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Full text of "The proceedings of the first annual meeting of the National conference on university extension, held in Philadelphia, December 29-31, 1891, under the auspices of the American society for the extension of university teaching"

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Accession No. 

Class No. 


















, 1 


Copyrighted, 1892, by 
The American Society for the Extension of University Teaching. 




THE first year of Extension teaching in America was devoted 
to spreading a knowledge of the system and undertaking experi- 
ments under various conditions. The results showed the need 
of thoughtful conference and discussion on the part of those 
engaged in the work, and at the beginning of the second year, 
the suggestion for a National Conference on University Exten- 
sion came to the American Society almost simultaneously from 
many parts of the United States. 

It seems almost incredible, looking back, that within one year of 
the time when the first centre of Extension teaching was established 
in Philadelphia, on November 3, 1890, more than two hundred 
such experiments were being carried on in nearly every State of 
the Union. We can attribute this only to the well-developed 
system of Extension teaching which had grown up in the course 
of more than a score of years' experiment in England, and the 
possibility of transferring it bodily to our soil. 

Another consideration that presents itself is the wide-spread 
need of exactly such opportunities as are offered in systematic 
Extension teaching. These two conditions, however, alone do 
not suffice to explain the phenomenal growth of this movement, 
and we must look for the explanation to a third fact, well pre- 
sented by A. E. Winship, editor of the New England Journal of 
Education, in a recent number of University Extension.* A 
careful consideration of many experiments in American educa- 
tion previous to 1890 reveals to us a peculiar ripeness of condi- 
tions for this movement ; in other words, many had unconsciously 
been doing Extension teaching in a more or less adequate way. 
Some had caught one idea of this system, others another, and 

* Cf. University Extension, February, 1892. 

4 The National Conference on University Extension. 

each one in his own way was sowing seed which favorable con- 
ditions brought to quick maturity. 

When the American Society entered upon its educational cam- 
paign, it was favored by all these circumstances, and it was pos- 
sible to accomplish within one year, through the enlightened 
generosity of many eminent citizens of Philadelphia, more than 
might fairly have been expected in thrice that length of time. 
All that could be done by the spread of carefully-prepared circu- 
lars and pamphlets, and in more than a dozen States by the per- 
sonal and active work of its organizers, the American Society 
achieved. In the course of practical experiments, however, 
under widely varying conditions, it became evident, as has already 
been remarked, that the most careful consideration and discussion 
of those familiar with different sections, could alone lead to the 
best results. 

In answer, then, to many requests, the American Society re- 
solved to issue invitations for a general meeting in Philadelphia 
during the Christmas holidays. It was felt that there should be 
a thorough representation, not only of all interested in Extension 
teaching, and in university and college work, but of all inter- 
ested in any way in every branch of the public school system 
and in general education. The truth is gradually becoming 
more and more evident that education is, and should be felt to 
be, of the utmost import to every American citizen, and that 
every effort for the strengthening of our educational system along 
any line, is of the highest interest to all concerned with it 
on any other. Especially is this true of the movement for Uni- 
versity Extension, since it depends for its success on the most 
sympathetic co-operation of all our higher institutions of learn- 
ing, and on the heartiest sympathy and action of the people as a 
whole, and, it is needless to add, on those educators most closely 
identified with the masses. We are endeavoring to bring the ideals 
and the methods of university training, as far as possible, to every 
American, and in-doing this need the assistance of all parties. 

Another reason was felt to point strongly to the advisability 
of general representation at the Conference, and that was the 
influence of University Extension upon the general education of 

Preface. 5 

the country. Experience has invariably shown that wherever a 
centre of Extension teaching is established there interest is 
aroused, not only in the particular subject or subjects of instruc- 
tion, but in the general field of human Knowledge and in the 
great problem of public education. It has been the constant and 
earnest injunction of the American Society to all its lecturers to 
advance the interests, not only of Extension teaching and of 
their own especial subject, but of science and literature, of the 
public school system, of the American college and American 
university, and to repeat, of education itself in the broadest and 
truest sense. Accordingly, the American Society issued its invi- 
tation, not only to its own centres and to the affiliated societies 
in all parts of the country, but to every college and university, 
to the representatives of the great public school system, to the 
leading clergymen of all denominations, and, indeed, to all inter- 
ested in the advance of civilization as promoted by any line of 
human effort. 

The response was gratifying in the extreme. At this first 
general meeting on University Extension, there were present 
delegates from twenty States, representing, as will be seen by the 
list of those present, half a hundred of our best institutions of 
learning. Every centre of Extension teaching which has so far 
been established in the country was represented either person- 
ally or by a written report submitted to the Conference. 

In arranging the programme for the Conference, it was the desire 
of the Committee to emphasize, in accordance with many re- 
quests, the practical side of this work, and to give the opportunity 
at the same time, in connection with the various papers presented, 
for the freest discussion of principles and comparison of results. 
The Society was especially fortunate in the presence of Michael 
E. Sadler, secretary of the Oxford Delegacy, who, on its invi- 
tation, came to attend the Conference and spend several weeks 
in strengthening the system among us. The Society was thus 
fulfilling one of its main functions, as was well indicated, at the 
first session, by Provost Pepper in his address of welcome. 

An idea of some of the results of the National Conference 
may be drawn from the proceedings reported in this volume. 

6 The National Conference on University Extension. 

Many, however, defy an effort to put them in such tangible form, 
and could only be gained by personal conversation with the dele- 
gates present, and by seeing with what enthusiasm they expressed 
their thorough satisfaction with the Conference, and the great 
pleasure they had in attending and reaping the advantages offered. 
It is safe to say that no one went home without bearing with 
him, for the benefit of his own section, a clearer idea of the 
special principles of this system and a deep impression of the 
utmost necessity of united and systematic effort on the part of 
its friends. 

Philadelphia has a well-established reputation as a favorite 
meeting-place of such conventions, and the hospitality of its 
citizens is far-famed. To the delegates, however, of the National 
Conference it extended an exceptionally warm welcome, and 
fairly outdid itself in hospitality. The social features of a 
National Conference, especially of educators, have ever been a 
source of pleasure and profit. The evening receptions tendered 
the delegates on Tuesday and Wednesday at the Art Club and 
at the Academy of the Fine Arts, were typical of what such 
meetings should be. 

It was the unanimous thought of all present that, in arranging 
and carrying out the National Conference, the American Society 
had added one more characteristic benefit to the cause of Uni- 
versity Extension in America, and had at the same time secured, 
in great measure, the success of similar meetings in the future. 






ADDRESS OF WELCOME. By Provost William Pepper, University of 

Pennsylvania 15 

By Hon. William T. Harris, Commissioner of Education, United 

States 18 


Vincent 32 


Macintosh 38 

CIATION. By Walter C. Douglas, General Secretary, Philadelphia. 45 

DeGarmo, Swarthmore College 51 


Michael E. Sadler 63 


James 89 

THE IDEAL SYLLABUS. By Henry W. Rolfe, M.A 107 

tary Michael E. Sadler 113 

fessor James A. Woodburn 122 

HISTORY AS AN EXTENSION STUDY. By Professor Wilfred H. Munro. 130 

A.M , IS 2 


8 Contents. 




RHODE ISLAND. By Professor Wilfred H. Munro 158 

CONNECTICUT. By Professor H. E. Bourne 160 

CONNECTICUT. By Rev. F. B. Hartranft 162 



VIRGINIA. By W. Roy Stephenson 169 

WEST VIRGINIA. By Professor Howard N. Ogden 170 

GEORGIA. By Professor H. C. White 173 



OHIO 178 

INDIANA. By Professor James A. Woodburn 182 

MICHIGAN. By Professor Isaac N. Demmon 190 

MICHIGAN. By Secretary Henry A. Ford 193 


WISCONSIN. By Professor Edward A. Birge 196 

WISCONSIN. By President R. C. Spencer 199 

MINNESOTA. By Professor Harry P. Judson 201 

IOWA - 205 

KANSAS AND MISSOURI. By Professor Frank W. Blackmar 206 




eral Secretary 221 



Melvil Dewey 269 





THE First Annual Meeting of the National Conference on Uni- 
versity Extension opened its sessions in Philadelphia on Tuesday, 
December 29, 1891, at 4.30 P.M., in Association Hall, corner of 
Fifteenth and Chestnut Streets, at the head-quarters of the Amer- 
ican Society for the Extension of University Teaching. The first 
session was devoted to a model Extension lecture, the second of 
a course delivered by Michael E. Sadler, of Oxford, on "The 
Change in Political Economy." The special topic was the 
doctrines of St. Simon, and the reaction against critical political 
economy. The lecture was followed by the regular Extension 

In the evening, at eight o'clock, a reception was tendered the 
delegates of the National Conference and the members of the 
American Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis, at the Art 

On Wednesday, the morning session, at 9.30, was opened by 
an address of welcome from Dr. William Pepper, Provost of the 
University of Pennsylvania. He was followed by the Hon. 
William T. Harris, United States Commissioner of Education, 
who chose for his subject "The Place of University Extension 
in American Education." President James MacAlister, of the 
Drexel Institute, gave an address on "University Extension and 
the Public School System." The work of Chautauqua in public 
education was presented by Bishop John H. Vincent, Chancellor 


io The National Conference on University Extension. 

of the Chautauqua University. The relation of the Church to Uni- 
versity Extension was treated by Rev. John S. Macintosh, D.D. 
Mr. Walter C. Douglas, General Secretary of the Philadelphia 
Young Men's Christian Association, spoke of the Young Men's 
Christian Association and University Extension. The session 
was closed by Secretary Melvil Dewey, of Albany, with an ad- 
dress on the work of University Extension as conducted by the 
University of the State of New York. 

At the close of the morning session, a meeting of the Council 
of the American Society was held, and a report was made of the 
incorporation of the Society and of the general plan of manage- 
ment under a Board of Directors, chosen by the corporation, and 
an Executive Committee of twelve, six chosen by the Board of 
Directors and six by the members of the Council ; the Council 
itself being composed of the President, and one other repre- 
sentative from each college and university co-operating with the 
American Society. 

At three o'clock on Wednesday afternoon the deliberations of 
the Conference were continued with an address, by Mr. Sadler, 
on the "Development of University Extension." The discus- 
sion* which followed was participated in by President William 
H. Black, Missouri Valley College, Missouri ; President Thomas 
Fell, St. John's College, Maryland ; Rev. Dr. W. W. Newton, 
Pittsfield, Mass.; Mr. H. H. Hay, Girard College; Rev. Mr. 
Lamb, Moorestown, N. J. ; Dr. James MacAlister, of Philadel- 
phia; Rev. J. Max Hark, Lancaster, Pa.; and Dr. Edward H. 
Magill, Swarthmore College. 

Mr. P. J. McGuire, representing President Gumpers of the 
American Federation of Labor, gave a short address expressing 
the sympathy of the trade organizations of America with the 
purposes and methods of this movement. 

"The University Extension Lecturer" was the subject of a 
paper by President Edmund J. James, of the American Society, 

* The remarks of those taking part in the discussion will be found in their 
proper place in the Proceedings, except where there was a failure on the part 
of the speaker to hand them to the Secretary. 

Minutes. 1 1 

discussed by Mr. Bourne, of the Norwich Free Academy, Nor- 
wich, Conn. 

Mr. Henry W. Rolfe, of the University of Pennsylvania, read 
the last paper of the afternoon on " The Ideal Syllabus," which 
was discussed by Professor Felix E. Schelling and the Rev. John 
S. Macintosh. 

At 8 P.M., on Wednesday, a reception was given the members 
of the American Society and the visiting delegates by Bryn 
Mawr College, Haverford College, Swarthmore College, and the 
University of Pennsylvania, at the Academy of the Fine Arts. 
The reception was one of the largest and most brilliant of the 
season, and was attended by more than a thousand guests. 

On Thursday, at 9.30 A.M., Mr. Sadler gave a second address 
on the "Function and Organization of Local Centres." The 
discussion was carried on by Mr. Henry W. Rolfe, Rev. John 
S. Macintosh, Mrs. Kimball, President Charles DeGarmo, Secre- 
tary Melvil Dewey, and Professor W. A. Merrill, of Miami Uni- 

Dr. James Albert Woodburn, Professor of American History 
in Indiana University, read a paper on "Some Experiences as 
an Extension Lecturer," and was followed by Professor Wilfred 
H. Munro, of Brown University, who discussed " History as an 
Extension Study." The succeeding remarks were made by Pro- 
fessor E. P. Cheyney, of the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. 
Edward H. Magill, and Mr. Edward T. Devine. 

The last session of the Conference, on Thursday, at 3 P.M., was 
devoted first to a discussion of the " University Extension Class," 
the leading paper being by Mr. Edward T. Devine, Lecturer of the 
American Society. Remarks were made on this subject by Rev. 
Dr. Douglas, of Philadelphia, Professor H. N. Ogden, of the 
University of West Virginia, Dr. W. Clarke Robinson, Professor 
James A. Woodburn, Secretary Melvil Dewey, and Mr. M. E. 

Reports of progress in Extension work were made by President 
William H. Black, for Kansas and Missouri; Professor Leslie 
A. Lee, Bowdoin College, for Maine ; Professor W. H. Munro, 
of Brown University, for Rhode Island; Rev. F. B. Hartranft, 

1 2 The National Conference on University Extension. 

Hartford Theological Seminary, for Connecticut; Secretary 
George Henderson, for Pennsylvania; Professor Howard N. 
Ogden for West Virginia ; Professor W. O. Sproull, University 
of Cincinnati, for Ohio ; Professor James A. Woodburn, Uni- 
versity of Indiana, for Indiana; Professor A. V. E. Young, 
Northwestern University, and President Carl Johann, Eureka 
College, for Illinois; Professor M. E. San ford, University of 
Minnesota, for Minnesota; President D. B. Kerr, University 
of Omaha, for Nebraska. From the other centres of Extension 
teaching came written reports, which are printed in their proper 
place in this volume. 

The relation of the American college to University Extension 
was ably treated by President Charles DeGarmo, of Swarthmore 
College, and the best form of organization of the movement in 
a large city, by Mr. Samuel Wagner, of Philadelphia. 

The closing paper of the Conference was by Mr. Ralph W. 
Thomas, Chief Examiner of the University of the State of New 
York, on the appropriation by the New York Legislature of ten 
thousand dollars to University Extension, and on the means by 
which this was gained. 

Rev. Dr. John S. Macintosh, of the Executive Committee of 
the American Society, moved the thanks of the Conference to 
the Hon. William T. Harris, Commissioner of Education, for his 
address on "The Place of University Extension in American 
Education," and his kindness in presiding at the sessions of the 
Conference on Wednesday, and to President Edmund J. James, 
who had, at so much expense of time and effort, secured the 
thorough success of the Conference. Mr. Sadler remarked that 
it was certainly the most important and successful meeting on 
University Extension which had ever been held, either in this 
country or abroad. 

Dr. Edmund J. James closed the Conference with congratula- 
tions to the delegates present, on the valuable results accomplished, 
and with the pledge, on the part of the American Society, to con- 
tribute in the future, as in the past, its undivided labors to the 
furthering of this great cause, and to give its hearty co-operation 
to all bodies and institutions in their efforts in this direction. 




Provost University of Pennsylvania. 

IT is with no common pleasure that, as the representative of 
the American Society for the Extension of University Teaching, 
I stand here to announce the opening of its first annual mid- 
winter conference, and to extend to the delegates to this confer- 
ence, and to all members of the Society, a most cordial welcome. 
The educational problems connected with University Extension 
have multiplied so rapidly in this country, and the people are so 
widely awake to the real importance of them, that a general 
desire has been expressed for their free discussion at certain 
stated intervals. The arrangement of such a conference is one 
of the important functions of the American Society, and the 
simplicity and broad scope of this organization are well adapted 
to the purposes it must serve. 

It is no longer an assumption to assert that every portion of 
our vast country is genuinely interested in University Extension, 
and recognizes more or less clearly that the movement is to play 
a great part in the higher education of our people in the future. 
The amount of money expended in the various States will depend 
upon many conditions, but it is hoped that, owing to the largely 
self-supporting character of the Local Centre work, a sum of, say 
fifteen thousand dollars, or even ten thousand dollars, per annum 
can be made to accomplish large results in any single State. It 
can scarcely be doubted that such a sum or more can be raised, in 
each State of the Union, to secure for the community the ad- 
vantages of well-organized and vigorously-conducted University 
Extension work. The precedent established by the legislature of 
the Empire State will doubtless be followed wherever the law per- 
mits such appropriations; but experience has already shown that, 
for the conduct of the General Society, a considerable annual sum 


1 6 The National Conference on University Extension. 

is required, which must be derived from sources quite apart from 
the appropriations for State work. The expenses of the General 
Offices, which must serve as a bureau of information for the entire 
country ; the management of the Home Study system correspond- 
ence; the provision of University Extension literature, which 
has to be liberally paid for and to be sold at barely cost prices ; 
the publication of the University Extension Journal, which de- 
mands, in its editorial department, highly-paid talent and yet 
must be sold at a rate that brings it within the easy reach of all ; 
the importation of University Extension lecturers of distinction, 
who may be sent to special fields where their services are most 
needed, these and other requirements will necessitate a con- 
siderable annual expenditure for the adequate support of the 
American Society. 

The Board of Trustees, consisting of fifteen members, which 
is provided for by the charter of our Society, is therefore charged 
with the duty of creating and fostering the growth of a perma- 
nent endowment fund ; of securing an adequate increase in the 
membership of the Society; and of maintaining a guarantee 
fund of proper proportions until, from the growth of the endow- 
ment and the increased membership, a permanent income suffi- 
cient to defray all working expenses is provided. To the Ex- 
ecutive Committee, which is appointed partly by the Board of 
Trustees and partly by the General Council, are intrusted the 
executive details. Upon the close and intelligent attention given 
by this committee to the important work intrusted to it will de- 
pend the maintenance of the high educational standard of the 
Society. The method of constituting this committee will, it is 
believed, fully insure its object. 

The General Council of the Society consists of one represen- 
tative besides the President of each college in the United States 
and in Canada, together with the Superintendents of Public 
Education in each State, who are ex-officio members. The 
regular meetings of the Council will occur during the last week 
of each year, at the annual midwinter conferences in this city. 
The plan of organization adopted relieves this Conference of all 
petty details of business, and thus enables it to devote uninter- 

Address of Welcome. 17 

rupted attention to the scientific discussion of the educational 
principles and methods which should be adopted in our Uni- 
versity Extension work so as to secure the highest standard and 
the most effective results. The entire country will follow with 
deep interest the deliberations that occur here now and hereafter. 
To the suggestions and conclusions which flow from our discus- 
sions, all of us will look for light and leading in the new and 
difficult path upon which we have entered. 

One important official act must be discharged, each year, by 
the General Council of delegates, at their conference. This is 
the election of six members to serve upon the Executive Com- 
mittee for the ensuing year. 

At the close of this morning's session, a meeting of the Coun- 
cil will be held for this purpose, and all members of the Council 
are particularly invited to attend the meeting. 

It will be seen, from the brief sketch I have given of the 
organization and functions of the American Society, that it has 
no aim or pretension to interfere with, to supersede or to take 
charge of, University Extension work in any State. It holds 
itself ready to offer advice, information, and assistance to those 
who are engaged, in any locality, in organizing the work. A 
bulletin will be issued, within a few days, giving full details as 
to the manner in which such advice, information, and assistance 
can be most rapidly and efficiently utilized. 

Although the plan of organization of the American Society 
.ias been promulgated so recently, it is a matter of sincere con- 
gratulation that membership in the Council has already been 
accepted, officially, by the Presidents of over one hundred 
American colleges. 

I shall not detain you longer from the important discussions 
of special features of the work which are to follow. It is 
enough to feel assured that the organization which has been 
effected, comprehensive and flexible as it is, is so well adapted 
to the work before us all that, with continued cordial co-opera- 
tion, it will prove equal to the great demands that may be made 
upon it. 


Commissioner of Education, United States. 

FERENCE ON UNIVERSITY EXTENSION, I have been requested to 
direct my remarks to the general bearings of the question of Uni- 
versity Extension. I shall therefore offer some considerations 
regarding the threefold structure of our educational system into 
elementary, secondary, and higher education, and discuss the 
general features which distinguish each grade. I shall endeavor 
to show that higher education is the sanest and healthiest form of 
education, because it gives the student the means of correcting one- 
sided views. It gives him the method of study which compares one 
science with another and one branch, of learning with another, 
and always bears in mind the important question, How does this 
element of knowledge relate to the conduct of human life ? From 
this point of view, I shall explain why University Extension 
seems to me to be one of the most important movements in our 
time. An exhibition of the fragmentary nature of elementary 
education and the necessity which has caused this fragmentary 
character to adhere to it, will make it evident, I hope, that the 
directors of higher education have a sacred duty to perform in 
extending, by all legitimate means, the spirit of their methods 
into the studies which the adult population carry on by means of 
the newspaper, the periodical, and the book, throughout life. 

Let me ask your attention, first, to the general aspects of our 
civilization. Let us consider the active means at work to pro- 
duce cosmopolitan civilization and obliterate local and provincial 

The most striking characteristic of our modern civilization is 
that which has to do with the intercommunication of one people 
with another. The wonders of modern invention are to be found 

Place of University Extension in American Education. 19 

especially in this field of human activity. In the first place, the 
facilities for travel by land and by sea bring together a greater 
and greater number of people in each succeeding year. Think 
of the increase of the number of Americans that have visited 
Europe, of the number of Europeans that have visited America. 
Think of the increasing number of people residing in the At- 
lantic slope who have visited the cities of the Mississippi Valley 
and the far-off Pacific Coast. The personal presence and the 
humane, friendly interest of foreign people in this country form 
a perpetual educative influence, converting our people to cos- 
mopolitan views and sympathies. But the educative influence of 
travel is small compared with that of intercommunication by 
means of letters and literature. In our time we have seen epic, 
dramatic, and lyric literature retire into the background before 
the novel or romance as a literary work of art. The novel has 
been called the prose epic, or the epic of commonplace, 
middle-class citizens. But the novel in our time has extended 
its gamut from the description of society manners and customs 
and the petty events of courtship and marriage to the all-including 
scientific and historical movements which constitute the highest 
fields of intellectual labor. In the modern novel we have Shake- 
speare's mirror, that is held up to reflect society and the individ- 
ual. We have the painting of the slums, the demi-monde, the pro- 
cesses of the schools, the Church ; we have fully-colored pictures 
of ancient historic life, long buried, and brought to life only by 
the labors of archaeology ; we have a series of historical pictures, 
growing rapidly to a great gallery of paintings, illustrating mediae- 
val times, the beginnings of modern times, and, finally, the events 
of a century ago, Tolstoi's Napoleonic wars, the Crimean war, 
Walter Scott's historical pictures; Victor Hugo, Thackeray, and 
a thousand writers less significant and still important. Each 
reading public learns to know the character and motives of its 
fellow-men in far-off countries or far-off epochs. Out of this 
comes the feeling of the solidarity of the human race. Every 
one feels that there is nothing human that he can consider to be 
entirely strange to him. But even the novel is not to be com- 
pared, in its influence, with the daily newspaper and periodical 

2O The National Conference on University Extension. 

press as an instrument invented by the human spirit to bring 
about the higher unity and synthesis of all peoples. Not only 
shall each people combine in itself the best that has been realized 
by other peoples, but each human individual shall take his morn- 
ing survey of the daily movement of nations and colossal enter- 

Here is the significance of our new University Extension 
movement, which we are here to-day to celebrate by this confer- 
ence. (University Extension proposes to avail itself of the new 
inventions and instrumentalities which have been developed in 
the interests of commerce and the ordinary interchange of opin- 
ion, and send the currents of higher thought, higher scholarship, 
and higher sentiment through these channels, so as to directly 
influence all men. 

In brief, University Extension proposes to itself to gain pos- 
session of the organs of public opinion, and it is evident that 
\ this enterprise is one of the most important undertaken in our 
tentury since the establishment of the common public school.J 

In the most advanced civilization we find the completest sys- 
tem of means for the formation and promulgation of public 
opinion. All persons in the community, by means of the news- 
paper, look upon the same event, look upon the same sketch of 
public policy marked out by the statesman, listen to the same 
arguments, and take sides in view of the weight of argument. 
The public opinion thus organized is not the public opinion of a 
village or a province. It is the public opinion of the whole 
country, and a public opinion which is formed, or secreted, so to 
speak, by the aggregate action of all the minds in the nation. 
In fact, this does not state it strongly enough. The public 
opinion of a newspaper-reading age is an international public 
opinion, a public opinion which takes into it as a determining 
element the views and opinions of other civilized nations. 

But this kind of public opinion cannot be found in an illiter- 
ate community, nor can the newspaper, which is the instrument 
for forming and disseminating such public opinion, penetrate an 
illiterate community. 

In old times, before the statesman could watch the verdict of 

Place of University Extension in American Education. 2 1 

public opinion on a proposed measure, he was perhaps obliged to 
take action. The diplomats found themselves obliged to plunge 
the nation into war. In our time, with the telegraph, and the 
newspaper, and a universal reading people, the dial of public 
opinion is visible to all statesmen and leaders of the people, and 
it is possible to avoid an appeal to the final court of arms. 

It is evident enough that the first requisite for the efficiency 
of these instrumentalities is a universal diffusion of common- 
school education, and an ability on the part of all the people to 
read and understand the printed page. This is given in the 
common schools. The question arises at once, at this point, 
Why do not the common schools give an all-sufficient education ? 
Why is not elementary education all that is desired among the 
people? Is it not true, that if the schools teach the people 
how to read, and the universal prevalence of periodicals and 
books furnishes what to read, that the life of the people is turned 
into a constant education ? Will not such reading such as the 
elementary school provides for lead necessarily to the diffusion 
of all human learning? 

In order to answer this question properly, and to see the grounds 
which exist for the movement known as University Extension, let 
us consider for a moment the difference between elementary school 
education and university education. The child who is of the 
proper age to learn how to read has not acquired an experience of 
life sufficient for him to understand very much of human nature. 
He has a quick grasp of isolated things and events, but he has very 
small power of synthesis. He cannot combine things and events 
in his little mind so as to perceive processes and principles and 
laws, in short, he has little insight into the trend of human 
events or into logical conclusions which follow from convictions 
and principles. This is the characteristic of primary or elemen- 
tary instruction, that it must take the world of human learning 
in fragments and fail to see the intercommunication of things. 
The education in high schools and academies which we call 
secondary education begins to correct this inadequacy of ele- 
mentary education ; it begins to study processes; it begins to see 
how things and events are produced ; it begins to study causes 

22 The National Conference on University Extension. 

and productive forces. But secondary education fails, in a marked 
manner, to arrive at any complete and final standard for human 
conduct, or at any insight into a principle that can serve as a 
standard of measure. It is the glory of higher education that it 
lays chief stress on the comparative method of study ; that it 
makes philosophy its leading discipline ; that it gives an ethical 
bent to all of its branches of study. Higher education seeks as 
its goal the unity of human learning. Each branch can be thor- 
oughly understood only in the light of all other branches. The 
best definition of science is that it is the presentation of facts in 
such a system that each fact throws light upon all the others and 
is in turn illuminated by all the others. 

The youth of proper age to enter upon higher education has 
already experienced much of human life, and has arrived at 
the point where he begins to feel the necessity for a regulative 
principle and guiding principle of his own, with which he may 
decide the endless questions which press themselves upon him for 
settlement. Taking the youth at this moment, when the appetite 
for principles is beginning to develop, the college gives him the 
benefit of the experience of the race. It shows him the verdict 
of the earliest and latest great thinkers on the trend of world 
history. It gathers into one focus the results of the vast labors 
in natural science, in history, in sociology, in philology, and 
political science in modern times. 

The person who has had merely an elementary schooling has 
laid stress on the mechanical means of culture, the arts of read- 
ing, writing, computing, and the like. He has trained his mind 
for the acquirement of isolated details. But he has not been 
disciplined in comparative study. He has not learned how to 
compare each fact with other facts, nor how to compare each 
science with other sciences. He has never inquired, What is the 
trend of this science ? He has never inquired, What is the lesson 
of all human learning as regards the conduct of life ? We should 
say that he has never learned the difference between knowledge 
and wisdom, or, what is better, the method of converting knowl- 
edge into wisdom : The college has for its function the teaching 
of this great lesson, how to convert knowledge into wisdom, 

Pluce of University Extension in American Education. 23 

how to discern the bearing of all departments of knowledge upon 

It is evident that the individual who has received only an ele- 
mentary education is at a great disadvantage as compared with 
the person who has received a higher education in the college 
or university, making all allowance for imperfections in existing 
institutions. The individual is prone to move on in the same 
direction, and in the same channel, which he has taken under 
the guidance of his teacher. Very few persons change their 
methods after leaving school. It requires something like a cata- 
clysm to produce a change in method. All of the influences of 
the university, its distinguished professors, its ages of reputation, 
the organization of the students and professors as a whole, these 
and like influences, combined with the isolation of the pupil 
from the strong tie of family and polite society, are able to 
effect this change in method when they work upon the mind of 
a youth for three or four years. The graduate of the college 
or university is, as a general thing, in possession of a new method 
of study and thinking. His attitude is a comparative one. 
Perhaps he does not carry this far enough to make it vital; 
perhaps he does not readjust all that he has before learned 
by this new method ; but, placing him side by side with the 
graduate of the common school, we see readily the difference 
in types of educated mind. The mind trained according to 
elementary form is surprised and captivated by superficial com- 
binations. It has no power of resistance against shallow criti- 
cal views. It is swept away by specious arguments for reform, 
and it must be admitted that these agitators are the better 
minds, rather than the weaker ones, which elementary education 
sends forth. The duller minds do not ever go so far as to be 
interested in reforms, or take a critical attitude toward what exists. 

The duller, commonplace intellect follows use and wont, and 
does not question the established order. The commonplace 
intellect has no adaptability, no power of readjustment in view 
of new circumstances. The disuse of hand labor and the adop- 
tion of machine labor, for instance, finds the common laborer 
unable to substitute brain labor for hand labor, and it leaves 

24 The National Conference on University Extension. 

him in the path of poverty, wending his way to the alms- 

The so-called self-educated man, of whom we are so proud in 
America, is quite often one who has never advanced far beyond 
these elementary methods. He has been warped out of his 
orbit by some shallow critical idea, which is not born of a com- 
parison with each department of human learning with all depart- 
ments. He is necessarily one-sided and defective in his training. 
He is often a man of great accumulations of isolated scraps of 
information. His memory-pouch is precociously developed. In 
German literature such a man is called a " Philistine." He lays 
undue stress on some insignificant phase of human affairs. He 
advocates with great vigor the importance of some local centre, 
some partial human interest, as the great centre of all human 
life. He is like an astronomer who opposes the heliocentric 
theory, and advocates the claims of some planet, or some satel- 
lite, as the centre of the solar system. In sociology these self- 
made men advocate, for instance, as a universal panacea for 
poverty, such devices as the abolishing of all individual property 
in land, or a single-tax, or a scheme of state socialism ; or, on 
the other hand, the equally negative system of laissezfaire, let 
each look out for himself, and let the government forswear 
entirely all functions of nurture and provision for the common 
welfare. In the name of abstract justice, Mr. Herbert Spencer 
strikes at all of the concrete forms of government in existence, 
and would fain cut them down to his procrustean standard, pro- 
tecting free competition without provision for common welfare. 

There is a conspicuous lack of a knowledge of the history of 
the development of social institutions in all this. The individual 
has not learned the slow development of the ideas of private 
property in Roman history, and he does not see the real function 
of property in land. Again, he does not know the history of 
the development of human society. He has not studied the 
place of the village community and its form of socialism in the 
long road which the state has travelled in order to arrive at 
freedom for the individual. 

The self-educated man, full of the trend which the elementar) r 

Place of University Extension in American Education. 25 

school has given him, comes, perhaps, into the directorship over 
the entire education of a state. He signalizes his career by 
attacking the study of the classic languages, the study of logic 
and philosophy, the study of literature and the humanities. It 
is to be expected of him that he will prefer the dead results of 
education to an investigation of the total process of the evolu- 
tion of human culture. The traditional course of study in the 
college takes the individual back to the Latin and Greek lan- 
guages in order to give him a survey of the origins of his art 
and literature and science and jurisprudence. In the study of 
Greece and Rome he finds the embryology of modern civiliza- 
tion, and develops in his mind a power of discrimination in re- 
gard to elements which enter the concrete life of the present age. 
It is not to be expected that the commonplace mind, which is 
armed and equipped only with the methods of elementary in- 
struction, shall understand the importance of seeing every insti- 
tution, every custom, every statute in the light of its evolution. 

Again, the force of these facts is augmented when we con- 
sider the enormous development of secondary instruction in 
this country, not on the basis of the university, but on that of 
the elementary school. Within one generation the public free 
high schools have increased from a hundred or less to five or six 
thousand. For the most part the course of study in these insti- 
tutions has been largely under the control of men educated only 
in elementary methods. As might have been expected, this fact 
has largely determined the character of the studies pursued in 
the high schools. The classic studies and pure mathematics 
have been discouraged, and studies substituted for them which 
have a real or supposed value in the business vocation. The 
consequence of this has been that the high schools of the country 
have failed to furnish men of real directive power. Their best 
representatives have been of the type of the self-educated men 
that I have just now described. 

While I consider it a matter of congratulation that the people 
of the country are fast establishing throughout the land a system 
of free education in high schools, yet I find myself obliged to 
admit that the present and past results of these schools may be 

26 The National Conference on University Extension. 

summed up as the production of a vast intellectual current of 
Philistinism. There is not any argument for the importance of 
University Extension which equals this in strength. The second- 
ary education has largely been diverted from the road that leads 
to higher education, and turned aside in such a manner as to 
produce arrested development at the stadium of elementary or 
secondary methods. The common schools of the people are 
suffering more from this cause than from all the other causes 
combined. It is a prolific source of mere mechanical device 
and methods which lead nowhither. It produces a flippant, self- 
conceited frame of mind which does not hesitate to attack and 
tear down institutions which it fails to comprehend. University 
Extension, as we understand it, proposes to close up this gap 
between higher institutions and the elementary schools. 

In recent years there has been a considerable elevation of the 
standard of admission to the college, and this has led to an 
increased development of secondary instruction, especially since 
the smaller colleges of the country have not been able to follow 
the lead of the great universities without suffering in the size of 
their classes. The influence of secondary schools as directors of 
elementary common schools is not, and never has been, a healthy 
one. Only the college and university can give this healthy in- 

With University Extension the directors of higher education 
come at once into contact with the people. The university, 
through its properly organized faculties, descends into the com- 
munity and, as it were, takes an inventory of the bright and 
promising minds that are exercising an intellectual influence 
upon the direction of affairs. It gathers these into classes and 
audiences, and discusses with them the living questions of the 
day. It fascinates them with the superiority of the comparative 
method of study. It vanquishes the spirit of Philistinism and 
refutes the theories of cranks. 

This process of University Extension, I need not add, has 
also a retroactive influence of great value upon the university 
itself. We all know how important is the present tendency 
towards specialization. We admit, nevertheless, that there is a 

Place of University Extension in American Education. 27 

danger in this, inasmuch as the specialist who does not use the 
highest or comparative method, and endeavors to bring his 
specialty into comparison with all branches of human knowledge, 
that this specialist, I say, tends to make his branch a hobby, 
and to set up his local centre as the grand centre of the universe. 
Unbalanced specialism in education, therefore, tends to the very 
evils which elementary methods produce. But University Ex- 
tension will correct this. When the specialist finds himself face 
to face with an audience collected from people who have 
received only a common education, he is forced at once into 
meeting their crude opinions by presenting the comparative 
history of his theme, and by showing the bearing of other 
branches of human learning upon it. It is, as I have said, the 
characteristic of University Extension that it finds its highest 
principle in the conduct of life, and that it is ethical in its 
method. The direct contact of university instructors with the 
people leads to the emphasis of the ethical stand-point. 

So much for the reaction of University Extension upon the uni- 
versity itself. But I should not omit to say that the University 
Extension movement will have another beneficial effect in in- 
creasing the number of persons who seek higher education. No 
sooner does the university enter the field of competition before 
the common people than it vanquishes the claimants for the cause 
of secondary education, and the claimants for the cause of ele- 
mentary education as finalities. The people see at once the 
superiority of the higher education, and there arises throughout 
the community an aspiration for its advantages. Even the 
families of the poor will aspire each to educate one or more of 
their children for the university. We know that in former times, 
when the requirements for education had not climbed up to the 
place they now hold, how often the poorest families in Scotland 
managed to educate one of the family for the university. The 
ideal of education, at that time, was university education. This 
desirable ideal will again prevail in the community, and where 
we have at present in the United States only one in five hundred 
of the population enrolled in schools for higher instruction we 
shall have, as we ought to have, from five to ten times that ratio. 

28 The National Conference on University Extension. 

Again, the advantage to the University will appear in the 
furnishing of direct practical careers to its graduates. In the 
laboratory and the seminarium the university trains its pupils to 
the work of original investigation. It sends, therefore, into the 
community a class of people fully equipped with an intellectual 
apparatus for the correction and perfection of the political and 
the economical departments. It focusses a powerful light upon 
the directive power in the various departments of productive 
industry and local self-government. Now, University Exten- 
sion, by reason of the fact that it collects into organized 
bodies the most enterprising minds of the common people, pre- 
pares positions in advance for these graduates of the university. 
They may take hold of the places where they are most needed 
without wasting their strength in endeavors to discover such 
opportunities, and to persuade men in power of the utility of 
their training for the work. 

We have seen how this movement arose in England. With 
the extension of suffrage and with the increase of means of self- 
education among the people, and especially with the circulation 
of semi-scientific information by means of the printing-press, 
there has been in the past a something of relaxation in the hold 
which the great universities had upon the people. This has 
been promoted by the self-educated man whom I have disparaged 
by calling him a Philistine. The great urban development of 
England, and, I may say, of all civilization, has produced in the 
community an aggregation of the weaklings of society, what 
we may call the- population of the slums, a fearful problem for 
our civilization. It would have been the part of selfish wisdom 
to establish University Extension in order to recover a hold 
upon the common people, and in order to grapple successfully 
with the social problem of the slum element which menaces the 
rule of law ; but, strange to say, the University Extension has 
not originated in the enlightened selfishness of the university, 
but rather in the pure missionary spirit, the spirit of divine 
charity which has always largely abounded among the directors 
of higher education. There is no movement, however, which has 
worked for the perpetuation of the power of the upper classes, 

Place of University Extension in American Education. 29 

and especially of the university educated classes of Great Britain, 
as has this movement of University Extension. 

It is true that circumstances in this country differ from 
those in England in many particulars, but there are great broad 
lines of resemblance. In both countries we have what is called 
local self-government. England is the nation in which local 
self-government has originated as a complemental element neces- 
sary to compensate for the one-sidedness of the Roman principle 
of centralization. In our government, just as in the home gov- 
ernment of England, there is a representation, not only of all 
individuals but of all interests, and this not only in the legisla- 
ture that makes the law, but in the courts which administer the 
law, and in the executive department which enforces the law. 
The making of laws is determined by the free process of elections 
and public debates in which all powers and interests struggle for 
the mastery. The decisions of the courts are determined by the 
same universal representation of individuals and interests ; and, 
finally, the enforcement of the laws concedes the same rights of 
consideration for all parties concretely existing in the community. 
It is evident that in England and in this country both demo- 
cratic there exists a sort of necessity for a free process of in- 
fluence between the highest and lowest strata of society. In 
both countries demagogism increases in proportion to the neglect 
of the lowest stratum by the highest. This argument for Uni- 
versity Extension is so obvious that it does not need further ex- 
pansion here. 

There is one incidental effect of University Extension which 
I think worthy of special mention. The ordinary elementary 
school, secondary school, or college, seeks to give a general edu- 
cation to the pupil. It wishes to see every one learn the con- 
ventional course of study, and not neglect either language, or 
science, or mathematics, or history. This curriculum, in a 
certain sense, mistreats those especially gifted individuals, 
found in all ranks, who have possibilities of the greatest use- 
fulness in certain narrow lines of talent, but who are not attracted 
by other fields of knowledge outside of their specialty. Their 
love of one particular branch of human knowledge is so great 

3O The National Conference on University Extension. 

that all other branches seem to them repugnant. These persons 
are the stuff out of which genius is made, but our traditional 
system of education has not known what to do with the candi- 
dates for genius. But the new methods of specialization, which 
the University proper has taken up after the studies of college 
are completed, has opened up among our university educators 
an interest in special talent wherever it is found. University 
Extension provides new channels of communication between the 
directors of the university and these specially endowed people, 
scattered here and there throughout the community. The lectur- 
ers and class-teachers of the Extension movement are prepared 
to make an inventory, as it were, of this very important, although 
not numerous, element in the population. This possibility of 
saving from waste some of the most gifted of people will occur 
to every one as a strong reason for the existence of School and 
University Extension. 

The old lyceum course did not provide for the active partici- 
pation of the audience in the work of instruction. But Uni- 
versity Extension provides for discussions between the lecturer 
and his classes. It provides for reviews, it provides for home- 
studies and examinations. 

In regard to the question of management in this great move- 
ment, I suppose that we shall have a full discussion of the 
question of local centres versus one all-including society. It 
seems to me that we should encourage local centres where there 
seems to be ambition and ability for successful organization. I 
think that this matter will take care of itself. The advantages 
of a great central organization are advantages of finance. There 
is saved a multiplication of officers and a multiplication of ex- 
pense by co-operating in one great society. But where local 
reasons exist for independent societies, let them continue. Let 
any State whose government provides money to manage Uni- 
versity Extension within its boundaries go on and solve its own 
problems. There are lines of new experiments needed in order to 
discover the best instrumentalities. The English have developed 
especially the lecture-course system, with its discussions and 
written examinations. In many parts of this country the system 

Place of University Extension in American Education. 3 1 

of home-study and professional instruction by mail has been 
developed. There are very many other phases, such as, for 
example, that developed by the Brooklyn Institute, which ought 
to have full consideration. When we have developed a half- 
dozen types of University Extension, each local centre may adopt 
and combine three or four best adapted to it. In the meanwhile 
we must pay the well-deserved compliment to the American 
Society, initiated by the University of Pennsylvania, to say that 
it has made by far the largest step in making a useful and' prac- 
tical application of University Extension in this country ; and 
all new movements in this direction should consider carefully 
the question whether something cannot be gained by uniting 
with this great movement already so efficiently organized. What- 
ever may be the practical conclusion arrived at in regard to these 
matters of local and central administration, there certainly is 
but one possible conclusion as to the importance of a national 
conference with annual meetings for comparison of views. Each 
movement wishes to understand clearly the aggregate result of 
the experience of all movements. There should be a national 
conference, which brings out this experience in all its details, 
and serves it up for the instruction of all. 

I congratulate you, delegates, on your undertaking, which is, 
in the broadest sense of the term, a missionary movement. It 
is a movement which holds out the torch of the highest learning, 
not only for the illumination of all, but for the purpose of assist- 
ing each individual to light his own torch at its sacred flame. 


Chancellor of the Chautauqua University and Assembly. 

THE Chautauqua Idea and Movement deserve a recognition 
among University Extension workers, because Chautauqua is itself 
little else than a University Extension agency. To convince you 
of this, and to secure your confidence and co-operation as Uni- 
versity Extension specialists, I accept the opportunity of this 

If University Extension as a modern movement meets with 
something like apathy, if not with pronounced opposition, from 
certain university men, it is because these men do not understand 
the movement you represent. If the Chautauqua Movement 
meets with similar indifference, if not with antagonism, from 
many universities, and occasionally from a University Extension 
advocate, it is simply another case of misapprehension. 

The opposition in both cases to University Extension work and 
to Chautauqua work is, on the whole, a good sign. I congratu- 
late the cause which both movements represent that is, the cause 
of the higher education on the sensitiveness of the scholars touch- 
ing these popular devices. True scholars deprecate superficiality. 
They are anxious lest some easy way be set forth to what they 
regard as a substitute for culture, power, and honor. Truly 
'great scholars are determined not to degrade the dignity of 
genuine scholarship ; to substitute show for substance ; to allow 
grace of speech to pass for grasp of thought ; or a glance at an 
extended landscape to be as much esteemed among the educators 
as a patient and persistent digging underground, where the real 
treasures are hidden. I therefore rejoice when the appointed 
representatives of thorough and sturdy scholarship look at Uni- 
versity Extension with suspicion. It augurs well for the work 
and the results. The men set to defend the noblest learning and 

Chautauqua and University Extension. 33 

the true power of education are aware of their responsibility. 
The hesitancy is sure to be followed by heartiness of approval in 
the end, and their respect is worth something after you have fairly 
captured it. 

I have known and studied the English University Extension 
scheme ever since 1875. I did not then know, however, that 
the plans of the English movement and of the American .Chautau- 
qua movement were formally laid during the same year. I do 
know that both beginnings were characterized by the same effort 
to secure more scientific and thorough work in their respective 
lines, and that in this attempt both plans provided for systematic 
lectures, class conversations and drills, printed syllabi and written 
examinations, the bringing, in a word, to the out-of-school lay- 
man the knowledge, methods, and spirit of the university. 

I purpose to present at this time, in as compact and compre- 
hensive a way as possible, a statement of the Chautauqua System, 
that you may see its resemblance and relation to your own noble, 
practical, and democratic educational endeavor. Briefly stated, 
the Chautauqua Idea embraces the following elements : 

1. The application of the scientific method in education to 
religious and biblical instruction, and its illustration in all depart- 
ments of learning. 

2. The recognition by religious teachers of the religious power 
and value of the "week-day" or so-called secular agencies 
commercial, educational, political, and social in promoting 
among the people large and worthy views of life, and in advanc- 
ing among all classes of society the idea of symmetrical edu- 

3. The introduction of the best representatives of the schools, 
and especially of the colleges and universities, to the great body 
of the American people, who now and for long years out of 
school have a very defective idea of the formal educational pro- 
cesses and too little confidence in them. 

4. The provision of popular and practical agencies and methods 
for promoting the true "popular education" among adults, re- 
membering that, while he begins wisely who begins to influence 
a generation by labor in behalf of the child in the cradle, he 


34 The National Conference on University Extension. 

works more wisely who begins his work of education with the 
strong hands that make and the tender hands that rock that cradle. 
Among these agencies and methods long familiar to Chautauqua 
are the provision of reading-courses, reading-circles, training- 
classes, lecture-courses, correspondence-teaching, periodical mag- 
azines and lesson helps, syllabi, schemes for the most rigid ex- 
aminations, the employment of local scholars and specialists, 
winter and summer assemblies in hall, church, or grove, college 
and University Extension work, etc. 

5. The employment of varied devices which appeal to the 
imagination, gratify the social instincts, and develop personal 
enthusiasm and esprit de corps. These incidental and sentimental 
features are indispensable to the college life, which emphasizes 
the idea of alma mater. They express themselves in classic 
halls, in social fraternities, in class loyalty, class rivalries, songs, 
feasts, and games. Similar expedients have been used by 
Chautauqua in the interest of the large number of people, repre- 
senting all conditions of society, and all degrees of culture, who 
find themselves interested and inspired and strengthened by the 
class life, the class spirit, the promotions, recognitions, memorial 
days, vesper services, Chautauqua songs, and other beautiful 
accompaniments of a fraternity built on a high and holy aim. 

6. And, finally, the Chautauqua movement recognizes the value 
of adults as students, and makes the attempt to enlist grown-up, 
middle-aged, and even venerable men and women in the worthy 
endeavor after self-improvement. Adults are popularly supposed 
to be beyond the limits of educational possibility ; whereas their 
long experience in life and the maturing of their powers render 
them in many respects better qualified than the immature and 
inexperienced child for pursuing systematic and varied courses of 

All these aims unite in a single thought : The application of 
the highest and most approved methods of education to the out- 
of-school multitudes, all of them, at all ages, in all social con- 
ditions, that they may come to appreciate their personal possi- 
bilities and responsibilities; that they may see the harmony 
between things religious and things secular ; that they may learn 

Chautauqua and University Extension. 35 

how truly to honor and dignify manual labor ; how to despise the 
frivolity, emptiness, and selfishness of mere wealth without culture 
and high moral quality ; how to bear affliction with fortitude, and 
how to find the consolation of noble thought in lowly homes ; that 
they may command their children, send them to the public schools 
at an early age, keep them in school until they are ready for col- 
lege, and then induce them to pass through college, if not in order 
to be mechanics or professional men, that they may be, whether 
mechanics, merchants, or professional men, intelligent, reverent, 
independent, righteous men and women, true exponents of the 
Christian idea, and citizens of the nation whom demagogues can 
never dominate, and by whom in due time all conscienceless 
schemers, commercial and political, shall be suppressed. Fraud, 
now possible by an ignorant, selfish, and indifferent people, must 
fall before popular intelligence, conscience, and purpose. 

Chautauqua is not, as some superficial observers have supposed, 
an evolved camp-meeting. In fact, the Chautauqua Idea, as 
carried out in many towns and cities of America, and in Oxford 
and Blackpool in England, and as originally conceived in Amer- 
ica, sustains no relation whatever to the camp-meeting or to the 
grove. Great advantages have accrued to the scheme by the 
meetings in the grove, but, while these advantages have been 
appreciated, one of the chief hindrances to the work has been in 
the prejudice against the camp-meeting among so many people 
who were perhaps too little familiar with the uses and advantages 
of that venerable religious institution. The management of 
Chautauqua has used its most vigorous endeavor from the very 
beginning to divorce from the Chautauqua work the camp- 
meeting idea. It has been compelled to say again and again, in 
a score of ways, that the Chautauqua Movement and the camp- 
meeting are two entirely different institutions, with utterly differ- 
ent objects, both useful, but as diverse as an inquiry-meeting 
on the one hand and a class conference of scientists, theologians, 
and statesmen on the other. 

The influence of Chautauqua on college and university life is 
to be seen in the results of its practical working during the past 
seventeen years. The effects are to be found : 

36 The National Conference on University Extension. 

1. In the large number of students now engaged in doing 
Chautauqua correspondence work. Men and women of mature 
minds, who could not themselves, owing to circumstances beyond 
their control, leave home and enter any institution of learning, 
are now engaged under the direction of university men in courses 
of study equalling those of the best college curricula, and sub- 
jected to tests of examination unexcelled in any university. 

2. In the large number of summer and winter students now 
attending the Chautauqua centres north and south, where, under 
university men, for from two to eight weeks they have the benefit 
of contact with the living teacher ; enjoying methods which are 
the outgrowths of the most profound theories of teaching, and 
feeling, for a short time it may be, but nevertheless for all the 
years that follow, the personal magnetism and inspiration which 
the gifted teacher communicates to every eager pupil. 

3. In the large number of Sunday-school normal pupils, in 
the sixty or more assembly centres, who, by the university method 
at its best, have for a long term of years been engaged in biblical, 
psychological, and pedagogical training work. 

4. In the large number of lecture courses on the widest range 
of subjects, which have been given at these Chautauqua centres, 
and in towns without number, which by the Chautauqua assem- 
blies have been led to make this experiment. 

5. In the large number of readers in that most popular form of 
the modern Chautauqua work, the Chautauqua Literary and Scien- 
tific Circle, who, covering in a four years' course of English 
reading the college outlook, become familiar with the college 
world, its topics, its charms, its practical value, and who, being 
parents or the elder brothers and sisters of the household (there 
are few members of the C. L. S. C. under twenty-five years of 
age), are sure to induce the younger people by hundreds and by 
thousands to resolve upon the high-school and college course. 
In fact, the C. L. S. C. is a John the Baptist to the college, pre- 
paring the way for and announcing the benefits of the college, 
and appealing to the multitude to patronize the higher centres of 

6. In the large number of college graduates who have been 

Chautauqua and University Extension. 37 

enrolled as readers in the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific 
Circle. It is a mistake to suppose that only non-collegians are 
members of this association. The main object of the college 
being development of intellectual power, every college graduate 
needs an after course of reading. In fact, it requires a four 
years' course of special study to enable a man to read with 
facility and economy of time a single page of good literature. 
College graduates who have thoroughly understood the C. L. S. C. 
have availed themselves of this opportunity for reviewing the 
college horizon in classic English. 

7. In the large number of college graduates who now, as 
teachers and as members of the Chautauqua Literary and Scien- 
tific Circle, are able to make the best use of their educational 
opportunities. They are now able to sit down with less favored 
fellow-citizens and friends, and, bringing the wealth of their 
knowledge and the power derived from their intellectual dis- 
cipline, to help without patronizing, and thus to turn to best 
account the privileges they have been permitted to enjoy. 

8. In the large number of students now in college because of 
the Chautauqua direction and inspiration. Parents who thought 
but little of the higher education have through the literature of 
Chautauqua, through the Chautauqua lectures, through the C. L. 
S. C. reading, been awakened to the immense importance of a 
college training for boys and girls, and now, as a result, their 
children are remaining in the high school, preparing for and 
entering the college, and all because of the awakening and im- 
petus which the Chautauqua Movement has caused. 

Thus Chautauqua recognizes and uses all educational agencies 
and institutions ; commands all scholarship ; plants the seeds of 
college life in the homes of the people ; prepares young people to 
make better college students ; supplements the college prepara- 
tion with opportunities for advanced work after graduating; and, 
above all, puts college graduates to their best use, that of helping 



THE Church, University Extension, two great aggressive 
forces, are they to clash, or to co-operate, perhaps combine ? 
Important and pressing question ! The Church is a force ; Uni- 
versity Extension a new but wonderfully fast-growing force; 
and it has come to stay, perhaps with change of form and mani- 
festations, but not to disappear as a real existent, penetrative, 
and changeful force. And these two great forces must touch ; 
but not, I am assured, as foes, but as hearty, mutually respecting, 
and confiding friends, who are co-workers for the larger common 
weal, and who have largest interests in common. Marked affini- 
ties have they, and they will be bound in closest alliance activities. 

The Church, and observe I use this word in the very broad- 
est possible of broad sense and comprehension, the Church is, 
has been, and ever must be democratic, educational, revolu- 
tionary, and that for the highest ends and with the finest and 
the mightiest weapons. And here is a movement pre-eminently 
democratic, for it says old privileges must be given freely out 
from patrician hands to the populace ; educational, for it takes 
out not only the school-master but the college professor and the 
university specialist for the higher and more exact teaching of 
the people, who are not to be amused by mere popular addresses, 
but trained by systematic instruction, exact to the last point of 
accuracy, and yet taking the most seductive garb of all winsome 
speech ; revolutionary of the settled ways of centuries and of 
ideas fixed seemingly as the hills, and aims that appeared the 
only possibilities in the case. Startling affinities, verily, between 
the old mother and the young boy. If there be any one thing 
more than another that the Church has proclaimed on the house- 
tops, it is this, that rank has responsibilities, that special privi- 
leges have special duties to discharge, and that from him to 

The Church and University Extension. 39 

whom men have given much will they require the more; we get 
only to give ; and, unless I misread it utterly, that lies in the 
heart of this movement to lift the University out of its sacred 
seclusion where luxuriantly it has enjoyed its garden of pleasant 
fruits, and order it to carry its best systems, its best work, its 
best sons and daughters out to those who are thirsting on the 
hot fields and fainting by the dusty road-sides of crowding life. 
The Church working for the people and with the people, work- 
ing to enlighten, working to turn the world upsidedown that the 
right side may be brought up and kept up, the Church must 
and will find one of her best friends and strongest allies in this 
great popular, educational, and revolutionary movement. 

The Church has already taken sides, and that within our lines ; 
she is even now on our side of the fence ; not against but for us. 
Two proofs exist. One of the earliest advances in this educa- 
tional revolution was made within the lines of the great Methodist 
Episcopal Church under the magnetic leadership of Bishop Vin- 
cent and the dashing flag of Chautauqua. The other took place 
under the blue banner of Presbyterian ism, and in staid old 
Scotland, where a few years ago " perfervidum ingenium Scoto- 
rum" devised a carefully graduated system of "Instruction for 
Youth" by special text-books, by appointed lectures and lec- 
turers, by class-work, examinations, and certificates, which has 
in it the very essentials and the vitality of this University Ex- 
tension Movement. And what, let me ask, has been the special 
aim in work and the great argument in printed page of that most 
true churchman, who is in touch with so large a part of the 
Church-world, and whom I am glad to call my friend, the 
thoughtful Henry C. Trumbull, but one long struggle and 
splendid plea for that very union of exact and advancing scholar- 
ship fully popularized and of careful, continuous class-work and 
searching catechetics which, as I take it, are two of the highest 
ideals and truest glories of University Extension. 

And, further, it has been my happy lot, because of my special 
work in our Society, to get into large and close correspondence 
with the clergy, especially the junior clergy, all across the con- 
tinent j and I know how truly sympathetic they are ; how their 

4O The National Conference on University Extension. 

eager eyes are fixed on us in hope, and how many of their lore- 
loving souls are hungering for some of this living bread. The 
Church is on the side of this work. 


That is a practical and a suggestive question. 

1. The Church can and should extend to us sympathetic and 
honorable recognition. Recognition, I say, not patronage and 
protection, not the demands of a superior nor the dictates of 
a lord. The first is not needed, and the second will not be 
brooked. But recognition, frank and friendly, full of true 
respect and ardent sympathy and unhesitating confidence for a 
movement which in its own distinctive and appropriate sphere is 
marked by those very popular, philanthropic, and progressive 
features that form part of the sweetest charm and strongest 
claims of the Church herself. Here is an effort honestly made 
to flood the thick darkness with true light, to sweeten human 
society by the fresh, clean breezes from the higher hills of truth, 
and to broaden human souls through healthy, stimulating, but 
wisely-regulated exercises on the wholesome fields of enlarging 
thought. The Church can say and show that she appreciates and 
respects and trusts this undertaking ; and I am persuaded that 
she stands ready everywhere to do this helpful service. 

2. The Church can materially aid. Materially, I say; and 
that in many important directions. To make plain my point, let 
me choose a definite illustration. Come with me to one of our 
young, growing, and wide-awake towns ; at the very centre of its 
life, perhaps its very strongest, highest, and most impulsive life, 
stands a Church of some persuasion ; that Church has a great 
plant, an organized body of zealous workers, a large, fine 
lecture-room or chapel, a library, with a librarian, a circle of 
readers, and no small resources in money and appliances, such 
as magic lanterns, black-boards, maps, and such like. Now, that 
lecture-room or chapel is exactly what is often needed for local 
centre work ; that library may be easily made, under guidance 
and realized wants, the storehouse of standard books and works 
of reference ; the treasury may be fairly drawn upon for a part 

The Church and University Extension. 41 

of the cost of working; and the bands of ardent youth may 
become the active propagandists and the wise gray heads the 
shrewd advisers and steady supporters of this church-helping 
work. What is possible there is easily possible in countless 
other points, both urban and rural. 

3. The Church can lend moral assistance. Here is one of the 
finest allies the Church can desire in her own stern fight for the 
brighter days and the better hearts. A voice, a new voice, has 
been lifted in the waste ; a young, clear voice that, with fresh 
tones and with varied phrase, tells the old message of human 
inspiration and uplifting "the kingdom of heaven has come 
nigh unto you," and the common people are hearing gladly. 
Into the arena where the fight is against the lower and the lust- 
ful for the higher and the holier, against the bestial for the 
spiritual, for the mental and moral against the material, for 
thought that may master passion, for reason that may keep 
under the flesh, for the school and the book against the saloon 
and the brothel, into this arena of life against death has 
leaped a young and lusty champion who, skilful of hand and 
daring of soul, flashes his fresh, strong blade in the front and 
the thick of the fray. Let us, gray in the battle, cheer him. 
Ay, that we will, and with all our heart ! 

4. The Church can render intellectual help. She has a host 
of trained teachers in touch with and trusted by the people, 
whose special professional duty it is to make highest thought so 
thoroughly their own that they make it level to the work-dulled 
brains of the hard-pushed masses ; whose reason of protected 
existence is partly found in the ability to gather the most fine 
gold and mint it into the serviceable coin of daily use; and 
whose life-work is to "go speak all the words of this life to the 
PEOPLE;" and these trained men are University men, who for six 
or eight or more years even have been facing University teach- 
ing, familiar with University methods, and have been fashioned 
by University moulds ; and these University men are in not a 
few cases specialists in languages, in science, in history, in an- 
tiquities, in economics, in philosophy, or hygiene, or social 
matters; here is a disciplined force of fighters for sweetness and 

42 The National Conference on University Extension. 

light, who need only to study the new weapon and practise some 
new drill to be effective soldiers in this new crusade, a crusade 
which ought to appeal to them more than most others, because 
they daily feel the need of taking the University down from its 
heights and its isolation to the hurly burly of the thickening 
contest of the multitudes that the battle for truth and righteous- 
ness may not be a sad succession of defeats, but a shining series 
ofgreatening victories. 


Much, every way. 

i. University Extension may be the supplement of the school 
and the complement of the Church. That were efficient help to 
the Church. 

If there be one thing which the State and the Church, the 
civitas populi, and the civitas Dei, alike need more than another, 
it is a body of educated citizens, of thoughtful supporters of 
quick intelligence, of cultured minds and calm, judicious spirits, 
able to appreciate arguments, appropriate truth, and swiftly adopt 
safe methods. The common schools, with their noble staff of 
self-denying teachers, have done much, and will yet do more, mag- 
nificent work for both State and Church ; but, alas ! the stress of 
human want and the strain of human life take away our boys and 
girls just when the mind has begun to be truly quickened, when 
habits of attention have been formed, when the primary lessons 
have been imparted, and the first fertilizing thought-germs have 
been implanted ; and the mournful consequence is that the state 
has not her supreme bench of final judgment filled by the fully- 
taught and highly-trained intellects that are needed by her for 
her storm-defiant permanence and for her swifter and secure prog- 
ress; and the Church must needs keep to the first principles of 
the vast realm of special truth which God and humanity have 
intrusted and conceded to her. The school wants a supplement ; 
and this University Extension may and should step into the gap 
and fill up the void. 

With this supplement of the school the Church needs her own 
complement. If she is to do in her own proper field her very best 

f ^^r 

vVv '"' 
mversity Extension. 

The Church and University Extension. 43 

and her highest work, then the men and the women she deals with 
need to know many things and much of some of the things which 
she has neither the time nor the best methods of teaching. To 
use a common phrase and yet a true one, " the man who reads only 
his Bible will not read very much out of that ;" he will not step 
into that heavy-laden and varied harvest-field so equipped that he 
shall bear away the many and richest golden sheaves. That book 
is a library, and needs an increasing library to explain it. All 
ways in the old world have led to the Imperial City, and each 
road brought a new student to the Seven Hills, who for himself 
saw what none other eye had taught ; and every pathway of real 
knowledge and clean, clear truth leads to the golden City of the 
SUN ; and it is the souls of varied wants, of fresh thoughts, and 
newly-quickened powers, who will find and carry away most of 
the divine culture. The Church needs to have her own work 
complemented by work without the sacred walls ; and the Uni- 
versity Extension along with other educational forces may and 
can be this necessary complement. 

2. University Extension can and will help the Church by 
enabling her younger clergy to carry on their studies systemati- 
cally without giving up their parish and pastoral duties. For 
such extra-university assistance and guidance there is already, and 
there will be daily growing, a strongly-felt and widely-expressed 
need and want. Upon this matter I can speak with a good deal 
of definiteness and personal knowledge. To me, as Chairman of 
the Home-Study department of our common work, letters have 
poured in from all parts of our lands and all sections of the Church 
eagerly asking how, in what ways, with what graduated systems 
of study, in how many different branches, and on what terms we 
were preparing to deal with the junior clergy who might desire to 
carry forward to further points of knowledge their old studies, or 
who might wish to push investigations out on new lines. An 
immediate answer to such questions can be seen in the depart- 
ment of Sacred Literature, now made a part of our general work. 
Another answer may be found in special courses for special 
students at local centres. And still another in a carefully-prepared 
course with correspondence for separate and home students. 

44 The National Conference on University Extension. 

And 3d, University Extension may tell beneficially on the 
Church by the introduction of its popular methods and peculiar 
features into the older ways and systems of Church instruction. 
This direct and positive influence has already proved itself. 
In this city, my learned and wide-awake friend, Dr. Henry C. 
McCook, as devoted a churchman as he is distinguished a scien- 
tist, conducted last winter a series of church lectures on Hebrew 
Prophecy and Prophets on the exact plans of University Exten- 
sion, with popular lectures, printed syllabus, subsequent class 
work, and final examinations ; and all with distinguished honor 
to himself, success in his work, and signal advantage both to the 
ordinary hearer and the actual student. On successive winters 
I have myself carried on courses on Biblical Introductions and 
Biblical Theology whose essential features were those of this 
system. Let then there be no strife between us, we are brethren 
of the light and of the day ; let the effort be the mutual stimu- 
lation and the common good ; and the only rivalry and struggle 
be who can do the most for our common land and common 
citizenship, and who can do it best and quickest. 



General Secretary of the Philadelphia Young Men's Christian Association. 

THE object of the Young Men's Christian Association is de- 
fined to be the physical, intellectual, social, and spiritual im- 
provement of young men. In other words, its high ideal is the 
development of the entire man. To develop the young men 
intellectually, it uses libraries, reading-rooms, literary societies, 
lectures, and evening classes. 

Any young man of good character, of any race, religion, or 
condition in life, may join it, and hence it has all classes of 
young men in its membership, but, with the exception of quite 
a large student element, its ranks are filled mainly with clerks 
and mechanics. In some sections of this city the latter pre- 
dominate, in others the former. They mingle in all its buildings 
in varying proportions. They are, of course, all working during 
the day for a living. The Association seeks to provide for their 
wants in their leisure hours. The Association aims not only to 
develop the young men along all the main lines of their lives, 
but also to ward off things that would degrade and injure them. 
A young man at work is all right. It is the manner in which he 
spends his leisure time that gives moral coloring to his life and 
decides his future value to home, to his employer, and to the 
state. His avocation is as important as his vocation, and every 
young man should have some good occupation for leisure as well 
as business hours. Robert J. Burdette half humorously but alto- 
gether wisely puts it in this way: "My son, you complain of 
hard work killing you, of long business hours. But it is not the 
hard work that is hurting you, it is not the long hours from 
8 A.M. to 5 P.M., but it is the interval, my boy, that is killing 
you. It is the interval between 6 P.M. and midnight." 


46 The National Conference on University Extension. 

The Association steps in at this point, takes hold of young 
men in the critical period from sixteen to twenty-five years, and 
seeks to lead them to use means that will help and strengthen 
them physically, mentally, and spiritually. It is not enough to 
say to young men, " Thou shalt not," but we must fill their lives 
with better things. In other words, it is an adaptation in prac- 
tical things of Dr. Chalmers's famous use of "the expulsive 
power of new affections." 

The educational work of the Association has grown greatly 
within the past thirty years. In my judgment, to-day it is the 
greatest of all our agencies in drawing young men into our 
membership. To me this is profoundly gratifying, and refutes 
the charge sometimes made that the young men of to-day are 
frivolous. The Associations are offering great social attractions 
and many healthful recreations for the tired brains and bodies of 
young men ; but, after all, that which requires most work, hard 
study, and application is the thing which draws the largest pro- 
portion of young men from mill, shop, and office to our build- 
ings in the evenings. The practical talks and historical or 
scientific lectures of the Philadelphia Association have for years 
been attended by an average of eleven hundred young men, 
while in our educational classes last winter there were enrolled 
twelve hundred and eighty-eight young men. In point of mere 
numbers it compared favorably with the undergraduate depart- 
ments of many of our large universities. 

But these studies relate almost entirely to business life. They 
aim to prepare clerks and mechanics for better and more useful 
lives in their respective occupations. This is good, but there is 
something more important, viz., to prepare young men for 
higher and better citizenship. In the words of the English 
leaders of University Extension, "to make good workmen is 
important, to make good citizens is more important." For 
years there had been a growing sense of need in our more ad- 
vanced Associations in this respect. With their hundreds of 
thousands of members all young men, they may become, and in- 
deed are, great training-schools of American citizens of a higher 
type. Our experience has shown us that in our American cities 

The Young Men's Christian Association. 47 

there are thousands of young men of as bright minds and eager, 
ambitious spirits as ever matriculated in the colleges of our 
land. But they have had no advantages. They are poor, or 
their parents died when they were young, and they have had to 
go to work early. They are at a disadvantage in life through 
lack of mental equipment. They are not only fighting its battles 
with one hand tied, but they are also shut out from worlds of 
enjoyment known only to the student. 

The majority of these young men, it is true, have come to us 
seeking only for "bread and meat" education, i.e., for that 
knowledge which will help them to advancement in their daily 
business. But there has been a minority who have come asking 
how they might prepare themselves for college or get higher lit- 
erary culture. We have been unable as yet to do much for this 

It was just at this moment that University Extension came 
before us with its magnificent promise. And its coming has been 
hailed with joy by these eager, earnest young men, who were 
brain-hungry and had been crying out for supply in this direc- 

The reasons why the Young Men's Christian Association should 
co-operate in University Extension may be summed up under 
two heads. The first is because it has the facilities for doing the 
work. Three things are considered important in the establish- 
ment of a local centre for the Extension of University teaching, 
viz., an existing organization of some kind to afford a nucleus 
of attendance, a suitable hall or rooms for lectures and classes, 
and reference libraries or conveniences for handling books. The 
Association possesses these requisites. In the second place, 
University Extension being clearly a movement of the highest 
public good, and placing educational privileges heretofore de- 
nied them within reach of multitudes of young men, the Asso- 
ciation should gladly co-operate with it on these accounts. It 
should do so to that extent that will not interfere with its other 
work or diminish what it offers to young men. This I take to 
be the only limitations upon it. The Association aims to give to 
the world as the final product of its work a young man intel- 

48 The National Conference on University Extension. 

lectual as well as spiritual, and there seems no reason why its co- 
operation with University Extension should not prove a union of 
forces that will greatly advance its efforts to realize this high 
ideal of an all-around man. 

The extent and method of co-operation we think may be 
readily and satisfactorily defined. Our experience in Philadel- 
phia has been entirely free from difficulty or embarrassment. 
The extent and method of co-operation in Philadelphia have been 
as follows : representative Association men are serving upon the 
committees of the various local centres. A centre has been 
formed at the Central Branch of the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation, at Fifteenth and Chestnut Streets, which is known as 
Association Local Centre. The Association puts at the service 
of this centre office facilities, attention from office help, library, 
and free use of committee- and class-rooms, so far as its own 
work will permit. The trustees who hold Association Hall for 
purposes of revenue have granted the free use of it for the open- 
ing lecture of each course, and have made a special rate for such 
lecture-courses as required this large hall. The Committee of 
Management of Association Local Centre has no organic con- 
nection whatever with the Young Men's Christian Association in 
the same building. There are upon it two or three representa- 
tive Association men interested in our educational work, but the 
committee is made up of other interests, and is representative in 
the widest sense of all other elements of the community. As 
a matter of fact, religiously it represents Roman Catholicism, 
Protestantism, and Judaism, while in other respects it is equallv 

As will thus be seen, there is no organic connection between 
the two bodies, as there is none between any other of the four- 
teen or more University Extension centres of this city and 
neighborhood and the various universities, societies, and insti- 
tutes in or with which they are held. It is a matter of co-opera- 
tion without any such relation as would interfere with the full 
development and free action of each institution. 

The managers of Association Local Centre have voluntarily 
put all University Extension tickets at half-rates to young men 

The Young Men's Christian Association. 49 

who have already paid their membership-fees in the Young Men's 
Christian Association. They are also generous in making pro- 
vision for young men whose resources may be too slender for a 
double tax even as slight as this. 

Two questions will present themselves to managers of Young 
Men's Christian Associations. The first is as to whether young 
men have availed themselves of these courses to any extent. 
Clearly if, by co-operating with other institutions that have edu- 
cational features, we can bring to deserving young men the 
priceless advantages of university culture we ought to do so. 

The objection has sometimes been made to University Exten- 
sion abroad and here that it reaches and benefits women much 
more largely than men. There is no apology for it on this ac- 
count in England, and there will be none here. If this move- 
ment touches, quickens, and broadens the intellectual life of the 
mothers, wives, and daughters of our nation, if it irradiates our 
homes with high intellectual joys, if it pervades the womanhood 
of America with its magnificent culture, then so much the better 
for University Extension and for our country. 

Yet as managers intrusted with a definite work for young men, 
we must consider the question of the effect of this upon our 
efforts in behalf of young men, and whether it reaches them as 
a class to any valuable extent. To this we answer that it is 
reaching young men, though not to the same extent as others, 
and more in the evening than afternoon lectures. This has been 
true both last winter and this. History, literature, economics, 
and science have all had a number of young men present. A 
class in higher mathematics for two winters has had an average 
attendance of nearly one hundred, the most of whom were 
skilled mechanics. In the evening classes upon socialism now 
being conducted in this holiday season by Mr. Sadler (of Oxford 
University), I have seen many intelligent, earnest students that 
at other times I have seen in the class-rooms of this Association. 

The general effect of the introduction of University Extension 
into our work may be briefly summed up. It has quickened in- 
tellectual aspiration among the young men in our membership. 
It has opened unexplored mines of literary wealth and revealed 


50 The National Conference on University Extension. 

a new world of beauty and truth. It has stretched before young 
men a continuation of study and mental growth beyond the 
more limited and so-called more practical studies of our own 
class-rooms. It has put within the reach of thousands of them 
that greatly-coveted but heretofore denied boon and blessing, 
liberal culture and university instruction of the very highest 
order. Attendance upon such lectures, by such teachers, for a 
few seasons, will give any young man a truly broad and liberal 
culture ; and who can estimate the ever-increasing power of such 
young men for future years in their own social and business 
circles ? By co-operation with this movement, University Ex- 
tension may be made the fitting crown and completed perfection 
of that educational effort into which the Young Men's Christian 
Association puts so much genuine sympathy and vigorous work, 
because it believes, as it avows, in the intellectual, the physical, 
the social, and the spiritual development of the young man, 
that is, in the development of the whole man. This is its 
ideal, and in University Extension, while it can properly aid a 
great progressive and uplifting movement for the good of the 
general public, it can incidentally but effectually advance its 
efforts in behalf of that special class for whom it exists and 
labors, the young men of our country and the world. 


President of Swarthmore College. 

THE idea is sometimes advanced that only large institutions, 
able and willing to contribute considerable sums of money to the 
cause, can successfully prosecute this new method of education. 
It is argued that this work can never pay for itself, so that much 
missionary effort must be exerted to keep the movement alive. 
If this is true, the smaller college would seem to be barred out, 
for its internal needs are usually so numerous and so imperative 
that the trustees do not feel that they can contribute much pure 
missionary work, or invest much capital in advertising, whose 
return must be slow at best, even if discernible at all. 

When the smaller college attempts to embark on University 
Extension work, it will meet two species of difficulties, one per- 
taining to finance and the other pertaining to lecturers. It is 
expensive business to arouse and inform a community regarding 
all the phases of the University Extension movement. There 
must be much printed matter, and not a little correspondence. 
A clerical force is often necessary. The American Society for 
the Extension of University Teaching has spent many thousand 
dollars in gathering, collecting, and disseminating knowledge 
and experience in this field. In one way only does it occur to 
me that a small college can efficiently and cheaply do this neces- 
sary work, and that is by allying itself with some central society 
that has made a business of doing just this thing. Were the 
experience and knowledge of the American Society, for in- 
stance, at the service of Swarthmore College, we could by this 
means inform and stimulate the public in a way and to an extent 
quite beyond anything we could possibly do at our own expense 
and from our own experience. The United States mail service 
is cheap, rapid, and efficient, so that no real difficulty seems to 


52 The National Conference on University Extension. 

arise when we consider colleges remote from the head-quartets of 
a society. At Swarthmore the central society can stir up and 
inform our neighboring communities for us. But, though they 
might find this difficult to do at a distance, it is clear that with 
plenty of printed matter of the right sort a committee of the 
college faculty could soon arouse an adequate interest in the 

The next great difficulty in the small college is the lack of the 
fight kind of men to do profitable University Extension work. 
Three lines of action are open, with possible combinations. In 
the first place, members of the present faculty may do all the 
outside teaching. But the objection is near at hand, that they 
are already taxed to the extent of their ability, so that any in- 
crease would either overburden them or render some of their 
work superficial. The next plan is one suggested by Mr. Dewey, 
of New York. It is that the college should employ new men, 
who shall do a part of their work in the college and a part in 
the field, former members of the faculty doing the same, both 
classes looking partly to the college and partly to the public for 
their salaries. This sounds feasible, and has some considerable 
advantages. The plan has, however, a serious financial diffi- 
culty. With all due regard to the missionary spirit that may be 
burning in college professors, I have little doubt that the chance 
to eke out a slender salary by a little extra money over and above 
the salary already fixed is one of the largest factors in the en- 
thusiasm with which the college professor goes into this University 
Extension movement. Two hundred dollars is often the differ- 
ence between poverty and plenty to such a man. Abolish this 
incentive to extra work, and I shall expect to see a marked dimi- 
nution of the present zeal for carrying education to Philistines. 
If the college can be induced to add another man or two to the 
faculty out of benevolence or advertising enterprise, there is no 
reason why even a very small college may not accomplish a great 
good to the community, and eventually to itself. 

A third method might be that of fellowships for recent but able 
graduates of the college, a part or all of the remuneration to 
come from work in the University Extension field. These young 

The Colleges and University Extension. 53 

men might pursue their chosen studies in the college, and at the 
same time do some lecturing and a considerable amount of cleri- 
cal work. It would be needful for some older professor to guide 
their efforts, criticising their lectures both as to matter and deliv- 
ery, to find them adequate ideas of how to conduct the class and 
correct the papers. These young men would succeed much 
better with subjects of positive knowledge, such as chemistry or 
physics, than they would with social sciences like economics, 
history, ethics, socialism, politics, etc., for their statements in the 
former could easily be verified, whereas in the latter only the 
man of wide knowledge and developed skill could hold his own 
against tVit men who would probably oppose him. 

My conclusions are that the small colleges need not be ruled 
off the field entirely by the large and wealthy universities, since 
by co-operation they may all do that each working alone would 
be unable to do ; and that, aside from what the regular professors 
may be able to do for a little extra compensation, the most fea- 
sible plan seems to be an extension of the work by the employ- 
ment of young men who are seeking a new career and are willing 
to work for small pay while winning their spurs. 


Secretary of the University of the State of New York. 

NEW YORK is the only State which maintains a department de- 
voted entirely to the interests of higher education. From that 
department I wish to enter an earnest protest against what seems 
to me a serious mistake on the part of certain men, both in and 
out of the universities, who urge that the general administrative 
work of University Extension should not be done by the col- 
leges, and that its instruction should not be given by members 
of the faculty. Such a theory seems to me to strike at the very 
essence of University Extension in its best sense, and to deprive 
the people on the one side and the universities on the other of 
great benefits to which they are entitled, and on which I hope 
they will jealously insist. 

One of the greatest gains of this modern movement is that it 
brings the people and the universities closer together, and this 
proposition of independent work would only tend to create rival- 
ries and drive them farther apart. Experience has shown that 
Extension students develop an affection and interest for the in- 
stitution from which they get their instruction, supervision, and 
guidance. The universities cannot afford to let this affection go 
out to other agencies when they themselves need it so much in 
increasing both the moral and financial support of the public. 

There has been proved to be a demand for this higher educa- 
tion which we call University Extension, for which the people 
are willing to pay. All are agreed that the demand must be met. 
The issue is as to which of two methods will accomplish most 
good with the available means. We all know that, in the develop- 
ment of the man, residence in a university plays almost as large 
a part as the actual studies. Our theory is that we are to carry 

A Problem in University Extension. 55 

the university to those unable to go into residence. It is an es- 
sential of the system that the lecturer, who week by week goes 
not so much to instruct as to inspire, shall bring with him as 
much as possible of the university atmosphere, and this can be 
done only if he is intimately connected with university life. It 
is not enough that he may be well versed in his subject, for Uni- 
versity Extension means the carrying of the university spirit and 
methods and ideals. To have this work done by men who are 
not themselves connected with universities is like a city water- 
supply in which the pipes run not to a great central reservoir, 
but to hundreds of independent scattered springs. 

Outside this main consideration, which people will not always 
understand, they greatly prefer to have a teacher from the uni- 
versity. There is a certain dignity and public confidence insep- 
arable from the imprimatur of our great institutions. A lecturer 
on the faculty of a great college carries not only all the weight 
connected with his own learning and personality, but also that 
important addition which comes from public knowledge that the 
management of that great institution has, after careful investiga- 
tion, found him worthy to stand as its official representative. It 
is like a certified check, in which the indorsement of the bank is 
worth more than the original signature. 

Both university and public will get better teaching from a mar 
who does both kinds of work. There are exceptions to all rules ; 
there are men destined by nature for research alone who would 
have little value in Extension work, and some who are doing 
much to advance science that have little value in class work in 
college. These men ought to be in a place like Clark University 
at Worcester, where there are few students and the whole time is 
given up to research and production. There are other men who 
have in a pre-eminent degree the inspirational qualities that would 
make them specially valuable in Extension work, but who would 
be of little worth in research. The majority of college profes- 
sors, however, by going out for Extension courses, will broaden 
their view by coming in contact with different students, and by 
following different methods, and will bring back to their college 
classes a freshness and breadth of treatment which they could not 

56 TJie National Conference on University Extension. 

attain if they remained constantly in the academic ruts. Who 
can doubt that a professor who is in constant contact with classes 
which are giving their whole time to the study of a subject will 
be able to handle the Extension classes more successfully than 
one without this wide experience. Therefore, I insist that the 
colleges and the public will both get better teaching for their 
money if Extension and college work is done by the same men. 
A speaker just now urged that the public wanted lecturers with 
more of modern life and spirit than the dull, uninspiring college 
professor. Very well j but as representing officially the interests 
of the colleges of our great State, I want to say that the colleges 
object just as much as the public to these undesirable professors. 
If a man is not good enough to take charge of a class giving 
only a third its time to the study, he certainly is not good enough 
to have in charge men who at large expense are giving their en- 
tire time to college work. The fact is, that we wish to rid our- 
selves of the mediocre and inferior professor both in college and 
Extension work. 

The college president says, " My faculty is already overworked ; 
it is impossible for them to do any of this outside teaching." 
But this is one of the strongest reasons why the colleges should 
not allow the money for this outside teaching to flow into other 
channels. There is hardly a college in America which would 
not be improved if some, if , not all, of its professors could limit 
themselves in teaching to fewer subjects or to fewer phases of one 
subject. Within a few days I have chanced on two specific illus- 
trations of this point. Professor A said, "I am teaching 

both physics and natural history in our college, and my time is 
so crowded I cannot get an hour for anything else." 

" Which subject do you prefer ?" 

" Physics ; my interest is all in physics. I am teaching natural 
history simply because we haven't money to employ a professor 
in that subject. It is a burden that takes the time and strength 
I ought to use in developing my own specialty." 

" What would be the effect if, instead of teaching natural 
history in the college, you could teach physics both in college 
and with Extension classes outside?" 

A Problem in University Extension. 57 

"Why, I could do vastly better work for the college in 
physics, and should greatly prefer this method." 

Then somewhere is another man in similar circumstances 
whose heart is in natural history, and who would be equally de- 
lighted if he could teach natural history both in college and in 
his Extension classes. The problem is, shall Prof. A. teach both 
subjects in college and Prof. B. teach both subjects with Exten- 
sion classes, each of them prevented from doing his best work 
because his energies are divided and his time taken where no 
heart goes with it, or shall we put both men on the college fac- 
ulty, greatly improving the college instruction in both subjects, 
and let both men do Extension work, improving that just as 
much. Both men are to be paid ; the college has the money for 
its work, the Extension centres have the money for their work, 
and I can think of no greater folly than for the colleges to neglect 
this opportunity of strengthening and enlarging their faculties 
and taking into their treasuries the money which the public is 
ready to give for college instruction, which it prefers shall come 
from the established institutions, and not from a kind of higher 
education peddler who has no abiding place. 

The same principle, I believe, is going to be extended among 
the colleges themselves. For instance, I know three colleges, no 
one of which can afford a full professor in economics, while each 
is very anxious to have one term's instruction in that subject, and, 
as it must appear on the curriculum, it is attached to some over- 
worked chair and taught in a perfunctory way without inspira- 
tion or adequate results. The time is near when those three 
colleges will learn a lesson from business men, from organizers of 
trusts and combinations. Each will contribute one-third the 
salary, and together these colleges will employ a satisfactory 
professor of economics who will give a third of his year to each 
institution, and, by putting them on the right track and so in- 
spiring them with an interest in the subject that they will continue 
to study it in after-years, will do more for the students of those 
colleges in a single term than would an inferior man in giving 
his whole time. The churches and the schools are beginning to 
learn that if they are to succeed in the great work before them, 

5 8 The National Conference on University Extension. 

they must recognize the necessity of co-operation and organiza- 
tion, just as corporations and firms do in the business world, and 
I venture to predict that the colleges that recognize this principle, 
and even at the cost of temporary embarrassment meet the de- 
mands of the public for Extension teaching, will be the colleges 
that in ten or twenty years will have strengthened their faculty 
and forces, have increased their hold on the public, and have 
received in return ample funds with which to pay the expenses 
incurred by their broader conception of educational work and 
educational duty. 


Chairman of Philadelphia Committee on Courses and Centres. 

THE practical operations of University Extension in a city 
involve many interesting problems, upon the solution of which 
will depend very largely the permanent value and success of the 
whole movement j for it is in the cities that we must seek to 
establish those strong centres in organization and administration 
from which the work may extend to every part of the country. 
Especially is this the case in cities having one or more well- 
established institutions for higher education, for these are the 
storehouses of the food which is to be brought within reach of 
all the people. A brief consideration, therefore, of the best 
method to secure a good organization and thorough development 
of the work may not be amiss at a conference like this. 

The question which confronts us is not so much the form of 
organization, for that is simple enough, but rather at what point 
in the development of the work organization on very clearly- 
defined lines should be adopted. There are two views of this 
question, both of which have many considerations of weight in 
their favor. One view is that complete organization should fol- 
low, and not precede, the development of the work, that the 
movement should be allowed at first to have free play, that the 
formation of local centres should be encouraged at any and 
every point where there may be found those willing to under- 
take their establishment, and that it should be determined by 
actual experiment where local centres are really needed. The 
other view is based upon the converse of this proposition, that 
thorough organization, in the form which the work is ultimately 
to take, shall be adopted at the start, that the work in the whole 
city shall be mapped out in advance, and the location of local 
centres be determined with reference to the size and shape of 


60 The National Conference on University Extension. 

the city and the supposed requirements of the people in each 
part of it. 

As the object in view is very clearly defined, namely, that 
facilities shall be afforded to all the people of the city to secure 
continuous, graded, and systematic instruction in those branches 
which constitute the curriculum of a college course, the practical 
question is, how far each of these two views shall be adopted as a 
guide to reach that end. Let us sum up, briefly, what each has in 
its favor. As to the first, it may be said that it recognizes the fact 
that the University Extension movement, while strictly educa- 
tional in its character and in its aims, is radically different, as 
regards the conditions surrounding it, from the systems of higher 
education with which we have heretofore been familiar. It is an 
extension of university teaching, and takes the shape of a co- 
operative movement, the co-operating parties being the people, 
on the one hand, and our universities and colleges on the other. 
These universities and colleges are great storehouses of learning, 
and aggregations of skilled teachers, and by means of this plan 
the facilities for liberal education are offered to all who wish to 
use them. It would seem to follow, therefore, that the people 
themselves should decide when and where this educational work 
should be done, and that local centres should be established by 
them in such places as they may demand them. Also, it may be 
said for this view that the scheme, being co-operative, should be 
protected in such a way that the people should feel resting upon 
them the obligation to do their share of the work, and this can 
best be effected by allowing the fullest freedom in the choice of 
location for local centres, and in the local management of them. 
On the other hand, the second of these views has to support it 
the well-recognized rule that all educational work should be done 
upon accurate and clearly-defined lines ; that those who are to be 
taught are by no means the best judges of what they shall learn, 
or in what order they shall learn it ; and it may well be urged 
that any departure from this rule would result in desultory and 
disjointed work, having no educational value. 

Now, we have been engaged for the past year and more in 
working out this problem in Philadelphia, in the hope that in 

The City and University Extension. 61 

working it out here we shall be able to do so for the whole 
country. Under the conditions we have found existing here, the 
arguments for each of these views to which I have referred seem to 
be so conclusive that, upon careful reflection, I think they will be 
found in practice to be entirely in harmony, and not conflicting or 
divergent views. It will be found that the very character of the 
movement as an educational scheme will require the utmost free- 
dom in its operations until such time as it shall be fairly and fully 
projected and its meaning and value impressed upon the minds of 
the people, and that, when this is accomplished, the strictest rules 
of educational work should be applied to it in order to give it real 
educational value. In Philadelphia, and within a circle with a 
radius of forty or fifty miles around it, there are now established 
and in operation nearly fifty local centres, formed by the people 
themselves in each locality. They have been organized with the 
encouragement of the American Society, and with its assistance in 
the way of information and advice, but they are all self-support- 
ing. How many of them will become permanent, centres for 
continuous and graded instruction has yet to be seen, but I think 
it is safe to say that a very considerable number of them will. 
In the mean time, every one of them is, in deed as well as in 
name, a centre for proclaiming the good news of University 
Extension, and every student, at every centre, is a missionary in 
the cause. So great, in the aggregate, is the number of earnest 
students, that there is every reason to feel assured that, in the 
near future, a great many of these centres will undertake and 
carry on successfully continuous, systematic, and graded work. 
The American Society is preparing, under the direction of the best 
experts, outlines and details of complete courses for continuous 
and graded instruction, and I think it is safe to say, in advance, 
that a certificate of the Society that a student has successfully 
pursued any one of these courses will be entitled to the same 
respect as if the course had been pursued at a university or 

So far as we have gone, therefore, the conclusion as to the 
lines on which University Extension work in the city should be 
conducted would seem to be this : to make the subject known to 

62 The National Conference on University Extension. 

every inhabitant of the city, and arouse interest and enthusiasm 
in it in every possible way ; to let the movement have free play, 
and encourage and assist in the formation of a local centre when- 
ever there may be found people ready and willing to form one ; to 
encourage, in every possible way, the establishment of continuous 
courses giving complete instruction in each particular subject; 
and, unless all the signs of the movement at its present stage are 
very misleading, assuredly it will follow that out of all this 
eager desire of the people already so clearly made manifest, there 
will come a well-organized and thorough system of liberal edu- 
cation, within the reach of every man and woman in the country. 


Secretary to the Oxford Delegacy for University Extension. 

No friend of University Extension can visit America without 
watching with interest and admiration the energy with which 
the movement has been carried on in this country ; and those of 
us who are engaged in promoting the system in England will 
derive much benefit from the experiments which you are making, 
and stimulus from the enthusiasm with which you are developing 
the system. An earlier speaker at this conference has asked 
whether, after all, University Extension will enjoy more than a 
transient popularity, whether it is anything more than a novelty 
of merely passing interest. The long history of the movement 
seems to me to allay all suspicion as to its permanence. Its de- 
velopment has been natural, and part of a larger movement in 
University life. 

In the middle ages, we find that large numbers of students 
flocked to the great Universities from all parts of Europe. Rich 
and poor, gentle and simple, these students passed along the pub- 
lic highways to the great centres of learning, and so destitute were 
many of them that we find in the English statute-books old laws 
empowering University students to beg for their subsistence. 
But the invention of the printing-press and the diffusion of books 
made the attendance of large numbers of these poor students 
at the Universities comparatively unnecessary. Instead of the 
learner having necessarily to come to the teacher in order to 
realize his hope of obtaining knowledge, it became more eco- 
nomical to send to the pupil the printed works of his distant 
teacher. A third stage was, however, reached when it was dis- 
covered that, as for almost all learners, books alone are inade- 


64 The National Conference on University Extension. 

quate instruments of culture, the pupil needs the stimulus of the 
living teacher to rouse his interest in the printed book. The 
development of the railway system at length made possible the 
widest diffusion of the two elements of the highest instruction, 
namely, the book and the instructor of the book. Railroads 
enable us to extend the privileges of the most inspiring in- 
struction to a wider circle of students than in the early days 
of imperfect communication could enjoy these educational ad- 

Turning to another chain of changes in University develop- 
ment, we find that in its earlier days Oxford suffered from the 
somewhat indiscriminate attendance of students, old and young. 
William of Wykeham took, however, the important step of re- 
lieving the University from the attendance of young scholars by 
establishing in connection with his new college at Oxford a sub- 
sidiary college at Winchester, where the lads intended for sub- 
sequent University training might obtain the elements of learn- 
ing. It is significant that this first movement for University 
Extension, which aimed at the establishment, in connection with 
the University, of a training or preparatory college in another 
town, was in itself a part of the movement for University in- 
tension. The college at Winchester was designed by William of 
Wykeham, both to extend the influence of the University, and 
to relieve the latter institution from certain branches of teaching 
which were more appropriately done outside, and it is to be 
noticed that the later movement for University Extension has 
been similarly accompanied by a concentration and development 
of the higher studies within the University itself. The move- 
ments of University Extension and University intension are con- 
current elements in the history of the University. As the Uni- 
versity becomes more sensible of its duties towards extra-mural 
students, so also it becomes more sensitive to the claims of those 
higher studies which it is its noblest privilege to prosecute. Both 
movements, in short, are signs of a quickening of University 
life, a sensitiveness to two related duties, an aspiration towards a 
higher and more perfect efficiency. And by itself superintending 
the wider diffusion of knowledge, a University familiarizes the 

The Development of University Extension. 65 

public with the idea of, and so protects the higher interests of, 

The movement for University reform began, so far as Oxford 
is concerned, towards the close of the last century, when the 
efforts of a few eminent graduates, notably of Dean Jackson, of 
Christ Church, and Provost Eveleigh, of Oriel College, were 
directed towards raising the University from the slough of intel- 
lectual despond into which it had previously fallen. The intro- 
duction of the system of examination for an Honor Degree 
roused the energy of the best students. This great change was 
followed by the purifying of the social life of the University, a 
change honorably associated with the famous Oxford Movement, 
the great leaders of which were John Henry Newman and his 
contemporaries. Thus quickened, the University became sensi- 
tive to the claims of further duties, and the middle of the present 
century saw the abolition of the chief of those religious tests 
which had shut out from the University much of the best life of 
England. The influx of new blood into the University system, 
due to this great change, naturally led to a still further awakening 
to the educational responsibilities of a national University, and 
there followed within a few years efforts, on the part both of 
Oxford and of Cambridge, to raise the standard of education in 
the schools of the country, by sending out accredited examiners 
whose duty it was to test the results of instruction in any schools 
voluntarily submitting themselves to this test. This, as Mr. 
James Stuart has said, was the first step in the later movement 
of University Extension. For the first time, the University thus 
recognized its duty towards students who, technically, were not 
members of its own body, and postal facilities were the material 
agency which permitted the new effort. 

In 1872, the University of Cambridge, to its lasting honor, 
took a still further step along the road of educational reform, 
when, at the instance of Mr. James Stuart, it offered to supply 
the towns of England with capable instructors in the various 
departments of knowledge under the supervision and with the 
sanction of the University itself. Just as postal facilities enabled 
the University to introduce local examinations, so the new rail- 


66 The National Conference on University Extension. 

way facilities enabled the University to establish local lectures, 
and thus the University Extension system, as we now know it, 
was begun. It began, as it were, by accident. Mr. James Stuart 
was invited to deliver some courses of lectures to an audience of 
women teachers in the north of England. In his private capacity 
as a University graduate, he accepted the invitation. The first 
lecture was a success, but the young teacher found himself so 
embarrassed by having to address a large audience consisting 
entirely of women, that, in lieu of the catechetical instruction 
which he had designed as a supplement to the lecture, he sug- 
gested to the students that they should write him exercises, and 
send these essays by post to him at Cambridge. Thus was in- 
vented that important element in the University Extension sys- 
tem, the essay. A second feature in this method of instruction, 
the syllabus, was imitated by Mr. Stuart from the methods of Pro- 
fessor Ferrier, of St. Andrews. The popularity of Mr. Stuart's 
first lectures induced a working-men's co-operative society at 
Rochdale to ask him to address its members. He chose a sci- 
entific subject. At the end of his first lecture, some working- 
men in the audience asked him to leave the diagrams, with which 
he had illustrated his discourse, on the walls of the lecture-room 
until his return to Rochdale, in order that they might explain 
their meaning to a number of fellow-artisans who had not been 
able to be present at the first lecture of the course. He acceded 
to their request, and offered to come to the second lecture before 
the appointed time, in order to meet for purposes of informal 
discussion those who wished to talk over the substance of the 
first discourse. Thus he stumbled upon the principle of " the 
class" which has ever since been regarded as an essential element 
in the University Extension system. The development of Uni- 
versity Extension was thus essentially practical. Each feature in 
the system was suggested by practical needs and tested by prac- 
tical experience. A little later the University of Cambridge 
officially recognized the efforts of Mr. Stuart and his colleagues; 
and, after a period of protracted effort, during which Mr. R. G. 
Moulton rendered invaluable service to the new movement, the 
system was established as a permanent feature in English educa- 

The Development of University Extension. 67 

tion. There followed in London a successful attempt to found 
a Society for the Extension of University Teaching in the me- 
tropolis, and this association, which has played a distinguished 
part in the history of the movement, owed much to the zeal of 
Mr. Goschen, now Chancellor of the Exchequer, and to the 
efforts of its successive secretaries, Mr. E. T. Cook, Mr. Myers, 
and Dr. R. D. Roberts, the latter of whom has devoted many 
years to the cause of University Extension. 

In 1878, the University of Oxford entered the field, its adhe- 
sion to the movement being largely due to the efforts of Professor 
T. H. Green and Professor Jowett. Not much, however, was 
done in the University of Oxford until 1885, when its work was 
revived through the instrumentality of Dr. Percival and of Mr. 
Arthur Acland, who were aided by the posthumous influence of 
Mr. Arnold Toynbee, himself an earnest advocate of University 
Extension. At the present time every University in England is 
engaged in the work. During the present winter, not less than 
sixty thousand different persons are attending the lectures. Of 
these about fifteen thousand are writing papers for the lecturers, 
about five thousand will probably enter for the final examinations 
held at the conclusion of the course, and about three thousand 
will obtain certificates. Several hundred centres of University 
teaching have been established by the spontaneous efforts and at 
the expense of local committees, working in almost every district 
of the country, and comprising almost every element in English 

The official recognition of this movement by the Universities 
is of fundamental importance. Their cordial acceptance of its 
principles has been accompanied by an increasing devotion to 
the claims of the highest research. The same activity which 
shows itself in one direction in the diffusion of learning, shows 
itself in another direction in the accumulation of knowledge, 
both are phenomena of quickened life, both testify to the in- 
creasing activity of the Universities in the discharge of different 
but equally appropriate duties. 

In the earlier stages of the work, perhaps one of the greatest 
dangers is a certain jealousy between various University bodies, 

68 The National Conference on University Extension. 

but jealous rivalry is soon converted into generous emulation by 
intercourse in friendly conference and by the recognition of the 
width of the new field of educational effort into which the Uni- 
versities are entering. 

Great, however, as the success has been of the work in which 
we are interested, it is still in the stage where doctrinaire criticism 
assails it. And our frankest critics press three questions upon us. 
Who are the students, they ask, for whose benefit good teaching 
is provided ? Next, granting that you find students, is it after 
all worth while taking trouble to supply them with higher educa- 
tion ? In the third place, assuming that it is worth while, are 
the Universities the right bodies to essay the supply of it ? 

Each of these questions implies more than appears on the sur- 
face. Those who ask the first question often mean that any stu- 
dent who is sincerely anxious for higher education can get it 
already ; that public schools and colleges exist in bountiful pro- 
fusion ; that no man or woman need perish of intellectual starva- 
tion in a country where books are cheap, newspapers and maga- 
zines widely circulated, public libraries efficient and plentiful ; 
that you can pauperize a people by heedless bounty in teaching 
as easily as by indiscriminate distribution of alms ; and that by 
making educational opportunities of too easy attainment, you may 
cut the nerve of energy and self-help which are saving graces in 
the affairs of mind as in the affairs of business. 

Those again who ask whether it is worth while straining every 
nerve to diffuse higher education mean by their question to sug- 
gest the doubt whether the nobler kinds of culture can ever 
become matters of common currency ; whether there is not one 
education, as the Greeks said there was one aphrodite of heaven 
and another of the market-place; whether the problems with 
which higher education deals, problems of history, of criticism, 
of philosophy, of evidence, can profitably be discussed by those 
who lack preparative training, or assimilated by minds which are 
biassed by ingrained preconceptions; whether the attempt to 
popularize culture may not merely multiply prigs or spread super- 
ficial accomplishments as a veneer over once-healthy ignorance, 
or breed discontent with hard lots, or add fuel to revolutionary 

The Development of University Extension. 69 

indigestion ; whether it is prudent to vulgarize the vision of the 
higher learning; whether by increasing book-learning you will 
destroy the originality of mother-wit as in Britain the village 
school-masters are scolding the historic dialects out of the remotest 
villages ; and whether there is any foundation for the old idea 
that by educating one generation you are storing up accumu- 
lations of refinement which will be transmitted, as a sort of edu- 
cational capital, for the outset and outfit of the next. 

And those who ask whether, if it be granted that the diffusion 
of higher teaching is desirable, the Universities are the right 
bodies to undertake such diffusion, mean by their question that a 
University exists to protect and to increase the highest learning, 
to accumulate rather then to distribute, to investigate rather than 
to popularize, to save rather than to spend, to specialize rather 
than to edify ; that they are the factories of learning rather than 
the salesmen of it, or, if salesmen at all, dealing only in a whole- 
sale way of business and recognizing as their customers only the 
advanced students or teachers, whose function in turn it is to 
pass over the fruit of their education to the wider circle which 
lies beyond them. The University, it is hinted, exists in its true 
capacity for research, not for the reproduction of knowledge in 
attractive forms ; it has a mission, but not to be an intellectual 
missionary. If you associate it in the public mind with the idea 
of popularization, the time will come when the ignorant crowd 
will refuse to recognize its truer, though now secret, function of 
knowledge-making, and when the professors, wearied out of the 
claims of perhaps distant popular audiences, will begin to neglect 
their more essential but less prominent duty of patient investi- 
gation, forsaking the nobler but more private task of research 
for the emptier but more ingratiating pursuit of public exposi- 
tion. They would remind us of Cardinal Newman's words, that 
"to discourse and to teach are distinct functions; that they are 
distinct gifts and not commonly found united in one person; 
that he who spends his day in dispensing his existing knowledge 
is unlikely to have either leisure or energy to acquire new.'* In 
short, that the proper division of labor assigns one function to the 
public lecturer and to the University another, and that to seek to 

70 The National Conference on University Extension. 

unite those separate functions in one man or staff of men is to 
retrogress in intellectual economy. Moreover, that a University 
is dedicated to a liberal education, while the public task is for 
useful training, and that therefore for the University to seek di- 
rectly to save the public is to sacrifice for immediate and more 
vulgar results what is priceless in distant or fruitful consequences. 

These are the arguments which it is for us to meet. They can 
be met, and met triumphantly, but it would be a mistake to de- 
spise or ignore them, to pass them over as prejudices, or to scorn 
them as selfishness. 

Happily, however, we are not compelled to meet a priori criti- 
cisms by merely a priori answers. We can turn to facts, and the 
facts are on our side. The students are there for any one to see 
and question them. They are numerous, grateful, enthusiastic. 
But, in all their variety, four special types of them appeal to our 
sympathy and justify our work. How many are there not whom 
sudden loss or harsh turn of fortune has deprived of the very 
privileges which we have enjoyed ? who, on the very threshold 
of University life, have been called back by claims of domestic 
duty or stopped by sudden loss of means ? To how many does 
not the very word "University" recall the bitterest act of renun- 
ciation, the giving up of the most cherished hopes? In how 
many lives has there not been some secret unselfishness which 
pushed aside, in deference to duty, the bright ambition of study, 
which sacrificed though no one knew the bitter cost the one 
chance of higher learning? Have we no pity, no help for these? 
Must the gate be always barred against them, the vision of knowl- 
edge be to them never more than a distant Pisgah view ? Those 
in whose eyes you can still see regret, whose faces still bear the 
sign of "unhappy far-off things" ? 

Then, again, there are the vast numbers of busy people who 
cherish the desire of combining with the education of business 
the education of books. Those, too, welcome the stimulus and 
encouragement which lectures give, and need, in the midst of 
jostling engagements and other importunate claims of daily life, 
the punctual reminder of the weekly lecture-night. * * Any one, " 
said the venerable master of Baliol, "any one who regularly 

The Development of University Extension. 71 

devotes half an hour a day to liberal studies, deserves to be called 
a student." But evert so small a fraction of the solid day as this, 
great as are the accumulated results of so brief a daily contri- 
bution, is with difficulty set aside by men and women whose lives 
have been for years, as some one put it once, " like an interrupted 
sentence. ' ' Day follows day without bringing the quiet breathing- 
spaces which we need to collect ourselves for study. Business 
cares leave a ground-swell of agitated thought behind them, and 
the waters of life never seem calm enough to mirror intellectual 
truth. What Sunday is to the religious life, the lecture-night 
may become to the intellectual, an orderly, appointed breathing- 
space set aside by practice for the duties of a liberal education. 

And yet once more how eagerly those lectures have been 
attended by women anxious to equip themselves either for 
equal converse with cultivated people or for the better discharge 
of the duties involved in the education of children. The 
claim of women for higher teaching is one of the most signifi- 
cant features of our time. That claim it is our duty to satisfy, 
and these University lectures are one convenient method of 
meeting it. It is not given to every woman to go to college, 
and, even when college work is done, education, so fair from 
being ended, is only just beginning. In a progressive age 
each generation is almost necessarily separated from its prede- 
cessors by some change in point of view. Our individual 
thoughts are all colored by the new generalizations, the new expe- 
rience common to our contemporaries. Malthus' s father thought 
with Godwin that all human failings were due to defects in human 
institutions; Malthus himself, growing up in the chill of the 
anti-revolutionary reaction, realized that much of human wretch- 
edness was due to defects in human nature itself; men of our 
own time again are beginning to perceive that Malthus too much 
ignored the awakening or repressive influences of an eager or 
stolid environment. Steadily from generation to generation the 
normal temperature of thought rises or falls, and fathers and sons 
have to allow for one another's surroundings. But to do so im- 
plies sympathy enlightened by education, and involves the pos- 
session of an historic sense which does not come without knowl- 

72 The National Conference on University Extension. 

edge of history. How many pitiful estrangements, how many 
harsh misunderstandings, have sprung from merely ignorant want 
of imagination ? We need education, as well as filial tenderness, 
to bridge over the gulf which sometimes yawns between children 
and their fathers, and the mother, equipped by education, may 
become the interpreter of the son to his father and of the father 
to his son. 

But behind all these lie the great mass of the people, tired by 
the day's work, fagged by the insistent anxieties of bread-winning, 
and yet each year more directly charged with the ultimate set- 
tlement of great problems, each year feeling a greater need for 
knowledge and for the judgment which comes from knowledge. 
Pericles, speaking of the Athenian democracy, said that they re- 
garded " the want of the knowledge gained by discussion prepara- 
tory to taking action the great impediment to (wise political) con- 
duct." Just as Wesley and Whitefield spread the knowledge of 
religious truth among the miners and laborers of England, and so 
steadied the national character before it entered the exciting period 
of the industrial revolution, so we need others, imitating their 
devotion, to diffuse civic wisdom among the wage-earners and 
workmen of civilized countries as a preparation for the anxious 
period of sound adjustment, of the coming of which the signs 
may be even now discerned. "A cultivated intellect, a delicate 
taste, a candid, equitable, dispassionate mind, a noble and lustrous 
bearing in the conduct of life." These are by no iron law of 
necessity the prerogative of any one section of the community. 
The riches which they represent may be diffused in generous 
measure throughout a nation, and, as Newman said, being "the 
objects of a University," they are therefore the probable results 
of a full extension of its work. True as it is that profuse and 
heedless almsgiving may be hurtful, methods of wise charity need 
commending by the very persons who would be its most desirable 
recipients. The danger of pauperizing people does not justify us 
in keeping our pockets always buttoned up. And no offer is less 
likely to slacken the energies of a people than the provision of 
noble teaching, for it is of the essence of learning that it cannot 
be obtained without the exertion, toil, and attention of the 

The Development of University Extension. 73 

student co-operating with that of the teachers. You cannot stuff 
men with culture as they stuff Strasburg geese. 

Similar reflections are aroused by the second kind of criticism, 
namely, the question whether, even if the students attend our 
lectures, it is worth while seeking to furnish them with higher 
education. No one pretends that every busy man or woman can 
become a mine of learning. Cultivation of the mind, however, 
is not to be measured by mere volume of attainment, but by the 
mental temper and attitude of the student. We may not be able 
to make our students experts in obscure readings of the classical 
texts or authorities on Greek inscriptions ; but we can make them 
appreciate the poetical beauties of the Athenian drama and con- 
scious of the pregnant significance of classical history. They 
may not care for the niceties of criticism or for the disentangle- 
ment of the involved sentences of Thucydides ; but they can be 
brought to share in the scholar's enthusiasm for ^schylus and 
Sophocles, to treasure the memory of Pericles, to know the serene 
philosophy of Plato. For them, too, the glories of the, Renais- 
sance may be revealed. The eternal antithesis between the Puri- 
tan and the Greek ideal has its open lessons for them as well as 
for us; Homer, Dante, Shakespeare, Goethe need not be the 
private possessions of a few, but may become the intellectual treas- 
uries of the people. Pedantry is the vice of an exclusive knowl- 
edge rather than of broad and human culture. It would be a 
false antithesis which made pedantry and superficiality the neces- 
sary alternatives. We do not propose to diffuse either. The 
vain conceit of intricate but narrow knowledge is as far removed 
as the impertinence of shallow smattering from our ideal of a 
liberal education which, in becoming popular, need not cease to 
be liberal. The actual volume of a man's knowledge matters 
little as compared with the way in which he carries it. It is the 
quality not the quantity of it that is of vital concern. The 
effect on his judgment, on his powers of observation and com- 
parison, is what we have chiefly to think of in providing higher 
education for the people. 

Nor will such education blunt originality. As Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds told the students of the Royal Academy a hundred winters 

74 The National Conference on University Extension. 

ago, "A mind enriched by an assemblage of all the treasures 
of ancient and modern art will be more elevated and fruitful in 
resources in proportion to the number of ideas which it has care- 
fully collected and thoroughly digested. . . . There can be no 
doubt," he adds, " but that he who has ihe most materials has the 
greatest means of invention. . . . The addition of other men's 
judgment is so far from weakening our own that it will fashion 
and consolidate those ideas of excellence which lay in embryo, 
feeble, ill-shaped, and confused." "The mind is but a barren 
soil," again to quote Sir Joshua, " and it will produce no crop, or 
only one, unless it be continually fertilized and enriched with 
foreign matter." 

So far, indeed, from its being not worth while for us to diffuse 
the higher education, it is our duty to do so for the economic, 
the solid, and the religious welfare of our country. Considering 
only the remotest ends of material welfare, we cannot afford to 
waste genius, or even talent. We need, to use Professor Hux- 
ley's phrase, ' ' capacity catchers. ' ' We must leave, as Mr. Ruskin 
said, no Giotto among the hill-shepherds. Who knows what 
potter's son may be a Wedgwood, what butcher's son a Wolsey, 
what barber's lad a Richard Arkwright, what engine-fireman a 
Robert Stephenson. And for one man of genius who forces his 
way to eminence and public service, how many are not done to 
death in the struggle for recognition and for training. Chatter- 
ton was sent home from school as a fool of whom nothing could 
be made ; Clive was shipped off to India as a scapegrace ; Sir 
Walter Scott's professor dubbed him. dunce, and said that dunce 
he would remain. Genius is democratic, and we must seek to find, 
to guard, to help it in both high and lowly places. To do this 
we need many agencies, but few are more suited to our hand than 
University Extension. Its teachers will penetrate everywhere 
and may reach everybody. The two best essays which reached 
me in a recent competition came from a duke's family and a 
village billiard-marker. This is a typical result which follows 
from greater equalization of intellectual opportunity. 

Nor is the social advantage of our movement less than its 
economic. What greater bond has attached to one another the 

The Development of University Extension. 75 

members of the English-speaking race than the love of their 
common Bible? What stronger tie is there between strangers 
than the associations of our native region, common memories of 
a common home ? In the same way we may promote the unity 
of a people by giving it a common background of great thought, 
a joint and conscious inheritance in one intellectual birthright. 
St. Simon pointed out how inventors were aided by a class of 
popularizers. They help the public to understand and appreciate 
inventions. Far more might a staff of brilliant lecturers enable a 
nation to enter into the enjoyment of its intellectual heritage, too 
often ignored or forgotten. In an age when, as Emerson said, 

" Things are in the saddle 
And ride mankind," 

we need organized protests on behalf of a spiritual, as distinct 
from a material, ideal of life. Too many men are apt to say of 
literature and history what Locke said of Latin verse-making, 
that "it is very seldom seen that any one discovers mines of 
gold or silver on Parnassus. 'Tis a pleasant air, but a barren 
soil." Locke forgot that the common passion for these bare 
mountains and native air have often fired the patriotism of heroic 
peoples, but the Parnassus of culture is a vineyard on a fruitful 
hill. And the effects of culture may, as Sir Joshua Reynolds 
said of art, " extend themselves imperceptibly into public benefits, 
and be one of the means of bestowing on whole nations refine- 
ment of taste ', which, if it does not lead directly to purity of 
manners, obviates at least their greatest depravation by disen- 
tangling the mind from appetite and conducting the thoughts 
through successive stages of excellence, to be that contemplation 
of universal rectitude and harmony which begun by Task may, as 
it is exalted or refined, conclude in Virtue." 

Nor, even if the education of one generation does not lead to 
the transmission of acquired aptitude to its successors, does it 
therefore follow that we are not, by diffusing education, im- 
proving the character and talents of our descendants. For an 
educated nation permanently improves its own surroundings, 
and the pressure and stimulus of those improved surroundings 

76 The National Conference on University Extension. 

may educe the hidden potentialities of men and women yet 
unborn, and rouse into activity secret gifts and powers which, 
in a less favorable environment, would have perished before de- 
velopment. The ideal of University Extension is the ideal of 
Plato, who would have so placed the citizens of his ideal com- 
monwealth that their " young men, dwelling as it were in a 
healthful region, might drink in good from every quarter whence 
any emanation from noble works might strike upon their eye or 
ear like healthful breezes from salubrious lands, and win them 
imperceptibly from their earliest childhood into love of, and into 
harmony with, the true beauty of reason.'* 

And, as the work of diffusing higher education is thus of 
supreme and national importance, it is one which the Universi- 
ties, if they have the means at their disposal, are called upon 
directly or indirectly, singly or in concert, to push forward and 
promote. For they are the true leaders of educational progress. 
The truest culture is not exclusive. For if the pleasures and 
benefits of culture are such that their diffusion in proper measure 
is impossible, the time may well be coming of which it was fore- 
told that " the prophet shall be ashamed of every one of his 
visions." But the essence of true culture can be diffused and in 
due season will be ; just as the Celtic drama was once the means 
of public inspiration ; just as was the great picture of Cimabue 
which the Florentine citizens bore from the painter's house to the 
Church of St. Maria Novella with such gladness that the quarter 
of the city through which they passed was afterwards called the 
Joyful Quarter ; just as were the carvings which Giotto set round 
the base of his famous tower, and just as were the masterpieces of 
the French and English builders in the twelfth and thirteenth 

But to diffuse higher education you need something more than 
books ; you need men with strong personalities to expound the 
books ; you need not only a library, but a guide to the library. 
Now, what bodies can command more readily or train more easily 
the right kind of guide than the Universities which receive and 
educate the young men and young women of the country? 
Either from among their own graduates, or by the exercise of 

The Development of University Extension. 77 

their ready access to men of ability everywhere, which is a privi- 
lege of their position, they are able to find and provide the very 
kind of teachers which the public need. A University can equip 
two staffs of teachers ; one for its own internal duties of research 
or specialized instruction ; a second for the different but not less 
honorable service of diffusing the results of such instruction or 
research. There need be no overwork, no unwise confusion of 
function. It is rather a wise division of labor for which we ask. 
And just as private munificence or public aid support the internal 
teachers of a University, so will individual liberality or public 
contribution maintain those who are engaged in its extra-mural 

Anything which separates the Universities from the public is to 
be deplored. But happily such separation is becoming every day 
more impossible. The University Extension lecturer is bringing 
into relation with University life large numbers of teachers, of 
women and of workingmen, all of whom long for the stimulus 
of higher instruction, but have hitherto been practically outside 
the pale of University influence. The attendance of elementary 
teachers at the University Extension lectures in England is the 
most encouraging. University courses are being made a part of 
the curriculum of several Normal Colleges. The Inspectors of 
Schools recommend teachers to attend University Extension 
classes, and, at our Oxford summer meeting, the central idea of 
which we consciously imitated from the successful Assembly at 
Chautauqua, a considerable number of elementary teachers enjoy 
a brief period of University life by means of small scholarships 
offered by friends of the movement. It is, however, among 
workingmen that perhaps the most striking results of University 
Extension have been seen. For four years at Oldham in Lincoln, 
six hundred artisans have attended the lectures on historical sub- 
jects delivered by Mr. Hudson Shaw. The zeal shown by these 
workingmen is remarkable. The lecture begins at seven o'clock, 
is followed by an animated class and brisk discussion, and closes 
only at a somewhat late hour. For three years artisans from 
Manchester have come to reside in Oxford during August for a 
brief period of study, and there have been few more touching 

78 The National Conference on University Extension. 

episodes in University life than the company of these'Manchester 
artisans gathered under the shadow of the spire of John Henry 
Newman's church, living in under-graduates rooms, studying in 
the University buildings, reading in the University libraries, and 
meeting morning and evening in the College chapel as members 
of the collegiate community. In different parts of the country, 
farmers, potters, masons, and weavers attend these lectures, some 
of them walking at the end of their day's work as many as five 
miles to attend the lecture. Dr. Roberts, in his book on Uni- 
versity Extension, has told some pathetic tales of the enthusiasm 
of the Northumberland miners ; and one of these students has 
written to Miss Gardner, of the American Society, a remarkable 
tribute to the moral and intellectual influence of University Ex- 
tension teaching as established in his district by the University 
of Cambridge : * 

" . . . Do you ever get a thoroughly ignorant man interested 
in University Extension ? 

" In reply to this I may say that thorough ignorance is rather a 
misnomer in these days of Board schools and compulsory edu- 
cation. Twenty or thirty years ago, thoroughly ignorant men 
might be found in scores among the miners, but in this genera- 
tion every miner's son has the opportunity of getting the ele- 
ments of education, which he may or may not increase as he 
gets older. There is a sense, however, in which your question 
may be understood as applying to the miners of to-day. A 
number of boys, after they leave school, and commence work at 
the mines, easily forget nearly all they have learned, and only 
retain sufficient ability to write their name, or labor through the 
pages of a book. These, I think, although not thoroughly, may 
be termed ignorant men. I will, therefore, understand your 
question as applying to these. When I had the pleasure of 
seeing you at Backworth, I mentioned one or two that I thought 
might belong to that category. A better instance has, however, 
recently come under my notice. We are at present having a 
course of lectures on 'The Problems of Life and Health,' 

* Cf. University Extension, December, 1891, p. 187. 

The Development of University Extension. 79 

with special reference to sanitation. The subject is an inter- 
esting one, and has provoked a good deal of discussion. At 
the beginning of the lectures two of the miners, at the mine at 
which I work, bought two tickets for the course. One of them 
I knew to be a very intelligent man, and he has supplied me with 
some interesting facts concerning his companion. He says that 
when he first knew him he was a dissolute, degraded man, caring 
for nothing but drink, gambling, fighting, and every other thing 
that belongs to an evil life. They lived near to each other, and 
occasionally had some conversation. By and by they took walks 
together, and questions of interest were discussed in a simple way. 
One by one he dropped off his evil habits and sought the society 
of his intelligent friend. He abandoned drink and devoted his 
money to the purchasing of books. He took every means that 
was likely to afford him information, and sought knowledge 
wherever it was to be fonnd. And now he is a student at the 
present course of lectures, and has already earned first-class 
marks for his exercises. This I think is a typical instance of 
what you require, and when I tell you that this man travels a dis- 
tance of over five miles every Saturday evening in order to attend 
the lectures, and often does his exercises after a hard day's work 
at the mine, you will readily understand how keen is the interest 
which has been aroused. ..." 

This is going far towards the reconciliation of culture and 
labor. It is significant that among our English University Ex- 
tension students are counted a princess near the throne and an 
Oxford chimney-sweep. 

Another encouraging feature of our work is the steady rise in 
the quality and attainments of the audiences. Each year we 
notice that the students at well-established centres attend more 
regularly at the lectures and classes, write better essays, and reach 
a higher standard in the final examinations. The value of the cer- 
tificates awarded in these examinations is also becoming more 
generally recognized. At Oxford the standard required for a 
"pass" certificate is that which has to be reached by an under- 
graduate in answering the questions set in an examination for a 
" pass" degree ; in order to obtain a " certificate of distinction," 

8o The National Conference on University Extension. 

the student must write a paper of such a quality as would entitle 
that paper to be accepted in one of -the final examinations for 
Honors in the University. It should be pointed out, however, 
that, whereas the candidate for Honors in the University has to 
write ten or twelve papers, the University student generally does 
only one. But the standard required in the two examinations 
is pro tanto the same. It is natural, therefore, that employers 
should be increasingly willing to regard the possession of a Uni- 
versity Extension certificate as a recommendation when presented 
by an applicant for some appointment ; that teachers should seek 
to obtain these certificates in order to improve their qualification ; 
and that some of the best schools in the country should include 
University Extension courses in their curriculum. Mr. Hudson 
Shaw, for example, has lectured this autumn at Rugby School on 
one day, and on another to the workingmen of Oldham ; and 
Mr. Mackinder, who with Mr. Shaw has done so much to ad- 
vance the University Extension movement, has visited during the 
same term one of the greatest schools in the country and other 
centres where his audiences consisted largely of elementary 
teachers and artisans. 

It must be admitted, however, that in the early years of the 
history of each centre, much remains to be desired in point of 
sequence of studies. History is apt to follow literature, and 
science history without much regard for strict connection of sub- 
ject-matter. But we must remember that there are two kinds of 
sequence sequence of good teachers and sequence of the sub- 
jects taught. When a centre is new and weak, the first kind of 
sequence is often of more practical importance than the second, 
and if any one of us looks back on the landmarks of his own 
intellectual life, shall we not find that the influences which in 
turn have affected us have often been wanting in any formal 
sequence of educational development. We are now, however, 
succeeding in gradually remedying this want of sequence in Uni- 
versity Extension work, and much has been done by the arrange- 
ment of the courses of study at our summer meeting in cycles 
extending over four years. 

I desire to say a few words as to the formal relation between 

The Development of University Extension. 81 

the Universities and the University Extension movement. It is of 
essential importance to the success of our work that the Universi- 
ties should either directly or indirectly take a formal part in it. 
At the beginning of the work especially, the aid of the college 
professors is extremely valuable ; but many of these professors 
are overworked men, who cannot permanently undertake a large 
increase in their educational duties. Where this is the case, no 
one can rightly expect that they will be able permanently to take 
a large share of the work. Under their guidance, however, a 
special staff of teachers may soon rise, as has already been the 
case in England, for the discharge of this important duty of Uni- 
versity Extension teaching. But it is important that these 
teachers should be in official and accredited connection with the 
Universities and the faculties of higher teachers, for, as Sir Joshua 
Reynolds has said, "Every seminary of learning is surrounded 
with an atmosphere of knowledge where every mind may imbibe 
something congenial to its own original conceptions. Knowledge 
thus obtained has always something more useful than that which 
is forced on the mind by solitary meditation." In other words, 
we desire, through the University Extension movement, to ex- 
tend the spirit of each University taking part in the work. 

And the discharge of its duties towards University Extension 
reacts favorably on the University itself. It makes the academic 
mind recognize more clearly than before the intellectual impor- 
tance of business ability. It provides for the academic economist 
easy access to those scenes of industrial activity which are the 
laboratories of economic study; and it encourages and helps 
those who desire to see in University life a combination of plain 
living and high thinking. 

Our aim, however, in University Extension is not intellectual 
communism, but the greater equalization of intellectual oppor- 
tunity. And our experience in England leads us to appreciate 
the importance and the value of such an association as the Ameri- 
can Society for the Extension of University teaching. Such a 
society is able to provide a bureau of information on University 
Extension matters. It can secure lecturers and retain the services 
of promising graduates. It can also gradually accumulate an 


82 The National Conference on University Extension. 

endowment which will be required for the higher development of 
University Extension teaching, as well as for that of other kinds 
of higher education. We need in University Extension a mill- 
ionaire, and the chance is now offered to a man of wealth to asso- 
ciate his name forever with the history of one of the most striking 
educational movements of our century. 

A difficulty which is pressing upon us in England is the best 
means of recognizing the attainments of the most advanced Uni- 
versity Extension students. To most of us, it appears in the 
highest degree undesirable to offer the same grade or degree to a 
student who has resided in a college as to one who has only at- 
tended University Extension courses. But it is clear that the latter 
will, before long, emulate the former both in the extent of his 
studies and in the standard of his intellectual attainment. What, 
then, should be the recognition given to such a student by the 
University ? In my own judgment, it will be possible for a group 
of Universities to go further in recognizing the merits of the best 
University Extension students than would be possible for any 
single University acting on its own account. Is it, therefore, out 
of the question that a number of Universities might unite to 
offer, under strict provisions and on specified and arduous condi- 
tions, a special diploma to such University Extension students as 
might, after attending a long series of graded courses, pass a 
searching examination with credit ? If such a group of Univer- 
sities were formed and were found to comprise the leading insti- 
tutions of higher learning in America, in England, and in Aus- 
tralia, such a diploma, as that at which I hint, might become the 
symbol of the intellectual federation of the English-speaking 


IN reply to the questions addressed to him by members of the 
Conference, Mr. Sadler explained that in the Oxford branch of 
the Extension system no student was allowed to enter for the 

Remarks. 83 

final examination on any course unless he had qualified himself 
by attending not less than two-thirds of the lectures and classes 
of the course, and by writing, to the lecturer's satisfaction, not 
less than two-thirds of the weekly essays. The final examination 
paper was set by a member of the University appointed by the 
delegates, but, in accordance with English methods, the lecturer 
never conducted the final examination on his own course. The 
examiners were instructed by the delegates to require, from all 
candidates receiving a Pass certificate, the quality of work 
which would be required from a candidate in any one of the 
final Pass examinations for the degree of B. A. in the Univer- 
sity. For the higher certificates of distinction, the Examiners 
were instructed to require work which, if done in one of the 
final University Honor examinations, would pro tanto entitle the 
writer to Honors. But Mr. Sadler pointed out that, whereas a 
candidate in the final Honor Schools of the University was re- 
quired to reach this Honor standard in at least eight papers out 
of twelve or fourteen, the University Extension student had 
only to do one paper on each course. The time allowed for the 
final examination on each course was three hours. Certificates 
were permitted by the University only after courses of twelve 
lectures and classes. Examinations were allowed on courses of 
not less than six lectures and classes, but, in lieu of certificates, 
successful candidates received printed statements of the Exam- 
iners' award. In answer to other questions, Mr. Sadler explained 
that about two-thirds of those attending the lectures in the cen- 
tres were women. There was a slightly larger proportion of 
women among the students attending the summer meeting held 
in Oxford in August. He desired to take this opportunity of 
cordially acknowledging their obligations, in the arrangement of 
summer meetings, to various American summer schools, and 
especially to the Assembly at Chautauqua. The University Ex- 
tension authorities in England warmly supported the work of 
Chautauqua and of the National Home-Reading Union, regarding 
it as preparative to University Extension teaching. With regard 
to the attendance of working-men, Mr. Sadler said that artisans 
came in large numbers to courses of lectures arranged for and paid 

84 The National Conference on University Extension. 

for by themselves. But the cost of the lectures made it difficult 
for working-men in England to establish courses except through 
the agency of their own organizations. The working-men's Co- 
operative Societies, wealthy and useful associations, had done 
much for many years to further the cause of University Extension, 
and in several centres in the crowded districts of the North 
there had been large audiences of hundreds of working-men 
attending University Extension lectures with profit and sustained 
enthusiasm. Answering further questions, Mr. Sadler stated 
that the University of Oxford contributed ^550 a year (two 
thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars) to the University 
Extension department, and, in addition to this, furnished many 
facilities in respect of printing and the provision of rooms for 
the summer meeting, etc. 

President Fell, of St. John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, 
said : 

Having personally participated in the earlier stages of the 
movement in England several years ago, and having witnessed 
the mode of its development in this country, I was for a long 
time very doubtful of its ultimate success in America. Great 
contrasts are presented to view to one who is intimately ac- 
quainted with the movement in each country. The rapidity 
with which it has spread in America is in striking contrast with 
the slowness of its progress in England. Again, the conditions 
of the public whom it is intended to benefit are distinctly differ- 
ent. In England a University education is for the most part 
possible only to the wealthy; consequently, outside of this class, 
there existed a large body of men and women who craved for 
the blessings of higher education. The democracy cried for 
culture. Here in America we have already a cultured democracy, 
and higher education is offered to all, is easy of access, and can 
be obtained for a slight cost. In England, the Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge are in locations not easily accessible to 
the masses, so that it was necessary for the University to go to 
them in order to convey instruction ; whereas in America we have 
in nearly every town or city, possessing twenty thousand inhabi- 
tants, a college or university offering higher education. We find, 

Remarks. 85 

therefore, for the most part, as yet, that the Extension lectures 
have been attended by the cultured of both sexes, and not by 
the mass of artisans, trades-people, inferior school-teachers, and 
others, who petitioned so eagerly in England for higher educa- 
tion. And as a result of this a disposition is manifested on the 
part of those who attended such lectures in many centres to 
relax interest in a movement, which was merely responded to by 
them because it appeared an agreeable and novel mode of filling 
up time. It became a fashionable "fad." In order, therefore, 
to make a success of the movement, we must not be discouraged 
if the fervor aroused by a novelty appears to be on the wane, but 
a strong and united effort should be made by all institutions in- 
terested in the movement to adapt and present their methods of 
instruction to those who have not already enjoyed the benefits of 
higher education. Such an effort would then secure the success 
of the movement, the regular and continuous attendance of a 
class of students, and direct advantage for the institutions them- 

Rev. Dr. William Wilberforce Newton, of Pittsfield, Mass., 
gave a short account of a small attempt made on the part of 
some of the churches among the Berkshire Hills, to reach the 
working-men in the mill-towns in that region by ten-cent read- 
ings on Saturday afternoons on various subjects in English liter- 
ature. He showed great interest in the movement of University 
Extension, and expressed the conviction that it is opening a new 
field of activity for the energies of the Christian Church. 

Mr. H. H. Hay, of the Girard College, thought that the col- 
leges ought to lead the movement of University Extension, and 
inferred from the presence at the Conference of so many college 
presidents, that they were prepared to do so. He referred to 
the interest attaching to this system of teaching in its influence 
on working-men, and by a question gained from Mr. Sadler 
the information that a large number of the working-classes are 
following Extension courses in England, and that, out of sixteen 
hundred who presented themselves for examination, a fair per- 
centage was of the working-people. In this connection Mr. 
Sadler quoted a special and crowning incident of a working- 

86 The National Conference on University Extension. 

man, whose essay on Milton, by the beauty of its diction, called 
forth special praise of the examiners of the University. In re- 
sponse to a further question from a delegate as to how continuity 
in Extension work can be secured, Mr. Sadler answered that this 
is largely possible through an active Students' Association. The 
members of the Students' Club form the really permanent 
nucleus of an Extension centre, and are largely influential in the 
determination as to the choice of courses. Their interest is 
almost invariably in favor of well-ordered sequence in study, 
and through their efforts much has already been accomplished in 
this direction. There is, however, an abiding danger from those 
who, following Extension courses only as a means of amusement, 
desire a variety of subjects rather than a helpful following out of 
special lines of study. 

Professor Edward H. Magill, of Swarthmore College, said : 
MR. CHAIRMAN, When the faculties of our colleges are criti- 
cised for not entering at once, and heartily, into the University 
Extension work, it must not be forgotten that the reason may 
not be any lack of sympathy wkh the movement, but because 
they are, in so many cases, already worked to the full extent of 
their ability. This difficulty was seriously considered at the 
recent meeting of the College Association, at Cornell University, 
where many of the leading colleges of " The Middle States and 
Maryland' ' were represented. We felt the great desirability of our 
doing our part in this work, and various means were suggested 
by which it might be rendered practicable. This, I am sure, will 
be found to be the general sentiment of the colleges, and I have 
no doubt that by some rearrangement of their work, and a re- 
adjustment of it secured by the appointment of some additional 
professors, or by training the young graduates or fellows to enter 
upon it, both universities and colleges will, in a few years, adapt 
themselves to the situation, and be taking that leading place in 
University Extension work throughout the world which should 
naturally fall to them. You may depend upon it that it is 
through no narrow principle of exclusiveness, and no unwilling- 
ness to assume all added burdens, that the public good may re- 
quire, but simply that there is a limit to all human effort, that 

Remarks. 87 

has kept, thus far, many college men aloof from University 
Extension work. We all well understand that such work, when 
it can possibly be undertaken, reacts for good upon the professor 
himself, and really makes him more valuable in his own college 
for the specific work in which he is there engaged. To this 
rule there will be found to be few exceptions, and they will grow 
fewer every year as the work advances. 

Superintendent Charles D. Raine, of Mount Holly, N. J., 

MR. CHAIRMAN, Much has been said by persons connected 
with colleges and universities, but from the public-school teacher, 
the educator nearest to the so-called masses, nothing has been 
heard. University Extension is no doubt a good thing, contain- 
ing possibilities for beneficial results. But, thus far, the effort to 
reach that great portion of the people whose opportunities for 
education and mental culture have been limited, has failed. 
And there are reasons for this. The average American citizen, 
especially the working-man, is intensely practical in his views and 
wishes. To engage in a project, he must be convinced that it 
will yield positive profit and benefit. Those sent out to organize 
centres often fail to show him the utility of the movement. 
Associating with persons of a considerable degree of education 
and cultivation of mind, and accustomed to instructing such, 
the lecturers naturally present the matter in a form appreciated 
only by persons of that class of society. It will not do to go 
before the people with heavy Johnsonese utterances, and a cold, 
formal, perfunctory manner, crushing and freezing them ; nor 
will it do to send them a callow student, a penny hand-glass 
dimly reflecting the thoughts, researches, and expressions of a 
superior. To make this movement a success, the lecturers must 
be teachers, true teachers, fully realizing that those they hope to 
benefit most have not learned to give voluntary attention to 
study and to literary subjects, as have students in a college or a 
university. The teaching should be interesting and instructive, 
imparted by earnest, enthusiastic teachers, in pungent, Saxon- 
worded speech, that will not only catch the attention involun- 
tarily, but hold it, and inspire the listener to seek more light 

88 The National Conference on University Extension. 

upon the subject. It has been said here that in a building used 
for University Extension purposes, the lecture-room should be on 
the ground-floor, and the library in the topmost story. I would 
not have it so. The library should be in the next room, side by 
side with the lecture-room, and the teaching should so sharpen 
perception, invite comparison, and develop thought, that, at the 
close, the library would at once be in demand to satisfy the 
hunger and thirst for more knowledge. Being made attractive, 
interesting, and instructive, the work, begun as a pleasure, will 
be pursued as a duty and esteemed a privilege. Then, and not 
till then, University Extension will benefit the people, improve 
our citizenship, and accomplish its aim. 


President of The American Society. 

IT is, of course, an idle matter to spend time trying to decide 
which, of a number of elements in a given combination, is the 
more necessary when all of them are really essential. It is like 
trying to decide which is the more important part of a pair of 
shears. In this University Extension work, there are several 
elements, each of which, however insignificant it may appear, is 
at bottom really essential to produce the desired result. But, 
certainly, among them all, no one is of more fundamental impor- 
tance than the University Extension lecturer himself, the man 
who actually does the work for which all the rest of the machinery 
exists, the man upon whom the successful working of the ma- 
chinery depends to a larger extent, perhaps, than upon any other 
individual in the whole system, the man without whose contin- 
uous and devoted attention University Extension will accomplish 
but a very small portion of the sum total of the good which lies 
within its possibilities. So, while we cannot say that it is of 
more importance than any other element, yet it is certainly essen- 
tial to the system. It naturally acquires a certain prominence in 
our consideration by the very numerous points of contact between 
it and all the rest of the work of the system. So, on this occasion, 
I feel that we can certainly well devote a very considerable por- 
tion of our time to a study of what the University Extension 
lecturer should be and what he should do. 

We rely, in the first place, of course, upon the lecturer to 
prepare the course of lectures, to prepare the syllabus used in 
connection with it, to deliver the lectures, to prepare the ques- 
tions for paper work, to set the lines along which the paper work 
must be done, to criticise the papers and, finally, to conduct for 
his part an examination of his own work. Let us then look first 


go The National Conference on University Extension. 

at the lecture itself. What should the University Extension lec- 
ture be? An analysis of the circumstances under which it is 
given, of the audience to which it is given, and of the results 
which may be fairly expected from it under favorable conditions, 
will give us at least some of the more important points to be 
considered in connection with it. 

I think we may say, in the first place, that the University Ex- 
tension lecture cannot be the sort of lecture which is given to 
college students. We may lay it down, I think, as a fundamental 
principle that the educational problem involved in University 
Extension is, at bottom, a very different one, after all, from that 
involved in university instruction itself; or, at least, that so 
many of the incidentals connected with it are so different from 
those connected with university instruction as to make it essen- 
tially a different thing. So fully has this been recognized by the 
more thoughtful men who have taken part in the University Ex- 
tension movement -and who have given thought to its possibilities 
and its circumstances that many of them have maintained that 
the expression University Extension, itself, is an entirely mis- 
leading one, and ought to be discarded for a more appropriate 
term. I shall not go so far as this, for I think the question of 
nomenclature, while having a certain importance, is not by any 
means fundamental. I think, moreover, that the term Univer- 
sity Extension has acquired a certain right to be applied to this 
particular sort of education. And yet it may well be worth our 
while to call our attention to the fact that the problem after all is 
different from that involved in university instruction from several 
different aspects. 

In the first place, the university lecturer who comes before an 
audience of university students knows what to presuppose in the 
way of previous training. He knows, pretty exactly, if he is a 
thoughtful and observant man, the general grade of maturity 
which has been reached by his audience. He knows what they 
have studied and how thoroughly, on the whole, they have pur- 
sued their studies, so that he is able to take up their education, 
so to speak, very directly and immediately where he finds it and 
to continue it in connection with the subject which he has in 

University ^Extension Lecturer. 91 

hand. The University Extension lecturer, on the other hand, has 
a very different 'condition of things to meet, in this respect. His 
audience, while made up, as a rule, of people who are interested 
in the work and are interested in improving themselves intellec- 
tually and aesthetically, is yet a mixed audience. It consists of 
people of various ages, of old and young, of people of different 
sexes, and, often, of different nationalities, and, what is more im- 
portant than all, of people of very different degrees of education 
and training. The University Extension lecturer, therefore, can 
suppose, one might almost say, next to nothing in regard to 
the knowledge and training of his audience. He is in very much 
the same position as the clergyman who comes before audiences 
made up on very much the same lines as those of the University 
Extension lecturer ; and certainly no one who has studied the 
problem would doubt, for a moment, that the clergyman's prob- 
lem, so far as it is educational, is fundamentally a different one 
from that of the university professor. Those of you who have 
busied yourselves especially with the pedagogics of college and 
university courses, are fully aware how carefully and closely, as a 
result of centuries of development, our educational system has 
been knitted together. You will very often hear a professor, for 
example, say it is impossible to teach Greek to a boy who has not 
studied Latin. You will hear a professor of Assyriology say it is 
impossible to teach Assyrian to a boy who has not studied 
Hebrew. What he means, of course, at bottom, is not that it is 
actually impossible to do so, but that he, by his whole training 
and by his whole previous education as a pupil and a student and 
a teacher, has got thoroughly into the habit, in his presentation 
of Greek and Assyrian, of presupposing a knowledge of Latin and 
of Hebrew. So, it has not been so very long since men main- 
tained that, in order to teach English literature, a knowledge of 
Latin and Greek, on the part of the people, was essential ; and, 
of course, to a certain method of teaching, that is undoubtedly 
necessary and, perhaps, to accomplish certain specific results in 
the widest and broadest sense it may always be necessary ; but 
no one would claim that English literature, to-day, cannot be 
taught and well taught to people who have little or no knowledge 

92 The National Conference on University Extension. 

of the classical languages. Now, if university and college men 
find it so difficult to adapt one or another element of the tradi- 
tional curriculum to some other condition than traditional con- 
ditions, how much more difficult the problem, and how different, 
in some respects, must the problem be, when he is thrown en- 
tirely out of these ruts and placed face to face with the pressing 
problem as to what he can do, from an educational point of view, 
with an audience in regard to whose training and scholarship he 
can make none of these presuppositions, to which he has always 
been used in the case of college students. 

There is another condition to my mind almost as important 
as that which I have just described, and which serves to distin- 
guish very particularly the possibilities of the work in University 
Extension from those in college and university work itself, and 
that is the length of time at the disposal of the university lec- 
turer and the University Extension lecturer respectively to pro- 
duce their various impressions. Real education is a result of 
time as well as of effort. The time element in education is 
almost as important, if not quite as important, as in economics ; 
where it forms the fundamental element in the conception of 
capital. You cannot secure culture and training, you cannot 
secure those specific things which we connect with the idea of a 
liberal education within a brief period, no matter how great the 
effort the individual may put forth. It takes time, in other 
words, to educate the human being. It takes time to educate 
and discipline along intellectual and aesthetic as well as along 
moral lines. Not even the warmest believer and adherent of 
the momentary and sudden revolution in character which may 
come from religious conversion has ever maintained that any- 
thing more can be accomplished than a mere facing about of the 
individual, a turning of the mind and thought and action from 
one direction to another. Moral culture can only come as the 
result of time, of long-continued as well as of vigorous effort. 
So the university man has, under ordinary conditions, certainly 
in our modern institutions of learning, whatever may be true of 
their English counterparts, a certain length of time, a certain 
period, during which he has his audience directly and imme- 

The University Extension Lecturer. 93 

diately under his control. If he does not succeed in making an 
impression the first hour, he can take the second hour to present 
the same thought in a different way. He may take a third 
hour, if necessary. If he does not succeed in doing in it one 
week, he can take a second week or a third week. If he does 
not accomplish it in one month, he can take a second month or 
a third, or even a fourth or fifth. He can make a study, to a 
certain extent, of the individual students he has before him and 
with whom he comes in contact and adapt his work, to a certain 
extent, to the wants of individual members of his class. The 
University Extension lecturer has not the same advantage. He 
can meet his audience for a dozen times, or, as experience 
shows, perhaps twice that often, in a given subject within a 
given year; but experience, both in England and in this 
country, shows that we cannot hope to get hold of the same 
audience on the average for more than a dozen times for the 
presentation of a certain subject ; or, under very favorable con- 
ditions, for more than twenty-four or twenty-five times. The 
cases in which more than this can be accomplished, at least at 
present, are rare, and I am inclined to think, from my observa- 
tion of the circumstances, are likely to continue to be rare for 
some time to come. The Extension lecturer must, therefore, 
face the problem of getting a certain number of points before 
an audience, which he meets, say, once a week for a period of 
twelve or eighteen weeks. The mere statement of the case 
shows how different the problem involved in the University 
Extension lecturer's work and in that of the university lecturer. 
There is another side in which the work of the two men is 
very different. The university lecturer has before him, pre- 
sumably, a set of men or boys who are giving their entire time 
and attention to the work laid out and required by the college 
or university. They are supposed to be giving themselves up 
completely to this educational process which is involved in the 
curriculum of the institution of learning which they are attend- 
ing; and, if the claims of society and of athletics or of indo- 
lence are sometimes too great to allow the actual realization of 
this pre-supposition, yet, on the whole, the university lecturer 

94 The National Conference on University Extension. 

may fairly count on the bulk of the time of his students being 
devoted, if not to his work, at least to the general university 
work of which his branch forms a part. The University Exten- 
sion lecturer, on the contrary, has before him a class of people 
in whose lives his work forms even if it become what we hope 
to make it a permanent feature, yet, after all, only one element 
and, perhaps, as far as time and attention are concerned, by far 
the smallest of several elements which enter into combination 
to make up the life of the individuals composing his audience. 
He finds there the busy man who gives the bulk of his time and 
attention during the day to the speculations on the street or the 
working of his factory or the manipulations of politics. He 
finds the woman whose chief attention is absorbed by her house- 
hold duties, by her charitable works, by her religious offices* 
He finds the young man or woman, or the boy or girl whose 
day is spent in the shop or counting-house or the factory, and 
who, therefore, under the most favorable conditions with the 
greatest desire in the world to accomplish something valuable 
and definite, can only give a modicum of his time to this par- 
ticular work, and, even if we succeed in making by our Univer- 
sity Extension movement in alliance with all the other educa- 
tional movements of the time, education a serious business of 
life, comparable in the time and attention which it takes to that 
which is given to amusement, to the church, to politics ; yet, 
after all, it cannot even become more than one of these elements, 
and with this fact the University Extension lecturer must reckon. 
I have not stated these differences in their conditions and 
methods of work for the purpose of discouraging, in any sense, 
those who believe thoroughly in the valuable educational aspects 
of University Extension work. I belong to this class myself, 
and I should certainly not desire to discourage myself and those 
who are working with me in this very important field. But I 
have said these things so as to secure a clearer jdea of the 
conditions under which the University Extension lecturer must 
work, as compared with those under which the university 
lecturer is privileged to work. Now, I think it follows, without 
stopping to draw the conclusion, for any one who has followed 

The University Extension Lecturer. 95 

me in this statement of the case that the University Extension 
lecture must be a very different sort of lecture in order to accom- 
plish the highest educational result under the circumstances from 
the kind of lecture which would do the same thing in the uni- 
versity work itself. In the first place, details must be left very 
largely out of sight, except so far as detail is necessary in order 
to emphasize and throw into strong and clear relief the general 
features of the subject. I say, except so far as detail is neces- 
sary. One of the greatest dangers to which the University Ex- 
tension lecturer is liable is that of dealing simply in formal 
statements, in fundamental propositions, in glittering general- 
ities. Any teacher knows that such a method of presenting the 
main features of a subject is foredoomed to failure, for the bald 
statement of general principles is something which conveys but 
very little idea to the untrained mind. The general feature or 
general principle which the lecturer is trying to emphasize must 
depend far more on the skilful way in which it results as the 
crowning conclusion of a given presentation, far more upon its 
being put in such a form that the student himself, out of the 
details which have been given, shall be in a position to formu- 
late the general principles himself than upon any formal state- 
ment, no matter how skilfully and accurately it may be made. 
It would take a very skilful man, indeed, to give one lecture 
upon the history of the world, which should contain any valua- 
ble matter for the average college student or average man or 
woman. It takes almost as much skill to treat the whole field of 
Greek or Roman, or French, or German, or English, or Ameri- 
can history in a course of six lectures, so as to produce any 
abiding result. But it is feasible for the man properly prepared, 
in a period of six or in a course of twelve lectures, to present 
one century or one-half century or one special period of English 
or French or German history in such a way that it shall leave a 
permanent and indelible impression on the minds of some of his 
hearers. It is plain, moreover, that the University Extension 
lecture must, after all, rely for its permanent success upon its 
ability to interest the audience in the subject in such a way as 
to lead them to read about it immediately, thoroughly, per- 

96 The National Conference on University Extension. 

sistently; in other words, that the object of each individual 
lecture, as well as of the course, should be very largely to stim- 
ulate an interest in the subject as distinct from imparting knowl- 
edge on the subject, which latter may very properly be a leading 
characteristic of the university lecture. 

And so I might go on to set forth the peculiar conditions and 
to analyze the peculiar problem which confronts the University 
Extension lecturer and to discuss the methods by which he may 
accomplish his ends. But I have said enough to emphasize the 
point which I wish to urge upon you especially on this occasion, 
that the University Extension lecturer must not suppose that the 
simple lecture which he gives to his college and university stu- 
dents is the proper one to give to his University Extension audi- 
ence, and to pronounce the opinion that if the lecture is successful 
in the highest sense before the University Extension audience, 
it will not be the one which, in the highest sense, will be suc- 
cessful before the university students, and vice versa. We have 
found from our experience in the short time we have been at 
work, that our college and university men are very prone to fall 
into this error, and the result is very noticeable in cases where 
they have done so, in what may be called comparatively ineffi- 
cient work, judged by the reasonable standard which we may set 
up on University Extension subjects. 

But there is another error into which the university professor 
is very liable to fall, and that is the error of giving simply what 
he calls a popular lecture. Nearly all our college and university 
men in this country do more or less popular lecturing on their 
subjects and allied branches, before literary societies, teachers' 
institutes, and similar organizations, so that nearly every college 
professor has what he calls a popular lecture. It is oftentimes 
very, very far from being so, but it is at least an attempt in that 
direction. When these lectures are really popular, under ordi- 
nary conditions they are very likely to be simply specimens of the 
class known as lyceum bureau lectures. This is a very valuable 
class in its way, and one upon which I should be the last in the 
world to wish to throw, any shir or odium ; but it is a class which 
will not serve the purpose of Universal Extension at all, and 

The University Extension Lecturer. 97 

which, if introduced into this field, will rapidly give us, in Uni- 
versity Extension, poor lyceum bureau lectures by college pro- 
fessors instead of good ones by the present lyceum lecturers. The 
ordinary popular lecture of the college or university professor will 
not serve the purposes of University Extension any better than 
the ordinary lecture by the same party to university students. 

Enough has been said, I think, upon this point, to bring clearly 
before you the proposition stated above, and which I wish to 
reiterate here, that the kind of lecture which will accomplish the 
highest results in University Extension work is a very different 
sort of lecture from that which will accomplish the highest results, 
on the one hand, in the university, and on the other, in the 
lyceum bureau. I would urge, therefore, upon the college or 
university man, who thinks of taking up University Extension 
work, that he, in doing so, has a new educational problem before 
him, a problem which will not be thoroughly well solved without 
the most careful and continued attention upon his part. The 
fact that university men have not kept this circumstance in mind 
will account, to a very large extent, to my mind, for those numer- 
ous failures, in one form or another, of the University Extension 
work which the history of this movement, in England and in this 
country, has to chronicle, and to the large percentage of attempts, 
which, while we cannot perhaps denominate them as absolute 
failures, are certainly not calculated to encourage us to put forth 
long-continued and renewed efforts along these lines. So much 
for the University Extension lecture. The University Extension 
lecturer is in so far the man who can give us a lecture which is 
suited to the conditions we have sketched above. 

There are, however, other elements than the mere lecture in 
the scheme of University Extension instruction. In immediate 
connection with this lecture is the syllabus or outline of lectures, 
and in the construction of that syllabus the University Extension 
lecturer has an opportunity to show all the qualities, except the 
mere one of pleasant and effective address, which he needs to 
employ in the preparation and delivery of the lectures themselves. 

No one can help being struck, who has taken the pains to read 
over the syllabi published in England by the various men who 


98 The National Conference on University Extension. 

have lectured in this field and the same efforts made on this 
side of the water ; I say no one can help being struck by the fact 
that the average syllabus is a poor affair ; that it contains but 
little help to clear consecutive thought, and that it contains but 
little help towards following up the lecture and the lecture course 
in a systematic way ; that it has but little to do in inspiring the 
student with the interest in the study which is fundamental to any 
great success along these lines. A mere summary of headings 
which the lecturer proposes to discuss has, of course, its value. A 
mere series of statements of principles, which the lecturer pro- 
poses to develop and illustrate, has, of course, its value, but if 
that is all which the syllabus contains, it falls very far below the 
level of efficiency which is easily within the reach of the skillful 
and successful lecturer. The syllabus should be a sort of guide to 
the study of the subject which the lecturer proposes to present, 
a sort of cord which shall lead the student through the labyrin- 
thine windings of the mass of literature which exists on all these 
subjects, and lead him carefully and steadily and constantly to 
the wide outlooks, to the important views, to the soul-stirring 
altitudes which should make up and mark his intellectual and 
sesthetic progress, so far as it is aided and directed by this par- 
ticular course of study. It should give to the person who has it 
some definite knowledge as to what books on the subject and 
what portions of what books are best worth his reading, if he 
wishes to view this field as the lecturer views it, if he wishes to 
get the same outlooks, if he wishes to pass through, to a certain 
extent, the same experience. It goes without saying that it should 
be systematic, as far as possible suggestive and interesting and 
inspiring ; and, in short, should be a sort of guide to the study 
of the particular subject which the lecturer is treating. That 
means, of course, very much more careful and thorough work on 
the syllabus than most University Extension lecturers, either in 
England or in this country, have thus far been willing to give it. 
It means, alas ! more ability to pick out the salient things and 
put them in an impressive and salient form than the average lec- 
turer in this field possesses ; but we can, at least, all of us within 
the range of our ability, as far as possible, approximate towards 

The University Extension Lecturer. 99 

the best and most successful thing in this field which can be 

In close connection with" the syllabus should be mentioned the 
paper work of students, the questions which are presented to them 
to stimulate and stir their interest and inspire them to take an 
active part in the work, and not to be content with the mere passive 
role of listener. The preparation of these questions calls for care 
and attention, if they are to be successful ; it calls for skill and abil- 
ity and a close adaptation and study of the conditions under wfcich 
these University Extension lectures must be given. Just in pro- 
portion as the lecturer is able to get the members of his University 
Extension audience to take an active and interested part in the 
pursuit of the subject, in that proportion will he be able to produce 
permanent and valuable results. I do not mean to say, of course, 
that the lectures would be valueless, even if the people should 
not write the papers, but simply that the whole work will be of 
an enormously greater value, to all those who do actually take part 
in it, than it would be without it. Now, I am sorry to say that, 
if any of you will take the syllabi which have been prepared, 
either in this country or abroad, and go through them carefully, 
you will be rather struck by the careless way in which this work, 
on the whole, has been developed. I need not stop on this point 
longer, except to venture the general remark that, if the largest 
and best results are to be got from this paper work, the questions 
must be carefully thought out and must be carefully graded, so 
that every person who attends the course of lectures and pays 
close attention will feel that there is some question or questions 
in the list, on which he may present an acceptable paper, if he 
will only put forth the effort. There should be other questions 
which will call for the largest and fullest exercise of the ability 
to study and to present which the lecturer is likely to find in his 

Finally, the class work is the other element in the distinctively 
technical or educational work of the University Extension lect- 
urer, which calls for special mention. To conduct a good class, 
even in college and the university, where you have your picked 
men, your men of a homogeneous training, your men of thorough 

IOO The National Conference on University Extension. 

training, your men who devote all their time to the work ; I say, 
to conduct a good class, even under such favorable conditions, 
calls for the exercise of one of the highest forms of ability which 
the teacher possesses. You all know how unutterably " tedious and 
tasteless the hours" that you have spent in many a college profes- 
sor's rooms, in the so-called recitations, where there seemed to 
be, as you look back upon it now, no plan or method of work, no 
stimulus and little or no searching out of the hidden things in 
the minds and hearts of the students, no inspiration or stirring 
up to higher levels, to higher thoughts, and to more vigorous ac- 
tion. The conditions of successful class work in the University 
Extension audience are, many of them, more unfavorable than 
those in the college and university. In the first place, you have 
an audience which is very likely, indeed, to possess some rather 
obstreperous individuals, who are inclined to take all the time 
of the class, and whom you cannot dispose of so summarily as you 
can of a college student of the same kind. You are apt to have 
very many, a much larger number, of a retiring disposition, who 
are too timid to say anything, who are frightened if you call 
upon them to express their opinion, or, if you try to draw them 
out by questioning. This class includes oftentimes the most 
valuable element in your audience, and, if you persist in drawing 
them out by questions and showing up their ignorance, the result 
is very much more likely that they will leave your work and give 
up the whole class than that they should be brought to take the 
same view of the subject that you do. 

In the second place, in an audience of this class, you are even 
more likely to have your time frittered away by an infinite num- 
ber of questions, some of which have a possible relation to the 
subject in hand, but most of which have nothing to do with it. 
You are all well aware, of course, how completely a class of col- 
lege boys can waste the time of the class and the teacher by ask- 
ing idle and profitless questions, either on purpose or from igno- 
rance. You can imagine how much more completely a popular 
audience, such as the University Extension lecturer obtains, may 
do the same thing, and how easy it is for a question to shunt the 
whole consideration away from the point that the lecturer is try- 

The University Extension Lecturer. 101 

ing to make and into a wilderness of idle and profitless debate. 
If the lecturer were to undertake to answer all the questions which 
his class might ask, he would simply use up an hour and produce 
almost no beneficial result whatever. Consequently, there is no 
greater opportunity of showing his skill open to the Extension 
lecturer than is open to him in the conducting of a classs, to draw 
out the diffident, to squelch the boisterous, to get such questions 
as will enable him to be helpful and to direct the course of the 
discussion so as to emphasize and throw into still stronger relief, 
bring out more thoroughly, to impress more fully upon their 
minds the fundamental points of its presentation. To do thor- 
oughly efficient work in the class, calls for careful and long-con- 
tinued attention on the part of the instructor, and nothing will be 
more helpful to him along this line than the papers which he will 
succeed in obtaining from the individuals who make up his class. 
If he can get a large number of them, it will enable him to size 
up his class, so to speak, to find out the lines along which they 
are working or reading, to find out how far he is carrying them 
with him, how far he is inspiring them with an interest in the 
subject, as a class, as this is one of the most difficult tests of the 
lecturer's ability, so it is the occasion in which most of our aver- 
age university and college men fail to come up to the standard. 
And I may say, in a general way, that in our short experience 
here in the work that is carried on immediately under the auspi- 
ces of the American Society we have had more complaints about 
the inefficient class work of our lecturers than upon any other 
point. Our communities feel, in an instinctive way, and I think 
the feeling is the correct one, that the class, if properly conducted, 
is the one element which will bring more thoroughly educational 
work into this movement than even the lecture itself. 

I think, perhaps, enough has been said to emphasize what I may 
call the educational aspect and educational function of the Uni- 
versity Extension lecturer. The University Extension lecturer 
should be the man who can give us the kind of lecture which we 
have described in a general way, who can give us the kind of syl- 
labus, who can give us the kind of class work, who can set the 
kind of questions, and who, at the end of his work, will leave 

IO2 The National Conference on University Extension. 

his audience and his class and his community in a blaze of en- 
thusiasm for the subject which he has been presenting, and for 
the great field of human science of which it forms a part. 

This, however, is not by any means the sole function of the 
University Extension lecturer. As I said above, the success of 
this work depends upon the University Extension lecturer at more 
points than one. The large success of the work is going to de- 
pend, not merely upon the success of any one subject ; not merely 
upon the interest excited for any one period of English literature 
for example, nor upon the interest excited upon English litera- 
ture as a whole, but upon the interest which is excited in human 
science as a whole and in its relations to all the other sides of hu- 
man life. Now, it seems to me that, having regard to the con- 
ditions of our American life, and having regard to the nature of 
this movement, the University Extension lecturer should do two 
things in addition to the particular work which we have already 
outlined. He should be an apostle and an evangelist for the 
University Extension movement as a whole, and above all, for the 
cause of education in general. He should not feel that, after 
giving his course of lectures, even if he be thoroughly successful 
in it, that he has done all that may fairly enough be required 
of him. This movement cannot be made general, it cannot be 
made permanent, unless the men who are doing the actual work 
of lecturing will take it up in their hands and bear it steadily and 
persistently to the front, in connection with all of their Uni- 
versity Extension work. This, we all agree, is one of the great 
educational movements of the age. We shall derive great help 
from it from every point of view, if this fact be kept persistently 
before our notice ; if every occasion be taken by the university 
lecturer to excite interest in the general cause of University Ex- 
tension ; if he consider that he never goes out of his way when he 
can score a good point for the general movement itself; that, on 
the contrary, it is a part, a fundamental part, of his duties to 
keep the cause in mind, and, wherever he sees an opportunity to 
advance it, to do so. In other words, the Extension lecturer 
should look upon himself as a man, one of whose special duties 
it is to enlighten the audience that meets him night after night, 

The University Extension Lecturer. 103 

to enlighten the community from which his audience is drawn, 
as to the scope and functions, aim and methods of the Univer- 
sity Extension work as a whole. In a word, he ought to leave 
his Extension audience, he ought to leave the community in 
which his course has been given, perfectly ablaze with enthu- 
siasm, not merely for Shakespeare, if that be the part; nor for 
English literature, if that be the whole of his subject ; but for 
University Extension itself, which is carrying out not merely 
Shakespeare, and not merely English literature, but art and 
science and mathematics, education, training, culture, into 
the life of the nation. 

Now, the ways in which this can be done are numerous. In 
the first place, of course, there is the local committee, the ele- 
ment in whose hands is the management of the local centre, the 
people under whose auspices, looking at it from one point of 
view, the man is giving his lecture. If we are to succeed in 
carrying through and emphasizing the educational as well as the 
popular sides of this work, we can accomplish it only with the 
sympathy and hearty co-operation and support of these local 
committees. We shall get that for the higher and better sides of 
the work only if we continually and persistently urge the higher 
and better sides of the work upon their attention, only if we en- 
list their interests in the higher and better aspects of the move- 
ment. Nobody can do this so persistently, nobody can do it so 
directly as the University Extension lecturer. He is sure to 
meet one or another member of the committee upon every occa- 
sion he goes to lecture. There is nothing in the way of his 
getting the committee together for the purpose of giving them a 
special talk on how this movement is progressing, and how it is 
being taken up in different localities, and how the most success- 
ful centres conduct their work, and everything which will tend 
to heighten their interest in the movement and clear their un- 
derstanding as to its correct methods. In a word, the Univer- 
sity Extension lecturer should look upon himself as the apostle 
of the movement, and as having a special call to educate and en- 
lighten the local committee and the community in such a way as 
to further most efficiently the permanent interests of the cause. 

IO4 The National Conference on University Extension. 

But I do not think that the University Extension lecturer 
should stop with this. University Extension is not going to ac- 
complish its fullest mission unless it succeeds in interesting the 
committee not merely in literature, in art, in science, as branches 
of human knowledge, but in education as one of the great funda- 
mental interests of society, in education as a branch of human 
life and institutions which stands side by side with religion, with 
politics, with business, and with amusement as a great and funda- 
mental category of social existence. I believe that we have, in 
this movement, the greatest machinery for enlightening the pub- 
lic upon educational questions, the greatest opportunity for 
getting public attention to the importance and significance of 
educational problems that has ever been offered to us in the his- 
tory of the world. If this work be properly organized and fitted 
into the other educational interests and agencies in the com- 
munity, it may enormously increase the efficiency of them all 
by directing public attention and interest to the subject, as a 
whole, in a way which has been hitherto unknown. Now, the 
man who is to do this for us, and the only man who can do it, is 
the University Extension lecturer. Surely we have the right to 
expect from the university and college man an interest in educa- 
tion as such, an interest in the great department of which his 
particular work forms a very small, an almost infinitesimal part. 
It is not too much to expect, it is not too much to demand, that 
he should put forth a portion of his effort to assist the cause as a 
whole, to help education as a whole, as distinct from other in- 
terests of life, into that place of prominence which it may fairly 
demand in modern life by its importance and significance for 
modern civilization. The University Extension lecturer can do 
this in an incidental way, and in such form as to immensely 
heighten and stimulate the interest in University Extension and 
the interest in the particular subject which he is teaching. 

It is hardly necessary for me to go into the description of de- 
tails as to what the lecturer may do and as to how he may do it, 
in the direction I have indicated. It may not, however, be out 
of place to suggest some possible things and then ask the indi- 
vidual lecturers, here and elsewhere, to let us know about the 

The University Extension Lecturer. 105 

work they are doing in this direction, and to pour in their sug- 
gestions upon us. For example, suppose the University Exten- 
sion lecturer has under consideration the subject of literature. 
Suppose he takes a few moments, five or ten minutes, at the 
beginning of his lecture, or preceding the close, for a little 
discussion of educational topics in one form or another. He 
will find the public very much interested in them, if he will 
take a little pains to put them into proper shape. He will find 
that people will go home and talk about them, and, from that 
time, they will take a new interest in everything pertaining to 
education. Suppose, for example, on one occasion he were to 
talk about the function of the university in the life of nations, 
give them a little historical sketch of the rise of universities, of 
the place they have occupied in ancient and modern times, with 
some of the interesting incidents connected with the develop- 
ment of these institutions, and such instances are innumerable. 
Suppose he were to follow that, upon another occasion, by a brief 
discussion of the rise of the modern university, of what it is in 
England, France, and Germany, and of what it is in the United 
States to-day. Let him give an account of the rise and develop- 
ment of the American college, of the changes which it has un- 
dergone, of what its specific function is. Let him take up his 
own subject, English literature, give an account of its first intro- 
duction into the universities as an individual discipline, of its de- 
velopment and of its present state, of the way it is organized, of 
the methods of instruction, of its relation to other branches; 
following that up by a discussion of the University Extension 
movement as such, as the last and latest outgrowth of colleges 
and universities. It would be perfectly feasible for him, by giv- 
ing a few minutes each evening, at the opening of his lecture, to 
some of these general topics, to increase immensely the interest 
in his lecture course, without in any sense interfering with his 
educational work, thus interesting the community in higher 
institutions, in the University Extension movement, and, briefly, 
in higher education as a whole. 

Some one may say that this is too much to ask of the college 
or university man, that he does not know enough about educa- 

io6 The National Conference on University Extension. 

tion in general, that he does not know enough about the colleges 
and universities, that he does not know enough about University 
Extension, even, to speak intelligently upon these topics. If this 
be so, and, alas ! I am afraid there is too much truth in it, surely 
it is a sad state of affairs, and one that ought to be remedied. 
Men who are engaged in a great educational work ought cer- 
tainly to be willing to take the time to learn something of the 
history of that work itself, what it means in the present, what it 
has meant in the past, if not to give some thought and reflection 
to the question of what it may mean in the future. I do not 
hesitate to say that the men who are going to do the most useful 
work in this field are men who will be able to do the particular 
things which I have outlined above. I would not, however, say 
that no one could do successful work in this line who could not 
accomplish all the things just described, but certainly his work 
will be more successful in proportion as he is able to measure 
himself up more nearly to the standard indicated in the above 


University of Pennsylvania. 

THE aim of the University Extension lecturer is not so much 
to instruct his hearers directly as to stimulate them to independent 
study of their own. His work is largely a failure if he does not 
lead them to think for themselves, and moreover to think thor- 
oughly. In writing the lectures, therefore, in conducting the 
class, in criticising the weekly papers, the thing that he must 
especially have in mind is the necessity of developing thor- 
oughness and independence. And of course this holds good of 
the making of the syllabus as well. It likewise must be con- 
structed with careful reference to these two results. Conse- 
quently it may be said that the best syllabus is the one which 
makes thorough study seem desirable and easy, and so tempts 
the Extension student to undertake it ; but which refrains, on 
the other hand, from guiding his steps with such great care that 
he shall have nothing to do but follow, and so shall lose all 
independence of judgment. 

Permit me to take up these two considerations somewhat in 
detail. And first, the question of thoroughness. What must 
the syllabus comprise if it is to help the student to do thorough 

For one thing, of course, it must give him full and accurate 
information in regard to the best books on the subject in hand. 
This information, moreover, must be well-ordered, discrimina- 
tive. I cannot think that a mere list of titles can ever be suffi- 
cient. The student should be told plainly what works are abso- 
lutely essential, what stand next in importance, and what finally 
are good but yet of minor interest, or perhaps special in their 
nature, so that they should be used only by those who wish to 
undertake comparatively exhaustive investigations. He should 


io8 The National Conference on University Extension. 

be told, too, in what order the books of each of these classes 
should be taken up, what prejudices and prepossessions on the 
part of their authors are to be guarded against, how one volume 
may be made to supplement the deficiencies of another, and so 
on. In a word, the lecturer should, in the syllabus, freely give 
to his pupils, as far as it is possible to do so, the full benefit of 
that knowledge of the literature of the subject which he himself 
has slowly accumulated. In my opinion, he may well go so far 
as to specify editions and mention prices. And I certainly 
would have him, in addition to the general hints of which I have 
been speaking, or in connection with them, sketch out both a 
major and a minor course of reading, somewhat in detail ; that 
is, both a leisurely rambling path and a short cut through the 
great field of study that he has mapped out in his preceding 

Consider for a moment how the syllabus will be used, and you 
will not accuse me of having Iai4 too much stress upon this 
matter of a bibliographical introduction to it. Many intending 
students will turn to it, long in advance of the lectures, for hints 
in regard to preparatory reading. Students' associations will 
be guided by it in the purchase of their works of reference. 
Libraries will avail themselves of its suggestions in their efforts 
to use their resources for the benefit of local centres. And, most 
important of all perhaps, the syllabus is likely to become, in 
some cases at all events, the handbook of the solitary students, 
who, after being awakened by the lectures to a deep interest in 
some subject, will strive to continue its study by himself, for 
months and perhaps years, during which time he certainly will 
need all possible assistance. 

I pass now to the lecture outline. This has varied very much, 
sometimes being a mere skeleton of the lecture, in the form of a 
few short sentences or a series of bare catch-words, sometimes, 
on the other hand, presenting a careful condensation of every- 
thing essential in the whole discourse. The former method, 
that of short sentences or catch-words, would do very well if 
the object of this outline were simply to spare hearers the labor 
and distraction of taking notes in the lecture-room, it being 

The Ideal Syllabus. 109 

understood that they would carefully write out the substance of 
what they had heard as soon as they reached their homes. But, 
if the syllabus is to save them from all note-taking whatever, 
after the lecture as well as doing its progress, if it is to be made, 
as I believe it should be, a substitute for such task- work, serving 
to recall at any time, however remote, all that the lecturer 
deemed of special value ; then it should be fairly full, should be 
an epitome, a synopsis, rather than the barest and briefest sum- 
mary. It will in that case go far towards insuring that thor- 
oughness of work upon which I am now dwelling; for it will 
render it almost impossible for the lecture, which is the first step 
in Extension work and thus in certain respects the most im- 
portant, to be dealt with superficially and imperfectly by a 
student who is at all in earnest. 

I would ask your consideration now of a third feature of the 
syllabus, the questions in answer to which the weekly papers are 
written. Upon the skill with which these are chosen depends 
very largely the value of the paper work ; and upon that, in 
turn, depends more than upon anything else the final worth of 
the entire course of study. So the questions should be con- 
trived with the utmost care. They should not be so difficult as 
to repel the student nor yet so easy that he may answer them 
without some measure of earnest thought. They should cun- 
ningly tempt him to read, consider, compare. They should 
suggest to him the many aspects of the subject, its large possi- 
bilities, the deep underlying philosophy of it. In fine, the 
questions are of the very greatest importance, and demand in 
their preparation all the lecturer's art. 

Up to this point I have spoken of the necessity of making the 
syllabus of such a character in every part that the student will 
be helped and, indeed, almost compelled by it to be thorough 
and careful in his work. Allow me now to call your attention 
to the necessity of developing within him independence as well. 
The lecturer will render his hearer but a poor service if he teaches 
him to be ever so thorough, but in so doing represses his orig- 
inality. Hence great pains must be taken to leave room for the 
free play of his judgment. So in the syllabus, as in the lecture, 

HO The National Conference on University Extension. 

one must sedulously avoid dogmatic assertions, or a one-sided 
presentation of the matter; must persistently maintain an atti- 
tude of inquiry and a spirit of fair investigation and free dis- 
cussion; or, to be less general in statement, one must refrain 
from giving too much advice about books and reading, too full 
an outline of the lecture, questions too searching and exhaustive. 
Leave the pupil something to find out for himself. It is better, 
even, to let him make frequent mistakes than to guard him with 
too much care against making any. 

The task, then, to sum up our conclusions, is to reconcile in 
the syllabus as well as may be two somewhat conflicting require- 
ments : the necessity of so guiding the student that he shall not 
find it easy to be superficial, and the no less imperative necessity 
of leaving him so free from guidance that he shall be forced to 
be somewhat independent and original in his work. 

I am well aware that a syllabus which should satisfy those 
requirements must be very difficult to construct. But so are all 
forms of Extension work difficult. And it is a fortunate thing 
that it is so. If they were easy for either teacher or pupil, this 
movement could not accomplish the great results that we hope 
from it. For strenuous effort alone can develop one's powers. 

It is not to be regretted then that the syllabus is found to 
require much time and much study. And it is plain that the 
lecturer cannot be altogether successful who allows himself to 
think of it as a slight task, something that can be thrown off in 
an hour or two, perhaps even before the lectures are written. 
He should rather look upon it as one of the three important 
steps in the preparation of his course. He should feel that he 
has first to master his subject; then to construct his lectures 
with all his skill ; and then, finally, to devote unlimited time and 
pains to the making of his guide, this hand-book, this repre- 
sentative, always present with the student, of himself, and his 

And now, as I close, permit me to commend to your notice 
certain concrete illustrations of what a good syllabus should be. I 
may not refer, of course, to the work of any of our American 
lecturers, lest I should seem to make comparisons and distinc- 

Remarks. 1 1 1 

tions ; but I can and do suggest that all who are interested in the 
matter study the syllabus of our English visitors of last year 
and this. 


Professor Edward H. Magill, of Swarthmore College, said : 
As the syllabus is an essential part of every well-organized 
University Extension course, it seems to me that the manner in 
which it is given is a subject for our serious consideration. And 
first of all, let me say that I do not present my own views upon 
this subject as the only correct views, or those which I would 
urge upon others. Nor can I speak, as others can, from experi- 
ence in University Extension work, but what I shall say is based 
upon my experience in my own college classes. For myself, then, 
let me say that I should consider it a serious error to follow the 
usual practice of giving out to classes the syllabus before the 
beginning of a lecture. I desire to have the undivided attention 
of a class to the various parts of the subject which I present, 
and not to have that attention divided nor distracted by endeav- 
oring, while listening, to follow the printed syllabus before them. 
An instructor presents his subject under the most advantageous 
circumstances when he can ask his classes, in the beginning, to 
give him their undivided attention, without being burdened by 
taking notes, and that all notes needed for the home study of the 
subject will be given them at the close of the lecture.* I know 
that it is sometimes said that taking notes is a useful practice, 
and that it is not well for classes to be relieved from it. This is 
doubtless true, but there will be other occasions when this prac- 
tice may be acquired, and the University Extension lecturer 
who desires to give his classes the maximum amount of knowl- 
edge in his necessarily limited time, will be careful not to burden 
them with anything that is unnecessary. This argument reminds 
me of the old familiar one that mental discipline, being the chief 

112 The National Conference on University Extension. 

end of all study, whatever will add to the difficulty of a study is 
so much added to its value. We all know that in these latter days, 
when so many studies are clamoring for a place in our curricula, 
this purely mental discipline claim has lost a large portion of its 
significance. I would then say, print the syllabus of each lecture 
on a separate sheet, give it out at the close, and open each lec- 
ture hour by a brief examination upon the last lecture, sometimes 
conducted viva voce, and sometimes in writing. And at the 
close of the course, while I would give a final written general 
examination, in determining the success of the student I should 
also give much weight to the result of these briefer examinations 
given from week to week. 

These are my views upon this important point, and for myself 
I am sure that they are correct, although they might not prove 
to be so for another member of this Convention. If there is 
one lesson which, more than others, has been impressed upon us 
by these meetings (if such lessons were needed), it seems to me 
to be this : That in the science and art of teaching, there is no 
truth more important than that we must, as teachers, be our- 
selves, preserving our own individuality j and that any attempt 
to follow implicitly in the footsteps of others can never secure 
the highest results, but. only alow and uniform order of mediocrity. 


Student of Christ Church and Secretary to the Oxford Delegacy. 

IN order to discharge the duty which has been laid upon me 
this morning, I shall attempt to describe to the conference the 
natural history of a typical University Extension centre. It 
often happens that it is a woman who first determines to establish 
University Extension in a new locality. She has attended Exten- 
sion lectures elsewhere, or has heard from friends what they have 
gained from the system, or she has been to some summer school 
and there realized the advantage of stimulating guidance in 
higher studies, or she may have learned from magazines and news- 
papers the promises and the possibilities of University Extension, 
come the inspiration whence it may, she sets to work to obtain 
for her fellow-citizens an opportunity of profiting by this new 
educational advantage. We in England have seen scores of 
centres begun or saved through the efforts of a few girls, who, 
first by interesting their immediate friends, next by securing the 
support of influential citizens, have aroused an interest in, and 
provided the means for, the successful introduction of University 
Extension teaching into a town where it had not been previously 
established. In University Extension work, it is the spirit that 
really matters. Be the course however short, be the teaching 
however intermittent, if it is introduced and carried on in a 
spirit of true democratic zeal for the widening of intellectual op- 
portunity, if it is maintained by men and women who are deter- 
mined that they for their part will not allow their own faculties 
to rust, or their own knowledge to grow dim, or smattering to 
take the place of thoroughness, or gossip and triviality to exhaust 
leisure that might have been rich in study, if the spirit is right, 
organization may be trusted to follow in due season. The centre 

8 113 

1 14 The National Conference on University Extension. 

which fails is the centre which relies on arid organization alone, 
which thinks that printing an armful of circulars and posting a 
basketful of envelopes and advertising in the nearest newspaper 
are enough to insure the success of its work. Canvassing, pub- 
lication, advertising, are all necessary and useful features in an 
educational campaign. We live in an age just learning how 
wisely to apply business methods to educational work. But, un- 
less the organization is informed by the right kind of spirit, the 
spirit of self-sacrifice, of intellectual humility, of enthusiasm for 
learning, the work, however proudly it begins, can end only in 
costly disappointment, like the bare walls of some great house 
abandoned before it is inhabited. 

It is unnecessary for me to describe the various methods which 
have been found useful in arousing in a locality public interest 
in University Extension. These methods are tersely and lucidly 
set out in the publications of the American Society for the Exten- 
sion of University teaching. I must, however, in passing, dwell 
with emphasis, first, on the necessity of securing the co-operation 
of the conductors of the local press, an agency, to the constant 
efforts of which, on behalf of University Extension, I am happy 
to take this opportunity of publicly testifying; second, on the 
fact that it is essential that the Committees of Local Organizers 
should be representative of all denominations, of all shades of 
politics, of all sorts and conditions of men and women. The 
task in which we are engaged is a national (I had almost said an 
international) one; we must not let it be disfigured by any taint 
of partisanship or exclusiveness ; third, on our experience that 
the only means by which the permanent success of a University 
Extension centre can be assured is by personal labor on the part 
of the local organizers. Personal canvassing, personal persuasion, 
personal sympathy, personal encouragement are the only methods 
by which in the long run you can get the people to take a strong 
interest in the higher discipline of the intellect. You may gather 
together for your opening lecture a large and miscellaneous audi- 
ence, but it is the novelty of the thing that has brought many of 
them together ; with most of the great crowd the local organizers 
will have no further chance of dealing. It is the small nucleus 

The Organization and Function of Local Centres. 1 1 5 

of sincere, serious students that is going to make the future of the 
centre. That nucleus may well be small. In a population of 
twenty thousand people there may not be more than ten or twenty 
who really will submit themselves to the tests of application and 
thoroughness which University Extension imposes on all who 
truly try to profit by it. But that little handful often or twenty 
people, young and poor as many of them will be, are just the very 
people whom it is both our duty and our interest to encourage in 
the higher kinds of mental self-improvement. They are the men 
and women who as they grow older will be the making of the town 
in which they live. They will be the salt of their community, and 
it is simply plain common-sense to save the salt from losing its 

But here comes in the characteristic difficulty of University 
Extension. Good teaching, like everything else that is good, 
costs money. But how can so small a group of students support 
the heavy charge which the arrangement of frequent and pro- 
gressive courses will impose upon them ? Financial help must 
come to them from the outside j they must partly rely on dona- 
tions and subscriptions. Happily, however, for them, if there 
is one country in the whole world where a just appeal for edu- 
cational benevolence will not pass unregarded, it is America. 

The first problem, therefore, before the local organizers, after 
securing their nucleus of students, is to awaken educational in- 
terest in a sufficient number of the general public to such a point 
as to induce the necessary number of these outsiders to bear 
with the students the cost of the teaching. And here there 
enters into local organization that double element of interest 
which makes so much of University Extension work unstable. 
The tastes of the real students and of the general public, though 
they may run along the same road up to a certain point, are not 
always identical. The student yearns for sequence ; the general 
public hankers after variety ; the student wishes course to follow 
course in such a way as to build up a curriculum of ordered 
study ; the general public is always crying out for literature as a 
relief from history, for science as a change from literature. And 
it is for this reason that the early labors of a local committee are 

1 1 6 The National Conference on University Extension. 

generally labors which end in compromise, the students yielding 
in one session to the whims of the public, the public in the next 
grudgingly giving way to the needs of the students. It is, 
therefore, the duty of the Local Committee to neglect no means 
of gradually increasing the size of the student body, and this 
is to be done by recruiting the corps of real students from the 
ranks of the general public. And it is the privilege of every 
lecturer to co-operate with.the local organizers in this protracted 
effort to arouse in dull or flighty natures a perception of the 
noble beauty of earnest study, and to rescue promising but neg- 
lected talents from apathy or dilettanteism. 

On the hidden rocks of intellectual unconcern the little ship 
of University Extension often founders. But I desire to speak 
from personal knowledge of a real case, as showing the perma- 
nently good results which sometimes follow from true University 
Extension work, even when hidden under apparent failure. To 
a little town in the north of England the University of Cam- 
bridge (which, it is both a pleasure and a duty for me to say, 
bore in Great Britain the labor of University Extension work 
long before any other university came forward to take its share 
in the task) sent nearly twenty years ago two lecturers on what was 
then the new University Extension scheme. Preparations had 
been made for their coming ; the best people in the town had 
subscribed to the project ; bills had been posted on every wall. 
But when the lectures began the audience was insignificant, and, 
as the course proceeded, dwindled down to eight people. There 
were five young women, there was a French dentist, a young 
engineer, and the local postmaster. Nothing could have seemed 
more disappointing, nothing more obscure. I remember going 
to one lecture as a boy from school when the lecturer was trying 
to illustrate his discourse by a magic lantern. He had brought 
his gas with him in a bag, and, through some difficulty of press- 
ure, he found it necessary to retire behind the screen where the 
bag lay, and in this retreat concealed from the eyes of the audi- 
ence and squatting on his india-rubber apparatus to continue his 
discourse. It was not thought that University Extension in that 
town had aroused sufficient interest to warrant its continuance. 

The Organization and Function of Local Centres. 1 1 7 

And yet, had the promoters only known, had they only been 
able to divine the future, they would have seen that these eight 
people contained in their number just those whom it was worth 
while to stimulate by educational opportunities. And I can 
bear witness to the fact that the seed sown in those few courses 
of lectures which came to such an untimely end sprang up at 
last into a harvest of new intellectual interests, and that the in- 
fluence of those first University Extension lecturers can be felt 
indirectly in a hundred ways in the present fortunes of that 
town. The local postmaster, who was a true poet, is dead years 
ago. The French dentist is a dentist still ; the young engineer 
is near the top of one of the greatest firms in the country ; of 
the five young women not one but is now in some way or other 
connected with some of the highest educational work in Eng- 
land, having derived from those Extension lectures saving stimu- 
lus, if not her first impulse, to the higher kinds of intellectual 

For some sessions the ordinary centre will naturally content 
itself with a moderate measure of university teaching. It is un- 
wise to choke the smoking flax, to impose upon a town educa- 
tional provision beyond its appetite. A new centre must be 
coaxed, not satiated. Gradual signs will not long be wanting 
of the consolidation of educational effort even in the most back- 
ward town. One of the earliest indications is the formation of 
a Students' Union, a society, that is, of persons combining 
themselves together for a common purpose in study, and agree- 
ing to meet on one evening in each week or fortnight for dis- 
cussion of assigned topics studied by the members privately 
during the intervening days. For the present success of the 
Students' Unions we owe in England a debt to the great initiative 
guidance of Mr. R. G. Moulton, the well-known Cambridge 
lecturer, of whom it is hardly too much to say that in its most 
critical days he saved the University Extension movement. 

As the Students' Union becomes more influential, its wishes 
are considered with greater deference on the part of the Com- 
mittee of Local Organizers, which should always include represen- 
tatives of the Students' Union. The courses themselves are then 

1 1 8 The National Conference on University Extension. 

arranged so as to cover a longer period of study, and subjects are 
chosen by the local committee in such a way as to promote 
sequence of interest, until at length either lecture or students' 
meeting takes place once or twice in every week from October 
to April. Each year, too, efforts will be made to prevent educa- 
tional work from falling during the summer into its long abey- 
ance. Field work for the naturalist, summer ramble for the 
botanist, mountain trip for the geologist, excursion to some dis- 
tant art gallery or object of antiquarian interest for the student 
of history, will all serve as attractive items in a programme of 
summer ; study, but, above all, attendance at the summer school 
provides the best opportunity for the student to carry on his 
work between the courses and this excellent institution, which 
we in England have adopted from your own famous American 
examples, has done more than anything else to provide a year- 
long continuity in Extension efforts. 

Sooner or later the local centre will find itself drawn into co- 
operation with neighboring towns. Indeed, the sooner this hap- 
pens the better. Concert of this kind facilitates organization, 
reduces railway expenses, economizes waste, lessens fatigue, and 
by degrees there will break on the minds of the local organizers 
the realization of the possibilities which lie in this co-operation 
of neighboring towns in educational effort. They can establish, 
as Dr. Roberts well put it, a floating university college. The 
federation of centres carries with it many incidental advantages. 
It welds local effort into an impressive unity ; it calls public at- 
tention to the widely-diffused character of the effort which is 
carrying on University teaching in so many towns. It promotes 
the frequent and friendly interchange of experience between local 
organizers, who, though engaged in the same work and resident 
in the same district, are often strangely ignorant of one another's 
personalities, methods, and aims. But the chief purpose of fed- 
eration in University Extension work is to enable contiguous 
centres to secure at the most economical rates and for conveni- 
ent periods the services of an efficient staff of lecturers. Every 
lecturer does not suit every district. It would be wise therefore 
for the co-operating centres to find a young man to act as their 

The Organization and Function of Local Centres. 119 

organizing secretary, to put him on his mettle to make the educa- 
tional work of the federation a success, and to pay him a stipend 
which would make it worth his while to give the federation his 
best thought and the necessary time. Such a step, though in- 
volving outlay at first, would be in the long run economical. For 
the newly-appointed secretary, after fully acquainting himself with 
the different natures of the different centres in the federation, 
would make it his duty to visit head-quarters in order to ascertain 
by personal inquiry and interview which of the lecturers would 
suit the federation best. Returning then to the centres he would 
visit the towns in turn and lay before them his suggestions as to 
the best course for them to arrange. With tact and consideration 
he would then draw the various wishes of the different centres 
to a focus, and would induce them all to agree to hire a small 
staff of lecturers for the ensuing year. He would then plan out 
the amount of time which each of the lecturers should give to 
each of the centres, the division of their services being made 
in accordance with the amount of each centre's contribution to 
the common purse. One of the lecturers would probably be a 
man who would worthily bear the duty of principal of this new 
kind of university college, and represent its interests on public 
occasions with dignity and judgment. The advantages of this 
plan lie in its elasticity. The co-operating towns would not be 
tied to any permanent obligation. They could change their staff 
of teachers, they could vary their curriculum, they could widen or 
contract their operations, in accordance with the dictates of pru- 
dence and the changing needs of recurring years. No town would 
find itself permanently encumbered with the services of a teacher 
who, however learned, was unable to commend his subject to 
the expectations of his hearers. We need scholars, but not ped- 
ants, for our work. No town would find itself compelled to 
raise large capital sums, or to erect costly buildings. For by 
using a peripatetic staff of teachers, by employing existing though 
possibly scattered accommodation, a town would get the substance 
of University teaching with economy and promptitude. It is men, 
not walls, that make a city, as the Greek poet said. The prin- 
cipal strength of University Extension teaching lies in the person- 

1 20 The National Conference on University Extension. 

alities of inspiring lecturers, not in the costliness of their material 

In short, University Extension in a local centre will find its 
crowning development in the foundation of what I may call a 
University Extension institute. I mean by this a central institu- 
tion which will bear witness in a city to the dignity and civic 
importance of higher education. Beginning with small efforts, 
never despising the day of small things, a local committee will 
gradually find itself enabled by the support of grateful students 
and the generosity of far-seeing benefactors to provide in or- 
derly sequence stimulating courses of progressive study, so that 
in their city no man or woman, however poor, however busy, 
however far removed from other University influence, shall not 
find at last the chance of studying under trained and sympathetic 
teachers the lessons of history, the masterpieces of literature, the 
mysteries of science until at length we shall have removed for 
ever the aristocratic exclusiveness of learning and have equipped 
the democracy of the civilized world with such a measure of 
intelligent culture as will enable them not only to admire and 
appreciate as never before the researches and attainments of 
scholars and researchers, but more worthily to bear their part in 
the public duties which our advancing civilization is every year 
throwing more heavily on each of them. 


Professor Henry W. Rolfe, of the University of Pennsylvania, 
questioned Mr. Sadler in regard to the fees of lecturers in the 
English work. After some discussion on this point, the con- 
clusion was reached that the fees of lecturers in England were 
relatively the same as those required by the American Society, 
being equivalent to about twenty dollars for each lecture, with 
the travelling expenses of the lecturer. Considerable diversity 

Remarks. 121 

was apparent in the charges in different States of the Union. 
At many universities the charge is fixed at ten dollars, with 
expenses for each lecture. In few cases, however, does it seem 
possible to continue Extension teaching beyond the trial stage, 
at this rate. 

President Charles DeGarmo, of Swarthmore College, questioned 
Mr. Sadler as to the use of fellows and graduate students as 
lecturers in Extension work. It appeared that the development 
of University Extension in England has been possible largely 
on account of the number of fellows and tutors at the great 
universities, who, being comparatively free from university duties, 
are able to devote themselves to outside work. The sense of the 
conference was, that a similar plan might be found practicable 
in the United States, as the number of resident graduates and 
fellows increases at the leading universities. 


Professor of American History in the Indiana University. 

THE purpose of this paper is to relate briefly some personal 
experience and observations in University Extension teaching in 
American History. The experience is chiefly confined to two 
Extension classes. The classes are still in operation, and as the 
end is required to crown the work, permanent conclusions from 
the experiments in many important respects may not yet be safely 

The first extension of university teaching in Indiana was under- 
taken in Indianapolis one year ago under the auspices of the 
Indiana branch of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. This 
Association in Indiana, through its committee on University 
Extension, Mrs. May Wright Sewall, President ; Miss Amelia 
Waring Platter, Secretary, engaged Prof. J. W. Jenks, then of 
Indiana University, now of Cornell, to give twelve lectures on 
political economy. The lectures were given on consecutive 
Friday nights during the winter months, with a small quiz class 
the following Saturday morning. This, like many first courses, 
was not self-supporting, but it was so satisfactory and successful 
in every other essential respect, and from the stand-point of pub- 
lic education it had paid in such positive returns, that the com- 
mittee determined, at the risk of further financial loss, to continue, 
the following winter, the course in political and social science, 
and to add another in American history. For the second year 
in their Extension course in political science they engaged Dr. 
Edward A. Ross, the successor of Dr. Jenks in the Indiana Uni- 
versity, who will begin in February a series of twelve lectures on 
social and economic reform. 


Some Extension Experiments in American History. 123 

In beginning the course in American history last October, by 
the invitation and under the auspices of this committee, the con- 
ception which we had in mind of the work to be done was pub- 
lished with the outline announcement of the course. The design 
embraced these points, included in all complete Extension teach- 

1. A series of lectures on connected topics as usual in the 
development of a continuous subject. For this course twelve lec- 
tures were chosen as the unit. As lectures they were to be dis- 
tinguished from a popular course in that they were not to be on 
disconnected themes for general instruction and public entertain- 
ment, but on connected themes for special instruction and private 

2. A syllabus of each lecture was to be printed. 

3. The lectures were to be followed by a class exercise of equal 
length with the lecture, for review, tests, quiz, and inquiry on the 
part of the class. 

4. An examination was to be held on the course, a certificate 
to be given of work done, which was to be made a matter of 
record and credit by the university. 

As a general subject for study we chose American Political 
History from 1776 to 1832, dividing the term of study by the 
following twelve subjects : 

1. The Causes of the American Revolution. 

2. The Continental Congress : The Nature of Its Work and Its 
Constitutional Relation to the States. 

3. The Old Confederation and Its Failure: "The Critical 
Period of American History." 

4. The Northwest and the Ordinance of 1787. 

5. The Constitutional Convention of 1787. Its Great Men, 
Its Great Questions, Its Great Compromises. 

6. The Financial Measures of Hamilton. 

7. Our Neutral Policy : Foreign Relations under Washington 
and Adams. 

8. Early Political Parties : The Alien and Sedition Laws and 
the Fall of the Federalists, 1800. 

9. Jefferson and Louisiana. 

124 The National Conference on University Extension. 

10. The continued Struggle for Neutral Rights in the War of 

11. Trie. Monroe Doctrine and its Applications in American 

12. Jackson and the Bank Controversy. 

The syllabus of the first lecture contained a statement of the 
required reading for the course, embracing Johnston's The 
United States : Its History and Constitution. Fiske's Critical 
Period of American History. Burke's Speech on American Tax- 
ation. Certain pages of Lecky's chapter on The Controversy 
with America. Certain papers in The Federalist. Assigned 
papers in Schouler's History of the United States, and the study 
of certain State papers like the Declaration of Independence, The 
Constitution, The Ordinance of 1 787, The Virginia and Kentucky 
Resolutions of 1798, Washington's Neutrality Proclamation, and 
Jackson's veto against the Bank. 

We took this method of getting before the class, in the begin- 
ning, the course in extcnso. 

During the seven lectures which have been given, the lecture 
audiences have varied from one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
in number. The quiz class, presumably doing the required work, 
numbers forty-seven. In addition to these forty-seven, eight 
have paid the additional fee for the quiz class, and have chosen 
to come in as listeners, but not as reciters and participants ; and 
the Senior Class in the Indiana Blind Asylum with their teacher, 
numbering thirteen, are in regular attendance at the quiz. This 
gives us altogether in our conference and quiz a class of sixty- 
eight. The class meets on Friday evenings, one hour before the 
lecture, and considers the subject of the lecture given the week 
before. The syllabus, which the class has had in hand a week, 
besides containing a topical outline of the week's study, suggests 
questions for review which they are expected to be ready to 
answer, and a reference list of books, chapters, and monographs 
in the way of a bibliography. Special topics are assigned to 
individual members of the class for special reading and reports. 
And every member of the class who designs to complete the 
required work is expected to hand in a written summary of the 

Some Extension Experiments in American History. 125 

previous lecture. This is part of the written work. The class 
have access to the public libraries of the city, which, it is reported, 
are already noticing the effect of the courses. 

Only oral quizes have so far been held, though written ones 
may be expected, and the effort is made to use the first half-hour 
for the purpose of testing the class, the last half-hour for the 
purpose of conference, interchange of information and opinion, 
and questions on the part of the class. In the class of fifty-five, 
not counting the class from the Blind Asylum, fifty are women 
and five are men, and all but ten are teachers in the public schools. 
The most of the class are graduates from the Indianapolis High 
School, or the Sewall Classical School of Indianapolis. A num- 
ber are graduates of colleges, some are very capable of doing ad- 
vanced university work, and the majority of the class may be 
said to be generally well informed on American history. I am 
not able to say how many will complete the required work, or 
pass the final examination. I shall expect from ten to twenty 
out of the fifty. The examination will be held the middle of 
February, and Dr. H. B. Adams, of the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, has consented to set the topics on the basis of the series of 

The business managers have charged two dollars for the series 
of twelve lectures, and five dollars for attendance upon both the 
lecture and the quiz. It would seem to me much better to 
charge a higher fee for the lectures, with merely a nominal sum 
for the further privilege of attendance upon the quiz. This is 
the essential part of the work, where lies the test, of success, and 
it should receive every possible encouragement. It does not re- 
quire much exertion to absorb something or to attempt to do so 
from an evening lecture, but to undertake the reading and the tests, 
this only the most eager and the most capable will endure. The 
many who will consent to the former should be led to bear the 
expenses for the elect few who may be led to attempt the latter. 
The managers, however, are able to report that the course will cover 
its expenses, amounting in all to about four hundred dollars, and 
will realize a surplus of over one hundred dollars. 

The Chicago experiment is from many points of view a more 

1 26 The National Conference on University Extension. 

interesting one. This course in Chicago is representative of the 
Extension work, both of the Indiana University and of the Chau- 
tauqua movement for college education, as the course is given 
there under the advice of President Harper of the Chicago Uni- 
versity, who is also the Principal of the Chautauqua Colleges. 
The course is a repetition of the one being given at Indianapolis, 
and is, I understand, the first Extension course given in Chicago. 
Valuable college teaching has been carried on for two years by 
a volunteer corps at Hull House, West Side, under the direction 
of Misses Adams and Starr, but no University Extension courses 
have been attempted in Chicago before this winter. Our Chicago 
course will probably not pay its expenses in a mere financial 
sense. Between ninety-five and one hundred have bought tickets 
for the lectures. Of these forty-five are taking the class hour 
work, thirty-eight of whom have signified their readiness for the 
quiz by handing in their names. The ages of the class range 
from fourteen to sixty, and one-third of the class are men. 
Much of the interest of this class attaches to its miscellaneous char- 
acter. There are three graduates of colleges ; there is one physi- 
cian, one dentist, twenty-one clerks, ranging from three boys at 
$3 per week to men receiving from $1200 to $2400 per year. 
Of these two have a high-school education, seventeen have a 
grammar-school education, and two are reported "fairly well 
read." There are five women clerks, one with a, high-school edu- 
cation, the other four with grammar-school training. There are 
seventeen public school teachers, who have attained the grade of 
the ordinary normal school, some of whom are graduates of such 
schools. Five are classed as school girls, the youngest of whom 
is still in a grammar grade, the others in the high school. There 
are twenty-three wage-earners, comprising bricklayers, stone- 
masons, car-drivers, conductors, painters, carpenters, unskilled 
laborers, all with grammar school education or less. 

This Chicago course is under the auspices of the Workers' 
Church, 3037 Butler Street, Dr. Doremus Scudder, pastor, a 
church which may be said to be established on very broad 
philanthropic and educational lines, the outcome of the mis- 
sionary efforts of Plymouth Church, in that city. The Workers' 

Some Extension Experiments in American History. 127 

Church has been described as " independent, undenominational, 
non-sectarian, and creedless, with a Christian aim." The church 
is located in the centre of a population of ninety thousand labor- 
ers and their families. The region seems to be one in which it 
is yet to be proved whether there is a sufficient popular demand 
for the extension of university and college study, or whether real 
university work can be sustained by a local constituency. But it 
is already evident, although so far only three lectures have been 
given on alternate Thursday nights, that much benefit may 
be derived in public education in such centres from such courses. 
The spread of intelligence, the cultivation of a taste for better 
reading, inciting young people to the further pursuance of their 
studies, giving direction to those who desire to read, and who 
thus may be helped to avoid idle and desultory reading without 
a purpose, these and other considerations are great compensa- 
tions for the expense, if those would pay for the cost of the 
course who could well afford to provide voluntarily a foundation 
for Extension enterprises. But if it be found, as I think very 
probable, that the Extension course, upon a second experiment, 
may be found self-supporting by the constituency in such a centre, 
it is certain that they may be so in scores of other centres now 
about to open in that great city. 

The fact that such a constituency is demanding such instruc- 
tion and is asking to be directed in such study, leads us to re- 
flect upon the eager thirst for higher knowledge among scores 
and, I think I may say, hundreds and thousands of men and 
women who are by necessity denied the opportunities and privi- 
leges of higher studies. 

The Chicago course of twelve lectures will cost altogether only 
about $250. More than $200 will be covered by those subscrib- 
ing to the course. It has been to me a source of much encourage- 
ment and such experiences will give all true university men a sense 
of responsibility to become helpers and missionaries of learning to 
their fellows to see the anxiety and self-sacrifice at personal 
inconvenience, displayed by men and women, some of them in 
straitened circumstances, in their efforts to obtain University in- 
struction. In this connection the words of Dr. Scudder written 

128 The National Conference on University Extension. 

to me a few days ago are significant. He says, "If to our ex- 
penses there were required to be added hall rent and other ordi- 
nary expenses which we have escaped, I fear University Exten- 
sion would prove too expensive a luxury for laboring men in 

We all understand that University instruction has never any- 
where in all its history paid its own way, and, of course, it is not 
thought that these centres can in any sense compensate the lec- 
turers for their services. The lecturers have to be supported and 
paid as they are supported for all students now resident in our 
universities, not by fees but by foundations, in other ways pro- 
vided. If this cannot be done in Extension centres among a 
laboring population, it does not argue that provision should be 
withheld till a better standard of support is attained by these 
centres, but that provision should be increased, especially in view 
of the evidence already accumulated of the ability and willing- 
ness, yea, even the eagerness, of these centres to profit by their 

There is one other phase of experience which may be worth 

The movement for the Extension of University teaching is 
many-sided. However uncertain some of its phases may appear 
.from the reports of various centres (although I think our Ameri- 
can experiments point to ultimate and early success in complete 
university courses), yet there is one phase in this educational move- 
ment of which no doubt need be expressed. In education from 
the public platform, the lecture for instruction, if it does not 
supersede, will find a co-ordinate place by the lecture for enter- 
tainment; the course of lectures on connected themes, to be 
followed as one follows a course of selected reading, is to super- 
sede the kaleidoscopic and pyrotechnic character of the miscel- 
laneous courses of the Lyceum bureau, however valuable in a 
public way many of the Lyceum lectures may be. This improve- 
ment in public education is one of the results and characteristic 
features of University Extension. My experience convinces me 
that at least this feature of the movement can reach great masses 
of people for their instruction and inspiration. The quiz class 

Some Extension Experiments in American History. 1 29 

with readings assigned and tasks performed may be important 
parts of university discipline ; but university instruction may be 
given without these, though it may not be recognized as complete 
Extension work ; f or, after all, the lecture must form the backbone 
of the instruction. A good course with the substance of the uni- 
versity class-room, with the manner of presentation cleverly modi- 
fied for popular uses, the course thoroughly studied by the lec- 
turer, well prepared and well delivered, cannot fail to be of great 
educational benefit. 

For the series of lectures on connected themes, with quiz, con- 
ference, and examination, but without concurrent reading and 
study, for these features of the work the Chautauqua Assemblies 
in the summer stand, to my mind, as offering the best opportunity 
in America. These centres throughout the States, even the great 
centre of the Lake itself, are without adequate library facilities, 
and, of course, because of this, and because of the brief time 
spent in these resorts, students could do but little in the way 
of supplementary reading and study. But from observation of 
courses given at Chautauqua last summer by Dr. H. B. Adams, 
of the Johns Hopkins University, and Dr. Francis N. Thorpe, of 
the University of Pennsylvania, and of a course which I attempted 
myself, on all of which competitive examinations were held 
and quizes and conferences might have been held, from this 
observation I feel justified in asserting without reservation that 
Chautauqua offers to this method of instruction by university 
lectures the widest and most profitable field of application. Thus, 
the forces which may create and control thousands of centres 
throughout the country may be, within a brief season, touched 
to vigorous life and endeavor, not to mention the benefits imme- 
diately derived from such courses in several weeks' residence at 
these summer centres. 


Brown University. 

MR. PRESIDENT, When I received your very courteous note 
inviting me to present an essay on some phase of University 
Extension work to this conference, I had before me on my desk 
such a huge pile of examination papers from my history class in 
Brown University as made the preparation of a paper quite 
impossible in the limited time at my disposal. 

I am glad, however, that I have the opportunity to say a few 
words to this audience respecting " History as an Extension 
Study," first, because I am myself a teacher of history, and, 
second, because I can say a few words about one of my prede- 
cessors in the historical faculty of Brown University who was 
really the pioneer worker in the University Extension field in 
the United States. 

More than twenty years ago that peerless teacher of history, 
Professor J. L. Diman, who as every graduate of Brown Uni- 
versity (and I see many alumni of Brown in this audience) will 
testify, and as every graduate of Johns Hopkins University who 
heard him in Baltimore deliver that matchless course of lectures 
upon the "Thirty Years' War" will testify filled the chair of 
history in Brown University more fully and more completely 
than any historical chair in America ever was filled before was 
doing in America, outside the walls of Brown, exactly the kind 
of work that James Stuart was doing in England. He was 
giving daily instruction in history to the senior class in Brown 
University. He was lecturing weekly to an association of ladies 
in Providence. He was delivering each year courses of lectures 
on constitutional history before the pupils of the Rhode Island 
State Normal School. He was also delivering successive courses 
of lectures to the students of Johns Hopkins University and 

History as an Extension Study. 131 

of other universities. He was delighting the people of Rhode 
Island and Massachusetts by his graceful addresses on historical 
subjects of local interest in many towns and cities of those two 
States. More than this, he was writing daily for the Providence 
Journal those masterly leading articles which gave to that paper 
a reputation that was national. As James Stuart has earned the 
title of "Father of University Extension" in England, so ought 
Jeremiah Lewis Diman to be called the Father of University 
Extension in America. 

It is pleasing, also, to be able to tell something which shows 
the appreciation in which his Extension lectures were held. 

When Professor Diman was stricken down in the very zenith 
of his powers and the hearts of all Brown men were throbbing 
with the bitter sense of their loss, it was proposed to raise for 
the college a "Diman Fund," which should commemorate his 
name. The income from this fund was to be used for the pur- 
chase of historical works for the University library. But it is 
easier to plan than to accomplish. After the first few months, 
interest in the project languished and finally died. Last year, 
however, it occurred to my colleague, Professor Jameson, that 
the ladies to whom Professor Diman had given these Extension 
lectures had never been asked to contribute toward this fund. 
They were asked. They contributed. What the alumni in ten 
years had failed to do this Extension class of ladies accomplished 
in less than six months. The " Diman Fund " now enables our 
librarian to place each year upon his shelves all the best new 
books upon mediaeval and modern history. 

So much must be said of the work done by the pioneer Uni- 
versity Extension lecturer in the United States, so much for 
the estimation in which his labors were held by Extension classes 
which he taught. 

It seems to me, Mr. President, that we must have a scheme 
of work very carefully planned before we send our historical 
lecturers into the Extension field. It is most important that the 
work done should be uniform, in order that the Extension cer- 
tificates may have value everywhere. This is, of course, true 
of all Extension work, but it is specially true of historical work. 

132 The National Conference on University Extension. 

The subject is too large to be handled in a satisfactory way by 
any one man, or by any one association. It should, I think, be 
placed in charge of a general executive committee, and that 
committee should recommend to all the Extension associations 
the work to be done by their lecturers. It is not for the welfare 
of the cause that every lecturer should be allowed to hurl any 
set of lectures he may happen to have ready at the heads of his 
audience. Regard should be had for the attainments of his 
hearers. The specialist should not be allowed to get in his work 
until good, broad foundations of general knowledge have been laid. 
Here I must say that I do not place the same value upon 
the syllabus that most people set upon it. In many cases it 
hampers the lecturer instead of helping him. It is a most 
powerful weapon in the hands of a skilled teacher who knows 
his audience, but it is not always a good thing for inexperienced 
lecturers. It was first adopted as a lesson in note-taking (Eng- 
lish audiences, as a rule, are not so much accustomed to note- 
taking as American audiences are), and it was not meant to 
take the place of note-taking. Moreover, it is not well at the 
beginning of our Extension work to have a Procrustean bed on 
which to stretch our audiences. It is better to have only a 
general plan outlined, and to leave the lecturer to fill out that 
plan according to the needs of his audience. What is one man's 
meat may be another man's poison. One of our lecturers last 
year was forced to throw away one set of lectures because he 
found that he was shooting over the heads of nine -tenths of his 
audience. If he had already sold a copy of his syllabus to 
each one of his class, every member of that class would have 
deemed himself swindled if the lecturer had not kept to his 
lines. But if the instructor had used his original notes the 
whole course would have been a failure. He changed his 
lectures to suit his hearers, and a most brilliant success was the 
result. Thus far we of Brown have printed no syllabus, and we 
shall not print any until the trial of a year has shown us how we 
can do the best work. (The]syllabus is not necessary as a test 
of the lecturer's knowledge, because we know what kind of 
work each member of our faculty is capable of doing. We 

History as an Extension Study. 133 

use no untried men.) In any case our syllabus will be a brief 
one, and we shall insist upon much note-taking. I much prefer 
in my own classes to dictate the heads only of a lecture, leaving 
the members of my audience to do all the filling-in for them- 
selves. It seems to me that the other system encourages laziness, 
and is too much like text-book work. The most valuable part of 
a printed syllabus is the "bibliography." We always furnish 
full bibliographies. 

Now, of what shall the first historical lectures treat ? 
Plainly of those subjects which form the basis of all historical 
knowledge. Of those subjects which scholars everywhere in 
Germany, England, France, as well as in America prescribe as 
the groundwork of historical study. 

For a first course of twelve lectures I should say take some such 
course as this, covering the period from the Fall of Rome to the 
Reformation, that is to say, a course on Mediaeval History : 
I. The dissolution of Rome. 

(A general discussion of the beginnings of mediaeval 

II. The Barbarian Invaders of Italy. 

(The Visigoths, Huns, Vandals, Ostrogoths, and Lom- 

III. The Germanic Element in European Civilization. 

IV. The Early Christian Church. 
V. Charlemagne. 

VI. Hildebrand and his Times. 

(The Contest between the Papacy and the Empire.) 

VII. and VIII. The Feudal System. 
IX. and X. The Crusades. 

XI. The History of the Great Monastic Orders. 
XII. The Rise of the New Nations. 

A second course, equally broad in its scope, might give the 
groundwork of modern history : 

I. The Beginnings of Modern History. 

II. Plans of Reform within the Church. 

III. The Renaissance the New Birth of the World. 

IV. The Protestant Revolution. 

1 34 The National Conference on University Extension. 

V. The Catholic Reaction. 

VI. The Age of Elizabeth (England, 1558-1603). 
VII. The Civil Wars in France (Charles IX Nantes, 1562- 


VIII. The Policy of Richelieu (France, 1624-1642). 
IX. Revolt of the Netherlands (1568-1648). 
X. The Thirty Years War (Germany, 1618-1648). 
XI. The Rise of Puritanism (England under the Stuarts). 
XII. The English Revolution of 1688. 

Then, the broad foundations having been carefully laid, such 
courses may be built upon them as the classes may call for. 
The fact, however, must always be borne in mind that the audi- 
ences are not made up of specialists, and that, consequently, the 
carefully minute treatment which may well be employed before 
a class of university students must not be used in lecturing to an 
Extension audience. The aim of this whole movement is not to 
cultivate specialists, but to diffuse general knowledge. 


President Fell, of St. John's College, Annapolis, Md., said : 
I have been in particular interested by the opening remarks of 
Professor Munro, in which he stated as his opinion that it was 
necessary to secure uniformity of action among all institutions 
which might embark in the work of University Extension. This 
suggestion appears to me to be one of great weight. We have 
heard from Mr. Sadler of the amount of labor and thought be- 
stowed by the University of Oxford upon the preparation of a 
syllabus or of a course of lectures which would be deemed at- 
tractive to the public. Now, outside the great centres of Phila- 
delphia, Boston, and New York, there are a great number of 
Southern and Western institutions willing to take part in this 
movement, but which hesitate to do so, as they feel the need of 
a directing head. Is it assumed that such an institution must 
work out its own plans and its own methods, or should it not 
rather be guided by the direction of the American Society ? 


Staff Lecturer of the American Society. 

IN the theory of University Extension the class holds a pre- 
eminent place. In the practice of University Extension it is for 
the most part a failure. Let us assume that the lecture has been 
an entire success, that it has attracted an audience, that it has 
exhibited literary finish, command of the material, skill in pre- 
sentation, adaptation to the audience, whatever other excel- 
lences you please, that when the hour for the class has arrived, 
the lecturer finds himself in a position to answer correctly, even 
brilliantly, all the questions asked, and that the invitation to ask 
questions meets with actual response. It will be objected that I 
am assuming too much. What anxiety is removed from the 
breast of the young lecturer if even most of these favorable con- 
ditions are found to be present at the crucial hour ! These are 
the very ends, it will be said, to be attained. But I have thought 
that we can best get at the heart of the matter by assuming these 
favorable conditions and then putting the question as to why it 
is that even then the class fails for the most part to satisfy the 
teacher, as distinguished from the lecturer, from the born de- 
bater, and from the scientific specialist. 

In the first place the student is never heard from in class. The 
woman or man, young or old, who readily enrolls in the un- 
written list of real students, who grasps at the chance of doing 
the weekly exercises, searches the returned paper anxiously for the 
word of approval, or the criticism which shows, however kindly, 
that the answer is wrong, who ventures to express independent 
opinions only under cover of a nom-de-plume this is not the one 
who is heard from in the class discussion. It requires greater cour- 
age to participate in the class discussion as a student, as a ques- 
tioner, than to conduct that discussion as a regular lecturer. I can- 

1 36 The National Conference on University Extension. 

not take time to set up any theory to account for this somewhat 
anomalous fact, but that there is this hesitation, more than that, 
this refusal to give expression to private opinion, and to ask for 
explanation is a psychological fact with which we must reckon, 
and which deserves more attention in our scheme than we have 
hitherto accorded it. For, under these circumstances, it is the 
experienced speaker, the professional talker, if there is one, who 
monopolizes the time which should belong to students. The 
school-teacher, particularly the school principal, the preacher, 
the lawyer, the labor agitator, any one but the student talks. Do 
not understand me to say that the student is never found in the 
ranks of the professions referred to, but it will be admitted that 
they seldom furnish the student class in our common and per- 
fectly legitimate sense of the term. The argument which he 
whom I call the professional talker makes in reply to objection- 
able passages in the lecture may take the form of rhetorical 
questions, or a prolonged formal controversy may arise, the re- 
sults are the same ; the interests of the students are sacrificed, or 
rather students are not made to know that they have interests ; 
in fact, they remain an undiscovered element. 

I do not hesitate to say that the discussions as now actually 
held, the questions actually asked and answered, so far from con- 
stituting genuine class work, are an obstacle to it, simply render 
it impossible. The very size of the class is a chief cause of this 
difficulty. As University Extension is now organizing practically 
without local endowment no audience can consist of less than 
about two hundred persons, and it will generally be larger. If 
the course is regarded as a success by the members of the centre, 
most of them will stay for the second hour's work, if for no better 
reason, because they have paid as much as others, and wish to 
come as near getting their money's worth as they can. Nor- 
mally, therefore, the class will consist of a hundred students and 
upward. No human being can teach at once a hundred persons. 
In the universities themselves, the overflowing lecture-rooms 
have made it necessary for us to adopt the German seminar 
system for that part of the professor's work which he is willing 
to call his real teaching, as distinguished from his knowledge- 

The University Extension Class. 137 

imparting lecture or his examination quiz. The Sunday-school 
teacher wisely limits his class to ten or fifteen pupils ; even the 
Great Teacher, a reference to whose example makes further argu- 
ment or illustration unnecessary, found that while He could in- 
struct a multitude by parables and other features of the lecture 
system, He could really teach but twelve. 

This is not of itself an argument for abandoning that which we 
call a class, but it is an argument for abandoning the delusion 
that it is a class, or a seminary, of which the chief aim is to 
benefit those who wish to know more and to get clearer ideas. 
There are some advantages in the present system, considering it 
simply as an appendix to the lecture, as an extension of the 
evening's entertainment. It is probable that many a one who 
does speak, voices the question which has suggested itself to 
many others, and that the answer will be awaited as eagerly by a 
dozen or by all as by him who puts the question. Sometimes a 
much-needed correction is made by some one in the class who is 
really in position to know that a statement made by the lecturer 
is incomplete or incorrect, and again a question reveals to the 
lecturer that he has inadvertently omitted a necessary qualifica- 
tion, which he had himself intended to introduce, and the 
omission of which leaves on the audience an entirely false im- 
pression of the lecturer's position. Then, finally, the criticism of 
a student frequently supplies just the stimulus needed to enable 
the lecturer to send a more telling shot to the centre of truth, to 
make doubly clear a position in which the lecturer was entirely 
correct, but which had been somewhat obscurely presented. It 
is, of course, true that the lecturer will find in the weekly ex- 
ercises material for a certain amount of valuable class criticism, 
and that the timid student will sometimes add to a paper a query 
which can be answered in class, but this could all be done far 
better if the obstacles to which reference has been made were 

Two ways out of the difficulty present themselves. One is to 
say frankly at the close of the lecture hour that the entertainment 
is now over and that some business is about to begin in which 
most of them will not be interested. I am not sure that the class 

138 The National Conference on University Extension. 

should necessarily be restricted absolutely to those who do the 
weekly exercises, though I fail to find any impropriety even in a 
measure so drastic as that. It would certainly be an effective 
winnowing-fan even if the minimum of work required were made 
so light that the preparation of the paper would consume no more 
time than the composition of an ordinary letter. If this change 
were made, some of the attractions inhering in the ordinary class 
would of course be sacrificed. Those brilliant tilts between 
skilled questioners and speakers, the interesting general discussion 
in which a half dozen or more are anxious to participate at once, 
those gratifying outward evidences that the course is making an 
impression in the community would be gone. If we must choose 
between them and the opportunity for accomplishing with a 
handful of students an educational result far greater, our choice 
must certainly be against the popular class. It cannot be too 
strongly insisted upon that some one feature of the Extension 
system must be for this nucleus of students to which Mr. Sadler 
has just referred. In some exceptional cases the Students' Asso- 
ciation, meeting on another evening of the week, supplies this 
need j where it does, no objection against the present organization 
of the class will lie. But the necessary absence of the lecturer 
from the meetings of the Association and the difficulty of finding 
a leader who can do the particular work which the lecturer knows 
ought to be done, are objections too serious to be disregarded. 

Better perhaps than the plans suggested is that of holding at a 
different hour a conference especially intended for the students 
who have sent in written exercises. It could be done either en- 
tirely informally, each one who had sent in a paper calling at 
the lecturer's rooms or at some appointed place, looking over the 
paper to note corrections in the presence of the lecturer, asking 
questions, and holding a short personal interview with the lec- 
turer, or a regular hour could be appointed when all those who 
had sent papers could meet for a short seminar discussion. The 
lecturer would call their attention to points of common interest 
and could put some questions to each member of what would 
then be in reality a class. Certainly much greater progress could 
be made if this plan were adopted. It will be replied that it will 

The University Extension Class. 1 39 

be better for the few but not so good for the centre as a whole. 
But I maintain that the gain to the class under these circum- 
stances would not be offset by any loss in the general economy. 
We must work through the few in any community. When we 
wish to get a great furnace of coal on fire we do not apply a 
lighted match immediately to the large masses of coal. We light 
first the shavings and the kindling wood and let the fire grow 
naturally. And note that I am not advocating a measure which 
will benefit a particular set. The members of the conference, or 
class, would not be selected by others, but the class would be the 
outcome of a very natural self-selection, or would embrace all 
who chose to become students. 

The real difficulties are two in number, i. The fixing of an 
hour for the conference which will make it possible for the stu- 
dents to attend, and which will not interfere with the lecturer's 
preparation for the evening's work. While the half-hour imme- 
diately preceding the lecture is in many respects an ideal time 
for a conference of the kind under discussion, it would, if held at 
that time, leave the lecturer in a less satisfactory condition for 
his lecture ; and if held at another hour it might become too 
great an additional tax on the student's time. It might tend to 
discourage some from undertaking the exercises at all if it were 
expected that they must attend an additional meeting. 

2. It might add eventually to the cost of Extension teaching 
if the lecturer were to undertake this additional work, though I 
consider that doubtful, at least in the case of staff lecturers. The 
latter are in position to do certain things of this kind, which, if 
we would maintain our standard, it will be necessary for us to do. 
In short, I do not believe that the difficulties to a higher grade 
of class work are insuperable. We must choose, I take it, between 
changing our class into a smaller body of students properly so 
termed, and adding the special conference for students, either of 
which plans would work beneficial results. The latter plan has 
the special advantage that it would enable us to retain the so- 
called class of the present organization with all its advantages. 

I have not thought it necessary in this short paper to dwell ex- 
clusively on the necessity of doing in Extension teaching that 

140 The National Conference on University Extension. 

work for which as distinguished from the lecturing the class itself 
stands. We should probably all agree that the lecturer who 
spends but one hour in the lecture-room, and in the neighbor- 
hood, however valuable and interesting his lecture may have been, 
has not done his full duty by the centre with which he has made 
his engagement. In view of the general announcement, by Ex- 
tension societies, of the class as an essential feature of the Exten- 
sion method, it is doubtful if a committee is justified in making 
an engagement with any lecturer who is too busy to undertake 
the class work, without providing that it shall be done by some 
one who shall act as the lecturer's deputy. There may be special 
reasons for engaging a lecturer whose time is thus in demand, but 
there can scarcely be a justification for sacrificing this feature 
which we hold up as the most valuable for the sake of getting a 
brilliant series of lectures, which we have repeatedly in circulars 
and from the platform declared to be no essential feature of our 

The class is valuable because it gives the best opportunity for 
that personal contact without which there can be no teaching; 
because it reveals the teacher, and reveals the student, and strips 
the mask from the pretender in either position. Every tendency 
away from this strict Extension ideal of class organization should 
be checked, every change which brings us nearer its realization 
should be welcomed. It will be objected, perhaps, that I have 
been discussing the form rather than the substance of this matter. 
It is, of course, the kernel, not the shell we are after, but Univer- 
sity Extension, if it is anything, is a mechanism for accomplish- 
ing certain ends. Here, as in the case of a wagon-wheel, very 
much depends upon the form. I have suggested some changes 
in form which merit at least discussion and experiment. If a 
profession of faith on the main question is needed, I willingly 
subscribe myself again a firm believer in the Extension class, as 
the most important discovery of the age, in the line of popular 
education, as a discovery too valuable and a weapon too efficient 
for us to allow it to become anything else than it was meant to 
be, a bringing together of students and teacher. 

Remarks. 141 


Rev. Benjamin J. Douglas, of Philadelphia, said : 

With the aim of the writer to give the class its proper 
place and function in University Extension methods, I am in 
hearty sympathy. With his resolute determination not to allow 
sham work to pass as real, but to insist upon the written exercise 
and the examination as well as the lecture and the class I fully 
sympathize. The object of the writer is no doubt to get at 
greater thoroughness in class-work, and this is a point constantly 
to be kept in view, and one which, if I am correctly informed, 
the experience of each successive course of study at the local 
centres is gradually accomplishing. 

What brought me to my feet was the perception of what I 
thought was a too great eagerness to restrict the class in the be- 
ginning only to those who had time to prepare the written exer- 
cises, and this in view of the statement that those who did the 
real work, those who took the pains to study and write out 
their thoughts at home, were not the ones to ask questions in the 
class. The time devoted to class-work was for the most part 
monopolized by others than the real students, by "professional 
talkers' ' and the like. I put in a word by way of apology for 
these "professional talkers," in view of the patent fact that if 
those who prepare the papers will not ask questions in the class, 
the class becomes a useless appendage. If those who do the 
same work in paper exercises will not do their part in the class, 
what is the use of the class? 

Right here comes in the need of this outside help, not to super- 
sede, but to start the discussion. The farmer, when he wants to 
start his fire, goes to his wood-pile and collects all kinds of chips. 
If the solid wood won't burn at once, he gets light wood to kin- 
dle it. Or, to vary the illustration : here is a pump which will 
not work at once ; you pour in a little water and the stream is 
started. I really believe there are very few who use the class 
simply as an occasion to air their own opinions. In nine cases 

142 The National Conference on University Extension. 

out of ten, people are there to gain information, to profit by 
what they hear, and, if they venture "to speak out in meeting," 
it is generally after a pause sufficiently long to show that their 
superiors will not. 

A class after a University Extension lecture is not a class in a 
University recitation-room. It is an indiscriminate crowd, 
composed of all sorts of men and women, eager to learn, or 
they would not be there. And what if some one does put an 
irrelevant question, or a question which only displays his or her 
ignorance or crankiness? It is the crank that starts the machin- 
ery of the locomotive and the steamship. Not much harm will 
be done. The individual who has had the laugh turned against 
him suffers most. For the rest, the ice is broken, and the timid 
encouraged to speak out. 

The truth is, that a lecturer, if he is worth anything, has 
things in his own hands and is backed by the good sense and the 
respect for decorum on the part of the class itself. As a man of 
affairs, as well as a student, he is equal to the occasion and can, 
with a little tact, turn even an unfriendly criticism to good ac- 
count. Unless there is a flagrant breach of order or an utter 
want of respect for the ordinary proprieties of social intercourse, 
we would have the greatest freedom of discussion, at least to 
start with. Professional talkers, as a profession, scarcely exist, 
but professional men occasionally do a little talking by way of 
help, and often for the purpose of acquiring information on 
points on which they are a little rusty, or a little behind the age. 
They wish, if it is possible, to keep abreast of the times, to keep 
in touch with the best thought of the age. And hence you will 
find them sitting in the place of the learners, especially when 
they have " one who knows" to expound a subject. 

Now, I contend that the most of these have not the time to 
prepare the written exercises. Their time is taken up, as a gen- 
eral rule, with their professional duties. Still, like the old war- 
horse, they scent the battle from afar, and love to take a hand in 
the pursuits which once engaged their youthful energies. They 
are, for the most part, liberally educated : some are specialists in 
certain branches, and some without a liberal education are rec- 

Remarks. 143 

ognized leaders, and worthily so, in certain movements. Are 
these to be shut out? 

I pointed out in the course of my remarks, and I cannot go 
into further detail as a proof of my position, how much we owe 
in this Conference, in seeking a solution of the problems involved, 
to the presence of a distinguished representative of the labor 
interests in this country, who met with us as a fellow-citizen and 
student, whose heart was aflame with sympathy with all that be- 
longed to the uplifting of his fellow-men in the scale of social 
and mental and moral improvement. We need such in the class- 
room, even if their pressing duties will not allow them time to 
enter into the severe work of preparing papers. 

But I must close. I have no manner of intention of travers- 
ing the main drift of the excellent paper of Mr. Devine. It is 
the standard towards which University Extension methods must 
ever be approximating. But as things actually are, I am only 
pleading for certain additional conditions which enter into the 
account, as in adapting a machine for actual use we must some- 
times make allowance for friction and other existing elements. 

The Conference just closing has been a wonderful success. The 
reports from all parts of the United States are in no small degree 
encouraging. May the year just opening and all coming years 
add to the efficiency of the University Extension movement. 


Professor of Latin and Arabic in the University of Cincinnati. 

THE Cincinnati idea of University Extension is to extend the 
University. The first steps taken in this direction were in 1889, 
when a course of seven lectures was given on Saturday mornings 
in the University building. In 1890 three courses were given: 
one at the same time and place, a second in the Newport High 
School, and a third in the Bellevue High School, both in the 
evening. These lectures were a close and careful treatment 
of some subject in each lecturer's line of work. They were 
exceedingly well attended, especially by teachers. 

Towards the close of the last academic year, a committee of 
principals and teachers requested the faculty of the University 
of Cincinnati to provide college courses of instruction on Satur- 
days. The faculty did not deem it wise to undertake this offi- 
cially, but left the matter to individual professors. 

Accordingly the following courses were offered, each to consist 
of thirty lectures or recitations : 

"Lectures on Experimental Chemistry," by Professor Norton ; 
"Mediaeval and Modern History," by Professor Myers; **A 
Critical and Exegetical Study of Horace," by Professor Sproull. 

" Analytics," by Professor Hyde. 

"Mechanics," by Professor Baldwin. 

The teaching staff organized by electing Professor Sproull, 
president, and Professor Norton, secretary and treasurer. 

Although there was but little time for the necessary publicity, 
and besides the fact that different teachers' institutes hold their 
meetings on Saturdays, seventy-two persons, mostly principals and 
teachers, were enrolled. In addition are those who attend single 
lectures on visitors' "tickets. At the end of the courses, volun- 
tary examinations will be held and certificates given signed by 
the examiners. 

University Extension in Cincinnati. 145 

The direct benefit of these classes is very decided, both to 
those taught and to the instructors. The work of teachers in 
our schools is so varied and consists of so many details, in addi- 
tion to the strain of exercising discipline, that they have neither 
the time nor are they in the proper mental condition to special- 
ize. No text-book, moreover, and this is markedly true in science, 
can be abreast with the times. The Germans recognize this, for a 
text-book has scarcely made its appearance before the author is 
at work on a new and revised edition. With us it too often hap- 
pens the book is stereotyped, as if further progress for years were 
impossible, and published until the plates are worn out. Dis- 
coveries recorded in journals and periodicals quickly put the best 
text-books into the background, and these discoveries can be 
watched and noted only by the specialist. Even excellent edi- 
tions of the classics fail before long to meet the demands of the 
scholar. The finding of a manuscript, the critical examinations 
of texts, the discussions of grammatical and lexical questions, the 
flood of light thrown upon Greek and Latin authors by archaeo- 
logical investigations are contributions to our knowledge of the 
many phases of Greek and Roman life, and they can be recorded 
only in the current literature. 

What teachers can keep up with this ? Supposing they had the 
time, what schools, even high schools, are there where journals 
and periodicals of any specialty are at their command ? By means 
of Saturday classes, teachers come into contact with specialists, 
whose duty and endeavor it is not only to know what each day 
brings forth in their departments, but also to contribute thereto. 

The writer now speaks of his own experience. In Latin a 
course in Horace had been offered, but, by request, this is now 
preceded by a course in the JEneid. The book is discussed 
exegetically and critically by the aid of palaeographic fac-similes. 
Collateral reading on Latin Literature, Classical Mythology, 
Roman Antiquities and especially on the author read, is marked 
out and commented upon. Every opportunity is given for ask- 
ing questions. The effect is magical. Some of these teachers 
have gone over the first six books of the ^Eneid frequently, but, as 
one expressed it, they are reading Vergil for the first time. The 


146 The National Conference on University Extension. 

book had become dry and ceased to have any interest for them, 
but now it has all the freshness of a new author. 

What is the effect upon the lecturer ? What effect must it have 
upon any professor devoted to his calling, to have before him a 
body of teachers who give up their Saturday mornings to the 
class-room, their spare time during the week to preparation? 
Nothing could awaken more enthusiasm in him, and a desire to 
do his utmost, than so many adults before him eager to learn and 
ever on the alert. It acts as a mental stimulant with only good 
effects. The writer's colleagues bear similar testimony. 

How great is the indirect benefit ? Of these seventy and more 
students, fifty are teachers. Each teacher comes into daily con- 
tact with at least thirty scholars. Thus a class of thirty teachers 
is representative of fifteen hundred scholars. College faculties, 
moreover, complain, oftentimes unjustly, of the instruction in 
the preparatory schools. These teachers' classes give them the 
means of remedying this, in a great measure. The community 
is alive to the importance of this movement. The Union Board 
of High Schools of Cincinnati appointed a committee of con- 
ference to have additional courses established. The following 
extract is taken from an article that appeared in the Cincinnati 
Times-Star of October 22, 1891 : 

" Every Saturday between sixty and seventy earnest workers 
gather at the University for these classes. As yet the work 
is only in its beginning. This movement promises to be a 
telling force in educational affairs. Next year, with further 
experience, the work done will be an improvement upon that of 
this year. In this way the influence of the University will go 
radiating out through the community. The professors engaged 
in this work combine enthusiasm, zeal, tenacity of purpose, sound 
judgment, and more devoted and determined students cannot be 
found. Cincinnati may not be aware of the fact, but it is never- 
theless true, that since the organization of the school system, this 
University Extension work is the most important step taken in 
the interests of higher education. It broadens the field of work 
and offers the opportunity of a liberal education to hundreds of 
those to whom fate in youth has denied it." 

University Extension in Cincinnati. 147 

It may be added, the whole tendency will be to systematize 
and unify the entire plan of education and to bring all the 
teachers into sympathetic and helpful relations. 

The good accomplished by University Extension throughout 
the country in organizing centres with unit courses of lectures 
is very great. More credit is due this movement, however, for 
showing how little relatively the colleges and universities are 
doing, and so forcing them to inquire wherein they have been 
derelict. Consider the wealth and facilities of these institutions, 
and^ then look at the vast array of those whom University Ex- 
tension has brought together, longing for these advantages, but 
cannot enjoy them on account of restrictions and conditions. 
According to the report of the Bureau of Education for 1888-89,* 
the Colleges of Liberal Art have an invested capital of $122,638,- 
681 (not including the value of 3,716,625 volumes), with an 
income of $8,293,444. The number of graduates was about 
7500. This does not convey an accurate idea of how many 
were benefited, but since the object of a college is to map out 
lines of work that can be completed only by those who reach the 
time for graduation, the number of graduates must be taken as a 
test of efficiency. 

The question as to how colleges and universities situated in the 
cities can do more for the community has been in part answered. 
Separate classes should be formed, especially for teachers, to meet 
on Saturdays. The instruction should be of a high order along 
the lines of college work. This should be only the first stage. 
Every applicant for admission to college must comply with at 
least three conditions : First is the condition of preliminary edu- 
cation. Second is the condition of place. Instruction is given 
only within the college walls. The third is the time-condition ; 
that is, the student must attend during the day. 

* The writer wishes to express his thanks to Dr. W. T. Harris for ad- 
vance sheets of the Report for 1888-89, also to Professor Coy, Principal 
of Hughes High School, Professor Harper, Principal of Woodward High 
School, and Professor Weaver, Principal of Bellevue (Ky.) High School, for 
statistics and suggestions. 

148 The National Conference on University Extension. 

It is the third condition that should be modified or done away 
with, if possible, in certain cases. 

A great advance has been made by President Harper in his 
announcement that the University of Chicago will be open the 
year round. This adds one-fourth more time, in which the Uni- 
versity can carry on its work and extend its facilities to the large 
number of persons who cannot attend during the other nine 
months. The writer proposes another innovation, that colleges 
and universities in cities offer full college courses leading to 
degrees, to be carried on in the evening during the year.* There 
is an element of justice in making this as a demand on those 
institutions so situated and receiving State or municipal aid. In 
1888-89, the Colleges of Liberal Arts received such aid to the 
amount of $1,326,395, and, as far as the writer knows, there is 
not one where he who must work by day can prosecute college 
work by night. 

These evening classes would be recruited from the following 
sources : 

First. Of the high schools of Cincinnati (and the same is no 
doubt true elsewhere) there are every year many graduates both 
qualified and desirous to engage in college work, but circum- 
stances compel them to earn their living. f Professor Coy, Prin- 
cipal of the Hughes high school, thinks this would include 
from twenty to thirty per cent of each graduating class, which last 
year numbered in both schools one hundred and sixty-six. There 
are also those who had time, opportunity, and perhaps every 
encouragement to go to college, but no inclination, and who 
would now like to rectify their mistake. Many college gradu- 
ates, moreover, would continue their studies if they could perform 
the class -work in the evening. 

Second. There is a large number of students pursuing their 
professional studies in the cities, who never went to college ; or, 

* This was advocated by the writer first in the Cincinnati Courier, June, 
1890. It is urged strenuously by J. Spencer Hill, Hon. Treas. of the Chelsea 
University Extension Centre, in the London Academy, December 26, 1891. 

f The high schools of Cincinnati prepare students to enter without conditions 
the B.A., B.S., or B.L. course of any institution. 

University Extension in Cincinnati. 149 

it may be, for a year or two. Oftentimes the reason is that their 
professional training, if deferred until after graduation, would 
make their start in life too late. Here again financial straits 
may come into play. By such students some collegiate studies 
could be carried on in the evening, and after they had entered 
upon their vocation, ample time would be at their service during 
a few years for such work. Those students who had gone to 
college for a year or two might be able to complete their 
course by the time they had finished their professional studies. 
In 1888-89 there were enrolled in the college department of the 
Colleges of Liberal Arts 57,121 names, and not one-seventh of 
this number graduated. 

Third. The principal source would be from the body of 
teachers, chiefly of the common schools. There are within reach 
of such classes at the University of Cincinnati fifteen hundred 
teachers. Most of these have graduated from the high school, 
for this is one condition of appointment in the common schools. 
Judging from the success of the Saturday classes, and accord- 
ing to the opinion of teachers who have studied the subject, 
two hundred of these teachers would matriculate in evening 
classes. There are more than a dozen cities, each of which has 
a collegiate institution, where the average prospect for such 
classes would be as good as in Cincinnati. One important fact 
is that these classes would be made up of students attending of 
their own volition, and thus by their presence under such cir- 
cumstances showing their appreciation of a higher education. 

Educators have failed to set a proper value upon the influence of 
the common-school teacher in shaping the course of the youth 
in after-life. Her personal influence (for they are mostly women) 
is far greater than the subject-matter of her instruction. Her 
dictum has with the child often the force of an oracle. She 
meets the boy at that age when he is eager to give up all higher 
aims for a chance to make money. In elementary education the 
personal element of the teacher has greater weight than at any 
other period. The relative effect of the subject-matter and the 
teacher's personal influence approach each other as the child 
grows older, until they occupy reversed positions. The personal 

150 The National Conference on University Extension. 

element of the professor usually makes little impression upon the 
student in comparison with the subject taught. The common- 
school teacher is consequently not the least, but the most im- 
portant, factor in deciding the child's future. She should, there- 
fore, have the greatest intellectual breadth. It would not do to 
demand of her a college education as one condition of appoint- 
ment. The salary is so small that it would not be fair to require 
four additional years of preparation without additional compen- 
sation. By means of evening classes teachers would have an 
opportunity to acquire that knowledge, breadth of intellect, and 
mental discipline they so much need. Besides this, teachers 
transferred from the common schools to the high schools can- 
not have, under our present system, qualified themselves for their 
new position. As a rule, they have not only not advanced, but 
have forgotten much they learned during the high school cur- 
riculum. On the other hand, a few years' experience in teaching, 
combined with the training of a college education, will admi- 
rably prepare them for their new duties.* 

The additional expense connected with these evening classes, 
except for the increase in the teaching force, would be compar- 
atively little. The same buildings, grounds, apparatus, and 
libraries could be used both for day and evening classes. It 
would be, without doubt, necessary to enlarge correspondingly 
the faculty of any institution that engaged in this work, but that 
new outlay would be far more than offset by the much greater 
use that would be made of the immense capital invested in 
buildings, grounds, libraries, and apparatus. 

These evening classes could not go over the whole ground in 
four years, but let graduation depend upon the quantity and 
quality of the work done without any time-limit. 

Can these questions be answered affirmatively? Do those 
high schools taught by college graduates send the largest num- 

The Union Board of High Schools of Cincinnati will probably at its 
next meeting make a rule, that hereafter only graduates of reputable colleges 
will be appointed teachers in the high schools. This rule will not apply to 
the present teachers. 

University Extension in Cincinnati. 151 

ber of students to college? Do those common schools in which 
are teachers, graduates of high schools or colleges, send the 
largest number of pupils to the high schools ? If these questions 
can be affirmed, then give the teachers in the schools a college 
education by giving them opportunities to secure it, and do this 
by abolishing in their cases, as well as in those of the other classes 
mentioned, the present condition of time, both as to when and 
how long they must study to secure the end. If colleges and 
universities in cities provide for these classes also, University 
Extension can meet the wants of those who cannot comply with 
the conditions of preliminary education and place. The most 
ardent friends of University Extension belong to the faculties of 
city institutions. They can hasten or retard the introduction 
of this innovation. At all events, the time will come when the 
doors of many such institutions will be open to students, not 
only the year round by day, but also the year round by night. 


Chief Examiner, University of the State of New York. 

NOTHING in the University Extension movement is more sig- 
nificant than its progress towards government recognition. 

The title of the first edition of the book published by Halford 
J. Mackinder and Michael E. Sadler was " University Extension, 
has it a Future?" The last edition is entitled " University 
Extension, Past, Present, and Future." Among the facts which 
have caused this change none is more important than the action 
of the British government in giving official support to the move- 

Of the States of our country, New York is the first officially to 
recognize University Extension. When our system of higher 
education is considered this seems natural. All the interests of 
higher education in New York are committed to the State Uni- 
versity. It has the power to grant, amend, or repeal charters of 
higher educational institutions. It has the duty of inspection 
and visitation. It has a great system of examinations by which 
to test the work of the schools; and it is commissioned by the 
legislature annually to distribute $106,000 to high schools and 
academies. The State Library and the State Museum are depart- 
ments of the university, and their interests are closely allied to 
the general educational work of the State. The natural agent, 
therefore, to carry forward the work of University Extension in 
New York was the University of the State of New York. 

As the appropriation of last year was the first of its kind in 
this country, it will doubtless be of value as a precedent, and, 
therefore, it may be proper to submit* a brief statement of the 
manner in which the merits of the 1 Extension movement were 
presented to the legislature. 

When the regents of the university had satisfied themselves 

The State and University Extension. 153 

that this movement was of real worth, they communicated with 
the faculties of all the colleges in the State to ascertain whether 
or not the colleges would favor such a project. Without a dis- 
senting voice the colleges heartily favored the plan, and urged 
the regents to appeal to the legislature for the appropriation 
necessary to carry on the executive work. 

The bill introduced in both houses of the legislature provided 
" that no part of the appropriation should be expended in paying 
for the services or expenses of persons designated or appointed 
as lecturers or instructors." It was intended that all such 
expenses should be borne by the localities benefited. A joint 
hearing was given to the advocates of the measure by the Finance 
Committee of the Senate and the Committee of Ways and Means 
of the Assembly. At that hearing every college in the State was 
represented either by a delegate or by a letter. As the secretary 
of the university called the roll, the representatives of the various 
institutions urged upon the members of the committee the im- 
portance of the measure under consideration. The great fact 
which the hearing developed was the unity of the educators of 
the State in favor of the proposed measure. 

A former Senator remarked that it was the most impressive 
hearing that he had ever seen. Wonder has been expressed 
that a measure of such importance should have passed the legis- 
lature with so little opposition. The explanation seems to be 
that the educators of the State were a unit in asking for its pas- 
sage, and this unity of sentiment was the strongest argument in 
favor of the bill. 

The present position of the movement in New York differs 
from that in England in these respects : 

1. The expenditure of the fund is in charge of one central 

2. The appropriation is not restricted to the advancement of 
technical education, but can be used for the purposes of organi- 
zation without reference to the studies which are to be taught. 

The lesson of the New York movement is that the most valua- 
ble ally of University Extension is the unqualified, enthusiastic, 
and united support of the educational forces of the State. 




Professor Leslie A. Lee, of Bowdoin College, reported to the 
Conference the action of the faculty of that institution in favor 
of University Extension. Courses are offered by many of the 
professors on different subjects, and some have already been 
arranged for several towns in the State. 


President M. H. Buckham represented the University of Ver- 
mont at the National Conference, and reported great interest in 
the work. The attitude of the University of Vermont is cordial 
toward the movement, and there is prospect of earnest effort 
being made at an early date to introduce the system in towns 
throughout the State. 


No courses have so far been established in New Hampshire, but 
many of the leading newspapers of the State have shown their 
interest in the work by publishing articles descriptive of the 
movement and by advocating its introduction. 


Centres have been established in Massachusetts in Attleboro', 
and North Attleboro', under the general direction of Brown Uni- 
versity. President Merrill E. Gates, of Amherst College, has 
been from the first an earnest advocate of University Extension, 
and the interest of that institution is being exerted in behalf of 

158 The National Conference on University Extension. 

it. The Prospect Progressive Union, of Cambridge, founded 
and carried on by students of Harvard College, is offering now 
to workingmen many of the advantages of University Extension. 
Courses are arranged for evening work, and instruction is being 
given by not less than forty students out of the entire membership 
of two hundred. For this year twenty courses have been offered 
in history, languages, mathematics, and political science. The 
meetings are on every week-day evening from seven to nine o'clock. 
At Westfield, Professor Williston Walker, Ph.D., of Hartford, 
Conn., is to deliver a course of Extension lectures on "The 
History of Modern Italy" before the History Club. Professor 
Graham Taylor, D.D., of Hartford, has an Extension course of 
eight lectures on "Sociological Conditions of Christian Work" 
before the Y. M. C. A. Training-school, at Springfield. 


Professor Wilfred H. Munro, Director of the University Extension for 
Brown University, read the following report : 

In the academic year 1890-91, University Extension work, as 
such, was begun experimentally in Providence and in Pawtucket, 
Rhode Island, by Professors Bailey, Bumpus, Upton, and Wil- 
liams, of Brown University. Lecture courses were given by 
these gentlemen in Botany, Biology, Astronomy, and German 
Literature. The audiences were as large as could well be handled, 
and the interest they manifested was most gratifying. 

As a result of these experimental courses, the Corporation of 
Brown University, at its meeting in June, 1891, voted to make 
Extension teaching a part of its scheme of work, appointed one 
of its faculty Director of the University Extension, and granted 
permission to all the members of the faculty to engage in Ex- 
tension teaching wherever they could do so without detriment to 
their regular college work. 

The peculiar situation of Providence, in the midst of a large 
and compact population, and its excellent railway facilities, enable 
the University to accomplish more in this line than is possible 

Rhode L 

for most colleges. In order to reach the largest number (and 
because the lecturers feel that they ought to do, at least at the 
outset, much missionary work), the lecturer's fee has been placed 
at one hundred dollars ($100) for a course of twelve lectures, 
a much lower price than is charged anywhere else, in America or 
in England. No half-courses are given. This low charge makes 
it possible for centres to be organized in small towns, and for the 
most part results in small classes of from thirty to fifty persons; 
that is, in classes having about the number of students which 
the best schools ordinarily assign to one teacher. The element 
we make most prominent is the teaching element. Our object is 
not to amuse, but to instruct. We wish to do away entirely with 
the motive which governed the old lyceum. Smaller classes do 
better work than larger ones, in the Extension not less than in 
the regular University work, and the personality of the instructor 
counts for much more. 

With one exception, all oar lecturers are members of our own 
faculty. There is no raw material in the force, and the work 
done is more systematic and thorough than is usually the case 
with early Extension teaching. The Director knows personally 
the capabilities of his men, and can place them to the best ad- 

Not so much importance is given to the syllabus as is usually 
assigned to it, and, except in a very few instances, no syllabi 
have thus far been printed. The lectures have been prepared 
with special reference to the needs of the particular audience 
before which they were to be delivered, and the lecturers have 
not hesitated to vary them wherever it seemed wise to do so. 
This has required more labor on the part of the instructor, but 
the benefit to the class has been great. Not infrequently written 
lectures prove to be beyond the comprehension of those who 
listen to them, and if in such a case a cast-iron syllabus has to be 
used, much harm results. All the lecturers have prepared full 
analyses, which have most frequently been dictated to the class, 
and all furnish full bibliographies. All give special prominence 
to the class-work. 

All ages and conditions of life are found in our classes. The 

160 The National Conference on University Extension. 

larger proportion of the members are women, but two classes are 
composed entirely of men. One of these latter in Practical 
Physics is made up almost entirely of skilled mechanics from 
the famous factory of the Browne & Sharpe Manufacturing 
Company. The other numbers upon its roll only members of the 
Young Men's Debating Society, in whose rooms it meets. The 
place of meeting is almost always a school-house. The use of 
these buildings has been given by the school authorities. 

Twenty-one (21) courses of lectures are now being delivered, 
by thirteen (13) lecturers, in nine (9) cities and towns of Rhode 
Island and Massachusetts. 

Five courses in Constitutional History. 

One " " Mediaeval History. 

One " " Botany. 

Two " " Zoology. 

One " " Physiology. 

One " " Political Economy. 

Six " " English Literature 

Two " " Physics. 

One " " Astronomy. 

One " " Art and Architecture. 


University Extension work has been undertaken in Connecti- 
cut actively by professors of Trinity College and Hartford Theo- 
logical Seminary. Pioneer work of an excellent kind has been 
done by teachers of the Norwich Free Academy. More recently, 
the professors of Yale and Wesleyan University have become 
interested in the movement and are arranging courses for the 
coming year. President Dwight, of Yale, has always been one 
of the warm friends and advocates of University Extension, and 
President S. P. Raymond, who represented Wesleyan University 
at the National Conference, is equally favorable to it. 

Mr. H. E. Bourne, of the Norwich Free Academy, read at the 
Conference the following forecasting of University Extension in 
Eastern Connecticut : 

Connecticut. 161 

" The work I have been asked to describe is not an example of 
University Extension. It is an effort to do something in a mod- 
est way for those who live in the small mill villages in the neigh- 
borhood of Norwich, in Eastern Connecticut. You will remem- 
ber that there are in that part of the State a large number of 
such villages. As many of them are off the railroad and poorly 
furnished with means of intellectual development, such as libra- 
ries, reading-rooms, and the like, the life of the people is neces- 
sarily quiet, not to say dull. It is almost an unending routine of 
mill work, lasting from seven o'clock in the morning till six at 
night, with nothing in the evening except an occasional prayer- 
meeting or travelling variety theatre to stir up the mind. In such 
villages as these some of us on the faculty of the Norwich Free 
Academy thought we might profitably give courses of lectures on 
subjects in which we were especially interested. The first lec- 
ture, which had for its subject the plainer facts of astronomy, 
has been given during the month of December in four villages, 
to audiences numbering from seventy-five to one hundred and 
fifty, and composed of employers as well as employees, but, of 
course, largely of the latter. The listeners have seemed to pay 
excellent attention, although little training in the act of attention 
can be presupposed in their case. No doubt the views of differ- 
ent astronomical objects cast upon a screen by the stereopticon 
greatly assisted them in giving attention. This lecture is to be 
followed by others, some of which are of a more practical nature. 
They do not, in any sense of the word, constitute what we 
hope will be the permanent work of the Academy for these 
villages. They will serve, we think, however, to make us ac- 
quainted with the people and them acquainted with us, and to 
establish sympathetic relations between us, so that a perma- 
nent work may be successfully organized for such villages, con- 
stituting what we may call an outside academy. The permanent 
instruction would concern itself chiefly with the more useful facts 
of natural science, American history, and American ways of gov- 
erning. Thus far we have made no charge for admission to these 
lectures, because we did not wish our purpose to be misunder- 
stood. We wished the people to feel that the whole enterprise 


1 62 The National Conference on University Extension. 

arose out of a brotherly spirit of interest in them. The slight 
incidental expenses have been borne in each case by the owners 
of the mills. Perhaps later it will be possible to have the people 
themselves assume the incidental expenses, or part of them, 
without any danger that our motives may be misconstrued, and 
our enterprise be stigmatized as a money-making affair. 

" I wish to add one or two remarks upon another subject sug- 
gested by this meeting. Why is it not possible for the educated 
men of this country to establish courses of instruction in the 
essentials of good citizenship, including a knowledge of American 
history and our national, State, and local governments, and of 
the elementary principles of political economy especially adapted 
to attract those who have come to our shores from foreign coun- 
tries, and who are almost totally unacquainted with our national 
aims and political methods ? It seems to me that such courses 
of instruction, planned in a sympathetic spirit and patiently con- 
ducted, will do more to solve our problem of immigration than 
any amount of cheap lamentation over the startling inroads of 
undesirable foreigners. ' ' 

Rev. F. B. Hartranft, of the Hartford Theological Seminary, 
read the following account of University Extension in Hartford : 

" The most notable enterprise in which the Seminary has this 
year embarked outside its routine work is the system of lectures 
and classes organized under the general caption of University 

" With the spirit and purpose of this movement, Harvard Semi- 
nary has long been sympathetic. In actual accomplishment it 
has considerably anticipated the wide-spread organization of the 
matter throughout the country. The first definite step was taken 
eleven years ago in the establishment of the Choral Union, which 
has ever since served as a most significant extension of Seminary 
resources for the benefit of the people of Hartford and vicinity. 
The Union has already been a source of musical knowledge and 
inspiration to at least fifteen hundred different singers, has given 
thirty-four public concerts at which a long list of choral master- 
pieces has been presented to some thousands of auditors, has 
stimulated the formation of a score or more of choral societies 

Connecticut. 163 

throughout the State, and is now a most flourishing institution, 
with two choruses, an enthusiastic constituency, and a bright 

"The attitude of the Seminary toward this kind of work was 
emphatically set forth in the inaugural address of President Hart- 
ranft in May, 1888. As an immediate fruit of the policy then 
promulgated, the experiment was tried three years ago of occa- 
sional public lectures by members of the faculty. This plan was 
continued until this year. The list of lecturers has included 
Professors Hartranft, Bissell, Pratt, Beardslee, Richardson, Gil- 
lett, and Walker. In 1889-90, also, a system of 'Popular 
Classes' was set up, including the following subjects : 

1. Prof. Zenos. Introduction to the Literature of the New 

2. Prof. Zenos. Elements of New Testament Greek. 

3. Prof. Bissell. Introduction to the Literature of the Old 

4. Prof. Bissell. Elements of Hebrew. 

5. Prof. Hartranft. The Post-Apostolic Church. 

6. Prof. Walker. The Reformation. 

7. Prof. Richardson. History of Philosophy. 

8. Prof. Beardslee. The International Sunday-school Lesson. 

9. Prof. Gillett. Studies in Psychology. 

10. Prof. Taylor. Training in the Methods of Practical Chris- 
tian Work. 

n. Prof. Pratt. Musical Sight-Reading. 

" The enrolment for that year included over four hundred and 
fifty students in the various courses, most of which consisted of 
about fifteen lectures. 

"In 1890-91 this system was continued, with the following 
list of subjects : 

1. Prof. Bissell. Literature of the Old Testament. 

2. Mr. Wright. Elements of Hebrew. 

3. Prof. Zenos. The Bible and the Monuments. 

4. Prof. Zenos. Elements of New Testament Greek. 

5. Prof. Hartranft. Christian Literature from Hadrian to 
Septimius Severus. 

1 64 The National Conference on University Extension. 

6. Prof. Walker. Europe and America from the Rise of 
Frederick the Great to the Fall of Napoleon. 

7. Prof. Beardslee. The International Sunday-school Lessons. 

8. Prof. Gillctt. History of Philosophy. 

9. Prof. Taylor. Training in Methods of Christian Work. 
10. Mr. F. B. Hartranft. The Thiersage and Fabel in Ger- 
man Literature. 

"The enrolment that year included about three hundred and 
fifty students. 

"At the beginning of the present year it was felt that some ex- 
tension of the system was desirable, with some modifications of 
its details. Hitherto only Seminary professors had served as 
teachers, and no fees whatever were exacted. This year the 
effort was made to consolidate the many disconnected instruc- 
tional undertakings of a popular character in Hartford, to give 
them a common centre and name, and to maintain more or less 
nominal fees to cover expenses of administration, and, in some 
cases, to remunerate the lecturer. The initial inquiries revealed 
a remarkable readiness on the part of about twenty teachers to 
join in this enterprise, so that with very little effort a list of sub- 
jects was announced by means of a general circular, which was 
widely distributed over the city and suburbs. The administra- 
tion of the whole undertaking was lodged in the hands of a 
committee of the faculty, consisting of Professors Hartranft, 
Taylor, and Gillett, with Mr. F. B. Hartranft as secretary. 

"The subjects announced in the circular are as follows: 


1. Miss Margaret Bly the. Carlyle. 

2. Richard E. Burton, Ph.D. English, as it is written and 
spoken. Twelve lectures. 

3. Mr. Frederick B. Hartranft. German Poetical Literature 
from Opitz to Gottsched (1624-1750). Six lectures. 

4. Prof. Charles F. Johnson, M.A. English Poetical Forms. 
Six lectures. 

5. Prof. W. E. Martin, LL.B., Ph.D. Outlines of the Rig- 

Connecticut. 165 

HISTORY (inclusive of History of Culture). 

6. Mr. Frederick H. Chapin. i . History of Exploration in 
the Southwest (New Mexico and Arizona). 2. Cliff-dwellings of 
Mancos Canon, Colorado. With stereopticon views. 

7. Prof. Henry Ferguson, M.A. Europe before the Crusades. 
Six lectures. 

8. Mr. Otto B. Schlutter. Old-Time German and English 
Beliefs and Customs, and their Meaning. These lectures are 
delivered in the German language. Six lectures. 


9. Prof. Stephen G. Barnes, Ph.D., Litt.D. Principles and 
Practice of Morality ; on the Basis of Robinson. Twelve lec- 


10. Prof. John F. McCook, M.A. The Alms Question Past 
and Present. Six lectures. 


11. Samuel F. Andrews, D.D. Life of Christ. Twelve 

12. Prof. Clarks S. Beardslee, M.A. The International Sun- 
day-school Lesson. 

13. Edwin P. Parker, D.D. On the Tendency to Materialize 


14. Melancthon Storrs, M.D. Physiology. Twelve lectures. 


15. Hon. Nathaniel Shipman, LL.D. The Development of 
the Constitution by Judicial Decisions. 


1 6. Hartford Art Association. Under its auspices six lectures 
will be given. Lecturers, dates, and terms will be announced 

17. Edward D. Hale, M.A. Piano recitals, with lectures on 
the Romantic Composers. 

1 66 The National Conference on University Extension. 

1 8. Mr. William C. Hammond. Two Organ Recitals, at dates 
to be announced later. 

19. Edwin P. Parker, D.D. i. Hymnody. 2. Church 

20. Prof. Waldo S. Pratt, M.A. Some Curious Things in 
Musical History. 


21. Prof. Flavel S. Luther, M.A. Tycho, Brahe, Kepler, 
Galileo, Descartes, Newton, in their Several Positions as Factors 
in the Development of Modern Physical Science. 

"To the list is appended the announcement of the following 
free lectures. 

"Prof. Charles C. Stearns, M.A. Six lectures on the Carew 
Foundation, to be given early in 1892. The Hittites. New 
Lights from Old Records of a Forgotten People. 

"Rev. Alpheus C. Hodges, M.A. Religious Leaders of New 
England, i. The Founders and Opponents of the Theocracy. 
2. Edwards and His Friends and Foes. 3. Later Developments. 

"Rev. Edward H. Knight, M.A. i. Critical Examination of 
certain Books of the Old Testament Apocrypha. 2. The Rela- 
tion of certain Parts of the Old Testament Apocrypha to the 
Inspiration of the Bible. 

"Rev. Charles S. Lane, M.A. The Septuagint. i. Its Text. 
2. The Septuagint in the New Testament. 

"It is too soon to pronounce upon the success of this undertak- 
ing as a whole. But it is evident that the fraternal co-operation 
in it of so many instructors, from Trinity College and from the 
city, as well as from the Seminary, is a significant and delightful 
fact. It is evident, also, that the response on the part of audi- 
tors has been ample and enthusiastic enough to make the enter- 
prise from the start a decided popular success. Doubtless after 
this season's experience the plan will be carried to a still greater 
perfection another year. In particular, it is probable that lec- 
tures will be more generally supplemented by recitations and 
examinations. ' ' 

For other Extension work in Connecticut, see "The First 
Annual Report of the American Society." 

New York New Jersey. 167 


In New York excellent work was done for several years by the 
New York University and School Extension, the secretary of 
which was Seth T. Stewart, of Brooklyn. By his earnest and 
whole-souled devotion much was accomplished for this movement 
both in New York and throughout the country. Under the au- 
spices of the society of which he was secretary, many lectures 
were given in New York City, Brooklyn, and other places by 
such eminent men as Professor Boyesen, of Columbia ; Profes- 
sors Marquand and Frothingham, of Princeton ; Professor Kit- 
tredge, of Harvard, and Professor Ladd, of Yale. 

The appropriation by the New York Legislature of ten thousand 
dollars, to be expended in the line of University Extension 
under the direction of the University of the State of New York, 
has given a great impulse to the work in the entire State. Sec- 
retary Dewey has entered actively on the work of establishing 
centres, and with his able assistance much progress will doubtless 
be made in the coming year. (See also the addresses by Secre- 
tary Dewey and Mr. Thomas, and Appendix A. in this volume.) 


President F. L. Patton, of Princeton, has been one of the 
earliest advocates of University Extension, and has been strongly 
supported by the faculty of the College of New Jersey, many of 
whose members are lecturing under the auspices of the American 
Society. More recently, Rutgers College has taken official 
action in reference to University Extension and established it as 
a department of the College, with Professor Louis Bevier, Jr., 
as secretary. At the meeting of the American Society on No- 
vember 10, President Austin Scott gave an account of the 
starting of the work under the impulse of the success gained at 
Philadelphia and other places. On November 16, Rutgers 
College issued a circular calling the attention of the people of 
the State to the Extension lectures offered under its auspices. 
These include courses on Agriculture, by Professor Edward B. 

1 68 The National Conference on University Extension. 

Voorhees; The English Language, by Professor Louis Bevier, 
Jr. ; Physics, by Professor Frank C. VanDyke ; Chemistry, by 
Professor Peter T. Austin ; Botany, by Professor Byron D. Hal- 
stead ; Entomology, by Professor J. T. Smith ; Biology, by Pro- 
fessor Julius Nelson; Astronomy, by Professor Robert W. 
Prentiss; and Practical Questions on Political Economy, by 
Professor Edward L. Stevenson. The full course consists of 
twelve weekly lectures, the cost of which, including lecturer's fee, 
travelling expenses, printing and incidentals, is about four hun- 
dred dollars. Professor Bevier submitted this as his report to 
the National Conference, laying especial emphasis on the charac- 
ter of Rutgers as a " State College for the benefit of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts," and calling attention to the special scien- 
tific nature of the courses offered. 

For other Extension work in New Jersey, see "The First Annual 
Report of the American Society." 


University Extension work in Delaware has been under the 
direct supervision of the American Society, and a report of it 
will be found under the heading " The First Annual Report 
of the American Society." 


The work of University Extension in Pennsylvania has been 
part of the general object lesson of the American Society and is 
reported under "The First Annual Report of the American 


Much work of a pioneer nature has been done for University 
Extension by men connected with Johns Hopkins University. 
Professor H. B. Adams is one of the earliest and most vigorous 
champions of the system. In connection with Johns Hopkins, 
courses of public lectures have been given in Baltimore for several 
years, and, although these have not been characterized by a full 
application of the system, they have been of great help in lead- 

Virginia. 169 

ing gradually to it. Extension centres are being now organized 
in several towns by the American Society. 


From Virginia, President H. McDiarmid, of Bethany College, 
and President W. W. Smith, of Randolph-Macon College, were 
present at the National Conference to show their interest in the 
work and their earnest desire for its advance. The first centre 
established in the State was that at Winchester, from which the 
secretary, W. Roy Stephenson, sends the following account : . 

"In October, 1891, Mr. W. Roy Stephenson, of the Winches- 
ter, Va., bar, set to work to organize and put in operation a 
branch of the University Extension Society, and wrote first to 
Professor H. B. Adams, of the Johns Hopkins University, and 
afterwards called upon Professor Adams in Baltimore to obtain his 
advice as to the best plan for a society in Winchester to adopt, 
and to secure Professor Adams or some other member of the 
Johns Hopkins University to deliver the first course of lectures. 
Professor Adams gave all encouragement, but was unable to de- 
liver a course himself, or suggest any one for the purpose. Mem- 
bers of the faculty of the University of Virginia were also 
written to by Mr. Stephenson to the same end, and with the 
same result. He then wrote to Mr. Walter C. Douglas, of Phil- 
adelphia, and to Professor W. D. Cabell, and Professor J. H. 
Gore, of Washington, D. C., on the subject. 

" Mr. Douglas promptly replied and referred the matter to the 
Secretary of the American Society, Mr. George Henderson, and 
in a short time the correspondence between Mr. Henderson and 
Mr. Stephenson led to the engagement of a lecturer from Phila- 

" On November 24, 1891, a meeting called by several gentlemen 
by publication of a notice in the town papers of such persons as 
might take an interest in the subject of education was held at 
the Y. M. C. A. rooms in Winchester, Va., and Professor J. H. 
Gore, who is the secretary of the Washington, D. C., Society 
for the Extension of University Teaching, was kindly present, 

I/O The National Conference on University Extension. 

by the request of Mr. Stephenson, and delivered a well-consid- 
ered and most interesting exposition to the audience. 

"The Executive Committee then invited voluntary subscrip- 
tions to a guarantee fund of two hundred dollars to cover the ex- 
pense of the first course of lectures, to be paid, in whole, or part, 
in case the public did not buy tickets enough to defray the cost 
thereof, and twenty gentlemen promptly responded, and more 
would doubtless have done so, if desired. The Executive Com- 
mittee thereupon directed the secretary to arrange for a course 
of lectures to begin at once, and accordingly Professor Henry 
W. Rolfe, of the University of Pennsylvania, was engaged to 
give a course on English literature. The tickets for the course 
have been sold for one dollar, and tickets for a single lecture for 
twenty-five cents. The audience has been largely composed of 
school-girls, there being three large female seminaries in Win- 
chester, the Principals of which gladly embraced the opportunity 
to give their pupils the unusual advantages of the course ; in 
addition, a number of tickets to this first course was given by the 
Executive Committee to persons scarcely able to buy them, but 
who were considered apt to appreciate and take an interest in the 
society, but these gifts were judiciously distributed. 

"The class-work after each lecture has called forth from mem- 
bers of the audience some excellent discourses upon the subject 
of the lecture. It is fair to say that the Winchester Society is a 
success, and its outlook promises much useful work and large 
benefits resulting therefrom to the community. An effort has 
been made by the gentlemen managing the Winchester Society 
to arrange for the organization of a circuit of centres to include 
Frederick and Hagerstown in Maryland, Martinsburg and Charles- 
town in West Virginia, Carlisle, Pa., and Winchester, Va. Such 
an arrangement would be very advantageous to all, because of 
the easy access and proximity of these towns to each other." 


Professor Howard N. Ogden, of the University of West Vir- 
ginia, presented to the Conference a report of the founding of 
the West Virginia Society. 

West Virginia. 171 

" In West Virginia, we have the State University at Morgan- 
town, Bethany College at Bethany, six State Normal Schools, in 
which the chief instructors are graduates of the University, and 
some twenty or more academies, seminaries, colleges, and town 
high schools, doing satisfactory preparatory and secondary work. 

" The members of the faculty of the State University interested 
in Extension teaching thought it best for the cause to organize a 
voluntary society, which should embrace in its membership in- 
structors from all the institutions for higher and secondary edu- 
cation in the State, and others taking a general interest in the 

" With this view the West Virginia Society for Extension Teach- 
ing was organized, chiefly by the professors of the State Univer- 
sity, some six weeks ago. 

" Members of the faculties of Bethany College and of a large 
number of other schools have signified their intention to join 
with us in the work locally and some as lecturers. 

" Some three weeks ago the Society published a preliminary 
statement of the lecturers and courses offered, which has been 
widely distributed and favorably received. This circular con- 
tains the names of twelve lecturers, who offer an aggregate of 
thirty-five different courses. 

"As yet, we have not formally organized local centres, prefer- 
ring that such organizations shall come as the spontaneous after- 
growth of a healthy local interest. The plan of operations adopted 
by the Society for the next half-year is briefly this : to send one 
or more of its teaching staff to some ten or twelve of the most 
favorable points for the establishment of local centres, and there 
give experimental courses of six lectures each, conforming as 
closely as possible to the best methods of Extension teaching, as 
object-lessons, illustrating the results and purposes of the move- 
ment. This work will begin early in January. 

" Another feature of our work in West Virginia requires special 
mention. The members of the staff of the Agricultural Experi- 
mental Station, which is connected with the University, have 
been lecturing to the farmers of the State for some two years 
past and organizing what they call local Farmers' Institute Socie- 

172 The National Conference on University Extension. 

ties. The State Board of Agriculture has also recently under- 
taken similar work. Now, it is a fortunate coincidence, that the 
members of the Station staff and the President of the State Board 
of Agriculture are also members of the University Extension 
Society, and they are now seriously considering the policy of re- 
organizing these Farmers' Institute Societies into local University 
Extension centres, and conforming their lecture system, as far 
as possible, to Extension methods. It will be seen, therefore, 
that, in addition to the educational influences of Extension 
teaching upon those who attend the lectures, we have some col- 
lateral objects in view which we regard as of very great impor- 
tance. The West Virginia Society for the Extension of University 
Teaching hopes (i) to become the means of harmonizing and 
unifying the methods, standards, and interests of higher educa- 
tion in the State ; (2) to connect more closely the public free 
schools with the institutions for higher learning, and (3) to dis- 
seminate correct notions of the methods of true University 
teaching for adults, and to arouse an abiding popular interest in 
the subject-matters of University education. 

"We have entered upon the work seriously and deliberately. 
We desire to accomplish permanent and not merely temporary 
results. It will require several years to bring all the towns of 
the State under the influence of the movement. Our first pur- 
pose is fully to explain and exemplify Extension teaching by 
experimental courses, and thereby stimulate the local community 
to take the initiative in the organization and endowment of a 
permanent local centre. We are also seeking to adapt our 
courses as closely as possible, both in method and subject-matter, 
to the preferences and peculiar needs of our people. 

"Upon these lines we are assured of a measurable degree of 
success, and we may look for substantial recognition of the merit 
of Extension teaching by the University and local colleges. 
The inauguration of a system of State examinations under the 
direction of the University faculty, or other State authority, is 
contemplated, and ultimately we may obtain State aid, and 
thereby incorporate University Extension teaching as a permanent 
feature of the educational system of the State." 

Georgia. 173 


The first step in the introduction of University Extension into 
the State of Georgia was taken on December 7, at Atlanta, 
where a preliminary meeting was addressed by Professor H. C. 
White, of the University of Georgia. As a result of this meet- 
ing, a series of courses was arranged by the directors of the 
Young Men's Library Association in Atlanta. The faculty of 
the State University has cordially co-operated with the Library 
Association, and has agreed to provide the lecturers and teachers, 
and to arrange for the subjects and dates of the lectures. These 
matters have therefore been placed in charge of the University 
faculty, who will provide that the courses shall be genuinely 
educative, and as exhaustive of the special topics selected as the 
time allowed will permit. The members of the faculty have 
generously declined to receive any compensation for their ser- 
vices, being animated solely by the desire to popularize higher 
education, and to extend its benefits as widely as possible. 

The business arrangements are in charge of a special com- 
mittee of the Young Men's Library Association, made up of the 
following gentlemen : W. G. Cooper, Will Haight, F. H. Rich- 
ardson, A. V. Gude, W. M. Slaton, I. S. Hopkins. Certain 
necessary expenses will be incurred in the payment of travelling 
expenses, in printing syllabuses of the lectures, etc., and it is 
proposed to meet these by a small charge for attendance upon 
the lectures. 

For the present season six courses of six lectures each have 
been arranged, as detailed below. The class for each course will 
be regularly enrolled. There will be no recitations, but at the 
conclusion of each lecture the lecturer will hold an informal 
conference with the class for elucidation of any points that may 
be desired. The books of reference which it may be proper to 
consult in connection with the lectures will, for the most part, 
be found on the shelves of the Young Men's Library. 

The lectures will be given in the halls of the library building. 
The fee for each course of six lectures has been fixed for the 

174 The National Conference on University Extension. 

present at one dollar, or five dollars for the whole series of 



1. Friday evenings, December n, 18; January 8, 15, 22, and 
29. Six lectures on Mental Science, by Rev. William E. Boggs, 
D.D., LL.D., Chancellor of the University of Georgia. 

These lectures will give some account of the science and its 
subjects, the human mind or soul, together with an outline of 
the great powers of self-consciousness, sense-perception, and 
memory, together with a brief view of the imagination, if time 
can be found for this faculty. 


2. Monday evenings, December 14, 21; January 4, n, 18, 
25. Six lectures on Biology, by John P. Campbell, A.B., Ph.D., 
Professor of Biology, University of Georgia. 

This course is designed to present in detail a sufficient number 
of living things to give broader conceptions of the terms plant 
and animal, than those generally held. The types chosen will 
be mainly microscopic forms, because in these life is exhibited 
without any of the complications found in higher and more 
familiar plants and animals. From these the attempt will be 
made to proceed inductively to some of the fundamental prop- 
erties of living things, and show as far as possible the exact basis 
upon which rests some of the now accepted theories of biology. 


3. Monday evenings, February i, 8, 15, 22, 29; March 7. 
Six lectures on the History of Roman Law and Jurisprudence, by 
J. H. T. MacPherson, Ph.D., Professor of History and Political 
Science, University of Georgia. 

This course will open with a description of the nature of the 
primitive Roman state and early legal institutions, and will trace 
the progress and development of the Roman law through all its 
stages down to the codification of Justiman. Special attention 

Georgia. 175 

will be paid to the sources of Roman law, and to the gradual 
development and continuity of Roman legal and political insti- 
tutions. The influence of Roman codes during the middle ages 
will be briefly sketched, and the influence of Roman law as the 
basis and goal of modern continental systems emphasized. 


4. Friday evenings, February 5, 12, 19, 26; March 4, n. 
Six lectures on the Greek Drama, with readings from the " Al- 
cestis" of Euripides, by Willis H. Bocock, A.M., Professor of 
Ancient Languages, University of Georgia. 

Some account will be given of the probable origin of tragedy, 
of its development into drama, and of its perfection in the hands 
of ^Eschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. The Greek theatre will 
be described, and the methods of producing plays will be ex- 
plained. The lecturer will sketch the career of Euripides, give 
the story of " Alcestis" in outline, explain the peculiar character 
of the play, and will read the play in English with comments, 
using mainly Browning's " Balaustion's Adventure" with his 
own translation of selected parts. 


5. Monday evenings, March 14, 21, 28; April 4, n, 18. Six 
lectures on Building Materials, by Charles M. Strahan, C.E. and 
M.E., Professor of Engineering, University of Georgia. 

This course will be addressed primarily to workingmen and to 
others interested directly or indirectly in the building arts. Its 
aim will be to present the properties of the principal building 
materials, and to discuss the conditions connected with their 
economic employment and preservation from decay. 


6. Friday evenings, March 18, 25; April i, 8, 15, 22. Six 
lectures on the English Language and its Literature, by Charles 
Morris, M.A., Professor of English, University of Georgia. 

The aim of these lectures will be, from an examination of the 
language, its sources, and history, its matter, forms and struct- 

1 76 The National Conference on University Extension. 

lire to ascertain its rank among literary tongues, and to show its 
power and adaptability to the highest forms of literary art as 
witnessed in its literature. 

It will be observed that two lectures are given each week, 
thereby carrying forward two courses at once. The first two 
are on mental science and biology. 


In Louisiana, President William Preston Johnston, of Tulane 
University, has been an earnest writer and eloquent speaker in 
behalf of University Extension.* 

In many special lines Tulane University has offered its advan- 
tages to the people of New Orleans ; public courses have been 
given on various subjects, and special opportunities afforded in 
technical instruction. Through the influence of President John- 
ston much has been accomplished, and this work has been re- 
organized into Extension teaching, properly so called. The Uni- 
versity has issued an announcement of Extension courses, the 
list including English Language and Literature, by Professor 
Robert Sharp ; English History, by Professor John R. Ficklen ; 
Le Drame en France, by Professor Alc6e Fortier ; Psychology, 
by Professor Brandt V. B. Dixon ; Chemistry, by Professor John 
M. Ordway; Electricity and Magnetism, by Professor Brown 
Ayers ; Mathematics, by Professor J. L. Cross. 


Professor Edward W. Bemis, of Vanderbilt University, one 
of the earliest Extension lecturers of America, and the one who 
gave the first course ever given in New York State, at Buffalo, 
and the first one ever given in Missouri, at St. Louis, submitted 
to the National Conference a sketch of University Extension in 
Tennessee. "Because of the lack of public libraries and of 
many public-spirited men of wealth, the University Extension 
movement will have a far slower growth in the South than in the 

* See his article in University Extension, September, 1891, on "Uni- 
versity Extension in the South." 

Tennessee Kentucky. 177 

North. For these reasons I have found it hard to do very much 
Extension work here. The institutions of learning also have in- 
sufficient endowment for travelling libraries and aid by lecturers. 
A few cities, however, in Tennessee and in the Gulf States will, 
I think, be led in a year or two to take hold of the movement 
in co-operation with Vanderbilt University and other Southern 

" I am nearly through a very successful course of Economic 
lectures at Evansville, Ind., where the full system, including 
syllabus, class-work and exercises, has been in operation. A 
succeeding course, for which two hundred have already taken 
course tickets, is to be given by President Coulter, of the Uni- 
versity of Indiana, on Botany. I shall give the same course in 
Louisville, Ky., and Nashville, Tenn., at an early date. 

" Until some money can be secured for good travelling libra- 
ries, however, I do not look forward to much solid study on the 
part of the people who attend Extension courses. In the South 
good public libraries are very few in number, and it is accord- 
ingly much more difficult to obtain the necessary reference-books 
for students. I have the greatest interest in the work, an interest 
which is shared by the most progressive and influential of the 
college men in the South.'* 


In Kentucky, the beginning of University Extension was due 
to the Teachers' Association in Louisville, which, in May, 1891, 
appointed a committee, of which W. O. Cross was chairman, and 
E. H. Mark, Hiram Roberts, and W. H. Bartholomew were 
members. In accordance with recommendations of this com- 
mittee, President J. M. Coulter, of Indiana University, was 
secured to open the work in September, 1891. President Coulter 
lectured on botany, while Professor O. B. Clark, of the same 
University, was engaged to lecture on literature. The larger 
part of the audience was composed of teachers, but all persons 
who desired to follow the course were heartily welcomed. From 
the first the following classes were noticed in the audience: 
those who helped forward the cause by their contributions and 

1/8 The National Conference on University Extension. 

occasional presence ; those who attended regularly, but had no 
time for further work ; and lastly, those who followed the work 
closely as outlined in, the syllabus, and prepared the exercises 
therein contained with a view to passing the final examination. 

For nearly twenty years the lectures that have been given by 
the Polytechnic Society have been somewhat on the University 
Extension plan. About a year ago Dr. James Lewis Howe de- 
cided to modify the work, so as to bring it within the regular 
line of University Extension. After passing the summer of 1891 
in the study of the system as developed in the East, he entered 
with the approval of the American Society actively upon the 
work, giving courses of lectures on chemistry in the Polytechnic 
lecture-room on Friday afternoons. The lectures were illustrated 
by experiments and have interested many in the study of science. 
On February n, the opening lecture of a course on economics 
will be given by Dr. Edward W. Bemis, of Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity. The lectures are to be given at Hampton College under 
the auspices of the local centre of University Extension. Dr. 
Bemis is under engagement to deliver the same course at Frank- 
fort and Lexington. 

Much interest has been manifested in University Extension in 
various parts of the State, and centres will doubtless be established 
in several places during the current year. The development of 
the work in Kentucky is impeded not only by the absence of 
good public libraries, but also by inadequate railway facilities 
and the lack of men fitted to do the work. At present the 
latter difficulty is overcome by calling distinguished men from 
the higher institutions of neighboring States. The question of 
lecturers, fundamental everywhere, is especially difficult under 
such conditions, and the future of the movement will depend 
largely on the possibility of training good lecturers from the 
excellent material which certainly exists among the educators of 
the State. 


The University of Cincinnati was the first to undertake sys- 
tematic Extension teaching in Ohio.* The interest of other 

* See W. O. Sproull, University Extension in Cincinnati, page 144. 

Ohio. 1 79 

universities has been rapidly attracted to this subject. An im- 
portant meeting was held in Columbus, on January 21, 1892, 
looking toward the organization of a State Extension Society. 
There were present: President Stubbs, of Baldwin; Professor 
Scott, of Ohio State ; President Zollers, of Hiram ; President 
Sanders, of Otterbein ; President Marsh, of Mt. Union ; Pro- 
fessor W. A. Merrill, of Miami ; and Professor C. B. Austin, of 
Ohio Wesleyan. Communications were read from the Presidents 
of Oberlin, Adelbert, Buchtel Colleges, and Ohio and Denison 
Universities, all favorable to the movement. After a careful 
discussion of the relation of the college to this movement, and 
of the best methods of organization, it was resolved to form the 
Ohio Society for the Extension of University Teaching. The 
membership is to comprise the faculties of the various Ohio col- 
leges and such other persons as they may deem proper to elect. 
The management is to be in the hands of a Board of Councillors, 
of which there will be one member for each college. Friends 
of University Extension look forward with confidence to the 
establishment of such a society in each State of the Union. At 
the annual meeting of the Ohio State Teachers' Association, and 
the Ohio College Association during the Christmas holidays, the 
movement of University Extension was thoroughly discussed and 
received the hearty endorsement of the leaders, both in primary 
secondary, and higher education. 

President D. B. Puriton, of Denison University, reported at 
the National Conference the establishment by that institution 
of a University Extension centre at Newark, Ohio, a manufac- 
turing town of some eighteen or twenty thousand inhabitants. 
Superintendent Hartzler, of the City Schools, is president of 
the local organization, and Principal Swartz, of the High School, 
is secretary and treasurer. The class numbers more than two hun- 
dred; of this number fifty are city teachers, about twenty are pupils 
of the High School, and the remainder are ministers, lawyers, 
physicians, business-men, mechanics, and laborers. Courses are 
given in economics, electricity, literature, and psychology. 
The lecturers are R. S. Col well, D.D., J. D. S. Riggs, Ph.D., A. 
D. Cole, A.M., and D. B. Purinton, LL.D., all members of 

i8o The National Conference on University Extension. 

the faculty of Denison University. The courses are not yet 
completed. Thus far they are eminently successful. The in- 
terest is universal and well sustained in psychology, as well as the 
more practical subjects. The notes, taken with great care and 
accuracy considering the varied elements in the class, and the 
general quiz, are features of value and importance. Already 
the local centre is looking forward to the second course in the 
winter of 1892-93. The work as a whole is very gratifying 
and encouraging. Other centres will be established in the near 

President Charles W. Super represented the Ohio University 
at the National Conference. Many courses have been arranged 
by the professors of that faculty, and some have been given with 
entire success in different parts of the State. 

Professor W. A. Merrill, who was the delegate of Miami Uni- 
versity at the Conference, expressed the hearty sympathy of that 
faculty with the University Extension movement, and spoke of 
the careful thought that is being given to the inauguration of the 
work in his section 

At Toledo one of the strongest Extension societies of the 
country was established on December 15, 1891. The move- 
ment owes its inception there to the energy and influence of 
Superintendent W. W. Compton, who was chosen president of 
the society; the secretary is Miss Mary Smead, one of the 
teachers of the city ; the treasurer is Colonel D. Isaac Smead. 
The Executive Committee is composed of Superintendent Comp- 
ton, Miss Emily Bouton, Professor H. C. Adams, Rev. Dr. J. 
A. McGaw, and Mr. W. S. Daly. The following courses of six 
lectures each have been arranged, to be given in succession: 
"Economics," by Professor H. C. Adams, of the University of 
Michigan; "English Literature," by Professor Isaac N. Dem- 
mon, of the University of Michigan; "Geology," by Professor 
G. Frederick Wright, of Oberlin University. The first course 
by Professor Adams was begun on January 12. Additional 
courses in chemistry and physics have also been announced. 

At Cleveland the first step toward the establishment of a Uni- 
versity Extension society was due to the influence of President 

Ohio. 181 

Charles F. Thwing, of Adalbert College, one of the Advisory 
Committee of the American Society. A meeting was held 
early in December at the rooms of the Broadway Branch of 
the Young Men's Christian Association to consider the sub- 
ject. Miss Emma Perkins read a paper setting forth clearly the 
aims and methods of the American Society, and describing the 
development of the movement in England and America. On 
December 14, the Cleveland Society for University Extension 
was incorporated. The officers of the society are : President, 
Hon. Samuel E. Williamson \ Vice-President, General M. D. 
Leggett; Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Charles F. 
Thwing, President of Adelbert College and of Western Reserve 
University ; Secretary, Emerson O. Stevens ; Treasurer, Charles 
J. Dockstader. The office of the society is at Adelbert College. 
The membership numbers now about one hundred and twenty- 
five of the foremost educational, professional, and business men 
of the city. The society offers twenty-three courses of study, 
and has issued a neat pamphlet giving a full description of the 
following courses: 

I. Architecture. President Cady Staley, Case School of Ap- 
plied Science. Ten lectures. 

II. Theories of the Drama in France. Professor Frederick 
M. Warner, Adelbert College. 

III. Experimental Mechanics. Professor Charles H. Benja- 
min, Case School of Applied Science. 

IV. American History. Professor Edward G. Bourne, Adel- 
bert College. 

V. Physics: i. Terrestrial Physics; 2. Electricity and Mag- 
netism. Professor Harry F. Reid, Case School of Applied 

VI. Greek Antiquities. Professor Abraham L. Fuller, College 
for Women of Western Reserve University. Might lectures. 

VII. Astronomy i. Descriptive Astronomy ; 2. Study of the 
Constellations. Professor Charles S. Howe, Case School of Ap- 
plied Science. 

VIII. Biology. Francis H. Herrick, Adelbert College. Five 

1 82 The National Conference on University Extension. 

IX. Sound. Professor Frank P. Whitman, Adelbert College. 
Seven lectures. 

X. Roman Archaeology. Professor Samuel B. Plainer, Adel- 
bert College. 

XL English Literature : i. Shakespeare and his Contempora- 
ries; 2. English Literature of the Eighteenth Century ; 3. Eng- 
lish Prose Literature of the Nineteenth Century ; 4. Carlyle. 
Mr. Curtis H. Page, College for Women of Western Reserve 

XII. French. Mr. Curtis H. Page, College for Women of 
Western Reserve University. 

XIII. Chemistry. Two courses by Professor Edward W. 
Morley, of Adelbert College, and Professor Albert W. Smith, of 
the Case School of Applied Science. 

Eleven courses have been formed in different parts of the 
city, and there are already over six hundred students. Other 
classes are being formed as rapidly as possible. 


Professor James A. Woodburn, Ph.D., of the University of Indiana, read 
the following report : 

The Indiana Branch of Association of Collegiate Alumnse 
formed the first centre for the Extension of University teaching 
in Indiana. The members of this association in Indiana or- 
ganized a committee on University Extension in the winter of 
1890, with Mrs. May Wright Sewall chairman, and Miss Amelia 
W. Platter secretary. Miss Harriet Noble, Miss Julia Moore, 
Miss Rose Baldwin, all of Indianapolis, were the other members 
of the committee. This committee, in the winter of 1890, 
wrote both to the Johns Hopkins University and the Michigan 
University, making application for a lecturer in political econ- 
omy. By recommendation from these institutions, and from 
other sources, the committee learned that their prophet for eco- 
nomic teaching was in their own country, at their own doors. 
Following the suggestions of these recommendations, the com- 
mittee invited Dr. Jeremiah W. Jenks, Professor of Social and 

Indiana. 183 

Economic Science in Indiana University, to give a course of 
twelve lectures in the elements of political economy. The 
course was a decided success. The Alumnae committee deter- 
mined to continue the study of political economy and social 
science the following year, and to add a course on American 

As a result of this evidence of a present demand within the 
State, and of a growing public interest in the cause of Extension 
teaching, the faculty of Indiana University, at a meeting in June, 
1891, called especially to consider the subject, appointed a com- 
mittee on University Extension. This standing committee con- 
sists of Professor Ernest W. Huffcut, chairman, Professor Orrin 
B. Clark, and Professor E. A. Ross. The work of the committee 
has consisted chiefly in circulating information, answering cor- 
respondence, collecting and publishing literature on the subject 
of University Extension. 

Soon after its organization, the committee issued Extension 
Circular No. i, setting forth the purpose and methods of Exten- 
sion work, and announcing the University departments from 
which Extension instruction might be obtained. Two months 
later the University issued, under the direction of this com- 
mittee, " Circular No. 2," setting forth the offer of the following 
lectures and courses : 


I. BOTANY. President J. M. Coulter. 

General morphology and physiology of plants. Twelve 


1. Social and Economic Reforms. A study of co-operation, 
profit-sharing, the eight-hour day, factory legislation, State arbi- 
tration, postal telegraphy, railway control, bi-metalism, tax re- 
form, municipalism, and socialism. Twelve lectures. 

2. Live Economic Questions. A discussion of problems 
relating to money, railroads, taxation, rent, labor, monopolies, 
interest, and immigration. Eight lectures. 

184 The National Conference on University Extension. 

3. Elements of Political Economy. A presentation of the 
main features of modern industrial life. Eight to twelve lectures. 


A. Professor O. B. Clark. 

1. The Development of Shakespeare's Mind and Art. 
Six lectures. 

2. Chaucer and his Contemporaries. Six lectures. 

3. Robert Browning. Six lectures. 

B. Mr. W. E. Henry. 

1. The Development of English Literature. Twelve 

2. Elizabethan Literature. Twelve lectures. 

3. American Literature. Twelve lectures. 

4. Emerson and Lowell. Twelve lectures. 


1. The Pronunciation of the French Language. Principles 
and laws of pronunciation with special reference to the 
needs of teachers. Twelve lectures. 

2. French literature. Including mediaeval literature ; the 
writers of the seventeenth century and their methods; 
the Romantic School ; and modern literature. Twelve 


A. Professor Gustaf Karsten. 

1 . The Origin and Change of Language. Six lectures. 

2. Fritz Reuter. Three lectures. 

B. Associate Professor Carl Osthaus. 

i. Modern German Literature since Goethe. Six lectures. 

VI. GREEK. Professor H. A. Hoffman. 

i. The Greek Land and People. Six lectures, illustrated 
with the stereopticon. 

VII. HISTORY, AMERICAN. Professor J. A. Woodburn. 

i. American Political History, 1776-1832. Twelve lectures. 

VIII. HISTORY, EUROPEAN. Professor G. E. Fellows. 

i. France under the Bourbon Monarchy; from Henry IV. 
to the Revolution. Six to ten lectures. 

Indiana. 185 

2. France under three Monarchies and three Republics 
1789-1889. Including the causes of the Revolution. 
Six lectures. 

3. Important Periods in English History since the Norman 
Invasion. Six lectures. 

IX. LAW. Professor E. W. Huffcut. 

1 . Equity Jurisprudence. Twelve lectures. 

2. American Constitutional Law. Ten lectures. 

3. American International Relations and Diplomacy. Six 
to ten lectures. 

X. MATHEMATICS. Professor R. L. Green. 

i. Helmholtz's Theory of Arithmetic. Six lectures. 
XL PEDAGOGICS. Professor R. G. Boone. 
i. The Science of Education. Ten lectures. 

XII. PHYSICS. Associate Professor A. L. Foley. 

i . Electricity and its Applications. Eight to ten lectures. 

XIII. RHETORIC AND ORATORY. Professor G. W. Saunderson. 

1. Oratorical Delivery : Its Practical and Scientific Basis. 

Six to ten lectures. 

2. The Principles of English Composition. Six to ten 

It was stated that the courses in Chemistry and Physics could 
not well be given away from the University, owing to the diffi- 
culty of transporting the necessary apparatus, but that these 
departments would receive special students at any time for labor- 
atory work in brief courses. The lectures were to be given on 
Friday evenings, or at some hour on Saturday, which would 
permit the lecturer's returning to the University the same day. 

The expense of a course of lectures was placed at ten dollars 
per lecture, and the necessary expenses of the lecturer, the centre 
to meet all the local expenses of rent, printing, etc. 

As a result of these announcements and in consequence of the 
preceding years' experience in Indianapolis, the University has 
received applications from, and has provided courses in, the fol- 
lowing centres : 

I. In INDIANAPOLIS, under the auspices of the Indiana Branch 
of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, two courses : 

1 86 The National Conference on University Extension. 

1. In American Political History from 1776 to 1832, by Pro- 
fessor James Albert Woodburn. * 

2. In Social and Economic Reform, by Professor Edward A. 
Ross. This course, like the one by Professor Woodburn in 
American history, is to include twelve lectures and is to be con- 
ducted on the same general plan. The course is to begin Feb- 
ruary 19, and is to continue thereafter for twelve successive 
weeks. The subjects of Professor Ross's lectures are as follows : 

1. Reform. 

2. Monetary Reform. 

3. Railway Reform. 

4. Tax Reform. 

5. Agrarian Reform. 

6. Labor Reform Self Help. 

7. Labor Reform State Help. 

8. Municipal Reform. 

9. Socialism Its History. 

10. Socialism Its Nature. 

11. Socialism Its Strength. 

12. Socialism Its Weakness. 

II. In LOUISVILLE, under the auspices of the Louisville Teachers' 
Association. This Association has been used to holding bi-weekly 
sessions in the Girls' High School, and it has a membership of 
over four hundred. In the Louisville centre two courses are 
given : 

i. In Elementary Botany ', by President John M. Coulter. 

This course comprises twelve lectures, and embraces such in- 
struction as is given in the University to a beginning class in 
botany. The subject under development in the course is "The 
Evolution of the Plant Kingdom," considering this evolution 
from the lowest form up. The course is designed as merely an 
outline course in general morphology. 

There are one hundred and twenty-five enrolled in this class. 
The class meets for an hour's quiz before the lecture, one-half of 
which hour is occupied in questions from the class which are 

* For an account of this course, see the paper on " Some Extension Experi- 
ments in American History," p. 122. 

Indiana. 1 87 

reported as "coming full and eager," and the other half the 
hour is devoted to the questioning of the class by the lecturer. 
Most of the latter questions are on the reading which has been 
assigned to the class, endeavoring to group the salient facts on 
the week's study. For practical work in botany the class is 
in possession of sixty microscopes and is divided into squads 
for practical botanical analysis. Mr. Marks, Instructor in the 
Boys' High School of Louisville, is the leader of the class, who 
directs its study and reports its progress and its needs to Pro- 
fessor Coulter. 

2. The second course in Louisville is given by Professor O. 
B. Clark, of the Department of English, on "Lowell and his 
Work." This course consists of six lectures, and is under the 
same auspices with Professor Coulter's course. This class was 
given the choice of subjects from "Shakespeare," " Chaucer," 
"Lowell," and, by a very large vote, " Lowell " was preferred. 
The class numbers one hundred and forty, and is aided and di- 
rected, under Professor Clark, by Mr. W. O. Cross, Principal of 
the Fourth Ward Schools in Louisville. 

Both these courses are conducted on Saturday morning from 
nine to eleven o'clock, and of the two hundred and sixty-five 
members of the classes, mostly teachers, very few are taking both 
courses ; the duplicated names do not number more than twelve. 

The business managers have charged one dollar and fifty cents 
for a course of six lectures, or twenty-five cents per lecture, and 
they report on hand a comfortable surplus above all expenses. 

III. EVANSVILLE. In this city a class numbering over one 
hundred has been organized for the study of botany, and Pro- 
fessor Coulter has been invited to direct the course. He will 
repeat the course which he is giving in Louisville. The Evans- 
ville centre is under the direction and leadership of Mr. Samuel 
G. Evans, a private citizen of that city, who may be enrolled as 
an efficient co-worker in the Society for the Encouragement of 
Study at Home. Professor Coulter's Extension course in Evans- 
ville will begin in January, 1892. 

IV. In CHICAGO, in the Workers' Church, Dr. Doremus 
Scudder, pastor. 

1 88 The National Conference on University Extension. 

In this Chicago centre Professor Woodburn is repeating the 
course which he is giving at Indianapolis. * 

V. In NEW ALBANY, President Coulter is engaged in lecturing 
to a vigorous and growing centre, now numbering one hundred 
and sixty-five students, enthusiastic in the study of botany. The 
calls on President Coulter for instruction are more than he can 
supply. He is now addressing three Extension centres aggre- 
gating about five hundred students. 

The summary of the Extension of Indiana University may 
best be seen in the brief statement by Professor E. W. Huffcutt, 
chairman of the Extension Committee of the Faculty : 

(1) We offer 29 courses 

in 13 departments 
by 15 lecturers. 

(2) We have actually under way 5 courses 

in 3 departments 
by 3 lecturers. 

(3) We have arranged, in addition, 3 courses 

in 2 departments 
by 2 lecturers. 

(4) Total, 8 courses 

in 4 departments 
by 4 lecturers. 

(5) Registrations for the 8 courses, 

1115 students. 

(6) Number of lectures in each course : 

Botany, 3 courses, 6 each. 

Literature, i course, 6. 

American Political History, 2 courses, 1 2 each. 

Economics, 2 courses, 12 each. 

These courses, which are now in practical operation, are con- 
ducted by the heads of the departments in which the courses 
are given. The professors themselves go to the centres, give the 
lectures, and instruct the classes. The work is looked upon as 
being the most responsible now in hand, and President Coulter's 

* See Professor Woodburn's " Some Extension Experiments," p. 1-22. 

Indiana. 1 89 

interest in, and personal attention to, the Extension course signi- 
fies the importance in which the work is held by the administra- 
tion. The Board of Trustees of the University have formally 
expressed its approval of the work, and appropriations of money 
have been made to meet the necessary expenses. Further en- 
couragement and financial aid will be given by the University 
authorities as the demands increase and the scope of the work 
extends. The policy of the University may be expressed by 
saying that it is the intention to push the work with energy, and 
to make provision for new demands as they arise. 

Additional teaching force will be provided if calls for the Ex- 
tension of the University increase, as present demands seem to 
indicate will be the case. Our experience would indicate that a 
professor can well manage a single course on Friday evenings 
without loss of efficiency in his regular work at the University, 
unless his present work is already too heavy. But to conduct 
two courses at the same time can only result in disparagement of 
the work he is attempting with the University classes in residence. 
If the University professors themselves, who are, as a rule, 
already overburdened with classes, should attempt to continue 
and develop Extension teaching, they can do so only by being 
relieved of some of their present labors. The Indiana Univer- 
sity is considering the feasibility of providing, in the contingency 
of enlarged demands, a special body of Extension lecturers, or 
of releasing certain members of its Faculty during portions of 
the week or the college term, for exclusive attention to Extension 
classes. But future problems are deferred to future time. 

It has not been the policy of the University to " work up" 
centres. The initiative is left with the community which may 
desire a course. Information, instruction, encouragement, some- 
times financial help to the extent of furnishing the printed syllabus, 
these the University stands ready to supply. But no centre is 
encouraged to attempt a course under any artificial pressure or 
demand. The University expects from every centre applying 
for instruction that the business success of the enterprise be 
guaranteed from the beginning, that the application represents a 
positive and genuine demand for University teaching, not for 

190 The National Conference on University Extension. 

mere entertainment, and that the centre be under some organiza- 
tion or management which may be held, in a sense, responsible 
to the University. The University, as the institution of the 
State for higher education, desires to serve the Commonwealth of 
Indiana in every possible way, and it holds itself in readiness to 
carry its instruction at all the times it can, in all the ways it can, 
to all the people it can. This it conceives to be the spirit of true 
University Extension. 


The aim of the University Extension movement is to bring 
the masses close to the higher institutions of learning. Under 
no circumstances should this be more easily or thoroughly accom- 
plished than in the case of the State universities. The Uni- 
versity of Michigan is typical of these institutions. It stands 
at the head of a great public-school system whose various divisions 
reach by easy gradations to the door of the University. The 
system exemplifies well the idea of a natural sequence in the ele- 
mentary schools, the secondary, and the University. The State 
University at the head of such a system is in a position to mould 
greatly the general education of the commonwealth, and through 
that the masses of the people. These institutions depend, further, 
on public sentiment for their support, and anything that increases 
the estimation of education in the minds of the people tends 
directly to their advantage. In the Extension system, then, is 
an element of strength which has naturally not passed unnoticed 
by the State universities, and of all these the University of 
Michigan was one of the earliest to take steps towards securing 
for itself and for the people of the State the opportunities which 
the movement offers. 

In lieu of personal representation at the National Conference, 
the following letter was received from the head of the English 
department of the University of Michigan, who is, at the same 
time, the first Extension lecturer from its faculty. 

"ANN ARBOR, December 26, 1892. 

" DEAR SIR, It now seems that other engagements will prevent 

Michigan. 191 

our being represented at the National Conference on University 
Extension next week. I accordingly forward to you herewith 
the official record of the action of our faculty, and of our board 
with reference to Extension teaching. We had a late start, and 
thus far few courses have been called for. There have been 
many inquiries, and doubtless other courses will be called for 
after the holidays. The Detroit people moved in advance of us, 
and I began work there before our faculty took definite action. 
I understand that the friends of the movement in Detroit feel 
much encouraged by the interest taken in the first course. I 
refer you to the Rev. C. R. Henderson, of Detroit, who has 
been active in the matter. 

" Very sincerely yours, 


The official record of the action of Michigan University is 
dated November 1 8, 1891. To the Board of Regents was pre- 
sented at that time the report of the special committee appointed 
by the faculty of the University to consider the question of Uni- 
versity Extension teaching. As a result of its thought, the com- 
mittee, including Professors Isaac N. Demmon, Martin L. D'Ooge, 
and Volney M. Spaulding, made the following recommendations : 

1. That the President be authorized to announce the willing- 
ness of the faculty to undertake University Extension work. 

2. That the members of the faculty be requested to prepare, 
before December i, a statement of the course each is willing to 
give during the current year. 

3. That the Board of Regents be requested to give their ap- 
proval to this plan, and to authorize officers of instruction to 
accept invitations for such regulations as the Board may deem 

In accordance with the action of the Regents on this recom- 
mendation, the University of Michigan made the following an- 
nouncement : " The University, desiring to assist local bodies in 
the work of University Extension, has arranged the following 
courses of instruction. The general plan of the work will be 
that adopted by the American Society for the Extension of Uni- 

192 The National Conference on University Extension. 

versity Teaching. The University cannot undertake the local 
organization of classes, but will await the instruction of clubs, 
societies, or classes who may desire to enter upon the work. 
The entire expense will be borne by the local organization in 
each case. This may be done by lecture-tickets, class fees, or 
general subscriptions." 

The courses announced by Michigan University on December 
i, 1891, embrace nearly sixty courses in twenty-three branches 
of instruction, to be given by thirty of the University faculty. 
A special emphasis was laid on the educational nature of the 
work, and the intention that the courses should be not merely 
interesting and popular, but characterized by earnest and per- 
sistent study. 

The first Extension centre in the State of Michigan was estab- 
lished in Detroit. In the early part of October, Rev. C. R. 
Henderson commenced the agitation of the subject, and made 
several earnest addresses in behalf of the movement. On Octo- 
ber 27, President James B. Angell, of the University of Michigan, 
discussed the subject before the Congregational Ckib of Eastern 
Michigan. He was followed by Profesor M. L. D'Ooge, who 
gave an account in detail of the development of the system in 
England. The Detroit Institute of University Extension was 
organized on October IT, 1891. The following officers were 
chosen : Hon. Thos. W. Palmer, President ; Mrs. John J. Bag- 
ley, Vice-President ; Henry A. Ford, Secretary; George W. 
Duncan, Treasurer ; R. L. Courtney, Financial Secretary. The 
Board of Directors is composed of the following : Hon. T. W. 
Palmer, Chairman, ex-officio; Charles E. Warner, Vice-Chair- 
man ; Henry A. Ford, Clerk ; Mrs. S. C. O. Parsons, Mrs. H. 
J. Boutell, Rev. C. R. Henderson, D.D. ; Professor S. Emory 
Whitney, Alanson J. Fox, Albert L. Olds, Henry Maslen, and 
M. Frederick Martin. Circulars were immediately issued in 
reference to the work and great interest aroused among all 
classes of the community. The price of a single-course ticket 
was fixed at fifty cents, and single admission, to the extent of 
seating capacity, for each of the six lectures in the average 
course, at fifteen cents. The price of the syllabus for each 

Michigan Illinois. 193 

course was fixed at ten cents. An extra charge of fifty cents 
was made to the members of the classes who handed in written 
exercises, and an additional charge of the same amount for the 
final examination papers and certificates.* 

From Secretary Henry A. Ford the following report was re- 
ceived at the National Conference : 

"I regret that our Institute for University Extension cannot 
be represented at the coming Conference. Our first course 
closed on the i5th instant, and proved a great success, self- 
sustaining, with a good balance in treasury. Four hundred and 
seventy-four course tickets were sold ; there were regularly full 
houses, despite unfavorable weather. About one hundred fol- 
lowed the class, though most of the audience remained to its 
exercises. The course was a thoroughly popular and instruc- 
tive one on * Masterpieces of English Literature,' by Professor 
Demmon of the State University. We announce next a course in 
political economy, and shall have probably two classes of twenty 
to twenty-five each in elementary chemistry. A petition of two 
hundred for a Shakespeare course cannot be satisfied until our 
next season. We have promoted the work elsewhere, and are 
happy to report organizations at Grand Rapids and Hillsdale, 
and at Toledo, Ohio, with hopeful movements in progress at 
Kalamazoo, Jackson, Saginaw, Pontiac, and elsewhere."")" 


In Illinois much interest has been shown in University Ex- 
tension, both by the college men and the common-school teachers, 
principals, and superintendents. Hon. Henry Raab, State Super- 

* The usual price in the United States of a ticket for a single course of 
six lectures has been one dollar, with no extra charges for those writing exer- 
cises or taking the examination. Such an arrangement seems certainly pref- 
erable, since the object of the lecture is to induce as many as possible to enter 
upon systematic and earnest study. It has even been the custom in some 
places in England to remit part of the regular fee to those who follow the 
work as students and prepare the weekly exercises and pass the final ex- 

f More recently Extension centres have been formed at Kalamazoo and 
Bay City. 


194 The National Conference on University Extension. 

intendent of Public Instruction, Superintendent A. G. Lane, of 
Chicago, and many others have actively associated themselves in 
the work. President William R. Harper, of the Chicago Uni- 
versity, and President Henry Wade Rogers, of the Northwestern 
University, discussed the movement before the State Teachers' 
Association of Illinois at Springfield at the time of the National 
Conference, and thus were prevented from attending the latter. 
Professor A. V. E. Young, of Northwestern, and President Carl 
Johann, of Eureka College, represented the higher education of 
the State and presented reports of Extension work in Northern 
and Central Illinois. 

The first meeting in reference to University Extension in 
Chicago was held on May 22, 1891. President Edmund J. 
James, of the American Society, presented the subject on that 
occasion to many of the leading citizens of Chicago, explaining 
clearly the important place which University Extension can fill 
in public education. He spoke in detail of the origin and de- 
velopment of the movement and of the system of teaching which 
embodies its fundamental idea. The first centre was organized 
in November, 1891, through the instrumentality of Dr. Doremus 
Scudder, Pastor of the Workers' Church. To this centre was 
called Professor James A. Woodburn, of the University of In- 
diana, to give a course of lectures on American political history. 
On November 28, the Chicago Society for University Extension 
was formed by representatives of the Northwestern, Chicago, 
Lake Forest, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Illinois Universities, and 
Beloit and Wabash Colleges. The society is controlled by two 
representative bodies : the joint university board, consisting of 
the president and two professors from each college, and an advi- 
sory council of Chicago citizens. At a subsequent meeting, Mr. 
Franklin H. Head was elected president, Mrs. Charles Henrotin, 
vice-president; Mr. Franklin MacVeagh, treasurer; and Mr. 
Charles Zeublin, secretary. On the list of the advisory council 
appear the names of the leading clergymen, lawyers, business 
men, and educators of the city. Eighty-five courses of lectures 
on history, literature, economics, philosophy, the mathematical 
and natural sciences and law, are offered by the society. The 

Illinois. 195 

first centre organized by the society was that at Oak Park, a sub- 
urb of Chicago, where Professor Butler, of the University of Illi- 
nois, is giving a course on English literature to an audience of 
one hundred and seventy-five subscribers. Professor Butler is 
to open his centre at the Newberry Library on February 19. At 
the Workers' Church, Professor Woodburn is to be succeeded by 
Professor Ross, of the University of Indiana, who lectures on 
economics. The Union Church of Hyde Park, and the Wesley 
Church on the north side have Extension classes. A number of 
additional centres will be founded in the near future. 

The University of Illinois has entered vigorously on Extension 
work under the direction of the acting Regent, T. J. Burrill, and 
a standing committee of the faculty, including Professors S. A. 
Forbes, N. C. Ricker, and C. M. Moss. The standard of an 
Extension course is fixed at six lectures, for which there is a 
charge of ten dollars and travelling expenses for each lecture. 
The official list includes the following courses: "Botany," by 
Professor T. J. Burrill; " English Constitutional History," by 
Professor J. D. Crawford; "Agriculture," by Professor G. E. 
Morrow; "Civil Engineering," by Professor I. O. Baker; 
"Physical Astronomy," by Professor I. O. Baker; "English 
Composition and Oratory," by Professor J. H. Brownlee; 
"English Language and Literature," by Professor N. Butler, 
Jr.; "Municipal Engineering," by Professor A. N. Talbot; 
"Political Economy," by Professor H. J. Barton; "Psy- 
chology," by Professor C. M. Moss. 

As a special feature of the Extension work of the University, 
the faculty offers to county superintendents of schools, lecture 
courses to be delivered at the County Teachers' Institutes during 
the vacation months.* 

The subjects have been selected with special reference to the 
needs of the more advanced teachers, and also with a view to 
attracting the interest and attendance of the citizens of the 

* The development of University Extension in the form of summer courses 
at County Institutes, Summer Chautauquas, mountain and seaside resorts, both 
for teachers and general audiences, will be studied as a phase of the movement 
with great interest by all friends of the work. 

1 96 The National Conference on University Extension. 

towns in which the institutes are held. While this instruction 
is in substance and in aim essentially the same as that given at 
the University, it is adapted in method to the character of the 
classes and audiences receiving it.* 


President T. C. Chamberlin has been one of the foremost 
champions of University Extension in America, and a careful 
student of the development of the movement in its various 
phases in the United States and abroad. The University of 
Wisconsin, of which he is president, has been active, largely 
through his influence, in establishing this system in that State. 
Without exception, the University of Wisconsin has so far estab- 
lished more centres than any other institution in the United 
States. Besides having the advantage of heading the educational 
system of the State, it has in its location at the capital a special 
means of influencing the thought of educators throughout the 
commonwealth. The favorable attitude of the State government 
may be noted in the offering free of charge of the Assembly Hall 
of the Legislature for the purpose of the work. The University 
is further fortunate in having in its faculty a number of men 
whom experience has shown to be especially qualified both in 
scholarly attainments and personal gifts for Extension teaching. 
The list of Extension lecturers includes Professor F. J. Turner, 
on American History ; Professor J. C. Freeman, on English Lit- 
erature ; Professor Julius E. Olson, on Scandinavian Literature ; 
Professor L. F. Van Cleef, on Greek Literature ; Professor J. B. 
Parkinson, on Economics ; Dr. H. C. Tolman, on the Antiqui- 
ties of India and Iran ; Professor E. A. Birge, on Bacteriology ; 
Professor C. R. Barnes, on The Physiology of Plants ; Professor 
H. B. Loomis, on Electricity; Professor R. D. Salisbury, on 
Landscape Geology. The cost of a course is ten dollars per 
lecture and travelling expenses. 

The following report was sent to the National Conference by 

* Extension courses are being given at Urbana and Quincy, and organiza- 
tions for the promotion of this work effected at Rock Island and Jacksonville. 


Professor Edward A. Birge, Dean of the College Faculty of the 
University of Wisconsin : 

"MADISON, December 26, 1891. 

" DEAR SIR, In the absence of President Chamberlain, I reply 
to your invitation of December 19. I greatly regret that it is 
impossible for any member of our faculty to be present at the 
National Conference on University Extension. We are engaging 
somewhat actively in this work, and should be very glad to have 
the aid and counsel which would come from being present at 
such a meeting as that which you have called. The distance, 
however, is so great that it is impossible for any member of our 
faculty to be present. 

" During the spring of 1891 the subject of University Extension 
was considered by the faculty of the University of Wisconsin, 
and they recommended to the Board of Regents, at its meeting 
in June, 1891, that courses of University Extension lectures be 
offered for the coming collegiate year. The report was adopted 
by the Regents, and early in the fall term the faculty determined 
upon detailed plans for the work and issued a preliminary circular, 
a copy of which is enclosed. From the circular you will see the 
scope of our work and its general plan. 

" In some of the departments which are advertised in the circu- 
lar the work has not yet begun, and only a few of the courses of six 
lectures have been completed, so that at present it is impossible 
to speak in detail of results reached. In general it may be said 
that the movement has met with a very warm response on the 
part of the people of the State. In most of the departments ap- 
plications have been made for lecture courses beyond the capacity 
of the lecturer. Under the rules of the Board of Regents, the * 
Extension work is to be done by the professors without interfer- 
ence with their ordinary college duties. This necessarily limits 
the lectures to Friday and Saturday evenings, or to such places 
as can be reached by train in such a way as to return for duty on 
the following morning. 

" So far as I can report at present, there are forty-three courses 

198 The National Conference on University Extension. 

of lectures finished, in progress, or definitely engaged for the 
future, while there are a large number of other applications 
which have not yet been acted upon, and which will undoubtedly 
increase the number of courses given during the current year to 
more than fifty. The greatest number of applications has come 
in the department of English literature, in which thirteen courses 
are now in progress. Most of these lectures are given in con- 
nection with a reading circle in the town, and are, therefore, 
given at intervals greater than once a week ; some once in two 
weeks, others once a month. The number in the audiences has 
ranged from ninety to two hundred and seventy-five, averaging, 
perhaps, one hundred and fifty. Each lecture is followed by a 
conversation in which, as a rule, the entire audience has taken 
part. The reading circles have ranged in number from twenty- 
five to eighty. 

"In history two courses have been completed, with audiences 
respectively five hundred and one hundred and fifty, with quiz 
classes following each lecture, attended by from forty to seventy- 
five persons. In these courses eight persons have taken the 
examination indicated in the circular. Five other courses in 
history are engaged. 

" In geology only one course has been completed, but several 
others are in progress, with audiences and classes ranging about 
as in the department of English literature. Altogether eight 
courses are in progress or engaged in this department. 

" In bacteriology six courses have been engaged, but none have 
been as yet entered upon. 

"In economics one course has been completed at Milwaukee, 
with audiences from one hundred and fifty to two hundred ; a 
class of thirty-three was organized for special work. The exami- 
nations in this course have not yet been held. 

" In Scandinavian literature two courses are under engagement. 

"In electricity two courses; and in antiquities of India and 
Iran one course is engaged. In plant physiology and Greek 
literature no courses have as yet been reported as engaged. 

"I enclose a list of the towns at which courses of lectures are 
being given or are under engagement, and also a map of the 

Wisconsin. 199 

State on which the same places are indicated. From this you 
will see that in spite of the limitations which distance imposes 
upon us, we are covering the area of the State pretty thoroughly. 
I enclose also synopses of the lecture courses in economics, 
history, and English literature, and synopsis of part of the 
course in geology. 

" We have entered into arrangements for mutual work with the 
Chicago Society for University Extension, and with the Chautau- 
qua organization for the same purpose. Our plan is to work 
from our own institution as a centre, and also to work in co-oper- 
ation with any other societies which may be formed for the fur- 
therance of University Extension. As yet no work has been 
done by the University in connection with these societies. 

" Our general plan embraces courses of six lectures, each lecture 
followed by quiz or conversation class ; an examination is held at 
the end of the course. The cost of each course is sixty dollars 
and the expenses of the lecturer. In several cities the expenses 
have been born by some citizen, so that the course has been 
made free to the public. The correspondence work indicated 
in the circular has not as yet been called for. 

"The places at which courses are in progress or engaged are 
in English Literature : Ashland, Baraboo, Beaver Dam, Clinton, 
Fond du Lac, Fox Lake, Janesville, Milwaukee (two courses), 
Reedsburg, Sheboygan, Spring Green, Superior, Washburn. 

"In History: Brodhead, Fond du Lac, Madison, Milwaukee, 
Monroe, Poynette, Oshkosh. 

"In Economics: Milwaukee (two courses), La Crosse, Ash- 

" In Bacteriology : Eau Claire, La Crosse, Madison, Milwaukee 
(two courses), Whitewater. 

"In Electricity: Milwaukee, Watertown. 

"In Scandinavian Literature: Stoughton, Milwaukee. 

" In Geology : Oconomowoc (two courses), Green Bay, Fort 
Howard, Oconto, Platteville, Watertown. 

"In the Antiquities of India and Iran : Milwaukee." 

From Milwaukee, President R. C. Spencer, of the People's 

2OO The National Conference on University Extension 

Institute, submitted the following report to the National Con- 
ference : 

" Milwaukee nas taken the course in American History, the 
Colonization of North America, by Professor F. J. Turner, of 
the University of Wisconsin. It was delivered under the au- 
spices of the Chautauqua Club, in the Entertainment Hall of 
Plymouth Congregational Church, and has been successful, both 
in attendance, character of the audience, and interest manifested. 
The expense of the course was guaranteed by Hon. John L. 
Mitchell, member of Congress for this district. Tickets for the 
course of six lectures were fifty cents. The course in English 
Literature, by Professor J. E. Freeman, is in progress at the 
State Normal School, under the auspices of the faculty of that 
institution. It is also being given in the Guild Hall of St. Paul's 
Church, under the auspices of the Young People's Society. In 
both places the attendance is large and comprises our most intel- 
ligent and cultured people. The tickets for this course are sev- 
enty-five cents for six lectures. The course in Scandinavian 
Literature, by Professor Julius E. Olson, will be given after the 
holidays, under the auspices of a society auxiliary to the People's 
Institute. The expense of this course is guaranteed by Mr. John 
Johnston, cashier of the Wisconsin Marine Insurance Company 
Bank, tickets for which are fifty cents for six lectures. The 
course in Economics, by Professor J. B. Parkinson, has just been 
concluded, and was given on successive Saturday mornings at 
half-past ten o'clock. It was attended principally by students 
from the various schools and institutions of the city and by 
teachers. It was given under the auspices of the People's Insti- 
tute, and the expense was defrayed by the Spencerian Business 
College. It will be repeated after the holidays, Friday evenings, 
for the convenience of business-men. The course in Bacteriology, 
by Professor E. A. Birge, will begin after the holidays in the 
Science Department of the Public High School. The expense 
is defrayed by Mrs. E. P. Allis, for the benefit of students of 
this branch of science. This course will also be given before 
the Medical Society. The course in Electricity, by Dr. H. B. 
Loomis, will be given under the auspices of the Wisconsin Elec- 

Wisconsin Minnesota. 201 

trie Club, of which Professor A. J. Rogers, of the Public High 
School, is President. Judge George H. Noyes, of the Board of 
University Regents, is chairman of the University Extension 
committee of the People's Institute, which has fostered and en- 
couraged, without attempting to manage or direct. Regarding 
University Extension as experimental in Milwaukee, it was deemed 
best to let it shape itself. The result is better than expected. 
Little has been attempted through the press or otherwise to create 
special interest in the movement, and it has, therefore, been 
spontaneous. If we may judge from our limited experience, 
Milwaukee will be counted as ah auspicious field for University 
Extension work. Before the close of the season a meeting will be 
held of the societies, persons, and professors interested in the 
several courses of University Extension lectures given in Mil- 
waukee, for the purpose of comparing notes and arranging plans 
for the coming year." 

Aside from the State University, Beloit College is the most 
important institution of Wisconsin. The faculty has, after care- 
ful consideration, taken up the work of University Extension 
and arranged an excellent list of Extension courses. The price 
of each of the six lectures in the typical course is ten dollars and 
travelling expenses. Special emphasis is laid, by the lecturers 
of Beloit College, on the class-work connected with the system. 
The following courses are offered : Ethics, by Professor J. J. 
Blaisdell; English Literature, by Professor, H. M. Whitney; 
Electricity, by Professor T. A. Smith ; Chemistry, by Professor 
E. G. Smith; The New Astronomy, by Professor Chas. A. Bacon; 
German Literature, by Professor C. W. Pearson ; The Physiol- 
ogy of Plants, by Professor H. D. Densmore. 


Professor Harry P. Judson, of the University of Minnesota, submitted the 
following report, read by Professor M. L. Sanford. 

The Extension movement in the North Star State dates from 
the winter of 1889-90, and began in the city of St. Paul. A 
group of gentlemen who were interested in educational work, 

2O2 The National Conference on University Extension. 

and who had kept watch of what had been done in England and 
in the East, determined to see what could be accomplished at 
home. They accordingly prevailed on the St. Paul Academy of 
Science, of which they were active members, to undertake the 
management, and under its auspices proceeded to set on foot a 
local centre. 

General interest was easily aroused, and arrangements were 
soon made for a variety of courses. The Board of Education 
granted the free use of the High-School building for one evening 
in the week. Course tickets were sold, the proceeds of which 
went to compensate the lecturers. Other incidental expenses 
were provided by private subscription. 

In the spring of 1890, a beginning was made, with classes in 
English Literature, History, Botany, Electricity, Geology, and 
Mathematics. Instruction in the last two subjects was given by 
members of the faculty of Carleton and Macalester Colleges 
respectively. The remaining instructors were from the State 
University. Each course comprised twelve weekly exercises. 

During the year 1890-91, the work in St. Paul was continued, 
courses being given in English Literature, American Literature, 
International Law, and History. 

In Minneapolis the work was begun in the fall of 1 890, under 
the direction of the public library board. Courses in English 
Literature and International Law were given by professors from 
the State University. These were followed in the second term 
by a course in History. 

For the present year the management is in the hands of the 
Collegiate Alumnae Association. A short course in Astronomy 
has already been given by a Carleton professor, and other sub- 
jects will be studied after the holiday recess. 

The example of the twin cities has proved contagious, and 
during the fall just past a beginning has been made in other 
places. Members of the State University faculty are giving 
work in Political Economy to a class of about three hundred in 
Duluth, and in History to about two hundred and fifty in Fari- 
bault. Arrangements are also on foot in other towns of the 

Minnesota. 203 

From this hasty sketch of what has been done, several things 
will appear. 

In the first place, the movement in Minnesota has been quite 
spontaneous. It has not been "worked up," but has apparently 
been a natural growth. 

As to the subjects of study, the necessity of self-support has 
made them rather limited. That must be the case until public 
or private munificence is ready to supplement the efforts of local 
centres. The higher education is not self-supporting anywhere, 
and it must not be expected that it will prove so in this more 
than in other forms. 

Until recently, the Regents of the State University have re- 
frained from any official connection with the Extension move- 
ment. They have not felt warranted, in the absence of a special 
appropriation, in incurring expense. And it has seemed better, 
on the whole, to wait until it should appear plain that there is an 
actual call for authoritative direction. 

But at the annual meeting of the Board at St. Paul, on De- , 
cember 22, it was voted to undertake the experiment of con- 
ducting Extension work in the State for the current academic 
year. Definite plans will be formulated at once. Of course, 
the expense must still be borne by local centres. But if the 
experiment shows that there is promise of permanence, the Leg- 
islature will undoubtedly be asked at its next session for a mod- 
erate appropriation. 

And this leads at once to the question whether the movement 
in America is a real and permanent one. Enthusiasts, of 
course, have but one answer. The success of nearly twenty 
years in England seems conclusive evidence. The crowded lec- 
ture courses last winter in Eastern centres and the rapid spread 
throughout the country would appear to be unanswerable cor- 

Many cool observers, however, are of the opinion that all this 
must be taken with a large allowance of salt. To begin with, 
we must not infer too much from the popularity of certain lec- 
turers. And then the English experience really counts for 
little, so far as we are concerned. The conditions in the two 

2O4 The National Conference on University Extension. 

countries are radically different. A vast deal that passes in Eng- 
land under the head of "University Extension" is nothing but 
the work of the Chautauqua Circles here. A vast deal more is 
merely the ordinary work of our American high schools, and is 
"University Extension" only in the sense that all study leading 
to the University is an extension of the University downward. 
It must be remembered that the free public high school does not 
exist in England. When we have eliminated these two elements, 
the volume of the English work shrinks materially. 

In saying this, of course, it will be understood that there is no 
intention of depreciating what our English friends have done. 
But there is danger in indiscriminating imitation. 

An interesting outcome of the experience in Minnesota 
relates to one of the points to which attention has been called 

It early became apparent in St. Paul that there was a very 
eager desire for instruction among certain classes of busy people, 
but that the instruction they needed was in subjects regularly 
taught in the city high schools. Accordingly, as an immediate 
result of the first Extension courses, in the school year 1890-91, 
evening classes were organized in the city manual-training school. 
These classes were attended through the year by an average of 
one hundred and fifty, mostly young mechanics. 

The success of this experiment led the public-school authori- 
ties in the fall of 1891, on the recommendation of Principal G. 
N. Carman, to open the Central High School for an evening 
session two nights in the week. The evening classes in the 
manual training-school were continued for the benefit of mechan- 
ics, and classes in the high school were formed in such subjects 
as the demand seemed to show desirable. The attendants on 
these proved to be mostly teachers and employees in various 
kinds of business, whom we may perhaps group under the name 
of clerks. Whether mechanics, teachers, or clerks, all the stu- 
dents are occupied during the day in some form of self-support. 
The entire attendance in these evening classes has averaged 
about four hundred and fifty for the three months of October, 
November, and December. The total registration has reached 

Minnesota Iowa. 205 

nearly eight hundred, but the average attendance is a much safer 
criterion of the actual extent of real work. 

These evening classes in the high school are something tangible 
and practical. They afford an immediate outlet to a demand 
for instruction that ought to be met, but which is in no proper 
sense a part of University Extension. 

It needs no argument, however, to point out the great signifi- 
cance of such an arrangement to real University Extension in 
the future. As a result of this high-school work, there will soon 
be a considerable number of people well fitted to take up work 
of University grade in evening classes. Thus, entirely aside 
from its general value, the evening high school at once becomes 
a preparatory school to feed the Extension side of the University. 

In fact, to the writer, the evening high school seems the ele- 
ment of greatest promise bearing on a permanent Extension of 
University Teaching. It is true, undoubtedly, that in all our 
communities there is a certain number of busy adults whose ma- 
turity and experience in life fit them to do work of University 
grade in some lines, but these lines are limited. If there is to 
be any breadth to Extension work, there must be provided a suf- 
ficient foundation. And only when the high school and the 
academy join in the task will the plan be complete. 


The State University of Iowa entered upon Extension work 
in the fall of 1891, in accordance with the recommendation of 
Henry Sabin, State Superintendent of Instruction, and member 
of the Board of Regents. A circular was issued, explaining the 
design of University Extension, giving its history and the plans 
proposed by the State University of Iowa, with the list of lec- 
turers and subjects. The latter includes : President SchaerTer, 
Public Education ; Professor Courier, Latin Language, Litera- 
ture, and Antiquities; Professor Calvin, Geology and Physiology; 
Professor McBride, Botany ; Professor Andrews, Chemistry ; 
Professor Perkins, History ; Professor Patrick, Psychology and 
Ethics; Professor Jamison, Hygiene; Professor Wilson, German 

206 The National Conference on University Extension. 

Language and Literature ; Professor Veblen, Physics ; Professor 
Weld, Mathematics and Astronomy; Professor Nutting, Zoology; 
Professor Loos, Political Economy; Professor McConnell, Peda- 
gogy; Assistant Professor Call, Greek Life and Literature; 
Assistant Professor Neff, French Language and Literature. The 
first course was commenced at Davenport on January 9. The 
course is of twelve lectures, four each being given by Professors 
Calvin, McBride, and Nutting. The general topic is "The 
Making of the World," and the respective divisions are entitled 
"The Formation of the Earth," "The Vegetable Kingdom," 
and "Animal Life." The course was arranged by a committee 
of citizens, of which Regent Richardson, of the State Univer- 
sity, is Chairman. Tickets for the entire course were sold at 
two dollars and fifty cents. The influence of the University of 
Iowa in Extension work is felt beyond the limits of the State. 
Professor Loos, of the Chair of Political Science, began a course 
on subjects related to his own department, at Quincy, 111., in the 
latter part of December. 


The Southwest was represented at the National Conference by 
President W. H. Black, of Missouri Valley College. He gave 
a most encouraging account of the interest in University Exten- 
sion on the part of the people and willingness on the part of the 
university and college authorities and faculties to give their ef- 
forts as far as possible to the spreading of University advantages 
beyond the walls of the various institutions. President Black 
read a letter from Chancellor Snow, of the University of Kan- 
sas, regretting his inability to be present at the Conference, and 
submitting reports of the work in that State. The University 
of Missouri has formulated and published a plan of Extension 
teaching under the direction of its new head, President R. H. 
Jesse. Extension teaching has so far been carried on in Kansas 
and Missouri jointly by the faculties of the institutions in both 
States. For convenience' sake, it seems preferable to unite the 
reports of the two States, and give the following summary of 

%^jfe I3ar -jrtV^ 

^$ JVO tl \5^ 

Kansas and Missouri. \5&& 207 

"University Extension in the Southwest," submitted by Pro- 
fessor Frank W. Blackmar, of the University of Kansas, and one 
of the most successful lecturers in that field. 

The State Universities of the West have from their foundation 
held a very close relation to the people. Created by State au- 
thority, they have endeavored to supply the peculiar wants of 
young, growing commonwealths. Composing a part of the 
great public school system, they have sought to be in every sense 
the schools of the people. But while they have entered into the 
sympathies of the people and endeavored to supply the kind 
and quality of education suited to their peculiar needs, on the 
other hand they have assumed the leadership in thought and learn, 
ing of the State and country in which they have been located. 

The modern State University has had occasion to feel in a 
special way that it is truly the servant of the people and the 
commonwealth, and has therefore been more in sympathetic 
touch with the life of the people than perhaps many older insti- 
tutions of different foundation. Consequently, while we find in 
Western institutions the instructors endeavoring to give full and 
complete instruction in the branches of the University curricu- 
lum, and to develop individual students as far as possible in the 
way of higher learning, many of the instructors have been called 
from time to time to lecture to the people and to mingle with 
the public affairs of the State. Thus their influence has extended 
beyond the University walls to the community at large. 

Institutions of this nature take kindly to the University Ex- 
tension movement. It is only necessary to enlarge and systema- \ , 
tize the work of the casual lecturer, and University Extension is f . 
accomplished. The recent Extension movement, which spread 
so rapidly over the United States, reached Kansas just in time to 
take immediate and permanent effect. It began in Topeka,* 
Kansas, and Kansas City, Mo., about the same time. The 
initiative of actual work was made by Mr. Beers, the librarian 
of the city library at Topeka, who was instrumental in organiz- 

* Topeka is a beautiful city of about forty thousand people, and, being the cap- 
ital of the State, is essentially a centre of learning and educational enterprises. 

2o8 The National Conference on University Extension. 

ing a local association at that place. Professor Blake, of the 
University of Kansas, was invited to deliver a course of twelve 
lectures 'on Electricity and Magnetism. A class of one hun- 
dred and twenty-five pupils was composed of many of the best 
people of Topeka. Electricity was conducted into the hall, and 
apparatus for experiments furnished from the department of 
Electrical Engineering of the University of Kansas. 

The lectures are 'given in an attractive manner, and each one 
amply illustrated with the best modern experiments. One lec- 
ture is delivered every two weeks, on Friday nights. A short 
syllabus of each lecture is printed one week in advance and dis- 
tributed among the members of the class for suggestive reading 
and study. These are arranged in a small book prepared for use, 
which also contains the list of authors and books to be studied. 
As the class is not completed, it is impossible to tell how many 
will take the examination and try for grades at the University. 
The topics discussed were: The Scientific Conception of En- 
ergy, The Electric Current, The Electro-Magnet, Electro-Dy- 
namics of Current, Ampere's theory of Measuring Instruments of 
Electric Current, Theory of Electro-Magnetic Potentials, Elec- 
tro-Magnetic Induction, Alternating Current, Electro-Chemics, 
Static Induction, Electrical Radiation. 

Almost 'Simultaneously with the movement in Topeka began 
that of Kansas City, Mo. It may not be inappropriate to state 
that Kansas City is a thriving city of about one hundred and 
forty thousand inhabitants, and that it is the metropolis of West- 
ern Missouri and Eastern Kansas. There are consequently many 
people in Kansas City who formerly lived in Kansas, and still 
retain pleasant memories of their former home. Indeed, the city 
is so closely connected with the State whose boundary it joins, 
as to be logically named Kansas City. Although a Western city, 
full of business enterprise, the people are wide-awake to all kinds 
of available intellectual culture. Here are found graduates of 
Kansas and Missouri universities, as well as graduates of Columbia, 
Yale, Harvard, Michigan, and other institutions of the United 
States, who are still interested in higher education. Desiring to 
form a University Extension society, they naturally looked to the 

Kansas and Missouri. 209 

nearest State institution for assistance, the University of Kansas. 
The writer was invited to address a meeting called for the purpose 
of organizing a local Extension association. The association 
was permanently organized with Mr. E. H. Allen, President of 
the Board of Trade, as President of the association, and Mr. 
John Sullivan as Secretary. Later on a preliminary meeting 
was addressed by Prof. W. H. Carruth, of the University of 
Kansas, and the writer. Spalding's Hall, a large and centrally 
located auditorium, was obtained for the meetings of the asso- 
ciation and classes, and the secretary immediately wrote to all 
of the institutions in the vicinity, asking them to submit a list of 
Extension lectures in courses which they were willing to deliver 
in Kansas City. The following is a partial list of lectures sub- 
mitted. It is to be regretted that a complete list is not at hand, 
but those offered by the William Jewell and Park Colleges are 
not to be found at present. Constitutional Law, Alexander 
Martin, LL.D. ; Semitic Languages, J. S. Blackwell, Ph.D.; 
History of the English Language, E. A. Allen, Litt.D. ; His- 
tory of Education, J. P. Blanton, A.M. ; History of Mathe- 
matics, W. B. Smith, Ph.D. ; Greek Life, W. G. Manly, A.M. ; 
Roman Religion, J. C. Jones, Ph.D. ; Roman Constitutional 
Law, J. M. Burnham, Ph.D.; Homer and Homeric Antiquities, 
Walter Miller, M.A. ; The Electro-Magnet, William Shrader, 
Ph.D.; Botany, G. D. Purinton, Ph.D.; Astronomy, Milton 
Updegraf, B.C.E. The above courses were offered by the in- 
structors of the University of Missouri, located at Columbia. 

The following courses were offered by the University of Kan- 
sas: The Chemistry of Every-Day Life, E. H. S. Bailey, Ph.D.; 
Political Economy, Economic Problems and Sociology, F. W. 
Blackmar, Ph.D.; The German Empire, E. D. Adams, Ph.D. 
Electricity and its Modern Applications, L. I. Blake, Ph.D. ; 
The Romantic School in France, and the Development of the 
Novel in France, A. G. Canfield, A.M. ; English Literature of 
the Nineteenth Century, C. G. Dunlap, A.B. ; History and 
Philosophy of American Literature, E. M. Hopkins, A.M. ; 
German Literature, First Classic Period, and German Literature, 
Modern Period, W. H. Carruth, A.M. ; Municipal and Domestic 


2IO The National Conference on University Extension. 

Sanitation, F. O. Marvin, A.M. ; Astronomy, E. Miller, A.M. ; 
The Art of Piano-Forte Playing, G. B. Penny, B.S. ; Roman 
Poetry, D. H. Robinson, Ph.D. ; Botany, W. C. Stevens, B.S. ; 
Medical Chemistry and Sanitary Science, L. E. Sayre, Ph.G. ; 
Psychology, Olin Templin, A.M. ; Classical Greek Literature, 
A. M. Wilcox, Ph.D. ; Physical Geology, S. W. Williston, Ph.D. 

It was decided by the Kansas City Society to take the course 
offered above on Economic Problems as introductory to the 
work. The preference in courses was determined by replies to 
circulars freely distributed by the association among the promi- 
nent people of the city and vicinity. A class of one hundred 
was formed for the first course, ninety-two of whom registered 
for examination and credits. The aim of this course was to dis- 
cuss in a scientific manner the principal topics of the day, espe- 
cially those in which the people are most interested in the West. 

In the lectures it was intended to apply all of the principal 
laws and principles of political economy, so that during the 
twelve weeks students might observe the workings of political 
economy and discover its laws through its applications to present 
industrial life. 

The following is a list of the subjects of the lectures given : 
Money and its Circulation, How a Nation Grows Wealthy (Pro- 
duction), The Division of Wealth Products, Monopolies, Social- 
ism and Communism, Immigration, Taxation and Tax Reforms, 
Irrigation of Arid Lands, Transportation, Social and Economic 
Reforms (two lectures^, The Scope. Method and Services of 
Political Economy. 

A great deal of interest was shown on the part of the students, 
and permanent good resulted from the course. At the time of 
writing, it is not known how many will take the examinations, 
consequently certain results may not be estimated. In the two 
classes referred 10, one in Topeka and one in Kansas City, the 
membership was largely composed of teachers, lawyers, judges, 
business-men, and artisans.* 

*In Professor Blase 's class there were twenty-one lawyers, twelve teachers, 
twelve students, four engineers, physicians, electricians, operators, clerks, pub- 
lic officers, etc. 

Kansas and Missouri. 211 

A syllabus of each lecture was printed in the leading papers 
prior to the time of delivering the lectures. These outlines were 
quite full, for the purpose of assisting students in their daily stud- 
ies and of giving them a well-rounded idea of the subject. One 
lecture was delivered each week on Thursday evening. The first 
hour was devoted to the formal presentation of the subject of the 
evening, and the second to the informal discussions and ques- 
tions. Arrangements were made with the librarian of the city 
library to collect the books relating to the subjects of the lectures 
in a private reading-room for the consultation of those who 
were taking the course. Some studious ones availed themselves 
of this privilege. 

While this work was being inaugurated, the Kansas State Uni- 
versity, and the University of Missouri, were not idle. They 
each organized for the work, sent a prospectus of the conditions 
on which the Extension would be made, and established a system 
of credits for students in the prescribed courses. To meet the 
immediate demands of students in these courses, the University 
of Kansas adopted the following regulations : " Persons who 
hold the degree of Bachelor of Arts from the University of 
Kansas, or from other institutions of equal rank with it, may 
receive the degree of Master of Arts upon the satisfactory com- 
pletion of nine University Extension courses of twelve lectures 
each. These courses shall be accompanied by such study, read- 
ing, and examination as shall be prescribed by the professors in 
charge. ' ' 

" Persons not holding the bachelor's degree upon the satisfac- 
tory completion of nine University Extension courses of twelve 
lectures each, shall receive a University Extension diploma." 

"Work done under instructors from other institutions than 
the University of Kansas will be accepted upon examination for 
not more than four of the nine courses necessary for a degree or 
a diploma. This work will also be accepted as undergraduate 
work, a full course in the University Extension being reckoned 
as a two-thirds term in the University. Nine twelve-lecture 
courses will be accepted as equivalent to a full year's work at the 
University. ' ' 

212 The National Conference on University Extension. 

In making these rules the faculty of the University realized 
that only a comparatively small number out of the large classes 
receiving University Extension lectures would care to avail them- 
selves of these provisions. But it was thought best to make it 
possible for all who desired, to receive such credit extended by 
the University. All such persons are duly registered as students 
of the University of Kansas. The University of Missouri for- 
mulated similar provisions respecting credits in that institution. 

The second course, begun under the direction of the Kansas 
City Society, was that of English Literature of the Nineteenth 
Century. This was also a large and interesting class, and was 
successfully carried on by Professor C. G. Dunlap, of the Uni- 
versity of Kansas. The following list of subjects will indicate 
the scope of the work : Literature at the Close of the Eighteenth 
Century, William Wordsworth, Samuel T. Coleridge, Percy 
Bysshe Shelley, John Keats, Lord Byron, John Henry Newman, 
The Novel (Thackeray and Dickens), Tennyson, George Eliot, 
Robert Browning. 

The association arranged for four other courses : One on 
Constitutional Law, by Professor Alexander Martin, of the Uni- 
versity of Missouri, and one on the Semitic Languages, by Pro- 
fessor J. S. Blackwell, of the same institution. Although classes 
were about completed for these gentlemen, owing to the unfor- 
tunate occurrence of the burning of the main building of the 
Missouri University, they found it necessary to give all of their 
attention to home work. These courses of lectures will probably 
be given next year. The other two courses arranged for are by 
Professors Blake and Carruth, of the Kansas University, the 
former on Electricity and its Modern Applications, and the 
latter on German Literature. Professor Blake's course is similar 
to that given in Topeka in many respects. The class has already 
been formed and numbers over three hundred, the largest class 
yet formed. The course in German Literature will begin soon. 
The following subjects indicate the scope of the work : Martin 
Luther, From Luther to Lessing, Lessing (two lectures), The 
Storm and Stress Period, Goethe (four lectures), Schiller (three 

Kansas and Missouri. 2 1 3 

A new course has been formed in Topeka under the auspices 
of the Trades and Labor Assembly. This will be carried on by 
the writer, after the course in Kansas City is completed. The 
subject is Political Economy, and the course is especially arranged 
for intelligent working-men. 

Professor E. H. S. Bailey, of the Kansas University, is con- 
ducting a very interesting course in the Chemistry of Every-Day 
Life at Olathe, Kansas. The class is large and enthusiastic. 
The following outline will suggest the nature of the course : The 
Atmosphere, Combustion, Artificial Lighting, Water, Cleansing 
and Bleaching Materials, Foods, Sugars, Nitrogenous Foods, 
Fruits, Non-Alcoholic Beverages, Digestion and Assimilation of 

A course of eight lectures is being given at Abilene, Kan., by 
various instructors of the University of Kansas. The lectures 
are all literary, but are given by different individuals. Among 
those who have already been selected are E. M. Hopkins, A. G. 
Canfield, W. H. Carruth, O. Templin, A. M. Wilcox, and C. 
G. Dunlap. Over ninety persons have entered the class. This 
course is a little different from other courses, but is worthy of 
mention as a genuine extension of university instruction. The 
people of Abilene are so well pleased with the success of the 
enterprise that they have already begun to plan for other courses 
during the next academic year. This may also be said of the 
people of other towns. They say, "Next year we will know 
how to carry on this work in a more acceptable manner." 

Two courses of lectures will be given in Wichita, on Astron- 
omy and Geology. The former will be given by Prof. E. Miller, 
and the latter by Prof. S. W. Willston, both of Kansas State 
University. Each course will consist of six lectures only. This 
promises to be an excellent field for University Extension. 

While these lectures are being given to those who desire them, 
the single-lecture system is kept up by the instructors of the 
University. They are called here and there over different parts 
of the State to give a single lecture for the benefit of some asso- 
ciation, college, or high school. Thus we have an account of the 
inauguration of University Extension in the Southwest. It will 

214 The National Conference on University Extension. 

be seen by the foregoing statement that the movement is taking 
a permanent place in Western education. Many lessons have 
already been learned, but the enterprise is still in an experi- 
mental stage, and one cannot predict what will be the future 
outcome. It would seem that as the work has sprung up of 
itself, unaided by any systematic urging, it has a fair prospect of 
becoming permanent. The University of Kansas has not urged 
the movement in any degree. It has endeavored to supply the 
demands, and to give such information as has been sought for in 
the formation of local associations. The instructors take up the 
work somewhat reluctantly, owing to the fact that they have 
plenty of work at home, yet they feel it a duty to respond to 
such calls when they can do so without interfering seriously with 
their regular work. It will be found that a reasonable amount 
of such work, bringing the instructor, as it does, in contact with 
the world outside of the University, is a great advantage to him, 
for it tends to quicken him and prepare him for more vital 

The preceding brief review of actual work done has been for 
the purpose of indicating the amount and quality of instruction 
that has been given in this line, and for the purpose of desig- 
nating the general plan of operation. From the foregoing history, 
and from the record of similar work done in other parts of the 
West, it will be seen that the general plan of the work is well 
defined. Each prominent institution will be the centre for the 
propagation of Extension ideas and for furnishing lectures. 
Around these centres local associations are being formed, which 
will take the responsibility of arranging courses for the people, 
of forming classes, and attending to the financial part of the 
enterprise. Immediately connected with the people whose wants 
and whose ways it fully understands, a strong local institution is 
best prepared to carry on University Extension within the radius 
of its influence. This is its natural field and its legitimate ser- 
vice. It is a natural centre of educational influence, and the 
people look upon it with pride and are. willing to be instructed 
by its professors. If such an institution be a living one, strong 
and vigorous, it is within sympathetic touch with the people and 

Kansas and Missouri. 2 1 5 

close to their lives and thoughts. While it may administer to 
their educational needs, it will, on the other hand, lead them to 
enter the realm of higher learning, or to complete the course 
which they have abandoned long ago.. It will be seen by the 
foregoing outline that much of the work is of an advanced 
nature, and some of it is prepared for classes who have made 
considerable progress. There has been an honest, and I may 
say successful, endeavor on the part of the lecturers to suit^their 
instruction to the needs of the classes under their charge. A 
great improvement might be made in some instances in the prep- 
aration of outlines of the lecture, which are to be placed in the 
hands of the members of the class. These outlines might be 
more complete, and be composed of full statements of facts and 
principles laid down, instead of the suggested heading. These 
principles and facts might be illustrated fully, so that the student 
could carry in his mind a living syllabus rather than a dead one. 
Also, it may be seen that the process of classification of the 
students must be entered into more fully than has been done, if 
the Extension movement is to grow in thoroughness and effi- 
ciency. The registry for examination and for grades is a step 
towards this, and in due time the problem will gradually solve 

The writer would not have it appear that the University of 
Kansas is the only institution in the Southwest engaged in 
Extension work. Such institutions as the University of Mis- 
souri, William Jewell, Park, Baker University, Manhattan Agri- 
cultural College, Washburn College, and the Emporia Normal 
School, have furnished many lectures to the people, but the 
University of Kansas has taken the most complete and radical 
departure in this respect of all the institutions of the Southwest. 
Already nine full courses, of twelve lectures each, have been 
commenced, or are arranged for since last October, and the 
regular system of single lectures has been maintained. The 
limit for work of this nature, without interfering seriously with 
routine work, is in the neighborhood of about twenty courses 
each year of twelve lectures each. 

216 The National Conference on University Extension. 


The Denver Society for University Extension was organized 
on May 24, 1891. Secretary George Henderson, of the Ameri- 
can Society, gave on that evening an address before the trustees 
and friends of the University of Denver. After his address a 
temporary organization was effected, which was afterwards made 
permanent, and Chancellor William F. McDowell, of the Uni- 
versity of Denver, was chosen president of the Society. On its 
executive committee appear the names of State Superintendent 
N. B. Coy; Superintendent Aaron Gove, of Denver; Professor 
J. H. Barker, Dr. James C. Shattuck, Rev. Dr. A. A. Cameron, 
Bishop H. W. Warren, and Hon. H. B. Chamberlin. 

During the current year much interest has been shown in Ex- 
tension teaching throughout the State. In addition to the work 
in Denver, where the Colorado State College and the University 
of Colorado are co-operating with the University of Denver, a 
centre has been established in Greeley, where Chancellor McDow- 
ell is delivering a course of six lectures on the French Revolution. 


The Wyoming University Extension Association was organized 
at Laramie, Wyoming, October 24, 1891, with sixteen charter 
members. The president of the Association is A. A. Johnson, 
President of the University of Wyoming ; Vice-President, J. D. 
Conley; Secretary, G. R. Hebard; Treasurer, J. F. Soule. In 
addition to these gentlemen, the following are members of the 
council: C. M. McDonald, H. Merz, and F. J. Niswander, of 
Laramie; J. O. Churchill, of Cheyenne, and J. B. Logue, of 
Evanston. The University of Wyoming is organizing the sys- 
tem of Extension teaching throughout the State, and under the 
able guidance of President A. A. Johnson, the founder and late 
President of the Fort Worth University, Texas, is making itself 
strongly felt in all parts of the commonwealth. 

California. 217 


Under date of September 23, 1891, the Academic Council of 
the University of California announced that Extension courses 
would be given in San Francisco during the current year, on 
history, literature, and mathematics. The course on history by 
Professor Bacon is being delivered at present in the rooms of the 
Unitarian Church, on Thursday evenings, the special subject 
being "The Transition from Mediaeval to Modern History." 
At the Academy of Sciences, Professor Charles M. Gayley, of 
the University of California, is delivering an afternoon course 
on Shakespeare. Professor Stringham is lecturing on algebra to 
audiences of nearly one hundred at the College of Pharmacy. 
The number of students in attendance on the lectures in history 
and literature is about four hundred. These courses extend over 
a full college term of fourteen weeks, and are entirely free to the 
public. Full credit for corresponding courses at the Universi- 
ties is given to those passing satisfactory examinations. It is to 
be noted that these courses have tended directly to the advantage 
of the University in increasing public interest in their work. A 
special proof is the action of those attending the lectures in 
English Literature. The class, which numbers about four hun- 
dred, has generously contributed two hundred dollars towards a 
Shakespearian library for the University. It is proposed to give 
courses in ethics and political economy later in the year. 

A University Extension Club has been organized at San Jose", 
Cal., with the following officers : H. Melville Tenney, President; 
Miss Mary Hazelton, Secretary, and Professor Manzer, Treas- 
urer. The membership fee for the first year was fixed at two 
dollars, and transferable tickets for the first course of lectures 
was at one dollar and a quarter for those not members of the 
club. Two courses of six lectures each have been arranged for 
the current year. The first on Evolution, by President David 
Starr Jordan, of the Leland Stanford University, is to begin in 
the latter part of January, and is to be followed by a second 
course on Astronomy, by Professor E. E. Barnard, of the Lick 

2 1 8 The National Conference on University Extension. 

At Oakland, an Extension centre has been established, and 
Professor George H. Howison, of the State University, has been 
engaged to lecture on Ethics during February and March. A 
fourth Extension centre is organized at San Diego, the President 
of which is Mr. B. F. McDaniel. 


On November 5 and 6, 1891, a conference, under the auspices 
of the Ministry of Education, was held in Toronto to discuss 
the subject of University Extension. The evening address on 
October 5 was by President Edmund J. James, of the Ameri- 
can Society, who pointed out the place of University Extension 
in a general scheme of public education, and emphasized the 
importance of the movement as supplementing the primary and 
secondary schools, and as extending greatly the influence of the 
higher institutions of learning. The account he gave of the 
American Society, and of what had been accomplished in the 
United States, was the moving impulse towards the organization 
on the succeeding day of the Canadian Society for the Extension 
of University Teaching, the constitution of which was modelled 
on that of the American Society. The following gentlemen 
were chosen officers : Presidents, Sir Daniel Wilson, Chancellor 
of McGill University ; Hon. G. W. Allan, Chancellor of Trinity 
University ; Hon. Edward Blake, of Toronto ; Sandford Flem- 
ing, Chancellor of Queen's University; Professor Goldwin 
Smith ; and Abbe Laflame, of Laval University ; Treasurer, B. E. 
Walker, of the Bank of Commerce ; Secretary, William Houston, 
M. A., the distinguished economist. Under the general direc- 
tion of the Canadian Society many centres have been established, 
and courses, principally on history, literature, and science, de- 
livered in Toronto, London, Ottawa, and Hamilton. Among 
the most successful lecturers have been Professors Clark, Hunting- 
ford, Schofield, Pitman, and Rigby, on literature ; Professor G. 
J. Hume, on ethics, and Professor J. T. Crawford, on electricity. 

The University of New Brunswick, in connection with the 
New Brunswick Natural History Society, has organized Uni- 

Canada. 219 

versity Extension in and around St. John, N. B. The following 
courses, of eight lectures each, were begun on Monday, Novem- 
ber 23, and continued during the succeeding weeks : Monday, 
"Physics," Professor Duff; Tuesday, "History of England, 
1640-1659," Rev. J. DeSoyres; Wednesday, "Botany," Mr. 
G. U. Hay: Thursday, "Philosophy," Dr. D. Macrae; Friday, 
"Zoology," Dr. Bailey. On the completion of these courses, 
about the end of January, the following will succeed them: 
"English Literature," Professor Stockley; "Geology," Mr. G. 
F. Matthew; "Chemistry," Mr. A. E. Macintyre; "Political 
Economy," Professor Murray; "Law," Dr. I. A. Jack and 
Dr. A. A. Stockton. 






NOVEMBER 3, 1890, DECEMBER 31, 1891. 


General Secretary. 

IN the first months of 1890, there was in the United States not 
only no particular interest in the definite work of University Ex- 
tension, but no clear idea as to what the movement really is or 
what the methods are which it employs. Attempts had indeed 
been made to introduce here and there some particular idea or 
phase of the work. These, however, had excited little attention, 
and even when measurably successful had hardly tended to make 
the details of the system known or its results appreciated. 

This condition of things has greatly changed. It is no longer 
necessary to appeal to transatlantic experience when a question 
is asked as to the purposes, methods, and results of Extension 
Teaching. The objection cannot now be made that this system 
may be good for England or for Austria, but is not adapted to 
American conditions. The success of the great object-lesson 
carried on by the American Society and reaching now into six 
States, and the experiments conducted by various other societies 


222 The National Conference on University Extension. 

and institutions have made it henceforth easier to introduce the 
work throughout the country. 

In February, 1890, a number of the leading educators of Phila- 
delphia met, by the invitation of Provost Pepper, to discuss the 
movement and the advisability of organizing it. It seemed to all 
that the work offered great opportunities for the whole country, 
and it was proposed to make the first trial in that city. The 
plan met the approval of those present and of all who were con- 
sulted during the succeeding months, and the co-operation of the 
neighboring higher institutions was pledged. In order to com- 
mence the work with the advantage of an intimate acquaintance 
with English methods, the secretary was sent to study the sys- 
tem as organized in Oxford, Cambridge, and London. On his 
return in the fall, he drew up a " Report on the University Ex- 
tension Movement in England," which was published by the 
Society. In the mean time a communication had been sent to 
libraries, institutes, and associations of every character, describing 
the work about to be undertaken and inviting their co-operation 
in the formation of local centres. A descriptive brochure was 
also issued to the general public explaining the nature and scope 
of the new movement. 

General interest was easily aroused. It was determined to 
organize at least six local centres, and it was at first thought that 
much stimulation would be necessary. This, it was soon seen, was 
unnecessary, as a stream of applications came pouring in from 
every section, and instead of six centres within a radius of fifty 
miles of Philadelphia, during the first year of work, there were 
formed twenty-three. The work to a large extent was sponta- 
neous, and great caution had to be observed in restraining the 
local organizations from attempting too many courses. 

At every point where lectures and classes are held we have 
formed an organization called a local centre, governed by a local 
committee, which takes entire charge of every detail connected 
with the work at that point. Of these organizations there are 
many types. One is formed by a library, Young Men's Christian 
Association, or institute ; another by the establishment of an en- 
tirely new organization composed of the influential people of the 

The Report of the American Society. 223 

place ; still another, by using the local institution as a nucleus 
around which to rally a representative committee. On the 
whole we believe the last type of centre to be the most successful. 
But as the centre develops so must its organization. Generally 
the centre starts out with the definite aim of successfully carrying 
through a course of six or twelve lectures. The one thing before 
the mind of the organization during that stage of the work is 
the securing of sufficient funds to make it financially safe. After 
the first course is finished, too many of the centres endeavor to 
go on floating a second or a third course on the same basis. 
They have overlooked the fact that the first course was organized 
spontaneously, that they have not yet become a permanent factor 
in the life of the community, and that they have really no nucleus 
around which to rally. True it is that they have a nucleus of 
organizers, but this is not enough ; they must have a nucleus in 
a student body. Indeed, it should be the effort of the organi- 
zation at this stage not so much to secure subscriptions as to 
secure students. This has been the rock upon which a great 
many of our local centres have been thrown, and upon which, I 
am sorry to say, two or three have foundered. 

Association Local Centre was organized in the building of the 
Central Branch of the Young Men's Christian Association, 
which is located in the heart of Philadelphia, at Fifteenth and 
Chestnut Streets. That Association did not abandon its educa- 
tional work, which was of an elementary character, but practi- 
cally gave over the more advanced work to the local centre. 
While the local committee is presided over by a man who is one 
of the Board of Managers of the Central Branch of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, the latter organization has no voice 
whatsoever in its deliberations. The committee was formed, 
numbering about thirty, broadly representative of the' section of 
the city in which the centre is located. There are upon it phy- 
sicians, lawyers, bankers, teachers, business-men, and a large 
percentage of ladies. Owing to its peculiar position this centre 
has been compelled to carry on work of a more or less popular 
character. However, it has this year been successful in securing 
a sequence of courses; the first one being on the "Study of 

224 The National Conference on University Extension. 

Political Economy;" second, " Socialism ;" third, " The Change 
in Political Economy;" fourth, "Some Economic Questions;" 
and fifth, " Revolutions in Commerce." 

The local committee at the West Philadelphia Centre was 
formed without the usual nucleus. A number of the influential 
people living in that neighborhood were invited to attend an in- 
formal meeting, which was held in the library of the University 
of Pennsylvania. The secretary of the society was present to 
explain the aim of the work about to be undertaken and the 
plan of procedure. After securing an informal organization, 
the use of the University Chapel was granted to them, and, 
as several members of the committee were actively interested 
in the West Philadelphia Institute, the co-operation of that in- 
stitution was secured. At first the local committee was com- 
posed very largely of men, but when it was found that ladies 
could lend a very material assistance, a number were invited to 
serve on the committee, and as a consequence great stimulus was 
given to the work. A public meeting was arranged, at which the 
leading educators of the city spoke and a formal organization 
effected. The general local committee appointed a number of 
sub-committees, which are held responsible for certain definite 
parts of the work. 

The Wagner Institute Centre was organized at the Wagner 
Free Institute of Science, located in the northwestern part of 
Philadelphia. The managers of the Institute were instrumental in 
calling into existence the local committee, their actuary becom- 
ing the local secretary, and their splendid hall being granted for 
the use of the centre. The section of the city in which this 
centre is located is one of the most favorable for work of this 
character. For ten or fifteen years the Wagner Free Institute 
has been giving, annually, courses in special branches of science 
which have been free to the public. This fact has proved only 
slightly to the disadvantage of the Extension courses for which a 
charge is made. The organization at this place was formally 
announced by a public meeting at which many leading educators 

Germantown, one of the flourishing suburbs of Philadelphia, 

The Report of the American Society. 225 

with a population of fifty thousand, is one of the points most 
favorable for organizing this work, but was one of the last to 
take hold of it. The matter was first taken up and discussed at 
one of the Monday morning meetings of the ministers, and they 
held that, as several of the leading Evangelists had failed to 
secure any considerable audiences, it was in their opinion 
very doubtful if the work could be made a success. In the 
mean time, however, a number of gentlemen connected with the 
Workingmen's Club, took up the discussion of the question and 
decided to make an attempt to organize the work. As a pre- 
liminary step they arranged for an illustrated lecture by Dr. 
Henry Leffmann on Bacteria, and announced that at the close of 
the same there would be an address on University Extension by 
Provost Pepper of the University of Pennsylvania, and that an 
organization would be effected. As the Koch discoveries had 
just been announced, an overflowing house was obtained and 
much interest evinced in the work about to be started. A com- 
mittee representative of the different interests was formed, and 
the carrying out of the details was delegated to two or three sub- 
committees. During the first year a Students' Association was 
organized for the study of Tennyson. Its meetings were con- 
tinued far into the summer, the average attendance being forty- 

Frankford was one of the first sections of the city to take hold 
of the new movement and organize a local centre, the Board of 
Trustees of Wright's Institute taking the initiative. The Insti- 
tute placed its hall at the command of the local centre, and its 
facilities, in the way of library and reading-room, were thrown 
open to the students. In organizing the work the local com- 
mittee arranged for two popular illustrated lectures on Napoleon, 
by Mr. Charles H. Adams, and announced that at the close of 
these there would be an address explaining University Extension. 
A large audience was secured, and, as a result, an enthusiastic 
centre which has increased in usefulness and strength. It should 
be added that at this centre a large part of the work has devolved 
on the very energetic local secretary. The school-teachers living 
in that vicinity took a very active interest in the work. A strong 


226 The National Conference on University Extension. 

Students' Association was formed, which has ever been anxious 
to secure a sequence of courses. In one instance, their number 
pledged the necessary funds to do this. 

The first local centre to be formed was at Roxborough, a 
suburb of Philadelphia, in connection with St. Timothy's Insti- 
tute and Workingmen'sClub. Through the influence of several 
members of the Institute, a large representation was secured at 
an informal meeting, from the workingmen of the Pencoyd 
Iron-Works and other shops in that vicinity. The secretary ex- 
plained the work about to be undertaken, and, before the meeting 
adjourned, a committee was appointed to look into the plans. 
They arranged for two lectures on Napoleon, by Mr. Charles H. 
Adams, at which a large audience was secured and an opportunity 
given to explain the objects of the new movement. A local 
committee was selected, with the foreman of the Pencoyd Iron 
Works as chairman. The difficulties attendant upon the work 
at this place are great. This section of the city is composed 
almost entirely of the working classes, and, while there are a num- 
ber who could aid them, they do not seem so disposed. It being 
a mill district, strikes and fires have several times interfered with 
the progress of courses. 

At Holmesburg, one of the older portions of Philadelphia, a 
local centre was organized in connection with those interested in 
the Holme Library. In previous years there had been a lyceum 
committee, which was abandoned. The local committee took 
hold of the work with great vigor, thoroughly canvassing the 
town and securing a large number of subscribers within forty- 
eight hours. 

Lansdowne is located but a few miles from the city ; it has a 
total population of but eight hundred people. For several years 
they had had an entertainment committee, which was reorganized 
for the new purpose. As a preliminary step, the two lectures on 
Napoleon, by Mr. Charles H. Adams, were given. The work 
was explained and a centre organized. The centre has been re- 
markably successful and the attendance most encouraging, the 
average being over a hundred. 

At Norristown, the secretary met with the preliminary com- 

The Report of the American Society. 227 

mittee a number of times before they finally decided to take 
hold of the work. They held that the people did not take 
an interest in the work and that Norristown had no place for it. 
It was, however, decided to make an effort to see what could be 
done, and a public meeting was called in the Court-House, and 
Provost Pepper, of the University of Pennsylvania, announced 
as the speaker of the evening. The result was that a large audi- 
ence was secured and an organization effected. It can be added 
that this is one of our most successful centres. 

For a number of years in Camden there has existed a Fort- 
nightly Club, the officers of which came to the Society to secure 
lecturers. They wanted them, however, for their own meetings, 
and did not at first care to organize a local centre. The Society 
took the ground that as nearly all the influential people of Cam- 
den were connected with the Fortnightly Club, and as it seemed 
unlikely that a local centre would be formed without their aid, 
that University Extension should not be made so exclusive an 
affair. The Fortnightly Club then agreed to organize a local 
committee and open the courses to the general public. The 
work has gone on with increasing success from the outset. 

In the early days of the organization of a centre, there is a 
tendency to over-confidence, and it is not until the real struggle 
for the continuation of the work commences that the local com- 
mittees will make an effort to acquaint themselves with the general 
history of the movement. The centres which have been most 
successful are the ones that have emphasized the work of the 
students. University Extension must be more than a substitute 
for the Lyceum, and this can only be accomplished through the 
students whose interests should be properly cared for. 

In connection with every course, immediately after or before 
the lecture, a class is held at which the students and the lecturer 
meet for an informal discussion of the subject. Also in connec- 
tion with each course there has been published a syllabus, giving 
among other things an abstract of the course, suggested works 
for collateral reading, and questions upon which is based the 
weekly-paper work, which is mailed to the lecturer and returned 
at the following class. In the publication of these syllabi we 

228 The National Conference on University Extension. 

have made it a constant aim that they shall be more than an 
abstract of the course, a guide to the study of that portion of 
the subject. This fact will be more clearly recognized when it 
is understood that the average size of the syllabi thus far pub- 
lished is sixteen pages. 

After giving two courses at Association Local Centre and 
Wagner Institute in Philadelphia, Mr. Moulton said in his report 
that the quality of the work done by the students had decidedly 
improved in the second courses at each of these places, adding: 
"The audiences are magnificent; they have had the effect of 
making the whole course a demonstration in favor of University 
Extension." In speaking of his course on "Astronomy," also 
given at Association Local Centre, Professor Charles A. Young, 
of Princeton, compared the work received from one of the stu- 
dents as equal to that of his best seniors. It was a gratifying 
surprise to Professor George S. Fullerton, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, to find that his somewhat difficult subject, " Psy- 
chology," should be so readily popularized. In his report on 
the course he says, " I never had more attentive audiences, nor I 
believe more intelligent on the whole." 

Last year forty-three courses were given, with an average at- 
tendance of 9160, whose aggregate* attendances numbered 60,573. 
(See table of results at close of report.) There were nineteen 
courses on literature, eight on history, one on descriptive astron- 
omy, four on chemistry, one on psychology, one on biology, two 
on botany, two on electricity, one on mathematics with applica- 
tions to mechanics, one on algebra, and one on zoology. The 
most of these were six lectures in length \ the average for the 
forty-three courses being 7.6. The average attendance .at the 
courses was two hundred and fifty. The number of those taking 
the examination, while not very large, was encouraging ; two hun- 
dred and thirty-one passed successfully. Four of these were in 
geology, eleven in mathematics, twenty in algebra, one hundred 
and eight in literature, seven in physics, fourteen in history, 
fifty-one in botany, and eleven in psychology. 

Twenty-four of the students received two certificates, nine 
three, four four, one five, and one six. Sixty-three per cent, of 

The Report of the American Society. 229 

those attending the lectures remained to the class exercises ; five 
and one-half per cent, of the class wrote weekly papers ; seventy- 
two per cent, of those writing weekly papers took the examina- 
tion, and ninety-three per cent, of these passed successfully. 

The work thus far developed in this country differs very 
materially from that in England in these respects, the audiences 
are larger and seem to possess, as described by an English lec- 
turer, more intellectual curiosity ; the proportion of the audience 
which remains for the class is also larger. This, indeed, has very 
clearly shown that the English methods must be materially modi- 
fied. It may be necessary to develop what might be called a 
second class for the real student nucleus, or, possibly, as an alter- 
nate way out of the difficulty, we must look forward to well- 
organized Students' Associations, presided over perhaps by assist- 
ant lecturers. 

In reaching those towns more or less isolated from our general 
offices, we have employed the plan of circuits with encouraging 
success. To form these, from four to six towns within easy reach 
by railroad unite and decide upon a common lecturer and sub- 
ject, selecting successive nights in the week. The lecturer then 
repairs to that section and remains there during the progress of 
the course. 

Thus far this season, dating from October i, there have been 
delivered in all fifty- one courses : twelve on American history, 
four on English history, four on American literature, seventeen 
on English literature, nine on political economy, two on elec- 
tricity, one on geology, one on mathematics, one on psychology, 
and two on physics. 

It will be observed that in the last three months there have been 
given more courses than were delivered during the whole of last 
year. The number of centres has been more than doubled. 
This year's work is characterized by the organization of Students' 
Associations at most of the centres ; some are already strong 
enough to pledge the necessary expense to the local committee in 
order to secure a sequence of courses. The audiences show a 
wide variety of occupation. The afternoon courses are, how- 
ever, attended mostly by ladies, while at the evening courses can 

230 The National Conference on University Extension. 

be found workingmen in small groups, teachers, lawyers, and uni- 
versity graduates. 

The class in mathematics, to which a course of twelve lectures 
was delivered, is perhaps the most striking and unique illustra- 
tion of the development of the work in this country. Last 
November a year, an artisan from one of the shops in this city 
called at the office of the Society to ascertain if a course in Mathe- 
matics, with its application to mechanics, would be delivered. 
He volunteered to organize the class, providing the Society would 
secure the lecturer. Every shop in the city and suburbs was 
visited, and the names of some forty of his fellow-workers who 
were willing to pledge themselves to payment of a fee of five dol- 
lars for the privilege of attending such a course, were secured. 
The Society then undertook it, and when the night of the 
first lecture arrived was surprised to find one hundred and 
sixty in attendance. The result was that the fee was imme- 
diately reduced to three dollars, and the course was successfully 
organized. The usual attendance was seventy-two. The aver- 
age number of those writing weekly papers was twenty-three, 
or thirty per cent, of the audience ; fourteen, or twenty per cent., 
presented themselves for examination ; and eleven, or sixteen per 
cent., passed successfully. 

For those who may be interested in this course, the syllabus of 
Lecture XL is appended. 



The moments of a force with respect to a point is the product of the force 
into the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the force from the 
point. This distance is called the arm of the force. That is, the moment of 
a force is the measure of the tendency of the force to cause the body upon 
which it acts to revolve about the point with respect to which the moment is 
taken. The moment of a force as here defined is sometimes called, more 
specifically, the statical moment. 

If two forces tend to cause a body upon which they act to revolve in oppo- 
site directions about the point with respect to which moments are taken, the 
moments of the forces are distinguished by the signs -|- and . 

The Report of the American Society. 231 

The moment of the resultant of a system of forces acting in one plane 
upon a body is equal to the algebraic sum of the moments of the individual 
forces composing the system. 

If a body which can turn only in one plane about one point is acted upon 
by a system of forces, the algebraic sum of the moments of which, about that 
point, is zero, then the system will be in equilibrium, so far as revolution 
about that point is concerned. Should the algebraic sum of the moments of 
the forces not vanish, motion will ensue. If it is required then to establish 
equilibrium a new force must be applied, whose moment added (algebraically) 
to the sum of the others produces zero. 

The above is a generalization of the well-known principle of the lever. 
[See Todhunter's Mechanics for Beginners, Chaps. V., VI., XI., and XIII.] 


If in a system of parallel forces all the forces act in the same direction, the 
resultant of the system acts in the same direction and is equal to the sum of 
the forces. If some of the forces act in one direction and some in the other, 
the resultant is equal to the difference between the sum of those acting in one 
way and the sum of those acting in the other, and it acts in the direction of 
the greater of these two sums. To find the point of application of the re- 
sultant we take moments about any point in the plane of the forces. Thus, 
let P v P 2 , /^ ... be a system of parallel forces, and a v a 2 , a 3 . , . the 
perpendicular distances of their lines of action from any point in their plane. 
Let R be the resultant and x its arm. Then, first : 

And : Rx = (P^ + P 2 a 2 + P^ + t ) 

from which x and R can be computed. Great care must be taken to give 
each of the forces and each of the moments in these equations its proper 
sign. The -f- sign used in them indicates the algebraic sum. 

The point of application of the resultant of a system of parallel forces is 
called the centre of the system. 

If two equal forces are parallel, and act in opposite directions, they have 
no resultant, and their tendency in acting upon a body is simply to produce 
revolution in their own plane. Such a system is called a couple. The 
moment of a couple is the same about every point in its plane, and is equal to 
the product of one of the forces into the perpendicular between them. 
[See Todhunter's Mechanics for Beginners, Chaps. IV. and VIII.] 


The centre of gravity is defined thus (Todhunter's Mechanics for Beginners, 
p. 72) : " The centre of gravity of a body or system of bodies is a point on 
which the body or system of bodies will balance in all positions, supposing 

232 The National Conference on University Extension. 

the point to be supported, the body or system to be acted on only by gravity, 
and the parts of the body or system to be rigidly connected with the point." 

To determine the position of the centre of gravity of a system of heavy 
particles, we regard the weights of the several particles as parallel forces and 
then determine the line of action of the resultant of the forces. We do this 
with the particles in two different positions with respect to the horizon. The 
intersection of the lines of action of the resultants will be the centre of gravity. 

By the centre of gravity of a plane area is meant the centre of gravity of 
a thin uniform sheet of some substance in the shape of the area. 

The centre of gravity of a uniform rod is its middle point. 

The centre of gravity of a triangle is the intersection of the medial lines. 

The centre of gravity of any plane figure symmetrical about a point is the 
centre of symmetry of the figure. 

[See Todhunter's Mechanics for Beginners, Chap. X.] 

It gives me pleasure to report that this course has been re- 
peated this year with results even more surprising than last. 
Immediately after the holidays a supplementary course will be 
given by Professor H. W. Spangler, of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, on "The Strength of Materials." 

It is unfortunate that so many are inclined to look upon this 
as a class movement, and endeavor, after a fashion of their own, 
to reach workingmen in large numbers. Our experience is that 
they can best be reached through one of their own number. If 
they are patronized, and if courses are organized for them and for 
them alone, with these they have little or no sympathy. Indeed, 
a number of them in this city very frankly told us that if we 
should deal with them as workingmen, they would have nothing 
to do with the movement ; but that if we were prepared to deal 
with them as citizens, then they would be glad to come in and 
take part in the work. 

To show the range of courses given in this first year of Exten- 
sion teaching the following list is appended. 

American Literature. 
Euripides for English Audiences. 
Four Studies in Shakespeare. 
General Survey of English Literature. 
Milton's Poetic Art. 

The Report of the American Society. 233 

Modern Essayists. 

Shakespeare Tempest with Companion Studies. 

Stories as a Mode of Thinking. 

Story of Faust. 


Animal Life considered as a part of Universal Energy. 

Applied Electricity. 



Descriptive Astronomy. 

Geology and Paleontology. 

Mathematics with applications to Mechanics. 

Practical Analytical Botany. 



American History and Government. 

Civil Development of the United States. 

Constitution of the United States. 

Epochs in American History. 

Political History of Europe during the present Century. 

The following are outlines of typical courses : 

Six lectures by Edward T. Devine, A.M., Fellow in the 

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, on Political 


I. Development of Industry and Rise of Economic Science. 
Primitive Man. 
The Middle Ages. 
Modern Industrial Society. 

II. The Framework of Economics. 

Exchange of Commodities. 
International Exchange. 

234 Th* National Conference on University Extension. 

III. The Distribution of Wealth. 
Sources of Income. 
The Law of Rent. 
The Law of Profits. 
The Law of Interest. 
The Law of Wages. 

IV. Unsolved Economic Problems. 
The Unearned Increment. 
The Interest Question. 
International Trade. 

V. Immediate Industrial Problems. 
The Labor Question. 
The Eight-Hour Day. 

VI. The Economic Element in Social Questions. 
The Temperance Agitation. 
The Food Problem. 
Charity Organization. 
The Immigration Question. 
Standing Armies. 

Six lectures by Henry W. Rolfe, A.M., on English Literature 
of the Nineteenth Century. 

I. Charles Lamb. 
Youth and Heroism. 
Literary Activity. 
Last years. 

1 1. Wordsworth. 


Wordsworth's Outward Life. 
Wordsworth's Poetry and its Value. 

The Report of the American Society. 235 

III. Scott. 

Ancestry and Childhood. 

Youth and Early Manhood. 

The Poems. 

From Ashestiel to Abbotsford. 

The Novels. 

Adversity and Death. 


IV. Carlyle. 

Early life. 

The Period of Storm and Stress. 

Entire Devotion to Literature. 

The Closing Years. 

Carlyle's Importance as a Man of Letters. 

V. Thackeray. 

Childhood and Education. 

Seeking a Career. 

Literature as Profession. 

Thackeray's Characteristics as a Writer and as a Man. 

VI. Matthew Arnold. 
His Life. 

His Prose Writings. 
His Poetry. 

Eight lectures by Professor E. P. Cheyney, of the University 
of Pennsylvania, on Modern Industrial History The Culmina- 
tion and the Decline of Individualism. 

I. The Industrial System of the Middle Ages. 
The Manor. 
The Guild : 

(1) The Guild Merchant. 

(2) The Craft Guilds. 

II. Breaking up of the Mediaeval System. 
The Fall of the Manor System. 
The Fall of the Guild System. 
Industrial Society in the Eighteenth Century. 

236 The National Conference on University Extension. 

1 1 1. The Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century. 
The New Inventions. 
The New Factories. 
Effect on the Old System. 
Changes in Land-holding. 

IV. Theoretical Views and the New Industrial Society. 
Ricardo's Law of Rent. 
Malthus's Law of Population. 
The Wages-Fund Theory. 
The Laissez-faire doctrine. 

V. Factory Laws. 

First Factory Act, 1802. 
Second Factory Act, 1819. 
Factory Act of 1833. 
Opposition to these Acts : 

(1) By the Manufacturers. 

(2) By the Political Economists. 

VI. Trades-Unions. 

New Position of the Factory Laborer. 

Opposition to Trades-Unions. 

The Growth and Development of Trades-Unions. 

VII. Co-operation and Profit- Sharing. 

Tendency of New Industrial Organization to Separate Functions. 



VIII. Socialism. 

Definition of Socialism. 
History of Socialism. 

Twelve lectures by Professor C. M. Andrews, of Bryn Mawr 
College, on Political History of Europe (1815 to the present). 

I. From the Fall of Napoleon to the Ushering in of the Era 
of Reaction. 

To the Imprisonment at Elba. 

Beginnings of Restoration and the Congress of Vienna. 
The Hundred Days, March I, 1815, to June 18, 1815. 
The Holy Alliance and the Policy of the Metternich. 

The Report of the American Society. 237 

II. France and the Revolution of 1830. 

Restoration and Bourbon Unpopularity. 
Government of Ultras and Priests. 
Revolution of 1830 and an Elective Monarchy. 
Influence of Revolution. 

III. Italy and the Agitation for Unity. 
Italy to 1815. 

From Congress of Vienna to the Rise of Young Italy. 
Work of Mazzini and Young Italy. 
Agitation until 1848-49. 

IV. Germany and a Half-Century of Political Confusion. 

Before the Congress of Vienna. 

Congress of Vienna to Carlsbad Decrees. 

Result of the Carlsbad Decrees. 

Frederick William IV. (1840-61) to Revolution of 1848. 

V. Louis Philippe and the Revolution of 1848. 
The July Monarchy to 1840. 
Ministry of Guizot to Revolution of 1848. 
The Revolution and the Republic. 

VI. Revolution of 1848-49 throughout Europe. 
Wonderful March Days of '48. 
Turning of the Tide. 
Hungary's Death-Struggle. 
General Results. 

VII. The Crimean War and European Political Theories. 
Condition of Europe after 1848-49. 
Progress of the Eternal Eastern Question to 1850. 
Pretexts for War and the Theory of the Balance of Power. 
The War in Crimea and its Results. 

VIII. Cavour and Victor Emmanuel. A United Italy. Growth of 

Austro-Sardinian War. 

An Incomplete Unity. 

The Italian Kingdom. [ TT ST I V B B S 

238 The National Conference on University Extension. 

IX. The Rise and Fall of Imperialism in France. 

Louis Napoleon and the Republic. The Coup d'Etat. 

Emperor Napoleon III. 

Downfall of Napoleonism. 

The Franco- Prussian War. The Commune and a Republic. 

X. Austria and Prussia The Struggle for the Hegemony. 

Prussia's Last Submission. 
A New Regime and a New Attitude. 
The Policy of Blood and Iron. 
Expulsion of Austria. 

XI. Austria and Prussia Reconstruction. 
Results of the Seven Weeks' War. 
The Dual Monarchy. 
The German Empire. 

XII. Russia and the Eastern Question. 
From the Crimean War to 1875. 
Turkish Excesses leading to War of 1877-78. 
War of 1877-78 and the Growth of Nationalities. 
Recent Difficulties. The Bulgarian Question. 

Questions for weekly exercises from syllabus on Modern Indus- 
trial History. The Culmination and Decline of Individualism > 
by Professor E. P. Cheyney. 


i. Describe a mediaeval manor in England. 
2. Describe a mediaeval craft guild in England. 
3. Give the arguments for and against the theory that the vil- 
lein inhabitants of the manor had formerly been freemen. 


I. How did the influence of the Tudor period act in breaking 
up the earlier industrial organization ? 

2. Describe the " domestic" or cottage system of the spinning 
and weaving industry of England in the nineteenth cen- 

3. What was the reason for the great demand for food and 
manufactured goods in England in the eighteenth cen- 

The Report of the American Society. 239 


i. What is meant by the "industrial revolution" of the eigh- 
teenth century ? 

2. Name some of the points of difference between the factory 
system and the industrial organization that preceded it. 


I. What is meant by the Laissez-faire theory of the functions 
of government, and how is the theory supported ? 

2. Compare the good and bad characteristics respectively of 
the new industrial society. 


i. What were the successive steps in English Factory Legis- 
lation ? 

2. What arguments have been used in favor of, and what op- 
posed to, factory laws ? 

3. What do you think is likely to be the future course of fac- 
tory legislation ? 


I. What were the circumstances that led to the formation of 

Trades-Unions ? 
2. Describe the opposition of the English laws to trades-unions 

and its removal. 
3. What do you think are the good and wnat are the bad 

effects flowing from the existence of trades-unions ? 


i. Describe and distinguish the three forms of co-operation. 

2. Find and report a full list of one or other of the forms of 
co-operation in the vicinity of Philadelphia, with the 
results of each experiment. 

3- What are the probabilities of the future spread of profit- 
sharing ? 


I. Give a definition of socialism that will not exclude any 
system claimed to be socialistic, or include any princi- 
ples not essential. 

2. What is the relation between socialism, communism, and 
anarchism ? 

3. Compare the special ideals of the early part of this century 
with those most generally prevalent now. 

240 The National Conference on University Extension. 

The following papers set for final examinations will assist in 
showing the grade of the work : 

By Professor Paul Shorey, of Bryn Mawr College, upon the 
course of six lectures entitled Studies in English Poetry. 

1. Define and illustrate some distinguishing characteristics of Modern Eng- 

lish Poetry. 

2. State briefly Wordsworth's " Gospel of Nature." Is the doctrine panthe- 

istic ? Compare with Shelley. What is the " pathetic fallacy" ? 

3. In what two ways does Tennyson interpret a Greek myth ? 

4. Explain the allegory of the Vision of Sin. Is Tennyson a Mystic ? In 

what sense ? 

5. Comment on the following lines : 

' O Sylvan Wye ! thou wanderer thro' the woods 

of all the mighty world 
Of Eye and Ear both what they half create 
and what perceive." 

" Smote the chord ol self that trembling passed 
in music out of sight." 

" Slowly comes a hungry people as a lion 

creeping nigher 

Glares at one that nods and winks behind 
a slowly dying fire." 

" Celtic Demos rose a Demon, shrieked and 
slaked the light with blood." 

" Hesper whom the poet called the bringer 
home of all good things " 

" Have we risen from out the beast ? then back 
into the beast again !" 

" ' Passion of the Past ' Fancy's Fool.' 

" Tho' some have^-/#a, or so they say, 
Of more than mortal things." 

By Mr. Edward T. Devine upon a course of six lectures on 
Political Economy. 

1. What is the most striking difference between primitive and advanced in- 

dustry ? 

2. How do you classify the factors of production ? What is the special ad- 

vantage of your classification? 

3. What would be the effect on rent of increasing the yield from all poorer 

lands by the introduction of improved methods of agriculture? 

4. Explain what is meant by surplus value. 

The Report of the American Society. 241 

5. Explain why the cheapening of food, clothing, and other commodities does 

not always raise the standard of life. 

6. What has been the chief gain to the United States of foreign immigration ? 

By Mr. Henry W. Rolfe upon a course of six lectures on 
English Literature of the Nineteenth Century. 

1. Write a careful analysis and criticism of your favorite essay of Lamb. 

2. Does Wordsworth's poetry benefit you ? If so, how ? If not, why ? 

3. What do you consider the chief value of Scott's poetry? 

4. Write a briet bul careful criticism of one of Carlyle's books, which you 

have read. 

5. Write an analysis of one of Thackeray's characters. 

6. What do you consider the chief excellence and the chief defects of 

Arnold's poetry ? 

7. Which one of these writers was the most truly fortunate in his early life, 

and why ? 

8. Which one of the six do you most care for ? 

9. Compare and contrast, briefly, any two of these authors as regards both 

their life and their work. 

10. Which one of them was the most perfect literary artist ? Give reasons for 
your answer. 

The following is a list of the centres thus far organized, to- 
gether with the courses that have been given, and the names of 
the students passing the examinations : 



COURSE I. Descriptive Astronomy, by Professor Chas. A. Young, of 

Margaret P. Saunders. 

COURSE II. Shakespeare's Tempest with Companion Studies, by Mr. 
Richard G. Moulton, of Cambridge University, Eng- 

Clara W. Anable, Augustus J. Loos, 

Sara C. Dewey, Lucy P. Maclntire, 

George Edward Eby, S. Newlin, 

Ella Faser, A. H. Saunders, 

Josephine Hamill, Margaret P. Saunders, 
Mrs. F. H. Taylor. 

242 The National Conference on University Extension. 

COURSE III, Mathematics, with its Applications to Mechanics, by Pro- 
fessor E. S. Crawley, of the University of Pennsyl- 

E. C. Baugher, Margaret P. Saunders, 
S. S. Dewey, Charles H. Thumbert, 
Bessie H. DuBois, R. H. Trimble, 
Mary D. Griffith, Esther N. Venables. 
Jumatsu Matsuo, E. N. Wigfall, 

Helen A. Wilder. 

COURSE IV. Animal Life Considered as a Part of Universal Energy, by 
Professor Spencer Trotter, of Swarthmore. 

Jessie S. Bagg, Aldrich J. Pennock, 

B. P. Flint, Margaret P. Saunders, 

M. D. Woodnutt. 

COURSE V. Milton's Poetic Art, by Mr. Richard G. Moulton, of Cam- 
bridge University, England. 

Laura J. Ashmore, Francis W. Kennedy, Jr., 

Sarah C. Dewey, A. J. Loos, 

S. S. Dewey, Mrs. L. L. Reger, 

F. B. Green, Margaret P. Saunders, 

H. M. Smyth. 

COURSE VI. Mathematics, by Professor E. S. Crawley, of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. 

H. Gretmar, William H. Schallioll, 

Jumatsu Matsuo, Charles H. Thumlert, 

Robert McLaughlin, G. P. Tustin, 

F. Piers, E. M. Venables, 

Peter Wright. 

COURSE VII. Economics, by Professor F. H. Giddings, of Bryn Mawr. 
No examination. 

COURSE VIII. English Literature, by Professor R. E. Thompson, of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Lucy C. Conard, M. M. McCollin, 

Lucy P. Maclntire, E. L. G. Thomas, 

F. H. Maclntire, Mary P. Tunnelle, 

K. Fuller Walker. 

COURSE IX. Socialism, by Mr. M. E. Sadler, of Oxford, England. 
No examination. 

The Report of the American Society. 243 

COURSE X. The Change in Political Economy, by Mr. M. E. Sadler, of 
Oxford, England. 

No examination. 


COURSE I. English Literature, by Professor R. E. Thompson, of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

E. Augustine Salter. 

COURSE II. American History by Professor F. N. Thorpe, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 
No examination. 
COURSE I. Political History of Europe, by Professor C. M. Andrews, 

of Bryn Mawr. 

Mary Ekwurzel, Susanna S. Kite, 

Elizabeth Hale, Mary Rollins Murphy, 

Hannah M. Jones, Benjamin C. Tillinghast, 

Eleanor E. Wright. 


COURSE I. Shakespeare's Tempest, with Companion Studies, by Mr. 
Richard G. Moulton, of Cambridge University, Eng- 

Alice M. Barrett, Anna Powers, 

Adele Marie Beck, Louisa Randolph, 

Jennie T Borton, Louise Harriett Reger, 

Elizabeth W Collins, Julia Morris Ross, 

Margaret Cope, Laura E. Sampson, 

Celia Creeth Louise Schwartz, 

Anna Shinn Doriss, Annie P. Simmons, 

Bessie Ecker Freichler, Anna W. Smith, 

Marion W. Grewcock, Lydia Starr. 

Harriett Harvey Esther Newlin Stokes, 

Fannie C. Hopkins, Katherine W. Stokes, 

Gertrude Houston, Mary T. Thurler, 

Edith F. Kenderdine, Grace Turner, 

Florence P. Middleton, Isabel S. Vanderslice, 

Edith R. Mullen, Eleanor R. Wagner, 

Elizabeth R. Perry, Sarah Wood Wagner, 

Marjorie Plumer, Annie T. Walker, 

Margaret B. Williams. 

COURSE II. Electricity, by Professor Henry Crew, of Haverford College- 
Lloyd Balderston, Jr., Charles Ingalls Martin, 

Louis R. Shellenburger. 

244 The National Conference on University Extension. 

COURSE III. Modern Industrial History, by Professor E. P. Cheyney, 

of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Lloyd Balderston, Jr., Charles F. Jenkins. 

Edward I. H. Howell, G. R. Nichols. 

COURSE IV. Robert Browning, by Mr. Henry S. Pancoast. 
Jennie T. Borton, L. L. Reger. 

COURSE V. Socialism, by Mr. Michael E. Sadler, of Oxford, England. 
No examination. 

COURSE I. English Literature, by Professor R. E. Thompson, of the 

University of Pennsylvania. 
E. G. Banes, Mary J. Thompson, 

Adele Sutor, Frances L. Wise, 

Florence Yaple. 

COURSE I. Chemistry, by Professor C. Hanford Henderson, of the 

Manual Training School 

Augustus R. Andrews William B. Hughes, 

Tillie J. Barnes Jumatsu Matsuo 

Alexander J. Christie, Frank E. Richardson, 

Bessie Christie T Elizabeth Slagle, 

John Collins Albert Walton, 

Alfred Walton. 

COURSE II. Four Studies in Shakespeare, by Mr. R. G. Moulton, of 
Cambridge University, England. 
No examination. 

COURSE III. The People of the United States, by Professor John Bach 
McMaster, of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Results not in. 


COURSE I. American History, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 
No examination. 

COURSE I. Stories as a Mode of Thinking, by Mr. R. G. Moulton, of 

Cambridge University, England. 
Miss E. Fraser, Bessie W. McElroy, 

Ida C. Levin, Jennie C. McElroy, 

L. L. Reger. 

The Report of the American Society. 245 

COURSE II. Algebra, by Professor George E. Fisher, of the University 

of Pennsylvania. 

Addison B. Burk, D. O'Brien, 

Addison B. Burk, Jr., S. J. Owen, 

M. Ethel Burk, E. Rirnmer, 

Zeta B. Cundy, Charles Rowe, 

E. J. Donnelly, L. K. Siggous, 

Emma A. Holland, M. H. Siggous, 

P. J. Lauber, Helena A Smith, 

Jacob Munz, Katie Smith, 

G. E. Nelson, Horace K. Subers, 

J. E. Nethery, Charles H. Thumbert. 

COURSE III. Modern Essayists, by Professor F. E. Schelling, of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

No examination. 
COURSE IV. Practical Analytical Botany, by Professor J. T. Rothrock, 

of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Harriet W. Adams, John A. LaFore, 

J. S. Bagg, Eliza L. McClure, 

M. R. Beale, James T McClure, 

M. Ethel Burk, E. McDuffee, 

R. A. Child, J. B. Murphy, 

D. S. Chrystal J. C. H. Newcomer, 

E. Francis Condit, Franklin E. Page, 
Louise Eissler, Annie E. Paret, 
Mary Eissler L. L. Reger, 
Marrianne Ferguson, Maude Remington, 
Charles F. Guhlmann, Mary B. Reinhardt, 
Susan T. Hoopes, C. F. Saunders, 

A. E. Hostelly, M. P. Saunders, 

Elizabeth James, John Smethurst, 

Sybil James, Mary E. Smethurst, 

J. A. Jenkins, S. Smith, 

Bessie D. Jones, Hannah Streeter, 

Julia F. Jones, S. Lillie Twyeross, 

Emma L. Karse, William C. Warren, 
S. E. Williams. 

COURSE L American History, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 
No examination. 

246 The National, Conference on University Extension. 

COURSE II. American History, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 

No examination. 


COURSE I. Euripides for English Audiences, by Mr. R. G. Moulton, of 
Cambridge University, England. 

Lida Stokes Adams, Virginia E. Graeff, 

C. Belle T. Clay, Helen L. Murphy, 

Ella Faser, Susanna M. Price, 

Beulah A. Fennimore, Clara G. Rowley, 

Mary G. Umsted. 

COURSE II. Four Studies in Shakespeare, by Mr. R. G. Moulton, of 
Cambridge University, England. 

Fanny Binswanger, Helen L. Murphy, 

C. Belle T. Clay Frank H. Maclntire, 

Beulah A. Fenimore, Lucy P. Maclntire, 

George H. Karder, Clara G. Rowley, 

Robert C. Macauley, A. H. Saunders. 

COURSE III. Psychology, by Professor George S. Fullerton, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 

William H. Arnold, Catherine R. Hansel!, 

Jessie T. Bagg, Harriet Liebman, 

Kate C. Butler, Anna L. Longacre, 

Sarah Palmer Byrnes, Mary MacDuffee, 

Ella Faser, Paul de Moll, 

Anna W. Williams. 

COURSE IV. English Literature, by Professor R. E. Thompson, of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Martina de Pierra. 
COURSE V. Poets of America, by Professor Willis Boughton. 

Lucy C. Conard, M. V. Haigh, 

E. L. G. Thomas. 

COURSE VI. Civil Development of the United States, by Professor F. N. 
Thorpe, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Lucy C. Conard, Zeta B. Cundy, 

E. L. G. Thomas. 

The Report of the American Society. 247 

Geology and Paleontology, by Professor E. D. Cope, of the 

University of Pennsylvania. 

John G. Johnson, William C. Menough, 

E. M. Kenedy, Charles R. Toothaker. 

Chemistry, by Professor Henry Leffmann. 
No examination. 

Zoology, by Professor John A. Ryder, of the University of 

No examination. 

Botany, by Professor J. T. Rothrock, of the University of 

No examination. 


COURSE I. American History, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. 

No examination. 

COURSE II. Stories as a Mode of Thinking, by Mr. R. G. Moulton, of 

Cambridge University, England. 
Ella C. Alloway, Edith L. Stern, 

George E. Eby, Mary C. N. Thomas, 

Jennie B. Loos, Mary A. Williamson. 

COURSE III. Psychology, by Professor George S. Fullerton, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 

Mary A. Albertson, Annie L. English, 

Ella C. Alloway, Sue E. Stoever. 

COURSE IV. Change in Political Economy, by Mr. M. E. Sadler, of Ox- 
ford, England. 

No examination. 

COURSE V. Central Europe in the Nineteenth Century, by Professor E. 
P. Cheyney, of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Results not in. 


COURSE I. Stories as a Mode of Thinking, by Mr. R. G. Moulton, of 

Cambridge University, England. 
Margaret Cope, Minnie E. Faught, 

Jennie T. Borton, Gertrude Houston. 

248 The National Conference on University Extension. 

COURSE II. Political History of Europe, by Professor C. M. Andrews, 
of Bryn Mawr: 

Lloyd Balderston, Jr., Hannah M. Jones, 

Susanna S. Kite. 

COURSE III. Studies in English Poetry, by Professor Paul Shorey, of 
Bryn Mawr. 

Jennie T. Borton. 

COURSE IV. Chemistry, by Dr. Henry Leffmann. 
No examination. 


COURSE I. Botany, by Professor J. T. Rothrock, of the University of 

David T. Crystal. 

COURSE II. American History and Government, by Professor F. N. 
Thorpe, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Blanche Baldwin, Jessie S. Bagg, 

Antha Knowlton. 

COURSE III. Brook Farm Community, by Mr. Willis Boughton. 
Results not in. 



COURSE I. Economics, by Mr. Edward T. Devine, Staff- Lecturer of The 
American Society. 

Results not in. 


COURSE I. Economics, by Mr. Edward T. Devine, Staff-Lecturer of 
The American Society. 

Results not in. 

The Report of the American Society. 249 


COURSE I. Epochs of American History, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, 
of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Louisa A. Iredell. 

COURSE II. Administration of Government, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, 
of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Results not in. 


COURSE I. Typical English Poets, by Mr. Henry S. Pancoast. 
No examination. 

COURSE II. Earlier Plays of Shakespeare, by Professor J. O. Murray, of 

Results not in. 


COURSE I. Modern Novelists, by Professor F. E. Schelling, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 
Margaret M. Gummere, Margaret Marrs, 

Elizabeth D. Howell, Anna G. Redmond. 

COURSE II. Epochs of the American History, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, 
of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Results not in. 


COURSE I. Story of Faust by Mr. R. G. Moulton, of Cambridge Uni- 
versity England. 

Marietta K. Champion, Henrietta J. Meteer, 

George Edwarc Eby, Elizabeth C. Reeve, 

Anna Farrell, Esther Schooley, 

Norman Grey, Anna Taylor, 

Mary Walsh. 

COURSE II. American History and Government, by Professor F. N. 

Thorpe, of the University of Pennsylvania. 
G. Buckwalter, Jessie Fulweiler, 

Mary A. Burrough, Loretta Irland, 

Lidie Corbon, Margaret T. Magie, 

Anna Farrell, Emma Thegan, 

Clara R. Titus. 

250 The National Conference on University Extension. 

COURSE III. Change in Political Economy, by Mr. M. E. Sadler, of Ox- 
ford, England. 

No examination. 

COURSE IV. English Literature, by Professor R. E. Thompson, of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Results not in. 

COURSE I. English Poets of the Revolution Age, by Dr. W. Clarke 
Robinson, Staff-Lecturer of The American Society. 

No examination. 


COURSE I. English Literature of the Nineteenth Century, by Professor 
Henry W. Rolfe, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Results not in. 

COURSE I. American Literature, by Professor A. H. Smyth, of the Cen- 
tral High School. 

T. M. Gilbert, Louise Stern, 

S. DuBois Moury, William H. Stewart, 

Charles Palmer, Aida Pearl Urie, 

Walter L. Philips, Royal W. Urie. 


COURSE I. Economics by Mr. E. T. Devine, Staff-Lecturer of The 
Americar Society. 

No examination. 

COURSE I. English Literature of the Nineteenth Century, by Mr. H. W. 
Rolfe of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Results not in. 


COURSE I. English Poets of the Revolution Age, by Dr. W. Clarke 
Robinson, Staff -Lecturer of The American Society. 

Results not in. 

:" / ' -,'"., "":. , r 
The Report of the American Society. 25 1 


COURSE I. American History and Government, by Professor F. N. 
Thorpe of the University of Pennsylvania, i 

No examination. 

COURSE I. Representative American Authors, by Mr. J. H. Penniman. 

Anna S. Atkinson, Cynthia Doane, 

Mary W. Atkinson, Julia Van Horn, 

Hannah A. H. Beans, Miriam Watson, 

Elizabeth C. Cox, George Wheeler. 


COURSE I. American Literature by Professor A. H. Smyth, of the Cen- 
tral High School. 

George Bailey, Jr., Martha G. Thomas, 

Isabella F. Worrell. 

COURSE II. English Literature, by Professor A. H. Smyth, of the Cen- 
tral High School. 

Mary Ingram, Anna Worrall Kerr, 

Martha G. Thomas. 


COURSE I. English Poets of the Revolution Age, by Dr. W. Clarke Rob- 
inson, Staff-Lecturer of The American Society. 

Results not in. 

COURSE I. English Poets of the Revolution Age, by Dr. W. Clarke Rob- 
inson, Staff-Lecturer of The American Society. 

No examination. 

COURSE I. Central Europe in the Nineteenth Century, by Professor E. 
P. Cheyney, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Sallie T. Black, Minnie A. Moore, 

Murray C. Boyer, G. Fithian Tatem, 

Mary A. Crawley, Mary P. Tunnelle, 

William Wilcox. 

252 The National Conference on University Extension. 

COURSE II. Typical English Poets, by Mr. Henry S. Pancoast. 

Mary A. Crawley, Carrie Stiles, 

Mary P. Tunnelle. 

COURSE III. Civil Development of the United States, by Professor F. 
N. Thorpe, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Results not in. 


COURSE I. English Poets of the Revolution Age, by Dr. W. Clarke 
Robinson, Staff- Lecturer of The American Society. 

Results not in. 


COURSE I. American History, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 

No examination. 

COURSE II. American Literature, by Professor A. H. Smyth, of the 
Central High School. 

No examination. 


COURSE I. English Poets of the Revolution Age, by Dr. W. Clarke 
Robinson, Staff-Lecturer of The American Society. 

No examination. 


COURSE I. English Literature, by Professor R. E. Thompson, of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Results not in. 


COURSE I. Political Economy, by Mr. Edward T. Devine, Staff- Lecturer 
of The American Society. 

Results not in. 

The Report of the American Society. 253 


COURSE I. Economics, by Mr. Edward T. Devine, Staff-Lecturer of the 
American Society. 

Emma S. Brimmer, Ida R. McMillan, 

Mary Byrne, Emma Powers, 

William S. Gleim, Adaline B. Spindler, 

Elizabeth H. Hager, Belle M. Weitzel, 

Mary E. Zahn. 

COURSE II. English Poets of the Revolution Age, by Dr. W. Clarke 
Robinson, Staff-Lecturer of The American Society. 

Results not in. 


COURSE I. Representative American Authors, by Mr. J. H. Pennhnan. 

Results not in. 

COURSE I. Electricity, by Professor Henry Crew, of Haverford College. 

Morgan Bunting, Thomas P. Conard. 

Carrie B. Conard, E. W. Davis, 

COURSE II. English Literature, by Professor R. E. Thompson, of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

No examination. 


COURSE I. English Poets of the Revolution Age, by Dr. W. Clarke 
Robinson, Staff-Lecturer of The American Society. 

Results not in. 


COURSE I. Modern Essayists, by Professor F. E. Schelling, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania 

No examination. 

COURSE II. Epochs of American History, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, 
of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Results not in. 

254 The National Conference on University Extension. 

COURSE I. Epochs of American History, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, 

of the University of Pennsylvania. 
John C. Beans, Frank S. Herr, 

Mary S. Beans, Ellwood Hollingshead, 

Irene H. Benyaurd, Martha H. Hollingshead 

Leone E. Benyaurd, Elizabeth A. Moore, 

Nathan N. Conrow, Jennie H. Morris, 

Sarah H. W. Conrow, Lydia H. Morris, 

Annie Dougherty, Helen F. Wilson, 

Emily E. Herr, Mary R. Wilson. 

COURSE II. Poets of America, by Mr. Willis Boughton. 

Results not in. 


COURSE I. American History, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 
No examination. 

COURSE II. English Novelists, by Professor F. E. Schelling, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 
No examination. 

COURSE III. Central Europe in the Nineteenth Century, by Professor 

E. P. Cheyney, of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Ida R. Buzby, J. Barclay Hilyard, 

Charles Evan Merritt. 

COURSE I. Stories as a Mode of Thinking, by Mr. R. G. Moulton, of 

Cambridge University, England. 

Emma V. Blandy, Margaret W. Blandy, 

G. Le Roy Brown. 

COURSE II. English Novelists, by Professor F. E. Schelling, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 

No examination. 

COURSE I. Epochs in American History, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, of 

the University of Pennsylvania. 
Fredda H. Bryan, Hannah E. Holcomb, 

Ellie J. Burroughs, Laura L. Rose, 

A. S. Williamson. 

The Report of the American Society. 255 


COURSE I. English Literature, by Professor R. E. Thompson, of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 
No examination. 

COURSE II. Stories as a Mode of Thinking, by Mr. R. G. Moulion, of 

Cambridge University, England. 
Jacob Lynchenheim, Frederick I. Naile. 

COURSE III. Political Economy, by Professor R. E. Thompson, of the 

University of Pennsylvania. 
A. D. Eisenhower, Lidie R. Jones, 

Esther B. Eisenhower, Emma J. Kuder, 

Clandia B. Gurie, Frederick I. Naile, 

Mattie J. Zimmerman. 

COURSE IV. Civil Development of the United States, by Professor F: N. 
Thorpe, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Harriet E. Hallman. 

COURSE I. Europe finds America, by Professor F. N. Thorpe, of the 

University of Pennsylvania. 
Lizzie A. Brooke, Carrie A. Lukens, 

Mary Davlin, Esther Newlin. 


COURSE I. English Literature of the Nineteenth Century, by Mr. H. 
W. Kolfe, cf the University of Pennsylvania. 
Results not in. 


COURSE I. Political Economy, by Mr. Edward T. Devine, Staff-Lecturer 
of The American Society. 
Results not in. 

COURSE I. Political Economy, by Mr. Edward T. Devine, Staff-Lecturer 

of The American Society. 
William T. Arnold, May Miller, 

George Auchy, Bessie H. McLenegan, 

Henry T. Conard, William H. Price, 

Minta Fulton, Charles S. Prizer, 

Mary S. Thomas. 

256 The National Conference on University Extension. 

COURSE II. English Literature of the Nineteenth Century, by Mr. H. 
W. Rolfe, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Results not in. 

COURSE I. English Poets of the Revolution Age, by Dr. W. Clarke 
Robinson, Staff-Lecturer of The American Society. 

No examination. 

COURSE I. English Literature, by Professor R. E. Thompson, of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Ella D. Hankinson, Annie L. Hughes, 

Elizabeth Hughes. 

COURSE II. The Earlier Plays of Shakespeare, by Professor}. O. Murray, 
of Princeton. 

No examination. 

COURSE III. Geology, by Professor W. B. Scott, of Princeton. 
William R.Wright. 

COURSE IV. Political Economy, by Professor R. E. Thompson, of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Results not in. 

COURSE I. Electricity, by Professor A. W. Goodspeed, of the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

No examination. 

COURSE I. English Literature in the Nineteenth Century, by Professor 
H. W. Rolfe, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

J. Charles Aiken, Caroline T. Martin, 

Elizabeth C. Crumley, Mary L. Roberts, 

Mary T. Dunn, Etta M. Stauffer, 

Leila Wetherill. 

COURSE II. A Bird's-Eye View of European History, by Ida M. Gardner. 

Results not in. 

The Report of the American Society. 257 


COURSE I. History of Europe, 1815-49, by Professor Charles M. An- 
drews, of Bryn Mawr. 

Sue Henderson, William T. Sharpless, 

Catherine S. Monaghan, Mary Butler Windle. 

COURSE II. American Literature, by Professor A. H. Smyth, of the Cen- 
tral High School of Philadelphia. 
No examination. 

COURSE III. The People of the United States, by Professor John Bach 
McMaster, of the University of Pennsylvania. 
No examination. 


COURSE I. Political Economy, by Mr. Edward T. Devine, Staff- Lecturer 
of The American Society. 
Results not in. 


COURSE I. English Literature, by Mr. R. G. Moulton, of Cambridge 
University, England. 

No examination. 

COURSE II. Electricity, by Professor A. W. Goodspeed, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 
No examination. 

COURSE III. France During the Struggle for Freedom of Conscience, by 

Rev. William H. Johnson. 
Gertrude C. Pyle, Isabel B. Wales, 

Mary R. D. Withers. 


COURSE I. English Literature in the Nineteenth Century, by Mr. H. 
W. Rolfe, of the University of Pennsylvania- 
Results not in 


COURSE I. English Poets of the Revolution Age, by Dr. W. Clarke 

Results not in. 


National Conference on University Extension. 


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The Report of the American Society. 





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260 The National Conference on University Extension. 


Association Local. MR. HORACE G. THOMAS, Fifteenth and 

Chestnut Streets. 
Bridgeport, Conn. Miss M. F. SOMERSET, 206 Lafayette Street, 


Bridgeton, N. J. MR. PHCEBUS W. LYON, Bridgeton. 
Bristol, Pa. MR. WILLIAM V. LEECH, Bristol. 
Bryn Mawr. MRS. EDNA WITHERSPOON, Haverford College, 


Burlington, N. J. MRS. J. B. HOWELL, Burlington. 
Camden, N. J. Miss ELIZABETH C. REEVE, 301 State Street, 


Carbondale, Pa. MR. H. F. SWARTZ, Carbondale. 
Chambersburg, Pa. REV. HERBERT ALLEMAN, Chambersburg. 
Chester, Pa. PROF. THOMAS S. COLE, Chester. 
Chester Springs, Pa. Miss ANNIE J. DAVIS, Chester Springs. 
Coatesville, Pa. MR. LEWIS B. HENSON, Coatesville. 
Columbia, Pa. Miss MARY WELSH, 532 Chestnut Street, Co- 

Conshohocken, Pa. WM. A. COOPER, Conshohocken. 
Doylestown, Pa. MR. HUGH B. EASTBURN, Doylestown. 
Downingtown, Pa. DR. EDWARD KERR, East Lancaster Avenue, 

Frankford, Pa. MR. GEORGE W. WRIGHT, 237 South Fourth 

Street, Philadelphia. 
Germantown, Pa, MRS. LOUISA RANDOLPH, 132 Price Street, 


Gettysburg, Pa. MR. C. F. SANDERS, Gettysburg. 
Green Ridge, Pa. MR. H. B. REYNOLDS, Green Ridge. 
Haddonfield, N. J. Miss MARY TUNNELLE, Haddonfield. 
Harrisburg, Pa. Miss VIRGINIA HOAGLAND, Harrisburg. 
Holmesburg, Pa. MR. W. W. BROWN, Holmesburg. 
Honesdale, Pa. HON. R. BRUCE WILSON, Honesdale. 
Jenkintown, Pa. Miss BELLE VANSANT, Jenkintown. 
Kingston, Pa. MR. S. R. SMITH, Kingston. 

The Report of the American Society. +261 

Lancaster, Pa. REV. CHAS. S. FRY, Lancaster. 

Langhorne, Pa. Miss LILLIE ALLEN, Langhorne. 

Lansdowne, Pa. MR. EDWARD V. KANE, Lansdowne. 

Lebanon, Pa. REV. THEODORE E. SCHMAUK, Lebanon. 

Media, Pa. MR. J. T. REYNOLDS, Media. 

Moore stown, N. J. DR. JOSEPH STOKES, Moorestown. 

Mount Holly, N. J. MR. B. F. HEYWOOD SHREVE, Mount 

New Century Club Guild, Philadelphia. MRS. E. S. TURNER, 

2102 Mt. Vernon Street. 

Newark, Del. MR. HARLOW H. CURTIS, Newark. 
Newtown, Pa. Miss LAURA W. WHITE, Newtown. 
Norristown, Pa. MR. WALTER M. SHAW, Penn and Swede 

Streets, Norristown. 

North Wales, Pa. MRS. W. R. CHILDS, North Wales. 
Phcenixville, Pa. MR. D. F. MOORE, Phoenixville. 
Plymouth, Pa. MR. J. I. CREVELING, Plymouth. 
Reading, Pa. MR. CHARLES S. PRIZER, Reading. 
Roxborough, Pa. MR. A. C. GOELL, Ridge Avenue and Vassar 

Streets, Philadelphia. 

Scranton, Pa. MR. H. B. Cox, Scranton. 
South Broad Street, Philadelphia. MR. S. K. CAMPBELL, 1156 

South Broad Street, Philadelphia. 
Spring Garden Institute, Philadelphia. MR. JAMES HAWORTH, 

641 Arch Street, Philadelphia. 
Trenton, N. J. MR. J. H. WOOD, 223 N. Warren Street, 

United Club and Institute, Philadelphia. MR. J. L. STEWART, 

1726 South Fifteenth Street, Philadelphia. 
Vineland, N. J. MR. C. K. LANDIS, Vineland. 
Wagner Institute, Philadelphia. MR. THOMAS L. MONTGOMERY, 

Seventeenth and Montgomery Avenue. 
Wayne, Pa. MRS. R. ESTRADA, Wayne. 
West Chester, Pa. MR. JAMES MONAGHAN, West Chester. 
West Philadelphia. Miss HENRIETTA LEONARD, 4300 Walnut 

Street, Philadelphia. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. MR. SYDNEY R. MINER, Wilkes-Barre. 

262 The National Conference on University Extension. 

Wilmington, Del. MR. ENDS L. DOAN, 511 Washington Street, 


Winchester, Va. MR. W. ROY STEPHENSON, Winchester. 
Wissahickon Heights, Pa. DR. L. ASHLEY FAUGHT, 1331 Arch 

Street, Philadelphia. 
Women's Christian Association, Philadelphia. MRS. WILLIAM S. 

STEWART, 1801 Arch Street. 
Wyoming, Pa. DR. CHARLES P. KNAPP. 
York, Pa. MR. A. WANNER, York. 



Total Number of 
Lectures Given. 

Average Number 
of Lectures in 
Each Course. 

Attendance at the 






Total Attendances 
at the Lectures. 

Number of Certifi- 
cates Awarded. 

Cambridge .... Of 6 Lectures, 4 
Of 7 or 8 " o 
1889-90. Of ii or 12" 115 

London Of 6 Lectures 3 







Of 7 or 8 " o 
1889-90. Of 10 or 12" 99 


Oxford . . Of 6 Lectures 113 







Of 7 or 8 " 24 
1889-90. Ofioori2" ii 

Victoria .... , . Of 8 Lectures 8 







1889-90. ' 8 

American Society . Of 3 Lectures, 6 
Of 4 4 
Of 6 67 
Of 7 3 
Of 8 4 

Of 10 2 

Of 12 4 
1891. Jan. i-Dec. Of 20 2 
31. 92 







1 72 

I 34,257 


The Report of the American Society. 



BARRETT, Miss G. A., 
EVANS, Miss H. B., 
GARRETT, Miss E. N., 
HEAD, MRS. E. L., 

JF.NKS, MRS. W. F., 


MILNE, MR. F. F., 
PARDEE, Miss, 


SILL, MRS. H. M., 
SMITH, Miss E. N., 
VAIL, Miss, 


264 The National Conference on University Extension. 





HEAD, MRS. E. L., 
KEEN, DR. W. W., 



SAYRE, MR. W. L., 


WOOD, Miss IDA, 

The Report of the American Society. 265 


BEARDSLEY, PROFESSOR ARTHUR, Swarthmore College, Swarth- 
more, Pa. 

BIGELOW, MR. R. B., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

BIRNES, PROFESSOR WILLIAM P., Franklin and Marshall College, 
Lancaster, Pa. 

BLACK, PRESIDENT WILLIAM H. , Missouri Valley College, Mar- 
shall, Mo. 

BOURNE, PROFESSOR HENRY E., Norwich Free Academy, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

BUCKHAM, PRESIDENT M. H., University of Vermont, Burling- 
ton, Vt. 

BUDD, MR. H. I., Mount Holly Centre, Mount Holly, N. J. 


BUTTZ, PRESIDENT PL A., Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, 
N. Y. 

COLEMAN, RT. REV. LEIGHTON, Bishop of Delaware, Wilming- 
ton, Del. 

CORSE, MR. F. M., University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 

DAVENPORT, MR. CHARLES B., Harvard University, Cambridge, 

DAY, MR. B. C., Columbia College, New York City, N. Y. 

DEGARMO, PRESIDENT CHARLES, Swarthmore College, Swarth- 
more, Pa. 

DEWEY, MR. MELVIL, Secretary of University of the State of 
New York, Albany, N. Y. 

DIMM, PRINCIPAL J. R., Missionary Institute, Selin's Grove, Pa. 

DOWLING, PROFESSOR F. N., Bethany College, Bethany, West Va. 

DUBBS, PROFESSOR JOSEPH H., Franklin and Marshall College, 
Lancaster, Pa. 

DUNCAN, MR. GEORGE S., Harrisburg Centre, Harrisburg, Pa. 

EDGAR, PRESIDENT J., Wilson College, Chambersburg, Pa. 

ETTINGER, PROFESSOR GEORGE T., Muhlenberg College, Allen- 
town, Pa. 

FELL, PRESIDENT THOMAS, St. John's College, Annapolis, Md. 

266 The National Conference on University Extension. 

FERGUSON, PROFESSOR HENRY, Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 
FISHER, PROFESSOR GEORGE P., Yale University, New Haven, 


FRY, REV. CHARLES L., President Extension Society, Lancaster, 

GILBERT, PROFESSOR GEORGE, President Chester Centre, Chester, 


GREEN, MR. D. I., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
GRINE, MR. R. W., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 


HAGER, Miss, Lancaster Centre, Lancaster, Pa. 
HALL, PRESIDENT G. STANLEY, Clark University, Worcester, 


HARE, REV. J. M., Phcenixville Centre, Phcenixville, Pa. 
HARK, REV. J. MAX, Lancaster Centre, Lancaster, Pa. 
HARRIS, HON. WILLIAM T., U. S. Commissioner of Education, 

Washington, D. C. 
HARTER, PROFESSOR GEORGE A., Delaware College, Newark, 


HARTRANFT, REV. F. B., Hartford Theological Seminary, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

HINES, PROFESSOR CHARLES F., Dickinson College, Carlisle, 

HOLLANDER, MR. J. H., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 

HOOPER, PROFESSOR FRANKLIN W., Brooklyn Institute, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 

HOOVER, SECRETARY S. R., Lebanon Centre, Lebanon, Pa. 
HOVEY, PRINCIPAL E. O., Newark Centre, Newark, N. J. 
HOWELL, MR. J. R., Mount Holly Centre, Mount Holly, N. J. 
HYATT, COL. CHARLES E., President Penna. Military Academy, 

Chester, Pa. 

JOHANN, PRESIDENT CARL, Eureka College, Eureka, 111. 
JONES, MR. ADDISON, Chairman of West Chester Centre, West 

Chester, Pa. 

The Report of the American Society. 267 

KAIGHN, MR. E. P., Secretary Y. M. C. A., Springfield, Mass. 

KERR, PRESIDENT D. R., Omaha College, Omaha, Neb. 

KERSHNER, PROFESSOR J. E., Franklin and Marshall College, 
Lancaster, Pa. 

KIEFFER, PROFESSOR JOHN B., Franklin and Marshall College, 
Lancaster, Pa. 

KINLEY, MR. DAVID, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

LEASE, MR. E. B., Baltimore, Md. 

LIBBEY, JR., PROFESSOR WILLIAM, College of New Jersey, Prince- 
ton, N. J. 

MARTIN, PROFESSOR S. A., Lincoln University, Lincoln Univer- 
sity P. O., Pa. 

MCDIARMID, PRESIDENT H., Bethany College, Bethany, West Va. 

MCKNIGHT, PRESIDENT H. W., Pennsylvania College, Gettys- 
burg, Pa. 

MELOY, PROFESSOR ANDREW E., State Normal, Lock Haven, Pa. 

MERRILL, PROFESSOR W. A., Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. 

MILLER, MR. EDGAR G., Baltimore, Md. 


MITCHELL, PRESIDENT EDWARD C., Leland University/ New 
. Orleans, La. 

MOORE, REV. W. W., Rector of Franklin and Marshall College, 
Lancaster, Pa. 

MORSE, MR. F. L., Hanover, Ind. 

MOTTER, DR. MURRAY GALT, Lancaster Centre, Lancaster, Pa. 

MULL, MR. GEORGE F., Lancaster Centre, Lancaster, Pa. 

MUNRO, PROFESSOR WILFRED H., Brown University, Providence, 
R. I. 

OGDEN, PROFESSOR HOWARD N., University of West Virginia, 
Morgantown, West Va. 

PAHLMANN, PROFESSOR AUGUST, Lutheran Theological Seminary, 
Gettysburg, Pa. 

PHILPUTT, REV. A. B., New York City, N. Y. 

PRATT, PRINCIPAL F. B., Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

PRIZER, MR. CHARLES S., Reading Centre, Reading, Pa. 

PURINTON, PRESIDENT D. B., Denison University, Granville, 

268 The National Conference on University Extension. 


RAUB, PRESIDENT ALBERT N., Delaware College, Newark, Del. 

RAYMOND, PRESIDENT S. P., Wesleyan University, Middletown, 

RICE, PROFESSOR WILLIAM NORTH, Wesleyan University, Middle- 
town, Conn. 

RICHARDS, PROFESSOR M. H., Muhlenberg College, Allentown, 

ROGERS, PROFESSOR ROBERT W., Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. 

SANFORD, PROFESSOR M. L., University of Minnesota, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 

SCHMAUK, REV. T. E., President Extension Society, Lebanon, Pa. 

SHERLEY, MR. FRED., University of the State of New York, 
Albany, N. Y. 

SMITH, PRESIDENT W. W., Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, 
Va. ' 

SPROULL, PROFESSOR W. O., University of Cincinnati, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

STAHR, PRESIDENT JOHN S., Franklin and Marshall College, 
Lancaster, Pa. 

STILES, DR. CHARLES W., Washington, D. C. 

SUPER, PRESIDENT CHARLES W., Ohio University, Athens, Ohio. 

THOMAS, MR. RALPH W., University of the State of New York, 
Albany, N. Y. 

VANMETER, DEAN JOHN B., Women's College, Baltimore, Md. 

VENTER, MR. W. A., Secretary Y. M. C. A., Trenton, N. J. 

VINCENT, BISHOP JOHN H., Chancellor of the Chautauqua System, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

WARD, PROFESSOR HENRY BALDWIN, Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

WHITCOMB, DR. HENRY B., Norristown Centre, Norristown, Pa. 

WOODBURN, PROFESSOR JAMES A., University of Indiana, Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 

WOOLEY, PROFESSOR L. C., Bethany College, Bethany, West Va. 

ZULLIG, PROFESSOR ARNOLD, High School, Watertown, Mass. 



Secretary of the University of the State of New York. 

BEFORE submitting the University Extension plans of the 
University of the State of New York, I must make sure that you 
do not misunderstand what that University is. It is not a 
teaching body, and has neither professors, class-rooms, nor stu- 
dents in the ordinary sense. May i is celebrated in New York 
as University Day because on that day, in 1784, as a result of the 
labors of a committee, of which Alexander Hamilton was the 
most prominent member, this unique University had its birth. 
The idea of federal government, of which Hamilton's mind was 
full, is deeply stamped on our University. It is really a feder- 
ation of all incorporated academies, colleges, universities, pro- 
fessional and technical schools, and other institutions of higher 
education in New York State, though each has its independent 
trustees and government, just as the forty-four States of the 
Union are all sovereign and independent, and yet together make 
up this nation. As the United States government has no terri- 
tory except the little District of Columbia, so the University of 
the State of New York has only the forty or fifty rooms occupied 
by its departments and offices at the State Capitol. The Uni- 
versity, however, is governed by its regents, the federated insti- 
tutions having only an advisory voice in its administration. 
Many of its functions are those of a State department of higher 
education, distinct from the department of public instruction in 
charge of common schools. It began with only a single insti- 
tution, Columbia College. 


270 The National Conference on University Extension. 

The great common-school system of New York is an outgrowth 
of the University, which urged on the government the need of 
establishing elementary schools at the cost and under the super- 
vision of the State. The germs of the greatest possibilities were 
in Hamilton's original idea, but for three-quarters of a century 
they lay largely dormant. During the civil war two important 
steps were taken. In 1863 began the series of University Convo- 
cations, annual gatherings, in the second week of July, of the 
representatives of the colleges and academies of the State, which 
have grown more and more important, till recent sessions have 
been pronounced by the most competent judges the best of 
American educational meetings. Two years later, in 1865, be- 
gan the system of State examinations, which from the smallest 
beginnings has steadily grown till it now uses half a million 
question papers annually for examinations conducted simultane- 
ously in three hundred and fifty different centres in the State. 
At first only the common-school studies, arithmetic, geography, 
grammar, reading, writing, and spelling were tested, in order to 
show what pupils had completed elementary work and could 
properly be classed as academic students, and therefore as prop- 
erly belonging to the University. In 1878, twenty academic 
studies were added, and this number was increased in 1879 to 
thirty-five, in 1881 to thirty-six, in 1883 to thirty-nine, in 1885 
to forty-one, in 1889 to forty-two, in 1890 to fifty-eight. With 
the present year the University is giving examinations also in 
law, medicine, literary science, and announces the early opening 
of examinations in all ordinary college and university subjects. 

In 1889 there was a general reorganization of the University, 
and the forty-four laws which had grown up during the one hun- 
dred and five years of its existence were all replaced by a single 
law greatly enlarging its scope and powers. Our great State 
library of one hundred and sixty thousand volumes, beside one 
hundred thousand duplicates, and our great State museum, with 
the work of the various State scientific officers, paleontologist, 
geologist, botanist, entomologist, zoologist, etc., are now in- 
tegral departments of the University. Universities, colleges, 
academies, libraries and museums, and other institutions of 

Appendix A. 271 

higher education, are chartered by the University, instead of by 
the legislature as in all other States, and questions of change in 
name, or alteration, suspension, or revocation of charters of such 
institutions come to the regents instead of to the legislature or 
courts. The functions of the University are therefore manifold, 
and will be recognized as combining those of various well- 
known English institutions, the State Library and the State 
Museum correspond to the British Museum and the natural his- 
tory departments at South Kensington ; the Examinations de- 
partment has the functions of London University, the local ex- 
aminations of Oxford and Cambridge, and of the Science and 
Art department ; while the executive work corresponds to much 
of that of the general education department. A law of last 
year authorized a fifth department, so that the departments of 
the University are now Executive, Examinations, University 
Extension, State Library, and State Museum. To those inter- 
ested we are always glad to send without charge publications ex- 
plaining the peculiar New York system. This brief mention 
will show its remarkable adaptation for undertaking the work of 
University Extension. 

Extension work can have no permanent success unless it utilizes 
fully the facilities of existing institutions and is conducted in 
close relations with them. On the other hand, if each college 
or university undertook to maintain an administrative depart- 
ment for University Extension purposes, the cost would be pro- 
hibitive. Only those who have studied the elaborate machinery 
necessary to secure the best results can understand how much 
time and expense are involved in a central organization for such 
work. With us, the University itself, being a central office in 
the interest of all the separate institutions, becomes the ideal 
administrative Extension centre. 

Now, a word of warning : University Extension is a great 
permanent force in education which has come to stay, but it is 
clearly destined to go through a period of misapprehension and 
to suffer, probably, more from its friends than from its enemies, 
till Extension workers and the public shall both come to a clear 
understanding of what the work is and how it can best be done. 


272 The National Conference on University Extension. 

Just at present it is the fashion, and is spreading through the 
country like the craze of twenty years ago for velocipedes, and 
later for roller-skates, when even little villages built rinks for the 
new amusement. Unhappily, all sorts of things, more or less 
resembling University Extension, are being called by its name. 
There is a large class of people who seize on any taking phrase 
or name and try to ride upon it into popular favor. A man with 
a course of lectures that he could get no opportunity to deliver, 
brushes off the dust and writes " University Extension" at the 
head, and immediately it is in demand. They are the old 
lectures without the alteration of a word. It is simple abuse of 
the new name, and an effort to ride into popular favor at the very 
front of the movement. This is the cow-catcher danger. 

Then there is the kindling-wood danger. In lighting a hard- 
coal fire there is a great blaze and roar, and not a little heat as 
the shavings and kindlings blaze fiercely up. We are now in 
just this period of University Extension, and it is altogether 
probable that after a little the blaze and roar and heat will 
die down, and the casual observer will say, " That is ended," and 
turn to the next new fad ; but as with the fire, if we handle 
it properly it will mean only that the coal is just kindling. 
After a little will come the strong heat, and we shall be in an era 
of real University Extension. 

I met a man last week a little ailing. To my query he answered, 
" I have the grippe," and then added, " I have had exactly the 
same difficulty for the last forty years, but this year it is the 
grippe. ' ' Just in this random, popular way everything good, bad, 
and indifferent, connected in any way with reading, studying, 
lecturing, examinations, etc., is called University Extension. 

We must face facts, and shall accomplish more in the end by 
not attempting too much at the beginning. I am constrained to 
nter my personal protest when over-zealous friends of the new 
movement propose to create new and unnecessary institutions, 
and to ignore the fact that the work can be done better and 
cheaper by using existing plants. I object to the proposed use 
of the name " college" in connection with institutions that are 
desirable in many localities. The word college has in the 

Appendix A. 273 

American mind a distinct meaning, and will only be belittled by 
applying it loosely to other things, however good. Call it an 
institute, seminary, anything you please, except to take the word 
college or university, which conveys to the ordinary mind a sense 
of protracted study in residence. 

Finally, I wish to lay the greatest possible emphasis on a fact 
that many seem to forget. The public library is the real corner- 
stone of University Extension. The mission of the University 
Extension lecturer is less to instruct than to inspire. He should 
lead both auditors and students to feel an interest in the subject 
that will force them to read during the week from the books and 
articles he has recommended, and to come to the class the next 
week full of the fruits of this reading. An institution to which 
the name library will usually be given, may well be built in the 
form of a Greek cross, of which the four arms shall be used, one 
for a reference library and reading-room, another for the circu- 
lating library, the third for a museum of science, and the fourth 
for a museum of history and art, while in the second story will 
be rooms of different sizes for University Extension classes. The 
library is the real people's university of this age, but it can never 
do its highest work unless the public can have the inspiration of 
personal contact with teachers who will guide, and interest, and 
help them to get most good from the books. What we need is 
a well-selected library in every town, with rooms for Extension 
classes, to which there shall come frequently from the univer- 
sities Extension teachers freighted with inspiration. These 
libraries in such vital connection with the universities will be 
like hydrants connected with a great reservoir on the hill-tops. 
How vastly better in a city is a series of such hydrants, with 
power enough to throw a stream to the roof of the tallest house, 
than it would be to have an old-fashioned hand fire-engine 
standing before every door, with a score of men to work the 
brakes. Our University Extension centres are educational hy- 
drants connected with the high reservoirs, the universities. 

As to the definite plan of work which we have laid out for the 
State University Extension department, I must remind you that 
we mean to go slowly, to build carefully, feeling that we are 


274 The National Conference on University Extension. 

erecting a permanent structure that must have broad and strong 
foundations. You can build a temporary tabernacle for a camp- 
meeting in a week or two ; but when you build a pile of granite 
like your great city hall, which centuries hence will be looked 
on with admiration, you do not hesitate to give years to its con- 
struction. Our department includes not only University Ex- 
tension proper, but all other educational work not covered by 
our schools, academies, colleges, libraries, and museums. The 
following statements from our first circular will make clear our 
plans : 


Publications, to be had free from the University Extension 
department, give a brief history of the movement, and detail the 
methods found most successful in its workings. The present cir- 
cular aims to outline briefly the work of the new department, for 
which the last legislature appropriated ten thousand dollars. The 
State fiscal year begins October i, but in establishing a new de- 
partment it was deemed more important to utilize fully the 
experience of those who had been conducting similar work during 
the past twenty years than to start at the earliest possible day. 
As the secretary returned late in October from a second study of 
the methods and workings of the Extension system in the Eng- 
lish universities, the department was not formally organized till 
November, 1891. 

Use of State Appropriation. There has been serious misappre- 
hension in many quarters as to the method of spending the new 
appropriation, some supposing that on application the regents 
would send about the State, without charge, university professors 
to deliver free courses of lectures. The law distinctly provides 
that no part of the money shall be so spent, it being the intent 
of the act that such expenses shall be borne by the localities 
benefited. The appropriation is for expenses of such adminis- 
trative and other work as can be done better and cheaper in the 
central office at the capitol for the whole State than by individual 
centres. Besides doing such administrative work for its colleges 
and academies, the State annually distributes one hundred and 

Appendix A. 275 

six thousand dollars to its academies to buy books and apparatus, 
and to pay teachers' wages. For University Extension, however, 
it makes no such provision, but only lends necessary books and 
apparatus to communities needing such assistance in increasing 
educational facilities. The Extension department has already re- 
ceived some aid from private sources, and invites gifts either for 
immediate use or for permanent endowments, which will enable 
it to contribute toward the salaries of competent Extension 
teachers, for which State money cannot be used. 

Rigid economy in the use of this money is necessary, because : 

(a) The appropriation is so small in comparison with the ex- 
tent of the work to be undertaken, averaging less than one dollar 
to each school district in the State. 

() Permanent success of the movement requires that conserv- 
ative and doubtful legislators shall see that every dollar is 
needed and has been expended wisely and economically. 

Subjects Properly Covered by Extension Courses. The word 
" university" misleads many into thinking only of ordinary col- 
lege studies. The law intentionally omits the limiting words, 
and says only "opportunities and facilities for education for the 
people at large, adults as well as youth." It includes, therefore, 
any subject which can be included under the broadest concep- 
tion of education, whether it is taught usually in academy, col- 
lege, university, professional or technical school, or even if it is 
taught in no other institution. 

Location of Office. The office of the Extension department is 
in the southwest corner of the fourth floor of the capitol, between 
the upper rooms of the State library and the examinations de- 
partment, with both of which its work will be very intimately 

The notes below show what the work of the department is, 
and how much the State furnishes free to localities willing to pay 
the teacher's fees and expenses. 

i. Information Bureau. This answers, either personally or by 
correspondence, questions of all kinds pertaining to any phase 
of Extension work, including not only University Extension in 
its more limited sense, but also courses of reading, home study, 

276 The National Conference on University Extension. 

examinations and credentials, self-culture, and all reputable 
movements at home and abroad for providing larger facilities for 
higher education outside the schools. 

An important part of the work at present is in putting those 
needing such aids into communication with the best of the many 
agencies which have sprung up in recent years for helping those 
who wish to help themselves, notably the great Chautauqua sys- 
tem of guided reading. Instead of duplicating existing facilities, 
the department prefers to have every institution do all it can do 
well, and therefore gladly refers inquirers to the place where 
they can find the needed help already provided. 

2. Extension Library. This includes not only books, pam- 
phlets, and serials pertaining to the various phases of Extension 
work, but also syllabuses, circulars, programmes, blanks, and forms 
illustrative of methods, and everything else obtainable in print 
which the most thorough student of the movement would find of 
interest. This Extension library is to be made as complete as 
possible, including all languages, and will be an important at- 
traction to those engaged in Extension work to attend the annual 
Extension conferences at the time of University Convocation. 
To increase its convenience, it is minutely classified by subjects, 
so that any student of Extension methods, experiments, and ex- 
perience can see what the rest of the world has done and is doing 
on any of the hundreds of phases of the movement. All sylla- 
buses, both American and foreign, are also brought together and 
minutely classified by subjects treated. 

The complete file of publications can always be found in the 
building for reference ; but as most of the Extension library is 
duplicated, the second copies will be available for lending to Ex- 
tension workers throughout the State who are unable to come to 
Albany to consult them. This library is for the promoters and 
managers of the movement. For students, provision is made in 
travelling libraries and in loans of books on the special subject 
under consideration at any given time. 

3. Publications. As the Extension movement is compara- 
tively so new, one of the greatest needs is full information 
in print for the increasing number desirous of knowing its 

Appendix A. 277 

history, methods, advantages, and limitations. Besides ex- 
planatory and descriptive circulars and other documents which 
are sent post-free to all applicants, there are kept constantly on 
hand the best periodicals, pamphlets, and books from the whole 
field of extension literature, to be lent to interested applicants 
free, or sold at wholesale cost. Books lent are unmarked, so that 
the reader has the option of returning them post-paid, or of re- 
taining them and sending the wholesale price. Each book lent 
has next the front cover a slip lightly pasted at one end, reading, 
" This book is charged at Albany to a responsible borrower. It 
must be returned post-paid within two weeks, or this slip, the 
number on which identifies the charge, may be torn out and re- 
turned with cents to pay its wholesale cost. The charge 

will then be cancelled and the book recorded as paid for." 
Borrowers not known to the office as responsible deposit the 
value of books taken, which is refunded on their return. 

The cost of securing needed publications is thus greatly 
reduced, and the department can promptly furnish the best pub- 
lications on every phase of the subject in a single package, when 
otherwise those interested might be compelled to write to a dozen 
different sources, and, as some of the matter must be imported, to 
wait several weeks for its arrival, besides suffering the annoyance 
of custom-house routine. The small price affixed to certain 
publications guards against the waste inevitable if they are given 
free to all applicants, and also guards against the criticism that 
State money is used to print or buy books to be given away. 
Local committees and others desiring to distribute documents in 
aid of Extension work will be supplied at mere cost of paper 
and press- work, i.e., one cent for each sixteen pages like this 

A list of the best publications is supplied free, and notes under 
each title indicate its character, so that inquirers may select what 
they need and order it by simply giving the number prefixed in 
the check list. 

4. Organizing. To any locality wishing to establish Extension 
courses, the department undertakes to give expert assistance in 
selecting subjects, teachers, and dates, arranging terms, and per- 

278 TJie National Conference on University Extension. 

fecting any needed organization for doing the work in the way 
experience has shown to be best. This may be done by corre- 
spondence, though it can usually be better done if the organizer 
visits the centre in person, so that he can study local conditions, 
become acquainted with those in the community interested in 
such work, and personally assist in the preliminary organization. 
The organizers are provided with all needed blanks and forms 
for this work. The department hopes to be able to send to any 
place in the State a suitable person to give a public address to 
stimulate general interest, or meet a smaller number chosen as a 
local committee, or render any assistance in the power of a 
competent specialist. No charge is made for such service, 
beyond actual travelling expenses. In case of the illness of a 
lecturer during the course, the department will try to provide 
the most satisfactory substitute available. 

Expenses for which provision must be made by the centre are 
the teacher's fee, travelling expenses, and local expenses, such 
as hall, heat, light, and advertising. The department will sup- 
ply any of these lecturers with thousand-mile tickets, as any 
parts of tickets left over can be used in other places, and the 
centre be charged only for the amount used in its service. The 
fee for the course should be provided for in advance, and, if 
intrusted to the department, one-half should be sent before the 
course begins and the remainder before the sixth lecture. Col- 
lege professors, as a rule, prefer to have terms arranged and 
to receive their compensation from the Extension department, 
rather than conduct negotiations and collect fees in person. As 
the supply of competent teachers is far less than the demand, it 
is folly to waste any of their time and strength on business 
details. That there may be no misunderstanding, blank forms 
filled with an explicit statement of exact terms in writing are 
supplied both to teachers and local secretaries. Obviously it will 
be pleasanter and better for all parties to have financial arrange- 
ments made through the department. All this work is done by 
the office without charge or commission, and it will often be able 
so to arrange courses in circuits or on succeeding nights as to re- 
duce materially the travelling expenses or time taken, and there- 

Appendix A. 279 

fore the amount of fees to be paid. (See also " Expenses," in 
How to begin University Extension.') 

5. Supervising. As in organizing, the department will on re- 
quest endeavor to send an expert to inspect the workings of 
centres and give such practical suggestions as may enable them 
to accomplish better work with the time and money at their dis- 
posal. It constantly happens, specially in the early years, that 
centres accomplish only half the work possible, or sometimes are 
wholly abandoned, when one thoroughly familiar with Extension 
methods could readily have pointed out mistakes and introduced 
new elements which would have insured high success. 

Though Extension teaching is a new and peculiar form of 
education, its methods have already been worked out with great 
care. Centres, however, are springing up in many places with 
very imperfect notions of what these methods are, and as a re- 
sult are giving courses of lectures with more or less work resem- 
bling University Extension proper, but by no means entitled to 
the name. Perhaps no work of the department will be more 
important for the first years than this advisory supervision for 
enabling local centres to utilize fully the experiments and ex- 
periences of the remarkable work carried on for the past twenty 
years by the English universities. 

6. Supplies. Specially ruled and printed books and forms for 
recording attendance at lectures, classes, and clubs, for marks of 
papers and examinations, and other needed records, are furnished 
free. The department furnishes syllabuses for less than centres 
can print them, as it divides their cost among the various 
centres using the same syllabus. For protection of the sylla- 
buses, it further provides, if requested, manilla pockets con- 
taining also note-books of uniform size, costing at wholesale 
only five dollars per hundred, so that centres can furnish a 
manilla pocket, holding ticket, syllabus, and note-book, to each 
person buying a ticket. For centres preferring, the syllabus will 
be printed with blank pages for notes, but the separate note-book, 
uniform in size, is preferable, and, if supplied with the ticket, 
many more students will take notes and profit more from the 

280 The National Conference on University Extension. 

Tickets for the course can be had at twenty-five cents per hun- 
dred, and blanks (described in circular n, page 5) for securing 
members and students, at ten cents per hundred. 

Every centre is of course free to get its supplies where it 
chooses. The department aims simply to save time and money 
by getting at wholesale supplies needed by many centres, and 
distributing them without profit among centres asking such ser- 

7. Extension Teachers. Two lists are kept of all available 
lecturers, and class or correspondence teachers, with notes of 
education, academic degrees, experience in teaching, subjects, 
length of each course, months and days when service is available, 
price, and any other items that would help in making a selection. 
One of these lists is arranged alphabetically, the other is classi- 
fied by subjects. These lists of teachers may be consulted by 
all interested. 

Later there will doubtless be a distinct University Extension 
faculty, representing the most successful teachers available for 
the work. This, however, cannot take permanent form until 
after a year or two's experience, for some of the most eminent 
university professors may be less successful in this new and 
peculiar form of teaching, while experience has proved that some 
of the very best work will be done by young men whose reputa- 
tion is not yet made. 

While the best work is always done by lecturers who also con- 
duct classes and correct weekly papers, there may be some de- 
sirable teachers who will give only inspirational lectures, leaving 
pupils to get their instruction chiefly from the books recom- 
mended ; others may be more successful in class-work than in 
lecturing, while still others may accomplish most by correspond- 
ence, giving needed guidance to their pupils by mail. The most 
desirable and efficient teachers, of course, combine all these 

The State pays no part of the teacher's fees or travelling ex- 
penses ; but it furnishes teachers in regents' centres with needed 
blanks, circulars for distribution, etc., and lends books, appa- 
ratus, or illustrative material if needed. While the unusual 

Appendix A. 281 

number of competent professors and specialists in our own State, 
and economy in time and travelling expenses to be gained by 
using teachers as near home as possible, will insure that the great 
majority of teachers will be New Yorkers, the department makes 
no limitation, but aims to recommend to each community the 
best teacher available for its purpose, regardless of his residence. 
Near the borders of another State it will often be wiser to com- 
bine with towns over the line, and perhaps to use their teachers. 

8. Examinations. Examinations are one of the most essential 
features of the plan, because of their great influence in holding 
Extension students up to continuous and systematic work, and 
of their necessity as a test in determining the quality of teaching 
and the success of the study done. 

A successful Extension teacher must be able to do two things : 
to hold the interest of his audience ; to give them such instruc- 
tion that at the end of the course they will have a fund of valu- 
able knowledge on the subject. Interest is readily tested by 
attendance, for people come regularly only when the teacher 
interests them. The second and more important part, the 
knowledge gained, is tested by means of examinations conducted 
quite independently of the teacher. 

When a course is completed, the University will give an exami- 
nation prepared by skilful and experienced examiners, and cov- 
ering only the ground specified in the syllabus, so that nothing 
shall be asked which should not readily be answered by any 
person who has attended the lectures and done the class and 
paper work satisfactorily. Extension students thus have a test 
which experience has proved much more valuable than it would 
be if the teacher who had given the instruction also gave the ex- 
amination. The department prepares and prints the papers, 
sends an examiner who conducts the test by the most approved 
methods, revises and grades all the answers, and awards to those 
who attain the prescribed standards suitable credentials under the 
seal of the University. - Any local or other prizes offered for ex- 
cellence in the course will also be awarded. The favorite form 
of prize has been a collection of books on the subject of the 
course up to the amount of the prize. Each of these books has 

282 The National Conference on University Extension. 

inside its cover an official book-plate showing that it was awarded 
by the University to the most successful student in a specified 
course and centre. Many are stimulated to do the class and 
paper work and take the examination by the possible honor of 
winning one of these prizes, and some one in almost every centre 
can be found to give enough to buy one, two, or three prizes, for 
the wholesale cost of suitable books is small. The result of the 
examinations becomes a part of the permanent State records in 
the capitol, and the names of those who receive credentials are 
printed in the next report of the regents to the legislature. 
Those who pass with honors have the fact recorded on their cre- 
dentials. Usually students' weekly papers are marked on a scale 
of 10, the ten papers of the course thus aggregating a possible 
100. The examination at the end is marked on a scale of 100, 
and combined with the results of the paper-work in determining 
a student's proficiency. This has been found a fairer test than 
to depend wholly on the results of a single examination. 

The Extension teacher will give permits to enter this examina- 
tion only to such students as have satisfactorily done the paper- 
work of the course. Others will be admitted only after written 
application at least ten days before the examination, showing to 
the satisfaction of the chief examiner that they have pursued 
such studies as would entitle them to the official test provided by 
the State. The whole plan has been worked out with exceeding 
care, and is pronounced by experts to be the fairest and most 
completely-organized system of examinations now in operation. 
A forty-page hand-book, fully explaining the system as used in the 
three hundred and fifty-five academies of the State, can be had 
free on application. The same general methods are used in the 
law, medical, library, and other examinations conducted by the 
University. So that this academic hand-book will make clear the 
general features of University Extension examinations and the 
rules and directions for credentials. Special circulars will give 
subjects and other details peculiar to Extension work. 

Every precaution is taken to avoid the serious faults of most 
extensive and fully-organized systems. Room is left for the in- 
dividuality of the teacher, and if in any subject reasonable cause 

Appendix A. 283 

can be shown for using a different form of treatment, an exami- 
nation will be given on a syllabus drawn up in accordance with 
the teacher's plan, provided that it shall represent an equal 
quantity and quality of work, and so shall not lower the 

9. Loans. As noted in 2 and 3, books are lent from the 
Extension library as from other departments of the State 
library. By a much larger system the necessary books, ap- 
paratus, lantern-slides, or other illustrative material needed for 
the best educational work, but beyond the resources of the centre 
to buy for itself, are lent from the State Extension department 
for use during the course. The centre must be responsible for 
any injury beyond reasonable wear and must pay transportation. 
Beyond this there is no charge. Obviously some books and ap- 
paratus required for a course in one town maybe used a hundred 
times before they are worn out, thus involving only one per cent, 
of the expense required, if each of the hundred localities were 
compelled to buy its own. In some cases these loans will 
include several copies of the same book, so that instructors can 
put into the hands of pupils not having their own copies the 
books most important for them to read. Even where there is an 
excellent local library, it cannot, of course, furnish as many copies 
as are needed by the class. The loan system of the Extension 
department is designed to meet this need in the most economical 

Books which many or all of the class need to have at hand dur- 
ing the entire course can be provided by a loan system in the 
centre itself. The managers can buy any needed books at the 
lowest wholesale price, and should supply students without profit, 
as some who would not buy a book at three dollars will buy it if 
it can be had for two dollars, and owning the work itself will 
greatly increase the value of the course and the chances of per- 
manent interest. To any student unable to buy, a book should 
be lent for the entire course at perhaps one-fifth of its cost, thus 
enabling practically every student to have always at hand one or 
two of* the most necessary books. At the close of the course the 
managers can send these books to the department for exchange 

284 The National Conference on University Extension. 

and probably get nearly all they have cost, when the money paid 
for their use is deducted. Students not known to the local sec- 
retary would of course deposit the value of the book, four-fifths 
of which would be refunded on return of the book in good con- 
dition, reasonable wear excepted. 

10. Travelling Libraries. For centres distant from a public 
library, and needing such assistance, it is arranged to send small 
carefully-selected libraries to be kept according to circumstances, 
from a month to a year, so that those for whose benefit they are 
sent shall have ample opportunity for their satisfactory use. 
Some responsible real-estate owner must guarantee to make good 
any loss or injury beyond reasonable wear, and to return the 
library when called for, freight prepaid. Also, some competent 
person must agree in writing to act as librarian, to observe 
strictly the rules sent with the library, and to keep on the blanks 
provided the record of its use. 

The books will be sent in suitable cases with complete cata- 
logues and directions, and as fast as practicable the department 
will add such aids and guides to the most profitable reading as it 
is possible to put in print. The selection of the books them- 
selves will represent the judgment of experts, and will be revised 
as experience shows how to improve at any point. The co-oper- 
ation of all interested is invited, and suggestions as to these 
travelling libraries will be specially welcomed. 

1 1 . Circuit Books and Apparatus for Use during the Course. 
Centres wishing more books and apparatus than can be furnished 
by the department in the form of travelling libraries or loans 
may greatly reduce the cost of this extra material by co-oper- 
ation with other centres requiring the same at a different time. 
For books or apparatus likely to be required by at least five 
centres the department will arrange a circuit on the same plan 
found so valuable in reducing the cost of lectures. Each of 
five centres requiring the material will be charged one-fifth its 
wholesale cost, and each will be entitled to its use during one full 
course. The department assumes the responsibility and makes all 
the arrangements, so that the centre has simply to pay its fifth of 
the cost, and return the material to Albany or ship it to the next 

Appendix A. 285 

centre, as directed at the close of the course. Should any books 
be injured beyond reasonable wear, the centre must pay for 
damage, and if any are unreturned must pay the other four-fifths 
of their value, thus enabling the department to replace them. 
Very often students who borrow a book at the beginning of the 
course will prefer at its close to pay the remaining four-fifths of 
its wholesale cost and retain it permanently. We wish to avoid 
even apparent rivalry with local booksellers, whose business 
ought to be stimulated as a result of Extension courses, but we 
find it necessary for the success of the movement to undertake 
this co-operative system of supply, which booksellers would find 
quite impracticable. 

12. Exchanges. Through the agency of the department, 
books, apparatus, or other material which any centre may have 
bought for one course and no longer needs, will, if practicable, 
be exchanged with some other centre for an equivalent in what 
it requires for the next year's work. The value of what is re- 
ceived and sent will be determined by an appraiser having no 
personal interest in the matter, and there will be no charge for 
the work. The centre, of course, pays for packing and transpor- 
tation both ways. 

13. Regents' Centres. The facilities provided by the depart- 
ment are available to all localities or associations in the State 
which conform to the necessary rules, keep the records of the 
centre, and make an annual report to the regents in the form pre- 
scribed. As the department is doing the work of the State, it 
has no rivalry or competition with any other organization. Its 
officers are glad to find any person or association doing creditable 
work in the interest of higher education, and to give any assist- 
ance in their power. Obviously, however, the examinations, 
loans, travelling libraries, facilities for exchange, and the right to 
use the name of the department in connection with the centre 
should be given only where there is an organized local centre 
meeting at least the regents' minimum requirements. A register 
has been opened for such centres as shall maintain a course of 
not less than ten weeks during the academic year under direction 
of an accredited teacher, giving each week not only instruction, 

286 The National Conference on University Extension. 

but also satisfactory class and paper work. Experience has 
proved that as a rule localities which think that they are unable 
to maintain a systematic course of study, and that they must begin 
with a few popular lectures without attempting class or paper 
work, if required to do so, usually find it possible to establish a 
regular Extension course. While the weekly meetings are the 
rule, bi-weekly meetings for twenty weeks, or semi-weekly meet- 
ings for five weeks, will be accepted as the equivalent. 

Regular regents' centres are recorded and numbered in order 
of establishment. A letter following the number indicates extent 
of work undertaken. Centres maintaining only one course are 
marked "E;" two courses, "D;" three or four courses, "C;" 
five to nine courses " B ;" and the largest and most active centres 
which maintain ten or more courses annually are marked " A." 
Every centre which on inspection is found to maintain at least 
the minimum standard required will receive a certificate that it 
is officially registered as " Regents' Centre, No. ." This en- 
titles it to use that name, or, if preferred, the fuller form, " Uni- 
versity of the State of New York, University Extension Depart- 
ment, Centre No. ." The public will recognize that any 
centre using this official name is maintaining a standard of 
teaching and work which has been formally approved by the Ex- 
tension Department of the University of the State. 

All are urged to try, if possible, to reach at least the minimum 
standard required for a regents' centre, and it is highly desirable 
that every centre maintaining instruction worthy of registration 
should secure it. The department, however, interprets its duties 
broadly, and will gladly be of any practicable service to organ- 
ized effort outside the regents' centres, assisting so far as in its 
power all efforts toward creditable work in extending educational 
opportunities more widely to the people. 

14. Registry. Beside regular centres, the department will 
register each club, society, or other organization engaged in any 
phase of Extension work in its broadest sense. This will include 
lecture courses which lack the necessary elements for registry as 
University Extension courses, but which the department wishes 
to know about and to encourage. It is hoped that year by year 

Appendix A. 287 

these smaller organized movements can be fostered and made 
larger and stronger, till they can meet the requirements of regular 
regents' centres. 

The department asks every literary, scientific, historical, art, 
or other club, society, or association engaged in work allied to 
University Extension, to send for the department files any pro- 
grammes, circulars, or other publications illustrating its work, and 
to report its address, number of members, annual fees, number 
of meetings held yearly, average attendance, subjects of study 
and method pursued, e.g., addresses, papers, readings, discus- 
sions with leaders, conversation, class instruction, etc. 

A similar record of lecture courses maintained in the State is 
kept, and we ask a report of the number of lectures, each speaker's 
name and subject, price of tickets, and average attendance. 

Blanks for these reports will be sent free to any secretary or 
officer whose address is received. 

For definite suggestions about details, see Circular n, "How 
to begin University Extension, " to be had free on application to 
University Extension Department, Regents' office, Albany, N. Y. 

For explanations of what University Extension really is, see 
the circular on the "Seven Elements of University Extension 
proper" viz., lecture, syllabus, class, paperwork, guided reading, 
students' clubs, and examinations. 



THE American Society for the Extension of University Teach- 
ing was founded in response to a deeply-felt want for a National 
Association which might assist in promoting the work of Univer- 
sity Extension. The friends of popular education feel that the 
time has come for a better utilization of the facilities for instruc- 
tion found in our existing educational institutions. 

Experience has shown that this object is accomplished with 
great measure of success by the movement popularly known as 
University Extension. The results of this system in several 
countries, notably in England and the United States, have 
attracted much attention and its merits are now widely known. 

To do this work efficiently will require large funds. The only 
sources of income at present are the fees of members ($5 annual 
fee, $50 life-membership fee) and the voluntary contributions of 
friends of the movement. You are cordially invited to become 
a member of the Society, and to present its claims to your friends 
and acquaintances who are, or should be, interested in the work. 
A national movement like this can succeed only when the people 
on the one hand and the colleges on the other take hold of it in 

The membership fee and all other contributions may be sent 
by postal order, or draft on Philadelphia, or by draft on New 
York, payable to the order of Frederick B. Miles, Treasurer of 
the American Society for the Extension of University Teaching, 
Fifteenth and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia. 

The American Society is doing a two fold work. It is, in 
the first place, collecting information as to the progress of the 

Appendix B. 289 

movement in all countries, and through its monthly journal 
making it accessible to those interested in this system of instruc- 
tion. In the second place, it is carrying on an extensive experi- 
ment in University Extension instruction. This work is a 
persistent effort to solve the difficult problems involved in the 
training of lecturers, the conduct and sequence of courses, and 
the financial support of centres. In this way the work of the 
Society becomes a series of illustrative experiments in adapting 
University Extension teaching to American conditions. It is 
plain that if the Society can successfully solve these difficult 
problems it will render a great service to American'education, 
making the introduction of the work throughout the country a 
matter of comparative ease. Every one interested in the ultimate 
success of this great movement for popular education should, 
therefore, to the extent of his ability, contribute to the support 
of the American Society. 


IT is plain to those who have given serious attention to the 
subject that the movement for popular education known as 
University Extension has in it the possibility of valuable and 
permanent improvement of our educational system. It is also 
equally plain that to make the work as efficient as it may be, 
there should be a strong nucleus of persons engaged in the task 
of organization and instruction who have peculiar gifts or taste 
for this sort of labor, and who have received special training for 
it before they enter it. Their services are necessary to co operate 
with and supplement the efforts of the University professor and 

Many prominent educators have expressed the fear that it will 
not be possible to find men and women of suitable education and 

290 The National Conference on University Extension. 

training to undertake this special work, and, indeed, have rightly 
insisted that there is at present no opportunity for those who would 
be inclined to enter the field to secure a suitable training for it. 

It is believed, however, by the friends of the movement that 
there are many young men and women now studying in our 
colleges who are especially suited to this work, and who would 
prefer it to any other if they were sure they could thereby make 
a modest living, and if they knew how properly to prepare them- 
selves. There are doubtless many professors and instructors in 
our colleges and universities, many teachers in our normal schools 
and high schools, and many college men and women in other 
careers, who would be admirably adapted to succeed in this field 
if they had the necessary technical preparation. It is further- 
more clear, that the work of University Extension offers a new 
road to permanent college positions besides the ordinary one 
now travelled, of starting in as instructor, for the knowledge of 
University Extension work on the part of candidates for college 
positions will constitute a valuable recommendation to boards of 

Acting on this belief, the American Society for the Extension 
of University Teaching has decided to establish a University Ex- 
tension Seminary for the training of University Extension lec- 
turers and organizers. 

It will be under the direction of Professor Edmund J. James, 
President of the Society, assisted by leading university men of 
this country and Europe. 

The term will open October i, 1892, and last until June i, 
1893. The price for tuition will be fifty dollars per year. A 
certain number of free scholarships will be awarded to suitable 

Members of the Seminary can pursue advanced studies for the 
degrees of A.M. and Ph.D. in the institutions near endugh to 
Philadelphia to enable them to attend the work of the Seminary.* 

* Arrangements have been made with the University of Pennsylvania by 
which members of the Seminary can enter that institution and carry on such 
studies for the higher degrees as they may be fitted for. It will thus be pos- 
sible for the graduate student to enter on his course for the A.M. or Ph.D. 

Appendix B. 291 

Each member of the Seminary will be expected to prepare 
and deliver a course of Extension lectures on a subject to be se. 
lected by himself, with the advice and consent of the Director 
of the Seminary. 

It will be possible in many cases to secure an opportunity to 
deliver these lectures at different places and obtain a remunera- 
tion for them. In the case of mature and properly qualified 
members it will doubtless be possible to earn enough money in 
this way to defray a considerable portion, if not all, of the year's 
residence. No guarantee of such remuneration is, however, 
given, and no one is advised to enter the Seminary with this 
expectation. The members of the Seminar) will be expected to 
aid in the work of the Society when possible, and every facility 
will be offered them to make themselves thoroughly acquainted 
with the theory and practice of University Extension work. 

A certificate will be given at the end of the year to properly 
qualified members who have complied faithfully with the rules 
and regulations of the Seminary. 

It is the opinion of the Society that no one can do the best 
work in the University Extension field who is not thoroughly 
interested in the problems of education, more especially of 
American education. The University Extension lecturer and 
organizer should be thoroughly acquainted with the whole edu- 
cational system of the country, since 'only in this way can he 
co-ordinate his work with that of the other educational agencies 
in the field. With this fact in view,. the work of the Seminary, 
aside from the technical subjects relating to University Exten- 
sion, will be devoted to a thorough examination and discussion 
of modern educational problems. 

The University Extension Seminary will thus offer, for the first 

immediately, or continue it if he has already begun it. A deduction in tuition 
of fifty dollars will also be made to members of the Seminary. 

Women are admitted to the Graduate Department of the University of 
Pennsylvania on the same terms as men. 

For further information, address Dr. Horace Jayne, Dean of the Faculty 
of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

It is hoped that similar arrangements can be made with other institutions. 

2g 2 The National Conference on University Extension. 

time in the history of American education, an opportunity to 
the teacher, or the college student looking forward to teaching, 
whether in public or private school, whether in college or 
primary grade, to prepare himself thoroughly for the work of 
educational leadership in the various departments of our national 
life. The man or woman who desires not merely to be a good 
teacher, but also a real leader in educational thought and action, 
will find here an opportunity to put himself in touch with the 
latest and best thought on educational topics, and take away 
with him not merely increased knowledge, but a deeper insight 
and wider outlook than ever before. 

Among the men who will take part in the work of instruction 
may be mentioned : Hon. W. T. Harris, United States Com- 
missioner of Education ; Dr. James MacAlister, President of 
the Drexel Institute; Dr. Charles DeGarmo, President of 
Swarthmore College; Dr. Isaac Sharpless, President of Hav- 
erford College ; Professor Simon N. Patten, of the University 
of Pennsylvania ; andj Rev. Hudson Shaw, of Oxford Univer- 
sity, England. 

The following courses have already been arranged for, and 
others will be announced later : 

1. Educational Administration. Professor Edmund J. J es t 


2. Educational \fa2\s.-Professor Simon N. Patten, Ph.D. 

3. Science of Instruction. President Charles DeGarmo, Ph.D., 

of Swarthmore College. 

4. English Educational Institutions and their Lessons for us. 

President Isaac Sharpless, Ph.D., of Haverford College. 

5. The Place and Function of the Normal School in American 

Education. Principal George M. Philips, Ph.D., State 
Normal School, West Chester, Pa. 

For further information as to the Seminary, address 

Fifteenth and Chestnut Streets, 



Honorary President, William Pepper, M.D., LL.D. 

President, Treasurer, Gen'l Secretary, 

Edmund J. James. Frederick B. Miles. George Henderson. 


THE American Society for the Extension of University Teaching was 
founded in response to a deeply-felt want for a National Association 
which might assist in promoting the work of University Extension. 
The friends of popular education feel that the time has come for a better 
utilization of the facilities for instruction which are to be found in our ex- 
isting educational institutions. 

Experience has shown that this object is accomplished with great measure 
of success by the movement popularly known as University Extension. The 
results of this system in several countries notably in England and the 
United States have attracted much attention, and its merits are now widely 

The American Society has a twofold work. It is, in the first place, 
collecting information as to the progress of the movement in all countries, 
and making it accessible through its monthly journal to all interested in this 
system of instruction. In the second place, it is carrying on in not less than 
six States, nearest its General Offices, an object lesson in Extension teaching 
for the benefit of the whole country. Slowly and carefully it is testing the 
various elements of the system and adapting them to American conditions, 
and at the same time solving one after another the difficult problems of the 
work in the training of lecturers, the sequence of courses, and the financial 
support of centres. 

To do this work efficiently will require large funds. The only sources 
of income at present are the fees of members (55 -Oo annual fee, $50.00 life- 
membership fee) and the voluntary contributions of friends of the movement. 
You are cordially invited to become a member of the Society, and to present 
its claims to your friends and acquaintances who are, or should be, interested 
in the work. A national movement like this can only succeed when the 
people take hold of it in earnest, on the one hand, and the colleges on the 

The membership fee and all other contributions may be sent by postal 
order or draft on Philadelphia, or by draft on New York, payable to the order 
of Frederick B. Miles, Treasurer of the American Society for the Extension 
of University Teaching, Fifteenth and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia. 


A Monthly Journal, giving full information as to the methods and results 
of Extension teaching in all countries, with special reference to the develop- 
ment of the movement in the United States. 

Yearly Subscription, $1.50. Single Numbers, 15 Cents. 

Vol. I. July, 1891, to July, 1892 will be issued in full black cloth 


i5th and Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia. 

Jt&- Send for list of publications of The American Society. 




























































The following is a list of the syllabi thus far published by the 
American Society. They are all arranged for six lectures, except 
those marked thus *. They may be had post-free upon receipt 
of the price, and may be ordered by the numbers. 

No. 3. Milton's Poetic Art $o 10 

5. Story of Faust 10 

6. Electricity 10 

7. Shakespeare's Tempest, with Companion Studies 10 

8. Psychology 10 

9. Stories as a Mode of Thinking 10 

10. Euripides for English Audiences 10 

12. Four Studies in Shakespeare 10 

15. Animal Life. Considered as a Part of Universal Energy 10 

16. Modern Essayists 10 

17. Mathematics with Application to Mechanics 10 

19. American Literature 10 

20. Algebra * 15 

21. Botany ; Structural 10 

22. Geology and Paleontology. Part I 20 

No. i. Political History of Europe since 1815. Part I. 1815-1848 10 

Part II. 1848-1881 .... 10 

' 2. Constitution of the United States 10 

1 3. English Literature Chaucer to Tennyson 10 

4. Epochs in American History. 1620-1892 10 

5. Europe Finds America 10 

6. Civil Development of the United States 10 

7. Mathematics as Applied to Mechanics * 20 

8. Representative American Authors 10 

9. Earlier Plays of Shakespeare 10 

10. English Literature Chaucer to Tennyson 10 

11. Political Economy 10 

12. Modern Novelists ' . . . 10 

13. Central Europe in the Nineteenth Century 10 

14. Typical English Poets 10 

15. Modern Industrial History 10 

16. Poets of America 10 

17. Dynamical Geology. Part I 10 

Part II 10 

18. Economic Condition of the People of the United States, between 

1789 and 1816 10 

19. American Literature 10 

20. English Literature in the Nineteenth Century 10 

21. Structural Botany 20 

22. The Brook Farm Community 10 

23. Electricity 10 

24. Prose Fiction in America 10 

25. The Strength of Materials 10 

26. Political Economy. (With an outline of reading.) 10 

27. American History Administration of Government 10 

28. Robert Browning 10 

29. Studies in English Poetry of the Nineteenth Century 10 

30. The Modern View of Energy 10 

31. English Poets of the Revolution Age 10 

32. A Bird's-eye View of European History, from the Battle of Mara- 

thon to the Fall of the Eastern Empire 10 

33. Literature of the Queen Anne Period 10 

34. History and Theory of Money. (With an outline Course of Study.) 40 

35. Plant Forms and Plant Functions. Parts I and II. (With out- 

line Course of Study.) 20 

36. The Renaissance. Historically Considered 15 

37- Light 15 

38. Shakspere. The Man and his Mind 15 

39. Revolutions in Commerce 10 

40. Socialism Past, Present, and Future. (With outline Course of 

Study.) . 20 

41. The Change in Political Economy. (With outline Course of Study.) 20 

42. The Literary Study of the Bible 10 


Books and Pamphlets. 

Any of the following publications will be sent post-free 
upon receipt of the price. They may be ordered by the 

B^" A package containing pamphlets, specimen syllabi, and 
copies of UNIVERSITY EXTENSION, giving a fairly complete 
idea of the whole movement, will be sent post-free upon receipt of 

1. Proceedings of The First National Conference, containing in full all the 

addresses and reports, (pp. 292.) $i 50 

2. An Address before the American Society. By R. G. MOULTON, Cambridge 

University Extension Lecturer, (pp. 19.) 10 

3. Lecturer's Notes on the Working of University Extension. By R. G. 

MOULTON. (pp. 8.) 10 

4. The University Extension Movement in England (1885). By R. G. MOUL- 

TON. (pp. 61.) 20 

5. University Extension : Its Definition, History, System of Teaching, and 

Organization, (pp. 8.) 10 

6. What should be the Position of University Extension? By SIDNEY T. 

SKIDMORE. (pp. 12.) 10 

7. University Extension as seen by a Lecturer. By C. HANFORD HENDER- 

SON, (pp. 15.) 10 

8. Report on the Movement in England. By GEORGE HENDERSON, General 

Secretary of the American Society, (pp. 31.) 10 

9. University Extension as viewed by Prominent American Educators, (pp. 

44-) 15 

10. The Development of the University Extension Idea. By MICHAEL E. 

SADLER, Secretary Oxford Delegacy, (pp. 20.) 10 

11. The University Extension Lecturer. By DR. E- J. JAMES, President of 

the American Society, (pp. 18.) 15 

12. The Function and Organization of a Local Centre. By MICHAEL E. 

SADLER, (pp. 8.) 10 

13. The Y. M. C. A. and University Extension. By MR. WALTER C. DOUGLAS, 

General Secretary of the Philadelphia Y. M. C. A. (pp. 7.) 10 

14. The Church and University Extension. By the REV. DR. J. S. MACIN- 

TOSH, (pp. 7.) 10 

15. The Class in University Extension. By MR. EDWARD T. DEVINE, Staff 

Lecturer of the American Society, (pp. 6.) 10 

16. The Place of University Extension in American Education. By HON. 

WILLIAM T. HARRIS, (pp. 14.) 15 

17. The First Annual Report of the American Society 15 


July, iSgi-July, 1892, of UNIVERSITY EXTENSION), containing 
a full description of the movement, with reports of experiments in 
the United States and abroad. Octavo. 416 pp. Black Cloth. 



Type, New Subjects, JVeic niustrntions, 
3Teu? Maps. 


Eight Tolumes now ready. The two remaining volumes to be issued during 1892. 

Price per vol. : Cloth, $3.00 ; Cloth, uncut, $3.00 ; 
Sheep, $4.00 ; Half morocco, $4.50. 

" Every article has been written with reference to the needs of readers 
of the present generation. Not only are latest discoveries in science, nat- 
ural history, and archaeology to be found in it, but matters of a purely 
temporary and, we might even say, local importance are, in many cases, 
very fully treated. A similar liberality is shown in the illustrations, par- 
ticularly in the department of Natural History, the cuts in which are 
numerous, extremely well done, and well printed. " N. Y. Critic. 

" ' Chambers's Encyclopaedia' is a publication that is entitled to every 
consideration as an educational factor." Philadelphia Ledger. 

"' Chambers 's Encyclopaedia,' in spite of the claims of other similar 
works, still continues to hold its own as a standard reference for the home 
or school. The new revision brings its articles well up to date, and intro- 
duces a large number of entirely new subjects. No expense has been 
spared in obtaining the co-operation of the best authorities in the special 
lines, and the result is a complete and comprehensive dictionary of useful 
knowledge. ' Chambers's' has an undisputed title to be considered one of 
the most accurate, reliable, convenient, and useful encyclopaedias now on 
the American market." Boston Journal of Education. 

' ' All who are interested with respect to persons and places, questions 
of art and religion, politics and science, and who in these busy days are 
anxious to find the latest information on any subject lying ready to hand, 
should possess themselves of these volumes as they are published." 
Liverpool Mercury. 

Specimen pages mailed free to any address. 


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" Mr. Prescott was by far the first historian of America, and he may justly be 
assigned a place beside the very greatest of modern Europe. Compare what he 
has written with the most of what others have left on the same subjects, and Pres- 
cott' s superiority beams upon you from the contrast. The easy flow of his language 
and the faultless lucidity of his style may make the readers forget the unremitting 
toil which the narrative has cost ; but the critical inquirer sees everywhere the 
fruits of investigation rigidly and most perseveringly pursued, and an impartiality 
and soundness of judgment which give authority to every statement and weight to 
every conclusion." GEORGE BANCROFT. 


Just issued, is intended to meet the increasing demand for such standard 
authors as are now required ,by recent courses in English in our leading 
schools and colleges. It is published in five volumes, with illustrations and 
maps that have appeared in other editions. 







CLOTH, $5.00; HALF CALF, GILT TOP, $12. so; 



715 and 717 Market Street, Philadelphia. 




Memoirs of the Eminent Persons of all Ages and Countries, and 

Accounts of the Various Subjects of the Norse, Hindoo, 

and Classic Mythologies, with the Pronuncia- 

tion of their Names in the Different 

Languages in which they 


It is really a cyclopaedia within itself, including every character that 
has strong claims to our notice, either from public notoriety or lasting 
celebrity, and from it may be gathered a knowledge of the lives of those 
who have made the world's history famous. 


" ' lyippincott's Biographical Dictionary,' according to the unanimous 
opinion of distinguished scholars, is the best work of the kind ever pub 
lished. " Philadelphia Ledger. 

" No other work of the kind will compare with it." Chicago Advance. 

"This work presents a very wide range of treatment, great compact- 
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Philadelphia Press. 


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nunciation, as well as for its admirable typography, it promises to take a 
very high place among our books of reference." From PROFESSOR NOAH 

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"It is universal in fact as in name, doing like justice to men prominent 
in science, literature, religion, general history, etc. The author knows how 
to put a large number of facts into a very small compass, and in a manner 
remarkable for system, fairness, precision, and easy diction." From PRO- 

*** For sale by all Booksellers, or will be sent by mail, post-paid, on receipt of 
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to be not only in every library, 
but in every school in which 
English literature is taught." 
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. . . . Supplement to 


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Two volumes. Imperial 8vo. Nearly 1600 pages. Cloth binding, 
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persons included ; and it is, with all this, eminently readable." 
London Saturday Review. 

"Mr. Kirk's volumes contain not only the results of the 
years of painstaking labor directed to the task in hand, but 
also show the work of a life spent in literary studies, and that 
scholarship of the very highest order of excellence has been 
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than ever valuable to every one who needs a reference hand- 
book for the names and works and life of all who have con- 
tributed to the vast stores of English literature. ' 'Philadelphia 
Public Ledger. 

. . Allibone's Dictionary and Supplement . . 

Complete in Five Volumes. 

The entire work containing the names and. history of over 83,000 
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English Literature and British and American Authors, taken 
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the names of over 46,000 authors, and in its Supplement those 
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ography of the literature of the English tongue." Boston 
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Is the standard authority on all questions of orthography, pronunciation, or 
definition, and is so recognized by all the colleges of the country, by the 
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Is designed especially for the use of the higher schools and seminaries of 
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Printed from entirely new plates. 688 pages. 264 Illustrations. 


Contains a full vocabulary of 48,000 words. The design has been to give the 
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Printed from entirely new plates. 688 pages. 577 Illustrations. 

For sale by all Booksellers. Circulars sent on application to the Publishers. 




Ten volumes. Crown 8vo. Half morocco, gilt top, 
in box, $26.00. 

Each volume sold separately, as follows : 

A Dictionary of Historic Terms and Phrases. Crown 8vo. Half mo- 
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A Guide to the Art of Composition and Style. $2.50. 



Giving the Origin, Source, and Derivation of Twenty Thousand Com- 
mon Phrases. $2.50. 


Imitative, Realistic, and Dogmatic. $2.56. 

A Dictionary of Curious, Quaint, and Out-of-the-Way Matters. $2.50. 

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A Treasury of English Words. Classified and Arranged so as to facili- 
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From Greek, Latin, and Modern Languages. $2. 50. 

A Dictionary of Synonymes and Synonymous or Parallel Expressions. 

*% For sale by all Booksellers, or will be sent free of expense, on receipt of price, by 








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