hunters 
Island belt, and this continues to the east through the Mattawin 
area (10) and Conmee and Ware townships (11). These last three 
occurrences are all similar in character, showing banded jaspers 
with magnetite and hematite. Picked samples from the surface 
of locations on the. Mattawin yielded 58% to 68% iron, .013 to 
.056 phosphorus, .054 to .164 sulphur, and titanium nil. The 
amount of ore in this belt is very considerable, but so far the 
limited exploration which has been done has not revealed any large 
concentrations. The ore is favourably situated for transportation, 
and could be quarried from hillsides. Until, however, the higher 

118 The Canadian Mining Institute 

grade ores are mined out, it is questionable whether these surface 
deposits running 40% in iron can be economically concentrated. 
There is, however, a probability that bodies naturally concen- 
trated may be found if properly sought. The Animikie formation 
(12) occupies a considerable area round Lake Superior, and at 
many points within it carbonate of iron running 20% to 25% is 

At Loon Lake and vicinity, 25 miles east of Port Arthur, con- 
siderable exploration work has been done resulting in the finding of 
several beds of excellent hematite ore, narrow, however, in width, 
and separated from each other by lean material. This ore where 
pure is high in iron and low in phosphorus and sulphur, and carry- 
ing a little lime, is altogether an excellent furnace ore. The costs 
of mining and concentration are, however, problematical, and no 
company has yet attempted to operate commercially. Altogether 
there is a big tonnage of ore which will undoubtedly be valuable 
before long. It is only four miles from Lake Superior, and is 
traversed by the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 
A second series of beds lie above those already mentioned, which 
contain even larger quantities of iron. This is, how r ever, only 
about 35% ore, and high in phosphorus and sulphur. On Black 
Sturgeon River (13) are some deposits of hematite in the Keewatin 
of a promising character. At Little Pike Lake (14) specular hema- 
tite interbanded with a gray slate occurs on a number of locations 
taken up some years ago, but on which no work has been done. 
At Savant Lake (15) the usual iron range rocks of the Keewatin 
occur, and search may result in the finding of merchantable ore. 
On Whitearth Lake (16) iron range rocks are reported. At Cariboo 
Lake (17) lean silicious magnetite is found over a large area, also at 
Mud River, somewhat to the east. In the valley of the Red Paint 
(18) the Keewatin formation is traceable for some miles, and some 
diamond drilling was in progress last year. The Nipigon-Long 
Lake (19) belt is 70 miles long and almost continuous. At the 
Nipigon end three parallel belts are found, the centre hematite, 
and the north and south magnetite. A little drilling has been done 
but not enough to determine definitely. At Little Pine Lake (20) 
a similar formation occurs, and also on the Slate Islands (21). On 
Lake Superior at the mouth of the Little Pic (22), locations were 
taken up years ago for a magnetite associated with a basic eruptive. 

The Iron Ores of Ontario. 119 

The ore is lean and probably useless. Ten miles up the Pic River 
(23) are some magnetite locations showing iron ore carrying about 
and contaminated with a little sulphur. At Otter Cove (24), 
in a small fragment of the Keewatin, a lean magnetite occurs. At 
many points throughout the Keewatin belt of the western part of 
Michipicoten (25) the usual iron range rocks are found. Towards 
Lake Superior these occurrences are silicious magnetites; further 
north they are banded cherts with hematite and magnetite. At 
the Frances diamond drilling as shown towards the bottom of one 
of these basins, considerable hematite of good quality. In central 
Michipicoten we have characteristic banded cherts and hematite at 
a number of points. At the Helen Mine (26) is the largest ore body 
yet exploited in the province, which has yielded about one and a 
third million tons of ore, to the end of 1907. Associated with this 
ore, as is so often the case, are deposits of pure pyrites. At the 
Josephine (27) drilling has shown considerable ore, under the 
waters of Parks Lake. The iron range is traceable both east and 
west from the lake, and theory indicated that where the iron- 
bearing rocks had been broken down and eroded so as to form a 
lake basin, a deposit of ore might be sought, and this was done 
successfully. Further to the north (28) the range is so rich in 
sulphur, that it has become of value as a source of iron pyrites, 
iron oxide except as a gossan being practically absent. At Michi- 
picoten south, lean magnetites are found at several points as at 
Anjigomi (29) and Bridget Lake (30). At Cape Choye (31) and 
eastward, an unimportant belt of Keewatin occurs, carrying lean 
hematite and magnetite. At Batchawana (32) banded jasper and 
hematite occur a few miles from Lake Superior, and six miles 
further back several deposits of lean magnetite. At Goulais Bay 
(33) a belt of the Keewatin formation runs east and west for several 
miles, and is enclosed by rocks of the Lower Huronian. The 
brilliant jasper conglomerates which occupy miles of the Lower 
Huronian have always proved extremely interesting, and until the 
discovery of this Goulais belt, no source of the jasper pebbles was 
apparent. The probability is, that this is only a small part of one 
of several buried ranges. In Deroche and adjoining townships 
there are several occurrences of hematite associated with quartzite 
and slate. Some of these lenses are good ore, but no large bodies 
have yet been found, though further development is warranted. 

120 The Canadian Mining Institute 

From Aberdeen township (35) several small vessel loads of good 
hematite were shipped years ago. In the northern part of the 
township a promising prospect of hematite is being developed, 
which occurs at the contact of the slate and quartzite. In the 
townships of Long (36) and Rutherford (37) occurrences of high 
grade specular hematite in the quartzite have been explored, but the 
deposits have proved small. North of Cartier (38) a deposit of 
hematite and magnetite is of considerable promise. At Woman 
River (39) and north of Flying Post (40) belts of banded jasper and 
hematite are found continuous for some distance, and of consider- 
able width. At the Grand Falls on the Mattagami (41) carbonate 
of iron and the resulting limonite are found. Further exploration 
of these and similar deposits occurring in the Devonian may show 
ores of value as soon as transportation has been provided. At 
Shining Tree Lake (42) and Burwash Lake (43) the usual banded 
ores are found. At Moose Mountain (44) is a large deposit of 
magnetite, which seems to be an original deposit, and not a second- 
ary concentration from the usual leaner ores. This property is 
now connected with the Georgian Bay at Key Inlet by railway, 
and shipments will begin on a large scale next season. To the 
north and west banded iron continues, and is found on the Wahna- 
pitae (45) to the south east. Around Temagami Lake (46) are 
several belts of the usual iron range rocks making altogether a good 
many miles in length. On the Caldwell-Mulock property a little 
diamond drilling has been done, but with this exception these 
ranges are as yet unexplored. In Boston township (47) lean 
magnetite has been found, and a little exploration work has so far 
failed to locate commercial ore bodies. At Lake Abitibi (48) the 
usual iron range rocks occur. Along the Kingston and Pembroke 
Railway in Eastern Ontario are numerous deposits of magnetite 
which have been worked in a small way in years gone by. 

Similar occurrences are found in Hastings and adjoining 
counties (50). In both these districts the magnetites are fairly 
high in iron, low in phosphorus, and apt to be contaminated with 
sulphur. In the Parry Sound district (51) there are several 
occurrences of magnetite, associated with limestone. This area 
has not yet been mapped so that an outline of the Keewatin and 
Huronian cannot be given. 

The Irox Ores of Ontario. 



There is no other area in the world equal to the Lake Superior 
region as a producer of high grade iron ore. The only competitor 
is the Minette region of Germany, France and Belgium, which is 
being rapidly left behind. The following table shows the great 
increase in production which has yearly taken place on the Ameri- 
can side of Lake Superior. 

Production of Iron Ore from Lake Superior. 

1891 7,621,465 long tons. 

1892 9,564,388 

1893 .- 6,594,620 

1894 7,682,548 

1895 10,268,978 

1896 10,566,359 

1897 12,205,522 

1898 13,779,308 

1899 17,802,955 

1900 19,121,393 

1901 20,593,537 

1902 27,571,121 

1903 24,281,575 

1904 21,726,590 

1905 34,241,498 

1906 38,393,495 

1907 41,817,385 

But even the immense resources of the American side of 
Lake Superior will reach an end. The serious drain on this supply 
is well shown in the following quotation from Van Hise, one of the 
best authorities on Lake Superior iron mines. 

"The total' product of the Lake Superior region since mining 
"began in 1850 to 1899 inclusive is 171,418,984 long tons. The 
"amount mined in the decade between 1891 and 1900 inclusive is 
" 114.017.546 long tons, or 66.5 per cent, or nearly seven tenths of 
" the total amount mined. The product for the year 1900 surpasses 
"that of any previous year, and is one ninth of the aggregate of 
"this and all preceding years. It is certain that the product of 
" the current decade will far surpass that of the last decade." 

It is most striking that the production for 1907 is also one 
ninth of the aggregate of this and all preceding years. 

This season as a result of the investigation by the Tax Com- 
mission of Minnesota, it has been determined that the Minnesota 
deposits of ore approximate 1,170,000,000 tons. The total tonnage 


The Canadian Mining Institute 

for the Lake Superior district of the United States, including 
undeveloped lands amounts to 2,000,000,000. This, on the basis 
of last year's consumption will last fifty years, but as is shown 
in the preceding table, consumption is advancing with rapid 
bounds. Already lower grade ores are being marketed than a few 
years ago was thought possible. In 1907 the standard for iron 
ore was reduced from 56.7 to 55, and this will undoubtedly con- 
tinue as iron ore becomes scarcer. Moreover three quarters of the 
ore reserves of Minnesota are in the hands of one company. As the 
scarcity develops on the southern side, the search for ore among 
the iron formations in Ontario must correspondingly increase. 
As shown on the map the same geological formations are found 
throughout northern Ontario, as in Minnesota, Wisconsin and 
Michigan. One mine in Ontario has alread3 r produced one and a 
third million tons of ore, and two other properties have begun 
shipment. It will be extremely strange if the banded jasper and 
hematites found for so many hundred miles throughout northern 
Ontario are not in places associated with iron ore, as they are on 
the south side of Lake Superior. When these surface indications 
on the Canadian side are followed up as they have been on the 
United States side, similar ore bodies will undoubtedly be found. 
The amount spent on exploration on the Vermilion range alone, 
between Tower and Section 30, a distance of say thirty miles, 
probably surpasses all the money spent in actual exploration of the 
hundreds of miles of similar ranges in northern Ontario. Not only 
must part of the future demands of the United States be met from 
Ontario, but the Ontario demand itself must also be provided for. 
As shown in the accompanying table we only furnished last year 
% of the ore required for our Ontario furnaces. Indeed from 
1901 and onward the per cent, of Ontario ore used in our furnaces 
has steadily decreased. 

Consumption of Iron Ore in Ontario. 

1901 1 1902 



1905 1 1906 


Ontario ore smelt' d 109,109 
Foreign ore smelt'd 85,401 
Ratio Ontario ore . 

to total 56% 














The Iron Ores of Ontario 123 

As stated in the beginning of this paper the record of the pro- 
duction of iron ores in Ontario is rather one of opportunity than of 

It has been suggested by several competent geologists that the 
only reason that can be suggested why the iron formations of 
Ontario should not overlie ore bodies as they do south of the inter- 
national line would be the greater glacial erosion to the north. 
This reason does not appeal to me so forcibly as to some. It is 
generally accepted that the iron ore bodies of Lake Superior have 
been concentrated in underlying impervious basins by descending 
waters. The upper portions of the formations are left that much 
poorer, and it is these that have for the most part suffered erosion. 
In the " old ranges " of the south shore ore is being mined to a depth 
of 2,000 feet, and little of it came from near the surface. Even if 
it be granted that glacial erosion was carried deeper in Ontario 
(and this might be successfully disputed) unless it cut nearly to the 
bottoms of the basins the ore deposits would be only slightly 
affected. Severe erosion of this kind would have left only shallow 
and isolated patches of the iron formations instead of the hundreds 
of miles which are found in Ontario. Moreover, drilling has 
already established at several points that the formation is at least 
500 to 1,000 feet deep. These considerations do not apply to the 
flat lying Animikie, where a few hundred feet of erosion would cut 
to the bottom of the basins. 

To my mind the most striking differences between the United 
States and Canadian occurrences are (1) the relative greater abun- 
dance of the Keewatin iron formation in Ontario as compared 
with those of Lower Huronian and Animikie age, and (2) the more 
frequent occurrence in Ontario of iron pyrite with the ferruginous 
cherts, etc., of the iron ranges. Apparently iron pyrites and iron 
carbonate were somewhat equally deposited in the iron formations 
of Keewatin times, and iron carbonate predominated in Lower 
Huronian and Animikie times. 

124 The Canadian Mining Institute 


Mr. F. Hille: — I am sorry Mr. Willmott did not lay more 
stress upon the Mattawin Iron Range, which, in my opinion, con- 
tains the greatest iron ore deposits in Canada of which we have 
knowledge. To give you an idea about some of these deposits I 
might mention only a few: one is over 700 feet wide by 3,400 feet 
long; another, over 1,000 feet wide by nearly two miles in length; 
and there are man}'- others. We have drilled into these deposits 
over a thousand feet, of course not reached the bottom, and if 
we go by our geological survey, they may be over 10,000 feet deep. 
We can trace these deposits from 20 miles west of Port Arthur to 
the Vermillion range in Minnesota, thus you have an idea of the 
vast extent of this range. The ore is not of high grade, but it 
can be concentrated very cheaply into a high grade Bessemer ore 
with hardly any phosphor and sulphur. 

Mr. Willmott spoke about assets of the Province of Ontario, 
not in the eastern deposits, but in the Mattawin range lies the 
greatest asset the province possesses. In a few weeks " the Mines 
Branch " will publish my report on part of this range from which 
you may learn more about it". 

Mr. Dixon Craig: — A few words with regard to the commer- 
cial aspect of this matter may be of interest. Prof. Willmott spoke 
of a mine in Ontario which produces some ore and two others 
which have begun shipping. The reason that these latter two 
are shipping is that' this ore is low in phosphorus, or is a Bessemer 
ore, the supply of which in the Cleveland market to-day is prac- 
tically nil. This is a great advantage to the ore as well as the 
local conditions, and although the Bessemer process is on the 
decline it will last for ten or fifteen years yet, so there will be a con- 
tinued demand for this ore, and it can possibl}- be shipped to the 
U.S. and pay duty and still make a fair profit. The Canada Iron 
Furnace Company is using it at Midland with good results. 

The reason for the small amount of exploratory work done in 
Canada is that under present conditions, with the keen competition 
in our markets from the United Kingdom and United States, we 
have not been able to make any of the large accretions of capital 
necessary to carry on this work. But to my mind the eastern 
Ontario magnetites offer a very promising field for prospectors. 


By Jas. Grannis Parmelee, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

(Ottawa Meeting, 1908.) 

To describe the general process of manufacture of iron and 
steel and the interesting details showing the capacity and general 
lay-out of the different plants throughout the province of Ontario, 
would consume too much time in the reading and too much space 
in publishing, and in consequence no attempt will here be made to 
more than touch on the various subjects, and if we are successful 
in our efforts, to give a brief outline of the more important plants 
in the province. 

In point of tonnage and amount of capital invested, the lar- 
gest single plant is that owned by the Lake Superior Corporation, 
which is operated under the name of The Algoma Steel Co., Limited. 
The plant, which is located on the St. Mary's River a short distance 
above the rapids, was built in 1901 and commenced operations 
in the spring of 1902. A dock 2,250 feet long is built along the 
river at which the ore vessels are tied up and unloaded by means 
of two bridges to the piles immediately behind the dock. The 
ore is brought from the Lake Superior ranges to the plant. The 
Corporation also owns the Helen mine, located about one hundred 
and thirty miles north of Sault Ste. Marie, but only a small per- 
centage of the ore is used at the plant, as it is too high in phos- 
phorus for use in the Bessemer process. This ore, however, is 
sold to other consumers, and exchanged for Lake Superior ores. 

The two ore bridges for unloading vessels and transferring ore 
to the ore pile were designed by the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Each bridge has a span of 295 feet, and a height at the inner end 
of 84feet and aheight at the water end of 50 feet. The motive power 
for operating the bucket and for moving the bridge is furnished by 

126 The Canadian Mining Institute 

two 130-h.p. 500-volt motors, which are installed in a house in 
the supporting legs at the water end. These motors are geared to 
counter shafting driving three winding drums through a train of 
gears and clutches, which are thrown in or out according to the 
motion desired. The handling capacity of the automatic buckets 
on the bridge is 70 tons per hour each. 

The storage bin system is located 340 feet from the edge of 
the dock and is built of brick and steel, the total height being 40 
feet. The ore is carried in steel bins of the Berquist type, of which 
there are eight, with a combined capacity of 3,000 tons, and when 
unloaded is either carried full length of the ore bridge to the bins, 
or, if the bins are full, it is dumped on the ore pile, and afterwards 
reloaded into the bins as required. Each bin is provided with 
four chutes and the necessary gates for controlling the removal 
of the ore. These chutes are located on the side of the bin away 
from the water end and deliver the ore into round buckets for the 
skip hoist used for charging the blast furnace. These buckets 
are placed on flat scale cars, which run on a track along the face 
of the bins and are operated by an electric motor, the current 
being supplied to it by a trolley. The bucket can thus be run 
under any desired bin for charging. A steel trestle 1,400 feet long 
and 40 feet high runs along the inner edge of the ore pile and on 
the centre line of the bins, which connects with the main line of 
the Algoma Central railway and with the yards of the Canadian 
Pacific railway, from which points the cars of raw material are 
switched to the required position for dumping directly into the 

Adjoining the ore bins there is a coke bin provided with 16 
chutes, through which the blast furnace hoist bucket is loaded. 

The skip hoists to the blast furnaces are operated by 135-h.p. 
motors driving a four foot winding drum through double reduction 
gearing. The motors are controlled by means of Otis magnet 
regulators, which are installed in the houses located at ends of 
the ore bins. 

The blast furnaces are two in number and are on line parallel 
with the dock. No. 1 stack is 70 feet high, furnace bosh 17 feet 
and an 11-foot hearth, capacity 250 tons per day. The corres- 
ponding figures for No. 2 are: stack 80 feet high, bosh 17 feet, and 
hearth 10 feet 8 inches; capacity, 250 tons per day. Both are 

The Iron and Steel Industry. 127 

operating with coke for fuel. The general plan contemplates the 
addition of two 400-ton furnaces, the trestle and bin system of 
which are already in place. In the same line with the blast fur- 
naces, and between them, there are seven fire-brick stoves 20 feet 
in diameter and 70 feet high. A steel stack 150 feet high at the 
rear of the stoves removes the waste gases after their passage 
through the stoves. The furnaces are provided with adequate 
dust catchers from which the dust is dropped direct into standard 
steel hopper cars. Beside each furnace, and with its axis in the 
same straight line joining the furnaces, are two cast houses 
of steel and corrugated iron structure, into which the iron may be 
run and made into pigs necessary, or into 20-ton ladles mounted 
on a standard gauge railway truck, which convey it to the steel 
plant mixer or to the pig casting machine. 

These furnaces are being operated on a mixture of ore, a large 
percentage of which is obtained in the States, Ontario Bessemer 
ores not yet being mined in sufficient quantities to meet the present 
requirements. Coke is obtained in the Pocahontas fields in West 
Virginia and transported entirely by rail. No deposits of lime- 
stone have yet been located on the Canadian side, and the supply 
of this material is also obtained near by in the state of Michigan. 
The air blast for the blast furnaces is supplied by four blowing 
engines located in an engine house parallel with the blast furnaces. 
The engines are of the Steeple Corliss type and were built by the 
Mesta Machine Co. The steam cylinders are 72 inches by 60 
inches. The engines run at about 40 revolutions per minute and 
are capable of blowing thirty pounds pressure. Each engine has 
a fly-wheel 24 feet in diameter. One engine is provided with a 
gear wheel on the main shaft, enabling it to drive two 225 kilowatt 
electric generators, which are used to supply current to the entire 
plant in case of emergency as a balance to the primary system, 
which is generated by water power, and for supplying power when 
water wheels become choked with slush and needle ice. The 
generators may also be run as motors, if desired, making this unit 
a very ingenious and interesting machine. The generator switches 
may be opened and the machine run simply as a steam driven 
blowing engine, similar to the other three engines in the building; 
or the steam may be shut off and the generators used as motors, 
thus making the machine a motor driven blowing engine. The 

128 The Canadian Mining Institute 

air cylinders may be put out of service and the machine becomes a 
steam driven electric generating unit, or with the air cylinders at 
a combination electric generating unit and blowing machine. Is 
has been used in all four capacities. 

Steam is furnished for operating the blowing engines by a 
battery of twelve Cadall vertical water tube boilers, each 250 h.p. 
The boilers are arranged in batteries of two, three, three and four 

The boiler house is built of steel and is erected in a line with 
the engine house and about 50 feet distant. Each boiler is pro- 
vided with a 36-inch stack 40 feet high. 

The iron is delivered from the blast furnace into the 20-ton 
ladles, as noted above, and is conveyed by them to a steel and 
corrugated iron building about 800 feet distant from the furnaces, 
where is installed a three-strand Heyl & Patterson pig casting 
machine. The machine is fed directly from the 20-ton ladles 
brought from the blast furnaces, these ladles being picked up by 
a 40-ton travelling crane fitted with an auxiliary hoist and carried 
over the receiving end of the pig machine, and poured by appro- 
priate mechanism. The pig machine is driven by a30-h.p. 220- 
volt motor, located in a house near the delivery end of the machine. 

The results obtained from the above described blast furnaces 
since the end of the last fiscal year, June 30th, 1907, are interesting 
records of good blast furnace practice (as the following table of 
average daily tonnage shows), especially when taking into con- 
sideration that during the period from July 22nd, 1907, to Sep- 
tember 2nd, 1907 (41 days), No. 1 furnace was out of blast while 
the work of relining and remodelling was under construction. 

1907— July. 

1907 -July. 

No. 1 Blast Furnace. 

Average tonnage of pig iron per day. . 
Relining and remodelling 

Average tonnage of pig iron per day 

a a <i 

128 G.T. 

204 G.T. 
...221 " 

a it ti 

...240 " 

it it it 

245 " 

No. 2 Blast Furnace. 

Average tonnage of pig iron per day. . 
a tt a 

249 G.T. 
...224 " 

a it (i 

...236 " 

a a tt 

...258 " 

a ti it 

...258 " 

ii it it 

...212 " 

fi Z J 

The Iron and Steel Industry. 129 

The open hearth steel department consists of two 35-ton 
furnaces of the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan stationary type contained 
in a substantial steel and corrugated iron building conveniently 
located for additional units to be added from time to time as the 
market for this product may demand, at minimum cost. The 
foundations for a third furnace are already in place. 

The furnaces are served on the charging side by a Wellman- 
Seaver-Morgan low type charging machine handling stock by the 
box system, and on the pouring side by an electric overhead 
travelling crane constructed by the Morgan Engineering Co. The 
gas producers are eight in number and are of the hand-poked 
water-sealed circular type. The furnaces are being operated at 
present on basic linings and produce steel from pig iron made from 
ores mined in the province. 

The steel rail and finishing mills are installed in a series of 
buildings adjoining each other and extending practically in a 
straight line. These buildings are constructed mostly with red 
sandstone with steel and corrugated iron roofs. At the end 
nearest the blast furnaces, however, is a building constructed of 
steel and corrugated iron, in which is installed a 150-ton mixer 
for handling molten iron direct from the blast furnaces. This 
mixer is served by a 40-ton electric travelling crane built by the 
Whiting Foundry and Equipment Co., for lifting the ladles which 
are brought from the blast furnaces on a standard gauge railroad 
track running into the building alongside the mixer. 

Adjacent to the mixer building is the cupola building, con- 
taining four cupolas used for melting pig iron for the converters, 
and also three furnishing spiegeleisen for the same. 

The cupolas for melting the iron are 8 feet in diameter and 
have a capacity of about 25 tons per hour. The three spiegel 
cupolas are each 5 feet 6 inches in diameter. A pair of Otis electric 
elevators serve to convey the charge of coke and iron to the char- 
ging floor of the cupola house. 

The melted iron from the cupolas is tapped out on a level with 
the charging floor of the converters into ladles, which are 
either charged into the mixer by the mixer crane or taken directly 
to the converters by an electric trolley car system operating on 

130 The Canadian Mining Institute 

a narrow gauge track between the mixer, cupolas and converters 
on this level. 

The Bessemer converters are two in number, each of four tons 
capacity, and are mounted on a platform which is on a level with 
the lower floor on the Cupola house. The blast is furnished at 
pressure of about 18 pounds by two blowing engines located in a 
separate building. The converters pour into a ladle mounted on 
a hydraulic jib crane which swings over the ingot moulds, which 
stand on cars. These ingot moulds after being filled are conveyed 
to the stripper, and when stripped, the ingots are placed in two 
four-hole gas fired soaking pits located near the Bessemer in the 
same building. Each hole in the soaking pit has a capacity of 
four ingots. 

In this same building is the 32" blooming mill. The ingots 
are withdrawn from the soaking pit by means of an automatic 
electric overhead travelling crane and delivered direct to the table 
of the blooming mill, the rolls of which are driven by a pair of 
reversing Southwark engines 28 by 48 inches. The tables are 
driven by electric motors and are operated from a pulpit above 
the rolls, from which point the engines, table and manipulator 
are controlled. 

The ingots are bloomed down to 8 inches by 8 inches and 
carried along the table to a bloom shear and cut into blooms of 
proper length. 

The reheating furnaces are located in a building at right angles 
to the end of the blooming mill and contain three horizontal fur- 
naces of the regenerative type. These furnaces are operated by 
producer gas supplied from the producers above mentioned. 
The furnaces are served by two bloom charging cranes supplied 
by the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., which deliver the bloom to 
the furnaces and, when heated, withdraw it and deposit it on the 
table of the rail mill. 

The rail mill building is parallel to the steel mill and joins 
the building containing the reheating furnaces. It contains two 
sets of roughing rolls and one set of finishing rolls, which are all 
three-high and are coupled together and driven by a condensing 
Porter- Allen 40 x 48 engine. The piece receives four passes in 

The Iron and Steel Industry. 131 

first set of rolls, four in the second set and three in the finishing 
set. The train is served on the front side by two electrically 
operated travelling tables equipped with tilting motors, and on 
the back side by three stationary tilting tables designed and fur- 
nished by the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

After passing through the finishing rolls the rail is conveyed 
about 75 feet to the hot saw and sawed to standard lengths. After 
being sawed the rails are stamped and cambered, and then run 
onto the hot beds; these beds, of which there are two, each 140 
feet long, are located in a stone building adjoining at right angles 
with the rail mill. 

The finishing mill adjoins the hot beds and is parallel to the 
rail mill. Along one side of the building is a roller table for con- 
veying the rails to any desired set of straightening and drilling 
machines. The rails are delivered on skidways alongside the 
machine and the burr occasioned by the hot saw is chipped from 
them by a man at each endof the rail, when they are straightened 
in the presses, then pass on to the drilling machines. There 
are four straightening presses and eight drill presses, each one 
independently motor driven. After drilling the rails are loaded 
directly on cars for shipment. 

The above described rail mill is capable of rolling rails from 
25 lbs. up to and including 100 lbs. per yard, but rolling has been 
confined to 60, 70, 80, 85 and 100 lb. sections, being the greatest 
in demand. Capacity, 225,000 tons annually. 

The power plant for the steel mill is located about 75 feet to 
the west of the steel mill. In this building are located the boilers 
which supply steam to the engines in the mill, the blowing engines 
for the converters, the blowers for the cupolas and the pumps for 
furnishing water to the boilers, the gas producers which furnish 
gas for the soaking pits and reheating furnaces, and for operating 
hydraulic machinery around the plant. The boilers are arranged 
in two batteries each containing eight Stirling boilers of 250 h.p. 
each. The two batteries of boilers are separated by a room con- 
taining the gas producers. The boilers are hand fired. The gas 
producers are three in number and are of the Frazer-Talbot 
mechanical type. 


The Canadian Mining Institute 


Blast Furnace No. 1 

Blast Fur. No. 2 

Rail Mill 

Open hearth 

59,568 G. T. 

68,874 G. T. 

178,624 G. T. 

*6,896 G.T. 

* Only in operation May and June, 1907. 

The Hamilton Steel and Iron Company, Limited. 

The Hamilton Steel and Iron Company, Limited, is located 
at Hamilton, Wentworth county, Ontario, and its development 
is covered in the brief historical review in this paper. The present 
plant consists of two blast furnaces, four open hearth furnaces 
and sundry finishing departments. 

"A" furnace stack is 80 feet high, bosh 16 feet, capacity 200 
tons per day. "B" furnace stack is 80 feet high, bosh 20 feet, 
capacity 300 tons per day; both are operated with coke for fuel. 
Stack " B " is a new furnace and was blown on November 8, 1907; 
it embodies all modern improvements in the way of devices for 
the saving of labor and in handling of ore, pig iron, etc. Ore used: 
Lake Superior hematite, Ontario hematite and magnetic. The 
two 15-ton open hearth furnaces have been enlarged and two 
30-ton furnaces have been added. Through careful management 
this company has been enabled, during the last few years, to 
steadily increase the capacity of the plant. 

The plant as it stands to-day has an annual productive ca- 
pacity of about 180,000 gross tons pig iron, 100,000 net tons of 
steel ingots and 90,000 to 100,000 gross tons of rolled iron and 
steel bars, besides washers, forgings, steam and electric railway 
car axles and track spikes. 

Canada Iron Furnace Company, Limited. 

The "Canada Iron Furnace Co., Limited," with offices in the 
Canada Life Building, Montreal, Que., operate a number of plants, 
namely, Radnor, Three Rivers, Lac-a-la-Tortue, Grandes Piles, Lac 
aux Sables, Lac Pierre, Ste. Thecle, all of which are in the province 
of Quebec, and Midland in Ontario. 

The Iron and Steel [ndtjstry. 133 

Plant No. 1 is situated at Midland, Simcoe county, Ont., and 
consists of one blast furnace together with the necessary boilers, 
engines and stoves. Stack is 65 feet high, bosh 13 feet; daily 
capacity of furnace 120 tons, product being foundry, malleable 
Bessemer and Bessemer iron — foundry and malleable Bessemer 
being used for castings and Bessemer for steel rails. Fuel is 
Qonnellsville coke ; 30% of the ore charged is Canadian, the 
balance being that of the Lake Superior region. 

Three hundred and twenty-five men are employed, wages 
paid annually being about SI 18, 300. 00. 

The above furnace was built in 1900 and was blown in Decem- 
ber 4th of the same year. Stoves are three in number of the two- 
fire-brick type. Iron produced, 1906, 36,187 tons. 

Deseronto Iron Company Limited. 

The "Deseronto Iron Co., Limited," situated at Deseronto, 
Hastings county, Ontario, have a blast furnace of about 50 gross 
tons capacity, built in 1898, and has been in successful operation 
since January 25th, 1899, using charcoal as a fuel, the product 
being sold for malleable castings, car wheels and grey castings. 

Recently the furnace has been remodelled, and coke is now 
used exclusively for fuel. The present amount of ore used daily 
is 61 tons, of which 52 tons are imported, the product being mal- 
leable, Bessemer and foundry pig iron, and is sold principally for 
malleable and grey castings. 

In remodelling the furnace the size of the bosh has been 
enlarged from 9 ft. 6 in. to 10 ft. 6 in., the productive capacity 
increasing considerably, as the following figures show: — In 1903, 
before the improvements were made and the change of fuel had 
taken place, the year's production was 8911-1995 tons; for the 

year 1906 the corresponding figures are 8876-885 tons. Con- 


sidering that the plant is equipped with iron pipe stoves only, and 
that the furnace was only in blast for eight months out of the 
twelve of 1906, I do not consider the output a small one. It is 
evident that coke to-day is pre-eminently the blast furnace fuel 
of Ontario. 

134 The Canadian Mining Institute 

The Ontario Iron and Steel Company, Limited. 

The Ontario Iron and Steel Co., Limited, have recently com- 
pleted works at Welland, Ontario, where they have installed 
equipment of which the works proper consist in general of two 
open hearth basic furnaces, one in the foundry department, with 
a capacity of 20 tons, the other being of 25 tons capacity, situated 
in the ingot foundry; the melting capacity of the two furnaces is 
about 80 tons per day, part of the product being used for steel 

The finishing department consists of one 22" mill and one 12" 
mill capable of rolling small rails, angles, bars and skelps for pipe. 

The power for these mills and various appliances throughout 
plant is supplied by electric current from Niagara Falls. The 
Company own and operate natural gas wells near Port Colbourne, 
and pipe the gas to their plant, where it is used exclusively for 

At present only the steel foundry is in operation, but it is 
expected that the rolling mills will be rolling very soon. 

The Cramp Steel Company, Limited. 

The Cramp Steel Co., Limited, later the "Northern Iron and 
Steel Co.," through financial difficulties has never been fully in 
operation. Works were built in Collingwood, Simcoe county, On- 
tario, for the manufacture of basic open hearth steel and rolled 
iron and steel. 

The plant consists of an open hearth department equipped 
with two 15-gross ton Siemens furnaces and rolling mills, with 
trains of rolls for the production of plates, merchant bar iron and 

The Company proposed erecting two blast furnaces with daily 
capacity of 250 gross tons each, using Canadian hematite and mag- 
netic ores, product to be basic pig iron, but this department was 
never constructed. The future of the departments completed is 
uncertain, owing to the financial difficulties as above stated. 

The Iron and Steel Industry. 135 

Atikokan Iron Company, Limited. 

The Atikokan Iron Co., Limited, is situated at Port Arthur, 
Thunder Bay district, Ontario. A blast furnace of 100 tons ca- 
pacity, together with the necessary stoves, boilers, shipping 
docks, etc., comprise the equipment. 

About 160 tons of ore is used daily (all Canadian) and is 
brought from the Company's own mines a short distance back 
of Port Arthur (on the Nipigon river). 

The furnace proper has a 74' 3" stack, bosh 14', coke is used 
for fuel; product, foundry iron. 150 men are employed in the 
several departments. 

This furnace was in blast but a short time, making 7,532 tons 
of iron, when the management deemed it advisable, owing to 
prevailing conditions, to discontinue operations until the coming 

All the above mentioned industries of this province are con- 
ducted in their respective lines by the ordinary accepted modern 
processes of manufacture. In addition, however, some original 
research has been carried on in the treatment of various ores, and 
among these the electro-thermic process for the manufacture of 
pig iron from iron ores, although at present not a serious compet- 
itor to the ordinary blast furnace, has a right to be considered an 
important factor in the future manufacture of iron and steel. 

In 1898 experiments were carried on in Ontario by Mr. Ernst 
A. Sjostedt, Chief Metallurgist of the Lake Superior Power Com- 
pany, in desulphurizing a certain grade of the Company's nickel- 
iferous pyrrhotite from the Sudbury district, with the object of 
utilizing its sulphur contents for the production of a suitable 
sulphur dioxide (S 2 ) gas in a contemplated sulphite pulp in- 
dustry, and its iron and nickel contents for the manufacture of 
ferro-nickel in the ordinary blast furnace and open hearth steel 
practice from dead roasted "cinders." These first experiments 
did not prove altogether satisfactory, the product containing some 
7% sulphur, but realizing that if a high temperature could be 
attained, sufficient to melt and keep fluid the refractory mixture, 
the sulphur could be fluxed off with lime or similar strong base; 

136 The Canadian Mining Institute 

his attention was taken to the electric energy for the required 
source of heat. Electrical experiments were then carried out 
(first on a very small crucible scale), the result of which was the 
construction of an electric furnace, using the Company's electric 
power plant for energy. The results obtained were, I believe, satis- 
factory and proved the possibility of converting a partially roasted 
pyrrhotite into a sulphur free alloy. Later in the winter of 
1905-6 an experimental Government plant was installed, super- 
vised by Dr. Eugene Haanel, Supt. of Mines, for the manufac- 
ture of pig iron from iron ores. This plant was subsequently 
purchased by the L. S. Corporation, when about 150 tons of ferro- 
nickel was produced from the Lake Superior Company's briquetted 
roasted pyrrhotite. These experiments not only verified Mr. 
Sjostedt's previous results, but were made on a scale sufficiently 
large to encourage the belief that even in a small furnace ferro- 
nickel alloy could be profitably produced. 

If electric power at (a reasonable charge of) say $15.00 per 
h.p. annum, could be furnished from some established power 
plant, it is reasonable to believe that the electric-thermic process 
of smelting iron ores could be carried on profitably and success- 
fully with a furnace similar in size to a small charcoal blast fur- 
nace, which would at present seem sufficiently large for such a 
purpose, and furnaces of this description would give Ontario a 
chance to develop its smaller ore deposits, especially in the county 
of Hastings and in the immediate vicinity of Ottawa. 

In attempting a comparison between the electro-thermic 
process and the present blast furnace practice in the reduction of 
iron ores, it will be well, I think, to narrow the same down to that 
of a charcoal furnace and an electric furnace of similar capacity, 
both corresponding to a 3,000 h.p. electric smelting plant, which 
at present would seem sufficiently large for such a purpose. 

The average output per 1,000 h.p. day, as given in Dr. 
Haanel's preliminary report, is about 10 short tons, which equals 
about 9 gross (pig iron) tons. Although such a production no 
doubt can be obtained and possibly will be exceeded on a large 
scale, we will, for the sake of reasonable safety, make a reduction 
from this amount of about 20% and thus base our estimates on a 
daily output of only 7 gross tons per 1,000 h.p. day, or an annual 
production of about 7,500 gross tons. 

Deseronto Iron Company. Limited. 

Deseronto Iron Company. Limited. (Showing stock bins.) 

The Iron and Steel Industry. 


of product 
sola or used 

Used steel rails 
Used steel mils 






Both sold & used 
Castings and Steel 

Malleable Cast- 

m^s and grey 
( 'listings. 
Castings, etc. 

o^ « -2 . « cj t. 

■ bC 

c ■- 


1— i 





E'J » -Or-— - - — S 

r .- x u w x • •' ' 

x 5 x c ~ o _z -r -7 

is o ~ 1! = -o "* x 
- -~ r g S£lbm 

CO r-™, 00 .— 2 "5! ~ — 
S <s jj* pQ -^ _2 

X — 

• E 



s 1 


i— i 




65 fc? &5 ^ £§ 




"3 «0 <-i t-» O 






b- t- CO t^ t^ 








65 fcs 65 65 ^ 





»o IC O 00 o 











^ ^ 



— C3 ° 


o o o o o 




iC O O O <N 



CN CN <N CO i-i 




i z. 

m - « o c 



- g 

O O O o o 




m 9 

O O o O O 






« "5 
.2*8 8 

?~ ?~ cb b co 











S ' 00 N 00 (B 










































— ■ — ' m 

/. -x r 9 



















The Canadian Mining Institute 

Roughly speaking, the cost of an electric smelting plant and 
charcoal blast furnace plant of the same capacity would involve 
the following expenditure — exclusive of site, mining privileges 
and hardwood land : — 


Charcoal , 

Furnace Plant 






Electrode Plant 

Charcoal Kiln Plant 


Sundries, say 



For the complete equipment of an electro-thermic smelting 
plant it may also be necessary to invest in separate power and 
electric installation, which in the present case probably would 
involve an additional expenditure of some $200,000, but we will 
in the present case assume that electricity will be furnished for 
some established power plant, and allow for the same the reason- 
able charge of $15.00 per h.p. annum. 

The cost of charcoal will be, in both cases, estimated at 6.5c. 
per bushel, limestone at $1 . 50 per ton, and the ore for blast furnace 
practice at $2.50, and that intended for electric smelting (being 
supposedly of an inferior quality, not suitable for ordinary blast 
furnace practice) at $1.50 per ton. We will also assume labor 
cost at the two furnaces to be the same (say $2 .00 per ton), as also 
all incidental expenses. 

We thus obtain the following cost items for the production of 
one gross ton of pig iron : — 



2 tons of iron at $2 . 50 

2 " " $1.50 

110 bush, charcoal at 6.5 cents 
56 bush, charcoal at 6.5 cents. 
Electrodes, say 20 at 2.5 cents 

Limestone, say 

Electric Power at $15 

Furnace Labor 

Office Expenses 

Incidentals, say 

Add for Amortization at 10 %, 

$ 3.00 

















The Iron axd Steel Industry. 139 

The above estimates are considered very conservative, and 
the manufacturing cost will be reduced in larger plants. There 
are exceptional cases where the cost of raw material and power 
differ radically from that given in the above tables and where, 
therefore, the totals will be entirely changed, but the above will 
serve as a conservative estimate for plants of the assumed capacity, 
according to the present day's knowledge. 

The quality of the product from the electric furnace would 
compare favorably with, and in most cases would excel, that of 
the best charcoal iron made (owing to the possibility of a perfect 
elimination of sulphur and the great homogenity of the electric 
furnace product). 

(I am indebted to Mr. Ernst A. Sjostedt, Chief Metallurgist 
of the Lake Superior Corporation, for the above figures). 

To encourage this process the Government has authorized 
the payment of the following bounties on the undermentioned 
articles when manufactured in Canada for consumption therein, 
viz.: — 

(a) On pig iron manufactured from Canadian ore by the pro- 
cess of electric smelting during the calendar years: — 

1909 $2.10 per ton 1910 $2.10 per ton 

1911 1.70 " " 1912.... 0.90 " " 

(b) On steel manufactured by electric process direct from Cana- 
dian ore, and on steel manufactured by electric process 
from pig iron smelted in Canada by electricity from Cana- 
dian ore during the calendar year: — 

1909 $1.65 per ton 1910 $1.65 per ton 

1911 1.05 " " 1912,. ... 0.60 " " 

The historical review of iron making in Ontario dates back to 
the year 1800, when the first furnace in the province was construc- 
ted at the falls of the Gananoque river, but owing to inferior ores 
and the high cost of assembling materials, the furnace was only 
kept in blast two years. Not until twenty years later was a fur- 
nace constructed and successfully operated for a number of years. 
This furnace was built at Charlotteville township, Norfolk county, 
using bog ore from the immediate vicinity. However, the supply 
of ore became exhausted, and in 1854 the management erected 
another furnace in Houghton township, which was in blast but 

140 The Canadian Mining Institute 

a short time when it was deemed advisable, owing to the prevail- 
ing conditions, to discontinue operations. 

In 1820 a furnace was established at Marmora, but was also 
unsuccessful. Then, in 1831, a furnace was started using bog ores 
of Colchester and Gosfield townships, but after five or six years 
of operation it was closed down on account of financial difficulties. 
In 1836 a furnace was built in Madoc, being in operation some 
eight or nine years. Following these many attempts to start fur- 
naces and smelt iron in the province, without satisfactory results 
ever being arrived at, a mill was erected at Hamilton in 1864 for 
the purpose of re-rolling iron rails. This mill was in operation 
until 1871, when, in consequence of the introduction of steel rails, 
the re-rolling of iron rails was abandoned, the mill remaining idle 
until 1879, when, under the name of The Ontario Rolling Mills 
Company, it was started as a merchant bar mill. Some years 
later the Hamilton Iron Forging Company started a plant and 
small rolling mill on the premises adjoining the Ontario Rolling 
Mill Company's works, but in 1890 the Ontario Rolling Mill Com- 
pany bought them out. Then in 1896 the Hamilton Blast Fur- 
nace Co. blew in a furnace, and in the spring of 1899 this Company 
amalgamated with the Ontario Rolling Mill Company, under the 
name of the Hamilton Steel and Iron Co., Limited, their equip- 
ment consisting of one blast furnace, with a capacity of 150 tons 
per day, two mills with five trains of rolls (14 inch neck, 9 and 10 
inch guide, 20 inch bar and 20 inch plate), two bushelling furnaces, 
four double puddling furnaces and nine coal heating furnaces, also 
a forge plant with four steam hammers with necessary lathes for 
rough turning forgings. 

An analysis of this industry in the province would disclose the 
permanent foundation upon which it is being established. Fore- 
most, of course, stands out the large deposits of rich ore that exist 
in Eastern Ontario, whose presence has been known for years. 
These deposits are being supplemented from time to time by such 
discoveries as that of the Helen mine at Michipicoten, yielding 
1,000 tons of rich basic ore per day, with a tonnage that will not 
be exhausted for years. The "Moose Mountain" mine, which is 
located about 30 miles north of Sudbury in Hutton township, 
is perhaps the largest and best iron ore deposit in the province. 
(The first development of this mine brought to light a bonded 

The Iron and Steel Industry. 141 

hematite basic ore, but recently, through diamond drilling, a 
Bessemer ore has been produced.) And the mines of the Central 
Ontario range, Hastings county, operated by such companies as 
the " Wilbur Iron Ore Company," The Mineral Range Iron Mining 
Company, and the "Belmont." 

The consumption of iron and steel in all its various forms is 
increasing with giant strides, caused primarily by the rapid devel- 
opment of the province and the Dominion at large. To satisfy 
t His growing demand new plants are being built and new products 
manufactured whenever the market for such product justifies. 

Under this state of facts the past two years have witnessed 
the establishment of two new blast furnaces, one at Port Arthur 
and the other at Hamilton, making a total of seven in the province, 
six of which have been built in recent years. At Welland, The 
Ontario Smelting Co. have completed a new plant consisting of 
two open hearth furnaces and a rolling mill, and at the works of 
The Algoma Steel Co., Limited, two new open hearth furnaces 
have been installed and an increase has been made in the produc- 
tive capacity of No. 1 blast furnace. 

The Canada Iron Furnace Co., Limited, whose principal office 
is at Montreal, have preliminary plans for a new blast furnace, 
steel works and rolling mill to be built on its property at Midland; 
four open hearth furnaces have also been planned; and the com- 
pany operating the Moose Mountain mine are negotiating with 
the Toronto authorities for the establishment of a furnace plant 
at Ashbridge bay, which is believed will have a capacity of 1,400 
tons of ore daily, to be followed by the establishment of plants 
for manufacturing pig iron into various finished products. A 
steel plant, rolling mill, car shops and finishing mills. 

Particularly important in the increasing use of iron and steel 
is the constantly growing demand for foundry, railroad and build- 
ing purposes. There is a large market in Canada for structural 
steel, but at present this product comes from Belgium and the 
United States. And while there is a growing demand for it, the 
material required is purchased elsewhere, being cut here to suit 
local requirements. Although this class of work is essentially an 
American production, the time has come when our engineers 
should be familiar with it, and a modern plant well managed, with 

142 The Canadian Mining Institute 

low fixed charges, situated advantageously, and controlling its 
own raw material, would have nothing to fear in the future. 

Further, the construction of railroad and trolley systems are, 
comparatively speaking, still in their infancy, and the amount of 
steel necessary for this construction will add largely to the re- 
quirements. But at present our rail mills can look after the work 
to be done as far as rail requirements go, for the mills of the Al- 
goma Steel Co., Limited, and those of the Dominion Iron and 
Steel Company produce ample tonnage to provide for present 
needs, these mills having a total capacity of over 400,000 tons a 
year. The demand for rails last year, the largest in the history 
of Canadian rail requirements, amounts to about 300,000 tons. 
Previous years the demand was considerably under the above 
figure, but there is room for development in structural steel, and 
manufacturers should be induced to take up this line. The de- 
mand for this material in the past few years has been a most 
striking development in the industry. Among the varied new 
uses for steel, the rod mill has its share and the wire nail industry 
is a large one in itself, but more remarkable is the increase in the 
wire fence requirements. Th : s industry in the United States is nearly 
nine times as large as it was six years ago, their production being 
something like three hundred and seventy-five thousand tons. 

These industries are practically new to us and are full of rich 
opportunities. No other industry across the border has paid such 
lavish awards to men who have possessed the genius of organiza- 
tion, and now that Canada is turning the corner in the matter of 
iron and steel development it is to be hoped that other companies 
will be formed to follow the example of some of our larger concerns, 
and go even further into the manufacture of the finished product. 
The province already includes a great number of establishments 
from the mills of the Algoma Steel Co., Limited, as above men- 
tioned, upon which millions of dollars have been expended, to 
the little foundry of the small towns, or even to the smithy's 
forge at the cross roads. 

A steel industry is a benefit to a country in many ways. It 
is the foundation of larger communities which increase and influ- 
ence the general prosperity of all other industries. It contributes 
to the payment of taxes. It supplies an enormous amount of 
freight to the railroads, the receipts from a plant being many 

The Iron and Steel Industry. 143 

times as much as though the same amount of material were im- 
ported and further lowers the cost of transportation by their 
adding to the amount of tonnage handled. No country can 
prosper without an iron industry of some description, whether 
it be an iron producing country itself, with mines and furnaces, 
or not. If it does not possess iron in accessible form itself, or if 
it has not the energy to develop its own iron, it is under the neces- 
sity of importing iron from other countries, either as pig iron for 
manufacture, or the finished product, or both. Another argu- 
ment advanced in favor of iron and steel development in the 
Dominion is the bounty offered by the Dominion Government. 
An act respecting bounties on iron and steel made in Canada, 
having been assented to and renewed April 27, '07, from which 
the following has been copied : — 

(a) In respect of pig iron manufactured from ore, on the pro- 
portion from Canadian ore produced during the calendar 

1907 $2.10 per ton 1908 $2.10 per ton. 

1909 1.70 " " 1910 0.90 " " 

(b) In respect of pig iron manufactured from ore, on the pro- 
portion from foreign ore produced during the calendar 
year : — 

1907 $1.10 per ton 1908 $1.10 per ton 

1909 0.70 " " 1910 0.40 " 

(c) On puddled iron bars manufactured from pig iron made in 
Canada during the calendar year: — 

1907 $1.65 per ton 1908 $1.65 per ton 

1909 1.05 " " 1910 0.60 " " 

(d) In respect of rolled round wire rods not over three-eighths 
of an inch in diameter, manufactured in Canada from steel 
produced in Canada from ingredients of which not less 
than 50 per cent, of the weight thereof consists of pig iron 
made in Canada, when sold to wire manufacturers for use, 
or when used in making wire in their own factories in Canada 
— on such wire rods made after the thirty-first day of De- 
cember, one thousand nine hundred and six, six dollars 
($6.00) per ton. 

144 The Canadian Mining Institute 

(e) In respect of steel manufactured from ingredients of which 
not less than fifty per cent, of the weight thereof consists 
of pig iron made in Canada— on such steel made during the 
calendar year : — 

1907 $1.65 per ton 1908 $1.65 per ton 

1909 1.05 " " 1910 0.60 " " 

The character of the finished product of the several industries 
has reached a high and very satisfactory standard, and in the 
product of the greatest tonnage has perhaps excelled that of other 
districts. The matter of section and specification in this partic- 
ular product is now in the transition stage, and as soon as a decision 
is reached all the requirements will be met and this high standard 
maintained. All products in the regular course of business must 
pass inspection by a third party, who is the agent of the purchaser 
for this purpose, and whose judgment is final as between the parties. 

This matter has until recently been in the hands of foreign 
"Bureaus of Inspection," but recently a bureau fully equipped 
to handle all branches of the service has been established at Toronto, 
so that at the present moment every step in the process from pro- 
ducing the raw ores to the final acceptance of the finished material, 
can be carried on within the province. 

From the Canadian Manufacturer. 

The Atikokan Iron Company's' Roasting Kilns. — The furnace is in the 





From the Canadian Manufacturer. 
Atikokan Iron Company's Power House and Blast Furnace. 

The Iron and Steel Industry. 
























































OS c ■* 







The Ugoma Steel Co., Ltd. 

The Hamilton Steel and 
Iron Co.. Lid 

Canadalron FurnaceCo.L'd 

Deseronto Iron Company.. 

o § 


£> -c 

C *• 
C " 

« •£ 

H = 

CO o 

Q "S 

< 5 





















IS o 

15 H 


r- co-* c m 
t-( iO ic ^ OS 




•- .- 113 

I — _ _ 


= pa 


r - 

OOOg 1 &°« — • 
u or_, - - _ r 

«feC€ g £ = * 

- _ — .- - c 
p .-- < 



3 -,-i i = 

:r -o< 

S ^ © <s 









By Norman L. Leach, Sudbury, Ontario. 

(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

The conformation of the Moose Mountain Iron Range has 
been traced in a general manner and found to extend in a north- 
westerly direction from the northwest shore of Lake Wahnapitae, 
in the district of Nipissing, to Onaping Lake, in the district 
of Algoma, a distance of approximately thirty-five miles. 

Twenty-five miles due north of Sudbury, in the township 
of Hutton, are situated the properties of the Moose Mountain, 
Limited. The existence of iron ore in this township has been 
known in a general way for years. During the gold excitement of 
the "nineties," prospectors travelling the West Branch of the Ver- 
milion River, in search of the yellow metal, portaged across a 
ridge of the "No. 2" deposit at a point known as the "Iron 
Dam," the wearing away of the moss on the portage having ex- 
posed the ore in several places. 

In 1901 and 1902 Sudbury prospectors, through Mr. Chase S. 
Osborne, of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, succeeded in interesting 
Mr. John W. Gates, of New York, and associates, in the pro- 
perty. Enough exploratory work was then done to prove its 
value and negotiations commenced with the object of securing 
rail connections with the Georgian Bay. 

Messrs. Mackenzie & Mann, appreciating the possibilities of 
the ore tonnage as a source of revenue for their railroads, be- 
came interested in the property, and as a result, a branch of their 
Canadian Northern Ontario Ry.,from Toronto to Sudbury, has been 
built from Sudbury north to the mines, a distance of 35 miles. 
A six mile spur from the main line, a few miles south of the 

148 The Canadian Mining Institute 

French River, has been constructed to the Georgian Bay at a 
point known as Key Inlet, and is the final link connecting the 
mines with the Great Lakes, making a rail haul for the ore of 
about eighty miles, or about the same as the average haul of the 
three iron-ore-carrying roads of Minnesota. 

Ore docks for the transhipment of the ore are now under 
construction by the Mackenzie & Mann interests at the "Key." 
A splendid natural harbour has been secured there with twenty- 
four feet of water alongside the ore docks, more than enough 
to float the largest vessels on the Great Lakes; and the "Key" 
as a shipping point by water is 500 miles nearer any of the iron 
ore receiving ports, as compared with shipments from the head 
of Lake Superior. This will be a considerable factor in the secur- 
ing of favourable lake freight rates. 

The docks are of unique construction, and will be unlike 
any on the Great Lakes for the handling of iron ore. The ore 
from the mines, loaded in hopper-bottomed cars, is dumped from 
a trestle to a stock-pile ground beneath. Under this stock-pile 
groimd, in line with the centre line of the trestle, is a tunnel 
through which a forty-two inch belt will convey the ore to a 
similar belt at the water's edge, which in turn conveys and 
elevates the ore to the dock trestle sixty feet above the water 
level. It is then tripped off the belt, weighed by an automatic 
device, and dumps into pockets from which it will be spouted 
into the hold of the vessels alongside the dock. It is expected 
that these belts will have a capacity of eight hundred tons of ore 
per hour. 

Development work at the properties of the Moose Mountain, 
Limited, has proven the existence of several large deposits of 
merchantable ore, principally magnetite, and a small amount of 
hematite. The ores occur in the following rocks of the Keewatin 
age. Those in close proximity to the ore bodies consist princi- 
pally of diorite, diabase, hornblende-schist, hornblende-gneiss, 
all of which may be collectively referred to as greenstone. In a 
few instances granite comes into contact with the ores. Numerous 
exposures of magnetic ores are to be found. Where weathered 
the ore presents grey, dark green and black appearances, and 
glaciated surfaces have the lustre of metallic iron. When crushed 
for shipment the ores have a steel grey appearance. These ores 

The Moose Mountain- Iron Range. 149 

can be delivered to any blast furnaces in Canada or the United 
3, tributary to the Great Lakes, and the product from the 
Moose Mountain mines will be disposed of in the above markets. 
The present guaranteed analysis on ore sales is: — 

Iron 55.50 

Phosphorus 10 

Silica 13.29 

Manganese 02 

Alumina 1 .21 

Lime 3.60 

Magnesia 3.15 

Sulphur Oil 

Titanium none 

Moisture 1 .00 

So far actual mining operations have been confined to the 
"No. 1," or original "Moose Mountain" deposit. The surface of 
the ore body at this point is approximately 140 feet above the 
level of the railroad loading tracks. The ore is won by under 
hand stoping, from an open face of from 60 to 70 feet in height, 
trammed out to a large chute discharging thirty feet below the 
level of the bottom of the present stope into a No. 8 Austin 
gyratory crusher, which reduces it to a maximum size of five to 
six inches diameter. Leaving the number eight crusher, the ore 
passes through a revolving screen 48" by 12' with { inch perfora- 
tions, the rejections going direct to the foot of the elevator pit, 
and the balance to a No. 5 Austin gyratory crusher discharging 
into the 14" by 30" buckets of a fifty-two foot centre belt elevator, 
which elevates the ore into the loading bins, whence it discharges 
through hoppers into the railroad cars. 

A 16" by 42" Jenckes Corliss engine, to drive the crushing 
plant, and two 150 h.p. return tubular boilers, constitute the 
present power plant, the machine drills having been operated 
by steam up to the present time. 

Very little systematic exploration work has been done upon 
the Moose Mountain Range as yet, and when it is remembered that 
upon all of the older iron ranges of the Lake Superior country 
millions of dollars have been, and are still being, spent in the 

150 The Canadian Mining Institute 

systematic search for new ore bodies — and that all of these iron 
ranges show more ore in sight to-day than they ever did — it seems 
a reasonable possibility that careful explorations in the future 
will reveal still other bodies of high grade merchantable ore in 
the Moose Mountain District. 


By E. L. Fraleck. 

(Cobalt Branch Meeting, May, 1908.) 

The mining and smelting of iron ore in Ontario was com- 
menced as early as 1800. In this year a furnace was erected 
in the northern part of the township of Lansdowne, in the County 
of Leeds, at the falls of the Gananoque river, by a syndicate 
composed of E. Freeman Jones, Daniel Sherwood, Samuel Barlow, 
and Wallace Sutherland. The place on this account was called 
Furnace Falls, but is now known as the village of Lyndhurst. 
This furnace, however, was only operated for two years, the 
suspension of operation being attributed to the inferior quality 
of the ore, which, too, required to be transported a considerable 
distance from lot 25, in the 10th concession of the township of 

The next attempt was made in 1813 by John Mason, an 
Englishman, who commenced the erection of a furnace on the 
shore of Lake Erie, in the township of Charlotteville, with the 
object of treating bog ores from the County of Norfolk. The 
plant was a very crude affair, and after running a short time the 
inner lining gave way, and the enterprise was abandoned. The 
following extracts from letters written by John Mason to Robert 
Gourlay in 1817 will give us an idea of his difficulties. "I want 
five or six pieces of cast iron 30 cwt. These will come to an 
enormous expense. I intended to ask Government to give, or 
lend me, six disabled cannon for this. I asked Government to 
pay the passage of five or six families from England to work in 
the furnace. This could not be granted, therefore I would not 
ask for the cannon. Another thing against me, is that there is 
not a man in the country that I know of capable of working in the 
furnace, but the greatest difficulty I have to overcome, is iron 
men as we call them, are the very worst sort of men to manage, 

152 The Canadian Mining Institute 

colliers not excepted. Not one of a hundred of them but will take 
every advantage of his master in his power. If I have just the 
number of hands for the work, every one of them will know that 
I cannot do without every one of them, therefore, everyone of 
them will be my master." He also says: — "Those who begin iron 
works in this country after me, will start many thousand dollars 
ahead of me, everything they want except stone will be had here. 
The best method of working the ore will be known, and men will 
be learned to work it." John Mason died shortly afterwards, 
and the property was bought by Joseph Vanorman, who formed 
a partnership with Hiram Capron and George Stillson, and in 
1823, after an investment of $8,000.00, the furnace was blown in. 
The furnace was in blast eight or nine months each year, producing 
seven or eight hundred tons of iron with a consumption of char- 
coal equal to 4,000 cords of hardwood. The pig iron was made 
into sugar and potash kettles, stoves, and other articles for the 
settlers. Some exports were made to Buffalo, and one shipload 
was sent to Chicago. About five or six years later, Vanorman 
bought out Capron and Stillson. The business was successfully 
operated until 1847, when the supply of ore and fuel gave out, but 
in the meantime, Vanorman had amassed a considerable fortune. 
Vanorman utilized the waste gases from his furnace to calcine 
his ore and heat his blast. The hot blast was patented by J. B. 
Neilson, of Glasgow, in 1828, and although Aubertot used waste 
gases in 1814, it was not until George Parry , of Cornwall, invented 
the cup and cone arrangement about 1850 that the practise 
became general. In 1845 J. P. Budd took out a patent in England 
to use waste gases for heating the blast, but Vanorman's stove 
was in use nearly twenty years before. 

In 1820, a furnace was constructed by Mr. Hays to treat 
ore from the big ore bed at Blairton, in the township of Marmora. 
There is no record of his venture except that he failed, and the 
property passed into the hands of the Hon. Peter McGill of Mont- 
real. In 1831 Hetherington, McGill and Manahan incorporated 
the Marmora Iron Foundry. In 1839 the Government appointed 
commissioners to ascertain the cost of the removal of the peniten- 
tiary from Kingston to Marmora with a view, evidently, of 
employing the convicts in mining and smelting work; but this 
was not done, and in 1847 Vanorman purchased the property 

Notes on Early Mixing 153 

for $21,000.00. The iron, however, required to be carted a dis- 
tance of thirty-two miles to Belleville, until a water route was 
made available by building a road nine miles long from Crow Lake 
to Healy's Falls on the Trent River, whence the iron was conveyed 
by boat to Rice Lake, and thence by waggon, twelve miles to 
the dock at Cobourg. The pig iron sold readily at $35.00 per ton, 
but upon the completion of the St. Lawrence canals, foreign 
pig was laid down at Belleville and Cobourg for $16.00 per ton, 
and Vanorman's venture was a total loss. 

After Vanorman, other ventures were the Marmora Iron 
Foundry, whose losses represented nearly $20,000, and an English 
company whose loss was about $75,000; while in 1875, an experi- 
ment was made of using petroleum for a fuel, with the result that 
the plant was completely consumed. 

In 1837, Uriah Seymour operated a furnace at Madoc. The 
ore was obtained from the Seymour Iron Mine, five miles north 
of the village. Limestone was first used as a flux, and material 
from the locality used for the lining. The linings, however, 
were slagged out as rapidly as they could be replaced, while a 
new lining obtained from Rossie in New York State, similar 
to that used in the furnaces there, afforded no better results. 
Seymour then substituted for the limestone a sandy clay, on which 
the furnace ran successfully for eight or nine years, and it was to 
this feature that Seymour attributed his success. His supply of 
charcoal becoming exhausted, he sawed cord wood in two-foot 
lengths, and employing one tuyere only, the furnace was in opera- 
tion for seventy-five days, iron of excellent quality being pro- 
duced. Encouraged with these results Seymour then worked the 
furnace to full capacity with all tuyeres in use, but produced an 
inferior pig. By closing all but one tuyere, however, his pro- 
duction sank to 1\ tons per day, but the quality was restored. 
Seymour's partner was killed by an explosion in the mine, and 
the difficulty of settling with the heirs, and Seymour's ill health, 
caused the abandonment of operations. 

Vanorman resumed smelting in the west part of Norfolk in 
1854, having been offered $45.00 per ton for pig iron of equal 
quality to that of his former production. In 1855, he shipped 
400 tons, but the iron would not chill, and he was compelled to 
sell it at $22.00, and his losses on this venture were $32,000. 

154 The Canadian Mining Institute 

In the report of the Royal Commission of 1890, on the mineral 
resources of Ontario, to which the writer is greatly indebted for 
these notes, this record of early endeavour and achievement is 
referred to as a " Hapless record of failures." Upon close analysis, 
this characterization is by no means justified. The first furnace 
of 1800, was in blast two years, and it is inconceivable that the 
furnace would have been kept in operation for that length of 
time at a loss. The ore supply for the furnace was obtained 
from small, high-grade pockets of hematite, which occurred in a 
ferruginous Potsdam sandstone. It is quite reasonable to assume, 
that the furnace ran successfully until these pockets were worked 
out, and that no new sources of supply were found within dis- 
tances that would permit of the economic transportation of ore 
to the furnace. 

John Mason fought manfully against overwhelming odds, and 
failed mainly through insufficient capital, and inadequate furnace 
lining. His instance in the year 1813 is the first record of a 
request to the Government for aid to the mineral industry, and 
this first request met with a refusal. Let us note the sturdy 
pride of the old man, who, when the Government refused his 
request, "therefore, would not ask for the cannon." We may 
also note his abiding faith, that those who came after him would 
succeed where he failed. 

Vanorman's case constitutes a continuous record of success 
for twenty-five years. When, however, he shifted the scene of his 
operations to Marmora, his failure was due to conditions over which 
he had no control, and which, doubtless, he could not forecast. The 
improvements in methods of transportation brought the iron pro- 
ducing sections of England closer to the Ontario market than was 
Vanorman's furnace at thirty-two miles distant. That his former 
experience had been gained in the treatment of bog ores, and that 
he was suddenly confronted with the problem of smelting a hard 
dense magnetite, such as the Blairton ore, need not be considered 
as factors contributory to his non-success here, for the man who 
was the first to utilize waste gases for heating the blast, and 
whose furnace stoves were similar to those in use at the present 
day, would, we may be assured, be sagacious enough to adopt 
his treatment to the requirements as imposed in the utilization 
of an ore of a different character. 

Notes on Early Mining 155 

The case of Uriah Seymour, who operated successfully for 
eight or nine years, certainly cannot be called a failure, here again 
Lb an instance of remarkable ingenuity in utilizing local conditions 
in overcoming local difficulties. Last year Ontario's production 
of pig iron totalled 286,216 tons, valued at $4,716,857, and her 
production of steel 237,855 tons, valued at $4,168,127. This result 
has largely been obtained by the aid of that Government assistance 
BO harshly denied John Mason nearly one hundred years ago. The 
record as a whole is one of achievement and not of failure; and it 
is fitting, that some testimony be borne in the praise of those 
men who, with patient courage and unfailing resource, "blazed 
the trail." 


By John E. Hardman, S.B. Ma.E., Montreal, Que. 

(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

The discovery of large deposits of iron ore near the shore of 
the Bay of Chaleur, in the Province of New Brunswick, in forma- 
tions belonging to the Pre-Cambrian, or Cambro-Silurian, period 
conies as a surprise both to geologists and mining men, who hitherto 
may have regarded New Brunswick as containing less profitable 
mineral wealth than any of the other Provinces. When to this 
statement is added the further one that, the present facts indicate 
the probability that this district contains as large, or larger, de- 
posits of merchantable iron ore as have hitherto been found in 
the Dominion, there will be no excuse needed for presenting to 
the notice of this Institute a preliminary, and somewhat frag- 
mentary, account of the field. 

No geological reconnaissance of this portion of New Brunswick 
has been made (so far as the publications of the Survey show) 
since the seasons of 1879 and 1880, when Dr. R. W. Ells examined 
the district as well as could then be done by canoe traverse of 
the principal streams which flow into the Bay of Chaleur. The 
County of Gloucester was then, and in parts is to-day, a wilder- 
ness which is traversed in the winter time only by trappers and 
lumbermen, and in the summer time by sportsmen, for the river 
and its tributary streams have long been choice ground for salmon 
and trout fishing. 

The district under consideration lies approximately along the 
meridian of 65° 50' West Longitude, and the parallel of 47° 25' 
North Latitude, and is near the southern boundary of the County 
of Gloucester. The limits of the field have as yet been by no means 
defined or determined, but may be taken, according to present 
knowledge, as having an extreme length of some 20 miles north 
and south, with a width of not less than 5 miles. This extreme 

A New Iron Ore Field. 157 

length takes in the field on the "Mill Stream" (so-called) lying 
some 8 to 9 miles north-west of the town of Bathurst, as well as 
the portion, which is hereafter described more fully, on the north- 
ern bank of the Nipisiguit River. The larger section has an area 
of approximately 30 square miles. There is a linear gap of about 
16 miles between the Nipisiguit area and the small area on the 
Mill Stream. 

The rocks in which these deposits of iron ore are found are all 
metamorphosed or crystalline. They have been mapped as Pre- 
Cambrian and belong, probably, to one of the Huronian members. 

In a general way they consist of micaceous and chloritic 
schists and slates with some quartzites. They are frequently 
cut by small veinlets of quartz, and are also infrequently pene- 
trated by dikes of jasper. 

The surface rock about the outcrops is a mica schist, but the 
immediate hanging wall of the deposit is igneous, being a gabbro- 
diorite; the underlying rock or foot wall is a completely altered 
rock showing, under the microscope, only chlorite and muscovite, 
and its origin is uncertain, but it suggests (as is shown in the hang- 
ing) that it comes from a true volcanic. 

The foot wall rock is filled with cubic crystals, both large and 
small, of pyrite on the edge near the body of iron ore, but its 
lower portion is more free from this metallic sulphide. The struc- 
tural and stratigraphical relations remain to be worked out. 

The designation of the ore found in this field is best given by 
the words "Magnetic-hematite." It has, as a rule, the character- 
istic cherry red streak and dark grey colour of hematite, but in 
spots and in the vicinity of jasper intrusions is altered to a black 
ore which is magnetite. As a rule the ore is attracted by the magnet 
a frequent characteristic of many grey specular ores. The mag- 
netism, however, does not permeate all portions of the ore body, 
but is most frequently noted in the vicinity of the small intrusive 
veinlets of quartz and jasper which here and there penetrate the 
ore mass; in such places the ore has been converted into a strict 
magnetite which gives the characteristic black streak, but remote 
from such intrusions the red streak of hematite is everywhere 

At the northern edge of this field (on the Ellis property) the 
only ore seen is a grey specular, which has not been exploited, but 

158 The Canadian Mining Institute 

which appears to be more steeply inclined and to have a width of 
not over 5 or 6 feet. 

The shore of the Bay of Chaleur contains a narrow strip of 
rocks belonging to the lower and middle Carboniferous, which is 
followed to the south by red and purple shales and sandstones 
which represent, probably, the Mill Stone Grit, as they are followed 
by, and include some of, the typical coarse grey sandstones of the 
Grit. This Carboniferous system extends along the eastern bank 
of the Nipisiguit River for 13 or 14 miles, but the western bank 
shows only the old granites and gneisses of Laurentian Age for 
the same distance. The inclination of the Carboniferous is very 
slight, the average running from 3 to 4 degrees from the horizontal. 
Above, or to the south of, the Laurentian and lying directly upon 
the granite are reddish and grey schists and slates, shading into 
blue or black slates which, in places, are highly disturbed and 
occasionally cut by quartz veins which render the schists more 
quartzose and less felspathic. Frequently the black slates are 
ferruginous with pyrites, and in places the silicification has formed 
hard green quartzites whose colour is doubtless due to a mixture 
of chlorite. 

It is in this series of altered schists and slates that the iron 
beds occur. Twenty-eight years ago these schists and slates were 
provisionally regarded as "Cambro-Silurian" or portions of them 
as " Pre-Cambrian." Although unaltered eruptives were not noticed 
in the field the microscopic examination of the hanging and foot 
wall country indicate their presence in the vicinity. 

Geological exploration of the region is exceedingly difficult 
owing to the dense growth of timber which covers it, and to the 
frequent patches of thick moss which cover the rock exposures. 
Undoubtedly a field party will be put into this new district during 
the coming summer in an endeavour to more clearly define the 
probable limits of the field, and to make a correct section, if possi- 
ble, of the rock series in which the ore occurs. 

Geography and topograph]/. — The property lies about 21 miles 
from the town of Bathurst in a south south-westerly direction, 
and on the north bank of the Nipisiguit River. The country 
rises quite rapidly in this distance, so that the elevation of the beds 
is about 450 to 500 feet above sea level. Going south-west the 
country rises steadily until the hills of this section are reached, 

A New Iron Ore Field. 159 

which vary in height from 800 to 1,500 feet above the sea level. 
The general character of the country is hilly and broken, with 
stretches of level lands along the main river. The general direction 
of the slight elevations which give a rolling character to the country 
is north-west and south-east, and across these ridges, with a gen- 
eral strike of north north-east, run the bands of the formation 
which cany the iron ore, and which in consequence are sometimes 
exposed along the crests of the ridges. 

Discovery. — The first discovery of ore in this field dates back 
to the year 1902, when Mr. William Hussey of Bathurst, in 
attending some traps which had been set on Austen Brook 
(a tributary of the Xipisiguit River) hurt his foot upon a rock 
beneath the snow which rock turned out to be a piece of float ore 
from the crest of the hill nearby. The heavy character of this 
small boulder puzzled Mr. Hussey, who knocked off a piece and 
took it home with him where it was shown to one or two people, 
and, by the kindness of Mr. T. M. Burns, was taken to Fredericton 
for examination by a Provincial Government official there, who 
at once pronounced it to be iron ore of a fairly good quality. 

The previous history of iron ore deposits in New Brunswick 
had not been such as to make their mining particularly attractive 
as a venture, and it is not therefore surprising to find that little 
interest was shown in the matter. I am informed that a represen- 
tative of the Dominion Iron and Steel corporation visited the lo- 
cality a few years ago, but saw only the scattered and comparative- 
ly small outcrops in the area which is now designated as " No. II." 
I am also informed that this gentleman entertained a favourable 
opinion from the small surface exposures he was then able to see. 
But, in the winter of 1905. when in the same locality Mr. Hussey 
remembered his previous mishap and made a short but 
more thorough examination of the region, with the result that he 
found other outcrops and an abundance of fragments or boulders 
of ore on the southern bank of Austen Brook. This convinced Mr. 
Hussey and Mr. Burns that the ore was distributed over a quite 
extensive area, and these gentlemen secured Rights to Search 
upon several five-mile locations in this district. 

Through the assistance of friends, advice was received from 
Dr. Eugene Haanel, the Dominion Superintendent of Mines, and 
under his authority Mr. Einar Lindemann made a survey of a por- 

160 The Canadian Mining Institute 

tion of the field with the magnetometer, in whose use Mr. Linde- 
mann was skilled. The Government of New Brunswick were also 
petitioned (under statutory regulations) for the use of the Dia- 
mond Drill belonging to the Province, which was granted, and 
the first hole was finished about the beginning of December, 1906, 
by which time Mr. Lindemann had completed his magnetometric 
survey and fyled his report. Mr. Lindemann's opinion, as ex- 
pressed in his report, was favourable to the existence of large 
bodies of ore, but could not, of course, indicate the purity or 
otherwise of such ore. For this reason the then owners decided 
to continue the work of drilling the field and obtaining analyses 
of the ore found in the cores. 

The following record of the seven holes drilled is necessarily 
abbreviated, but for the purposes of this paper will be sufficiently 

Borehole No. 1 was located some 200 feet south of the north- 
ern end of the deposit found on Area No. I. At the northern end 
of this area there is a small hill, rising on the southern bank of 
Austin Brook precipitously to a height of 78 feet, from which 
height there is a gradual descent to the south of nearly 40 feet, 
and at the base of this slope and on the hanging, or western, wall 
of the deposit, No. 1, Borehole was put down to a depth of 162 feet. 
It was in ore continuously from 35 feet to the bottom, giving 127 
feet of core which was analysed for Insoluble matter, Iron, Phos- 
phorus and Sulphur, the average length of core represented by 
each analysis being 10 feet. In this core there was found to be 
great variation; Insoluble matter ranged from 8.04% to 27.74%; 
Metallic Iron had a minimum of 39 . 6% and a maximum of 57.2%; 
Phosphorus varied from .486 to 1.007, and Sulphur showed 
variations from .047% to .699%. Close inspection of the results 
when tabulated showed that the ore occurred in bands or strata, 
ribbon-like, and that these strata were easily separated the one 
from the other, so that it would be quite possible to hand-sort 
the ore into two piles, one of which would easily exceed 52% of 
metallic iron with a minimum of silica, and the other would con- 
tain approximately 45% of metallic iron with the maximum 
amount of silica. These bands or strata of good ore range from 
10 to 25 feet in thickness. Subsequent stripping of the surface 
clearly showed a banded structure. 

A New Iron Ore Field. 161 

Xo. 2 Borehole was put down approximately in the middle 
of Area No. I, about S00 feet south of the first borehole. Its 
depth is 161 feet. It began in iron ore and showed 140 feet of mer- 
chantable ore. Like No. 1 hole it shows a banded structure and 
out of the 140 feet there are 60 feet which average: — 

Metallic Iron 54.11%, Insoluble matter 16.7%, Phosphorus 
0.73% Sulphur 0.098%. 

On the bank of the Nipisiguit River, and at the extreme 
southern end of Area No. I, Borehole No. 3 was located but, un- 
fortunately, upon the foot wall instead of on the hanging wall of 
the deposit; it therefore proved barren, but a sample taken from 
the surface at this point gave: — Metallic Iron 51.6%, Silica 15.28%, 
Phosphorus .82%, Sulphur .05%. 

No. 4 Borehole was put down about 450 feet to the westward 
of the outcrop and about its centre; this made it on the hanging 
wall of the ore body. The total depth attained by this hole was 
~>\1~ feet, the first ore was encountered at a depth of 434 feet and 
for 70 feet, or to a vertical depth of 504 feet, the ore was found 
continuous and of the same quality as has been shown in the pre- 
vious analyses. 

These four holes proved the existence of an ore body of at 

_M40 feet in length to a depth of 500 feet below the surface, 
which, in itself, is a very considerable deposit. Of this large amount 
of ore fully one-half will give 53% Metallic Iron and not over 15% 
of Silica. 

Area No. II, so called, lies about 1,000 feet to the eastward 
of Area No. I. It presents at least five distinct outcroppings in 
the shape of knobs or small lenticular masses, the axis of which 

i more easterly direction, being north 30° east, as against 
north 15° east for Area No. I. No boreholes were put down upon 
this area, which previously had had some stripping done by a 
representative of the Dominion Iron and Steel Company. From 
the lines of the magnetometric survey made by Mr. Lindemann it 
will be fair to assume a length of 1,500 feet for the axis of the ore 
body in Area II. Surface samples from this Area gave the follow- 
ing analysis: — 

Iron 50 . 23 

Silica 15.32 

Phosphorus . 623 


162 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Manganese 1 . 29 

Sulphur 0.044 

Alumina . . 94 

Lime '■ 2.18 

Magnesia . 26 

Area No. Ill is an oval shaped area lying from 3,000 to 5,000 
feet north of the northern bank of the Nipisiguit River in Lot 12 
of the 17th Range of the Township of Bathurst; the major axis 
of this Area has a direction of north 30° east, and a length so far 
proved of 2,400 feet. Within this Area are half a dozen or more 
outcrops which, if I may express my belief, will be found to unite 
when stripping has been accomplished, into one or possibly two 
large lenses or bodies of merchantable ore. Up to the present time 
only three drill holes have been put down on this Area, which have 
proved large bodies of a better grade of ore than in Area No. I, 
and have shown the dip to be to the westward at angles ranging 
from 54 to 56 degrees. 

Borehole No. 5, at a distance of about 700 feet from the 
southern edge of this Area, was sunk vertically upon the hanging 
wall of the ore body to a depth of over 350 feet. Ore was encoun- 
tered at a depth of 23 feet, and the core was continuously in ore 
to 347 feet, showing a vertical depth here of at least 324 feet, or, on 
dip of 55°, a transverse width of ore in excess of 190 feet. Thirty- 
three analyses were made of this core in portions representing 
(with one exception) 10 feet of the core. The same structure was 
revealed that was shown by analyses of Boreholes 1, 2 an.d 4, 
namely, that the ore. was composed of bands of varying quality, 
there being in this cross-section 4 bands of excellent commercial 
grade and 3 bands of a lower grade than is, at the present time, in 
demand. The first 50 feet of the core, i.e., from 23 feet to 73 feet, 
gave the following average analysis: Insoluble matter 13.4%, 
Metallic Iron 52.68%, Phosphorus .99%, Sulphur .047%,; this 
was followed by 50 feet of ore giving over 20% of Insolubles and 
less than 45% of Iron. Then followed 20 feet with 15% of Insol- 
ubles, 52 . 58% of Iron, . 752% of Phosphorus, and .05% of Sulphur. 
This, in turn, was succeeded by 70 feet of ore averaging only 44 . 3% 
of Iron and running high in Silica and Sulphur. After this came 
50 feet of good ore, averaging 53% Metallic Iron, which in its turn 

A New Iron Ore Field. 163 

is followed by 40 feet of 46% ore; the whole concluding with 44 
feet of ore, the analysis of which gives 12.25% of Insolubles, and 
54' | oi Metallic Iron. 

This hole was put down on what, upon further investigation, 
may prove to be the easternmost bed in this No. Ill Area; at a 
transverse distance of 250 to 300 feet to the west another series of 
strongly magnetic lenses appear, but none of them have been drilled. 
The last hole, No. 7, is located about 750 feet north of No. 5; it 
encountered iron ore at a depth of 30 feet and passed out of the 
ore at about 107 feet; in this 77 feet there are nearly 60 feet of ex- 
cellent ore. Beginning at 40 feet in depth up to 83 feet there is 
a length of core 42 feet 6 inches long, which averages 53.10% 
Metallic Iron, with 17.02% of Insoluble matter. From 91 feet to 
107 feet there are 16 feet of ore averaging 54.32% Metallic Iron, 
with 14.37% of Insolubles. 

Consideration of these figures will, I think, clearly indicate that 
iron ore in very large quantities exists in this hitherto unknown 
region. The depths to which the boreholes have proved the ex- 
istence of the iron, coupled with the horizontal extent over which 
the ores are known to exist, and the widths (which have been 
measured to average fully 100 feet) demonstrate that the bodies 
are large. 

The analyses of the cores is not altogether satisfactory from 
a chemical point of view inasmuch as the method followed (by 
digestion in acid) does not show the true Silica, but only Silica 
plus silicates and other insoluble compounds, which, from the 
iron master's standpoint, may be a very different matter. In 
the present case the "Insolubles" are really country rock, which 
has previously been mentioned as igneous. The insolubility of 
many silicates in strong acids is well known to chemists. The 
gabbros and diorites of the hanging wall, with the muscovite and 
chlorite of the foot wall, contain silica percentages ranging from 50 
to 80. In the few complete analyses which have been made of the 
ore (the silica having been determined correctly, either by fusion 
or by the hydro-fluoric acid method) the actual percentage of 
Silica has ranged from 7 to 12, and there have been found amounts 
of alumina ranging from .05 to 1.2, lime from 2% to 3% and 
magnesia from \% to 1%. 

By hand picking or rough lump sorting fully one half of these 

164 The Canadian Mining Institute 

large ore bodies can be made to average from 57 to 58% Metallic 
Iron, with 10% of Silica; the Phosphorus in such ore will run about 
. 88% and the Sulphur . 055%. With ores of such a character no 
gentleman conversant with the iron ore markets of the European 
Continent would be disposed to quarrel. 

For such a basic ore the demand is now large and steady, and 
the location of this new field within 20 miles of a sheltered deep 
water harbor enhances its commercial importance, as ocean ship- 
ments from this harbor can be made during at least 9 months of 
the year. 

The property, including some 30 square miles of territory, 
passed into the control of the Drummond Mines Limited in Nov- 
ember, 1907, and by this corporation it will be actively exploited 
this summer; it will also be tested in the furnaces of the London- 
derry Iron and Mining Company, although its composition is 
such as to occasion no uncertainty as to the quality of pig iron 
obtainable from it. 

Although the ore is a non-bessemer, the significance of this 
new district to Eastern Canada is very great. Iron ores of good 
quality are scarce in our Dominion and so far have been at con- 
siderable distances from the seaboard; it is therefore with the 
feeling that this new field is well worthy of a preliminary notice, 
and that it will probably add very largely to the Dominion's 
resources of furnace oie, that I have ventured to bring this account 
to your notice. 

By R. H. Sweetzer, Columbus, Ohio. 

(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

The blast furnaces 01 Ontario have for the most part depended 
on the United States for their fuel. Whether the coke comes di- 
rect from American ovens or whether coal is shipped to Canadian 
coke ovens, the fuel cost per ton of pig is higher than in countries 
provided with their own supply of fuel. Tne use of electricity for 
smelting Ontario iron ores has been tried, but as a commercial oper- 
ation electric smelting for making pig iron is, and for many years 
will be, impracticable. At the present time there is in Ontario 
such an abundance of material for making an ideal blast furnace 
fuel, that it seems but necessary to prove the superiority and to 
indicate the possibilities of this fuel to start a movement that will 
place Ontario in the position the Province should occupy in respect 
to the manufacture of iron and steel and to make her independent 
of all outside sources of blast furnace fuels. There is only one fact 
that inclines one to hesitate in presenting these views, and that re- 
lates to the destruction of the forests. But there is so much land 
in Ontario that must be cleared for settlement and civilization 
that this objection need not be seriously considered for many 
years to come. 

Charcoal was the first fuel used in the primitive blast furnaces, 
and its use was continued in England until the destruction of the 
forests brought about prohibitive laws and the blast furnaces were 
compelled to use coal and coke. On this continent charcoal was 
the almost universal fuel up to the middle of the last century, and its 
use has been continued in some sections of the United States and 
Canada to the present day. But with few exceptions the char- 
coal blast furnaces now in operation are not up-to-date nor are they 
large producers. Those furnaces which have been equipped with 

166 The Canadian Mining Institute 

modern machinery are already feeling the lack of charcoal and in 
some cases have even imported part of their supply from Canadian 
kilns. The rapid destruction of the forests supplying wood for 
charcoal, together with the usual small capacity and light weight 
equipment of existing charcoal blast furnaces, has brought about 
the generally accepted opinion that the use of charcoal as a blast 
furnace fuel is almost a thing of the past. With nearly all the 
countries that are now large producers of pig iron this is true ; but 
with at least two great possible producers, Canada and Russia, 
charcoal is the logical, the best and the cheapest blast furnace fuel 
for present and, for a number of years of, future use. 

Charcoal has three great advantages over coke as a blast fur- 
nace fuel; and these three main advantages bring about several 
other economies in operation and construction. Charcoal re- 
quires : — 

1 . Less fuel per ton of pig iron ; 

2. Less limestone per ton of pig iron ; 

3. Less blast per ton of pig iron. 

Less Fuel 

Charcoal, on account of its purity, is almost 100 per cent. fuel, 
whereas coke contains from seven to fourteen per cent, of ash. The 
ash not only lessens the total amount of available fuel, but it also 
requires a part of that fuel to furnish heat for the smelting of the ash. 
This brings the net available fuel in coke to from 80 to 90 percent, 
of its weight. 

Actual results have shown that charcoal pig iron was made on 
2,083 pounds of charcoal, where under similar conditions it took 
2,207 pounds of coke per ton of pig iron. These results were ob- 
tained at the blast furnace of the Algoma Steel Co., SaultSte. Marie, 
Ontario, during the time that No. 1 furnace was using charcoal and 
No. 2 furnace using coke, April, May and June, 1905. Nearly all 
conditions were similar, except that the charcoal was very poor and 
the coke was good. Some few furnaces in the Great Lakes region 
will make iron on less than 2,200 pounds of coke per ton of pig, but 
charcoal iron can be made on less than, 1,900 pounds of charcoal 
and a fuel rate of between 1,600 and 1,700 pounds per ton of pig 
has been reached under favorable conditions. A good average 

Charcoal. 167 

figure for the amount of coke per ton of pig iron for the whole year 
round is 2,300 pounds; the amount of charcoal on an average is 
about 400 pounds less. 

Less Limestone. 

It requires only one third to one fourth as much limestone for 
flux in a charcoal furnace as it does in a coke furnace. This is chief- 
ly because there is no sulphur at all and scarcely any ash in the char- 
coal. Most of the sulphur in coke iron comes from the coke itself; 
this is especially true where only Lake ores are used. If there is 
not much sulphur in the mixture, then the slag can be more fusible 
and can carry much less lime than is permissible when the fuel and 
the ores carry considerable sulphur. This advantage of charcoal 
fuel is of especial importance in the smelting of ores from Ontario 
on account of the presence of sulphur in so many of them. 

Some charcoal blast furnaces in Michigan use only 175 to 200 
pounds of limestone per ton of pig iron made; but at the Soo it was 
found that between 300 and 400 pounds were required. Some 
coke furnaces are so favorably supplied with good ores and low-ash 
coke that it takes only 800 to 1,000 pounds of limestone per ton of 
pig, but most of tfiem require 1,000 to 1,400 pounds, and some take 
even more on account of lean ores or high sulphur in the mixture. 

The less limestone required for flux, the less slag there will be 
to carry off heat from the furnace, and the less bulk of material will 
have to be taken care of inside the furnace. Consequently there is 
less flux to handle in filling the furnace, and the less slag there is 
to be taken away from the furnace. 

Less Blast. 

The question of the quality of the air that is taken into the 
blowing engines to furnish the blast for the furnaces has received so 
little attention until very recently, that it is usual to find that no 
special arrangements have been made to get proper air. Even in 
many comparatively new plants the blowing engines take the air 
right from the hot, and often moist, engine room. At the Soo, the 
air enters the blowing engines through large intake pipes that ex- 
tend from the air valves out through the side of the building to the 
out-doors, thus furnishing the air at the temperature and dryness 

168 The Canadian Mining Institute 

of the outside atmosphere. This temperature is many degrees 
cooler than that of the inside air, at all times of the year. In some 
of the best equipped plants the Gayley Dry air Blast Apparatus has 
been installed with much success. In Ontario, on account of the 
natural cold and dryness, there is not so much need of this ap- 
paratus, as there is in the central and southern parts of the States. 
Under ordinary circumstances it takes about 140,000 cu. ft. or 
5 tons of air to make one ton of coke pig iron. A ton of charcoal 
iron under the same conditions can be made with 91,000 cu. ft., or 
about 3£ tons of air. This great difference in favor of charcoal is 
the basis of many of the ecomonies in the construction of a charcoal 
blast furnace compared with a coke furnace of the same capacity. 
Requiring only 65% as much blast means a corresponding reduc- 
tion in the capacity of the blowing engines, boilers, and hot blast 
stoves; it means lower blast pressure on the engines, stoves and fur- 
nace; it means less volume and less velocity of the waste gases and 
consequently less flue dust carried over into the down comers and 
dust catcher. This last item has been found to actually bring 
about a higher yield of pig iron from ores smelted in a charcoal fur- 
nace than when the same ores are smelted in a coke furnace. 

The Product. 

The pig iron made in a charcoal furnace is almost always low 
in sulphur; and it is possible to make iron with extremely low 
silicon, and also low sulphur. Although this is possible with a 
coke furnace, yet it is difficult to make very low silicon and yet have 
low sulphur. If a coke furnace works badly the pig iron made is 
invariably high in sulphur; with a charcoal furnace in distress the 
iron may be, and generally is, all white iron, but still the sulphur 
never gets high enough to do any harm, and seldom, if ever, goes 
over .040%. 

The analysis of charcoal iron can be varied as desired within 
the same limits as in a coke furnace. Charcoal iron can be used for 
any purpose that coke iron is used, and besides can be used for some 
purposes for which coke iron is not suitable. 

Charcoal iron for the basic open hearth process would always 
be low in sulphur, and the silicon could be as low as desired. 

The biggest blast furnace ever operated with charcoal for fuel 
was the No. 1 furnace of the Algoma Steel Co. at Sault Ste. Marie 

Photo of No. 1 Blast Furnace, The Algoma Steel Co., Saull Ste. Marie, Ont., 
while running on Charcoal, 1905. 

tc z 

Charcoal. 169 

Ontario. This furnace was 70 feet high, 13£ feet diameter in the 
bosh, and 8$ feet diameter in the hearth. It was first blown in on 
March 6, 1905, and was operated as a charcoal furnace until July 
16, 1905. Then for good and sufficient reasons the fuel was changed 
from charcoal to coke without any change in the construction of 
the furnace, but there was a decided increase in the volume of the 
blast and in the amount of limestone used. This furnace was large 
for a charcoal furnace, and it made a new world's record for output; 
it was, however, small for a coke furnace, yet the production was 
very large for the rated capacity. Comparing the best month's 
work on charcoal with the best month's work on coke, we get a 
fair idea of the main points of advantage in favor of the charcoal. 
But there is one fact that must be taken into consideration, and 
that is that at no time while the furnace was running on charcoal 
was there a large enough supply of charcoal in sight to warrant 
running the furnace at the rate of best working; the volume of blast 
had to be kept down to suit the available supply of fuel. While 
running on coke there was a sufficient supply of fuel and the 
furnace was blown according to its needs. 

The following table gives the best month's record for charcoal, 
and the best for coke : 


The Canadian Mining Institute 




May, 1905 

February, 1905 




















52 9% 

• 2% 





• 026% 




54 67 




























6,119 cu. ft. 

6,119 cu. ft. 





173 tons 

237 tons 

1,004 tons 

1,453 tons 

4,071 tons 

6,131 tons 

Number of days 

Total product in tons (2,240 lbs) 

Average product per 24 hrs 

Pounds fuel per ton of pig iron 

Pounds limestone per ton of pig iron 

Pounds ore per ton of pig iron 

Per cent, of Messabi ores used 

Theoretical yield in pig 

Actual yield in pig 

Per cent, iron in ore mixture 

Deficit in pig 

Average silicon in pig iron 

Average sulphur in pig iron 

Pounds fuel per 24 hours 

Cubic feet air per pound of fuel 

Pounds fuel per 24 hours, per cubic foot ca 

pacity , 

Cubic feet air per ton pig iron 

Average temperature of air for blowing 


Average gram's moisture in air 

Advantage in cost of labour per ton pig. . . . 
Tons pig per 24 hours per 1,000 cu. ft. ca 


Cu. ft. capacity of furnace per ton pig per 24 


Total pounds fuel used 

Total pounds air used 

Height of furnace 

Bosh diameter 

Hearth diameter 

Stockline diameter 

Bell diameter 

Cubic contents 

Number of tuyeres 

Diameter of tuyeres 

Biggest Day's product 

Biggest Week's product 

Biggest Month's product 



fr -9<-6' 


Total Cc*T£,V7S 

48S8 CFt - 


,esecy..r t . 


I90S — /»0X, 
AZ-GO/ttA ST££L CO., Ut». 

J— S'V.yeres 




By R. Turnbull, St. Catherines, Ont. 

(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

The purpose of the present paper is to outline the progress 
accomplished, so far as the author's knowledge goes, in the work- 
ing out of the interesting problem in connection with the reduction 
of iron ores in the electric furnace since the close of the Govern- 
ment experiments at Sault Ste. Marie in March, 1906. 

The experiments themselves have been faithfully portrayed 
in the Government report issued by Dr. Eugene Haanel. Atten- 
tion may, however, be drawn to the fact that as the short ton of 
2,000 lbs. was taken as a basis for those experiments, instead of 
the long ton of 2,240, corrections should be made in respect to 
the figures and costs given in the report in estimating the exact 
cost of the long ton of pig iron and the amount that can be pro- 
duced per h.p. year. 

In July, 1906, the writer was asked by Mr. H. H. Noble, of 
San Francisco, Cal., to inspect an iron property situated near the 
junction of the rivers McLeod and Pitt, in Shasta county, with a 
view to the erection in that neighbourhood of an electric smelting 
furnace. As a result of this visit, Mr. Noble determined to install 
immediately a furnace of 2,000 h.p. capacity, which, having regard 
to the high grade quality of the ore, was expected to produce 
25 tons of pig per 24-hour day. 

The mine is situated at an altitude of about 1,500 feet and 
forms the crown of a hill composed entirely of solid magnetite 
ore. A rough estimate, assuming an average depth of 300 feet, 
gives ore in sight of over two million tons. A quarry has been 
cut in one of the faces, and about 5,000 tons of ore have been 
taken out. The face of the quarry, which is about 150 feet in 

174 The Canadian Mining Institute 

breadth, is one solid mass of magnetite, averaging between 68 
to 70% metallic iron. 

An average analysis of the ore shows — iron, over 69%; 
sulphur, 0.024; phosphorus, 0.016. 

Adjoining the iron mine is a large deposit of pure limestone, 
and the contact with the iron ore, even on the surface, is very 
striking. This body of limestone runs down and cuts beneath 
the iron ore body on one side of the hill only, at a depth of about 
300 feet from the top. At this point the ore is much poorer, and 
sulphides of iron and copper are found; in some places pure iron 
pyrites have been extracted. The iron body, on the contrary, 
bends back in the opposite direction to the limestone, and pure 
iron ore is found on the opposite side of the hill in large blocks 
1,000 feet from the top. 

The smelter is situated at an altitude of about 500 feet, and 
at a distance in a straight line of something under a mile from the 
mine. The problem of conveying the ore and limestone to the 
smelter was therefore simple. Meanwhile an aerial tramway is 
being installed, by which the ore can be laid down at the smelter at 
less than $1 . 25 a ton, this price including the royalty to the 
owners of the mine. 

In further reference to the smelter : the furnace was first of 
all designed to work one-phase only, but later was changed to 
three-phase, this latter being a distinct departure in electric 
furnace work, in the case of large capacit}*. It was built on the 
same principle as the furnace employed at Sault Ste. Marie, with 
the exception that it was hermetically closed on top by an iron 
cover, and the charging was accomplished by means of four 
10-inch vertical iron pipes about 10 feet long from an upper 
charging floor. Two of these pipes were placed between the three 
electrodes and the other two at each end of the furnace, thus 
insuring an equal distribution of the charge round the electrodes. 
The 10-inch pipes were enclosed in cast iron pipes 14 inches in 
diameter, through which the escaping gases were drawn, the idea 
being to admit air at the lower end and to burn the gases with a 
view of preheating the ore as it descended through the smaller 
pipes, which were always kept full with the charge. The shape 
of the furnace was oblong, 12 feet long and 5 feet wide, the depth 
inside forming the crucible being 3 feet 3 inches. The current 

The Reduction of Iron Ores. 175 

was supplied by three 500 k.w. transformers, 22,000 volts on the 
primary side and 50 on the secondary. This voltage was never 
maintained when the furnace was in operation, owing to the main 
lines being overloaded, and at no time was it possible to get over 
1,200 h.p. The voltage generally fell as low as 35, which, while 
not interfering in any wa3 r with the working of the furnace, 
obliged the electrodes to carry a much higher density of current 
than would have been the case had the voltage been maintained 
at 50. The power was generated at a distance of forty miles 
from the smelter and delivered at the smelter sub-station at a very 
low cost. 

To give in detail an account of all the troubles, difficulties 
and successes which were experienced would occupy over much 
space and time. A brief summary of these experiences may, 
however, prove of interest. 

First: The power obtainable being altogether inadequate, 
we were unable during the first runs, when the furnace was in 
good condition, to follow the programme originally outlined. 

Second: The water supply was so poor that it was impossible 
to obtain a sufficient supply for the water-cooled parts of the 
furnace, and this resulted in part of the cover being melted in 
the second run. 

Third: The efficiency of the escaping gases between the ex- 
terior pipes and the ones through which the charge was descending 
was so great, and the charge was preheated to such an extent, 
that the ore became soft and sticky in the pipes, thus preventing 
the charge descending easily as it did when cold or at a red heat. 

Fourth: The cast iron cover, which was kept perfectly cool 
by the charge so long as this charge came down evenly and regu- 
larly, got white hot as soon as the charge became sticky and 
descended at irregular intervals, with the result that a large hole 
was melted in the cover, which rendered it useless for further 

At this stage it was decided that a new cover should be ob- 
tained, and of a modified form to prevent the sticking of the 
charge in the pipes Mr. Noble, however, being averse to this 
proposal, on account of the inevitable delay, the damaged cover 
was taken off, and some other trials were made. One constituted 
working the furnace open as in the case of the furnace at Sault 

176 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Ste. Marie, and the other by partially covering it with brick 
arches. In each case the heat coming from the top of the furnace 
was so great that it was impossible for men to approach it. 

Dr. Heroult being of the opinion that, even supposing the 
furnace could be made to work satisfactorily with a modified 
cover, it was not sufficiently practical to solve the problem; 
it was therefore arranged between Mr. Noble and himself that 
the furnace as it stood should be used for other purposes until 
a new style of furnace had been worked out, and that in the inter- 
val an aerial tramway should be installed between the mine and 
the smelter and other improvements made to cut down costs on 
raw material. 

The foregoing experiences have justified the following 

First: The practice of using the electrodes on the top of the 
furnace embedded in the charge should be entirely abandoned 
in the future smelting of ores electrically, except, possibly, in 
the case of small furnaces of not over 500 h.p. capacity, where 
only one electrode would be required. 

Second: A three-phase current can be used successfully, no 
trouble being experienced on that score. This is of great impor- 
tance where the power must be transmitted from a distance. 

Third: The metal bath did not form under and around the 
electrodes only, as was at first feared, but over the entire surface 
of the crucible, thus allowing the use of only one tap-hole. 

Fourth: The heat in the electric furnace must be generated 
at the same point where the blast enters the blast furnace, not 
in the charge itself, but below it. This can be done by having 
the electrodes on the side or between the shafts, as in the case 
of the Heroult-Haanel furnace, or in the one designed by myself. 
I may say, however, that our present efforts are all toward the 
creation of fixed electrodes instead of movable ones, the current 
to be regulated by special transformers, giving fixed watts but 
allowing the volts and amperes to vary as the condition of the 
furnace may demand. This will simplify the work to a great 
extent and do away nearly altogether with the consumption of 
electrodes. It will also allow of the upper part of the furnace 
being kept entirely free, and the escaping gases could either be 

The Reduction of Iron Ores. 177 

used for the preheating of the charge or collected for other 

In the spring of last year Mr. R. H. Wolff, of New York, 
and myself decided to erect a plant in Canada, in order 
to demonstrate that iron ore could be commercially and profitably 
smelted in the electric furnace. It was decided that the furnace 
should be of 3,000 h.p. capacity, with an expected output of 30 
tons of pig per day. In passing it may be mentioned that a site 
was found at Welland, Ontario, which is excellently situated in 
regard to transportation facilities, and, being near Niagara Falls, 
power can be had at a reasonably low cost. Although no pro- 
duction of pig iron has yet been made, several electric furnaces 
are already running, the product at present being mainly of ferro- 
silicon; but ere long it is expected the production of ferro-chrome 
and ferro-tongstene will commence, and in the near future, if 
the tests about to be made are satisfactory, pigiron. 

As the large furnace was designed for the use of a three-phase 
current, the work thereon was not prosecuted until results from 
California were available, to make sure that the principle was 
correct. The experiences in California, as related, suggested 
the advisability of caution, and work on the furnace was meanwhile 
abandoned, to permit of the testing of Dr. Heroult's new style 
of furnace, which he is erecting at his own expense, and 
which is to be on the fixed electrode principle with special trans- 
formers for the regulation of the current. 

The capacity of this new furnace will be 500 h.p. It is 
circular in shape and stands about seven feet high. The electrodes 
of which there are three, one corresponding to each phase, are 
arranged radially at a certain distance above the metal bath. 
The exact height at which these electrodes will work to chief 
advantage can only be determined by practice. This also will 
greatly depend on the possible range of voltage in the transfor- 
mers. The design permits the electrodes to be entirely protected 
from the charge, and at no time are they embedded in it, the heat 
being furnished by an arc which strikes between the electrode 
and the charge, the voltage necessary to strike this arc being 
regulated, as before mentioned, by the special transformers. The 
furnace, which is being built at our Welland works, is nearly 
completed and will be in operation, it is expected, during March. 


178 The Canadian Mining Institute 

In conclusion it may be stated that three main points have 
been conclusively established since the Government experiments 
at Sault Ste. Marie : — 

First: The amount of monoxide gases escaping from the 
furnace will not only suffice for a preheating of the charge ap- 
proaching the melting point, but sufficient will still remain for 
accessory work outside of the furnace. 

Second: Special basic slags for the elimination of sulphur 
are entirely unnecessary. Tests have lately been made by us 
with ores containing over 1% in sulphur, with a resulting product 
showing only from a trace to 0.035%, a slightly basic slag only 
being used. 

Third: Movable electrodes must be abandoned. They are 
not only a mechanical nuisance, but, as the main point at which 
to strive in the electrical reduction of ores is a low cost of the 
product, there will always be anxiety and trouble so long as we 
have the electrodes sticking in the charge. As this always 
means extra costs, he who can produce an efficient electric furnace 
with a practical means for using fixed electrodes, in the manner 
I have tried to indicate, will have solved the problem of the 
smelting of iron and other ores electrically. 


Dr. Stansfield: — I must thank Mr. Turnbull for the details 
of cost, etc., which he has given in his paper. Such details are 
generally very difficult to obtain, as gentlemen engaged commercially 
in electric smelting do not care to publish their methods or re- 
sults. Mr. Turnbull referred to the utilization of the carbon mon- 
oxide liberated in an electric iron smelting furnace. I have dis- 
cussed this point at length in my own paper on electric smelting, 
and so I shall not speak about it at present. I should like to know 
whether Mr. Turnbull uses stuffing boxes around the electrodes 
to keep the gases in the furnace? 

Mr. Turnbull: — No, but the furnace is always under pres- 
sure, so that no air can get in, which keeps a reducing atmosphere 
always within the furnace; otherwise the electrode and carbons 
would be eaten awav. 

The Reduction- of Iron Ores. 179 

Dr. Stansfield: — Would you give us any figures as to the 
costs of the electrodes and their consumption? 

Mr. Turnbull: — I do not know by our latest experiments. 
We made about 40 tons of pig iron, but it was impossible to get 
any data as to the consumption of power or electrodes. I do 
not think the latter will go over the figures given by Dr. Hanson 
in his report. • If you are afraid multiply it by two. 

Dr. Stansfield: — What about the cost? 

Mr. Turnbull: — That depends upon the cost of raw ma- 
terial. They could be produced, I should say, in Canada at two 
cents a pound, perhaps a little less. But of course no one can buy 
them at that. You have to know the process of making them 
and so have to pay probably five or six cents a pound. 



By Alfred Stansfield, D.Sc, Montreal. 

(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

In view of the many recent attempts that have been made 
to employ electrical energy instead of fuel for the smelting of 
iron ores, it appears worth while to indicate, in a short paper, 
what can probably be accomplished in this direction, the manner 
in which successful results can be obtained, and the advantages 
and drawbacks of the electrical process. 

In the ordinary metallurgy of iron the ore is smelted in a 
blast-furnace with coke, producing pig-iron. This is an alloy 
of iron with some 2% to 4+% of carbon, \% to 4% of silicon and 
small quantities of other elements. It is decidedly more fusible 
than wrought iron or steel, and on this account is very suitable 
for foundry purposes. Bessemer steel and open-hearth steel are 
made from pig-iron by removing from it in the Bessemer converter, 
or the open-hearth furnace, a considerable proportion of the carbon 
silicon, etc., which it contains, the product being nearly pure iron 
retaining a little carbon and some manganese. 

Crucible steel is used for tools. It contains about 1% of 
carbon, and is made by adding the necessary amount of this 
element to pure varieties of iron or steel, and melting the material 
in crucibles so as to obtain a perfectly sound product. 

Electrical energy has recently been employed to replace, in 
such operations, the heat which is ordinarily obtained by burning 
fuel. Electrical energy is somewhat expensive, and it was 
naturally employed at first for the production of the more valu- 
able products, such as crucible steel, where the cost is of less 
importance. The electrical production of cast steel for tools 
and similar purposes may be accomplished in two ways — (1) by 
melting down pure varieties of iron and steel with suitable addi- 

Electric Smelting of Iron Ores. 181 

tions of carbon and other ingredients, just as in the crucible 
process, but using electrical energy for heating instead of coke 
or gaa; (2) by melting a mixture of pig-iron and scrap steel as 
in the open-hearth process, and removing the impurities, such 
as sulphur and phosphorus, so thoroughly by repeated washing 
with basic slags that a pure molten iron is at last obtained. This 
can then be recarburised and poured into moulds. Both of 
these methods are now employed commercially for the produc- 
tion of good qualities of tool steel. The larger sizes of electrical 
furnace that have already been constructed hold 5 or 10 tons, 
while the crucible will only hold about 80 lbs., and the high 
efficiency of the electrical method of heating more than com- 
pensates for the greater initial cost of electrical energy as com- 
pared with heat derived from fuel. The resulting steel is found 
to be even better than crucible steel, and can be produced at less 
cost. It is, therefore, only a question of time until the crucible 
process shall be entirely replaced by the electrical process in all 
localities where electrical energy can be produced at a moderate 

Two forms of electrical furnace have been used for making 
cast steel: — (1) the Heroult steel furnace, which resembles an 
open-hearth furnace through the roof of which hang two large 
carbon electrodes. Electrical connection is made to these carbon 
electrodes and electric arcs are maintained between the lower end 
of each electrode and the molten slag in the furnace, thus pro- 
ducing the necessary heat. This form of furnace has been found 
to be very suitable for the second of the above processes, that is, 
the one in which pig-iron and scrap steel are melted together and 
refined until pure enough to convert into cast steel. 

An entirely different form of furnace has been devised in 
which no electrodes are required. This furnace consists of an 
annular shaped trough containing the steel. This ring of steel 
acts as the secondary of an electrical transformer. An alternating 
current is supplied to a primary winding, and the primary winding 
and the ring of steel both encircle an iron core, as in the ordinary 
transformer. The alternating current in the primary circuit 
induces a very large alternating current in the secondary circuit, 
that is, in the ring of steel, and in this way enough heat is pro- 
duced to melt the steel. This type of furnace has been con- 

182 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

structed lately in somewhat large sizes holding as much as 8 
tons of steel and consuming 1,000 electrical h.p. It is apparently 
well suited for the first mentioned process, that of melting down 
pure varieties of iron and steel just as in the crucible process. 

The amount of energy needed in these furnaces amounts 
to about 800 or 900 K.W. hours per ton of steel, using cold stock, 
or 600 or 700 K.W. hours when the pig-iron, which usually forms 
part of the charge, is supplied molten. This amount of electrical 
energy would cost more than the coal used in producing the same 
amount of steel in the open-hearth furnace, but the resulting 
steel is far more valuable than the open-hearth steel. 

The above short account of the production of crucible steel 
in the electric furnace has been introduced, as this is the only 
commercial process for the production of iron or steel which is 
at present in operation. The present paper deals rather, how- 
ever, with the electrical smelting of iron ores. 

In reducing iron ore to a metal, iron can be obtained in a 
relatively pure state, such as wrought iron, and this was the 
method adopted by the ancient metallurgists in their small 
furnaces or hearths; but in the modern blast-furnace, with its 
higher temperature, the coke which is needed for the production 
of heat carburises the resulting iron, producing pig-iron. In the 
electric furnace, however, fuel is not used for the production of 
heat, since this is obtained electrically. Some carbonaceous 
material must be added to the charge in order to eliminate the 
oxygen of the ore, yielding metallic iron, but the amount of this 
carbonaceous material can be regulated so as to yield either pure 
iron, steel or pig-iron at will. 

Although this has been realized by the pioneers in the electric 
smelting of iron ores, certain difficulties in the operation have 
led them to smelt the ore for the production of pig-iron instead 
of for the production of steel, although the difference in price 
of these materials would be sufficient to pay for all the electrical 
energy needed for the direct production of steel from iron ore, 
and it is surprising that this more attractive proposition has not 
gained more attention from metallurgists. 

A number of experiments have been made on the direct 
reduction of steel from iron ore in the electric furnace, but the 
most satisfactory work that has been accomplished relates to the 

Electric Smelting of Iron Ores. 183 

production of pig-iron from the ore, and this will be described first. 
This work has been carried out by Heroult, Keller and others. The 
furnaces they have adopted are similar to the one employed by 
Heroult recently in the experiments at Sault Ste. Marie. This 
consisted of a vertical shaft similar to a small blast-furnace, in 
which hung a central carbon electrode. The crucible of the f urnace 
was lined with carbon and served as the other electrode, the 
electric current passing between the hanging electrode and the 
molten metal in the crucible of the furnace. The ore, with fluxes 
and carbon sufficient for its chemical requirements, was fed in 
around the vertical electrode, and became heated and melted 
by the heat produced by the passage of the current. The electric 
current in this furnace produces enough heat to carry out the 
chemical reactions involved in the reduction of the ore to metal, 
and the fusion of the resulting pig-iron and slag. The carbon is 
required for the reduction of iron oxide to metal and for the 
carburisation of the metal to form pig-iron. 

The Keller furnace is practically the same as the Heroult 
furnace, except that it consists of two shafts instead of one and 
that these two shafts are worked in conjunction with one another, 
the current entering through the vertical electrode in one shaft and 
leaving by the vertical electrode in the other shaft. A connecting 
trough or passage enables the electric current to flow from one part 
of the furnace to the other, and serves to collect the resulting pig- 
iron and slag from both of the shafts. This furnace has the 
advantage of using a higher voltage than the single shaft furnace 
of Heroult. The results of operating furnaces of this class show 
a consumption of electrical energy of about 0.3 h.p. year, and 
about 800 or 900 lbs. of coke or good charcoal per long ton of pig- 
iron. Supposing that the general costs of operating this furnace 
and the blast-furnace were equal, these figures would indicate 
that the electrical furnace would need to obtain energy at a cost 
per h.p. year of less than that of two tons of coke in order to com- 
pete with the blast-furnace. Thus, if coke costs $3.00 a ton and 
electrical energy $5.00 per h.p. year the cost would be about the 
same by the two processes, and with power at $12.00 per h.p. year, 
the electric furnace could not compete with the blast-furnace 
unless the price of coke were as high as $7.00 per ton. In con- 
sidering these figures it should be remembered that the heating 

184 The Canadian Mining Institute 

power of one electrical h.p. year is about the same as that of three- 
quarters of a ton of good coal or coke, assuming that the latter 
is completely burned. Looked at from this point of view, it will 
be obvious that even these small and admittedly imperfect 
electric furnaces are more economical, that is to say, they use 
the heat better than the large blast-furnaces. 

The electrical furnace possesses certain advantages over the 
blast-furnace, which in some cases may over-ride the high cost 
of electrical power. One is its ability to use without much 
trouble ores of a sandy or powdery character. This ability 
depends upon the absence of a blast in the electrical furnace. 
In the blast-furnace powdery ores are liable to be blown out of 
the furnace by the blast, or it obstructs the passage of the blast 
through the furnace. In the electric furnace there is no blast 
introduced, and these difficulties are less serious. Another 
advantage of the electric furnace is in regard to the smelting of 
titaniferous and other difficultly fusible ores. In the blast- 
furnace these ores are liable to give trouble on account of the 
slag becoming pasty, but in the electric furnace it is possible 
to obtain a higher temperature and thus to overcome any diffi- 
culty of this kind. The high temperature which can be obtained 
in the electric furnace is advantageous in regard to the treatment 
of sulphurous ores. In the iron blast-furnace, the sulphur con- 
tained in the coke or the ore is prevented from entering the pig-iron 
by the presence of lime and by maintaining strongly reducing con- 
ditions in the furnace; the lime then forms calcium sulphide, 
which passes into the slag. In the electric furnace it is possible 
to obtain higher temperatures, thus enabling a larger proportion 
of lime to be used, and even more strongly reducing conditions 
to be obtained than in the blast-furnace. Large amounts of 
sulphur can, therefore, be eliminated in the electric furnace, as 
has been shown in the experiments at Sault Ste. Marie. 

Another point in favour of the electric furnace is that it 
does not require, as the blast-furnace does, a very high quality 
of coke for fuel. In the blast-furnace a soft or powdery coke 
becomes crushed and obstructs the action of the furnace, and is 
less efficient than a harder variet}'; but in the electric furnace, 
where the coke or charcoal is needed merely as a chemical re-agent, 
any convenient form of carbon can be employed — coke, charcoal 

Electric Smelting of Iron* Ores 185 

or small anthracite — and probably in improved furnaces even 
such fuel as peat, sawdust or soft coal could be utilised for re- 

Looked at from a commercial point of view the electric fur- 
nace producing pig-iron has many difficulties to overcome before 
it can compete successfully with the blast-furnace. One very 
important difficulty is the small scale on which the electric fur- 
nace has so far been constructed. It will be seen from the account 
of the Heroult furnace that the height of the shaft of this furnace 
is limited by the length of the electrode which is introduced into 
it. More recent furnaces have been designed by Dr. Haanel 
and by Mr. Turnbull, in which this difficulty has been overcome 
by a system of inclined or lateral shafts down which the ore 
passes, so that the electrode does not hang down the whole height 
of the ore column. Another weak point in the construction of 
the electric furnace is that no provision has been made for utilising 
the carbonaceous gases which escape at the top of the furnace. 
In the Turnbull furnace already referred to, it is proposed to 
utilise the gas by burning it in a rotating tube furnace down which 
the ore passes before it enters the electric furnace and is mixed 
with the charcoal. In this way the heat available in this gas 
will be utilised, and an economy in the working of the furnace 
may be expected. 

In view of the importance of reducing the consumption of 
fuel and electrical energy to the lowest possible point, the writer 
has calculated what could be expected in this way if the gases 
arising from the reaction between the charcoal and the ore were 
used partly for the reduction of the ore and partly for preheating 
the ore. Such a result could be attained in a furnace consisting 
essentially of three parts. In the upper part the otherwise waste 
gases are burned by air introduced there and communicate their 
heat to the incoming ore to which tb° fluxes but not the charcoal 
have been added. In the middle portion of the furnace the gases 
arising from the lowest portion, which may be considered to be 
wholly carbon monoxide, react on the heated ferric oxide, if that 
were the variety of ore to be treated, and reduces it to ferrous 
oxide. The charcoal is introduced in the lowest section of the 
furnace and completes the reduction of the ore to metal. Electrical 
energy is introduced into this section of the furnace and serves 

186 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

to melt the resulting pig-iron and slag, and to supply the heat 
necessary for the preceding chemical reactions. The details 
of the construction of such a furnace have not been worked out at 
present. In a furnace of this kind it can be calculated that one 
ton of pig-iron can be obtained from an average ore by the use 
of 0.2 h.p. years of electrical energy and about 600 to 800 lbs. 
of coke or good charcoal. This includes a reasonable allowance 
for loss of heat. A further allowance should be made for irre- 
gularity in the use of the electrical power and, taking this into 
account, we may consider that one-quarter of a h.p. year and 
600 to 800 lbs. of coke or charcoal would be required for one long 
ton of pig-iron from the ore. 

Considering these figures, it will be seen that the use of J 
electrical h.p. year will save about § of a ton of coke, or that 1 
electrical h.p. year should not cost more than 2§ tons of coke if 
the electric furnace is to compete with the blast-furnace. Thus 
an electrical h.p. year at $12.00 would correspond to coke at 
$4.50 a ton. The considerations previously mentioned in regard 
to the use of cheaper fuel and cheaper ore in the electric furnace 
would also apply in this case, and with improved design and con- 
struction the size of the electric furnace may be increased so as to 
admit of a large and economical output of pig-iron. 

Electric smelting plants on a small commercial scale have 
been put up at Welland, Ontario, and Baird, California. While 
very little has been heard of these, the writer understands that at 
Baird considerable difficulties have been met with in the operation 
of the furnace. No doubt these difficulties will ultimately be 
overcome. No attempt has been made at present to utilize the 
waste gases, but this point will be attended to later. 

The direct reduction of steel from the ore has been carried 
out by Stassano and others, but no economical scheme for this 
purpose has ever been put into operation on a large scale. The 
Stassano furnace consists of a chamber, about one metre cube, 
lined with magnesite bricks. The ore, mixed with the necessary 
fluxes and charcoal for its reduction and made up into briquettes, 
is placed in this chamber, and is heated by an electric arc which is 
maintained above the ore. In this furnace it is possible to reduce 
the ore to metal and to remove any impurities, such as sulphur and 
phosphorus, although Stassano did not actually demonstrate this 

Electric Smelting of Iron Ores. 187 

as the ores he employed were very pure. The method of heating 
the ore is, however, uneconomical, and it was not to be expected 
that commercial results could be obtained. Stassano still ex- 
periments with his furnace, but no longer uses it for the direct 
reduction of the ore. 

Steel has also been obtained directly from the ore by Dr. 
Heroult in his electric steel furnace mentioned in the early part of 
this paper, but he found the process uneconomical and preferred to 
use pig and scrap as the materials for making steel in his furnace. 
Experiments in the laboratory have been made at different times 
with a view to the direct reduction of iron ore to steel. In this 
connection may be mentioned the experiments of Messrs. Brown 
and Lathe in the Metallurgical Laboratory at McGill, which were 
described in the last number of the Institute Journal. These 
experiments are being continued this year and the writer hopes 
to be able to communicate some interesting results at a later date. 

In any operation for the direct reduction of iron ore to steel 
the following difficulties should be borne in mind: — 

1. The difficulty of eliminating sulphur when this is present 
in the ore, the blast-furnace producing pig-iron being far more 
efficient in this particular than a steel furnace such as the open- 
hearth. It may possibly be necessarjr on this account only to 
use ores that are relatively free from sulphur in the direct pro- 
duction of steel. 

2. Another difficulty lies in the different conditions re- 
quired for the reduction of the ore and the final refining treatment 
to which the resulting steel must be subjected. Thus the opera- 
tion of making steel must always be intermittent in character, 
while the reduction of ore in the blast-furnace is a continuous 

Until these and other difficulties have been overcome, it is 
not likely that we shall have any successful production of steel 
directly from iron ore on a commercial scale. Nevertheless, the 
high price of steel as compared with pig-iron renders this pro- 
position particularly attractive to the electro-metallurgist. At 
present the most satisfactory method appears to be that of re- 
ducing the ore to pig-iron in one furnace, and turning this into 
steel in a separate furnace as in ordinary metallurgical practice. 

188 The Canadian Mining Institute 


Major Leckie: — May I ask about the sulphur in the pig 
iron. If you started to make steel, what was the percentage of 
reduction and how much remained in the steel product? 

Dr. Stansfield: — The steel was made directly from ore 
which was intentionally contaminated with 1% of sulphur and 
l%of phosphorus. The steel contained some ten per cent, of 
sulphur, a considerable elimination of this element having been 
accomplished, but not nearly enough for high quality steel. 


By P. McN. Bennie, Fitzgerald and Bennie Laboratories, 
Niagara Falls. 

(Ottawa Meeting, 1908.) 

The growth of an art is reflected in the broadening meaning 
of its definitions. Mining and Metallurgy are twin arts so closely 
related that it is hardly conceivable how they could have had 
other than simultaneous birth. Mining might be more broadly 
defined as the art of getting minerals and ores out of the earth, 
while metallurgy is the art of getting metals out of ores. They 
make mutual demands upon each other, as, for example, when 
Mining discloses the nickel-cobalt arsenides of the Cobalt district, 
the ores are laid at the door of Metallurgy, with the announce- 
ment. ''There's something new for you; get those things out for us." 

Metallurgy makes similar requests of Mining, and it is within 
the province of this paper to recount briefly to what progress the 
mining of certain kinds of iron ore has been stimulated by the 
demands of metallurgy. 

Last year our laboratories prepared a paper dealing with the 
magnetic concentration of iron ores by the Grondal process, with 
some remarks upon the briquetting of such concentrates. This 
year we are happy to report considerable progress along both lines, 
as having great interest for Canada, and as indicating that the 
elements of a very important industry, as yet undeveloped, exist 
within her borders. 

The conditions of supply in the iron ore markets of the old 
world are in a measure comparable to those which exist on this 
side, and particularly in the States. Recent years have witnessed 
the gradual depletion of ores best suited for the Bessemer process, 
until now there is a universal appeal from the metallurgical 
world to the mining world for relief from burdens which are be- 


The Canadian Mining Institute 

coming heavier year by year upon the shoulders of pig-iron and 
steel makers. The only visible means of relief seems to be (aside, 
of course, from the discovery of new ore bodies) some method of 
improving the quality of iron ore supply, such as an increased 
iron content, a lowering of slag-forming impurities, with reduction 
of sulphur and phosphorus to the lowest limits. Magnetic iron 
ores lend themselves readily to such treatment. 

There exist in Sweden and Norway large quantities of mag- 
netic ores ranging from 30 to 60 per cent, iron content, with 
varying amounts of sulphur and phosphorus. In order to re- 
cover a sufficient percentage of iron to make operations profitable, 
fine grinding is necessary. With fine grinding the iron can be 
brought up by concentration to between 63 and 68 per cent. 
Under these conditions the Grondal process of wet concentration 
gives very satisfactory results. Last year the Engineering and 
Mining Journal published a list of 19 magnetic concentration 
plants actively in operation in Sweden, 12 of which now use 
Grondal apparatus entirely. At the present time there are a 
number of additional plants under construction, destined to 
use Grondal apparatus for concentration and briquetting. To 
show the substantial manner in which treated ores are coming 
to the relief of the iron ore situation abroad the following is a 
list of : 



Tons Ore 

Concentrates ! Briquettes 

1. Strassa 

2. Bredsjo 

3. Herrang 

4. Guldsmedshyttan . 

5. Uttersbergs 

6. Flogberget 

7. Lulea 

8. Sandvikens 

9. Horndal 

10. Helsingborg 

11. Cwmavon (Wales) 

12. Alquife (Spain) . . . 

13. Penn. Steel Co. . . . 

60, 000 






Where tons of concentrates are not given, the whole output is briquetted - 
Where only briquettes are given, concentrates or fine or purple ores are used. 

Concentrating and Briquetting Iron Ores. 


There are also under construction the following plants 


Tons Ore 



1. Hellefors 20,000 

2. Vigelsbo 20,000 

3. Salangen 300,000 

4. Sydvaranger | 1,200,000 

5. Traversella 50,000 

6. Riddarhyttan 20,000 



Sydvaranger Development. 

The plant under construction at Sydvaranger is an interesting 
example of the extent to which the exigencies of metallurgy will 
drive mining into the remote corners of the globe. If anyone 
should propose to this Institute, as a feasible and profitable plan, 
the mining of iron ore containing only 38 per cent, metallic iron, 
in a latitude corresponding to that of our scarcely known Baffin 
Land, or as far north as the mouth of the Mackenzie river, he 
would probably be advised to take a complete rest for his 
health's sake. 

Yet such a project is actually under way. A company has 
been fully financed by powerful German interests, all arrange- 
ments made with the Norwegian Goverment, and comprehensive 
plans perfected whereby a minimum production of 600,000 tons 
of concentrates annually will be produced, shipments to begin 
in 1910. The plant will consist of 40 units each containing ball- 
mill, crusher, tube mill and separators. At least 100 separators 
will be required. It has been found that standard Grondal ball 
mills will handle, on the average, 135 tons of hard magnetite ore 
per 24 hours. 

The company at Salangen, Norway, is composed of certain 
German iron masteiswho will themselves absorb the entire annual 
production of 100,000 tons. 

The foregoing has had to do with the commercial develop- 


The Canadian Mining Institute 


t/0 *i\ "Q 0£ 




gqeh'u. rt 

//Vf f^_ 















t \WMAR 







,, <« 


Y — -^^ . 



o m /6 aules ' i* 32 55 

Map of the Central Ontario Railway Valley 

Concentrating and Briquetting Iron Ores. 193 

nient of the Grondal processes. There have been some technical 
Advances, however, of considerable interest, as follows : 

(1) The introduction of heavy rock crushers, of the Gates 
or Blake type, for preliminary crushing, thus throwing less work 
upon the ball mills. 

(2) Where the ore is of suitable character the use of magnetic 
cobbing machines to get rid of such rock pieces as contain little 
or no iron. This reduces the amount of ore to be handled in all 
subsequent operations, per ton of product. 

(3) Somewhat finer grinding in the Grondal ball mills. It 
is generally found that the magnetite particles reduce more 
quickly than the gangue particles, so that the finer grinding does 
not necessarily involve reducing all the particles to pulpy con- 
dition. The practical effect of such finer grinding is a higher per- 
centage of recovery and a higher iron content in the concentrates. 
As most of the concentrated material is destined to be briquetted, 
the fact that the grains are smaller is of no moment. 

With regard to briquetting, the following may be noted 
as improvements : — 

(1) Better design of briquetting presses, reducing the wear. 
The life of the die plates has been quadrupled. At Cwmavon, 
working on pyrites residues, a single set is good for about 500 
tons of briquettes. 

(2) The original briquetting furnaces and cars were one 
metre wide. It has been found that this may be increased to 
1 . 5 metres without materially increasing the investment The 
result of the change is a 50 per cent, increase in the daily produc- 
tion of the furnace. The furnaces therefore will give a tonnage 
approaching the nodulizing kiln, with the advantage that the 
briquettes are more desirable from the metallurgical point of 

(3) The fuel consumption, which in the one-metre furnaces 
had reached the low figure of 7 per cent, of the weight of briquettes 
produced, should be still further reduced in the wider furnaces. 

(4) Bilbao spathic ore has been treated very successfully. 
The ore was first ground in a tube mill to 0.75 mm. mesh. The 
mill will grind about six tons per hour, using 75 horse-power to 
drive it. The ground ore was mixed with a little water, pressed 
and burnt in the usual manner. The original ore ran 47 per cent. 


194 The Canadian Mining Institute 

iron, which, with the loss of carbon dioxide in the briquetting 
furnace, brought the iron content of the finished briquette up to 
58 per cent. 

Fuel Economy. 

Last year's paper referred to the fuel economy introduced 
by the use of Grondal briquettes as due to several reasons. 

(1) High iron content and consequent small amount of 
material to be slagged off. 

(2) Porosity of briquettes, permitting an enormous surface 
of contact between reducing gases and iron oxide (this porosity 
averages over 20 per cent, of the volume of briquettes). 

We do not feel that our tests are sufficiently complete to 
warrant positive figures as to fuel economy, as several factors 
influence the results. We may refer, however, to one test of 
1,000 tons of Strassa briquettes, containing 65 per cent. Fe., put 
through a blast furnace at Cockerills' well known works, Seraing, 
Belgium, where a fuel economy of 15 per cent, was claimed. If 
such results turn out to be actually realisable in practice they 
would have great significance for Canadian furnace men. 

Market Prices. 

During the past year the following prices have been paid : 
For Concentrates, containing 68 per cent. Fe., for home consump- 
tion in Sweden, about $3.65 per ton, on cars at concentrators. 
For export, containing 65 per cent, iron and about 10 per cent, 
water, $4.25 at port of export. 

For Briquettes, f.o.b. port of export, for briquettes containing 
65 per cent. Fe., sales have been made at $5.45 per ton. 

10,000 tons have been engaged for Germany for this year at 
about $5.25 at same port. Purple ore briquettes from Helsing- 
borg bring about $6.00 per ton c.i.f. Stockton. Pyrites residues 
briquettes from the South Wales works command from $5 . 50 to 
$6 . 35 delivered, according to cost of transport. These briquettes 
contain about 62 per cent. Fe. with sulphur down to 0.044 per 

The following table is shown, giving results from various 
ores by the Grondal concentrating and briquetting methods : 

Concentrating and Bbiquetting Iron Orks. 




Crude Ore. 











Bredjso 35.0 

Flogberget. 27.3 

shyttan . . 50 . 7 


(purple ore) 60.6 

Herrang ... 40 . 2 

Hjulsjo .... 39.7 

Lulea 58.2 


tan 52.8 

Salangen. . . 35.7 

Strassa 46.8 

Stripa 40.3 

*Sydva ran- 
ger 38.0 

Uttersberg 34.5 
*Yigelsbo . . 35.2 
Cwmavon. . 61.43 




0.050 0.004 
0.040 0.003 






6.9 65.1 0.020 
7.165.3 0.007 


3.0 0.00370.1 0.5 0.002 10.2 68.2 0.010 0.002 


1.21 0.00367.3 

0.12 0.00867.1 

0.110 1.230 71.1 

0.025 0.006 64.2 

0.039 0.23 69.3 

0.030 0.01569.2 

0.030 0.01067.1 

0.066 0.030 68. 3 

0.020 0.024 62.6 

0.45 0.026 64.6 

1.65 0.019 


0.170 0.002 6.4 65.5 
0.035 0.004 10.165.2 
0.015 0.005 12.069.3 


0.003 0.002 
0.015 0.004 
0.005 0.005 

0.017 0.003 7.4.. 

0.019 0.009 4.9 I 

0.015 0.003 6.167.1 0.005 

0.020 0.002 12.2 65.2 0.005 

0.026 0.014 
0.020 0.016 
0.089 0.002 

9.3 .... 
6.7 .... 
.... 61.5 


0.006 0.014 


*Under construction. 

Importance to Canada. 

It seems to us that these results contain a lesson to us on 
this side of the Atlantic well worth a moment's consideration. 
In the first place, there are in Canada, and particularly in Ontario 
province, numerous bodies of magnetite of some extent, which 
to-day are practically dormant. There is a rapidly growing pro- 
duction of pig iron and steel, with a correspondingly increased 
demand for ore. Some makers have even had to resort to the 
use of imported ores. Yet right in Canada there are all the ele- 
ments of a vast and profitable industry — an industry of basic 
importance to a country's prosperity — requiring only the awaken- 
ing touch of intelligent capital to spring into active being. 

Without making a plea for any particular apparatus, but 
assuming that the Grondal methods are employed, two locations 
present themselves as promising. These are shown as follows: — 


The Canadian Mining Institute 

Map of the Kingston and Pembroke Railway Valley. 

Concentrating and Briquetting Irox Ores. 197 

Central Ontario Valley. 

In Fig. 1 is shown an outline of the CO. railway, upon which 
we have marked some of the deposits of magnetic ores. At some 
of these deposits there could doubtless be mined a certain amount 
of shipping ore, but all of them contain large quantities of ore 
from 45 per cent, down in iron, which could profitably be treated, 
The distances from Trenton are approximately as follows: 

To Marmora 30 miles 

" Blairton 35 " 

" Madoc 40 " 

" Eldorado 40 " 

" Belmont 35 " 

" Coe Hill Mines 75 " 

" Bessemer Mines 85 " 

Xow if a central briquetting plant were to be located at 
Trenton, to which all materials could be sent, we would have a 
plant producing marketable products within an average distance 
of 50 miles from the mines, which is less than the distance from 
many Lake Superior mines to nearest lake ports. 

Kixgstox axd Pembroke Ry. 

Fig. 2 shows a similar scheme, with Kingston as terminus, 
with the following approximate distances: 

To Godfrey 29 miles 

" Verona 25 " 

" Glendower 35 " 

" Clarendon 55 " 

" Robertsville 59 " 

" Wilbur G7 " 

" Calabogie 89 " 

From these points an average freight rate of 65 cents a ton 
could probably be obtained. A central plant at Kingston would 
be under practically similar conditions with respect to its sources 
of supply as the Trenton location. It might be found upon close 
study that it would pay to ship all ores to a central point where 
both concentrating and briquetting could be done in a single 
plant under one management. 

198 The Canadian Mining Institute 


Based upon 40 per cent, ore, as a maximum figure of 80 cents 
per ton loaded at mines, 2 tons would be needed per ton 
of concentrates $1 . 60 

Average cost of concentration on a production of 200 tons 

daily 40 

Cost of concentrates 2 . 00 

Average cost of briquetting on 200 ton basis 45 

Freight on 2 tons ore at 65c 1 . 30 

Cost of briquettes $3 . 75 

Makket Values. 

Under the above conditions we would have for sale a briquette 
containing from 63 to 65 per cent, metallic iron, low in sulphur 
and phosphorus, easily reducible in the blast furnace with economy 
of fuel; such briquettes would be superior to the average run of 
Old Range Bessemer ore, on which the guarantee is now 55 per 
cent. iron. The present price for such ore is $5.00 per ton, 
according to The Iron Trade Review of February 13, 1908. In 
European and United States markets Grondal briquettes would 
readily command a minimum price of 10 cents a unit, or $6.30 
delivered. This leaves a margin of $2 . 65 per ton to cover freights 
and profits. There is no reason to believe that equal selling prices 
could not be realised in Canada. The Swedish companies using 
the process have formed the Iron Export Association, whose 
products find a plentiful and profitable market in Europe. It 
is interesting to note that every operating company has been a 
financial success from the start. 

With rich ores commanding a premium and the iron and 
steel world eager for them, there is no good economic reason why 
many idle spots in Canada should not teem with this modern 
industry; why Mining should not once more respond to the call 
of metallurgy. 

Concentrating and Briquetting Iron Ores. 199 


Mr. Murray: — Can you adapt this process to a complete 
outfit for supplying a hundred-ton furnace. Do your fixed charges 
make that commercially possible? 

Mr. Bennie: — With the reduction in scope there is an in- 
crease in the cost owing to the fixed charges, but with a multi- 
plicity of units that would be reduced. A concentrator No. 5 
will take care of 100 tons a day, and two of them will handle two 
hundred tons, while one of the modern briquetting furnaces will 
do fifty tons, so that it is possible to carry on operations on a 
fairly small scale. 

If you examine the third column of the diagram you will find 
that many of these plants produce a thousand tons a month, which 
is about 35 tons a da}-, a little under the capacity of an oven in 
a single unit plant. Others of them produce from five to twelve 

Mr. Gibson: — I would ask if the Grondal process is suited 
for silicious ores, when considerable quantities of such impurities 
as sulphur and phosphorus are present? 

Mr. Bennie: — Nearly all the Swedish ores are silicious, but 
by the Grondal process there is no trouble separating the silicious 
particles from the iron by magnetic separation, taking the one 
and leaving the other ; but when it comes to sulphur, if it is mag- 
netic sulphide, it will go into the concentrate. The briquetting 
is in itself an efficient desulphurizer. The briquettes are made 
with a water binder. They are pressed, and the oxidation in 
the process of burning converts them from magnetite to ferric 
oxide. There is an almost complete elimination of sulphur, due 
to the enormous area of contact between the gases and the surface 
of each particle forming the briquette. That is a peculiar feature 
of the Grondal briquette, the porosity and reduction of sulphur. 
Phosphorus, if it is not removed during concentration, is not re- 
moved during the burning. 

Mr. Gibson: — There is one other question. What is the 
average result of concentration, so far as the metallic contents 
of the iron are concerned? How much is lost in the tailings? 

Mr. Bennie: — It varies with the ore from 12% to 4.9.% 

Mr. Murray: — What is the loss in slipment? 

200 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Mr. Bennie: — It is negligible. The records show that the 
shipments have arrived in excellent condition. The briquettes 
are extremely hard, with a volume porosity of 21 or 22. 

Mr. Obalski: — Has the Grondal process ever been tried for 
titaniferous ores? Has the same process been tried for concen- 
trating and briquetting the magnetic sands of Quebec province? 
If that process could be adapted to these I think it would be ad- 
vantageous. I would ask if Mr. Bennie knows whether any 
practical test 1 as been made on these two — the titaniferous ores 
and the magnetic sands? 

Mr. Bennie: — As to titanium, when you mention that to 
a blast furnace man, he generally says re is bored. But with 
our advancing necessities for iron ore, titanium is not regarded 
as the same bugaboo it used to be, and the blast furnace managers 
have been sent to look at such ores, and several big experiments 
have been successfully made with it in slagging off the titanium 
in the furnace. 

As to briquetting these ores, the Swedish ores are not so 
highly titaniferous as those of Quebec. I lave only seen refer- 
ence to titanium in them in one case, where a gentleman said that 
the reason Swedish steel was so good was that for years it lad 
been known to contain "vanadium." I am quite certain that 
what he referred to was titanium, although he was an expert 
employed to exploit the value of vanadium. Experiments with 
a view to briquetting black river sands have been made, using 
the St. Lawrence River sands, and a company has been forced 
with considerable capital to study that matter. It 1 as been feared 
that the concentrates from the river sands could not be briquetted 
for the reason that they are all water-worn particles of different 
diameters without any binding. That was true, but by simply 
crushing these particles and forcing them into irregular shapes it 
has been found possible to briquette them. I have no fear that 
briquettes with 2% titanium would not be deleterious in furnace 
operation if treated carefully. The briquetting process is one of 
pressure; the briquettes are given five or six blows with 1,800 lbs. 
falling weight, modelled and water-bound, and passed by cars to 
the furnaces in that form. 

Dr. Porter: — May I ask as to the tailings value whether 

Concentrating and Briquetting Iron Ores. 201 

that is the percentage of iron in the tailings or the percentage 
lost from the original ore? 

Mr. Bennie: — I think the logical conclusion is that it is the 
percentage of iron in the tailings. 

Dr. Porter: — Then the actual percentage lost would be far 

Mr. Haultain: — What is the content of the original ore? 

Mr. Bennie: — I understand in general they were concentra- 
ted about 2 to 1. 

Mr. Haultain: — Yes, but what is the content of the iron ore 
originally treated. 

Mr. Bennie: — The first column shows that, running from 
27.3 to 58, they are able to treat ores containing 30% with 

Mr. Haultain: — The percentage lost, then, is greater than 
these figures, not less. 

Mr. Rowlands: — At Herrang, where I visited, they kept 
very close track of the tailings and all products. The losses of 
iron in the tailings will average about 5% according to my re- 

Mr. Dixon Craig: — In Ontario it seems that nothing 1 as 
been done about this attractive project. So far as I know, tl ere 
is no really large deposit of iron ore in the Kingston and Pem- 
broke district, which may possibly be the reason. Do tie Penn- 
sylvania company treat their concentrates? 

Mr. Bennie: — Yes. Tfcey lave experimented with a large 
rotary kiln, wl ich the}' figured would be cheaper, but tie thing to 
consider is the metallurgical value of a nodule as con pared with 
that of a porous briquette. The nodules rely upon a sort of skin 
formed upon the outside, and the desulphurizing is 1 indered by 
the non-porosity of that skin. I do not consider a nodule as good 
a metallurgical product for the furnace as tl e briquette. It is 
a mere matter of ultimate economy. 

As to the ore in tie district you speak of, did you ever try 
to buy any of those mines? I was assured by a gentleman claim- 
ing to control one of them that he lad 3,000,000 tons in sight. 
Take Bessemer ore; they are shipping from Wilbur, and Coe Hill 
has 27,000 tons they would like to ship if it were not for the sulphur. 
With regard to the amount of investment, if anyone wanted to 

202 The Canadian Mining Institute 

go into anything of that sort, $150,000 would be necessary for a 
central concentrating and briquetting plant with a daily capacity 
of 400 tons of briquettes. 

Dr. Barlow: — In Ontario we have no definite criterion, as 
there has been practically no intelligent prospecting. At Port 
Henry, as a result of the magnetic surveys recently made there, 
they found ore bodies every week in a district supposed to have 
been thoroughly explored. These ore bodies resemble our central 
Ontario ore bodies very much. 

Mr. Craig: — As far as Bessemer is concerned, two ore bodies 
have shown up about half a mile apart, and the owners claimed 
they were continuous and had a hole about 40 feet down on each 
ore body. They claim a tonnage of about six million, but these 
are not established facts. To say you can count upon millions in 
any deposit in this region, would be very risky. I think if any 
have half a million tons they may be considered good deposits. 

Dr. Barlow: — With reference to the Anglo-American com- 
pany, I know they have some very good properties, but many of 
the ore bodies were underlaid with syenite, and I do not think 
any of them have given indication of being of economic importance. 
I refer to the bodies at Coe Hill, Blairton and that district, where 
all that has been done is surface stripping, so you cannot form 
any intelligent judgment. I would like to see some more light 
regarding that iron ore deposit extending from Coe Hill in a south- 
westerly direction, and see if ore in larger bodies could not be 

Mr. Hardman: — Mr. Bennie has told us that the cost of a 
ton of cleaned ore, at the point where the works are situated, was 
$3.45, and that the market price was $5.00 for that ore, on a 
basis of 55% metallic iron — is this market price available at the 
-point of production or must we add to the $3.45 the cost of the 
freight from the works to the market, where the $5.00 is avail- 
able for such ore. 

Mr. Bennie: — Yes, there is $2.65 margin between the cost 
I assume and the $5, which is put conservatively low for that ore — 
that is the difference between t v e two, and I say that $2 . 65 will 
amply take care of the freight and profits. But I count upon 
$6 . 50 for the ore, rather than $5, counting upon the higher values. 
As to the location of the plant, I can merely suggest it, and the 

Concentrating and Briquetting Iron Ores. 203 

reason that I made it central is that very uncertainty of these 
lenticular masses of magnetite. With the exhaustion of one and 
the discovery of another, you always have a source of supply; 
and if the field is entirely exhausted it is not such an awful job 
to go somewhere else and find more magnetite. It is not an in- 
stallation of the same character as a blast furnace plant. 


By R. W. Ells, LL. D., Ottawa, Ont. 

Published by permission of the Director of the Geological Survey. 
(Ottawa Meeting, 1908.) 

The great central Carboniferous basin of New Brunswick has 
long been known as a possible field for the production of coal, and 
in the portion known as the Grand Lake basin this mineral has 
been mined on a small scale for over 100 years. Such mining has, 
however, been done till within a very few years in the crudest way, 
under the supposition that owing to the prevailing thinness of 
the seam there found a regular system of development would be 
unprofitable. This supposition has, however, recently been shewn 
to be untenable, and within the last half dozen years coal mining 
has been carried on in a more scientific manner and with fairly 
profitable results. 

The great extent of the carboniferous rocks in this province 
earl} r led to the presumption that at some point in the basin, 
which comprises over 10,000 square miles, thick underlying de- 
posits of workable coal should be found. This hypothesis was in 
part due apparently to the early and erroneous views expressed 
as to the horizon of much of the formation itself, since in the 
earlier study of these rocks they were supposed to include, above 
the Lower Carboniferous portion, not only the Millstone-grit, 
but a considerable thickness of the Productive measures of Nova 
Scotia and the Upper Carboniferous as well, all of which were held 
to occur in the Grand Lake basin. Later and more detailed study 
of these rocks, however, over a large area proved conclusively 
that in no portion of the great basin could any sediments which 
might be the equivalents of the coal-bearing rocks of Nova Scotia 
be found, but that there was a stratigraphical break between the 
Millstone-grit, which practically constitutes the mass of the 
Carboniferous basin, and the upper or Permo-Carboniferous series, 

Minerals of New Brunswick. 205 

which occurs in the eastern part of the province, in the county of 
Westmorland and in certain small areas around the shores of 
Northumberland Strait and the northern part of the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, as at Shippigan and Miscou. These outcrops of 
the newer rocks constitute the western margin of the Permo- 
Carboniferous formation which occupies the whole of Prince 
Edward Island. 

The original theory that somewhere beneath the wide spread 
but generally thin stratum of coal which can be found in many 
portions of the central basin, other thick seams might occur, was 
also disproved some years ago by a number of borings made at 
widely separated points throughout its extent. In a number of 
cases these holes pierced the Carboniferous sediments proper to 
the underlying formations, in some cases the Lower Carboniferous 
red beds, in others into the Devonian slates. In none of these 
borings was any trace of workable coals found beneath the seam 
which has been worked for many years. 

The proximity of this seam to the surface was such that in 
some cases its mining was effected by simply stripping off the 
surface drift or upper shales and removing the coal from the 
exposed bed. It was found that this could be done with profit 
where the covering did not exceed eight to ten feet, but for greater 
thickness of cover small drifts were driven from the banks of the 
creeks along the outcrops of the seam, and this work was carried 
on whenever the duties of the farm permitted a few days ' rest from 
ordinary agricultural labor, but all such mining was done 
in the simplest and most economical way possible. No attempt 
was made to separate the associated pyrite, shale or other impurity, 
and the output sent to the market by wood boats or by hauling 
overland to Fredericton, as rim of mine coal, proved objectionable 
in many ways for domestic or steam purposes, the unseparated 
sulphur being especially hard on grate bars, while the associated 
shale and stone produced a very large percentage of ash, so that 
in quality the Grand Lake coal was regarded as being very far from 
a first-class fuel. 

Quite recently, and chiefly through the agency of Mr. King, 
of Chipman, mining on the principal seam at the new town of 
Minto was undertaken in a more proper fashion. This mine was 
originally known as the Kennedy, and in the early days gave the 

206 The Canadian Mining Institute 

most satisfactory results as regards output of any in the district. 
A shaft was sunk to a depth of 30 feet to the seam, a certain 
thickness of the roof shale being removed for head room, and the 
underground workings laid off in proper order for successful mining. 
The appointment of a duly qualified inspector by the Intercolonial 
railway, and the fitting up of proper screening appliances, soon 
led to the separation of the objectionable ingredients in the output 
with most beneficial results, so that now the coal, as thus prepared 
and used on the railways, is found to give as good satisfaction 
for a steam fuel as that obtained from the thick beds of Nova Scotia. 
The thickness of the coal worked in the King mine at Minto, 
which is the present terminus of the railway from Norton, on the 
Intercolonial, is 33 inches, the section being: — 

Top coal 24 inches 

Shale parting 3 " 

Bottom coal 6 " 

thus forming a workable thickness of 30 inches of coal. 

In the workings when examined in 1906, levels had been driven 
off from the shaft for 800 feet with branch drifts every 35 feet. 
The amount of coal per acre is estimated at 4,000 tons. The mine 
is quite dry, and the coal on arriving at the bank head is put 
through the screen and loaded direct on the cars. The men are paid 
by the chaldron of 1£ tons, at a cost of about SI. 00 per ton for 
mining. After passing the inspector it is hauled to Norton station, 
a distance of 57 miles, where it sells for $3.00 per ton, while the 
unscreened portion of the output brings $2.25, and the screenings, 
which amount to about 34 per cent, of the output, sell for 90 cents, 
the whole being mined and shipped at a fair margin of profit, said 
to average 50 cents per ton. 

The coal seam at this place is nearly horizontal. It, however, 
soon dips to the south, but rises again to the mines in this direction, 
of which there are a number located along the extension of the 
railway from King's mine, so that nearly all the mines in this 
district can ship direct by rail. King's mine is the only one as yet 
using steam power for hoisting, the other mines in the vicinity 
using horse whims. 

Owing apparently to a thickening of the shale parting towards 
the south, most of the mines in this direction confine their mining 

Minerals of New Brunswick. m 207 

at present to the upper seam, which varies from 20 to 24 inches. 
There is no co-operation between the several mines in this area, 
each operator apparently preferring to work independently. 
At several of the mines in the immediate vicinity of King's the 
thickness of the coal worked ranges from 26 to 28 inches, and if 
these areas were combined into one, operations would undoubtedly 
be carried on with a larger percentage of profit to the operator. 

In all this district at Minto, formerly known as Newcastle 
creek, there are now eight mines which ship their output by rail. 
These are owned by George King, Harvey Welton, O'Leary Bros., 
J. Coakly, J. MacDonald, Evans Bros., Edward Kelly, and J. F. 
Gibbon. These areas are worked continuously all the year, and 
the output is of about the same general good quality when properly 
screened. One mine of this group still continues to ship by water, 
the output being hauled by team to the wharf on Grand Lake, 
about four miles distant. 

Besides these there are a number of mines forming group 2, 
and apparently working on the extension of the same seam, but 
nearer Grand Lake to the eastward. They all follow the old 
system of shipping run of mines by water in barges or wood boats 
to St. John and Fredericton, and the mines are worked at intervals 
in the old way, the coal being hauled to the wharf by teams. 
This necessitates much handling — from mine to team, from team 
to wharf, unloading and loading on boats, etc. — so that the output 
in all is shifted some six to eight times. As a consequence much 
of the coal becomes badly broken, and as but slight attempt is 
made to separate either the stone or sulphur the quality is greatly 
inferior to that shipped by rail. In all, this part of the output 
ranges from 3,500 to 4,000 tons per year. Portions of this eastern 
field is still worked by the process of stripping and open cuts. 

A royalty of 10 cents per ton is paid to the Government on all 
coal shipped by rail, that going by water being exempt, in accord- 
ance with an agreement made many years ago. In 1906 the 
average shipments by rail were given as about six cars of 20 tons 
each, the amount raised being limited by the scarcity of miners. 
This shipment includes all grades of the output. The working days 
average 300 per year, and the estimated output from the 
district in 1906 is given as about 50,000 tons. 

208 The Canadian Mining Institute 

This amount may not seem very large when compared with 
that from the mines of Nova Scotia, but as contrasted with the 
output of 6,000 to 8,000 tons of a dozen years ago shews a very 
appreciable improvement, due to better methods of working. 
There is ready market for all that can be raised, and there is no 
doubt that if an amalgamation of the several mines in the area 
could be effected, with a sufficiency of men these mines would 
supply the greater part of the coal requirements of the province as 
regards soft or bituminous coal, while the profits on the mining of 
the whole would tend to be more satisfactory. 

Other small mining areas occur around the head of the lake, 
as at Coal creek, but the seam here is also thin and the work 
desultory, so that no mining on a large or permanent basis has 
as yet been attempted. 

In the eastern part of the Carboniferous basin, on a branch 
of the Richibucto river, in Kent county, a seam similar to that 
worked at Grand Lake was opened up several years ago. This 
seam was also worked to a very limited extent in former years, 
merely for local use. It has a thickness of about 16 to 18 inches. 
The new company commenced by driving a level into the face of 
the cliff about forty feet above the stream which is known as Coal 
Branch, which in 1906 had reached a distance of 1,300 feet in the 
principal opening, and a second had been driven for 700 feet with 
cross drifts every 25 feet. A capping of grey shale covers the coal, 
and there is a two-foot bed of fire-clay beneath. In mining, about 
three feet of the roof shale is removed to form a working face. The 
coal is taken from the mouth of the tunnel to the bank head, a 
distance upward of about 50 feet, by a horse whim situated at the 
top of the bluff, and there loaded direct upon cars on a branch 
railway running to Adamsville station on the Intercolonial railway, 
a distance of some seven miles. In character this coal is almost 
identical with that mined at Minto, but is not screened, being 
delivered to the railway as run of mines. 

The whim or hoist is run by three horses, which can raise to 
the bank head three tons at a load. Though the seam is thin the 
quantity raised in the three months of 1906, between March 1st 
and June 1st, aggregated 3,000 tons, which is hauled to the Interco- 
lonial for 40 cents per ton, the price for the output there being S3. 25 
per ton. 

Minerals op New Brunswick. 209 

The miners are paid 38 cents per box of 600 lbs. and work 
in 8-hour shifts. In 1906 from 6 to 8 men were employed on each 
shift. The seam occasionally swells out to a thickness of 24 inches 
and thin local partings of shale occur with pyrite in the 
joints and thin bands as well as in nodules. In spite of the 
thinness of the seam the men on the shifts mine on the average 
four boxes or 2,400 lbs. per man. The coal is cleaty, splitting 
readily into broad flakes of an inch or more, burns freely with 
strong heat, generates steam readily, and is reported as giving 
satisfactory results on the locomotives. With $1.75 per ton for 
mining and freight to the Intercolonial, the percentage of profit, 
after deducting other expenses, is not large, but it is claimed 
to yield, wlith present appliances, a fair margin. It has thus 
been established that even with the thin seams found at various 
points in the province, with due regard to economy in handling, 
coal can be mined at fairly remunerative rates, and here as at 
Minto, the output is only limited by the scarcity of miners. 

The only other area at which attempts to mine coal of this 
formation is at Dunsinane, on the Intercolonial, about 14 miles 
north of Sussex. Here also the conditions are very similar to 
those already stated, and two seams have been located by boring 
with an aggregate thickness of 28 to 30 inches. The presence of 
a shale parting of variable thickness, sometimes amounting to 
12 to 14 feet, has hitherto prevented the utilization of both 
seams. In several of the bore-holes, which have been sunk in this 
basin it was found that the seams tended to come together by the 
thinning out of the shale parting. Attempts by boring are now 
in contemplation to ascertain if at some point these two seams do 
not coalesce, in which case it should be possible to mine a seam 
similar to that of the best mine at Minto. 

The thickness of the main or upper seam at the outcrop is 
about 18 to 20 inches, and that of the lower is stated as 9 inches, 
all of which is reported as good coal, and in one boring a thickness 
of 12 inches is assigned to the underlying seam. The formation, 
which is Millstone-grit, is apparently thin, and at a depth of 300 
feet the drill passed down into a series of purple and grey grits 
and shale, apparently of Upper Devonian age. 

Attempts to mine a bed of supposed anthracite were made 
about thirty years ago on the east side of Lepreau harbour at 

210 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Belas basin, as also at the village of Musquash, a few miles to 
the east, on the line of the N.B. Southern railway. Several bore- 
holes and shafts were also sunk in an area of black shales a short 
distance south of the latter place, near the road -to Beaver harbour. 
The rock formation in all these places is, however, of Devonian 
age, and near the base of that series of formations in what is known 
as the Dadoxylon sandstone. The strata consist generally of hard 
quartzose sandstone with interstratified beds of black graphitic 
shale and sometimes brownish-tinted beds, generally in a highly 
inclined position. 

At all these places the mining was done in the black shale, 
portions of which contained sufficient carbonaceous matter to 
burn quite readily under strong draft, but leaving so large a 
percentage of ash, ranging from 35 to near 40 per cent., as to 
render the product unfit for domestic or steam purposes, so that all 
attempts at further mining have long since been abandoned and 
the workings have fallen in. 

The mining of this deposit at Lepreau consisted of four shafts 
sunk to depths of 95, 130, 135 and 140 feet. The thickness of 
the carbonaceous band was stated by the miners to average 20 feet, 
but of this by far the greater portion was merely a black graphitic 
shale of no value whatever as a fuel. The rocks are highly 
inclined, reaching in part the vertical, and the main shaft was 
sunk for 110 feet on an angle of 80 degrees, when it inclined to 
the south and continued downward to the bottom. In places 
the thickness of the anthracit c portion was stated to reach four 
feet and was graphitic throughout. It resembles much of the 
product from the so-called coal basins of Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island, the output from which is now used to some extent for the 
manufacture of graphite. The Lepreau deposits appear to occur 
along a line of fault between the grey sandstone and shales and 
underlying reddish beds of a lower part of the formation, and the 
rocks in the vicinity are often much crushed along the line of contact. 
The mine at Musquash village is in a similar band of black 
graphitic shale at or near a similar contact. Here an inclined 
shaft was sunk to a depth of over 300 feet, but beyond the pres- 
ence of the glazed graphitic shale and occasional pieces of the 
graphitic anthracite nothing of the nature of true coal was found. 
On the road south to Beaver harbour, at what is known as Gilbert's 

Minerals of New Brunswick. 211 

mine, already alluded to, a similar black carbonaceous shale occurs, 
and a reported expenditure of $40,000 to $50,000 was made with a 
similar lack of economic results. It, however, seems probable that 
in some of these areas, owing to the soft and highly graphitic 
nature of the shale bands, the extraction of the mineral graphite 
might be carried on at a profit, since, with the exception of the 
black graphitic shales at the Suspension Bridge over the St. John 
River, which are of an entirely different horizon, no attempts at 
graphite mining have been made. 

Of a different character and horizon are the deposits of bitu- 
minous shale found in Albert and Westmoreland counties, in the 
south-eastern portion of the province, which have been for many 
years known under the name of "Albert shale." For a long time 
they were classed in the geological scale as a portion of the Lower 
Carboniferous formation, though their position as uncomform- 
ably beneath the Lower Carboniferous limestone and gypsum 
division has long been recognised. Recent detailed investigation 
in this province has now clearly demonstrated the fact that they 
are an integral portion of the Upper Devonian formations. 

The Albert shales came into prominence some sixty years 
ago, through the discovery by Dr. Gesner, a former provincial 
geologist, of the peculiar mineral known as Albertite, the mining of 
which for nearly thirty years proved to be one of the most profitable 
of the mineral developments in New Brunswick. Its mode of 
occurrence has been stated in numerous publications, including the 
official report of the Geological Survey, a detailed examination 
with map of the area being made in 1876 by Dr. Bailey and the 
writer. The mineral Albertite was found to occur in true vein 
form, with a length of about half a mile, and was followed down- 
ward to a depth of 1,500 feet. 

Although the greater portion of the Albert vein was long ago 
removed, and the works closed down as a producer for over a quar- 
ter of a century, other veins are known to exist in the area, and 
in the upper portion of the old workings a large mass of the 
mineral still remains untouched, owing to the fact that in the 
eastern half of the workings all that part above the 450 feet 
level was not extracted. On the other and smaller veins nothing 
beyond shallow surface prospecting has been done, the uses to 
which the output was formerly applied, which was chiefly as an 

212 The Canadian Mining Institute 

enricher of bituminous coals in the manufacture of gas, having 
ceased. At the present time there appears to be no means by 
which Albertite can be utilised on the large scale, other than for 
the distillation of the contained bituminous matter in the form of 
oil, of which it contains over 100 gallons per ton. 

The Albert shale beds extend from east to west for over 70 
miles through the counties of Westmorland, Albert and Kings, 
and their peculiar features appear to be continuous throughout, 
though in certain portions the percentage of bituminous matter 
is much less than in the richer beds of Albert county. They are in 
places covered over b} T more recent deposits of Lower Carboniferous 
age, such as conglomerates and shales with limestone and gypsum, 
which unconformably overly the shales. In Albert and West- 
morland counties, more especially at the Albert mines, at Bal- 
timore and further west on the upper part of Turtle creek, as also 
to the east, near the Memramcook river, north of Dorchester, 
these shales, which are often thin and papery, contain beds of 
a brownish-black, tough and massive shale, which range in thick- 
ness from two to five feet, while on Turtle creek the color of these 
beds becomes grey and they have a reported thickness in places of 
about 18 feet. They contain an even larger percentage of oils 
than the brown beds, and splinters of the material kindle readily 
from the flame of a match The yield of oil from the brown beds 
is somewhat more than 60 gallons per ton, while of the grey the 
yield by analysis is given at over 80 gallons They are all clearly 
interstratified portions of the shale formations, occurring after the 
manner of beds of coal in the Carboniferous, but without dis- 
tinct fire clays. These brown bands of oil-shale, which have 
sometimes been styled Cannelite, are tough, breaking with a 
conchoidal fracture, giving a sound like wood when struck with 
the hammer. As far back as 1862-64 they were quite extensively 
mined for the distillation of petroleum, a plant being erected at 
Baltimore, which was operated for several years, or until the 
discovery of the great oil fields of western Ontario and of the 
United States so reduced the price of crude oil as to render further 
distillation of these rocks unprofitable. Large quantities of the 
crude shale were also exported from Taylorville, on the Mem- 
ramcook river, to ports in the United States for the same purpose, 
the price obtained being $6.00 per ton. 

Minerals of New Brunswick. 213 

Extensive boring operations for oil in these shales have been 
carried on for many years, culminating some seven years ago in 
the formation of a new company, by whom control was obtained 
from the local government of the greater part of the supposed oil- 
lands in the province. As a result over seventy holes were bored, 
principally in the area between the Memramcook and Petitcodiac 
rivers, on a somewhat broad belt of the shales which extend 
across from Albert county. In one hole at least a reported depth 
of 3,000 feet was reached, but no trace of oil was found. In 
about 50 per cent, of the holes, oil in small quantities was met with. 
and since the closing down of boring operations a certain number 
of these have been pumped from time to time with a small yield 
of crude petroleum and water, but in so far as can be learned 
none of these wells has as yet yielded oil in commercial quantities. 

Recently a new company has been organized with the object 
of producing oil by distillation from the bands of rich oil-shales, 
which, if properly conducted, should give satisfactory results. 
Testshavebeen made in a specially constructed distillation plant 
in Xew York, which are reported as being eminently satisfactory, 
both as regards the yield of crude petroleum and the percentage 
of paraffine, ammonium sulphate, etc., the proposition being 
made to erect a proper distillation plant for commercial purposes 
on the rich shales of Baltimore, which were formerly utilized. 

As a source of fuel supply the oil-shales have been used locally 
to some extent and found to give satisfactory results when burned 
in open grates or for the generation of steam, and further tests 
are in contemplation. They burn very freely, give out an intense 
heat, are comparatively free from sulphur and are clean to handle, 
while the resulting ash, though considerable, does not seem to 
form an insuperable objection to their employment. If the shale 
is broken to suitable sizes it burns completely to a fine grey ash 
without any trace of clinker. It generates steam more rapidly 
than ordinary bituminous coals, and the ash is held to possess 
fertilizing properties which are valuable for the production of 
certain crops, so much so that at Baltimore for some years the 
farmers have used the waste from the old dump at that place as 
a top dressing for their lands, with reported beneficial results. 

Of these shale bands four outcrop at the surface at the 
Albert mines, five at Baltimore, and two thick beds at least 


The Canadian Mining Institute 

on the waters of Turtle creek, about two miles further west. The 
mining of these shales can be carried on after the manner of coal 
beds, the enclosing shales being thin and papery, excavate easily, 
so that the removal of the oil-bands is comparatively simple. 
The percentage of oil is large, exceeding in amount that obtained 
from the shales of Scotland and England, which have been so 
extensively used for distillation for many years, and from which, 
to judge from the published reports on that industry, very large 
profits are obtained, even in the face pf competition from Russia 
and the United States, while the value of the by-products is a 
very important feature. As regards the actual processes used 
in the shale districts in Scotland, but little information can be 
obtained, as the several companies there working are close cor- 
porations in so far as giving out information is concerned; but 
from the fact that the industry has been carried on for half a 
century continuously, and from the scale of profits which have 
been published, the enterprise in Scotland has clearly been a 
commercial success. The yield of oil from the Scotch shales now 
being worked is given as from 20 to rather more than 30 gallons 
per ton of shale, which as compared with the known oil contents 
of the bands in the Albert shales, which yield from 60 to more 
than 80 gallons per ton from beds equal in size to those of Scotland, 
and in some places even larger, is a very encouraging feature as 
regards the proposed development of the Albert county fields. 

Several years ago a series of analyses was made of the coals 
from the Minto coal basin in the Grand Lake district, which,*" as 
compared with the analysis of coal from Connellsville, Pa., give 
the following results: — 







Connellsville, Pa 




























Minerals of New Brunswick. 215 

The values of the oil-bands in the Albert shales from Balti- 
more, X.B., can be seen from the results obtained by analyses by 
Professor Hislop, of England, the test being made on a one ton 
sample, and by Dr. Charles Baskerville, of the college of the City 
of New York, on a sample of eighty pounds weight. 

The result of the former test is as follows: — 

Lubricating Oil 11 gals. 

Burning Oil 25 " 

Paraffin Wax 48 lbs. 

Sulphate of Ammonia 72 " 

The result of Dr. Baskerville's analysis is as follows: — 

Naptha 6 gals. 

Lubricating Oil 9 " 

Burning Oil 11 " 

Paraffin Oil 5 " 

By-products, containing tar, sulphur compounds, creosote, etc ... 31 " 

62 gals. 


Dr. Ells: — Might I ask Dr. Porter if he has any specimens 
from these New Brunswick seams in the experiments he is making. 

Dr. Porter: — We have some. 

Dr. Ells: — Have you made attempts at coking? 

Dr. Porter: — No, we have deferred that. 

Dr. Ells: — The most important of the bituminous rocks are 
the Albertite shales in Albert county. These form a belt extend- 
ing 60 or 70 miles from near St. John down to the easterly part 
of the province. They were opened first in 1852 on a vein of Al- 
bertite which ran for over half a mile with a width in places of 15 or 
16 feet. Although the greater portion of the Albert vein was 
long ago removed, and the works closed over a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago, other veins are known to exist in the area, and in the 
upper portion of the old workings a large mass of the mineral still 
remains untouched, owing to the fact that in the eastern half of 
the workings all that part above the 450 feet level was not ex- 
tracted. On the other and smaller veins nothing beyond shallow 
surface prospecting has been done, the uses to which the output 

216 The Canadian Mining Institute 

was formerly applied, which was chiefly as an enricher of bitu- 
minous coals in the manufacture of gas, having ceased. At the 
present time t'.ere appears to be no means by which Albertite 
can be utilized on the large scale, other than for the distillation 
of the contained bituminous matter in the form of oil, of which 
it contains over 100 gallons per ton. 

The Albert shale beds extend from east to west for over 70 
miles through the Counties of Westmoreland, Albert and Kings, 
and their peculiar features appear to be continuous throughout, 
though in certain portions the percentage of bituminous matter 
is much less than in the richer beds of Albert County. 

The yield of oil from the brown oil shale bands is somewhat 
more than 60 gallons per ton, while of the grey oil bands the yield 
by analysis is given at over 80 gallons. 

Extensive boring operations for oil in these shales have been 
carried on for many years, culminating some seven years ago in 
the formation of a new company, by whom control was obtained 
from the local government of the greater part of the supposed 
oil lands in the province. As a result over 70 holes were bored, 
principally in the area between the Memramcook and Petitcodiac 
rivers, on a somewhat broad belt of the shales, which extend across 
from Albert County. In one hole at least a reported depth of 
3,000 feet was reached, but no trace of oil was found. In about 
50 per cent, of the holes, oil in small quantities was met with, and 
since the closing down of boring operations a certain number of 
these have been pumped from time to time affording a small yield of 
crude petroleum and water, but in so far as can be learned none 
of these wells has as yet yielded oil in commercial quantities. 

Recently a new company has been organized with the object 
of producing oil by distillation from the bands of rich oil shales 
which, if properly conducted, should give satisfactory results. 

The percentage of oil is large, exceeding in amount that 
obtained from the shales of Scotland and England, which have 
been so extensively used for distillation for many years, and from 
which, to judge from the published reports on that industry, 
very large profits are obtained, even in the face of competition 
from Russia and the United States, while the value of the by- 
products is a very important feature. 

Minerals op New Brunswick. l'1 7 

The yield of oil from the Scotch shales now being worked ie 
given as from 20 to rather more than 30 gallons per ton of si ale, 
which, as compared with the known oil contents of the bands in 
the Albert shales, which yield from 60 to more tl an 80 gallons 
per ton from beds equal in size to those of Scotland, and in some 
places even larger, is a very encouraging feature as regards tl e 
proposed development of the Albert County fields. Recently 
50 tons lave been sent to Scotland for a thorough test, and tl is 
should be satisfactory. 

Major Leckie:— The value of this mineral depends very much 
on the manner in which it is treated. There are large deposits near 
the surface there which can be worked by steam shovel, and this coal 
if washed and briquctted would make a first-class fuel for loco- 
motive works, but if used as produced, when freed as much as 
possible from stone it makes an excellent gas producer for power 
purposes, quite as good as the coal of higher grade in Xova Scotia. 
The shales found in connection with the Albertite when treated 
in a gas producer will yield up their hydrocarbons and add to 
the product of the coal. It would not be waste material. I 
remember that a friend of mine, in St. John, mined and distilled 
the shales of Albert County a good many years ago. but after the 
discovery of the petroleum of Ontario and the United States, 
the works for the distillation of the si ales were abandoned. I 
understand that Mr. Pearson, of Halifax, and some others are 
reviving the idea of again treating these shales. Tl ere are very 
large quantities of them and they vary in richness at different 
points. I have seen these sbale deposits in Xew South Wales 
that have been referred to; some of these shales have been 
shipped all the way to England from Australia; some of 
them are high grade and some low grade. At our Quebec 
meeting some years ago Mr. Dowling read an interesting paper 
in which he pointed out the greater value of the lignites of the 
North- West by being treated not by firing direct in the furnace, 
but by conversion into gas. The moisture itself in a properly 
constructed gas producer can be so utilized in the destruction of 
the carbon that it will add very much to the quantity of effective 
gas. Perhaps this committee to be appointed by the President 
might bear in mind, when examining different kinds of coal, the 
purpose to which it can be best used and also the best mode 

218 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

of treating it. 

Mr. Coste. — May I say a few words upon something which 
does not appear to be covered by the paper and which I think is 
important. Dr. Ells has included the carbonaceous and bitu- 
minous minerals of New Brunswick in one paper and he gives us a 
great deal of valuable information about the coals and the bitu- 
minous shales of that Province. But I would like to point out the 
very great difference in the deposits between these two minerals. 
The coal is, of course, forming regular beds of a sedimentary basin, 
while the bituminous minerals are in veins like the Albertite vein 
and in impregnations through portions of the shales and other 
rocks in a very irregular manner and these bitumen deposits are 
along fissured zones or belts. The one mineral is entirely different 
from the other so far as the nature of the deposit is concerned. 
One quarry of oil shales might be opened in one horizon and another 
quarry in another horizon and neither of the horizons would be 
impregnated with oil in other places, as in the oil shales fields of 
Scotland, and, on the whole, the rich oil shales in New Brunswick 
are very irregularly distributed along several distinct belts. The 
bitumen in these shales is evidently a subsequent foreign impreg- 
nation, and as a proof of that I wish to point out, it is not only 
found in the Albert shales but it is also found in the lower carbon- 
iferous strata above and in the pre-Cambrian below, both of 
which formations are unconformable on the Albert Devonian 
shales. Surely, then, the bitumen or oil are impregnations subse- 
quent to the youngest formation or to the lower carboniferous and 
its origin cannot have anything to do with decomposition of or- 
ganic life in either of these formations. Of course coal will burn 
and so will the oil shale, but that is the only point of resemblance 
there is between them. When we consider the nature of the de- 
posits or their origin there is no resemblance. I would like also 
to emphasize the fact pointed out by Dr. Ells that the Albert 
shales impregnated by bitumen extend over a large area. Dr. 
Ells mentioned a distance of 70 miles which is a much longer belt 
than they have in Scotland, and as Dr. Ells has also pointed out, 
the Albert shales are richer in oil than the Scotch shales. 

Dr. Ells : — The vein-like nature of the Albertite is so well 
known and has been mentioned in so many papers that probably 
I did not mention it in this paper. 

Minerals of New Brunswick. 219 

Major Leckie: — The vein cuts the s! ale right across. It 
is a true vein, and is not impregnated from the shale. 

Mr. Coste: — I merely wanted to emphasize the great differ- 
ence between the two substances, coal and bitumen, as these two 
entirely different substances are generally confused, one for the 
other, and are also confused with organic matter. 


By D. B. Dowling, Ottawa, Ont. 

(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

Several schemes of classification have been advocated from 
time to time, and these have served the need of various regions, 
but no one so far seems to have been applicable to the majority 
of the coal fields of America. During the series of tests carried 
out by the U.S. Geological Survey very exhaustive analyses were 
made of a great variety of coals, and from the intimate knowledge 
of the coal fields and the mass of chemical results, Mr. Marius 
Campbell constructed a scale of relative values bound together 
by a simple ratio, namely, the total Carbon divided by the total 
Hydrogen in the fuel. To obtain this ratio it is necessary to have 
an ultimate analysis of the coal, and it is for this reason alone 
that the scheme outlined has for us little present value. 

A criticism of this classification appears in the Canadian 
Mining Journal for May 1st, 1907, by S. L. MacCallum. There 
are evidently some omissions in the published form as it is difficult 
to see what the substituted scheme means, and so its merits are 
not apparent. 

The Carbon-Hydrogen ratio proposed by Mr. Campbell is 
probably not far from the ideal, but, as remarked before, is not 
of present value, since of the hundreds of analyses of Canadian 
coals there are to be had only about ten ultimate analyses on which 
to work. Another objection might be taken from the prospector's 
standpoint. The ultimate analysis is a costly one and takes time, 
and if he has a great number of samples he will be impatient at 
the delay and also apprehensive as to the cost. The ordinary 
proximate analysis has from long usage become a pretty fair rough 
index of the value of the coal. 

To judge of the fitness of any scheme, it should be applied to 
the coals that we know, and so far the only scheme that we can 

Classification of Coal. 221 

try with a wide range of coals must be dependent on the proxi- 
mate analyses which we have in abundance, rather than the 
few ultimate ones. For this reason it seems possible to adopt 
some empirical rule by which the elements of a proximate 
analysis of an air-dried coal may be used, for such, I take it, our 
ordinary run of samples may be called. We have for comparison 
the St. Louis analyses of both air-dried and fresh from the mine 
coal, and the scale dependent on the Carbon-Hydrogen ratio. 
Applying the fuel ratio, the calorific ratio, etc., we find that the 
fuel ratio fails in the lignites. Also the hygroscopic moisture fails 
for the higher coals. The total volatile and fixed carbon ratio 
does not discriminate between the lignites and the softer dry coals. 

I have made several scales using proportionate parts of each 
of the items given in the proximate analyses, but the simplest 
that approximates to the Carbon-Hydrogen ratio is one that I 
have provisionally called the " split volatile " ratio. 

Fixed carbon + £ volatile combustible 

Moisture + \ volatile combustible. 

This scheme is not ideal, but will, I think, be useful as a rough 
working scale. 

The question then comes "How close does this work out using 
approximate analyses of air-dried coal as compared with that 
given by the Carbon-Hydrogen ratio? " From the annexed 
tables prepared from the St. Louis analyses and the few 
complete ones of Canadian coals, it will be seen that in 
the higher grades the agreement is very close as the ratio 
proposed is approximately more than double the fuel ratio, 
and therefore is in sympathy with the Pennsylvania practice. 

In the lower grades, where the water content is a high factor, 
this is given more prominence, and the results seem to conform 
quite closely to the order in which the calorific values run. In 
the middle of the scale there is considerable variance from the 
order of arrangement given by the Carbon-Hydrogen ratio, but 
in the comments on the tables several analyses are given to show 
that it is hard to say which order is preferable. 


The Canadian Mining Institute 


Classification of a Series of Coals, by Campbell's scheme, with Calorific and 

proposed ratios. 







H 2 0=JV 


Pennsylvania No. 3 












15 . 462 
































Arkansas No. 5 



W. Virginia No. 11 



Arkansas No. 1 


W. Virginia No. 10 


W. Virginia No. 6 : 



Old Man River No. 29 . . . 

Mill Creek No. 39. . . , 

W. Virginia No. 4 



W. Virginia No. 3 


W. Virginia No. 1 


W. Virginia No. 2 


Indian Terr. No. 2 



Kansas No. 1 



Upper Belly River No. 32 

Old Man River No. 31 

Bow River No. 28 



Old Man River No. 30 

Coal Banks Main Seam No. 26 
Missouri No. 1 


Kentucky No. 3 


Missouri No. 4 . . . , 


Iowa No. 2 



Indiana No. 2. . . . 


Belly River No. 22 . . 


Wyoming No. 2 


Montana No. 1 


Iowa No. 5 


New Mexico No. 1 



Texas No. 2 


South Saskatchewan No. 2 . . . . 

North Dakota No. 1 

Texas No. 1 

In the above table the U.S. coals are given the names used 
in the Report of the coal tests in Professional Paper No. 48. The 
Canadian coals, the number given in Report of Progress, G.S. 

Classification of Coal. 


C, 1882-84, part M. The caloric value in British thermal units 
is for theoretically clean coal, but in the Canadian tests a differ- 
ent calorimeter is used, and these may not be in accord with the 
scheme of values given the American coals. 

The same set of coals arranged in the order which they would 
take by the proposed "Split Volatile" ratio is shown in Table II., 
so that the two schemes may be better compared. 

Classification by Split Volatile Ratio. 

1 Pennsylvania No. 3. . . 

2 Arkansas No. 5 

3 W. Virginia No. 11 

4 W. Virginia No. 10. . . . 

5 Arkansas No. 1 

6 W. Virginia No. 6 

7 W. Virginia No. 4 

8 Old Man R.N.Br. 29 . . 

9 W.Virginia No. 3 

10 MH1 Creek No. 39 

11 W. Virginia No. 1 

12 In. Territory No. 2 

13 Nanaimo 33 

14 W. Virginia No. 2 

15 Old Man R. No. 30. . . . 

16 Old Man R. No. 31. ... 

17 Kansas No. 1 

18 Bow River No. 28 

19 Upper Belly R.32 

20 Missouri No. 1 

21 Kentucky No. 3 

22 Iowa No. 2 

23 Coal Banks No. 26 

24 Wyoming No. 2 

2.5 Montana No. 1 

26 Belly RiverXo. 22 

27 Indiana No. 2 

28 Missouri No. 4 . . 

29 Iowa No. 5 

30 New Mexico No. 1 

31 Texas No. 2. ■ 

32 S. Sask. No. 2 

33 N. Dakota No. 1 

34 Texas No. 1 

13.59 14 

10.40 15 

8.56 15 

8.48 15 
7.34 15 
7.34 15 
6.26 15 
5 . 69 15 
4.56 15 
4.53 15 

3.37 14 
3.29 15 
3.28 15 
3.10 14 
3.00 15 
2.98 14 
2.90 13 
2.87 14 
2.76 13 
2.69 13 
2.64 13 
2.62 12 
2.61 13 
2.53 12 

2.49 12 
2 . 46 13 
2.40 14 

2.38 12 
2 . 26 12 
1 97 10 
1.83 11 
1.52 11 
1 . 44 10 

906 26. 
270 20. 
786 19. 
927 18. 
393 18 
743 17. 
440 16. 
178 17. 
325 15 
072 16. 
129 14. 
624 14 
422 14 
048 14 
936 13 
462 13 
280 13 
872 13 
896 13 
997 12 
702 12 
471 12. 
376 13 
331 12 
139 11 
498 12, 
340 12 
276 12 
711 11. 
309 11 
881 10 
098 10 
465 10 
990 9 



































up 1 

down 1 

up 2 

down 1 

up 1 

down 2 

up 1 

up 1 

down 2 

up 4 

up 1 

down 2 

up 1 
up 1 
up 2 
down 3 
up 3 
up 3 

down 2 
down 5 

A. B.&C 

D. & E. 


































The Canadian Mining Institute 

In this table the arrangement is by the proposed Split Volatile 
ratio, and in the last three columns are given first the numbers 
of the arrangement in Table I. by the Carbon-Hydrogen ratio, with 
next the number of places the new scheme has shifted each item 
whether up or down. If it remains in same position in scale this 
is indicated by 0. The last column gives the group to which each 
item belonged in Table I. 

In studying this table it will be seen that no great disagree- 
ment occurs for the higher class coals, but that through the inter- 
mediate grades there is some transposition. Thus, Nos. 7 to 10 
appeared in Table I in the order 9, 7, 10 and 8 of Table II. To 
criticise the two arrangements the analyses are here given: — 





H 2 0. 

























15 . 325 









The order of precedence by Carbon-Hydrogen ratio is: 

























It is clear by the calorific values that neither scheme is quite 
right, but the rough method of Table II. does not seem to be out 
very much. 

The positions of the Canadian coals in the series are somewhat 
unsettled, but the two schemes of analysis may account for this. 
The Coal Banks sample is given a higher position by the C-H 
classification than it would have by either the "Split Volatile" 
ratio or the calorific value. 

The greatest change made in any of the items is No. 28, a 
coal from Morgan Co., Missouri, referred to as Missouri No. 4. 
This deposit is what might be called a freak coal. The bed is 
described as a pocket upwards of 60 feet thick, and the extent a 

Classification of Coal. 


few acres. The mine is not developed, and the coal seems to have 
characters that might point to a different life history than the 
ordinary coal seam. It is also quite evident that the Cannel coals 
cannot be classed by this method. 

Near the lower end of the scale the agreement is complete. 

The general result would seem to be near enough for provision- 
ally classing coals whose properties are known only by proximate 
analyses of air-dried samples. The last column of Table II. shows 
that the classes proposed by Mr. Campbell are not badly dis- 
arranged, although some interchanging is to be found at the 
limits of each class, but the groups can be distinguished. 

The names commonly used instead of the letters referred to 
above are generally acceptable, except perhaps the different sense 
in which semi-anthracite and semi-bituminous are used, and I 
would be glad to see the latter name disappear. 

The practice heretofore in classif}ing coals has depended 
almost entirely on the physical characters, such as for weathering 
flame, etc. 

Lignites are described as coals having a brownish powder, 
that do not remmain firm on exposure to dry air and stain a boiling 
solution of caustic potash a deep brownish red. 

Lignite Coals stand weathering better and do not colour a 
potash solution so deeply. 

Coals. —The lower grades impart a brownish yellow color to 
the potash solution, but withstand weathering. 

In the higher grades the distinctions are rather vague, but 
it is generally understood that anthracites burn with very little 

In classifying lignites by the potash solution we sometimes 
have coals that are clearly above that grade in other properties. 
One example of this might be cited, as it is Xo. 21 in the Survey 
Report above referred to. Xo. 21 is called a lignite, while Xo. 22 
is lignitic coal. The two analyses are: — 


Vol. Combust! 

Fixed Carb. 


Lipnitic Coal 







The Canadian Mining Institute 

The lignite stands weathering better than the lignitic coal. 
It is also dry, high in fixed carbon and has less ash. So the potash 
test is not always the best guide. 

The Canadian coals that have been selected for a list are 
pretty well known, and from them a scheme of names for classes 
and their limits is submitted below: — 


Seam A, Anthracite Mine, near Banff 

Cowgitz, Queen Charlotte Islands 

Bankhead, Seam No. 2, B level 

Canmore Mine, Seam No. 3 , 

Hooper Creek, Skidegate Channel, Q.C.Is. . . 
Canmore Mine, Seam No. 1 , 

Canmore Mine, Sedlock Prospect 

Sheep Creek, Burn's Location , 

Canmore Mine, Seam No. 2 

Morrissey, Seam No. 2 , 

Canmore Mine, Seam No. 4 

Canmore Mine, Seam No. 5 

Canmore Mine, Seam No. 6 

Coal Creek, Fernie, No. 4 

Coleman, Coking Seam 

Michel Mine, No. 3 

Morrissey Seam, No. 1 , 

Coal Creek, Fernie, Mine No. 2 

North Fork, Old Man River, near Mts 

Union Mine, Comox, B.C 

Coleman Steam Coal 

Acadia Coal Co., Ford Pit, Pictou, N.S 

Hub Seam, Sydney, N.S 

Hare wood Mine, Comox, B.C 

Wellington Mine, Nanaimo, B.C 

Pincher Creek, Alta 

Coal Creek, Bow River , 

Coal Banks, Main Seam, near Lethbridge. . , 
Belly River, 5 miles below Little Bow River 

Blackfoot Crossing, Little Bow River 

Seam below Edmonton 

Red Deer River, Coal Banks Seam 

South Saskatchewan, near Stair 

Sutherland's Mine, Souris River 

Mouth of Long Creek, Souris River 












High Carbon 


Low Carbon 

Lignitic Coal. 


Classification* of Coal. 


The scale I propose would be that coals whose proximate 
analyses were obtainable, be classed by dividing the fixed carbon 
and half the volatile combustible matter by the moisture and half the 
combustible matter, and arranging the ratio thus obtained under 
the following classes : — 



St mi- Anthracite 

A nthraeitic Coal 

High Carbon Bituminous 


Low Carbon Bituminous 

Liqnitic Coal 

L ignite 


















Mr. J. C. Murray: — I presume your ratio would fluctuate 
with the physical conditions; because in the matter of size, and 
in the matter of weathering, the samples of coal would not have 
equal absorbing powers. 

Mr. Dowlixg: — The fluctuation for fresh coals would be very 
slight, as the air drying could be done on coal ground to a standard 
size. The large coal takes longer to lose the moisture than the 
smaller size. For weathered coal the impression is general that 
the coal has lost in volatile matter; but the evidence gained from 
experimentation is conflictory; in some instances the outcrop 
showing more volatile matter than the unweathered portions. 
This might form a subject for investigation for the Mines Branch 
of the Department of Mines. Weathered specimens also show a 
marked decline in calorific value from those obtained from inside 
the mine. 

Dr. Stansfield (McGill University) : — Can you say how far 
these figures would vary according to the time of the year? 

Mr. Dowlixg : — I would not like to give any figures for that ; 
but in the American reports you will find some tables showing the 

228 The Canadian Mining Institute 

difference and it practically varies with the moisture in the at- 
mosphere. Coal will dry to the humidity of the air and no more. 

Dr. Stansfield: — Would it not be desirable to have some- 
thing more definite than merely air drying in giving a scheme 
of classification? 

Mr. Dowling: — It certainly would, but my trouble is that 
the analyses I have are dated from 1859 to 1903 or 1904 and I do 
not know the conditions under which they were collected nor 
under which the analyses were made. The American specimens 
are possibly sealed and shipped direct from the mine and then are 
weighed and air dried immediately to ascertain the loss. 

Dr. Porter : — I may say that a series' of tests on a consider- 
able scale is now being carried out at McGill University, under the 
auspices of the Dominion Government, and I am able to make 
some explanation of the methods which we have found it expedi- 
ent to follow in connection with this matter of air drying. We 
find, as would be expected, that a sample of coal air dried under one 
condition of atmosphere and temperature gives an altogether dif- 
ferent result from a sample of coal dried under other conditions. 
After a considerable series of experiments we have found it ex- 
pedient to arrange a dry box or cupboard in which the temperature 
is kept uniform and in which the degree of moisture is kept ap- 
proximately constant by means of a chemical solution. We can- 
not keep it absolutely constant, but we maintain a very even tem- 
perature and secure an almost perfectly constant humidity by 
means of a solution which, if the degree of moisture falls below a 
certain point, yields moisture to the air in the box, whereas if it 
rises it absorbs it. All the samples are kept under these conditions 
until they arrive at a uniform weight. 

This method is not perfect because if we had adopted some dif- 
ferent temperature and some different degree of moisture we should 
have different results, but it is the most practical plan we have 
been able to work out and it will make the results Of the series of 
tests which are now going on accurately comparable one with 
another; and as we use average room temperature and humidity, 
it will, I think, give them great value for practical purposes. I should 
like to be able to give you further information in regard to this 
work, but it is as yet in such an unfinished state that it seems 
scarcely proper to do so, and I am sure the Government would 

Classification* of Coal. 229 

not wish us to go off at half cock. All I can say is that we are 
working in the line of the work that has already been done by the 
United States. We are not so rich a country and are not able to 
spend as vast sums as they are expending, but we are trying to do 
our work, at least, quite as well. Indeed, it should be better, 
because we have the advantage of their experience to go upon, 
and assuming equality of ability and earnestness we should pro- 
duce results which will be free from some of the errors of ti eir 
work. At all events our investigation will be a serious attempt 
at a careful and correct and reasonably complete study, both scien- 
tific and technical, of the coals of Canada. I look upon Mr. Dowling 
in the work he has been doing with our coals as our best friend, 
and as the man who has done more than any one else as yet to 
make a really scientific study of the coals of Canada. (Applause.) 

The President: — In respect to the assaying of coal, I have 
often noticed in the course of our work in British Columbia that 
no two assays even of the same sample would tally. It is quite 
evident that the various assayers use different methods for deter- 
mining the constituents of coal. It struck me that it might be a 
good thing for the Institute to appoint a committee to take the 
matter in hand, and, at the next annual meeting, recommend an 
uniform system of assaying coal, as that recommended by the 
Canadian Mining Institute, so that all our coal assays would be 
comparable and this is certainly not the case at the present time. 
That Committee might also include coke within the scope of its 
investigation (hear, hear). 

Mr. J. C. Murray: — The chief source of error in the proximate 
analysis of coals comes in during the determination of volatile 
combustibles. The usual practice calls for three and a half min- 
utes over the ordinary bunsen flame and three and a half minutes 
blast. The length of flame, height of support, protection of flame, 
etc., are most important factors. So varying is laboratory prac- 
tice in these respects that I doubt whether any two determina- 
tions of volatile combustibles made in different laboratories would 
agree. In my own work I have found the Chaddoek burner the 
best means of standardizing conditions. The blast is not to my 
mind a necessity. It introduces mechanical errors and is never 

Dr. Porter: — The President has suggested that it would be 

230 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

well to have a committee of the Institute to try to arrive at a 
standard method of coal analysis which could be followed by all 
analysts. That is a very desirable thing. Anyone who is making 
a study of coals finds great difficulty in interpreting reports of an- 
alyses because of methods at present in use. I spoke a moment 
ago of our work in connection with the coal tests undertaken for 
the Mines Department. We have a specially trained chemist who 
has for years been working exclusively on coals and who is giving 
this subject most earnest study. We have at last arrived at a series 
of methods which seem to be the most satisfactory we can get, and 
I am quite sure that I shall be granted permission to give all our 
results and methods to a committee, if one is appointed, as I hope 
it will be, and I think in the end we can arrive at methods which 
will be simple enough to be easily followed by any chemist and yet 
be far more satisfactory than those commonly used at present. 

Mr. Murray has spoken of one of the evils of the proxirrate 
analysis but there are others. The classification referred to by 
Mr. Dowling, which is Mr. Campbell's method of interpreting ulti- 
mate analyses, seems to be the best yet devised. The proximate 
analyses as ordinarily done cannot be made a standard owing to 
unavoidable errors. On the other hand absolute accuracy is un- 
necessary in many cases, especially in works practice, because usu- 
ally the works themselves make tests in their own laboratory, and 
although a chemist here and another chemist there cannot get 
uniform results by the proximate method, a chemist working in 
any one laboratory and with the same appliances does get fairly 
uniform results which are perfectly satisfactory for the compari- 
sons and control of routine operations. 

Mr. J. C. Murray: — In view of the President's suggestion I 
have much pleasure in moving that a committee of the Institute 
be appointed, consisting of five members, to take up the matter of 
standardizing the methods of coal analysis. 

Dr. Stansfield seconded the motion, which was agreed to. 

The President: — I will consider the matter and announce 
the names of a committee at a later meeting. 


By E. Nystrom, Ottawa, Ont. 

(By permission of the Director of the Mines Branch of the 
Department of Mines.) 

The utilization of the peat bogs in Canada has so far been 
rather neglected. Attempts have been made, however, to manu- 
facture peat fuel (mostly peat briquettes), but in most cases these 
attempts have been of a more or less experimental character, and 
very little peat fuel has been placed on the market. 

In certain European countries, on the other hand, peat is 
used to a large extent, and the manufacture of air-dried peat fuel 
there is a sound business proposition. The conditions in Canada 
for this manufacture are quite as favourable as those in Europe, 
and in many cases even better, on account of the longer and 
hotter summers. With suitable methods and machinery, and 
especially where other fuels are comparatively expensive, the 
manufacture of peat fuel in Canada ought to be a paying under- 

It must be remembered, however, that a careful investi- 
gation of the nature and extent of the bog, as well as of local 
conditions, such as labour and market, are of the utmost import- 
ance, and these factors should be carefully considered before 
operations are started. 

Tests made with different fuels have demonstrated that the 
fuel value of one ton of ordinary coal is equal to that of 1 . 8 tons 
of air-dried machine peat or to that of 2.5 tons of wood. 

The different methods and machinery used in Europe and the 
results there obtained are fully described in the report on peat 
which will shortly be issued by the Mines Branch of the Depart- 
ment of Mines, Ottawa. 

In this paper attention will only be drawn to certain methods 
permitting the utilization of peat bogs on a larger scale. 

232 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Generation of Electric Energy. — The most rational utilization 
of peat bogs is probably by the generation of electric energy at 
power plants located close to the bogs. In this case the bulky 
peat fuel needs to be transported only a comparatively short 
distance without re-handling. Another important factor is that 
peat fuel in the producers employed can be used with a moisture 
content of 40-45%, whereby the dependence on favorable drying 
conditions is considerably decreased. A peat fuel with a content 
of 20-30% moisture is, however, to be recommended whenever 
it can be obtained. 

The firm Gebriider Korting, of Hanover, Germany, has so 
far erected the greatest number of peat gas plants. These plants 
are located in Sweden, the oldest one of 300 h.p., at Skabersjo, 
and the newest one, of 1,000 h.p., at Wisby. 

The principal parts of such a plant are: gas producer, scrub- 
ber, saw dust filter, gas engine and dynamo. 

The gas producer is a suction producer in which the gases 
drawn off from the freshly charged peat are drawn from the upper 
part of the producer through the grate and carbonized fuel bed 
in the lower part to the gas outlet placed a little below the middle 
of the shaft. By this arrangement most of the water vapours and 
heavy hydrocarbons contained in these gases are decomposed into 
permanent gases, and the carbon dioxide mostly reduced to mon- 
oxide. The gases pass from the producer through the scrubber 
and saw dust filter to the gas engine. 

At Skabersjo the consumption of peat, containing 32.3% 
moisture, and with a calorific value of 5,364 B.T.U., was three lbs. 
per eff. h.p. hour. The gas produced had then an average calor- 
ific value of 132 B.T.U. per cubic foot. 

The consumption of peat with a maximum content of 30% 
moisture and a calorific value of 5,400 B.T.U., is now guaranteed, 
with full load on the engine, not to exceed 2.2 lbs. per eff. h.p. 

Lately experiments with a view of first saving the ammonia 
contained in the gases before they are used in the gas engines have 
been carried out by Dr. Caro at a Mond producer plant in England, 
and the results there obtained are said to be very satisfactory. 

Manufacture of Peat Coke. — In older days peat coke was 
manufactured in the same manner as charcoal, either by coking 

The Utilization of Peat 233 

in heaps or in ovens discontinuous in their operation. These 
methods were wasteful and at the best only a small part of the 
by-products was saved. At present the method invented by the 
German engineer, M. Ziegler, is the one mostly employed, and 
undoubtedly the one best suited for this purpose. 

Ziegler employs retorts or ovens continuous in their operation 
and saves all the by-products. 

The retorts are heated from the outside by means of the 
non-condensible gases obtained through the dry distillation of 
the peat. These non-condensible gases are quite sufficient for 
this purpose and, as a rule, where several retorts are employed, an 
excess of gas is obtained, which can be Used for the operation of 
gas engines or other purposes. The retorts are charged at certain 
intervals with fresh peat bricks (air-dried machine peat contain- 
ing not more than 25% moisture) and the coke is also drawn off 
at fixed intervals into air-tight steel cars, where it is left until 
thoroughly cooled. 

The peat coke, if made from suitable peat, is comparable 
with charcoal, and can be used in blast furnaces or for other 
metallurgical purposes. 

The following analysis shows the average composition of 
good peat coke: 

Carbon 87.8% 

Hydrogen 2.0" 

Nitrogen 1.3" 

Oxygen 5.5" 

Sulphur 0.3" 

Aih 3.2" 

Calorific value about 14,100 B.T.U. 

At present three peat coking plants employing the Ziegler 
ovens are in operation, viz., at Oldenburg and Beuerberg, in 
Germany, and at Redkino in Russia. 

234 The Canadian Mining Institute 

The Oldenburg plant was investigated on behalf of the 
Prussian Government, and the following results were obtained: 

Analysis of the peat used — 

Carbon 35.3% 

Hydrogen 3.4" 

Nitrogen 0.7" 

Sulphur 0.1" 

Oxygen 28.4" 

Ash 0.9" 

Moisture 31.0" 

Per 100 tons of such peat were obtained: 

27.3 tons peat coke (dry). 

4.5 tons tar. 
31.2 tons tar water (not diluted). 
37.0 " gases (without air). 

The tar produced: 

2 tons light oils. 

0.7 " heavy oils. 

0.3 " paraffin. 

1.3 " phenol. 

0.2 " asphalt. 

The tar water produced: 

0.34 tons methyl alcohol. 
0.16 " ammonia. 
0.44 " acetic acid. 

Three tons of air-dried peat are, as a rule, required per ton 
peat coke. M. Ziegler has also invented retorts in which the peat 
is only partly carbonized. The product then obtained is called 
peat half coke, and is used as fuel under boilers and similar 

In this case 44-48% of the peat charged is obtained as half 
coke. The commercial manufacture of peat coke on a large scale 
is naturally dependent on the market for the by-products; where 
these can be advantageously disposed of, the manufacture of peat 
coke ought to be a paying proposition. 

The Utilization of Peat 235 

The Wet Carbonizing Process. — A promising method invented 
by Dr. M. Ekenberg for the manufacture of peat fuel is at present 
being introduced. 

This method is called the wet carbonizing process, and its 
principal features are as follows: — 

The wet peat as it comes from the bog is put through a special 
pulping machine and is conveyed from there by means of a pump 
to a carbonizing oven. The oven consists of a number of double 
pipes. The wet peat mass containing some 85-90% moisture 
is forced in between the pipes and is moved forward by pressure 
and by the revolving inner pipe, which is provided with a screw 
thread. At the end opposite to where the mass is brought in is 
a fire box, and the temperature there is highest. The carbonizing 
takes place at a temperature of 150-175° centigrade, but in order 
that no steam may be formed, which would necessitate the pro- 
duction of the heat required to transform the water into steam 
of the same temperature (latent heat) a sufficient pressure, 5-10 
atmospheres, is maintained. One half of the pipe system works 
on the same principle as a recuperator. The heat in the outgoing 
mass is here transmitted to the incoming mass, and a compara- 
tively small loss of heat is obtained. The water in the peat mass 
acts as a heat conducting medium, and a uniform charring is 
obtained throughout the whole mass. 

The carbonized mass is pressed in special filter presses, and 
product then obtained is further artificially dried and briquetted. 

The peat fuel obtained by this method has a calorific value 
approaching that of ordinary coal, and does not absorb moisture. 

The greatest advantage with this method is, however, the 
independence of favourable weather conditions for drying, and the 
possibility of working (he bog the greater part of the year. 

H. P. H. Brumell, Buckingham, Que. 

(Ottawa Meeting, 1908.) 

Outside of those directly interested in the mining or geology 
of graphite the impression seems to prevail that this mineral 
invariably occurs in veins or non-descript masses. In view of 
the fact that all our deposits of permanent value are those of 
disseminated ore, the writer has undertaken to put together this 
brief paper on the subject with the hope that those interested 
in the industry will devote a little more attention to the develop- 
ment of some of our enormous deposits of comparatively low 
percentage disseminated ore, rather than to. the exploitation of 
the higher percentage, and almost invariably erratic, deposits of 
so-called " pure lump." 

The only ore under consideration in this paper is that found 
in the Archsean rocks from which, solely, do we obtain any of the 
crystalline or flake variety, and the area covered will be that in 
which so much work has been done in the counties of Labelle 
and Argenteuil, in the Province of Quebec. In the former county 
.the graphite is found most prominently in a more or less wide 
band of gneiss appearing near the front of the township of Temple- 
ton from whence it extends in a north north-easterly direction 
into the township of Buckingham between the fourth and tenth 
ranges across which it sweeps, in a general easterly direction, into 
the township of Lochaber, where it turns again to the north-east, 
and so passes into the township of Mulgrave. In the county of 
Argenteuil the graphite occurs, almost invariably, in the lime- 
stones which are very strongly developed in the township of 
Grenville and those townships to the north. These bands of 
limestone are bounded by the large porphyry and syenite mass to 
the east, and by the granites of the Rouge River to the west. It 
will thus be seen that hi these two counties the mineral occurs 

Occurrence of Canadian Graphite. lMT 

in two very distinctly different rocks. Not only do the rocks 
differ, but the ore also, that of Labelle county being mainly a 
disseminated one, while that of Argenteuil occurs in veins and 
segregated masses; although the limestones, in the vicinity of 
these deposits, are often impregnated with disseminated scales 
of graphite to a considerable distance from the ore bod) r . 

To treat the subject in a broad sense and for convenience in 
this paper, the modes of occurrence may be briefly summarized 
as follows : — 

1st. As disseminated ore, where the graphite occurs in 
small, bright, scaly crypt o-cryst all ine particles, in a grey or 
red weathering gneiss, the particles lying parallel to the 
apparent stratification, or in larger similar particles in 
quart zite, pyroxenite or coarse grained granite. 

2nd. In the form of true fissure veins, usually cutting 
dioritc or other eruptives. 

3rd. As veins or irregular masses and contact deposits 
in limestone. 

Of these three very distinct modes of occurrence the most 
important is, beyond all doubt, the first. These gneisses are 
very distinctly foliated and consist essentially of quartz and 
orthoclase with sillimanite, hornblende, pyroxene and pyrite, 
the latter mineral on weathering giving a reddish rusty appear- 
ance to the rocks. Interstratified with the gneisses are bands 
of crystalline limestone, frequently lenticular and not usually of 
great thickness. Dr. R. W. Ells — "Bulletin on Graphite" — 
says of the disseminated ores of Labelle county: — "The occurrence 
and association of the mineral are to a large extent the same 
at most of the places indicated. Certain local conditions are 
found here and there which must be considered in any mining 
scheme proposed, but generally it may be said that the chief 
attention as regards future developments must be made in con- 
nection with large bodies of the disseminated flake graphite, as 
promising the most steadfast returns. Though the vein form 
frequently occurs at most of the points where attempts to work 
the graphite have been made, and has shown in such cases a mineral 
of great purity, the uncertainty of such deposit is such that, by 
itself, the employment of capital on a large scale would scarcely 
be warranted 

238 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

"The most persistent of the graphite deposits, however, are 
those which are found as disseminated flake. In the Buckingham 
district this variety is found usually in the grey mica gneiss in 
bands or beds which sometimes have a thickness of from ten to 
fifteen feet, or in places even more as well as in limestone. In 
some of these beds the graphite is very thickly distributed, and 
the rock is quite black from its presence, indicating a high per- 
centage of the mineral. Several assays were made by Dr. Hoff- 
mann in the Survey laboratory some years ago, which were 
published in the report for 1876-77, and are as follows: — 

'A specimen of disseminated ore from lot 28, range VI, 
Buckingham, owned by the Montreal Plumbago Company, the 
sample being regarded as a fan average of one of the largest and 
most extensively worked beds in the area with a breadth of 
eight feet, gave by assay, graphite, 27.518; rock matter, 72.438 
per cent. A sample from lot 22, range VI, Buckingham Mining 
Company, gave graphite 22.385, rock matter, 75.875 per cent. 
Specimens from lot 20, range VIII, gave graphite 23.798, rock 
matter, 75.026 per cent.; and from lot 23, range VI, graphite 
30.516, rock matter, 69.349 per cent. In all the above occur- 
rences the amount of disseminated ore seems to be large, and in 
some the presence of the vein variety is also recognized. 

'It must not be supposed that all the disseminated ore 
occurs in beds equally as rich as those just mentioned, but at 
very many points deposits exist which give amounts of flake 
from large bodies of ore, which range from 10 to 15 per cent, or 
even higher.'". 

The foregoing is a very terse and accurate statement of facts 
and it is to ores of this description that the energies of those at 
present engaged in the business are being bent. Already several 
extensive and characteristic deposits have been developed, not- 
ably those of the late North American Graphite Company, the 
Buckingham Graphite Company and the Bell Mines, all in 
Buckingham township, on whose properties are one or more 
extensive beds of graphitic gneiss, assaying from 20 to 30 per cent, 
of graphitic carbon. 

A very noticeable characteristic of most of the beds in the 
district is found at or near their contact with any of the later 
eruptives where there is usually a very pronounced enrichment in 

Occurrence of Canadian Graphite. 239 

graphite. This phase of the subject, however, need not be dwelt 
upon here. 

Regarding the second or vein form of occurrence but little 
need be said except that the deposits are true fissure veins, usually, 
in Labelle county, in diorite, at times continuing into the gneiss; 
in rare instances these veins have been noted in granite, pegmatite, 
pyroxenite and felsite. The graphite, which is of exceptional 
purity, occurs in fibrous and foliated forms, the fibres and plates 
lying at right angles to the enclosing walls, though in some rare 
instances the fibres and plates occur almost parallel to the walls 
and have the appearance of having drawn out by some dynamic 
action. In the latter instance the ore is usually harsh and lack- 
lustre. In one of the many veins opened on Lake Terror, where 
the ore occurs in a felsite, a vein of fibrous graphite about two 
inches in width gave every evidence of intense lateral pressure, 
the fibres being bent at the centre forming an angle of about 60° 
without breaking the fibre. Of the purity of the vein graphite of 
Labelle county, the following assays by G. C. Hoffmann bear ample 

"Vein graphite, foliated. — From a vein running through lots 
twenty-one and twenty-two of the seventh range of Buckingham. 
The structure of this graphite was massive, dense, made up of 
broad and thick laminae. Color dark steel-gray. Lustre metallic. 
Specific gravity 2.2689, (containing 0.147 per cent. ash). Its 
composition was found to be as follows: — 

Carbon 99.675 

Ash 0.147 

Volatile matter . 178 


"Vein graphite, columnar. — From the twenty-seventh lot 
of the sixth range of Buckingham. Structure of the graphite, 
compact, columnar; the columnar structure is usually erect, and at 
right angles to the surface upon which it occurs; in some instances, 
however, it is curved as though from pressure. The graphite breaks 
readily in the direction of the structure into more or less angular 
aggregates, each aggregate being made up of thin, narrow foliae of 
very uniform width. The length of the columns varied in different 

240 The Canadian Mining Institute 

specimens from about one and a half to eight centimetres. In this 
specimen the foreign mineral matter was very evenly distributed 
through the structure of, and as a film upon, the graphite, so that on 
incineration the residual ash formed a tolerably perfect cast of the 
fragment employed. Color of untarnished foliae, dark steel- 
grey. Lustre metallic. Specific gravity 2.2679 (containing 
1 . 780 per cent. ash). Its composition was found to be as follows: — 

Carbon 97.626 

Ash 1.780 

Volatile matter . 594 


Economically this form of graphite has not proved itself of 
value. The veins are small and very irregular, in no instance ex- 
hibiting any appreciable degree of persistence as to size, veins 
which, on discovery, appeared to warrant systematic operations, 
invariably pinching out or running off into numerous small 
pockets and stringers. Many attempts have been made to 
operate these deposits, but in no instance, within the knowledge 
of the writer, has the venture proved profitable. 

In treating of the third mode of occurrence, that of deposits in 
crystalline limestone, as illustrated by all of those of Argenteuil 
county, it is, by reason of the small amount of development work 
done, extremely difficult to accurately describe the ore bodies. 
Scattered through the limestone are numerous irregular masses of 
a very pure foliated graphite, at time having all the appearance of 
true veins, though more frequently appearing as contact deposits 
in the neighborhood of small eruptive masses and dykes which cut 
the limestones at many points. 

In writing of the property of the National Graphite Company 
lot 9, range V, Grenville township, Dr. R. W. Ells describes a very 
typical deposit as follows: — 

" The country rock is for the most part crystalline limestone 
which is cut by granite and other intrusives. The graphite usually 
occurs irregularly at, or near, the contact of the limestone with 
granite or diabase dykes, both rocks being present in the openings, 
also in irregular vein forms which are massive rather than columnar 

Occurrence of Canadian Graphite. 241 

in character, ranging in thickness from fifteen inches to two feet. 
These are not solid, but apparently sometimes in dyke matter. 

''Several openings have been made on the property. In the 
main pit the rocks are limestone with bands of rusty gneiss 
which are traversed by a white granite dyke and this in turn by a 
dyke of light green diabase. The graphite occurs principally in 
two irregular veins, and also in the granite mass, and there is a 
small vein on the edge of the diabase. The veins are shattered and 
mixed with a whitish, sometimes reddish, granite. 

"The granitic looking rock has somewhat the aspect of a vein 
in some respects rather than a true dyke. It carries several min- 
erals including scapolite, hornblende, graphite, pyroxene, pyrite, 
apatite and others. South of the principal opening, where mining 
has been carried on, the surface rocks for some distance appear to be 
all limestone, and in several small prospecting pits, sunk in this 
rock, a small percentage of disseminated flake graphite was obser- 

The ore of Argenteuil county is of a very high degree of purity 
as is evidenced by the following assays by G. C. Hoffmann: — 

" Vein graphite, foliated. From the north half of the third lot 
of the second range of the Augmentation of Grenville. An ex- 
posure here was at one time mined to a small extent. At the 
opening of the excavation it showed a thickness of about ten in- 
ches, but the pure graphite was found to form a lenticular mass 
which appeared to be separated from other masses of the same 
character by intervals, in which the graphite became intermixed 
with the limestone. Structure massive, dense, made up of broad 
and thick lamina?, closely interlocking each other at diverging 
angles, thus presenting a radiated arrangement, the sides of the 
vein forming the basal line. Color, dark steel-grey. Lustre metal- 
lic. Specific gravity 2.2714 (containing 0.076 per cent. ash). Its 
composition was found to be as follows: — 

Carbon 99 . 815 

Ash 0.07G 

Volatile matter . 109 



242 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

"Vein graphite, columnar. From lot one of the sixth range 
of the Augmentation of Grenville. Structure massive, dense, 
made up of stout, narrow laminae, interlocking each other at such 
an angle as to present an almost columnar appearance. In parts, 
viz., those in closest proximity to the vein rock, this structure was 
so fine as to appear coarsely fibrous. Color, dark steel-grey. Lus- 
tre metallic. Specific gravity 2.2659 (containing 0.135 per cent. 
ash). An analysis showed it to contain: — 

Carbon 99 . 757 

Ash 0.135 

Volatile matter 0. 108 


The graphite, as well as occurring in veins and contact deposits 
of various forms, is found at times in the limestone in the shape of 
almost perfect spheres, concretionary in form, the plates or fibres 
of graphite radiating from a centre consisting of a small particle of 
quartz or other foreign mineral. These concretionary spheres range 
in size from about one-tenth of an inch to two inches in diameter, 
and do not appear to follow any apparent bedding of the lime- 
stone, but to be scattered irregularly therein. 

In summing up the three modes of occurrence it is not thought 
necessary to draw attention to specific failures to operate profitably 
the last two classes of deposits, but it may be said, in a general way, 
that, without exception, no deposit of vein or "pure lump" 
graphite has been found, on development, to be worthy of con- 
sideration as a commercial venture. 

This conclusion was foreshadowed by Sir W. E. Logan who, in 
1866, concluded his report to the Geological Survey by saying: — 
"The veins of this mineral hitherto found in the rocks of this 
country, although affording a very pure material, appear to be too 
limited and too irregular to be exclusively relied on for mining pur- 
poses, which should rather be directed to making available the large 
quantities of graphite, which, as we have seen, are disseminated in 
certain beds. " 

Occurrence of Canadian Graphite, 24)> 


Mr. Obalski: — This has been a very interesting paper, the 
more so as it has been read by one of our recognized authorities 
on Canadian graphite. It appears that we have in Canada large 
resources in graphite of good quality, and I would like, there- 
fore, to ask Mr. Brumell why there should have been so mam- 
failures in an industry which promises so well? 

Mr. Brumell: — Mr. Obalski asks a very comprehensive 
question, which I will try and answer in a few words. I object 
to the word "failure," as our business has not yet reached success 
publicly, though we have demonstrated to ourselves that we can 
produce high-grade graphite commercially. The prime reason 
of our non-success in the past is the fact that our ore is essentially 
a milling and not a shipping one, the industry, in point of fact, 
being a milling rather than a mining one. The problem of 
separation is not a simple one, and we have been working on 
it for many years. In the early '60 's separation was made by 
the old Cornish system of buddling, upon which we Lave been 
steadily improving, until to-day by more complicated mechanical 
means we are producing stuff of a higher percentage than that 
from any other portion of the world. I refer, of course, only to 
that variety of graphite treated in my paper, namely, flake. Dur- 
ing the early days of the industry it suffered from bad manage- 
ment, ignorance of milling practice and unscrupulous business 
methods, coupled with a very decided prejudice in favor of the 
Ceylon product, which occurs in lump form of great purity, re- 
quiring no further treatment than crushing, grinding and sizing 
for the various uses to which it is put. This latter, combined 
with cheap native labor, cheap ballast freight rates and a small 
market, were difficult to overcome, but by dint of perseverance 
and the expenditure of large amounts of capital we have succeeded 
in producing and marketing profitably the highest grade of graph- 
ite on the market to-day. We have now passed the experimental 
stage and are simply awaiting the necessary working capital to 
enable us to proceed and operate extensively the properties and 
mills already developed, and I find that capital is very shy when 
it has to deal with an industry which had earned such a bad name 
as had ours. 

244 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Mr. Cirkel: — I would like to ask Mr. Brumell whether, as 
a general rule, the richness of the graphite deposits close to the 
eruptive dikes to which he refers, is such as to invite work. Mr. 
Brumell states that this is a common feature in the case of dis- 
seminated graphite. 

Mr. Brumell:— I should say most decidedly so. If a pros- 
pector goes into a district where the rocks are disturbed by erup- 
tive masses he will find, in Labelle county, a very decided enrich- 
ment at or near the point of contact. Bands which run from 10 
to 12% away from these points are often enriched to as high as 
45%, which is very high. At times where the diorites cut the 
gneisses you will find veins of pure graphite extending out of the 
dyke into the gneiss itself. 

Dr. Barlow: — These gneisses are those belonging to the 
Grenville series and represent the extreme phases of the re- 
crystallization of slaty rocks containing a considerable amount 
of bituminous matter. The bituminous matter in the Hastings 
series has been altered into this graphite, which often forms an 
important constituent of the sillimanite gneiss. Through central 
Ontario very frequently there is more or less graphite found in 
this gneiss, but it has apparently not reached that stage of en- 
richment in which it becomes really the ore. 

Mr. Coste: — I would like to emphasize the conclusion to be 
drawn from the distinctive fact observed and well brought out 
by Mr. Brumell, that the gneiss and limestone or other rocks in 
contact with the eruptive rocks are very much enriched with 
graphite. This shows conclusively that the old idea of consider- 
ing graphite as a product of organic matter must be given up. 
From what I read and see I conclude more and more every day 
that most of the deposits of carbon in our rock strata, except 
coal, are due to emanations from the interior of the earth of 
hydrocarbons, just the same as many of the deposits of salts, 
metals and sulphur are due to emanations of chlorides, sulphides 
and other gases or vapors in conjunction with the coming into 
the strata of igneous or volcanic rocks. Magmatic gases and 
vapors, as it is now conclusively proven, contain in a high degree 
hydrocarbons, and all the facts elucidated in the field indicate 
that this graphitic gneiss is nothing else than an old sandstone 
impregnated with vapors of hydrocarbons changed to graphite. At 

Occurrence of Canadian Graphite. 245 

the meeting of this morning I pointed out that we had a similar 
phenomenon in the Albert shales of New Brunswick which were, 
subsequently to their formation, impregnated with hydrocarbons 
as well as the other formations of that district, and all these 
formations are also there cut up by solid hydrocarbon veins. 
There the final stage in which we find the hydrocarbon vapors 
are Albertite veins or impregnated oil shales. In less altered 
Paleozoic rocks, such as in Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Vir- 
ginia, and in younger formations such as the Tertiary of Cali- 
fornia, we find the hydrocarbon emanations in extensive oil and 
gas deposits, which are evidently also extraneous impregnations 
of porous rocks along fissured lines and fissured belts, or as in 
Texas and Louisiana, regular mud volcanoes or salses not extinct 
yet as much of the oil or the salt waters found in connection 
with the oil in these States are hot at the present time. 

Mr. Brumell:— I do not agree with Mr. Coste's views that 
the origin of graphite and natural gas is similar. When he refers 
to the origin of graphite as being inorganic then I most decidedly 
agree with him. It seems to me that such a change as he describes 
should take place where the erupt ives cut the gneisses at which 
points the graphite is found in greatest quantities. Where eruptives 
cut the limestone there is invariably found a silicate of lime, and 
in our gneisses, which are calcareous, and where there are large 
quantities of iron pyrites, you will find sulphate of lime. I would 
therefore suggest that these masses, in conjunction with silicious 
or other waters, acted upon the original rocks and freeing the 
carbon while forming sulphates and silicates redeposited the car- 
bon as graphite in the rock. In the Grenville field tie limestones 
where not graphitic near the eruptive masses are reticulated with 
veins or vein-like deposits carrying tremolite, scapolite, wollas- 
tonite, hornblende, pyroxene, titanite, zircon and other silicates 
and oxides. In Labelle County, where most of the gneisses are 
calcareous, the existence of eruptives is evidenced by silicates and 
minerals other than the original gneiss constituents, such as 
hornblende, pyroxene, scapolite, apatite, selenite, tourmaline, etc. 

Mr. Bexxie: — I am, perhaps, the only member of the In- 
stitute who has been professionally engaged in the manufacture 
of artificial graphite. I would meanwhile ask Mr. Coste and Mr. 
Brumell by what agency they suppose the carbon might be 

246 The Canadian Mining Institute 

deposited in the graphitic state. My experience has been that 
the carbon so deposited is in the amorphous state, and high tem- 
perature is required to produce carbide and decompose it to ac- 
complish the metamorphosis to a graphitic carbon. 

Mr. Coste: — Answering Mr. Bennie, I would say that the 
principal agencies no doubt were high temperatures and pressures 
and changes in these, inducing deposition in the amorphous or 
crystallised state. 

Mr. Bennie: — We have never tested the temperature, but 
in manufacturing the artificial graphite at Niagara Falls we use 
petroleum coke, the residue from petroleum distillation and per- 
haps a hundred different kinds of anthracite coal. With some 
anthracites we have found under high temperature and no pres- 
sure other than the ordinary, a graphitic body, which physically 
and optically appears to be the same as the Ceylon graphite. 
We have two samples, one of Ceylon graphite and one made from 
anthracite coal, which cannot be distinguished. 

Mr. Coste: — In Africa the diamond, pure crystalline carbon, 
is found in volcanic pipes, and there are also found in these dia- 
mond mines hydrocarbon gases which have interfered with the 
work in the mines by causing explosions. In some similar way 
I infer that the graphite alongside of these igneous masses has 
been formed by the crystallization, more or less perfect, of hy- 
drocarbon vapors. Mr. Bennie does it, he says, with petroleum 
coke, which is a product of oil or hydrocarbon; why cannot 
nature do it also? When the igneous intrusions took place 
through the sediments of the Grenville series, enormous quan- 
tities of magmatic vapors, mostly hydrocarbons, chlorides and 
sulphides, also invaded the sediments, especially near the contacts 
or in the fissured zones of these sediments. Mr. Brumell 
has also pointed out the association of pyrites with graphite; 
this association of sulphur and carbon strengthens my argument. 
It is always found in the oil and gas fields, as I have pointed out 
before to this Institute in previous papers on the volcanic origin of 
petroleum and natural gas. 

Mr. Bennie: — Mr. Coste's theory is as tenable as my own. 
The carbon in the graphitic state is in a certain degree of crystal- 
lization, and the diamond is in another state of crystallization, 
but they are not hydrocarbons, but pure carbons. 

Occurrence of Canadian Graphite. J47 

Mr. Coste: — That does not mean that the final origin in 
both cases is not due to hydrocarbon vapors. When one sees so 
mam- facts pointing one way, though he may not know the 
explanations of the facts in all their details, yet he may be 
reasonably sure of the main points, and in this case I claim that 
enough facts in nature point to this conclusion that outside of 
the coal beds most of the carbon in our rock strata (whether in 
the shape of diamond, graphite, solid bitumen, oil or natural gas) 
is due to magmatic emanations from the interior of the earth. 

Mr. Fritz Cirkel: — I have studied a number of authorities 
on the subject of the origin of graphite, and I come to the con- 
clusion that it is a most difficult problem to deal with ; if we com- 
mence to discuss these theories I might say that from the begin- 
ning we all disagree. Mr. Eugene Coste says that carbon, oil 
and gas are produced by emanations from the interior of the earth. 
I cannot see very well how this theory can be applied to the dis- 
seminated condition of the graphite, especially in the gneisses. 
As we all know, the gneiss is not an eruptive rock, and for this 
reason the carbon must have been there at the time the rocks 
were formed. We know that the carbon originally present will 
be changed under certain circumstances into graphite. Accord- 
ing to my studies it is likely that this carbon has been deposited 
as an original mineral and later on converted through agencies 
we know very little of, such as heat, pressure or electricity, into 
graphite; this process has been going on to a greater extent, it 
seems, near the eruptive dikes, as we find close to these quite a 
number of rich deposits, especially in Canada. 

Mr. Coste: — Mr. Cirkel sa}'s that as the gneiss is a sedimentary 
rock, the graphite in it could not be due to emanations accom- 
panying igneous volcanic eruptions. Surely we know absolutely 
to-day that a great many of the deposits of the numerous minerals 
we have to deal with, though in sedimentary rocks, are subse- 
quent impregnations of these porous sedimentar}'- rocks. The 
igneous rocks are sometimes plainly seen invading these sedimen- 
taries, but sometimes not, and even then we often know them to 
be not far distant laterally or below. We also know (in fact, in 
the geology of ore deposition, this is the principal acknowledged 
dogma now) that the invasion of the sedimentaries was accom- 
panied by invasion of magmatic vapors and waters carrying the 

248 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

minerals, including carbon in many cases. That carbon belongs 
to magmatic waters and volcanic emanations, in fact forms a large 
proportion of them, is an absolutely established scientific fact. 

Mr. Brock: — It seems to me that in the discussion of the 
mode of occurrence of graphite too much emphasis is placed upon 
the difference between the chemical composition of graphite and 
of ordinary minerals, and not sufficient upon the resemblances 
between graphite and ordinary minerals in its dissemination 
through rocks. One striking feature in the occurrence of graphite 
in Quebec and in various parts of Ontario is its close resemblance 
in its mode of occurrence with other minerals such as mica, 
apatite, etc. The graphite occurs in definite veins just as do 
the other minerals. Graphite is a characteristic mineral in mica 
veins, and the same explanation of the origin of the one might 
be supposed to apply to the other. Graphite, like many other 
minerals, may have different origins. In British Columbia in 
certain parts you will find highly carbonaceous sedimentary rocks 
invaded by igneous rocks and heavily metamorphosed. In some 
cases their dark colour is due to the carbon, and when metamor- 
phosed, you find the rock bleached and the carbon now in the 
form of graphite. Graphite is also found as an original constituent 
of certain igneous rocks. It may be difficult to account for these 
changes and to reproduce them in laboratories, but in nature I 
think the carbon goes through chemical and physical changes 
in the same way that the other minerals do. 

Mr. Brumell: — I would ask Dr. Barlow or some other au- 
thority if the gneisses we have down there are sedimentary rocks. 
You can trace the band of gneiss along and find that at a certain 
point it loses its identity as gneiss and becomes granitic. It is not 
an intrusive granite, but instead of having a gneissic character it 
becomes a heterogeneous mass of a mica quartz character-the usual 
granite. If the gneisses are sedimentary rocks it is possible the3 r 
may be the result of alteration. I think, however, that they are 
not sedimentary rocks, but other rocks metamorphosed and given 
a gneissic character by some dynamic action. 

Dr. Barlow: — In reference to the sedimentary character 
of sillimanite gneisses we have traced them right across country 
into undoubted rocks of solid character highly charged with 
bituminous matter, and gradually become lighter in color as they 

Occurrence of Canadian Graphite. 249 

are re-crystallized and the bituminous matter is segregated into 
graphite. When you ask about the presence of graphite in other 
gneisses and the tracing into granites, that is one of the most 
complicated problems of geology. We say one gneiss is undoubt- 
edly sedimentary, another is undoubtedly due to eruptive process 
through pressure — in fact they are, as Prof. Cushing in the 
Adirondacks called them, "damnified gneisses," which have 
unlike structure through eruptive process, by the commingling 
of the two by actual fusion, and as in the Hastings series you cannot 
say what they are. They may be stratified or partly igneous 
gneisses. The sillimanite gneisses with which the graphite is 
associated are in the main sedimentary. As to the origin of the 
graphite I agree with Prof. Brock that there may be several ex- 
planations. We have it in the syenites in Ontario. I would not 
say that it was a foreign mineral, it has come in crystallized with 
the magnetite. It enters into all parts of the rock. The 
slates up there all belong to the Hastings series, and there are no 
traces of fossil remains in it, but there is a large amount of bitu- 
minous matter in it, and there is no evidence that the bitumen 
resulted from the fossil remains. A lot of these rocks are cer- 
tainly from fine tuffs of volcanic origin, but I could express no 
opinion as to where the}' got their bituminous matter. The same 
happens in common Chelmsford and anthraxolite, winch was 
distilled through certain mineral veins of secondary action. But 
there is no doubt it got it from the rock itself. 

Dr. J. E. Woodman: — I would like to call attention to one 
or two facts which emphasize the point made by Mr. Coste and 
Dr. Brock that graphite may have widely different origins in 
different localities. The burden of all the remarks made on the 
subject to-day is the association of graphite with igneous rocks, 
whatever may be the rock in which the mineral is imbedded. I 
recall at the moment two localities in which eruptives are so 
conspicuously absent as to indicate that the graphite can have 
no possible connection with them. 

In Nova Scotia we have, in the upper or Halifax formation 
of the gold-bearing series, a large amount of graphitic material. 
The strata are black slates, with here and there thin bands of 
gray quartzite. The graphite is in most places so finely dissem- 
inated as merely to give a dead black color to the rock. Here 

250 The Canadian Mining Institute 

and there, however, it is in discontinuous sheets interbedded with 
the strata, but somewhat vein-like in detail, and up to six or seven 
inches in thickness. The only igneous rocks connected with 
the series in eastern Nova Scotia are granites, which occur in bosses 
and larger masses. The distribution of the graphite has abso- 
lutely no connection with that of the granite. 

The second occurrence is still more important. In the 
State of Rhode Island we have a small coal field, the strata of 
which are highly compressed, contorted and dynamically meta- 
morphosed. The coal has passed through the stages of metamor- 
phism which give the Pennsylvania anthracite and has become 
graphitic — so highly graphitic indeed as to render it practically 
unfit for combustion, except under strong forced draft. Igneous 
rocks cannot be called upon to account for the presence of the 
mineral, but extreme dynamo-met amorphism can; and the study 
of the field conditions would convince most of you, I am sure, 
that the graphite originates from the coal by almost complete 
loss of the volatile constituents of the latter. It would seem 
especially that Mr. Coste's volcanic theory could have no place 
here. ;<. 


By J. Obalski, Quebec. 
(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

About the year 1863 much excitement was created in con- 
sequence of the discovery of gold in the form of large nuggets, 
on the Gilbert River, in the Chaudiere Valley. Some of these 
nuggets were of unusual size, weighing up to 45 ounces; and the 
finds attracted a large number of prospectors and miners to the 
locality, where active work was conducted until 1878. But after 
that date operations became intermittent, and these were on an 
unimportant scale. In all the yield of gold from the area worked 
on the Gilbert River, a distance of about two miles, was in the 
neighbourhood of two million dollars. The day of the individual 
miner has now passed, however, and if work at these mines is 
resumed, that can only be successfully attempted on a large scale 
and by the outlay of considerable capital. 

I would meanwhile call attention to the following points: — 
The Gilbert lead, so-called, follows in general a south-westerly 
course. Operations were confined to claims situated at an 
elevation of about 300 feet above the Chaudiere River, which 
flows towards the north-west. The discoveries of gold were 
limited to the middle section of the Gilbert, at the altitude men- 
tioned. From that point following along the heights to the 
north-east of the Chaudiere Valley, gold is found in crossing the 
Famine River; then at Slate Creek, where some work was done; 
and again upon crossing the Riviere du Loup ; not far from its 
confluence with the Chaudiere, gold is found, though in smaller 
quantities, in extensive beds of gravel. Again some of the gravels 
on the other side of the Chaudiere River, near the first falls, is 
auriferous. In a north-westerly direction from the Gilbert, gold 
has been found at Riviere des Plantes, where mining has been 

252 The Canadian Mining Institute 

carried on. At Beauce Junction are immense deposits of gravel, 
which may be auriferous, but have not yet been prospected. 

From the foregoing, the conclusion arrived at is that the 
distribution of gold is not confined to a few isolated sections of 
the region, notably that of the Gilbert, but that the auriferous 
belt may be traced from point to point as above indicated. 
Prospecting, therefore, should be made along that belt, without 
regard to altitudes; and this notwithstanding the prevailing 
belief in the region that valuable discoveries could not be ex- 
pected at any elevated point. 

On the other side of the Chaudiere River, extensive beds of 
gravel have also been observed between the Pozer and the Riviere 
des Meules. The discovery of gold here, especially in respect 
to the last named locality, is conducive to the supposition of 
another belt of distribution, perhaps connecting with the former 
near the great falls of the Chaudiere. But this theory would need 
to be supported by facts other than those stated. Meanwhile 
all geological investigation in the region, made with a view to 
ascertain the origin of gold, has as yet been unproductive of satis- 
factory results. Consequently there is excuse for advancing 
an hypothesis which may induce prospecting in localities hereto- 
fore neglected. 

The formation, as described by the Geological Survey of 
Canada, consists of Cambrian and Cambro-Silurian schists tra- 
versed by dioritic eruptions. Numerous veins of quartz, some 
of very considerable extent, cut through this formation. Attempts 
have been made to work these quartz veins, stamp mills in one 
or two instances having been erected, but gold was never found 
in commercial quantities. In fact, the writer has never, in 
twenty-five years, found the quartz from this region to contain 
visible gold, while assays made under his supervision have never 
shown values beyond a trace. Of the many theories put forward 
to explain the origin of the alluvial gold, including that ascribing 
it to the disintegration of rich portions of these quartz veins, 
none apparently fit the problem. The writer therefore believes 
that the most satisfactory method of studying the alluvial de- 
posits, would be to conduct a series of tests along the line of 
distribution by boring, employing a portable drilling machine. 
By this means it would be possible to ascertain whether any of 

St. Onge Xugget. 

Nugiret found in 1877 on the Gilbert river, on lot 12 of the St. Charles Conc< 
Weight. 42 ounces; value, $756.00; photographed from the original. 

Gold in the Eastern Townships 253 

the ground was sufficiently rich to work. In concluding this, 
brief note reference should be made to a discovery made last 
year at the head of the Chaudiere River, in Marston Township. 

On lot 20 of range IV of that township, about 2 miles from 
Lake Megantic, a vein of quartz was accidentally discovered, 
which showed tolerably good gold values. Some prospecting 
was done, and a quartzous, slightly calcareous mass, running 
with the stratification of the accompanying schists and streaked 
with slight quartzous threads, in some of which numerous grains 
of gold could be seen, was uncovered. It would seem as if that 
strip formed part of the formation, but had subsequently become 
silicified and partly mineralized. The prospecting that may be 
done in that region will, undoubtedly, afford some interesting 

Besides the Chaudiere Vallej', gold in small quantities has 
been found in nearly all the streams of the southern portion of 
the Eastern Townships. 

In the streams flowing from Stoke mountain in the townships 
of Stoke, Dudswell and Westbury, alluvial deposits are found 
in which pieces of quartz, containing gold, are met with. This is 
not the case with the Chaudiere alluvial deposits. 

On lot 13, in the range VI of Westbury, is a large quartzous 
mass or quartzous conglomerate, resembling the Marston rock 
and streaked with quartzous threads in which gold is visible. 

In the township of Ditton, alluvial deposits have been 
worked, which may be compared to those of the Chaudiere, and 
which have yielded good results to their owners, but no gold bear- 
ing quartz has been found there. 

In the neighbourhood of Sherbrooke, in Ascot Township, a 
little work has been done on the alluvial deposits, and in the 
schists forming the bed-rock, small lenses of quartz containing 
visible gold are found. This district attracted considerable 
attention some forty years ago, but it was neglected until recently 
when the alluvial deposits have again been prospected. 

Thus, as we have seen, alluvial gold has been found in many 
localities in the Eastern Townships, frequently in paying quan- 
tities; but so far but little gold-bearing quartz has been discovered. 
The region, however, is easy of access, and the indications are 
sufficiently promising to warrant further exploration. 

254 The Canadian Mining Institute 


Mr. Obalski stated in reply to Mr. Fritz Cirkel that the new 
gold district was close to the shore of Lake Megantic. 

Mr. Dresser: — Aside from any intrinsic importance which 
this discovery of gold at Lake Megantic may have, there are one 
or two points of a great deal more significance than at first appears. 
There is first the fact that alluvial gold in important quantities 
has been found along the tributaries of the Chaudiere river and 
its original source has never perhaps been satisfactorily determined. 
It is, however, known that alluvial gold in the valley of the 
Chaudiere has never been found at an elevation of more than 300 
feet above the river. In the bed of these tributaries of the 
Chaudiere, the country rock is distinctly different from that 
which caps the hills. On the tributaries of the Chaudiere 
itself the greater part of the rock is volcanic, through which 
there are possibly some later dykes. There is, of course, the 
possibility that the rock carrying this gold may be the 
source of the alluvial gold, or it may be a rock of different formation. 
If it gives the source of the alluvial gold it certainly adds an impor- 
tant fact to our knowledge and one which would be valuable in 
prospecting. The character of the gold found in the Chaudiere 
indicates either a long continued concentration of low grade gold 
values or concentration for a shorter period of higher grade ore. 

The other point, which is perhaps not less important, is the 
fact that the geological structure on the boundary line and the 
character of the rocks there are an exact reproduction so far as 
they are known of those on the Capelton Hills. The Capelton Hills 
on which are situated the Capelton and Eustis copper mines were 
first exploited for their gold and, while copper may have been 
found in small quantities, it was as gold mines that the property 
was taken up. It would therefore seem within the limits of pos- 
sibility that if these are not proven to be important discoveries of 
gold in rock, they may lead to the opening of copper mines as 
was the case at Capelton. The gold values in the Capelton Hills 
in the first opening were considerable, but the gold decreased 
and the copper relatively increased, and we have these two long 
lived mines which have been in operation for over thirty years. It 

McDonald Nugget. 

Nugget found in 1866 on the Gilbert river, lot 16 of the de Lery Concession; weight, 
45 ounce- 12 dwt-.: value, 8851.26; photographed from a fac-simile in the museum of the 
Geological Survey, Ottawa. 

Gold in the Eastern Townships 255 

is, therefore, possible that this gold, if not important for its 
intrinsic value, may be an important indicator of the existence 
of copper deposits at greater depth. I mention these facts to 
show that the discovery has quite an important bearing in view 
of the possibilities as well as with respect to metal values of the 

Mr. Brock: — I would like to ask if these gravels in which the 
placer gold is found in the Chaudiere district are not pre-glacial 
gravels and, if so, has it been determined from what source they 
were derived if they are necessarily local? 

Mr. Obalski: — I don't suppose they are local. 



By Alfred Ernest Barlow, D.Sc., Ottawa, Ont. 

(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

Early in the season of 1906, all available territory (from the 
most optimistic of view points) within the limits of the silver- 
bearing area of Cobalt had been staked and recorded. Hence it 
became necessary for the new comers, who had been attracted to 
the district by stories of its unusual richness, to turn their atten- 
tion either to the possible discovery of new fields or to the much 
wider extension of the region already delimited as economically 
valuable. In their proposed quest, they were encouraged to a 
large extent by the oft-repeated expression on the part of the 
government geologists that other mineral areas would likely 
be found lying much further to the south and west, where it was 
known that the geological conditions were very closely analogous, 
if not identical with those obtaining in the vicinity of Cobalt. 
This belief was further strengthened by the location in the summer 
of 1905 of a vein containing both cobalt and nickel and carry- 
ing very substantial values in gold and silver, on the west side 
of Rabbit Lake, about 35 miles south of Cobalt. This vein 
occupies a fissure close to the contact between a conglomerate 
and diabase, whose general characters and geological age were 
practically the same as what had already been described as con- 
stituting the silver-bearing formations of Cobalt. The find 
attracted a number of prospectors, who hurried to the new terri- 
tory in the hope of finding other and perhaps wider and richer 
veins. The advent of the snow, however, and the non-success 
of these initial efforts dampened enthusiasm and postponed 
further prospecting in this direction. 

In the spring of 1906, while the snow was still deep over 
all but the more exposed hills and precipices, reports were per- 

Mining Claim T.R. 189. James township. 

Specimens from this vein contained about 75 per cent, of silver.) 


Outcrop of Big \'cin, with native Silver. Smaltite, etc. 
German Development Co. Mining Claim M.R. 202, James township. 

Silver of James Township 251 

sistent of the discovery of silver-bearing nickel-cobalt veins 
in the districts immediately surrounding Annima-nipissing and 
Bay lakes and Portage Bay. It was even confidently stated 
that when the veins were properly stripped and developed they 
would be shown to rival the best of those met with in the more 
immediate vicinity of Cobalt. Fired by these statements, many 
enthusiastic prospectors made a rush up the Montreal river, 
before even the ice had moved, eager to be among the first arrivals 
on the ground. All exposed rock surfaces for many miles above 
Latchford were subjected to eager and as critical examination 
as the unfavourable circumstances would permit, in the hope of 
discovering the much coveted silver. The arrival of "fly time," 
however, and the lack of any very pronounced success, again 
drove many of the prospectors out of the woods, and decided 
them to wait for a more auspicious time and more favourable 
tidings before continuing their exploration. 

During at least the early part of the summer, the attention 
of many of the prospectors was largely directed to the region 
adjoining Annima-nipissing and Bay lakes, although parties were 
distributed on either side of the Montreal river as far as the 
"Big Bend." Much of the diabase which overlies the Lower 
Huronian conglomerates and slates in the western part of the 
township of Coleman, in the area surrounding Portage Bay, was 
shown to be considerably shattered, the resultant fissures being 
occupied by veins containing certain of the cobalt minerals, 
accompanied in some cases by a considerable proportion of nic- 
colite. The mining development work subsequently undertaken 
on these veins was somewhat disappointing, as in most cases little 
or no silver was encountered, and as many of them were small 
they were not considered of very great economic importance. 
None of the shafts were driven through the diabase into the 
Lower Huronian conglomerate, which, there is every reason to 
believe, underlies the diabase at no very great depth. A com- 
bination of the interests affected in this particular district might 
reasonably be urged to undertake to sink a shaft of sufficient 
depth or to conduct such diamond drill operations as would 
demonstrate fully not only the continuity or otherwise of these veins, 
but also the precise nature of their mineral contents. I'ntil 
some such action is taken there will alwavs be found earnest 


258 The Canadian Mining Institute 

advocates for, and also against, the view that the veins will be 
continuous and will very materially increase in richness when 
the underlying formations are encountered. The frequent ex- 
pression and emphasis, however, of such divergent opinions will 
not advance the knowledge in this regard beyond what we now 

The same disappointment was apparently the result of the 
development work on the veins occurring in the area to the east of 
Trout lake, which lies a short distance to the southwest of the 
head of Bay lake. At a few places near Annima-nipissing lake 
silver has been found in notable quantities, but no great success 
has yet attended the efforts to trace the veins or fissures from 
which nuggets have been obtained, either in their vertical or 
horizontal position. 

In August of the same year (1906), reports were prevalent 
that cobalt, nickel and silver had been found, associated together 
in the same veins cutting the diabase in the neighbourhood of 
Maple Mountain, to the west of Lady Evelyn lake. These were 
known as the "Darby" and "White" discoveries respectively. 
Still later in the same year came the news that silver had been 
found in the district surrounding and covered by James township. 
The information was also added that not only were the geological 
conditions practically identical with those of Cobalt, but that 
the silver-bearing area covered a much wider stretch of territory. 
It was not, however, until the advent of winter that the real 
rush began to the new territory. Prospectors crowded up the 
river using every means of conveyance to bring in their supplies 
and outfit, so that before the snow left the ground in the spring 
of 1907, all the promising and most of the unpromising territory 
in and for miles around James township was staked and re- 

A discovery of valuable mineral was scarcely possible over 
most of this country, since the ground was covered with over 
four feet of snow, but this did not deter the hardy, and in many 
cases, unscrupulous prospector from making the affidavit neces- 
sary ere he could record his claim. Most of the claims were 
thus recorded without discovery and in direct violation of the 
Mines Act. 

Silver of James Township 259 

Over 90 per cent, of these locations were afterwards thrown 
open by the Government inspectors; but only to be re-staked and 
recorded again and again, either by members of the same pro- 
specting party or, when finally abandoned, by the later arrivals 
in the district. It is estimated that at the beginning of June, 
1907, there were over 2,000 prospectors working in the country 
chained by the Montreal river and its tributaries, and this number 
was considerably augmented later in the season. Many of those 
men were thoroughly experienced and resourceful, so that a large 
part of the region was subjected to very intelligent and critical 

The mineral occurrences in the Montreal river district above 
Hay Lake may be considered as belonging to three distinct areas: 

1. Maple Mountain area. 

2. James Township area. 

3. Bloom Lake area. 

The Maple Mountain area consists of a comparatively narrow 
and irregular intrusion of diabase, occurring to the northwest of 
Lady Evelyn lake. 

This mass of diabase extends, with almost unbroken con- 
tinuity, from the vicinity of Anvil lake on the boundary between 
the unsubdivided townships of Whitson and Van Nostrand, 
northward for nearly nine miles to a point a little east of Boucher 
lake, near the dividing line between Banks and Speight townships. 
The outcrops of this diabase cover a strip of country varying in 
width from about a quarter to half-a-mile, flanked on either side 
by an arkose or coarse grained quartzite through which it is 

The James township mineral area is very much more ex- 
tensive, including parts of the townships of James, Smyth, Tud- 
hope, Mickle, Farr and Willet, and embracing what are generally 
known as the Silver lake and Hubert lake districts. The total 
area in these townships underlaid by diabase (silver-bearing 
formation) is very nearly 40 square miles. 

The Bloom lake mineral area is confined to a mass of diabase 
outcropping in the region to the west of a chain of lakes of which 
Bloom lake is the largest and most important, but including also 
Wigwam. Lost and Calcite lakes. These sheets of water occupy a 
valley, running nearly north and south a little over 12 miles to 

260 The Canadian Mining Institute 

the west of the west town line of James, and within a short distance 
of the East Branch of the Montreal river. They empty into the 
Montreal river, through what is known as Stoney or Sydney Creek, 
nearly five miles above Indian Chute. The Bloom lake diabase 
is a mass of irregular outline, with a length of about 10 miles 
and a width varying from half a mile to nearly two miles. Most of 
the claims so far staked are on the west side of Bloom lake, but a 
considerable number have been located west of Lost lake. 

The region in the vicinity of James township is much the 
most important of these mineral areas, for it not only far exceeds 
the others in extent, but also in the comparative richness of 
the deposits. At present there are two methods of ingress to 
this district. The land or winter route commences at Earlton 
on the Temiscaming and Northern Ontario Railway (26 miles 
north of Cobalt) and crossing the northern parts of the townships 
of Armstrong, Beauchamp, Bryce, and Tudhope, reaches Elk lake 
(Elk City) opposite the mouth of Bear River in the fifth concession 
of James township. This road is about 30 miles in length, 7 miles 
of which has been already constructed as a waggon road. The 
Ontario Railway Commission has likewise under consideration 
an extension of the Charlton branch of the Temiscaming and 
Northern Ontario Railway, but this will not be made until such 
time as the district gives undoubted proofs of the importance 
and permanence of its mineral deposits. 

By far the easier and more popular route, however, is up the 
Montreal river from Latchford, a small town situated at its 
crossing with, the T. & N. O. Ry. Two lines of steamers plied 
on the route all last summer, but were quite inadequate for the 
service required of them, so that break downs and delays were 
frequent and unavoidable. The most pretentious service w T as 
carried on by small boats propelled by steam, and owned by the 
Upper Ontario Steamboat Company, while the opposition known 
as the Joy Line (so called after the name of the owner and manager) 
operated with smaller gasoline launches Starting from Latchford 
at from 7 to 9 o'clock in the morning, it was generally late in the 
evening and sometimes even midnight before the end of the 
journey was reached. The distance by this route is a little 
over 50 miles, but navigation is interrupted by three rapids known 
in ascending order as Pork, Flat and Mountain rapids. The 

Silver of James Township 261 

following are the approximate distances intervening between 
these obstructions: — Latchford to Pork rapids, 9 miles; Pork to 
Flat rapids, 27 miles; Flat rapids to Mountain chute, 3 miles; 
Mountain chute to mouth of Bear river 11 miles. 

Two rival towns, situated on either side of Elk lake (an 
expansion of the Montreal river), have already sprung into 
existence, the tents which formed the first residences having 
now given place to more substantial log structures. "Elk City." 
as the townsite on the northeast bank of the river has been called, 
already contains a comfortable hotel and several stores. On the 
opposite side of the stream, at the mouth of Bear river the Ontario 
Government have surveyed a town plot which they have named 
" Smyth." Last autumn the Hudson's Bay Company moved 
their store form Elk City into more commodious quarters along- 
side the post office at Smyth. It is stated to be the intention of 
the Government to move the Recorder's office, belonging to the 
Montreal River Mining Division, from Latchford to Smyth, thus 
avoiding the many inconveniences and delays necessitated by 
the long and tedious river journe3 r . 

The Maple mountain mining area is readily accessible by 
canoe in the summer months, disembarking from the Montreal 
river steamers at the Mattawapika (the outlet of Lad}' Evelyn 
lake), a short distance below "Mowats." Thence the route is to 
the south and west through Mattawapika and Lady Evelyn lakes, 
into the large bay on the west side of the latter lake. A portage 
about three quarters of a mile long, leaves the west side of this 
bay a short distance north of Willow Island falls; coming out near 
the south end of Emily lake, the largest of a chain of four small 
lakes before Anvil lake is reached. Thence the route follows 
northward through Hammer and Bergeron lake into Niccolite 
and Greenwater lakes. It is in this region, between Anvil and 
Greenwater lakes, that many of the most promising mining loca- 
tions are situated. Another means of access is by way of Spring 
Creek, which flows into the Montreal river near the northeast 
corner of the township of Speight, but the portages are much 
longer and the route therefore more difficult and less frequented. 

The Bloom lake area is likewise usually reached by canoe in 
the summer, the customary route leaving the Montreal river at a 
sharp bend in this stream about 2 miles below Indian chute (or 

262 The Canadian Mining Institute 

12 miles above Elk City). A portage starting from this point 
runs a little north of west for nearly two miles, reaching Stoney 
or Sydney Creek at an elbow, where this stream suddenly bends 
to the northward before emptying into the Montreal river several 
miles beyond. The route then continues in a direction a little 
south of west along this upper part of Stoney Creek, passing 
through a series of small lake-like expansions united by com- 
paratively short though rapid discharging channels, thus neces- 
sitating frequent portaging. About 8 miles above the " Long 
Portage," at the northern end of Portage lake and within about 
three quarters of a mile of the East Branch of the Montreal river, 
the upward course of the stream again changes abruptly to a 
general direction a little east of south. This general course 
is followed through Portage, Birch and Pike lakes, for about three 
and a half miles until the outlet of Bloom lake is reached. Follow- 
ing this creek westward for about three quarters of a mile, in 
which two small portages have to be made, Bloom lake is reached 
about half a mile from the upper or northern end. 

Bloom lake is the lowest of a chain of lakes of which Wigwam, 
Lost and Calcite lakes in ascending order form a part. The first 
mentioned is the largest, measuring about 3| miles long with an 
average width of a little over a quarter of a mile, while the others 
vary from one to nearly two miles in length with an average 
width of less than a quarter of a mile. They all occupy a valley 
which has a direction very nearly north and south. The winter 
route to Bloom lake used during the past season, begins at the 
portage from the Montreal river into Hubert lake about 7 miles 
above Elk City. Thence in a prevailing direction a little south of 
west it crosses the southern part of the township of Farr through 
Hubert, Green, Grassy and High Bluff lakes reaching Pike lake a 
little south of the outlet from Bloom lake. The whole distance 
from the beginning of the portage to Bloom lake is about 15 miles. 
The whole of the territory included within the boundaries of these 
several mining areas, although undoubtedly picturesque, becomes 
somewhat monotonous, not only on account of the sameness, but 
also because of the want of any great accentuation of its hill 
features. The surface may be described for the most part as 
exceedingly rocky and uneven, although there are no veiy pro- 
minent mountains, and elevations of more than 300 feet are rather 

Silver of James Township 263 

unusual. The only pronounced exception to this general state- 
ment is furnished by the Maple Mountain mining area, where the 
highest point of a ridge of quartzite, and one from which the 
district derives its name, rises to a height of about 1,100 feet above 
Lady Evelyn lake (2,033 feet above the sea). The valleys inter- 
vening between these rocky hills are occupied for the most part 
by swamps and lakes, and the size, number and disposition of 
these latter make travelling by means of canoe through much of 
this region comparatively easy and rapid. Much of the higher 
ground shows frequent and abundant outcrops of the underlying 
rock, but a very considerable proportion of the area, especially 
in the vicinity of the Montreal river, is drift covered, rendering 
prospecting difficult and expensive. Large areas in the valley 
of the Montreal river are quite flat and heavily drift covered, 
and could no doubt with advantage be cleared for farming pur- 
poses, especially if this region develops into a great mining area 
according to its present promise. 

All of the ore bodies in the several mining areas mentioned 
occur in the form of veins cutting a quartz-diabase or gabbro. 
Most of the veins in James and surrounding townships occupy two 
sets of fissures, running approximately north and south and east 
and west respectively, and therefore nearly at right angles to one 
another. These fissures are regarded as contraction cracks 
formed by the cooling laccolith, which have been filled by later 
and more acid secretions of the same magma from which the 
accompanying diabase has solidified. The vein-filling must 
therefore be ve r irded as of pegmatitic origin, having the same 
genetic relationsnip to diabase that ordinary pegmatite does to 
granite. For purposes of discussion and correlation, it may 
therefore be referred to as diabase-pegmatite in preference to 
the term "aplite," by which the material in these veins or dykes 
is now known to the prospectors of the Montreal river district, 
for the latter would imply the formation of this material as a 
differentiation product of granite. As a rule these veins are 
more or less irregular, often curving, sometimes faulted, but 
surprisingly persistent over long distances. The fissures which 
they occupy vary from a fraction of an inch, or a mere crack, 
to two feet or even more in width. Very frequently, too, the 
same vein may show an equal variation in width both in its 

264 The Canadian Mining Institute 

horizontal and vertical extension. The narrow veins, especially 
those from 4 to 8 inches in width, are more commonly met with 
and are as a rule more richly charged with the desirable metallic 
minerals. The wider veins usually contain these metallic minerals 
either in fairly uniform and continuous, though in comparatively 
narrow streaks or in wider and larger though more or less isolated 
patches. Many of these veins possess quite sharp and distinct 
boundaries, the gangue material showing very little if any con- 
nection with or transition into the wall rock. In some instances 
also the vein along either or both boundaries breaks easily and 
freely from the accompanying country rock, the ore body in 
such cases showing quite sharp and regular hanging and foot walls. 

In other and quite frequent cases precisely similar veins show 
a distinct and, at times, perfect gradation or passage into the 
surrounding diabase, such a transition being characteristic of 
either or both walls. Examples are not lacking, especially in the 
wider occurrences, where there is a pronounced commingling of the 
material of the vein and the parent plutonic rock. In such cases 
the vein may contain certain vague greenish spots or masses, which 
have undoubtedly been derived from the diabase and are now in a 
more or less altered and disintegrated condition, while the diabase 
in the more immediate vicinity of the vein is relatively more acid 
in composition, with abundant quartz and patches and crystals of 
the same acid plagioclases characteristic of the vein. Moreover, the 
minerals, which together make up the diabase, show rather pro- 
nounced decomposition due to the same eruptive after actions as a 
result of which the accompanying veins have been formed. The 
plagioclase (labradorite) has been largely converted to a pale 
yellowish green saussurite, while the original pyroxene has been 
replaced b} r an aggregate or chlorite, epidote and calcite. 

The gange of these veins, in the simplest form of their develop- 
ment, shows a fine to moderately coarse grained feldspathic 
material, varying in colour from a pale pink to deep flesh red. At 
first sight most of these veins are remarkable chiefly for the pre- 
vailing absence or scarcity of quartz, although examples are not 
lacking of veins, evidently very closely related, which contain this 
mineral as an abundant and occasionally predominant constituent. 
Dr. G. A. Young, of the Geological Survey, at the writer's suggestion, 
very kindly undertook to make a microscopical examination of this 

German Development Co. Claim M.R. 202. 

Smaltite, etc. 

18 inch Win : Native Silver, 

Silver of James Township 265 

feldspathic material. In the thin sections examined by him, 
representing several of these veins from the western part of Tud- 
hope and the central part of James township, by far the largest 
proportion at least was plagioclase varying in composition from 
albite through oligoclase to andesine. This diagnosis was cor- 
roborated in part by a separation of the mineral constituents by 
means of a heavy solution. The plagioclase thus separated varied 
in specific gravity from 2.609 to 2.635. Some of this plagioclase 
(albite) had distinct rectangular or lath-like outlines, showing 
twinning according to both the albite and pericline laws, which in 
certain cases produced a fine "cross-hatched ' structure, usually 
considered characteristic of the appearance of microcline between 
crossed nicols. Most of these grains are quite turbid. Another 
species of plagioclase (oligoclase) occurs in irregular, untwinned 
and clear grains, thus resembling quartz; but unlike quartz this 
mineral is readily fusible. Some of these veins contain a con- 
siderable admixture of quartz, this mineral often forming graphic 
intergrowths with the feldspars. In certain of these cases, the 
feldspar has acted as the host, but in others, large grains of quartz 
were noticed containing only a few shred-like individuals of the 
plagioclase. Calcite is usually present and sometimes very abun- 
dant. This mineral frequently occurs in fairly large grains, or in 
granular aggregates made up of several individuals, disseminated 
through the more abundant feldspathic material. It also occurs 
in more or less continuous vein-like areas or masses, anastomosing 
between, and sometimes penetrating through, both simple and 
composite individuals of feldspar. Portions of the vein, where 
exposed to the action of the weather or percolating waters, fre- 
quently present a finely cavernous or sponge-like appearance, due 
to the etching and removal of the calcite, thereby leaving small and 
irregular shaped miarolitic cavities lined with minute tabular crys- 
tals of feldspar. Oxidation of the iron sulphides usually present, 
gives a prevailing pale brownish to an almost black colour to these 
portions of the vein. Not infrequently barite, usually pale pink in 
colour, and occasionally celestite occur with or replace altogether 
the calcite and feldspar. Some of these veins are, therefore, made 
up almost wholly of red feldspar, almost always a plagioclase near 
the acid end of the series, together with a very subordinate amount 
of calcite and a still smaller quantity of quartz. Other vein s 

266 The Canadian Mining Institute 

again are made up of an almost equal proportion of plagioclase and 
calcite and sometimes quartz, while still other veins present a finer 
grained feldspathic portion in the vicinity of the walls, with the 
whole mass of the interior made up of comparatively coarse grained 
calcite, with sometimes a small proportion of quartz. The stages 
represented completely by the vein occurrences in these districts 
show a perfect and practically uninterrupted continuity during 
their consolidation from an original condition of hydro-igneous 
fusion, characteristic of the magma from which the comparatively 
fine and even grained feldspathic material is believed to have 
resulted, to conditions of igneo-aqueous solution which must have 
obtained in the viscous mass from which the latest calcite or 
quartzose segregations had solidified. 

Chalcopyrite is the most abundant and common of the metallic 
constituents, but bornite is also very frequently encountered ; both 
of these sulphides often occurring side by side in the same vein. 
Covellite also occurs but much less frequently. Galena is also very 
common and usually carries silver in variable quantity. Many of 
the veins contain micaceous or specular iron ore (hematite) and 
some of them are entirely made up of this material, at least near the 
surface. Several veins were noticed made up of alternations of 
chalcopyrite and specular iron ore, while very frequently a vein 
containing specular iron ore is replaced at a depth sometimes of 
only a few feet by chalcopyrite, smaltite and native silver. In the 
Hubert lake area veins of magnetite have been found, similar to 
those of hematite in the township of James. Malachite and 
azurite are both common. The cobalt minerals, either smaltite or 
cobaltite are very prevalent, usually in association with more or 
less nicollite. Erythrite (cobalt bloom) and Annabergite (nickel 
bloom) are also frequently present as surface decomposition pro- 
ducts. The smaltite-nicollite veins often contain the white bloom 
near the surface, which is formed by the reaction of these minerals 
upon one another when subject to weathering porcesses. Most of 
these veins will give assay values in silver varying from a fraction 
of an ounce to thirty ounces or even more per ton, although the 
material on which the trials were conducted showed no signs of the 
native metal. Silver is also of common occurrence in these veins, 
both in the native state and as argentite (sulphide of silver). As 
native silver it occurs in nuggets of various shapes and sizes as well 

Silver of James TOWNSHIP Jf>< 

as in tine flakes and scales disseminated through any of the various 
gangue minerals, feldspar, calcite, barite, or quartz. Beautiful 
fern-like skeleton crystals of native silver are frequently found in 
certain cavities in these veins from which the enclosing calcite has 
been removed as a result of weathering. 

It would be unwise in this connection to give any detailed list 
of the many mining locations on which native silver has been dis- 
covered or to mention what are at present regarded as the more 
promising individual discoveries. It may be sufficient to say that 
several veins have been uncovered, varying in width from 4 to 8 
inches, much of the material from which would average from 25 to 
75 per cent, of native silver, while alarge numberof other veins have 
been proved to contain silver in such quantities as to merit further 
and quite extensive mining development work. The mode of 
occurrence and association of this silver in some of these veins bears 
a striking resemblance to that obtaining in the veins cutting the 
diabase in the vicinity of Kerr Lake near Cobalt. It seems, there- 
fore, very reasonable to assume that many and possibly wider and 
richer veins will be revealed as a result of this season's mining opera- 
tions, when conditions should be much more favourable for pro- 
specting and development work. 

The statement sometimes made that a greater or even a second 
Cobalt has been here discovered, is not warranted in the present 
state of our knowledge; but it may be well to mention, and even 
to emphasize, some of the points which should strengthen the 
opinion that the James township mineral area will become in the 
near future a permanent mining camp: 

1. The wide extent of country over which these mineral 
veins have already been found. 

2. The large number, width, continuity and well mineralized 
character of many of the veins so far located. 

3. The very general presence of native silver in these veins. 

4. The great richness of some of the ore already secured, some 
of which compares favourably with the best found in the veins of 
Cobalt. The region is certainly one of great promise and worthy 
of the most earnest and intelligent attention. 

All of these veins occur in diabase or gabbro, a rock which 
represents the consolidation of a lava of basic composition, which 
has been intruded in the form of sills or laccoliths and dykes 

268 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

through rocks of Huronian, Keewatin, and Laurentian ages. The 
rocks representative of the Huronian are conglomerates, slates and 
arkoses or quartzites, very similar in structure and mineralogical 
composition, to rocks of the same geological age found in the 
neighbourhood of Cobalt. No rocks of Keewatin age have been 
found in James township, but extensive outcrops occur in the 
central and eastern portions of Tudhope township. The Keewatin 
is intruded by certain granites and gneisses which are usually 
referred to as Laurentian. These two rocks form an igneous 
complex lying unconformable beneath and furnishing pebbles and 
other debrital material of which the basal conglomerates of the 
Lower Huronian are composed. These gneisses and granites cover 
large areas in the central and northern portions of the township of 
Tudhope, almost the whole of the township of Smyth, and the 
northwest corner of James and thence west and northwest to 
Hubert Lake and beyond. Smaller patches of granite are also ex- 
posed as a result of denudation in the southern part of James 

The diabase or silver bearing formation is the newest rock in 
the district as it is intruded through all the other series, cutting 
even the arkoses and quartzites which are at the summit of the 
sedimentaries. The distribution of these several formations is well 
shown on the map of the Montreal river and Temagami Forest 
Reserve, lately issued by the Bureau of Mines of Ontario, the 
necessary geological surveys having been made by Mr. Cyril 
W. Knight and his assistants during the past summer. 

All of the veins of economic importance, so far discovered, 
appear to be confined to this diabase, which is essentially similar 
in mineralogical composition and geological age to that in which 
occur some of the most productive silver veins of the Cobalt district. 
Occasional fissures, some of them rather wide and continuous, were 
noticed in the conglomerate, filled with calcite, quartz and barite, 
and carrying galena, but the assay values of such material were 
disappointing. It is, however, reasonable to suppose that pro- 
ductive veins will yet be found in the conglomerate, although 
extensive outcrops of this rock usually show very little Assuring. 
Most of the hand specimens of the diabase, given to Dr. Young 
for microscopical examination, were collected in the vicinity of one 
or other of the mineral bearing veins and, therefore, doubtless show 

Silver of James Township 269 

more advanced decomposition than would be the case had the 
material been secured from exposures farther removed from the 
influence of such eruptive after action. 

The hand specimens usually show a dark green, more rarely 
greyish, medium to coarse grained rock, made up of irregular 
prisms or grains of a very dark green mineral and a dull, light green- 
ish feldspar, showing only an occasional cleavage face. One of the 
least altered of these specimens was obtained from the Miller 
location in the western part of Tudhope. Under the microscope 
the rock proved to be a rather coarse diabase considerably altered, 
but with its typical mineralogical composition and structure still 
very distinct. Originally it appears to have been composed of 
nearly colourless pyroxene, occurring in large and small often 
twinned, but shapeless plates penetrated by laths of plagioclase. 
These individuals of feldspar are twinned according to the albite 
law. unaccompanied by carlsbad twining or zonal structures. They 
vary greatly in size, the interspaces being filled with irregular grains 
of quartz, which mineral forms no small proportion of the rock, a 
few flakes of deep brown, highly pleochroic biotite are also present. 
Much of the feldspar, often in the central part of the individuals is 
completely altered, apparently to epidote, while the pyroxene is 
associated with secondary minerals including a pale green some- 
what fibrous hornblende. The rock shows no abnormal characters 
and may be described as a somewhat decomposed quartz diabase. 
Another specimen from a claim in the northwest corner of Tudhope 
appeared to represent a diabase, although the original pyroxene 
has been completely removed. The part of the rock represented 
l>v the slide is largely composed of tabular individuals of plagioclase 
sharply idiomorphic and with much interstitial quartz. The 
plagioclase shows prominent albite twinning sometimes accom- 
panied by carlsbad twinning, and in two such cases the values of the 
extinction angles indicated an acid labradorite. The interstitial 
quartz in many instances almost seemed to be replacing the feld- 
spar, isolated shreds of which sometimes lie in the quartz or form 
skeleton-like aggregates similarly orientated. Occasionally the 
relations are reversed, and the feldspar then includes a number of 
separate grains of quartz in optical continuity with one another. 
Xo evidence was afforded that the quartz was of more than one 
generation; and because of the general occurrence of this mineral in 

270 The Canadian Mining Institute 

the unaltered diabase of the district it was concluded that the 
quartz was original. Besides this feldspar and quartz, calcite and 
chlorite compose a considerable proportion of the section. The 
chlorite occurs in small aggregates between, or distributed through, 
the feldspar. The calcite forms plates and granular aggregates. 
Both these minerals appear to replace the original pyroxene. 

A specimen which probably represents the extreme phase of 
the decomposition of this diabase forms the wall rock enclosing the 
"Otisse vein" on the south shore of Hubert lake. The hand 
specimen is a medium grained very dark altered diabase, in which 
the small feldspar laths may be seen imbedded in a dull dark green 
matrix. The specimen also includes part of a vein of coarsely 
crystallized calcite at least half an inch wide. Occasional small 
scales and plates of native silver are disseminated through this 
diabase, the silver being more conspicuous and apparently more 
abundant in the wall rock than in the vein itself. The thin section 
shows under the microscope the typical ophitic structure consisting 
of numerous lath-shaped crystals of plagioclase lying in a ground- 
mass made up of calcite and chlorite in varying proportions, which 
minerals replace the original coloured constituent. The plagio- 
clase laths are almost invariably twinned according to the albite 
law, and except where they interfere with one another are rather 
shapely idiomorphic and almost perfectly fresh, except that they 
often contain minute flakes of chlorite. The chlorite and calcite 
are about equally abundant and comprise a large part of the rock. 
The chlorite occurs in matted aggregates of somewhat fibrous forms. 
The calcite sometimes builds fairly large plate-like areas but more 
often is finely granular. The feldspar is as sharply idiomorphic 
against the calcite as against the chlorite. It seems probable that 
the abundant chlorite and calcite have been formed by the decom- 
position and thus at the expense of the original coloured constituent, 
Very little, if any lime, could have been furnished by the plagioclase 
as most of the individuals of this mineral are surprisingly fresh and 

Silveb of James Township 271 

Summary of Conclusions. 

1. The diabase of the Maple Mountains, James township and 
Bloom lake areas is essentially and prevailingly a quartz-diabase. 
In many instances this quartz occurs as a granophyric or graphic 
intergrowth with the plagioclase, which is usually an acid labra- 
dorite. The presence and usual abundance of this original or 
primary quartz marks the rock as a rather exceptional type and 
distinct from ordinary diabase, which as a rule contains little or 
none of this mineral. Diabase and similar basic igneous rocks 
have been artifically reproduced in the laboratory from a state of 
simple dry fusion; but it is extremely doubtful whether any 
extensive intrusive process produced by natural causes is ever 
unaccompanied by a greater or less abundance of superheated 
water as an integral portion of the fused mass. This condition of 
dry fusion, however, is distinctly approached in a magma from 
which an ordinary diabase has been formed. During the intrusion 
and subsequent solidification of the diabase described in the 
present paper, however, there has been a very general superabun- 
dance of these heated waters and vapors, which not only accom- 
panied the crystallization of the great mass of the ordinary parent 
plutonic, but were especially present and active in the formation 
of the pegmatitic mineral veins which represent the expiring 
efforts of this intrusion. The presence of the abundant original 
quartz, often in graphic intergrowth with the plagioclase and the 
breaking down and replacement of the original pyroxene by 
chlorite and calcite, is distinct evidence of the presence of super- 
heated waters and steam present in and traversing the ordinary 
or finer grained phases of the diabase. The rock is, therefore, more 
highly quartzose than usual, which fact accounts in the main for 
the presence of the associated mineral-bearing veins. 

2. The presence of these veins in the several mining districts 
mentioned is due primarily to a profound Assuring of the diabase 
itself, formed probably as a result of the contraction of the rock 
in cooling, the resultant cracks and cavities being occupied in many 
cases as fast as they were formed by the later, more acid and 
hydrated segregations from the same diabase magma. 

272 The Canadian Mining Institute 

3. The veins in their simplest forms of development are, there- 
fore, essentially of pegmatitic type although some of the more com- 
plex types and those at the other extreme made up almost wholly 
of calcite or quartz show little or no evidence of such an origin. 

4. The various stages in the formation of these veins are very 
completely represented in these several mining areas, showing a 
perfect and practically uninterrupted continuity during their forma- 
tion from an original condition of hydro-igneous fusion character- 
istic of the magma from which the comparatively fine and even 
grained feldspathic material is believed to have resulted to con- 
ditions of ignes-aqueous solution which must have obtained in the 
viscous mass from which latest calcite and quartzose segregations 
have solidified. 

5. The feldspar in this diabase-pegmatite is essentially a 
plagioclase near the acid end of the series, chiefly albite and 
oligoclase but sometimes andesine, in contradistinction to ordinary 
or granite-pegmatite which contains orthoclase, microcline and 
microperthite as the predominent and characteristic feldspar. 
Quartz is not essential and some of the more representative types 
of this diabase-pegmatite in these veins contain, less than 5 per 
cent, of this mineral. Calcite is almost invariably present, and in 
extreme phases or those which have been formed as a result of very 
pronounced secondary action completely replaces the feldspar. 

6. The age relations of the mineral constituents of the gangue 
is fairly simple, although the several minerals constantly overlap 
in their periods of generation. Plagioclase in the main, the oldest 
or first mineral to form, is succeeded by calcite and this in turn by 
quartz, although much of the calcite and even the quartz were 
formed simultaneously with or even before some of the plagioclase. 

7. All of the gangue minerals, plagioclase, calcite, quartz, and 
even barite and celestite as well as the various metallic minerals, 
appear to have been derived from the surrounding diabase. The 
calcite has probably been derived from the decomposition of the 
original pyroxenic constituent as much of the plagioclase shows 
little or no signs of alteration. The native silver is not only present 
in association with all of the gangue minerals already mentioned, 
but is very commonly noticed and sometimes abundant in the 
diabase forming the wall rock. 

Photo A.M.C. 

The Silver Lake Trail. 
(Brule country . 

Photo A.M.r. Grand View Hotel. Elk City. (August, 1907 

Photo A.M.'' 

Pioneer Store. 
H. B. Co., Elk City, August, 1907 

Silver of James Township . 273 


Mr. Tyrrell: — Do you consider the diabase deposit in James 
Township the same as at Cobalt? 

Dr. Barlow: — Yes. It is not a deposit, but a batholitic 

Dr. Miller: — I think the material in these dykes represents 
the end product of the diabase eruption. The cracks now oc- 
cupied by pegmatites were evidently formed soon after the diabase 
had begun to cool, and the material now in them was below son e 
place and came up. It contains the feldspar, silver and other 
materials which belonged, I think, to the same magma as the 

As to the inspectors, to whom Dr. Barlow has referred, I 
had trouble last spring getting a corps of inspectors for that area. 
We had to get eight inspectors, who had to be technical graduates, 
men of experience and sense, and it took me a considerable 
time to get them together. If I had not gone to that trouble 
Dr. Barlow would not have his claims there now, as the whole 
country was blanketted in the winter. You must remember that 
the townships are six miles square and the mining location forty 
acres, or about five hundred to the township. The prospectors 
covered two or three townships on snowshoes and often ran three 
lines parallel, three men going abreast, cutting out lines, some- 
times tieing their posts to trees where they were afraid to merely 
.stick them up in the snow. That was the problem wl ich faced 
us in the spring, if we did not intend to allow blanketting on a large 
scale. The inspectors tried to insist upon discovery, and Dr. 
Barlow, being a late comer, reaped the benefit of their work, as 
they threw open many blanketted claims. 




By R. E. Hore, 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

The rapidly increasing proved area of silver and cobalt 
bearing rocks has disclosed new types of deposits, and has afforded 
additional information regarding the origin of the deposits and 
of the rocks containing them. It is the purpose of this paper 
to present some results of study in field and laboratory. 

In Coleman Township. 

The majority of shipping mines are located in the eastern 
half of this township, and are, therefore, within a few miles of the 
town of Cobalt. The producing veins occur in graywacke and 
feldspathic quartzites and conglomerates of Lower Huronian 
age, in metamorphosed fine grained green igneous rocks of Kee- 
watin age, and in gray diabase-gabbro sills of Post Middle 
Huronian. In the Huronian sediments and in the diabase, 
the veins are nearly vertical, while in the Keewatin greenstones 
the inclination is irregular and the veins less well defined. 

In his report* on the camp, Dr. W. G. Miller suggested that 
the fissures now occupied by the cobalt-silver ores in the Lower 
Huronian were probably formed by the disturbance which accom- 
panied the eruption of the diabase and gabbro, and that the ores 
may have been deposited from highly heated mineral laden 
waters associated with the eruption. In a second edition of this 
report he has suggested that the ores were possibly leached from 
the Keewatin greenstones, or from the Laurentian granites. 

I >r. Van Hisef also concludes that the diabase is the source 
of the ore, and believes that the Keewatin and the conglomerates 

*\V. fi. Miller, Ann. Report Bureau of Mines, Ontario. Vol. V, 1905. 
tC. R. Van Hise, Jour, of Canadian Mining Inst. Vol. X, 1907. 

276 The Canadian Mining Institute 

are the main source of the calcite of the gangue minerals. He 
suggests that the solutions bearing calcium carbonate were a 
factor in the precipitation of the metalliferous minerals. 

A consideration of later discoveries seems to confirm the truth 
of these ideas in the main. 

Recent Discoveries. 

Cobalt is now known to occur in several areas including the 
following, which are classed according to the country rock: — 

In Lower Huronian graywack^ — 

In Casey township, 15 miles north of Cobalt. 

In diabase-gabbro — 

In Pense and Ingram townships, 30 miles north of Cobalt. 
In Whitson and adjoining townships, 25 miles west of 

In James and adjoining townships, 15 miles north of 

In the vicinities of Portage Bay, of Trout Lake, and west 

of Anima Nipissing Lake. 

In Keewatin — 

South of Lorrain township, 16 miles south-east of Cobalt. 

Of these localities, Casey tp., Whitson tp., James tp., 
and the area south of Lorrain show native silver in addition 
to cobalt minerals. 

The following description applies to the^ rocks found 
over the large area including these deposits. 


The intimate connection of this rock with the ore deposits 
has been recognized by the prospectors for some time, and it is 
becoming more apparent as exploration advances. 

It occurs in most cases in the form of large sills, a few hundred 

Origin of Cobalt-Silver Ores. 277 

feet in thickness, lying nearly horizontal arid parallel to the bedding 
of the Huronian sediments. The greater pait of the sills is dark 
gray in colour and holocrystalline. The chief minerals are augite 
and plagioclase (labradorite to bytownite), while ilmenite is 
generally present and quartz is common. At the edge of the 
sheets the rock is very fine grained, and. though markedly ophitic 
in texture, is not readily distinguished from intruded slates. 
A few feet from the edge the grain becomes quite noticeable, 
and at some distance veiy coarse textures were often found. 
These coarser portions, often pink in colour, show a considerable 
percentage of quartz and pink feldspars, often in micrographic 
intergrowth. Barlow's description* of numerous occurrences 
of this rock in the area covered by the Xipissing and Temiscaming 
map shoots, indicates that they are all derivations of the same 

In petrographical character and in their relations to the 
Huronian sediments they are remarkably similar to diabase sills 
of the Lake Superior district, which are regarded as of Keween- 
awanf (being the plutonic equivalent of the surface flows of the 
copper district) or of Post-KeweenawanJ age. 

Veins in Diabase-Gabbro. 

Veins are not common in the diabase, and of these caleite 
are less numerous than quartz. Although quartz veins carrying 
cobalt ores are known, the silver is confined to veins having 
caleite gangue. In the rich deposits in Coleman tp., there is 
little gangue, the veins being seldom more than a few inches in 
width and often composed entirely of ore. In some cases native 
silver is the most abundant filling, forming thin films along the 
joint planes. 

The quartz veins frequently carry small amounts of pyrite 
and chalcopyrite. West of Wakemika Lake there are several 
quartz veins, one to two feet in width, which carry argentiferous 
galena along with pyrite. chalcopyrite, and a later filling of pale 
pink caleite. 

Some barite veins in James tp. are said to be argentiferous. 

*A. E. Barlow. GeoL Sur. Canada. Ann. Rep. Vol. V., Part L, 1897. 
tA. C. Lane, Geol. Sur. Michigan, Vol. VI, Part I, pp. 219, etc., 1898. 
JA. C. Lawson, Geol. Sur. Minnesota, Bull. No. 8, pp. 47, 1893. 

278 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Intrusives in Diabase-Gabbro. 

There occur in the large sills small intrusions, some more, 
others less silicious than the main mass. 

In Coleman tp. there are fine grained dark colored dikes of 
olivine diabase, while near Temagami there are small dikes of 
diabase porphyry. 

More common and more interesting from an economic stand- 
point are the light coloured aplite veins. The width of most of 
these is to be measured in inches, and they are generally but a 
few hundred feet in length. They are fine grained and usually 
of a pink colour, being composed largely of quartz and feldspars. 
The proportions of quartz and feldspars vary considerably in 
the same vein. There is considerable chlorite in darker coloured 
portions, and calcite fills in the interstices. Small crystals of 
apatite and titanite are inconspicuous but characteristic con- 

Most of these aplite veins carry some pyrite, chalcopyrite, 
or galena, and some carry cobalt and silver ores. It was noted 
in some cases in James tp. that the sulphides occur along frac- 
tures in the narrow veins and from this it is inferred that the 
metalliferous solutions followed the deposition of the aplite. 
It is also noted that the feldspars remain rather fresh, and that 
they were therefore inactive in precipitating the ore. The dark 
coloured silicate present, however, is chlorite, and is probably the 
result of the action of these solutions on pyroxene or amphibole, 
yielding at the same time lime for the formation of calcite when 
carbon dioxide was available. 

Disseminated Ore in Diabase-Gabbro. 

In the diabase which extends westwards from Anima-Nipis- 
sing Lake to Lady Evelyn Lake, there are several showings 
of cobalt minerals, both in calcite veins and as disseminated crys- 
tals in the diabase. There is generally little or no surface indi- 
cation of the latter; but on breaking the rock traces of cobalt 
bloom are found. 

One such deposit, west of Diabase Lake, is associated with an 
aplite vein. This vein is about one foot in width and is exposed 

Origin of Cobalt-Silver Ores. 279 

for about 150 feet; it carries some pyrite and chalcopyrite, but 
little cobalt. Parallel to the vein and for a few feet from its walls, 
the diabase contains disseminated crystals of smaltite which arc 
more abundant along the joint planes. The chief unaltered 
constituent of the ore-bearing rock is feldspar. The crystals 
of smaltite, accompanied by some small titanite crystals, are 
embedded in calcite and chlorite, and more rarely in the feldspars. 
In the latter case it is to be noted that there are many cracks, 
partly rilled with calcite, which have evidently served as chan- 
nels for the introduction of the smaltite. 

Another cobaltiferous specimen, also chloritic, from the same 
region, shows some kernels of augite still undecomposed, and a 
high percentage of ilmenite. 

Origin of Disseminated Ore. 

The detection by the naked eye of scattered smaltite crystals 
in the diabase, suggests the possibility of its being an original 
constituent in the rock. On the other hand, the association with 
aplite suggests that the ore had its origin in the solutions that 
accompanied these intrusions. 

The microscopic examination outlined above shows that the 
smaltite is of secondary origin. It was at first thought that 
possibly the augite was cobaltiferous; but, on examination, a 
specimen of the rock containing kernels of this mineral was 
found to contain no trace of cobalt. 

Accordingly the following conclusion may be drawn: (1) 
that the smaltite was introduced by solutions associated with 
the aplite intrusion; (2) that such solutions came after the crys- 
tallization of the aplite; (3) that the intrusion disturbed the 
diabase to such an extent that a zone was formed in the latter 
which was more permeable to the solutions than was the aplite 
itself; (4) that these solutions had little action on the feldspars, 
but found other silicates quite active chemically. Further con- 
clusions may be deduced from a consideration of the origin of 
the aplite. 

Origin of the Aplite. 

The most apparent difference between the aplite and the 
diabase is the colour. This is due to a higher percentage of quartz 

280 The Canadian Mining Institute 

and pink feldspars, and a corresponding lower percentage of dark 
coloured silicates, so that the aplite is generally light pink in colour 
while the diabase is dark gray. 

It has already been mentioned that portions of the diabase 
still at some distance from their edge are coarse in texture and 
sometimes pink in colour. Here again the difference in colour is 
due to a greater development of pink feldspars and quartz and 
less augite. The distance from the edge of the sheet, and the 
coarse texture show that these more silicious portions have 
crystallized later than the main mass. This shows that differen- 
tiation has taken place in such a way that the melt has become 
more silicious, possibly approaching a eutectic mixture. These 
pink coarse textured portions have a mineralogical composition 
intermediate between that of the gray portion and that of the 
more silicious aplite. 

From the composition and the field relations it is thought 
therefore that the aplite is a later secretion from the further 
differentiated diabase magma. 

The relations of the aplite to the diabase is very similar to 
that of "contemporaneous veins" in rocks described by Waller 
and Teal.* It is thought justifiable therefore to apply this term 
to the aplite occurrences. 

Origin of the Metalliferous Solutions. 

It has already been shown that the ores were deposited from 
solutions which followed the aplite intrusions. 

The origin of these solutions cannot be proven, but the 
association with aplite suggests a genetic connection. It seems 
that, as the diabase magma cooled and crystallized, the melt was 
approaching a eutectic of predominating salic composition. 
If water and metallic sulphides and arsenides were being concen- 
trated as the temperature fell, this was probably by the formation 
of a solution whose constituents were not soluble in all propor- 
tions in the fused silicate solution. The former solution was not 
miscible with the latter, and remained liquid or gaseous after 
temperatures had been reached at which the latter had solidified. 
When fractures in the diabase provided means of escape, part of 

*J. J. H. Teall. British Petrography, London. 1888. p. 275. 

Origin of Cobalt-Silver Ores. 281 

the metalliferous solution doubtless accompanied the aplite 
solution, and, as has been shown above, part escaped subsequent 
to the aplite deposition. 

That such a deposit is due to extreme differentiation in the 
igneous magma, is in harmony with the expressed views of J; 
E. Spurr* regarding the origin of most metalliferous deposits. 

While no silver was found in the rock sections examined, the 
occurrence of native silver with cobalt minerals in aplite in James 
and adjoining townships, indicates a similar origin for the silver. 

While it has been shown fthat in the veins at Cobalt, silver 
solidified later than cobalt minerals, the occurrence in aplite 
indicates that there was no great time interval. 

Influence of Keewatix and Huronian Rocks. 

Having concluded that the cobalt-silver bearing solutions 
are the result of differentiation in the diabase magma, we have 
now to consider the role of the intruded rocks in precipitating 
the ore. 

Van Hise has stated "that the calcite gangue could not be 
derived from the diabase since it contains no carbonates, or so 
small a quantity that it is negligible. But one of the chief 
characteristics of the Keewatin rocks is the presence of car- 
bonates, among which calcite is the most abundant. Also the 
conglomerate, being composed of debris from the Keewatin. 
contains much carbonate." He infers "that the Keewatin and 
the conglomerate are the main source of the calcite of the gangue 
minerals," and suggests "that the precipitation of the ores was 
produced by the mingling of solutions, some of which came from 
the diabase bearing the ores, and others of which came the con- 
glomerate and Keewatin bringing precipitating agents;" but 
"the mere cooling of the solution may have been a factor in the 

In the discussion following Van Hise's paperj, Miller pointed 
out concerning the cobalt-silver veins west of Peterson Lake, 
that " in practically all cases the silver values disappear in passing 

*J. E. Spurr. A Theory of Ore Deposition. Econ. Geol. Vol. II, pp. 

t\Vm. Campbell and C. W. Knight. Econ. Geol. Vol. I. 1906. 
X Journal Canadian Mining lust. Vol. X., 1907. 

282 The Canadian Mining Institute 

from the conglomerate to Keewatin, but the smaltite and nic- 
colite continue below the contact." He suggests "that during 
a period of secondary disturbance the silver filled in the cracks 
through the smaltite or older minerals." But the older Keewatin 
"seems to have escaped the effects of this slight disturbance, 
hence there were no cracks in it, and the solutions could not get 
through the Keewatin." 

A clearer idea of the part played by the intruded rocks, is to 
be obtained by a study of the character of the Keewatin and 
Huronian formations over the wide area in which cobaltiferous 
diabase is now known to occur. 

The Keewatin. 

In Coleman township this formation is represented by igneous 
rocks only. Perhaps the most abundant type is a fine grained green 
rock in which there is considerable feldspar, chlorite and calcite, 
and still undecomposed remnants of augite. These rocks are 
apparently altered basalts. There are also intrusions of coarser 
textured rocks which appear to be altered gabbros, diabases, &c. 

In Casey township there is an outcrop of a dark green, fine 
grained rock which appears to be an altered basalt, and in Tud- 
hope township a coarse textured greenstone intruded by Lauren- 
tian granite was observed. 

In other areas sedimentary rocks are associated with those 
of igneous character. At Larder Lake there are auriferous 
cherty carbonates, while at Temagami there are carbonates and 
cherty iron ores. 

A study of Miller's map* shows that none of the ore pro- 
ducing veins are located more than a few hundred feet away from 
igneous Keewatin rocks. Equally significant is the fact that in 
areas in which the latter are not found, the cobalt-silver deposits 
are less extensive, and many cobaltiferous veins contain no native 

As Van Hise has indicated, these rocks contain a considerable 
percentage of calcite which furnished the gangue. It is also to 
be noted that there are present many relatively unstable minerals, 
e.g., pyroxene, hornblende, and biotite, which are readily acted 

*W. G. Miller and C. W. Knight. Map of Cobalt Area. Bureau of Mines, 
Ontario, 1907. 

Origin of Cobalt-Silveb Ores. 283 

on by percolating waters. These minerals arc active chemical 
agents, and doubtless by their reactions with ore bearing solutions 
aided in the precipitation of the ores. From the field study it 
seems beyond doubt that such has been the case. 

The Lower Huronian. 

This formation is represented by graywacke slate, felds- 
pathic quartzite or arkose, and graywacke conglomerate, in 
ascending order. The strata have, as a general rule, been but 
slightly disturbed from their original positions; but in some 
places are inclined as much as 45°. Their character has appar- 
ently been but little changed by igneous or dynamical agencies 
of metamorphism, except at the immediate border of the diabase 
where some hardening has taken place by a recrystallization of 

In some areas, notably, Temagami, Cobalt, Casey tp., Wen- 
digo Lake, and Larder Lake, the graywacke slate and conglom- 
erate predominate over the arkose. In others, notably the region 
from James tp. to Lady Evelyn Lake, there is a greater thickness 
of the arkose. 

From numerous petrographical descriptions by A. E. Barlow 
and G. H. Williams in Barlow's report, supplemented by the 
writer's examination of the rocks in the more immediate vicinity 
of the ore deposits, the arkose is known to be made up almost 
entirely of quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase, sericite, and chlorite. 
Quartz and orthoclase predominate, and of the plagioclases 
the more sodic varieties are most abundant. The grains are often 
subangular and much fractured, their size is that of a medium 
grained granite. 

The graywacke", so far as can be determined, is made up of 
similar minerals more finely pulverized. The percentage of 
chlorite is higher; but there is an absence of fragments of primary 
ferro-magnesian minerals and the rock is therefore not a typical 

The pebbles in the conglomerate represent numerous types 
of Keewatin and Laurentian igneous rocks, and occasional cherty 
sediments. Light coloured granites, probably Laurentian. arc 
the most abundant of the pebbles. 


The Canadian Mining Institute 

From the character and composition of the mineral fragments 
which constitute them, there can be little doubt that the arkoses 
were formed from the granitoid Laurentian rocks, and not from 
the metamorphosed greenstones of the Keewatin. It follows also 
that much of the graywacke is the finer material from the same 
source; but what percentage of the graywacke is made up of 
detritus of the Keewatin, cannot be determined. 

Dr. A. P. Coleman* has shown that some pebbles in the con- 
glomerate at Cobalt have suffered from glacial action. From 
the examination of numerous basal unconformities, however, 
one must conclude that they are not due to morainal deposition 
following the grinding action of glaciers. A photograph of one 
of these unconformities is shown in Miller's report. 

The gradual transition from slate and arkose to the upper 
conglomerate bed shows that this latter is not of the common 
glacial type. The boulders of the upper bed, however, may be 
the erratic deposits of drifting ice; though glacial material is 
apparently a minor factor, if present at all. 

Bellf describes the conglomerate as a volcanic breccia. 
Miller suggests that "some of the delicately banded graywacke 
slate may represent volcanic dust or line grained pyroclastic 
material," but that the lower conglomerate is not pyroclastic 
and is made up of fragments of the adjacent older series. 

The examination of thin sections of graywacke shows an 
absence of glass or mineral fragments so characteristic of vol- 
canic dust. The chemical analysis shows it to be of a composition 
similar to an ordinary paleozoic shale. 

Si0 2 

A1 2 3 

Fe 2 3 

Ti0 2 



















*A. P. Coleman. Jour. Geol., 1908. 

fDr. Robert Bell. The Cobalt Mining District. Jour. Can. Mining Inst. 
1907. p. 64. 

Origin of Cobalt-Silvkk Ores. 



K 2 

H 2 


so 3 





. 1.01 











(A) is a composite analysis of 51 palezoic shales, by 
F. N. Stokes of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

(B) is the analysis of graywacke slate from the Little Silver 
Mine, made by A. G. Burrows of the Ontario Bureau of Alines. 

The writer concludes, therefore, "(1) that there was no 
volcanic activity contemporaneous with the Lower Huronian, 
(2) that these rocks were formed entirely of the detritus of the 
Laurentian and Keewatin formations, (3) that the arkoses, 
at least, are primarily of Laurentian origin. 

Influence of Lower Huronian Rocks. 

Attention has already been drawn to the fact that the feld- 
spars were but slightly, if at all, altered by the ore bearing solu- 
tions. Chlorite, sericite and quartz are well known to be stable 
minerals, and it therefore follows that the arkoses cannot have 
been active agents in depositing the ores. 

The graywacke is made up of similar minerals with a larger 
percentage of secondary products. Calcite is sometimes present 
in very small amounts, and it is noteworthy that these rocks show 
a marked deficiency in lime, as compared with the Keewatin. 
It is thought therefore that while the Keewatin greenstones have 
probably, by virtue of their mineralogical composition, played 
an important role in the deposition of the ores, the graywacke^ 
being composed of more stable minerals and low in calcite, played 
the same role in a minor way, if at all. The pebbles in the con- 
glomerate contain numerous primary ferro-magnesian minerals 
which would be readily decomposed, and so the coarse conglomer- 
ate may have been more active than the graywacke* slate. 

Owing to their regular vertical jointing these sediments have 
afforded the most suitable place for the deposition of the ore. 

286 The Canadian Mining Institute 

and so it happens that many of the most valuable veins have been 
found in them. 


It has been shown that cobalt ores have been deposited 
from solutions which followed the formation of a vein of aplite in 
the diabase. 

Owing to the fact that in all the silver deposits in the dis- 
trict the silver minerals are intimately associated with cobalt 
minerals, the silver is believed to have the same origin. 

It is suggested that the metallic sulphides and arsenides 
have been concentrated from the diabase magma by extreme 

The Keewatin igneous rocks have assisted in the ore deposition 
on account of their content of calcite and unstable minerals. 

The Huronian sediments are composed for the most part of 
stable minerals with little calcite, and their chief function has 
been that of a recipient for the ores. 

If these conclusions are correct, we may expect to find 
similar ore deposits where the diabase sills are associated with 
Keewatin igneous rocks, and especially valuable deposits where 
Huronian sediments are also present. The region from Lake 
Temiscaming to Lake Huron doubtless includes many such 


By Arthur A. Cole, MA, B.Sc, Cobalt, Ont. 

There are few ores that present greater difficulty in sampling 
than the silver-cobalt ores of the Cobalt Camp. The ore consists 
generally of cobalt and nickel arsenides and sulphides, but the 
trouble is caused by the occurence of large amounts of metallics 
composed of native silver, or an alloy of silver and arsenic, which 
acts in the mill the same as native silver. With ores of this 
nature, frequently carrying extremely high values, the subject 
of sampling is of more than ordinary importance. 

The ore leaves the mine in heavy jute sacks containing 
about 100 pounds each, and is shipped to Copper Cliff in (1) 
Railway Box-Cars under seal. In the case of very low grade 
material no bags are used, and the ore is shipped in bulk. From 
the car it is trucked to the (2) Weighing Scale, where it is weighed 
in lots of 10 sacks, and the first gross weight obtained. The 
sacks are then opened and the ore passed through a (3) Large Jaw 
Crusher, (Buchanan's Patent Rock and Ore Crusher). The 
empty sacks are tied up, weighed, and returned to the shipper. 
If the ore is dry it is shovelled directly into the (5) Ball Mill. If 
it is wet it is spread on (4) Steam Drying Plates until it is dry, 
and then it too goes to the ball mill. 

As the ore comes from the jaw crusher a small shovelful 
from each sackful is set aside for a preliminary moisture sample, 
representing moisture contained in the ore as shipped. 

This miosture sample is coned and quartered to about 100 
pounds, after which it is taken to the sampling room, where it is 
passed through a small (15) Jaw Crusher, (Allis-Chalmers Labora- 
tory Crusher). Then it is cut down to four samples of five kilos 
each, which are placed in pans in a (16) Steam Oven for about 

288 The Canadian Mining Institute 

twenty hours, at a temperature of about 80 degrees centigrade. 
This material eventually returns to the crushing floor and goes 
through the ball mill. 

The (5) Ball Mill (Plate I) is of Allis-Chalmers make and re- 
quires 25 H.P. to run it. It consists of a large metallic cylinder 
which revolves horizontally on its axis. It is lined with three 
sets of screens, the finest which is 20 mesh, being farthest from 
the centre. The grinding is done by a large number of hardened 
steel balls, of a total weight of If tons, which are carried up the 
side of the cylinder as it revolves, and then drop back on the ore. 
As the ore is ground to 20 mesh it is discharged below to an (6) 
Automatic Sampler. Screen tests show that 50% of the milled 
ore will pass a 100 mesh sieve, and 80% will pass a 50 mesh sieve. 
The capacity of the mill is about 1£ tons per hour. 

The large metallics remain in the ball mill, and after the run 
is complete, they are removed, weighed, melted in a (14) Melting 
Furnace and run into bars of bullion. The speiss and the slag 
from this are combined and sampled together, while the bullion 
is sampled separately. 

The (6) Automatic Sampler (Plate II), which is a 27 inch 
Snyder, cuts out one-tenth of the milled product. It consists 
merely of a circular casting shaped much like a miner's gold pan, 
having four openings in its sloping flange, and revolving on the end 
of a horizontal shaft. Two opposite openings are closed, thus 
leaving two cuts per revolution. The material to be sampled is 
directed by a spout so as to fall inside of the sloping flange of 
the sampler. The rejections slide off the flange and the sample 
drops through the openings as they pass under the spout. The 
sample makes 25 revolutions per minute, and this gives 3,000 cuts 
per hour for about 1£ tons of ore, or one cut for every pound 
of ore, or 60,000 cuts per car of 30 tons. A chain drive prevents 
slipping so that the cuts are regular. 

The main part of the milled product (about 9 /10 of the whole), 
is here weighed (7) and thence passes to the (8) Storage Bins of 
the smelter. 

The sample is now removed from the (9) Sample Chamber and 
weighed (7) and this weight is added to that of the milled product 

Plate I.— Allis-Chalmers Company, Ball Mill. 

Plate II. — Snyder Automatic Ore Sampler. 

Silver-Cobalt Ores at Copper Cliff.. 289 

above. Payment is made on these combined weights, less the 

Two complete weighings of the shipment are thus made which 
should agree closely. This gives the shipper a check on his 
weights. Thus the gross weight of ore in sacks should be the 
same as the weight of: — 

(a) Milled ore including sample. 

(b) Sacks. 

(c) Water lost on drying plates. 

A sample for the final determination of moisture is taken by 
tube-sampler from each pailfull as it is removed from the sample- 
chamber. This moisture sample is cut down to three samples of 
three kilos, each. The result thus obtained is used in the cal- 
culation of dry weight. The weight of water lost on the drying 
plates can be calculated by taking the difference between this and 
the first moisture result. 

The main sample is now thrown on the concrete floor of the 
sample-room, and after being shovelled over twice, is coned and 
quartered into two halves called Sample No. 1 and Sample No. 2. 
These samples are treated alike so that a description of one will 
suffice for both. 

Sample No. 1 is (10) Coned and Quartered by shovelling on the 
concrete floor down to about 100 pounds, which will be four 
or five cuts according to the size of the original sample. Cutting 
down is continued by halving in a (11) Jones Sampler till two 
samples of approximately 20 pounds each are obtained. One 
of these is placed in a box and sealed by the shipper's agent for 
future reference, in case any accident should happen to the other 
samples. The other sample is now dried thoroughly and ground 
in a (12) Laboratory Disc Grinder, (Plate III) (Sturtevant Mill 
Company, Boston), till the fines pass through a (13) 100 Mesh 
Sieve leaving the metallic scales on the sieve bright and clean. 
Part of the final grinding is sometimes assisted by a Laboratory 
Pebble Mill (Plates IV and V) of the Abbe* Engineering Company 
of New York, and sometimes by a Hance Drug Mill manufactured 
by Messrs. Hance Brothers & White, of Philadelphia. 



The Canadian Mining Institute. 

The metallic scales and fines are weighed and sampled 
separately. The fines are placed in a pebble mill and mixed for 
an hour before sampling. 

Sample No. 2 is handled as above excepting that no reference 
sample is retained. 

The methods of sampling as described above are according to 
exceedingly good practice, and the final samples should be about 
as close to the truth as it is possible to get them. The first cut 
is made by an automatic sampler, so the possibility of introducing 
a personal error here is eliminated. The rest of the sampling 
is done by hand, but very carefully, as is proven by the following 
results shown in Tables 1 and 2. The sample is cut in two, and 
each half is sampled and assayed separately. 

The following Table No. 1 shows the results in ounces of 
silver of 13 cars, being a complete month's run of the Copper 
Cliff Plant. The assays were made by the chemist at the works, 
and I am indebted to the courtesy of the Superintendent, Mr. D. 
L. Mackenzie, for these figures. 


Sample 1. 

Sample 2. 


Difference . 










































2451 . 





























Table No. 2 shows six more shipments illustrating the same 
point. In this case the assays were made by Messrs. Ledoux & 
Company, of New York City. 



Platk III. — Sturtevant Laboratorv Disc Grinder. 

Silver-Cobalt Ores at Copper Cllff. 



Sample 1. 

Sample 2. 


































The average difference between Sample 1 and 2 on the above 
19 shipments is .68%, which is remarkably small considering the 
grade of the ore and the amount of metallics contained. 

The capacity of the smelting plant is determined by that of 
the crushing plant, which is about 15 tons per day. 

It requires three days to complete the sampling of a thirty 
ton car. 


The Canadian Mining Institute. 


(1) Ore in Railroad Car as shipped from mine. 


(2) Weighing Scales. 


(3) Large Jaw Crusher. 


Wet Ore< 

(4) Steam Drying Plates. 


Rough Moisture Sample. 

►Dry Ore (15) Small Jaw Crusher . 

I i 

| (16) Steam Oven. 



(14) Melting Furnace. 

— (5) Ball Mill. 
(Sieves, 20 mesh) 



(6) Automatic Sampler. 

9/10 of whole shipment. 

1/10 of whole shipment. Sample. 


(7) Weighing Scales 


(8) Storage Bins. 

Sample No. 1. 

(9) Sample Chamber. 

(7) Weighing Scales. 

Main Sample. 

Moisture Sample. (Final) . 

Sample No. 2. 


(10) Coning and Quartering. 


(11) Jones Sampler. 

I ' 

(12) Disc Grinder. 

—(13) 100 Mesh Sieve. 


(10) Coning and Quartering. 

(11) Jones Sampler. 


(12) Disc Grinder. 

-(13) 100 Mesh Sieve. 

►Metallic Scales. 


►Metallic Scales. 



Note. — Final samples are underlined. 


Copyright, 1904. by Abb£ Engineering Co 

Plate IV.— Jar Pebble Mill 

Copynght, 1906, by Abbe Engineering Co. 
Plate V. — Twelve Jar Laboratory Pebble Mill. 


CANADA, 1908. 

By F. N. Flynn, Cobalt, Ont. 
(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

In view of the fact that there exist, in the mines at Cobalt 
and its neighboring districts, a considerable quantity of low-grade 
silver ore or unmarketable cobalt ores, which have only a pros- 
pective value, it would appear as though a general discussion 
of the subject would be of value to the operators of the camp 
as well as to metallurgists in general. It would be very pro- 
fitable to both if the metallurgists of foreign countries, who have 
treated ores of cobalt from this or other districts, would com- 
in closer touch with the Canadian district. In doing so it would 
not be expected that they would publish their guarded metale 
lurgical secrets of a generation; but should they do so, we would 
congratulate them on their more modern and more American 
way of doing business. On the other hand, the Canadian miners 
would be content to increase the business of both by selling them 
cobalt ores which they have treated successfully. The difficulty 
seems to be that there is no connecting link to facilitate business 
intercourse between the Canadian miner and the European 
metallurgist. Let us, therefore, interest these men in our pro- 
blems by discussions and bring them to our assistance in market- 
ing cobalt ores, of which we have more than any other country 
in the world. It is with this object in view and for their special 
information that the following general description of our con- 
ditions has been written. 

With the discovery of the Cobalt camp, there were presented 
to mining and metallurgical engineers several problems, which 
made even the most capable and experienced experts pause 
before passing an opinion. These problems were unusually puzzling 
and out of the ordinary rut of every day engineering experiences. 
To this day many of these questions are as yet unanswered to 
the entire satisfaction of those who are developing the camp. 
The mining engineers were asked : — " Will these narrow veins 
go down through the changes in formation, and will their values 

294 The Canadian Mining Institute 

continue in depth?" The metallurgists were asked: — "How 
can we get the most dollars from our ores?" The mining engineer 
has had three years of practical demonstration to prove his 
theories; but the metallurgist, aside from a select few engaged 
with the large custom smelters, has had little opportunity to put 
his ideas to the test. These conditions are now gradually changing 
and within the past few months several concentrating plants 
have commenced the solution of the primary problem. Primary, 
because it is always advisable to reduce the bulk of the material 
before attempting further separation of the values, and if con- 
centration will accomplish this end, without too great a silver 
loss, the metallurgists will have cause for congratulation. The 
varying degrees of metallurgical success will depend largely on 
the physical constitution of the vein matter, the method of break- 
ing down the ore in the vein, and the efficiency of sizing, hand 
sorting and cobbing. 


The veins are found in the Keewatin, Lower Huronian, 
Post Middle Huronian, Glacial and recent formations. Their 
pitch is nearly vertical. They open and close frequently, both 
vertically and horizontally. The Lower Huronian veins are the 
most constant, the Post Middle Huronian ranking a close second. 
The veins outcropping in the Keewatin cannot be referred to 
in a general way. They vary considerably. Some of the best 
veins are found in this formation. It is generally conceded that 
veins which are constant in the other formations, are apt to pinch 
out when they enter the Keewatin. 

veins and minerals. 

The veins are narrow, all under 28 inches, probably averaging 
4 inches in width, and according to the Provincial Geologists 
contain the following minerals: — 


Native Silver, Native Bismuth, Graphite. 


Niccolite or Arsenide of Nickel (NiAs). Chloanthite 
or Diarsenide of Nickel (NiAs 2 ). Smaltite or Diarsenide of Co- 
balt (Co As 2 ) . 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 295 

3. arsenates — 

Erythrite or Cobalt Bloom, Co 3 As 2 8 + 8H 2 0. 
Annabergite or Nickel Bloom, Ni 3 As 2 8 + 8H 2 0. 

4. sulphides — 

Argentite or Silver Sulphide, Ag2S. 
Millerite or Nickel Sulphide, NiS. 

5. sulph-arsenides — 

Mispickel or Sulph-Arsenide of Iron, FeAsS. 
Cobaltite or Sulph-Arsenide of Cobalt, CoAsS. 


Dyscrasite or Silver Antimonide, Ag6Sb. 


Pyrargyrite or dark red Silver ore, Ag3SbS3. 
Tetrahedrite or Sulph-Antimonide of Copper, 


(a) Some of the veins have all their ore concentrated in one 
seam, lying loosely between two perfect walls, the line of separa- 
tion being distinctly marked, usually by a film of mud. Such 
veins, physically clean, can be stripped clean in mining, pro- 
viding the width and grade justify stripping the gangue before 
taking down the ore. When stripping is the method followed, 
the wall rock material is usually of little value, and the ore very 
free from gangue. 

(b) Another type of vein will have its ore "frozen" to one 

(c) A third type contains several " stringers " of ore entering 
and leaving the main vein, so as to leave several inches or feet of 
gangue rock between them. With these two types the walls 
are not always clearly defined, and it is usual to drive, in the ore 
that is, to cut behind the walls with the main drive, sufficient 
to take down the outside stringers. By keeping the drill holes 
away from the ore and loading them with just the right amount 
of dynamite, this method can be followed without an undue 
amount of " fines, " but sufficient to make a fair grade of screenings. 
The ore from such veins requires considerable " cobbing " to clean 

(d) A fourth type may have irregular walls and consist 

296 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

mainly of calcite and native silver, with sheets and flakes of silver 
penetrating the wall-rock at all angles from the main vein. The 
method of mining varies with the local condition. These veins 
produce a large quantity of " cobbings. " In this refuse material 
the flake silver is quite visible before crushing, but is so thin 
as to produce little or no "metallics" after crushing, the gangue 
being very hard. 

(e) Another similar type will contain the bulk of its wall- 
rock crevice values as argentite instead of native, or a mixture of 
both. These veins are not so frequently encountered as the 
preceding, but produce as large, or larger, tonnage of mill-rock 
than any in the district. 

The Jive types mentioned are but a few of the many va- 
rieties, but serve to show that each vein or the wall-rock from 
each vein, may require a different method of mining and milling. 
The physical distinctions are of the utmost importance to milling 
operations, especially those having values in the wall-rock 


When several veins of different character, and possibly 
mined by different systems, are worked through one shaft, the 
complications which develop at the head-house become a matter 
of importance. There is hoisted: 

(a) Clean ore from different veins, the composition of which 
varies widely and must be kept separate on account of the con- 
dition of the market. 

(b) Clean waste from cross-cuts. 

(c) Supposedly clean gangue rock from "stripping". Some 
of these veins carry values in the wall-rock. 

(d) Mixed vein matter from driving in the vein, and from 
veins the ore from w r hich must be kept separate. 

The clean ores from the various veins are stored separately, 
and frequently each is sorted to two or more classes. 

The clean waste must be kept in one dump to facilitate the 
grouping of mill dumps. 

The gangue rock from "stripping" must be closely watched 
and kept in separate dumps, one as possibly worthless or doubt- 
ful, the other as a mill dump with values. 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 297 

The mixed vein matter is treated on one or more bumping 
tables. These tables are frequently 4 ft. x 15 ft., hung by inclined 
bolts from overhead timbers. They have a fall of 1 foot in 15. 
The forward motion is about 4 inches, and is driven by a cam- 
shaft at -varying speed. The floor of the table consists of two 
steel plates and one perforated plate; the latter is usually the 
centre plate. The material is fed from a bin at one end, and 
sprayed continuously with water from the mine pumps. The 
perforated plate has §•* holes, while the under screen has \" 
holes. This gives the sorters, washed rock |* and larger, while 
the undersize f" to £" and \" and water, along with the coarse 
waste from the end of the table, drop into their respective bins 
below. One table handles 50 tons per shift with six men in- 
cluding car-men. Each of these three waste products should 
be stored on separate dumps for future treatment, unless the 
fine screenings have a present market value. By arranging 
separate dumps for all these materials they can be more readily 
marketed, or treated by different processes, and may mean 
the recovery of dollars, as compared with cents if mixed together. 
The shipping ore is usually crushed to one inch and sewed 
in bags, the weights of which vary from 75 to 150 lbs. 

ore values. 
The following statement, from a paper* read by Dr. A. R. 
Ledoux at the Toronto Meeting, 1907, gives the only accurate 
published information of the average assays of Cobalt silver ores 
in car-load lots : — 

Per cent. 

Over 6,000 ozs. 4 lots (say) 1 

Between 5,000 ozs. and 6,000 ozs. 3 " 0. 75 

4,000 ozs. and 5,000 ozs. 12 " 3 

" 3,000 ozs. and 4,000 ozs. 17 " 4.25 

2,000 ozs. and 3,000 ozs. 30 " . . . • 10 

1,000 ozs. and 2,000 ozs. 72 " 18 . 25 

900 ozs. and 1,000 ozs. 11 " 2.75 

" 800 ozs. and 900 ozs. 7 " 1 . 75 

" 700 ozs. and 800 ozs. 12 " 3 

" 600 ozs. and 700 ozs. 21 " 5 . 25 

" SOOozs.and 600ozs. 10 " 2.5 

400ozs.and 500ozs. 13 " 3.25 

" 300 ozs. and 400 ozs. 20 " 5 

" 200 ozs. and 300 ozs. 44 " 11 .25 

100 ozs. and 200 ozs. 66 " 17 

Less than 100 ozs. 43 " 11 

Richness of Cobalt Ores." Trans. CM. I., 1907, p. 72. 


The Canadian Mining Institute 

"Silver, of course, in point of value, is the more important 
element. The highest percentage of cobalt found in any one 
shipment is 11.96 per cent., the average being 5.99 per cent. 
The highest assay for nickel in any car is 12.49 per cent., the 
average being 3.66 per cent. The highest percentage of arsenic 
is 59.32 per cent., the average 27.12." 

The analyses of the graded ores from one mine working 
several veins are as follows: — 


'A" 5.75 

[ B" 3.90 

'C" 18.48 

[ D" 8.8 

'E" 8.2 

[ F" 40.8 

«G" 69.0 

'H" 77.0 

Si0 2 Fe. 



















A1 2 3 











As. Ag. ozs. 

55 22 






183 . 66 





"A", "B" and "C" were averages for one year's shipments. 
The other grades carry cobalt and nickel proportionately to the 
relative arsenic contents. "G" and "H" are wall-rock ores, 
which carry values in the crevices. A complete analysis of two 
car-loads was found to contain: — 

After Drying 

Silica 3.34% 

Iron 1 .78% 

Alumina 0.27% 

Lime 5.85% 

Magnesia 4. 63% 

Copper 1 0.09% 

Nickel 13.87% 

Cobalt 8.36% 

Bismuth trace 

Silver 5.31% 

Antimony 1 . 46% 

Arsenic 42 . 46% 

Carbonic Acid 9.26% 

Chlorine 0.08% 

Sulphur 1 .89% 

Combined water, alkalies and oxygen, by difference 1 . 35% 

Mktallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 299 


The camp has produced: — 

In 1904 158 tons. 

" 1905 2,144 " 

" J906 5,129 " 

" 1907 14,828 " 

Total 22,259 tons. 

The principal shippers in 1907 were: — 

La Rose 2815 . 40 tons. 

Nipissing 2538.26 " 

Coniagas 2447.37 " 

O'Brien 1475.44 " 

Buffalo 1241 . 54 " 

Trethewey 833 . 58 " 

McKinley-Darragh 768. 13 " 

Silver Queen 456 . 57 " 

Foster 345. 13 " 

Kerr Lake (Jacobs) 323.23 " 

Nova Scotia 244. 11 " 

Temiskaming & Hudson Bay 180 . 41 " 

Temiskaming 165.82 " 

Cobalt Townsite 143 . 22 " 

Right of Way 129.37 " 

Drummond 104 . 13 " 

13 other mines 416 . 95 " 

Total 14828.66 tons. 


For the moment at least, the main object in milling is to 
win more ore from the waste, cobbings, and screenings. The 
treatment of the wall-rock proper will be the second step. Take 
for example the \" undersize from the bumping tables: this 
contains ore which is of too small a size to hand-pick. It is 
usually clean ore in separate particles from the gangue. If further 
sized, jigs and tables should do excellent work. Mixed material 
difficult to "cob" will undoubtedly add considerably to the out- 
put, but on account of its physical "make-up", and the fact 
that the ores of the district occur in the massive form (when 
they are crystallized the crystals are very small), the crushing 
will produce a considerable quantity of slimes. Stamp crushing 
should not be considered in concentration. Roll crushing, with 
a large slime-treating capacity, may serve for the present, but 
ample provision should be made for storing the slimes separately. 
If the concentration process is confined entirely to the recovery 

300 The Canadian Mining Institute 

of the arsenides, the extraction, plus the recovery of slimes as 
such, should be quite satisfactory. On the other hand, should con- 
centration be attempted on the wall-rock ores carrying, values 
as native silver in very thin flakes and as argentite, the results 
cannot possibly prove a financial success, unless the tails are 
to be re-treated by another process. The native silver flakes 
and argentite ores must be treated chemically if milled, preferably 
by raw amalgamation for the native silver and cyanide for the 
argentite ores, whereas the slimes from concentration might- 
be treated by the "oil process" or any number of processes. 
It is needless to say that the coarse silver can be concentrated. 
At present there are six new concentrators in the camp, three 
in operation and three nearly completed. One plant is designed 
to treat the tails by cyanide; the other by raw amalgamation. 
It is sincerely hoped that those in charge will make public the 
results of their operations. Whether they are successful or not, 
the knowledge of their results will be beneficial to the camp. 


The bulk of the shipments from the camp have gone to the 
custom smelters of New Jersey, and as the ore is exceptionally 
rich, and special facilities are required in the sampling, it is 
almost invariably sampled at the public sampling works. Shovel 
sampling is preferred to mechanical samplers. Here in the 
presence of representatives from buyer and seller, the sacks are 
weighed in lots of ten, by a public "sworn weigher." The ore 
is crushed, rolled, and re-rolled, the nuggets of silver being 
picked out by hand between each handling. The nuggets 
are weighed and deductions made. These are usually sold 
to the custom refineries as a separate transaction. The 
finely-crushed and thoroughly-mixed material is now completely 
sampled four successive times. The smaller samples are screened, 
and the metallics are subjected to a further grinding in small 
pebble mills. The four samples vary widely in their values, 
in spite of all precautions. 

Cobalt and nickel are not paid for by the custom smelters 
in the States. The ore carries no gold. Silver is the only deter- 
mination necessary in most cases. This is determined by the 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 301 

combination method, wet and dry, on all ores carrying arsenic 
in quantity. 

The nuggets are melted in large crucibles and cast into bars. 
The resulting slag and speiss are weighed, sampled and assayed 
as usual. The bars run fiom 700 to 875 fine. 

The sampling of a mine dump at the mine, by the grab- 
sampling principle, is not worth the cost; the values are not 
homogeneously contained in the rock. The "fines" are invariably 
the richer. The values in the coarse rock are in the crevices; 
whereas the body of the rock, without cleavage planes, is barren, 
so that, in chipping pieces from the larger rocks, one invariably 
gets a greater proportion of crevice values than the whole rock 
contains. To determine the value of the dump, a large quantity 
in natural size should be crushed and finely ground before sampling 
is commenced. 


Let us assume that concentration, followed by a chemical 
process in special cases, will solve all the low-grade ore problems. 
This means a larger output of arsenical ores to be smelted. In 
the earlier days of the camp a considerable tonnage of arsenical 
ore was shipped to Europe, where, in some cases, the four metals — 
silver, cobalt, nickel and arsenic — were paid for at very satisfactory 
prices. For various reasons, many of which are inexplainable 
at this end, the European metallurgists either declined to 
take any more shipments, or declined to pay for all four 
metals. Others later on declined to pay for nickel and arsenic, 
and at last only paid for the cobalt. The result is that 
those producing smaltite ores without silver values occasion- 
ally market a car in Europe. The silver mines have practically 
discontinued European shipments. The New York ore buyers 
paid for arsenic, silver, cobalt and nickel values as late as Aug., 
1905, when they discontinued payments for the arsenic, cobalt 
and nickel. The new schedule, which came out at that time, 
by t! e Xew Jersey smelters, charged 6% of the silver, and later 
they imposed a treatment charge of $8.00 per ton. As the 
European market declined, the treatment charge was raised to 
from S9.00 to $15.00 per ton, with a silver deduction of 7%. 
Then followed the penalty for insoluble silica and arsenic. Later 
one half-a-cent an ounce was deducted from the price paid for 

302 The Canadian Mining Institute 

the silver, and various other forms of deductions followed, until 
a period was at one time reached with one smelter, where, unless 
the mine owners would make a time contract at increased treat- 
ment charges, they declined to accept any more ore. Strange 
to say, the other smelters, including the European plants, were 
at this critical time "overstocked" with cobalt ores. After 
the mines had accepted the inevitable, the smelters broadened 
their field of operation, and allowed shipments to be made with- 
out restriction as to tonnage especially for wall-rock ores, which 
contained little or no arsenic. The new schedules still impose 
the heavy arsenic penalty on ores under 1,500 ozs. A comparison 
of European and American market conditions is best made by 
examples. In December, 1905, a car of ore was shipped from 
Cobalt to England direct. The liquidation shows: — 

Weight— 17 tons, 16 cwt., 3 qrs., 3 lbs. 

Contents— Ag. 30,921 . 24 fine ozs. 

Co. 4,275.0 lbs. 

Ni. 2,496.9 " 

As. 13, 679 . lbs. 
Liquidation : — 
92% of silver contained= £ s. d. 

30754. 11 standard ozs. at 30. 5187d. (average) 3910 16 4 

4275 lbs. Co. at 2/- per lb 427 10 - 

2496.9 lbs. Ni. at 6d. per lb 62 8 6 

13679 lbs. As. at id. per lb 14 5 - 

Total Credits £4414 19 10 

Freight, Cobalt to Liverpool, and Insurance .... £51 3 2 

Ry. Exps. in England 38 2 7 

Paris Chgs. Nickel, etc 10 - - 

Assaying , 35 - 6 

Silver Refining Expense 24 15 4 

Total Debits £159 1 7 

Net Credits £4255 18 3 

Expressing the above transaction in American terms, we 
have : — 

Ag. 1547 . 68 ozs. at 92%=1423 . 86 ozs. at 66§c $94^ . 24 

Co. 10 . 70% at 100%= 214.0 lbs. at 48Jc 103 . 79 

Ni. 6.25% at 100%= 125.0 " at 12|c 15.16 

As. 34.23% at 100%= 684.6 "at $c 3.43 

Gross Value per short ton $1,071 . 62 

Freight, Treatment, and all other deductions 38 . 62 

Net per ton, F.O.B. Cobalt $1,033 . 00 

19.979 Tons $20,638.30 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 303 

A few of the old and new schedules follow: — 

(2) New York Ore Buyers— 1905. 

Cobalt ores, at Ledoux & Co's plant, Bergen Junction, X.J. 
Payments : — 
Ag. 90% at N.Y. quotation. 
As. 100% at Jc. per lb. 
Xi. 100% at 12c. per lb. 
Co. 100% at 65c. per lb. 

(3) American Smelting and Refining Co., Maurer, N.J. — 1908. 

For ores under 1,500 ozs. 

Pay for silver 93% of contents at N.Y. quotation, 
less £c. per oz., at quotation 30 days after agree- 
ment of assays. 

Charge for insoluble silica 7c. per unit 

" arsenic in excess of 5%. ..25c " 

" treatment $9. 00 per ton 

For ores over 1,500 ozs. — These are not purchased out- 
right. They are cupelled in their refinery and paid 
for as follows: — 

Pay for bar silver recovered from cupellation at 

N.Y. quotation, less lc. per oz., for 100% on 

date of agreement of assays. 
Pay for the silver contained in the by-products 

from cupellation at N.Y. quotation, less £c. 

per oz., for 98% of contents, at quotation 30 

days after agreement of assays. 
Charge for treatment, $125.00 per ton of ore. 

(4) International Nickel Co., Copper Cliff, Ontario, 1908. 

Ag. Pay 94%, when 4,000 ozs. or over. 

" 93%, 




" 92%, 




" 90%, 




" 85%, 




" 80%, 




Co. Pay $30.00 


;on of ore 

for 12% or over, 

" $20.00 



8% " 

" $10.00 



6% " 


The Canadian Mining Institute 

No payment for less than 6% Cobalt, nor when the nickel 
contents is higher than that of Cobalt. 

Payment is to be made in two instalments of 45 and 90 days 
respectively, after sampling the ore, and is based on the official 
value at New York on the first day of settlement. The purchaser 
reserves the right to pay hi silver bullion delivered at New York 
in place of cash. 

(5) Deloro Smelting and Refining Co., Marmora, Ontario, 1908: — 

Ag. Pay 95% when 2,000 ozs. or over. 

" 94% 



' to 2,000 ozs 

" 93% 



" " 1,000 " 

" 91% 



" " 800 " 

" 90% 



" " 500 " 

" 85% 



u u 200 " 

At N.Y. quotations 30 days after agreement of assays. 
Co. Pay $20.00 per ton of ore for 10% or over. 

" $10.00 " " 6% to 10% ore. 

No payment for less than 6%. 
As. Pay l^c. per lb. for 30% or over. 

" lc " 10% to 30% ore. 

Treatment, $10.00 per ton. 

(6) 1907. The Swansea smelters bought low silver cobalt ores, 
without regard for silver contents, and without any deduction, 
F.O.B. cars Cobalt, as follows: — 

8% to 10% cobalt 30c. per lb. 

10.1% "12% " ' 35c. " 

12.1% " 14% " 40c. " 

14.1% " 16% " 45c. " 

16% or over " 50c. " 

These prices give net returns of from $48.00 to $160.00 
per ton. 

1908. The Swansea smelters have raised their schedule of 
payment 5 cents per lb. 

(7) Very recently, German buyers have entered the field, and 
have purchased certain classes, of ores at figures which are satis- 


factory to the Cobalt producers. They have bought several 
cars of ore on the following basis: — 

For ores containing not less than 10.5% of cobalt , and 
not less than 30 ozs. silver, per ton, there will be 
paid $81.82 per ton, on the following conditions: — 

F.O.B. cars, Cobalt. Purchaser pays freight. 
Sampling by Ledoux & Co., Bergen Junction, 
N.J. The cost of sampling to be divided. 
Ledoux & Co. assays will govern settlement. 

This would net say 880.00 per ton. 

Taking such an ore a comparison would be interesting 
however certain schedules would not apply in this case. 

The ore:— Ag. 30 ozs.; Co. 10.5%; Xi. 4.5%; As. 50%; 
Insoluble 15% ; Silver 55c. per oz. 

Net F.O.B. Cobalt :— Cr. 

(1) English Market 1905 $ 94 . 32 

(2) New York Ore Buyers 1905 155 . 95 

(3) A. S. &R.Co., .. . 1908 7.31 

(4 ) International Nickel Co 1908 28 . 00 

(5) Deloro Smelting & Refining Co 1908 32 . 02 

(6) Swansea Smelters 1907 73 . 50 

Swansea Smelters 1908 84 . 00 

(7) German Market 1908 80 . 00 

Difference between highest and lowest $148.00 

The most serious difficulty at the present time is the un- 
certainty of the cobalt market. The European buyers occasional- 
ly cable instructions to "ship 50 tons cobalt within one week," 
whereas the miner is not prepared to deliver in so short a time. 
It is not mined until a market is found for it. Should he ship, 
he might wait six months before receiving another offer. 

In order to compare the schedules, on silver ores, we will 
take the shipment to England, previously referred to, with the 
same silver price for comparison: — 

(2) New York Ore Buyers, 1905:— 

Ag. 1547.68 ozs. at 90%=i.392.91 ozs. at66}c $928.61 

As. 34 23% at 100%= 684.6 lbs. at $c 3.42 

Ni. 6.25% at 100%= 125.0 " at 12c 15.00 

Co. 10.70% at 100%= 214.0 " at 65c 139. 10 

Total Credits $1,086. 13 

Freight 1 1 . 20 


Net perton $1,074.93 

306 The Canadian Mining Institute 

(3) American Smelting and Refining Co., Maurer, N.J., plant. 

Schedule "A," present schedule, over 1,500 ozs. 
is cupelled direct. 

Schedule "B, " present schedule, under 1,500 ozs. 
will be used to illustrate this example: — 

Ag. 1547 . 68 ozs. at 93% = 1,439 . 34 ozs., price 66§c. less £c=66 . 17c . $952 . 41 
Insoluble Silica (estimated for this example at 7%) at 7c. . . .$ 0. 49 

As. 34. 23% less 5% = 29. 23% at 25c 7.31 

Treatment 9 . 00 

Freight 11 .20 

Total debits 28.00 

Net per ton $924. 41 

(4) International Nickel Co., Copper Cliff, Ontario; — 

Ag. 1,547 . 68 ozs. at 93% = 1,439 . 34 ozs. at 66§c $959 . 56 

Co. 10.70% 20.00 

Total credits 979 . 56 

Less freight 5 . 20 

Net per ton $974.36 

(5) Deloro Smelting & Refining Co., Marmora, Ontario: — 

Ag. 1,547 . 68 ozs. at 94% = 1,454 . 82 ozs. at 66§c $969 . 88 

As. 34. 23% at 100% = 684. 6 lbs. at l£c 10.27 

Co. 10.70% 20.00 

Total credits $1,000.15 

Freight $ 7.00 

Treatment 10.00 

Total debits 17 . 00 

Net per ton $983. 15 

Summary of results : — 

(1) English Market 1905 $1,033 . 00 

(2) New York Ore Buyers 1905 1,074.93 

(3) A.S.&R.Co 1908 924.41 

(4) International Nickel Co 1908 974.36 

(5) Deloro Smelting & RefiningCo 1908 983. 15 

Difference between highest and lowest $150. 52 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 307 

Another type of ore, same silver price: — 

The ore :— Ag. 776 . 28 ozs. 
As. 44.26% 
Ni. 11.09% 
Co. 10.09% 
Ins. 5. 00% 

(1) English Market 1905 $566 . 69 

(2) New York Ore Buyers 1905 616 . 79 

(3) A.S.&R.Co 1908 447.35 

(4) International Nickel Co 1908 460.57 

(5) Deloro Smelting & Refining Co 1908 487.22 

Difference between highest and lowest 169 . 44 

It seems scarcely necessary to add that the market price 
of silver to-day — 55 cents — would materially change these results, 
and that contracts for time or tonnage on the entire output of 
all classes of ores produced would result in slightly better terms. 

Comparing the lead cupellation process with direct purchase, 
the advantage is that the many difficulties and uncertain results 
in sampling and assaying the rich crude ores are eliminated. 
The disadvantage is that the losses resulting from handling, 
flue dust, and volatilization falls on the seller. Roughly, about 
60% of the silver is recovered in bars. The advantage of elimin- 
ating an uncertainty in sampling and assaying is as beneficial 
to the smelter as to the seller. On the other hand, the metallur- 
gical losses are always borne by the seller. This loss, in addition 
to a treatment charge of $125.00 per ton and deductions from 
the percentage of silver paid for in by-products, as well as from 
the market price paid for the silver in both instances, and to- 
gether with the fact that the seller is not at this late date paid 
for his cobalt, nickel and arsenic, by the New Jersey smelters, 
appears to the average miner as a condition wherein the term 
''Modern Metallurgy" is a delusion. 


Market conditions are such as to compel the miner to study 
metallurgy. There are to-day at least a dozen prominent 
metallurgists who are endeavoring to overcome the smelting 
difficulties. Unfortunately, the good work which they are 
doing, in an experimental way, is underestimated and discounted 

308 The Canadian Mining Institute 

by the average miner and investor, by the promises held out of 
high extraction, low costs, and good markets, by some of the 
earlier " Promoting Metallurgists. " Many of these earlier " Metal- 
lurgists" were of the "patent-process presto-change" variety, 
whose special mission was to boom the camp indirectly, for 
the direct profit of others. Let us hope that this class have 
disappeared. When some new field of operation has sprung 
up, we are sure to find them again, for they make a specialty 
of booms. 

The ores produced may be conveniently grouped under 
four classes: — 

1. "Over 1,500 ozs. silver and under 35% arsenic 

2. Under 1,500 " " 40% " 

3. " 100 " " 60% " 

4. " 100 " " 2% " 

The tonnage of No. 1 is very small. No. 2 may be considered 
the representative shipping tonnage of the camp. The tonnage 
shipped of No. 3 may be disregarded, because there is no profitable 
market for it. The number of veins of this character in the 
district and in the adjoining townships is greater than the silver 
veins. This ore is composed almost entirely of smaltite. If it 
could be marketed steadily, the tonnage would exceed all other 
classes combined. No. 4 is the wall-rock ore, and while it will 
be treated by the amalgamation and cyanide processes in con- 
siderable tonnage, it must nevertheless be counted on in local 
smelting as one of the slag-forming elements of the charge. If 
the other ores are to be smelted at a considerable distance, these 
may be disregarded. At present, the sentiments of the miner 
may be described as follows: — He is disposed to sell No. 1 classifi- 
cation to the refiners, but considers the conditions too severe. 
He is content to lose the other valuable metals on this grade 
of ore. On No. 2 classification — the larger tonnage he could 
console himself to the loss of the cobalt and nickel, if the smelters 
would not penalize for the arsenic. On No. 3 ore, he dreams 
of the future, when cobalt will be easily refined. On No. 4 ore, 
his former dreams are about to be realized in the mills. On the 
whole, he criticizes the custom smelters because they do not appear 
to be doing anything to relieve the situation. Metallurgists are 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 309 

frequently asked why it is that the miners do not smelt I heir 
own ore, even on a very small scale? The answer is well worth 

"We have no market for the speiss. This alone constitutes 
95% of the reasons why we don't do it". 

The smelting of the ore is not as difficult, metallurgically, as 
the average miner may have been led to believe. The trouble 
starts after smelting. 


We know very little of the smelting of our ores, because 
we have had no opportunity to try it. The custom smelters 
have told us little about it, except that they have difficulty with 
the arsenic. In order to intelligently exchange ideas on this 
question, and to bring out criticisms, this issue will be discussed 
from the standpoint of a purely hypothetical question. 

Suppose, for example, that all the custom smelters would 
refuse to buy any more of our ores. Instead the refiners would 
buy the furnace products therefrom, and in addition to the silver, 
would pay just sufficient for the cobalt and nickel in the resulting 
speiss to encourage us to mine and smelt the " cobalt " ores at a 
very small profit. They would not pay for arsenic in any form. 

On the other hand, let us suppose that the arsenic market 
was sufficiently stable to justify us in entering the commercial 
market, if we so desired. How and where would we smelt? 

A glance at our tonnage production for 1907 would convince 
us that any individual mine could not produce a sufficient tonnage 
of all classes of ores and concentrates to profitably keep one small 
furnace in blast. Every producing mine, and those that will 
produce in the future, would be compelled by necessity to join 
hands in a co-operative custom smelting industry. We would 
be confronted with the following questions: 

(a) What classes of ore have we to smelt? 

(b) What is the estimated annual tonnage of each class 
to be expected during the life of the district? 

(c) Shall we enter the commercial markets with our arsenic 

(d) What type of smelting should we adopt? 

310 The Canadian Mixing Institute 

(e) What "base" will we use to collect the precious metals? 

(f) What type of furnace? 

(g) What fluxes would be required? 

(h) Where should the plant be located? 

(a) Ore Classification. 

From a smelting point of view, three general classifications 
will suffice. 

" Silver Ores. " — Those ores carrying over 100 ozs. silver per 
ton. This silver is contained mainly as native silver. The 
composition of the ore may be described as consisting of equal 
parts of metallic arsenides and gangue, the principal arsenide 
being smaltite, the lesser arsenide as niccolite. The gangue 
is made up of calcite, with varying quantities of silicious gangue 
or wall-rock, and with small quantities of magnesia and very little 
iron, the latter as mispickel. 

"Cobalt Ores." — Those ores containing less than 100 ozs. 
silver, per ton, and over 5% cobalt, averaging probably 7% cobalt, 
as smaltite, with a much smaller quantity of nickel as niccolite. 
The metallic arsenides and gangue rock being about equal, the 
gangue consisting mainly of wall-rock material, with a smaller 
quantity of calcite than the silver ores. 

"Wall-Rock Ores." — An aluminium silicate, with "free" 
silica, and containing as high as 15% alumina, 5% lime, 7% iron, 
5% magnesia, and 2% arsenic, carrying less than 100 ozs. silver, 
averaging probably 40 ozs. 

(b) Tonnage 

It would be impossible to form even an approximate idea of 
the life of the camp. A great deal would depend on the value of 
the smaltite ores low in silver. There being no ready market 
for such ores in the past, they have not been developed, and the 
tonnage is problematical. However, for the sake of argument, 
we will place the life of the camp at ten years, with an annual 
tonnage of ores and concentrates to be smelted at 12,000 tons. 
This might consist of 5,000 tons of "silver" ore, 5,000 tons of 
"cobalt" ore, and 2,000 tons of "wall-rock" ores, an average of 
33 tons per day. 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 311 

(c) Commercial Arsenic 

The recovery of the arsenic, whether it be in a marketable 
condition or not, is a matter of great importance for many reasons. 
Whether we wish to recover or lose it, we will not meet with much 
success in either direction. If we decide to recover it by mechanic- 
ally handling all of the gases at a short distance from the entrance 
to the dust chamber, the cost of doing so will probably exceed its 
market value, aside from the necessarily heavy cost of installation 
of plant. Unless we confine the gases in the smelting plant, 
the workmen's health will suffer. Unless we release the gases 
at a considerable distance from populated districts we will not 
be permitted to operate. If we roast the silver ores, the silver 
volatilization losses would probably put us in the hands of a 
receiver after the first clean up. Considerable difficulty will 
be experienced in roasting the arsenic below 14%. If we don't 
roast them, the quantity of speiss will be excessive, and its cobalt- 
nickel contents low. 

After due consideration of the importance of all of these 
points, we would probably decide 

(1) To roast the cobalt ores under 100 ozs. in silver. 

(2) To smelt the silver ores, ovec 100 ozs. in silver, without 

(3) To roast the speiss resulting from the smelting of both 
classes of ore. 

(4) Not to install a plant for direct handling of the roasting 
or smelting gases. 

(5) To construct a long dust chamber, which would convey 
the gases to a stack on higher ground and from one quarter to 
one half mile distant from the smelter, and in line with the pre- 
vailing air currents. 

(6) At some later date, if conditions warranted, to install 
an arsenic refining plant, to treat the condensed arsenic vapors 
deposited naturally in the long dust chamber. 

(7) To provide ample air pipes, connected with suction- 
fans, at all points around the works where arsenical dust or gases 
would be encountered by employees. 

(8) In general, to forget the value of arsenic, and to prevent 
as far as possible the injury it might cause to the health of em- 

312 The Canadian Mining Institute 

ployees, and to locate the plant so as to do as little damage as 
possible to nearby vegetation, and populated districts. 

(d) Type of Smelting 

We have decided on smelting three classes of ore. One 
contains no arsenic to speak of. The silver ore is to be smelted 
raw. The cobalt ore is to be roasted. On account of the silver 
volatilization, it is not advisable to mix any more arsenic with 
the silver ores, even though that arsenic be partially in an oxidized 
form, such as the resulting product from the roasting of the 
cobalt ores. These two classes of ore should be smelted separate^. 
The speiss from the treatment of both classes should be roasted 
and re-smelted, if necessary, until a point of enrichment was 
reached, wherein the cost of re-treating, plus the metallurgical 
losses, reached the point of economy under marketing conditions. 
Smelting methods may be classified, according to the prevailing 
atmosphere in the furnace, as neutral, oxidizing, or reducing. 

Our "Silver Ores" should not be subjected to an oxidizing 
atmosphere, because of the resulting silver loss. A neutral 
condition might be acceptable under certain conditions for the 
lower grade silver ores, but for all grades the reducing atmosphere 
is ideal in so far as silver recovery is concerned. 

The "Cobalt Ores", we have oxidized as far as practicable 
in the roasting furnace. The same conditions must be aimed 
at in smelting them, in order to eliminate the bulk of the arsenic, 
reducing the quantity of speiss formed, thereby enriching it in 
cobalt and nickel, and necessarily increasing its silver values. 
The aim of course being to keep the silver out of our marketable 
speiss, and to recover it in some other way. 

Having decided that it would be advantageous to smelt one 
ore in a reducing, and the other in an oxidizing atmosphere, 
care should be exercised in selecting two furnaces in which to 
accomplish these reactions. 

Reverberatory smelting furnaces are subject to slight changes 
in atmospheric conditions. At best they can only be controlled 
so as to produce a slightly reducing or slightly oxidizing condition, 
and are usually classified as " neutral atmosphere. " Shaft 
furnaces are more under one's control in so far as the atmospheric 
conditions are concerned, and greater latitude is possible in 

Metallurgical Conditions \t Cobalt. 313 

securing highly oxidizing or strongly reducing conditions ; there- 
fore, we would select a shaft furnace. The two principal sub- 
divisions of shaft furnaces are those with or without a crucible. 
Before deciding this feature, we must know the "base" or 
"carrier" to be used in collecting the precious metals. 

(e) The Smelting Base 

In selecting a certain metallic substance as a collector for 
the precious metals, the selection should be carefully considered; 
none of our previous decisions are as important as this one. 
We are all more or less familiar with the bases used in smelting 
common types of ore, such as lead of the lead smelters, copper 
of the copper smelters, and the impure iron sulphide mattes of 
the pyritic smelters, but in our case we have not a type of ore 
commonly met with. Our ores do not contain any, or but frac- 
tional percentages of lead, copper, or iron sulphides. Therefore 
we cannot follow the examples set by others, without considerably 
modifying the conditions. Furthermore, in the nearby districts, 
there are either no great quantities of ores carrying lead or copper, 
or if in quantity, they have very small amounts of precious metals. 
It is true that in the province of Ontario we have all of those 
metals, but the province is large, and we cannot afford to haul 
low grade ores or fluxes across the province. To secure a furnace 
charge made up of such fluxes and carrier as would to a small 
degree pay their way through the furnace, we must consider mov- 
ing the ores as well as the fluxes to the half-way point. On the 
other hand, if we smelt the ores locally, we would have to do so 
with fluxes carrying little or no precious metal values. The cost 
of producing and smelting barren fluxes would then be a direct 
charge to the smelting of the ore. It is necessary to consider 
the fluxes along with the base, because with certain bases a greater 
or less quantity of certain fluxes is necessary. Let us see what 
we have available. In Coleman Township, we have neither 
flux nor base, except such bases as are contained in our ores. 
On navigable waterways or railways we have, within a distance of: 

5 miles: — Quarries of calcium-magnesium carbonates 
with 97% of those elements. 

10 miles: — Quarries of calcium carbonate of 97%. 


The Canadian Mining Institute 

12 miles:- An ancient lead mine, described by the 
Provincial Geologist in part as follows: — 

"Some of the rock here is conglomerate, associated 
"with which is porphyry. The latter is similar to rock in 
"Minnesota, which has been considered to be of doubtful 
"origin. The ore body lies in a zone of fracture which pene- 
trates both of the rocks mentioned. Angular fragments of these 
"rocks, sometimes a foot or more in diameter, are cemented 
"together by calcite and galena. The pure galena has been 
" found to contain from 18 to 24 ozs. of silver to the ton of 
"2,000 lbs. Iron pyrites is found in small quantities 
"associated with the galena, and is thought to be the source 
"of the trace of gold usually present in the ore." 

20 miles: — A six foot vein of clean pyrites, averaging 
40% sulphur. Also, a pyrrhotite vein, touching the pyrite 
vein, which is also 6 feet wide. Samples of these veins 
shewed : — 

Pyrites. . . , 



Also, in the same neighborhood, there are numerous 
smaller veins of pyrrhotite carrying up to 3% copper, but 
not developed. But these could be safely counted on as 
being capable of producing a very small steady tonnage. 
There are no other quantities of suitable fluxes along the 
line of the T. & N. O. Railway. This means that we would have 
to go much farther than 103 miles from Cobalt for other 
metals or fluxes. This would take us into Eastern Ontario 
for lead and copper ores, to Western or Southern Ontario 
for clean hematite ores, or to the Sudbury district for copper- 
nickel pyrrhotite ores. 

Before going further, let us study the demands of our ores, 
with reference to the carrier and the fluxes. 

We know that if we lead smelt the ores, as do the custom 
smelters in the States, while we may make a fair silver recovery, 
we will experience heavy lead losses. We will also have speiss 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 315 

troubles with the lead- well of the furnace. The lead bullion 
will be foul with arsenical impurities. The speiss will contain 
some lead, but it will be low in silver, and instead of lead-smelt in<r, 
we will be speiss-smelting. This would be true to a greater 
extent than it is at the custom plants, because they have a large 
variety of ores witli which to make up the smelting mixture. 
On the other hand, by lead-smelting, we would recover the silver 
values in an easily marketable product. Lead-smelting might 
be considered for our silver ores, but not for the cobalt ores. 
Copper-smelting, from a metallurgical view point, would appear 
to be a better method for the treatment of our cobalt ores, but 
it is not advisable on account of marketing conditions to mix 
quantities of copper with arsenic, nor is it advisable to mix cobalt 
or nickel with other valuable metals. 

The difficulty of securing either copper or lead cheaply 
would probably decide us against using either metal if it could 
be avoided. Are they necessary? Suppose by adding a small 
quantity of hematite flux to our cobalt ores, they were melted; 
what would be the result? Clean slag and heavy speiss! Should 
the cobalt ores contain silver (the silver in nearly every instance 
is in the ore as native silver), we would find under the speiss a 
good percentage of the total silver contents as metallic silver. 
From this experiment we would conclude that lead and copper 
were in our case, luxuries, which we could not afford and did 
not need. The speiss will fulfil the mechanical actions of the 
"collector", without absorbing much silver. Therefore we 
would decide to smelt with speiss as a base. 

(/) The Furnace 

If we are not to use lead, then we do not need a lead furnace, 
with its deep crucible. We would decide on a shaft-furnace 
suitable for matting. Two of such furnaces would be required, 
one for oxidizing smelting the cobalt ores, the other for the re- 
duction of the silver ores. Briefly, the main distinctions may 
be compared with standard lead and pyritic furnaces. The 
furnace for smelting the silver ores would be a lead furnace with- 
out a deep crucible, with good height of shaft, plenty of bosh, 
and with intermittent slag tap. It would be run with a high ore 

316 The Canadian Mining Institute 

column, plenty of coke, and would discharge its liquid products 
at intervals into a suitable receiver. The volume of air would 
compare with lead-smelting practice. What is known as "cold 
blast" would be used, but in this cold climate, the thermometer 
reaching as low as 40° below zero, it would be advisable to warm 
the blast up to summer temperature. The furnace best suited 
for the cobalt ores and speiss smelting would be a matting furnace, 
similar to the pyritic furnaces. It would differ from the silver fur- 
naces very materially. It would have a lower shaft, with less 
bosh, and a larger tuyer area. It would be run with a lower 
ore column, and with less coke. The volume of air would be 
very much greater, and would compare with the pyritic practice. 
A warmer blast would be used at all times to assist the burning 
of the arsenic. Each furnace would be provided with its separate 
blower and air line. 

(g) Flux 

For the silver ores, which contain a considerable quantity 
of calcite and a little magnesia and alumina, a small quantity 
of alkaline earths might be necessary. Calcium carbonate would 
be preferable to magnesia. 

For the metallic oxide, oxides of iron or manganese must 
be secured. The quantity of metallic oxide used would have to 
be small on account of its cost, being brought in from a distance. 
The most important consideration, however, would be to aim 
to put the iron into the slag in preference to allowing the arsenic 
to draw large quantities of it into the speiss. Magnetite could 
be made use of, in small quantities, but its use is not to be re- 
commended, on account of the difficulty experienced in making 
it enter the slag. In a strongly reducing atmosphere, its tendency 
is to reduce with the speiss or matte and form furnace "sows". 
Dead roasted iron ores or mattes would answer, but hematite or 
oxide of manganese is recommended, preferably manganese. 

For the cobalt ores containing a smaller quantity of calcite 
and magnesia, with a larger quantity of silica and alumina, 
lime-rock would have to be used in quantity. A silicious lime 
slag would be our aim. With these ores, for the metallic oxide, 
economy must be considered. 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 317 

(h) Locating the Smelter 

In locating the plant, we would be influenced by many 
conditions. Among them might be mentioned the following: — 

We have estimated the total output of the district at 120,000 
tons of ore. When this tonnage was smelted, would the smelter 
be so situated that it could be made use of for treating custom 
ores from other districts? This question would be disposed of 
without further consideration, because of the fact that the cost 
of the plant would be wiped off by depreciation charges within 
ten years. 

If the plant was centrally located in the Province, on account 
of the advantages derived from securing fluxing ores with metal 
values, in this way paying their own smelting costs, we would find 
ourselves buying ores in competition with larger custom smelters. 
We would also find that the mixing of our arsenides with large 
quantities of copper or lead ores was of no important advantage 
to our ores, and a detriment to the purchased ores. 

It is not unlikely that oxidized iron ores may be found nearer 
to us than we now imagine. There are good reasons for ex- 
pecting the hematite deposits on the east shores of Lake Temis- 
kaming to more than supply our requirements. 

There is now active work going on at Ragged Chutes, on the 
Montreal River, seven miles south of Cobalt, which will, within 
two years, develop 3,500 horse power, in the form of compressed 
air, by the Taylor Hydraulic System. 

The Montreal River at low water, in the dry season, delivers 
over 1,000 cu. ft. of water per second. 

At Hound Chutes, two miles farther up the river, is another 
dam-site, where it is proposed to install an electrical power plant. 

These two power plants are in the centre of a timber berth 
reserved by the Provincial Government; both its surface and 
mineral rights are reserved. The area forms a square ten miles 
by ten, or approximately one hundred square miles. A smelter 
site near those two chutes could be reached by extending the 
railroad from Gillies station (four miles south of Cobalt), following 
the gradual fall of the river all the way, for a distance say of three 
to seven miles. Here, with numerous ideal sites, where the 
smoke would climb the surrounding hills, which are now traversed 

318 The Canadian Mining Institute 

by the moose and the deer, there would be no law-suits from 
smoke damages. At least it would be expected of the Provincial 
Government that they would in some way continue to reserve 
this ground from settlement in order to encourage a home industry. 
Here, with very cheap power, an abundance of water, miles of 
cheap fuel wood, plenty of construction timber, seven miles 
from Cobalt, near to the proposed west shore extension of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, is a smelter site beyond comparison. 


We would produce bar silver which would contain probably 
85% of silver, speiss with an uncertain amount of silver, the metal 
contents of which might vary according to market conditions and 
metallurgical difficulties, between 8 and 12% nickel, and from 
15 to 25% cobalt. We have no desire to attempt to refine this 
material. The refining had preferably be done by those whose 
business it is. All we wish to do is to enrich our output, so that 
it can stand the expenses of shipment to distant markets. If we 
could improve the smelting conditions, or put the product in a 
more acceptable form for refining, it would be advantageous. 
Furthermore, if, after treating our products successfully, we 
could persuade the refiners to come to our district and establish 
their works in the field of production, the advantages would be 
incomprehensible. With these objects in view, let us make a 
further study of the metallurgical conditions involved. 

To improve our roasting and smelting conditions, we must 
find ways and means of getting rid of more of the arsenic. We 
must also secure oxidized iron cheaply. 

What means have we at hand for doing this in the simplest, 
cheapest, and best manner? Let us study the metallurgy of 
cobalt, nickel, arsenic and speiss, and see what effect other elements 
have upon them. 


Let us study the effects produced by mixing sulphur with 

Consulting the second volume of Schnabel's "Metallurgy", 
we gather the following notes, at random and in part. 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 319 


Arsenic. — According to Conechy, arsenic volatilizes at a 
temperature of 449° to 450° C. 

When heated with sulphur it forms sulphide of arsenic. 

Arsenious oxide volatilizes when heated. The temperature 
at which it volatilizes is given by Wurtz at 200° C. 

Arsenious Oxide is a Powerful Reducing Agent. — 

Sulphides of Arsenic. — Arsenic forms three sulphides, arsenic 
disulphide As 2 S 2 , arsenic trisulphide As 2 S 3 , and arsenic penta- 
sulphide As 2 S 5 . 

The Extraction of Arsenic by the dry method. — When mis- 
pickel is distilled the arsenic is driven off and can be collected. 
The following equation shows theoretically the chemical change 
which takes place: — 

2(FeAs 2 FeS 2 ) = As 4 4 FeS 

When mispickel is treated in the way described above, sulphide 
of arsenic is volatilized at the beginning of the process and collects 
in the receiver (Freiberg). 

The manufacture of Crude Arsenious Oxide. — Arsenical pyrites, 
mispickel, and native arsenic, either alone or mixed with other 
ores, are the special sources of arsenious oxide. The changes which 
occur when these are roasted are the following: — 

Mispickel (FeS 2 FeAs 2 ). Below red heat it evolves arsenic 
sulphide vapor. At higher temperatures it is converted 
into a mixture of ferric oxide, ferric sulphate, and ferric arseniate, 
sulphurous acid and arsenious oxide being at the same time 

At Deloro, in Canada, mispickel which contained gold was 
formerly worked. The ore contained 42 per cent, of arsenic 
and 20 per cent, sulphur. 

The production of Red Arsenic Glass or Realger. — It is not 
essential, in order to obtain a good product, that the sulphur and 
arsenic should be employed in the correct molecular proportions. 
The best proportions for a product of any particular shade are 
discovered by trial. 

320 The Canadian Mining Institute 


Nickelous Oxide NiO. — If this oxide is heated with iron 
sulphide or arsenide, we get ferrous oxide and nickel sulphide 
or arsenide. Nickelous oxide and copper sulphide do not react. 

Nickel Monosulphide. — Nickel sulphide is decomposed by 
copper with the separation of metallic nickel. When the sulphide 
is melted with an acid iron silicate, a very small quantity of nickel 
passes into the slag. If cobalt sulphide is present a considerably 
greater quantity thereof passes into the slag. 

If nickelous and cobaltous oxides and cupric oxide are fused 
with silica and iron arsenide, containing sufficient arsenic, a nickel- 
cobalt-copper speiss is produced, while the iron forms a ferrous 

According to Badoureau, when nickelous and cobaltous oxides 
are fused with arsenic or arsenical pyrites, almost the whole of 
the nickel and only part of the cobalt pass into the speiss. 

If a nickel-iron speiss is fused, and air passed over it, the 
iron is oxidized first and converted into slag by the addition of 
silica. The nickel is oxidized only after the removal of the iron. 
The process can be so conducted that only the iron is removed, 
the nickel being left as arsenide. If cobalt is present in this speiss, 
it is oxidized and passes into slag after iron, but before nickel. 
The appearance of cobalt in the slag is detected by its blue colour. 
Therefore if it is desired to keep the cobalt in the speiss, the 
the process of oxidation must be stopped as soon as the blue 
colour appears in the slag. As a certain quantity of nickel goes 
with the cobalt, the blue coloration shows also the presence of some 
nickel in the slag. 

If heavy spar, instead of quartz, is added during this 
fusion, the iron may be completely separated, for heavy spar 
and iron arsenide react, forming iron arseniateand barium sulphide, 
both of which are taken into the slag. Any copper present is 
converted into sulphide by the barium sulphide, and separates 
as a matte if in considerable quantity. 

Silicates of Nickel. — When the silicate is smelted with iron 
pyrites, with copper pyrites, or with sulphides of the alkalies or 
alkaline earths, nickel is reduced, and forms a matte or mixture 
of matte and metal. 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 321 

If it is smelted with arsenic or arsenical pyrites, it is very 
incompletely converted into nickel speiss. 

Smelting of the roasted ore to produce coarse nickel matte. 
Antimoniates or arsenides are reduced to metal and partly vol- 
atilize as such. In the presence of undecomposed pyrites part 
of the arsenic is volatilized as sulphide. The remaining arsenic 
and antimony, if they are only in small quantities, pass into the 
matte; otherwise they form a speiss, combined chiefly with nickel 
and cobalt. 

Extraction of nickel from the Silicate (Garnierite) . — At present 
all the ore raised in New Caledonia is exported. The greater 
part comes to Europe, and there is smelted into a matte in blast 
furnaces with the addition of materials containing sulphur. 

Extraction of Nickel from Arsenical Ores. — Roasting the 
Ores. When the ores are free from sulphur, the roasting should 
be regulated so that the arsenic is brought down to the quantity 
sufficient to combine with the whole of the nickel to form Ni 2 As 
as the main product of the subsequent smelting. If the roasting 
is carried too far, and the quantity of arsenic is less than this, 
nickel will pass into the slag. When sulphur is present, the roast- 
ing should remove it as completely as possible, unless there is 
also copper enough to be worth extracting. In this case sulphur 
should be retained in such quantity that a copper matte is formed 
during smelting, and separates from the speiss. 

During the roasting arsenic is converted partly into arsenic 
trioxide, partly into pentoxide. The iron and the nickel arsenides 
lose arsenic and become converted into oxides. The higher 
compound of arsenic is formed by the oxidation of the trioxide 
where it is contact with red-hot masses of ore, and the red-hot 
furnace walls; it combines partly with the iron and nickel oxides 
(with cobalt oxide and with silver also if present). Further, 
part of this arsenic pentoxide is reduced again to trioxide by con- 
tact with undecomposed arsenides, and with the lower metallic 
oxides, if any should be present. Arseniate of nickel is much 
more easily produced than the corresponding salt of iron. The 
arseniates are fairly stable at a high temperature, as they are not 
readily decomposable by heat alone. If it is desired to remove 

the arsenic from them, powdered coal or carbonaceous matter 

322 The Canadian Mining Institute 

is added. By these means iron arseniate is somewhat readily 
converted into ferric oxide, while the acid radicle is con- 
verted into arsenic trioxide and suboxide, with the formation 
of carbon dioxide. Arseniates of cobalt and nickel are converted 
into arsenides, which, in a current of air, are converted into 
oxides and basic arseniates, with a loss of some arsenic as trioxide. 
The product of the roasting is accordingly a mixture of undecompo- 
posed arsenides, oxides and basic arseniates. 

If metallic sulphides are present in the ores they are oxidized 
to sulphates. Vapours of sulphur trioxide are formed from 
sulphur dioxide by contact action, or from the decomposition 
of sulphates, and exert an oxidizing action on arsenides, which are 
partly converted into arseniates. Any arsenical pyrites (iron 
sulphide and arsenide) present in the ore, gives off fumes of sul- 
phide of arsenic; at a red heat it is converted into a mixture of 
ferric oxide, sulphate and arseniate, setting free sulphur dioxide 
and arsenic trioxide. 

Carbonates of iron and calcium, which are frequently present 
in nickel ores, are changed into arseniates of those metals, 
or into a mixture of sulphates and arseniates if sulphides are 
present. During this heating the heat must not be carried so high 
that any silica present forms silicate with nickel monoxide, be- 
cause this nickel silicate is but imperfectly decomposed again, 
in the subsequent smelting, with the formation of arsenide of 
nickel. Thus, if sulphides are present in the ore, the product 
of roasting is a mixture of metallic sulphides, arsenides, oxides, 
sulphates and arseniates. 

The roasting may be performed in heaps, stalls, reverber- 
atory or shaft furnaces, or muffles. Since the complete removal 
of the arsenic is not really necessary, the ores are roasted in stalls 
in most works, these stalls allowing of the collection of arsenic 
trioxide in the chambers attached. 

The Smelting of Nickel Ore into coarse Speiss. — The smelting 
is conducted so that a monosilicate containing at least 30 per cent, 
of ferrous oxide is formed. An acid slag will contain nickel. 
(According to Badoureau, when nickel and cobalt arsenides 
are smelted together with a slag containing 30 per cent, of ferrous 
oxide, the two former metals are practically absent from it). 

Mktu.h hi.i. \i. Conditions at Cobalt. 323 

The Dead Roasting of refined Nickel Speiss. — Apart from 
roasting, arsenic may be removed also by smelting the speiss 
with saltpetre and soda, or smelting it with soda and sulphur, 
and washing out the salts formed; or it can be removed in the 
form of sulphide of arsenic by heating the speiss with sulphur 
in absence of air. 


The Extraction of Cobalt Oxide. — The matte from the Sesia 
Works at Oberschlema, in Saxony, is similarly treated. It con- 
tains 16% Ni, 14% Co, 50% Cu, and 20% S. 

In "Hoffmann's Metallurgy of Lead" we find: — 

To treat speiss so as to extract the silver, gold and copper 
economically has always been a difficult problem. With large 
quantities the cheapest way is to roast it in a heap of about 50 tons, 
which burns from two to four weeks. The imperfectly roasted 
speiss is sorted out, crushed and roasted in a calcining furnace. 
The whole is then smelted in the blast furnace with pyrite or matte. 
The result will be base bullion and a matte rich in copper and silver, 
and perhaps a small amount of speiss, in which any nickel and 
cobalt will be concentrated. This second speiss goes to a new 
heap of first speiss, as nickel and cobalt occur in such small quanti- 
ties as not to call for any further attention. 

With the small amount formed to-day, the simplest way is 
to crush it and roast it with sulphurets in the proportion of 1 . 10, 
in the reverberatory furnace, when the sulphur trioxide set free 
will decompose the arsenides and arsenates, converting them 
into sulphates. 

In Peters' "Modern Copper Smelting" we find: — 

Speiss, as ordinarily understood, is a basic arsenide, or anti- 
monide of iron, often with nickel, cobalt, lead, bismuth, copper, 
etc., having a metallic luster, high specific gravity, and a strong 
tendency toward crystallization. It takes up gold with avidity, 
but has a less affinity for silver than copper matte has. 

It has always seemed to me that here is a field that has not 
been sufficiently exploited. Especially since bessemerizing and 
pyritic smelting are becoming so important, it is worth while 
to consider to what degree, and with what advantages, speise 
may be used to replace sulphides under favorable conditions. 


The Canadian Mining Institute 

We have several instances where it has been used to collect silver, 
gold or copper. A late notable example in the Transvaal, South 
Africa, of which, I regret to say, I have no personal knowledge, 
is described by Mr. W. Bettel in the Chemical News of June 26, 
1891. He describes the production of an argentiferous, antimonial 
copper speiss of the following composition, from smelting oxidized, 
ferruginous ores, containing much antimonate of iron, and 4 per 
cent, of copper in the shape of carbonates, and 36 ounces silver per 
ton (0. 123 per cent.). 

Copper 52 . 50 

Antimony 38 . 00 

Arsenic 2 . 00 

Sulphur 2 . 06 

Iron 3.60 

Silver 1 . 59 

Lead 0.25 


The ore is smelted in reverberatory furnaces, and some 91 
per cent, of the silver and copper is collected in the speiss. The 
concentration averages 16.4 tons into one. 

In Lang's "Matte Smelting" we find: — 

How Mattes are classified. — The classification under which I 
prefer for the present purpose to place both the mattes and speisses 
is as sulphide mattes, arsenide mattes, and antimonide mattes. 
Examples of each will be found in their appropriate places in 
the Table of Smelting Products accompanying this article. 

The Composition of Mattes. — Of the various elements which 
enter into the composition of certain mattes, I quote the highest 
percentages and the lowest which are found therein: 
















Molybdenum .... 













Mktallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 325 

Arsenic and Antimony as Matte Formers. — Given molten 
metallic arsenides with access of air, and contact with silicious 
material, and silicates of metals result. Pursuing the dependant 
train of reasoning toward its logical conclusion, and carrying out 
the processes indicated, we are led to an application of the pyritic 
smelting and bessemerizing principles, and experiments actually 
show that under the influence of the air-blast the arsenides are 
decomposed with ease, more readily in feet than the sulphides to 
which those principles have been heretofore adapted. Experi- 
ments made by the writer on mixtures of fused sulphides and arse- 
nides show conclusively the greater facility with which the latter 
are decomposed, and how the elimination of arsenic takes place be- 
fore that of the sulphur, and with what high heat it is accompanied. 

Conditions Governing the Absorption of Metals. — The useful 
result of the matting fusion in the presence of sulphur and arsenic 
is the saving of the valuable metals about in this order, beginning 
with that one which is found to be extracted most completely: 
gold, copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, lead. These, with iron, which 
is always present, constitute the metallic portion of the matte. 

Treatment of Molten Mattes. — The most interesting of the 
arsenide mattes are those containing cobalt and nickel, metals 
which have a strong affinity for arsenic — an affinity which is taken 
advantage of sometimes in the beneficiation of their ores 
when these metals are sought in the presence of substances which 
exercise an opposing influence. It has been found advisable 
under some circumstances to make such an addition of arsenic 
bearing materials to cobalt or nickel ore as serves to bring about 
the formation of cobalt or nickel arsenide, while other heavy 
metals in the mixture separate therefrom as sulphides. In this 
manner it is possible to effect a useful separation of the two, even 
from very complex and difficult combinations. 

Specific Gravity <f Mattes. — The arrangement is as follows: — 

Group 1. (Substances having a specific gravity not greater 
than 4.7). The sulphides of ziiu-. molybdenum, calcium and 

roup 2. (Specific gravity between 4 7 and 5.5). The 
sulphides of barium, iron, cadmium, nickel, cobalt and copper, and 
the magnetic oxide of iron. 

326 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Group 3. (Specific gravities ranging from 6 to 9). The 
sulphides of silver, lead and bismuth; the arsenides and anti- 
monides, and the and sulphantimonides of silver, 
copper, bismuth, lead, iron, cobalt and nickel, and metallic lead, 
iron and copper. 

Losses from Volatilization. — It is my impression that neither 
copper nor gold suffers loss from volatilization while undergoing 
the pyritic treatment; ai*d in the absence of all testimony upon 
the matter we may allowably assume from the known character- 
istics of nickel and cobalt that they also do not. It would appear 
then that, so far as losses by volatilization are concerned, the 
pyritic process is better adapted to ores of gold, copper, and pro- 
ably nickel and cobalt, than to those of silver. And better to 
silver than to lead. 

In " Lead and Copper Smelting " by Hixon we find : At 
Leadville, Colo., Hixon altered a lead furnace for copper matting. 
He was producing 10% of matte with 15 to 40% copper. To 
the copper charge he added roasted speiss from the lead furnace, 
which contained 15 to 20% of arsenic with about the same amount 
of sulphur. He roasted one part of speiss to two parts of sulphide 
ore, and at times the roasting charge contained as high as 50% 
speiss. He smelted 3,000 tons of speiss in this way. In con- 
clusion he states: 

"It would naturally be expected that smelting with so much 
speiss on the charge a considerable quantity of speiss would be 
produced and would separate from the resulting matte. But such 
was not the case. When the furnaces were tapped it would fre- 
quently spark in the way which is characteristic of speiss, but 
after cooling there would be no line of separation in the pots, and 
upon being crushed and roasted and resmelted the product was 
a matte of very clean appearance with 40 to 50 per cent, copper, 
the arsenic contents of which did not exceed 5 per cent. " 

In "Pyritic Smelting" Dr. E. D. Peters, writing under the 
heading " Degree of Desulphurization Attainable, " refers to Lang's 
results as follows: 

A few years ago Lang made a run on the ores of the Blue 
Dick mine, near Prescott, Arizona, and obtained such remarkable 
results in the removal of sulphur and arsenic by an oxidizing 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 327 

smelting in the blast furnace, that it will be instructive to refer 
to it in this review. I take the facts from his letter published in 
the Mining and Scientific Press of March 29, 1902. 

The ore is a mixture of quartz and mispickel, containing a 
little pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, galena, barite and spathic 
iron. The values are in gold and silver. As it was received at 
the furnace, its approximate composition was: Silica 45 per cent.; 
iron, 17; arsenic, 17; sulphur, 17; and copper, 0.5 per cent. It 
was necessary to add about 50 per cent, limestone to form the 
required slag. The circular trial-furnace was 36 in. in diameter 
at the tuyeres, and the cast-iron water jackets were only 30 in. 
high, the brick shaft extending to the charge door, which was 
11 ft. above the tuyeres. The blast was cold, and the pressure 
only 9oz. per sq. in. The resulting slag contained: Silica, 40 to 
45 per cent.; ferrous oxide, 24 to 27; and lime, 20 to 24 per cent. 
Fifty tons of charge were smelted per 24 hours, being over 7 tons 
per sq. ft. of hearth area; a most extraordinary record for a small 
furnace run with cold blast, light pressure, and an acid slag; and 
due, in great part, to the unusual proportion of volatile constitu- 
ents in the stock. The rate of concentration was still more 
remarkable when one recollects that the ore contained 34 per 
cent, sulphur and arsenic, being 27 tons of ore (ore in italics) 
into one ton of matte; and this matte was free from arsenic, 
though not sufficient in quantity to entirely cleanse the slags 
from silver. 

Mr. Lang himself was evidently surprised at this unique 
result. He says: "As one-half of the ore consists of combustible 
matters (the iron sulpho-arsenides and sulphides) it appears 
that the decomposition was very extensive. Nearly 90 per cent, 
of the iron was oxidized and slagged off. Fifteen-sixteenths of 
the sulphur went up the chimney or into the slag; while all the 
arsenic was volatilized in some form or other. Vast quantities 
of deep yellow or red sulphide of arsenic presumably orpiment, 
passed out of the smoke-stack, succeeded by thick masses of pearl 
gray fumes containing; arsenious oxide, etc. A good deal of metal- 
lic arsenic also is sublimed, but this speedily becomes oxidized, 
and permeates the atmosphere as gray smoke. Not a single 
particle of speiss or any other indication of arsenic appeared at 
the bottom of the furnace. The matte presents no peculiaritips 

32s The Canadian Mining Institute 

except its brittleness, arising, I presume, from the absence of 
metallic iron, due to the highly oxidizing action of the blast. It 
carries about 10 per cent, copper, which is not enough for a clean 
saving of the silver. Measures are being taken to procure a 
quantity of copper-bearing ores for admixture, so as to bring the 
copper contents of the matte up to 25 or 30 per cent., which will 
produce a cleaner separation of the silver". 

Lang does not ascribe these results entirely to the oxidizing 
effects of the smelting, but believes that there happened to be a 
peculiarly favorable ratio between the proportions of sulphur and 
arsenic in the ore, which induced the extensive sublimation of these 
volatile substances, leaving the iron a prey to the oxygen of the 
blast. Such reactions as these furnish food for reflection and 
further experimentation. 


We have gathered sufficient evidence of the advantages of 
eliminating arsenic by treating it with sulphur to decide us to 
take advantage of it. In doing so we not only simplify the 
metallurgical conditions, but we have remaining after using pyrites 
an oxidized iron flux, thus avoiding the necessity of buying 
hematite. Instead, we must buy pyrites. 

Twenty miles distant by the railroad, from the proposed 
smelter, is situated the Pyrite Mine previously referred to. Near- 
by are other promising properties. There are less important 
deposits of an impure pyrite in the immediate neighborhood of 
the smelter site. The larger pyrite deposit is very clean, running 
40% sulphur. A very small quantity of this would answer our 
requirements. We could take the fines, which are not so readily 
marketed, to the sulphuric acid burners. These would be mixed 
with the cobalt ores and the speiss, and roasted with them. 
Sulphide of arsenic would be driven off in the roasting furnace. 
Theundecomposed sulphides and sulphates remaining in the roasted 
mixture, when smelted in the pyritic blast furnace, would have 
another opportunity to volatilize as sulphide of arsenic. The 
aim would be to leave only a small excess of arsenic in the speiss 
produced after the cobalt and nickel had been satisfied, in this 
way keeping the iron in the speiss low, and producing a high-grade 
cobalt-nickel speiss for marketing. 

Metallurgical Conditions \t Cobalt. 329 

metallurgical manipulations. 

In our previous calculations, smelting the ore with hematite, 
we had planned to make a large quantity of free metallic silver 
in the silver furnace. If the charge of cobalt, ores going to the 
cobalt furnace was close to 100 ozs. silver, we would expect to 
have made a very small quantity of free metallic silver to separate 
out. On the other hand, if the silver contents of the cobalt charge 
contained very little silver, we would expect it not to liquate from 
the speiss, but to be mechanically mixed with it, and therefore re- 
quiring a further separation in order to recover it. Now that we 
have decided to use pyrite on our cobalt charge, we would 
modify the resulting product from the pyritic furnace treating 
these ores. We would eliminate the annoyance caused by small 
quantities of silver separating from the speiss, by recovering 
in a matte all of this silver and a good percentage of the 
silver which the speiss would otherwise contain. Pure iron 
matte is not a good absorbent for silver, but our matte would 
not be pure. It would contain most of the bismuth in 
the charge. The ores contain fractional percentages of bis- 
muth and of copper Some of the ores contain a considerable 
quantity of bismuth. The bismuth and copper, if in large enough 
quantities, would recover the silver in this impure iron matte. We 
would make sure of this by purchasing small quantities of copper 
pyrrhotite, which can be obtained near by. 

As modified, the pyritic furnace would now produce clean 
slag, a cobalt-nickel speiss with much smaller silver contents, and an 
impure iron matte containing the greater part of the silver con- 
tents of the charge. This impure matte, in its crude state, would 
be resmelted in the same furnace a second or third time. On 
each occasion its retained sulphur would volatilize more arsenic. 
Its copper-bismuth contents would lessen the demand for fresh 
copper ores. Its silver contents would increase. When the 
silver reached a given assay, the matte would be crushed and 
roasted. If necessary the roasted matte would be ground fin el- 
and roasted a second time, to insure a dead roast. The desul- 
phurized matte containing 1' , or less of sulphur, and with bess 
than 10% copper and some bismuth, would then go to the silver fur- 
nace, where its silver would be recovered, and the iron oxide slagged. 

330 The Canadian Mining Institute 

On account of small amounts of sulphur going to the silver 
furnace, we would now have to decide whether or not we would 
aim to recover the silver in its metallic form as previously de- 
scribed, or as silver-copper matte. Under normal conditions the 
silver furnace will produce an excessive quantity of speiss, on 
account of raw smelting; so much speiss that it would not be 
advisable to make matters worse by burdening the furnace with 
any quantity of matte. 

If we recovered the silver in copper matte, we would have to 
market that product. We would then have to buy quantities 
of copper ores, and would be copper smelting. We cannot do 
either. We must stand by our original decision to produce metal- 
lic silver and speiss in the silver furnace. The speiss produced 
will be low grade and must be roasted and concentrated in the 
cobalt furnace. It matters not whether the speiss contains copper 
matte. All we are concerned about is to keep the quantity small, 
and to see that it does not bring with it too much silver to the 
cobalt furnace. What silver it would bring would be subject to 
further smelting losses, though the remainder would eventually 
come out of the silver furnace in time. 

In considering the copper question, we must remember that 
the matte produced from the cobalt furnace will always contain 
less than 10% copper. There will be a considerable quantity of 
this iron-copper matte, and its gravity will be so much less than 
the speiss that a separation will take place. 

When this roasted matte is fed to the silver furnace, there will 
not be sufficient sulphur in the charge to combine with the copper, 
therefore the copper must combine with the arsenic and enter the 
speiss. However, should it happen that our silver ores would 
contain more sulphur than is usual, and there would be sufficient 
sulphur to make matte, we would expect it to be a high grade 
copper matte, small in quantity, so small and heavy that it would 
not separate from the speiss. If a greater excess of sulphur was 
present, a larger quantity of lower grade copper-iron matte would 
separate from the speiss, and would have to be treated in some 
other way. Under such conditions we would not make any free 
silver in the silver furnace. It is doubtful if an average sulphur 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 331 

on our ores would exceed half of one per cent. The furnace will 
get rid of some sulphur. We have every reason to expect the 
copper to enter the speiss as arsenide. Therefore, we would make 
copper arsenide in the silver furnace, and copper sulphide in the 
cobalt furnace, and never have any copper to sell. We would 
buy a copper stock, and then an amount equivalent to the metal 
loss. Such details as these present themselves in every line of 
smelting. The question of successfully handling this copper matte 
can be met and conquered. Approximately, the metallurgical 
problem would resolve itself into the following system: — 


To Roasting Stalls. 

Lump speiss from silver f urnace — " 1st Speiss " 
Lump speiss from cobalt furnace — " 2nd Speiss " 

To Mechanical Roasters. 

(1) Crushed " 1st Speiss " from stall roasters. 

(2) " "2nd Speiss" 

(3) " Ore Mixture " — Cobalt ores with pyrites. 

(4) " 2nd Matte " from cobalt furnace. 

To Cobalt Furnace Products 

1st Smelting — 

Roasted Ore Mixture Clean slag 

Roasted 1st Speiss 2nd Speiss 

Copper Pyrrhotite Ores | 1st Matte 

2nd Smelting — 

Roasted Ore Mixture 
Roasted 2nd Speiss 
Raw 1st Matte 
Wall-rock Ores 
Li me -r oe k 

Clean slag 

3rd Speiss (shipping product) 

2nd Matte 

332 The Canadian Mining Institute 

To Silver Furnace Products 

Silver Ores 
Roasted 2nd Matte 
Wall-rock Ores 
Foul slag: 

Some foul slag 

1st Speiss (containing copper 

as sulphide or arsenide) 
Silver Bullion 


The output of the Pyrites property referred to now goes to 
Buffalo for sulphuric acid manufacture. Its distance by rail from 
the proposed smelter site would be about 20 miles. With the cheap 
compressed air power at Ragged Chutes, there is no reason why 
acid could not be made cheaper there than in Buffalo. There may 
or may not be commercial reasons for not wishing to manufacture 
it in this district, but judging from the new manufacturing indus- 
tries which are being developed along the lines of our northern 
railways it would appear to be advantageous to have it nearer to 
North Bay than to Buffalo. We could afford to give the new plant 
a little encouragement to locate near our smelter, by buying a 
small portion of their refuse cinder as a flux for our ores. 


All these things accomplished, we would then go to the 
"Refiners" with the following appeal: — 

We are smelting 33 tons per day of cobalt-nickel ores, in 
addition to a small tonnage of custom ore from the neighboring 
districts of Cobalt. 

We are producing ounces of silver bullion containing 

approximately 85% silver, with bismuth and other impurities. 

We are producing tons of cobalt-nickel speiss containing 

ounces of silver, with approximately 50% of cobalt and nickel 

combined. The other 50% is made up chiefly of combined arsenic 
and of iron arsenides, free from lead, and with fractional percentages 
of other impurities. 

We are producing large quantities of arsenical dust, which 
can be easily refined and sold direct to the trade. 

Our plant is located in the centre of a large tract of land 
reserved by the Provincial Government, with whom we arranged, 

Metallurgical Conditions at Cobalt. 333 

before building, to continue to reserve from public settlement for 
at least ten years, for the special purpose of fostering industrial 
enterprises of public importance. 

Our ore supply from Coleman Township will last ten years. 
We have every reason to believe that, at the expiration of that time, 
the mining districts tributary to the Montreal River will be pro- 
ducing an equal tonnage of ore of somewhat similar character, and 
a much larger tonnage of copper ores, with precious metal values 

The Canadian Pacific Railway will shortly extend their line 
north, along the west shore of Lake Temiskaming, and within the 

We are supplied with compressed air power at $ per horse 

power per annum. 

Electrical power will be worth $ 

Sulphuric acid can be delivered for $ per ton. 

Other chemicals can be obtained at reasonable prices in the 
Niagara Falls region. 

We are producers, not refiners. We are in need of a refinery 
near our smelter. If satisfactory terms can be arranged, we will 

contract to sell, for a period of years, all our output, consisting 

of valuable metals in various furnace products. 

general summary 

The possible success of the smelting process outlined will 
depend upon certain metallurgical problems. These problems 
should form an interesting discussion. Given the two furnace 
charges and conditions as outlined: — 

(1) Approximately what percentage of silver should be re- 
covered in the cobalt furnace 

(a) In matte'.' 

(b) In speiss? 

(2) Approximately what percentage of silver should be re- 
covered in the silver furnace 

(a) In matte? 

(b) In speiss? 

(c) In metal? 

334 The Canadian Mining Institute 

(3) Given a certain percentage of silver extracted in the 
silver furnace as metal, and another percentage in the cobalt-nickel 


How much additional silver will be absorbed by the speiss if 
copper were added to the furnace charge? 

(4) Is the process as outlined feasible? 

Personally the writer is not at present prepared to say, but 
the important issues at stake would, at least, seem to justify 
further research and experiment. 


By Frank C. Loring, Mining Engineer, Toronto, Ont. 
(Ottawa Meeting, 1908.) 

This is an effort to consider the Cobalt silver mining district 
from the standpoint of the miner and mine operator. No attempt 
is made to discuss geology and its relation to the probable future 
of ore bodies. Able men have examined and reported upon the 
geology of the district as indicated by surface exposure, and have 
furnished valuable and accurate information. As to future 
probabilities in depth, I shall not express an opinion. 

It is common knowledge that during the first two years of 
mining at Cobalt, but one object was in view, namely, to extract 
the rich ore found at the surface as quickly and with as little ex- 
pense as possible. This was done so easily that extreme extra- 
vagance in mining and sorting ore was practised, the result being 
that many thousand dollars worth of silver lie buried in dumps, 
often covered with waste, which, had more economic methods 
been adopted, would have largely increased the output of the 
district. Many of the mines were discovered and operated by 
men entirely inexperienced in mining, whose sole object appeared 
to be to secure as much of their easily won fortune with the 
minimum of effort and without in any way providing for future 
contingencies or reverses. Often, little or no assaying was done. 
If the silver could not be recognised, the ore was not saved. Not 
until recently has any especial effort been made toward operation 
in a miner-like, scientific manner or toward provision for future 
development and regular, lasting production. 

To near the close of 1906 the total value of machinery in 
the camp probably did not exceed $100,000, and the number of 
feet of cross-cuts, shafts, and like work of a strictly prospecting 
character was probably less than a thousand. With two or three 

336 The Canadian Mining Institute 

exceptions, there was not a shaft in the district exceeding 100 
feet in depth. Ore extraction by means of open cuts and under- 
hand stoping was almost the universal practice, nor do I pretend 
to say but what, under the circumstances, this was advisable. 
There were no adequate sorting facilities, the ore being almost 
universally sorted either where shot down, or, without washing, 
at dump; all the fine material and ore not easily recognised being 
thrown upon the waste dump and often mixed with, or covered by, 
barren country rock. 

So crude was the method adopted, that the report of 
one mining company, while showing the cost of production 
to be less than 10% of the value of ore extracted, made no 
reference to the fact that no dead work had been done and no 
attempt made to provide ore reserves. The natural inevitable 
result of the policy of this company, as well as of others, was that 
although a considerable tonnage had been extracted, practically 
no ore was blocked out in the mine, there were no reserves, and 
future probabilities became more than usual an uncertain 

Since that time a radical change has slowly but surely taken 
place. Machinery for power, hoisting, pumping, and other pur- 
poses, amounting in value to possibly one million dollars has been 
installed. Adequate buildings have been erected at a majority 
of the mines for the accommodation of men and staff. Consider- 
able surface and subterranean exploration has been done for the 
purpose of developing veins already known, and blocking out ore 
thereon; searching for other veins and obtaining knowledge as to 
probability of continuance of ore bodies longitudinally and at 
depth; the result being that in mines already in operation, many- 
additional veins have been discovered at the surface, and many 
blind leads have been cut underground. The former practice 
was, that as soon as an ore body pinched or became lean, it wafe 
immediately dropped and another was picked up and mined to the 
same condition; the result being an impression which still exists 
with many, that ore bodies are but superficial and that veins havid 
no lasting qualities. Where so many rich veins of little width 
exist, it is but reasonable to assume that a majority have slight 
extent; but there was little positive evidence to show whether 
or not veins continued further than the workings indicated, and 

Mixing at Cobalt. 337 

whether or not at some other depth, pay ore recurred. All infor- 
mation was negative in this regard. 

Many assumed, and some probably still maintain, that the 
veins consist solely of the rich pay streaks, that these are the only 
evidence of Assuring, and that, with their disappearance, the 
entire vein ceases. In many cases this assumption is correct, 
but it does not follow that there are no, possibly many, exceptions. 
Use ally no comparison has been made between the history of the 
Cobalt district and that of other mining districts. Had there 
been, the fact that the same prediction has been made of nearly 
every other mining district in the worM might have modified the 
positive opinion expressed. Thus to particularize this same 
doubt was expressed in the case of the deep gold quartz veins of 
Colorado and California, now developed in some instances to more 
than two thousand feet in depth; and it was repeated in the history 
of Leadville, New South Wales, British Columbia, and notably, 
Cripple Creek and Goldfield. There is no more common error 
than the assumption that an unqualified negation is indicative 
of conservatism. True conservatism, while often admitting lack 
of knowledge, is prepared to weigh any evidence, and to take any 
reasonable chance to obtain definite information. 

During the new era, the limits of the producing area have 
been considerably extended; extensive and deeper explorations 
have been made; and although the quantity of silver sold in 1907 
is about double that sold in 1906, the amount of ore available for 
future extraction has increased enormously, attributable to the 
fact that underhand stoping and open cut work have been largely 
supplanted by sinking shafts, driving levels, and adopting those 
methods of mining generally employed elsewhere. There are also 
notable instances of discovery of rich ore-chutes not coming to 
the surface, as in the case of the Temiskaming, McKinley-Darragh, 
Nova Scotia, Silver Queen, Foster, O'Brien, Coniagas, Trethewey, 
City of Cobalt, and probably other properties; sometimes in the 
same rock existing at the surface, and again with change in for- 

Nevertheless, astonishingly slight effort has been made 
toward deep exploration. There are often probably excellent 
economic reasons why this has not been done, but the fact re- 
mains that there is no mining region in the world approaching 

338 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

the production of the Cobalt district, where— with two or three 
notable exceptions — such slight depth has been explored and 
where so little effort has been made to attain positive knowledge 
as to the continuation of veins and recurrence of ore bodies to 
depth, and where less prospecting by means of cross-cuts has 
been done. 

On one property, which has been in operation from the 
earliest history of the camp, one of the largest producers, upon 
which a considerable number of veins containing rich ore have 
been discovered, the greatest depth attained by any workings 
does not exceed 140 feet, and this, notwithstanding the fact that 
upon this property are some of the strongest evidences of deep 
Assuring to be seen in the district. It would seem that even a 
large amount expended in sinking at least one deep shaft and 
driving cross-cuts at various points therefrom, even though the 
work should result in discovering nothing of value, would be 
money well expended because of the information obtained. 

None claims positive knowledge as to the nature or extent 
of the geological formation below the surface. The geology of 
that region is acknowledged as exceedingly complex. Deep 
exploration either by means of shafts or by borings, might, to 
some extent, solve this problem and might result in the admission 
that there is at least a fighting chance that pay ore would recur 
at various horizons, or with change in country rock. 

Some of the veins show a width of region of movement or 
fracturing of several feet with comparatively well denned walls; 
and although between these walls, material is usually largely the 
same as that of the country rock, there is often a series of parallel 
faces or cracks, distinguishing it from the structure of the country 
rock. In these veins the streaks of calcite and ore are simply a 
secondary and minor incident. Occasionally the entire material 
between walls is silver shot, containing leaves of silver both vertical 
and horizontal, there being no silver found beyond the extreme 
walls. These fissures sometimes extend to a considerable dis- 
tance, and are probably deep, and are known to maintain their 
strength in some instances through varying formations. If they 
are followed, probably at some point, either with change of for- 
mation or perhaps in the same formation, pay ore will be en- 
countered. There are also a number of zones of weakness and 

Mining \t Cobalt. :;:>'.» 

faulting which contain more than one of these veins and often 
many minor cracks. On the Nipissing is a zone upon which 
exist a number of its principal ore producing veins, and which 
is known for more than a mile in length. The La Rose-Cobalt 
Lake-MeKinley-Darragh system of veins is probably a second. 
Another exists on the Coniagas, Trethewey, and adjoining Nipis- 
sing and Amalgamated Cobalt territory. The north-easterly, 
south-westerly veins on the Lawson, Foster and University are 
on another zone, and there are undoubtedly a number of others in 
the district. These are worthy of deep exploration with a pro- 
bability of success, but so long as the common policy holds of 
dissipating available funds in dividends, rather than as elsewhere, 
providing for development, Cobalt will never attain its true 
position as a permanent producer. 

The average value of ore marketed is something over 600 
ounces silver per ton. There are great extremes of value, ranging 
from six thousand ounces or even more in carload lots, down to 
less than one hundred ounces a ton, but the margin of profit on 
the lower grade ore is so small on account of expense of trans- 
portation and treatment that to attempt to dispose of it at 
present would be injudicious and extravagant. 

Aside from ore marketed, there are in the dumps, many times 
as many tons carrying from 20 to 100 ounces silver, which are not 
a present source of revenue. 

During the past six months, three concentrating plants have 
been erected, and are now, it is reported, in successful operation. 
Two other plants — for custom work — are being erected, while 
other mines also are considering the adoption of concentration. 
Undoubtedly nearly all of the principal mines will eventually 
employ concentration as a necessary factor in operation. Par- 
tially successful effort has been made to find markets for cobalt. 
Arsenic may in time be another source of profit. These metals 
should eventually materially add to the revenue of the district. 

With proper attention given to systematic development and 
provision for the future, with concentration adopted when pos- 
sible, with a market for all of the metals mined, and with the cost 
of transportation and reduction reduced to a minimum, there is a 
strong probability that Cobalt will enjoy a long and prosperous 
era of production. 


By Geo. E. Sancton. 

(Cobalt Branch Meeting, May, 1908.) 

At the present time there are three concentrators in active 
operation in the Cobalt Camp; namely, those at the Buffalo, the 
Cobalt Central and" Coniagas Mines. In addition has been estab- 
lished an experimental mill at the McKinley-Darragh-Savage 
Mines of Cobalt, not at present in use, and theMuggley concentrator, 
a customs mill, which is not yet in readiness for operation. All of 
these plants are wet concentrators, in contradistinction to those in 
which the ore is concentrated in a perfectly dry state. Of this 
latter class of mill there is one in the camp — a custom concen- 
trator which has not yet been put into service. 

In a great many respects all of the three first mentioned mills 
employ the same method of treating the ores from the mines. The 
veins in the camp being comparatively narrow, none of the mines 
are able to so mine their ore that the underground work is done in 
vein matter only. At the mines in which the concentrators are 
installed, it is the custom to make in the mine a rough separation 
of the high grade ore from the rest of the material. This high 
grade ore is hoisted to the surface and sacked, as on account of its" 
richness it needs no concentration. The remainder of the material 
is composed of a mixture of high grade ore, rock and ore of low 
values, and is hoisted and sent to the mill without any further 
picking or sorting. From this point the methods of treatment 
vary slightly in the different mills. The following is an outline of 
the manner in which the ores are concentrated in the three mills 
which are now working, and of the proposed method of treatment 
at the Muggley concentrator. 

Methods of Concentration at Cobalt 341 


The ore to be concentrated is lifted from the underground 
working to a trestle, from which it is trammed directly in. over the 
main ore bin, at the highest point in the mill, and dumped over a 
1" space grizzly, which removes some of the fine material, which 
it is unnecessary to pass through the coarse crusher. Passing 
through the main crusher, which is a 6 x 20 Blake set to reduce ore 
to about I" size, the ore is elevated to a revolving trommel fitted 
with three sets of screens. These screens are of perforated metal 
with f, \ and \" holes respectively. Oversize from the f screen 
and the product of the 1" grizzly pass on to the fine rolls, which 
are spring rolls 20" dia. by 20" face. The material under § and 
over Y and the material under \" and over \" is treated separately 
on 3 compartment Hartz jigs. The material under \" passes over 
an impact screen fitted with 20 mesh wire screen, the product over 
the screen going to a third Hartz jig and the fines through the 
screen going to cone settler and thence to a Wilfley table. The 
middlings from this Wilfley table are returned to the table ;the tail- 
ings are split up, the coarser portion being treated on a Deister 
slime table. 

The tailings from all the jigs feed,into a six foot Chilian mill 
ami are reduced so as to pass through a 20 mesh slotted screen. The 
product of the Chilian mill passes over an impact screen fitted with 
80 mesh wire screen, which removes the greater portion of the 
slimes, to be treated on a Deister slime table. The material which 
passes over the 80 mesh screen is fed on to four Deister tables, the 
tails from which, being of low value, go to the dump. These tails 
may later on be further treated by the cyanide process if sufficient 
silver remains in them to warrant it. At the present time about 
40-50 tons of ore are being treated per twenty-four hours, the 
capacity of the mill being limited by the fine rolls. With fine rolls 
of greater capacity the mill would handle over 75 tons per twenty- 
four hours, provided more concentrating tables were installed also. 
The amount of ore treated in a given time varies greatly, as ores 
from some parts of the mine will go through the mill much more 
quickly than ores from other parts. A Corliss engine of 150 h.p. is 
used in driving the machinery. 

342 The Canadian Mining Institute 


The ore is trammed directly from the mouth of the shaft to a 
large bin from which the main crusher, a 10" x 20" Blake, is fed, 
the crusher discharging directly into the mill bin. From the mill 
bin the ore is fed by a plunger feeder to the roughing rolls, 42" 
diameter by 14" face, from which the ore is elevated to a 2 mesh 
trommel. The oversize from this trommel is returned to an over- 
size bin. When a sufficient quantity of oversize accumulates in 
this bin, the feed from the mill bin is shut off and the material from 
the oversize bin is fed into the large roughing rolls. The material 
passing through the 2 mesh trommel goes on to a No. 1 centripact 
screen fitted with 8 mesh screen cloth. The oversize from No. 1 
centripact screen is treated on two Hartz jigs; the tails from the 
first are dewatered and reground by 10" x 32" finishing rolls, and 
the tails from the second are recrushed by 14" x 30" rolls, the pro- 
ducts of the two sets of rolls uniting and being carried by a 7 x 12 
elevator to the No. 2 centripact screen fitted with six mesh wire 
screens. This product, previous to being elevated, passes through 
dewatering screens to remove excess of water. The oversize from 
No. 3 centripact screen passes to one of these dewatering screens 
previous to being reground by the 14" x 30" rolls. The undersize 
from both the No. 1 centripact and the No. 2 centripacts feed on to 
No. 3 centripact screen, which is fitted with No. 16 wire screening. 
The oversize from this screen is reground in the 10" x 32" rolls, the 
material under 16 mesh meets the water from the dewatering 
screens and goes to two 20" hydraulic classifiers and the sands 
from these classifiers are treated on four James tables. The over- 
flow is settled in two Callow settlers and the thickened pulp is 
treated on two other James tables. The overflow from the Callow 
settlers, being practically clear water, goes to waste. The mid- 
dlings from all six James tables are re-treated on the 7th James 
table; the tails from which, being of low value, go to the dump. 

The mill, with average ore, is capable of handling about 50-60 
tons per twenty-four hours. Of the values extracted about 70% 
are recovered by the jigs. In this mill all the fine grinding is done 
by rolls, the 10" x 32" rolls being set to crush to not over 16 mesh. 
The James tables are designed to also handle any slimes settling 
on a section of the table, which is left smooth and practically flat. 

Methods of Concentration at Cobalt 343 

On this section of the table most of the values in the slimes are 
extracted. There is, however, very little work for this part of the 
table to do and the quantity saved on it is not great. On the 
average the tails from the James table run not over four to five 
ounces per ton. This mill is also driven by a 125 h.p. Corliss 


The ore will eventually be raised from the mine in a skip and 
dumped directly into the mill storage bin through a long chute. 
Ore is first crushed in a 10 x 16 crusher, elevated, passed over a 
grizzly, recrushed by a 7 x 13 crusher and discharged into a 
storage bin. From this storage bin the ore is reduced to £" by No. 

1 rolls and elevated to No. 1 trommel, which has £" and 5/16" 
perforated steel screens. The oversize is returned to Xo. 1 rolls, 
which are 10 x 30; the oversize from the 5/16 and under \" goes to 
two sets of Hartz jigs, the tailings from which are recrushed in X". 

2 rolls. The undersize from the 5/16 screen goes to No. 3 trommel 
fitted with 3 millimeter screens. The oversize from this trommel 
goes to fine jigs, the tails from which go to a 5' Huntington mill 
fitted with about 20 mesh slotted screens. The product from the 

3 m.m. trommel, less than 3 m.m., is classified, the sands being 
treated on a Wilfley table and the slimes on a Frue vanner. The 
tails from the vanner also go to the Huntington mill. The tailings 
from the coarse jigs, after being recrushed in the No. 2 rolls, which 
are also 10 x 30, are elevated to No. 2 trommel, which is fitted with 
Y and \" perforated metal screens. The oversize returns to No. '_' 
rolls; the product over \" and under \" is ground in a ball mill 
fitted with about 20 mesh screen. The product from the trommel, 
which is under \", goes to the No. 3 trommel previously mentioned. 
The materials from the Huntington mill and from the ball mill, 
crushed to 20 mesh and finer, unite and go to a classifier, the 
coarser product from which is treated on four No. 2 Deister tables. 
The tailings from the Deisters go to waste, the middlings being 
re-treated on a Wilfley table. The overflow from the classifier goes 
to a Callow settling tank and the thickened pulp is treated on a 
Frue vanner. This mill is driven by a Robb engine of about 100 
h.p. capacity. 

344 The Canadian Mining Institute 

the muggley concentrator. 

Ore to be concentrated will be taken up the incline tramway 
to the top of the mill and fed into a No. 4 style K. Gates crusher. 
From the crusher the ore will be fed into a set of Gates economic 
rolls, which crush to £ " and under. The ore will then pass over 
a screen with 1J" openings and go to a two compartment bull jig. 
The tails from the bull jig will be elevated and discharged by a 
belt elevator to the ore bins from which they will be fed by Chal- 
lenge feeders to twenty 1,250 pound stamps. The mortars will 
be fitted with screens approx. of 20 mesh and the stamped material 
will be elevated to Richards annular vortex classifiers. The 
spigot product will be treated on four Wilfley tables, the overflow 
going to two 8' callow tanks. The tails from the Wilfleys will be 
re-treated if found of sufficient value. The thickened material 
from the callow tanks will be treated on corrugated belt vanners, 
the tails from which will unite with the middlings from the Wilfley 
tables and go to 8' settling tanks. The sands from the settling 
tanks will go to 8' amalgam pans and to four 8' settlers. The amal- 
gam will be retorted and the tails let go to waste. It is estimated 
that the complete cost of treating ores in this mill will be from 
$4.00 to $12.00 per ton. It may be found necessary to roast the 
ore previous to amalgamation, and if this is done it will likely reduce 
the cost of treatment. 

When the subject of the treatment of Cobalt ores was first con- 
sidered, the main difficulty was thought to lie in the prevention of 
the crushed material from sliming, the general opinion being that 
the ore would slime to such an extent that the loss of values in the 
slimes would be very excessive, while the actual process of redu- 
cing the ore to a fine state was not considered as being a very im- 
portant one. B.ut as a matter of fact this order has been practically 
reversed, as there appears to be no great trouble in getting a good 
extraction, though the actual fine grinding of the material has 
proved a problem of great importance. The coarser reductions 
give little trouble, as the material breaks along its fractures and, 
furthermore, accurate crushing to size is not altogether important. 
When it comes to the fine grinding, the rock is particularly difficult 
to reduce. The small particles seem to be exceptionally hard and 

Methods of Concentration \t Cobalt 345 

the wear on the rolls shells, or Chilian mill tyres, as the case may be, 
is very great, grooving taking place to such an extent that the 
capacity of the machines in the case of the Chilian mills and the 
capability to give a fine product in the case of the rolls is greatly 

In connection with the fine grinding there is one mill, the 
erection of which is contemplated, in which it is proposed to use 
stamps. This method has much to recommend it. The cost per 
ton of ore crushed would not likely exceed 30 to 40 cents per ton, 
and this we do not think can be bettered by either fine grinding 
with a series of rolls or with Chilian or Huntington mills. To 
drive either of these machines a much greater horse power is re- 
quired and the upkeep is more expensive both for parts and the 
amount of labour required to keep the machines in order. Half a 
day's work on a small stamp battery putting in new liners and 
refitting with new shoes and dies will make the battery practically 
as good as new. To overhaul a Chilian or Huntington mill thor- 
oughly would probably take over a week at the least. Some silver 
would no doubt accumulate in the mortar boxes, but this would 
be no serious disadvantage as it could be easily and quickly cleared 
out as often as was found necessary. 

The assertion has been made recently by one of the mine 
operators in Cobalt that stamps have no place in a concentrator. 
This statement, in the writer's opinion, is very broad and possibly 
rash in view of the number of stamps working with apparent 
success in many parts of the world. His statement, it is under- 
stood, covered milling in general and not only the reduction of 
Cobalt ores. The success of stamps in general as a crushing me- 
dium has been well shown at the Michigan Copper Company and 
other properties in the Lake Country. For the fine crushing in 
connection with the treatment of the jig tailings on tables, we 
think that stamps will ultimately prove to be the best device. 

The treatment of the tailings from the concentrating tables 
from the various mills by the cyanide process is a matter which is 
open to a large amount of discussion. In Mexico this has certainly 
proved a success, but the conditions in that country are much 
more favourable than those in this district. Unless the tailings 
carry much higher values than is said to be the case, it will require 
very cheap treatment to justify the installation of the cyanide 

346 The Canadian Mining Institute 

plants for the treatment of tailings solely. In Mexico the climatic 
conditions are more suitable, and the cheapness of labour also 
beai's a strong influence on the success of the process. There the 
operations are largely in the hands of mining engineers from the 
Rand, who, having seen the great success of cyaniding in South 
Africa, have carried their ideas to Mexico, and introduced them 
there in the treatment of silver ores. 

In the Republic Camp, in Washington, they are treating an 
ore in which the values of silver and gold are about the same. It 
is found that the gold is easily leached out, but that the recovery 
of the silver is a matter of three or four days. 

The actual extraction that would ultimately be made on the 
tailings here in Cobalt by the cyanide process is not questioned, 
but it will be at the expense of a large consumption of cyanide and 
the leaching out will be very slow on account of the comparatively 
large pieces of silver — large by comparison with the minute state 
in which gold is disseminated through the low grade ores in the 
Rand — which will require to be dissolved. At a great many of 
the mines in Cobalt, chalcopyrite is found to some extent and it 
would all mix with the ore going to the mills. This, when it finally 
reached the cyanide tanks, would tend to increase the consumption 
of cyanide. The question, however, of the actual success of the 
cyanide treatment here will largely depend on whether the tailings 
are sufficiently rich to stand the cost of treatment. 

In connection with the primary crushing of the rock in most 
of the mills now running, and in most of the mills whose erection 
is contemplated, the Blake type of crusher seems to be preferred 
in preference to the gyratory crusher. In the Blake crusher 
the wear is practically confined to two points, that is to 
say, at the lower ends of the jaw and wearing plates. For this 
reason the plates must be frequently renewed. In the gyratory 
crusher the wear is distributed over a far greater surface and the 
renewal of the concaves and the mantles is not necessary to the 
same degree. For a given amount of ore crushed the power taken 
is less; and, furthermore, the crusher head having a circular motion 
in contrast to the reciprocating motion of the jaw in the jaw crusher, 
the strain on the supports for the gyratory is not nearly so great; 
and in case where the crusher is located in the upper part of the 
mill building the shaking and vibration due to the crusher is far 

Mkthods of Concentration at Cobalt 347 

less. This would enable the upper portion of a mill building to 1 e 
made lighter, as it would not have to be so strongly braced to hold 
the crusher from oscillating. 

For treating the Cobalt ores the simplest form of mill would 
first crush the ore to about \" size in a Gates crusher. This 
product would then be passed over a bull jig, which to a great ex- 
tent would displace the need of hand sorting. These tailings 
would then be crushed with rolls, roughly sized and treated on two 
jigs. The tailings from these jigs would then go to the stamps, 
so arranged that any of the tailings which were not of sufficient 
value to treat could be run directly to waste. The silver which 
accumulates in the mortars could be removed periodically, and 
the product after leaving the stamps, treated on Wilfley or other 
suitable tables and corrugated belt vanners. As the actual ton- 
nage of concentrates produced would be comparatively small, it 
might be found profitable to treat these concentrates in amal- 
gamating pans fitted with mullers for grinding. This would amal- 
gamate a large amount of the native silver and the amalgam could 
be retorted and the bullion shipped. The concentrates from 
which most of native silver would be removed could then be shipped 
to the smelters and their treatment would cost far less than if the 
original concentrates had been shipped. 

In this scheme very little mechanical screening is used, only 
a coarse sizing for the jigs being made. Xo fine jigging would be 
attempted on account of the leanness of the material; it would be 
better to allow the finer material to go direct to the stamps. Attri- 
tion of the small pieces might also be an objection to fine jigging. 
The extensive use of trommels, screens and other mechanical sizers, 
would add greatly to the costs of the upkeep of the mill as there is 
usually a great amount of wear attached to machines of this class. 
On account of the hardness of the ore milled, the best and heaviest 
machinery on the market would be, there can be no doubt, the 
cheapest in the end. 



By J. B. Tyrrell, Toronto, Ontario. 

(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

About twenty-one years ago the late Dr. George M. Dawson 
published a paper in the Annual Report of the Geological Survey 
of Canada for 1886, entitled " Notes to accompany a Geological 
Map of the northern portion of the Dominion of Canada, east of 
the Rocky Mountains," which contained a synopsis of the infor- 
mation at that time available on the geology and mineral resources 
of northern Canada. Attached to the paper is a coloured 
geological map depicting in graphic form the information collected 
together in the "Notes." 

In the summer of 1897, nearly eleven years ago, I read a 
paper at the Toronto Meeting of the British Association, on the 
" Natural Resources of the Barren Lands of Canada," in which, 
among other things, a summary was given of the information then 
at hand of the known deposits of valuable or useful minerals in 
the more remote and inaccessible parts of the Dominion, west of 
Hudson Bay. 

The time may not be inopportune to again review our know- 
ledge of the mineral resources of northern Canada, including 
under that designation, not only the Barren Lands, but in a general 
way all those parts of the country which are north of, and remote 
from, the main lines of transportation. 

It is thought that such a review may be interesting and use- 
ful to the mining men of Canada, and may form a useful record 
in the Journal of the Canadian Mining Institute. 

No attempt at originality is here made. Many of the state- 
ments offered have already been recorded in the two papers above 
mentioned, but some additional information, which has been ob- 
tained in the past ten years has been added. 

In such a review it is not necessary to include the gold fields 
of the Klondike, or the silver mines of the Cobalt district of 
Northern Ontario, as those have already been very fully discussed 

No. 1. Red Conglomerate on the shore of Dubawnt Lake. 

No. 2. Cliff of red Conglomerate <>n the shore <>i Dubawnl Lake. 

Minerals and Ores of Northern Canada. :U9 

in other places, and besides they do not come under the head of 
undeveloped minerals and ores which are here alone referred 
to, although there may be large areas in their vicinity in which 
future development will produce good rich mines. 

Northern Canada, as here roughly understood and designated, 
is very largely underlain by rocks belonging to the very old geo- 
logical formations, most of which were included under what has 
been known as the Archaean Complex, a mixture of igneous rocks 
and highly altered sediments melted and folded together in a very 
intricate manner. Underlying these more or less crystalline rocks 
are, in places, much less altered and often nearly horizontal Cam- 
brian, Cambro-Silurian and Devonian sediments, while in the 
Arctic Islands the Carboniferous rocks, with thick beds of coal, 
are conspicuous and widely distributed. 

The jecent separation of the Keewatin and Huronian rocks 
throughout the northern United States and the better known 
parts of southern Canada, has not been carried out or attempted 
for northern Canada, and therefore with some few exceptions 
these formations will be considered together. 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, in referring to the Huronian (including 
Keewatin) formation writes as follows: 

"The distribution of the Huronian is important from an eco- 
nomic point of view, on account of its generally metalliferous 
character, which may eventually give value to tracts of country 
in which the rigorous nature of the climate entirely precludes the 
possibility of agriculture."* 

And also "There can now be very little doubt that every 
square mile of the Huronian formation of Canada will sooner or 
later become an object of interest to the prospector, and that 
industries of considerable importance may yet be planted upon 
this formation in districts far to the north, or for other reasons 
at present regarded as barren and useless."! 


It may not be generally known that gold mining is one of the 
first, if it is not actually the first industry started in Canada. 

In 1576. a quarter of a century before Samuel de Champlain 

*C,oo\. 8XJ. vol. 2. p. 7 R. 
■ S.C., vol. 8, J', l- \ 

350 The Canadian Mining Institute 

first saw the St. Lawrence River, Martin Frobisher, one of the great 
navigators of the Elizabethan era, sailed north-westward from 
London, in search of a north-west passage to Cathay, and discovered 
Frobisher Bay on the east side of Baffin Island, north of Hudson 

The account of Frobisher's three voyages to Frobisher Bay is 
given by Sir John Barrow in " A Chronological History of Voyages 
into the Arctic Regions, London, 1818," and a few extracts from 
this book will indicate something of the work then done, and the 
success or failure which attended it. 

Among the various articles which Frobisher brought back to 
England was a piece of stone " much like to a sea cole in colour." 
" A piece of this black stone being given to one of the adventurers' 
wives, by chance she threw it into the fire; and whether from 
accident or curiosity, having quenched it while hot with vinegar, 
it glistened with a bright marquesset of gold. The noise of this 
incident was soon spread abroad, and the stone was assayed by 
the ' gold finers of London,' who reported that it contained a 
considerable quantity of gold. A new voyage was immediately 
set on foot for the following year, in which 'the captaine was speci- 
ally directed by commission for the searching of more of this 
gold ore than for the searching any further discovery of the 
passage.' "* 

" Frobisher was now openly countenanced by Queen Eliza- 
beth, and on taking leave had the honour of kissing her Majesty's 
hand, who dismissed him ' with gracious countenance and comfort- 
able words.' . He was, besides, furnished with one ' toll ship of 
her Majesty's, named the Ayde, of nine-score tunnes or there- 
abouts; and two other little barkes likewise, the one called the 
Gabriel, and the other the Michael,' these two vessels were about 
thirty tons each. On the 27th of May, (1577) having received 
the sacrament, and prepared themselves ' as good christians toward 
God, and resolute men for all fortunes, they left Gravesend. 

" They arrived off the north foreland, otherwise Hall's Island, 
so called after the man who had picked up the golden ore, and who 
was now master of the Gabriel. 

"They proceeded some distance up the strait, when, on the 

*A Chron. Hist, of Voyages into the Arctic Regions, by (Sir) John 
Barrow, London, 1818, p. 84. 

Minerals and Ores of Northern Canada. 351 

1Mb of July, the general taking the gold-finers with him, lain Id I 
near the spot where the ore had been picked up, but could not 
find in the whole island 'a piece so bigge as a walnut.' But all 
the neighbouring islands are stated to have good store of the ore. 
They then landed on Hall's greater island, where they also found 
a great quantity of the ore. 

"They now stood over to the southern shore of Frobisher*s 
Strait (Bay) and landed on a small island with the gold finers to 
search for ore; and' here all the sands and cliffs did so glisten and 
had so bright a marquesite that it seemed all to be gold, but 
upon tryall made it proved no better than black-lead, and verified 
the proverbe — all is not gold that glisteneth.' 

"Another small island, which they named Smith's Island, 
they found a mine of silver, and four sorts of ore 'to holde gold in 
good quantitie.' 

" Ajb the season was far advanced, and the general's commis- 
sion directed him to search for gold ore, and to defer the further 
discovery of the passage till another time, they set about the load- 
ing of the ships, and in the space of twenty days, with the help 
of a few gentlemen and soldiers, got on board about two hundred 
tons of ore. On the 22nd of August, after making bonfire on 
the highest summit on this island, and firing a volley for a farewell 
'in honour of the right Honourable Lady Anne, Countess of War- 
wicke. whose name it beareth.' they set sail homewards, and after 
a stormy passage, they all arrived safe in different ports of Great 
Britain, with the loss only of one man by sickness and another 
who was washed overboard. 

'" With respect to the ore brought in the Ayde and Gabriel it 
was ordered (by Queen Elizabeth) that this should be stored in 
Bristol Castle: and that it should be carefully weighed and placed 
under four locks, the four keys whereof were to be given in charge, 
one each, to the Mayor of Bristol. Sir Richard Barkley. Martin 
Frobisher and Michael Lock. The ore brought in the Michael was 
in like manner stored in the Tower of London, the keys in this 
instance being given in charge to the Warden of the Mint, the 
Workmaster of the Mint. Martin Frobisher and Michael Lock. 
The Queen also appointed Special Commissions to take in hand 
the examination of the ore and report on the value of the same.* 
* Life of Sir .Martin Frobisher, by Frank Jones, London, 1878, p. 19. 

352 The Canadian Mining Institute 

"Portions of the ore were from time to time charily and care- 
fully dealt out by the Commissioners, under certificate, and offi- 
cial returns began to be furnished.* 

But the assayers and "gold finers" squabbled and fought 
over its value; one Jonas Shutz, who had been with Frobisher on 
his second voyage, and who had directed the mining, claimed that, 
if properly treated and coaxed, it would yield £40 to the ton, while 
the goldsmiths of London said that they could not find any gold 
at all in it. 

But most of the people interested believed firmly in the rich- 
ness of the ore and "The Queen and her court were so highly 
delighted in 'finding that the matter of the gold ore had appear- 
ance and made show of great riches and profit, and the hope of 
the passage to Cathaia by this last voyage greatly increased/ that 
after a minute examination by the commissioners specially ap- 
pointed, it was determined that the voyage was highly worthy of 
being followed up. The Queen gave the name Meta incognito 
1o the newly discovered country, on which it was resolved to 
establish a colony. For this purpose a fleet of fifteen ships was 
got ready, and one hundred persons appointed to form the settle- 
ment, and remain there the whole year, keeping with them three 
to the ships; the other twelve were to bring back cargoes of gold 
ore. Frobisher was constituted admiral and general, and on 
taking leave, received from the Queen (Elizabeth) a gold chain, 
and the rest of the captains had the honour of kissing her Majesty's 

"The fleet sailed from Harwich on the 31st May, 1578." On 
the way "the bark Dennis, of one hundred tons, received such 
a blow with a rock of ice, that she sunk instantly in sight of the 
whole fleet, but the people were all saved. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, she had on board part of the house which was intended to 
be erected for the winter settlers. 

"At length, after many perils from storms, fogs and floating 
ice, the general and part of the fleet assembled in the Countess of 
Warwick's Sound in Frobisher' s Bay, when a council was held on 
the 1st of August, at which it was determined to send all persons 
and things on shore upon Countess of Warick's Island; and on 
the 2nd August orders were proclaimed by sound of trumpet for 

(*ibid, p. 93.) 

No. 3. — Rapids above the Forks, Telgoa River, in Lat. 64° 25'. 

So. 4. Kewenawan, traps on Dubawnl River. 

Minerals and Ores of Northern Canada. 353 

the guidance of the company during their abode thereon. It was 
determined in council that no habitation should be there this 

" Captain Best of the Ann Frci7icis discovered 'a great black 
island.' where such plenty of black ore was found 'as might rea- 
sonably suffice all the gold gluttons of the world/ which island 
for cause of his good luck/ the captain called after his own name, 
Sest's Blessing. He also ascended a high hill called Hatton's 
Headland, where he erected a column or cross of stone in token of 
'hristian possession; 'here also he found plentie of black ore, 
and divers pretie stones.' " (Ibid, pp. 84-93.) 

The work of loading the ships went on all through the month 
of August, and towards the end of the month two of them at 
least were fully loaded and ready to sail back to England, and 
doubtless most of the other ships had taken on some of the ore. 

While the ore was being mined and loaded "the mason and 
carpenters, who had been brought over to put up the intended 
fort, had been for some time engaged in constructing a small house 
of lime and stone upon the Countess' Island. Within the house 
was built an oven, and to indicate the use of it, some baked bread 
was placed in the inside. They buried the remaining timbers 
of the intended fort, together with many barrels of meal, peas, 
grist, etc., being the provision intended for the colony."* 

On the last day of August the ships set sail for England, 

where they arrived about the first of October, and as nothing more 

is heard of the ore which they brought back with them, it may be 

ied to have been of no value. Certainly the Company of 

Cathay, which undertook this enterprise, met financial disaster, 

Such is a brief account of the first prospecting expedition under- 
taken into Canada. Whether there was ever any reason, however 
slight, for this first stampede is not known, but the known oc- 
currence of the crystalline limestones of the Grenville series in 
that region would indicate the possibility of the occurrence of 
ore of such kinds as are found in Eastern Ontario. 

The scene of Frobisher's mining operations were unvisited 
and practically unknown for nearly three hundred years, and it 
remained for Captain C. F. Hall, in 1861 and 1862, while exploring 

*The Life of Sir Martin Frobisher, Rev. Frank Jones, London, 1878, 
p. 146. 


354 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

in Frobisher's Bay, to rediscover all that was left of Frobisher's 
stone house, and of the pits dug by him in his mining operations. 
Unfortunately, Hall seems to have known very little of mineralogy 
or geology, and the specimens of rocks brought back by him, were 
merely different varieties of mica schist.* 

There could be very few summer journeys more interesting 
and instructive to the wealthy yachtsman than a visit to this 
part of Arctic Canada, and perhaps now that attention is drawn 
to the matter some yachtsman will visit the Countess of Warwick's 
Sound, and bring back an account with photographs of what 
mining was done there, and of the exact character of the rocks in 
which this mining was undertaken. 

Dr. A. P. Low has drawn attention to the extent of the beds 
of sands and gravels on Baffin Land, and to the possibility of find- 
ing gold bearing placer deposits in them. The existence of these 
gravels should furnish an additional incentive to a thorough 
investigation of the mineral resources of that enormous island, 
either by the Government of Canada, or by private individuals. 

In most parts of northern Canada, except in the Yukon Terri- 
tory, prospecting for gold is difficult and uncertain work. The 
Klondike district was not overrun by the vast glaciers of the Glacial 
Period, and therefore beds of gravel have there been accumulating 
since Tertiary times at all events, and any gold that these gravels 
may have contained, has been the result of slow concentration from 
the surrounding rocks for a very long time, rather than of rapid 
concentration from rich gold-bearing lode in a short time.f The 
Continental portion of northern Canada, east of the Rocky Mount- 
ains was, as far as known, completely covered by ice during the 
Glacial Period, and all or nearly all of the surface deposits that had 
accumulated up to that time were removed and carried away by 
it to form the till or boulder-clay of the country further south, 
and consequently gold cannot be easily traced to its parent rock 
or vein by following particles of float gold up the streams. If gold 
should be found in any of the northern streams it would be more 
likely to have been derived immediately from the boulder-clay 
on the banks, than from veins in the neighbouring rock, If, there- 

*Life with the Esquimaux, by Captain C. F. Hall, London, 1864. 
•("Concentration of Gold in the Klondike, by J.B.Tyrrell, Econ. Geol., 
Vol. 2, No. 4, 1897, pp. 343-9. 

Minerals and Ores of Northern Canada. 355 

fore, it was desired to trace the gold to its origin in the rocks it 
would be necessary to follow back the course of the glacier, rather 
than the river or stream, to the place where it passed over these 
rocks. In practice, however, this is exceedingly difficult to do on 
account of the many changes in direction which it has undergone 
at different stages of its development. There is therefore no 
rational method of prospecting in that country but to search for 
the veins or lodes themselves, almost irrespective of float, and 
this is necessarily very tedious and laborious work. 

.Most of the gravel deposits of northern Canada, east of the 
Yukon Territory, are of recent origin, and could not be expected 
to be rich in gold unless they had been derived from rocks con- 
taining very rich gold-bearing lodes. 

Dr. John Rae has recorded the occurrence of gold-bearing 
quartz veins in Wager Inlet, west of Roe's Welcome, and north of 
the north-west portion of Hudson Bay. 

Gold also occurs in the sands of the Athabasca, Peace, McLeod 
and other rivers flowing from the east side of the Rocky Mount- 
ains, having probably been derived from the wearing down of the 
Laramie sandstones which form the river banks. 


Silver is very rarely seen by the ordinary traveller or prospec- 
tor when passing along the waterways or over the port- 
ages throughout the country. It has few highly coloured salts 
or ores, and is usually associated with a soft gangue which will be 
found in hollows and depressions in the general surface, and which 
consequently will in most cases be covered over w r ith clay, sand or 
debris of some kind. The veins must therefore be uncovered with 
pick and shovel before their true nature can be determined. The 
discovery in this way of such a large number of silver-bearing veins 
in the Cobalt and Elk Lake districts of Ontario has been quite a 
revelation in this respect, and points confidently to the hope that 
many other areas of Huronian rocks, when correctly prospected 
for silver, will also afford satisfactory results. When it is remem- 
bered that probably much less than one per cent, of the surface 
even of the rocky country is naturally exposed to view, and that 
it is in the hollows that the silver is to be found, the improbability 
of finding silver veins can be easily understood. 

356 The Canadian Mixing Institute 

On the east coast of Hudson Bay. between Little Whale 
River and Richmond Gulf, silver bearing galena occurs in a band 
of Magnesian limestone. Drs. Bell and Low record this galena as 
assaying from 5 to 12 oz. to the ton. 


The presence of copper is much more easily recognized than 
either gold or silver, for many of its salts or ores are highly coloured, 
bright green being very prevalent, and many of its ores are associ- 
ated with harder rock or vein material, so that they may often be 
found on salient points or distinct elevations of the surface. 

Bornite has been recorded by C. F. Hall as occurring in 
Frobisher Bay, and copper ore is spoken of by Sir John Ross as 
occurring at Agnew River. 

On the north-west side of Hudson Bay, between Baker's 
Foreland and Cape Eskimo, the Keewatin greenstone has dissem- 
inated through it a quantity of copper pyrite. No large deposit 
was seen, but where the mineral is as freely distributed through 
the mass of the rock, it is not at all improbable that large deposits 
may be found in favourable situations, especially near contacts 
with later intrusions. 

Dr. Robert Bell records the occurrence of copper ore on 
Great Slave Lake as follows " On the north-west side of McLeod 
~Ba.y small interrupted gash veins and stringers of calc-spar are found 
in the primitive gneiss and granite, and some of them contain 
nuggets of chalcopyrite. 

Dr. J. M. Bell speaks of numerous interrupted stringers of 
calc-spar containing chalcopyrite in the greenstones east of Mc- 
Tavish Bay, Great Slave Lake. 

Chalcopj'rite was found by the writer in a dike of diabase on 
an island in Pipstone Lake, Nelson River. 

In the Yukon Territory the copper-bearing belt at Whitehorse 
would appear to extend westward towards Rainy Hollow. At 
this latter place lodes of bornite and chalcopyrite have been 
located, and from what can be learned of them from others, they 
only await reasonable facilities for transportation, in order to be 
capable of being developed into mines. 

On the White and Copper Rivers, near the Boundary between 
Yukon Territory and Alaska, native copper occurs. This copper 

Minerals and Ores of Northern Canada. 357 

is found loose in the gravel of the river bed, and it has been 
proposed to work some of these gravel beds as copper placers, 
similar in most respects to the gold placers, except in the character 
of the metallic contents. 

But the most interesting, and probably the most extensive 
copper deposits in Canada are contained in the Keweenawan traps 
and sandstones which extend along south of the Arctic coast from 
Coppermine River eastward to Bathurst Inlet. 

The occurrence of native copper in that country has been 
known to the Indians, and Eskimos from time immemorial, and 
the metal has been commonly used by them to make knives and 
other implements. The first journey that was made by a white 
man into the northern country, 137 years ago, was made in search 
for this "mine" of copper. 

The Copper Mountains, near the Coppermine River, were 
visited by Sir John Richardson in 1821, and again in 1826, but 
there is no record that they have been visited by any one capable 
of describing them since that date. 

His description of them is as follows: "The Copper Mountains 
consist principally of trap rocks. The great mass of the rock in the 
mountains seems to consist of felspar in various conditions; some 
times in the form of felspar rock or claystone, but most generally 
in the form of dark reddish brown amygdaloid. The amygdaloidal 
masses contained in the amygdaloid are either entirely pistacite 
(epidote), or pistacite enclosing calc-spar. Scales of native copper 
are very generally disseminated through this rock, through a 
species of trap tuff which nearly resembles it. and also through a 
reddish sandstone on which it appears to rest. The rough and 
in general rounded and more elevated parts of the mountain are 
composed of the amygdaloid, but between the eminences there 
occur many narrow and deep valleys, which are bounded by per- 
pendicular mural precipices of greenstone. It is in these valleys, 
among the loose soil, that the Indians search for copper. Among 
the specimens we picked up in these valleys were plates of native 
copper; masses of pistacite containing native copper; of trap rock 
with associated native copper; green malachite, copper glance or 
variegated copper ore. and of greenish gray prehnite in trap with 
disseminated native copper; the copper in some specimens was 
crystallized in rhomboidal dodecahedrons. We also found some 

358 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

large tabular fragments, evidently portions of a vein consisting of 
prehnite, associated with calcareous spar and native copper. The 
Indians dig wherever they observe the prehnite lying on the soil, 
experience having taught them that the largest pieces of copper 
are found associated with it. We did not observe the vein in its 
original repository, nor does it appear that the Indians have found 
it, but judging from the specimens just mentioned, it most prob- 
ably traverses felspathose trap. We also picked up some fragment 
of a greenish grey coloured rock, apparently sandstone, with dis- 
seminated variegated copper ore and copper glance; likewise 
rhomboidal fragments of white calcareous spar, and some rock 
crystals. The Indians report that they have found copper in 
every part of this range, which they have examined for thirty or 
forty miles to the N.W., and that the Esquimaux come hither to 
search for that metal. We afterwards found some ice chisels in 
the possession of the latter people, twelve or fourteen inches long, 
and half an inch in diameter, formed of pure copper.* 

In 1902, Mr. David Hanbury travelled from Chesterfield Inlet 
to Great Bear Lake, passing on the way along the shore of the 
Arctic Ocean, and up the Coppermine River, though he did not 
visit the Copper Mountains. 

He describes the Rocks of Bathurst Inlet and the neighbour- 
ing parts of the Arctic Coast as follows: — 

"On the 16th (June, 1902) we reached Barry Island, which 
one of my Eskimo had described as the best place for copper. He 
now said copper was more plentiful on an island six or eight miles 
north of Fowler Bay. However, two pieces of native copper were 
found in the evening. 

"The main rock of the island is a fine-grained basalt". 
It is in this rock that the native copper occurs. The copper is 
plentiful, for the quantity we obtained was found after but a brief 
search, and on a neighbouring island, Kun-nu-Yuk, a mass of 
copper had just been found so large that a man could hardly lift 
it. There, also, copper is often found in the tide-way. The 
whole of the lower levels on Barry Island are covered with debris 
from the basalt, and when the rock has been distinguished by 

* Narrative of "a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea, by Capt. J. 
Franklin, London, 4to., 1823, p. 528. 

Minerals and Ores of Northern Canada. 359 

weathering, copper has fallen out, so that flakes of the metal may 
be found along the sea shore." 

Seven days later he says "We passed a small basaltic island, 
on which two pieces of copper ore were picked up. It seem- as 
if copper is to be found wherever this basalt occurs." 

On the 25th June he camped on Lewis Island. "This Island 
is formed of the same partly decomposed basalt as Barry Island. 
Although we did not find so much copper here, the green marks 
on the rocks were more numerous, but we did not spend an hour 
altogether in the search. One of our Eskimo knew of a large mass 
of copper on the south-west shore of the island, which he stated to 
be as much as five feet in length, and three inches thick, it pro- 
truded from the rocks under the w r ater, it was said, but there was 
too much ice for us to find the copper. A piece of quartz with 
copper ore and native copper was picked up on the sea shore. 

"On the 27th we rested at the north-west point of Lewis 
Island, where we again found the copper-bearing basalt, and ac- 
cordingly we commenced a search that resulted in our collecting 
about two pounds weight of copper. The metal appeared to be 
very persistent in its occurrence in the partly decomposed basalt, 
of which the islands we passed that day consisted. The flakes of 
copper seemed to be always vertical when in their rock matrix."* 

In writing of his journey up the Coppermine River, he sa 
" While tracking, Sandy was nearly tripped up by a chunk of 
native copper on the shore. It weighed about twelve pounds."f 

During my exploration of the Dubawnt River in 1893, the 
Keweenawan rocks, similar to those of the Coppermine, were met 
with about the middle of the west shore of Dubawnt Lake, whence 
they were found to extend north-north-eastward for 125 miles to 
the Forks of the Dubawnt River, and from there they were 
traced eastward for 175 miles to the outlet of Baker Lake. In 
1900, James W. Tyrrell traced the same rocks westward up the 
Thelon River for about 125 miles. 

While native copper was nowhere found in the rock forma- 
tions on the Dubawnt River, this greal extension of the Ke- 
weenawan series indicates the possibility of its occurrence through- 
out a very extensive tract of that northern country, and when 

•Spoil and Travel in the Northland <>f Canada, by D. Hanbury, p. - 
f96 i-1. p. 206. 

360 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

Hudson Bay becomes easily accessible by a railway to Fort 
Churchill, these copper-bearing rocks should prove an attractive 
field to prospectors. 


Veins of galena have been noticed at a few places. 

Drs. Bell and Low record the occurrence of a vein of galena 
on the east side of Hudson Bay, near Richmond Gulf. A number 
of years ago the Hudson's Bay Co. attempted mining here for a 
short time, but apparently without much success. 

Sir John Richardson mentions the occurrence of a "narrow 
vein of pure galena" cutting gneissic rock at Galena Point, 14 
miles south of Cape Barrow, on Bathurst Inlet (on the Arctic 

Dr. Robert Bell speaks of the occurrence of galena in the 
Devonian limestone south-east of Great Slave Lake. 

In describing the resources of the valley of Mackenzie River, 
Mr. Von Hammerstein makes the following statement: " At Black 
Bay on Lake Athabasca there is a first-class galena, none better. 
It carries gold, silver and copper. Assays $6 or $7 in gold. 
" There is a big seam near Black Bay, and you can follow it right 
along till you come to an island." 


In the Labrador Peninsula, and in the District of Ungava, 
vast deposits of hematite and magnetite have been outlined by 
Dr. Low as extending from near Hamilton Inlet northward to 
Ungava Bay, but here, as in most other parts of Northern Canada 
iron ore would not as yet stand the cost of transportation. 

On the Nastapoka Islands, which extend along the east side 
of Hudson Bay for a hundred miles north of Little Whale River, 
are also very extensive beds of banded iron ores. For a descrip- 
tion of these deposits I would refer to " The Cruise of the Nep- 
tune," by A. P. Low, Ottawa, Govt., 1906, pp. 239-245. 

On the Great Fish River, Mr. Warburton Pike speaks of the 
ironstone, of dark fissile slates and schists, as extending down 
the river from Musk Ox Lake to Beechey Lake, a distance 
of 75 miles. 

No. 5. —Exploring the shore of Hudson Bay. 

No. 6. — Cliffs of Keewatin greenstones, Rankin Inlet, Hudson Bay, 

Minerals and Ores of Northkrn Canada. 361 

Captain Dawson is reported to have found specular iron ore 
in the vicinity of Great Slave Lake. 

On the north shore of Athabasca Lake I found what seemed 
seemed to be a large body of iron ore, but the necessity of rapid 
travel prevented its exploration. 


Great Bear Lake. — In the greenstones, East of MarTavish 
Hay, occur numerous interrupted stringers of calc-spar, and the 
steep rocky shores which here present themselves to the lake are 
often stained with cobalt bloom. (J. M. Bell). 

Great Slave Lake. — On the north shore of the bay west of the 
Narrows between Christie and MeLeod Bays, cobalt bloom was 
seen in the cracks in the greenstone. (R. Bell). 


Norite on L'pper Weenisk River, similar to the norite at 
Sudbury, though no nickel has yet been found in it. (Mclnnis). 

On the north bank of Stone River east of Lake Athabasca, 
there is also a high ridge of norite. which should be well worth 
careful exploration. 

Pvrrhotite on the east coast of Hudson Bay was found to 
contain small quantities of nickel. (Low). 


During the past two years some important discoveries of 
high grade stibnite have been made in the Wheaton district in 
the Yukon Territory, south-west of the town of Whitehorse. 
The veins are reported to be large and some very nice specimens 
of ore have been seen from them, and doubtless some of them 
will be developed before long. 


Nuggets of native bismuth have been found occurring with 
gold in the placers of the Duncan Creek District, Yukon Territory. 


1 -iterite or Stream-tin i- found in small quantities in 
of the placers in the Klondike District. Yukon Territory. 

362 The Canadian Mining Institute. 


Scheelite has also been found in the gold-bearing sands of 
the Duncan Creek District, Yukon Territory. 


Coals varying in character from excellent bituminous coals 
to low grade lignites are found in the vast northern wilderness. 

Bituminous coals of Carboniferous age occur in many of the 
Arctic Islands. For a short but succinct account of their dis- 
tribution reference may be made to The Cruise of the Neptune, by 
A. P. Low. pp. 222 to 229 and 247. 

Similar coal, though in this case of Cretaceous age, has 
recently been traced northward from the Bow River Basin in 
the Rocky Mountain Range, and the northern limit of these beds 
is as yet quite indefinite. 

An interesting possibility of the existence of beds of bitumin- 
ous coal of Carboniferous age in Manitoba and the provinces to 
the north and west was suggested by the writer some years ago. 
In Iowa, about 400 miles south of Manitoba, the geological forma- 
tions extend upwards in orderly and conformable series over- 
lapping each other from east to west, from the Cambro-Silurian 
up through the Silurian and Devonian to the Carboniferous. 
The latter terrain contains extensive beds of coal from which 
millions of tons are mined every year. North of the State of 
Iowa in Minnesota these Paleozoic formations are very largely 
covered and hidden by sandstones and shales of Cretaceous age 
which overlie them unconformably. In Manitoba the lower por- 
tion of the Palaeozoic series is again exposed, and the rocks can 
be followed upwards from the Cambro-Silurian through the Silu- 
rian to the Devonian, but at this point they are again covered 
unconformably by Cretaceous sandstones and shales. In North- 
western Manitoba the Upper Devonian limestones can be seen 
close to the edge of the underh'ing Cretaceous beds. 

Whether the Garboniferous Formation, which should follow 
the Devonian in ascending order, is present under these Cretaceous 
beds or not is not known. It is possible, though hardly probable, 
that it may have never been deposited in that region, or if it was 
deposited it may have been removed, partly or entirely, by erosion 

Minerals and Ores of Northern Canada. 363 

in the long period between the close of the Carboniferous age 
and the beginning of the Cretaceous. But on the contrary it is 
not improbable that the Carboniferous formation may be present, 
overlying the Devonian in regular sequence, beneath the covering 
of Cretaceous shales. If such should be found to be the case, 
and that the formation here, as in so many other places, should 
be found to be rich in beds of coal, the question of fuel for a large 
portion of central Canada would be solved for many years to 
come. The possibility of the existence of such an adequate supply 
of fuel, when it is so much needed, should be thoroughly investi- 
gated in the very near future. 

Lignites of Cretaceous age are known to outcrop in many 
places from the great plains northward down the valley of the 
Mackenzie River. 

Natural Tar. 

Tar or maltha occurs in the sandstones at the base of the 
Cretaceous formation for long distances down the Athabasca 
River, though the problem of how it can be utilized in its present 
form is as yet unsolved. The hope is still strong and prevalent 
that liquid oil may be found near where these "Tar Sands'' are 
now known to outcrop. 

Other minerals are known to occur in the north, but it is not 
necessary to enumerate them here as they would not bear long 
inland transportation and could only be developed as the country 
itself becomes populated. 

With regard to the possibility of living and making a home 
in even the most inhospitable parts of northern Canada. I wish to 
emphasize what I have already .said in a paper written eleven 
years ago, that no part of that country is as cold and inhospitable 
as many inhabited parts of Siberia. The mean summer (3 months) 
temperature determines the limit of the forest, and the possibility 
of the growth of trees and cereals. Mr. Stupart, Director of the 
Meteorological Service of Canada, places the summer isotherm of 
57.5° as the northern limit of the successful growth of wheat. 
and this is the mean summer temperature of Dawson, Yukon 
Territory. On the contrary the mean winter, or perhaps the 
mean January temperature would probably determine the habit- 
ability of the country for human beings. Now Fort Good Hope, 

364 The Canadian Mining Institute 

on the Mackenzie river, is the coldest known place in Canada, with 
a mean January temperature of -28° F., and Dawson is not far 
behind it with a January mean of -23.6° F., while Yakutsk, a 
town of about five thousand inhabitants, in Siberia, has a mean 
January temperature of -40.4° F., and many other places in 
northern Asia are still colder, one town having a mean January 
temperature of -56 . 2° F. 

It is thus seen that inhabitants of the old world live and thrive 
in a much more rigorous climate than is found even in the coldest 
parts of northern Canada, and that therefore the climate does not 
offer any insuperable objection to settlement if minerals or ores 
are anywhere found in paying quantities. 


Mr. Campbell: — Did you see any coal in that north country? 

Mr. Tyrrell: — The coal in the interior is all lignitic. But 
there is good coal in the Arctic Islands. I have never seen it, but 
the coal has been used by some of the whalers. I understand it 
is bituminous coal. 

Dr. Goodwin: — I would like to ask how the conditions of 
mining would compare with those in the mining districts of Siberia. 
Would life be as endurable there, and are there any railway pos- 

Mr. Tyrrell: — The conditions of life up to tie Arctic circle 
in Canada are fairly easy. Much of the country is what we know 
as "barren lands," treeless country, but bright with flowers and 
abundant grass in summer. Tre growth of vegetation in a 
country depends upon the warmth of tie summer, not on the 
coldness of the winter. One of the coldest parts of North America 
in the winter is the Klondyke.; but it is warm in summer, so 
that there is abundant growth of trees, and no one there suffers any 
particular hardship, except from isolation. In the Great Slave 
Lake or Great Bear Lake districts the winter is no colder than in 
the Klondyke. The conditions that make life hard for people 
are not nearly as bad in tie very coldest parts of Canada as in 
many parts of Siberia. One city in Siberia las a mean January 
temperature of 56 deg. below zero. There is no such mean monthly 

Minerals and Ores of Northern Canada. 365 

temperature known in North America at all. If a mining industry 
were to start in our far north country, there would be no particular 
difficulty in establishing a standard of comfort equal to that 
enjoyed in many parts of the great plains. 

With regard to railways, a road could be built from Churchill 
to Athabasca Lake far more easily than in many parts of Ontario. 
The distance from Churchill to the Athabasca River could prob- 
ably be built for little more than half the cost per mile of building 
the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario railway. It is an easier 
country to build through, so that if there is ever any object in 
building such a railway the factor of cost will not be very great, 
though, possibly, the suitability of a country for human habita- 
tion may depend on its winter temperature. 

Dr. Goodwin: — We are glad to hear this from so experienced 
an explorer as Mr. Tyrrell, because if the Russians could exploit 
the mineral riches of Siberia and build cities there, surely Canadians 
could take advantage of our northern country to which Mr. 
Tyrrell has so interestingly alluded. 

By T. L. Walker, University of Toronto. 
(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908) 

In 1904 the Geological Survey of Canada issued a bulletin on 
the occurrence of molybdenum and tungsten ( x ) in Canada. At 
that time the known occurrences were the following: Inverness 
and Queens Counties, N.S., Beauce County, P.Q., and a reported 
occurrence of wolframite in a boulder on Chief's Island, Lake 
Coutchiching, Ontario. More recently ( 2 ) Mr. R. A. A. Johnston, 
curator of the Geological survey's Museum, has recognized scheel- 
ite in the heavy sands from gold washings in the Yukon, while 
wolframite, scheelite and hubernite have been found in the tin 
deposit near New Ross, Lunenburg Co., N. S. 

Since the appearance of this bulletin several discoveries of 
tungsten minerals have been recorded. It is my object in the pre- 
sent statement to bring together the information regarding recently 
recorded discoveries of tungsten, and to briefly describe some 
occurrences not hitherto published. 

Occurrences Already Recorded. 

Slocan district. — In the reports of the Minister of Mines for 
British Columbia several localities have been indicated. The re- 
port for 1903 ( 3 ) mentions the discovery of masses of scheelite 
occurring in vein quartz in the form of lenses at the Meteor Mine in 
the Slocan District. The lenses vary in length from one to three 
feet, a total of 500 pounds being saved after the identification of 
the mineral. 

(1) Molybdenum and Tungsten by R. A. A. Johnston and C. W. \\ 'ill- 
mot t, 1904. 

(2) Summary Report, Geol. Survey of Canada, 1907, p. 82. 

(3) Report of the Minister of Mines, 1903, p. 138. 

368 The Canadian Mining Institute 

In the subsequent reports of the Minister of Mines no reference 
is made to the production of scheelite in this district. The occur- 
rence of scheelite or of other tungsten minerals in silver lead veins 
is unusual. 

Cariboo District. — In 1904 an important discovery of scheelite 
was made on Hardscrabble Creek in the Cariboo District. Mr. 
Akin first discovered this mineral in the black sands obtained in 
gold washing and later succeeded in locating the scheelite in place. 
He describes the geological occurrence as follows: (*) 

"This consists of highly altered country rock, the scheelite 
being scattered through it in small patches, but it is in the quartz 
stringers that most of the mineral is found. Some of these, vary- 
ing from one inch to four inches wide, contain about one-third 
scheelite, with a little galena, and products of decomposition of 
iron pyrites. This zone appears to be from 12 to 20 feet wide, as 
determined by work done up to July, 1904, and gives every promise 
of turning out a valuable deposit. " 

After experimenting on the concentration of the scheelite by 
washing, a quantity was sent to Chicago to be tested and as a 
result of these tests was stated to be worth $460 per ton at the 
prices then current. 

Promising as this first report seemed it does not appear from 
the later reports of the Minister of Mines to have been followed by 
active development. 

Occurrences Not Previously Reported. 

Wolframite — Sheep Creek, B. C— In the vicinity of Salmo 
in British Columbia some of the gold quartz veins carry 
considerable proportions of wolframite, specimens of which were 
collected recently by the writer from mines on Sheep Creek. The 
wolframite on examination in the laboratory was found to have a 
specific gravity of 7.137. With it are associated ferruginous 
quartz and wherever the mineral has been exposed to secondary 
action, yellow more or less powdery tungstite occurs. On chemical 
examination the following result was obtained: 

(1) Report of the Minister of Mines, 1904. 

(>( < IKKKXri: OF TuNtiSTKN OkF.S IN CANADA. 369 

W0> 74.90 

FeO 17.75 

MnO 2.75 

CaO 1 92 

MgO 2.66 

Si0 2 1.02 

Total 100 . 60 

So far as I am aware no economic use has been made of this 
material. I had not an opportunity of examining the mode of 
occurrence personally, the material being given me as coining from 
the Kootenay Belle Mine, though its nature and value appear to 
have been unknown at the time. 

Tungstite and scheelite — Sheep Creek. — The writer has else- 
where (1) described in detail the occurrence of masses of hydrated 
oxide of tungsten in the gold quartz veins of the Kootenay Belle 
Mine. The tungstite appears in more or less reniform concretionary 
masses in the vein associated with wolframite and scheelite, from 
which it was derived by alteration. In the tungstite specks of 
native gold may be observed. It was as gold ore that this auiifer- 
OUS tungstite along with the accompanying goldquartz wasshipped. 
I have reason to believe that in the subsequent metallurgical treat- 
ment the tungsten values were not recovered even when they were 
very much more valuable than the gold contents. 

From an analysis of the tungstite-wolframite-scheelite ore in 
the laboratory the following results were obtained: — 

W0 3 86.20% 

FeO 120% 

CaO 54% 

Fe 2 3 4.14% 

Water 7.72% 

Total 99.81% 

The tungstite is golden yellow in colour and very heavy — pure 
tungstite 5.517 and of some of the ore specimens nearly as heavy. 

St. Mary's River, B.C. — Recently Mr. E. Walter Widdowson, 
assayer of Nelson. B.C., showed me a very fine specimen of crystal- 
lised wolframite from the St.Marys River north of Cranbrook. I 
do not know anything of the quantity of this mineral available 
and am unable to say whether it be an economic de'posit or not. 

(1) American Journal of Science, 1908. 

370 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

Scheelite from Victoria Mines, Sudbury District, Ontario. — At 
the Victoria Mines of the Mond Nickel Company in 1904 Mr. T. M. 
Paris, assayer for the company, presented to me a few small frag- 
ments which he had determined as scheelite. I do not know any- 
thing as to the mode of occurrence, but so far as I know this is the 
only place in the Sudbury district where any tungsten mineral has 
been found. The general studies of the genesis of the Sudbury ore 
deposits do not lead us to anticipate the occurrence of such minerals 
as scheelite. 

The mineral is quite white and of very vitreous lustre; specific 
gravity 6.167. On the fragments in my possession no crystal 
surfaces are visible, but from the continuous cleavage surfaces it is 
probable that they are crystal fragments. 

A chemical analysis showed that the mineral is exceedingly 

W0 3 79.36% 

CaO 19.96% 

Total 99.32% 

Conclusion. — The ever inci easing importance of tungsten in 
the industries calls for an examination of these various Canadian 
occurrences with a view to determining their possible economic 
value. Within the past year the government of the United States 
has appointed an officer to examine and report on such occurrences 
within their borders. In Canada we know of tungsten minerals 
only as specimens and curiosities and as those engaged in develop- 
ing properties do not know these minerals or their value, such an 
appointment might be beneficial in many ways. 


Mr. Haultain (Toronto): — Dr. Walker has cleared up a 
problem which has been irritating me for some years. In panning 
samples for gold in the neighbourhood of Salmo I was troubled 
with a tail which looked like gold and yet did not look altogether 
like goldand-what it was I did not determine. It is very evident 
it was this yellow mineral and it is more like gold in a pan than 
anything I have ever seen. It is the only thing that would justify 

Occurrence of Tttngst] n Orbs i\ Canada. 371 

a man in thinking twice whether it was gold. I know several men 
who have mistaken this tail for gold. I know we have come to 
the conclusion by panning that a rock would go five or six dollars 
when only a trace of gold could be found in it by assay, and I see 
now it was tins yellow mineral tungstite. 

Mb. J. C. Murray: — In Ungava,we had the same 
occurrence; we had a yellow tail in the pan that we could not 

Mb. Gibson: — Has Dr. Walker a specimen of the boulder 
containing wolf a mite that was found at Couiching in Ontario? 

Mr. Walker: — No. 

Mr. Gibson: — Was the origin of that boulder ever ascer- 

Dr. Walker: — I do riot think so. 


By W. H. Boyd, Ottawa. 
(Ottawa Meeting, 1908.) 

The special map of Rossland, on the scale of 400 feet to an 
inch, with 20-foot contours, is a special detailed mining map. 

The scale, 400 feet, was chosen as being the most convenient 
to show the area mapped, and as admitting all the features being 
shown in detail without appearing too small or crowded, and at 
the same time allowing the geology, veins, etc., to be laid down 
with a greater degree of accuracy, thus adding largely to the 
working value of the map. 

In making a topographical map of this nature, as in any 
other topographical map, the methods employed depend upon 
the scale, the instrumental work applicable to conditions and 
locality, what the map is to be used for, and what is required to 
be shown; these last two conditions directly control the scale, 
which must be so chosen as to show all the necessary features 
desired in the map. Another important item is the systematic 
recording of field notes. 

The area covered by the special map is about 1.9 square 
miles (H miles x 1| miles), and embraces the city of Rossland, 
and the principal mines. All railways, roads, buildings, shaft- 
houses, shafts, tunnels, prospects over 6 feet deep, mine dumps, 
tramways, flumes, streams, marshes, etc., are shown, and, as 
stated, contours are represented with 20-foot intervals. 

On this map are shown 2,100 buildings, 50 shafts, 14 shaft 
houses, 33 tunnels, 200 prospects, 1\ miles of railway and 15 miles 
of road outside of the city proper. The extreme vertical relief 
is 2,000 feet. 

Special Map of Rossland, B. C v 

The amount of control is shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration which is a rough plot of the triangulation and also the 
traverse stations and traverse lines. 

All the work in connection witli the surveying and plotting 
of this map was attempted to be carried out with a degree of 
accuracy which would prevent errors of appreciable magnitude 
appearing on a finished map of the scale used. 

A triangulation formed the main control of the sheet, Be- 
tween the triangulation stations, transit-stadia traverses were run 
along railways, roads and across country; between these traverses, 
branch traverses were run until the whole area was covered by 
a network of traverses all tied on to one another (see Control 
Sheet). While these traverses were being carried along, side 
shots to locate all objects and for contour points were taken. The 
plane table with stadia was also used over a large part of the area. 
Elevations of the triangulation stations were obtained by vertical 
angulation. On the traverses the elevations were carried along 
by means of the stadia, and were checked at all tie points. 

The district was first looked over and a suitable locality for 
a base line selected, also the best points for the triangulation 
stations were determined upon. On these stations, signals were 
erected, consisting of an upright pole carrying a white flag, sup- 
ported by three other shorter poles in the form of a tripod. On 
the uprights, targets of white cotton were fastened, the bottom 
of the target being placed 5 feet above the ground. Vertical 
angles between the stations, for elevation, were measured to the 
bottom of these targets. Care was taken in setting the signals 
to have the upright perpendicularly over the point on the ground. 

The triangulation was carried over the district embraced 
by the general sheet, which is on a scale of 1,200 feet to an inch 
and is not published yet. The special map forms about one-half 
the area covered by the general sheet. Nine of the triangulation 
stations are within the 400-foot sheet and form its main control. 

Second Avenue was chosen as the best site for a base line 
on account of its giving the longest stretch that was fairly level. 
The base was first staked out with the aid of a transit, and large 
hubs driven in every 300 feet. The line was laid out along the 
side of the road so that the operations in connection with the 
measuring, etc., would not interfere with the traffic and also that 


The Canadian Mining Institute 


*&<**&, y&ov p£*^ So~/*uc^ 

Special Map of Rossland, B. ( 

the hubs would be preserved. When the base was completely 
staked out, the final measurements were made with a 300-foot 
steel tape, between the hubs set, using a uniform pull of 16 pounds 
applied at one end of the tape with a tension handle. Three 
measurements were made of the whole length of the base and 
the three results for the total length were found to differ by 
a very slight amount that it was not considered in this work. A 
line of levels was run over the hubs; with the difference in ele- 
vation between each hub thus found, each 300-foot section was 
reduced to the horizontal. The total horizontal length of the 
base was 2. 40."). 7 feet. The difference in elevation between the 
two ends was 27.2 feet. A very short line of levels was also run 
from the base line to the Great Northern railway track opposite 
the station house, and the elevation of this point was used as the 
datum. The bench mark on the Bank of Montreal was taken 
from the same datum, and is the bench mark used by the mines. 

The transit used in the triangulation was an 8-inch Gurley 
Engineer's Transit, divided to quarter-degrees with vernier read- 
ing to one minute; telescope 11 inches, with fixed stadia-hairs, 
magnifying power 24 diameters; vertical circle \\ inches diam- 
eter, with vernier reading to single minutes. 

The triangulation was carried out in the usual way, by oc- 
cupying each station and measuring all the angles of the triangles. 
The angles were measured by pointing to each signal in turn with 
telescope direct, and then a second time after reversing the tele- 
scope and shifting the plates about 60°. At the end of each set 
the telescope was directed around again to the first signal sighted 
and the instrument read to see that the instrument had not 
moved during the operation. Vertical angles were also read at 
each pointing, direct and reverse. On leaving a station the signal 
was carefully set back in its proper position. 

The triangulation when completed in the field was immedi- 
ately worked out in the office; the length of the sides and their 
azimuths computed, as well as the elevations of each station, 
before any traverse work was started. Observations for azimuth 
were taken on the sun at both ends of the base line and at one of 
the stations. The triangulation stations were afterwards plotted 
by means of their total latitudes and departures from one end of 
the base line. 

376 The Canadian Mining Institute 

The accuracy with which the triangulation was done is shown 
by the following: — The Station L was one of the farthest points 
to which the triangulation was carried, and lies in the south-east 
corner of the 1,200 ft. sheet. The Station D is near the base line 
and lies in the north-east corner of the 1,200-ft. sheet. The 
length of the side D L, as determined from three different triangles, 
gave the following results — 10,626.9 feet, 10,625.5 feet and 
10,625.7 feet, the greatest difference in length being 1.4 feet; 
thus the Station L is located much closer than it could be plotted 
on the map. 

The degree of accuracy obtained for the elevations by ver- 
tical -angulation is shown by the following: — 

Elev. of Sta. D from Sta. A base— 4050' . 2 distance 3820.7 ft. 
Elev. of Sta. D from Sta. B base— 4050' . 6 distance 5489.2 ft. 
Elev. of Sta. D from Sta. C base— 4050' . 6 distance 3197.8 ft. 

Elev. of Sta. F from Sta. D— 42 10'. 2 distance 11162.8 feet 
Elev. of Sta. F from Sta. B— 4208'. 8 distance 5853.0 feet 
Elev. of Sta. F from Sta. A— 4209'. 6 distance 7455.0 feet 
Elev. of Sta. F from Sta. E— 4209' . 1 distance 8857 . 9 feet 
Average of the four gives Elev. as 4209' . 4. 

As the elevations were determined with just sufficient ac- 
curacy to meet the requirements of the work, no permanent 
bench marks were left. If bench marks were to have been left, 
a line of instrumental levels would have been run to control the 

The transit with which the traverses were run was the same 
as used for the triangulation. The requirements of a transit for 
stadia work are that it should have a good telescope with a flat 
field, good illumination and a fair magnifying power. The transit 
used was found to meet very satisfactorily these requirements. 
The stadia wires in the telescope were fixed and included 1 foot 
on the rod at a distance of 100 feet plus the instrument constant. 

The rods used were the telescopic English self-reading level- 
ling rods. Each rod was provided with a circular rod level to 
insure the rod always being held in a vertical position. In 
traversing two rod men were used, one for the front, the other for 
the rear. 

Si'icivi. Map of Rossland, B. C. :;., 

The traverses were first started from a triangulation station; 
the instrument oriented by sighting to another triangulation 
station after setting the plates at the azimuth to that station. 
In this way true azimuths were carried throughout all the traverses 

In setting hubs and sighting on them, the rod was held with 
its edge towards the instrument, and then, after a signal from 
the transit man, was turned with its face to the instrument for 
the rod reading. In taking side shots the face of the rod was 
kept towards the instrument, both for direction and distance. 

The transit was always set on a back-sight by setting the 
plates at the back-azimuth of the line and then sighting to the edge 
of the rod held at the back station; in this way the instrument 
was always used in the same position throughout the work. 
The rod reading and vertical angle were always taken on the 
back-sight, in order to check the fore-sight readings; if any 
difference was found the mean of the two readings was used. 

All traverses were tied either to triangulation stations or to 
stadia stations already set, and the azimuth checked on the spot 
by sighting to another triangulation station, or stadia station, as 
the case demanded. If the azimuth agreed within two or three 
minutes on a two-mile (or over) traverse, it was considered close 
enough for this work. Where the azimuth, on closing a tia 
was found in error above the allowable amount, the traverse 
stations were quickly run over again, neglecting the rod read- 
ings for distance, simply to locate the error. 

The height of instrument was always noted (a light rod 
graduated to feet and tenths of a foot being carried for this pur- 
pose), and in reading vertical angles the cross-hairs in the telescope 
were directed to a point on the rod at the same height above ground 
as the instrument. 

While carrying on a traverse, the rodmen, after giving the 
sights to the hubs, would go about in all directions giving the 
side, shots to the various objects to be located, as well as side shots 
for contours. The side shots were taken to the bends of roads, 
road crossings and road forks, road crossing streams, stream bends, 
corners of buildings, prospects, shafts, tunnels, along the tops and 
at the bottoms of mine dumps, tramways, etc., etc., in short to 
everything that was to be shown on the map. 

378 The Canadian Mining Institute 

For contour points, shots were taken to points along the tops 
of ridges, the bottoms of ravines, at changes of slope, on tops and 
around the bottoms of knolls, or any other irregularity in the 
features of the ground that would show on the map scale. 

In locating buildings, the rodmen would give two adjacent 
corners and then measure up the shape of the building with their 
rods; keeping a diagram with measurements of the same on a small 
pad provided for the purpose. These diagrams were handed to the 
transitman before moving to the next station, and were incorpora- 
ted in his notes. 

In all of this work where so many features were taken, a 
system of signals between the rodmen and transitman was used, 
in order that the transitman could tell where the rod was being 
held, when the distance was too great to call out. 

The error of the stadia is generally given as being 1 in 600. 
With a good telescope, having good illumination and magnification, 
the rod can be read fairly easily at 800 feet, provided the atmos- 
phere is not too tremulous owing to the heat. The best days for 
stadia work were found to be the cloudy days with a clear air; 
bright sunlight is hard, especially if the light is behind the rod, then 
it is sometimes impossible to get a rod reading at a fair distance. 
Taking every kind of day into consideration, the stadia gives 
excellent results for work of this nature. 

The limit to which the rods used could be accurately read was 
tried on the base line. It was found that up to 600 ft. the stadia 
gave the same results; at 907 feet the stadia gave 905. A better 
idea of the work done by the stadia may be obtained from the 
following example: — Traverse from Sta. A to Sta. K. — total 
distance 2\ miles — azimuth checked to within 2 minutes. 

From A to K by triangulation South 6,722'. 8 and West 2,001'. 5 

From A to K by traverse South 6,728'. 3 and West 1,998'. 3 

Total Error 5'. 5 and 3'. 2 

Elevation of K by triangulation 3,409' . 8 

Elevation of K by traverse 3,408' . 4 

Difference 1' . 5 

Longest rod reading on the traverse was 845 ft. This traverse 
was run on a rather hot day, partly along a railway track where 

Special Map of Rosslaxd, B. C. 












£ /e retf/or? 

CLh oDho. 



*««» <s 



Sfzy fd 

Jo a fJ H- 



IHO 6"© 

3 96 

-/7* '7 


-/of 8 

37/S. / 

o Yi Cj-t. A*-u^«_«__ 

tf* -it 


+ ?°3o 


r /c f 

j/w CU 

• 1 
iH\ to 




+/7 z 








3*4>Z <</ 

Jt a Unit- 


1 3 

■tix *.% 



cUa fln^ 

H P.= 


jiom. <&- 





Hi* a< 


-l%' 2-1 


-/y. 03 

Ou.dL MjUaah. 

/Ct* 13' 

1 O-e 

-is' ** 



Si Y>. 3 

djy{. VfcC fcLAfl—ju 5 



-/<? 3o 


-*r / 

3W3 ■? 

CP Ueuuy, pleA< 

3*o* "<? 

2 xo 

♦ lo° 37 


+72 -S 

3 ft/ J~ 

4* afiHC 

25e it 


-/$"" 3/ 


-si ;3 


HI - 

H 1 ,*< 

a*c &j 

•f. £&,: 



Jz>d J2h(t 



+15 32. 


/■SZ 4 J 

^.cK'S^ Ujuvuu-IL. 

37 * 7 


til 3"3 


*Jt> f 


Lui <***—/• h «Lff"imm 





-J2 J 


llnui. linffK, ntUMWtiLu 

'fa" it 

2 Si 

-a- ,4' 



37 f^ 3 


e ' 
Hi fC 

2 1% 




3 fJJ / 

U^d, CyleA rt«»...ft 3 




-4* '■* 


£ «*.<6 ,^"3 ^k- 



- t'S3 



3tz/ 7 


l?i' 7' 




-J 7- 3 

3tep. f 

( tJFw 1*<m**jJL, 


X '«■ 




3? 6 # -f 

(H, sw+JL 

47/* *»' 

2 <%% 



-tv J 




1 TH 



-JJ z 

37 U- 3' 







31*9/ S 

380 The Canadian Mining Institute 

the air was tremulous, and therefore it was found very difficult to 
always get a proper rod-reading. 

A plot of all traverses, with side shots, was kept in the note 
book on the opposite page to the notes; sketch contours were drawn 
on the plot to give the shape of the ground. The accompanying 
extract from one of the field note books, shows the method of keep- 
ing the notes. The last three columns in the notes are filled in the 
office. A few only of the side-shots are shown in the sketch so as 
to avoid confusion. 

The notes were reduced in the office by means of tables and 
Cox's stadia slide rule. This slide rule is a very useful and con- 
venient instrument and with a slight amount of practice, can be 
used very quickly and gives good results. 

The latitudes and departures for all the courses of the main 
traverse were worked out with Gurden's traverse tables; the total 
distances checked and any appreciable error was distributed in 
the usual way. 

The elevations between the traverse stations were carried out 
to one one-hundredth of a foot in order to prevent an accumulation 
of errors on the line; the elevations of objects were taken out to the 
nearest tenth of a foot, and for contour points to the nearest foot. 

The reduction and plotting of the traverses in the office was, as 
far as possible, kept up with the work in the field, so that in case of 
any errors, they could be rectified before leaving that particular 
part of the ground. 

The stations on the main traverses were plotted by means of 
their total latitudes and departures from the starting point. On 
shorter traverses the courses were plotted by protractor. For 
plotting side shots the quickest and most convenient method was 
found to be as follows: — A very thin 14 inch cardboard protractor 
reading to 15 minutes was used. The centre was cut out to with- 
in 2 inches of the edge. The protractor was then fastened down on 
the map over the area to be filled in with the 0° and 180° marks coin- 
ciding with the true north line through one of the stations, and the 
directions of the side shots transferred, with a parallel ruler, to 
their corresponding stations on the plan. As soon as enough side 
shots and contour points were located on the map around a certain 
area, the contours were drawn in, using the note book sketch as a 

Special Map of Rossland, B. Q. 381 

The plane table and stadia was used over a great portion of the 
sheet and was found to give very good results. For this work two 
rodmen were used, as well as a recorder who kept the notes and 
reduced all the readings in the field, with the aid of the stadia slide 
rule. No record was kept of the contour points; only the readings 
to buildings, shafts, tunnels and prospects and other important 
features were recorded for the sake of referring to their elevations 
during the course of the work. The form of record in the note book 
was the same as kept for the transit work, with the exception of the 
azimuth column, it being omitted. 

The methods of traversing were similar to those used in the 
transit work. Long traverses, however, were, as a rule, not run 
with the table as sometimes they occasioned a little difficulty in 
tying in properly. In shorter traverses, if there was any closing 
error, it was generally found to be so small that it might be 

The table used was furnished by Keuffel & Esser, and was one 
of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Pattern. The board was 
16" x 20". A three screw levelling arrangement with tangent screw 
was attached to the tripod head. It w r as provided with a telescopic 
alidade with vertical arc, reading to 30° each way, with vernier 
reading to 1 minute; the blade of the alidade was 12" x 2\" with 
spirit levels attached; the telescope w r as furnished with fixed 
stadia hairs including 1 foot on a rod at a distance of 100 feet plus 
the instrument constant. 

The paper used was two sheets of paragon paper mounted with 
the grain at right angles and with cloth between. This is the same 
kind of paper as used by the U. S. Geological Survey, and reduces 
distortion, owing to atmospheric changes, to a minimum. Each 
sheet was prepared for the field by laying down on them all trian- 
gulation points that would fall on the sheet and all traverse sta- 
tions around the part to be filled in. The scale used on the 
sheets was the same as for the finished map, namely, 400 feet to 
1 inch. As one hundredth of an inch is as close, perhaps closer, 
than can be conveniently plotted in the field, and as on the scale 
used this would correspond to 4 feet, all rod readings to locate 
objects were taken just t<> within this amount and no closer, 
since it would be a waste of time to locate objects more accurately 
than they could be plotted. 

382 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

With the prepared sheets, the table was taken into the field to 
one of the stations plotted, set up, oriented and the immediate 
neighbourhood filled in; new hubs set and these in turn occupied 
with the table and the detail filled in, and so on, till a tie point was 
reached, where the traverse and elevation were checked up. 

A good feature of the plane table is that it enables the topo- 
grapher to determine his position at an unknown point easily and 
fairly rapidly, by the graphic solution of the three-point problem. 
This can only be done when the country is open and three or more 
triangulation stations visible, the plotted positions of which are 
shewn on the sheet. This method was used very frequently and 
was found very convenient, as well as saving a lot of time in places 
where it would be difficult to run a traverse into. Sometimes in 
difficult country where the position of the table was determined by 
the three point problem, a short traverse was run from this point 
to get the detail, the end of such a traverse being also tied in by 
the three-point problem. 

The elevations of the points fixed by the three-point problem 
were either determined from the triangulation stations them- 
selves, by reading the vertical angles to them and scaling the 
distance on the sheet, or, as was done in most cases, by taking a rod 
reading to some neighbouring traverse hub, as one could always 
be found near at hand. Often from points fixed by the three-point 
problem, after the elevation had been determined, hubs were set 
in several different directions by the stadia. These were used for 
elevation only, the table being taken to a good situation beyond 
these hubs, its position determined by the three-point and the 
elevation determined by taking a rod-reading back on to one of 
these hubs. This was found to be a convenient and quick way 
of getting the elevations for points near at hand fixed by the 
three-point problem. Flags were left on all points fixed by the 
three-point problem, in order that these points could be used for 
fixing one's position from some other point, where it was impos- 
sible to see enough triangulation signals. 

A very satisfactory way of using the table for filling in was 
found to be as follows: — Traverses were run with the transit and 
stadia, hubs set at suitable points, side shots were neglected. 
These traverses were then plotted in the office and transferred to 

Special Map of Rosslaxd, B. C* 383 

the plane table sheet; the table was then taken into the field, set up 
over each of the hubs, oriented and the detail filled in. 

In some cases, however, as around the larger mines, where 
there was a large amount of detail to be shown, such as, buildings, 
tramways, etc., many of these features were taken while running 
the transit stadia line. These features together with the traverse 
stations were then plotted on the plane table sheet; the table after- 
wards taken into the field, set up over the various already deter- 
mined hubs and the remaining features and contours filled in. 
This combined method was used in the complicated areas, since the 
crowded main features could be plotted and drawn to scale better 
in the office than on the table in the field. 

In all of the work done with the table it was found, as com- 
pared with the transit stadia method, that the number of side shots 
for contours was reduced to a very great extent, and also that the 
contours themselves could be sketched in far more accurately. 
For, with the table, the recorder gave the true elevations of each 
point as it was taken and thus, at a glance, it could be seen where 
the contours would come on the ground and they could be immedia- 
tely sketched on the sheet with fewer side shots and much greater 
ease and accuracy, than could be accomplished in the office from 
the field sketch accompanying the transit notes. The advantages 
of the plane table, for this class of work, over the transit are 
important. With the transit, where only a sketch is kept, and no 
elevations worked out in the field, it becomes necessary to take an 
excessive number of points, at practically any slight change in the 
nature of the ground, in order to be able to properly interpolate the 
contours in the office. The office work in connection with the 
reducing and plotting of the transit notes is very long and tedious, 
in using the plane table, however, all the office work is practically 
done away with and was found to be a quicker and more satis- 
factory way of filling in the detail. 

Great difficulty was encountered at times in getting the detail 
of the ground on account of the heavy growth of brush on some of 
the slopes. The rodmen always carried axes and would slash out 
the brush in case a shaft or prospect was to be located. < >wing to 
this heavy brush, the rudman could not see all the prosped 
some may not be shown on the map. In taking contour points 
in brushy ground, the rod was often held on the shoulder or knee 

384 The Canadian Mining Institute 

of the rodman, or else the rodmen stood upon some object; the 
distance to the ground in each case being called out. 

In order to get shots into stream bottoms where trees in the 
bottom prevented the rod from being seen, the rodman would 
climb up one of the trees and hold the rod on one of the limbs where 
it could be seen by the transit man; after the reading was taken, he 
would measure the distance to the ground and note how far the 
stream was from the bottom of the tree and then call out the 
measurements to the transit man. In this way much time was 
saved in getting points at the bottoms of timbered draws. 

A good rodman soon learns to recognize which points are the 
best to give in order to get the shape of the ground. By a judi- 
cious selection of contour points, much time is saved and better 
results are obtained. 

The City of Rossland was resurveyed with transit and stadia 
and was blocked out from these surveys with the aid of the measure- 
ments of the blocks as given on a plan of the city. About one 
half of the houses were fixed from these surveys; the remainder 
were taken from the insurance plan of the city, after all the 
positions and shapes included thereon were checked in the field, 
and others inserted that were not shown. 






A Tria.ngula.tion stations 
• Transit-stadia stations 

% Plane-table-stadia, stations 


C AN AliA 



Hon.W Tcmpliman. Minister; A. PLow, Diput 
R.WBbock. Actino DimcTod 

, v\ ADA 



CD 4PLo». DepuTv Mini 

ick. Acting Dikcctor 








8 . 



J^L \ • • 


i * 



\ i ' 




L . V ..• ~7Zim 

1 Si ^*^ B • ' m, k *** M ff a imii " « 

Topographical Slwot 




W H Boyd 

Soale Kin I'oM i.. I In, I, 

■ • I ■ 

Ph4T C g m * 

y^\ . ,' Qi E^fi fe^tr rafc-W r .v 

1 "*-i| w« 

S fl " ■ 


i 5 ^, 

'^:ttB : aaiBE: l yfii|^^ ■ , v 


W,,,„, ... 

N" lOOl 

Topographical Sheet 




W H Boyd 
S.I.I.- Kin I--,., ,„ i i„,.|, ,„'„„ 


By Frederic Keffer, Greenwood, B.C. 

(Nelson Meeting, January, 1908). 

Two years ago I contributed to the Institute a paper on the re- 
sults of diamond drilling as carried on at the mines of the British 
Columbia Copper Co., Ltd., during 1905. That paper gave some 
details as to costs, etc., and the period covered was but 8£ months. 
Since that year drilling has been carried on more or less continu- 
in the mines of the Company, and the results of this work, 
so far as progress and costs are concerned, are given in detail in 
the following tables. 

The Progress Table gives the monthly results of work as well 
as the yearly totals. It is of course important to know the general 
character of the rock drilled in order to institute comparisons with 
other localities. In the narrow limits of this table it is not possible 
to give details as to rocks, but so near as possible the rocks drilled 
are classed as hard, medium hard, and soft. The hard rocks com- 
prise diorites, compact garnetites and certain very hard and 
silii-ious eruptives occurring in Summit camp. The medium 
hard rocks include all ores, and, in Deadwood camp, much of the 
greenstone country. The soft rocks are the limestones, porphyries 
erpentines. Of all rocks drilled the garnetites proved much 
the i: re in diamond consumption, as is illustrated by the 

work from May to August, 1907, which was mainly conducted in 
garnetite with some silicious limestones. 

f hours constitute a shift underground, and nine hours 
on the surface. On Sundays no work is done apart from repairs to 
In May, 1906, the labour was contracted as an experi- 
ment, but was abandoned as being unsatisfactory. 

The Cost Table uives details of costs under the four groups of 

Labc i sr, Repairs, Oils, etc., and Diamonds. The employees 


386 The Canadian Mining Institute 

were, normally, a runner and a setter. Extra help was required 
at times for blasting places for good set ups, for laying pipe lines, 
moving plant, etc. In August, 1907, two shifts were employed. In 
June and July of that year the increase in labour costs is mainly on 
account of the long pipe lines required. The power consumed is 
taken as being equivalent to that required for a 3J inch machine 
drill, that is to say about 20-h.p. When drilling at a mine, where 
for example 15 machines are used on each shift, the diamond drill 
is charged with 3 \ of the total power costs — it being in this in- 
stance run on one shaft only. 

Where steam power is used either directly or through a steam 
driven air compressor, the costs are much increased. Where, as 
in some cases, an isolated 24-h.p. boiler was used, the power costs 
are still higher, as an engineer has to be provided as well as a team 
to haul wood. 

Oils, repairs, etc., include these items as well as all small 
miscellaneous expenses. The increasing cost of diamonds added 
materially to cost per foot in 1907. 

The third table is a summary of the first two, and shows an 
average cost per foot for the two years of $1 . 705. The carats used 
per foot are °|J 2 , or in more intelligible decimals, .00893 
carats, so that one carat on the average drilled 111.9 feet. All 
holes over 30 degrees dip are classed as vertical, and feet per hour 
in horizontal holes is about 15 per cent, greater than in vertical 
ones. The average depth of holes is 81.3 feet, and diameter of 
cores is f inch. 

In comparing these costs with contractors' prices, it must be 
borne in mind that contractors usually require air (or steam) and 
water to be piped to the work, and the mine must in addition 
furnish the air and water free of charge. In the present cost sheets 
all these items are charged against costs of drilling. 

Notes on Costs of Diamond Drilling 



t h = '=■ 

— - - 


u ^ r r 

4 I! I! II 

— u 

11 - 


= j- 

- r. 

=<= = 



_ J! C >. 

— M 

■ — X — 

- — f — 

— _ -- Mm - 

"Oh (a ©CO 

R £ 

- - ■' - - 

— H MM 

i S a 

S >S a 

1 . - 

* a 

T. ?| 


p z — 

> oX 

<_- • 


► q i< 
7 :f 

= - -. ' — 

> s 

o * 

: : 

o c-i 1 


" = 
- - 


-,-> _ 

- =-- — 

-- 3 r- 

■a i- 

B i ' _ 

— * <d ec 

oc co eg or 

KB •* eo ec go 

— — o 


c — r: t~ :-: 

f S. Z f~ 


3 — = i- c 

. - — . - 

J > 

•- : 


P 50 ec oo •» 
N — he* eg 

- — 

•H "" * »J Nj 




The Canadian Mining Institute 





A. — "Electric 
power" is com- 
pressed air from 
electric driven 

Costs reckoned 
on assumption 
that diamond 
drill consumes 
as much power 
as a machine 
rock drill; that 





CO >> 

Labor contrac- 
ted this mont h 
No drilling done 
Do. do. 

Drill men on va- 
Drill operated 
most of Nov. 


a o 


— 03 C 
S BtM 







CO X' CO iO i-i 


■*^ 0) 








"C* IO CN-tf 













03 in -te 





00 OHO — c CO 
















— '—' 







t^. iOOS^O 







00 lOOWCN 



Cj *S 

-^ 03 













t» 10ON30 








00 IO i-H ."O CD 









CN i-i OS O O 






CN OTt<003 








I s - ■*•* COCO 


H iO 

6 e5 


> ' 







•O Mt>00 







H COrHt^O 







■* COCO— iO 





CO OTt«Tj< CD 










CO CM i-ii-i 





r~- o 

S "> 





C_ OS_ 



-id o 










•* Tf Tf* CO 







O CO CO CD ■* 








\ \w~^ 



g OJ 




CD UO CO 02 O 



=5 3 





CO CM-*— iTf 













CM O O OS 00 








tji C0OO00 





W r* 

> ' 







i-i NCOOO 






tJ< CDOCMi-l 



'3.2 d 








o,.— *^ 




r-l CO — 1 



ovO u 







CO Tt cot^o 






00 OOHrt 



O cu 











CO «o t~- CM cn 








00 OOm* 








00 CMiOi-<t> 



o . 

















OJ , 



TO -us 


o 6 6 6$ 



K § 



T3 -?TS-0 S 








f~ C-H-Hrt 








6 a £ 





O iO"Ot»CD 


> ■ 






00 lOlOOO 








•* CN0C CO-H 



3 u 





o oscirao 










'"" l 

•* CM r-KN 













OS a 

-l 03 




^ 3 3 5 OJ « ° 



Notes ox Costs of Diamond Drilling 


i [vanoe 

(■■■-i 1 1 !■ >i i r 1 1 on 
•cord fol l"\% 
ital costs. 

It.- Increase in 


dm- to partial 
cloainKof mine 
throwing more 

• ii the 

- - - - ; - 

*"X £ m '- = - 

' - L z z z ~ 

* - § his h a S 

&e •- < -o -= ~ — 7 

_ x © •fo 

— i - — -^ — 

'-. T O 

c t- 

- OS 
■* "J- 



1 in.; 
1 219 

I hi:, 


I ii ii 





a . 1 68 

2. 104 





,c - — — 

r- X — s ' - 

- / ■ 

i- C - 3 r 

. - i -. / 



1261 . 2 




y. ■- ifl -z - 
,- t- a - — 
— ~ — >-. f 






> " 


1 11 70 
210.1 I 

in;, 1- 




61] BS 




r - 
3 ~ 



: : 

1. 3/04 
I .60/04 


5. 4/64 



-r -r 

- ■- 

r~ — 






CI "»■ C. '- - 

— — -r — — 

- ~ ~ ~ ~ 


— X 

- _ 



i, 8S 


88 . 78 


i- es os ci- 
t^ x 

• - — 


■0 8 


. f 


68 i,n 





= . 

2 A 1 


I I 


I .006 
B8 1 

277. '.HI 


2 fi 


— — 






.1 ,n. 

1 , 1... 



Jul) . 


The Canadian Mining Institute 







f=H & !K 

OS ■* 
m CO 







a o-g 

1 - 


CN f 1 CO 

00 " © 

^H CN ■* 



< les 

■tf CO 





r- 1 

CO 00 
© lO 







i-H CO 





© c^ 
1^ CM 

© ■* 










CN h- 

© © 



© CO 
CO © 





© ^ 
r- © 

•* O 
i-H CN 












'.•I h- 

© 9 
© o 

O' O 




o © 
© © 

fe 03 





V V 




« a 




fe -s 

















,— i 



















































































































































































Xl i 



































Notes on Costs of Diamond Drilling 391 


Mr. Wilmott: — I would like to point out one item in this 
paper. The system of weighing diamonds by the carat is an 
interminable nuisance, particularly the dividing of the carats into 
sixteenths, thirty-seconds and sixty-fourths. In order to avoid 
this enormous amount of calculation I have had a set of weights 
constructed (costing only a few dollars) in which the fractions of a 
carat are tenths, etc. 

The President: — We have kept to the old system because 
we buy the diamonds in that way, but there is no doubt the deci- 
mal system is better. In selecting diamonds we usually have a 
lot sent to us by dealers from which to select. On one or two 
occasions we found that the stones had been previously soaked in 
some wax or paraffin to conceal the cracks. Since then we have 
always boiled the diamonds before making our selections. 




By C. M. Campbell, Phoenix, B.C. 

(Rossland Meeting, May 1908). 

The Granby Company is at present operating in Phoenix 
what appears to be two distinct groups of ore bodies. The oldest 
workings are in the deposits which outcrop on the Knob Hill and 
Old Ironsides claims (Fig. I), while the later workings are about 
half a mile to the east and are almost entirely on the Gold Drop 
claim (Fig. II). The Knob Hill-Ironsides deposit has been opened 
up, at one hundred foot intervals, by several levels. The upper 
one of these, No. 1 Tunnel (Fig. Ill), was originally a shipping level 
and from the stopes above this level and from the open cuts in 
which a steam shovel worked, nearly a million tons have been 
shipped. When the crusher at the mouth of this tunnel was 
destined by fire, it was rebuilt at the mouth of the next lower 
level known as No. 2 Tunnel (Fig. IV). No. 1 Tunnel then became 
nothing more than an intermediate level, all the ore above No. 2 
Tunnel being handled through that outlet. After being crushed 
this ore falls directly into C.P.R. cars, or if none are at hand it is 
diverted into a pocket which. is reached by a cross-cut from the 
next lower level known as No. 3 Tunnel. The No. 3 Tunnel equip- 
ment handles all the ore between this level and No. 2 Tunnel and 
its terminals are on the G. N. Ry. (Fig. V). In descending order 
the remaining main levels are known as 200 ft., 300 ft. and 400 
ft., and the tonnage from all these levels is hoisted through the 
Victoria Shaft. The bins connected with this shaft are served 
by both the Canadian Pacific and Great Northern railways (Fig. 
VI). The Knob Hill-Ironsides mine is thus divided into three dis- 
tinct units known as No. 2 Tunnel, No. 3 Tunnel, and Victoria 
Shaft. These have a distinct and complete equipment of rolling 
stock, crushers and bins and are manned by separate crews under 
s?parate shift bosses. The Gold Drop is equipped like the others 

(iiiWHY Mi\i\<; Mhthods- 393 

and forms a fourth unit. The output from this mine is handled 
by t he Canadian Pacific, and a view of the terminals is shewn in 
Fig. VII. It will thus be seen that in case one railway is unable 
to operate, the shipments from at least three outlets can be han- 
dled by the other road. Also, if one or more of the units happen 
out of commission, each of the others can be pushed towards 
its maximum capacity of 150 tons per hour and the day's ship- 
ment made up. 

The methods of underground mining are largely the result 
of evolution. The first few years of work showed decidedly that 
the ore was of low grade character. On the other hand it also 
showed the ore bodies to be of vast size with values uniformly 
distributed. The nature of the ground was also found to be such 
that timbering could be almost dispensed with. As a result of 
this, sorting was abandoned; the square set method gave place 
to open stopes with the roof supported by rock pillars; cheap 
electric power was introduced to operate air compressors, for 
pumping and for haulage; cars up to ten ton capacity and running 
on a three foot gauge took the place of the small mine cars pre- 
viously in use, and, as stated above, the different outlets were 
equipped with up-to-date shipping facilities. All these improve- 
ments have had the end in view of giving the mine a large, unin- 
terrupted, daily tonnage. 

Nature of the Deposit. — Figure VIII shows a transverse vertical 
section taken about the middle of the ore body. At this point 
it shows up to, perhaps, the best advantage. The section shows 
two ore bodies. As a rule the area between these ore bodies is 
absolutely barren. Some drill holes, however, have shown it to 
contain a few tenths in copper and in this section part of the area 
is mineralized sufficiently to place it in the shipping class. At 
the place where t ; n is taken a cross-cut could be started 

in ore at the foot wall and driven over 600 feet before again en- 
countering waste rock. 

The ore body is cut by Beveral faults. The only one which 

- to throw the ore body to any extent is shown in the section. 
This has been traced from one end of the deposit to the other and 
shows a throw of from nothing to one hundred feet. This fault 
plane dips to The wesT at an angle of about 55 degrees. Several 
other fault planes occur dipping at various angles tothe east, but 

394 The Canadian Mining Institute 

none of these affect the continuity of the ore. In some cases they 
apparently do so. This is due to the fact that the strike and dip 
of these slips is much the same as the ore body and when one 
occurs close to the hanging wall of the deposit it may act as such 
for a hundred or two hundred feet. Beyond this the mineraliza- 
tion will either break through and ore be found on each side of the 
slip or it will fall away from the slip and waste will replace the 
ore. When a clean slip occurs as a hanging wall, few pillars are 
needed and a large stope can be made with a safe roof. In most 
parts of the mine the division between ore and waste is more 
gradual. Sometimes it may be a few inches; it is seldom more 
than a few feet and can usually be told without any sampling. 

Scheme of Operations. — In opening up a level, parallel drifts, 
usually about 75 feet apart, are started in the direction of the strike 
of the deposit. At intervals of about 45 feet along the drifts 
raises are begun. An eighteen hole round is drilled and blasted. 
Before the muck is cleared away the bar is again set up and 
another round drilled and blasted. The third round is then drilled 
but the cut holes only are blasted. All the rock is then shovelled 
up and the chute is built. The remaining holes of the last round 
are then blasted and as these throw the rock to the sides of the 
raise the timbers of the chute are uninjured. The raise is then 
carried ahead at an angle of about 45 degrees. This allows the 
muck to run and also enables the men to get about without the 
aid of timbering. For ventilation purposes the first raise of a 
series is usually carried through to the level above or some other 
convenient opening. In the case of the highest level the most 
convenient opening is the surface. When the face of No. 2 raise 
is about 30 feet above the sill floor, stoping is commenced and it is 
widened out till it connects with No. 1 Raise. The same thing 
is done at an elevation of about 60 feet. In this way the raises are 
carried ahead, connecting with each other at heights of 30 feet 
and 60 feet and breaking through into the next level at 100 feet. 
The only small work is in the first 30 feet. This is charged to 
development, the remaining excavations being placed in the stop- 
ing account. In this way a network of pillars is left throughout 
the stope So far a column only has been used. As soon as the 
sill floor above has been reached, tripods and long steel can be used 
to advantage. In this way a glory hole is started and the opening 



r ■ r 

_ 5 
'5 / 

Granby Minim. Methods 395 

can he widened out until the sides of the glory hole get too flat 
for the ore to run. Machines are also put to work where the con- 
nections lict ween the raise- have been made and at other ad- 
vantageoua places. The stope may thus be turned back to meet 
the hanging wall and the pillars reduced in size, or where the nature 
of the ground permits, a pillar may be eliminated altogether. 
Reference to Figure IX shows a part of the stopes above 
No. 3 Tunnel and shows the progress between March, 1905 and 
March. 1908. Figure X is a photograph of a series of pillars 
above No. 1 Tunnel level. 

One series of raises is seldom sufficient to tap all the 
ore. If the foot-wall is flat a parallel drift in waste with ac- 
companying raises will have to be driven. There will also be 
several drifts between the foot and the hanging walls. At one 
place on Xo. 3 Tunnel level there are five parallel drifts now operat- 
ing and at least another will be required. In this case the pillars 
in the stopes are left nearly vertical instead of at an angle as when 
the deposit is steeper. It is often advisable when breaking a 
raise through from a lower level to make the connection at the 
back of the chute timbers. The timbers can be taken out and a 
glory hole started. At the same time the raise can be carried 
ahead as a stope ten to fifteen feet beneath the foot of the old 
stope. While stoping ahead upper holes are drilled into the 
undercut rock. In this way the back is always within reach. 
In fact it is rarely necessary to work in a stope at any great dis- 
tance from the roof. 

When raising in waste no connections are made until the ore 
is reached. If the ore is at any considerable distance the raises are 
put in less frequently and are branched so as to tap the ore at 
two or three places. After the ore is blasted the large blocks 
that can be reached are bulldozed. Xo blockholding is attempted. 
It lias been found cheaper to buy more powder than bother with 
hand or air-hammer drilling. When the raises are in ore there are 
always convenient temporarily abandoned chutes which have 
been cleaned out, through which access is had to the broken ore 
in the raises. In the case of raises through waste where no con- 
nections have previously been made it is necessary to drive man- 
ways. To do this a staging is constructed midway between two 
chutes and about eight feet above the track, high enough to allow 

396 The Canadian Mining Institute 

the trolley wire to pass under. The planks at the centre of the 
staging, over the cars, are moveable. A miner with an air hammer 
drill or a small ordinary drill starts a raise at about 60 degrees and 
continues for about 25 feet when he branches and drifts till he 
connects with the raises on each side. The waste with a little help 
is run into the cars without interfering with traffic. 

The abandonment of timbering in the stopes has already 
been referred to. The only other timbering required is for chutes, 
tunnel sets and occasional posts and caps on the sill floor where 
needed. The details of a chute are shown in Figures XI and XII. 
In building this a temporary staging is constructed, hitches are 
cut for the posts, a sprag is wedged between the hanging and foot 
walls of the raise, a block and tackle attached thereto and the stulls 
raised and wedged in position. The stulls are then lagged up 
inside. A space is left unlagged for the chute proper and at the 
sides of this space and inside are placed posts surmounted by a 
heavy cap. The chute is built in, the gate placed in position, a 
permanent platform built for the chutemen and the work is com- 
pleted. The chute opening is about three feet square and any- 
thing that can go through the chute can go through the cars and be 
handled by the crusher. When the muck is drawn through the 
chute from the raise the lagging and inside posts are pretty well 
protected by broken rock. The cap, however, suffers more or less 
from blasting and in course of time is replaced if necessary. If 
convenient, heavy railroad iron covered with lagging may be used 
instead of a wooden cap. Chutes have been built-lined with tank 
plates, and the inside timbers armour-plated. This, however, is 
seldom done as the life of an ordinary chute is usually long enough 
to handle all the ore from that part of the stope of which it is the 
outlet. The chute gate is a solid piece of sheet iron, and is oper- 
ated by a lever. It is shown in section in the drawing of a chute. 
In case a car is loaded and the gate is prevented from closing by a 
large rock, a plank or two is moved along the staging against the 
mouth of the chute thus preventing any loose rock from running 
over. Tunnel sets are rarely needed. The main haulage way on 
the 400 ft. level, a straight run of about 1 ,000 feet, has no timbers 
other than those necessary to carry the electric light and trolley 
wires. This is the usual experience. In No. 3 Tunnel there is a 

B — 


— OJ 

c u 

u .- 

(iHA\i:v Mining Mkthods 


398 The Canadian Mining Institute 

double tracked stretch of 900 feet of which three hundred is tim- 
bered with sets and top lagging. 

Sill Floor Work. — On the sill floors the haulage tunnels are 
always being driven ahead. On the levels where the big cars run 
these are about 9 ft. x 11 ft. in size. For a drift of this size a 
twenty hole round is used. This is made up of four lifters, four 
cuts, eight breast holes in two rows and four back holes. All the 
rock broken on the sill floor is hand shovelled. For handling the 
ore different types of cars are in use. On the No. 3 Tunnel level 
ten ton, steel, hopper bottom and seven ton, wooden, gable bot- 
tom cars are operated. These run on a three foot gauge and are 
operated by an electric locomotive. Owing to the six foot height 
of the steel cars they could not be used for shovelling into from 
the sill floor and for this reason the lower wooden cars were built. 
They are not adapted for loading from chutes as on account of 
their low height the muck is liable to shoot over. In order to 
deliver the large tonnage required of this level these cars were an 
absolute necessity. There are fifteen of the steel ones and five 
wooden ones on this level and since their introduction three years 
ago they have handled close to a million tons of coarse ore besides 
a large amount of waste. They are all still in use and in good 
working condition. They have, however, their defects. The 
steel cars are a little too long to receive a full load without being 
moved. The bottom gates do not always close tight and men 
have to be kept shovelling off the track. In unloading, the large 
rocks often arch over in the car and when they cannot be dislodged 
with a pinch bar, dynamite has to be used. As this is hard on the 
rolling stock there is usually a car or two in the repair shop. 

Underground the ore loading is in the hands of a mucker boss 
who is responsible to a shift boss and who oversees the shovellers 
and chutemen. A chuteman, working with a helper, loads the 
ore from the chutes. In case a chute gets blocked he does the 
blasting necessary to clear it. The train crew consists of a motor- 
man and a head and back brakeman. The head brakeman is in 
charge of the train and does whatever blasting is necessary in 
the cars. 

On the No. 2 Tunnel level the working and equipment is 
practically the same except that a steam locomotive takes the 
place of the electric one. 

Granby Mining Methods 


\ 40 „ - ■ 


flBh* -'no.3 Tunnel/ 

I Y -' 

16 i J" 

i 111"! 

Mai cK, 10OS . 

Fig. IX — Map of Stopes between No. 3 and No. 2 Tunnel Levels. No. 3 
Tunnel Level is shown in dotted lines. 

400 The Canadian Mining Institute 

In order to overcome the defects of the cars in use and those 
available, a special steel car was designed at the works. This is 
used on the 400 ft. level. This car, shewn in section in Fig. XIII, 
is five feet high and can be used for sill floor shovelling as well as 
loading from the chutes. The box has a five ton capacity, and 
has an automatic side dumping arrangement. When a train 
comes to the unloading pocket, the motor goes ahead with slack- 
ened speed and a side wheel attached to the box runs up an in- 
clined plane, the box tips, dumps its load and closes again. Since 
its installation in January, 1908, this arrangement has given ex- 
cellent satisfaction. Figures XIV and XV show photographs of 
the dumping arrangements. 

At the Gold Drop mine the entire output is dropped down a 
raise 300 feet long to the Curlew tunnel. From the chutes at the 
bottom of the raise to the crusher bins, a distance of 800 feet the 
ore is hauled in three ton capacity, side dump wooden cars by an 
electric locomotive. An air lift is used to dump the cars. 

The Victoria Shaft. — The lower levels were originally worked 
by Shafts Nos. 1 and 2. These were vertical, of small size and 
capacity and were being worked to their limit. Besides, they were 
not centrally located for future workings. In order to materially 
increase the output from below, the Victoria Shaft was constructed 
in 1905. This shaft cuts the upper ore body where that deposit 
crosses the 400 ft. level. The shaft is on a 60 degree incline and 
connects with large storage pockets below the 400 ft. level. These 
pockets, ore and waste, are connected with the 300 ft. level by 
raises, thus materially increasing their capacity. The 200 ft. 
level will eventually be connected in the same way or separate 
pockets may be cut out below that level. 

The skip loading device is shown in Figure XVI. The 
finger gates shown in the drawing is supplemented by an extra 
gate made out of a piece of sheet iron. By this means the fines 
which would naturally slip through the fingers of the main gate 
are caught and prevented from going down the shaft. 

This type of finger gate, the sheet iron attachment being 
omitted, is in general use at all crushers except that at No. 3 
Tunnel bins. The arrangement at the Victoria crusher is shown 
in Figure XVII. In the case of the No. 3 Tunnel crusher 4 in. x 
4 in. square steel bars running in guides and worked by an air lift 

GRANBT Minim. Mf.thods. . 401 

are used as shown in Fig. XVIII. These do as good work as the 
finger gates, but no better, while they need more head room to in- 
stall and have a greater initial cost. 

A classification of the underground force employed at two 
different periods will show the expansion and development along 
new lines of the company's operations. The figures refer to the 
Knob Hill-Ironsides mine only, the Gold Drop being left out of 
consideration. In March, 1902, the average 24 hour crew consisted 
of 1 foreman. .5 shift bosses, 1 timber boss, 92 miners, 26 timber- 
men, 139 muckers, 1 pumpman, 4 nippers, 2 trackmen, 2 samplers, 
4 Masters and 2 cage tenders. This makes a total of 280 and 
during this time the shipments averaged about 1,000 tons per day. 
In March, 1906, this crew was made up as follows: 1 day foreman, 
1 night foreman, 7 shift bosses, 1 timber boss, 6 mucker bosses, 
160 miners, 9 timbermen, 6 timbermen's helpers, 46 chutemen, 
si muckers and chutemen's helpers, 12 nippers, 6 blasters, 10 
barmen, 3 trackmen, 3 trackmen's helpers, 3 pumpmen and pipe- 
men, 1 ditcher, 6 motormen, 2 locomotive engineers, 8 head 
brakemen, 6 back brakemen, 2 car repairers, 2 oilers and 2 skip 
tenders, a total of 387. During this month the shipments went 
Jitly over 3,000 tons per day. 

Diamond Drilling.-— vSince starting operations over 30,000 
feet of holes have been drilled. Almost all of this has been of 
small size and no holes have been deeper than 600 feet. All 
work is done by contract, the company furnishing power and 
water. The mineralized portion of the core is sampled and the 
results are found to agree remarkably well with those of the ore 
body when opened up. From several holes the cuttings were 
collected every few feet and analyzed. As the values were away 
high this method was abandoned. The location of all drill holes 
is surveyed and the co-ordinates and elevation above sea-level of 
the collar of every hole noted. If the hole varies from the vertical 
the course and dip are also kept. Drill holes can then be plotted 
independently of all other information. These figures are kept 
-et of books together with all other fad.- regarding 
this work. Several holes which have been cut underground at 
distances of about 300 feet below the collar have been found to be 
from two to four feet from the vertical at that depth. 



The Canadian Mining Institute 

Fig. XI— Section showing- Construction of Chute. Dimensions of car 
Height, 6 feet ; Width, 6 feet ; Length, 12 feet ; Capacity, 10 tons. 

Granby Mining Methods 403 

Surveying and Mapping. — Where the conditions are the same 
the surveying operations are, I think, much like those in other 
B. C. mines. The co-ordinates of all important stations are kept 
on different sheets in loose leaf ledgers. Depending on the im- 
portance of a piece of work the notes may be plotted by co-ordin- 
ates, by tangents or with a small protractor. It has been found 
necessary to keep a considerable number of maps on file. A 
general map showing the bulk of the company's land, buildings 
ami underground workings is made to a scale of 100 feet to the 
inch. Combined sill floor plans on a scale of 40 feet to the inch 
are made of t he Knob Hill-Ironsides and Gold Drop mines. Brown 
print copies of these are placed in the shift bosses' offices. It has 
also been found necessary to keep the stopes above each level on a 
separate map and separate maps are made of each level showing 
the geological features, especially the ore boundaries. Transverse 
vertical sections are made every 200 feet. These last two series 
of maps are used in calculating the ore in sight. The permanent 
features such as shafts, side lines, drill holes, etc., are put on in 
ink, but as the geography of a level changes so rapidly the rest of 
the workings are indicated in lead pencil. From all these maps a set 
of brown prints is made at intervals. From the sill floor plans 
a irlass model of the Knob Hill-Ironsides is kept up-to-date. This 
consists of sheets of glass running in slides in a plate glass frame. 
On the glass sheets are outlined the different levels, areas of the 
ore bodies, faults, etc., and as the space between the glasses cor- 
responds to the space between the levels a better idea of the ground 
can be obtained than when all the plans are in the one plane. 
This arrangement does not need to be referred to often but when 
it is needed it is found to be of very considerable help. It is the 
intention to supplement this with another similar arrangement 
having vertical glasses instead of horizontal ones. These will have 
the transverse vertical sections marked on them. 

Stope Maps. — The method of mining employed, whatever 
other advantages it may have, certainly does not tend towards 
simplicity in the stope maps. These are necessary to show the 
relation of the pillars to the level below and the level above. The 
vertical sections are also constructed from these maps. As the 
stopes consist of a series of raises and glory holes with all the in- 
termediate stages and with the pillars standing at different angles 

404 The Canadian Mining Institute 

due to different dips of the ore body, it is not a simple matter to 
make a map which will show all these features to advantage. 
After considerable experiment it was decided to adopt, and adapt 
somewhat, what is known as the hachure method of map construc- 
tion as used in topography. As the appearance of a stope soon 
changes no attempt is made to go into unnecessary detail. In 
surveying, a set-up is made in as commanding a position as possible, 
sights are taken to the governing points on the pillars and the 
ridges between the glory holes. These points are plotted and 
when the tracing is made, contour lines, afterwards erased, are 
drawn in pencil on the tracing, approximately at ten foot inter- 
vals. The hachure lines are then inked in, their extremities being 
at right angles to the adjacent contour lines. Thus when the 
contour lines are not parallel the hachuring has a radiating appear- 
ance. This is shown in Figure IX. When it is advisable to 
know the exact height of any part of a stope the elevation above 
sea-level is marked on the map at that place. 

Ore in Sight. — Ore in Sight, Ore Developed, Ore Blocked Out 
or whatever term may be preferred is calculated independently 
from the sill floor plans and from the transverse vertical sections. 
The mean of these estimates, which do not vary to any consider- 
able extent, is then taken. The horizontal area of each ore body 
as it crosses a level has been pretty well defined by drifts, cross- 
cuts and drill holes. The average of this area and the area on the 
level above is multiplied by the vertical distance and from this 
product the tonnage is calculated. Each block of ground is 
figured out separately and from the total the ore shipped is de- 
ducted, the balance being Ore in Sight. The ore extracted 
between shipping levels is also kept track of and the Ore in Sight 
in different blocks of ground can thus be estimated. 

Brown Prints. — As a considerable number of technical men 
who have visited us during the last few years have found this 
process to be a novelty, a few remarks regarding it may be ex- 
cusable. The process is used chiefly for the reproduction of mine 
maps, blue prints being used for mechanical drawings. A tracing 
is first made from which a negative on thin brown print paper is ob- 
tained. Using paper of a heavier grade a positive consisting of very 
dark brown, practically black, lines on white background is pro- 
duced. The different levels, which are superimposed in part, can 

(II— Photograph of Mine Chute. A wooden, gable-bottom car is shewn in the 

figure. This is used specially for sill floor shovelling-. 

Granby Minim; Methods 



406 The Canadian Mining Institute 

then be coloured and the map rendered intelligible to others besides 
the draftsman. There are also other advantages. When a tracing 
has to be brought up to date it may happen that some pillars'^have 
been removed, drifts widened, etc. No erasures are made on the 
linen but the extra lines needed are inked in and the lines not 
needed are simply inked out on the negative. Another advantage 
is that the title, and other important lettering, has only to be 
made once and traced once. On subsequent tracings it is omitted. 
The original negative is, however, kept and in future negatives it 
is only necessary to cut a hole where required and attach the nega- 
tive of the title or whatever it has not been advisable to alter. 
There are other minor advantages which will show themselves 
after the process has been used for a little while. 


v x ^p 

rH v 


— . -J 



v- ^^ 



Fig. KIV Ore Train approaching Pocket. The incline for dumping 

the cars is shewn on the left. 




1 I II I 1 I I I I [I 


Fig. XVII— Arrangement of Gates at Victoria Cruslle 

Fig. XVIII— Type of Gate used I 
Xo. 5 Tunnel Crusher- 

Fig-. XVI. — Skip Loading- Device al Victoria Shaft Pockets. 




A. B. W. Hodges, Grand Forks, B.C. 
(Nelson Meeting, January, 1908). 

Few people realize the amount of work and the problems to be 
solved in handling daily 3.000 tons of ore from the Granby mines 
at Phoenix to the smelter, delivering this ore to the smelter (24 
inflefl distant and nearly 3,000 ft. lower in elevation) all crushed 
ready for the furnaces, then discharging it into the furnaces, 
and finally taking away the resulting slag and putting it over the 

Before going into methods in detail, a description of the 
machinery necessary for this work may be afforded. 

To bring the ore out of the mines requires one 14-ton steam 
locomotive, three 75-h.p. electric locomotives, one 250-h.p. electric 
hoist, 30 10-ton steel ore cars, 40 5-ton ore cars, 20 1-ton steel mine 
cars, and about 10 horses. 

The ore is crushed at the mine by three 36 x 42 in. Blake type 
crushers, operated by 150-h.p. induction motors. This crushed 
ore is loaded in 30 to 50-ton steel bottom dump railway ore cars. 
It requires about eighty 50-ton and eighty 40-ton ore cars, and 
five or six 150-ton steam locomotives to convey this amount of 
material from the mines to the smelter daily. 

The ore at the smelter is dumped into elevated bins directly 
from the railway ore dump cars. From these bins it is drawn into 
steel charging cars, when, with the proper amount of coke, it is run 
directly into the ends of the blast furnaces and dumped. 

In charging 3,000 tons daily four charge trains of three cars 
each are required, each train holding four tons of ore and the 
requisite amount of coke for smelting it. Four electric locomotives 
of 30-h.p. capacity are required for each train. There are also two 
spare trains. 

408 The Canadian Mining Institute 

The slag is carried away from the furnaces in slag pots holding 
five tons each, and three pots are required for each of the eight 
furnaces, making twenty-four in all. It requires four 14-ton steam 
locomotives to carry the slag away from the furnaces. There are ten 
extra slag pots and one extra engine ready for use in an emergency. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that as the movement of ore 
must go on in the different departments each 24 hours, the machin- 
ery and equipment must be large and in first-class condition to 
handle it. 

The ore from the different levels of the Granby mines is taken 
from No. 2 tunnel, which is about 250 ft. below the top of the hill; 
No. 3 tunnel, 100 ft. below No. 2; and the 400-ft. level, which is 
about 650 ft. below the top of the hill. 

No. 2 tunnel has about 3,800 ft. of 3-ft. gauge 30-lb. rails, and 
the ore is drawn from 56 chutes into 10 steel ore cars, bottom-dump ; 
also into low wooden cars holding five tons each, and is hauled out 
by a 14-ton steam locomotive using coke for fuel to avoid smoke. 
Eight to ten cars are hauled in a trip, and in two shifts of 16 hours 
1,000 tons can be brought out. These trains come out from under- 
ground and run over the bins into which they dump the ore, and it 
is then fed into a very large Blake-type crusher, having a jaw 
opening of 42 x 36 in., and crushed to about 7 or 8 in. in thickness. 
This crusher can handle 150 tons of ore per hour. 

Fig. 1 shows No. 2 tunnel train passing over the ore bins. The 
smoke stack and cab of engine are cut down to enable it to go into 
small places. 

The ore bins and crusher are situated about 700 ft. from the 
mouth of the tunnel, and the ore from the crusher is delivered to 
railway ore cars built specially for ore hauling and having movable 
doors at the bottom for dumping the ore after it arrives at the 
smelter bins. 

No. 3 tunnel has 3,800 ft. of 3-ft. gauge 30-lb. rail track, and 
92 ore chutes, and the ore is taken out of the mines with the same 
style car as used in No. 2 tunnel, only electric mine locomotives are 
used to haul the trains. 

Fig. 2 shows two of these trains, looking at them from the motor 
end. These locomotives are manufactured by the Westinghouse 
Baldwin Company, and have two 35-h.p. motors, one on each axle. 

Thk Granbt Minks and Smkltkr • 409 

They arc run at 500 volts pressure, direct current, the current being 
taken from a motor generator set near the tunnel mouth. 

The crusher bins for this tunnel are 1,200 ft. from the mouth of 
the tunnel, and the trains run over the top of two bins, each holding 
500 tons of coarse ore. These bins are about 16 ft. apart, and the 
crusher is placed between with a run-\vay and gates from each bin 
into the crusher. This crusher is also of the Blake-type, having an 
opening 42 x 30 in., and a capacity of 150 tons per hour. 

The crushed ore is dropped into a large steel continuous- 
bucket elevator and is elevated at an angle of 45 deg. to a small 
chute, where it is fed directly into 53-ton railway steel ore cars, with 
bottom dump. Two thousand tons of ore have been hauled out, 
crushed, and loaded in railway cars in 24 hours. 

All the ore from under No. 3 tunnel is dropped to the 400-ft. 
level, which is 300 ft. below, and then taken from about 42 chutes at 
the present time to the Victoria shaft, whence it is hoisted to the 

There are about 4,000 ft. of 3-ft. gauge track on this level. The 
ore is hauled in 5-ton steel cars. These cars are specially designed 
for this level. They are not over 5 ft. high, but are wide and flat at 
bottom, the body is hinged on one side of the running gear or 
trucks, and the long side gate is opened and the car tipped, both 
automatically, when directly over the ore pocket. 

The ore in the Granby mines is rather soft and breaks in large 
pieces, hence bottom-dump cars with small openings must be 
avoided. We have found a side-dump car the best, although our 
10-ton steel ore car has a 3 x 3 ft. opening in the clear in the bottom, 
but the hole is hardly large enough. 

The cars on this level are hauled by an electric locomotive, of 
similar power and voltage to that in No. 3 tunnel. 

The ore pockets on this level hold about 400 tons of ore, and 
extend to 40 ft. below where the skip is filled. There is also a pocket 
for waste rock. 

The shaft is three-compartment, having a man-way 4 x 6 ft. 
in the clear, and two skip- ways each 5 x 6 ft. in the clear. The skips 
are balanced, hold about 5 tons of ore, and run at a speed of about 
900 ft. per minute. This will hoist 2,000 tons in two 8-hour shifts. 

The sheave wheels of the gallows frame are about 90 ft. above 
the ground and are so elevated that the skip can dump about 60 ft. 

410 The Canadian Mining Institute 

up, and the ore run into either one or other of two coarse ore bins, 
each holding 500 tons of ore. These show at the right of Figure 3. 
Between the two bins is a large crusher of similar size and pattern 
to the others mentioned; it is driven by a 150-h.p. 2,000-volt induc- 
tion motor. This motor shaft is extended on one side about 16 ft. 
by a flexible coupling and on this shaft are two pulleys of suitable 
size, which drive the two pulleys on the crusher. 

It would seem that a 150-h.p. motor is too large a motor for 
operating the crusher which only takes from 75 to 80-h.p. to crush 
the ore, but the crusher is so big and the moving parts so heavy 
that it takes 280-h.p. to start it. 

The skips are hoisted by a double conical drum hoist driven 
by a 250-h.p. variable speed induction motor at 2,000 volts pressure. 
They generally run in balance, but can be operated separately in 
either direction. The drums are large enough for 1,000 ft. of cable. 

Fig. 4 A. is a photograph showing one of the spouts and 
finger gates where the coarse ore from the storage bins runs into 
the jaws of the crusher. These finger gates are used in all ore 
crushers, also down in the skip ore pockets, and are best suited for 
handling large material. The four fingers are each made of two 
bars of 1 x 4-in. iron and all are raised at once by compressed ah- in 
the cylinder as shown in the picture, and are also let down by air 
pressure, but each of the four fingers is independent, and one or two 
might stay half way up on account of a large piece of rock getting 
in the way, but the other two would be down and stop small rocks 
from getting through. 

The ore from this crusher falls directly upon a belt conveyer, 
travelling at a speed of 250 ft. per minute, and having a capacity of 
200 tons per hour. The belt is 42 in. wide and 241 ft. centres; it 
goes up at angle of 14 or 15 deg. and is operated by a 50-h.p. 
induction motor suitably geared to the driving pulley which is at 
the upper end. This belt conveys ore to four bins, two of which 
discharge into Canadian Pacific railway ore cars on one side, 
and the other two into Great Northern railway ore cars on the 
other side. These four bins have a capacity of 700 tons of crushed 
ore. ''■"'■ 

The relative positions of the gallows frame, conveyer and ship- 
ping bins are illustrated in Figure 3. 


I WZT^u.. 




FlO. I A 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 5. 

The Gran by Mix is and Smki/tkr 411 

Fig. 4 shows a nearer view of the gallows frame coarse ore bins 
on either side and hoist room in front. The gallows frame is now 
entirely covered in. 

Fig. 5 shows the shipping and loading bins at the terminus of 
No. 3 tunnel, where the crushed ore is loaded into Great Northern 
railway bottom-dump 53-ton steel ore cars. These bins are ca- 
pable of loading 900 tons into cars in half an hour. 

The 3,000 tons of crushed ore are hauled to the smelter, 24 
miles distant , on branch lines of the Canadian Pacific railway and 
< Sreal Northern railway, in special steel bottom-dump ore cars, and 
the 65 or 70 cars of ore required daily are brought down in four 
trains. The grade from the mines to the smelter is about 3 per 
cent, and the great difficulty experienced is in getting the empty 
cars back up to the mines again. 

These ore trains are weighed at the smelter on track scales 
and are run out over the ore bunkers and the ore dropped into the 
different bins. Here there are three sets of ore bunkers parallel 
with one another and 760 ft. long, and each holds about 5,000 tons 
of ore. 

About one car in ten is set over the sampling bin and the ore 
from this is re-crushed and a sample automatically taken which 
fairly represents the day's shipments. The metal contents of the 
ore being so uniform very careful sampling is not required to deter- 
mine its contents, in fact, one lot of 30,000 tons will not vary more 
than 20 cents per ton over or under another of similar quantity. 

The ore chutes at the bottom of these bins are about 6 ft. 
above the furnace charging floor, so that the furnace charge cars 
are run under these spouts and receive the crushed ore by gravity, 
and these can, which have already received the requisite quantity 
of coke in the bottom, are weighed again to get the proper amount 
of ore, and then the train of three cars is pushed on a 20-in. gauge 
track into the end of the blast furnace, when the charge is dumped 
into the proper place, these cars being just the length of the inside 
of the furnace. Each train of cars feeds two 44 x 210-in. blast 
furnaces and handles from 750 to 900 tons of ore per 24 hours. 

Fig. 6 shows the furnace charging train being loaded at the 
ore bunkers, and Fig. 7 shows the same train just about to enter 
the blast furnace. 

412 The Canadian Mining Institute 

The track rails do not enter the furnace but the cars are 
carried in on auxiliary wheels on the upper corners of the cars and 
run on tracks built in the sides of the furnace, as shown in Figure 6. 
These cars are divided longitudinally in the centre, and the doors 
open on each side, the hinge being at the top. This spreads the 
charge along each side of the furnace in the proper place. These 
charging cars are used only at the Granby smelter and are an inven- 
tion of the writer's. They are pushed around by a 30-h.p. electric 
locomotive, 250 volts direct current. Each train holds a little 
more than four tons of ore, together with the proper amount of 
fuel at the bottom of each car. 

The final work in the handling of the 3,000 tons of ore is taking 
the moulten slag and matte from the blast furnaces. The matte, 
which is only about three or four per cent, of the charge, is tapped 
out of the settlers in front of the furnaces into a cast steel pot hold- 
ing about four tons, and while still in a molten state is taken by 
an overhead electric crane to the converter building and dumped 
into the converter. The slag runs from the first settler into a 
second one in front and thence into a slag pot of 44 cubic feet capac- 
ity. The second settler has two spouts, one on either side, and 
there are two slag pots on one side and one on the other, so that 
there is always one in place for the slag to run into. 

Fig. 8 shows front of blast furnace on furnace floor, also both 
settlers, electric crane, slag pots, etc. 

Fig. 9 shows trains of slag pots going to the slag dump. These 
slag pots dump automatically, that is, when full of slag the centre 
of gravity is above the trunnion, therefore by removing a latch the 
pot dumps itself, and after the slag is out, comes back to normal 
position itself, when it is again latched in place. The bowls of 
these slag pots are cast in halves and bolted together, thus pre- 
venting cracking from the continual expansion and contraction. 
These pots have been very serviceable, but they are too small in 
capacity after the furnace gets beyond 400 tons per day. 

The slag from two furnaces is drawn away by one 14-ton 3-ft. 
gauge steam locomotive. An electric locomotive would do just as 
well. One of these locomotives and six slag pots will handle from 
800 to 850 tons of slag per 24 hours, provided the dump is not more 
than 1,500 ft. long. 

Thk Granby Minks and Smelter 413 

It will be seen from the foregoing that it is practically neces- 
sary to handle nearly all of the 3,000 tons of ore four different times 
in one day before the process is completed. 

Fig. 10 shows a general view of the Granby Smelting Works 
rand Forks, the slag dump, and general arrangement of 


.Mr. D. H. Browne: — I would ask Mr. Hedley if this reduc- 
tion has not been greatly increased? I understand that three 
thousand tons a day does not represent the maximum output. 

Mr. Hedley: — I understand that since this paper was pre- 
pared tl ey have since reached a maximum output in a day of 
twenty-four hours, of 3,450 tons. Before this paper was presented 
the company had made an average for a week of 3.200 tons a day. 
The}' expect to increase the capacity by lengthening the furnaces. 

Mr. Browne: — At Copper Cliff we are running two furnaces 
each of 204 by 50 inches, wl ich figure out slightly larger than 
those referred to in this paper. At the present time we are putting 
through every day over 900 tons of ore with an additional 225 tons 
of converted slag. That is why I wanted to ask if 3,000 tons was 
the record achievement of the Granby Company, because if it is 
our record in Ontario may challenge comparison. 

The President: — The B.C. Copper Co's furnaces at Green- 
wood will average eight tons per square foot of hearth area, day in 
and day out. The average output is nearly two t! ousand tons 
a day. or 650 ton- per 24 I ours for each furnace. The furnaces are 
240 by 4s inches, or twenty feet long and four feet in diameter. 
The furnaces were originally 48 by 240 inches, but we 1 ave changed 
them by altering r! e jacket - to reduce tl e consumption of sulphur. 

have, however, found another method of doing t! at and so 
intend to widen tie furnace- to t' e original area. They are now 
temporarily 44 inches wide. 

The President: Mr. Hodgee states in lis paper thai it 
is found necessary to use .••■ 150 1 orse power motor to -tart tie 
crusher. In our works we 1 ave tl e same >'y/-> crusl er driven by a 

414 The Canadian Mining Institute 

100 horse power motor. We get over the trouble of starting by 
drilling a hole through the pitman of the crusher and turning on 
a steam jet, which warms the pitman so that it will not stick. 
Then we put in a counter shaft between the crusher and the motor, 
and on the counter shaft we put a heavy fly-wheel connected di- 
rectly with the motor. We start the motor until we get the fly- 
wheel going at full speed and then gradually throw on the crusher 
with the friction clutch, and in this way we have had no difficulty 
starting it with a 100 horse power motor. But if you start the 
crusher directly you will need a 150 horse power motor. 



By Wm. M. Brewer. 

(Ottawa Meeting, 1908). 

Until after the discovery of the occurrences of native copper 
and copper-bearing ores in the British Yukon and Alaska, there 
had always been considerable speculation as to the source from 
which the British Columbian and Alaskan Indians had procured 
the native copper which they were found to be using. Usually, 
this native copper was applied to the manufacturing of large plates 
engraved with Indian symbols, and these were handed down from 
generation to generation as heirlooms. The dimensions of many 
of these copper plates are from one and a half to three feet square, 
and about one-fourth of an inch in thickness. 

Early explorers of Northern British Columbia, especially of 
the Queen Charlotte Islands and portions of Alaska, have called 
attention in their writings to the possession of these copper plates 
by Indian families, and many of the best specimens of this character 
of Indian craft are preserved in the Provincial Museum at Victoria. 

Since systematic prospecting for copper ore has been carried 
on, it has been discovered that in the Rainy Hollow district, about 
forty miles in the interior from Haines' Mission on the Lynn Canal, 
also in the Copper River district, Alaska, native copper occurs, 
and is very often found in nuggets and masses of quite considerable 
weight. The first named of these districts is in British territory, 
and the latter in United States. 

So far as our present knowledge goes, the first prospecting for 
copper-bearing ores in this portion of the American Continent was 
contemporaneous with the discovery of placer gold in the Klondike. 
Nuggets of native copper were found by pioneers in the streams 
flowing from the glaciers which are of great extent, and very 
numerous in the district referred to. Naturally, the finding of 

416 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

these nuggets led prospectors to endeavour to locate their source 
or origin. The result of this was the discovery of deposits of copper- 
bearing ores over a very large area of the British- Yukon and Alaska. 
In this territory are the districts of Rainy Hollow, Whitehorse, and 
Kluahne, all in the Yukon, the last named being situated about 
two hundred miles to the westward from Whitehorse. In Alaska, 
the districts in which copper-bearing ores were discovered, included 
many of the islands in the Pacific, notably: Prince of Wales, La- 
touche, and Knight's Island; again in portions of the Coast Range 
of mountains, and in what is known as the Copper River district, 
with which it is proposed this paper shall deal in particular. 

A reference to the accompanying map will give some idea of 
the superficial area, and also the possible extent of the district 
under discussion. 

The Copper River proper is a stream of some magnitude, 
being navigable for stern-wheel steamers of light draft, for a dis- 
tance of some two-hundred miles above its mouth, except through 
the rapids known as the Abercrombie Rapids. The principal 
tributary of this river is the Chitina, which is also navigable for 
several miles above the confluence of the two rivers. The Copper 
River flows from the north in a nearh r due southerly direction, 
emptying into the Pacific Ocean near Catalla, about seventy-five 
miles easterly from Cape Hinchinbrook, and about thirty-five 
miles from Cape St. Elias. Its main tributary, the Chitina, flows 
in the south-westerly direction, and heads among the glaciers in an 
unexplored territory, and not a very great distance from the 
source of the White River, which flows toward the east and north, 
and empties into the Yukon River near the mouth of the Stewart 

As a matter of fact, the occurrences of copper-bearing ore and 
native copper so far discovered, are more closely situated into the 
Chitina River than to the Copper River itself, and it is believed 
that the Indians always recognized the Chitina as the source from 
which they procured the native copper they hammered into plates ; 
as in the Indian language, the meaning of the word Chitina is 
copper water — Chit — copper; Ina — water. 

To the present time, the only discoveries of copper-bearing ore 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the Copper River itself, are 
near Taral, not a great distance from the Abercrombie Rapids. 






14 Z" 


Some Notks on the Copper Rivkr District 417 

These discoveries have not provoked as much discussion, or been 
as thoroughly advert ised as those made near the Chit ina River and 
its tributaries. In fact, till last year, only one <>r two prospectors 
were engaged in exploring the section around Taral, while in the 

Ghitina country there were probably all told, two hundred men, 

many of whom were engaged in prospeoting, and the balance em- 
ployed by the companies owning prospects and engaged in perform- 
ing representation work on their mineral claims. 

The Copper River district extends from a point about 60 
miles from Elliott Creek, a branch of the Kotsina River — where 
the Hubbard and Elliott group of claims is located — to the Kenni- 
cott River near the head of which is located the Bonanza group of 
mineral claims. From this latter point, it is about 80 miles in an 
air line to the boundary line between Alaska and the British 
Yukon territory. In this section scattering occurrences of copper- 
bearing ore have been discovered towards the east and north-east 
from the Bonanza mine, especially in the vicinity of the head- 
waters of the White River. Some of the latest discoveries of 
copper-bearing ore have been made in the British- Yukon, near the 
White River, also in the Ivluahne Lake district. From this it 
would appear as though a mineralized zone extended from what is 
known as the Copper River district in Alaska, across the boundary 

rlv to the Whitehorse district, and that the territory, especially 
near the head-waters of the various rivers throughout this entire 
section of country, would well repay careful prospecting. 

Until now, travel into the Chitina country has been by way 
of Valdez, at the head of Prince of Wales Sound, thence by trail, 
following the Valdez-Fair banks trail for a distance of about 80 
miles to the telegraph station on the Tonsina River, a tributary of 
the Copper River. At that point a trail branches off towards the 
east from the main Valdez-Fair banks trail. This trail follows 
down the Tonsina River, and crosses Copper River at about two 
miles above the mouth of the Tonsina, where a crossing is made by 
ford or boat-ferry. From this point the trail takes a general 
easterly course, and crosses the Kotsina, Strelna, Kuskulana, 
Chokosna, Lakina and Kennicott Rivers, all of which are tribu- 
taries of the Chitina River, and head in the mountain range where 
glaciers are so extensive and numerous that although each one'of 
theserivers is comparatively shorthand under ordinary circumstances 


418 The Canadian Mining Institute 

and elsewhere would be regarded as insignificant streams, yet 
under the peculiar local conditions any of these streams are likely 
at any time to present a formidable obstacle to travel, since heading 
as they do, in glaciers, the volume of water between their banks is 
so variable, and is subject to such extremes of rise and fall that 
crossings are dangerous to the unwary or inexperienced . A few 
hours, for example, of hot sunshine will change any of these 'streams 
from a harmless creek into a mighty torrent. 

The distance from the crossing of the Copper River to the 
Kennicott River by the route of the present trail, is about fifty- 
five miles. 

I understand that during the coming summer, it is proposed 
by the J. Pierpont Morgan interests, who are building a line of 
railroad into this region, to place stern-wheel steamers on the 
Copper River; one to ply from the mouth to the Abercrombie 
Rapids, and the other from above the Abercrombie Rapids to the 
head of navigation on the Chitina River. In fact, during the sum- 
mer of 1907, a steamer was taken into this district, packed in 
sections, from Valdez to the Copper River, over the winter trail, 
put together, and made one trip on the Copper River from Aber- 
crombie Rapids up to Copper Centre, and also one trip from the 
mouth of the Chitina River to the neighbourhood of the mouth of 
the Kennicott. This entire trip was made without any accident, 
under the pilotage of Indians who have a most perfect knowledge 
of the navigable channels of these rivers. 

If this proposed steamer route is adopted then travel into 
this new copper-bearing district, at least during the summer 
months, will be very much easier than it has been in the past ; for, 
although the use of horses for riding is possible on the trails, yet 
so many marshes and swamps are found on the divides between 
the streams crossing the route, as to make travel especially dis- 
agreeable for the Chi-cha-co, or tenderfoot. Another advantage 
that will accrue from navigation on the rivers, will be the reduc- 
tion in cost of freighting supplies and machinery into the country. 
At the present time, all supplies must be taken in over the snow 
and ice during the winter months, when, owing to the climatic 
conditions, freighting is a most arduous and hazardous undertak- 
ing, and the cost is naturally proportionate. During the summer 
months freighting over the trails must be done by pack-horse, 

Some Notes on the Copper River District. h*.i 

and the cost for this service is so great that only absolutely 
necessary supplies can be thus taken in. 

So far as m\ information goes tlu earliest exploration of this 
section of Alaska, known as the Copper River district, was under- 
taken by the Hubbard-Elliotl party, t he members of which ascend- 
ed the Copper River during 1898, and wintered near the mouth of 

i oiisina River. The sufferings and hardships experienced by 
the members of this party were so great that most of the men died 
from scurvy and other diseases during the winter, but the remnant 
pushed on during the following summer, and while some of them 
made discoveries of high grade copper-bearing ore on Elliot Creek, 
a branch of the Kotsina River, other explorers located mineral 
claims near the Kennicott River. Among these was the property 
known as the Bonanza, of which the press has from time to time 
published very glowing reports, taken from descriptions furnished 
by mining engineers and prospectors who have visited this 

One of the most detailed descriptions of this property, and 
undoubtedly the most reliable, having regard to the conditions ex- 
isting at the time the examination took place, was that made by the 
United States' geologists. Messrs. Schraeder and Mendenhall. This 
report applied however, to conditions in 1903, at a time when very 
little development had been attempted, and since then a con- 
siderable deal of work has been done in opening up the property. 

All the occurrences of copper ore so far discovered, have been 
found in the neighbourhood of the foot-hills adjacent to Mt. 
Blackburn, the altitude of which is given in the Government 
reports as 16, Hn feel : Ml . Regal, altitude 13,400 feet, and Castle 
Peak, altitude about 10,000 fi 

The area that can be described as copper ore-bearing, occupies 
a semi-circle partially surrounding the bases of both Mt. Blackburn 
and lit. Regal. 

There are several rather unique features in respect to this zone 
of copper-bearing ore, some of which are: (1) As yet no occur- 
rences of ore have been discovered except in close vicinity to the 
head-waters of the various streams. (2) Nearly all of the occur- 
rences of copper-bearing ores are above timber line, which in 
this section appears to reach to an altitude of about 2,700 feet 
above sea level. (3) The district is comparatively easy for pros- 

420 The Canadian Mining Institute 

pecting, because of the comparatively low elevation at which all 
growth of timber ceases, the ground being bare during the summer, 
except from rock slides. (4) The head-waters of all the streams 
are in glaciers, and as these glaciers have receded to a very great 
extent, the erosion on the ridges and bluffs in the vicinity of the 
head-waters of the streams has been quite extensive. 

Generally speaking, the geology of this zone appears quite 
simple, and the series of rocks occur as follows: Most of the peaks 
and summits of the ridges and bluffs are limestone. This has very 
generally suffered from erosion, and consequently occurs in patches 
and apparently is the oldest rock formation in the district. This 
limestone is under-laid by greenstone in which, especially near 
the head waters of the Lakina River, occur intrusions of amygda- 
loidal diabase. These intrusions occur as dykes, masses and blan- 
kets in the greenstone, and so far as the Lakina River camps are 
concerned, it is usual to find that the intrusive rock carries values 
of native copper. This native copper occurs not only in the amyg- 
daloidal diabase itself, but sometimes is found in the greenstone 
and near its contact with the intrusive rock. 

So far as my own observations have gone, I found that this 
native copper was not only disseminated through the rock fairly 
regularly in small grains, but that it also occurred as nuggets, 
varying in weight from a few grains up to several pounds, 
In fact, in running one small open cut about fifteen feet long, five 
feet wide and five feet high in the face, the miners took out about 
two hundred pounds of nuggets of variable size, while the rock 
itself, as mined, carried about one per cent, in native copper in small 
grains, disseminated through it. 

Judging from present mining developments in this district, it 
would appear that the predominating copper ores are bornite and 
chalcocite; the latter being found in a remarkably pure state, 
often carrying upwards of seventy per cent, in copper. 

It is reported that the showings of chalcocite and bornite on 
Elliot Creek, and on the Bonanza property are quite remarkable 
with regard to both extent and grade. 

The writer is, of course, not prepared to state whether the 
occurrences of copper-bearing ore in these localities just referred to 
occur under the same geological conditions, as is the case with those 
found near the head-waters of the Lakina River, but from available 

Some Notes on the Copper Riveb District 121 

information is inclined to the opinion that the geology throughout 
the entire lone is very similar, and that a general description of one 
is applicable t<> the other sect inns, except thai discoveries of native 
copper in amygdaloidal diabase, are not reported as having been 
made either on Elliot Creek or on the Bonanza property. 

rally shaking, near the head of the Lakina River, the 
occur I bornite and chalcocite copper usually found 

as contact deposits bet ween the limestone and greenstone, but this 
is not a universal rule. In fact some of the best outcroppings 
occur in fissures in the greenstone, but not very far removed from 
the contact between the greenstone and limestone. 

It is quite difficult to make an examination of the actual 
contact, because the limestone has suffered so severely from 
erosion, that in the vicinity of the Lakina River most oft he contacts 
are close to the summits of the ridges and at quite high altitudes 
and precipitously situated. It is also worthy of note that ac 
no occurrence of bornite or chalcocite ores at low altitudes in 
greenstone is reported. 

It is meanwhile observed that these different copper ores all 
occur on the same mountain on the west side of the head-wati 
the Lakina River; the bornite and chalcocite occurring in veins in 
the greet - an altitude of about 5,000 feet above sea level, 

and the native copper in amygdaloidal diabase and also in the 
greenstone at the contact between these rocks at some 2,000 feet 
lower altitude. 

On the opposite side of the river explorations have been 

carried, no di- have yet been made of native copper, but 

the bornite and chalcocite ore- occur there near the contact of the 
greenstone and lime-tone. 

During the summer of 1907anumber of prospectors wereengaged 
in exploring the territory between the head-waters of the Lakina 
River and the Bonanza mine, a dist the crow flies of about 

10 miles, and it is learned that many locations were then staked. 
Whether the mineral-bearing zone is continuous from the head of 
the Lakina River easterly to the Bonanza mine is a question that is 
yet to be answered. Sormyown part, while! am willing to concede 
that there is apparently a mineral-bearing zone extending easterly 
from Elliot Creek, a branch of the Kotsina River, easterly to a 
distance in an air line of about 60 miles to the Bonanza mine, yet I 

422 The Canadian Mining Institute 

believe that it will be found after thorough exploration that there 
are large areas of absolutely barren ground in this territory. 

In the mountains surrounding the head-waters of the Lakina 
River there are extensive areas of so-called iron capping, many of 
which have been located as mineral claims in the expectation that 
the capping or outcropping indicated the occurrence of copper- 
bearing ore, but a closer examination of some of these proved that 
this capping was not true gossan, but merely weathered diorite, 
very similar to occurrences of that character in the Appalachian 
Mountains in Georgia and Alabama, where it is locally known as 
brick-bat formation, because of the great similarity this weathered 
rock bears in color and structure to ordinary bricks. 

It is this feature which gave the writer the impression that 
quite extensive areas in the mineralized zone will be found to be 
barren, and another feature was observed that helps to confirm 
this conclusion. It is that the lines of strike of the ore-bodies so far 
as observed, are usually north-westerly and south-easterly, while 
the zone itself in which discoveries of mineral have been made, 
extends from west to east. In fact, according to the latest published 
map, a line drawn from the Hubbard-Elliot group towards the east 
to the Bonanza mine would intersect nearly every prominent 
group of mineral claims in the zone. 

In respect to the width of the zone in the Copper River district 
it may be said that at the present time, this is undetermined, but 
from the locations already made, I estimate the width from north 
to south to be about 10 miles; the most southerly locations of min- 
eral claims carrying copper -bearing ore that came under my obser- 
vation, occur on the Gilahena River, about 10 miles south-westerly 
from the head of the Lakina River. 

Whether future exploration will develop the fact that there 
is any connection between the copper-bearing ores found near 
Taral, on the Copper River, and those occurrences near the Chitina 
River and its tributaries, can only be demonstrated by exploration. 
The Taral district occupies territory south of, and about 10 miles 
from, the confluence of the Chitina and Copper Rivers. At the 
present day there are such large areas of unexplored territory in 
this portion of Alaska, an in the immediate vicinity of the Chitina 
River and its tributaries, that it is fruitless to speculate as to 
possible relationship between the various known occurrences of 
copper-bearing ore. 


By Charles Camsell, Ottawa. 

(By permission of the Director of the Geological Survey Depart- 

(Nelson Meeting, Jan. loth, 1908.) 

Hedley is the most important mining camp in the Osoyoos 
Mining Division of Southern British Columbia, and is situated on 
the Similkameen River at the mouth of Twentymile Creek. The 
history of mining operations at this place dates from the year 1896, 
so that the camp is little more than ten years old. At the present 
time there are about 110 surveyed and crown granted mineral 
claims and many others on which the annual assessment work is 
still being done. Prospecting and development work on these 
claims were carried on for some years, but it was not until early 
in 1904 that actual extraction of gold began. The Nickel Plate 
and the Sunnyside, both owned by the Yale Mining Company, 
are the two most important claims and the only two on which 
actual mining is being prosecuted, so that the total production 
of the camp is to be attributed to these two claims. The ores 
from these two claims are treated by the Daly Reduction Company 
in a 40-stamp mill and a cyanide plant in the valley 3,500 below 
the mine. Gold is the only metal at present being extracted 
from the ores of the camp, but there are some indications pro- 
mising a small copper production from other parts of the camp 
when transportation facilities shall be improved and other con- 
ditions are more favorable. The gold ore is an auriferous arseno- 
pyrite, and of such a grade at present that it is not considered 
worth while to extract the arsenic at the same time; but with a 

424 The Canadian Mining Institute 

gradually decreasing gold content and the exhaustion of the 
high grade surface ores such a contingency might eventually 
have to be considered by the mine operators of the district. 

During the summer of 1907 the writer was engaged in a 
survey of the rocks of Camp Hedley for the Geological Survey 
Department and considerable study was given to the occurrence 
of the ore bodies. The work was not completed, but sufficient 
information was obtained to outline the geological history of 
the rocks and in some degree to work out the relations of these 
rocks to the ores. 

There is only one series of sedimentary rocks, and these 
are the oldest rocks in the camp. No determinable fossils have 
yet been found in them, but from their lithological characters 
they have been referred to the Cache Creek group of Dawson's 
classification, and are therefore presumably Carboniferous.* The 
series in ascending order, as exposed within the limits of the 
camp, gives the following succession: (1) red, grey and black 
silicious and argillaceous beds interstratified in thin bands; (2) 
blue and white limestone, becoming impure at the top, and 
breccia; (3) silicious and argillaceous beds like the lower ones 
with probably some tuffs. 

The limestones of the middle division hold the ore bodies 
that . have so far proved to be of economic importance. 
These sediments dip to the westward at an angle which 
increases in that direction from 12 to 90 degrees. They 
are cut by a mass of monzonite lying in the central part 
of the camp, and also by a granite which is later than 
the monzonite. Dikes and sheets emanating from these two 
igneous masses, and particularly from the monzonite, penetrate 
the sediments in every part of the camp and alter them 
to such a degree as to make them difficult to recognize 
in the field. Some of these sheets may perhaps have been in- 
jected before the uplift and folding of the sediments took place, 
but it is likely that the majority of the igneous intrusions were 
later than these events. 

Monzonite is the next rock in age to the sediments. This 
occurs in two distinct varieties in different parts of the same 
mass with all stages of transition between them. The more 
*Geol. Survey of Canada; Report of Progress, 1877-78. page 85 B. 

Our. Deposits of Camp 425 

basic variety covers the widest area and occupies the central 
and western portions of the mass, while the acid variety lies 
along the eastern side and sometimes also occurs intrusive in 
the basic variety. The constituent minerals of the normal 
phase are orthoclase ;nnl plagioclase in about equal quantities, 
with hornblende, augite, quartz and biotite in varying proportions. 
All stages of transition from the basic to the acid variety can 
be found. Well marked contacts too are common, and these 
always show the acid variety as cutting the basic. From this 
core a great number of sheets and dikes of what is called andesite 
have been given off, and the same gradual transition in com- 
position is noted in them as in the mass from which they emanated, 
ire 1 is a diagrammatic west to east section across the 
camp, showing the relation of the monzonite and the dikes and 
sheets which it gives off to the overlying sediments. The mon- 
zonite is shown as making a plunging contact with the sediments 
and the dip of the sediments on the east side is such that off- 
shoots from the monzonite could readily penetrate the sediments 
following along the bedding planes of the latter as being the 
lines of least resistance. The section also shows a small area 
of the sediments lying as a roof pendant in the monzonite and 
which was not entirely absorbed by the monzonite before it 

The monzonite, as well as the sheets and dikes, have exer ed 
great influence in altering the sediments that they cut, but the 
metamorphic action is stronger in the acid variety than in the 
basic, and all the ore bodies now being worked are situated at 
the contact of this acid variety with the sediments. The mon- 
zonite is the most important rock in the camp in relation to 
ore bodies and appears to be genetically connected with their 

The next rock in age is a body of granite lying at the foot 
of the hill overlooking the Similkameen River. This granite 
covers a very extensive area of country outside the limits of 
the camp, both to the north and south, as well as for about 
fifteen miles along the river to the west. This large area of granite 
is separated from the Coast granite bat hold h by an intervening 
belt of other rocks, but it is probable that the two may be closely 
connected with each other in the date of their intrusion. This 

426 The Canadian Mining Institute 

granite resembles the Nelson granite in composition, and its 
constituent minerals are orthoclase, some plagioclase and quartz, 
with biotite and hornblende. The section exposed overlooking 
the river shows the granite at the base and for about 400 feet 
up. Above it are the tilted beds of the older sedimentary rocks 
with interbedded andesite sheets dipping into the granite and 
truncated by it. 

Figure 2 is the actual section exposed on the side overlooking 
the river. It shows the batholythic character of the granite 
body, and its relation to the sediments and the interbedded 
andesite flows as well as to some of the later dikes. The section 
shows unmistakeably that the andesites were injected and the 
sediments tilted before the granite came up. Also in its irruption 
the granite magma would appear to have absorbed or assimilated 
the overlying sediments without the latter having undergone 
any disturbance or dislocation as a result of that irruption. 

The granite-monzonite contact is well shown on the Metro- 
politan claim, and leaves no doubt of the relation between the 
two rocks. Granite boulders showing inclusions of monzonite 
are also commonly found in the bed of Twentymile Creek. 

As a last phase of the granite irruption some aplite and 
quartz porphyry dikes have been given off. 

Neither the granite nor the quartz porphyry dikes are thought 
to have been in any way instrumental in introducing any gold 
values. A quartz porphyry dike is associated with the ore 
body in the Nickel Plate mine, and in such a way that for some 
time it was thought to have some bearing on the values, but it 
appears almost certain that its connection with the ore body is 
accidental and it merely serves as a boundary to one of its sides. 

Following the granite irruption, but with nothing to mark 
the period of their injection more specifically, are a great number 
of dikes of different compositions. These are rhyolites, lampro- 
phyres, soft greenish dikes and many highly mineralized black 
dikes. Same of these have a fairly well defined north and south 
trend; while the black dikes, which are probably the most im- 
portant of all the dikes in the camp, strike in various directions 
and appear to radiate from a common centre. 

Gold is the only metal at present being extracted from the 
ores of Camp Hedley, and the Nickel Plate and the Sunnyside are 

Ore Deposits of Camp Hedli:\. 427 

the only two producing claims. Deductions on the history and 
mode of occurrence of the ores arc drawn largely from a study 
of the deposits being worked on these two claims, though many 
others were personally examined. The conditions under which 

gold OCCUra are fairly uniform throughout the camp, so that with 
perhaps a few exceptions, the case of a typical occurrence of a 
proven ore body would be found to be repeated in other parts 
of the camp. The variations in the character of the ore bodies 
are often due only to the relative proportions in which the 
different sulphides are found. Arsenopyrite is common to them 
all, but in some cases chalcopyrite will be the dominant sulphide, 
and in others pyrrhotite. The cases, however, in which arseno- 
pyrite is the principal sulphide are those which have proved to 
be the richest in gold values. 

The ore deposits are thought to be primarily of contact 
met amorphic origin, and contact metamorphic deposits properly 
so called are di posits formed on the contact of an igneous with 
a sedimentary rock and as a result of the igneous intrusion. 
Later enrichment has however evidently taken place in the case 
of the Nickel Plate and the Sunnyside ore bodies so as to greatly 
increase the gold content in certain places, but at the same time 
this action lias had the tendency to throw into some obscurity 
the original processes by which the values were first introduced. 

As arsenopyrite is the most prominent sulphide with which 
the gold is commonly associated, these deposits are somewhat 
unique in so far as arsenopyrite has never yet been found in 
such proportion to the other sulphides in contact deposits of 
this character. Arsenopyrite is found to a certain extent in 
a great many contact metamorphic deposits, but in this case 
it frequently occurs to the exclusion of the other sulphides. 
A- a rule it is found as secondary in Importance to such minerals 
as chalcopyrite, magnetite or pyrrhotite; but in these deposits 
it occurs so abundantly that Weed * in a classification of ore 
deposits them to a distinct type, of which this is the 

only representative. 

The ore bodies, that have so far proved to be of economic 
value, lie in the middle division of the section already given, 

♦Reference "Ore Deposits near ipneous Contacts". Trans; A. I.M. E., 
Vol. XXXIII. page 716. 

428 The Canadian Mining Institute 

that is to say in the calcareous beds and not in the silicious 
and argillaceous beds that both overlie and underlie them. The 
large eruptive mass of monzonite lying in the central part of 
the camp has itself been the cause of a great deal of metamorphism 
in the sediments where it cuts them, but besides this the large 
number of sheets and dikes of andesite which had their origin 
in the monzonite are responsible for much contact metamorphism. 
It is along these contacts and in the zone of contact metamorphism 
that ore bodies occur, and as limestone lends itself most readily 
to alteration and metamorphism, it is only natural to expect to 
find them there. 

The granite appears to have had very little effect in mineraliz- 
ing where it is in contact with the sediments, and the numerous 
later dikes, with the exception of perhaps the black dikes, are 
also of little importance in this respect. 

The monzonite is the most active mineralizer, and the acid 
variety probably more so than the basic. All the most promising 
ore bodies are situated on the contact of the monzonite core or 
of one of its more acid offshoots. 

The width of the zone of contact metamorphism varies 
with the composition of the intruded rock, the angle at which 
it is cut and the size of the igneous body. The silicious and 
argillaceous beds show very slight alteration as compared with 
the limestones, and the nearer the monzonite core the greater 
the alteration. 

The monzonite has thrown out so many sheets and dikes 
in all directions, that it is almost impossible within the limits 
of the camp to obtain sediments that have not been affected by 
it. Near the central core the metamorphic action has been 
extreme. The lime carbonates become altered to lime silicates, 
and the result is garnetite, a rock composed almost entirely of 
garnets. Farther away the limestone simply becomes crystalline 
or is slightly altered to garnet, epidote and other lime silicates. 

Locally the beds in which the ore bodies of the Nickel Plate 
and the Sunnyside occur are called quartzites, but it is more 
likely that they were originally impure limestones and now 
altered to the garnet-epidote-calcite rock. On the intrusion 
of the igneous rock which caused the alteration it is more reason- 
able to suppose that the formation of the new lime silicate 

Ore Deposits of Camp Hedley. 429 

minerals waa due to an introduction of silica from the igneous 
rock rather than of lime. 

The contact nictaiiiorpliic minerals developed along 
contacts are: — garnet, epidote, pyroxene, tremolite, quartz, 
calcite and some axinite. These act as the gangue for the ores, 
and in this gangue we find such ore minerals as arsenopyrite, 
pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and some sphalerite. The 
arsenopyrite and the pyrrhotite arc the most common, and are 
found in all parts of the camp. Chalcopyrite occurs abundantly 
on a few claims, and sphalerite is rare. The latter mineral, 
however, appears on the footwall in some of the Sunnyside work- 
ings. Irregular bodies of hard cherty rock are also found in the 
zone of contact metamorphism, and are probably the result of 
a migration of silica from the igneous rock. Frequently the ore 
body shows a distinctly banded appearance due to alternating 
layers of garnet and epidote, and this same effect is also in some 
measure brought about by the sphalerite occurring in well defined 

The arsenopyrite is often disseminated through the gangue 
rock in crystallized individuals in which case it would probably 
be of primary origin. In the same specimen it will also be found 
as filling small narrow lines of Assuring, showing that some second- 
ary action has taken place. The latter feature is often a good 
indication of high grade ore. 

Gold values appear to be always associated with arseno- 
pyrite, yet much arsenopyrite occurs throughout the rock in 
which little, if any, gold can be obtained. An assay of the sample 
is the only means of acquiring the slightest information as to 
its gold content, as free gold is rarely visible. In many cases 
it is impossible to distinguish a sample which will assay two 
dollars to the ton from one which will give twenty dollars. 
Again in the oxidized rock of the surface one can often wash 
a crushed sample and get a great number of very fine colours of 
gold in the bottom of the pan. In another sample no colours 
will be obtained, yet the one will give as good results on an assay 
as the other. As a rule, however, some assay values in gold will 
be obtained when arsenopyrite occurs in the altered sediments 
where they are cut by the acid variety of monzonite or its dike 

430 The Canadian Mining Institute 

As to the original source of the arsenopyrite one does not 
have to look farther than the monzonite itself. It occurs in 
small quantities as an accessory mineral in the monzonite mass, 
but in the dikes and sheets of andesite it is so plentiful as to 
appear almost as an essential constituent. It does not appear 
in the sediments on the granite contact, but always at or near 
the monzonite and andesite contacts. 

In a study of the original source of the gold the foregoing 
facts are significant, if we can be absolutely certain that the 
gold only occurs with the arsenopyrite and not alone or with 
some other sulphide as well. The solution, however, will require 
a more extended study of many ore bodies in different parts of 
the camp. The theory of an introduction of gold from the 
monzonite or its offshoots into the altered sediments at the time 
of the intrusion has much evidence in support of it, but in that 
case the values would probably have been sparingly disseminated 
throughout the contact zone. Developments in mining tend, "to 
show that other causes have since been instrumental in con- 
centrating these values to make them of economic importance, 
for the ore bodies that are now being worked are undoubtedly 
the result of secondary enrichment. Without this enrichment 
it is hard to say whether they would have been payable deposits 
or not. 

The Nickel Plate ore body illustrates to a remarkable degree 
this idea of secondary enrichment or concentration by down- 
ward moving waters. This claim is situated on the eastern slope 
of the hill and about 200 feet vertically below the summit. This 
slope is regular and gentle, and is uniformly covered with wash 
so that rock exposures are not frequently seen. Erosive action 
is not strong and the rocks as well as the ore bodies are decom- 
posed in place; so that concentration can readily take place in 
the body of the rock without much of the heavier substances 
being carried down the slope of the hill by surface waters. In 
contrast to this, the western or Twentymile slope of the hill is 
steep and generally uncovered by wash so that erosion of the 
rocks goes on at a much more advanced rate than on the other 
side, and decomposition does not extend to such depth. 

The Nickel Plate ore body lies in the sedimentary rocks 

Orb Deposits of Camp Hkdi.ii. 431 

about 2,000 feet away from the edge of the monzonite core. 
These sediments are, at the lower side of the claim, limestones 
which pass upwards into silicious beds. They dip at an angle of 
about 20 degrees in towards the monzonite. Into these sediments 
intrusive andesites have been injected, some of which follow 
the bedding planes of the sediments, while others cut the beds 
at different angles. The intrusive andesite with which the Nickel 
Plate ore body is associated dips in the same direction as the 
sediments, but at an angle of about 40 degrees, so that there is 
an angle of about 20 degrees between the dip of the igneous and 
the dip of the sedimentary rocks. The width of the andesite 
on the surface is about six feet, but this quickly increases with 
depth. The ore body lies directly on the andesite and extends 
upward into the zone of contact metamorphism. The rock 
in this zone of contact metamorphism is a greenish epidote rock 
which often carries much garnet distributed through it in well 
defined bands. This rock is also the gangue of the ores. A 
vertical black dike cuts the sediments and the andesite, and 
with the latter forms a V-shaped trough in which lies the ore 
body. The south boundary of this ore body follows a curving 
quartz porphyry dike, while to the north of the ore body is a 
zone of fracturing striking east and west, beyond which no pay 
ore is found. The gold is associated with arsenopyrite, and 
other sulphides occur sparingly. The highest values are found 
on the andesite footwall and there is a gradual diminution in 
values as the distance from the footwall increases. The position 
and character of the ore body point to downward moving waters 
as the dominant cause in the final stages of its formation, and 
possibly this concentration or enrichment represents the leached 
out values from many feet of overlying gold bearing strata, which 
have since been eroded away. 

In all sections of the camp and in some of the outlying 
country small quantities of gold are known to be disseminated 
throughout certain contact metamorphic rocks. Often this gold 
content is very small and not sufficient to form ore bodies that 
would be considered payable, yet it has not been definitely 
determined that workable deposits which are primary in origin, 
and not concentrations, do not occur in the camp. Such primary 
deposits, even if of lower grade, have the advantage over the 

432 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

others of promising greater permanence and with such the future 
of the camp is more closely connected. 

The conditions above given under which the well known 
Nickel Plate ore body occurs are known to exist in other parts 
of the camp, and enrichments are found in practically the same 
manner. With a general uniformity in the dip of the sediments 
and the large number of dikes of different compositions that cut 
all these, the conjunction of two of these dikes and of dipping 
strata to form a trough should not be very difficult to find. While 
enrichments are more likely to be formed under these conditions, 
every such trough should not be expected to contain an ore body, 
though all are worth prospecting and should be carefully ex- 

By far the largest amount of ore mined has come from the 
Nickel Plate claim. This was first worked as a glory hole, but 
at present all the ore extracted comes from underground. The 
depth obtained has not yet exceeded 150 feet from the surface, 
and in the four Sunnyside workings the mining of ore is carried 
on within a few feet of the surface. The present output of the 
camp is in the neighborhood of 35,000 tons annually, all of which 
must be attributed to these two claims, and at this rate many 
years must still elapse before the ore bodies now known to exist 
are exhausted. 

An interesting point developed in connection with the 
treatment of these ores is the finding at the end of a month's 
run of the mill of some platinum along with the gold. The 
manager for the Daly Reduction Company, Mr. F. A. Ross, from 
whom the information was obtained, is inclined to think that 
platinum occurs sparingly with the ores in the form of the arsenide, 

S t crmvinder 





Fig. 2 




Shewing Granite Contact 

Scale, 300feet= I inch 

300 200 100 

Dikes- frm» amd' black 


By .1. C. Gwillim, Kingston, Ont. 

The following classification of literature dealing with the 
exploration, geology and mining of these regions, is not complete. 
It has been compiled chiefly from three relatively accessible 
sources, namely, from the reports of the Geological Survey of 
Canada and the British Columbia, Provincial Bureau of Mines, 
and the Canadian Mining Institute "Transactions." 

The inclusion of some purely geological reports of the more 
remote districts seemed advisable, as offering first aid to those 
who go into them with the purpose of mining. 

The reports of the Geological Survey provide our chief source 
of information in respect to the economic geology of these areas; 
and it may be stated that Alberta, British Columbia, and the 
Yukon, have received a greal service from the Canadian Geological 
Survey, from the days of Richardson and Dawson, to the present 
summer when eight Held parties were working in these provinces. 
The publications of the ' Seological Survey arc. in most cases, free, 
and will be sent on application by the librarian of the depart- 
ment at Ottawa. 

The annual reports of the provincial mineralogist, contain 
much statistical information relating to production and progress, 
together with reports or summaries of the conditions in the re- 
spective mining divisions. There are also incorporated in these 
volumes, special reports upon mineral or coal areas, by the pro- 
vincial mineralogist, the provincial asaayer, and others competent 
to iii them. The British Columbia reports, and also 

various bulletins on, and maps of the mining districts of the Pro- 
vince can be obtained free, or for a small sum. on application to 
the Provincial Bureau of Mines at Victoria. 

434 The Canadian Mining Institute 

The transactions of the Canadian Mining Institute appear to 
round out our field of information, by giving detailed studies of 
mines, mining geology, and mining operations. This is a source 
of information which is likely to increase as the Provinces develop. 
Volume V is especially valuable in papers relating to operations 
in British Columbia. It would make this paper too cumbersome 
if one ventured into a description of the material within the titles 
cited. Attention, however, may be called to those having an 
asterisk, as affording much detail information concerning the 
area or areas to which they refer. The work of Dr. G. M. Dawson 
is always valuable, and his observations cover a large portion of 
the country here considered. 

Concerning the selection of papers and authors in this com- 
pilation, I am largely indebted to the Geological Indices of D. B. 
Dowling and F. J. Nicolas, also to the index of the Canadian Mining 
Journal, up to Volume VI. Any important omissions may be 
added. The list is lengthy, but it is a tolerably available one. 

The abbreviations used, are: — 

G. S. D. — Geological Survey Department, Ottawa. 

M. M. — Report of the Minister of Mines, Victoria. 

C. M. I. — Journal of the Canadian Mining Institute, Montreal. 

Western Alberta. 

Cairnes, D. D. — Foothills south of the main line of the C.P. R. 

G. S. D. Summary, 1905 and Moose Mt. Report, No. 968, 

G. S. D. 1907. 
*Dawson, G. M. — Preliminary Report upon the Bow and 

Belly River Region with special reference to Coal Deposits. 

G. S. D. 1880-1-2, or No. 167 and Map No. 171. 

Report upon the Rocky Mountains between the International 
Boundary and Lat. 51° 30'. G. S. D. 1886. 

Dowling, D. B.— Coal-fields of the Foothills from Old Man 
River to the Athabasca. G. S. D. Summaries 1903-04-05- 
06, and maps of Sheep Creek, Cascade and Costigan coal 
Stratigraphy of the Cascade Coal basin, Vol. VIII, C. M. I. 

Geology wd Mineral [ndttstrt.. r>~> 

Report on the Cascade Coal Basin of Alberta with maps. 
G. S. D. No. 949, 1907. 

Hi.MtETTA, C. M.— Bankhead Coal Mines, Vol. VIII, C. M. I. 
CrWlLLiM, J. C. — Notes on the Life History of Coal Seams, Vol. 

VIII. C. M. I. 

•Leach, W. W. — The Blairmore-Frank Coal-fields with map. 

<i. S. D. Summary I'll)'-'. 
♦McEvOT, Jas. — The Yellowhead Pass Route, with map, from 

Edmonton bo Tete Jaune Cache. G. S. D. Summary 1898, 

or No. 703 separate. 
Smith. V. H. Coal Mining in the Northwest, and its Probable 

Future. Vol. V, ('. M. I. 
Stockett, Lewis, a.nd Warden, B. R. — The Anthracite Breaker 

of the Pacific Coal Company, at Bankhead, with plans. Vol. 

IX. C. M. I. 

Tyrell, J. B.— Northern Alberta with Map. G. S. D. 1886. 
Whiteside, 0. E. S. — Across the Pitch vs. up the Pitch. Vols. 
II and IV, C. M. I. 

East Kootenay. 

Blakemore, Wm. — Pioneer Work in the Crow's Nest Areas. 

Vol. IV. C. M. I. 

Future of the Coal and Coke Supply of B. C. Vol. VI, C. M. I. 

Iron Deposits near Kitchener. Vol. V, C. M. I. 

Bull River Iron Deposits. M. M. 1900. 
Carlyle, W. A.— Report on East Kootenay. M. M. 1896. 
Corless, C. V. — The Coal Cnck Colliery of the Crow's Nest 

Coal Company. Vol. IV. C. M. I. 

Notes <>n the Geology and a Few Ore Deposits of South 
in British Columbia. Vol. V. C. M. I. 

Daly. Dr. R. A. — Geology of the International Boundary. G. S. 

I ». Summary 1904. 
♦DAWSON, Dr. <"i. M. — Report and Map upon the Rocky 

Mountains. C. S. D. 1NS6. 
Dowling, D. B. — Northern Extension of Elk River Coalfields. 

G. S. D. Summary 1905. 
Lea™. W. W.— Crow's Nest and Elk River Coalfields. G. S. D 

Summary, 1901. 

436 The Canadian Mining Institute 

McEvoy, James — East Kootenay map sheet. G. S. D. Summary, 


Crow's Nest coal field and map. G. S. D. Summary 1900. 

Notes on the special features of coal mining in the Crow's 
Nest Pass. Vol. VII, C. M. I. 

Robertson, W. F. — Report on East Kootenay. M. M. 1898. 
Reports including observations of McEvoy, Selwyn and 
Leckie and Baker, M. M. 1901 ; Bulletin and map of Flat- 
head Oilfields. M. M. 1903. 

Reports on Windermere and Fort Steele. M. M. 1903. 
Report on the Fernie Coal Mines Explosion (separate), 1902. 

Selwyn, A. R. C. — Oilfields of South Western Alberta and South 
Eastern British Columbia. G. S. D. Summary 1891. 

West Kootenay. 

Brock, R. W. — Reports on West Kootenay. G. S. D. Sum- 
maries 1898-99-1900. 

Geological Map of West Kootenay. G. S. D. No. 792. 

Report and sketch map on Lardeau District. G. S. D. 
Summary 1903-04. 

Report (Preliminary) upon Rossland. G. S. D. No. 939. 

Report upon Rossland. G. S. D. Summary 1906. 

Poplar Creek and other Camps. Vol. VII, C. M. I. 

West Kootenay Orebodies. Vol. 2, C. M. I. 

West Kootenay Notes. Vol. 3, C. M. I. 

Campbell, C. M. — Mining in Rossland District. Vol. V, C.M.I. 

Campbell-Johnson, R. C. — Dry Ores of the Slocan. Vol. V, 
C. M. I. 

Carlyle, W. A.— Bulletin No. 2, Trail Creek. M. M. 1896. 

Bulletin No. 3, Slocan, Ainsworth and Nelson Mining 

divisions. M. M., 1896. 
Cole, L. Heber. — Mine Surveying as carried on at the Centre 

Star Mine, Rossland. Vol. VIII, C. M. I. 

Dawson, G. M. — Report on West Kootenay, with map No. 303. 
G. S. D. No. 294. 

Qbology and Mineral Industry. 437 

Fell, E. Nelson -Notes to Accompany Sections of the Atha- 
basca Mine. \\,1. \. ( \ |f, j. 

GoiaMHli,^ Practiceatthe Athabasca Mi,,,.. Nelson. Vol. 

V, C. M. I. 

Foran, S -S.-Notes on the Ymir Mine and its Mill Prac tice. 
\ "1. Ill, C. M. I. 

tmcentiation in the Slocan District. Vol VI CM I 

Garde A. C.-Notes on the British Columbia Zinc Problem. Vol 
\ II, C. M. I. '.- West Kootenay Orebodies. Vol. Ill, Fed C M I 
Cnqall, E. D.-SUver Mines of the West Kootenay. Journal 

Mining Society of Nova Scotia, Vol. III. 
•Ing, W. K.- -Zinc Resources of British Columbia, Department 

of Mines, Ottawa. 1906. 
Hall, Olives— The Le Roi Mine. Vol. V C M I 
Hahdman J. E. -Notes on Some Mining Districts in British 

Columbia. Vol. II, C. M. I. 

HED Fed R C R *M ? e ^ SSibilitieS f0r Smeltin S in Britis h Columbia. 

KlRB J;w B ,T° re DeP ° SitS ° f R 088 ^^, British Columbia. Vol 
VII, C M. I. 

M< C ml L 9l^ 97 ~ 0n ^^ K °° tenay in °- S - D - Summ ^ies 
McDonald, BERNARD-Hoisting and Haulage (a description 
of LeRoi plant at Rossland, British Columbia). Vol V C 
M. I. ' 

Mining Possibilities of the Canadian Rockies. Vol VI 
( . M. I. ' 

Mine Signalling by Compressed Air. Vol. VI C M I 

Mir,, Timbering by Square Sett System at Rossland. Vol. 

Parlke,^ Norman W.-Rock Drilling and Blasting. Vol. VI, 

Robertson-. W. F.-Report on Nelson District. M. M 1900 
Lardeau, Fish Creek, Poplar Creek, etc. M. M. 1903 
Ainsworth, Slocan, and Slocan City Divisions. M M 1904 

Thompson'. WM.-Comparison of Costs of Compressing Air with 
Steam and Electricity at Rossland. Vol. VI, C. M. I. 

438 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

Boundary and Similkameen. 

Bauerman, H. — Report upon the Geology of the Boundary 

line West of the Rocky Mountains, also Geological Cross- 
section. G. S. D. 1882-3-4. 
Brock, R. W— Reports G. S. D. Summaries 1901-02, also 

geological map No. 828. 

Ore Deposits of the Boundary Creek District. Vol. V, C. M. I. 

Geology of Franklin Camp, Boundary District, Vol. X, C. M.I. 
Camsell, Charles — Similkameen District. G. S. D. Summary, 

Carlyle, W. A.— Report on Yale District. M. M. 1897. 
Daly, R. A. — Geology of Boundary Line. G. S. D. Summary, 

Dawson, G. M. — Preliminary Report upon the Physical and 

Geological Features of the Southern Interior of British 

Columbia. G. S. D. 1877-78, also maps No. 127 and No. 363. 
Keffer, Frederic — A Method of Mining Low-grade Ores in 

the Boundary District of British Columbia. Vol. V, C. M. I. 

Mining and Smelting in the Boundary. Vol. VII C. M. I. 

Notes on Diamond Drilling in the Boundary. Vol. IX, 

C. M. I. 

The Emma Mine. Vol. X, C. M. I. 
Ledoux, A. R. — Production of Copper in the Boundary District. 

Vol. V, C. M. I. 
De Pencier, H. P. — Mine Timbering in Knob Hill and Old 

Ironsides Mines, at Phoenix, Boundary District. Vol. V, 

Robertson, W. F. — Boundary Creek, etc., etc. M. M. 1900. 

Vernon, Kettle River, Osoyoos and Similkameen Divisions. 

M. M., 1901. 
Scott, O. N. — Ore Deposits of Copper Mountain, Similkameen 

District. Vol. V, C. M. I. 
Wickware, F. G. — The British Columbia Copper Company's Mine 

and Smelter, Greenwood, British Columbia, Vol. IX, C. M. I. 

Vancouver Island and Coast. 

Best, W. F. — Notes on the Economic Minerals of Vancouver 

Island. Vol. V, C. M. I. 
Brewer, W. M— West Coast, Vancouver Island. M. M. 1899. 

Geology and Mix ii; \ i. Industry. 139 

Mineral Resources of Vancouver Island. Vol. \ I. C. M. 1. 
Bornite Ores of B. ( J. and Yukon. Vol. VIII, C. M. I. 
Copper Ore on Vancouver Island. Vol. IX, r. M. I. 
Further Observations on, etc. Vol. X, C. M. I . 
Cabltlb, W. A. Nanaimo District, British Columbia. M. M. 

Carmichael, Herbert — Report, Map, and Reference List of 

Mineral Claims. Southern Vancouver Island. M. M. 1899. 

Nanaimo Division, Queen Charlotte Islands and Skeena 

River division. M. M. 1901. 

Quatsino Sound. M. M. 1903. 

Mount Baker Mines. M. M. 1904. 

VY. st Coast of Vancouver Island, Great Central Mine, etc. 

(bulletin). M. M. 1906. 
Daly, R. A. — International Boundary, Mount Baker, etc. G.S.D. 

Summaries 1901-1902. 
♦Dawson, G. M. — North Vancouver Island and Adjacent Coast, 

with map. G. S. D. No. 235. 
Ells, R. W. — Preliminary Report on Graham Island of the 

Queen Charlotte Group, British Columbia. G. S. D. Sum- 
mary 1905, and No. 7-43. 
Haycock, Ernest, and Webster, Arthur — West Coast of 

Vancouver Island. G. S. D. Summary 1902. 
♦Kirsopp, John, Jr. — The Coalfields of Cook Inlet, Alaska 

and the Pacific Coast. Vol. XXI, Trans. Mining Engineers. 
LeRoy, O. E. — British Columbia Coast, Texada Island, etc. 

G. S. D. Summary 1906. 

Marble Bay Mine. Vol. X, C. M. I. 

Preliminary Report of a portion of the Main Coast of British 

Columbia and adjacent Islands. No. 996. G. S. D. 1907. 
Marshall, Dr. T. R. — Coal and Iron Deposits of Graham Island, 

Queen Charlotte Group, British Columbia, with sketch map. 

M. M. 1902. 

.. G. F.— Notes on Mining on the Coast of British 

Columbia and the Adjacent Islands. Vol. Ill, Fed. C. M. I. 
Poole, H. S— The Nanaimo Comox Coalfield. G. S. D. Sum- 
mary, 1905, also M. M. 1906. 
♦Richardson, James — Coal Measures, East Coast, Vancouver 

Island. G. S. D. Vol's, 1871-72, 72-73, 76-77. 

440 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Robertson, W. F. — Victoria and Nanaimo Districts. M. M. 


Mount Sicker Camp. M. M. 1902. 

Iron Ores of Coast and Vancouver Island (bulletin). M. M. 


Britannia Mine; Sooke Copper Mines, and Vancouver 

Portland Cement Company. M. M. 1904. 
Wright, Fred Eugene — Unuk River Mining Region of British 

Columbia. M. M. 1906. 

Kamloops, Nicola, Lillooet. 

Cirkel, Fritz — Bridge River Gold Mining Camp. Vol. Ill, 

C. M. I. 
Colquhoun, A. J. — Notes on the Occurrence of Quicksilver in 

Canada. Vol. II, C. M. I. 
Dawson, G. M. — On Kamloops District. G. S. D. Summary 


♦Kamloops map sheet. Separate Report. 

G. S. D. No. 573, with Economic and Geological Maps. 
Ells, Dr. R. W— On the Nicola Coalfields. G. S. D. Summary 

1904. (Also Johnson R. A. A. on Aspen Grove and Aber- 
deen) . 
Moncton, G. F. — Gold-bearing Lodes of Cayoosh Creek. Jour. 

Fed. M. I., Vol. II. 
Robertson, W. F. — Nicola and Aspen Grove Camps, British 

Columbia, M. M. 1901, 
Satchell-Clarke, F. — A few Notes on Gold Dredging on 

Thompson and Fraser Rivers, etc. Vol. V, C. M. I. 
Selwyn, A. R. C, Dr. — On the Route from Kamloops to 

Yellowhead Pass. G. S. D. 1871-72. 

Cariboo-Stuart Lake and Skeena River. 

Bowman, Amos — Report upon Cariboo, with maps of the creeks. 

G. S. D. 1887-88 or No. 263. 
*Dawson, G. M. — Exploration of Blackwater, Nechaco, Stuart 

Lake, Quesnelle and Cariboo, also map. G. S. D. 1876-77. 

Expedition from Port Simpson to Edmonton via Peace 
River. G. S. D. 1879-80. 

Geology and Mineral [nduotrt. 441 

Hydraulic .Mining in Britwh Columbia. Jour. General Mining 
Association of Quebec. Vol. II. 

Dick, W. .1.- BydrauKc Mining in Cariboo. Vol. X, C. M. I. 

° ARI ;?n E ; W ; A -~ Carib00 District of British Columbia. M. M. 
189/. (Special Report.) 

Carmu hael, HKKHERT-Mineral Locations, Portland Canal Dis- 
trict. M. M. 190G (Bulletin.) 

Hobson J. B.-Auriferous Gravels of British Columbia Vol II 
G. M. A., Quebec. ' 

Leach, W. W.— The Telkwa Mining District. 
G. S. D. Summary 1906, also M. M. 1906. 

Some Notes on the Economic Geology of the Skeena River. 
Vol. X, C. M. I. 

McEyov, JAMES-Hydrauhc Mining in British Columbia 
Journal G. M. A., Quebec, Vol. I. 

M E RRi TT ,W^H.-Gold-bearing Reefs and Placers of Northern 
British Columbia. Vol. Ill, Fed. C. M. I. 

Robertson, W. F.-Report Upon Cariboo District. M. M 1902 
(Special Report.) 

Northern Interior Plateau between Fraser and Skeena 
Rivers. M. M. 1905. (Special Report). 

Omineca and Peace River. 

Dawson, G. M.-From Port Simpson to Peace River and Ed- 
monton. G. S. D. 1879-80. 

♦McConnell, R. G.— Omineca District, with map. G. S D No 
574, also Summary 1894, and M. M. 1897. 

^ITln^^ Pr ° SPeCting Trip in Northern 0m enica. 

Robertson, W F.-Essington to Edmonton, also fine photo- 
graphs. M. M. 1906. (Special Report). 

Selwyn, A. R. C, Dr.— Exploration of Peace River. G. S. D 

Valleau. F. W„ Gold Commissioner.-A Special Report upon 
Omineca distnct. M. M. 1901. 

442 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Cassiar and Yukon. 

Brewer, W. M. — Bornite Ores of British Columbia and the 
Yukon. Vol. VIII, C. M. I. 

Further Observations on the Copper Deposits of British 
Columbia, he Yukon, and Alaskan Coast. Vol. X, C. M. I. 

Cairnes, D. D. — White Horse and Yukon (Windy Arm Dis- 
coveries). G. S. D. 1906. 

Notes on Recent Developments in Quartz Mining in the 
Yukon. Vol. X, C. M. I. 

Carlyle, W. A. — Cassiar District of British Columbia. M. M. 

Camsell, Chas. — Peel River in the Yukon and McKenzie Dis- 
tricts. G. S. D. Summary 1905. 

Carmichael, Herbert — Mineral Locations on Portland Canal. 
Bulletin No. 2. M. M. 1906. 

*Dawson, G. M. — Exploration of the Yukon and Portions of 
Northern British Columbia, with maps. G. S. D. 1887-88, or 
No. 260. 

Gwillim, J. C. — Report on the Atlin District. G. S. D. Sum- 
maries 1899-1900. 

♦Separate Report on Atlin with map. No. 743, also in 
Vol. XII, 1899, G. S. D. 

Notes on the Atlin District. Vol. Ill, C. M. I. 
Characteristics of the Atlin Gold Fields. Vol. V, C. M. I. 

Keele, Jas. — Duncan Creek Mining district, Yukon, also sketch 
map. G. S. D. Summary 1904. 
Stewart River District. G. S. D. Summary 1905. 

McConnell, R. G. — Liard River. G. S. D. 1889, also resume 

in M. M. 1897. 

Klondike District. G. S. D. Summaries 1898-99-1900. 

Yukon District, 1901-02-03-04-05-06. Summaries G. S. D. 

Preliminary Report on the Klondike Gold Fields. No. 687, 
with map No. 688. G. S. D. Summary 1900. 

McMillan River, with map. G. S. D. Summary 1902. 

Kluane Mining District, with sketch map. 1904. 

White River and Windy Arm Districts, 1905. 

Old Valley Gravels of the Yukon. Vol. Ill, C. M. I. 

Geology wn .M i \ i:k \ l I ndustry. 443 

Notes on the Windy Arm Silver-bearing Veins. Vol. IX, 
C. M. I. 

♦Report on Klondike. Vol. XIV, G. S. 1 >. 1901. 
Report on Gold Values in the Klondike High-level Gravels. 
G.S.D. No. 979, 1907. 

Ogilyik. W. M. (iold Mining in the Yukon. Vol. I, Fed. 

C. M. I. 
Robertson, W. F.— Atlin, Bennett and Chilkat Divisions. M. M. 


Atlin and Bennett Mining Divisions. M. M., 1904. 

Notes on Windy Arm Mineral Locations. M. M. 1905. 

Robinson, A. W. — Ste-nart River Gold Dredge. Vol. VI, 

CM. I. I 

Tyrrell, J. B. — Dalton trail and Klondike. G.S.D. Summary 


The Gold Bearing Alluvial Deposits of the Klondike. Trans. 

M. and M. Vol. 8. 

Placer Mining in the Klondike. Trans. Inst. M. E. 1906. 

Concentration of Gold in the Klondike. Economic Geology 

June 1907. 
Wright, F. Eugene — Unuk River, Portland Canal. G. S. D. 

Summary 1905. Also in M. M. 1906. 

British Columbia (General). 

"British Columbia Mining Record" — A monthly journal, 
chiefly devoted to British Columbia mining. E. Jacobs, 
editor and manager, Victoria. 

British Columhm 'Report of Minister of Mines" — Contain- 
ing statistics, annual reports from the mining divisions 
and special reports on various districts by the provincial 
mineralogist, the provincial assay er, and others. W. F. 
Robertson, provincial mineralogist. 

"Briti-h Columbia Year Book" — Containing a resume of mining 
operations and reports of mining districts. R. E. Gosnell, 

Cairnes, D. D. — Prospecting in Western Canada. Vol. VIII, 
C. M. I. 

444 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Canadian Geological Survey "Summary Report" — Usually 

containing six or seven reports upon Western geology 

and mining. 
Dawson, G. M— The Mineral Wealth of British Columbia. Part 

II. G.S.D. 1887-88. 
Gosnell, R. E. — Mining in British Columbia. Bulletin No. 19. 

Bureau of Provincial Information, Victoria. 
Loring, F. C. — Mining Law and its Bearing on the Development 

of Mines and Mineral Districts. Jour. Fed. C. M. I. Vol. 

McDonald, Bernard — Mining Possibilities of the Canadian 

Rockies. Vol. VI, C. M. I. 
Merritt, Major W. H. — The Occurrence of Free Milling Gold 

Veins in British Columbia. Vol. II, C. M. I. 



By C. S. Baker, Greenwood, B.C. 
(Nelson, B.C., Meeting, January, 1908.) 

The Government of British Columbia recognizing the rapid 
growth of the mining industry and the importance to the Province 
of assayers, in whose work the investing public and the mining 
community could place confidence, enacted a law in 1899, entitled 
the "Bureau of Mines Act Amendment Act, 1899." This Act 
requires that all assayers, who intend to practice in the Province, 
satisfy a board of examiners on their proficiency in sampling and 
assaying. The Board accepts certain degrees or certificates from 
Universities and Schools of Mines in the Dominion and the Em- 
pire as tantamount to passing the examination. Prior to this 
date assayers could obtain, for their own satisfaction, a Govern- 
ment certificate under the Bureau of Mines Act, 1897. 

be present time there are two holding the certificate under 
the 1897 Act, and one hundred and twenty-nine under that of 1899. 

The examination is held twice a year in Victoria and in Nelson, 
if a sufficient number of candidates enter from the upper country. 
It continues for about a week and covers those determinations 
which occur in day-to-day work and written papers on sampling, 
wet and fire assaying. 

The mining regions may be divided roughly into: (i) the 
silver-lead-zinc ores of the Slocan; (ii) the copper-gold-silver 
ores of the 'Rossland, boundary and coast districts. It is the 
purpose of this paper to give a few methods of treating these ores, 

446 The Canadian Mining Institute 

and although they do not as a rule offer any serious difficulties 
it is hoped that a few points of interest may be brought forward, 
(i) The silver-lead-zinc ores and concentration products do 
not carry payable quantities of gold, so that silver, lead, zinc and 
occasionally iron and insoluble are the determinations usually 

Silver is assayed by either the pot or scorification method. 
The former is more in favour in the district since it is found to 
give slightly higher results, and has the advantage of taking less 
time and the bead may be parted for gold. Scorification has 
the disadvantage of requiring a high opening up heat causing a 
possible loss of silver and the use of less pulp, which may not 
give as correct a sample. 

The usual practice is to take 0.5 A.T. of ore and nitre; or 
0.2 A.T., which, in most cases, gives a button of the required 
size. An excess of litharge is always used to decompose the 
sulphides. The button should weigh from 20 to 25 grms. and be 
free of impurities. The heat in cupellation should be such as to 
just show the presence of "feathers"; it is preferable to cupel at 
a slightly too high than too low a heat. 

In control work for the lead assay the fire method is used, as 
the smelters settle on that result. It is, however, an unsatis- 
factory assay and the heat must be carefully regulated during 
fusion, which takes about an hour and a half. The muffle at the 
start should be at a low red heat and after twenty minutes when 
a violet flame can be seen coming from the crucible the heat is 
gradually increased to a full red heat, and finally the fusion is 
poured very hot. 

The fluxes used are the mixed carbonates of sodium and 
potassium, a reducer of flour, iron nails and a cover of borax. 
Borax is used only as a cover in order to reduce the possibility of 
forming borate of lead to a minimum. The Battersea 10 grm. 
crucible is a convenient size to use. 

Zinc is estimated by titration with potassium ferrosyanide 
and is found to give excellent results on medium and high grade 
ores. Low grade ores, say under 5 per cent., are not so satisfactory 
and tend to come somewhat high. The zinc occurs as blende and 
is completely decomposed by a saturated solution of potassium 
chlorate in nitric acid. 

Assaying in British Columbia. 447 

The procedure is to take 0.5 grin, of ore, dissolve in 15 c.c. 
nitric-potassium chlorate solution and evaporate down to com- 
plete dryness, which throws out manganese as the oxide. Cool 
and add 7 grms. of ammonium chloride, 15 c.c. ammonia and 25 c.c. 
hot water. Heat to boiling, filter and wash three times with hot 
water. Neutralize with hydrochloric acid and add exactly 
10 c.c. in excess. If necessary bring bulk of solution up to 150 c.c. 
and add test lead to remove copper, a small amount of which is 
usually present. Place on hot plate and gradually increase tem- 
perature to 70°C and titrate. Uranium nitrate or acetate may be 
used as indicated. The traces of cadmium can be neglected. 
Similar conditions as to bulk of solution, excess of acid and heat, 
should be closely adhered to in the standard. 

By dissolving the ferric hydrate, which has been filtered off 
from the zinc solution, in hydrochloric acid, iron can be deter- 
mined by the Bichromate method, and finally the well-washed 
residue, when dried, ignited and weighed will give silica. 

(ii). The copper-silver-gold ores of the Rossland, boundary 
and coast districts. 

The ores of these districts are low grade in copper and average 
from one to two per cent . • 

In Rossland the gold values run higher than in the boundary. 

It may be said that the cyanide process is used in all ordinary 
work, such as hand samples, daily smelter mattes, etc.; and the 
electrolytic or codide for control work. 

The Batter\- method is simple and convenient, requiring less 
manipulation than the other methods and if put on in the after- 
noon can be weighed the following morning. 

When no metals are present that would be deposited with 
the copper on the cathode, simple treatment with nitric acid is 
sufficient. If, however, interferences are present, precipitation 
with potassium Bulpho-cyanide gives excellent results. The 
following method ifl to be recommended: Treat 1 grm. in 150 c.c. 
beaker with 10 c.c. nitric acid. Put on hot plate at low heat and 
raise temperature gently in order that the sulphur may be clean. 

Take down carefully to a syrupy consistency, if possible in water 
bath to prevent -pitting. Cool and add 8 c.c. hot water and 2 c.c. 
hydrochloric acid; heat, and, when in solution, wash down watch 
glass and sides of beaker with 20 c.c. more water. Boil and filter; 

448 The Canadian Mining Institute 

the filtrate should not exceed 70-80 c.c. Heat and add saturated 
solution of sodium sulphite to reduce iron — avoiding a large 
excess. Now add 5 c.c. of 10% solution of potassium sulpho- 
cyanide. A white precipitate of cupreous thiocyanate is formed. 
Maintain at moderate heat until precipitate is settled. Some- 
times a red colouration appears notwithstanding the iron being 
previously reduced. A further small addition of sodium sulphite 
will, however, remove this and is advisable. Filter very carefully, 
using two filter papers, one larger than the other, and not filling 
the smaller quite full. 

This precaution prevents the precipitate creeping up the 
paper. Wash with boiling water and gently ignite filters. The 
precipitate copper is easily soluble in nitric acid and can be de- 
termined by placing on battery or titrating by the iodide method. 
All interfering metals have been removed. In a series of checks 
the following results have been obtained : 

Taken 0.053 grms. electrolytic copper found. . . .52.93 mgrms. 
" 0.1232 " " " " ...123 

" 0.0107 " " " " ... 10.5 

When copper is precipitated from a solution of the soluble 
sulphates by means of aluminium, it has been observed that it is 
extremely difficult to throw down the last traces of copper. 

This may be obviated by the addition of hydrogen sulphide in 
removing the aluminium; about 15 c.c. of a saturated solution 
precipitates the last traces of copper and prevents oxidation of 
the finely divided metal. 

In assaying copper ores for gold and silver it is necessary to 
flux off all the copper in order to obtain a pure lead button and 
thus prevent the absorption of gold in cupellation. This may be 
done by either first dissolving the copper in nitric acid, precipita- 
ting the silver with sodium chloride and scorifying the residue; 
or using a large excess of litharge in the pot or crucible assay. 
The latter method is based on the fact that oxide of lead can be 
used in a crucible, together with subsidiary fluxes such as: sodium 
carbonate, potassium carbonate, nitre and flour to give the deter- 
mination of gold and silver results equal, if not superior, to scorifi- 
cation. If analysis of ore be known approximately, the charges 
may be calculated to give for all ores and mattes an uniform slag. 

Experiments in control work prove the slag that gives the 

Assaying i\ British Columbia. 449 

best results is the one that in section shown by breaking cone 
after cooling, shows a silicate of lead, copper and iron on outside, 
gradually changing to crystalline litharge towards the centre. 
At the proper temperature the slag ia very fluid and gives a bright 
clean button and slaj: is entirely free of small shots of lead. The 
temperature of the muffle must be carefully calculated as there is 
danger in both extremes. If furnace is too cool slag will be 
wholly crystalline and will not pour well; if too hot, slag attacks 
crucible by taking up silica and leaves small pits in which shots 
may be retained and overlooked; it also increases loss by volati- 
lization. The correct temperature is an uniform heat at starting, 
fairly red, and. a rising fire; in thirty minutes colour of muffle 
should be bright red with charge all reduced and fusing quietly. 
Hold at this for ten minutes and pour. 

Analysis of ore should be known as regards copper, silica, 
iron and sulphur. Reducing effects of sulphur and oxidising 
effects of nitre should be ascertained by trial assay. A trial assay 
is run on say .25 A.T. of ore using certain fluxes and button is 
weighed, from which the necessary amount of oxidising or reduc- 
ing agent is calculated for the 0.5 A.T. charge. It is advisable to 
deduce this knowledge from experiments on variety of ore, with 
which one comes in contact and strike an average standard or 
standards for stock flu 

It is found as a rule with boundary ores upon 0.5 A.T. 

1 grm. of flour will reduce 10 grms. Ph from Pho. 

4' , sulphur will reduce 16 grms. Ph from Pho. 
antimony will reduce 3 grms. Ph from Pho. 

4% arsenic will reduce 6 grms. Ph from Pho. 

1 grm. of nitre will oxidi/ PhtoPho. 

Amount of litharge to be used will depend on impurities to 
be fluxed off; chief of these is copper, which must be eliminated 
to reduce cupel losses — 

From low grade ore- \'2 to 4% copper) 5 A. T. Pho to 0.5 
A.T. o, 

From matte (48-60 r 7 copper) S A. T. Pho to 0. 1 A. T. matte 
removes nearly all the copper. 

To get a slag of composition previously described, silica 
must be added, after calculation of that in ore to make up tin- 
ratio of 1 part Sit)., to 16 parts Pho. The button should weigh 


450 The Canadian Mining Institute 

about 16 grms., but will vary a few grms. according to temperature 
of muffle. 

As an example an ore of the following composition may be 
taken: — 

5.4% Cu; 29.4% Si0 2 ; 28.2% Fe; 13.1% CaO; 15.8% S. 

This ore contains a considerable amount of copper and sul- 
phur, which would require much nitre. Therefore it is advisable 
to take . 25 A. T. of ore. Add 8 A.T. Pho, . 5 A.T. Na 2 Co 3 and 
K 2 C0 3 and 18.3 grms. of Si0 2 . Since 4% S would reduce 16 
grms. of Ph if 0.5 A.T. of ore were taken, this charge contains 
nearly 16% S, but being only half as large, would give a button of 
about 32 grms. To obtain a button of 16 grms. we must, then, 
add 4 grms. nitre. 

Mix charge thoroughly and cover with -J inch of sodium 

As regards the matter of covers, with same flux and under 
similar conditions two assays of a high grade gold ore gave: 

With salt as cover 20 . 16 ozs. per ton. 

With borax as cover 19.9 ozs. per ton. 

It would seem that salt is the most satisfactory cover. Again 
buttons vary in size when borax is used, owing to its action varying 
at different temperatures. 

Combined Wet and Dry Process for Gold and Silver in 
Blister Copper, Mattes or High Grade Copper Ores. 

Weigh out 3 A.T. in separate portions of 1 A.T. for silver. 
Place in large beaker with 100 c.c. of water and cover with watch 
glass. Add 50 c.c. HN0 3 (sp. g. 1 . 42) and await finish of strong 
action. Now add 50 c.c. more acid. Boil to expel red fumes and 
remove from heat. Carefully and thoroughly wash down sides of 
beaker and watch glass. Add sufficient normal salt solution to 
precipitate silver, avoiding a large excess. Stir well and allow 
beaker to stand over night. Filter off chlorides through double 
filter papers and wash with cold water to free papers of copper. 
Wipe out beakers with moistened filter papers and add. Transfer 
filter papers to 2\ inch scorifiers in a dish of test lead containing 
about eight grms. Dry at about 300 C. When charring of 
papsrs is complete add 20 grms. of test lead and \\ grms. of borax. 

Assaying in British Columiuv. 451 

Scorify down to button of about 7 grins, and save slag. 

Cupel buttons a1 low temperature and save cupels. If 
beads check to 0.75 ozs. per ton unite and part. 

The slags and cupels are fluxed with litharge, glass and a 
reducer and button cupelled. This silver recovered, divided by 
3 is added as a correction. (Usually 1 .4 to 1 .7 ozs. per ton.) 

Gold — Weigh out 1 A.T. and divide into 4 equal portions of 
| A.T. 

Place in 3-inch scorifiers with 90 grins, of lead. Cover with 
£ grm. silica and borax glass. Scorify until closed over and pour 
hot. Save slags. 

Make up buttons to 65 grms. with lead and \ grm. silica and 
again scorify and save slag. 

Unite two and two. 

Two buttons representing 0.5 A.T. are made up 90 grms. 
with lead and 0.5 grm. silica and scorified. 

Proceed with slags and cupels as with silver and add correction. 

X<»te. — Scorifiers used are of the shallow type. It may be 
mentioned that for mattes and ores less scorifying will serve to 
remove the copper. 

As regards wet work, the determinations for iron, lead, sul- 
phur, etc., used, are those described in the standard text books, 
but a method for insoluble in some refractory sulphide and car- 
bonate ores may be described; it is interesting inasmuch as it 
gives results very close to fusions and in some ores the insoluble 
can be reduced as much as 6-7% lower than by the nitro-hydro- 
chloric acid treatment. 0.5 grm. is weighed in 3-inch casserole, 
and while covered with wat ch glass is treated with 10-15 c.c. HC1. 

Most of the sulphur is got rid of as H 2 S. Evaporate to 7 c.c. 
and add 5 to 10 c.c. according to the amount of sulphides present, 
boiling nitric acid. The action is somewhat violent and during 
operation casserole should be closely covered. Evaporate to 
dryness, bake a little, take up with dilute HC1, filter, dry, ignite 
and weigh. 

IN 1907. 

By E. Jacobs, Editor Mining Record, Victoria, British Columbia. 

The following notes on the mineral production of British 
Columbia, in so far as they relate to the year 1907, must be re- 
garded as subject to correction after the official returns shall all have 
been received by the Bureau of Mines of British Columbia, and the 
customary statistical statement prepared by the Provincial 
Mineralogist and published in ordinary course in the "Annual 
Report of the Minister of Mines for British Columbia." It is 
believed by the writer, though, that when the finally revised figures 
shall be made public, it will be found that those given herein are 
not far from indicating the actual production .of the year, calcul- 
ated at the values adopted by the local Bureau of Mines. 

Regarding the prices of metals, it may be observed that it is 
usual to mention each year in the "Annual Report" above alluded 
to, that "In calculating the values of the products, the average 
prices for the year in the New York Metal Market has been used as 
a basis. For silver 95 per cent, and for lead 90 per cent., of such 
market price has been taken. Treatment and other charges have 
not been deducted. " 

Following this custom, the prices so determined at which the 
value of metalliferous minerals has been arrived at are as follows: 
Silver, 62.06 cents per oz. ; lead, 4 . 8 cents per lb. ; copper, 20 cents 
per lb. Gold values used are not similarly subject to change each 
year; they are $20 per oz. for placer and $20 . 67 for lode gold. For 
the small quantity of zinc included an approximate value of $25 per 
ton has been taken. Heretofore, for years, coal has been valued at 

Mineral Prodtt< tion of B.C. 


$3 per ton of 2,240 lbs.: thi : 50 is the value placed upon it 

whirl, change is warranted by the prevailing selling prices in the 
Province during the year, similarly, the price of coke has been 
advanced from $6 to $6 per Ion- ton for valuation purposes, but in 
the opinion of the writer, the latter change givee a higher value to 
this product than market conditions, as affecting the Crow's Nest 
Coal Company** collieries, which rapply by far the greater 
parr of the coke included in the following estimate, realty justify. 
The amounts showing the value of each metal in the following 
table are in round figures; they are nut worked out in accurate 


- : iect to Revision) 

Customary .Measure 


Gold, placer 

'■oH, lode m 


Total gold. 



JS nun 

Jr*" Lb. 47,000,000 

V? pper ' 41,700,000 




Total metalliferous 

• Tons, 2,240 lb 1,800,000 

\; ,l '\: • Tons, 2,240 lb. ;,000 

Building materials, etc 

iaky: — 

Metalliferous .... 


Total \-alue of production. 


S 7.10,000 












454 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Compared with the production of other years, the foregoing 
total value would appear to indicate a substantial increase, but, as 
a matter of fact, it does not disclose the actual position, since in 
quantity all the metalliferous minerals show a decrease (zinc only 
excepted, the production of which was too small to be of import- 
ance), while in value, copper was practically alone in reaching a 
higher total than in 1906. The total decrease in value of these 
minerals as compared with 1906 was about $1,213,000, against 
which there was an increase in the non-metalliferous minerals of 
$2,257,000, so that there was on the combined production a net 
increase for the year $1,044,000. 

Taking the several minerals separately, the following comments 
may serve to better show the results achieved: 


The year's production of placer gold was the smallest of any 
year since 1898. Cariboo, Quesnel and Atlin divisions, in which 
are the larger placer fields of the Province, each showed a con- 
siderable decrease in production, in all about $200,000. This 
result was particularly disappointing since it had been expected 
that the Guggenheim companies would operate at Quesnel and 
Atlin on a large scale and add materially to the output of those 
camps. Not only did they not do so, but it is understood they 
have practically abandoned those fields, notwithstanding that 
their preparatory expenditures had been comparatively large. It 
is considered probable that the Cariboo division will make a better 
showing next season, but the immediate outlook for the other 
placer fields is not regarded as promising a satisfactory improve- 
ment or increase in yield of gold. 

In lode gold there was a decrease of about 26,000 ozs. Bound- 
ary mines produced 13,500 ozs. less than in 1906, Rossland mines 
8,400 ozs., mines on the coast 5,400 ozs., and several other districts 
made smaller decreases. Against these, Nelson division increased 
its yield to the extent of 1,600 ozs. Similar causes to those which 
led to a decrease in copper production adversely affected the lode 
gold output, for the reason that gold occurs in association with 
copper in the chief producing mines of the Province, so that when 
copper-mining is checked the yield of gold is proportionately 

Minium. PRODUCTION OF B.C. 455 

smaller. Nelson mining division alone showed increased activity 
in lode gold mining, and its prospects are favourable for a further 
advance in this connection. The Nickel Plate mine, in the lower 
Similkanieen, is slated to have about maintained its average 
yearly production of $400,000 or thereabouts. 


There was a net decrease in the yield of silver of about 202,000 
OIB. The chief decreases were: East Kootenay 246,000 OZS., Boundary 
224,000 ozs., andCoast32,000oss., total 502,000 ozs. Against this the 

increases were: Slocan (including Ainsworth) 120,000 ozs. , Nelson 
98,000 ozs., Lardeau 79,000 ozs., Skeena 2,200 ozs., and Rossland 800 
total 300,000 ozs. The decreases in both East Kootenay and 
the Boundary were in part due to stoppage of the coke supply during 
a part of the year, which prevented the continuous operation of the 
smelting works. The current year's production will in a large 
measure be determined by the result of the endeavours now being 
made to secure an extension of the period during which the bounty 
will be paid on lead mined in Canada, for much of the silver pro- 
duced is obtained from ores mined chiefly for their lead contents. 
The market price of this metal will also result in a restricted pro- 
duction if it remains as low as during lecent months. 


The decrease in lead produced was about 4,908,000 lbs. East 
Kootenay, chiefly the St. Eugene mine, was 7,077,000 lbs. less than 
in 190»i. while the Boundary was 91,000 lbs. short owing to its 
smaller mines, in which some lead occurs, having shipped but little 
ore during the year. Against these decreases there were increases 
approximately as follow.-: Ainsworth 320,000 lbs., Slocan 1,100,000 
lbs., Nelson (largely from the La Plata mine) 750,000 lbs., and 
Lardeau 90,000 lbs., together 2,260,000 lbs. The fall in the market 
price of lead has proved discouraging to tin- load mine owners, who 
are urging the Dominion Government to continue payment of the 
lead bounty beyond the period now provided for. Should this not 
be done the production of lead in the Province may be expected to 
further da nd that considerably. 

456 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Nearly half the lead produced was smelted at the Consolidated 
Mining and Smelting Company of Canada smelter at Trail, where 
a refinery is also in regular operation. Approximate production 
figures are: Consolidated Company's smelter, Trail, 22,500,000 lbs. 
Sullivan Company's smelter, Marysville, East Kootenay, 11,000,000 
lbs.; Hall Mining and Smelting Company's Smelter, Nelson, 
6,000,000 lbs.; contained in concentrates exported to Europe, 
8,000,000 lbs. 


The closing of the Boundary district copper mines, and others 
in the Nelson and Coast districts, respectively, during several weeks 
of November and December, effectually prevented an increase in 
the year's production of copper over that of 1906. There was also 
a restricted output during the spring, owing to a shortage of coke 
for the smelters and an occasional insufficiency of railway cars for 
ore and coke-hauling purposes. These adverse conditions resulted in 
a decrease of 1,302,000 lbs. as compared with 1906. When it is 
remembered that 78 per cent, of the year's production came from 
the Boundary District, the loss resulting from the closing of its 
mines during two to three months becomes evident. 

Boundary's proportion of the total production of 41,688,000 
lbs. was 32,535,000 lbs. ; Rossland (Trail Creek division) produced 
5,075,000 lbs. ; Nelson division's share was 313,000 lbs.; while the 
districts was 3,052,000 lbs. Of the 1,140,000 tons of copper ore 
shipped by the Boundary mines those of the Granby Company 
contributed 625,000 tons, of the British Columbia Copper Company 
235,000 tons, of the Dominion Copper Company 155,000 tons; and 
of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company 125,000 tons. 
Rossland camp's ore tonnage was about 280,000 tons, in the follow- 
ing approximate proportions: Consolidated Mining and Smelting 
Company's Centre Star-War Eagle group 132,000 tons, Le Roi 
113,000 tons, Le Roi No. 2, 23,000 tons, and sundry smaller 
shippers 12,000 tons. On the coast the tonnage was approximately 
100,000 tons, as follows: Britannia 57,000 tons, Tyee 12,000 tons, 
Outsiders 9,000 tons, Marble Bay 7,000 tons, Richard III 4,000 
tons, Lenora 2,000 tons, and sundries 9,000 tons. The Queen 
Victoria, near Nelson; the Outsiders, at Portland Canal, and the 

Mini km. Production of B.C. 457 

Ikeda, on one of the Queen < Ihariotte Islands, were new producers, 
and the Richard 111 and Lenora, Mi. sicker. Vancouver Island, 

resumed ore shipping after having been non-producers for several 


Iron and Zinc. 

There was no considerable quantity of either iron or zinc 
shipped during 1007. On Vancouver ami Texada Islands a few 
thousand tons of iron ore were mined and shipped to [rondale, 
Timet Sound, Washington, U.S.A. Themosl important event of the 
year in connection with the iron ores of the Province was the ex- 
amination by Kinar Lindeman. a Swedish iron expert, of a number of 
claims taken up for iron ore on Vancouver Island and vicinity, for 
the purpose of reporting on them to the Dominion department of 
mines. Ottawa, which engaged him with the object of ascertaining 
whether or not iron ores occur in suitable quantity, variety, and 
quality, on the Coast to warrant the expectation that an iron- 
manufacturing industry will eventually be established there. 
Mr. Lindeman's report has not yet been made. 

Shipments of zinc ore and concentrate were not large, and 
those made were from Slocan mines, several of which arc however, 
continuing to store the zinc concentrates made in milling ores for 
silver and lead. The uncertainty as to the final decision regarding 
the imposition of a duty on zinc ore sent to the United States 
remain- an obstacle to much of this product being shipped to 
smelter.- in that country. A comparatively small quantity was 
exported to Europe from a Slocan mine. No recent progress 
appears to have been made in the direction of operating on a com- 
mercial scale the Canadian Metal < lompany's zinc smelter at Frank, 
southwest Alberta. Works for the treatmenl of zinc ores by the 
Snyder electric process are being built :it Nelson, B.C. 

Coal and Coke. 

production of coal in 1007 was the largesl in the history 
of coal mining in the Province. The net increase over 1906 was 
282,000 tons (2,240 lbs. i, this bringing the year's production of coal 
disposed of as such up to i.soii.dihi tons. All three of the larger 


The Canadian Mining Institute 

companies shared in this increase. There were about 419,000 tons 
made into coke. The respective approximate proportions of pro- 
duction were: 

Wemnp^on CollieryOo », 

Western Fuel Co. — 

Nanaimo and Northfield mines 

Total for Vancouver Island 

Crow's Nest Pass Coal Co 

Nicola Coal and Coke Co., and other new 

Total production in 1907 

Tons of 2,240 lb. 






Tons of 2,240 lb. 






The Nicola Coal and Coke Company has been operating only 
about a year, and most of its comparatively small production was 
of coal taken out in opening its mine. Several other companies 
will shortly be in a position to mine coal in quantities up to a few 
hundred tons a day each. 

The coke output of the year was 223,000 tons— 207,000 from 
the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company's ovens at Fernie and Michel, 
and 16,000 tons from the Wellington Colliery Company's ovens at 
Union, Vancouver Island. 

Building Materials, Etc. 

Activity in building operations in the larger cities of the 
Province had the effect of increasing the production of building 
materials — stone, brick and lime. An increase was also made in 
the quantity of Portland cement manufactured, the Vancouver 
Portland Cement Company's works near Victoria, Vancouver 
Island, having been enlarged and its output of cement considerably 

The official returns of exports of these materials to several 
Pacific Coast cities of the United States indicate a larger demand 
from that direction for the several varieties of excellent building 
stone occurring on the British Columbia coast. 

Ml\l RAl r«i)I>r. Tin \ OP B.C. 



For purposes of comparison the foil. .win- table showing 
mineral production for the years 1904, 1905 and 190G, is appended 


r. ~ s •- 

IN © 





- ~ I : 

8 • 



— '.r 

C CO '0 i- 

'". ~ — 




r. i - i -' jo 

f J — ■ © 

o © 


'- - - s 

co ■" r 

— s 


r. -o 

•~ x c -i 

o ©_ 



'" — of x) 

/ — ' 

i-T "** 






i- n t- y: 

CO !~ 
© IN 


• ©^ o i_ r i — 

co N 


• 3! c"x ©~ 


. ej Spa 

— 4 Oi 

. n © -f" © 




i— 1 

Z. 01 


— r ■- 

P "3 

© o 

© -« N <N 

© CO (N 

S d 


00 <H 

-T 00 ©_w_ 

f © © 




! i — 3> - ~" 

CiC^OO o" ^h" 


© co 

© r^© t^ 

~ '- i-O © © 


© © 

~ — co / 

■"J^eo oo ■*< 












© t-eo-H 

(N >C 

CO -h © IC 

— /- 


©_^ "*_t- c-j 

co i>. 



og" ©~©"of 


£9 co oc © 

/ 1 - 

N -r i- vr 

CO 01 



•O CO 

c y: 

x -o — i - 

"0- - *© © o 


o © 

© — • r~- co 

CO 00 ^ O u- 


co co 

~. ''■ X - 

cooo^^H o er 


— ~ — / 

•^o~<n" ©~ t> 


— y 

C -* N f- 

OJ © © o t^ 



— — 

- i - — ; 

5 — ' — — 

M^t>^i-H SO C 

co" co" i-T oc 










/ X 



— n — 

© — 



: j © © 

co' z* 


n — — 



~L— . '~ 




co CO 

i — ' — ' 

_ __ 

;— ' 

~ ■ JL~ 

~ ' r. 

-, -g 


ing in 





; - 








; u 







-_ . 1 
- [ g 

fLs - 



O ; 


. . I_ 


~ ~r PT? B> 








- ^ 


By H. H. Claudet, Rossland, B.C. 

Rossland Meeting, May, 1908. 

In giving these few notes I will make no attempt to advance 
any theories concerning the process, nor give a reason for certain 
minerals being amenable to treatment and others not. All I wish 
to do is to give a general outline of its application and to include 
some of the most interesting cases. 

I will describe the principles of the process by quoting from 
Mr. Elmore's article which appeared in the Engineering and Min- 
ing Journal, issue of May 11, 1907. "The process is based pri- 
marily upon the fact that, in a flowing pulp of crushed ore and water 
oil has a selective action for the metallic mineral particles as distinct 
from the rocky particles or gangue. This selective action is mater- 
ially increased in some cases by the presence of an acid; and second- 
ly upon the fact that the air or gases dissolved in water are liber- 
ated, partially or entirely, upon subjecting the same to a pressure 
less than that of the surrounding atmosphere. These liberated 
gases may be augmented by the generation of gases in the pulp 
or by introduction from an external source. The gases attach 
themselves to the greased mineral particles, being largely increased 
in volume as a result of the partial vacuum applied, cause the 
greased particles with their attendant bubbles of air or gas to 
float to the surface of the liquid." 

I might further state that, for the purpose of explanation, 
one can regard the process as consisting of two distinct operations: 

(1) Mixing the crushed ore with oil and acid. 

(2) Concentrating or separating. 

(1) The mixing takes place in a wooden trough of simple 
design, with revolving paddles. 

(2) The concentrating or separation takes place as soon as 
the mixed pulp comes under the influence of the vacuum. 

Elmore qm Pro< i sa of Ore Concentration. 401 

The whole operation is continuous and requires very little 
power and labour. 

The process can be applied either to: — 

(1) Direct concentration, i.e., crushing the ore to the desired 
mesh and treating direct without the aid of water concentration. 

(2) The treatment of tailings. 

(3) In certain cases, the separation of different sulphides, 

such as lead and zinc, zinc and iron. 

(1) As an example of direct concentration, we have a mill 
working in East Kootenay on an ore composed of galena in baryta 
gangue, and the separation of these two minerals is excellent. 

it assays of mill products give the following: — Feed 14% 
Ph.. concentrates ti!)' , Pb., tailings 2* < Ph. This plant has not 
been running long enough to allow us to arrive at the cost- of 
operation, which necessarily must depend on local conditions to a 
greal extent. The operating costs of two different vacuum plants 
which have been working for a long time are about 60 cents per 
ton of ore treated in one case and 75 cents per ton of ore treated 
in the other, exclusive of crushing. These figures are on a 1 unit 
installation and in bigger plants would be considerably less. 

(2) In cases where mills are losing values in their tailings it is 
a cheap and easy matter to install the vacuum process without 
altering the original mill. This is being done with great success 
in various pla 

(3) A very interesting feature of the Vacuum Process is that 
in certain cases it can be applied to effect a separation of different 
sulphides. I have here some samples of the products of a lead 
sine ore showing the separation of the lead from the zinc, and 
you will see the excellent separation made in this instance. The 
ore assayed 39.5% Ph. and 19.7% Zn. with very small silver 
values. The lead concentrate assayed 81.0^ Pl>. and o ">' , Zn., 
representing a '.mi' [ extraction of the lead; the zinc concentrate 

ed I s •">',' Zn. and 4.1',' Pb. representing 71% saving of 
the total zinc eontei 

We have other cases of lead sine ores giving equally good 
result, although I would not state that this separation can be made 
on every lead zinc ore; the only thing todoistotesl each individual 
sample as no hard and fast rules can be laid down. 

462 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

Another interesting case was the separation of zinc blende 
from iron sulphide. The ore assayed 19.6% Zn. and 17.6% Fe., 
and the concentrates assayed 46.5% Zn. and 11.4% Fe., repre- 
senting 91% saving of the total zinc contents. 

I hope to supplement the above brief account of the process 
with a more comprehensive paper on the subject at some future 


By E. P. Jennings, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908.) 

The Ludwig Mine is located near the western base of the 
Mason Valley Mountains, 500 feet above the desert and 5,000 feet 
above sea level. 

The general geology of this desert range has been described 
in a former paper,* and it will be sufficient at this time to state 
that the portion of the range which includes the ore deposits is a 
highly metamorphosed series of limestones and clay shales resting 
on a central core of intrusive hornblende-granite. 

These limestones and shales present the usual phenomena 
due to contact metamorphism; the limestones either being mar- 
bleized or changed to massive garnet-epidote rock and the shales 
to compact aggregates of quartz, lime-silicates, tremolite, horn- 
blende, biotite and muscovite, with tourmaline near the granite 

Copper ores occur disseminated through large areas of the 
garnet-epidote rock; also in fissures in the limestone and as 
bedded deposits between the limestone and metamorphic slates. 
The Ludwig ore body is a bedded deposit of iron and copper 
pyrites in a quartz gangue replacing limestone at its contact with 
a massive metamorphic rock, which forms the hanging wall. 

The surface croppings of iron-stained quartz indicate an ore 
body 700 feet long and from 20 to 60 feet wide. The strike being 
X. 40 degrees E., with a dip of GO degrees to the south ea 

Masses of rich oxidized ore consisting of malachite, azurite, 
and chrvsocolla, outcropped in the limestone foot wall 30 to 50 
feet from the primary ore body and approximately parallel to it. 

♦Genesis of the Yerington Copper Deposits, Jour. CM. I., Vol. x, p. 257. 

464 The Canadian Mining Institute 

These ore bodies were developed and mined 40 years ago by an 
open pit and a shallow tunnel driven along the strike of the de- 
posit for 500 feet. Later a vertical shaft 400 feet deep was sunk 
in the limestone foot wall and several thousand tons of oie, ranging 
from 20 to 30 per cent, were shipped to the smelters. Last year 
the mine was sold to the Nevada-Douglas Copper Company, and 
active development of the primary ore body was undertaken. 

The original shaft is located at the north end of the ore body; 
from this a cross-cut was run to the primary ore body, and from 
this point an incline was sunk which crossed the ore body near 
its northern end and passed into the hanging wall at the 550 foot 

From the 500 station a drift was run 300 feet south along the 
contact of the ore body and the foot wall, which encountered 
small bodies of rich ore, mostly cuprite with iron oxide. Cross- 
cuts into the main ore body showed it to be leached; but unaltered 
pyrite and chalcopyrite was found in two winzes sunk 20 feet 
below these cross-cuts. A small amount of acid copper water 
came into one of the winzes, but the other, at the same depth, was 

No sulphides were found in the incline from the 500 to the 
550 station, as the primary ore body was small and broken suffi- 
ciently to admit of the complete oxidation and leaching of all 

The hanging wall is a massive, fine-grained rock, composed 
of quartz, sericite, and lime-silicates, together with finely divided 
pyrite containing traces of copper. 

Drifts were advanced north and south from the 550 station. 
The north drift encountered a body of oxidized ore a few feet from 
the station, which proved to be 20 feet wide and to extend upward 
20 feet; a winze was sunk 50 feet in this ore which was largely 
soft, earthy, oxides of copper and iron, with finely divided metallic 
copper disseminated through the mass. Very little water was 
encountered in the winze. 

The south drift was advanced 15 feet in the hanging walls 
and a cross-cut run to the primary ore body, which was found to 
be a crushed. mass of quartz, country rock and unaltered sulphides. 
From this cross-cut the south drift was advanced 50 feet in the 
hanging wall near its junction with the ore body. Bunches of 

Copper Ores of Tin. LUDWlfl Mini;. 465 

chaicocite were found along this drift, in the hanging wall rock. 
At the 50 foot point the main drift was tuned 46 degrees to the 
right and passed into t lie original sulphide ore body which, for the 
first 150 feet, showed no signs of enrichment, and carried 4% 
copper; recently this drift has encountered bornite as a coating 
on chalcopyrite; the firsl evidence of enrichment of the primary 
ore hody. 

The chaicocite was followed 95 feet into the hanging wall by a 
cross-cut. the first 40 feet being in rich ore; beyond this point, 
the mineralization gradually decreased and the character of the 
hanging wall changed to garnet-bearing limestone. A raise of 40 
feet on the chaicocite ore body showed a gradual change of the 
chaicocite to covelite. 

The close proximity of the Ludwig vein to the copper deposits 
in the garnet rock, leads to the conclusion that it was due to the 
action of mineralizing magmatic waters whose source was the 
intrusive granite that metamorphosed the limestone and shales 
and deposited the copper in the garnet. 

The Ludwig may, however, represent a later -tage of activity 
of these waters, replacing portions of the limestone along zones of 
weakness at the contact with the shales, which were already 
more or less changed by the general metamorphism caused by 
the intrusive granite 

The Ludwig ore body is enclosed by an easily soluble lime- 
stone foot wall and a more or less shattered hanging wall, both of 
which are more pervious to the leach waters than the compact ore 
body. A portion of the arid, copper bearing water passed into 
the seams of the foot wall where it was precipitated as malachite, 
azurite and chrysocolla, though the latter mineral may lie due to 
an alteration of malachite by alkaline silicate solution-. 

These foot wall ores have furnished beautiful specimens; 
the malachite, azurite and chrysocolla being interbanded in deli- 
cate and intricate designs. 

The leaching waters that passed into the hanging wall 
deposited copper as chaicocite; pyrite being the precipitant. This 
chaicocite was oxidized to cuprite, tenorite and metallic copper, 
the oxidization being complete in some instances and partial in 
others; earthv chaicocite being mixed with the oxides. 


466 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Covelite appears in one place as an alteration of the chalcocite, 
the blue sulphide forming a coating on the copper glance. 

The vertical range of the secondary ores is not fully deter- 
mined, but is known to extend to the 600 foot level, and recent 
deepening of the incline below the 650 foot level, shows the chal- 
cocite to extend, at least, to this depth. Small amounts of water 
have been met in the incline and winzes; this water is acid and 
copper bearing, indicating that it is from the surface, and not the 
permanent ground water. 

The future development, in depth, may furnish valuable 
data as to the genesis of ore deposits in fissures and contacts that 
are directly connected with ore bodies formed by contact me- 

By J. 1). Kendall, London, England. 

This subject is introduced with the object of creating dis- 
cussion, so that some common understanding may be reached as 
to what are the duties and rights of Engineers in certain frequently 
recurring circumstances. By way of initiating the discussion 
the writer proposes to make a few remarks on some of the more 
prominent branches of the subject. 

The knowledge and ability possessed by Engineers may be 
utilized in different ways. (1) They may act for themselves only. 
(2) They may act for themselves and others, as the Engineers of 
syndicates or public or private Companies of which they are mem- 
bers, or (3) They may act for others only, as the Engineers of 
individuals, or of syndicates or public or private companies of 
which they are not members. 

It is only proposed to consider this question under the second 
and third of the above heads, as the rights and duties of Engineers 
when acting for themselves do not differ essentially from those of 
other members of the community. 

The subject may, perhaps, be best dealt with under different 


Ice*. — It is doubtless unnecessary to say, in a general way, 
that an Engineer's duty to his client, is to serve him honestly and 
to the best of his ability. Unfortunately this course of conduct 
does not appear to be always followed. 

■ t commissions. — When an Engineer is acting for another 
or for others, he should not accept secret commissions in connection 
with the business he has in hand. The very fact of their being 
secret stamps them as immoral, and yet how often are they taken. 
Not long ago the writer heard of an Engineer bargaining for a 
commission — from makers of machinery — to the extent of 25% of 
the pross value of the machinery purchased, through him, for the 

468 The Canadian Mining Institute 

mine he was managing. Men known to be guilty of accepting 
secret commissions should not be permitted to claim any connec- 
tion with this Institute or any other associated body of Engineers. 

Concealed profits. — It is also wrong for Engineers to purchase 
for clients, plant, machinery or general supplies from -companies 
in which they are interested as shareholders, without the fact 
being made perfectly clear to their clients. This is often done but 
should not be permitted. Engineers should not, in the pursuance 
of their profession, have any other interest than that of their 
clients, which, in this particular case, is to buy in the best and 
cheapest market. A man's judgment may be warped, prejudicially 
to his employers, if he has conflicting interests of his own to serve. 

When an Engineer is asked to report on a property that is 
offered for sale, and in which he is interested as vendor, he should 
state the fact at once to his clients, and if he afterwards make a 
report for his clients, the extent of his interest should be set forth 
in his report. 

Share interest. — Many people think they are doing good 
business when they induce their Engineers to become shareholders 
in the property the latter are managing. In private companies this 
doubtless is so, but in public companies it may be very far other- 
wise. A man who is a large shareholder in a mine or smelter, and 
who is in a position to make reports that will probably become 
public, may use his position to increase illegitimately the value of 
the shares, if he wishes to sell, or to depreciate them if he wishes to 
buy. An honest man would not, of course, be influenced to act in 
the way indicated, but it will invariably be better for Engineers to 
refrain from becoming shareholders of any Company for which they 
are likely to be called upon to make reports that may influence the 
share market. If it be necessary that he should become a share- 
holder in order to give confidence to others, he should rigidly 
refrain from dealing in the shares. 

Leakage of information. — When an Engineer is either manag- 
ing a property or reporting on it for an intending purchaser he has 
no right to give any information so obtained to anyone, without 
the consent of his client or clients. Nor has any Engineer any 
right to communicate to another, information that might be pre- 
judicial to his client regarding the property of which he has charge, 

The Duties wi> Rights of Engineers 469 

or business with which he is in any way professionally connected, 
without first obtaining the consent of his client or clients. 

Bribes. — Every attempt at bribery should be treated as an 
insult, for it is nothing else to an honest man. The known accept- 
ance of a bribe will, it is to be hoped, always be considered by this 
Institute a sufficient reason for the exclusion or removal, from the 
list of members, of anyone who is known to be guilty of such dis- 
honesty and unnianliness. Whenever a bribe is offered to a report- 
ing Engineer the writer would strongly urge him to set out the 
fact at the beginning of his report. 

Adopting r< ports. — An Engineer should not sign a report that 
has been prepared by another without making it perfectly clear to 
his clients in what capacity he signs. Frequently reports are 
signed by persons who have had nothing whatever to do with the 
preparation of them, but the fact is not stated, BO that clients and 
the public — if the reports are published — are alike deceived. 


The Engineer has certain duties to his clients, on the other 
hand clients have certain duties to their Engineer. The latter may 
not inappropiately be looked upon as rights of the Engineer. 

Fees — For competent and faithful service an Engineer is entitled 
to proper remuneration. He should not be asked to accept — and 
if he is asked, he should refuse — a contingent fee, unless the < "ii- 
tingency be such that it cannot possibly be affected by any mis- 
representation on his part. A very common form of the connit- 
gent fee is this: "If I don't sell the property I will give you, say 
6200 for your report, if I do sell it I will give you £800". That 
is a kind of offer which should never be made to an Engineer, but 
whenever it is made he should instantly reject it. The acceptance 
of such a fee will destroy the value of his report in the mind of the 
public, no matter how much he may strive to do right. 

Mnttgled reports. — There is a common practice nowadays of 
publishing favourable | from the reports of Engineers, but 

keeping back unfavourable parts. It frequently happens that 
there are favourable passages in an Engineer's report, although in 
its entirety it is decidedly unfavourable. For that and other 
reasons which will readily occur to liming haiidneers it is essential 

470 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

that the whole of a report should be published or none of it. The 
Institute may do much useful work in protecting its members and 
the public in such circumstances by calling public attention to 
mangled reports. If an Engineer's report be too long or too 
technical to be published in full he should be asked to make an 
abbreviation, but whatever is published should bear the Engineer's 
signature and the date of writing. 

I think that the membership of a Mining Institute should be 
somewhat of a guarantee to the public of competence and integrity 
and the Institute should do its utmost to protect its members from 
unfair practises on the part of clients and the public from irregular- 
ities in the conduct of Mining Engineers. To do this there must be 
a substantial preponderance of opinion as to what are unfair 
practises and irregularities. The knowledge of such preponder- 
ance can, I think, be best obtained by a discussion such as is pro- 
posed by the foregoing paper. 


By William Campbell, Ph.D., Sc. D., New York 
(Ottawa Meeting, March, 1908) 

Metallography has been termed the science which studies 
the constitution of metals and alloys from the point of view of 
their structure, composition and physical properties. It does 
not necessarily deal with their extraction or formation which 
come under the art of metallurgy. We also class under this 
heading the study of the constitution of mattes speisses, the 
opaque constituents of ore-bodies, etc., rather than coin such new 
terms as mineralography and the like. 

At the outset it ought to be explained that the following paper 
should really be entitled a few examples of the application of 
metallography. For the sake of those who are not familiar with 
the methods used in the microscopic examination of opaque 
material, a few remarks introducing the subject will not be out 
of place. 

The preparation of the specimen consists in cutting off a 
suitable sized piece, say 1 inch square, by means of a hacksaw or 
sledge, and grinding down a flat surface with a file or emery- 
wheel or revolving disc such as is used in petrography. If a file 
be used as in the case of iron and steel a flat surface can be ob- 
tained by clamping the file (smooth or dead-smooth) in a vise 
and rubbing the specimen on it. Next the scratches from the 
file or emery are taken out by rubbing on emery paper No. O and 
00 commercial. Then the specimen is rubbed on a series of 
French emery paper No. O to OOOO, such as are used by die- 
polishers, changing the direction of rubbing when passing from 
one paper to the next. With certain material some of the papers 
may be omitted. The surface will now show a series of very 
fine, parallel scratches which are got rid of by polishing on a flat 
board or revolving disc covered with broadcloth and armed with 
well-washed rouge*. In most cases this final polishing can be 

*\V. Camp!..!], Nbtea on Metallography. S. of M. Quarterly xxv. 389. 

472 The Canadian Mining Institute. 

done wet, but occasionally water will attack the specimen as in 
the case of certain alloys rich in iron-sulphide, etc. It is then 
necessary to either polish dry or else use a very thin oil. In most 
cases after washing off the rouge it is best to dry by covering with 
alcohol and mopping with an old handkerchief. 

The specimen is mounted on a glass slide with plastic wax 
and examined for black or colored constituents such as slag in 
wrought iron, manganese sulphide and silicate in steel, graphite 
in cast iron, temper carbon in malleable, copper oxide or sulphide 
in copper, various metallic compounds in other alloys. 

The structure may be further developed by etching. For 
steel and iron three reagents give satisfactory results: — 

(1) A saturated solution of picric acid in alcohol. The 

pearlite is attached. 

(2) Ten per cent, nitric acid in water. Shows up the grain 

of the ferrite or pure iron in wrought iron and low 
carbon steel. 

(3) A solution of picrate of soda (2 per cent, picric acid 

added to a 25 per cent, solution of caustic soda) used 
at 100° c. Near the eutectoid point (saturation point) 
0.6 to 1 per cent, carbon it is often difficult to distin- 
guish between the veins and envelopes of pure iron or 
ferrite and the carbide, cementite. In the above 
solution cementite darkens. 
By heat-tinting we can distinguish between carbide and 

phosphide of iron, also by etching with (3). 

For alloys, various reagents have been used. For most 

^ork use: — 

(1) Ten per cent, nitric acid: white metals, bearing metals, 


(2) Fifty per cent, nitric acid: copper-rich alloys, brass, 

bronze, blister and other grades of copper. Immerse 
till the structure shows up clearly. 
Any good type of microscope can be used. It ought to have 
a fair working distance between the objective and the stage. A 
revolving stage is an advantage and so is one which can be raised 
and lowered by rack and pinion. In examining opaque material 
transmitted light cannot be used and the specimen must be 
illuminated from above by means of reflectors. With a one- 

■ ind in. 

Fig. 11. 


Figs. 14 and 11 


inch objective the Sorby-Beck reflector can be used and with it 
we ca., get both vertical and oblique illumination. With higher 
powers the illuminator must be screwed between the objective 
and the nose-piece. It consist, of a th.n glass disc or a prism 
Such reflectors are made by Beck, Nachet, Zeiss, Lertz Bausch 
and Lomb and other makers. The principle of all is the same 
The beam of light enters at an opening in the side of the tube 
is deflected at 90° through the objective and illuminates the 

Special types of microscopes have been designed for metal- 
lograpbic work, such as the Le Chatelier, Martens and Sauveur 

For illumination a Wellsbach light serves for low power 
work, whilst a Nernsl lamp or arc-light is accessary for hi«*h- 
1 lower work. 

w the final structure of our material is very important 
but we are often liable to overlook the importance of the influence 
of all those changes which take place between the beginning of 
solidification and the final state. A great deal of information 
as to structure can be obtained from an examination of the struc- 
tures of the more fusible metals* such as tin, lead, antimony 
zinc, etc., as the following illustrations will show. 

When ingots of metals are suitably etched they are seen to 
possess a definite granular structure. Fig. 1 shows the surfaces 
of three small ingots, that on the left being pure tin, that on the 
right pure lead, whilst the centre bar is impure tin. This definite 
orientation of grain is seen to be caused by differential etching 
or.etch figures, the rate of etching depending somewhat on the 
orientation of the grain with respect to the surface, the final 
result being to show up the internal structure, akin to cl< 
Fig 4 x 35 shows the structure of the base of a small ingot of 
toad, five or more distinct grains or crystals being seen each 
having a rough surface built up of tetrahedra with distinct orient- 
ati'.t, in c; ,-h grain. 

Many metals show at their surface a definite crystalline 
growth m the form of{skeleton crystals or dendrites, each metal 

to-six?h !^n P rt bel ^. The p'""'" ,"' ""'"" :u " i "'' Annealing. Appendix iv 
tojtatb R«port, Aloys Research Committee, met Meek En* 1904 
L ber das ( Sefogfl der Metalle. Meteilurgie i v 

474 The Canadian Mining Institute 

Having its own characteristic form. They owe their origin to the 
fact that they are the framework of the first crystals or grains 
to form at the surface and subsequent cooling and freezing were 
accompanied by contraction and so they were left standing out 
in relief. Those on the surface of aluminium are very character- 
istic. Fig. 2 x 40 shows the dendritic structure of antimony, 
form the base of a small cake cast on stone. 

The dendrites in the cavities and pipes of ingots are well 
known to all engineers, whilst to many in practice their appearance 
is an indication of the composition of the metal, e.g., cake anti- 
mony, test ingots of tin, test ingots in lead refining, etc. 

The effect of the rate of cooling especially through the solidifi- 
cation range of temperature is of great influence on the structure 
of the metal or alloy. The slower the freezing the coarser the 
crystallization as in aqueous solutions. Fig. 3 x 16. shows the 
surface of a silver button cooled slowly in the crucible under a 
borax cover, whilst Fig. 5 shows the same silver (x 33) cast in a 
small iron mould. In Fig. 3 a very small fraction of the surface 
.of a single grain with its distinct orientation is shown, but in 
Fig. 5 at twice the magnification, three grains are shown, also 
distinctly oriented by what have been called by some authorities 
the secondary grains. 

A great deal has been said about "casting temperature" 
as if the temperature of the metal were a direct factor. Of course 
the higher the temperature of a metal the more gas it is capable 
of absorbing, &c.,but apart from this side of the question, the 
main factor involved is the rate of freezing. A metal cast at a 
very high temperature would carry more heat into the mould 
and therefore freeze more slowly than one cast near its freezing 

Lastly, in regard to what has been termed ingotism there 
has been great discussion as to how metals, especially steel, 
freeze. Fig. 9 shows a vertical section through a small rectan- 
gular ingot of zinc, cast wide end up, whilst Fig. 10 shows one 
cast small end up. Whereas in each the freezing has been mainly 
perpendicular to the cooling surfaces, the pipes and central cores 
are quite different, due in part to the location of the last liquid 
to freeze. 

After a metal (or alloy) has solidified there are other factors 

Metallograi'hv Applied to Engineering. 475 

which tend to change its structure. First we have re-arrangement 

in the solid state as the metal cools down, e.g., pure iron, steel, 
bronze, brass, etc. Next we have the effect of strain or mechan- 
ical work and then there is the effect of heat treatment or anneal- 

When a metal is strained beyond its clastic limit, a slipping 
takes place within the grains. We have the "cry" of tin and 
zinc. This slip may show itself merely as lines or we may find 
a banded structure akin to twining. Pig. •'» \ :;•> shows the sur- 
face of a thin slab of tin cast on stone and strained by bending. 
Three mains are shown, but within each we sec hands of different 
orientation due to the strain. The first lines or bands to appear 
are perpendicular to the direction of strain, but as the latter 
increases other lines and bands make their appearance, three 
sets of parallel bands in one grain being common. This slipping 
is intimately related to the orientation of the dendrites and 
etch figures and is therefore in some cases coincident with cleavage 
(c.p. twining of calcite). 

When the strain has been severe as in the case of forging and 
rolling the grains are broken up and the coarse structure due to 
the original cooling is replaced by a much finer one, whose size 
depends primarily upon the amount of reduction. Fig. 7 x 33 
shows some tin (whose original structure was similar to Fig. 4) 
hammered out to less than J in. thick. The coarse crystallization 
has entirely disappeared. Now on annealing such strained mater- 
ial a growth of grain takes place, the size of the final struct ure 
depending on the temperature, the time and the mass of the piece. 
Fig. 8 x 33 shows some hammered tin annealed for ten days 
below 20(>°c. There has !>een an enormous growth of grain, 
in this case equal to that of the original tin. In Fig. 8 the in- 
terior of the grains is seen to be finely striated. These are slip 
lines due to the strain set up in the cutting of the section. The 
same experiments have been performed with zinc, lead, cadmium, 
copper, nickel, gold and silver, etc. Rolling or hammering 
breaks down the grain, annealing restores it. The breaking of 
tie rods in reverberatory furnaces, the recrystallization of cold- 
rolled material and certain cases of "aging of mild steel" are all 
typical examples of this growth of grain in strained material. 

On the subject of alloys metallography has shed a light which 

476 The Canadian Mining Institute 

has helped to clear up most of our curious notions of their con- 
stitution. In the old days no one had examined the minute 
structure of an alloy and therefore one was unable to prove that 
the other party's "queer ideas'' were all wrong. To-day we 
cut our specimen open and examine its structure to the limits 
of the microscope and we can as a rule follow its genesis step by 
step by the aid of pyrometric research and heat treatment. We 
call to our assistance the modern theories of Physical Chemistry 
on the subject of Solutions, the Phase Rule and the like. The 
result of which is that we now know a great deal about alloys; 
more than the engineer of to-day appreciates. 

In the examination of alloys we find them to be composed 
of pure metals, compounds of metals and solid solutions, which 
are homogeneous but in indefinite proportions. Guthrie pointed 
out that the freezing point curve of many series of alloys is like 
that of the ice-salt series. The addition of one metal to another 
lowers the freezing point, giving us two curves in a binary series, 
which intersect at a point indicating the alloy with the lowest 
freezing point or the eutectic. The eutectic of copper and copper- 
oxide contains 3£ per cent. Cu 2 and freezes at 1064° C, some 20° 
below the freezing point of pure copper. The more copper oxide 
present, the greater the amount of eutectic or ground mass and 
the lower the freezing point down to 1064° C at 3? per cent. 
Cu 2 0. Fig. 11x60 shows an alloy with about 50 per cent, 
free copper (bright) surrounded by the eutectic (dark). There- 
fore the alloy contains about 1$ per cent. Cu 2 0, and begins to 
freeze about 1074° C, ending at 1064° when the groundmass 
freezes. On the other hand if there is more than 3£ per cent. 
Cu 2 present, the excess will freeze out first as dendritic crystals 
as seen in Fig. 13 x 60. 

The copper-copper sulphide series show a similar, structure 
the eutectic occurring at about 4£ per cent. Cu 2 S, but above 9 
per cent. Cu 2 S, they separate out into two layers; in other words 
we have copper bottoms produced. Industrial sulphides or 
mattes and speisses have long been of interest. Text-books give 
a wonderful series of compounds and definitions. But mattes 
and speisses follow the same laws as alloys of metals or salts. 
For example lead sulphide (970°C) and iron sulphide (1137°C) 
form an eutectic at 25£ per cent. Fe S at 784°C, according to 


Weidmann*. Lead sulphide and copper sulphide form an eutectic 
at 51 per cent. Cu 2 S and ceording to I'liedrichf. I ' B 

and Cu,S form an eutectic at 14% Cu,S and 860°C according to 
HofmanJ. Blast furnace mattes are usually deficient in sulphur 
and we should expect some free metal. A first matte running 
3 per cent. Cu showed a structure composed of dendrites and 
cubes of iron, dendrites of Fe S. surrounded by the eutectic or 
groundmass. A second matte with 40 per cent, copper showed 
cubes of free iron, dendrites of Cu._,S in the eutectic. 

The speisseslf are more complicated. Iron and arsenic form 
a compound Fe,As. which forms an eutectic with iron at 83(J°C 
and 30 per cent. As. The alleged compounds lV-As 2 and Fe 5 As 
do not exist, as can be seen when a piece of ordinary iron speiss 
is examined under the microscope. Similarly nickel and arsenic 
form a compound Ni a As 2 (998°C) which forms an eutectic with 
nickel at 898°C and 27 per cent. As. Lead and arsenic form an 
eutectic at 2£ per cent. As, 287°C. Copper and arsenic form a 
compound Cu 3 As, which with copper forms an eutectic «t 21 per 
cent. As and 683°C. And so on. 

Amongst the industrial alloys the bearing metals are of 
great interest. In the binary alloys of tin and antimony, when 
more than 8 per cent, of Sb is present, bright hard cubes of a com- 
pound 8b So appear. Fig, 14 i 35 shows an alloy with 20 per 
cent. Sb. in which white cubes occur in a dark plastic groundmass, 
which is a solid solution of about 8 per cent, antimony in tin. 
The material has been crushed down and the brittle cubes have 
broken across. To-day babbitt metal containing tin antimony 
and copper is in great demand. Fig. 15 z 35 Bhows an alloy 
with 5 per cent, copper which shows up as bright needles of 
Cu Sn|. According To many authorities the best alloy of this 
kind contains 11 per cent, antimony. o£ per cent, copper and the 
in. Second grade babbitt metal frequently runs over 40 
per cent, lead and Less than 40 tin. the antimony reaching over 
15 per cent, it- structure is quite distinct from that of No. 1. 

The Cu 8n needles are missing, the bright cubes, etc.. have greatly 


illume. 1907, 671. 
tBulL A.I.M.i:. 1907 
JFriedrich. Metallurgie, 1907. 
§Jounia] Ami. < hem. Soc. xxvi. 1904. 1306. 

478 The Canadian Mining Institute 

increased in amount, whilst the groundmass is now very coarse 
indeed and shows up the ternary eutectic containing lead. The 
microscope sometimes proves a rapid method of determination 
between No. 1 and No. 2 grades. 

The brasses* (Cu + Zn) and the bronzesf (Cu + Sn) are also 
of special interest because like iron and steel they show changes 
in the solid state. The aluminium-bronzesj show the same thing. 
By quenching at different temperatures we can materially alter 
their structure and properties. 

To the engineer, however, the alloys of iron and carbon are 
of the most interest due to their vital importance. They form 
one continuous series from wrought iron, mild steel for pipes and 
boiler plate, shafting, structural steel, light rails, heavy rails 
and tyre steels, machinery and tool steel, cast iron, gray white 
and mottled, pig iron, to spiegel-eisen. To-day most of us 
know all about analyses, phosphorus and sulphur must not be 
more than so much, we know the physical properties or some of 
them. We know what certain grades are good for and when 
they fail, we look around for some one on whom to lay the blame. 

Now in metallography we take the knowledge yielded by 
chemical analyses, physical tests and so forth and add to these 
an intimate knowledge of structure or constitution. As to the 
constituents of iron and steel, there are several: — Ferrite or pure 
iron; cementite or iron carbide, Fe 3 C; pearlite, a mechanical 
mixture of these two, containing about 0.8 per cent, carbon (a 
steel of 0.8 per cent, carbon slowly cooled consists entirely of 
pearlite) ; graphite, both original and secondary after heat treat- 
ment when it is known as temper-carbon; and lastly Austenite. 
When steel is heated above its critical points, 700 to 900°C, it 
becomes a solid solution, ferrite and cementite mutually dissolving 
each other. In this state it is capable of being hardened by 
quenching. This solid solution we call Austenite. In addition 
we find a whole series of transition products, due to the breaking 
down of Austenite by tempering and the like, which are called 
Martensite, Troostite, Sorbite and Osmondite. Each has its 
own characteristic structure and properties. 

*Shepherd. J. Phys. Chem. viii. 421. 
fHeycock and Neville, Phil.-Trans. A. 1903. 
fCampbell Min. Industry xi. 668. 

Metallography Applied to Engineering. 479 

Just below solidification the series can exist in two forms, 
(a) The Graphite-Austenite series which is stable, (b) the Cemen- 
tite-Austenite series which is met a-st able. Whilst on cooling 
down a series of transformations occur between 900 and 700°C 
and the Austenite breaks down into ferrite and pearlite, pearlite 
alone or cementite and pearlite depending on whether it contained 
less than 0.8, exactly 0.8 or more than 0.8 per cent, carbon in 
solution. Austenite can contain a maximum of 2 per cent. 
carbon in solution, which is the limit of steel, and when the carbon 
contents is above this amount the eutectic makes its appearance 
and we enter the region of cast iron. If this eutectic is composed 
of a mechanical mixture of steel and graphite we have gray cast 
iron, if of steel and cementite (Fe 3 C) we have white cast iron, 
whilst a mixture of both gives us the mottled variety. 

The following examples will serve to illustrate the different 
classes of material. Fig. 12 x 40 is a section of a piece of wrought 
iron used in the manufacture of pipe. It is composed of poly- 
gonal grains of ferrite and lines of black slag. The etching with 
10 per cent, nitric acid in water has revealed the structure of 
the ferrite. When such material is strained slip lines occur 
in the ferrite. whilst severe strain breaks up the brittle slag ami 
elongates the ferrite grains and on rupture produces the fibrous 
appearance at the fracture. As can be seen the material is not 
fibrous except in respect to the included slag. Fig. 16 x 90, 
unetched, shows a large area of slag with its characteristic struc- 
ture of light-colored inclusions. The white ground mass is un- 
etched ferrite. The presence of too much >lag is a source of 
weakness. Fig. 17 x 40 is a section of a wrought iron boiler 
tube (sold as steel) which failed, undoubtedly due the presence of 
too much slag. 

The main difference between wrought iron and low carbon 
steel is the absence of slag and the presence of small are 
pearlite which etch up dark with picric acid solution. Fig. 18 
x 80 shows the structure of steel containing about 20 to 25 per 
cent, pearlite surrounded by white ferrite (0.16 to 0.20 per cent. 
carbon). Much of our wTOUghi iron to-day contains areas of 
similar structure. Their presence may be due to the fact that 
the wrought iron absorbed carbon locally during the process of 
manufacture in the puddling furnace or finery hearth, which 

480 The Canadian Mining Institute 

areas were rolled out during the subsequent working of the material. 
Or it may be due to the fact that the iron was manufactured by 
"piling" of mixtures of wrought iron and scrap steel. In the 
former case the areas of "steel" pass gradually into the true 
wrough iron by diffusion, in the latter they are generally separ- 
ated by more or less slag. This often forms an easy method of 
distinguishing between these two classes of material. 

In the examination of pipe the microscope offers a very 
certain method of distinguishing between butt and lap welding 
by following the course of the included slag. 

In steel, as the carbon increases the dark etching areas of 
pearlite increase till at 0.8 per cent, carbon or thereabouts ; the 
whole mass* is composed of grains of pearlite. Above 0.8 per 
cent, the excess cementite separates out as envelopes around 
the grain. The grain size is of great importance and depends 
upon the amount of reduction in the rolls or in forging or upon 
the heat treatment or both. Steel as cast has a very coarse 
structure, a medium carbon steel showing a linear arrangement 
of the ferrite resembling Weidmannstaten figures. On annealing 
at the proper temperature such a structure is replaced by one 
of fine texture*. Too high an annealing temperature will cause 
a coarsening of the grain. As an example of poor material we 
can take a case of an 8 inch crank shaft which failed. The 
structure of properly annealed material ought to resemble that 
of Fig. 18. The actual structure is shown in Fig. 19 x 50 which 
shows improper heat treatment. In the centre was found a large 
area of slag or oxide seen in Fig. 21, unetched, whilst the struc- 
ture of the central part is seen in Fig. 20 x 50 where we have 
in addition to a coarse grain, a structure showing far too much 
carbon, say 0.5 to 0.6 per cent. In other words the steel was 
badly segregated. 

The wear of steel tyres is a subject of some importance. 
A series of good and bad tyres of different makes were examined 
to try and find some indications of the cause of shelling out. 
One tyre of German manufacture showed a structure whose 
grain was similar to that of Fig. 18. Others showed a grain 
size as large as that in Fig. 20 when magnified 80-90 dias. When 

*Uber die Warmebehandlung von Stahlen: Metallurgie, 1907. 772 


Fig. L6. 

-*i*n£ | p 

Metallography Applied to Engineering. 181 

the faulty material was examined inclusions of slag <>r oxide 

found. A typical example is Bhown in Fig. 22 \ 90. The 

groundmass shows a small grain of ferrite and pearlite, with lines 

of black oxide, e' •., undoubtedly the cause of failure. An ex- 
treme ease is Bho 1 i in Fig. 23 \ 90, the section near the Burface 
of the tyre. Such a structure would soon break off and yield a 
flat spot. In Bomg cases no slag or oxide was present bu1 a fine 
line of division u .- a -ecu evidently due to a closed-up Mow-hole 
- inclusion in the original casting. 
The examination of high carbon steels* yields much infor- 

mati< egards to cause of failure, heat treatment, etc. In 

al heating to temperaturee below the critical point (700 to 

any tin - a breaking down of the veins of cemen- 

g. 20: \ 500) which tend to assume a globular form. 

.in of the pearlite does not change until the critical 

point has been passed. Above the critical point the higher the 

temperature the coarser the grain of the pearlite and the more 

the segregation of the cementite into globules until at above 

e find the cementite breaking down into ferrite and 


of cementation, case-hardening, etc.. can he foi- 
ls withdrawn from the 
furnace after 1. 2, :'» to 10 days, the carhurization evidently 

taking place by diffusion through the solid solution Austenite. 

irons, time does not permit to deal 
with their constitution by discussing the temperature-composition 
curves of tic A few examples, however, will aerve to 

illustrate the different types of structure. En • iron we 

with alloys of -teel ami graph] 24 \ 10 

-how- : . pie.-. iron with 2 14% g Mn, 

unetched. Lighl dendrite* ' are surrounded by a ground- 

eel and graphite which froze a1 about 11:;.") 
1 It high temperatures the steel was in the form of Austenite 
which of ed itself into pearlite, etc., on passing 

critical i With increase in carbon the 

dend ad finally disappear at the eutectic point 

•W.Campbell. P - I M. u 211: Metalluigie. 1006 7)1 

lurgie, ]'<• 
osfield. .1. I. ii :',I7. 


482 The Canadian Mining Institute 

(4% + C). Fig. 25x50 shows this eutectic, a mechanical mix- 
ture of steel and graphite, the structure of very gray castings 
and naturally weak. The strength of gray iron will depend on 
the amount and size of the graphite flakes and on the structure 
of the steel background. Slow cooling, high silicon, low man- 
ganese, etc., all tend to give us gray iron.* 

In white iron we are dealing with alloys of steel and cementite. 
Fig. 26 x 60 is a section of a piece of washed metal, C=3.75%, 
S=0.03, P=0.012, S=0.02% etched with picric acid. The steel 
(pearlite) shows up black, the cementite white. There are a 
few grains of steel in excess of the eutectic which forms the 
groundmass as a mechanical mixture as before. This eutectic of 
Austenite-cementite freezes at 1125°C — while at a lower temper- 
ature the Austenite is transformed into pearlite, etc., as before. 
Rapid cooling, low silicon, high manganese, etc., all tend to give 
us white iron. 

When the carbon is in excess of the eutectic ratio in gray 
iron it separates out as graphite above 1135°C (Kish). In white 
iron it forms plates of massive cementite which are found en- 
closed in the groundmass. Fig. 27 x 60 illustrates this structure. 
It is a section of a piece of Spiegel-eisen, C=5%, Mn 10 — 20%. 
The cementite is a carbide of iron and manganese. 

Mottled irons show grains of gray iron surrounded by en- 
velopes of white, the gray apparently freezing ahead of the 
white. Some cases, however,