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Full text of "Vie de Seint Auban: a poem in Norman-French"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN 



L 



A Poem in Norman -French, 

ASCRIBED TO MATTHEW PARIS : 

NOW FOR THE FIRST TIME EDITED, FROM A MANUSCRIPT IN THE 
LIBRARY OF TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN, 

WITH CONCORDANCE-GLOSSARY, AND NOTES, 



BY 

ROBERT ATKINSON, M. A., LL.D., 

I'KOI'KSSOK OF SAXSKKIT AND CO.MPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN THE UNIVEKSITV OK 

DUBLIN. 




LONDON : 
JOlIX MTRRAY, ALBEMARLE-STR IiET. 

1876. 



DUBLIN : 

Igrintcb at i^t anifatrsitg irtss. 






TO 
THE M E M O R Y 

OF 

MY MOTHER. 



9B4914 



PREFACE 



THE poem here published is edited from a MS. [e. i. 40] preserved in the 
Library of Trinity College, Dublin, and of which only this one* copy is 
believed to be extant. Besides being unique, it has claim to a special notice as 
being traditionally the composition of no less a personage than Matthew Paris, and 
his own handwriting. The evidence for this is based on statements of Stowe and 
Ussher, given in Sir F. Madden's edition of Paris' " Historia Anglorum ", Vol. m., 
Pref, liii. Stowe's words (Annales, 1631, p. 43) are as follows: — "Matthew 
Paris, a munke of St. Alban, turned out of Latine prose into French verse the 
life and martyrdom of St. Alban and Amphibalus, both o/zvliich bookes I have seen." 
Archb. Ussher's testimony is to the following effect (Brit. Eccl. Antiq. v. 190): — 
" Hoc dramate tantopere delectatus est Matthaeus (Parisiensis) ut illud tn inetrum 
Galliaun nova metaphrasi transfuderit. Gallicum illud Matthaei cum Latino 
Guilielmi et Radulphi opere conjunctum habetur in codice MS. ecclesiae 
S. Albani ab Henrico VL donato". 

On the statements of these two writers, Sir F. Madden remarks : — " They 
must both have derived this information from the same source, namely, a manu- 
script still fortunately preserved in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, which 
contains the French Life referred to, together with the Latin original, and other 
legends of the same saints. It does not appear on what precise grounds Stowe 
and Ussher gave the above statement, but it is certain it could not have been 
from mere conjecture ". The learned editor quotes also a passage of Walsing- 
ham, to the effect that M. Paris " Vitas SS. Albani, Thomae, et Edmundi, con- 
scripsit et depmxit elegantissime ". 

The joint evidence of these three writers seems sufficient to furnish a fair 
ground of belief in the authorship of M. Paris, till proof to the contrary should be 
forthcoming. 

The Latin prose life, which M. Paris turned into French verse, is also 
contained in our MS., and of its origin the following account is given by Archb- 

• Sir T. D. Hardy in his " Descriptive Catalogue," Vol. I., p. IJ, note, makes mcntionof a French Life ofSl. 
Alban and St. Amphibalus , in MS. Cott. Vitell, D. viii., which MS. is now lost ; this moy possibly have been 
another copy of the present Life. 

b 



VI PREFACE. 

Ussher, (Works, Vol. v., p. 183). After enumerating the "acta antiqua martyrii 
S. Albani", he adds, "cum quibus et vetustissimum de iisdcm voliunen, pritnaevo 
Verolamiensium idiomate conscriptum, plane consensisse, in historia abbatum 
S. Albani refert Matthaeus Parisiensis ". According to the Gesta of Eadmer, 
while repairs were being carried out in the middle of the old city, the workmen 
having pulled down the foundation of an old palace, this venerable volume was 
found "incujusdam muri concavo depositum quasi armariolo"; it was in good 
preservation, considering its age, the handwriting clear, and the characters dis- 
tinct, but unfortunately, nobody could read the book ; " tandem unum senem jam 
decrepitum invenerunt, sacerdotem Uteris bene eruditum, nomine Umvonam ; qui, 
imbutus diversorum idiomatum Unguis ac Uteris, legit distincte et aperte scripta 
libri. Erat enim litera, qualis scribi solet tempore quo cives Werlamecestrani 
inhabitabant ; et idioma antiqiioriim Britonuin, (\}xo tunc temporis utebantur". 
The first book of this volume contained the history of St. Alban, the other 
books described certain " invocationes et ritus idolatrarum civium, in quibus com- 
perit quod specialiter Phcebum Deum Soils invocaverunt et coluerunt". The good 
monks consequently rejected the books which contained these " commenta Dia- 
boli," and had the history translated by the old priest Unwona. After which, 
says the chronicler, " exemplar primitivum ac originale, quod mirum est dictu, 
irrestaurabiliter in pulverem subito redactum cecidit annullatum ". Such is the 
traditional account of the original of the life of our protomartyr, and it is no doubt 
true. Nothing is known of the fate of this Latin translation by Unwona, but another 
account was furnished by William, a monk of St. Alban's, two hundred years 
after, as Ussher says, — "ex viilgari Anglicano" , and this version, at the request 
of William himself, was paraphrased in elegiacs by Ralph of Dunstable. The 
tale had evidently become common, as indeed was to be expected, so that in his 
preface William can mention two sources, (i) the liber Anglico sermone con- 
scriptus, which he followed in his translation, and which he supplemented, so far 
at least as the name of Amphibalus is concerned, from (2) the history, " quam Gau- 
fridus Arturus de Britannico in Latinum se vertisse testatur ". This version of 
Geoffrey of Monmouth was seemingly made from the same language as that of 
Unwona, viz., the old British, but whether from a copy, or a variation, or a totally 
different account, cannot of course be determined. 

Whatever the origin of this Latin prose narrative of William, there is no 
doubt that Stowe's statement is correct, as to its being the original of the French 
poem. In our MS., we have both the poem of Ralph, and the prose of William, 
neither of which, however, "I have deemed it necessary or expedient to print here, 



PREFACE. 



vn 



as the poem is far too excursive and diffuse, and the prose narrative is to be found 
in the "Acta Sanctorum", June 22, (Vol. iv., p. 149, seqq.) 

The MS. copies of this prose life are numerous enough, as may be seen by a 
reference to " Hardy's Catal.", (Vol. i.. pt. i., p. 4, seqq.) and there are further 
several MS. copies of a translation of the French poem into English verse, by 
Lydgate, which translation was printed at St. Albans, 1234, 4to, by John Hert- 
ford. The colophon (Hardy, p. 23) to the MSS. expressly states, that the Eng- 
lish translation was made " out of Frensh and Latyn, bi Dan John Lidgate, at 
the requeste of Maister John "Whetehamstede, Abbot of Seynt Albons ", in 1439, 
That Lydgate was familiar with Dunstaple's work, is evident from the begin- 
ning linos of his version, but his obligations to the French poem are not deter- 
minable because the prose Latin life furnishes nearly the same details. The 
whole story may be read in English in Enderbie's " Cambria Triumphans" [Ed, 
1 661], p. 160 seqq. 

Among the scraps of contemporary reference,* is a marginal note on fol. 22, as 
follows : — " Hoc de libro Johannis Mansel ". This Sir John Mansel was a great 
favourite of Henry IH., who made him Chancellor of England, and he is known to 
have died about 1 264. Now M. Paris several times in different parts of his writings 
has occasion to mention this John Mansel, so that it is not impossible that there 
may have been some intercourse between the two men. The note evidently was 
written by the same hand and at the same time as the rest of the page, and indi- 
cates a book borrowed, and from which certain details had been taken ; among 
others, the few lines written below in the margin, and referring to St. Alban, 
"erat namque dux et magister militiae totius Britanniae". I think also, that it is 

* Besides this reference, two other individuals are mentioned in the notes on fol. 2, rect., which notes are 
unfortunately nearly as inconclusive. The personages there referred to are, i°, Isabella, Countess of Arundel, and 
2°, some Countess of Winchester (I presume), who unluckily is not named. Curiously enough, there is somewhat 
of a difficulty in the matter of both, just at the epoch of Matthew Paris. For with the death of Roger de Quincy 
in 1264, the Earldom of Winchester became extinct, and was not revived till 1322, in the person of the elder 
Despenser, and this Countess therefore was probably the last of that family. The second case of the Countess of 
Arundel is more complicated. On the death of Hugh de Albini, fourth Earl of Arundel, without issue, in 1243, 
the estates devolved upon the Earl's sisters as co-heiresses. Through the second of these, Isabella, who on the 
division of the property came into possession of the Arundel estates (which carried the title), the Earldom was 
transmitted to her son, John Fitz-Alan, as her husband had died before her brother, in 1239. I do not, however, 
know whether the title of Countess could be taken by the widow in such a case. But this John Fitz-Alan, the 
fifth Earl, left issue John, sixth Earl, who married Isabel de Mortimer, and died in 1270 ; and it is perhaps to this 
lady that the note refers. If the tradition of the origin of the MS. be accepted, this would accord fairly enough 
with the period assigned to its composition. And it can hardly be avoided, as the next Isabella we meet was Die 
daughter of Hugh le Despenser, who was married to the ninth Earl, Richard Fitz-Alan, which would throw the 
MS. into the early part of the fourteenth ccntur)-. 

bz 



viii PREFACE. 

not too much to infer that Johannes Mansel was alive at the time when this 
extract was made. This would accord perfectly with the traditional account of 
the composition of the work, for M. Paris was appointed historiographer to St. 
Alban's in 1236, between which period and 1250 he is held to have composed 
this French poem. 

But while we may fairly accept the traditional account of the compositio)i of the 
poem by Paris, the question as to the handwriting of our present MS. is, and 
must continue to be, a matter simply of individual opinion, and determined by 
the value set on tradition in general. As the handwriting of the IMS. is unques- 
tionably the so-called Paris handwriting, this smaller question is included under 
the wider problem, who was the writer of the MSS. generally attributed to 
M. Paris. This point has been examined in considerable detail, and with great 
acuteness and technical knowledge, by Sir T. D. Hardy, inhis Catal., Vol. iii., Pref, 
lii. seqq., where he concludes against the assumption of the handwriting's being 
that of M. Paris himself.* I am not, however, convinced by the arguments of the 
learned editor, and in particular I think he has not allowed for the personal equa- 
tion in this question of handwriting. General considerations as to the quantity 
of writing that a scribe could get through in the course of a laborious life, really 
depend so entirely on the circumstances and on the writer, that it is nearly 
useless relying on them for any special case. At the same time, I assent entirely 
to the view that identity of style in writing by no means implies identity of scribe; 
and in the regulated forms of the handwriting accomplished in the scriptoria, in- 
dividuality was probably the last thing encouraged. As the point, however, is 
clearly indeterminable, I doubt the propriety of re-opening the question, and shall 
only add that as there is no counter-evidence, I accept the tradition that M. Paris 
did personally write this our French poem, and draw the illustrations, but as the 

* In Catal. Brit. Hist., Vol. iii., Pref. Ixi., SirT.D. Hardyuses the following argument, as subversive of the allega- 
tion that M. Paris wrote the fair copies of his works : ^iz., in several places the zaT^Yi%t prays for the repose of the 
soul of M. Paris. After quoting the passages, the last of which is as follows : " hunc librura dedit frater 
M. Parisiensis [dec et ecclesiae S. Albani]. Anima Matthaei et animae omnium tidelium defunctorum requiescant 
in pace", SirT.D. Hardy adds: " that a Uving monk should write ' requiescat in pace ' upon his own soul is entirely 
beyond belief, and I would venture to ask whether any parallel case or instance can be produced." 

I think there can. In the Preface to Zeuss' Graramatica Celtica^, p. xviii, occurs the following note : " Ad codicis 
calcem charactere ut in omnibus seu titulis seu subscriptionibus miniato legitur : In honore individue trinitatis 
Marianus Scottus scripsit hunc librum suis fratribus peregrinis. Anima eius requiescat in pace, propter 
deum deuote dicite. amen ". Zeuss adds : " Haec vivum Marianum futuris peregrinis gentis suae dicere jam 
Lambecius puta\'it ; neuter saltern, nee Lambecius, nee Demsius, ultimam glossam a diversa manu additam esse 
asserit ". 



PREFACE. 



IX 



rubrics, though in a very similar handwriting, differ somewhat in the language, 
I think they are probably by another hand, — a hand trained, however, in the 
school of Matthew Paris. 

Of the history of our MS., little is known. Sir F. Madden, loc. cit., has the 
following note : " I have not seen the MS., but think it probable that the portion 
from fol. 3 to fol. 50, including the drawings, is from the hand of Paris. This volume 
may be the very one noticed by Walsingham, \yid. supra,'] but it is now muti- 
lated and imperfect. Ussher says that this MS. was presented hy Henry VI. to 
St. Alban's, but the memorandum on fol. i, 3, he refers to, seems only to mean 
that the volume was showfi to Henry at a council held at Westminster". This 
suggestion of Sir F. Madden seems based on the notice given in Hardy's Catal., 
Vol. i., Pt. i., p. 15, where the MS. note is quoted as follows: — "Rex Henricus 
Sextus essens ad Concilium magnum Westmonasterii tentum .... hunc librum visus 
est et ad honorem .... gloriosi Martyris Albani." [I must regret that SirD. 
Hardy's authority in the transcription of this note should have been so untrust- 
worthy, or rather incapable, for the passage is not as here given. How a Latin 
writer could be imagined guilty of such a phrase as " essens ad concilium," I do 
not understand, but the words are quite plainly written, and to a capable reader 
unmistakable, viz: " exiens ad consilium."] Ussher's words are, "In Codice 
Ecclesiae S. Albani ab Henrico Anglorum rege donato." To SMc\i presentation Sir 
F. Madden objected the statement of the note in the MS., (as given in Hardy, loc. 
cit.,) and which he interpreted as above, that " the volume was shown to Henry " ; 
but this cannot be the meaning of the words "Henricus hunc librum visus est". 
Part of the note is missing, as there was evidently something more to be said, 

"et ad honorem gloriosi martiris Albani . . . ." As the note stands, 

the words visits est are a difficulty which I have not been able to solve, but as 
the sentence is incomplete, it is unnecessary to do more than to call attention to 
that fact. I shall only add, that I cannot think that Ussher based his account of 
the presentation of the MS. to the monastery wholly on this note. 

The MS. [Saec. xiii.] itself is a small quarto* (10 x 7), of 77 foil., in two 
columns, each of thirty-seven lines. It contains several treatises, not all in the 
same hand, but all bearing on St. Alban. A note on fol. 3 describes it in 
these terms : — " Hie est liber ecclesiae Sancti Albani, prothomartiris de arma- 



• It has been very carelessly bound ; one or two foil, of the begiiming of the French Vie have been lost, and 
several foil, arc still misplaced. 



x PREFACE. 

riolo* A". It was evidently a MS. on which considerable value was set, as 
may be seen from the note on the fly-leaf, quoted below. 

The following is a brief summary of the contents : — 
foil. 1-2. — Miscellaneous. 

„ 3-19. — Latin poem in elegiacs, on the life of St. Alban. 

„ 20-28. — Latin prose history of the life. 

„ 29-50. — French poem, "Vie de St. Auban". 

,, 50-52. — Latin treatises on the finding of Alban's body, 

„ 53-62. — Latin treatises referring to the Saint's life. 

„ 62-66. — Latin chartersofOffaandEcgfridus, relative to the lands of St. Alban's. 

„ 66-72. — Latin treatises (continued from fol, 62). 

,, 73-77. — Latin prose account of miracles performed at the Saint's tomb. 

The Paris handwriting is found on foil. 3-50, and on foil. 73-77, but foil. 51-72 
are in a different hand and style. The French rubrics run throughout the French 
poem, and afterwards continuously, though with no relation to the text, down to 
fol. 6], rect. They are written by the same hand throughout, perhaps by the 
writer of the poem. Foil. 29-63 contain fifty-three coloured designs, in illustration 
of the text up to fol. 50, after which only the rubrics and illustrations agree. The 
drawings are good, but the colouring is monotonous : the illuminator seems to 
have had nothing at his disposal but green and red, with a small portion of blue 
and slate. From fol. 51, there is a change observable, denoting perhaps some 
interval of time, for the illustrations t are differently coloured, and contain a thin 
sprinkling of gilt, the horses being here and there shaded with blue, but they 
are the work of the same artist, for the outlines of the faces are the same in the 
two parts. The pervading tone of all the illustrations is that of a thin, unplea- 
sant green. On the other hand, in the capital letters, the colouring is exclusively 
either blue or red, there being curiously only one single letter in the whole MS. 
(a Q on fol. 29, z), in which the body is entirely green. 

A two-lined rubric runs along the top of the pages, and throughout the French 
poem, a two-lined rubric in Latin finishes the page, with some omissions. 

fol. I, rect. is blank; 

fol. I, vers, contains the following note, written at the top : — 

erissimus rex Henricus Sextus exiens ad consilium magnum .... 

* Concerning the armariolus or book-case, v. Sir F. Madden's introduction to his edition of M. Paris' 
" Historia Anglorum," Vol. I., Pref. pp. xi., xii. 

t The whole series of illustrations, dresses, armour, building implements and materials, church-bells, &c., is 
noteworthy, and would repay careful study by a competent authority. 



PREFACE. XI 

Westmonisterrii tentum hunc librum visus est et ad honorem gloriosi 

martyris Albani. 

fol. 2, rect. is patched, and contains fragments of writing not always legible. 
On the left side of the page are some "versus memoriales" : — 

Terr 

Unam 

Cum medio .... lucescit .... 
Prati fena lego, collecta sub horrea lego. 
Cum Cereris dono Bachi labamina dono. 
Exprimo de malis potum nisi mandere malis. 
Terram cultor aret folium cum maret et aret. 
Est mihi pluris ara porcorum quam Jovis ara. 
Gaudeo secure porcum mactando secure. 
On the right are mere fragments : — 

1. [dilijgentia et labore quoque plenius declaratur. 

2 hunc libellum si placet latine 

3. Mittatis si placet ad dominam comitissam Harundell. Isabellam ut mittat 
vobis librum de Sancto Thoma* Martyre et [Sancto Aed]wardo quem transtuli et 

protraxi [ ] terit domina comitissa Harund [ ] usque ad pentecostem. 

fol. 2, vers, contains: — 

Part of an outline drawing of a lady with a child in her lap; on the left are 

some lines, referring doubtless to the picture : — ] impones super eum 

misericordiam tuam, quaeso, Domine intercedendo beato Cendo[ J cessore 

tuo nobis in [ ] et visum oculorum me[ ] placatus suffragiis 

mihi [ jatori (trici) restaura et ilium illaese . . . . , et stabilem in vita mea 

conserva, post istius vitae decursum ad lumen transferas sempiternum, p. Dicatur 

ter pater noster in honorem [Sanct]orum . Laurentii Nigasii 

Ge]lasii et Leodogarii. 

Below are several verses in French, with an almost illegible Latin note to the 
left:— In Libro comitissae Wint. (?) binae imagines in singulis paginis francesis, 
[probably referring to the illustrations of St. Auban]. To the right come these 
French lines, almost entirely obliterated, each referring to an apostle or saint, with 
some notable circumstance of the life of each: — 

Jacobus. Sue merci Deus me eschoisi e apostle apela. 

Johannes. Bien me out Deus cher quant i garder sa mere me livra. 

• Perhaps this may have been one of the volumes referred to in the statement of Walsingham, quoted 
supra, p. iii. 



xu PREFACE. 

Andreas. En croiz me mist, lier me fist, Egee li felun. 

Thomas. Ki en Deu croit, pas nel voit, par moi ad benei9un. 

Marcus. Jo fu de Turs jadis pasturs e avant chevaler. 

Nicholas. Par ki fu, e Messie ke Deus plut nuncier. 

Albanus. Li premers fu ki pur Jesu mort sufri en Brettainne. 

Amphibalus. Auban par moi guerpi la foi, k'alme entusche e mahainne. 

Leonardus. De ki m'a en sa memoire. 

Egidius. Par beste mue fu lors tenue ma vie en ma hermitoire. 

[ . . . . ] Du temple hissi, despit, huni, pur co ke enfant n'oi mie. 

Anna. De moi nasqui cele de ki fu nez li haut Messie. 

On fol. 3, rect., begins the Latin poem containing the life of St. Auban, attri- 
buted to Ralph of Dunstable : — 

Albani celebrem coelo terrisque triumphum : 
Ruminat inculto carmine Clio rudis. &c. 

[As a detailed description of the remaining contents of the MS. may be found 
in "Hardy's Catal. of Brit. Hist.", Vol. I., pt. i., pp. 13-18, it is unnecessary to 
repeat it here.] 

A few marginal notes occur in the Latin lines, as follows: — 

fol. 22, rect. " Hoc de libro Johannis Mansel. [Erat namque dux et magister 
militiae totius Britanniae.]" 

fol. 22, vers. " Nota quod beatus Albanus civis et indigena fuit Verolami 
natus et genitus, dicit enim quod genus in civitate habuit, ab antiquis tamen 
Romania derivatum, sicut Walenses a Trojanis". 

fol. 25, vers. " Hoc apud Lichefeld evenit. Inde Lichfeld dicitur quasi 
'campus cadaverum'; 'Lich 'enim Anglice 'cadaver' sive 'corpus mortui' 
dicitur." 

In one rubric (fol. 57, rect.), mention is made o^ Holmlucri, and in the charters 
fol. 63, we have some local notices, which apparently add nothing to our know- 
ledge from other sources. 



it remains that I should briefly indicate the reasons which have urged me to 
the publication of this Old French poem, and the method I have pursued in 
endeavouring to accomplish my task, — in other words, to state the 7vhy and how 
of this edition. 

The Norman invasion of England has left indelible traces on our speech, 
which seem to deserve a much closer investigation than they have had. The 



PREFACE. xiii 

influences exerted on the vocabularj', pronunciation, inflection, syntax, and 
idiom, have never yet been duly weighed, nor their action fairly considered. 
The position of Norman-French in England after the Conquest was something 
like that of Latin in Gaul : it was the language that was to be studied by all who 
were desirous of promotion or influence in the State. In social life, in religious 
matters, in the pleadings of the law courts, Norman was the recognised medium 
of communication, and to be ignorant of Norman was to be shut out from all 
chance of position or dignity. But the fates of the alien languages have been 
very diff'erent in Gaul and in Britain. While in Gaul, the conquered nation 
rapidly absorbed the language of the new masters to such an extent as even to 
produce orators and poets whose fame became celebrated in the central Rome, — 
in Britain the foreign language was never accepted by the people, and died of 
inanition. The bastard Anglo-Norman of some documents gives a kind of hint 
as to what might have been the particular Romance tongue here spoken, 
had the people adopted it. But it was not to be. The English people held fast 
to the Englisce spreec. The political severance of France and England after 
the wars of Edward III., and in particular the loss of Normand}-^ under King 
John, naturally threw the Normans in England into the arms of the people. The 
change was soon felt, for in 1362 the French language was so much "unknown," 
that the pleadings in the law courts were directed to be conducted in English. 
It is just at this period that our great English writers begin : 1300- 1400 includes 
RIaundeville, Wycliff, Chaucer. French influence had thus been operative for 
about three centuries, taking as the starting point the accession of Edward the 
Confessor (1042), and ending with the cessation of the use of French in the law 
courts (1362). Ten generations of vigorous life may be expected to have left pro- 
found traces of their existence even after sixteen generations. The curiosities of 
Jersey law are a remnant (and a travesty) of the old Norman institutions; through 
Britain are scattered old Norman castles, imposing in the dignity of their ruin ; 
but the most lasting, and indeed imperishable monument of the conquerors, is to 
be found in the language of the people by whom they were absorbed and assimi- 
lated. But while the antiquarian and archseologer have carefully noted and 
examined the remnants of laws and customs, implements and buildings, &c., the 
linguist has not proceeded with equal care, zeal, or constancy. It is to this defect 
that I desire to call the attention of our scholars : the history of our English lan- 
guage is altogether onesided if itdoes not embrace the period of the Norman-French, 
which bridges over in some small degree the gulf between Saxon and English, 

c 



xw PREFACE. 

and which has a higher claim to our consideration as having been the matrix of 
our early English literary work. It is not, perhaps, necessary to urge the import- 
ance of a sound knowledge of the French language in its early form as a funda- 
mental requisite of a fair inquiry. It is, however, not quite so unnecessary to 
remind the investigator that the knowledge of only Modern French bears about 
the same relation to the problems of linguistic research in this field, as the know- 
ledge of only the construction of modern villa-residences bears to the problems of 
archaeological research .- in either case the knowledge is inadequate, and may be 
misleading. It must be studied in its older form. But Old French had (at least) 
three great dialects, distinguished by more than merely phonetic or orthographic 
differences, viz., the Burgundian dialect, the Picard, and the Norman. Now, if an 
English student would learn Old French, it is evident that he should seek to 
study it primarily in that form under which alone it stood in immediate relation 
with our speech, viz., the Norman dialect. A French student will naturally 
regard all the dialects of his native tongue as of equal importance, and a German 
scholar may study them all indifferently, as not being specially concerned in any 
one ; but to the English student, there is only this one dialect of absolute and 
permanent interest — his own Norman. We should not forget that it is to an 
English subject we are indebted for the first great models of French in this 
dialect. In his "Brut" and " Rou," the Jerseyman Wace has left two works that 
are as important historically as they might be linguistically, though they seem 
only lately to have come to the front in our histories, and are even yet not acces- 
sible in their Norman forms, as written in England. ]\Iy motive, then, in editing 
this small poem, is to aid the English student in the acquisition of this one 
dialect, to furnish the means for obtaining a firm grasp of the actual forms of the 
Norman language employed by the educated men of those times — the poets, cour- 
tiers, historians, of early England. The multiplicity of forms which are met with 
in the whole range of Old French, and of which the handbooks of Burguy and 
Bartsch give a tolerable idea, is a very great obstacle to the attainment of a 
proper knowledge of the language. Such handbooks are indispensable for further 
study ; but it seems to me about as reasonable to expect a student to emerge from 
Burguy's admirable repertory', with a clear apprehension of Old French, as it 
would be to make a similar demand from a student of Greek who had only a 
grammar that gave all the dialectic forms indiscriminately with equal fulness and 
detail. There is quite enough variety in the forms found in this Vie to require 
the attention of the early student for some time ; and I know that he will be able 



PREFACE. XV 

to proceed in his after studies much more rapidly, or at least satisfactorily, by 
having- made himself thoroughly master of all that is to be found here. Till he 
does know, accurately and familiarly, all that is contained in this small poem, I 
would urge that he should confine himself within these limits. The text is given 
as the MS. has it, so that whatever peculiarities are observed in the text, the stu- 
dent may rest assured that they are at least not the product of any speculation of 
the Editor as to admixture of dialect, &c. I have neither attempted to normalise 
text nor metre. The method followed by M. Gautier in his sumptuous edition of 
the Chanson de Roland is described by him in these words : " Nous nous propo- 
sons de reconstituer notre vieux poeme tel qu'il aurait ete ecrit par un scribe 
instruit et soigneux, avec les regies generales de la langue de son temps et les 
regies particuliferes de son dialecte special." This is precisely what I have in- 
tended to do, by simply printing my text as accurately as I could, and I have 
gone over the IMS. many times. If we follow the tradition, (which I suppose is 
as probable as any tradition ever is,) as to the origin and handwriting of the 
MS., we could hardly have a better example of the " scribe instruit et soigneux " 
than Matthew Paris, and I have been careful not to do him the injustice of sup- 
posing that he was ignorant, or wrote carelessly, — by correcting his MS. 

The Glossary which I have appended is fuller than usual, as I have sought to 
set forth the facts of the language, as far as this fragment goes, by bringing toge- 
ther, for the purpose of comparison, every word every time it occurs under its proper 
grammatical category. It is needless for me to detail the considerations which 
led to the adoption of this method : I adopted it because I thought it was the 
best, and I have done it as well as I was able. I could have wished more assist- 
ance in arranging and correcting, for I feel painfully how hard it is for any man 
single-handed to keep down within pardonable limits the number of oversights, 
errors, and blunders, and I shall be grateful for any corrections from ainybody 
who may use or examine the work. 

But while the immediate aim of the book is to assist to the acquisition of an 
accurate knowledge of the genuine forms of Norman-French, in the notes I have 
sought to give it a somewhat wider interest and reference. The notes are 
intended to familiarize the student with some of the facts of comparative etymo- 
logy in the limited sphere of the Romance languages. I have given them pretty 
nearly in the form which they took in viva voce explanations, and they are only 
meant to be suggestive, in no wise exhaustive. How far I have succeeded in 
writing down a practical index or syllabus to the wider range open to viva voce 



xvi PREFACE. 

class lectures, I do not know. The illustrative quotations given bear a verj' 
small proportion indeed to the number I had collected ; there are, however, per- 
haps sufficient to call attention to the relations of this Norman-French to Old 
French in general on the one hand, and to Old English on the other. How very 
soon a student, familiar with Spenser and Chaucer alone, might fill an interleaved 
copy of Auban with parallel passages, in use of words, idiom, metre, Sec, will 
hardly be credited till it is tried. 

The appendices contain an analysis of the final ^ and z in the inflection of nouns, 
&c., from which it will be evident that there were certain prescriptions incum- 
bent on the scribe, and which are therefore the product of the special rules of the 
period, — and a section on all the vowel combinations that occur throughout the 
poem. The much broader question of Norman scriptio in general, I have been 
compelled to reser\'e for another work. I have not thought it necessary to give 
any separate grammatical synopsis, and a syntax was of course out of the ques- 
tion : the Glossary will, I hope, be found serviceable both for the syntax and the 
morphology, as furnishing material for the student to construct for himself, 
which I believe is the only way he will ever fully realize, the grammar of the 
Old French language as it was current in England during the Norman rule. 



To the Board of Trinity College my very best thanks are due for their libera- 
lity in defraying the expense of this edition. 

ROBERT ATKINSON. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 



fol. 29a. j^i tant est redutee de diable enfernal ; 

mes ne ert d' or adubbee, ne d'autre metal, 

de peres preciuses, de ivoire ne roal. 

n'i out acastonee, ne gemme, ne cristal : 

de fust i fu furmez uns cors d'um mortal, 5 

penduz e cloufichez a loi de desloial ; 

avau Tun des costez raa li sancs cural. 

ceste croiz aiire serrein e matinal, 

cum cist ki ert amis Jesu espicial. — 

il vent a Varlam, un liu emperial, 10 

une cite nobile sanz gueres paringal 

si ne fust entuschee de la lei criminal. 

mes sarrazins la tindrent, (dunt fu grant duel e mal,) 

k'en Apolin creient Sathan e Belial. — 

vent s'en li clers e entre a un maistre portal. 15 

un palois perrin trove, ki ne pert pas casal, 

a solers e estages e celers grantz aval ; 

e le seingnur scant al uis de sun ostal, 

nobile citoien en atur festival 

a robe d'or batue e nusches de aesmal. 20 

Auban ad nun, — de la cite un haut mareschal ; 

n'i out plus cuneiiz, ne nus plus communal. 

si ancesur estoient romein original. 

li clers le saliie, e si saluz fu tal : — 

B 2 



4 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

II. 

Ue US kl ad tut le mund a guverner 3s 

vus benoie e guard ki tant pers prude ber ! 
trespassant sui estrange, ki m'en veng d'utre iner, 
las, ki palefrei n'ai a chevaucher. 
ostel demand pur Deu ki nus deingna crier." 
cist bonement li grante, acoilt, cumande entrer, 30 

una part I'apele, cumence a demander: — 
"ki es tu? e dunst vens ? ii penses tu aler?" 
cist respund : — " de orient veng sanz sujurner. 
vers Guales mun pais est mun purpos teser, 
la nuvele esjoie precher e nuncier 35 

du fiz Deu Jesu Crist ki nus deingna sauver, 
foi. 29b. naistre, en croiz murir, e de mort relever, 

de enfer nus rescure, e puis eu ciel munter, 
ki puis jugera nus tuz au paraler, 

sanz ki ne vaut pas tut li mundz un dener." 40 

quant I'ot Auban du fiz Deu parler, 
mut cumence de 90 esmervoiller: 
" cument," dist il, " oses tu celui numer 
par ki noz deus unt eii damage e desturber? 
e oses devant moi en ma maisun precher 45 

ke Jesus ad tut le mund a guverner ? 
e en queu manere peiistes vus passer 
geske ca, sanz mort, e sanz encumbrer, 
u noz deus unt lur lei e lur poer, 
ki ceu Jesu heent cum aloue esperver?" 50 

in. 

Auban, bel hoste l" respond li pelerin, 
" herberge m'as ja en tun paleis marbrin, 
n'oiez vers mes diz quor dur ne ferrin ! 
Jesu Crist recleim, e a lui sui enclin, 

ki regne e regnera sanz cumencail e fin. 55 

il devise e dresce mun aiere e mun chemin ; 
escu m' est e guarant plus ke chastel perin. 
lui pri e aiir lu soir e lu matin, 
ki guarde e cunforte le poure e le frarin, 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 5 

ki pest le famillus, ki sustent I'orfanin, 60 

k' en Beethleem naski, ki fist de Fevve vin 

quant manga as nosces lu ber Architriclin. 

en cast pais m'en veng estrange e barbarin 

pur toi e pur meint autre mescreant sarrazin. 

pur Jesu guerpiras la loi Apolin 65 

k'en enfer gist puant cum bucs u mastin* 

lez Sathan le maufe cunpainz e vesin. 

pur Deu murras martir, co vus di e devin. 

n'a pl[^ft? ne //.vjs ci k'a I'euue du Rin 

la \cstoire 11 £rf\ cuntee en Frances e latin." 70 

IV. 

Quant \Ji tcr Aubaii] ad sun oste entendu 

'^ \_ki est £71] sun ostel entrez e receiiz, 
foi. 29, vers. a. Je scs diz cst 3. mervellcs meiiz. 

une part I'acoilt, e of lui est venuz 

a une maisun foreine, ki n'i soient veii 75 

de veisins u serganz, di ne aperceii. 

" trop," dist, " me esmerveil de co ke me dis tu, 

ki nuveles me portes d'un deu mescuneii, 

fiz d'une pucele k'em claime Jesu, 

ki, sulum ta favele, Deu e fiz Deu fu ; 80 

ke ne purreit estre, m'est vis, entendu, 

ne par fines raisuns enquis ne seii. 

ne jo ne I'ai apris, ne pruve ne leii, 

ke Deu, ki tant est de force e de vertu, 

ki fist Ics elementz, — terre, unde, air, e fu, — 85 

par ki li mundz est e faitz e sustenu, 

deingnast de femme naistre, e estre en croiz pendu, 

a un fust cloufichez, du glaive au quor ferru, 

penez e escharniz, e de fel enbeiiz, 

mort, de croiz ostez e posez en sarc[2^] 90 

cum un de nus morteus, pctiz e me[««".] 

trop i es enganez, trop i es deceii ; 
fol. 29, vers, b fuissez des citoiens ja recuneii, 

ne te serroit or rancum, n'um mortal escu, 

* 66 MS. mastim (or masliin). 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

ke ne fuissez detrenchez ja de brantz muluz." 95 

respund Amphibal : — " ne soiez irascu ! 

kar par Deu ki m'amene a vostre salu 

sui en cest pais entrez e arestuz. 

ne vout Deus ke soiez damnez ne perdu 

k'en franchise e almosne as tun tens despendu : 100 

tu regneras of lui cum sis amis e dru." 



V. 



Ai 



lL nun le fiz Marie ki tut ad a guier, 
cumence Amphibals sun sermun desploier. 
Auban ben I'escute e entent i de quor. 

"quant Deus out fait Adam e Ewe sue per, 105 

d'un arbre lur defendi le fruit a manger, 
il le trespasserent sanz pardun demander. 
deus ki est dreitureus nes vout esparnier ; 
de parai's les ruva ambesdeus exuiller. 

despuis lur cuvint lur vie demener 1 10 

en labur, doler, languir e devier, 
en la prisun de emfer aler, puis sujurner 
foi. 30a. e trestut lur lingnage en les laz le adverser, 

ne pout estre guarantz, ne nus aver mester 
ke tuz ne lur cuvint cele part aler 1 15 

a Sathan, ki cunseil lur plust escuter, 
u lur cuvint grant tens of lui demurer, 
cil, — a ki'l plut a lui, ki nus deinna crier, 
par sa grace nus d'iluec engetter, 

(e diable ki mist hom en encumbrer 120 

par humme cuvint descumfire e mater,)— 
li haut pere du ciel ki fist e terre e mer, 
en autre k'en sun cher fiz ne se vout fier 
k si grant busoinne fere e achever. 

del angle Gabriel en fist sun messager, 125 

ki la nuvele vint en terre nuncier, 
e une pucele tut issi saluer: — 

' Marie ! Deu te saut, la benoite mulier 

de grace replenie, ki tant faitz a amer ! 

celui enfanterez ki vent le mund sauver, 130 

dunt as 01 lire e prophetizer, 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. .7 

Messie, ki deit tut le mund restorer, 
cele ert esbaie, cumence a esmerveiller ; 
de barun cumpainnie kar ne vout espruver. 
cist la recunforte par raisuns demustrer: — 135 

' seintz esperitz en toi vendra recunser, 

ki toi cumme mere vudra enumbrer. 

ki du mund ad seingnurie e poer, 

par droit apent naistre, e tei lui enfanter 

sanz pucelage perdre u damager, 1 40 

e sanz cunoissance d' umme u repruver.' 
atant I'ottreit cele sanz nier u duter. 

VI. 

1 UT issi cum vus recunt e devis, 
pur nus tuz nasqui li reis de parais, 

e fu au jur oitisme eu temple circumcis : 145 

Jesu I'apelerent si parent e amis, 
apres pou de tens puis ke out entre nus mis, 
<ol. 30b. vertuz fist grantz, — sana paraletics, 

feverus, avogles, desvez e kaifs, 

leprus, e cuntrez, e de maufez purpris ; 150 

mortz resuscita, guari les ydropics. 
mes puis ke il fu d'age e de anz treis feiz dis, 
e de lui crut la renumee e pris, 
envie en urent adverser enemis. 

par Jiieus e Judas le traitre fu quis, 155 

trahiz, e venduz, guetez, truvez, e pris, 
a tort encupez, leidiz, e en croiz mis, 
e au queur feru du chevaler Lungis. 
murut ; dune trembla terre en tuz lius e pais, 
mua lune culur, devint li solailz bis. 160 

dune devindrent Jiieus murnes e pensis : 
ben savoient ki urent e mesfait e mespris, 
ki tuz jurs dcclinerent puis de mal en pis 
sanz rei, vaivez, dulurus, serfs pleintifs. 

mes Jesu releva cume sires poestifs 1 65 

au terz di, d'enfcr rescut ses prisuns cheitifs, 
eu ciel munta, a destre sun pere est asis. 
d'ilucc fu as apostles li seinz esperitz tram is, 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

ki estoient esluz par numbre deus faiz sis. 
e d'iluec vendra juger les mortz e vifs, 170 

quant dlrra : — ' venez, mes leaus amis gentils ! 
recevez la joie ke jo ja vus promis, 
u nafra jamais mortz noise ne duel ne estrifs. 
e vus, pecchur dampnez, eu feu ki art tut dis !* " 



Ai 



VII. 



lUBAN ben I'escute e de quor i entent, 175 

e puis li en a respundu simplement : — 
"ne sai vostre lei ne cuntenement, 
ne ke Jesus en ses establiz aprent ; 
mes si par aventure curage me prent 

ke crestiens deveingne par vostre enseignement, 180 

di moi ke ferai tut au cumencement, 
ke fere deverai, e ke fere i apent ? ' ' 
So]. 30, vers. a. adunc respundi li clers tut umblement : — 
" si Deu tant tun quor eslumine e esprent, 
ke tu la trinite voz craire fermement, 185 

le pere e le fiz, seint esperit ensement, — 
trois persones, un Deu veraiement, — 
de toi li fras sacrifice e present, 
kar ki co ne croit, enfernal turment 

sanz fin prendre apres la mort atent." 190 

Auban li ad dit ireement : — 
" CO ne recoit ne sen ne entendement, 
ne purroit estre pruve* par argument, 
ke un fust trois, e trois un senglement. 

desore guerpis le tun enchantement*, 195 

despuis ke droitz ne raisuns n' i assent." 
atant s'en part par ire e mautalent, 
dormir s'en va, kar la nuit le susprent. 
Amphibal sul i demuere e atent ; 
davant sa croiz la nuit en uraisuns despent. 200 

VIII. 

xYUBAN atant s'en est alez chucher ; 
en sun lit s'endort ki ert en un soler. 

* 193 "SIS. />nn't' pruve {his.) — 195 '[^IZ. eschanlauent. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 9 

mes Deus nel vout ne guerpir ne ubblier, 
ki li doinne sun segrei demustrer, 

e par avisiun lui esmoillir le quoer. 205 

kar avis lui est sanz fentosme u duter 
cum deus deingna du ciel desendre e avaler, 
eu mund entre morteus e vivre e cunverser, 
apres co la vie en la croiz achever, — 

e quancke a crestien croire est mester, 210 

lui ad tut mustre Deus sanz ren celer. 
le matin est levez par tens al enjurner; 
hastivement s'en va a sun hoste parler, 
e sa avisiun a lui apertement cunter. 

"beus hostes," dist il, " mut ai dormi des hier, 215 

mes ne prist sum mis quors ne mis penser, 
kar un sunge sungai, ne oistes unc le per. 
fol. 30, vers. b. si tu ke signifie me sez enseinner, 

tu serras mi maistres, e jo tis escoler : 

jamais ne nus purra vie ne mort sevrer, 220 

k'en vostre doctrine ne voille demurer." 

IX. 

J_/A nuit estoit peisible, li tens beus e seri, 
en mun lit fu chuchez e ferm fu endormi ; 
avis m'ert ke li eels se desclot e uvri 

beus e delitables, e purs e esclarci, 225 

u la gloire de Deu parut e resplendi. 
uns horn d'iluec en terre ca jus desendi ; 
en terre fu vivant, en terre fu nurri. 
un poples cuntre lui e cruel e hardi 

vint, ki sa doctrine dcspit e eschivi, 230 

e a tort la cupa, e puis prist e seisi, 
e divers turmentz en lui despendi ; 
fol. 31a. lia e repruva, laidit e escharni, 

gesk' au sane espandre dc escurgies bati, 

des paumes a la face criieument feri, 235 

en un fust dresce, autre entravers parmi, 

S. clous le afferma, encroa e pendi, 

de espines curuna, a boivre fel tendi ; 

par despit disoient a genoilluns* devant II : — 

* 239 MS. gonoilluns, 

6 



16 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

' hai ! rois de Giueus, poisant e enrichi, 240 

ore pert ke tu es e despit e guerpi. 

autres de tol sauvas, tant es le plus huni. 

les perillez rescuz ja, ki ore par es peri. 

sauf tun cors demeine cum sauver seiiz autri ; 

de la croiz desent ore devant le pople ci, 245 

e toi tuz aiirrum e crierum merci.' 
e cist ja noise ne fist ne mot ne respundi, 
mes quancke il savoient fere e dire sufri. 
murut, e en murant haut getta un cri : — 

' en tes meins mun* esperit, pere Adonai, 250 

<oi. 31b. cumant, kar de moi est ja tut acumpli.' 

trembla trestut li mundz, solail enobscuri, 
un grantz veilz du temple desira e rumpi, 
froisirent peres, e la lune enpali, 

ne rai ne lumere solail ne espandi. 255 

un de eus la curaille d'un glaive li ovri : 
du cors apertement sane e ewe hissi 
au saucher de la lance ; jo de mes [oilz fo] vi. 
dune furent li felun tirant [cs/noi/Ii,'\ 

li las e li dolent ki avant rure[«/ haf\. 260 

de la croiz fu ostez e puis enseve[//]. 
li sepulcres estoit ben clos e ben garni ; 
mes cist ki mortz estoit, releva au terz di, 
e eu ciel munta. grant turbe le sivi ; 

gloire e clarte les esceint e fluri. 265 

vindrent al encuntre, lez e esjoi, 
les legiuns des angles ke blancheiir vesti. 
en joie sunt trestuit dresce e esbaudi. 
foi. 31, vers. a. chanterent, e lur chant rentinc e entendi : — 

' benoit seit le pere ki tuz nus ad guari, 270 

e sun fiz ki li est parilgal e uni ! ' 
la joie ki i fu e ke jo i oi, 
quors nel puet penser, ne jo nel vus pardi. 
plus me mustra Deus e plus me descuvri 
segrei celestien, ke desclore vus ni ; 275 

kar descuverir ne I'os, bien seiez certz e fi. 
mes ceste avisiun, beus ostes e ami, 
k'est k[e ^Jignifie, me recunt e di. 
feintise u fausete ke n'i seit ja, 90 pri." 

* 250 MS. mul. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. ii 



X. 



wUANT Amphibal entent sun quor e sun curage, 280 

ke Deus I'at fait aignel d'un lean sauvage, 
Deu primes enmercie, cum lettrez e sage, 
ki fist e terra e mar, oisel, peisun marage. 
sa croiz li ad mustre ki la cunforte e suage. 
" Auban," dist il, " citoien nobiles de parage, 285 

veez ci la croiz Jesu, ki humein lignage 
rescust de diable, e d'enfernal servage. 
foi. 31, vers. b. parcruz art e trente anz out, kar tant estoit dune d'age 
quant en croiz lui mistrent li Gilie de putage. 
tant sufri de peine, e tant sufri de huntage, 290 

cum veiz en ceste croiz figuree la image, 
ne mist d'or ne d'argent pur nus rancun ne guage, 
mes de sa char dameine sacrifice e ostage. 
tun sunge puez entendre sanz fentosme u folage. 
n'est par autre sermun, doctrine u language, 295 

mes par avisiun vus a Dau mue la curage. 
fai lui cum fere deiz lingance e humage ; 
aliance sait batesme e primer mariage, 

e ne aiaz ja vers lui quor ligger ne volage ; 300 

kar tu murras pur lui martir par vasselage : 
of lui regneras tuz jurs eu celestien barnage. 

XL 

V^ELUI ke veistes par revelaciun 
servi e honure de anglin legiun, 
le fiz Deu meimes fu, ki a sauvaciun 

mist nus tuz morteus par sa encarnaciun. 305 

le pucple ke veistes tant cruel e felun 
foi. 32a. Giiieu sunt, ki par anvic e lur grant mesprisun 

mistrent Jesu a mort e a dampnaciun ; 
ki jadis furent serfs au tirant Phariiun, 

mes Deus les engetta de servage e prisun, 310 

e de la lei lur fist e present e dun 
e en tcrre les mena de promissiun. 
sun fiz lur envca e livra a bandun, 
mes ne li firent unc pur ses bens, si mal nun, 
tant ke il le mistrent a mort e passiun ! 3^5 

O 2 



,2 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

relever le veistes en vostre avisiun, 
cum fait li liunceus par la voiz du liun ; 
e eu del munta, — of lui si cumpainun 
k'il out ja delivre d'enfernal regiun ; 

e ferm lie Sathan le viel sen giant dragun 320 

en enfer, 11 ert tuz jurs sa mansiun." 
Auban de quor I'entent cum clerc fait sa les9un. 
quant ad la croiz veiie e le crucifi en sun, 
ben veit ke signifie la entaille e la facun : 
foi. 32b. a genoilluns se met par grant devociun ; 325 

de ses errurs fait veraie cunfessiun, 
a lermes e suspirs fait ad sa uraissun, 
a jointes meins a dit e a weimentisun : — 
" de mes pecchez demant, beus sire Deus, pardun. 
ai ! Jesu, funtainne de remissiun, 330 

ki eu ciel vi quant geti dormant en ma maisun, 
ti serfs deveng desore, en ta subjecciun. 
apertement reni I'enchantement Mahun, 
Apollin ne prise mes valiant un butun, 

Jovin descunus e sun frere Neptun, 335 

Tetim, e Pallaide, e le subterin Plutun, 
e tute la lei paene, ke par teu traisun 
met hum a grant ruine e a perdiciun." 

XII. 

/\.MIS," dist Amphibal, " ne vus serra cele : 
seint esperitz ad tun quor eslume. 340 

par humme sunt li autre apris e endoctrine, 
mes vus par Deu meimes en es revisite, 
(oi. 32, vers. a. e par sa revelaciun a lui es acointe. 

ore vus pri e sumoin pur Deu en croiz pane, 

soiez amis verais e hem de lealte ; 345 

kar eschoisi vus a, e vus lui de bon gre : 

ja ne vus en partez par nule vanite. 

trespassable est li mundz e tute sa beute, 

cum est la flur du champ u cum I'erbe du pre ; 

mes, ki sert Deu e fait la siie volunte 350 

e murt en sun servise, a bonure fu ne : 

cist regnera eu ciel sanz fin curune. 

mes li felun cheitif ki Deu unt ublie, 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. i? 

li las dolerus, hai ! tant sunt malure. 

u est Alexandres li princes alose ? 355 

Cesaires li riches e li redute ? 
e li autre prince tant riche e tant fefife, 
ki tant urent tresor e tant nobilite ? 
n'unt ore plus de tere fors saet pez mesure ! 
mes I'alme tuz jurs viit santz mortalite* ; 360 

mansiun truvera sanz nule fausete 
sulum les faitz du cors k'eu mund ad este : 
li guereduns est grantz as bons aturne. 
ne soiez esmeuz pur nule adversite 

ke hem vus face au cors u au quor maufe, 365 

kar a la fin serras martir par Deu pruve : 
le regne averez du ciel ki vus est estue." 
de I'ewe atant demande, e horn li ad porte, 
e Auban baptize a grant humilite 

eu nun de la veraie e haute trinite. 370 

en I'amur Deu I'a par sermun conferme, 
de la fei Deu la summe apris e demustre. 
e apres 90 ke il out trestut cest acheve, 
le cunge li ad requis e demande ; 

si li dist : — " amis, ne soiez esnuie, 375 

en* mun pais m'en vois ii oi einz purpose ; 
e vus soiez, beus ostes, a Jesu cumande. 
de vus croi estre seur e tres bien acerte, 
foi. 32, Yers. b. dcspuis ke Deu meimes ad tun quor saele. 

en* mun pais m'en vois, (asez ai sujurne,) 380 

sarracins cunvertir, dunt tant i a plente." 

XIII. 

AUBAN en suspirant li dit : — " Pur Deu sufrez, 

uncore de moi pas ne vus en partirez : 

dolenz en serroi e trop descunfortez. 

si tu sul me guerpis, trop friez criieutez. 3^5 

une semeine veaus of moi demurez ; 

de la lei k'ai enpris plus m'enseinnerez. 

s'il vus plaist, beu maistre, pur Deu le m'otriez !' 

respund Amphibal : — " ja ne vus ert voiez : 

*36o RIS. tnorlak. — 376, 380 MS. e. 



14 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

partut frai, sacez, tutes tes volentez." 3go 

dumurez est cum Auban li avoit proiez. 

d'une maisun sutive, u il sunt ja entrez, 

unt fait lur escole, pur les grantz fertez 

des sarracins feluns dunt il sunt guetez. 

iluec unt lur segreiz e cunseilz celez 395 

des relevees, e quant fu anoitez. 

lors li ad desclos escriz d'antiquitez, 

d'Adam, — de parais cum fu desheritez ; 

d'Abel, — cum I'ocist Cairn si frere esnez ; 

cum par le deluge estoit li mundz* purgez, 400 

par Noe e ses fiz cum puis fu restorez ; 

d'Abram e Moyseus les veillardz alosez, — 

cum furent andui de Damnedeu privez ; 

des sacramentz d'iglise, — cum il sunt cunfermez: 

e du grant jugement, ki tant est redutez ; 405 

e plusurs poinz, par unt doit hom estre sauvez, 

est Auban ja apris e bien endoctrinez. 

XIV. 

izLS-VUS un sarrazin ki avise les a 
a une fenestre par unt les esgarda, 

mes de eus ne fu veii ke les espia. 410 

lur faitz e lur cunseilz 01 e avisa, 
vit cum a la croiz Auban s'agenoilla, 
cum il guerpi Mahum, e Jesu reclama. 
a un prince felun hastivement ala, 
fol. 33a. la cite Verolaime ki dune guverna. 415 

d' Auban la nuvele descuvri e cunta. 
"ai ! princes gentilz," dist il, " enten ca ! 
Auban as perdu, dunt grant mal avendra ; 
noz deus ki ad guerpi, e baptizez est ja. 

kar crestiens est, mar nus en dutera : 420 

ben vi e bien I'oi cum il se humilia 
a un Jesu fiz Deu ke il aura, 
un pelerin trespassant, ki tut engane I'a, 
ki sen vent batant des terres de dela, — 
plus set de enchantement ke nuls dire purra, — 425 

* 400 ]\IS. tnudz. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 



15 



d'un deu tel estrange par ci sermunant va, 

ki Giiieu en Sulie en croiz penerent ja ; 

si cunrei n'en est pris, grant duel en surdera. 

avant ke plus avenge, ki me croit co fra 

ke fait li pastureus, despuis ke il verra 430 

une brebiz malade,— d'autres I'esloinnera ; 

kar si nun, par les autres li maus s'espandera. 

ore frez k'i dirai, s'a pleisir vus vendra, 

e avant ke nus horn garde s'en dura, 

la vostre maisnee, ki pas ne se feindra, 435 

le paleis e chanbres Auban trestutes cerchera, 

e lui e sun maistre sacez ke susprendra. 

ca venir les face, kar aidunc orra 

la curt apertement k' Auban vus dirra, 

e quancke vus ai dit, dune pur voir parra. 440 

s' en pernez teu vengance cum il apendra, 

ki en seit chastiez chascuns ki la saverra, 

e k' en client trestuit : — ' mar ja cumencera 

nus autres teu chose !' quant Auban s'en murra." 



Q' 



XV. 



'UANT li tirantz criieus la parole entendi, 445 

d'ire e mautalent tressua e fremi ; 
les grantz vertuz jure Mahommet sun ami, — 
si voirs est ke d'Auban avoit iluec 01 
ke il les deus a sarrazinois guerpi, 

du bu le chief li fra voler de brant furbi ; 450 

foi. 33b. ke ja pur lignage ne serra esparni. 

Auban k'en estoit de trestut co guarni 

par aucun de la curt dunt il estoit cheri, 

quant li jurs decline e nuit enobscuri, 

a sun maistre est venuz tut esbai. 455 

en plurant dist: — "amis, entenc ke jo vus di. 

descuverz sumes de co ke nus avum fait ci, 

a un tirant felun k'a Deu est enemi, 

de cest pais ki est tut sires ke bailli, 

e plus est pautcncrs ke n'est lu enchani. 460 

si pris sumes andui e mencz devant li, 

hunte vus fra, dunt trop seroie mari, 

si mal eiez ki point n' i avez deservi. 



1 6 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

mes de moi ki cheut, peccheiir enveilli ? 

de vus serroit grant duel si fuissez peri 465 

en vostre jofnesce ki a Deu es dru choisi : 

meint horn purra uncore par vus estre gari. 

alez vus ent, beu maistre, co vus requor e pri, 

de ces paens criieus ke ne soiez huni ; 
foi. 33, vers. a. kar raisun plus n'orreient ke tigre ensauvagi. 470 

jo remain, e prendrai de bon quor esjoi 

quancke Deus m'a purveii e establi. 

e vus ma robe averez u lut li ors burni ; 

ne te osera nuire ne cuard ne hardi 

pur quei k'il t'en veie e vestu e seisi. 475 

e jo ta esclavine, ke ca porter vus vi, 

plus I'eim ke peleicun d'ermine enblanchi." 

Amphibal I'ottrie k'a ses diz obei'. 

atant si sunt andui d'iluec metiz e parti. 

Auban de la cite ofuokes lui issi, 480 

ki bien le cunduseit treis arpentz e demi. 

mut veissez grant duel quant I'un d' autre parti. 

Auban de tendrur gent, plura, e pali, 

e dist : — " pur Deu, beu maistre, k'en Beethleem nasqui, 

kar proiez Deu pur- moi ke ne sole flecchiz." 485 

e cist respund : — " ne soiez ja espoiiri ! 

kar of vus est Jesus ki du ciel desendi. 
oi. 33, vers. b. a lui VUS cumant, e abandun, e li, 

ke ne soiez de lui esloinnez pur nulli, 

ki sa iglise sur pere funda e establi. 490 

ma croiz vus doins ke ne mettez ja Jesum en ubbli." 

cist Ten enmercie, ki pas ne la lenqui. 

atant s'en part li clers, e Auban reverti. 

XVI. 

liL endemein par tens quant part la matinee, 

e du solail parut la clarte k'est levee, 495 

li fels tirantz cumande trestute sa mesnee, 

ke la maisun Auban seit tute cerchee, 

e lui e sun hoste — (a ki peise u agree,) — 

facent a eus venir a la curt asemblee ; 

numeement celui ki en ceste cuntree 500 

d'un deu nuvel preche, Jesu de Galilee, 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 17 

k'en Sulie murut en haute croiz drescee. 
e cist s'en vunt curant par la riie pavee, 
portantz bastuns, macties* u hache u espee, 
a hautes manaces e grant bruit e criee, 505 

cum gent ki s'aturne a morteu medlee. 
as maissuns Auban vunt* sanz nule demuree ; 
chambres vunt cherchant, — n'est nule trespassee, 
uis brisent e porte si il la trovent saerree, 
Auban vunt querant cum gent desmesuree, 510 

le crestien demandent k'ad lur lei avilee, 
tant k'une chambre sutife i unt truvee, 
e Auban sul i veient ki ad sa croiz levee ; 
nupez a genoilluns suvent Fad aiiree, 

des lermes k'il espant est sa face arusee, 515 

e la lei Jesu suvent ad reclamee, 
ke sa vertu li seit tramise e envee. 
■ cist entrent, si unt grant noise cumencee 
de I'esclavine k'il voient k' Auban ad afublee, 
e de la croiz nuvele k'il ad tant honuree. 520 

plus est chescuns esmeiiz ke n'est quant est bersee 
leonesse, u saerpent quant ele se sent blescee. 
dient en hauste voiz e a cruel gorgee : — 
foi. 34a. " ii est cist faus truantz ki a pute destinee 

va par ci prechant de la lei cuntruvee?" 525 

Auban a parole simple e atempree 

dist k'il " s'en ala ben devant 1' ajurnee. 

celui le gard ki cria la terre e mer salee ! 

pur lui respunderai tutz les jurs de mun ee, 

partut ii veritez e dreiture est pruvee." 530 

lors I'unt cist pris e trahit par la riie e chaucce ; 

li uns par les chevoilz sanz mesure e manee, 

li autre par la robe, k'il unt tost desiree : 

du sacher e buter li est cnsanglaentee. 

Auban sa croiz retent, ne 1' ad pas ubliee,* 535 

dunt plus se curuce cele gent maluree. 

la cite en est tute tost esmiie e trublc'c, 

e I'achesun pur quel par tut est renumee. 

S, curt sunt ja venuz, u fu gent aiinee 

atendant la parole a queu chief fust menee. 540 

* 504 MS. macetis. — 507 MS. ;//;/. — 535 MS. ublie, 
D 



1 8 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 



XVII. 



Qi 



'UANT li princes I'ad veii en eel estrange atur 
'^*' ke il ad de sun maistre retenu par amur, 
de ire e mautalent tut mue la culur, 
e puis li ad dit par curuz e irur : — 

" ki es tu ki nus as fait si grant deshonur, 545 

qui guerpi as ke tindrent ti gentil ancesur? 
ne fuissez citoien de parente majur, 
jas fuissez a mort livrez e a dulur. 
de vus s'esmervellent li grant e li menur, 
ki sages es de aprise e d'age estes maiir, 550 

e deiissez estre as autres essample e mireiir, — 
ore croiz ke va prechant un estrange tafur 
ki s'en va vaivez par terres sanz sujur, 
e ore s'en est binnez en tenegre devant jur 
cum luz u cum gupilz escriez de pastur. 555 

entenc cum sa doctrine folage est e errur. 
k'a fause fust pruvee ben pert, k'il out poiir ; 
venuz dust estre ci devant nus a baudur 
cum maistre e avoue e cum certein prechur, 
e estre a sun deciple e guarant e sucur. 560 

foi. 34b. mais ben I'ad ore pruve ke il est boiseiir : 

' fausete se soille', dit hom, 'au chef de tun' 
pens de tun lingnage, ki grant conquesteiir 
de Rumme nez, ki furent du mund cumandeiir, 
sarrazins nobiles de grantz terres seingnur, 565 

ki en noz Deus tuz crurent ki tant sunt de valur : 
a eus sunt entendant roi, due, empereiir. 
repent toi de tun maisfait, n'en serras le pejur ; 
engettez ces drapeus, ne vus nuit la puiir, 
e cele croiz ke tu la tens, dunt* as tu hisdur ! 570 

ben s'en puet gabber de vus cist enchantur, 
ki ta robe enporte, — hai, queu changeiir ! 
mes n'est nul tant sage, tant fort, ne tant seiir, 
ki n'est aucune feit susduit par foleiir. 

par trai'sun perist meint quens, meint vavasur, 575 

marcheant en feire, chevaler en estur. 

* 570 MS. dun COS (or e as). 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 19 

n'estes pas darreins, a tei n'est fait premur. 
n'est ki ne prent sum, fere purrez retur, 
repentir te purras de cast grant foleiir ; 
foi. 34, vers. a. 611 noz deus ad grant franchise e ducur, 580 

ki piete unt tost de repentant pecchur : 
n'averunt vers toi plus ne ire ne rancur. 
reni Jesu ke claimes fiz Deu le sauveiir, 
e noz deus poestifs desoremes aiir ; 

tu en purras consirer gueredun e honur, ,"585 

terres e citez grant, iiez, chasteus, e tur ; 
kar li doilz serroit grantz, ne veimes unc greinnur, 
si tu t'en murs, ki en es de la cite la flur." 



XVIII. 



D] 



'E tut CO n'est Auban esmuz, ne geenst, ne deut, ne plure ; 
sun curage e quor justise par sage atempreiire, 590 

puis respund cum celui ki de blandir n'a cure, 
e dist: — " amis ! si te doinst Deus bonaventure, — 
queus est li creaturs plus haut, u siie creature ? 
quidez ke jo pur deu recleim metal u pere dure, 
ki ne parole ne ot ne sent ne veit par nature, 595 

de uns enginnurs morteus ki est ovre e faiture, 
par engin est cuntrefait en entaille u peinture, 
semblance est e faussete, purpens e cuntrevure ? 
foi. 34, vers. b. maufez i sunt k'en la prisun d'enfer gisent obscure. 

li clercs dunt utrage as dit e mal a desmesure*, 600 

n'est pas desleals, mes sa doctrine veraie est e seiire, 

e sa vie espirable e seinte e nette e pure, 

e Deu, ki fist trestut le mund, e jur e nuit aiire. 

de lui retenc par amiste ceste moie vesture 

e ceste croiz, 11 de Jesu est falte la figure. 605 

90 ke m'aprist ne guerpirai tant cum vie me dure, 

ne flecchirai pur nule mort tant cruele e dure. 

Mahom reni, k'en cnfcr trait ki lui sert e honure; 

en Jesu croi, Jesu recleim ; Jesus me haid e sucure. 

e ki reapeler me veut, sacez k'en vein labure. 610 

* 600 MS. dismuu. 
D 2 



20 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

si feiissez gent de sen, de raisun e mesure, 
e veritez voissez oir, bien fere e dreiture, 
a vus ca fust li clers venuz sanz fuie e cuverture. 
mais jo cunus vos criieutez cercusmes e porture : 
nel' eiissez plus entendu ke asne harpeiire. 615 

jo de tut CO Ten garni, e dis a dreiture ; 
de voz maus lui recuntai, riote e nureture, 
. 35a. k'enclins avez tuz jurs este a pecchez e ordure : 

a peine ubiie co k'aprent pulein en sa adanture." 

XIX. 

Cy UANT il I'unt entendu, grant cri e bruit fait unt, 620 

(e fu par aventure au jur quant feste funt 
a Febum, deu du solail, ke il aiirrunt, 
en un curre estant, tenant un rubi rund, 
un image d'or burni, ii tuit se assemblerunt, 
servise e wu anuel custumel soudrunt;) 625 

e dient k'au temple santz demure irrunt, 
Auban lur enemi la venir ferunt ; 

'voille u nun, verra k'il sacrifierunt.' 
cist I'und ja seisi, ki a lur temple vunt*. 
Auban i trainent, ki de lui piete n'unt. 630 

li uns trait, li uns bute, li uns ses dras desrunt ; 
ferent e enpeinnent en face e nes e frunt. 
Auban n'est flecchiz, mes simplement respunt : — 
" tuit cist ke ci vei, pur nent travaillerunt. 
gravele semmez, de glace fates pund, — 635 

ainz purra mer secchir, ruisseu cure vers munt, 
ke Jesu treshublie ki cria tut le mund, 
pur tant cum portereit de fin or un dromund, 
ne pur tuz les hummes ki vivent e murunt. 
veisin u parent, ami ne brun ne blund,* 640 

chose ne purrunt ja faire par unt 
diables mais aiire k'en enfer sunt parfund. 
mal aient deu pere u fust u ki de metal sunt : 
pere perist e depece, fust art e metal funt." 

* 629 jMS. ««/.— 640 MS. bund. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 21 

XX. 



Li 



/I princes quant co veit ki presentz juge i sist, 645 

k' Auban lur creance e lur loi si despiist, 
de quor les hai, de paroles laidist, 
ne ren n'i espleite horn par peine k'em i mist, 
cumande ke batu seit lores sanz respiit. 

e ceus i acurent, — n'a cist ke ne obeist, 650 

de peus e de bastuns u enpeinst u batist, — 
fruissent os, char emfle, e la pel enpalist, 
en plusurs lius du cors li sancs ki s'espand, ist. 
Auban ki tut suefre Jesu ura, e dist : — 

" Deu k' Adam furma, e ki tant le cheriit* 655 

101.35b. jje ^ lui meimes semblable le fist ; 

puis par traisun de la saerpent forfist, 

pur lui e sun lignage Deu du ciel tramist 

.sun fiuz, d'une* pucele k'en terre char prist ; 

force e estabilite me doinst il, cum cist 660 

ki poisantz est e moi cria e eu cors m'alme mist, — 

en vus met ma esperance e m'amur e delit, 

e a vus sacrifice me doins jo, Jesu Crist !" 

XXI. 

OUANT par tant ne poent li felun esploiter, 

en prisun obscure le cumandent getter, 665 

de chaesnes lie, e tant la demurer 
ke sun voler poiisse e flecchir e changer : 
kar plus seut demurance le cors d'um pener 
ke ne fait anguisse ki s'en put tost passer. 
mis i fu enchaesnez pur sun cors plus grever 670 

en garde e en destresce a felun gaholer, 
k'aie ne rescusse n' i pust aver mester. 
Auban en la chartre ne fina Deu urer ; 
90 fu sanz lassesce jur e nuit sun mester. 
sa penance i meine pur ses maus cspurger. 675 

• 6ss MS. encheriil. — 659 MS. du [v. note]. 



aa VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

foi. 35, vers, a. ne belt mais des bons vins gisantz en sun celer, 
de riche vaissele a servant butuiller ; 
n'a mais delici'uses viandes a manger ; 
prisun ad obscure pur sale e pur solar, 
manicles e buies en liu de buus d'or cler; 
a plume ne a cotun ne a pailles d'utre mer, 
de sole coiltes pointes n'a mais lit au chucher; 
feim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner, 
pur lit ad roche bise si dure cum acier. 
tut CO suefre Auban de verai e bon quoer : 
mut deit pur sun seignur sufrir leal chevaler. 
Deus ki tut remire nel vout pas ublier, 
les elementz cumande le tort k'em fait venger, 
e en teu manere cum m'orrez recunter, — 
une chalur ki pas ne se seet atemprer 
du solail ki flamboie ki tant fist chaut e cler : 
flestrisent blez en terre, perisent li verger, 
li bois e li gardin, li praiol e herber ; 
ne venta vent si ki les peiist aorer. 
foille veisez blanchir, le chaut tendruns usler, 

fol. 35, vers. b. les grantz paluz secchir e la terre crever, 
oises e bestes miles baer e pantoiser, 
gent ki se despoille e nercir e suer. 
as reims murir les flurs fu duel a regarder. 
dure li chautz de nuitz sanz rein amesurer, 
niie ne parut ki terre peiist umbrer, 
n'i pout matinee ne vespre aver mester, 
n'a pluie ne rusee au seir n'al enjurner. 
neissent maladies e divers encumbrer, 
fevres ki funt la gent engaunir e trembler ; 
emflent ydropis par beivre e chaut aver ; 
de musches e vermine ne se pout nul garden 
dura cist grantz maus tant cruel e tant for, 
despuis ki li feluns tiranz pautoner 
out fait Auban Her de chaesnes de fer, 
tenir laidir e batre e en chartre estuer, 
passe en fu ja dimi an plener. 



680 



685 



690 



695 



700 



705 



710 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. ^S 



XXII. 

At ANT sunt assemble trestuit li citoiein, 

li prince de la terre, 11 bailli e gcydein, 

mandez e sumuns de pais lointein 7^5 



XXIII. 

* » * * 

foi. 36a. " ki crucifie fu eu pais de Sulie. 

Auban est sis disciples, en li creit e se fie. 
autrement ke li maistres sis horn ne murra mie ; 
si en droitz k'em Auban en croiz crucifie." 
des sarrazins s'asentent bien a li grant partie, 720 

mes un de eus respundi, ki co pas ne ottrie, 
e dist :—" Auban li engres par orgoil e envie, 
ki noz deus celestiens despersone e defie, 
droiz est ke en terre vif horn I'ensevelie "• _ ^^ 
cele mort apent a home ki le suen deu renie." 725 

le plus de la curt ki lot, a lui s'asent e plie. 
dist uns paens ki estoit de grant felunie :- 
" kar entendez ke raisuns cumande e veut e pne. 
plus nuit e greve ke mort, langur e maladip. 
ne voudroie ke Auban uncore* perdist la vie : 730 

li oil creve li soient, eit la vue perie, — 
orb est de quor e avoglez, co mustre e sigmfie,— 
ja nul ne voie, mes autres lui, e poiir eit e die, 
' ki par autres est garniz, cist beu se chastie.' 
enchacez seit ke mais de li ne seit nuvele oie ; 735 

celui sive ki doctrine tant prise e maistrie." 

XXIV. 

Ll prince e la commune ne I'unt pas otrle, 

ne li parent Auban ki iluec sunt assemble, 

ne cist de la cite, li veillard e esne, 

kar Auban ert gentilz e bien enparente. 74© 

»* 715 a fol. is wanting here in MS.— 730 MS. oncon. 



fol. 36b. 



24 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

sulum la lei de Rumme, horn k'a mort est juge, 
ki est commun enemi, mes n'est leres pruve, 
e seit de parage e gentilz e bien-ne, 
custumme est e dreiture ke il seit decole : 
a ceste mort est Auban e livrez e damnez. 745 

cele sentence unt jovre e viel conferme ; 
li grant e li petit bien sunt de 90 pae, 
e autres jugementz unt desdit e fause. 
lors I'unt de rechief de chaesnes lie, 

hors de la cite I'unt trait ja e mene. 750 

tant lui suit grant pueple k'a pou n'est voide 
li temples e citez u urent ainz estez. 
dient en reschisnant ki I'unt trait e bute : — 
foi. 36, vers. a. " va t'en, his, enemi nus deus de la cite ! 

ke tu as deservi, luer tei est apreste : 755 

tu murras santz delai, tu muras, malure !" 

tire I'unt e sache, batu e laidange ; 

e cist mot ne sune, mes les ad encline, 

Jesu ure, pur nus ki en croiz fu pene. 

la presse ert grant du peuple ki la fu aiine 760 

pur ver le gugement au queu chief fust mene ; 

curent e poinnent a cheval e a pe. 

li uns les autres passent, enviz va bon gre : 

estroit lur fu le champ e le chemin ferre. 

a une ewe venent grant e parfund sanz gue, 765 

ne batel ne nief a passer unt truve ; 

un pund i unt truve, u sunt li uns passe, 

nus ne remaint, mes de passer s'est chescun eforce. 

li pountz estoit estroitz, de pople i out plente, 

a grant estrif i passent, e nul a volente ; 770 

mes li jovre volentrifs de force e poeste, 771* 

I'ewe passent a nou, ki parfund fu e le. 772* 

mes plusurs i perisent, dunt fu grant duel mene ; T] 1 

li uns du pund en I'ewe ki en sunt trebuche, 772 

e autres ki au noer se mistrent, sunt nee. 

Auban ki co regarde marriz est e greve, 

a genoilluns s'est mis, e gent deplete ; 775 

le quor e le visage vers le ciel ad dresce, 

e dist : — " beu sire Deus, ki as le mund furme, 

ki en avisiun vi estre en croiz pose, 

pur tiie franchise e debonnerete, 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 25 

fal I'ewe descrestre par quel sunt travaille 780 

cist ki ver desirent 90 ke m'est aturne !" 

Deu ki tut guverne regnant en majeste, 

ki de tut prent cure quancke il ad crie, 

hautement soudee ki de lui est prive, 

la requeste Auban ducement ad grante 785 

XXV. 

foi. 36, vers. b. LES oraisuns e lermes de vertu sunt tant, 
k' Auban a Deu presente a devociun grant, 
ke I'ewe ki ert parfunde e raedde a flot briant 
retraite, e sun chanel va si apetizant 

ke n'i fust nus a flote, ne batel ne chalant ; 790 

e Ci avant passer ne pout horn nouant, 
a seeches plantes passentnis li petit enfant, 
li mort ki noiez furent se drescent en seant, 
de mort resuscitez, vifs levent e juant, 

legers, enters e seins, cum geii ussent dormant : 795 

mut en sunt esbaiz li paien mescreant. 
uns chevalers gentilz, ki ala trainant 
Auban a martire au puier le pendant, 
ki Aracle avoit nun, e cist out le cumant 
de decoler Auban receii du tirant, 800 

quant veit le miracle Jesu tesmoniant, 
e les resuscitez ki venent Deu louant, 
au sabelun ii nuls unc horn ala avant, 
chiet as piez Auban, si engette sun brant, 
e dist en haute voiz, les sarrazins ouant : — 805 

" cist est Deus poestifs, dunt Auban va prechant ; 
n'est autre si il nun, cist est li tut poissant ! 
despendu e perdu ai trestut mun viant, 
ke ceu Deu n'ai servi ; mes ore nepurquant, 
mes ke a tart, deveng sis hom e sis sergant. 810 

hai! Jesu debonaire, k'Auban va tant prisant, 
de trestutz mes pecchez, sire, pardun demant : 
a vus m'alme e mun cors abandun e cumant. 
ta vertu prove I'ewu a toi obeissant, 

e 90 ke hem desdit, pur vers recumbatant, 815 

tcsmoine le element ke a toi est attendant. 

E 



26 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

hem, a ki Deus dune raisun a sun semblant, 

e tei tuz jurs apele, ' k'alez vus demurant?' 

kar guerpissez Mahom, guerpissez Tervagant, 

e reclamez Jesu le verai Deu vivant." 820 

atant regarde Auban a piteus semblant, 

foi. 37a. e dist : — "proiez pur moi Jesu eu ciel regnant ! " 

es-le-vus seisi, e pris de meintenant. 
k'avant urent ire ore la vunt il dublant, 

fremissent cum liuns ki vunt* proie sivant; 825 

u uns paens haut s'escrie une mace portant: — 
" tu mentz apertement, vassal failli puant ! 
mar unc le deis, marl'alas cuntruvant; 
mes jo sai I'achesun, jo en ere voir disant : 
li solailz ke aiirum, ki chautz est e raant, 830 

la huntage de lui veit k'alum vengant, — 
le flot ad tut secchi ki nus fu desturbant. 
ki autrement le dit fableiir est mentant, 
e &. 90 pruver sui prest ploier le gant." 

atant le fert du poin e du bastun pesant, 835 

les denz lui fait voler des genzives devant, 
du nies e de la buche li sancs ist e espant ; 
derochent e debatent du cors le remenant, 
brisent braz e gambes par lui li trespassant, 

foi. 37b. li nierf li sunt rumpu e tut le cors doillant, 840 

la char noire e emflee e tut le vis senglant ; 
ne remeint sein ne entier eu cors ne tant ne quant, 
a peine chaut remeint li quors eu piz batant ; 
des pez le defulent chevaler e sergant, 

pur mort le guerpissent eu sabelun gisant, 845 

charoinne le tenent sanz alme enfreidissant, 
a luus u chiens livre* e as oisseus volant. 

XXVI. 

C^IST ki Auban meinent sunt ja eu mund venu 

ki fu a sun martire divisez e purvu. 

de robes sunt trestuit e garniz e vestu, 850 

u de haubercs dublers e de buclers escuz, 

* 825 MS. ««/.— 847 MS. livrer. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 27 

e portent gisarmes e grantz cuteus muluz. 

mes sul Auban i est le cors e les pez nu, 

entre espines ki va e les cailloz menu, 

urties e charduns k'aspres sunt e agu. 855 

la trovent grant pueple ki les ad atendu, 

ki grant chalur ceu jur e grant sei i unt eii, 
fol. 37, vers. a. au jur ki dune fu lung ki ne urent beii. 

orient e breent e a terre unt geii; 

e li solailz les greve ki plus ert chautz ke feii. 860 

funtaine ne trovent, rivere ne palu. 

uns mortz, uns malades, autres recreii, 

fremissent e orient dolent e irascu, 

maudient Auban e escrient cum lu : — 

" par vostre enchantement trestuit sumes* perdu." 865 

Auban les regarde, pite en ad eii, 

des maus ses enemis dolentz est e meii, 

e en plurant ad dit : — " beus duz sire Jesu ! 

ki regne en poeste, est, serra, e fu, — 

ki de I'ewe dunas a Moyseus tun dru, 870 

quant eu desert tis poples de sei fu cunfundu : 

ore requor ta franohise ; demustre ta vertu, 

ne suefre ke pur moi seit tis poples perdu ! 

ta oreature est tut n'eit tei Deu rekeneii." 

atant es-vus du munt k'est orevez e fendu, 875 

fol. 37, vers. b. d'une bele funtainne est li roisseus liissu, 

plus clers ke n'est argentz esmerez e fundu, 

ki avau le pendant s'espant e est curu. 

li mescreant en beivent, as meins I'unt receii ; 

recunfortez en sunt de I'ewe e sustenu, 880 

mes ne reounussent ki lur tramist salu : 

au deu du solail en unt graces rendu. 

XXVII. 

rLNTRE eus est ja levez noise e bruit e criz ; 

atant s'escrie un paens de Damnedcu maudiz : — 

" par enchantement d' Auban, e les charmes e diz 885 

est la nostre oreance e poples maubailliz ; 

* 865 MS. sumus. 
E 2 



28 . VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

k'alez vus demurant, fous, cuardz, failliz ?" 

atant sache I'espee e avant est sailliz; 

Auban saisist e prent cum fait lu la berbiz. 

a un arbre ki la fu, a reims bas e petiz, 890 

les cheveus Auban lie par les focuns crespiz ; 

e cist ne gent ne grundille ne de ren n'est flechiz : 

le seint esperit reclaime e le pere e le fiz. 
foi. 38a. H paens I'ad feru du brant ki ert furbiz ; 

au coup li fait voler le chef senglant du piz. 895 

du seint sane glorias ki du cors est flaschiz 

la croiz kAuban porta e li tertre est fluriz. 

la croiz prist e musca uns crestiens gentilz, 

ki a celee crut eu seint nun Jesu Cristz. 

des angles est portez eu ciel li esperitz, 900 

purs e esmirables cum cristals politz, 

raant cum solailz ki flamboie a midiz ; 

curune est de curune d'or esmere requltz, 

de jaspes, esmeraudes e safirs eschoisiz. 

des legiuns des angles en est li chantz* oiz. 905 

Auban est ja seiir, joins e esbaudiz. 

ne dute mais morteus feluns tirantz hardiz, 

a bon port arivez, de gueredun saisiz. 

a honur I'acoilt Deus of ses desmeine eslitz, 

le regne a recever ke il ad beu meriz. 910 

mes ki le decola, li las cheitifs peritz, 
foi. 3,sb. n'est mie de sun fait lunges esjoitz : 

au coup duner li sunt li oil du chief sailliz, 

e aval sunt chaetz, tut est enobscuritz ; 

le jur Auban cumence e li suens est finiz. 915 

effreez sunt paens de co e esbai'z, 

le poer Jesu prisent volentris u enviz ; 

li un en sunt joins e li autre mariz, 

dient entre eus suef : — ' n'est droitz k'il seit despiz, 

li Deus Auban pur ki mortz est e escharniz.' 920 

*905 MS. chalz. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 29 

XXVIII. 



Ai 



J ! martir gentilz ! ki diable vencu as, 
gloire du mund guerpis, ta char ne esparnias, 
tun cors a martire pur la lei Deu livras, 
eu ciel ore regnes e tuz jurs regneras, 

ki pur tes enemis curaument Deu prias, 925 

quant I'ewe lur secchis e puis la lur dunas, 
piete te preinne de nus tuz, pecchurs las, 
de ceus ki toi honurent n'eit ja part Sathanas ! 
ki primers Engletere par martire aixrnas, 
foi. 38, vers. a. pur nus proicz celui k'est verai Messias, 930 

ki en croiz mort sufri, trahi ja par Judas, 
k'il nus ki sa faiture sumes ne perde pas, 
mais nus saut ; si en dient ' amen,' e haut e bas ! 



Li 



XXIX. 

Ci cumence la passiun Seint Aracle 



/I chevalers Aracle, senglant e debrise, 935 

quant ot des miracles ke Jesus out uvre 
pur le martir Auban ki est ja decole, 
le vis a queuke peine ad vers le ciel dresce, 
si en ad umblement Damnedeu mercie. 

a genoilz e a cutes ad le tertre munte, 940 

suvaus le cors Auban kar voer ad desire, 
li princes k'ert venuz, a sun destrer munte, 
pur les merveilles ver ke Deus i out ovre, 
quant cist veit Aracle ki tant fu maumene, 
par felunie I'at escharni e gabbe. 945 

" hay!" dist il, "Aracle, chevaler alose! 
mar reclamas Jesu le deu crucifie, 
foi. 38, vers. b. e Auban ki chief est ja du bu coupe ! 

va quere tun seinnur, tun maistre e avoue 1 

sun chief purras truver a un arbre lie, 950 

par les cheveus i pent e as reims est nue ; 

sur I'erbe ki verdoie, le cors ensenglante. 

di li k'il garisse tun cors k'est depesce, 



30 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

tes nerfs ki sunt rumpuz e de tes os sevre : 

cist ne vus deit faillir, a seingnur I'as clame. 955 

e sun cors gar ben ke ne soit pas emble 

de egles u vulturs, ne de lus devore ; 

fai — cum faire doitz — ke il seit enterre, 

e en sarcu marbrin ke soit li cors posez." 

e cist li ad respundu a grant humilite : 960 

" de eschars ne gas oi'r n'ai soing ne volunte. 

ne deiissez esjoir si feusez sene, 

ke par vus est Auban a martire livre. 

kar bien le croi de fi e bien sui acerte, 
foi. 47*a. ke eu regne du ciel est martir curune. 965 

garir me puet si lui ben vent a volente : 

plus a fait ui vertu puis k'il fu ajurne." 

atant of sa mesnee est li princes passe, 

mais li francs chevaler Aracle est demure. 

le chief Auban del arbre ii pendi ad oste, 970 

au cors ki a tere gut Fad mis e ajuste. 

es-vus grant merveille ke Deus i ad mustre : 

au seint cors tucher le martir honure, 

se sent de ses dolurs Aracles tut* sane ; 

garies sunt ses plaies e sis cors restore : 975 

ne fu unc plus delivres jur puis k'il fu ne. 

lors ad la sepulture au martir aturne. 

li parent Auban e si ami prive 

e crestiens plusurs cuvert e cele 

le gentil chevaler Aracle unt aide ; 980 

le chief unt au cors mis, de dras envolupe, 
foi. 47b. pose I'unt en marbrin sarcu e estue. 

si parent pur sa mort grant duel unt demene ; 

partent s'en atant, e d'iluec sunt ale. 

paen s'aperceivent e en sunt trop ire, 985 

quant unt veil Aracle, ke Deus out regarde, 

k'il urent cum freit mord guerpi e lesse 

eu tertre gisant, as chevaus defule, — 

or I'unt veil tut seint du cors renuvele, 

delivre e tut legger cum oisel enpenne, 990 

despuis k'il out le cors lu martir tuche, 

par unt le los Jesu clers est e eshauce. 

* 965 Several foil, have been displaced in binding. — 974 MS. /««. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 31 

suspris sunt de rancur e de ire envenime ; 
dient par envie li las, li malure : — 

" trop i a sun barat par cest pais semme, 995 

ki par ci passa, cist pelerin* lettre. 
de nigromancie mut fu endoctrine ; 
li crestien en sunt apris e entusce, — 
fol. 47, vers. a. les cvves funt secchir, flestrir I'erbe du pre, 

les mortz funt vifs parer e les vifs devie, lOOO 

coup desturnent de mace e de brant acere, 

e veir funt tut parer chose k'est fausete ; 

e cist de ki batre tuit fuimes alasse, 

charoinne le tenimes a lus e chens dune, 

ore est seins e linger cum uns osturs mue; 1005 

tant se est par caractes e par sortz enchante. 

mes fei ke nus devum Mahum le redute, 

tut ne li vaudra un esperun roille." 

lors I'und de rechief mut plus k'avant pene, 

batu* de macues e a pez defule, . 10 10 

de pere deroche, e leidit e nafre. 

qant il unt acumpli quanke lurvint a gre. 

li uns li ad du brant le chief du bu sevre. 

I'alme s'en part, le cors a terre est trebuche : 

si parent e ami I'unt en terre musce. 1015 

li esperitz santz fin regne eu eel esteille, 

du gueredun seisiz k'il tant ad desire. 

entre les* seintz martirs fluriz e curune 

of* ses eslitz I'acoilt li Deus de majeste, 

e en la mesnee Auban est atitle, 1020 

le regne a recever ki ja n'ert termine. 

e li las dolentz ki I'a martirize, 

en la prisun est tuz jurs au maufe, 

sanz ran9un u rescusse retenu e damne. 

atant s'en sunt partiz, vunt s'en en lur cite. 1025 

bien quidcnt ki tut eient lur voler acheve 

par tant ke destruite i seit crestiente ; 

mes ne scvent mie cum Deus I'ad devise : 

fort est a cunbatre a flot k'est surunde, 

herberge en muntainne ne puet estre cele. 1030 

* 996 MS. /fAvVw.— loio MS. bii/it.— 101% MS. A-.— 10 19 MS. m. 



i% VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

des citoiens en* ad bien mil uplus numbre, 
des plus honurables, riches e feffe, 
foi. 47, vers. b. ki tuit 36 sunt de quor a Deu abaundune ; 
ki ne flecchirunt, bien I'unt dit e jure, 

ja tant ne en serrunt requis u turmente ; — 1035 

par les grantz miracles, dunt il sunt acerte, 
ke Deus deigna mustrer as ses martirs privez, 
Auban e Aracle ki s'est acumpainne. 



XXX. 



Ai 



lRACLE vit en gloire remenant e estable ; 
ne dute mais tirantz, prince, ne cunestable. 1040 

sis nuns est en estoire e escrit remembrable, 
mes de lui ki I'ocist n'est ja chan9un ne fable, 
ai ! martir bonurez, kar soiez sucurable 
a ceus ki sunt a vus enclins e amiable ; 

ki seisiz estes ja du guerdun desirable, 1045 

e regnerez tuz jurs en joie pardurable, — 
proiez pur nus pecchurs le roi esperitable, 
k' il del encumbrer nus gard de diable ! 
mes cist ki tant poisant e tant est merciable, 
M- 46a. nus grante la joie ki par est delitable, 1050 

au partir de cest secle ke si est trespassable 1 

Ci finist la passiun Seint Aracle. 



L 



XXXI. 

Ci cumence la passiun Seint Amphibal. 

I martires de Auban fait est e acumpli ; 
li poples ki la fu, d'iluec s'en est parti, 
li solailz ja decline e li jurs envespri, 

par la nuit ki survint li airs enobscuri ; 1055 

paens se reposent cuchez e endormi. 
Jesus ki n'a mie mis Auban en ubli, 
de lui en teu manere la gloire descuvri : 
purs estoit li airs e sanz niie seri ; 

* 1031 MS. an 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 33 

de un feu ki plus ert clers ke solailz de midi, 1060 

un rais ki flamboie, ki du eel descend!, 

sur la tumbe Auban se arestut fichi. 

muntent e desendent chantant e esjoi 
foi. 46b. li beus angeres du eel ki deselot* a uveri ; 

aguetes e pasturs paens en unt garni, 1065 

ki mut s'en esmervellent e mut sunt esbai. 

voient apertement li jovre e enehani 

le sepulere Auban, ke tut fu esclarei ; 

ben unt paens les angles veii e eschoisi : 

plus furent beus ke rose u ke n'estlis espani ; 1070 

e teus estoit lur ehantz entenduz e oiz : — 

" Auban, ki pur Jesu en terre mort sufri, 

martirs est glori'us curunez e fluri," 

uns sarrazins des autres plus sages e hardi 

parole primereins as autres entur li, io75 

e lur dist : — " eitoiens, vesin, parent, ami ! 

entendez tuit vers moi ke jo vus lou e di. 

grant tens avum les deus sarrazinois sivi ; 

si firent noz parentz ki mort sunt e purri, 
foi. 46, vers, a, ki tuit vunt unc part si Deus n'en eit merci, 1080 

en la prisun d'enfer ki sunt enseveli : 

si garde ne empernum si serrum nus ausi, 

penance demenum, ke ne seium peri, 

cheseun endroit de soi, 90 vus requor e pri, 

tant cum en cest mund vivantz sumes* ei. 1085 

querum ceu erestien ki Auban eonverti, 

qui quist cum esgarez, ci ostel e abri ; 

ore pert ben k'il ne fu ne truan ne failli. 

sa bunte tesmoinne, — ben sumes* eertz de fi, — 

Auban si deciples ki saufs est e gari. 

le sen au maistre prove li deciples a ki logo 

en la grant seccheresce li airs obei, 

la terre, ki fruit ne herbe demi an ne rendi, 

I'ewe, k'il nus sustrait, ki puis du munt sailli, 

feu, ki a sa tumbe lut e resplendi, — 1095 

(01.46, vers. 1). li quatre element tuit I'unt beu servi, 

e du eel li angere joius e esbaudi. 

de sun gueredun est hautement seisi 

* 1064 MS. i/t/c/tf/.— 1085. 1089 'MF'.siimiis. 
F 



34 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

ke il par martire en terre beu meri. 

les deus ke servi ai, desore mais defi, i lOO 

k'a humein lignage sunt traitres enemi. 
Jovin apertement e danz Phebun reni, 
Neptun le marin, e Plutun I'ennerci ; 
Jesu desore mais recleim, en lui me fi." 

e cist communement respunent a un cri ; — 1 105 

" e nus dium autel, soium freres uni. 
ne larrum pur poiir ja de brant furbi 
ke soium de s'amur desturnez ne flecchi." 
entrejurez sunt e lur foi unt plevi 

ke il lur emprise ne larrunt pur nuUi. 1 1 lO 

atant unt droit vers Wales lur chemin acoilli. 
foi. 39a. la croiz of eus portent ii fu le crucifi, — 

li sancs Auban i pert aers e endurci. 
mil sunt mes ke li uns remist enmaladi, 

ki par aventure de feblesce enpali ; 1 1 15 

morteu maladie le quor lui envai, 
eu chemin demura, en sujur atendi, 
iluec geske Amphibal repeira, langui. 

XXXII. 

1 ANT vunt li citoien par pais querant, 

ke Amphibal unt truve en Wales prechant, 1 1 20 

grantz vertuz fesant e paens baptizant. 
cist ki la croiz porte I'ad salue avant, 
" amis," dist il, " Jesus te gard li tut poisant ! 
pur lui, pri, soiez ore vers nus atendant. 
tuit fuimes citoiens e riches e menant 1 125 

de Verolame, u herbergez ches Auban fustes, quant 
passastes par Brettainne d' orient venant. 
foi. 39b. de 90 ke est puis avenu, vus ere voirs disant. 

Auban feistes guerpir la lei Tervagant, 

e le baptizas si tu I'es recordant ; 1 130 

encusez fustes andui a un cruel tirant. 
Auban, ki en fu garniz par un sun bien voillant, 
d'iluec vus cunveia ben devant I'enjurnant ; 
sa robe vus duna bruidee d'or lusant, 

vostre croiz retenir de vus avoit le grant. 1 135 

Auban en I'endemein pris fu de meintanant ; 



Vie de seint aubam. 55 

ben recunust le ovre, ne ren ne fu celant. 
enprisunez fu puis sis mois en un tenant : 
dimi an n'en la terra ne pluveit tant ne quant, 
dunt damage encurumes unc a nul jur tant. 1 140 

perdirent blez e fruit li gainnur paisant, 
flestri e anentti quancke estoit verdoiant. 
veimes ke par Auban fu cist maus tant durant ; 
fol. 39, vers. a. de chartre fu menez, tuz de la curt veant, 

nupez* e megres e pales cum penant; 1145 

creiimes ke de sa emprise fust ja ben repentant, 
mes raed fu e estable cum fer u aimant : 
veintre ne flecchir nel pout hem vivant. 
asez li ofrimes, — ^jueus, argent, besantz, 

mes il ne prisa tut un esperun vaillant. 1 150 

a mort estoit jugez e amenez avant, 
dehors la cite vers solail levant, 
au passer de un pund u li flotz fu bruant, 
sunt chaeth e peritz chevalers e sergantz ; 
quant Auban ad co veil, s'a dit en suspirant : — 1 155 

' Deus, ki hom furmer deignas a tun semblant, 
eel mal kar restorez !' es-le-vus relevant 
e le flot tut secchi, dunt cist vunt Deu loant. 
Aracle, un chevaler hardi e empernant, 

k' Auban lie mena, loing engetta sun brant ; 1 160 

a Jesu s'est dune des dune en avant. 
ne prisa mais noz deus a valur d'un gant : 
batuz e debrisez e defule e senglant 
cum mort le lessames au pe du munt gisant. 
veimes apres co grant gent de sei laburant : 1 165 

par la priere Auban est surse du pendant 
funtainne freide e clere a grant ruissel curant. 
li uns le disoient, (mes faus cuntruvant,) 
ke 90 fu la vertu du solail raant, 

ke teu solaz nus feseit ki I'alames vengant 1 170 

de ses enemis lui cuntredisant. 
suz un arbruseu, ki eu munt fu cresant, 
fu Auban decolez a genoilz Deu urant. 
mes cist ki le feri ne s'en ala vantant : 

* 1 145 MS. hupez, 

» 

F 2 



36 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

li oil li sunt chaet andui du chef errant, i ly^ 

tantdi seisi sa croiz u si sancs est parant. 
foi. 39, vers. b. kar plusurs entendimes e ne estoium dutant 
ke Jesus est e eel e terre guvernant, 
e Auban of lui cum si leal servant. 

la nuit proceinne apres, un rais du eel lusant i i8o 

sur la tumbe Auban resplendi descendant ; 
angeres i aparurent a clere voiz chantant : — 
" martirs est glori'us Auban eu eel regnant." 
nus tut CO veimes ke m'oez recuntant. 

veez ci la croit Auban, ke il au muriant 1 185 

teinst en sun sane demeine de sun cors esculant. 
pur CO nus assemblames tuit en un acordant ; 
mil sumes par numbre e vus sul demandant, 
mes ke un suls i faut malade sugurnant, 

pur I'amur Jesu de ki vas sermunant, i igo 

pur ki avum guerpi maisun, muillere, enfant, 
cum funt cist autre tuit, batesme demant. 
clers es e apris Fas en tes livres lisant : 
a sauvacium di nus k'est apendant ; 

pretz sumes tuit a fere a quor baud e joiant. 1 195 

de fere santz feintise partut le tuen cumant 
ne larrum pur losenge, ne pur mort manacant, 
ne pur trespassables richesces promettant. 
gariz est k'en cest mund pur Deu sun sane espant : 
ki resortist pur mort n'est pas verai amant." 1200 



XXXIII. 



Oi 






'UANT teinte eu sane Auban la croiz les veit tenir, 
bien set de li I'estoire unt cunte sanz mentir; 
Amphibal lors gette de parfund un suspir ; 
de gendre e de lermer ne se puet retenir, 
e dist : — "croiz gloriuse ! croiz ki tant desir? 1205 

croiz plus desirable k'esmeraude u safir! 
croiz tant gloriuse ! quant jo te remir, 
bien me deit d' Auban le gentil suvenir, 
ki par lui trespassant me deingnat acuillir, 
foi. 40a. e 3. si grant honur en sun palois tenir; 1210 

tant deboneirement e amer e cherir, 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 37 

de sa robe ebruusdee honurer e vestir 
pur moi de mes enemis morteus garantir; 
m' ensegnement nun pas sulement oir, 

mes a mes cumanz tant leument obeir, 1215 

k'il ne les vout unc enfreindre ne guerpir, 
ne pur lunge prisun fauser ne flecchir, 
ne pur sun cors livrer* a torment e murlr. 
ore vus requor e pri, ai ! glorius martir, 

grantez mei, par ta aie, par martire venir 1220 

au grant gueredun dunt Deu te plut seisin 
proiez lui, ki te vout sun segrei descuverir 
e* par avisiun tei a lui cunvertir, 
k'il m'ottreit par sa grace ceste vie finir, 
par peine e repruver e pur lui mort sufrir ; 1225 

foi. 40b. e par esample de vus gloire du eel merir, 

k'a vostre cumpainnie, dunt tant ai eii desir, 

me doinst Deus ateindre sanz fin u resortir. 

e vus, citoiens gentilz, a keus plest eschoisir 

Jesu le fiz Marie, e Mahummet lenquir, 1230 

plest vus dune amer sanz fauser u trahir, 

e cum Deu recunustre e leaument servir?" 

e cist respunent tuit : — " oil ! sanz repentir ! 

ne larrum pur les testes duner au brand ferir, 

pur losengerie, pur duns ne pur blandir." 1235 

quant les ot Amphibal co de quor gei'r, 

un sermun lur ad fait, ki mut lur plut oi'r, 

de la trinite ke crere sanz faillir 

cuvent a crestien, si il ne veut perir. 

e cist respunent : — " sire, tut a vostre pleisir.". 1240 

lors les ad baptize pur la loi acumplir. 

XXXIV. 

ftl. 40, vers. a. 1 OST est a Verolame veniie la nuvele, 

dunt li princes espris de ire art e restencele ; 

ki ses hummes e amis e ses privez apele. 

" seignurs," dist il, " cist maus mut surt e renuvele, 1245 

dunt Tonur des deus suvereins ja besille e chancele, 

par un clergastre avolez ki par terres sautele, 

* 1218 MS. livir.— iiii MS. a. 



38 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

nupez e depanez, vestuz de viu gunele, 
mes plus set d'enchantement, d'art, e de favele, 
ke ne set de tanailles fevre ki martele. 1250 

de Marie va prechant, une simple ancele 
ki enfanta e nurri Jesu de sa mamele, 
e apres renfantement remist mere e pucele. 
si fiz est Deus e hem, co dit, co est la lei faiele. 
e cist Deus k'en parais fist hom masle e femmele. 1255 

puis* devint hem e mort sufri en croiz dure e cruele : 
la prophecie d' anciens co conferme e saele. 
mes trufle est e contruvure, fable a rote u viele, 
ne fait plus a creire k'au vent k'en I'air ventele ; 
foi. 4o,vers. b. kar cum autres morteus furent andui cist e cele. 1260 

dunt fei ke dei Palladei e Diene la bale, 
ki prechera desore mais de cele lei nuvele, 
acurer frai u enfrundrer de teste u de cervele. 
e ceu tafur, si quis delist estre de ci k'a Burdele, 
prendre le frai e fors sacher du ventre la buele. 1265 

kar tant cum vif, e estriu puis bailler pur munter sele, 
Jesu ne aiirai pur ki ne doins une cenele. 
a vus cunsel sur co demant ma gent k'estes loiele." 

XXXV. 

O ARRAZINS respunent : — " ne vus devum celer, 
le deshonur noz deus le larrum de venger. 1270 

mil citoien nus faillent, ki au clerc d'utre mer 
se sunt alie, co dient messager, 
noz veisins e amis e parentz k'eiimes cher. 
mut serra la perte grant sanz restorer, 

si nus ne les poum a maisun reamener. 1275 

mais nus i irrum, s'il vus plaist cumander, 
par promesse u manace lur quers reapeler, 
fol. 4ia- u par largement tresor abaunduner ; 

e si trestut co ne puet aver mester, 

tuz tuerum a glaive sanz nul esparnier." 1280 

e respund li princes : — " mut me plest cist voler." 
lors ad mande sa gent, centeines e miller, 
e cumande k'en Wales tuit aillent sanz targer 
ceste grant busoinne sanz delai achever ; 

* 1156 MS. pus, 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 



39 



e cist s'en vunt cum ost bani e plener, 1285 

a penuncel leve, u unt fait aparer 

le solail e la lune ki lur plut aiirer. 

or portent e argent en cofres a sumer, 

pur duner si par el ne poent espleiter. 

ne finent a jurnees tut serre chevaucher ; 1290 

si unt le clerc truve par querre e demander, 

prechant e baptizant, ke 90 fu sun mester. 

cist ki les autres guie parole premer, 

si ad dit par grant ire: — "vassal pautener ! 

k'alez vus simple gent par barat enganer, '295 

^°^ 4ib. l^i ne se sevent de tes sortz garden 

mes si veuz estre quites de mort e repruver, 

desdi ke tu dit as par tes gas cuntruver, 

ke peiisum of les noz k'i sunt, repairer 

sanz plus aver par vus travail e desturber. 1300 

del avoir vus en frum mut largement duner. 

si 90 nun, par la mort tuz lur cuvent passer ; 

n'a cist ki decolez ne seit du brand d'acer. 

dunee est la sentence, sacez, sanz returner.'' 

li un des crestiens plus ferms e plus enter 1305 

respunt pur Amphibal sanz verite celer, 

e dist: — "mut cunussez petit cest prude ber, 

a ki tu cumences tant viument a tencer, 

k' ami est le Deu verai ki nus plut tuz crier ; 

90 purrez vus, espoir, devant vespre espruver 13 10 

par aucun langurus garir e restorer. 

vus ne savez mie sa vertu ne poer 

ne ses grantz vertuz e mesure e saver : 
foi. 41, vers. a. ' cist se fcrt ki ne veit,' dit hem en repruver. 

ne place a Jesu ki tut ad a guier 13 15 

de sun enseignement ke nus puissez sevrer * 

par duns ne par turment ne par mort menacer. 

plus devum pur Jesu murir desirer 

k'en cest mund princes curunez regner : 

90 est nostre sentence k'esta sanz ja fauser. 1320 

mais si estre volez of nus parcener 

de la joie du ciel dunt quor ne puet penser, 

guerpir vus cuvent Mahum, e recever 

batesme of nus, pur voz maus espurger." 

* 1316 MS. sever. 



40: VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

quant co ouent sarrazins, n'i out ke curucer; 1325 

lors sachent les espees sanz plus demurer, 

de parent u veisin sanz merci aver, 

fiz, frere, nevu, d'ocire e detrencher, 

ki oient une voiz pur eus recunforter : — 
foi 41, vers. b. " venez, li mien ami, ki ai a soudeer, 1330 

saisiz ja en serrez cum loial chevaler." 

90 ouent sarrazins, li glut adverser ; 

tant sunt il plus criieus e plus fier 

ke tut dient ke ' co est par sortz au sarmuner ; 

tant aprist nigromant kant il ert escoler, 1335 

I'eir fait a sun talent rebundir e suner.' 

li autre volenters muerent certz de luer ; 

premers voisist estre ki est li darrener. 

d'une part, veissez les uns decoler, 

d'autre, esbueler, ocire, e desmenbrer, 1340 

abatre e detrencher, as chevaus defuler : 

n'est hom ki n'en peiist grant piete aver. 

tant cum li pere au fiz la plaie va bender, 

li frere li curt sure ki le vent esmanker. 

de ceste* cumpainnie, ki tant fist a loer, 1345 

foi. 42a. ne failli rundement* ke n'i eiist mil enter 

ke un sul ki remist malade en un senter. 

tut 90 veit Amphibal ki plure e gent de quoer ; 

ne puet sanz martire les martirs regarder, — 

cist sunt martir de cors, cist de quor duluser, — 1 350 

mes k Deu les presente, ki les deigne apeler, 

e cist s'en vunt eu ciel sanz fin demurer : 

li angere les cunveient ki haut chantent e cler 
' gloire a loenges,' pur joie demener. — 

quant paens unt ocis tuz sanz nul passer, I355 

plus criieus e irez ke n'est urs u sengler, 

senglantz cum liun k'a proie est devurer, 

Amphibal unt seisi sanz sei amesurer; 

tut unt rette a lui cest mortel encumbrer. 

les braz li unt lie pur lui plus grever; 1360 

jurent Jovin lur deu li plus haut k'est sanz per, 
foi. 42b. ne se desjunerunt — nis de un disner — 

einz ke a Verolame aient fait mener 

le clerc, par* unt lur deus mut purrunt paer ; 



*- 



1345 MS. ces/. — 1346 MS. rundcmcment. — 1364 MS. />ar/. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 41 

cum sacrifice eu temple par devant lur auter. 1365 

' a la plus cruele mort k'em purra deviser 
ocire le ferum, pur autres chastier.' 



XXXVI. 



D] 



'EUS, ki ne met pas les suens en ubbliance, 
einz les honure tuz jurs, cherist e avance 
ki lui eiment e en lui unt amur e esperance. 1370 

les cors ki ne estoient de nule cunussance, 
decolez, esbuelez de espee u de lance, 
beus devenent e enters sanz nule demurance ; 
les menbres lur sunt restorez, pez e braz sanz faillance. 
li sancs, k'avant les cors out teint, de leit ad ja semblance; 1375 
les cors plus blancs ke de chemise n'est girun ne'mance, 
ke cunustre les pout hom sanz faille u dutance : 
foi. 42, vers. a. qucus jovrcs, queus veuz, queus gen til de nesance, 

queus petiz, queus maens, queus grantz de cresance, — 

unc plus beus ne estoient jur puis lur enfance. 1380 

li enemi Jesu en unt e envie e pesance, 

e si ami ki co unt veii, ne sunt pas en balance : 

ki en Jesu creit ki cist la dreite creance. 



xxxvri. 



U] 



N autre ad Deus pur ses martirs fait miracle e vertu : 
par sun cumant est du desert un grant lu venu, 1385 

e un aigles of lui ki a terre est desendu ; 
les cors unt as gentilz martirs garde e defendu, 
k'il n'unt nis un des cheveuz entame ne perdu : 
I'egle oiseus enchace e les bestes li lu. 

teu merveille en terre ne fu unc mais veii, 1390 

ki li lu du bois, ne saul ne peu, 
e li aigles raveinner, ki sunt ja devenu 
gardeins de morticine par la force Jesu. 
foi. 42, vers b. quant cist de la terre la merveille unt veii, 

les cors unt honure, redute e cremu, '395 

ke il avant urent en despit cii ; 

a Deu en unt graces e mercis rendu 

de teu miracle k'en lur terre lur est aparu. 

G 



42 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

sepulture aturnent e a chescun sarcu, 

en sueires les unt e mis e encusu ; 1400 

e en escrit unt mis le numbre e retenu, 

k'en lunge remembrance seit escrit e leii : 

nuef centz e nunante nuef la summe ad cuntenu. 



Ml 



XXXVIII. 



. UT en sunt curucez li sarrazin cruel, 

plus ke leonesse ki pert sun leuncel ; 1 405 

de cest travail si grant ke unc n'avoient tel 

tut rettent Amphibal le clerc orientel. 

pris I'unt e seisi cum li lu fait aignel ; 

les meins li unt lie a criieute e duel, 
loi. 43a. jure unt Mahomet e lur grantz deus de eel : 1410 

de cheval n'osterunt ne sele ne panel, 

ne dormirunt chucez en lit suz lincel, 

ne mangerunt a table, n'en tente, n'en ostel, 

s'averunt a Verolame lur cite naturel, 

vif u mort, mene lur enemi mortel ; '4i5 

a Phebun le durrunt, si en frunt feste anuel, 

sacrifice agreable plus ke buef u torel. 

li paen sunt grant pueple cum sumuns a cenbel 

d'envai'r ost arei u cite u chastel. 

n'a cist ki n'est muntez palefrei bon e bel, 1420 

chacur, u fort runcin, u grant destrer* ignel, — 

mes sul i est a pe li precheiir Amphibel, 

sanz chauceiire e nuz tut fors d'un mantel. 

devant eus funt cure le gentil juvencel, 

escrient e I'ahuent plus viument k'un chael ; 1425 

foi. ;,3b. aler le sumunent de lance e de cutel. 

li chemins ferrez aspre e deshuel 

I'alasse e I'ensenglante des plantes la pel, — 

li sancs en curt raant cum ewe de ruissel ; 

doillant li sunt li nerf e tut veins li cervel. 1430 

mes quancke il pur Deu suefre plus li est duz ke mel, 

despuis ke a Auban aproce le seint martir nuvel, 

of ki estre desire, k'il ne va querant el. 

* 1421 MS. dester. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 43 



XXXIX. 



Li 



A languerus ki par chemin suspris de maladie 
remist, ki ses cumpainnuns sivre ne pout mie, i435 

quant veit Amphibal venir, a haute voiz s'escrie: — 
" Amphibal ! ami Jesu ki ciel e terre guie, 
pite te preinne de moi ki peris sanz aie !" 
la rute des sarrazins de crier le chastie, 

pur tant ne laist cist ke ses criz ne eshauce e multiplie ; 1440 
" de Verolame sui," 90 dit, " la cite enrichie, 

foi. 43, vers. a. ki me sui del tut dune a Jesu fiz Marie. 

despuis k'Auban decole fu a la espee furbie, 

pur ki fere deingna Deus vertuz en ceste vie, 

e apres la mort du cors, pur I'alme esclarcie. i445 

assemblame pur co gent en une cumpainnie, 

vis nus fu, n'est autre Deu for cist k'en Sulie 

en croiz murut pur delivrer* nus d'enfernal baillie; 

pur ki Auban haut martirs* est, quei k'envius die. 

mil fumes d'iluec esmeiiz en une cunestablie, 1450 

of la croiz k'eu sane Auban fu teinte e flurie, 

pur aver de vus batesme, ki la gent seintifie. 

suspris de langur remis en ceste voie haie ; 

le cors m'est feble e anienti, la char pal e flestrie. 

bien croi, si tu requers pur moi, ta priere ert oie." i455 

Amphibal piete en ad, vers lui s' enhumilie, 

e Jesu mut humblement pur lui requert e prie. 

atant es-vus s'angoisse tute s'en est partie; 

seins est e tut delivres, dunt cist mut I'enmercie, 

foi. 43, vers. b. e le grant poer Jesu lot e glorifie ; 1460 

dunt n'a nul des sarrazins ki ne (voille u nun) die : — 
" mut est li Deus as crestiens de grant seignurie, 
ki lie k'a pleisir li vent e ki li plest, deslie." 

XL. 

1 RES sunt de Verolame, ja veient les mureus, 

ede lur temples e paleis, tureles e kerneus ; 1465 

aune plcinne se aresteent ki vertz fu e jieus. 

* 1448 MS. deliver. — 1449 MS. malirs. 
G 2 



44 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

iluec se reposent les sarrazins criieus, 
deslacent aventailles, heumes e chapeus. 
mes repos n'i avoit entre eus suls Amphibeus ; 
si cors est las, mais sis bons quors tut frois est e nuveus, 1470 
de la busoingne Jesu faire cum sis hem leus. 
e dist: — " gentilz chevalers, par quei estes vus teus, 
ke vus diables enfernaus reclamez pur Deus, 
ki a sun semblant fist nus tuz morteus ? 

tant mar fustes nez en cest mund corporeus ! — I475 

trop par estes criieus, durs, desnatureus. 
mais duz e debonaires est Deus e dreitureus ; 
foi. 44a. il tuz vus apele cum pastur ses aigneus. 

les pecchurs repentantz sunt ses especieus ; 

de teus en unt grant joie li angre espiriteus." 1480 

atant se sunt dune a Deu li plusur de eus, 

pur Jesu decolez, ki ore regnent es eels. 

adunc se sunt muntez li uns des juvenceus, 

ki destrers avoient plus fortz e plus igneus, 

e sunt a Verolaime venuz a lur osteus, 1485 

dire ke est venuz li traitre orienteus 

ki tant ad gent trahi par ses sermuns desleus. 

XLI. 

l^UANT cist unt la nuvele d' Amphibal o'l 

'"*' par ki unt perdu Auban lur bon ami 

e lur parent a lui atrait e asoti, 1490 

mut sunt de grant joie refait e esbaudi, 

kar hautement 90 dient, ' venge serunt de li.' 

mais un de eus I'aventure cunta e descuvri ; 

ke cist pur ki furent tuit sumuns e bani, 

tant furent en errur entrez e endurci, ^495 

e a Jesu dune ki mort en croiz sufri, 

pur tut I'or de Damas ne fusent resorti : 

" nus en fumes irez e dolent e mari, 

e les detrenchames tuz au brand furbi." 

quant cist Fund entendu, mut funt grant noise e cri, 1500 

en lermes e grant duel lur joie convert!. 

dist chescun lermant : — " las ! pur quei nasqui ? 

fiz, frere, nevu, ai ! tant mar vus vi. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 45 

frarins sumes e suls e tuz enorfani. 

eu desert gisez cum charoinne guerpi ; 1505 

n'estes en sarcuz posez ne enseveli. 

oisel te devurent e lu ensauvagi. 

tant mar reclamas le deu k'en croiz pendi ! 

cist nigromanciens ki ja passa par ci 

par ses enchauntements* ces grantz maus nus basti. 15 10 

chers deus celestiens, ki tant avum servi, 

pernez ent vengance de ceu tafur failli !'' 
foi. 44b. pleurent e weimentent li jovre e enveilli, 

lur cheveus decirent, lur dras unt derami ; 

maudient Amphibal le precheiir, par ki '5^5 

tant sunt de lur parentz destruit e maubailli. 

mais quant la gent paene lur gref pleinte entendi, 

dient: — " esmesurez vus, kar n'est pas si 

cum vus le quidez, beus duz amis cheri. 

kar ne sunt pas, sacez, ne perdu, ne peri ; 1520 

a honur sunt e gloire eu ciel acoilli. 

puis ke les eiimes truvez e eschoisi, 

e una part par eus tuz severez e parti, 

mut furent manacez, deproiez e blandi : 

n'eijssum un de eus flecchi pur un val d'or empli ; 1525 

dune les oceismes sanz piete e merci, 

mais chescun de eus de murir avant se purofri : 

pesa al darreinner k'il tant fu esparni. 

veisez ke le pere le fiz au quor feri, 

tant k'as plaies bender li freres main tendi. 1530 

li sancs cum un roiseus es plainnes se espaundi. 

atant de Jesu la gloire resplendi ; 

une voiz oismes, chescun ben I'entendi : — 
' venez, mi chevaler, ki bien m'avez servi, 
desore of moi serrez en parais fluri. 1535 

pur turmentz corporeus ki ja sunt acumpli, 
le regne averez du ciel ki jamais n'ert fini.' 

nus en estoium e liez e esjoi, 

ke Deus n'avoit mie mis les noz en* ubli. 

gurent par ces champs defulez e guerpi ; >540 

n'i peiist hem cunustre prive ne estrangi, — 

Jesus les restora, bien soiez certz de fi, 

* 1510 MS. enchaunlenicnl. — 1539 MS. e. 



46 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

cum si il geiisent tuz vifs, enters, seins e gari ; 
li sancs k'avant les taint, plus ke laitz emblanchi. 
nus les cuntasmes tuz a cert cunte establi, i545 

e feimes enbrever a arrement nerci : 
mil cors i truvasmes* mais ke un sul i failli. 
foi. 44, vers. a. as cors gardcr vunt un grant lu enchani, 

de chens ne d'autres bestes ke nul ne fust blesmi, — 

e uns aigles, ki d'oiseus les cors bien defendi. '550 

cist k'avant les urent mut despit e hai, 

a honur les unt ja en sarcuz acoilli. 

si en devum tuit estre de joie repleni, 

ke Deus en ad des noz a sun uoes tant seisi." 

XLII. 

rvESPUNENT li paen, dient veraiment : — 1555 

" mut est cist Jesus de grant enseignement, 

ki ceus ki en lui croient de huntage defent. 

li clercs ki de lui preche, ki vint del orient, 

ne fait pas a despire cum meint quide e entent. 

si il fust boiseiir, ne feist, men escient, 1560 

des cors detrenchez teu mescinement ; 

par tant le p5um bien saver apertement : 

verai est sanz dutance li suen prechement." 

quant ot co li princes ki i estoit present, 

tut est enflambez de ire e mautalent ; 1565 

tant par est irascuz, a pou de ire ne fent. 

si a dit, cum losengers ki sun errur defent : — 

" cist faus enginneiir tant saet d'enchantement, 

cum nuls dire purra, — nel croi plus ke vent. 

ki bien de lui dira, u a ces mais entent, 1570 

faus pauteners ki nus mentent uvertement, 

fei ke dei Phebum ki en tut le mund resplent, 

il en perdera le cief par jugement. 

plus est fous ke beste ki les ot e i assent ; 

mes par Jovin ki guie terre e firmament, I57i 

trop dure cist baratz, trop dure cist turmentz, 

trop nus ad fait damage, trop nus ad toleit gent ; 

uncore fra il plus, si il vive lungement. 

* 1547 MS. Iruvas. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 47 

cist clers de puteire, damage est k'il ne pent, 
mais plus ne mangera jamais de la dent, 1580 

ke il ne cunpere cest ovre cherement. 
jo en prendrai sanz delai si haut vengement, 
foi. 44, vers. b. cum de itel felun traitre prendre apent." 
lores fait crier real cumandement 

en la cite, e partut u sun poer s'estent, 1585 

ke ' tuz cum il aiment lur vie e tenement, 
bien armez le sivent la ia il aler tent.' 
a ceste sumunse nuls ne remaint ne atent. 
tant i a gent, li chemins nes cumprent ; 

mut nepurquant se penent d'aler hastivement : 1590 

blasmez fu li darreinner e ki d'aler fu lent. 
li uns de eus s'en vunt par un adrescement, 
ki pur tost venir poinnent ignelement. 
Amphibal unt truve, ki a sermun entent 

entur lui crestiens nuveus plus de cent, '595 

k'a Jesu se sunt dune nuvelement. 
mes quant cist le voient, grant ire les esprent ; 
lores I'unt seisi e pris e despoille viument, 
e le unt turmente cum diable les aprent. 



XLIII. 

U N peel en terre afichent li paien criminal, 1600 

e la buele en sachent du ventre Amphibal, 

cum li'un ki desire char de cors bestial. 

au peel I'unt atache a grant turment cural ; 

les meins li unt lie, dune resne a cheval, 

ncl lessent reposcr ne nul liu prendre estal, 1605 

entur le pel I'enchacent cum a chemin jurnal. 

de lances e cuteus e gros bastun poinnal 

ferent, batent e poinnent cist pautener vassal, 

ke tut est escule I'entrail corporal. 

dcs verges I'unt batu ke li sancs raa aval, 1610 

cum fait de la funtainne li roisseus cursal : 

teinte en a la peitrine, le dos e flaunc costal. 

li martirs ki pcnse du rei esperital, 

ki pur ses serfs sauver, devint hom mortal, 

Her se lessa cum larrun desloial 1615 



48 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

a un piler, e batre sun seint cors real ; 
a curune de espines pur chapel capital, 
loi. 4sa. en croiz le pendirent li Giu desloial. 

" ai !" dist Amphibal, " n'est pas cist turment tal 

cum Deus pur moi sufri, n'est de loing paringal." 1620 

lors se rejoist cum se il n'ust unc mal ; 

dunt paien se curucent, li fil Belial : 

ne virent la merveille en cest mund temporal. 



XLIV. 



L 



. L en sunt plus aegre de li turmenter, 
de batre e de rebatre e de cuteus naverer. 1625 

nel volent parocire, mais lungement pener ; 
tele est lur ire e lur voler pur ses turmentz dubler, 
pur murir e remurir e lunges duluser. 
e cist ne fine de urer e Jesu mercier, 

k'il le tenc digne pur li teu peines endurer. 1630 

aidunc plusurs de eus, ke Deus plust sauver, 
a Jesu se rendirent de bon e verai quoer. 
dient a haute voiz, n'unt cure de celer: — 
" nus reclamun Jesu ki fist e terre e mer, 
e refusum Mahum sanz jamais returner. '635 

foi. 45b. Amphibal ! ami Deu ki tut ad a guier, 

nus veum ja la gloire ke Deus vus veut duner ; 

kar requerez Jesum, k'en seum parcener !" 

quant ot co li princes, n'i out ke curucer, 

cumande sanz delai trestuz ceus decoler. 1640 

li paien les detrenchent tuz au brant d'acer, 

veant Amphibal, ki cumence a precher, 

e ceus en la creance Jesu cunfermer ; 

" alez," dist il, " martirs ! alez, leus chevaler ! 

al haut rei de gloire, sun regne recever." 1645 

" hai !" dist un sarrazin, " tres cruel pautener, 

tant mar nus as oui fait cest mortel encumbrer ; 

tu as a mort livre tant meint prude ber, 

ki ne se sevent de tes lacuns garder ; 

n'estes las ne saul de Jesu Ian getter, 1650 

deceivre simple gent e par diz enganer. 

tu sul es acheisun de cest grant mal plener : 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 



49 



fol. 45, vers. a. 



fill. 45, vers. b. 



fol. 4Sa. 



mil en avum ja mort ui .sanz esparnier, 

k'au deu crucifie par vostre sermuner 

tuit sunt abandune, peri sanz recuverer. 

morz es e maubailli, ne purrez eschaper ; 

tuit sunt ti enemi ki tu* veiz ci ester. 

ore fai ke te dirai, se ferez grant saver : 

desdi ke tu dit as pur la gent enginner, 

reni Jesu ki Giu oserent encroer, 

e recleim noz grantz deus ki tant sunt de poer ; 

tu les as curuce par tun grant nunsaver, — 

tu en purras granz ben e honur cunsirer, 

terres e tresor de argent e de or cler ; 

pardun purrez aver, si tu les voilz proier ; 

de tes morteus plaies te purrunt mesciner, 

e ceus ki par tei ci sunt morz, resusciter." 

respund Amphibal quant I'ad oi' parler : — 

" entenc," dist il, " vers moi, paen adverser ! 

en pecches mut, e menz, quant te oi tes deus priser, 

kar ne vaut lur poisance un butun d'eglenter. 

sul Deu puet les morz a vie reapeler, 

e mun cors, si li plest, garir e reestorer. 

diable, ki servez e vus plaist aiirer, 

mort sanz parmurir sufrent el puis de enfer ; 

la est lur mansiun tuz jurs sanz fin aver, 

u est grant tenebrur, nuit sanz enjurner, 

feu ki pas ne esteint, verm k'em ne puet tuer. 

la cuvendra il trestuz ceus demurer, 

en cest mund ki obeissent a lur mauvois voler : 

parjure e mescreant, desdeingnant Deu amer, 

avoutre e homicide, li felun guerroier, 

of lur deus lur apent en enfer sujurner. 

la te cuvendra of les dampnez aler, 

si tu ne guerpis tes deus sanz demurer, 

c Jesu reclamer ki prest est tuz sauver. 

tant cum il lui plest espacc otroier, 

retraire te cuvent e par tens cumcncer ; 

kar la franchise Deu ne puet nuls parcuntcr: 

les pecchurs repentanz acoilt sanz reprover, 

les braz ad estenduz tuz tens pur embracer. 



i6s 



0^ 



i66o 



1665 



1670 



1675 



1680 



1685 



1690. 



* 1657 MS. te. 
11 



50 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

par batesme te lou tes pecchez espurger : 

90 est la porte par unt cuvent eu eel entrer, 

90 fait horn renaistre e tut renuveler. 

e vus lou par tens de vus purvoier, 1695 

ke ne soiez del tut peri par trop targer." 



XLV. 



O 



,0 oient'sarrazin ki estoient envirun, 
^ fremissent e flamboient cum saerpent u dragun ; 
lors tuit i acurent a un voler commun, 

de peres I'agraventent, de zuche e de perrun, 1700 

lejcors brisent e batent, de mace e de bastun, 
ke tut est debrise du frund gesc'au talun. 
e cist, cum il estoit en mortel passiun, 
vers lu ciel regarde e fait sa oraisun. 

al destre sun pere veit ester Jesun, 1705 

des angles entur li une grant legiun. 
regarde e veit entre Auban sun cumpainnun : 
" ai ! " dist il, " martir, ai ! gentil barun, 
tui. 4tii, regardez moi* ki sui en tel mortel prisun. 

jo n'ai esperance fors en Deu e vus nun ; 17 10 

requerez Deu k'il mei par sa redempciun 

part doinst of vus la mund en cele regiun, 

u est vie sanz mort, pais sanz cuntenciun ; 

e m'enveit de angeres consolaciun, 

ke ne me flecchissent cist mescreant felun, 17 15 

ne part ne eient de moi fiz de perdiciun, 

ke se peinent de mettre mei a confusiun 

par abanduner al enfernal Mahun." 

atant es-vus deus angeres ki de lur mansiun 

desendent, k'erent plus blancs ke cheinsil ne cotun, 1720 

u quant se espanist lis en sa saisun. 

ces i enveit Deus a sun loial champiun, 

lui recunforter en tribulaciun. 

une voiz ki reahaite mut sa entunciun 

ot : — " ui receverez pur tun travail guerdun : 1725 

of Auban tun deisciple seisi serras du dun 

* 1709 MS. mo. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 51 

ki garde n'a de fu, de verm, ne de larrun." 
foi. 48, vers, a, de la voiz se eftreent li sarrazin glutun ; 
lors le delapident trestuit a bandun, 

navrent e defulent a chevaus de randun. ^730 

Talme atant s'en ist de sa charnel maisun, 
angeres eu ciel la portent a grant processiun. 



XLVI. 



Ai 



lTANT surt une noise e un estrif mut grant, 
e s'entrecunbatent li paien mescreant. 

kar cist ki quis ravoient e truve prechant, '735 

e reamene de Wales, jure eiirent avant 
par lur deus — Phebum, Mahum e Tervagant, 
k'il tuit amerroient le clerc mort u vivant 
k Verolaime lur cite, e la, lur gent veant, 
pene I'ociroient: tel fu lur cuvenant. 1740 

mes li prince feluns, ki les vint encuntrant, 
ne vout tant atendre, tant par fu ardant. 
e si le purvit dune Deus li tut poisant 
ke tuit tussent parjure li traitre senglant, 
ne lur voler feisent cist pautener tirant. I745 

foi. 48, vers. b. lores cumence li bruit, e un estur pesant ; 
de maces e cuteus e de lance e de brant 
ferent nafrent e traient. atant 
un crestien le cors au martir vaillant 

sustrait, ke sarrazin ne erent apercevant, '750 

si fu la presse grant e mortel nepurquant ; 
puis mist le cors en terre, en sarcu avenant, 
e ses cumpainnuns martirs k'erent obeisant 
a la lei crestiene dunt li clers fu prechant. 
les cors ad enterre suz bleste verdoiant, '755 

ke ne les devurassent bestes n'oisel volant : 
Deus li rende I'onur, ki fist solail raant ! 
les martirs sunt en gloire el regne permenant, 
e li paen felun el fu d'enfer puant, 

s'il ne estoient el sieclepuis verai repentant. 1760 

" martir glorius ! jo vus c^uoer e demant 
ke nus — ceus k'en cest mund vus sunt honurant, 
servant e ami e vostre bien voillant, 

H 2 



52 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

foi. 49a. soiez cuntre diable lur escu e guarant — 

ke sauf soium ! si en dient ' amen !' veil e enfant." 1765 



XLVII. 



Gi 



rRANT fu la bataille, meint en i out blesce, 
meint mort e defule, maubailli e nafre ; 
Deus prent de eus vengance k'il tant unt guerroie. 
un des grantz merveilles ki unc fust recunte 
fist Deus pur Amphibal sun martir alose : 1770 

n'i out ki I'ust mesdit u mesfait de gre, 
ke il ne fust du cors cuntrait, defigure 
de visage u de braz u de main u de pe, 
desve* u avogle u mort u mahainne ; 

ki avant fu chevaler preuz e alose, 1775 

ore est un cuntraitz u purpris de maufe ; 
lur menbres sunt destuers, desjointz e esluisse, 
las buches traversent, li oil sunt reverse, 
les langes lur ardent, li doi sunt replie. 

de la cite li princes tost s'en est arage. 1780 

apris unt, n'a mester a nul de mere ne, 
foi. 48b. en terre guerroier le rei de majeste ; 

ne se pout nul vanter ki iluec eiist este, 

ke sanz grant vengement le exist deshonure, 

e ses martirs gentilz k'il unt a mort livre. 1785 

tost s'espaunt la nuvele par trestut le regne ; 

ne puet mais le poer Jesu estre cele. 

cist k'en oient parler, al oil I'unt esgarde ; 

trestuit a une voiz en unt Deu mercie, 

a Jesu se rendent tuit cist de la cite, I079 

lur temples e auters a lui abaundune, 

lur deus, mais diables, de mailz unt depece ; 

mut en sunt repentant, k'il les unt tant ame. 

pleinent lur ancesurs ki sunt ja devie, 

qui tant les unt servi ; hai ! tant sunt malure, 1795 

kar ore sunt en enfer a tut dis damne. 

la croiz Jesu aurent a grant humilite, 

e lui tuit aurent k'en croiz murut pene, 

* 1774 ^IS. di:ei>e. 



VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 53 

e nus reinst par sa mort d'enfernal poeste. 
foi. 49, vers. a. bicn unt ja recunu sa haute deite, 1800 

e ke de virgne prist en terre humanite. 
cist est sires* de terre e du eel estoille ; 
bien geisent ke il a dreitureument uvre. 
baptizer se funt tuit el nun de trinite, 

guerpissent lur errurs e maus e vanite, 1805 

pernent confessiun de folie e pecche, 
penance demeinent, e sunt a Rumme ale, 
de la lei crestiene pur estre endoctrine, 
mustrer al apostoille tute la verite, 
cum Deus par sa vertu les a revisite. 18 10 

XLVIII. 

Ci parole cist sarraziiis ciinvers kiestoit 
presenz a tutes cestes aventures e tut 
mist en escrit ; ke puis fit translate 
en latin, e apres p fu tra?islate de 
latin en rumantz. 

foi. 49, vers. a. J O, ki a ceu tens estoie mescreant sarrazin, 

de ceste estoire vi le cumencail e fin, 

despuis ke Auban re9ut en sun palois perrin 

sun oste Amphibal, tre.spassant pelerin, 

gesk'a tant k'il furent mis en sarcu marbrin, 18 15 

of les paens estoie de la loi Apolin, 

Pallaide, e Diene, e Phebun, e Jovin, 

ki sunt dampne diable en enfer susterin, 

(mes le honur Jesu crest, e cist vunt en declin ;) 

la geste ai, cum la vi, escrit en parchemin. 1820 

uncore vendra le jur, ben le di e devin, 

la estoire ert translatee en franceis e latin. 

ne sai autre language fors le mien barbarin, 

mais fei ke doi porter lui ki fist d'ewe vin, 

ne i deise fausete pur tut Tor Costentin. 1825 

S. Jesu me sui rendu cum mi veisin ; 
foi. 50.1. desore penant deveng e preng burdun fresnin, 

* 1 802 MS. cj/ sire est sins. 



54 VIE DE SEINT AUBAN. 

nupez sanz chauceiire de cordewon caprin, 

pur esclavine eschaung mun pelicun d'ermin. 

ne dormirai au vespre u jo lief au matin, 1830 

si la k'en nief me mette au procein port marin ; ■ 

passerai Mun Giu, le roiste munt alpin, 

vers Rumme la cite tendrai droit le chemin, 

as Romeins nuncier, le pueple cesarin, 

kancke ai veil e 01 jo peccheres orphanin, 1835 

en I'eille ke cunquist Brutus e Cornelin ; 

pur Auban ki Fad teinte premers de sane rosin, 

ki pur Deu decole fu du brand acerin, 

musterai i mun livre escrit en veeslin ; 

tesmoin averai of moi meinveillart e meschin. 1840 

jo ne me os numer pur paiens de puslin 

mes pecchur cupable, dolent, poure e frarin. 

batesme i requorai de quor verai e fin ; 

a Jesu me abaundun, serf loial, enterrin, 

e la estoire de Auban ci finis e termin. 1845 

Ci /mist li rumantz de P estoire 
de Scint Auban le prettier martir 
dc Engkto-e, c dc Scint Amphibal 
e de s£s ciimpainnuns. 



FINIS. 



RUBRICS.* 



fol. 29 rect., no rubric nor illustration, 
fol. 29 vers., two illustrations, representing Amphi- 
balus and his disciple Auban, both seated. 

a. Amphibal cum clerc lettrez, 
cunte a Auban cum Deu fu nez, 

en croiz fu mis, puis [MS. pus'\ relcva, 
a la fin mis tuz jugera. 

b. Auban I'ot, mes pas nel creit, 
90 k'il cunte, ke voir seit ; 

de lui s'en part par mautalent. 
la nuit obscure !e susprent. 

a. candens absque nota quia mens erat huk bene lota^ 
Atbanum tola vocat hunc cogiiatio nota. 

b. Albanus quaerit quae gentis gratia dirae 
christicolam tulerit gentilia regna subire. 

fol. 30 rect., no illustration. 

a. ijtdicat A mphihatus quod item prohibere paratum 
posset nemo niahis Christo sibi dante ducatum. 

fol. 30 vers., Auban in bed ; — his dream. 

b. ci veit Auban en dormant 
quancke Amphibal li dit avant. 
li cors dort, mcs I'alme veille, 
k'eu ciel veit la grant merveille. 

b. nocte re^'etatitr Alhano visio grandis, 

quomodo damnatur sai7'ans pro salvijicandis. 
fol. 31 reot., Auban in an adjacent room watching 
the behaviour of Amjjhibalus, who is kneeling before 
the Cross. 

a.. ci veit Auban par la fenestre 

de Amphibal trestut sun estre. 
mustrer li veut en bone fei 
de sun sunge tut le segrci. 
b. Amphilial la croiz aiire 

i genoilluns, suspire e plure ; 
ne tresublie, ne dort ne summe, 
ke il nc face sa custume. [T.<t.\_neratur (] 

b. laus tibi Christe datur ; vigili prece crux 
omnia miratur Albanus quae spec[u/atur'\. 
fol. 31 vers., A. kneeling before the cross which 
Apl. carries ; — Apl. baptizing A., who is seen half 
naked in a tub. 

a. li rccunte Auban sun sunge ; 

par la croiz veit, n'est pas men^uenge. 
Amphibal nc li cele mie 
I'avisiun ke signifie. 

b. Auban est ja baptize 
eu nun de la trinitd. 



Amphibal tut lui aprent 

kancke a sauvaciun apent. [turn, 

a. praedicat Amphibalus cruce Christum virgine na- 
est qui vera salus mundi, mundasse reatum. 

b. ex aegro sospes fit verbis hospitis hospes 
dum crcdens sacri mundatur fonte lavacri. 

fol. 32 rect., the Sarrazin watching the baptism; — 
informing the pagan prince of the perversion of A. 
a. uns Sarrazins ki s'apaerceit, 

tuz lur diz ot, e lur faitz veit, 
ne larra k'il ne descuovre 
a un prince trestut cest ovre. 
k' Auban ad la lei paene 
guerpi pur la crestiene, 
de cest Sarrazin culvert 
est encusez e descuvert. 
a. dum baptizatur tiro sacer, insidiatur 

haec qui rimatur quae dt-uulgare paratur. 
\i. non hoc protelat opus , at properantcr h[anelat ;Jt 
custodi celat legum nihil ; acta re[velat.] 
fol. 32 vers., no rubric nor illustration, 
fol. 33 reot., Apl. going off after exchanging dresses 
and leaving the cross with A. 

a. a sun palois einz jur retume 
Auban plurant dolent e mume. 
Amphibal cum pelerin 

vers Wales tent droit le chemin. 

b. Amphibal ki en est gamiz, 
de la cite s'en est partiz. 
Auban le cunveit ki plure ; 

la croiz retent, rent sa vesture, 
b. consilio cedit dum clericus ttrbe recedit 

villosam vestcm linqucns pro foedere testem. 
fol. 33 vers., pagans discovering Auban kneeling, 
a. [first couplet is totally obliterated.] 

Auban truevent Sarrasin 

nuz pez e i. la croiz enclin. 

pris I'unt ; n'a cist de la rute 

ki ncl tr.iic, u fere u bute. 

a. missi perveniunt ad civis tecta ministri, 

scd non inveniuitt nisi tantum signa magistri. 
I). ostia confringuiit Albani, brachia stringunt, 

vinclis impingunt, pugnis os sanguine iingunt. 
fol. 34 reot., pagans dragging Auban. 

b. Auban, li nuveus crestiens, 
de ces pauteners paiens 

est trait nuz pcz par la chaucfe 



• The French rubrics run along the top of the page ; the Latin (hexameter couplets with c.tsural and final 
rhymes.) are at the bottom ; [a and b denote the right and left cohinins]. 

t The letters are quite obliterated ; but there can be little doubt of the reading given, as M. Paris alwavs 
writes hanelare, for anhclare ; cf. Ilist. Angl. vol. i. p. 124, p. 165, &c. 



56 



RUBRICS. 



au temple, & gent fu aiin^e. 
b. nudatusque pedes trahltur Titanis ad aedes^ 
ut non auctori sed so/is cedat lioiwri. 
fol. 34 vers., efforts of the pagans to persuade A. in 
presence of the prince to worship the image. 

a. Auban, par commun cunseil, 
au temple !e deu du solail 
est trait, ke il lur deu aiire ; 
mes Auban de 90 n'a cure. 

b. ne puet li prince Auban flecchir 
par manacer e par blandir, 

k'il Jesu a clere voiz 

ne cleime, ki murut en [MS. in'] croiz. 

a. non prece sive minis latratibus ille caninis 
praefccti cedit nee Phoeho fractus obedit. 

fol. 35 rect., scourging of A. 

b. pur Deu suevre ci Auban 
huntage, anguisse e hahan, 
ki de ces pauteners glutuns 
est batuz de peus e bastuns. 

b. martiris est caesa can virgae verbere durae, 

Stat tamen illesa fidei constatttia piirae. 
fol. 35 vers., imprisonment of A; — people dying for 
■want of water. 

a. mis est Auban en prisun ja ; 
sis mois e plus i demura. 
tant cum il fu en la prisun, 
ne plut en ceste regiun. 

b. la gent murt par la destresce 
ki vent de la seccheresce. 
flestrist foille e herbe en terre : 
ne sevent queu cunseil creire. 

fol. 36 rect., pagans tumbling over the bridge into 
the river while following A.* 

la presse est grant de ceste turbe : 

I'un de passer I'autre desturbe. 

du pund cheent, neient en I'unde ; 

kar mut par fu raedde e parfunde. 
b. 90 veit Auban, de pite plure, 

e pur ses enemis Deu ure. 

Jesus sa uraisun bien ot : 

li mort levent, secchit li flot. 

a. pars populi sontis angusto tramite pontis 
turbis compressa perit alto gurgite mersa. 

b. sic praeit immo perit, moritur ridens morientem : 
Albaniim reperit sibi plebs prece subvenientem. 

fol. 36 vers., no rubric nor illustration, 
fol. 37 rect., Aracle flinging himself at A.'s feet; 
Araclc mauled by the crowd. 

a. quant veit li chevalers Aracle 
de Deu les vertuz e miracle, 

sa espee engette, e chiet i terre, 
as piez Auban pardun requere. 

b. pris est Aracle e defulez, 
debatuz e delapidez ; 

senglantz remaint, ateintz [MS. atentz] e mat ; 



a peine eu cors li quers li bat. 
a. fiumina siccari, defunctos vivijicari^ 

dum contemptatur, speculator justijicatur, 
fol. 37 vers., a spring of water issuing forth at the 
prayer of A. 

a. " Deus !" dit Auban, " de ki costs 
vi sane issir d' ewe medle, 
cumandez ke une funtaine 

surde de ceste muntainne. 

b, funtainne surt de ewe vive : 

de I'ewe beivre chescuns estrive ; 

mes li purvers fiz de diable 

n'en sunt pas a Deu reddevable. 
fol. 38 rect., beheading of A., and fate of his exe- 
cutioner, 
(a.b.) ci decole un gluz de pulin 

Auban du brant acerin. 

nuit cumence au Sarrazin ; 

au martir, clarte sanz fin. 

I'un tent vers ciel, I'autre eu declin ; 

au vespre est I'un, I'autre au matin. 

un crestien ki est veisin, 

la croiz prent, teinte eu sane rosin, 
fol. 38 vers., the prince mocldng Aracle, who is 
taking down A.'s head. 

a. li princes k'AracIe truva, 
mut I'eschanii, e dit li a : — 

" recleim tun maistre Auban uncore, 
di li k'il tun cors restore !" 

b. Aracle gent e suspire, 

e dist : — " n'avez de gas matire : 

ki a autres ad ui valu 

me puet, s'il veut, rendre salu." 
fol. 39 reot., pagans carrying A.'s cross, going to 
seek Apl. 
(a.b.) assemble sunt mil citeein ; 

dient : — "querum ceu crestien, 

k' Auban converti ; atant 

vers Wales le \'unt querant. 

pur enseingnes unt portee 

la croiz Auban ensenglantec. 

li uns de eus, suspris de maladie, 

par cliemin ne les siut mie. 
fol. 39 vers., no rubric nor illustration, 
fol. 40 rect., Apl. baptizing the pagans, 
(a.b.) h citoien de Verolame 

Amphibal querent par sa fame. 

en Wales le trovent prechant 

e la, Sarrazins baptizant. 

d'Auban li cuntent la cstoire ; 

enseingnes mustrent a [MS. e] raemoire : 

la croiz il li sancs parut ; 

e cist la croiz bien recunut. 
fol. 40 vers., space for the missing illustration. t 
(a.b.) li princes quant s'aperceit, 

sa gent en Wales enveit ; 



* The first of the rabble rout, who is pushing forward A., is represented with these words coming out of his 
mouth : — " Ga ! ga ! ure castrisse foa .'" which is the vernacular Saxon for the French of the poem, 1. 754. 

t A rectangular piece of vellum must have originally been fastened on to the MS., and the illustration therein 
depicted, for the contour has overlapped in some place";, now that the upper layer has been removed. The same 



RUBRICS. 



57 



e Amphibal en grefs liens, 

evokes tuz ses crestiens, 

u remencr u tuz ocire 

cumande, 4 duel e a martire. 

e cist s'en \-unt, d'armes garni, 

e niuntez cum ost bani. 
fol. 41 rect., the armed messengers finding Apl, bap- 
tizing the new Christians, 
(a.b.) Amphibal unt cist truvS, 

e lur vcisins ja baptize. 

une part les unt severe, 

c mut les unt amoncstc : 

' k'il n'oient mais I'enchanteiir 

ki les ad mis en tel errur'. 

mes ne poent esploiter 

par promettre u manacer. 
fol. 41 vers., massacre of the Christians. 

a, ne esparnient cist d'ocire, 

A duel, a glaive, e a martire, 
ecus ki a Jesu sunt enclins, 
amis, parentz, e vesins. 

b. cist de ceste cumpainnie 
ne cheut pas s'em les ocie. 
ne par fu pas ocise e morte, 
ke Jesu ne les recunforte. 

fol. 42 rect., the eagle* and the wolf guarding the 
dead bodies, 
(a.b.) k'avant furent tut detrenchez, 

tut senglantz e defulez, 

cunussance est de eus veraie : 

nc pert en eus ne coup ne plaie. 

un lu, un aegle i sunt venuz, 

ki les cors unt defenduz ; 

li lus, de bestes, — I'egle, d'oiseus. 

cist miracle estoit nuveus. 
fol. 42 vers., illustration removed, 
(a.b.) quant h poples du pais 

la mer\cille unt veii des ocis, 

as bestes miles unt apris 

servir le rei de para'is. 

sarcuz unt a plente quis, 

les cors i unt a honur mis ; 

kar ne sunt dutantz ne escjuis, 

k'il ne regnent eu eel tutdis. 
fol. 43 rect.. illustration removed, 
(a.b.) li paen Amphibal remeinent, 

ki mut I'angoisent e iicinent ; 

kar devant eus curt nuz pez, 

e cist sunt as desters muntez. 

n'a cist ki aler nel summoinne, 

dc glaive u de cutel poinne. 

li langurus venir le veil : 

cum il requert, saunt6 receit. 
a. hujus doctnnae fontcm causamque rvinae 



afflixere sine gentes pieiate ferinae. 
fol. 43 vers., lamentation of the citizens at the de- 
struction of their converted relatives, 
(a.b.) a trois liues de la cite 
se sunt li paen repose, 
li martirs ne dort, ne sumueile, 
le sermun Deu k'il n'esparpeile. 
a la cite sunt uns venuz 
dire ke en est avenuz. 
li citoien de I'aventure 
certz, funt duel a desmesure. 
a. t'ives tristantitr, plangunt, nlttlant, hicrimantur^ 
quod mortidantur sua pignora, nee tumulantur, 
fol. 44 reot., no rubric nor illustration, 
fol. 44 vers., id. 

fol. 45 rect., martyrdom of Apl. 
(a.b.) peine ad cuntruve nuvele ; 
ki du ventre la buele 
au martir, a une estache 
en terre fichie, atache. 
le pel li funt enviruner, 
e la entraiUe si esculer. 
ne lessa par teu turment sufrir, 
par sermun paens convertir. 
a. ^.v/<7 trahit palus, qiiem verbere caesus accrho 
circuit Amphibalus, populo cogente superbo. 
fol. 45 vers., illustration and French rubric removed, 
a. viartiris expirat lapidujn caro grandine fracfa^ 
scd mt'fis respirat caeli solatia facta. 
fol. 46 rect., decapitation of Aracle. 
a. navre unt e defule, 

batu e delapide 
Aracle, le chevaler franc, 
ki baptizez est en sun sane ; 
a chef de tur uns le decole : 
I'alme s'en part , k'eu ciel vole, 
les martirs -livent en gloire ; 
ne raurra jamais de eus memoire. 
fol. 46 vers., celestial appearances at the tomb of A. 
(a.b.) la nuit apres parut en I'cir 

uns rais du ciel plus cler ke escleir. 
e la clarte ki tant resplent 
sur la tumbe Auban desent : 
pastors, guetes, paens esveUlent 
ki de (JO mut s'esmerveillent. 
fol. 47 rect., burial of A. 

a. le cors Auban en sepulture 
met Aracle .a entente e cure, 
au cors lu martir tucher, 

se sent leger, sein e enter. 

b. li ami Auban e parent, 

e franc cresticn enscment, 
ki ne se descuerent mie, 
au chevaler sunt en aie. 



is the case with foil. 42 vers., 43 rect., 45 vers., 48 vers., 49 vers., 50 vers., and 51 vers. The MS. had also been 
written, for in some places the lines are cut in two by the missing impost. Elsewhere the drawings are on the 
simple vellum, on one side, or on both sides. 

• Both capitally drawn. As bearing on the authorship by Matthew Paris, the execution of the animals may 
be noted as particularly good. 

I 2 



58 



RUBRICS. 



fol. 47 vers., torture of Aracle. 
b. dient paen par envie, 

' ke tut est par nigromancie 

ke le cors Aracle est si sane'. 

lores I'unt de rechief turmente. [MS, turynette'] 
fol, 48 rect., fight of the Christians and the pagans, 
and removal of the body of Aracle. 
(a.b.) des crestiens crest ja le numbre, 

ki ne puet tapir en umbre, 

si k'entre les crestiens 

e les adversers paens 

est ja surse e cumencee 

apres ten9un, morteu medlee. 

le cors au martir defule 

endementers lur est emble. 
a. dissona credentes ttirbat discordia mentes : 

fur pius absentat coi-pus quod pugna cruentat. 
fol. 48 vers., illustration removed, 
(a.b.) le cors k'il cointement sustrait, 

li crestiens enterrer fait. 

gent crestiene multiplie 

k'al enterrer [MS. entererer] sunt en a'ie. 

le martir of sa cumpainnie 

ne laist ke n'ensevelie. — 

ne vint a Verolame a I'hure : 

la gent paene en est parjure. 
a. tnoica sepuUuyae stmt pla7io corpora rure 

trndita, prdssurae 7ion a modo suhdita diirae. 
fol. 49 rect., devils twisting awry the heads of the 
mounted pagans, 
(a.b.) li homicide e li parjure, 

ke Amphibal pener mistrent cure 

e a Jesu mesdire e nuire, — 

deus les cuntrait e defigure : 

n'est ki de mahain ne labure, 

frenesie, u avogleiiie. 

li prince s'arage a dreiture ; 

n'a deu ki I'ait u succure. 

a. gens deformatur quae sanguine commaculatur : 
sensu privatur pars, et pars exanimatur. 

fol. 49 vers., illustration removed, 
(a.b.) quant sunt venu a Verolame, 
de Jesu crest I'onur e fame. 
n'i a celui de la rule, 
ki espnive nel eit sanz dute, 
ke ' n'a mester a nul mortel 
gnerroier le rei du ciel'. 
lur idles unt abatu, 
e aure la croiz Jesu. 

b. Christus adoratur, virtusque crucis veneratur ; 
gcnsque recordatiir quod dis deus hie dojninatur. 

fol. 50 rPCt., baptism of the converts, 
(a.b.) fei e predicaciun, 

batesme e confessiun, 

oreisuns e discipline, 

de lur pecciicz lui sunt mescine. 

a Jesu se sunt dune 

e tuit unt lur errur dampnf. 

despuis ad este Verolame 



sanz mesprisiun e blame. 
a. crimina tarn dura tollit confessio pura ; 
vota preces thura 7ion dis plus exhibitura. 
[End of the Auban rubrics, &c.] 

From this, the illustrations and rubrics have no 
reference whatever to the contents beneath, which are, 
moreover, written by a different hand, 
fol. 50 vers., illustration removed, 
fol. 51 rect., departure of the bishops for England. 
(Sinodus. Germanus Aucissiodorensis Episcoptis. 
Lupus Trecasinus Episcopus.) 
(a.b.) vers seinte iglise en Engletere 

est surse ja nuvele guere : 

mande sunt pur eel afere 

Lous de Trois. Germein de Aucere. 

au sene est purveii a veire, 

k'il se mjttent laundroit en I'eire, 

la gent asenser de maleire 

de Deu amer e a droit creire. 
fol. 51 vers., illustration removed, 
fol. 52 rect., Germanus receiving Genoveva's vow of 
chastity, as she kneels before him. 
(a.b.) a Paris sunt atant venuz, 

ii sunt a honur receiiz. 

une pucele unt truvee, 

Genoueve de Paris [numee*]. 

ele ot de ces seinz parler, 

k'en purpos sunt de mer passer : 

a seint Germein est venire 

chastete devant lui [viie*]. 
fol. 52 vers,, Germanus taking leave of Genoveva, 
gives her a medal to wear, 
(a.b.) [la mein li prent*] ducement, 

sun purpois prise ke ele enprent. 

un dener au col li pent, 

de metal ki cler resplent : 

[' gardez ben ke*] ne enpreinnes, 

ne vu facez ke tu enfreinnes ; 

ke tuz jurs en cest purpos meinnes : 

de moi portez [cestes enseinnes]'. 
fol. 53 rect., embarcation of the bishops, 
(a.b.) quant Seint Germain de U s'en part, 

mut prie Deus ke il la gart. 

port enquert, tent cele part ; 

k'il seit passe, li semble tart. 

tost apres, a tenne bref, 

se mettent li eveske en nef ; 

of bon vent curent a plein tref, 

tant k'a port venent sanz gref. 
fol. 53 vers,, debarcation of the bishops, 
(a.b.) arivcnt, en Brettainne venent, 

a Londres vunt, u cuncil tenent, 

il tu cuntre eus mandee 

de eveskes grant assemblee. 

la lu lur assen commun, 

ke la grant desputeisun 

serioit tenue a Verolame : 

par le pais s'espant la lame. 



• A piece of the vellum is torn out here ; the text I have supphed conjecturaUy. 



RUBRICS. 



59 



fol. 54 Met., bishops kneeling before the tomb of A. 
(a.b.) 4 Verolame sunt venuz 

li eveske Gcrmains e Louz. 

d'Auban enquerent I'estoire, 

dunt tant oicnt vertuz e gloire. 

dist Germains : — " martir Aubans ! 

cunfundez Pelagians ! 

tute ma cause a n'us cumant ; 

honur vus frai tut mun \'ivant." 
fol. 54 vers., disputation of the bishops and the 
Pelagians, 
(a.b.) cumandee est pais e silence, 

ke n'i grundille nus, ne tence. 

li evcskes Germains cumence 

auctoritez de sa sentence. 

concluse est e esbaie 

Pelagiane cumpainnie ; 

ke euuangile e prophecie 

passe lur philosophic. 

n'unt auctur ki garantie 

lur cuntruvure e lur folic, 
fol. 55 reot., the bishops riding off home, Germanus 
carr)'ing a little box: "capsula continens pulverem 
adhuc sanguine Albani rubicundum." 
(a.b.) li eveske, ki seinte iglise 

unt en bon estat ja mise, 

ke nuls ne croie estrange aprise, 

quei ke nuls lur chante u lise. 

en lur pais s'en vunt, e gloire 

rendent a Dcu, de lur victoire ; 

e au martir, dunt unt mcmoire, 

precherunt partut la estoire. 
(End of the mission of St. Germanus to Britain.) 



fol. 55 vers., " Merciorum rex, Offa," setting out on 
his expedition, 
(a.b.) par guerre e par destrucciun 

estrif e persecuciun, 

par les trespas e les pecchcz, 

dunt li mundz fu entuschez, 

fu I'onur de seinte iglise 

mut en ubliance mise ; 

si k'en grant c meint an 

en ubli fu mis seint Auban. 

li reis OfTes de Engleterre, 

agnes en pais, I'iun en guerre, 

en Brettainne regna tut suls : 

90 ne fist dcvant li nuls. 

I'orgoil ses enemis abat, 

e tent le regne en bon estat, 

cum cist ke ert de bone vie, 

e flur de chev.ilcrie. 
fol. 56, \-ictory of Offa. On the left, ' exercitus regis 
Offae ;' on the right, ' Boemredus tirannus, Retenscs, 
West-Saxones, Est-Saxones, Est-Angli et Norlhham- 
bumbri [sic]' ; in right-hand margin, ' confederatio Offae 
cum Karolo Magno.' 



(a.b.) Jesu %'ictoire cunsent 

au roi Offe e a sa gent. 

descunfit s'en ^•unt li bastard, 

dunt li rois fait grant assart ; 

e remeint en I'eritage 

reis, of sun naturel bamage ; 

e meintent dreiture e franchise 

a ses baruns e seinte iglise. 
fol. 56 vers., angel appearing to Offa in a dream, 
(a.b.) li rois dunt jo vus cunt e di, 

cum Deus le vout, siie merci, 

une nuit chuchez dormi. 

le firmament vit esclarci : 

un rais du ciel ki resplendi, 

plus ke [MS. ki'\ li solailz de midi, 

uns angres Id descendi, 

lui mustra, puis s'en parti, 
fol. 57 reot., flame ascending from the ground, 
(a.b.) il li martirs fu decolez 

fu ja li bus apelez 

' Holmhurt de bus,' pur 90 ke fu 

tant espessement encru. 

iloc descendi la luiir, 

ki fait la nuit resembler jur. 

li reis Ofl'e apertement 

veit dunt vent e u descent, 
fol. 57 vers., Offa journeying to see the spot, 
(a.b.) li reis, quant se esveiUe, leve 

matin , quant I'aube se escreve, 

meintenant cele [part] tent 

u la luiir du eel descent. 

tant ke le liu of le tresor 

truevent, ki passe argent e or. 

ben semblent ceus ki d'orient 

vindrent ja fere lur present, 
fol. 58 reot-, a repetition ol the flame on fol. 57. 

a. li rais du ciel lur est cunduit, 
ki cler resplent e jur e nuit. 

b. cite, k'est en munt asise 

ne puet tapir en umbre mise. 
fol. 58 vers., colloquy of the king and the bishops : 
" Rex Offa ; Humbertus archiepiscopus, Ceohvlplius 
episcopus, Vuwona episcopus." 
(a.b.) li reis sa gent venir cumande, 

arceveskes e cuntes mande. 

cist vindrent quant sunt sumuns, 

clers e chcvalers e baruns. 

li rois I'achaisun de sa voie 

lur cunte, e cist en unt grant joie. 

li rois sanz demurer va 

faire ke Deus cumanda. 
fol. 59 reot., the king urging on his people to the 
discovery of the tomb of Aul)an : ossa martiris.* 
(a.b.) [ joient de besches e picois 

asaartent boisuns e bois ; 

enportent zuches e racines, 

ostent blestes, ostent espincs ; 



• To the right arc two personages watching the disinterment, one a monk, the other a bishop. The monk is 
raising his hands to heaven with the exclamation ' te Dcum iaudamus.' 1 regret to say that the bishop has his 
finger to liis nose, as he ejaculates ' redolet'. 



6o 



RUBRICS. 



en botes portent cailloz [e tere.] 

ne finent de cercher e quere ; 

querent aval, querent amund. 

li reis i est, ki les sumunt. 

tant k'est tnivez li tresors 

e les [MS. /<■] reliques du seint cors. 

en[ ]pez keif ] paille* 

[ ]e culur [ ]ille. 

fol. 59 vers., the king superintending the erection of 
a church, 
(a.b.) li reis funder fait une iglise, 

k'en meimes ceu liu est asise, 

li li seint martir Auban 

pur Deu sufri mort e hahan. 

mafuns [ilS. (m)ancuns'\ mande e enginnurs, 

ki fund les fundementz des murs, 

vousures e pavementz, 

pilars, basses e tablementz. 
fol. 60 rect., building of the church, 
(a.b.) mut met li reis peine e cure, 

chescuns k'en sa ovre labure ; 

charpenter, ma9un, verrer, 

chescun sulum sun mester. 

li uns asset, li autre taille, 

cist coupe, cist bap, cist maille ; 

cist de hache, cist de niartel, 

cist de maillet e de cisel. 
fol. 60 vers., King OfTa conferring the abbacy on 
Willegodus. 
(a.b.) li gentils rois de bone ne, 

Offes, parfait sa abbeie. 

ben veit ke [MS. ki'\ Deus i cunsent, 

ki avance sun cumencement. 

par cunseil de ses privez, 

prelatz sages e ben lettrez,— 

de moinnes congregaciun, 

e abbe Willegond par nun, 

met en sa bone mesun, 

e gent de grant religiun. 
fol. 61 rect., monks worshipping at the shrine of St. 
Auban: 'hie est vere martir;' — "feretrum sancti 
Albani Anglorura protomartiris delatum in sanctara 
Syon." 
(a.b.) dehors Verlame la cite, 

estoit de grant antiquite 

une eglisette fundee, 



' Sancta Sj'on' Id fu numee. 

paens cunvers la firent , I'an 

ke decole fu seint Auban. 

en sun honur la firent fere, 

ki premer martir ert de Engletere. 

la chasse au martir fu la mise, 

geske faitte [sic] eient la grant iglise. 
fol. 61 vers., procession of bishops and King Offa 
[same as mentioned on fol. 48 vers.] 
(a.b.) tierz jur devant la seint Johan 

fait hom la feste seint Auban : 

arceweske e suffragan, 

clers e baruns sumuns par ban. 

as quartes nones k'en Aiist venent, 

de sa truvure feste tenent. 

sun title est propre e demeaine 

'le premer martir de Brettaine.' 
fol. 62 rect.. King Offa mounting his horse after 
disembarking ; seriant following with the casket con- 
taining the reliques. 
(a.b.) n'est pas la entente tardive 

du rei k'en sa terre arive. 

cuntre li barun e cunte 

venent ; cheval mande, e munte. 

des muntz [MS. 7niitz] e mer k'il ad pass6 

travaillez est e alasse, 

mes nepurquant pur <^o n'est pas 

du martir Auban senir las. 
fol. 62 vers., page holding the King's horse, 
(a.b.) a seint Auban pur la veniie, 

du roi est feste teniie, 

ki de sun purchaz fait present 

al haut auter, veant sa gent. 

ci finist d'Offes la estoire : 

ben est droitz k'il seit en memoire, 

tant gentil [MS. geltil'] roi, teu crestien, 

I'alme de li saut Deus. Amen ! 
fol. 63 rect., King Offa presenting his gift at the altar. 
I (a.b.) deus centisme an \ittante sist 

puis [MS./Kj] ke Deus char de \irgne prist, 

sufri passiun Auban. 

apres cent seisante terz an 

vint Germein mescreance abatre. 

apres treis centz quarante quatre 

de terre Offe Auban leva, 

ki trente neuf ans regna. 



• The whole side of the MS. has been cut away and patched. 



As I have conformed the orthogiaphy in the Lat. rubrics, I give here a list of the alterations. Instances of 
consonatiial insertion : n, cowgnacio 29 v., — p, dam/natur, 30 v., — /;, lavac^ri, 31 v. ; — substitution : c for t, con- 
gnario 29 v., — graria 29 v., — constancia 35 r., — solaria 45 V.; t for d, set, 34 r. ; — of vocal substitution : e for ae, 
qu^ 29 v., 31 r., 32 r., 49 r., — qucrit, dir,? 29 v., — pr^dicat, ^gro 31 v., — hfc, 32 r., — ^des 34 r., — prffecti 34 v., — 
c^sa, virg?, dur<^, in<?sa, pur^ 35 r., — prrit 36 r., — doctrine, ruin^, ferini? 43 r., — ccsus 45 r., — c<?U 45 v., — sepulture, 
pressure, dur?, 48 v. ; — e for oe, f^dere, 33 r., — Phfbo 34 v. ; — i' for e, spiculator (v. DC. vol. vi. 322, b) ; — 
digraph : ii for ;, diis 49 v., 50 r. 



NOTES. 



] A fol. has been lost in the MS. The poem as it 
stands at present opens with a description of the cross 
which Amphibal carried with him when he entered 
the city of V'erulam and met Alban. 

1] At the (necessary) ca;sura in the middle of the 
verse (redulcc), the mute final e does not count, nor is it 
necessary that it should be followed, as in M.F., by a 
word beginning with a vowel. The principle of scansion 
is the triple* accent in each division of the line. 

It is somewhat difficult, in individual lines, to deter- 
mine precisely on which of two or tiiree smaller words 
the beat is to be placed, or how far the principle of 
hiatus is to be admitted, but the general principle of 
three beats in e.ach half is unmistakeable. This is the 
predominant metre, but \'v. 589-619 deviate altogether. 
It will be sufficient for practice to analyse a few of the 
first hncs. Kj tant | est re dute e || de did ble £n fer- 
nal, — the rest of the line is simple enough, save the word 
diable; but in O.F. words ending in a mute e, preceded 
by muta cum liq., the final vowel is frequently pro- 
nounced before the hquid, which allows de dia|bel 
6n femall ; — cf. our pronunciation of the final e in 
words like yf«. 2 mes ne' ^rt | d'or a,dubb6e || ne 
d'ad ; tr^ I metal, — the e in first ne is elided ; in autre, 
each. syllabic bears a beat, as in M.H.G. poetry. 3 de 
p£rles prcc|ius|es || de' ivoir|e ne | roal, — the final es 
in preciuses is not counted ; — the second half of the 
line is not so easy; but it is to be noted that ne can take 
an accent when it is followed by an unaccented syl- 
lable; thus in next line ne gem me niS | cristal.| 5 de 
fust I i fii I furmfe || uns cors | d'um [ mortel, — note the 
single syllable tint bearing the beat of the measure. 
.'ces'te croi?. | au | re ||, — in ceste, the first unaccented 
syllable of the measure is absent just as in um of I.5. 
10. il vdnt 1 a j Varlam. | 1 1 and 12 are better regarded 
as beginning with a trochaic instead of the usual iambic 
beat. — For tlie use oi de with passive verbs v. Gloss, de 
5, /3. and cf. with the use of par (i, a, a). 



— redutee], cf. B. du Guesc. 10 qui tant fust re- 
doubtez ; O. E. redoubt, redoute ; so Spenser F. Q. 
i.x. I. speaks of Redoubted knights and honourable 
dames. Chauc. redoute. 

— diable] note the omission of the def. art. in this 
word, cf. 2S7. 1048. 

2 mes] occurs lour times as often as ' mais ' for the 
advers. conj. ; but with the meaning ' ever,' (in \'irtually 
negative sentences, = jamais) ?nais is the form exclu- 
sively used. In the only case in which mes (instead of 
mais) is met, it is written as one word, (583) desoremes, 
whereas the same compound adv. in the other places 
of its occurrence (iioo. 1104. 1262) is always written 
separately, desore mais. 

— aduhbee] deriv. from A. S. dubban,t to strike, 
(dubban to riddere, to dub a knight) ; the original 
meaning is still preserved in the Walloon ' dauber,' to 
give a blow, ' adobe,' one who has been severely struck. 
From this signification has been developed the series, 
to touch, arrange, fit. repair, adorn, ike. The chess 
expression ' j'adoube,' is about the only remnant of its 
modern usage ; the compound radouber is still used in 
the limited sense of repairing, refitting a vessel, and in 
a somewhat rare application to recovery of health, e.g. 
'il s'est bien radoubc.' In O.F. and M.L. it was of much 
more general application. DC, I. 87 a, quotes (anno 
1351) 'octroyons que . . . les ysues de ladile ville soient 
adoubees et mises en tel estat,' &c. Again, ' mares- 
callus diebus singulis de mane et sero adobari et estriari 
faciat equos corserios, palafredos et roncinos ' (cf. Aub. 
1420. 142 1). It was even applied to some part of the 
process of tanning leather : ' qui cordoanum (Aub. 
1828) aportavit sive ai/oSajv'/, juret quod mittat adminus 
tertiam partem de fauzil (fern)' &c. Its more general 
usage, however, as in the Germanic languages, was to 
express the solemn creation uf a knight, ' miles ado- 
batus.' [Thus Count Raoul dubs his young relative 
Auberi the Burgundian : 



* A VI ry good illustration of the function of 'beats v. syllables' in English poetry is to be found in R. 
Buchanan's 'Ballad of Judas Iscariot' : — 

And of every flake of falling snow 
Before \ it touched \ the ground. 
There came a dove, and a thousand doves 
Made \ swiet \ sound. '\ 

t The O. Norse dubba, which Dicr quotes, is a foreign word. 



62 



NOTES. 



Raoul Vadoube qui fu molt ses amis, 
primes li cauche uns esperons massivs, 
caint li I'espee dont li brans est forbis, 
el col le fiert com home bien apris. 
" tien, Auberi," dist Raoul li gentis, 
" que Damne dieus, qui en la crois fu mis, 
" te doinst pooir contre tes enemis." 
There is a very full description of the details of a 
knight's armour in Rom. de Troie, 1801 seqq.] 

From this technical application, it came to mean the 
adorning him with the necessary armour, as we have 
' deinde ab eodem duce decenter est armis adornatus', 
and thence generally ' to adorn.' In this way it could 
stand in place of the commoner 'batre,' cf. Aub. 20 
robe batue d'or, or oftener <'z or. This ornamentation 
with gold is, however, very variously expressed. Thus 
in Chans, de Rol. we have a or batue, a or gemmee, 
k or pleiet, d'or emparez, eume [helm] a or floris, 
broine a or endossee, haubert a or safrez, gonfanons a 
or listez, elme a or vergiez ; cf. Aub. 1 134 robe 
bruidee d'or lusant. 

3 roal] DC, 'rohanlum,' crj-stallum, 'crista! de 
roche.' DC. quotes a passage from the Laws of 
Normandy about wreckage: "dux sibi retinet . . . 
ebur, rohanlum, lapides pretiosos, — I'ivoire et le rochal 
et les pierres precieuses, in versione gallica." [The 
MS. however has rohallutn and rohal.'] It was evidently 
part of a stock enumeration. 

4 aoastonee] An h in acast [achast] lias been added 
in the ilS. by a later hand. cf. Fl. et Blanch. 660 
jaspes, topaces et acates. I suppose this to be the 
agate-onyx, though I have never seen this compound 
elsewhere in O. F. The sardonjTC, camahotus, O. F. 
camayeu, was used for this purpose, as we see in DC. 
%\i!o vaz. camaeus : " tabuleta auri: qua est unus lapis 
de camaheu in forma crucifixi." Cristal is equated with 
silex : ' lapis pretiosus, de quo ignis est producendus.' 

5 fust] Tlie L. fustis takes a very wide range of 
meaning in M.L. : "fustis enim appellatio \irgam et 
baculum, hastam, securim, malleum, clavam et vagina- 
turn gladium comprehendit." It was used also to 
express the trunk of a (high) tree, of which, as DC. 
says, ' manet etiamnum vocis vestigium : silvas enim, I 
in quibus sunt procerae arbores, hois de haute fustaie 
dicimus.' Again, we meet \fustem, sive sceptrum, ex 
auro et gemmis.' Besides fustis, there was a form 
fusta, for all Idnds of wooden utensils, or for building 
purposes, planks, beams, &c., and another form yttj-/«;«, 
meaning wood in general, piece de bois : cf. " quatuor 
cruces de cupro et aliam de fusto", DC. sub voce. 
So in Aub. 88. 2T,bfust is used for a cross. 

— um] A reference to the Gloss, will show the 
variety of orthography indulged in, viz., em, hem, hom, 
um, hum, home, umme, humme(s). But it will also 
show that this variety was by no means arbitrar)- ; cf. the 
following analysis : — 

Singular. Plural. 

Norn, em hem hom um — — 

Ace. — — hom hum — hummes 

Gen. — — — um umme — 

Prp. — — home — humme hummes 



From Gloss, it will be seen that em occurs six times, 
always with i', and always nom. ; hem occurs ten 
times, alwa3S nom. The gen. (with de) has the u form 
only, and has no h ; whereas the ace. and prep, have 
always h. 

6 cloufichez] [cla%-us fixare] ' fixed by nails,' then 
generally, 'pierced,' cf. Ph. Mousk. 10763 seqq. 

fu par mains et par pies loiies, 

batus de verges et deplaiies, 

de cief en cief, de grant corgies, 

et si fu couronne d'espines 

dures et aspres et poignans, 

dont contre val couru U sans. . . , 

et la fu Dieu crucefies, 

et de la lance cloficies. 
— a loi de] cf. B. du Guescl. 61 tant estoit deboute 
a loy de mescheant ; ibid. 3556 a loi de bon ouvrier ; 
ibid. 5576 a loi de recreant. 

7 avau] [ad vallem] spelt avau when used as a 
prepos. with a case (7. 878), but written aval as an 
adv. (17. 914. 1610). cf. the old word avale (act. and 
pass.); SpenserF. O.ii. g, 10, from their sweaty coursers 
did avale ; ibid. ^^. 8, 25, could so meekly make proud 
hearts avale. The opp. is amont [ad montem] ; so in 
O. F. vent d'amont = east wind, vent d'aval, west wind; 
Sp. and Pg. have vendaval, strong wind SWS. 

oostez] [costatus] DC. sub voc. quotes (ann. 1348) 
' vulneravit ducem in costatu.' 

raa] cf. Spens. F. Q. i. 6, 43, large floods of blood 
adowne their sides did raile ; ibid. ii. i, 40 (shel the 
clean waves with purple gore did ray ; from raer, M.F. 
rayer, deriv. of rai = radius, (whence our rav and M.F. 
rayon;) cf. glayeul = glai-eul, where glai = gladius. 
The beams of the sun flash out as rays or spokes, 
whence (11C9) solail raant ; then follows the mean- 
ing of coming out in a jet (1429), li sancs en curt 
raant ; here the central starting point and the 
raying-out is denoted. Contrast with 1. 896, where 
the earth is reddened with the blood, which du cors 
est flaschiz, a word that calls attention to the surface 
on which the liquid is thrown. In this last word, the 
root flache would seem to convey the notion which a 
wafer gives — of a flat body forming a spot, and hence 
would be a peculiarly inadequate word to express the 
idea of lightning, with which (as flash of lightning) 
one might be tempted to connect it. T\Ai flash, how- 
ever, is probably from fl'eche, an arrow. Curiously 
fleche itself, which is usually connected with M.H.G. 
vliz, flitsch, ' a bow,' has an O.F. form, with a guttural, 
\\z., flique, which does not suit this derivation from the 
M.H.G. vliz, but points rather to A. Sax. flicce, 
'flitch,' O.E. flick. [However incongruous the notions 
seem, there is the same connexion in the O.F. haste, 
meaning 'piece of meat,' and of which the deriv. hdteur 
(de la bouche du roi), 'steward of the roast,' has 
an antiquarian existence, while 'armes Aghast' 
mean long, pointed weapons.] And Spenser brings 
together the two words notably ; F. Q. iii. 2, 5, 
and ever and anone the rosy red 
flasht through her face, as it had been !l flake 
of lightning through bright hcven fulmined. 



NOTES. 



63 



— sanos] occurs ten times in nom. sg. Axith final s, 
which is absent only in the indef. form, 257 sant c ewe 
hissi. 

8 serrein e m.] adjj. used adverbially, evening and 
morning he prays; s-rein is indeed used as a noun, 
Gaimar Haveloc, (quoted by Rayn. sub seren V. 206) del 
malin tresk' al serai'n, but I ■liave never seen niatinal 
directly used as a noun meaning 'morning'; it is 
found as s. m. = breakfast, cf. DC. 'ad matuti- 
nellum pane ordeo ct caseo,' bread and cheese for his 
breakfast. 

9 cum cist ki] cf. 591. 660, cum cf/iii ki n'a cure. 
With this dcfmitc form contrast our use of the indef. 
pron., as oi:t; who. &c. In Chaucer, however, wc often 
have thepers. pron.; e. gr. Cant. T. 96(1. how Creon was 
of Theseus y-ser\ed I as /le that hath his deth right 
well deser\'cd; ibid. 851, as he that wys was and obe- 
dient. 

— amis espicial] so Chauc. Cant. T. Melib. p. 155, 
first schul ye clepe to vourc counscil a fowc of youi'e 
frendes that ben especial. 

10 Varlam] this spelling furnishes a proof of the 
pronunciation deducible from a metrical analysis of the 
word in its other forms. This is the only place of its 
occurrence so spelt, against nine other instances in 
which is found Verolame or Verolaime. Of these six 
(a) occur immediately before the caesura, and three (b) 
at the beginning of the line, following a or de. 



1242 tost est a Verolamell 
1363 einr ke a Verolame || 
14 14 s'averunt .i Verolame || 
1464 pres sunt de Verolamell 
415 la cite Verolaimell 
aime \ 1485 sunt a Verolaimejj 



1 



> (a) 



■739 .^ Verolaime lur cite|| j 

) 1 126 de Verolame, ii hcrbergez II ' (b) 
( 1441 de Verolame sui, 90 dit|| ) 
In (a), it is theoretically a ditrochee, but as the final 
c at the caesura is not counted, it may be pronounced 
Verolam, in fact our ' Verulam ;' but in (b) it is metri- 
cally a trocheey and was pronoimced 'Ver'lam,' or as in 
this line Varlam. I have given this analysis in detail, 
because it establishes clearly the manner in which the 
beat of the verse was allowed to absorb the adjacent 
syllable. There is no other conceivable way of scan- 
ning the lines in (b), which arc however on this principle 
perfectly regular, viz. : 

J V6r I 'laim' liir citc|| 

dc Ver 'lam' u her bergez|| 

de Ver | 'lam' sui 90 dit|| 
neither the final e nor the medial o being pro- 
nounced. 

— Uu] even in M.F. this word keeps its irreguharz', lieu. 
The analogy of jocus, jeu ; focus, feu; novus, ncuf ; 
pu\>']\i&, /leiiple ; in wliicli the short accenteil 5 becomes 
by rule fu, should give also Uu. Jeu, leu, and leu, all 
occur in Aub. ju-ant, feu, fu, andliu : now the pjonur- 
ciation of feu as/u is determined by the lime, {85) Iv ; 5 c 
in 860 feii rimes with venu, &c. And in the same rime- 
band we meet also lu [= loup, lujius]. 1 do not see 



any way to avoid the conclusion that these must all have 
been pronounced alike, vcuu, lu, fu, with our long u ; 
but v. infra on 335. In Aub. the long sound of u is in 
two instances marked by 2 u (uu) in luus (84;), and 
buus (689). 

11 paringal] peraequalis, with a nas.il inserted be- 
fore the guttural. Pr. engual, aequalis ; efO.F. jongleur 
= joculator; nighting.ile for O.E. nihtegale ; cingler, 
O.K. singlcr, fromO.H.G. segelen to sail ; ancohe= aqui- 
legia; so even when an original guttural became ])ala- 
talized, e. gr. popinjay, O.F. papegai ; messenger, F. 
messager ; occasio, O. F. achesun, which in Spenser 
(F. Q. ii. I, 30) is encheason. This spelling occurs 
frcciuently ; cf. Blanche of O.xf 292, a iiigalmeut Dix 
de]iartie la face al blanc e al vermeil ; Ed. Conf. 
4674, n'ad paringal ; Ph. Mousk. 6177, que tu 
dounasses sans delai tons les deniers de mon ceval 4 
povre gent iowi par ingal ; cf. a curious passage in Vie 
de St. Thorn, p. 55 (b), 1. 10 : 

devant la pape esturent Ii messagier real, 
alquant diseient bien, pluisur diseient mal, 
Ii alquant en Latin, tel bien, tel anom.al, 
tel qui fist personel del verbe impersonal 
singuler e plurel aveit tut par igal. 

Without the nasal in Spens. .Shep. Cal. Aug. 8> 
" whilom thou was peregal to the best." 

— gtieres] the s final is the s appended to so many 
advv. in O.F., e. gr. giers, meimes, endementiers, ain- 
cores, ilueques, lues, ores, onkes, sempres, vels, veaus, 
sivaus, (suvaus 941), Sec. The M. F. naguere is of 
course ' ne a guere,' cf. piefa (even in Jlontaigne) for a 
piece [a = il y a]. The origin of gueres is doubtful ; 
the initial g or w found in all the dialects and the sister 
languages, supposes a German source, and the O. Pr. 
form gaigre almost establishes the certainty of the 
derivation from O. H. G. weigaro, which indeed 
means fastus, fastidium, but is used in ' ne weigaro ' 
[still extant provincially in Germany, e. gr. io wager, 
yes faith ; noi wager, no faith,] to equate Lat. 'non 
multum.' It is generally used in negative sentences. 

12 entUSCliee] Gr. mjuriii' (poison for) arrows, 
whence Lat. toxicum, cf. Ovid, Pont. IV. 7, ii, 

aspicis et mitti sub adunco toxica ferro, 
et telum causas mortis habere duas. 
O. F. tosiche, Pr. tueysec ; DC. quotes " illucc su [read 
_/"«] mort par un tosiche que Ii donna par felonnie (un 
pautonnier)" ; hence Pr. cntuyscgar, O.!''. cntoscher, to 
poison ; cf O. Pg. entoxicar for Mod. Pg. envcnenar. 
From the metaphorical usage, as in DC, "cum Ari.ana 
hacresis venenata de radice ilore toxica pullulaiet," came 
the derived ethical sense of ' contaminate,'' pollute,' &c. 
. — si ne fust] the apodosis is easily supplied, out of 
the notion of ' gueres,' which conditions the absolute 
negation ' sanz paringal,' — "(which was) nearly (and 
would have been altogether) without any etiual. if it 
had not," &c. 

13 Sarrazins] M. F. is more chary of this liberty 
than the sister languages, but the omission of the def. 
art. is not uncommon in O. F., (cf. 1269. 1325. 1697. 
1750). The anachronism is of course patent ; medieval 



K 



64 



NOTES. 



writers however use the term very generally for pagans, 
unbelievers. So the Turks call Christians by the 
name Franks, Feringhi, another remnant of the Cru- 
sades ; and the epithets mescreant (v. 1811) wxi giaour 
' se valent bien I'un I'autre.' Saracen simply means 
oriental, from Arab, sharaka, to rise (of the sun). 

— fu] for verb in sg. with two nouns expressive of 
two closely rel.ated ideas, cf 257 sane e ewe hissi ; 265 
gloire e cLarte les esceint; 348 trespassable est limundz 
e tute sa beute ; 883 est levez noise e bruit e criz ; 886 
est la nostre creance e poples maubailliz ; cf. Hor. Od. i. 
3, 9 illi robur et aes triplex circa pectus erat, (and see 
Bentley's list, Od. i. 24, 8). 

14 en A. S- 6 B.] a curious mixture, for Apolin is 
doubtless Apollo. Reiffenberg in his ed. of Ph. 
Mouskes ii., p. 806, says : — " M. Michel pense que ce 
mot designe non pas ApoUon, mais ApoUonius de 
Thyanes. . . . Nons presumons, quant a nous, qu' 
ApoUin est I'Apolion [Apollyon] de I'Ecriture." But 
neither speculation is at all necessary, nor probable. 
In 181 7 we have Apollo, Pallas and Diana, and 
Phoebus and Jove, all of whom the Saracen wor- 
shipped ; V. note on 1737. 

— Creient] tliis verb has always (in Aub.) oi in the 
root in 1st sg. pres.; in the 3 perss. it alternates be- 
tween oi and ei ; the confusion comes to its height in 
the infin., where the four cases of its occurrence are 
craire, croire, crere, and creire. 

15 malstre] a very common expression in O. F., 
chief, principal ; hence adapted into Eng. master-iey, 
&c. ; cf. B. du Guescl. 876, ennuit voldrai soupper en ce 
maistre donjon ; ibid. 1367, ke le maistre os del col 
li fist brisier; Am. et Amil. 856, en sa maistre maison; 
Jourdain 1507, en la plus maistre sale; ibid. 1856, au 
maistre tref s'en va ; Ger. de V. 357, a maistre tre ; 
Alix., p. 40, 31. paniii le mestre porte; cf. St. Louis, 
Join. p. 12, un vent qui n'est mie des quatre mestres 
venz ; Chauc. Cant. T. 2904, by the maister street. 

16 perrin] M.L. petrinus; DC. 'muropetrino circum- 
septum' ; cf. B. du Guescl. 19407, est montez en la sale 
parine. 

— casal] the context evidently requires this to be 
taken as meaning a common kind of house, a farm-house. 
DC. has several forms and uses of the word casal, 
locus vacuus ubi casae aedificari possunt ; en ung 
vergier ou cassal ; under casale DC. quotes ' villas 
optimas quae Siculi casalia vocant ; casalia, quae in 
Gallico villae dicuntur;' under casalis, 'fundos seu 
casales.' It seems also to have been taken ' pro 
praedio rustico, casa scilicet cum certa agri portione, 
idem proinde atque mansus/ But it was also used for 
a hut ; so the hermit ' supra montem humile casale sibi 
erexit.' 

— ne pert pas] this expletive pas, essential in M. F., 
is comparatively rare in the old language. In simple 
negation, it only occurs about once in six ; the otlier 
expletives point and viie are still more rare, point 
indeed occurring only once. A reference to Glossary 
on pas will show a curious usage, ior pas never precedes 
ne, save wlien it is itself preceded immediately by ki. 

435 la vostre maisnee ki pas ne se feindra. 

492 cist Ten emnercie ki pas ne la lenqui. 



690 une chalur ki pas ne se seet atemprer. 

(721 mes un de eus respundi ki 90 pas ne ottrie.) 
1678 feu ki pas ne esteint. 

It is clear from a comparison of these lines that the ki 
in ever}- case is a relative pron. referring to an antece- 
dent in the same line, so 721 is not to be regarded as 
containing a noun-sentence accusative to respundi, i.e., 
as if ottrie were the ist sg. pres. (as I have given in 
Glossary-), but the clause is attributive to the un pre- 
ceding, and is to be rendered "one of them (who does 
not grant that.) answered and said." 

17 solers] DC. 'solarium' (solare, salaris) = domus 
contignatio, vel cubiculum majus et superius ; cf. Marie 
de F. ii. p. 202, montez la sus, en eel solier : in solariis 
vel cubicuHs : dormiens in solario [Aub. 202] : man- 
sionem co-opertam cum solario : domum de uno solario, 
et medio, et tegulis co-opertam; not simply of a house, 
in dicta nave erat quoddam solarium cum camino, in 
quo comedebant milites : nor of one story, si domus 
habcat tria membra sive solaria, vel plura, unum super 
aliud. In Diefenbach, glossed hoch-, sunier-hus, 
esz-laub, &c., and still used in German, der .Soller, 
garret, but our O. E. word sollar, solere, whicli had the 
same meaning of upper room, loft, is now techni- 
cal and provincial. It is e\-idently intended here as 
characterizing a better sort of house, as m.ay be in- 
ferred also from the contrast in 679. prisun ad obscure 
pur sale e pur solar ; so Chauc. Cant. T. 3988, the j-o/f/-- 
h.alle. It appears to have been a room built so as to 
catch the sun (cf. Mod. Gk. li >/.\i(ric-nc, a belvedere), 
Lat. solarium, a platform, terrace; Plant. Mil. Glor. ii. 
3, 69, neque solarium, neque hortum, &c., the term 
being afterwards generally applied to the upper 
rooms of a house. The word cenaculum according to 
Vano (L.L. v. 33, 45) was similarly extended : ' ubi 
cubabant cubiculum, ubi cenabant cenaculum, vocit.i- 
bant ; posteaquam in superiore parte cenitare coepe- 
runt, superioris partis universa cenacula dicta,' and so 
DC. can gloss stagium (v. next word) by cenaculum. 

— estates] we have preserved this word in our 
stage, in various senses; the O. F. meaning oi floor 
or story, w-hich is now obsolete, is found in our earlier 
writers. The ending -age corresponds to a deriv. 
-aticus, as usual, e being prefixed to words beginning 
with s impure. Italian has not found it necessary to 
prefix this helping-vowel, because every word in that 
language may end in a vowel, which vowel must ap- 
pear before words beginning with s impure. It is in- 
teresting to note that the few words, v-iz., non, in, 
per, con, which infringe the rule, by not ending in a 
vowel, also compel the prefixing of a helping vowel /to 
w-ords with initial s impure ; thus la Scozia, but in 
Iscozia ; lo spavento, but con ispa7'ento, &cc. 

— celers] 'cellarium, cella, ' our 'cellar': cf. Scheler 
in Lemcke's Jahrb. viii. I, p. 84, -tt-here hypogaeum is 
glossed ' celer.' and p. 87. promtuaria, gl. ' celers.' 

18 seingnur] this word (like dcigner) is found with 
three modes of representing the liquid n, viz., nn, gn, 
and ngn, seinnur, seignur, seingnur. The phenomenon 
is old enough, for Schuchardt (Vok. des Vulg. i. 113) 
quotes such forms as congnatus, singnifer, ingnes, S;c. 

— uis] 'ostium,' the i after the t being attracted 



NOTES. 



65 



into the preceding syllable, the is brought down to 
K, owing to the presence of this /, cf. ostrea - ostria = 
ois-tra = (h)uitre. In other cases the i is owing to a 
softened guttural, e. gr. nocte ^ noit = nuit ; octo - oit — 
(h)uit ; we have oitisme in Aub. 145, and the spelling 
7'it, wit even is not unusual, cf. tlie last of the Aub. 
rubrics, fol. 63, deus centisme an vittante sist = 286th 
year. It is from this iiit that we derive our old term 
ut-as, the octave of a feast day, the utas of St. Hilary, 
meaning eight days after that term. From iti's - door, 
still found in huis clos, we have huis-sier, Engl, us/tcr. 

— seant] cf. Fl. et Blancef. p. 55 : 

la le troevent oil siet, sous I'arbre, 
sur un perron qui fu de marbre : 
son cors ot richement vestu, 
preudon lor pert, quant I'ont veu. 

19 atur festival] all the details are rhetorical, to con- 
trast the houseless, ill-clad pilgrim with the noble richly 
dressed pagan, so soon to becomea convert and a martyr. 

20 d'or batue] v. note on 2 ; cf. Chauc. Cant. T, 2164, 
his sadil was of brend gold newe bete ; so 2502, gold- 
beten helmes, Ike. 

— nusches.] M.L. 'nusca,' sometimes ' musca,' which 
DC. almost thought to be the right reading, but the 
forms with initial n are no doubt right. The Edd. of 
DC. curiously mix up witli this nusca, the words 
nodellus and nuclcatus ! In Lemcke's Jahrb. viii. i, 
p. gr, monilia gl. iiuches sive fremeus (-fermails); 
murcnule gl. nuches de or ; DC. sub murenula quotes 
Papias : " catenae latae et spissae, de auro mire factac, 
quae capite defluentes ad cenicera ornandum." DC. 
defines after St. Jerome: 'mulierum ornaincnta aurea, 
quibus metallo in ^^rgulas lentesccnte, quadam ordinis 
ftcxuosi catena colluin cingebatur.' Will. Tyr. " murc- 
nulae, inaures," &c., "ubi vctus interprcs Gallicus 
mousches, fermaux vertit." Tlie word is common 
enough, cf. Chans, de Rol. 637, a vostre fcmnie 
tnveicrai dous nusches ; Brut. 10O90, rices nosques, 
ric^s aniax, vl. rices noches, rices frcmaus. From this 
nouche, we have our O. E. ouschc, ouchc, owch, thus 
Chauc. Cant. T. 6325, axvouche of gold ; but 8258,and 
set hir ful of nowches gret and smale. 

Spens. F. Q. I. 2, 13 : 
And like a Persian mitre on her hed 
Shee wore, with crowns and owchcs garnished. 
Ibid. I. 10, 31 : 

And on her head she wore a tjTC of gold 
Adomd with genimes and owches wondrous fayre. 
Dr. Morris gives, in his gloss, to Spens. ; owch, ' a 
socket of gold to hold precious stones, a jewel ' ; M. 
Gautier gives ' agrafes, bijoux.' The Latin word refers 
to the neck, and the early E. and F. use, to the head. 
It seems, however, to have been employed generally 
c= ornament. Por the form nouche = owche, cf. O.F. 
naperon [still extant among us jirovincially as nappern"] 
= apron, a word explained by Dr. Morris (p. 72) as i( 
tiie « had been prefixed, which is incorrect, as the word 
comes from M. L. nappa. So from a form nidaceus 
(nidus), a nestling, came F. niais (callow, then booby), 
which entered into O. E. as nias, iiyas, afterwards 
divided 'an eyas,' a young callow hawk, Shaksp., little 



eyases cry out ; adder also was in A. Sax. naddre ; 
cf. also on 273 auger for «r7y-^a>- = nave-borer, &c. ; n 
is, however, at times prefixed, cf. nombril (umbelicus), 
no doulit for I'ombril with dissimilated / of article, as in 
Catalan llombrigol. (For a curious instance of a con- 
fusion of an initial liquid, cf. Mussafia, Sitz.-Ber. der 
Wien. Akad., p. 226,) 

— aesmal] for the digraph ae = e, v. appendix ; 
enamel, common in decorations: DC.cantharam auream 
cum pretiosis gemmis ac smalto ; crucem cum gemmis 
et smaltis ; cahcem aureum gemmis et margaritis ac 
smaltis optime adornatum ; botonos ex auro sive ex 
argento vel smalto. From this we get O. E. amcl, and 
our 'en-amel,' now meaning a composition of white 
glass and certain metallic oxides. It is not easy to say 
what is the precise meaning in Aubau. Rayn. quotes, 
Lex. Rom. III. 163 : 

ar intret en las cambras qu'eran penchas am flors 
e d'azur e d'esmaut e de mantas colors, 
where it seems to mean some definite colour. 

There are two possible originals of the word : maltha, 
a sort of cement, described by Pliny, ' e calce lit re- 
cent!, mox tunditur cum adipe suillo et ficu'; and he 
tlience uses the verb ' maltliare,' to cement, to varnish. 
From this could easily come 'ex-maltare,' as in Pg. 
esmaltar, id., but also fig. to adorn. Besides the 
common meaning, in Ital. smalto also signifies ' rem 
lapideam'; so DC. quotes 'lapidibus, quos smaltos 
vocant.' This derivation gives the vowel a occurring in 
all the languages: It. smalto, Sp. esmalte, Pr. esmaut 
(=esmaU), O. F. esmal. On the other hand, Itahan 
has a verb stnali-ire, ' to digest,' which suits better the 
second derivation, viz., from O.H.G. smelzan, for 
smaltjan, fsmaiti-), where also the attraction of the 
stem vowel i into the root, would account for email. 
Hence Diez prefers this latter explanation. It is to be 
noted, however, tliat his objection on the ground of the 
difficulty of accounting for the i on the maltha hypo- 
thesis, is obviated by the consideration that the O. F. 
is very often without the i, esmal. 
R. de Troie 1539 : 

li quatre pecol [foot of bed] par igal 

furent bien ovrfi ^ esmal. 
Alix. p. 12, 13 : 

el cief li met un frain a or et ^ esmal. 
Fl. et Blanccf. p. 22 : 

car faisons fairc un lomblel gent j 

fait soil de marbre et de cristal, 

d'or et d'argent et a esmal. 
Ibid. p. 41 : 

les jiicres valcnt un tresor, 

qui a blanc esmail sent assises. 
Ibid. 1. C51 : 

(the tomb) de rices listcs ert list6e 

de ciers esmaus avironnfies. 
and for the old amel, cf. Spens. F. Q. ii. 3, 27 : 

golden bandes which were entayld 

with curious antickes ami full fayre aumaylJ. 

21 mareschal] as in O. F. this wonl seems to have 

been used = 'seneschal,' it is not to be wondered therefore 

that Ma. Paris has ventured on tlie derivation (p. 601, 

40, Wats,) ' utpote bellicosus et strenuus, dictiis 



K 2 



66 



NOTES. 



MarescaUus, quasi Martis Senescallus' ! Its real origin 
is O.H.G. marah,hoTse, and scal/i, a seiTant, so that it 
meant groom, lic. But it grew to be a title of great 
importance and dignity, defined secundus a Comite 
Staiiuli [constable], whose prerogative was ' primae 
exercitus fronte praeesse'; cf. Lat. Magister Equitum, 
and the term ' constable ' itself, before its degradation. 
There was, besides, a title MarescaUus aulae, or ' in- 
trinsecus,' whose functions are thus described : mensis 
praeparatis, mappis stratis, omnes secundum facultates 
suas evocare, et decenter et curiose collocare, et indignos 
ejicere, non pemiittere canes aulam ingredi, et toti 
familiae regis, ipso monente, hospitia liberare. 
Chauc. Cant. T. 754 : 

A semely man oure ooste was withalle 
for to have been a marchal in an halle. 
Spens. F. Q. ii. 9, 28 : 

and through the hall there walked to and fro 
a jolly yeoman, marshal! of the same. 
Ace. to another autliority (Red Book of Excheq.) it 
was this Mareschal's duty tumultus sedare in domo 
regis, liberationes officiorum facere, ostia aulae regis 
custodire, ii'c. The reference of this title (further than 
as a mere honorary epithet) to Auban, is of course a 
mere anachronism. 

23 cuneuz] ' well-kno«-n,' ' there was no one better 
known, nor more familiar to the public' 
Vie de St. Thom. 39, 10 : 

en I'autre chambre avant sist li reis od sa druz, 
it ses conseilz teneit od les mielz cpneuz. 
Alix. 108, 26 : 

nous somraes tout eslit e conneut baron. 
Bartsch direst. 394, 13 : 

po\Tes estoie en ma terre 
mais au moins cognus y estoie. 

23 ancesur] after an(te)cessor had been so modified 
as to become trisyllabic, it was further shortened to 
ances'r, but between s and r it was a rule that / should 
be inserted, hence our ancestor, F. ancetre : cf. essere, 
cs're, estre, etre; similarly, lazarus became lazre, lazdre, 
and then ladre. 

24 li clers] in nom. sg. this form is invariably used, 
when preceded by the def. li or cist, (so also in pred. 
1193,) but the indefinite nom. (322) is c/erc, the form 
for all inflected cases. Clercs is used twice (600, 1558) 
instead of cUrs, in both cases followed immediately by 
a relative clause, which seems to have thrown some 
stress on the word and suggested (however remotely) 
the fuller form. 

26 benoie] in the pp. this word is regularly rimed 
with i, cf. bencis witli dis, B. du Guescl. 8898 ; Kell. 
Romv. 215, 28 (act.) a beiieis wi\h garnis. So also in 
the indie, pres. ; c. gr. B. du Guescl. 8790: 

descendirent a pie trestuit a une lie ; 

a I'evesque s'en vont, qui tous les beneic. 
I'erhaps so in this subj.-opt. form. 

— VUS] this mixture of the sg. and pi. of tlie 2nd 
pers. pron. is very common throughout tlie poem, cf. 
45-7 : 6S : 92-3 : 94-5, &c. ; cf. Abbot, Sh.iksp. gr. } 235. 

— tant] I have given tant as adverbial to ' prude,' 
but it also emphasizes the verb 'pers,' being used rtrro 
Kou'oii ; sometimes it is not easy to decide with which 



word of a clause it is to be immediately connected, 
or what is its precise grammatical function in the 
clause (v. 288). 

— prude] obi. form of pretiz, cf. 1774 chevaler preuz. 
So Spenser uses /toh', F. Q. iii. 3, 24 : 

ne is thy fate, ne is thy fortune ill, 

to love the pro-uiest knight that ever was. 

For the relation of these two forms preuz and prude, 

cf. Lat. pro, but prod-est. 

— ber] (v. note on 301,) theoretically, this form of the 
word should be nom., obi. bariin, but although ' barun' 
occurs in the poem, still ber is also used for the 
obi. case. In 62 it is gen. [where corrige Gloss.], in 1307, 
1648 ace. (in both cases preceded hy prude, as here). 

28 las] may be explained in either of two ways, viz., 
as an interj. alas ! or as an adj. = weary : — 'I alas ! who 
have no horse,' or 'I come weary, as I have none.' 
Either would be perfectly correct. For the use of this 
expression as an interj. cf. iloliere, L'Etourdi, ii. 5, 
where Itis ! occurs thrice closely together in the archaic 
conversation of Anselme. 

— palefrei] M.L. paraveredus {-Trnoa and veredus, 
whence O.H.G. pherit. Mod. G. pferd), oiu' palfrey: 
DC. z'ercdi, equi publico cursui destinati ; derived 
by the ancients from veho and rheda, as in the verses, 
'est veredus equus, vectans rhedam quasi cumim,' 
' rhedse vectores nos dicimus esse vgredos.' From 
this comes 'veredarii,' courriers, qui non descendunt 
de equo, antequam liberant responsa sua : habeiit in 
capite pinnas ut inde intelligatur festinatio itineris : 
datur semper iis equus paratus, nee manducant, nisi 
super equo, antequam perfecerunt. Brunetto Latini 
in his Tresor, chap. 155, gives: — destrier grant, pour le 
combat : palefroi, pour clicvaucher a I'aise de son 
cors: roucis, poursommes porter; cf. 142 1 palefrei bon 
e bel, chafur, u fort mucin u grant destrer ignel. 

29 Ostel] DC. sub v. hospitare, ' hospites in villa 
collocare :' cf. ' si nox eum occupaverit, hospitium in 
Abbatia et servitium sibi demandat ab hominibus villac 
a se hospitata; ministrari.' The direct origin of the 
Fr. word is, of course, hospitale, i.e. properly, aedes in 
monasteriis ubi hospites et advenas recipiebantur. 
These Xenodochia were not exclusively for the poor ; 
cf. hospitum denique loca duo constituimus, unum ad 
pauperes recipiendos, alteram ad nobiles \iios undique 
confluentes. 

Spens. F. Q. ii. 9, 10 : 

a goodly castle, 
which choosing for that evening's hospitale 
they thither marcht. 

31 une part] ' aside,' calls him 'on one side,' so also 
in 74, loSo, 1523 ; cf. the corresponding expression 
' cele part,' 115. 

Bartsch, Rom. u. Past. p. 279, 5 : 
pensis com fins amourous 
I'autrier chevauchoie ; 
Robin oi qui touz sous [=seul] 
demenoit grant joie. 
cele part vins, sel[=si le] saluai, 
et du revel li demandai, 
do)it il vient. 

32 penses] Lat. pcnsare has given birth to three 



NOTES. 



67 



words of very different signification, in this penser, to 
think ; panser, to staunch wounds (for the latter of 
which, however, is quoted from Calpurnius the expres- 
sion ' pensare sitim,* to quench thirst ;) and peser, to 
weigh. Our ^^-ondnpoise gives the U.K. /o;> (= pes, 
i.e. pensum), which AI. F. has transformed into poids, 
through an assumed connexion with pondus. 

— alerj for this we have in O. F. also a form aner, 
which agrees with It. Sp. Pg. andare. It seems, 
therefore, that the root is to be sought in a form 
anditare for aditare (ad-ire), by nasalisation : cf. Pg. 
andito, Lat. aditus. 

— dunst vens?] this form 'dunst' (which occurs 
only once), is apparently written thus with an s, to dis- 
tinguish this form of the oblique pronoun in its inter- 
rogative local sense (from whence .') ; cf. B. du Guescl. 
13794. I4'7'- 14906 &c., dont viens-tu ? Ger. de V. 
1810, dont estez vos et de Iiel parente .' 

33 sujumer] it is from this old form that we derive 
our sojouni. M. F. has sejourner, just as it has selon 
instead of sultim (v. 80 Aub.), thereby obscuring the 
origin, sub-diumare, It. soggiomare. 

34 teser] from tcndere pp. tensus was formed the 
noun Uise^ a toise, the space included between the out- 
stretched arms (cf. opyyia from oD^ytij) : whence the 
deriv. vb. teiser, teser, to stretch, used like the primit. 
vb. to go. tendere (cursum) ; cf. pcser, Lat. pen- 
dere ; in its more direct meaning, cf. Joinv. St. Louis 
87, ars [bows] si fors comme il les pooit teser. 

37 naistre] from a normalised nascere, pascere, 
as from crescere, cognoscere, we get naitre, paitre, 
croitre, connaitre. 

38 resoure] = re-escure, cf. It. ri-scuotere, Lat. re- 
e?Lcutcre, M. L. rescutere, our ' rescue' ; the old 
law term rescous, M. L. rescussus, is defined ' tumul- 
tuosa et violenta ereptio arestati, e manibus ejus qui 
licite eumdcm arestavit,' which fits in well with the 
meaning here, men being supposed ' licite arestati 
a diabolo' for their sins, &c. ; cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 2645 : 

and in the rescous of this Palamon 

the stronge kynge Lycurgius is bom adoun. 

39 paraler] Diez, II. 401, remarks on the rarity of 
new compounds of verbs wth the preposition per, 
w-hose meaning he compares with the Germ. voU in 
voll-enden, &c. But the list which he gives as ' nearly 
complete,' is really not so, for even in Auban we have 
others not mentioned in Diez, as parcunter i68g, par- 
murir 1675, parocire 1626, as well as this paraler. I 
am not sure even that par es in 243 would not be better 
given as one word ; in 1050 par est dehtable, 1476 trop 
par estes criieus, 1566 tant par est irascuz, 1742 tant 
par fu ardant. As there is a predicate adjective, I have 
thought it advisable to keep the par separate as an ad- 
verb. With the parocire of 1626, cf. the Rubrics, 41 b, 
WG par fu ocise e mort. From this usage in the sense 
of finality fcf. O. F. par-close, par-fin, &c.,) seems 
exphcable tliis word par-aler, the final coming, which 
I do not remember to have met with elsewhere. 

40 sanz] from Lat. sine, perhaps through the in- 
fluence of the fonn dans [not in Auban], which has final 
s, but justifiably, as being from de mius; or it may be 
simply the adverbial fin.al s as in gucres, &c. I do not 



think that Ital. senza should be referred here (as is done 
by Diez preferentially), for it demands the assumption 
of a final a appended to a form senes, which is itself an 
enormous assumption, as what would Ital. do with this 
added adverbial s} It is better explained as being for 
as-senza, absentia. Diez's objection that this should 
give senza with open e) is neutralized by the Old Ital. 
sanza, which is still further from sine. 

— dener] a very common phrase: 334, 1671 un 
butun ; 1008, 11 50 un esperun (roille) ; but this is a 
poor account compared with the infinite variety occur- 
ring in the old poets. Chaucer Cant. T. has 16276, 
nought worth aboterflye; 14582, the valieu of a flie ; 
182, not worth an oystre ; 16946, a hotel hay ; 9139,3 
bene ; though his general comparison is, not worth a 
mite 1560, 12439. &c. 

cf. Roncesv. 10239 : 

la vielle broingne ne li vault une aillie. 

ibid. 2005 : 

li haubers ne li valut noiant, 

ne la cuirie la monte d'une bezant. 

Li Biaus Desc. 2993 : 

li escus ne leur valurent deus escorces. 
cf. Plant. Mil. Glor. ii. 3, 45, non ego nunc vitam tuam 
emam vitiosa nuce. Lippi, in his Malmantile ii. 9, has 
' non darei quanto un puntal d'aghetto' (lace-tag). The 
extent to which the expression could be made to apply 
is weU seen in the following absurdity, Guescl. 19453 : 
porroit couper un grant bois en siant 
sans noise demener la montance d'un gant (!) 
** not to make more noise in sawing a log of wood than 
the worth of a glove;" cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 1572, the 
mountance of a tare; 17187, the mountauns of a gnat ; 
14278, the mountaunce of a com of whete ; comp. also 
our phrase, "he is worth his weight in gold" ; Rom. 
de Troie 318 (of a horse), qui son pois valeit de fin or. 

The following examples will be found to cover most 
of the variations in B. du Guescl. and AUx.: 

B. du Guescl. : 

13987 li trais n'i vali une pommt pelie. 

14092 vaiUant un /ar/j/. 

14^30 vaillant un esperon. 

14330 vaillant un ognon. 

16089 <^^ "^ '"' vasist la montance d' uyt gant (19453). 

16280 qui vaussist quatre gatu. 

164)1 n'i valoit la monte d'un bouton. 

■7347 "<^ i' ni^ i"e prisoit valissant deus festus. 

17708 ne pot a moi valor un petit fl de sole. 

1 7845 tout ne me vauldroit la monte de deus dez. 

19496 toute la defence n'i vali un tournois. 

19635 tout quant qu'avez oy ne vault un ail peli. 

20277 tout ce n'i vali unseul denierd'argent(\';T,i2\. 

21 146 sans nous a empirer valissant deus espis(l^'j\o). 

21246 et mains povres ki n'ont vaillant un bastoncel. 

21255 ^out ce n'i a valu la monte d'un fuisel. 

22003 on n'i conquesta vaillant un angerin. 
9032 car jc de moi ne veil la monte d'un soler. 

14377 on ne Ii demanda une pomnte pourrie. 

16657 n'en donroie un frelin. 

1 7 186 Esp.aignolz que je n'aime un ongnon .'(l 1260). 

17442 n'i conquesterez la monte d'une ortie. 

17695 tous les barons ne jirise un poi de croie. 



68 



NOTES. 



18924 qui ne prisent Englois la queue d'un siron. 
19843 ii n'acontoit au trait un petit parisi (20312). 
21827 du vo n'emporterez la monte d'un labour. 
Alixandres : 
31. 30 brogue c'ait vestue ne li vaut une hairc. 
52. 1 1 ne laira lie vaille une laitue. 
72. 22 ne prisent lui et sa gent un fi-omnge. 
75. 20 tout le siege del niont ne pDse deus besans. 
88. II ne li valent les amies le pris d'une castegne. 
lOI. 23 pour lui ne feront qui vaille une maaille. 
164. 22 li escus de son col ne li valu un pain. 

167. II jou ne val mie une punie jneure. 

168. 12 ne valent sans lui le monte dun festu. 
175. I ne perderai valiant deus esporons. 

186. 17 ne li vaut a eel cop li haubers une nais. 

197. 30 ne lor valent escu \e poumon d'une vake. 

209. 22 ne I'prise mais li rois de eel mal une allie. 

229. 4 arme n'i vaut une paille d' avaine, 

251. 13 ja n'en aura ses sire valiant un parisis. 
42 oumenoe] is elsewhere followed by a, save here 
and 103. Lat. cum-initiare ; in Milanese we have the 
simple form inza ; Span, empezar exhibits the same 
insertion of p, as in the O. Sp. com-p-enzar, with 
which cf. Sard. incMm-h-enzai. Wallacliian, as often, 
keeps the Lat. word, incipere, incepe. 

— esmervoiller] deriv. of merveUle = mirabilia ; cf. 
O. F. tcille, from Lat. tilia, our to/-tree (id.) 

44 cument] from cum, by the addition of the adver- 
bial mente ; the origin of cum will be best seen in this 
series : cum (cume). It. come, Sp. como, Lombard 
comod, Lat. quomodo. 

— damagej our word testifies to the O. F. damage. 
The M. F. dommage, with its modified vowel, is quite 
at variance with ordinary phonetic, as in L. L. a 
in position seldom becomes o or K/cf. Schuchardtl. 173. 

46 ki] the words ki and ke have got into considerable 
confusion ; here, evidently, there is needed the con- 
junction to introduce the noun-sentence, but the forms 
are not kept distinct in the MS., and I have not there- 
fore changed. 

48 enoiunbrer] Lat. cumulus, Portug. Comoro, 
cunilus, whence cumble, cumbre, M.L. combrus ; 
It. ingombrare ; cf. It. sembrare, for simulare. 
The instances are not very numerous of Fr. mbr 
for Lat. ml, but mbr = mr is frequent, chambre 
(camera), concombre (cucumerem), nombre (numerus); 
while apotre (apostolus), esclandre (scandalum), instance 
Fr. r for Lat. /, where scandalum must have become 
"ic/andlum before assuming its present form esclandre. 
For the use, cf. Jourdains 1778, je te commant au 
glorioz dou ciel, qui te garisse de mort et d'en- 
combrier. 

50 esperver] a very slight acquaintance withTrouvere 
expression wouUl suffice to show the commonness of 
hawking among the amusements of the middle ages. 
Particularly noticeable, as one of the commonplaces of 
medieval poetry, is the reference to the hatred that the 
hawk bears to the smaller birds, and the terror it 
strikes into them ; cf. Spens. F. Q. II. 7, 34. him snatcht 
away more light th.an Culver [dove] in the Faulcon's fist ; 
Am. et Amil. 265S — les voiles font drescier, li vens lor 
vient qui par vigor i fiert, ainsiz les mainne com I'aloe 



espreviers ; Li Biaus Descun. 5770, plus le criement li 
chevalier qu' estornel ne font esprevier ; Villehard. 
§ 540, sitost comme il connurent le desconfiture ki sor 
eus tomoit, il se mirent au fuir sans plus atendre, et 
s'esparsent, li uns cha, li autres la, aussi comme les 
aloes font por les espreviers; Ph. Mousk. 7133, qui 
tout ausi comme I'aloe fuit le mouskct et I'eprevier 
plus que I'aubain ne le bruhier et tout li petit oisillonle 
houlet a I'esmerillon fuient pour lor vie sauver, tot 
ausement fuient paien. So, again, the eagerness with 
which the falcon darts after his prey is a usual simile 
with our poets, ex. gr. Alix. 271, 5, qui plus cort de 
randun quant on I'a esprouve que faus ne suie aloe, 
quant il a jeune ; ibid. lOI, 26 ; 196, 4 ; 227, 3 ; 242,33, 
of a horse, qui plus vait de randon qu' esprivers apres 
quaille; 15. du Guescl. 14008, plus desirent la guerre 
qu' esprivier le hairon; ibid. 18376, ainsi seront surpris 
que du faucun la pie. 

— aloue] this is the simple form [from Lat. alauda, 
a word of Keltic origin, for the Lat. corydalus, 
irno"C"A"c, the crested lark;] from which (Diez, I. 16) 
Grimm derives O. N. Ida, which can hardly be, as the 

0. N. word/iJ, Ida, means 'sand-piper.' From aloue, by 
the dimin. suff. -etta, we have JI. F. alou-ette, O. Sp. 
alo-eta (now alondra, for alondola), as It. allod-o/<z, by 
a different sulhx, still further heightened hypocoristic- 
ally in Dante's lod-ol-etta (Par. xx. 71, where, however, 
other readings ^veal[l)od-etta). For the change of au 
to ou, cf. c/oM-fichez, where cIou = clau (dav-us), /ca 
1077 = laud-o. 

— espei'TSr] our significant ' sparrowAidiViXC ; for the 
deriv. is O.H.G. sparawari ; cf. Goth, sparva, 'spar- 
row'. Old Sp. and Pg., with the sister languages, had 
the word esparvel, but they have adopted another term 
Sp. gavilan, Pg. gavido, Jlilanese gavinel [ganivel) ; 
from the old word capus (= falco) cap-ellus, cap-el-an, 
gavilan. Thus, the root would be cap, cap-ere, to 
take, seize, which would equate the word with the 
other factor in our translation hawk ; A. Sax. hafoc. 
Mod. G. habicht, O.H.G. hab-uch, from root hab-en. 

51 respond] the only case in which the un-Xorman 
occurs instead of the u elsewhere of this verb. 

— pelerin] Lat. peregrinus, pererinus [in which form 
it still is in Welsh, viz., pererin, a pilgrim, pererindod, 
pilgrimage, &c.], and by dissimilation, pf/srinus.* 
For our final m = n, cf. ransom, from O. F. raan9on. 
The representation of the (F.) nasal by m or n is so 
common in the term, un, urn, that im was to be ex- 
pected for in, and so, indeed, the MS. has (996) 
pelerim, oyir pi!{g)rim. 

52 herberge] O.H.G. heriberga {- army-camp) has 
given rise to Mod. G. herbergen, and O. F. herberger, with 
the same modification of meaning, 'lodge,' although the 
O.F. had besides the original meaning ; M. F. and the 
sister languages have adopted a form with a dissimilated 

1, (even in O. F. helberc,) alberge, auberge, It. albergo, 
Sp. albergue. 

martrin] marmorinus, manw'nnus, ma>-OTJHnus, 

maz-J^'inus v. 48. 

— ja] this particle is almost invariably placed be- 
tween the au.vU. aver and the pp., this being the only 
instance where the ptcp. precedes both ; v. Gloss. 



' The form pelegrimts occurs in Lat. of 4 cent. A.D. (cf. Schuch. Vulg. Lat. I. 13"), 



NOTES. 



69 



65 sanz] sanz c. e fin. ; v. Gloss. 3, a, b, for the 
example of sanz, with a pair of nouns coupled by e and 
K respectively ; but the sanz is never repeated, as e. gr. 
Matz. Altfr. 24, 29. sans blasme et sans vilounie. 

— CUinencail] for this temiination-a// appended to 
verbs to form nouns, cf. ei)ouvant-ail ; imitated from 
soupirail, gouvernail, (^c, where it represents a genuine 
hal.-ncu/um, spiraculum, gubcinaculum. 

56 dresce] [directiare] ; for Lat. (<■)// = hard sibilant 
cf. M. F. sucer (suctiare), chasser (captiare), nosces, 
nuptiae ; cf. also les{;un, lectio, and the - isre suffix = 
I'tia. There is a notable dift'ercnce between the 
terminations fsse and t^strt', the former being the repre- 
sentative of Latin concrete nouns in issa, abstract essa, 
as leonesse, promesse, presse, &c., while the latter 
esce is employed in abstract nouns in itia (It. ezza, Sp. 
eza) ; thus, in Aub. we have lassesce, seccheresce, 
richesce, feblcsce, jofnesce, destresce. Angoisse (ui) is 
one of the rare cases of ss for st, angt4stia. 

— aiere] (iter) ' eyre,' justices in 'eyre,' O.^. errant 
judges ; cf. chevalier errant, Juif errant, i.e. wander- 
ing, &ic. The word is monosyllabic, the final e being 
elided ; cf. Vie de S. Th. 48, 1. 21, endementers ad fait 
tut sun eire aprcslcr; B. du Guescl. 16S60, lors aprcs- 
tent lor oirre trcstout comnumcment ; Chauc. Melib. 
p. 154, thou schalt blesse God, and pray him to dresse 
thy wayes ; Spens. P'. Q. I. lo, II : I hither came and 
this good knight his way with me addrest. 

69 gtiarde] it is from this form that we deiive our 
word guMd, with initial ^'li, cf. guarant (57). In both 
these words we receive back through O. F. a Teutonic 
root ; * guarantee* is warrant, O.H.G. werent, li'eren, — 
and guard is ward, A. Sax. weardian, O.H.G. wartcn. 
In 'language' we observe the influence of the same 
principle, the M. F. confomiing here also ; compare 
.M. V . garantir, garder, langagc, with the O. F. and 
English forms. There arc no other words common to 
French and English beginning with ,i,'/(a, except our 
i^&guarish (Spenser), M.F. ' guerir,' where the e has 
preserved the «, but the English is to be equated with 
the O. F. guarir, O.H.G. werjan, A. Sax. warian. 

— poure] I have edited so, in place of the usual 
povre, because our word f>oor is only explicable on this 
pronunciation, though I have no rhyme wliich would 
absolutely prove the matter. The case is pro- 
bably different with jovre, for we have the derivative 
jofnesce, showing that tlie labial sound was more plainly 
heard ; but cf. Mod. pauvrete and jeunesse. 

— cunforte] our language has done well in preserv- 
ing this admirable word, which we have restored to Mod. 
Fr. : cf. also descunfurtez (3S4) ; already Lie. Macer 
(B.C. 66) uses the word conforlare (stomachuni), to 
strengthen much ; and in charters it is equated witli 
corroborare^ thus ego M. confortavi, or ego D. cur- 
roboravi. 

— frarin] for 'fratrin," a deriv. of frater; DC. sub 
voc. ' fralernalis,' quotes ' le suppliant, esmeu de 
couraigey"ra//7'«.' But frater was regularly applied to 



the monks {omv friar), and \rith this common epithet, 
as Chauc. (Cant. T. 232) has it, ' men mooten given 
silver to the pore freres.' The epithet was a constant, 
and so the word came to mean generally ' poor,' 
' wretched,' and is not confined to human beings, e. gr. 
Alix. 56, 18, et cevauca la mtile qui n'crt mie frarine. 
In DC. supp. sub 'fratrin' are quoted ventre frarin, 
Renart, 19958 ; escris frarins, Partenop. 103. 

60 pest] = pascit famelicos ; cf. Edw. Conf. 1897, 
ki pesseit les fameillus fors Aedward li glorius } 
DC. sub voc. fimcscere, ' li goupils est moult artilleus, 
quant il est anques fiwei/ieiis' . 

— orfanin] this form ajjpears to have been intro- 
duced by Biblical usage into the common discourse, 
from the Greek ifxtinrni; in place of the Latin orbus, 
with which it is, however, connected. The o./coui-u- 
Tf)ii0tu>v, orphanotroi>hiiim, is glossed ' locus in quo 
parentilius orbati pueri pascuntur.' Our word ' orphan,' 
it will be noted, is taken from the O. F., and diflfers 
from the M. F., in which we have the dissimilated 1, to 
avoid the recurrence of two successive syllables begin- 
ning with n, orpha-ni-nus. So Lat. venenum is in O. F. 
velin, cf. Ital. veleno ; but the original form was also 
used, wlience we have in M. F. venin, and O. F. venin, 
venim, cf. venom-ous. In Prov. the n was dissimilated 
into r, verenos, or venenos ; and even vere, veri, are 
used for venenum.* This in Alb.inian has become in 
one dialect jiipipi, in another gone into lirpipi ; 
Schuch. iii. 72. So in Portg. we have sarar for 
sanare, in Wall, mormint for monumentum, fereastre 
from fenestra. 

61 ewe] cf. with this our ' ewer,' for which the M. F. 
has a deriv. aiguiere, from another form of tlie word 
'aigue' [= aqua], which, itself, is still presen-ed in the 
names of some localities, cf. Aigiies-Ji/urtes. 

— Beethlehem] a very noteworthy instance of word- 
degradation is seen in our use of the word ' bedlam,' 
from Betlilehem, which is stated to have been the 
name of a religious house in London, afterwards con- 
verted into a lunatic asylum. In any case the word 
occurs in a MS. life of -St. Eustace, line Si : 

une croiz o le crucifi 

de Jesu, k'en Bedlem nasqui. 
so tliat the phonetic variation of the word is old 
enough. 

62 lu ber A] this form of the article lit is only 
used in the obi. cases, cf. genit. 992, Ic cors lu martir; 
temp. .ace. 58, bis. lui pri e aiir lu soir et lu matin ; 
prep. 1 704, vers lu ciel regarde. This non-prcpos. 
form of the gen., it may be obser\'ed, is only found in 
the attributive use. In Gloss. I have wrongly entered 
both ber and Architriclin, which I had regarded, 
owing to ber, as being necessarily //()///. 

— Architriclin] one of the medieval blunders through 
ignorance of Greek. The source is the Latin transla- 
tion of the N. Test., John ii. 8, which the Vulgate 
gives ' haurite nunc et fcrte architriclino ; ut auteni 
gustavit architriclinus .iquam,' &ic. But the blunder 



• A very curious instance of this substitution of r for n is found in the G.ielic word mna, mnaoi (the inflection 
of bean, a woman,) which is pronounced mra. So, too, every word in Gaelic beginning with en is pronounced 
as if it were cr ; cf. gro?na-=yviiiia (Schuch. Vulg. I. 140). 



70 



NOTES. 



did not stop here. Of course in a monkish tale like 
Auban, the word could hardly be misspelt with the 
Vulgate in common usage ; but cf. in Guesclin, nostre 
sire Dieux qui de I'eaue list vin | le jour qu'4 noces 
fust de S. Aniiedc'cliii. 

64 meint] prob. from Kymr. root ; cf. Welsh maint, 
magnitude, bigness. 

— mescreant] our word miscreant, Lat. minus cre- 
dentem; cf. mischief, O. F. meschief, Sp. menos 
cabo, minus caput, ill end ; misfeasance, O. F. mes- 
faisance; misnomer, O.F. mesnomer; misprision, O.F. 
mesprisiun. 

65 guerpir]0,H.G. werf-jan, M.F. only in ' deguerpir'; 
M. L. guerpire, 'possessionem rei.ihcujus dimittere,' "et 
si tunc earn uxorem habuerit, mox ei abrenuntiet quod 
lingua Francorum gurpire dicimus." Grimm, Rechts- 
alt., p. 122. Tliis meaning arose from the old leg.al 
custom of signifying a cession of property by putting 
or throwing a token into the hand of the new ownier : 
we still have the custom as flourishing as ever in the 
manual transfer of a key in giring up a house that has 
been ever rented. The root means to thmu, O.H.G. 
U'erfan, A. Sax. weorfati, Goth, vairpan, our warp, 
used in Piers Plowman in this sense ' to throw 
words') ; cf v. 87 : 

eche a worde that he warpe, was of an Addres tonge. 

V. 369, the fyrste worde that he warpe, &c., 
which, by the way, is precisely paralleled by a usage of 
the word in Icelandic — hvat er that manna er verpumk 
orSi a, who is it that casts -words on me, speaks to me. 
Another common Icelandic usage of the word is to iay 
or cast eggs (of any bird); thus afar-rarp is the laying 
of eider-ducks, &:c , which we may compare with the Fr. 
limited use of pondre,* as ' to lay eggs,' cf the Lat. 
ponere, to put ; and warp is in provincial Enghsh still 
used in the sense of cattle dropping their young, (also a 
common phrase,) though warp is speciaHzed into a 
premature birth. 

66 puant] I prefer to take this as qualifying ' enfer' 
(rather than Apolin) ; the same construction is met 589, 
en la prisun. . . gisent obscure ; besides, this ' puant 
enfer' is just the stagnum ignis et sulphuris of Rev. 
XX. 9 ; 1769, el fud'enfer puant ; cf Prov. putnais fuec 
d'infem, (v. note on 289). 

— buo] prob. from a Kymr. root ; cf. Welsh bwch, 
buck. 

— mastin] prop. ' house-dog,' from a form mansati- 
nus.t M. L. deriv. of wia«j«/K = house, 'manse.' 

67 lez] ' latus' ; cf. as-sez, ad-satis, (aim-ez, am-atis). 
This preposition is obsolete, except geographically ; 
e. gr. St. Denis-lez-Paris, &c. 

— maufe] ' male factus;' Diez quotes Neap, brutto 



fatto, similarly used for the devil, ' the ugly one' ; as 
Gachet says, ' ce mot sert a nous montrer de quelle 
facjon le moyen age a\ait compris la personnification 
de I'esprit du mal. 

— cunpainz] M. L. companium, in Lex. Salic, for 
society, from com and panis after the model of O. H. G. 
gi-Ieip, where ^/=Lat. cum ; for this short form, 
cf . Chauc. Cant. T. 3709, cotnpnme, [riming blame']. 

— vesin] the commoner form in A. is veisin, Lat. 
vicinus ; for the s, cf. raisin, racemus. 

69 Bin] the Rhine as a boundary is no unfamiliar ex- 
pression of the trouveres : cf. B. du Guescl. 10. qui tant 
fust redoubtez jusqu' a I'eaue du Rin ; Kell. Romv. 
220.9, plus fort larron n'ot onques jusqu' a Rin. Unfor- 
tunately the JIS. has a hole in the vellum here, which 
I have supplied conjecturally ; the omission of the 
relative adv. u in such sentences is common enough. 

73 a mervelles] cf B. du Guescl. 4717, ceste nouvelle 
fist nostre gent moult joians, | que li cuers lor revint a 
merv'eille poissans. 

75 foreine] an ' out '-house ; so ' rue foraine,' a bye- 
way ; marchand forain, ' foraneus,' who sells his wares 
abroad ; foraneus canonicus, one who resides out of 
his prebend. 

76 serganz] ' sen-ientem ' has given rise to two forms 
both preserved in English, servant and sergeant, with 
an excellent dissynon\Tny. 

79 pucele] ' pul'celia,' pulhcellus, dimin. of pullus, 
a word prop, applied only to the young of animals, but 
used as a pet term of endearment for human beings ; 
cf. the puUus passer of Catullus and Horace's male 
par\'us filius, dignified as pullus. 

80 Stlluin] 'selon,' from se[cundum] lon[gum] .icc. 
to Diez, but the O. F. sulum (as here), sulunc, &c., 
make it more natural to tal^e sub-tongum as the origin 
of this prepos, (which originally denoted space). 

81 ke] a thing which, 'id quod'; it seems better to 
take it so, than as a conjunction = for, introducing a 
causal clause with the noun-sentence in 84, for the 
subject ; for it could not be, methinks, intelligible, that 
God (84) deigned, &c. 

83 ne jo no] for the repetition of the negative, cf. 
Mahom. 841, ne ja de mot ?;'en mentirai ; 1003, ne ja 
point ne s'en mefl'era ; I235.ne j.i partir ne s'en volsist. 
Common enough in our older literature ; cf. Spenser 
F.Q. I. I, 22, ne can no longer fight. 

85 tmde] this expression for 'water,' in the enumer- 
ation of the elements, is noticeable. 

88 glaive] Lat. 'gladius'; the v can only have been 
inserted while the / was yet pronounced : gladius = 
gla(d)i = gla^•i ; cf gra^nr for gradire. par\'is (Chaucer's 
par\ise) for paradisus, through par(a)vis. So avoutre 



• In a word of related signification the same specialization is obseri'able in Fr. ; thus Lat. trahere, to draw, 
but Fr. traire, only to draw milk, to milk. Here in these two very common Latin words ponere and trahere, 
both of which are presen-ed in the other Rom. langg., the Fr. modification of meaning indicates the more agri- 
cultural habits of the people ; — the egg-laying and milking form still two ven,- important items in a French 
peasant's daily life, and pondre and traire are no unfamiliar words in a French village. 

t To this form (which is M. Brachet's), Scheler objects that there is no suffix atinus. This is true, but just 
as his mesnata formed masnat-inus, so could mansata form mansat-inus. Now, the form mansata exists; in fact 
mansata is used for family, thus DC. quotes ' at Itali, secundum quosdara vocant homines de mansata quasi de 
familia, et iUi quasi pro servis habentur.' 



NOTES. 



71 



(i682) = a-outre for a(d)ulter,* where, however, the »< 
follomng a vowel naturally produced its kindred v 
before it, just as in pou(v)oir from po-oir, and in ruva 
(v. 109. 138); cf. Pg. loHvar, from laudare, oiivir, from 
audire, (O. i". oirl. In exactly the opposite direction, 
Ital. has pa-rf-iglione from pa(}i)ihonem [out of which 
Mod. Gaelic has \\% paiUiun'\ ; and cf. clavus = clau-us = 
clo-us = chio-o = (Ital.) chiodo. 

89 enbeuz] cf. Scheler in Lemcke's Jahrb., x. 3, p. 
254, sub voc. emhiit ; nequedent bien furent enbut | si 
compagnon, et assfa burcnt ; Fl. et Blancef., p. 79, 
dont pariert il si deceus, | et par vostre or si enibeus, | 
que de joie i vos pids carra | et homage vous offerra ; 
Villon, p. 81, comme homme embeu, qui cliancelle et 
trepigne, | I'ai veu souvcnt quand il s'alloit coucher ; 
cf. O. Span, beodo = one who has drunk, just as comido = 
one who has eaten ; Lat. cenatus, polus. 

90 ostez] prob. from a form haustare, frequentative 
of haurirc : tliere is a gloss of Festus, exhaustant = ef- 
fcrunt (quoted by Scheler sub voc.) 

— sarcu] Diez derives from O.H.G. sarc, coffin, with 
suffix -d, sarqu-eu. He objects against sarcophdguhis, 
that it would give sarfail. True, but with retracted 
accent, sarcophagulns Ym^\i\^ry Vif^ give sarcucil; we 
have a parallel case in ecue-il for sco-pii-I-us, so sarco- 
fa-gl-us, sarcue-il ; cf. also F. cueillir, Ital. cogUerc from 
Lat. colligere instead oi colli ge re. It is curious that in 
other words of similar termination, such as hnccul, 
ccureuil, chevrcuil, the accent has been carried onward, 
and the Latin -iolus becomes the Romance -iultis. (For 
the rare syncope of /, cf. icrouelles from Lat. scrofella, 
where Scheler's scruples, and suggestion oi scrobflla as 
the origin, seem quite unnecessary.) 

93 enganez] It. ingamw, Sp. engaiio ; (Wallach. 
ingaim, which means besides railler, also singer, balbu- 
tier, embrouiller ;) the word can hardly be other than a 
Latin word. Now, in O. F. this form enganer alter- 
nates with engingnier^ which latter certainly is close 
enough to iiigenium, to remove Dicz's objection on (he 
score of phonetic laws (I. 239). Whellier the O.II.G. 
gaman, contracted ganin, did not then become ganno, 
just as damnum, danno (cf. somnus sonno, doniina 
donna), and get mbted up with an ' ingenium' foiTn, it 
is not easy to say, but the Wallach. ingaima, &c., 
could not come from the O.H.G. word, and it can 
hardly have been borrowed (as Diez suggests,) from 
the Ital. 

93 fuissezl for the omission of tlie eonj. si, cf. our 
' were you discovered,' &c. : 1. 465 is the only other 
instance in which this sequence of tenses occurs, with 
condit. in apodosis, and imperfect subj. in the protasis 
of h)']ootheiic clause. 

95 ke ne] cf. Chauc. Cant. T., 1605 : 

Thou schuldest never out of this grove pace 
71iat thou ne schuldest deyen of myn hond. 
and V. note on 1771. 

— detrenchez] of obscure origin. Diez suggests in- 



ternecare (which occurs in Prudentius), whence Prov. 
en-trencar ; others have proposed intcrimicare, in- 
t'rim'care, which I prefer. Littre's derivation, from 
truncarc, does not allow for the general prevalence of 
the / sound in the root. 

— brantz] O.H.G. brant = Lat. titio, whence Sp. 
tizo (= half-burnt charcoal), and Sp. tizon, 'firebrand,' 
which in the Old Sp. Poema del Cid (2436) [always so 
in the poema, as contrasted with the later tizona of the 
cronica'] is the name of the sword won by the Cid from 
King Bucar. 

96 irasou] as naistre [nasci] made nascu, from a base 
nascutus, so from iraistrc [irasci] came irascu, Prov. 
irascut (cf. O. F. vescti, M. F. vecu). But just as 
besides, the Lat. ptcp. natus left ni, so iratus produced 
ire (98s, 1356). 

97 par Deu] as this is evidently the predicate, it is to 
be regarded as dependent on a sui amen€ to wliich ki 
m' amine is equivalent, the relative and principal 
clauses hanng changed places : I, who have come and 
stopped in this countr)', have been brought by God to 
save you. 

99 vout] a very unusual sequence of tense : the pres. 
subj. soiez following the pret. vout. It may possibly 
be a mere error for veut. 

100 almosne] the intennediate stage between elee- 
mos)-na and M. F. aumone. The modification of 
this word is peculiar. O. Sp. has almosna. Mod. 
Sp. limosna ; but Pg. has turned it upside down, 
ej-wo/a, the consonants of which may be contrasted 
with our a/wi-. 

— franchise] the general idea conveyed in this word 
is the kindliness of a noble nature ; cf. 580, en nos 
deus ad franchise e du^ur (so also 779, of God's fran- 
chise e debonnerete) ; in 872, 1689, it suits most our 
'loving-kindness'; here it means rather ' beneficence.' 
It used to be of very familiar usage : Chauc. Cant. T., 
11828:— 

fro his best yet were him lever abyde, 
than doon so high a cheerlisch wrecchednesse 
agTi.yn'i fraunchis of alle gentilesce. 
ibid. (16150) : 

to complejTie 
the deth oC gentiles and o{ fraunckise. 
The adj. francs also occurs (969) in the sense of 
' noble.' The tw'o derivv. franceis, franchise, present c 
and ch as the final consonants of the root. The former 
springs from the Latinized Francia, the latter from the 
O.H.G. Franco ; cf. It. franresc, but frant7;czza, for 
the guttural letters of German stems remain guttural 
in the derivv., (and F"r. ch= It. ch). 

101 sis] in masc. nom. sg. we have sis, si, and sun, 
just as mis, mi, mun, .and tis, ti, [^tun docs not occur]. 

— dru] It. drudo ; but whether of Keltic or Ger- 
manic origin is not determinable. O.H.G. has triit, 
drill, lover, friend, whicli is close ; but the Keltic root 
druth, meretrix (Mod. Gael. di-uth = lechery), corres- 



* W. Stukcs in his translation of Cormac's Glossary gives Breton avoultr z,% the equivalent of Irish aJaltair 
(adulter), but the Bret, word is einiply borrowed without alteration from O. F. 



72 



NOTES. 



ponds to another very common meaning of dm. It. 

drudo, viz., paramour. The Welsh dnid means both 
daring and costly, dear. [Possibly the two words, O.F. 
dru, dnit, and Si. F. dni, are to be kept apart.] 

103 al nun] I have given this in Gloss, as ' on occa- 
sion of the mention of the name,' starting from this 
name as the foundation of the discourse ; it might 
also mean ' in the name of,' the usual ' in nomine' 
(Dei, &c.) ; but cf Ond's ' nomine in Hectoreo pallida 
semper eram' (Heroid. 14). 

— guier] It. guidare ; as ha'ir, from hadir, and that 
from Goth, hatjan, so guier. It. guidare, M. F. guider, 
probably from Goth, \it-an, watch, heed, A. -Sax. 
wita, sapiens ; but the change of a German t into d in 
Romance, is very rare (Diez I., 290.) 

103 desploier] [from de-ex-plicare, rather than from an 
assumed dis-phcare]. Compare It. impiegare, em- 
ployer, from miplicare, with F. (d)esphier, \i. s-piegar, 
Pr. espleiar, from explicare. Besides the two forms, 
plier and plover, there is the (older) dialectic pleier, all 
of which we have in our ply, deploy (troops) , display, 
from Aei-plekt, or rather dis-plai-er, with the peculiar 
Norman at for ei. Burg, oi ; cf. fricare, making O. F. 
froier, M. F. frayer, se frayer une route. 

104 escute] [aus-cultare, It. ascolto, Sp. escuchar.] 
This is probably to be taken as a parenthetic 
clause of simultaneity, ' Auban the meanwhUe listen- 
ing,' &c., or, perhaps, 'Apl. begins and A. hstens.' 
But it could very well be taken as an introduction to 
Apl.'s discourse, and is quite in keeping with the for- 
mulas of the time : ' Auban, hsten well, and give ear 
to it heartily.' Ben (bien), it may be noted, always 
precedes the verb, of whatever mood or tense ; and 
there is an example in 388, oi le preceding theimper., 
' pur Deu le m'otriez,' where le also has a somewhat 
similar meaning, nearly = the demonstrative 90, 'for 
God's sake grant me this '. But still, in the MS. there 
is a distinct paragraph mark at 105 ; and I doubt 
■whether le could be used as fo, in the meaning of 
ToSi, as referring to what folhru's, though like 
TovTO, it may, as in 38S, resume deictically what has 
preceded. Besides, the imper. 2 sg. is elsewhere al- 
ways entenc. 

— quor] the rime here proves conclusively that the 
word was pronounced nearly as the M. F. ca:ur. It is 
somewhat difficult to decide which is the form of the 
word (in 104) that should be adopted. The MS. has 
fully written out five ' quoer,' eight ' quor.' The con- 
traction qr, which occurs fifteen times(togethermth four 
times in the word reqr) should be written ' quor,' of 
course, though in the only case where any test can be 
applied, viz., at the end of a line, it is written qr, but 
rimes with per. (In pronunciation there is not any 
reason to suppose that it was at all different from wliat 
it is now. For this rime with per, cf. the Gennan 
rime entbchren and schworen, to be noted in the spell- 
ing y«tr«r in 158.) In the compound verb where the 
forms occur, it is to be noted that in the present tense 
fwhere alone it is met,) the 1st sing, has reqr (aU the four 
times), but the 2nd sing, reqrs (= requers), and the 3rd 



sing, also reqrt (= requert), while the 2nd plur. has 
requerez, written fuUy. [The simple verb I sg. has 
quoer (1761) fuUy.] Besides 1. 104, where it is qr, 
though riming with per, the other four cases where 
it rimes with er (205, 6S5, 1348, 1632) are written 
out quoer. It is never rimed o, but there occurs 
a play on words thrice in the poem, showing that the 
sound was different, yet close to the open o : — 

365. ke hem vus face au cars u au quor maufe. 

1350. cist sunt martir de cors, cist de yi«/- duluser. 

1470. si cors est las, mais sis bons quors tut frais 
est e nuveus. 

105 per] Lat. par, our ' peer,' equal, but not confined to 
persons ; cf. our ' its like was never seen.' Fl. et 
Blancef., p. 165 : 

li donerent une coupe bien ouvTee, 
onques sa per ne fu truvee. 
For an example, in this sense of absolute equaUty, 
cf. Mar.de Fr. I. p. 227 : 

c'est que Diables U cunseilla, 
par sa feme qui I'engingna, 
et li pramist si grant honur 
que pers serait au creatur. 

106 defend!] hence in O.E. used = forbid ; cf. Chauc. 
Cant. T., 13925, when that he eet of the fruit defendit 
of a tre ; ibid. 14006, now wU I yow defende 
hazardr)e. 

— manger] Lat. manducare ; cf. venger from vindi- 
care, plonger (plumbicare), Juger (judicare), charger 
(caricare) , forger (fabricare) . 

107 le] disobeyed him (God) .' trangressed it (the 
law) .' I think, the latter. 

108 dreitureus] deriv. of dreit, droit = directum ; cf. 
strictum, estroit (764), M. F. etroit, our straight. 

— nes] not to be confounded with nis (=> even, "92), 
but = «<! les ; cf es (i482) = (>« les. 

— esparnier] prob. from O.H.G. verb sparen ; cf. 
lorgner, from O.H.G. luren. There is another form 
espam;> (451, 1528) from the same root, as if from a 
deriv. form spam-jan. As a rule (Diez. II. 366), 
verbs borrowed from German roots belong in Romance 
to the 1st conjugation, but those from the derivative 
verbs [in -jati] belong to the 3rd conj. [ — ire], thus 
hunir from haun-jan; guerpir, O.H.G. werf-jan ; 
guarir, Goth, var-jan, &c. 

109 mva] Lat. rogare, ro-er, ru-v-er; cf. glaive, 88. 

— ambesdeus] ambos duos ; Sp. ambos a dos, O. Sp. 
amos (P. del Cid 100 amos las manos) ; for other 
strengthenings, cf. Ger. ' alle beide,' M. F. tous les 
deux. "We have this ambes in Shakspere's ' ames-ace' 
(All's Well, III. 85) =^ both aces ; so M. F. ambes-as 
with the contraction desas (and beset), of the two aces at 
backgammon. This form is only used in the obi. cases, 
tlie nom. being always an-dui. 

— exuiller] for the diphthong, v. appendix and cf. 
but!/;'ller (677). I do not thinli that the ortho- 
graphy is owing to the connexion with ' ex-si/l' ; v. 
note on bruidee (1134), and cf ebr«!/sdee (12 12). 

110 demener] hence our 'demean,' the active use 
(found in Jlilton) of which, however, in the sense of 



NOTES. 



73 



conduct, carry on (an affair), is obsolete. Spenser 
(Col. CI. 68 1) has to demean a person well, = to treat 
her well. For the Jlod. Fr. use of demencr, = to struggle, 
strive hard, use violence, cf. Lat. delirium, to get out 
of the furrmv [lira], (cf. also malmener, fourvoyer) ; 
but the O. F. simply meant ' to direct,' mth a denv. 
dfmenement ^ demeanour. The simple mencr, to 
lead, should prop, mean to drive cattle with threats, 
from Lat. minari ; cf. the alteration of meaning in tcxi- 
cum given under entuschee (12). 

110 cuvintl 'none could be a guarantee, nor any 
avail that it should not behove them to go thither, viz., 
to Satan, whose counsel it pleased them to hear, &c.' 
The appositional use of tuz with the dat. pron. lur 
occurs again in Aub., 1302, par la mort tuz lur cuvent 
passer. In Aub. cuvcnir is used onlyvrith the infin., so 
Fl. ct Blancef. 214, or ne argent ncl puet garir que ne 
les co^iegne morir ; elsewhere it occurs also with 
subj., so B. du Guescl. 22527 nos Franfois en Bre- 
taigne firent telle aramie qu'il conWnt a la fin li dues 
toumast en fuie. 

113 e] the conj. has here the force of a preposition : 
' together with .all their lineage.' 

— laz] M. F. lacs; in 1649 we have la9-uns, from 
Lat. laqueus. It. laccio, Sp. lazo, ' lasso.' 

— le] for other examples of this le in the attrib. 
genit., cf. 102. 583, 798, 973, 1709, and V. In (62). 

114 master] This word (Lat. ministerium) has 
several sides of meaning: i. O. E. mister, a trade, 
M.F. metier ; — 2. advantage gained by anything, aver 
niester, (as here,) to carry profit, to be useful ; cf. 
Spens. F.Q. III. 7.51, as for my name, it mistreth not 
to tell ; — 3. possibly through the influence and analogy 
of opus est, (It. e d'uopo,) the longer word ministerium, 
which naturally meant opus, -work, came to be used in 
the secondary sense of opus, need ; so It. ^ mestieri, 
Sp. cs meiiester, it is necessarj', but O. Sp., P. del Cid 
135, ha menester, (he has need oQ seiscientos marcos. 

II6 /!•'' CUHseil] ' cujus consilium'; for tliis gen., 
(also in 736. 948) cf. Vie dc St. Thom. 61. b. 12, 
14 fait li reis . . . mesprise 
■IS baruns ki pere cstablircnt I'iglise; 
i.e. quorum patres. 
For other obi. cases cf. (Aub. 1309), St. Thom. 
83. 26 li reis, qui r=cui] li regncs apcnt. 

118 a ki . . . alui] for this repetition of the pers. 
pron. with the rcl., cf. Dante, Inf. V. 69 (ombre mos- 
trommi) piu di millc, che amor di nostra vita dipar- 
ti//t" ; unless indeed it is to be regarded rather as a 
confusion of two constructions, viz., ' cil 4 Id'l 
(cu\'int 121',) and 'il plut 4 lui.' 

119 engetter] jactarc, from which the derivv. present 
very char.acteristic forms in the mod. langg. ; It. gittare, 
M.F. Jeter, Sp. [j]echar, Wall, (a)iepta. 



120 diable] is of course governed by descumfire. 
The whole clause however (11 8- 123) shows that it was 
just as difficult for a writer of the 13th as it is for a 
writer of the 19th cy. to carry on a long sentence gram- 
matically. Cil prepares the way for the nom. li haut 
pere, and the inter\'ening clauses are so much explanatory 
matter in a somewhat vague, half conventional way : — 
' he whom it pleased (even Him who had created us,) 
to deUver us hence by his grace, and whom it behoved 
through the agency of man to discomfit the denl, — the 
High Father of heaven could Inist none but his dear 
Son in that business.' 

121 d. e. mater] a very familiar pair; cf. Alix. 
239.22 par tens les pores \'us desconfire et mater; ibid. 
248.34 et Daire desconfit et ses hommcs ni.ates ; B. du 
Guescl. 39 chascun se tenoit desconfis et matez ; ibid. 
2407 pour veoir le champ desconfire et mater ; ibid. 
48(9 quant la bat.aille fu desconfite et matee ; ibid. 
13467 et uns hons desconfis vault autant que matez. 

— desoVLmfire] [dis-conficere], (ficere : fire = dicere : 
dire) ; conficere was used exactly as Mod. Germ, ein- 
maehe/i, to preserve, pickle, whence Eng. comfit (also 
confect). But the common Lat. usage, to kill, was 
also continued, thus M. L. confectura meant both F. 
confiture and our ic&comfiture. 

— mater] is prob. not to be connected with Lat. 
fuactare, but is a deriv. from mat, (check-mate, Pers. 
shah mat, the king is dead). 

123 se vout fler] the poem carefully avoids prefixing 
se immediately to tlie governing infin. ; cf. 690 se seet 
atemprer; 707 se pout g.arder; 1204 se puet retenir; 
1649 se savent garder ; 1783 se pout vanter ; and com- 
pare -with 1615 licr se lessa ; 1804 baptizer se funt. 

124 busoinne] of obscure etymol.; perhaps O.H. G. 
bi-siunig! (= scnipulositas), from subst. lisiuni, whence 
hesoin, (of which M. F. besogne, O. F. busoinne, is the 
fem. form ; cf. Prov. hesonh, and iesonha). Our busy, 
A.-Sax. byseg, has no relationship with this word. 

127 issi] tiie final clement in this word is certainly sic, 
but it is not so clear where the other syllable is to be 
referred. Besides this fomi, we find ainsinc, (shading 
off through the dialectic ansin, ensin, into M. F. ainsi ; 
Sp. has asi, O. Sp. ansi. It. cosi, Sicil. accuss'i. This 
last form suggested to Diez aeque sic as the origin of all 
the forms, (cf. It. cotaie, prob. for aeque talis,) which I 
accept for the It., but I am not sure that in our word issi 
there is not simply a compound of ita sic ; as to the 
nasal in M. F. ai«si, it has not yet been satisfactorily 
explained (cf. ensemcnt 186). 

128 mulier] this Latin form, as compared with miiil- 
tov(iigi), is probably intentional in the .Salutation.* 
All the Rom., except M. F., have prcser\ed the word, 
It. moglie (ra), Sp. mujer, Pg. mulher, Prov. mollier, 
Wall, muiere. 



• In precisely the same way we find in an old Ital. poem, edited by Mussafia, in Sitz.-Ber. der Wien. A];ad. 
xxx.xvi., p. 202, 1. 151 : 

Oi beneeto puer do Beleem 

per Deo Meser, no vegniraie unc'a men 

ke tu no exaudi lo prego e la vox mia. 

L 2 



74 



NOTES. 



129 faitz a] this construction oi faire a with inf., to 
be worthy to be — ed, (cf. 1345 tant fist a loer), is one of 
the most characteristic and frequent in O. F., and Prov. ; 
Diez (III. 230) refers the origin of this phrase to Lat. 
facit ad rem. 

133 esbaie] M.F. ebaliir; possibly a deriv. from the 
interj. hah of astonishment. 

134 barun] ' for she did not wish to experience the 
company of a husband:' cf. Chauc. Cant. T., 2313 
nouglit wol I knowe the company of man.' For 
' barun ' in this sense of husband, cf Kell. Romv. 
238.19 voir, jc I'amaisse, se n'eusse baron : (the Queen 
says) faith, I would love him, if I had not a husband. 
Mar. de Fr. II. p. 271 elle respunt a sun barun ; B. du 
Guesc. 6916 et doint recongnoissance roy Pietre, 
mon baron; Ibid. 16159 : 

mais mon pere gentel . . . 
ot ple\ie ma mere par bone entencion 
ct si just avec lui, et en fist tout son bon. 
et lors fu-je engenrez, et en celle saison 
ma mere le pooit bien tenir a baron : 
espouser ne pooit fame voir se elle non ; 
et pour ce, ne suis ne bastart ne coistron. 

136 recunser \ cf B. du Guesc. 8764, where tlie 

137 enmnbrer } text (Dieux) 'qui pour nous fcsconsas 
en la \-ierge Marie,' has an altera lect., qui faombias, 
&c. Rayn. IV. 370, quotes 'le St. -esprit suniendraen 
toi, et la vertu du souverain t'enombrera', which is a 
literal rendering of the Vulg. Luke I. 35, spiritus sanc- 
tus superv-enit in te, et virtus Altissimi oiumbrabit tibi. 
Instead of «cunser, we generally have «cunser ; cf 

B. du Guesc.G68i quant on prophetiza 

la venue de Dieu, k'eu \-ierge s'esconsa. 
Burg. 1. 235 (R.del.V.) parle Saint angele Gabriel 
maudas a la -iirge el canciel, 
Dous Dex, k'en li esconseroies 
et humanite i prendroies. 
The meaning appears to be that of 'hiJing,' [from a 
Lat. absco7tsus ;'] thus of the setting of the sun, DC. 
quotes under absconcia ' soleil levant ou soleU 
esconssant', ann. 1325; B. du Guesc. 2022 ains solail 
resconser ; Ibid. 20873 ains qu' esconsse sojaux ; Ibid. 
21352 ainfois que landemain soit le soleil escon ; and 
with a ^^^der signification, Blonde of Oxf. 
se j'estoie aussi rices horn 
com vous estes, une maison 
tons jours o moi emporteroie 
en quoi mon cors ensconseroie — 
of which there is a good example in DC. sub abscon- 
cia ; Sic Deum deprecatur : — 

fai moi de Toi un esconsail, 

un abril et un repostaU 

oil je me puisse aler bouter. 

cf also Froissart's 'lis estoient esconses entre arbres oil 

on ne les povoit voir', and this brings us to our E. use 

of the word, viz., to ensconce one's self. 

138-9] The construction is confused, apparently 
from a desire to get the two pronouns together, tei lui : 
' it befits to be bom, and i/tee to bring forth, him, who 
has lordship, &c.' 

138 poer] 'power,' as bui'le (1265) becomes bo-w-el; 



in both cases, the F. ha\ing destroyed the dental that 
separated the two vowels, a mediating w was after- 
wards inserted. The root of this word is a constructed 
pot-ere, for Lat. verbs, with no union-vowel, esse, velle 
posse, &c., were not adopted by the Romance families, 
who regularized them all: thus It. esse-re, F. ess're 
= estre (etre), [but Sp. has ser, O. Sp. seer from sedere, 
Diez II. 162 ;] so velle became It. voler, F. voloir ; 
posse became It. potere, F. po-oir, Sp. poder. In Sp. 
alabar, the v has hardened into b (cf Paulus, Pablo), 
hiudare, O. F. loer, Sp. lau-ar = lav-ar = alabar. 

141 repruver] DC. 'reprobare,' "GaUice alias re- 
pvoiiver pro hodierno reprocher; " so also our reproach 
and reproof (s. 1690). In 1314 it is employed in the 
derived sense of 'proverb,' as frequently in O. F. 
The two ideas are commonly enough united : cf. 
our byword, = a common sa)ing, but also used as a 
reproach = to^^"n's tallv, he has become a b)'word, 
Petrarca's ' favola fui gran tempo.' 

142 Ottreit] M.F. octroyer [auctoricare]. It. otriare, 
Sp. otorgar, O. Sp. atorgar, P. del Cid (198). It is 
noteworthy that the M. F. has brought back, both in 
speUing and pronunciation, the c of the first syllable, 
\iz., 'octroi." The word octroi, in its modem sense, 
has gone througli our 'grant' into the more precise 
meaning ' toAvn dues, toll.' 

143 clevis] cf Chauc. Cant. T. I2i94that schal I thee 
dezyse. From ' divisare,' freq. of-di\idere, to analyse, 
arrange ; hence to discuss, and so to narrate. From 
the meaning to arrange, distribute, &c. (56.849. 1028), 
comes that of planning, making a de^ce ; the success- 
ful canjing out of the plan is denoted in ' point-device.' 
As the coat of amis used to be divided conventionally 
for the purpose of distinguishing its wearer, it was 
natural that the characteristic emblem should be called 
a device : ' loricas induunt et desuper picturis variis se- 
cundum diversas armorum differentias, se distinguunt.' 
And finally, as in M.L., di\ndere is used=to dispose of by 
will, so we have the O.F. ' je doins et de\is ' of our wills. 

145 oitisme] from a base oct-esimus on the analogy 
of centesimus, J3cc. 

148 vertuz] common in the sense of ' miracle' : cf. 
FI. et Blancef p. 172 : 

la oil gisoit toz cstanduz 
fist Diex por lui si gianz vertuz. 
— paraleties] for this htany of sick people, cf Ed. 
Conf 4427-4434, which includes many more than are 
mentioned here. 

149 kaifs] 'epUeptic,' — in Marcus Empiricus, we have 
cadivus, to signify one attacked with tins disease, the 
faUing sickness, epilepsy ; he couples both words, 
cap. 20, etiara caducis Aaiuvci prodest : nam si vel duos 
cyathos cadivus inde sorbeat, &c., and Phny 15. 16. 18 
had used cadiva (mala) instead of tire commoner cadu- 
ca. Caducus is found glossed ^TriXijTrriKoc. So the sale 
of a (horse) was annulled, if it was aut coccum, aut 
heraiosum, autcaducum, outleprosum. 

— avoffles] [ab oculis] I take this as an adj., 
because the s termination is not usual with ptcps. ; 
in 1774 however, where it also occurs in an enumera- 
tion with desve, it is probably a ptcp. 



NOTES. 



75 



desTez] a \vordvcryvariously\ratten[eveninAub., 

(1774) the MS. apparcmly has Atoi?], but the meaning is 
well iixcd by this passage in Vie de St. Thorn., p. 151 : 
en terre est deus od nus pur amur al inartjT, 
e les morz fait re\-ivre, mutz i)arler, surz oir, 
les coutraiz redrescicr, gutus, fe\Tus guarir, 
ydropike?, leprus, en sant^ rcstablir, 
cius veeir, en lur sens les desz'es revenir. 
The origin of the word is prob. the Lat. desipere; 
M.F. has it in the comp. endever, to be mad. 

lo2 feiz] Lat. vice(m), with an unusual change of 
initial K to /; cf. 28, pale/rei. The M.F. toutesfois, 
however, docs not contain this word, but is an alteration 
of O.F. totes-vcies, our always = a!/ ways. 
153 r. e. pris] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 

ne renoun, ne vejTie glorie of pris of armes. 

156 guetez] O.H.G. wahten, It. guato, our ' wait' ; 
it occurs also (1065) in the compound aguctes, watches ; 
cf. the M.F. guct-apens = premeditated ambush, and 
Mod. F. agucts, U5ed in the plural. 

157 leidizl O.H.G. leit, A.-Sax. ISdh, our loathe. 
Even in O.H.G. leittuon meant to do an injury, as in 
Mod. Ger. er hat mir ein leid gethan. 

158 Llingis] there is hardly any O.F. poet who has 
not taken occasion to mention this personage, who 
pierced Christ's side. He received Christ's pardon, and 
was cured of his blindness by the blood which ilowed 
from the wounded side. Cf. Poenia del Cid 352 : 

estando en la cruz,\'irtud fecist' muy grant ; 

Longinos era ciego, que nunqua \i6 alguandre, 

diot' con la lanza en el costado dont yxio la 
sangrc ; 

corrio la sangre por el astil ayuso, las raanos se 
ovo de untar, 

alzolas arriva, legolas a la faz ; 

abrio sos oios, cato a todas partes, 

en ti crovo alora, porend' es salvo de mal. 
Ph. Mousk. 10776: 

Longis le fen el coste, 

et, quant il ot le sane taste, 

il scs ious tou9a, s'ot veue, 

qu'il onques mais n'avoit euc. 
B. du Guesc. 14284: 

(Dieux endura) la mort 

dessus la crois, quant Longis le pcr^a. 
A)Tnon (in Bek.) 710: 

(en I'honneur) du pardun 

Longis, qu' ou corps le voult frapper. 
Amis et Amil. 1305 : 

sane ot e eve de vo costel issant, 

Longis qu'ainz n'ot veu en son ^^v■ant, 

terst i sesiex, si ot alumement. 

Stengel p. 7 (Digby Codex 86) gives the follg. 

charm : — Pur saunc eslauncher. pur saunc cstauncher 

dites cest oreisun. Nostre seignour fu pris | et en la 

crois fu mis | Longis i vint 4 lui | c de la launce li feri 



I sa-anc e ewe en issi tret | * scs o;lz leve et cler vcit. 

I pur la vertu l;e deus i fist | co.iiur les veines e 'e 
saunc I ki ne seine plus avaunt | deu veray pere peter 
noster III. fez le dirrez. So in Mort. Dart. II. x\i. 

159 murut] tliese rapid resumes of the well-known 
story are very common, and are all cast in the same 
mould. Possibly there was a rhetorical pause intended 
here after the first word in the line, which would be 
somewhat unusual. 



160 bis] It. bigio, Portug. buz. 



?p. bazo (pan, 



brownbread, pain bis) : all these convey ;he meaning of 
a darkish colour, but the origin of the word is not so 
plain. Rom. de la Rose 1198, qui ne fu ne brune 
ne bise, ains ere blanche comme nois. DC. un- 
der blsus quotes from Frederick II. 's book on 
hunting, (cygni) qui primo anno sunt bisi seu 

cinericii, &c quibus, tempore coitus, florescunt 

suae plumae et pennae quodam flore pulveroso et biso. 
So bisctus was ' panni species, a colore cinericio sic 
dicta.' Voss proposed bysseus, cotto?i colour, wliich 
would suit well enough with Pg. buzio, and M.L. 
busius, DC, which is glossed in Aelfric fealu, fallow, 
yeUow. But Diez prefers (bom)bycius, found also 
bumbacium. It. bambagio, whence could come Sp.Jasa, 
with the omission of first syllable. And the forms of 
bombycius, bambucinum, bumbacium would thus run 
par.iUel with Fr. his, Pg. buzio, bazo. 

161 murnes] Goth, maurnan, O.H.G, momen, our 
' mourn' ; Portug. has momo, in the signif. oilukewann 
(lit, or fig.), thus aguas mornas means ineffectual 
remedies. 

164 duluras] {dolerus of 354;) Shaksp. uses this 
adj. in Ant. IV. 2239, you take me in too dolorous a 
sense ; Mort. Dart. II. 19, the dolorous stroke. 

165 lesu] this is the only instance in which this word 
used in the nom. has not the final j. The aec. is gene- 
rally Jesu, but occurs twice in the Latin inflected form 
(491. 1705 Jesum). 

— releva] never used pronominally, as in M. F., but 
simply, and with the full force of the particle re, 'rose 
again.' 

— poestifsJM.L. 'potestativus;' generallyusedasadj., 
esp. with the word sires, but cf. also Alix. 13.17 il en 
estoit sires et pocstifs. 

166 cheitifs] 'capti\-us'. It. cattivo, our caitif, M. F. 
chctif. A captive tends morally to become a caitif, 
'cattivo,' and physically r/it'V//'. Here, as throughout 
the poem, the O. F. form is to be taken in its ethical 
sense, 'wTctched ;' ef Chauc. Cant. T., 926, where those 
who had been queens are now caytifs ; ibid. 1554, ' so 
(TIT)'/// and so thral.' 

— prisuns] [prehensio, prcnsio] ; O. F. agrees with 
II. prigionc, and Sp. prision, in employing this word 
also in tlie sense of prisoner (as here). So in Portug. 
prisao, is used to denote the quarry at which hawks are 
flown. 



• It appears to me that something is wrong here ; the charm should rime at issi : blood and water came out 
(sg. for pi.) ; I tert ses oilz et clcrveit, &c. I do not know how Stengel would translate, but I think he has mis- 
understood the passage. 



76 



NOTES. 



167 a destre] 'ad dextram sui patris;' in 1705, nl 
destre is used ; the latter apparently = (antiq.) M. F. 
au cote dextre, 

168 seinz F.] in the three instances of its occurrence 
in nom., we have esperitz always, but 133 seintz E. ; 
168 seinz E. ; 340 seint E. 

170 les m. et v.] for this freer use of the def. art., cf. 
153 la renumce e pris, where two nouns of even diff. 
genders have only the one article. 

171 diira] I do not think that the form has any etj-mol. 
bearing, dir-ra quasi dic-ra. In faire the whole of the 
root, save the initial cons., has disappeared, the future 
forms frai, fras, fra, frum, frez, fnmt, being as lopped 
as they well could be. 

— mes] mes, not mi, seems entailed by the rime, 
i. e. the needful gentib led to the use of the inflected 
fonn for all the last four words of the line. 

• — ■ leaus] nom. sg. has leal, loial, leus ; the pi. is only 
used here. Cf. our loyal, and the Scotch (land o' the) 
'leal.' In fern, loiele (1268), cf. faiele (1254) ; so in our 
words fealty and lealty, fidelis and legalis have assumed 
parallel forms. 

173 mortz] this might be taken as nom. to nafra, 
parallel with noise, &c., but I prefer to take it as ace. 
pi. ' where (nothing) ever hurt the dead, neither 'noise,' 
nor ' duel,' ' &c. (For the omission of the art. cf. 151 
mortz resuscita, guari les ydropics.) Besides jamais 
must be taken as negat., even without ne, though it is 
rarely so used ; but on the other hand the ne . . . ne 
are iiever used without a negat. attached immediately 
to the principal verb. 

— nafra] also naverer (1625); It. naverare, from 
O. H. (i. naiflo'tV, Germ, ndber, Icel. na/ar 'gimlet,' 
M. H. G. nabe-ger, or nebe-ger, where ger = Goth, 
gairu = ' stimulus.' The word itself is familiar to us, 
for as in Dutch the word has become (n)avegaar, so 
we have transformed it into auger (O. E. navegor). 

From this use it was transferred to that of piercer ' in 
general, whence the deriv. verb navrer, to wound. 

— noise] = quarrel, strife, contention, Lat. nausea 
or noxia; either can be defended as to the form, though 
the meaning does not correspond, and the Eng. use 
(derived through O. F.) of noise = clamour, &c., suffi- 
ciently complicates the matter ; (apparently, quarrelsome 
and so noisy). Cf. R. de Troie 3310 : 

mes ja par lui n'aurez vos gueiTe, 
noise ne tendon ne meslee. 

— duel] [twice (485. I409)rimedduel, as adissyl.]; 
M. F. deuil. It. cor-doglio, from Lat. cor-dolium, cf. 
Plaut. Poen. I. 2.89 ibi tibi erit cordolium. 

— estrils] our ' strife ; ' possibly from O. H. G. stre- 
ban, but perhaps rather from O. H. G. strit-an, as there 
is an O. F. estrit, cf. soif from sit-is. 

174 tutdis] a variation of the common 'tuzjurs,' but 
is to be preferably written as one word tutdis, as the 
tut is uninflected both here and 1769 a tut dis, whereas 
it is always ttiz \vitli jms. For the di, cf. lun-di, 
mar-di, &c. 

— eu feu] the ellipsis is easily supplied from Matth. 
XXV. 41, discedete a me maledicti in ignem aetemum. 

176 en] in gloss, will be found a number of instances 



where this pron. is altogether redundant ; here it de- 
notes a sort of general reference to the preceding word : 
and then he answered him 'on that head,' 'in that 
matter,' &c. 

— puis] v. note on uis (18) ; all the mod. langg. have 
the vowel i in the root syllable, perhaps through postffl : 
viz., Fr. puis, Pr. pois, Sp. piies, Pg. pois, [Scheler, 
after Diez, sub 'puis,' gives Portug. po:, but tlie mod- 
em word is pois, though pos is found in Old. Pg.,] It. 
poi. Wall, apoi (= ad post ; the simple /o/, however, is 
used in poi-maine, post mane). Cf. also the comp. 
depuis, dipoi, despuis, where Wall, has the form dupa. 

Yll ountenement] as a definition of the word, DC. 
quotes : ' aestimatio et conditionis forma et ratio, qua 
quis in republica subsistit ; ' in the Suppl., from Par- 
tenop. 'por aprendre I'us del pais, et de Fran9ois 
I'afaitement, le mors et le contenement.' 

178 establiz] cf. D. C. ' maledictionem relinquimus, 
sihoc stahilimeiituni frangere tentaverint ; ' 'une estab- 
lie ou ordonnance.' 

179 curage] 'if the fancy takes me;' curage means 
the will, determination, and not ' courage.' In Span, 
and Portug. it often means anger, ' eso me da tanto 
corage,' puts me in such a rage ; the fundamental mean- 
ing being any violent emotion of the heart. 

— par aventure] these two words are variously 
written ; Chaucer has par adventure (6655), but also 
paraventure (11267), and the shorter peraunter 
(11783. 14350) ; translated 'by adventure' (25). This 
word, in the short form aunter, has gone over even 
into Welsh, antur, an attempt, a venture, with va- 
rious deri\T., as also into Germ, abenteuer, M. H. G. 
aventiure, through the medium of the Old Fr. romances. 

180 ke] I take ke here as introducing a noun-clause 
(in gen.), i. e. curage [de ce] ke deveingne = curage de 
devenir ; but it would certainly be quite possible to ex- 
plain it as a clause of the effect (whether final or con- 
secutive), i. e. (result) intentional or non-intentional, of 
the idea expressed in the chief clause, curage me prent, 
" if desire takes me to the end that I should become, or 
that all events I were to become." 

— enseignement] (in, -signum), the root insignare 
preseri'es in Wallach. the fundamental notion of ' mark- 
ing,' and iiuemn = to mark, quote, distinguish, &c., 
but it has not acquired the secondary sense, in which 
the other languages use it, \iz., of teaching, as in Sp. 
enseflar, Pg. ensinar ; [for the common (not Uquid) n, 
cf. Pg. sino (= bell), from signum, and F. toe-sin]. 

181 ke ferai] there seems a distinct progression, 
' what I shall do, what I ought to do, what is the right 
thing to do,' i. e. my conduct, my proper conduct, 
everybody's proper conduct. Unless 182 is to include a 
' hereafter ' — i. e. what I shall do at first, and what I 
shall have to do hereafter. Still the after is not ex- 
pressed. 

184 e. e esprent] ' hglit and heat ; ' esprendre is con- 
stantly used of love or anger, or indeed any strong 
emotion, and is frequently accompanied by the other 
verb alumer, &c., une dame qui m'alume e esprent. 

185] TOZ the 2 sg. pres. occurs thrice, each time dif- 
ferently spelt : vo: 185, Teuz (1297), voilz (1655). 



NOTES. 



77 



186 ensement] also without the nasal, O. F. esement, 
Prov. eissamcn, f])S-amen ; the latter shows the origin, 
Lat. ipsa mcnte ; the « is inserted, just as in M. F. ainsi 
(cf. issi 127). Curiously, the pron. ipse itself becomes 
in Wall, ins, and in Sardinia the dialect of Cagliari 
has (V/soru [= ipsorum] for the poss. adj. pron. 

187 veraiement] vcrai, from veracus (for verax) ; 
licnce our very, through the older verray, primarily used 
as an adj., his very image, the very thing, cf Chauc. 
Cant.T. 1 750 verray wommanhedej 1533 by veiray lyne 
and of his stok ryal. 

190 apres] [ad pressus], nearness in linear sequence 
implies succession, which naturally led to the meaning 
after ; cf. the phrases ' he came very near to his rival,' 
'proxime accessit,' &c. The older language had also 
the form prof, preuf, apreuf, from prope, adprope, in 
the same sense; Laws of Will. Conq., p. 326, No. 5, si 
autre vienge aprof (= afterwards) dedenz I'an e le jur. 
This adprope is the regular word in Wall., viz., aproape. 

In the sense of ' near', apres occurs in Old Sp., V. del 
Cid 1235 apres de la verta = Mod. Sp. 'junto a la hucrta'. 

191] the metre in this Une is awkward ; but I do 
not insert anything, preferring to read simply with the 
regular three accents : Aiiban li ad dit | i-reement. 

194 senglement] some of the Fr. patois stUl pre- 
serve sangle, = unique, from Lat. singulus, as indeed 
we also have it, but the distributive singuli has dis- 
appeared from the Rom., except in Old Sp. senos 
(cf. P. del Cid. 350, dos ladrones contigo, estos de 
sehas partes), and Old I'g. selhos. It has left, how- 
ever, a verj' interesting deriv. in sanglier, M. L. singu- 
laris, a wild boar, from its soUtary habits ; cf noivio^, 
and otttivo^, 

195 desore] throughout I have so edited, because it 
is always written so ; but des hier, and des dune, as 
they are given in the MS. 

196 droit2 ne raisons] a very common pair to ex- 
press the single idea of ' right' in all its forms (alike 
the dictates of law and reason), and so used ■with verb 
in sirig. 

— ne] This is the commonest construction, -liz., with 
the first tie of a pair omitted (v. Gloss, ne I. 2. b.) 

200 uraistm] ' orison,' so benison, venison, from the 
O.F. benaison, venaison (= venatio). 

201] AVith this discourse of A. and Apl. may be 
compared the dispute of the Christian Roland and the 
Saracen Ferragus in Ph. Mousk. 5915-6017. It is 
noteworthy that in all their disputes the doctrine of the 
Trinity seems to have been the great stumbling-block 
to the Pagans, and the one thing specially enforced by 
the other side. 

204 doinne] The construction seems to be as fol- 
lows : — God does not wish to abandon him [and he 
shows this clearly], in that he [ki = quippe quit deigns 
to disclose the hidden quarrels, &c. ; I take doinne as 
indie. 

206 sanz fentosme u d.] in 294 sanz fentosme u 
folage ; ' phantom, phantasm,' cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 
5457, parfay, thought he, fantom is in my head, i. e. it 
is a mere delusion. 

207 cum] not simply a subsitute for ke, but always 



involving something of the idea of the manner, corres- 
ponding to its origin, 'quo modo,' as indeed in 1028 it 
is expressly so used. Cf. our vulgar as how (M. F. 
comme quoi), and Chauc. Cant. T. 1387 him thought 
that ho-LV Mercuric byfoni him stood. 

209 acheyer] [a chef, ad caput], to bring his life to 
a head ; Shaks., and so grow to a point, Mids. N. D. 
i. 2. 10, which does not mean ' come to the purpose,' 
as Schmidt gives in Lex., hni finish. 

211 ren] often rien nie, anything in the world : with- 
out hiding a single thing. This ' res nata' has divided 
itself between Mod. Fr. and Sp., thus while the Fr. 
says rien (rem), the Sp. says nada {=wo.l^m) . Somewhat 
similarly the Mod. Gr. has broken up the old oiiS-iv 
into liv = not, where the negative particle is totally omit- 
ted, as also in the Scotch and Ulster Irish cka for no-cha. 

212 par tens] cf. betimes, Shakspere's, ' all in the 
morning betime,' Ham. iv. 5. 49. 

214 sa] as a i-ule sa is never elided, and is found be- 
fore all the vowels, thus before a: 214 sa avisiun ; 619 
sa adanture; — e: 305 sa encamaciun ; 1147 sa emprise; 
1724 sa entunciun ; — i: 490 saiglise; — : 1704 sa orai- 
sun ; — 11 : 327 sa uraissun. 

215 beus hostes] ' fair guest!' Henry Eighth I. 4. 35, 
my fair guests; commonly as a mere prefix of courtesy, 
fair cousin, fair nephew, &c., so common as to be 
ridiculedinTroil. iii. i. 46. Spenser has the original it'a«, 
cf F. Q. iii. I. 35, beauperes = fair peers, companions, 
and the euphemism beldame, whicli w'e have so hope- 
lessly destroyed into beldam; cf Bedlam from Bethle- 
hem. 

216 stun] This is the primary F. form of Lat. somnus, 
from which the M.F. for distinction's sake has by 
means of the dimin. suff. -eil [ = iculus] made som- 
meil. It is interesting to (note the different verbs, 
with which various members of the family connect somn : 
here we have prendre sum, M.F. says_/aHt; un somme, 
Wallach. a trage un somn &c. 

217 sungai, ne oistes] the paratactic combination is 
much more frequent in O.F. than in Mod. F. ; we in- 
deed omit the rel. constantly, just as in O. F. and 
Prov., but M.F. no longer permits the omission, The 
secondary clause is usually negative, as here. Perhaps 
the omission of the rel. was conditioned by the form 
to be supplied, \tz. dxnt, for dimt ne oistes unc 
would have had a very unjjleasant sound. 

219 jo] besides the ordinaiy forms of the pers. 
pronn., M.F. has secondary forms, obtained from the in- 
ilections, \-iz. moi, toi, lui, eux, which are used when the 
subject has the rhetorical accent, or are contrasted. But 
M.F. generally uses the secondary form in conjunction 
with the weaker primary form, thus producing a 
doubling of the subject, mais moi, je le ferai ainsi, &c., 
je ne suis guere content, moi. O.F. however, used tlie 
weaker form even in cases %vhen tlie pronoun was to be 
emphasized or contrasted, and tliat too when the s bj. 
was used elliptically ; cf. 616, where /u is separated by 
an adv. extension of the predicate, 18 11, by an attributive 
relat, chause to itself, and 476, where y'j is separated 
from its verb by its regimen and an attrib. -relat. clause 
to the latter. 



78 



NOTES: 



cf. Rom. de Mah. 724 qui de pechie se va lavant, 

en molt grant franchise se met, 

quant a Diu servir se sousmet ; 

ses fils de\ient, et il ses peres. 
In 807 there is a good instance of this form, n'est 
autre Deu si il nun; cf. Rom. de Troie 3396 a voire 
rei n'ai rien a faire «'// a mei. 

221 ke ne VOille] never shall any condition of life or 
death be able to sever us so -widely as to make me 
umvishful to abide in your teaching. 

222 sen] calm, pleasant, cf. Part, de B. 6321 li tans 
est soes et sieris ; Benoit 7678 beau tens faiseit, seri et 
cler, cum senz pluveir e sens venter ; B. du Guescl. 
19030 la garderons le pas .. . tant et si longuement que 
nuit sera seiie ; Ph. Mousk. 14886 et la nuis vint coie et 
sierie (quiet and calm). It was applied to sounds, 
and Gachet sub voc. gives ' faisant ttoise serie, a dit a 
Tois serie.' 

224 li eels] the pronunciation of this is determined 
by 1482 where it occurs, es eels, riming with term.-eits, 
regularly ; eel and ciel are used indifferently like chef, 
and chief. 

225 b. 8 delitables] cf. the ' delectable' mountains ; 
Li Biaus Desc. 4377 (ens el palais) qui moult ert 
biaus et delitahle; Chauc. Cant. T. 1 1 2 1 1 in other places 
delitables ; 8075 a thorp, of sighte delitable. 

230 eschivi] our ' eschew,' from O.H.G. skiiihan, 
whence the adj. It. schivo, O. F. eschiu, our 'shy.' 
Of the deriv. verb eschivir, the dialect of Coire has 
preserved the nearest form schivir, but O. F. has 
eschiver, where Mod. Fr. has esijuiver; cf. Miitz. Akfr. 
xiii., 10 chascuns Ten doit hair et esldever. In DC. 
both forms occur, escliiv/re and eschivare, the latter is 
the better form, v. note on espamier 108. 

231 prest e seisi] so our phrase ' he took and seized 
him ; ' in Aub. cf. 823. 889. 1408. 1598. 

— seisi] JI. L. sache. The forms of seisir, saisir, 
Prov. sazir. It. sagire, bear very well the deriv. from 
O.H.G. sazjan {bi-sazjan would= Mod. Germ, besetzen, 
A. -Sax. bisettan, beset) ; for it is noteworthy that DC. 
quotes two corresponding formulas, ' ad proprium 
sacire' ^'ad proprium ponere,' thus equating sacire 
with ponere = sazjan ; precisely as in modem times 
a squatter may be said to seize his land. To this deriv. 
Schelcr objects the It. staggire, as presenting an initial 
combination st which could not come from a form saz- 
jan. But staggire (staggina) means ' to sequestrate,' 
of things, ' the prolongation of a debtor's imprisonment 
at the instance of his creditors,' and this meaning con- 
nects the form staggire rather wit'a staggio = ostaggio, 
whereas sagire is used exactly as Fr. saisir, and no 
deriv. connexion of the words is necessarj'. Similarly 
saisun (1721), Sp. sazon, must be severed from the It. 
stagione : this last is from Lat. statio (cf. Germ, stunde 
from stehen), whereas the Fr. and Sp. are to be referred 
to satio, the sowing-time (cf. vere fabis satio) ; DC. 
sub ' satio,' quotes inter ambas sationes (hibematicam et 
a;stivaticam) possunt seminari c modii. 

233 esohami] the a of the root here is probably ow- 
ing to the r, for the O.H.G. has skl'rn, derision, skimo, 
and is therefore more closely followed by It. scheme, 



schemire, than by Sp. escamio, or O.F. eschamir, where 
however, the other form escl:^niir is common enough. 
Ph. Mousk. 22S41 quar paien fussent escami. 

ibid. 5609 mais Agou'ans, pour esca/nir 
lor oevre et lor mangier blasma. 
234 escurgies] our 'scourge,' It. scoreggio, whip; 
from Lat. corrigia, strap, It. coreggia, Sp. Pg. correa, 
Pr. correja. Mod. F. courroie. Wall, care (= curea) ; cf. 
Vie de St. Thorn. 156. 30 s'il eussent sun cors tut nu ^ 
nu cergie | des curgies I'eussent troue tut depescie 
[where it would perhaps be better to read d' escurgies'\ ; 
lor the whole passage cf. Bartsch, Chrest. Prov. 123. 27 : 

deus se laisset vendre per nos salvar 

en receup mort, en sofri passio, 

el auniron per nos juzeu iello, 

en fon batutz e liatz al pilar, 

en fon per nos el trau, qu'er en la fanha, 

martiriatz de correjas ab notz, 

e coronatz d' espinas en la crotz. 
— gesk'au sano e.] This construction is the result 
of an assimilation of the preposition a (which relates to 
the infinitive espandre,) \\'itli the def. art. of sane 
governed by the same verb, viz., gesk'a (le sane) es- 
pandre, — an inversion which the language permitted, 
wliile it did not tolerate the side-by-side existence of 
a and le. It occurs 913, au coup duner, on the giving 
of the blow ; 973 au semt cors tucher, on touching the 
holy body ; 1234 (pur les testes duner) au brand ferir, 
to the stroke of the sword; 1530 as plaies bender, in 
order to bind up the wounds ; 1548 as cors gardcr, in 
order to guard the bodies. With these instances may 
be compared the commoner construction of the infini- 
tive used as a substantive in the dative ; 258 au saucher 
de la lance, on pulling out the lance ; 105 1 au partir de 
cest siecle ; Ii53au passer de un pund. Cf Villehar- 
douin, Const. 147 'fu li conseils des batailles de^-iser' 
= 'le conseil etait pour ordonner les corps de bataUle ; ' 
ibid. 1 57quant cevinl as lances baissier; Matz. Altfr. 45. 1 7. 

236 entravers] this cannot be right as it stands. 
Bartsch in Ci'jest. 345. 22 has entraviers parmi ses 
mus.iaus | jut une grant haciie danoise, i. e. en tracers 
= obliquely ; so I render here, crucified transversely be- 
tween [two] others ; but the autre should be autres, 
qy. was the j- omitted for the scansion ? 

— parmi] a very unusual, quasi-adverbial position of 
the preposition; cf. Jlontaigne (II. 3) il y a quelque 
plaisir corporel, naturellement fr/es'e parmy. 

237 eacroa] M.L.incrocare; not connected with craj:, 
but from croc, a hook, i. e. to fasten on a hook ; hence 
frequently found in this connexion ' encroez e penduz.' 
For tlie root croc, O. Norse krokr, cf. our to get by hook or 
by crook, which very often amounts to encroaching upon 
another's property ; thus incrocamentiim (encroachment) 
with theEnghsh jurists was tlie exaction by a lord from his 
tenant or vassal ofa greater ' reUef ' or ser%'ice than his due. 

242 huni] O.H.G. honjan, to shame ; Goth, hauni- 
tha, O.H.G. honida, Fr. honte, It. onta : famihar in 
the weU-known ' honi soit qui mal y pense.' 

244 demeine] the use of this word, = one's own, is 
clear enough here, and 293, 1 1 86, where it always fol- 
lows its noun. But in 909 i'acoilt Deus of ses desmeine 



NOTES. 



79 



eslitz, [where note that it is uniquely dejmeine, and also 
precedes its noun,] it is barely possible that it has a 
more primitive meaning, ^^z., those possessing ' de- 
mesnes,' i. e. barons, vassals, &c. Both meanings are 
well authenticated, and are in fact closely related. The 
domaine was no doubt the dotninium, which the lord 
lield as hisoK'n; 909 would then be cither 'his oich 
chosen ones,' or 'his chosen vassals' ; but in the latter 
case the omission of the final s would be very irregular. 
I prefer the fonncr. 

244 autri] JI.F. autrui. It. altrui ; in Wall, we have 
not only the gen. sg. alttii = alterius, but tiie gen. pi. 
altor - alterorum. 

In the Rom. there is indeed much more \-itality in 
the inflexion of the pronouns than in that of the nouns, 
and forms of all the cases, — nom. gen. ace. and dat., 
have been preser^■ed and utilized for the sake of dis- 
tinctness and convenience ; cf. It. io = ego, hro = illo- 
rum, me = me, cui = cui. Verj' arbitrarily indeed : 
for hardly any single form is confined to its primitive 
meaning. This termination -iii was widely extended 
among the pronouns, thus we have O.F. aucun-ui, 
nul-ui, as gen., liii, celui, as ace. &c. Of the gen. 
pi. in orum, we find Sardinian insoni = ipsorum, It. 
/oro = illorum, as in O. F. lor (Aub. lur). Quite in 
keeping with the origin, /ur is not inflected, even 
when used with a plural, as a poss. adj. pron. [just 
as in Mod. Ital.], for it was felt to be = illorum ; Mod. 
Fr. has wrongly added the plural s, letirs ; but at least 
it has no separate feminine form. 

The analogy of these genit. forms in on/m makes 
strongly for the derivation of iii from tiis, [so that au- 
trui would = alt'rius,] as against Diez's other suggestion 
of hiii-c, and ciii, though certainly the regularity mth 
which all the langg. have adopted ui is sufficiently start- 
ling, either way, nor has ui = iu anytliing to recommend 
it phonetically. The genit. meaning is seen very clearly 
in ^his line ; ' save thy own body as thou couldst that- 
of-others.' 

246 meroi] cf. Shakspere (Merry Wives, iii., 5, 27), 
I cry you mercy = I beg your pardon, common in M.L. 
nierciam clamare super, &c. In M. L. the word mcrcia 
has three meanings : I, merchandise, 2, fine, 3, forgive- 
ness, this last being found very early; the Lat. merces 
means iuUrest on capital, hence the later 'trading,' 
return for conduct, hence ' a fine ; ' but perhaps the 
third meaning has arisen from a confusion with miseri- 
cors. [AVe may further note the use of the word in .Span, 
and Portug. as a term of respectful address given to all 
who are not nobles, Sp. 'ustcd' = vuestra mcrced, Pg. 
'voce' = vossa mercc : with which comp. our expression 
'your worsliip,' zccir/A-ship, your grace, Germ, cure 
gnadcn, which, however, are titles of honour; but 
the Hungarian kegy-ci (gratia lua) is precisely as the 
Span, usted for vuestra merced.J 

For merced- = 0. F. mercit (Alexis3", 54), where Lat. 
^becomes Fr. (', cf. cirefrom ccrcus; generally, however, 
such instances are owing to the attraction of an i of the 
following syllable, as ecclt-j-ja, ccchisa = eglwe. 

247 cist] as It. questo = eccu'istum, so eccu'illum 
produced It. quello, O. F. eel. There is a very sharp 
distinction (in Aub.) between the i and e forms, for 



cist is nom., but cest is obi., v. Gloss. From the latter 
cest, M. F. derives its cet, lightened before consonants 
into ce, precisely as in Engl, the indef. an (= one) 
lightens itself of its final « before an initial consonant, 
thus ct't ange, but ce livre, as a/i angel, but a book. 

250 Adonai] I do not remember ha%nng met this 
word elsewhere used in an O. F. ])ocm : it was no doubt 
familiar to the monkM. Paris, from the Vulgate, Exod. 
\-i. 3, ct nomen meum ADONAI non indica%i eis, 
though I believe it does not occur anpvhcre else in the 
Latin version (save in Judith x\-i. 16). 

251 oumant] 'commendo,' DC: — 'in commaida- 
tioncm potcntiorum, se et res suas poiicbant inferioris 
conditionis homines ut essent qui se et sua tuerentur et 
protegerent contra inimicos aut bonorum invasores, 
iisque in tuitionis mercedem alicujus census pensitationi 
sese adstringebant.' 

252 trembla] ' tremulare', for which Sp. has temhlar, 
omitting the »■, while Portug. preserves the word fully, 
tremolar, to flutter in the wind. 

253 desira] Jlod. F. dechirer =de + escliirer, where 
eschirer = O. H. G. skerran, A. -Sax. sceran, to cut, 
shear, &c. In 1514 we have the fonn dec/rer, but in 
533.1602 dei/rer. For the omission of the reflexive se, 
with these essentially active verbs, cf. 1064 eel Id desclot 
e uveri, with 224 li eels se desclot e u\"Ti. 

254 froisirent peres] prob. from the ' petrae scissae 
sunt ' of the Vulg. (Matt. 27.51). The word 'froisirent ' 
seems formed from Lat. frendere, whose ptep. is fres- 
sus andyVt-^w; from the latter we should have regu- 
larly froiser, altered m\ofroisir,fruisir; M.F. hasfrois- 
ser with double jj and 1st conj., just as in Aub. 652 
fruissent. The same collocation of this verb with en- 
palir occurs 652. 

— enpali] for the prefix en, cf. enblanchi, enobscuri, 
enmaladi, enorfani, ensauvagi, envespri, enjumer ; in all 
of which the inchoative notion is included ; — in enhu- 
milie, enmercie, it seems wholly otiose ; [492 cist Ten 
enmercie shows that the en is a prefix, not the pron.] 

256 de eus] I call particular attention to this collo- 
cation : de is lu-fer ehded before eus, perhaps to avoid 
confusion with deus or Deus ; at all events there is no 
instance of its elision: cf. 256. 410. 721. 1481. 1493. 
1325. 1527. 1592. 1768. 

— curaille] cf. I'h. Mousk. 26746 : 

dont connnanda li rois c'on aille 

oster del conte la coraille, 

et fust i)ortge en Aliscans 

la ont-il Vcntraille entieree 

en vaissicl rice, et ensierfie . 
deriv. from Lat. cor ; similarly Span, corada = entrail, 
cliitterlings, and It. corateUa (hver of birds), which is 
used ' degli altri visceri contenuti nel tronco verso la 
rcgione del cuore.' 

257 sane e ewe llissi] for the sg. verb, v. note on 13 ; 
here tlie line simply follows the Vulgate ' et continuo 
exivit sanguis et aqua', (John 19. 34). 

258 saucher] (elsewhere always spelt sacher,) cf. dd- 
sacher, tounsheath [de-saccus]; prps. through [ex-saccus] 
es-sacher, and so by omission sacher. If simply from 
saccus, sacher ought rather to mean to sheath, but it is 
always used = to pull out. 



M 



8o 



NOTES. 



259 felutl] two ideas are included in this word : 
treachery and cruelty ; it is used in Aub. in the latter 
sense, but always with a depreciative significance. We 
have preserved it pronncially in the sense oijiene, cf. 
Tennyson's North. Farm, x., 'the bees is zs, fell as 
owt.' As to the origin, nothing is agreed : Diez sug- 
gests O. H. G. Jillo, skinner, scourger ; and tliere are 
many more theories far less probable. But I do not see 
w-hy we should not take the natur-il explanation, viz. 
Lat. yc'//t7, on the analogy of larron, from latron-. For 
the meaning, the obscene use of the word by Martial 
indicates a word commonly used in a bad sense, and in 
fact the word is simply the equivalent of the low slang 
transcript of Mod. Fr. bougie. 

265 esoeint] I have given this as a pres., = en-ceint, 
from ceindre, Lat.cingere, (cf. (195) eichauntement for 
e«ch . ) ; but the connexion with fluri is not clear. 

266 lez] also liez (1538), Lat. laetus, It. lieto ; we have 
still in M. F. a remnant of this adj., viz. lie, joyous, in 
the phrase of Lafontaine, faire chere lie, to make glad 
cheer. 

267 vestir] constantly used actively : cf. Joinville, 
p. 80, car nioy ne mes chevaliers n'avions povoir de vestir 
haithers, to put on our mail. 

268 esbaudi] 'were joyous, merry:' from Goth, 
[^balths] balthjan, to be bold ; cf. It. baldoria, ' feu de 
joie,' from baldore, in Aub. 558baudur. In 1 195 aquor 
baud, with glad heart, and cf. the deriv. baud-et, the 
little merr)' beast, the ass. The root has gone through 
many a variation : Mod. Germ, has bald, soon, M.H.G. 
swift; O. Norse ballr, stubborn; [perhaps A. -Sax. 
baldor, lord, Beovulf 4848 thS mec sinca baldor at 
minum fader genam, the Eddaic Baldr (Baldur) ;] and in 
Goth, it means' outspokenness', 'daring assertion', (us- 
baltheins, SiaTraQarpifiai, conflictationes, I Tim. vi. 5.) 

269 rentinc] given in Gloss, under retenir, with the 
meaning, ' I retained in memory ', I heard and remem- 
bered ; the verb is not elsewhere written with n after re, 
which may be a mere mistake ; but as the collocation, 
rentinc e entendi, is itself doubtful, I am suspicious of 
some further error. 

273 nel] la joie is a nomin. pendens, and the neutral 
-/ refers to the whole clause : ' as to the joy that was 
there and which I heard there, heart cannot imagine 
that state, nor do I teU it wholly.' 

274 plus] seems still to continue the idea of com- 
parison involved in preceding verse : ' to a greater ex- 
tent [than can be imagined] did God show me the 
heavenly secret, which I refuse to reveal to you, for I 
dare not, you may be quite sure.' 

276 certz e fl] certi, fidi, cf. our ' sure and certain ; ' 
the construction ' cert de fi' is perhaps more common ; 
cf. Spens. F. Q. ii. 12. 12, ' uncertein and unsure.' 

Alix. 13. 8 d'une reins soies vtis, sire, seurs et fis. 

Mar. de Fr. I. 78 de la mort est seurs e fis. 

Ph. Mousk. 666 g'en sui ciers et fis. 
ibid. 9667 chiertainset fis. 

278 k'est ke S.] I think the second ke is here to be 
taken as the pregnant demonstr.-rel. = 90 ke, — ' what is 
that which it signifies ? ' the Une might also be regarded 
as containing two co-ordinate queries : ' tliis vision, 
what is it.' what does it mean.' ' 



282 primes] to be taken as an adverb with the -s 
final, as in gueres(ii); still it might be the nom. of an 
adjectival form, cf. 1075 parole primerains as autres, 
where, however, it means ' in his capacity of leader.' 
The adj. use of ^r;w^ still obtains in de prime abord, de 
prime saut (prime-sautier), and cf. prin-temps, Chauc. 
' primetemps fulloffroste white.' Chauc. often, indeed, 
uses prime in Rom. Rose, in imitation of course. 

283 marage] a common epithet to peisun ; yet M. 
Michel in his ed. ofTrav. cf Charl. 581, reads: 

encore ai un capel de almande en gulet 
d'un grant peisun mage que fud fait en mer. 
In his Gloss, he gives up the word mage with a reference 
to Schilter's Teuton. Diet. ; but both metre and sense 
are restored by Henschel's emendation marage, v. Hof- 
man's note in his Amis et Amiles 1301. 

284 ki] 'wliich does, in fact, comfort him' (in his agita- 
tion), rather than ' that it may.' 

285 parage] from par, ' peer,' so that it is equivalent 
to ' peerage ', which is similarly used absolutely, ' the peer- 
age,' those possessing an equality of rank, generally used 
with grant or haut, Rom. de Troie 75 : 

qui tant fu sages et poissant, 
riches, et proz, de haut parages, 
et clers merveiUosement sages. 
Chauc. Cant. T. 5832, used absolutely, 

if that sche be riche and oi parage. 
Rayn. iv. 425, quotes from B. de Ventadour, ' pau- 
bres e rics fai Amors d'un paratge ' = love levels all. 
We have it, indeed, best in our own 'disparage' ; Chauc. 
Cant. T. 8784 : 

him wolde think that it were disparage 
to his estate, so lowe for to light. 
Spens. F. O. IV. 8. 50 (of the opposite case) : 
so, as it fell, there was a gentle Squire 
that loved a Ladie of high parentage ; 
but, for Ms meane degree might not aspire 
to match so high, her friends with counsel sage 
dissuaded her from such a disparage. 
289 giue] the orthography of this word is plentiful : 
the short form Giii, Giue, has given us our ye7o ; in 
Giueu, jfiieu, we have the earlier and better form, 
= ju(d)eu(s). As to Brachet's idea that it is the Lat. 
d which has become M. F. yin ynif it is not tenable, 
even for this reason, that the old language used noy; 
they is merely a hardening of the labial at the end of 
the O. F. wovdjiieu = juev, written juif. Just so, feu, 
fieu, fiev, fief; veuf, Lat. vid;/us, (cf. Alexis 99, ved-ve 
= vid-iia) ; in soif from sitis, the f is hardly to be 
explained as by the influence of Germ, sail fen, to booze, 
but is, I think, much more prob. through the homonym 
suif, from Lat. sevTim, winch should regularly give 
solf. Tliis acted upon the form soi from sitis, pro- 
ducing soif. Tlien, after the two words had run toge- 
ther, thevowelof one was sMghtly modified suif, \_ui= oi, 
as often] : the process may be shown thus : — 

sev-um = soif ) ., , , f suif 

sit-is = soi = soif r'"="'^^='"g^''{ soif 

— putage] B. du Guescl. 16397 et s'ai creu Juifs 

qui sont de put afaire. There is a whole group of words 

connected with this adj. put, Lat. putidus, stinlcing, 

V. 66. 1759, in fem. 524 a pute destinee ; prps. it had 



NOTES. 



8i 



been better 1597 tohave given 'deputeire' as one word, 
of. debonnerete 779 ; and see also note (1841) on piislin. 
292 guage] our ^«!^<r and 7i'ai^es ; formed from M.L. 
t'adium, ii'adium, which, indeed, even Mod. Gk. has 
borrowed, iSaStov. The form liadium, and the regular 
initial g (gu), in the Rom. words, indicate a Germ, 
orig., ['not the Lat.vas,zW-/j', at least not immediately;] 
«z. Goth. Taiit, pledge (our wed, 7veciJiiig), whence 
also to put in pledge is en-gager, to free a pledge de- 
gager. Prov. has gadi = ' last will,' testament. 

294 SUnge] Lat. somnium = sonn-jum = M. F. son-ge ; 
cf. lineum = lin-jum = lingc ; so dominarium = do(n)n- 
jari-um = danger. In other cases the same combination 
nge has risen from mia, thus commeatus = comjat 
= conge, simia = singe, so louange and vendange, from 
laudemia, vendcmia. 

295 autre] appears to mean here aXXoIos, rather 
than dAAor, ' not by another kind of language' ; (unless 
indeed, it ought to be autr;'= alterius). 

296 mue le curage] 'changed your heart',- JIatz. 
Altfr. XV. 37 si Ten deustplus enrages miier ; cf. Chauc. 
Cant. T. 13541: 

anoon his harie chattnged and his mood. 

297 lingance] 'al-legiance;' from root lige (our ftV^c), 
which is prob. of Germ, origin ; thus DC. quotes from a 
document (ann. 1253), 'ligius homo, quod teutonice 
dicitur leJighmann ' ; as Schilter gives it, qui uni soli 
homagio obligatus est, i. e. a manyVvf? from all engage- 
ments towards others (than his lord), from ledig = vacuus, 
&c. As to the form of the suffix, we have in M. L. 
ligantia, ligiantia ; the words ' lingance e humage ' are 
a familiar pair in phrases like ' redierunt in homagium 
ct ligantiam meam,' 'homagium cum ligencia facere.' 
The word seems to have been used also in a wider sense 
to express the general relation of ' subject,' for in the 
laws of Edw. Conf. 25 (in Schmid's Gesetze der A.-Sachs. 
p. 506), we have : ' omnes Judaei, sub tutela et defen- 
sione regis ligiae AchzxA esse,' from Cod. Harl., where 
Hoveden's text has simply ' sub t. et d. domini regis 
debent esse.' 

299 ligger] from le\'is was formed an adj., leviarius, 
whence It. leggiero, M. F. Uger. From the same root, 
we have Sp. aliviar, but It. allegiare, Fr. alleger, while 
Pg. has both alliviar and aligeirar; cf. suage (284), 
from Lat. sua\is, suavi-are. 

— volage] Lat. already used volaticus in the same 
sense, = volatile, light-minded, cf. Cic. Att. 13.250 'aca- 
demiam volaticam .... modo hue, modo illuc! ' 

300 vasselage] Rayn. Rom. Lex. V. 470 quotes 'avctz 
vencut per vostre vasselatge' ; cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 3056 : 

and certainly a man hath most honour 

to deyen in his excellence and flour 

thannc whan his name appalled is for age : 

for al forgctcn is his vasselage. 
Theroot is Kymric, cf. Welsh ^li'ff-f, ayoulh, early adopted 
into M.L., under the form vasstis, ' quos vassos vulgo 
vocant,' young man of the lord's following, able for 



fighting, thence brave, whence vasselage, bravery ; we 
have the concrete bamage from bai-un in next line, 
(cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 3098, 'by alle the counseU of the 
baronage,') though bamage, baronie, have constantly 
also the abstract sense, bravery. From this root vass, 
by deriv. -al came vassal, further derived into vassalettus, 
vaslet, varlet. A lower vassal was called vassus vas- 
sorum, whence the term vavasur (575) or valvassor. It. 
va/Tassore. Thus in Laws of Will. Conq. 20 f., we have 
the grades: de relief a fH«/if ; de relief a baitin; de 
relief a vavassiir ; de relief 4 vilaiii. 

301 bamage] this word barun has not improb. gone 
through precisely the same series of meanings as vas- 
sal. Its origin can only be Lat. or Germ., (because 
it possesses the variable accent, ber, bariin,) not Keltic. 
Now the Schol. on Persius exjilains the word baro (which 
as a genuine Lat. word occurs in Cicero, meaning block- 
head,) by servus militum, 'the burden-bearer for the 
troops, ' and saysit is of Gallic origin. This it could not be, 
for the reason given above; but it was easy for the schol. 
to mistake Germ, for Keltic, and the probability is 
that it is Germ., and derived from Goth, bairan, to bear, 
from which we could have an O.H.G. form bero (ace. 
beron), bearer, hence active man, and so on, as in vas- 
sal. With the sense of man, is naturally connected the 
meaning o{ husband (Aub. 134), cf. \"ir et femina, mann 
und weib, man and wife, &c. Curiously enough, while 
barun means husband, but also ' man of liigh rank, 
bonda, (whence hus-bonda,) besides its common signi- 
ficance of husband, meant in A. Sax. churl ; the bonda 
was neither a thml nor a thegen, a thrall nor a thane, 
but a liber pauper, v. Gesetze der A.-Sachsen, p. 242, 
5 3, where a penalty is imposed, of 30 pence on the 
biinda, 30 shUUngs on the thegn, but the thrcel pays 
with his hide. 

304 le flz] of this obi. form instead of the nom., there 
are several examples, some of which may perhaps be 
explained by assuming a kind of attraction, e. gr. 306 
le pueple ke veistes Giueu sunt, populum quem vidis- 
tis, but in others the obi. case seems used without 
reference to any determinate rule : v. app. on article. 

— meimes] indecl., 656 a lui meimes; 342 par Deu 
meimes; with final adverbial j. Theformswiththcdental, 
viz., O. F. medisme, [so always in Alexis, 24, 87, 108, 
123,] It. medesimo, O. Pg. medes, Pr. medeps, in Boeth. 
smetessme, lead to the origin, a Lat. semetips-issimus. 

307 mesprisun] The meaning of this word is ' error,' 
cf. Spens. F. Q. II. 12. 19 : — 

which through great disadventure or mesprize 
her selfe had roune into that hazardize. 

I have given in Gloss, 'ill-usage', from 162 urent e 
mesfait e mespris, which would seem to imply more 
than mere 'error'. The proper technical meaning of the 
word is ' the non-disclosure of a felony committed by 
another'; but misprendcre in M. L. was used in a 
much wider sense, = foris-facere, apparently of any ill 
deed towards others. It is commonly followed by 



• There are, of course, examples of Lat. v = "F.g, ex. gr. vagina, ^a?/;^ ; viscus = ^jc' ; volpeculus, golpil, gupil 
(Aub. 555); so also vespa, j'«('j>i?, where O. H.G. we/sd prob. had some influence, just as O. H. G. watan, to wade, 
in gui, from Lat. vadum. 

M 2 



82 



NOTES. 



vers of the person on whom the wTong is done : s'il a 
vers lui nule chose mespris ; si je metoie en plet, je 
mesprenroie vers lui. 

309 jadis] Lat. jam diu, as tandis (Aub. iiyGtantif/) 
from tam diu ; the final s either simply adverbial, or 
owing to some confusion ■with a plural case of dies. 

313 abandun] from Goth. ia);(/z7««, to denoteby signs, 
we have Ital. bandire, O. F. bannir, to announce, pro- 
claim, cf. ostbani (1285), [also to denounce. It. bandito]. 
The subst. bann-um, band-um, thus meant ' edictum ', 
'proclamatio', whence our 'banns of marriage'; hence 
alsocontre-bande, illegal trading; italso meant 'interdic- 
tum' ; hence forban [foras bannitus] is an outlaw ; cf. 
our use of '■proclaimed district'. From this use of the 
word arose the adverbial use of a bandun, signifjing 
'at the discretion, in the power, of anybody'; whence 
M. L. abandum came to mean (DC.) 'rem arbitrio 
cujusque expositam '. Follomng the more original sense 
of a sign, we get the meaning 'standard', 'vexillum 
quod bandum dicunt', whence Pr. auri-ban, gold- 
banner, the 'orillamme'. Another deriv. in M. F., 
arriere-ban, has arisen from a misunderstanding of O. 
H. G. hari-banmim, the summoning of the army to 
take the field, which in O. F. is correctly ar-ban. 

317 liunoeus] an allusion to the idea that lion-cubs 
have not really life till three daj's after their birth, and 
that then they are awakened into existence by the voice 
of the lion.* 

Of this the following allegory is given by de Thuan, 
in liis Li%Te des Great. 683 seqq. : — 

or fait I'um questiun des caels al leun 
que iijeo signifie, que iij. jurz sunt senz vie, 
enz el cummencement de lur founement ; 
e puis venent a vie par le liun Id crie. 
e ijeo est grant signefiance, aiez en remembrance, 
des fud mort en teire .iij. jm-z., pur nus conquere, 
sulunc sa humanited, nent sulum deited. 
par le cri del leun la vertud Deu pamun, 
par quai resuscitad, enfem despuillad. 
320 viel] there are three forms of this used in Aub., 
which may be connected somehow thus : Lat. vetidus 
= veclus, a plebeian Latin form, (tl = cl, cf. Schuch., 
Vulg. Lat. I. 160,) whence by vocaUsation veil (I) 
Aub. 1765; so pariculus, pareil ; articulus, orteil; in 
It. cf. specchio from speculum, and vecchio from ve- 
tulus ; this combination ;7, = the liquid /, frequently be- 
came simple /, hence vel (II), or, with final sibilant of 
nom. sg., (vels =) veuz 1375. But the e being now 
short and accented, became ie (cf. bene, bien ; tenet, 
tient ; ) whence viel (III) 746, the immediate parent of 



the M.F. vieux (= viels), where the fern, vieille preserves 
the liquid il form of I (veil), and vie-ill-e = ve-cl-a. 

— senglant] Lat. sanguilentus was used already in 
the first cy. A.D. for ' sanguinolentus ' ; its meaning as 
an abusive epithet is paralleled in modern ■\'ulgar usage ; 
1 744 li traitre senglant is just literally a vulgar expres- 
sion. The vowel is always e, senglant, as contrasted 
with the a of sane ; cf. ensanglaente, 534, -^rith the 
form ensengl. of 952. 1428. 

— dragvm] this is the Apocah-ptic representation ; 
cf. Revel. 20.2 ' et apprehendit draconem, serpentem 
antiquum, qui est diabolus et Satanas, et ligavit eum per 
annos mille ' ; Chauc. Cant. T. 5054, 'he that for our 
redempcioun bonde Sathan.' 

323 en sun] ' on the top ' ; Lat. summus, cf. sum 
216, sleep, from somnus, where J[. F. has had to dis- 
tinguish by adopting in place of the latter the dimin. 
somm-eil. The n spelling, though not organic, regularly 
occurs, and misled Grimm into rendering the common 
' par son I'aube ' (Hibernice, the top of the morning !) 
by 'per sonitum aurone '. From the form sum, we 
have our summit, M. F. sommet. The word itself, 
M. F. son, has yet another application, viz. chaff, as 
being the uppermost in the winnowing ; cf. the Sp. 
soma (the coarse meal used by farm-servants), which 
seems decisive for this etjTnology of the word son = chaff, 
as against that of Littre, viz. son for seon, = secun- 
dus, la seconde mouture, for certainly Sp. soma could 
not be thus derived. 

324 entaille] the root of this word is Lat. talea, a 
cuttting for planting, whence came a verb taleare ; Diez 
quotes from Nonius 4.473, ' etiam nunc rustica voce 
intertaleare dicitur dividere vel exscindere ramum ' ; so 
Span, entretallar, to cut, slash, &c., but also to sculpt 
in bas-relief, cf. It. intagliare, which is used di rilievo 
or d'incavo. The O.F. word we meet often enough in 
our old writers ; Chauc. Rom. Rose, 162, an image of 
unoiXiex entayle ; Ibid. 3711, this lady was of good en- 
tayle ; Spens. F. Q. II. 3, 27: golden beades which 
were entayled with curious antickes ; Ibid. II, 3, 7 : 
a work of rich entayle and curious mould ; which 
pair, entayle and tnould, exactly correspond to the 
entaille and fafun of Aub. In il. F., the word en- 
taille means notch, groove, or slash with a sword : the 
simple taille has been allowed a pretty free range of 
meaning ; the edge of a sword, the hewing of stone, 
engraving on wood or copper, the cut of any thing, t 
or body, I, his stature, 2, his waist ; but is now obso- 
lete in the sense of bas-rehef. 

328 weimentisun] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 904, waj-men- 



• I am indebted to the kindness of Prof. Land of Leyden, for a copy of his translation of the SjTiac 'Physio- 
logus ' published by him, and from which I extract the following passage, p. 32, ' quando leaena catulos suos 
parit, mortuos eos parit ; verum leaena custodit eos ad tertium usque diem, quo ad eos pater venire solet. Qui 
ubi advenit et accedit ad eos et mortuos eos invenit, spiral inter oculos eorum et eos surgere facit.' The expla- 
nation is the same, of course, as in de Thuan : ' eodem modo etiam Deus surgere fecit die tertio primogenitum 
omnium creaturarum, nempe Dominum nostrum Jesum, fihum suum dilectum.' Physiol, continues: "praeclare 
enim dixit et Jacobus : ' dormit instar catuli leonis, et quis eum surgere faciei .' ' cf. Genesis 49, 9 [where the 
ViUg. differs considerably], and see also Dr. Land's notes, p. 137, op. cit. 

t The Frenchman seems to have noted how his coat was cut, and looked after a tailleur ; the Italian and 
Spaniard were particular whom they got to 7nend it, so It. sarlore, Sp. sastre, from Lat. sarcire. We borrowed 
the tailor, and have imitated \!a<t fashions. The Germans also borrowed a deriv. for the cutting of their bread 
and butter, viz. teller, a plate, from taUloir, a board on which to cut bread, a trencher, (tranchoir.) 



NOTES. 



83 



f ynge ; the verb also occurs as guaimenler, which may 
be possibly a made-up verb, out of -menter from 
la-menter, and the interj. Lat.t«;', \\.. guai, O. F. -u'ai, 
Goth, rai, our woe. Somewhat analogous is ' compli- 
ment', which is a deriv. from O. F. complir, rather 
than the Lat. complementum, though no doubt influ- 
enced by the latter. 

335 Neptun] according to Diez (I. 414), the old 
Norman u which comes from Lat. o, never assonatcs 
with the u from Lat. it, i.e., words like barun, amur, 
are not assonant with alcun, dur. This theory is not 
tenable in Auban, for here we have distinctly Neptun 
(Lat. Neptunus,) rimed with a whole set of kk for Lat. 
-0,-onis. Again, we have (1699) commiin (Lat. com- 
munis), Jesun, Mahun, among the Lat. -on rimes. In 
the !/r rimes (541-588), we have still clearer examples, 
for along Mnth amur, pastur, errur, &c., i.e., Lat. -or, we 
have (550) maiir, and (573) seiir, i.e., Lat. matur-us 
and secur-us. In the -ure rimes (589-619) there occur 
cure, obscure, dure, nature, from Lat. -uia, along 
with (693) aiire (ad-6rare) and (60S) honurc, both of 
which (584-5 aiir, honur,) are found amongst the ur 
which is Lat. or. 

As to Fallot's theory of two Norman j<-sounds, = M. 
F. ou and eu, we have (86) iu (fire), and (860) feu, 
rimed with (85) fu (was), vertu, &c., and both again 
with III (864, 1389) M. F. loup ; i.e., we find equated 
in assonance three different K-forms, wz., M. F. iiit, 
(eu, and loup. It is evident that no sharp line of di\i- 
sion can be maintained between the sounds of these 
three, whatever the precise sound may have been. 

— descunus] for this use of the word, = disown, cf. 
Mar. de Fr. II. 249 : 

dunt s'en volt as corbiaus aler, 

e corbel revolt resambler ; 

raes il I'unt tuit desconeu, 

si I'unt sakie et debatu. 
337 paene] in classic Lat. ' paganus ', rustic, came to 
mean civil as opposed to militar)'; so Pliny says, milites 
et pagani. Later on, it meant, ace. to DC., ' qui mili- 
tiam nondurii consecuti ad cam sese accingcbant ' ; and 
Mod. Gr. has irnyavia — la milice. But it has a difl'er- 
ent history besides. DC. quotes from St. Augustine, 
' deorum falsorum mutorumque cultores quos usitato 
■aarmac paganos vocamus'. No mention of these pagani 
is apparently made before 365 a.d.; the Cod. Theod. 
speaks of ' sacerdotales paganae superstitionis '. The 
older forms of religion took refuge in the pagi, after 
Constantine had substituted the Christian religion in 
the towns, cf the line ' niaguis qui colitur solus in urbi- 
bus Christus ' ; hence DC. : — ' constat a pagis et a pag- 
ensi idolatria paganos nuncupatos'. 

The expression was early applied to the Mohammedan 
religion, and with Sarrazin (13), used generally for 
an unbeliever. [From tlie deriv. paganisnius, ' pagan- 
orum religio vcl terra ', under the form pacnismc, paien- 
nime, we get our okl paynim, which has reacted on the 
M. L., producing the curious word paganimitas.] Our 
poet generally has an opprobrious epithet to add : they are 
criieus, 469 ; mescreant, 796.1734 ; maudiz, 884 ; crimi- 
nal, 1600; fil Belial, 1622; adverser, i66g; felun, 1759. 

341 endoctrine] cf. Kell. Romv. 204.27 : 



par soi meismes s'est-il endoctrines 
que d'escremie et d'armes sot ases. 

343 acointe] Lat. ad-cognitare. It. accontar, our «.■- 
quaint ; compare with our usage, the It. accontarsi con 
alcuno. This verb is often used as an active verb to 
make the acquaintance of, (with accus.) : cf. Burg. II., 
289 (from Partenop.) : 

li est avis qu'a mal eur 
I'avoit acointfi ne veu. 
Matz. Altfr. III., 17: 

& ma dolour n'a mestier couvreture .... 
mar acointai sa tres douce faiture. 
XrX., 25 las ! quant amours me le fist acointier. 
XIV., 37 helas ! pour coi I'acointai ? 
KeU. Romv. 233.29 : 

car R. et G. me vuelent acointier ; 
but still more frequently as a reflexive verb with dat., cf. 
Fl. et Blancef. p. 77 : 

riche homme lors vous cuidera, 
puet-estre a vous s'acointera. 
Kell. Romv. 212.7 : 

au conte Huedon se vorra acointier. 
234.7 as premiers cops se voldra acointier. 
B. du Guesc. 9825 : 

au prince des Galois m'en iroie acointier ; 
but also ibid. 9837, de lui m' acointerai. 

344 sumoin] from (sum-monere), which retracted 
its accent, and became of the 3rd conj. (ere), thereby 
producing O. F. summon're, sumondre, whence the 
ptcp. sumuns (715.1418), and subst., sumunse (1588), 
from which we have summons. 

The i in (Aub.) sumo;«, may be compared with that 
in du/ns from duner ; thus sumoin: sumunent (1426) 
= doins (491) : dune (817). 

346 eschoisi] choisir from Goth, kausjan, to try, 
ZoKifinX^nv ; (Diez compares Choisy from Causiacum:) 
our verb choose\s, directly from the Germ. (Goth.kiusan), 
but the subst. (adj.) choice comes to us through O. F. 
choix, chois. 

— bon gre] Lat. gmtum used in M. L. as a subst., 
whence bon gre, mal gre, O. F. maugre : our maugre 
(mauger). The M. F. 'maugreer' denotes rather the 
jirobable results of that which is mal gre, viz., to 'fret 
and fume.' Besides its use as a subst. with bon (mal), we 
have venir a gre ( loi 2) precisely as venir ti pleisir {\i,(ii.) 

351 a bonure] ' born to good luck ' ; in the MS. bon 
ure are always written separately, indeed even apart, 
(save in 1043 martir bonure:, cf. also malure, 354 ;) 
but I have edited bonure, as one could not give iiie with 
final e, unless it were made to come from hora, wiiich 
is impossible, bon being of course masc. The M. F. bon- 
heur, malheur, are usually (and rightly) derived from 
augurium, as the spelling (eiir, aiir,) in O. F. shows ; but 
the last syllable was often confounded with hora, and 
hence spelt with initial h, heur ; tims in Molicrc, I'Etour- 
di, II. 13, 'et bion a la malhcure est-il venu d'Espagne,' 
and cf. Alalherbe's a la male heur. Ilora was commonly 
so used in Romance ; there is no phrase more com- 
mon in the old poem of thcCid thane'« buenora, 41 cinxi- 
estes espada ; 72 (fuestcs nacido) ; 202 (nasco), &c. 

355 alose] deriv. from los (992), praise, which owes 
its origin to the Lat. pi. laudes, used in the senice of 



84 



NOTES. 



the church : DC. quotes a very old laudes [/o5-gesang*], 
beginning ' Christus \incit, Christus regnat, Christus 
imperat,' &c. Besides the deriv. aloser, we have lo- 
senge (i 197), losengerie (1235) andlosengers (1569), in 
the sense of wc'/'-praise, flatter)-. The W. F. louange 
is derived with the same suffix -ange from the root, 
lau</ ; for the vowel ou = au, cf. aloue (50) from alauda. 
857 feffe] deriv. from fief (pl.yfc;, 586), the possessor 
of a fief, hence rich, &c. M. F. has transformed it into a 
depreciative adj., (coquin) fieffe, an arrant, downright 
rogue, — who possesses all the qualifications for the title 
of rogue, &c. The origin of fief itself. It. fo, is clearly 
shown in the Longobard hderfium, patrimonium, 
where Jiu, property = O. H. G. fiu,/e?!u, cattle, Goth. 
faihu, X.'A.pecus, Sec. ; from the form/eit, with a neutral 
term, -urn, feu-um, the M. L. made feu-d-um (cf It. 
chiodo = cla-us, v. 88), whence all the derivv.yt?;/i/a/, &c. 

359 saet pez] this seems to have been the regular al- 
lowance for dead heroes ; cf. our King Harold's answer 
to the envoy of Tostig. 

360 alme] Sp. Pg. alma, Pr. O. F. arme, with / or r 
instead of the n in Lat. anitna, but also anme (Alex. 67, 
aneme), whence M. F. dme ; WaUach. keeps nearest to 
the orig. in its iiiima, which it uses for soul, courage, 
and even for stomach, thus diirere de inima, stomach- 
ache ! Perhaps the / forms are, to some extent at 
least, owing to the Lat. alma, which the poets con- 
stantly use in reference to the ///ir-giving Venus, Ceres, 
Cybele, Faustitas, &c., and which therefore may have 
become (or been) famiUar in the vulgar. In M. L., 
however, almus, almitas, &c., are generally used of 
holiness. 

— mortalite] the MS. has here santz viortale, which 
of course is unmeaning : there can be no doubt of the 
necessity for the alteration, which further corrects the 
imperfect metre, there being a syllable wanting. 

361 mansivm] ' abode ' ; the Lat. ' inansio ' is used 
also in the sense of a dweUing-place, &c., hence its 
transfer into the Rom. under the forms F. mai'son, It. 
jiiagione, to signify a house, in place of the canonized 
' domus^ diiomo, dome, ^c. 

363 guereduns] our guerdon, only used in Aub. of 
rewards for the good ; it really means, however, ' return,' 
and Spenser uses it of both good and eril, F. Q. II. 1.61, 
' till guUtie blood her guerdon doe obta>Tie.' The etym. 
of this word is best seen by comparing the related langg. ; 
in M. L. we have widerdonum. It. guiderdone, Sp. Pg. 
^alardon [ao). The origin of aU is the O. H. G. widar- 
lon, ' recompensatio,' the last element of which, Ion, 
was perhaps confounded with Lat. donutn ; widar = con- 
tra, cf the widrigild of the Longobard laws, the coun- 
ter-cost, used instead of the u-erigeld oi 'ihs: other Germ, 
tribes [where, however, weri= w'er, homo, ™]. Sp. might 
indeed be derived directly from widarlon by the inter- 
change of d and / familiar to the peninsula, this would 
give wilardon, — now the / of an initial-syllable is often 
assimilated to a following a (cf balance for bilancia), 
and this, with initial w = g, would give galardon. 



— atlirne] from this verb is derived the subst. atur 
(19), dress, through an older form atom, ' praeparatio ' ; 
atumer : atur = a-jumer (diumum) : jur. The origin 
is turmis (ro/^i^oc), turner's wheel; "whence toumer, to 
turn. ?-c'-tottrner, and tour, au-tour, a Vetttotir. 

365 hem] " be not moved for any e%Tl that man can 
inflict on your body, or the de\il on your heart." The 
usual play of words on cors and quor (v. 104) is further 
heightened by the opposition of hem and maufe. That 
' hem ' is thus used emphatically may be inferred also 
from the fact that there is no elision of the ke, the ini- 
tial h being preser\'ed and aspirated. The collocation 
is k'emm every other case (79.648.688.719.1366. 1678), 
save here and 815, where exactly the same contrast is 

afforded, (jo ke hem desdit tesmoine le element, 

that which man denies, the elements affirm, &c. 

367 estue] I take this to be the same as our ' stow,' 
A..-Sax. stih' ; in the three instances of its occurrence 
(+ 711.982) it can only bear the meaning of place, put, 
keep. There is another verb, very hke this, the com- 
mon estuet, esttit, from stetit, Sec, whence has come the 
verb, estovoir, to be fitting, M. L. estoveriura, O. E. 
stover, pro%'ision, but in Aub. neither form nor meaning 
correspond really, though I do not find in the lexx. any 
reference to this verb, O. Fr. estu'er, to stow away, to 
reserve ; ' le regne ki \'us est estue ', the kingdom which 
is reser%'ed for you (which is he-stou'ed on you) ; it is 
taken from the Vulgate, Mat. xxv., 34, possidete para- 
tum vobis regnum. 

374 Cimge] this word was used in the sense of simple 
'permission', cf. the phrase conge d'elire; so in 
Mohere, I'Etourdi I. 3.8 : 

et si dans quelque chose ils vous ont outrage, 
je puis vous assurer que c'est sans mon conge. 
An older form is cunget, whence JI. F. conged-ier ; 
from Lat. commeatus, leave of absence, generalized into 
leave, permission. Here, of course, it is used in the or- 
dinary sense, our 'to ask leave', Spenser's 'courteous 
conge'. Sec. 

— requised.] a common pair; cf.Rom. de Mah.128: 

a lui vont les gens de la terra 
conseil demander e requerre. 

375 si] a very characteristic particle in O. Fr. For 
the instances of its occuiTence in Au'd., v. Gloss, (si 11.), 
in some of which (592) it has its peculiar Lat. sense [sic 
te diva potens Cypri, lic] ; in some, as here, it is little 
more than a cop. conj., while in others it is difficult, if 
not impossible, to define precisely its function and force 
(v. note on 1 743), and to distinguish it from the adv. si 
as in 'so great', &c. 

— esnuie] this form is no doubt owing to the ten- 
dency of O. F. to insert an sf before «, as a mere sign 
of the length of the syllable, (for it is not pronounced,) 
cf casnard, for canard ; resne (1604). M. F. rene, Lat. 
redina ; fraisle, M. F. frele, Lat. fragilis ; trosne, M. F. 
trone, Bpoi-oc, Sec. So here, esnuier is for enuier, from 
enui, Sp. enojo. Old Sp. enoyo. It. noja (Old It. nojo), 
&c., all from the Lat. phrase in odio, which is well pre- 



• Indeed Fallot even thought of deri\-ing losenge from lob-singen ! 

t Tills interpolated s is not found in any other of the Romance languages. 



NOTES. 



85 



served in the old Milanese dialect, 'plu te sont a inodio 
= It. pill ti sono a noja.' We still have the verb (active) 
to annoy, (and also, annoyance,) but have lost the subst. 
annoy, as Shakspere, &c., had it, cf. Rape of Lucr. 
1109, ' mirth doth search the bottom of annoy', &c. ; 
Spens. F. Q. II. 9.35 'all plcsaunce was to them griefe 
and annoy'. The M. F. ennui \\\\\q\\ we have also bor- 
rowed, is a late meaning; the taedium vitae does not 
seem to have been a medieval grievance, or rather the 
feeling had not yet found an apt expression. 

376 vols] this form is hardly susceptible of explana- 
tion ; it must come from vado, which regularly makes 
vat, but the finals is unintelligible, and the diphth. oi is 
not clear. This vois is common to all F. dialects, and 
has produced a subj. pres. voise ; we hnd a similar in- 
organic J in a few more verbs : ex. gr. duner, doinj-(49i), 
and subj. doinst (592), truver, truij-, subj. trui^t, so that 
Burguy's explanation of vois as containing an ^ to dis- 
tinguish it from voi (= video), which in itself has little 
to recommend it, is rendered still more improbable. 
Possibly the subj. forms doinst, truist. Sic, may have 
introduced the j first by a not unfamiliar intercalation, 
and so the notion arose o{ s being radical. 

— oi] the pret. 1st sg. occurs only here, and is rather a 
Burgundian than a Norman form ; the 3rd pers. out is 
distinctly Norman : o-i seems to have arisen from a con- 
traction of au-i for habui, still it can hardly have been 
other than monosyll. (Burg, even o), and is not much 
clearer than the diphthong in vois above. 

379 despuis ke] ' since ', either temporal or causal ; 
of you I tliinlc I am sure, since [ix quo or quia) God 
himself has sealed your heart. 

— saele] our seal, from Lat. sigiUum; Af. F. has in- 
serted an inorganic c in sceau, sceller, to distinguish it 
from seau [O.V.seel), Lat. siteU-us; (cf. veau, our veai, 
from vitellus.) 

380 e] here and in 376, (v. 789, 1539.) simple sis written 
in MS. for en, whether intentionally or not, I do not 
know ; it occurs very frequently so in some phrases, ex. 
gr. in Ger. de V. 176, 371, 4029, it is always '6 non 
deu ', in the name of God ; so Fierabras begins, e nom de 
dieu Ic payre. I have edited en however. 

— asez ai S.] tliis must bct.aken as a parenthetic clause, 
for the inf. cunvertir is an inlin. of purpose following 
m'en vois, I am going off in order to convert. 

381 plente] not useil in M. F., but we have presen-ed 
it in 'plenty', and the adj. plenteous, corresponding to an 
O. F. deriv. plenteif, plentciveux ; from Lat. plenitas, 
found in Vitruvius, ' humoris plenitas', 6, I, Vtos. plen- 
tat, Wallach. plinatate. 

383 tlDOore] the vowel u, instead of e (encore, or a. 
It. nncora), seems to have arisen from a confusion with 
unc = unqu.im ; the proper form encore is Lat. hanc 
horam. Possibly, here, uncore is simply the two 
particles unc and ore ; but the other langg. have hanc ; 
It. ancora. Old Sp. encara, Pr. enquera. 

384 dolenz] this form is exclusively applied to mental, 
doillant to bodily aflliction ; cf. 840, tut le cors doillant ; 
1430, doillant li sunt li nerf ; cf. Ilor. Carm. III. I, 41, 
dolenlem, of body or mind ; Portug. doente does not 
mean 'grieved', but sickly, unwell. 



385 friez] the use of the condit. in apodosis after a 
protasis with si and indie, pres., is found only here and 
588, 'lidoilz serroit giantz, si tumurs' ; in both cases the 
idea of reality is apparent : if you were to leave me, 
(which you are going to do) ; or, if you were to do, 
which you really seem bent on doing. For this abnormal 
sequence of tenses, cf. such sentences as Tibull. I. 8, 22, 
'etfacen't si non aera repulsa sonent'. 

386 semaine] through sepmaine, from M.L. septi- 
mana, still found in Wallach. septamina ; It. settimana, 
Sp. semana. An older Sp. form is hebdomada (from 
the Gk.) contracted in old Pg. into domaa. 

— veaus] ' at least ', from Lat. vel in its intensive 
meaning, with the appended adverbial J, cf. 'velsMne feiz', 
'even once', Alexis, § 90; it was often compounded with 
si, s,\\ea.\i,sivaus, (suvaus, 941, q. v.) 

387 de la lei] this might be taken as dependent 
either on plus, or on enseinnerez : ' you shall teach me 
more about the law*, or ' more o/the law.' 

389 voiez] from vetare, O. F. veer to forbid, also 
cpd. deveer ; cf. Chev. au Cyg. 12896 dist ly roys Cor- 
barans: 'ja zw/ ne sera', exactly the same phrase; oi 
is awkward, but Aub. has zxexe, creire, ctaire, and 
croire, and v. app. 

392 SUtiTe] cf. Rom. de Mali. 1231 : 
un celier fist faire soutil 
sous terre, u nus n'aloit fors il. 
similarly Chev. au Cj'g. uses soutieument, 1013, soutieve- 
ment, 17060, and soutius; from sublihs, we have sutil, 
with vocalized/, sutiu; with u hardened through ^' into y, 
sutiy and the fern, sutiit', as here. No doubt our pro- 
nunciation of subtle as suttle is based on the O. F., 
cf. doubt pronounced dout, through O. F. duter. 

396 relevees] ' afternoon'; c(. Mar. de Fr. I. 68, eel 
jur meisme aiuz relevee ; Ed. Conf. 4379 : 
avint un jur de relevee, 
ke I'ure estoit ja passee 
ke li moine deussent lever. 
M. L. relevatio, the hour immediately after mid-day, 
when the monks rise ex somno meridiano ; exactly 
as in Sp. siesta is used, = sexta, the sixth hour from 
dawn, i. e., the mid-day nap ; cf. M. F. faire sa meri- 
dicnne, our old ' nooning.' 

— fu anoitez] cf. Villehard. \ 620 li G. avoient mandfi 
de plain jor ke il vcnissent a la Serre lorske il se- 
roit anuitie, ' at night-fall ' ; similarly B. du Guescl. 5682 : 

je m'en irai ennuit, quant il ert envesprez. 
Rom. de Tr. 2203 : 

quant la nuiz fu bien anuitiie, 
ct la lune se fu cochie'e, 
issirent fors li barun. 
397] for the whole p.assage cf. Spens. F. Q. 1. 10, 19 : 
she unto him disclosed every whitt ; 
and heavenly documents thereout did preach, 
of God ; of grace; of justice ; of free-will ; 
that wonder was to heare her goodly speach. 
Cf. also Chauc. Cant. T. 12272: 

tho gan sche him ful besily to preche 
of Cristes come, and of his peynes teche, 
and many pointcs of his passioun, 
how, &c. 



g6 



NOTES. 



399 esnez] proh. not the inserted s before k, but a 
remnant of the z in einr (= ante) ehtz-ne ; cf. in O. F. 
puis-ne, from which •\ve liave eliminated the s, in puny 
(M. F. puine), save in the older language, and in the 
legal expression the /^/jwi* judges. 

403 Damnedeu] there is a sharp line of distinction 
drawTi between this compound expression, dominus 
dens, and the simple deus, in Wallachian, in which 
dumne-zeu = God, while zeu (deus) means a pagan 
god, an idol. The compound is found in It. domine- 
ddio, Pr. dombredieu, &c. 

404 iglise] (ecclesia) only occurs twice, and in both 
cases spelt ;glise : so Sp. iglesia, Pg. igieja, w-hile the It. 
omits the initial syllable, chiesa. The _^ sound w'as prob. 
derived from the Greeks themselves, amongst whom k 
before \ is (now at all events) pronounced as y (v. 
Mullach, Gram, der Gr. Vulg. p. 113.) In Old Sp., 
however, we find eclegia. 

406 par unt] unt is from unde, which being used as 
an obhque case of the relative form, has prefixed to it 
par ; so dunst (v. 32) for de unde. 

— e p. poiaz] I am not sure that it would not be 
better to edit en, 'instructed in several points', &c. 
As it is, it must be taken as accus. to ad desclos 

(397-) 

408 es-7US] es is a contraction from Lat. ecce, ' look- 
you', (in Plautus, eccum, eccos, eccas;) cf. It. eeco, 
ecco-lo, Sp.ele, {(orec-Ze), Pg. ei-Io ((or eis-/o) ; with the 
It. ecco-te-lo, Sp. e-te-le, may be compared es-le-vus, 
Aub. 823, 1 1 57. 

409 fenestre] Lat. fenestra, with a change of accent, 
fenestra, the latter leading to festra [explained in 
Macrob. "minusculum ostium in sacrario";] (and 
Germ, fenstcr), while the former was preserved in It. 
fmestra. Old Sp. finiestra. The peninsula, however, 
has now lost the word, its place being suppUed in 
Span, by rent-ana a 7('»;if)'-place (cf. our window, 
Dan. vin-due, Icel. \-ind-auga, A. -Sax. wind-eage, 
wind-eye;) and in Portug. by janella from Janiia, 
gate. 

410 ke] this might be taken as a temporal particle, 
' whilst he watched them ', cf. 808 and 1 750 ; but I prefer 
to regard it as introducing an ace. noun sentence de- 
pendant on (de eus ne fu veii =) il ne virent ; still 
ke might also (though not probably,) be taken as ki 
[= cist ki] cf. 650, 1 05 1, 1 1 70. 

— espia] It. spiar, Sp. espiar (our spy), from O. 
H. G. spehon, id. 

411 faitz 6 c] the pairs are not symmetrical (cf. 421), 
avisa lur faitz, and oi lur cunseilz. 

414 hastivement] of Germ, origin, cf. Old Fries, hast, 
haste ; with %\xS.-if [= ivus], cf. chetif, naif (= natif), 
joli, O. F. jolif [= gay, O. 'KorsejJl, ' yule'-festi\ities]. 

417 enten ca] listen here ! elsewhere we have always 
entenc(456. 556. 1669). 

418 diint] for this parenthesis, v. 13, where the 
clause with dunt is also inserted between an antecedent 
and its relative, and cf. 380. 

420 mar] with this may be compared the contraction 
O. F. buer, tor; mar = mala, bor — bona, the final r 
being probably from hora, so that mar = mala hora, 



and bor= bona hora, Pg. embora, Old Pg. bora ; both 
expressions, mala hora and bona hora, were common in 
the earhest M. L. ; compare Aub. 1503 tant mar -itis vi, 
with ' tam mala hora te viderunt ocuU mei,' quoted by 
Diez from Gesta Reg. Franc. 
424 batant] cf. Rom. de Troie 4603 : 
Paris a molt tost envoie 
un message forment batant, 
novele dire au rei Priant. 
Ph. Mousk. 17060 : 

es vous le vallait entretant 
jusqu' a I'uis del palais batant. 
Ibid. 1785 : 

mais n'el vot pas laisier atant, 
ainc a fait prendre lues batant 
as boijois, &c., tant d'avoir. 
Guil.de Tudela (.'), quoted by Raj-n. Rom. II. 196: 
li messatge s'en van tost et isnelament, 
al plus tost que ilh pogron, a Roma bat baten. 
These lines are from the Crois. cont. les Albig. 236, 
from which Diez (II. 451) gives bafbaten, 'at fuU 
gallop'. So in Old Ital., cf. Sitz.-Ber. der Wien. 
Akad. 46, p. [54, 1. 220 e per la cita tuta batando si 
lo trasso. 

423-428] these are very loosely put together verses 
of hasty narration : the connexion I take to be some- 
what the following : — " [The source of it all is] an itine- 
rant pilgrim who has deceived him, — a man who is 
rapidly joumejing from abroad, with more magic arts 
than tongiie can tell, and with a vamped-up tale which 
he is preaching of some strange deity, w'hom the Jews 
crucified, &c. ; if you don't take precaution, things will 
go badly." 

427 Sulie] 'Syria,' of course; but it is always writ- 
ten with the / in Aub., cf. 502.716. 1447. The in- 
stances of this change are not frequent in Fr. ; cf. autel, 
from altare, and the dissimilation pelerin, 51. 

428 Clinrei] It. corredo, Sp. correo, from a primitive 
redo, O.F. roi — ox&sr, in Rutebceuf (quoted by Ga- 
chet), 'oil il n'a mesure ne roi.' From this con- deriv. 
has come also theM. F. corroyeur, preparer (of leather); 
by another prefix we have O. F. arrei, our array, and 
O. F. desroi, il. F. desarroi. The root is redo, prob- 
ably German ; cf. A. -Sax. gerxdian, M. H. G. ge-reiten, 
to make ready. 

430 pastuieus] Lat. adj. pastoralis, Ital. pasto- 
reUo, JI. F. pastoureau; even Wall, has presented this 
as a substantive, pastorel, though it appears to have 
abandoned altogether this termination for adjectives 
[Diez II. 304]. 

431 brehis] Lat. vervex, in Petronius berbex, JI. L. 
berbix, O. It. berbice, O.F. berbis, brebis. Wall, berbec, 
ram, berbec batut, sheep. The M. F. bercail and berger 
owe their forms to aM. L.berbicariusand berbicale, [also, 
with suff'.-(7is, berbeci/(?, giving O. F. bercil]. 

432 par] amongst the rest, or perhaps, by means of 
the rest the evil will spread. 

434 garde duner] cf. Bl. de Oxf. 464 : 
si ententivement le regarde, 
que de riens ne se donne garde 
fors sans plus de li esgarder. 



NOTES. 



87 



B. du Guesc. 3619 : 

B. du G. ne s'i est arrestez, 
sur Teschiele mouta, n'en fu espoantez. 
li bascons de M. s'en est garde donnez ; 
i.e. had perceived Mm. 

435 maisnee] elsewhere in Auban (496, 96S, 1020), 
it is written mes?ice ; cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 14459 : 
he gaf the lord and sith then his meynl, 
whan that he com, some m.aner honest thing, 
variously spelt, e.g. 14731 meigiie, izdo maviu'. In Chau- 
cer's time, therefore, the s was not pronounced, as 
it was at an earlier period ; we have it in M. H. G. in 
the form 'messenie', cf. Parzival, I., 13, 9 (Lachm.) : 
doch wande der gefiiege, 
daz niemen Icrone triiege, 
kiinec, keiser, keiserin, 
des messenie er wolde sin, 
wan cines der die hcehsten hant 
triiege uf erde iibr eUiu lant ; 
which also gives tlie termination in le ; cf. Matz. Altfr. 
XXV., 41 : 

dame, de vostre maisnie 
ne [m'ejstuet pas devenir. 
Cf. Li Livres de Justice, gloss, sub voce : — "le sens 
du mot mesnie fut iixe par un arret de parlcment (1282) 
.... oil on lit, * et fut puis desclairie de ce mot, sa 
propre mesnie demorant en son ostel, ce est a entendre 
de ecus qui font ses propres besoignes et a ses despens' ". 
435 feindia] se feindre - to hesitate, delay, dally. 
Cf. Rom. de Tr. 1956 de tost nagierpas ne se feint. 
Ibid. 2460 de bien ferir pas ne se feint. 

B. du Guescl. 4429 qui ne s'i faindie mie. [feint. 
JIatz. Altfr. xiii., 9 qui d'amours essauchier ne se 
Theaflirm. 'sefeindre' means 'to act a part', 'behave 
hypocritically ', so its negative implies serious purpose, 
'to be eager,' &c. The modem French (slang) word 
feignaiit is the participle of this word ; it means what 
Cicero calls igitavus. 

437 saoez] elsewhere (390, 610, 1364, 1520), this im- 
perat. is always used parenthetically, but the following 
ke is a difficulty. It might be taken as a conjunction 
after sacez, or as an ace. pi. of the rel. pron., 'ilium et 
raagistrum (scihcet) quos comprchendet.' 

441 8'] the construction is not clear, and would be 
greatly improved by reading si and k' (in following 
fine) instead of i' and ki: 'if you take fitting ven- 
geance, such tliat every one who knows it may be 
warned, and that all may say', &c. 

442 saverra] I have given tliis in Gloss, as from 
saver, but I am not at all satisfied with the form. We 
have dirra (171, 439) with ;•/-, against di^-a (1570), and 
the fut. of aver alzonys preserves the e before r, a\ercz, 
&c. The unsyncopated form savcra would be in fact the 
proper Norman form ; but this does not explain the 
abnormal saverra, nor is the meaning quite satisfactory. 
On the other hand, averer, to avow, declare true, gives 
a good meaning, cf. Rayn. (v. 503) : 

I'cstoire le tesmoigne i vraie, 

uns bons contcrrcs taveraie ; 
but this is not a reflective verb, so as to give s'avcrra, 
and even then, ki la s'avcrra is nearly impossible. 



444 mnrra] pregnant constr., ' tlial all may say, &c. 
[which will be the case] when [as soon as, if] A. dies 
on account of it.' 

446 d'ire] this is the only example in A., in which a 
final vowel is cut oti" before the initial i of ire. Possibly 
ire may have been pronounced with a strong aspiration, 
cf. 543, 582, 993, 1243, 1565, 1566. 

449 a] I know of no precisely parallel case, in 
which the auxihary is so inserted between a noun and 
its attribute, and that just at the caesura ; but it can 
hardly be anything else. Of course, the object often 
enough inter\enes between the au.xil. and ptcp., cf. 
Joinville 81, vez-ci le prestre qui a les huit Sarrazins 
desconiiz. 

— ke] " if that is true which he had heard, namely 
that, &c." This fuller meaning of fe[cf. Cajsar's 'om- 
nibus Gallis idem esse faciendum, quod Helvetii fece- 
rint, ut domo emigrent', de Bell. Gall. I. 31,] is 
quite in accordance with the free usage of O. F. Here 
it results from a blending of the two constructions of 
oir, which in preceding line takes its object ke, and is 
followed also by a case-sentence [ace] explanatoiy 
of the relative in 448. Cf. the pleonastic use of (o in 
279 ; so also in 1068, voient le sepulcre ke tut fu esclarci, 
where indeed the ke might be taken as the relati\e by 
error for ki, but is perhaps better refen-ed here, and 
the whole line explained, ' they see the tomb, and t/iat 
it was all lit up ' ; v. also 84, 279, &c. 

457 descuverz] 'denounced'; M.L. discoojierire is 
commonly used in the sense of 'reconnoitring', 'spy- 
ing', and so reporting, betraying; DC. quotes, "nullus 
de his suum ]3arcm discooperiat vel prodat ". 

459 sires ke b.] ke is jjrobably to be taken with the 
preceding tut, as = Lat. tam...,quam, both... and; 
though I do not loiow any other example of this 
collocation, and perhaps tut should be taut ; unless we 
read sires e bailli, which I should prefer. 

— bailli] whollymastcrand ' steward ' ; from Lat. haju- 
///j'=a^(yof6poc, a carrier, a word which inM.L. was used 
for custos, psedagogus [thus in the Eastern Empire the 
ftfyn<; /Sai'ouXof had charge of the education of the 
children of the emperor]; oeconomus, magistrate, [in 
Venice the early Jxidestii were called inraiovXoi under 
Greek rule,] and even regent, so DC. quotes " ])rincipes, 
barones, &c., me imperii hallirum elegerunt." The 
commonest usage of the word was to denote the ' guar- 
dians of the king's justice', and as sucli they had the 
charge of exacting all fines, escheats, confiscations, &c., 
(whence our 'bailiff'), but it was widened to include any 
kind of achninistration generally ; cf. Laws of Will. 
Conq. III. 6, 'civitates custodiantur, proul vice-comites 
et aklermamii et praepositi et ceteri ballivi et ministri 
nostri providcbunt.' 

460 pauteners] It. 'paltonicre', from paltone = p.ali- 
tone, from />(;///«/■/( Plautus); prop., a wanderer, and so a 
popular word for a 'loafing vagabond', 'ruffian '. 

462 mail] Jt. L. 'mamre' was used = 'to obstruct' 
(the law), from A.-Sax. mearrian, O. H. G. marran 
[for marr-jan, and v. note on 108]; O. F. used 
marrir = to lose the way, marrir le cliemin ; one's senses, 
as-tu le sens mari; so sinarrire is variously used in 



N 



88 



NOTES. 



Ital. [cf. Dante, Inf. I. 3, V. 72, XV. 50, Purg. xix. 14, 
Par. xx\-i. g. 4]. The most usual meaning is'contra- 
rier', 'facher', to grieve, annoy, as here. 

— Seroie] this is the regular form of the conditional, 
against the serroi of 384, but the other tenses here 
occurring, \-\z.fra, and the pres. subj. eiez, make it pro- 
bable that serrai should be read. 

463 deservi] for tliis use of the word, = our 'desers-e', 
cf. Bl. of 0.\f. 216: 

et sachies se vous emploiies 
votre sens en li bien ser\'ir, 
mon gre en pories desservir. 

464 cheut] for chelt, chalt, from chaler, Lat. calere 
(aliqua re), which Diez aptly compares \rith i]xi 
ohhiv OaXTTfi Ki^^oc. Here the verb is personal, 'who 
cares lor me', but it is usually impersonal, cf. It. non me 
ne cale, O. F. il ne m'en chaut, O. Sp. poco min cal, 
(minchal, P. del Cid 299), but cf. M. F. nonchalant, 
nonchalance. Nonchaloir was even used as a simple 
verb, and Scheler quotes from A. Chartier, ' depuis 
longtemps la loy avoit demoure oubliee et non- 
cliahte\ 

474 cuard] It. cod-ardo, from Lat. cauda, (either as 
representing the timid animals which put their tails be- 
tween their legs, or as denoting those who are at the 
extreme end, the tail ;) with the termination It. -ardo, 
Fr. -arty Sp. -ardo and -arte, derived from the Germ. 
hart (Goth, hardtts), used in O. H. G. in forming 
proper names, Regin-hart [Rejmard], &c.,inM. H. G. 
also used for appellatives in a bad sense, liig-hart, cf 
drunkard. Sic. So Ital. bastardo, bugiardo, F. batard, 
couard, criard, hagard, piUard, canard, renard, &c. In 
this word Sp. has co-b-arde, with J for v [v. 138] ; 
cf. the insertion in ju-v-icio for ju-icio [v. 88]. 

475 pnr quel ke] ' pro\ided that ' ; cf. Rom. Stud. 
Hft. 3, p. 411, 1. 27: 

en ceste terre n'a mastin 
qui me rescossist un pocin 
por qoi je I'ousse engole. 

476 BSclaTine] M. L. sdarina, H.schiavina, (Slavotiic) 
dress, of coarse woollen stuff, worn by pilgrims. It 
may be noted that 'Amphibalus' is glossed in DC. 
" restis rillosa, sicut est scla\ina"; mth this compare 
the Aub. rubric fcl. 33, rect. b, "villosam vestem lin- 
quens pro foedere testem." Amphibalus, like Archi- 
triclinus (62), is a myth. 

477 peleiijuil] cf. Ger. de V. 2083 le pied li tient sor 
I'ermin pelifon. From Lat. peUicius, pellicia, "indu- 
mentum peUicibus factum"; O. F. sur-pelis (our sur- 
plice), M. F. pelisse, Pr. sobre-pelitz, O. H. G. pelliz, 
Mod. G. pelz. The suffix -on* (pelis, peli9-un) is 
common in Romance : besides the Latin noims in 0, 
onis, we have numerous derivv. in -on, in all the lan- 
guages ; AVallach. has extended it further, into -o-iii 
(= Lat. on-iiis) instead of -on. Its use (as in Latin naso, 
cf. yaarpuiv, KiipaXwi',) to express a heightening of the 
primitive idea, is seen in It. ghiottone, glutton, from 



Lat. glutus; cf. Aub. glut 1332, and glut-un 1728. As 
a simple augmentative it is found in the E. and 
S. W., thus It. cavallone, Sp. caballon, Wallach. 
caloiu, a big horse, — while in the N. W., its force is 
that of a diminutive, e. gr. Prov. (auzelh), auzelho, F. 
(oiseau, oisel), oisillon, a smaU bird. 

480 ofuokes] this word, = avecques, avec, from 
Lat. ab [= apud] hoc, is a specially French growth. 
It never occurs again in this form throughout the 
poem, though the simple ' (?/*' is common enough. 
It is further the only instance in Aub. where we have 
this combination of vowels, viz., uo, except in the 
' t/uor' series : possibly the /u (= fv) was simply a 
digraph for v. 

481 arpentz] one of thefew Old Gallic words preserved 
in Romance. Here it is used Uneally, of a distance 
traversed, but it really meant a certain measure of land 
(cf. M. F. arpenteur, a land-surveyor) ; according to 
Columella, " Galli semijugerum quoque arepennem vo- 
cant". The final t is an addition, as in tirant (309), 
paisant (l 141). 

485 kar] v. Gloss, for the other examples of this use 
of O. F. kar = M. F. done, with imperatives, and cf. the 
use of yao in litit yafi, and nam in utinam, in optative 
clauses. 

486 espouri] from pavor, which becomes regularly 
pour in Aub., (pavor = pau-or = po-or. Norm, po-iir,) 
!M. F. peur, cf. /leur for aiir from augurium. 

489 ke] is here to be regarded as introducing a case- 
sentence dependent upon a verb of' asking', to be taken 
out of the general idea expressed in the preceding lines : 
' I commend you to him, [beseeching you] that you be 
not separated from him.' Or perhaps, more indirectly: 
' I commend you [with a sincere vrish that he will so 
sustain you], that you may not, &c.'; v. also 517. 

— esloinnez] cf. Spens. F. O. I. 4, 20 : 

from worldly cares himselfe he did eslo)Tie. 

491 mettez] indicative forms in dependent sentences, 
instead of the rightful subj., are met with, but here 
perhaps mettez is to be explained as a quasi-imperative. 

494 part] elsewhere the 3 sg. pres. ind. from parer, 
to appear, is always pert. For the tautology, v. 212, 
and cf. B. du Guesc. 5194 I'endemain au matin quant 
jour fu esclarcis ; Rom. de Tr. 7040 I'endemain ^ Tajor- 
ner, anceis que levast li soleill. 

498 a ki peise u agree] ' no matter whom it may annoy 
or gratify'; a very common formula of defiant determi- 
nation, cf. Ger. de V. 1020 a cui paise n'en agree ; 
Alix. 171.22 qui qu'en poist ne qu'en place; Rom. du 
Ren. 1042 cui qu'U enpoist ; B. du Guesc. 20403 a qui 
qu'il desagree ; KeU. Romv. 217.3 'V^ qu'en pleur ne 
qui chant ; Rom. de Tr. 7034 qui qu'en ait duel, ne qui 
qu'en rie. 

504 espee] It. spada, Sp. espada, M. L. spada, cf. 
Albert's Troilus V. 640, pensat quern finem bellica 
spatha petat. It has gone over unto O. H. G. spato, 
our spade, in a different direction of meaning; the 



* In the notes on P. del Cid (1073), Sanchez derives /t'//oi)/( from Latin pellkum, genitive plural ol pellkes I 
"Whut pelt ices comes from, is not said. 



NOTES. 



89 



Lat. spatha, a spatula, batten, was already in Tacitus 
used for a broad, pointless sword. 

— maoues] in Lat. we meet mateola. It. mazzuola, 
= mattock, from which is inferrible a Lat. matea. It. 
mazza, F. masse, 'mace'; from this by a different deri- 
vative, we get mass-uca, (in Old Pg., = a small iron 
bar,) M. F. niassue ; cf. carruca, lactuca, verruca, and 
M. F. charrue, laitue, vcrrue. 

506 medlee] our 'medley', M. F. melde ; formed 
from a Lat. misculare, It. mischiare, Sp. mezclar, O. F. 
mesler; M. L. has misleare, fomied from the noim, in 
O. Ital. mislea (Villani); the M. L. forms are various: 
mesleia, merleia, melleia, mellcta, medleta ; the radicals 
became assimilated to the /in the one case, me//eia, and 
disappeared after generating d, medleia, in the other 
(cf ladrefrom lazarus = lazdre, andcoudre from cons're). 
The word is defined as the crime of interfering in any 
matter, and so creating a disturbance, but without 
mahce prepense; and 'melliatores ' is used for ' noisy 
brawlers'. But the brawl easily grew into 3. fight, its 
common meaning; cf Mort Dart. I. 12, then waxed the 
meddle passing hard on both parties. 

Diez (I. 444) says of mcdler (mesler), that the rf was 
' a silent letter, to indicate the length of the vowel', on 
the ground that d in French does not allow / to follow 
it. Our word 'medley' (chance-medley), however, 
sliows that the d was pronounced. 

509 saerree] Lat. has 'sera', b.-ir for fastening doors, 
which was shot in different directions for opening and 
shutting, as expressed in the verbs, o4-serare, and re- 
serare, but M. L. uses the simple 'serare' for locking, 
shutting, &c., 'serrare januas'. .Span, and Portug. have 
adopted initial c, cerrar, to distinguish this verb from 
serrar, to saw ; It. has serrare, whence serraglio (a place 
shut up, a harem, by confusion with the Persian serai), 
which has been borrowed by the other langg., F. serail, 
Pg. seralho. 

514 suvent] Lat. 'subinde', Ital. sovente; Diez 
(Lex. I. 389) notes the unusual change of </ into /, hence 
in Gr. I. 220, he regards this It. -ente, as an adaptation 
from the Lat. adverbial form, as in repente, &c. 
In O. F., however, the change of final iid to iit is fami- 
liar in the simple iiide = O. F. cnt, iindc — unt, qiiando 
= quant, the gerund, forms -ando = F. ant, &c. 

515 arusee] is prob. formed directly from Lat. 'ros'; 
cf. alosez, 355. This seems better than to derive it from 
'roscidus', whence the Portug. get rosciar and rociar 
[though their ordinary term is orvalhar, of unknown 
origin]. 

516 ke] seems to bring in a final clause, 'in order 
that', unless it were preferred to explain by supposing 
a verb of 'asking' from the preceding line : — "He has 
often declared his belief (reclamee) in the law of Christ, 
[beseeching Him] that His virtue should be sent to 
him". 

517 envee] the rime -<&, shows that this is a real 
femin. form, and not a case (cf nde, 773) of masc. used 
for fern., as in Matz. Altfr. x.xi. 36, et k'i vous soit ma 
can(;on envoie. 

The Mod. F. future of envoyer, \\7.., envcrrai (where 
only one mispronounced), is the Norman form from en- 



veer, as contrasted with the Burgundian envoierai (which 
Montaigne uses). 

519 aftiblee] Lat. fibula, with the change of j into u 
after the labial, as in/wmier from /fmarius, and the forms 
i«i'-ons, &c., from bib-ere. In the other langg., the i 
is preserved: It. affibbiare, Portug. afivellar [Mod. Pg. 
hasfivc/d, instead of the old fibula]. 

521 chascuns] as in the Ital. ci.i.fcuno, the j of Lat. 
quisquc is here preserved ; cf. It. qiicsto, O. F. cest, 
M. F. cct. Span, and Pg. have a curious form, cada 
uno, but Old Span, gives quiscadauno (P. del Cid 1 145), 
which runs parallel with Ital. ciasch-ed-uno for Lat. 
quisque ad unum [or et unus]. The final a in cada is 
strange, but is prob. an inorganic addition ; cf M. F. 
chaqu-c, which was formed from chac-un, and is not 
derived from Lat. quisque, as is the Prov. quec. 

— bersee] ' to pierce with arrows'; the various con- 
jectures as to its origin, berbex, bersa, &.C., are not 
satisfactory. Diez supposes from berbex an Ital. berci- 
are, to thrust at as a ram, to pierce, quoting from DC. an 
Ital. chronicle, ' trabs ferrata, quam hcrcelliim [?] ajipella- 
bant' ; cf. bcUer, battering-^-irw, and the Wallach. verb 
imherhec, to butt. From this back and forward motion 
we should have bercel, M. F. berceau, 'rocking cradle', 
cf M. L. agitatorium. For the modification of mean- 
ing, V. note on navrer, 160. 

522 blessee] prob. of German origin, cf O. H. G. 
plez, M. H. G. bletzen, zebletzen, to chop into pieces. 

523 gorgee] cf. the following passage [a somewhat 
mysogynistic \\e\\', it is to be hoped, of domestic rela- 
tions in the middle ages], in which a queen and her 
daughter have fallen in love with the same man, and 
are quarrelling in consequence (Kell. Romv. 241, 26) : — 

la dame I'ot, .a poi n'est eruagie : 
petit s'en faut ne I'a bien chapignee. 
"garche", dist elle, "come estes desliee, 
com saves bien dire grant gorgie : 
pres ne vos doing es dens une poignie" ! 

524 truantz] a word whose meaning is much more 
settled than its etj-molog)'. The meaning is given in 
DC, under tridamis : — ' ignavi illi qui per provincias 
passim vagantur et mendaciis ac strophis suis omnibus 
illudunt, dum alios se fingimt quam revera sunt, unde pas- 
sim vox haec usurpatur ]3ro mendaciorum confictoribus.' 
It occurs in Sp. triihan, Pg. tniao, both meaning ' bouffon, 
jongleur,' but ihetri/a/it root is missing. [Old Sp. has 
tn/fari, but Diez deems this a mere accidental approxi- 
mation to truffa = joke, 'because Portug. has no triifao.' 
That is so, but it certainly had triifar, and still has 
trufaria, mockciy, and Old Sp. has triifador. Thus 
the verb triifar existed, and was prob. derived from 
truffa, a M.L. word = fraus, jocus, of the origin of which, 
however, nothing is known. Gk. rpv^ii has been 
suggested, and is as likely as anything else proposed, 
without being satisfactory.] Diez's derivation from 
Keltic tru = wretched, miserable, seems to me unten- 
able, were it only from the difference in meaning, 
and the question of the origin is further comphcated by- 
thc "M. L. tru-t-aniius, tru-d-aiiniis. the dental being 
also found in a curious O. Norse word, (of the nth cy.,) 
trudhr, with this meaning 'juggler' : I have no solution 



N 



go 



NOTES: 



to offer. It is noteworthy that hrigand is in a veri- 
similar predicament. Both brigand, and tiuand are 
ptcpial fonns from brigare, and tru(r)are, but further 
than that we cannot get; cf also fn'and, galant (O.F. 
galand), which are not much clearer. 

525 CuntrUTee] from this we have our word ' contrive ', 
to de\-ise, invent. In Fr., however, 'controuver' only 
means to invent a falsehood, to fabricate, as here in 
Aub. But the origin of truvcr itself is not much less 
disputed than of truant. Diez inclines to a Latin 
turbare from tiirba, through the meaning confusion, 
toss into confusion, rummage, and so seek. But seeking 
is not ZL[\\'a.ys fi nd ing, and even so, the wrench given to 
the meaning is verj' violent. I prefer Grimm's sugges- 
tion of a German verb with radical ii, instead of the e 
which is found in O.H.G. trefan. Mod. Germ, treffen, 
to hit, to find. [As a matter of fact there is one such 
verb known, \\z. : the Gothic truda, where other 
Teutonic dialects have e not x, O.H.G. tretan, our 
tread, &c.] This assumed tnifan would better suit 
both phonetic and signification. Diez compares the 
\i3\.frugare to search, (rom /urea a pitclifork, but the 
comparison goes but a small way, io\ fmgare does not 
mean to find, and turba involves the idea of con- 
fusion. 

530 par tut, u] Chaucer's ' overal, there,' cf. Cant. T. 
249.549, &c. ; 1209 frely to go, wher him lust m'er al. 

— pruvee] " wherever truth is tested, I \\\\\ be secu- 
rity that he will not be found wanting ; I will answer 
for him, if he be put to the proof, in the matter of right- 
eousness." 

531 chauoeB] It. calzada, Prov. caussada, i.e. Lat. 
calciata, from calx, chalk, prop, the raised lime-stone 
causeway over wet ground ; then generally, the foot- 
path in distinction from the carriage road. Our word 
causeway is a mere mistake from the older causey (as 
still spoken pro\'incially), which represents with the 
O.E. calsey, the O.F. forms calsee, causee, M.F. 
chauss-ee. 

532 sanz m. e manee] under ' mercia' D.C. quotes : — 
kar molt par est fo.x [fols] ki autre amor essaie, 
k'en cestui n'a barat, ne fausete, 

ne es autres n'a ne merci, ne manaie. 

Rom. de Tr. 1073 : 

trop par esteit li estors fiers, 
et sanz manaie, et sans merci. 

The word occurs in O. F. also under the form 
menaide, vianaide, and this gives the origin, viz., Lat. 
' manu adjutare', to help, and so to support, spare [cf. 
Rom. de Tr. 10696 ne Troylus pas ne manaie, he does 
not spare], hence Prov. manaya is rendered by Rajm. 
IV. 143 'merci, discretion', quoting ' en la sua man- 
aya ', ' at her discretion'. For the compound, cf. main- 
tenance. 

534 buter] M. F. bouter, Ital. buttare, Sp. Pg. botar, 
to fling, from M.H.G. bozen, to push ; whence F. botte, 
a thnist and bout, the butt-end ; with deriv. -on, bouton, 
the part thrust out, the bud. From bout, we have the 
adv. de-bout, ' on end ', and aboutir, to end in. 

536 se CtlTUCe] from the noun curuz (544), Prov. 
corivt:, which Diez takes to contain the same deriv.- 



suffix as in Ital. corruccio for coler-uccio ; but this 
seems improbable, as there is no other instance of such a 
change as Ital. uccio = F. ;/;, Prov. otz. I take 
corruccio and Fr. curuz to be totally distinct. Littre's 
corrupti-um from con-umpere is certainly nearer the 
phonetic, but the meaning is not satisfactorj-. Perhaps it 
has been influenced by a connexion with cor and rupius, 
cf. 'heartbroken'. DC. quotes from an Ital. stat. (ann. 
1269) : — " quod nemini hceat levare corruptuni seu 
plaugere alta voce propter mortuum " ; the \nolent 
emotion of sorrow might become that of anger, cf. the 
changes of meaning in courage (179). 
540 menee] cf. Rom. de Troie 4432 : — 

haster nos co^nent cest affaire, 

a quel que chief en deions traire 

o seit del faire ou del lessier. 
Vie de St. Thom. 105, b. 5 : — 

un itel visiuu li aveit deus mustree, 
qu'ilsout certainement, (s'il dist sa gentprivee,) 
a quel chief la parole sereit le jur finee. 
543 mue] Lat. mutare ; Mod. F. has displaced this 
word by the commercial changer. It. cangiare, cambiare, 
from Lat. cambire. Ital. uses mutare and cangiare 
indiscriminately, but in the peninsula, the modem usage 
keeps them distinct : thus Portug. cambiar is only used 
of commerce or narigation, barter, exchange, change of 
wind, sails, &c. ; while mudar is the general term. The 
phrase here used, 'muer la culur', is very common in 
O. F. &c., cf. Old Sp., Alex. Mag. f) 23 cambiosele la 
color e fues todo demudando ; and Portug. still uses 
demudarse, for ' to change colour'. We have another 
common phrase in Aub. 296 Deu vus a mue le enrage ; 
cf. Chas. d' Ori. (Rayn. IV. 281) :— 

bien me revint son gracieux langaige 

et tost Jtiuey mon propos et coraige. 
Mod. F. has lost the word, save in muer of the 
moulting of birds, Aub. 1005 cum uns osturs mue ; 
whence tnue, of the cage or enclosure for birds during 
the moulting season, our mew, " the place in which the 
hawk is put during the time she casts, or doth change 
her feathers " (quoted in Dyce, Shak. Gloss.), and to 
me7u up in confinement. It has left its trace moreover 
in Mod. F. in the compound re-muer, to change one's 
place frequently, to move, &c. 

546 ke] " who hast abandoned (all) that thy noble 
ancestors held dear" ; cf. 552 ore croiz ke va prechant 
un tafur, now thou believest (all) that an impostor goes 
about preaching. 
— gentil anoesur] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 6737 : 

ne folw his gentil ancestor that deed is. 

548 llvrez] 'to give up', Lat. liberare ; as to make 
anything free, means ' to let it go', to give it up. The 
meaning of the Latin word can only be expressed in 
Mod. F. by the compound dt'-livrer, where the other 
Rom. langg. have the simple verb ; we have our livery 
from the F. livree, used specially of the dress furnished 
to various officials by the authorities. 

549 li grant e li menur] cf. 746 jowe e \-ieI ; 1765 
veil e enfant ; r84i veillant e meschin ; 1067 jovre e 
enchani ; a very common expression, cf. in imitation 
of the O. F. romances, the Mod. Gk. romance of Im- 



NOTES. 



91 



berios (ed. Wagner), Wav/iatrav 01 avBpMirot /iiKpoi re 
Kai fityd\oi. 

550 sage de] for the construction, cf. Rom. de Tr. 
6876 qui molt est sages des set arz. 

— aprise] I have given this in Gloss, as = ' learning', 
but DC. sub voce. ' apprenticiatus ' (= tirocinium, 
apprentissage,) quotes: — "pour\eu qu'il ait ser%'i trois 
ans en bonne aprise", "se il est filz de maistre, et de 
ladicte aprinse, il ne paiera que la moitie de ladicte 
anse"; and perhaps ' apprenticeship ' would have been 
nearer the meaning. As a law-term, apprisia in M. L. is 
defined ; " mandatum quo judex superior formamsenten- 
tiae exprimit, jubetque inleriori, juxta hanc formam pro- 
nuntiare ". The apprentice learns, the judge teaches or 
apprises ; ' apprendre ' expresses both ideas ; cf. our 
vulgar use of learn for teach. 

551 deussez] the use of the impft. subj. is based on 
an attraction or imitation in the apodosis of the form of 
the verb in the protasis [which here is omitted, i.e., 
"if you were what might be expected from you"]. 
The subj. often remains, even when the protasis has the 
indie, cf Rabelais III. 6, ainsy, si I'annee secunde 
estoyetit en guerre occiz, leur nom et armes restast a 
leurs enfans. 

— miieui] cf Chauc. Cant. T. 11 7G : 

o Teuta queen, thy wifely chastite 

to able wyves may a mirour be. 
This form mireur, Prov. mirador, = a Lat.mirator, and 
should denote rather the looker [cf. in an opposite di- 
rection, opuia, for the eye'] ; M. F. has miroir = Lat. 
miratorium. The termination -eur is only used in Aub. 
for nouns of agency ; boiseur, changeur, conquesteur, cu- 
mandeur, empereur, enginnur, fableur, pecchur, prc- 
cheur, sauveur. And even here, mireur is referred to a 
person. 

552 tafar] this foreign word is early glossed : " tkafur 
per gentiles dicunlurquos noi truda>ines[y.fruatitz 524] 
vocamus ". It is of not uncommon occurrence in O. F. 
and Prov., and still exists in the peninsula, Sp. tahur, 
explained by Covarruvias as a confirmed gambler, ' el 
que continua mucho el juego ' ; Pg. has laful, profes- 
sional gambler, cheat [the fem. laftila curiously enough 
means a coqitet/e]. The word is probably of Arabic 
origin, but its root is not known. RajTi. V. 294 derives 
it from Arab, dahiir, which docs not exist ; Engelmann 
from dahtil, which is also objectionable, because Arab. 
d does not become Romance t. (It is singular that the 
root should not be forthcoming, for the form is distinct, 
and the meaning is certainly 'gambler'.) 

553 vaivez] only occurs here, and 164 ; it means 
'derelict', 'forlorn'. We have it in waif; ' vaivae 
res' (DC.) are objects ' quae nuUius proprietati atlributa, 
sine possessoris reclamatione, sunt inventa '. Thus, 
according to our O. E. law, a woman could not be out- 
lawed, utiagata, ' quia ipsa non est sub lege [instar viri 
in legem non juratur], wayvari tamen bene potest, et 
pro derelicta\\v.her\; est cnim vayvium quod nullus ad- 



vocat nee princeps earn advocabit nee tuebitur, cum 
fuerit recte way\-iata,' Bracton ; v. Grimm's Rechts-alt. 
738, \ 10. The word is probably of Teutonic origin : 
(A. -Sax. vafian, to hesitate.'') 

554 biimez] means evidently ' has fled away, gone off'; 
we have biller (= s'enfuir) given in the suppl. to DC, 
but I never met the word elsewhere, to my knowledge'. 

— tenegre] as in F. ^renouille, g has been prefixed 
to the r of Lat. ranucula, so perhaps tliis tene -gre is for 
tene -re, from tene -brae ; Sp. tinie -Was, Portug. trevas, 
(for te -\Tas = te(ne)bras). In Rom. de Tr. 19144 eel 
jor n'est pas U ciels tenerges*, sans recesser venta et plut. 

555 gupilz] perhaps no other animal has so many 
different names in tlie Rom. languages and dialects : 
(Diez gives a dozen which have no etymological connex- 
ion with each other). Prov. volp, and Wallach. 
vu/pe, have preserved tlie Lat. vtilpcs ; Old Sp. i;ulpeja, 
O. F. goiipille (also masc. goupil, as here), are from a 
dimin. vulpecula ; preserved in M. F. in goupillon (fox- 
tail), bottle-brush, though the old gupil has been ex- 
changed for Renard through the celebrated satire, in 
which O.H.G. Regin-hart (= strong in counsel) was 
the proper name of the fox. 

556 folage] a very common suffix in French (even from 
verbs, arrosage), courage, fromage, carnage, &c., all 
masc. ; formed from -aticum, after the model of the 
Latin word viaticum, It. viaggio, Fr. voyage, Sp. 
viaje [but Pg. \iagem is femin., for Portug. has 
assimilated all such nouns, carruagem, hnguagem, 
&c., to the Latin fern, forms in -ago, -aginis\ In 
marage (283), we have an example of its rare use in adjj. ; 
there being hardly any other instance than the original 
Lat. silvaticiis, which, however, is found in all the Ro- 
mance, It. selvaggio, Sp. salvaje, Portug. salvagem 
[better Sflvagem], Fr. sauvage, Prov. salvatge, Wallach. 
silbatic [though Diez II. 288 says this form is not 
found in Wallachian]. 

557 a fausse] the only instance in Aub. of this pre- 
dicative use o[ il "with an adj. 

— k'il out] ' in that he was afraid, it is clearly seen, 
that (his doctrine) was found to be false' ; cf 241,1088, 
where the indie, is of course used. It seems better to 
explain this adverbial clause 'k'U out poiir', as an 
elliptic case of a substantivized adj. clause, " it appears 
[from this, that] he was afraid ", rather than to take 
pert absolutely, and ke as introducing a causal clause : 
" it is apparent that the doctrine must have been false, for 
its preacher was afraid". Cf 816 tesmoine le element, 
ke a toi est attendant, " the element testifies [by the 
very fact that] it obeys thee ". 

559 avoue] Lat. advocatus, a defender ; from the M. 
L. usage, ' advocare ut filium suum ', we get our ' avow' 
a relationship, avowal, M. F. aveu. (It is not impos- 
sible that the forms from Lat. votttm, M. F. va;u, may 
have become confused with this word ; cf vow and -mow 
with M. F. vivii and areii ; and for the vowel-relation- 
ship in noun and verb, cf nauA, but noiter, jeu but 



• The Editor, M. Joly, in Glossary explains tenerges here as a word ' qui semble un souvenir dugrccivu^yi'/f, 
A moins qu'il ne vient de ' tergere ' ! 



92 



NOTES. 



jouer). From avoue, comes O. F. avouesun, our 'ad- 
vowson', to express the relation of a patron to his church- 
client. 

561 boiseur] prob. of the same origin as Germ, lose, 
O.H.G. bosi, from a Teutonic root bausi, whence Prov. 
bauzia, Ital. bugia, O. F. boisie. There is another O. 
F. word of similar import, roisie, voisdie, but which is 
ultimately connected with Lat. vitium. 

562 soille] the Prov. siilha, sow, is derived from a 
Lat. su-cula, to which F. smiille may also be referred, 
(cf j^'enouiUe from ranucula), hence souilUr, to wallow 
in filth like a pig, to defile. Or perhaps the verb is from 
a Teutonic source, cf. Goth, bi-saidjan, to defile. 

Stengel, Digby Cod. 86, p. 23, 37 : 

li %alein dist en reprousier : 

cil oisel eit mal encumbrer 

qui soille sun demeine ni. 
Mar. de Fr. II. 328 : 

mes ainz qu'od ax fust repaiiiez 

esteit ses niz ors e soilUez. 

— au chef de tur] a verj- common phrase : cf. Rom. 
de Tr. 1333 : — 

essaie s'i sont ja plosor 

qui furent mort au chief de tor. 

563 conquesteur] M. L. conquestus had a much 
wider meanmg than might be inferred from our ' con- 
quest": it came to denote even a rightful hereditaiy 
possession. Here it seems to mean, 'landholders', 
grandees, patricians, &c., as the result of their having 
been 'conquerors'. 

— ■ ki] owing to a very unusual omission of the verb 
in a series of co-ordinate relative clauses, we have to 
supply furent from the foUo^^•ing line. But even then 
the collocation is ver)- awkward, as the caesura must 
come after furent in 564 : the rime must bear the blame. 

567 stmt entendant] this periphrastic use of the 
pres. ptcp. with estre, is common in Aub., but is mainly 
owing to the exigencies of the rime ; cf 816, 829, 832, 
1124, 1128, 1137, 1143, 1172, 1177, 1178, 1194. 

568 le pejur] ' you will be none the worse of it' ; the 
pecuhar construction, with the obi. form le, seems owing 
to the phrase, ' aver le pejur', to have the worst, where 
le pejur is grammatically correct. 

569 diapeus] It. drappeUo; JI. L. had very early, 
drappus: 'si quis altero per mano aut perdrappo iratus 
priserit'. The word is perhaps of Teutonic origin; 
Diez quotes trabo from a gloss, of xii. cy., meaning 
'fimbria, extrema pars vestimenti', whence possibly the 
word was transferred to signify the cloth itself. [Qy. is 
the word reaUy trabo, or a mistake for trado, our 
thread f^ Here the word means simply M. F. draps, 
cf. "Ton ne cormoist pas la gent au drapeau". 

— nuit] the 3 sg. pres. subj., wMe dropping the 
inflective e, preserves the final t, thus aiiit from amer, 
aut ixora aler ; [aist from aider, doinst (592, 660, 1228, 
1 7 1 2) from duner, with inserted s, v. note on 399 ;] 
saut in 1 28, 933 ; cf Rom. du Ren. IV. 602 et jou te 
doins cui qu'il anuit; Matz. Altfr. xi. 30, ne m'en 
proit nus; ibid. xii. 14, n'ai qui m'en consent. 

— puiu] "fling away that dress, — let not the filthy 
thing hurt you! " cf. Vie de St. Thom. I 85, 4: 



traitez deust bien estre a mult grant deshonur, 
getez en un putel u en greinnur puur. 
Rom. de Tr. 33 1 : 

erent tuit li%Te a torment 
de la puor des cors porriz 
qui n'estoient enseveliz. 
Ibid. 12689: 

li ers (airs) est pleins de puors 
des cors qui sont pie^a ocis ; — 
toz les ocist la fort puor. 
from Lat. 'putere', to stink, so puant (66); the ter- 
mination -j^ris not very common in F. from adjj. and 
ptcpp., we have in Aub. irur 544, baudur 558, foleur 
574, dufur 580, hisdur (.') 570, and there are probably 
not many more. 

570 hisdui] I am very dubious as to this line, for the 
JIS. has dun e as ; 1 have given dune for dunt as the 
nearest approach I could make : — 'whence thou hast 
fright ' ; the phrase aver hisdur, to be terrified, is com- 
mon enough; cf. Vie de St. Thom. 105, 12: — 

quant U esguardeit si le hanap tut entur, 

e \it le \in si truble qu'il en out grant hisdur. 
Trist. I. 115: 

tel saut feistes qu'il n'a home 

de Costentin entresqu' a Rome, 

se il le voit, n'en ait hisdor. 
The word 'hisdur' has no congener in the sister- 
languages, so that its origin must be sought on the 
basis of its two O. F. forms, hisde, and hide, whence 
adj. hisdeux and liideux, our 'hideous'. If the s is in- 
serted, the O. H. G. egidi (horror), contracted into 
eide, ide, hide, may be the etjinon. Or, its origin 
might be Lat. 'hispidus', hispidosus, by the omission of 
the medial syll. (cf. -sad in maussade from sa-pi-dus] ; 
the meaning here, however, is not very suitable, and 
perhaps its occurrence solely in F. , denotes a Keltic origin. 

571 gabber] It. gabbo, gabbare, to mock ; Old Sp. 
gabar-se [• tan raro en nuestro idioma como frecuente 
en el P. de Alejandro', Sanchez] : meant to boast, and 
Portug. still uses the word gabar of sarcastic praise. 
The origin is prob. O. Norse gabb, mockery, gabba, to 
mock. 

576 estui] our O. E. and pro%incial stoaere ; Pr. 
estorn. It. stormo ; from O. H. G. sturm. Portug. still 
has estourar, to break with \iolence, estouro, crash. 

577 darreins] Prov. dereiran, corresponding to a 
Lat. form deretranus, (de retro,) the further extension 
of which, deretran-arius is the origin of the Mod. F. 
dern-ier : O. F. darrein-er (Aub. 1591). The simple 
retro i% not in use [save in Portug., where 'vender a 
>-(?//-i) ' means ' to sell mth a power of buying back']; 
but, compounded with de and ad, we have derriire and 
arriere, It. di-etro, with the omission of tlie initial r. 
In Rom. de Tr. we have the word doubly compounded, 
de-derain (7052). 

— premur] the unsettledness of the gender of cer- 
tain words in il. F., e. gr. amour, has its counterpart 
in the fact that the derivv. in -or are femin. in French, 
but masc. in Ital. and Span., with considerable varia- 
tions besides ; e. gr. the fem. Lat. arbor is femin. in 
Portug. an'ore, and Ital. arbore, but masc. inFr. arbre, 



NOTES. 



93 



and Span, arbol ; colore is m<isc. in Ital., antl Span. 
[color), but femin. in Fr. {couUiir), and Portu^'. {cor). 

I have marked the genders of the Aub. nouns in -tir 
according to the best of my observations on their use 
in O. F., but am by no means satisfied in ever>' case. 
This word is certainly feminine in Mod. F. (where it 
usually means the first fruits of the season, but cf. the 
charming line of Mme. Ackermann, "en fait d' aimer, 
la primeur est exquise"). 

582 ranctir] It. rancore, from Lat. rancor, rancidness, 
employed by Jerome in the sense of the M.F. rancune, 
rancour. The word was commonly used in M. L. for ira, 
odium ; v. Merzdorfs gloss, in his edition of Troilus. 

573 ki] apparently for ke, "there is no one so wise, 
&c., that he is not sometimes seduced ". 

577 darreins, premur] you are neither the last nor 
the first, who has been deceived : all are liable to be 
caught napping ; but you can retrace your steps and 
repent of your past folly. 

586 grant] this must be ace. pi., but it is the only 
place where it has not the final s in obi. case of the plu- 
ral. The .accents in the te.xt are terres I e ci'tez grant 

II fiez ' chasteus \ e tur ; though grant is so rarely used 
after(l7.-87)itsnoun, that perhaps 'grant fiez ' of Gloss. 
is better: tdrr'ese|citez || grant fidz | chasteus | e tur. 

587 greiimur] Lat. gmndior ; of the five com- 
monly occurring Lat. comparatives, we have in Aub. 
majur547; menur549; pcjur 568; ?«(7/«r curiously does 
not occur. 

589-619] the metre in these 31 lines is quite different 
from that of the rest of the poem : in place of six usual 
accents, there are seven, which will be best felt by reading 
lines 589, 594, 599, 603, 605, 608, 609, 613, 614, 618. 
The metre in these lines, it will be seen, is the same as 
in the few French verses given in the Preface in the 
account of the MS., of which the following two may be 
taken as tyjies : 

Auban par moi 
giicrpi la foi 
k'alme entusche e mahainne; 
li prcmers fii 
ki pur Jesii 
mort siifri en Brettainne. 
In 589-619, the inner rime is wanting, but the rhj'thm 
is the same. The remaining lines exhibit tlie same freedom 
already noticed (v. note on i ). To regularise by addition 
of syllables is to ignore O. F. usage. Now and then it 
would be quite easy : insert sun before quor 590 ; in 
591 insert et hcfore plus and en before a, &c. But other 
lines would resist such a method : e. gr. 692, where, 
however, the beats are plain enough : — 
e dlst : amis ! 
si tc doinst 
Defls bonaventure. 
589 geenst] prct. of ' geindre', from Lat. geinere, cf. 
empreindre, Lat. imprimere, craindre, Lat. treinere. In 
'799 we find reinst from raembre [still preserved in F. 
patois], Lat. redimcre, which as a verb has disappeared 
from M. F. The strong form i;eindre has been trans- 
formed in M. F. into a weak verb of the ir conjugation 
gemir ; cf. also the new formation imjirimer. 



593 queus] the collocation is peculiar, the question 
being evidently : " queus est plus haut, li crcaturs u siie 
creature ?" 

594 quidez] Sp. I'g. cuidar. Old It. coitare, W,allach. 
cugcta, from Lat. cogitare ; hence in different directions 
of meaning, Sp. cuidado, care, anxiety, but F. outre- 
cuid.ance. It. tra-eotanza, presumption. 

595 parole] It. p.arola, Prov. paraula, from parabola, 
TTannj^iiA)/ ; .Span, and Portug. have transposed the 
liquids, paLibra, palavra, 'pakaver', so galardon ['^(1},) for 
widarlon, esmola (loo) for elmosa. In Ital. and F., 
parlare and parler are the terms in ordinary use, but Sp. 
parlar, Y^.palrar only mean to chatter. On the other 
hand, to talk is expressed by Sp. hablar, Pg. fallar, 
from Lat. fabulari, which has degenerated in F. into 
hdhler, to bounce, brag. All tlie Romance kangg,, how- 
ever, have borrowed tliis word parabola, to use instead 
of the canonized ' verbum ', except Wallachian, in which 
vorba means words, while speech, discourse, is rather 
cut'int ; thus a luacuvintul, = prendre la parole, but vorba 
sint, they are mere words. 

596 tins] if this be the plural of the indef. pron., it is 
very unusual. DC. quotes from Rom. de Garin : en 
unes buies avoit les pie's boute's. It is common enough 
in (Span, and) Portug., where indeed uus differs from 
alguns, just in being absolutely void of any definiteness. 
This seems to be the intention here. 

600 desmesuie] a common adverb, cf. Vie de St. 
Thom. 167.12 si cha'i en langur grevuse 4 desraesure; 
Mar. de F. I. 100 bele esteit 3 desmeure ; Edw. 
Conf. 207 : 

e se fist apeler rei, 

e fist utrage e grant desrei ; 

roba avoir a desmesure 

sanz piete e saunz dreiture. 
602 espirable] perhaps an error for esperitable ; at 
least the form, if correct, should represent a Lat. spirabilis 
(Virgil's coeli spirabile lumen), which would not furnish 
a suitable meaning. 

— nette] Lat. nitidus, It. netto, Sp. neto, M. F. net, 
Wallach. nctcd, all with similar meaning, but Portug. 
nedeo (nedio) only means sleek, well-fed, chubby 
[Horace's ' pinguem et nitidura ']. 

607 fleccMrai] Lat. flectere, with altered conjug. ; the 
change of Lat. ct into Fr. ch is rare, but occurs in other 
verbs also, as cacher for co-actare, einpechcr for im- 
pactare. It is a regular change in Spanish, thus factus 
becomes hecho, lacte, leche. Sic. 

608 M. rem, k'en enfer trait] cf. Chauc. Cant. 
T. 4760: 

what sclial us tyden of this newe lawe 
but thraldom to oure body and penaunce, 
and afterward in helle to bedrawe, 
for we rcneyed ilahound our creaunce .' 
614oeroUSines] prob. for '.sarcasme', aapKa(s\ittQ, jibe, 
scoff ; as defined in the Leys d' amors fRayn. V. 155 ) : 
" sarcasmos vol due aytan coma malsdigz o vilania 
qu'om dilz ad alcuna persona per escarnimen ". 

617 rioto e ntiroture] the first of this strange pair 
'riot', has no suitable etymology: the second is from 
Lat. nutrire, but the precise meaning of the two to- 



94 



NOTES. 



gether, I do not know. Riote certainly means ' quarrel- 
someness', cf. Rom. de Mah. 456 : 

il est adies plains de rihote, 

chascun jour plus et plus assote. 
where the Editor renders it byhumeur chagrine', which 
is not strong enough. And nourriture means some- 
times 'education', so Lafontaine, Fab. VIII. 24, la douce 
nourriture fortifiant en I'un cette heureuse nature. 
Possibly ' riotous li\-ing as men, owing to bad early 
training', may be taken as a paraphrase. 

618 orduie] deriv. of O. F. adj. ord, ort, filthy, from 
horridus. Cf the commercial term peser ort, to weigh 
^/■o«-weight. 

Burguy I. 253 : 

car en la boe et en I'ordure 
et en la borbe de luxure, 
I'avomes nos tot prove pris. 

619 adanture] ' for the foal hardly forgets what he 
learns when he is being broken in'; domare is the 
special word in Ital. and Pg. for breaking in a 
horse, &c., hence domitare, dompter, O. F. danter, 
our 'daunt'. 

— pulein] Lat. ' pullus ', already used in Pliny, 
' pullini dentes ', of the teeth of a young colt. 

618 k'] is this for ke or ki'i So far as the sense goes, 
it might be either; and if the former, either the nominal, 
or causal. There are thus possible three translations : 
I , = ki, [referring to an antecedent nis, to be talien out 
of'Toz maus', 617], 'I spoke to him about you, iiAo 
have always been &c.' ; 2 = ke causal, 'for you have 
&c.' ; ^ = ke nominal, 'I told him, that you have, &c.' 
I have entered it in Gloss, in the last of these three, and 
for this reason : ki is hardly ever* in Aub. elided save 
be/ore ' en\ 'est', or 'a'. 

620 bruit] It. bruire, Pr. brugirseem to point to Lat. 
rugire with prefixed b ; but I prefer supposing a vulgar 
Latin brugire cognate with/3pi';^-, I3pvyfi6g, &c., because 
we have in all the Rom., an unaltered derivative from 
rugire, W. F. rugir (in O. F. ruir, whence subst. ruit, 
our mt, from the noise which tlie deer make) ; and 
besides, as It. also has both bruire and ruggire [though 
the former is I believe used exclusively of the rumbUng 
of wind in the bowels, whereas It. ruggito, Sp. and 
Pg. ruido, are used of all sorts of noises in general] ; 
it is improbable that both Fr. and It. would have com- 
mitted the solecism of prefixing an unnecessary b to 
the Lat. rugire. 

621 quant] O. F. often has the temporal particle 



instead of the abstract que with which M. F. introduces 
accessory clauses after substantives of time ; cf. Moliere, 
I'Etourdi IV.' 9 a I'heure que je parle, with Aub. au 
jur quant feste funt. Still more characteristic is the 
omission altogether of any particle ; compare Chateau- 
briand, 'un temps viendra que tons les hommes se con- 
duiront, &ic.', with Aub. 1S21, uncore vendra le jur, la 
estoire ert translatee. But the modem way also occurs 
in Aub., cf 858, au jur. . . . ki ne urentbeii (if indeed ki 
be here only an error for ke, but v. note). 

622 ke] the non-elision of the e of ke as accus. of the 
rel. pron., is very frequent in Aub. before a following // 
(where alone the non-ehsion occurs) ; cf. 

Mas. sg. 422 a un Jesu fiz Deu ke il aiira 

542 ke il ad de sun maistre retenu par amur 
622 a Febun, deu d'solail ke il aiimmt 
910 le regne a recever ke il ad beu meriz 

1099 ke tl par martire en terre beu meri 

Mas. pi. 1396 ke il avant urent en despit eii 

Fem. sg. 1 185 veez ci la croiz Auban ke il au muriant. 
The collocation only occurs in the beginning of the line 
or immediately after the ca;5ura, and the two syllables 
are invariably pronounced. Elsewhere the ke is elided 
before a vowel, except in 830, U solailz ke aiirum, where 
e\idently it ought to be ehded, because it caimot be 
pronounced, even for the metre. Of course, the ke 
could be eUded also before il, cf. 987, 1017, 1768 ; 319, 
5'5. 519' 533> i°94. 1785. [In the case of the conj. 
(adv.) ke, it is rather oftener elided than not before il: elided 
527. 557. 919. 932. 953. 967. 976,991. 1048, 1216, 1224, 
1388, 1528, 1579, 1630, 1711, 1738, 1793, 1815 ; 7ion. 
elided\i2, 315, 373, 430, 449, 561, 744, 958, mo, 15S1, 
1772, 1803.] 

623 curie] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 2140: 

and as the gv'se was in his contre, 
ful heye upon a char of gold stood he. 

624 un' image] as image is fem., the MS.«« is either 
a mistake, or is intended for un' ; the only other instance 
where tlie indef art. fem. comes before a vowel is 
found in 765, where it is une ewe. 

— ] it is not easy to see the government of all the 
words in this long loose parenthesis. Apparently we 
must take the three clausules containing curre, rubi, 
and image, as so many co-ordinate descriptive relative 
clauses : "it was by chance on the day when they make 
a festival to the Sun-god, whom they propose to hon- 
our, [and who is represented by] an image of burnished 
gold standing in a chariot, holding a round ruby, near 



* The following analysis will convey a more definite idea of the facts. As I am only referring to the nominative, 
there are four series possible, the masc. and fem. sg. and pi., the last of wluch, however, does not occur. Of the 
rest, in Masc. Sg., we have k' for ki before a, 458, 478, 741, 1357 ; — ad 511 ; — en Ol, 66, lOO, 362, 452, 484, 502, 

608, 659, 1199, 1255, 1259, 1398, 1447, 1508, 179S ; — esfSys, 930, 942 (ert), 953, 1029 ; also before Adam 

655 ; Auban 1160 ; avant 1 544. I may note the circumstance that the elision before est only takes place between 
875 and 1029, while the otherwise common ehsion before en never occurs between 659 and T199, consequently 
the same interval, in which also is contained the passion of St. Aracle. (These and other minute details go to 
show that the Aracle was not written precisely at the same time as the Auban.) In Fem. Sg., before en 1451 ; — 
est 495, 1002, 1268, 1320. In Masc. PI., before a iioi, 1596, 1644 ; — en 14, 599, 642, 1762, 1788 ; — erent 1720, 
1753 ; — aspres 855 ; — avant 1551. Probably therefore 1299 k'i sunt is WTongly edited, and should be ki, ' our men 
who still exist ; ' cf. 272 la joie ki i fu [not k'i\ 



NOTES. 



95 



which im.if;e they ■will all assemble, and pay their 
solemn annual vows and devotions". 

624 assemblerunt] Lat. simul gives simulare, to make 
like, imitate, pretend, &c., whence It. sembrare, O. Sp. 
semblar, O. F. scmbler, giving birth to It. sembiante, 
Sp. Pg. sembiante, Aulj. 817 semblant, hkeness, coun- 
tenance, (and 508 semblance, counterfeit) ; the com- 
pound assembler still has the primitive meaning of 
sifrjut^ as in t'n-s^rnf'lc', viz., to come together, while 
the double comp. rassembler has followed the course 
of semblant, and is our 'resemble'. The use of simulare 
further in a bad sense, led to the formation of a verb 
from simi/is, viz.. It. somigliare, Sp. semejar, Pg. 
scmelhar, in the sense of ' making like', &c. 

625 soudrnnt] cf. the Roman inscription, V.S.L.M., 
= * votujn soh'it libcns merito ' . From solvere = sol(v)re, 
soldre, soudre, we have a prcs. i st sg. sol, of wliich the 
Picard. variation soil gives us our as-soil, (as in O. F. 
je vous assoil de tous les j)echies que vous oncques 
feistes ;) variously used in O. E., to assoil a riddle, pain, 
error, &c., cf. Spenser's Daplmaida, 496 : 

and ye, poor pUgrimes ! that with restlesse toyle 
wearie your selves in wandering desert wayes, 
till that ye come where ye your voices assoyle, &c. 
628 Terra k'] to transkate here, 'he will see Mai they 
will sacrifice', hardly makes sense; perhaps, 'he will 
sec -what (= whom) they will sacrifice', darkly hinting 
at Auban himself as the victim. 

630 trainent] the substt. F. train, It. iraino, Sp. 
trajin, are evidently from Lat. trahere, but the Ital. and 
Span, forms would seem to imply a sullix -ino, and as 
this is not appended to verbal stems, Diez prefers to 
regard the Ital. and Span, as loan-words from Fr. train 
for traim — trahiin from Lat. trahimen ; cf. nourrain, 
O. F. nounin, from nutrimen, and gain [in regain] 
compared with It. gitaime for giiadime, [dcriv. of 
guadar, from O. H. G. weido, v. gainnur 1 141]. 
Against Diez, there is this to be said : the suffix -imcn 
which is rare in the other Romance langg., is of quite 
common usage in Wallachian : now there is no trag-i>Hf, 
so far as I know, but there is a verb tragana, corres- 
ponding to Ital. trainare, Sp. tr.ajinar. 

631 desnmt] I-at. dis-mmpere ; cf. Montaiglon's 
Recueil, p. lO), li uns sache, li autres tire; la toile 
desront et de.s])iece; Kell. Romv. 204. 15, les dras 
avoit dcsrons et dessirts ; Alexis 78, ad ambcs mains 
desnmipt sa blance barbe. 

632 enpeinnent] Lat.impingere; soenfreindre (1216), 
Lat. infringcrc ; teinte (1201), teindre, Lat. tingere ; 
poinnent (7ti2), poindre, Lat. pungere ; pleinent (1794), 
Lat. plangere ; cf. Rom. de Tr. 27119: 

fiert et caple, bote et enpeint, 
tot detrenche quant qu'il atcint. 

634 nent] M. F. n(5ant. It. niente, from Lat. mc 
ens. This ens, now only known as a philosopliieal 
word, must have existed as a popular word, as it has 
given birth to the common absens and pr.-csens. We 
have the comp. anentir in 1142, 1454. 

635-642] "sow land, make a bridge of ice, [cf. Aris- 
toph. Vesp. 280, XiOov Vii'fic, tXiytv; Lady of the 
Lake, III., 28, he who stetns a stream -eith sand, Sec. ; 



and see an exquisite love-song in Legrand's Chansons 
Grecques, p. 636, for a list of difficulties to be overcome 
before either lover will yield ;] do anything that is im- 
possible, but sooner shall the sea dry up, and the rivers 
(low backwards {avui iroTanoi), than I shall forget 
Jesus for a ship-lo.ad of gold, nor for all the men in the 
world. Nobody, — neighbour, or relative, or friend, of 
any sort, can ever do anything, wliich shall induce me 
to worship devils." 

635 gravele] prob. from a Kj-mric root; cf. Welsh 
gro, as a collective, = pebbles, coarse sand. Diez gives 
gro, pi. gravel(?) ; Schuchardt (i. 189, n.) proposes Lat. 
glared as the origin, thus glarea = gla-ia = gla-v-ia = 
gra-v-ia, gr6ve; also suggesting a confusion of ^/cia with 
glera = glarea. We have preserved in our 'gravel' the 
meaning of the O. F. word, which M. F. has lost, as 
gravele is now met only as a medical term, though 
graveleux, gritty, is still in use. It was common 
enough in O. F., cf. Fl. et Blancef., p. 74 : 

au missel de la fontanele, 
dont de fin or est la gravele ; 
and for the idea, cf Rom. de la Violelte, p. 15 : 
cil ont en gravele seme 
oil semance ne pent reprendre. 

— semmez] Ital. preserves »< and n, seminare, (O.) Fr. 
assimilates, semmer, Portug. sj-ncopates the n, semear. 
Span, transforms the final n into r, and then inserts b, 
sembrar; just so It. nominarc, F. nommer, Pg. 
nomear, Sp. nombrar, and cf. the Romance modifica- 
tions of Lat. homines,— H, uomini, Fr. Iwmmes, Pg. 
homens, Sp. hombres. 

636 ainz,— ke] 'sooner, — than', withs'.'bj., cf. Miitz. 
Altfr. 27.20 : 

tant k'aurai amic, 
ancois voir morra 
mes cuers, K'\\ recroie ja 
de faire sa coumandie. 

— ruisseu] dimin. of O. F. ru, riu, Lat. ri\'iis ; in- 
stead of rivultis, the Romance prefened the accented 
-cellus, so riviccUus, riu-cellus, rui-ssel. The Ital. i~u- 
scello is prob. borrowed from the French ; cf. ru-scello 
with vas-cello from vas-culum, and ramoscello from 
ramusculus, where Ital. sc = Lat. sc. 

638 dromuiiii] from ^po/iwi', ' genus na^acellae velo- 
cissimae'; DC. quotes from I'rocop. : " ^po/iwrnf /cnX- 
nvtsi TO. TrXofa rntira, TrXnv -^a^ ^ird raxog ^vvavTai 
liaXtara," hence in Alix. 55,3, par mer n'a en corant nul 
dromont si isnel; common enough in O.K. dromon, 
Mort. Dart. v. 3. 

640 brun] O. II. G. briht, hence the verb It. bru- 
nire, O. F. brunir, burnir (Aub. 473, 624), our burnish. 

— hlund] a word of uncertain origin : the nearest ap- 
proach seems the A. -Sax. blondenfea.x = 'mixed h.air', 
common in Beovulf, ( 1 59 ■; blondenfeaxe gomulc,)asan 
epithet of an old man. Perhaps this mixture of colour 
came to imply the red and white olafair complexion, 
the roses .and lilies of a blonde, as opposed to tl;e 
monotone of a brunette. The phrase was in very com- 
mon use, cf. Bartsch, Rom. u. Past. 275, 39 : 

mais je mc sai a voir, 
soit en place u en glise. 



96 



NOTES. 



quant sui en ma chemise, 
je ne truis Wont ne noir, &c. 

643 pere, fust] with these must be supplied de from 
metal : "evil befal such gods as are of stone, of wood, 
or of metal, for stone perishes and falls to pieces, 
wood burns, and metal melts". 

644 depece] this neuter usage (Aub. 254, 652) is 
very common in O. F., cf. Rom. de Brut, 2527 : 

une formente grans leva ; 

li ciel noirci, li mer troubla. 

li mers enfla, onde leverent ; 

wage cnirent et reverserent ; 

nef commencent a perillier, 

bort et lde\-illes a froissier, 

rompent closture et bort froissent, 

voile d^piecent et mast croissent. 
645-663] in this rime-band it is evident from respiit 
649, cheriit 655, and delit 662, that the s before the 
final t in the other words was not pronounced ; perhaps 
the iotacism in despiist, respiit, and cheriit, is simply to 
denote tlie long vowel. The final t was in all probabi- 
lity pronounced, for we have no case of a pure vowel 
ending being rimed with a /-closed syllable, and delit 
of 662 is our O. E. delit, (delyt, delite, &c.) 

646 despiist] our despite, Lat. despicere, O. F. de- 
spire ; M. F. has adopted instead mepriser, preferring 
to depreciate, rather than merely to look down on, an un- 
W'orthy object ; but the looking down is apt to degene- 
rate into the curtailed jr/j'/tf. The 3rd sing, here, (cf. 250 
despit, where it certainly is pret.,) is perhaps pret., 
but I have given it in Gloss, as pres., because in Aub. 
the two forms are usually distinguished, thus dire 
(= dicere), has .always dit (= dicit), and dist (= dixit). 
The necessities of the rime have apparently troubled 
the forms; thus in 651 batist, obeist .are not pret., 
(which is bati 234, obei), and batist would be a curious 
present ; enpeinst ought to be pret. I have given 
obeist, enpeinst, and batist in Gloss, as impft. subj. 
forms, but enpeinst in that case should be enpeinsist ; 
ani perhaps they are all present. 

649 lores] this is the only hue [except 1203 Amplii- 
bal lors gette,] in which lores, lors, does not stand at 
the beginning of the line .and clause, and even here it 
is immediately after the ca?sural pause. 

— respiit] our respite from respectus, very commonly 
used in M. L. to denote 'delay' ; DC. quotes : ' si in- 
veniri non poterant, mensis et unius diei respectum 
habebant ad eum inveniendum *, 

651 peus] pi. of pel (1606, peel 1600, 1603,) from 
Lat. palus, presened in M. F. supplice du pal, our 
im-pale, and the derivT. pal-is, pal-isser, pal-issade. 
From the diphthongated piel, Diez and Scheler explain 
the ordinary M. F. word for stake, pole, viz., pieu, but 
I think it is preferable to derive ^?V« from a iovmpicU' 
lus. It. picchio ; then vieu : veclus = pieu : piclus ; 
it is true that the I in picus is kept in all Romance 
deri\-v., but then we have spiculum, espieu, epieu, which 
is exactly the same. 

— bastuns] prob. from a popular Latin word bastum, 
p.ack-saddle, (connected with finaTa^, j3n<Tra?ju', to 
carry, support ; we have bastagia in the early codes, 



and cf. bastema, sedan-ch,air, of Am. Marcellinus, 4th 
cy.), hence It. basto, M. F. bat; with suff.-<j». It. 
bastone, F. bastun, baton, stick, as a support ; with 
%\iS.-ard, bastard, fils de bat, 'child over the hatch'. 
The same root has given It. bastire, F. batir, and the 
derivT. bastion, bastille. 

[Other derivv. such as Ital. bastare, to suffice, M. F. 
bdter, our baste, to take long stiches, (and the word 
baste, employed in cooldng meat, or cudgeUing a per- 
son,) seem too far removed from the radical meaning 
to bear this reference.] 

657 forfist] Lat. foris facio, to outleap the bounds of 
right conduct, F. forfaire, pp. for-fait, which has given 
our forfeit ; for the meaning, cf. trans-gredior, and also 
Gia\}[i. fra-vaurkjan. The line is to be taken as paren- 
thetic : " He who loved Adam so much that He made 
him like Himself, (though still Adam went astray 
through the treachery of the serpent,) sent down from 
heaven His Son." As 'forfaire sun fief means 
to forfeit one's fief, we might render here, ' he for- 
feited his privileges in the divine resemblance', &c. 

659] the line as it stands in the MS. cannot be right : 
du is quite impossible ; grammar and rhythm seem 
restored by reading d'tine for du, and prefixing it to 
the words 'k'en terre char', so that the line would run : 
'sun fiuz k'en terre char d'une pucele prist.' 

661 poisantz] It. possente, M. F. puissant, formed 
from a barbarous ptcpial form posseiis, possentis, on the 
analogy of ens, eiitis. Span, and Portug. have formed 
their adj. from the inf., poder-oso, [though Pg. (not 
Sp.) has also an adj. possante, from a stx\> possar out of 
the subst. posse ;] so Wallach. has puter-nic, with its 
peculiar siif. -nic, borrowed from Slavonian. 

664 esploiter] from espleit = Lat. explicitum ; explicare 
is found \rith the sense 'tocomplete', (Pliny, 'elegosquo- 
que feUciter explicui ', and cf. the M. L. ' expUcit ' at the 
end of MSS. to denote the completion,) hence = to exe- 
cute, achieve, (a military exploit ; in judicial procedure, 
a writ, — cf. 'signifier un exploit', 'to serve a writ';) and 
so generally to 'succeed'. From this root, Portug. has 
its esprcitar, to spy, watch ; cf. also the SL F. exten- 
sion of usage, exploiter (une mine, des bois, &c.) 

— par tant] not = M. F. 'pourtant, however', 
though it would make good sense here, and is so used 
in O. F., but rather = thereby, by all those efforts ; cf. 
1562, where it could not mean 'however'. 

666 chaesnes] for the inserted s, (enchaesnez 670, and 
M. F. chaine,) v. note on 375; chaene = Lat. catena, 
Sp. cadena. From a dimin. catellus (= catenulus), 
we have cadel, cadeati, prop, writing-flourish, hence 
ornament, accessor)', and so gift, used peculiarly in 
Moliere's time, = ' diner en partie de campagne, dont on 
regale quelqu'un'. By suff. -on, we get chain-on, 
chaignon, chignon. 

667 pousse] this is not the usual form of the pres. 
subj., which has generally :' before the s, [poisse(t), 
puist, puisse] ; in Aub. we have oii (here), eii (peiisum 
I2ct<i), and «j' (puissez 1316). 

668 seut] in this word, and in deut 589, veut 1239, 
we have eii = el (ol) with vocalized /, (solet, dolet) ; 
but in puet, [always so written in Aub.], lit is for o, 



NOTES. 



97 



with omitted final dental of the root, as is well seen in 
the 3 pi. volent (1626), but poent (664). 

669 put] prob. a mere mistake iot puet, \yixAess ptist 
(672) were possible;] 'anguish which can soon pass 
away' ; s'en passer = s'en aUcr. 

— tost] It. tosto, Old Sp. tost, toste. Old Portug. 
toste, tosto, M. F. tot, (bientut, tantot,plutut, aussitot). 
Diez seems inclined rather to the deriv. from tot-cito 
[totus citus], comparing tout-a-l'heure, but the difficul- 
ties in the way of the phonetic [to-st = to(t)c'to,] are 
hardly removed by the example of It. amirta for ami;-;- 
tas, unless all the langg. borrowed the word from Ital., 
which is improbable. I prefer the natural deriv. from 
tostus, ptcp. of torreo ; cf. torrens, = rushing, rapid, 
(hardly ever used in the sense of heat). For the transfer 
of meaning, cf. Ital. fretta, = haste, with oxa friction, 
M. F. frotter, frOler [= frotler], from Lat. fricare, 
(frictus,) to rub. 

671 destresoe] our distress, M. F. detresse, Prov. 
detreissa, verbal noun formed from districtiare (v. note 
on 56) , from stringere ; for the idea, cf angoisse from 
angustia, tightness. The termination -esce, is not from 
a nominal suffix, (Ital. has dis-^«W-ezza,) nor is it to be 
explained as destrict-ia, for the suff. -ia is not added to 
verbals. 

— gaholer] hom gaole (gaol), deriv. by suff. -ola from 
Lat. cavea, M. F. cage, for which It. has gabbia, Prov. 
gabia, — with the suflix. It. gabbiuola, Portug. gaiola. 
I am inclined to regard the O. F. gaole, jaiole, &c., 
as standing for (ca)jeole, [cf rougeole from rubeola, and 
for the aphaeresis, cf. cenele (1267) for Lat. coc-cinella,] 
preserv'ed in cajoler, whereas enjoler is from the short 
form jeole, which was borrowed by Span, as jaula, 
enjaular, (but Portug. engaiolar). In Aub., this inser- 
tion of h in the ga-h-oler does not occur elsewhere, nor 
the diphthong ao, except in aorer, 694. 

672 aie] Lat. adjutus. It. aiuto, Sp. ayuda, O. F. 
Ch. dc R. aiude 1336, aiue 2303 ; but there grew up 
also another form with omitted u. It. aita, O. F. aide, 
and aie. In the modern langg., Ital. aiutare and Wal- 
lach. ajtita have preserved the tenuis : the others have 
adopted the media. 

6(3 Chartre] Lat. career, Ital. Portug. carcere. Span, 
carcel, Prov. career ; for tr = Lat. cr in F. chartre, cf. 
veintre (1148) = Lat. vinc(e)re. 

677 vaissele] fem. form of O. F. vaissel, our vessel, 
M. F. vaisseau. It. vascello, Sp. bajel, Portug. baLxel, 
from Lat. vasccllimi = vasculum, where Wallach. has 
vascior = Lat. vasc-iolum, but the simple vas is also 
used to denote ' ship ', and the pi. vase = M. F. vaisselle. 

— butuiller] our butler, but Chaucer still has the 
trisyllable, cf. Cant. T. 16220; his baker and his 
boteldr als6. It is a deriv. of butuille, our bottle, It. 
bottigUa, Sp. botija, from M. L. bitticula, by dimin. 
suff. from a root bott, widely spread in the signification 
of something rounded, cask, flask, &c., cf Gr. 0ouTt(, 
water-butt, and the group boot; our botfie of hay is 
O. F. hotel, boteau, from Lat. botellus, dimin. of botu- 
lus, sausage, whence also boel, bowel, M. F. boyau ; 
[and perhaps bodlintis, (cf Ital. boldone,) bodinus, bou- 
din, ovix pudding, since borrowed by Europe.] 



678 Viandes] from Lat. vivenda in the sense ' things 
to be lived on', eatables, [cf the words reliable, 
dependable, laughable]. As the Ital. ■vivanda, Sp. Pg. 
Prov. \ianda, have the vowel a, they prob. took the 
word from Fr. 

— . ] after this line should come, I think, 1. 6S3, 
which seems quite out of place ; then we should have 
the parallel clauses ; 

ine beit mais des bons vins gisantz en sun celer, 
n'a mais deliciuses viandes i manger ; 
feim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner. 

/ a plume ne a cotun ne a pailles d'utre mer, 

\ n'a coiltes pointes de soie, n'a mais lit au chucher; 
( pur ht ad roche bise si dure cum acier. 
[The text in 6S2 is not what it ought to be ; I have 
corrected as above.] 

680 manioles] 'manacles', manicula, from Lat. raa- 
nica, = hand-cuffs, Virgil's 'manicisque jacentem 
occupat'. M. F. manicle [better maniyue] still has a 
technical existence, of a cobbler's handleather, but It. 
manecchia is only used by the country people to denote 
the handle of the plough. In the sense of 'fetters', 
however, all the Rom. have adopted other deriw., F. 
7nenottes, It. manettc, Sp. Pg. maniota. From mani- 
care, comes F. jnanicr, to handle, (= Germ, handha- 
ben); cf the adj. manier, handy, from manu-arius [for 
manvier, as jan\'ier from januarius,] whence the noun 
?naniere, manere (47), our manner. 

— buies] Rayn. Lex. Rom. II. 232, quotes 'jubet 
compedibus costringi quos rustica lingua boias vocat '. 
Plautus has it in a pun, Capt. IV. 2, 109 ; quoins erat tunc 
nationis ? Siculus. At nunc Siculus non est : Boius 
est ; Boiam tent. DC. in Diss. (No. xix. St. Louis) on 
punishments, treats of these buies. In Diefenbach it is 
glossed 'compes', 'pedica', 'torquisdamnatorum', 'fusz 
ysen der fancknysz', in which special sense, as foot- 
fetters, it is to be taken here, in connexion with mani- 
cles, the hand-shackles. It was a famiUar word to the 
trouveres, cf an interesting passage in Eschenbach, 
Parzival (56.17 Lachm.): 

der zweier vatr hiez JlazadSn, 

den fuort em fete in Feimurgan ; = [Fata Morgana] 

diu hiez Terdelaschoye : [— Terre de la joie] 

er was ir herzen boye. 
The word has been handed down to us with altered 
form and meaning, in M. F. bouee, our buoy, = a floating 
piece of wood, &c., fastened by a chain. For its meaning 
in the general sense of fetters, cf. Jourdains, 1 188 : 
se il noz prennent, noz serons mort a glaive, 
et noz metront en buies et en chartre. 

Chron. des dues de Norm. 29, 550: 
en la chartre de C. 
le tint en buies ferUez. 

Conquest of Ireland, 2570; 

ki sun enemi unt pris 
en bues et en avans mis. 

Cf. Scheler in Lemcke's Jahrb. VII. r. p. 71, No. 
10, "in quorum detrudantur compedili (gl. embuez) in 
manicis (gl. manicles) fcrrcis positi." Ph. Mousk. 
8360 en karkans I'ont mis et cmbuies, which the editor 
has strangely misunderstood, translating embuids by 



O 2 



98 



NOTES. 



enlace, and giving imbutus as its derivation ; it should 
be en biiies, as in Jourdains quoted above. 
— buus] cf. Vie de St. Thorn, "i. 24: 
U prelat deivent estre li plus espirital, 
ne deivent chanceler piur rien de lur esta1. 
cil qui laissent le munt e se tienent el val, 
bous d'or en gruing de pore sunt ; 
[are 'jewels of gold in a swine's snout', Chaucer's 'gold 
ryng in a sowe's nose,' Cant. T. 6367.] 

The word bous is explained in Chron. des dues de 
Norm. 7418 : 

ses armilles, qu'om bous apele. 
Its root is O.H.G. pouc, A.-Sax. beag, O. Norse baugr, 
ring, armlet, from Goth, root, biuga, to bend. 

681 paiUes] the origin of the M. F. paille is Lat. 
palea. It. paglia, Sp. paja, straw, whence also F. pail- 
lasse, &c. But the O.F. word paille, paile, is con- 
nected with Lat. pallium; cf. O.F. siglaton, from 
cyclas, cyclad-is, woman's state-roi^, which came to 
mean the stuff of which it was made ; so paille may be 
rendered generally stufT, cloth, especially as connected 
with d'uim mer, rich stuff from beyond the sea. The 
quilt was commonly of paille, cf. Rom. de Tr. 1543 : 

colte i ot grant, qui fu de paille, 
one meillor n'en ot en Tessaille ; 
et hncels blans dolgies de seie, 
ne quit que mes nus meillors veie. 
For the material used, cf. Mar. de Fr. I. 62 : 
d'un drap d'Aufrique a or tissu 
est la coute qui dedens fu. 
Montaiglon, RecueU, p. 65 : 

sor uno coute d'or listee 
d'un riche drap qui fu de sole, 
and A'.ix. 188. 25 : 

sour une kurte pointe four^e d'auqueton. 
This 'quilt ' was ' puncta, pointe ' ; Li Biaus Desc. 245 : 
au descuneu font le lit 
(onques nus hom plus bel vit,) 
de kuites pointes et molles. 
Viede St. Thorn. 102. 24: 

li liz esteit apareilliez 
desus un chaelit qui tut esteit quiriez 
d'une cuilte purpointe, d'un poi d'estrain junchiez, 
e de chiers linges dras e blancs e deliez. 

682 ooiltes] Lat. culcita, Sp. colcha, O.F. culte, colte, 
keulte (P. ileyer, Man. de Lang. p. 384), cuilte (our 
'quilt'), coite, coute, whence M. F. cout-il, 'duck.' 
There was another form culcitra, whence O. Pg., cul- 
citra, O. Sp. culcedra. It. by transposition coltrice, also 
coltra, O. F. cotre, and so transformed into O. E. 
counter-point, our counter-pane, M. F. courte- pointe. 
The deriv. culcit-inum has given M. F. coussin. It. 
cuscino, Sp. coxin, our cushion, Germ, kiissen. [v. note 
on 678 for the proposed emendation of the text.] 

684 acier] M.L. aciarium, from acies (ferri), used in 
Pliny = steel. It. acciajo, O. Pg. aceiro, Sp. acero. 

692 flestrisent] a deriv. from the adj. flestre (= faded), 
from a (orm /laccasUr, Lat. flaccus. 

— blez] M. L. bladitm, blatum, point to the deriv. 
from Lat. ablatutji ' tliat which is carried off as the pro- 
duct', It. biado; cf. Germ, getreide, com, from tragen. 



to carry. From the M. L. bladare, M. F. has em-bla- 
v-er, [cf. gravir from gradire ;] to sow land with wheat, 
and diblayer, to clear away rubbish. 

— verger] Lat. viridarium ; cf. Alix. 55. 11 : 

tout si com li vregier verdoient et li pre, 

et ensi com les vignes florisent et li ble. 

693 bois] It. bosco, Sp. bosque, M.L. buscus, prob. 

from Teutonic root bauen, to build, through O. H. G. 

buwisc, building (materials). From bosc- by suffixes, 

we have F. bouqu-et [for bousquet]. It. boschetto, 

F. boc-age, Sp. boscage; cf. also the deriv. embusquer, 

G. F. embuscher, our ambush and ambuscade. 

695 usler] O. Sp. uslar, for ust-ul-are, cf. meler, mesler, 
from misculare ; from per-ust-ul-are, M. F. has bruler, 
[for the initial media, cf. Ranter (785), from n-eantare;] 
where It. has bruciare, brusciare from brust-are ; so 
Prov. briizar. 

697 baer] It. badare, M. F. bayer ; DC. quotes 
badare from the Isidor. glosses = to gape, yawn, and 
Diez thinks the origin may be the natural syllable ba, 
expressive of the opening of the mouth. Thence the 
word came to mean to wait for, be on the watch (It. 
stare a bada), desire earnestly. Here plainly it means 
opening the mouth wide for breath. As deriv. we have 
It. bad-igliare, O. F. baaiUer, JI. F. bailler to yawn, 
so also badaud, badin. 

— pantoiser] deriv. from the adj. (still found in 
M. F.) pantois, short-winded; from a root syll. pant, 
(as in M. F. pant-eler). If from Kymric pantu, as 
Diez suggests, it can hardly be from the meaning ' de- 
pression,' because the Welsh word ^aw/K simply means 
concavity, hollow, dimple; it may simply mean the 
opening of the mouth, ia ya^vuing, panting, in which 
case a conne.xion with Lat. pand-o, might be suspected. 
Schelar gives WaUach. pantaixar [.'], which seems 
against the Keltic origin. 

699 fu duel a] cf. our O. E. usage, Chauc. Cant. T. 
2880, therwith he weep that pity was to hear ; 4828 
wonder is to tell; Spens. F. Q. II. I. 14, great pity is 
to see you thus dismayd ; I. 2. g, horror was to heare. 

705 engaunir] deriv. from the adj. Lat. galbanus, 
Wallach. galbin, O. F. jalne, (borrowed in Sp. Pg. as 
jalde). Ital., however, has its giallo rather from O.H.G. 
gelo, our 'yellow', M. H. G. gelb. This Lat. suffix 
•inus has its i usually lengthened in Romance; but the 
short I is preserved, as here, when the root syll. is not 
in use (Diez, Gr. II. 314). 

718 autrement] Lat. (alter^) mente ; hence the affix 
-ment is added to the fem. form of adjj. It may be 
noticed that Wallach. has in altminte its one sole 
example of an adv. formed in this manner. 

— mie] It. mica, Sp. miga, Portug. mig-alha, par- 
ticle strengthening the negative, from Lat. mica, (cf. 
Catullus 86. 3, nulla in tam magno est corpore mica salis) . 

719 si en droitz k'] I take this to be an error for 'si 
est droitz, surely it is right that they should crucify A.' 

722 engres] prob. from Lat. agrestis with interpo- 
lated n before guttural (v. n) ; for the meaning of head- 
strong, arrogant, cf. Vie de St. Thom. 30. 19: 

ne deit estre orguillus vers nului, ne engres : 
humbles deit estre a tuz, e partut porter pes. 



NOTES. 



99 



Mar. de F. II. 345 = 

qui sur le leu metreit bun mestre, 

qi ' 1 doctrinast pur fere prcstre, 

screit il tuz jurs lous cruex, 

fel et engrcz, lais ct hidex. 
— orgoil] It. orgoglio, Sp. orgullo, O. Sp. «rgullo-so; 
from O. H. G. urguolt, loftiness, A. -Sax. orgcl, pride. 

725 suen] like mien, tuen, only used with the dcf. 
art. ; meuni : mien = suum : suen = tuum : tuen. M. 
F. has adapted the others to the analogy of mien, be- 
sides limiting the use of all three to the elliptic construc- 
tion without the noun. 

726 le plus] ouly here so used ; it seems a kind of 
nom. neutr. 

729 langur] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 15S93 : 

of tlie erl Ilugilin of Pise the langour 
ther may no tonge telle for pite. 
732 orb] cf. Lat. ' orbus luminis ' (Ov. Met. III. 518), 
still preserved with the dimin. suff. -et, in M. F. in the 
word (zool.) orv-et, Idnd of serpent, (cf. blind-worm). 
734] common proverb, cf. Vie de .St. Thorn. 75.30: 
reis, 'suef se chastie qui d'autrui se chaslie', 
cele parole as tu en plusurs Uus oie. 
735 enohaoez] It. cacciarc, Sp. cazar, from a Lat. 
captiarc ; DC. gives capita from a charter A. D. 1 162, 
•cum capdis volucrum et beluanmi' ; for the form, cf. 
suctus. It. succiare, F. sucer; tractus, It. tracciare, Sp. 
trazar, F. tracer (v. 56). 

740 enpaiente] in the sense of our 'well-connected', 
cf Bartsch, direst. 275. 23, where it is explained: 
s ' or trovoie fame bicn nee 
qui fust d ' amis emparentee, 
qui eust oncles et antains 
et frcres et cousins gemiains, Sic. 

742 leres pniTe] ' a convicted thief ; common in 
O.F. and Prov., cf ni a negun qu'ieu no Is fasa tost 
pendre coma layro provat. 

743 seit] the subj. seems awkward, in connexion 
with the est of preceding line, but this line expresses the 
hypothesis, ' a man who is a common enemy, but not a 
convicted felon, always provided he be well-bom and 
well-conducted, &c.' 

747 pae] M. L., It. pacare, Sp. pagar, M.F. payer, to 
pacify, satisfy, hence to content, please ; so Chauc. 
Cant. T. 1 1852 and be ye siker he was well apayd. 

751 voide] for vuidvr from vidu3.rc, viduus, with 
transposed u; cf. the cpd. devider, to wind ofl", empty 
the bobbin. 

753 reschisnant] M. F. rechigncr, from adj. rUc/ic, 
connected with Germ, resche, harsh, rough, hence to 
look surly, snarl, growl ; prob. best rendered here by 
' gnashing the teeth'; cf. Pg. rechino, the shrill sound 
of two things rubbed shaqily together. 

754hifl] 'depart! enemy ofour [«!<.fseems tobeamcre 
error for noz] city-gods ' ; as given in the rubric 36 rect., 
ga! ga! ure castrissc foa! cf Bartsch, Chrest. 336.5: 
je n'ai cure de ta favele ; 
va t'en, is fors de ma chapclc. 

755 apreste] M.L.^ra^i<«j- is found very early in the 
sense of paratus, prepared, It. Sp. presto, M. F. pret, 
Portug. prcstes. 



756 delai] from Lat. dilatum, hence O.F. dilaycr, 
del.iyer, to put off, borrowed in It.al. dilajare. 

757 laidanger] deriv. of O. F. laidange, insult, but 
the origin of this suffix -ange, (cf melange, vid.-inge, 
louangc,) is not clear; [Schelcr suggests the Germanic 
-ing of English and Dutch, but .'] 

758 les] if this be correct, the verb enclincr must be 
used = to salute, and govern les in accus; Rayn. II. 416 
quotes 'li \ilains I'en a encline'. 

761 au queu chief] cf. Jlontaiglon, Recueil, p. 100 : 
or dites donques derechief, fet-ele, se vous I'osez fere, a 
quel cliief vous en volez trere ; cf. Spens. F. Q. I. 53 : 
the commune hall 

■where earely waite many a gazing eye, 
to weet what end to stranger knights may fall. 

763 enviz] Lat. invitus, O. Sp. ambidos, amidos. 
The expression seems curious : why should they be 
en%iz .' a sort of antithetic hyperbole. 

766 ne] if this first ne were here taken as the con- 
junction, it would be the only case, where besides the 
disjunct, conj. the verb has not also the negative. 
Therefore the first 7te I take as an adv. to unt truvc, 
and divide thus : ne . . . batel ne nief, unt truve. This 
may seem harsh, but the absence of the negative with 
the principal verb is unprecedented. 

770 a volente] seems to mean ' at ease, with comfort' ; 
volentrifs of next line is perhaps = ' of their own accord, 
without being bidden'. 

772* parfund] this masc. form with e-^-e, is note- 
worthy here and 765 ; in 788 we have parfunde. 

772 trebuche] Sp. Pg. trabucar, from buc, the trunk 
of the body, hence prop., to fling the body out of its 
proper direction, (cf. It. trambustare from busto in a 
similar sense). Scheler's suggestion of a derivation from 
trabs,trab-uca, is far-fetched and unnecessary. 

— en] 'du pund en 1' ewe 'is an extension of the 
predicate in the relative clause, in which the en [ablative 
not partitive,] is pleonastic : ' both classes, both those 
who fell from the bridge into the water, and those who 
set themselves to swim, are drowned'. 

773 noer] Lat.natare, perhaps vulg. Lat. notare, as It. 
h.as notare, WaUach. innota, O. F. noer ; but Sp. 
Portug. nadar. 

— nee] Lat. necare, specialized into death by 
drowning. It. (an)negare, Sp. Pg. anegar, from M. L. 
e-nccare, used by Greg, of Tours in this sense. 

779 debonnerete] de boa aire, found in our old de- 
bonair, good-natured, good-tempered ; cf. Chauc. 
Mclib., ' swete wordes multiplicn and encrescen frendes, 
and maken schrewes to ben debonaire and meke'; 
in 2284. 6357, the meaning is vaguer, becoming a mere 
epithet in Spenser's ' lady debon.air' (F. Q. IL 6. 28). 

784 SOUdee] from Lat. (nummus) solidus [M. F. sou] 
comes M. L. solidare, F. solder, whence subst. solde, 
p.ay, .and the deriv. soudeer, [= soldicare] ; the adj. 
solidarius gives O. F. soldier, whence our word, 
cf. Bartsch, Rom. u. P.ast. 281. 76: 

de haul seigneur haul gucrredon 

s'atenilez, 

ja certcs n'i perdercz 

en si bon seigneur servir. 



lOO 



NOTES. 



786 tant] either the predicate with the adverbial 
extension ' de valur,' cf. Spens. F.Q. I. 3. 43, her pray- 
ers nought prevaile, his rage is more of might ; or as an 
attrib. adj. qualifying valur. 

788 raedde] Burguy (11. 323 n.) takes this to be from 
rabidus rather than rapidus, because Sp. has raudo, 
where u = b. But Lat. / also = Sp. u (cf. bautizar for 
baptisare,) and rapidus suits the meaning better; for 
Lat. pd = Fr. d, cf sade for sapidus, tiede, Lat. tepidus, 
even/; = <^, in malade formal'aptus. The i^ii of raedde 
occurs nowhere else. 

— briant] only here and 1 1 53 bruant, of flat ; it is a 
common attrib. of rivers, cf B. du Guesc. 2699 : 

s'en devoit repairier oultre la raer bruiant. 
Bartsch, Rom. u. Past. p. 38 : 

chevauchai lez le rivage 
d'une riviere bruiant. 

789 retraite] if e be here an error for eit, we should 
have two predicates for I'ewe of 788, and as retraite 
might also be taken as pp. fern., we have three possible 
constructions : 

(a) (I'ewe) retraite, e sun chanelva si apetizant, 

(b) I'ewe retraite en sun chanel, va si apetizant, 

(c) I'ewe, (retraite en sun chanel.) va si apetizant; 
(a) does not alter the text, but I have no example of 

retraiter used as a neuter verb in O.F, 

790 batel] dimin. of il. L. batus, from A.-Sax. hat, 
boat, O. Norm, batr, [oiJy Scandinavian and Low- 
German]. 

— ohalant] DC. vii. 352 b, "les Grecs se servoient 
pour cet usage [as fireships with Greek lire] de cette 
sorte de vaisseaux qu'ils nommoient x'^''''^"'i ^^'o" 
nous avons emprunte le mot de chaland, qui est le nom 
que 1 ' on donne aux bateaux qui sont sur les rivieres de 
Seine et de Loire". Diez suggests x'^i'^poc ^s the 
origin of the Greek word : improbably, I think. 

792 nis] this adv. seems formed from ipsum with 
prefixed negat., so Prov. neis, neys, &c., whence the It. 
ness-uno, niss-uno, (Aub. 1388 n'unt nisun), originally 
with negative, then generally as a strengthening par- 
ticle, even of affirmation ; cf in the opposite direction 
the use of the particle pas, as in pas un. 

795 cum] only here used without si, (cf 1543, 1621), 
but the omission was common, as also in O. E., thus 
Chauc. Cant. T. : 

199 and eek his face, as he hadde be anoynt. 

638 thanne wolde he speke and crye, as he were wood. 
2531 arayed right as he were god in trone. 
cf 1580, 3445, 6370, &c. ; so Spens. F.Q. II. 7. 43, the 
rowrae was large and -si-yde, as it some temple were ; 
II. g. 1 1 that with the noise it shook as it would fall ; 
II. 3. 20 and made the forest ring as it would rive in 
twain. Cf even Lady of the Lake, iv. 18 : 
she told her love with such a sigh 
of deep and hopeless agony, 
as death had sealed her Malcolm's doom 
and she sat sorrowing on his tomb. 
So in Latin velut for velut si ; the use of ut alone, for 
tanquam si is very rare, v. Munro's notes on Lucr. vi. 
1232, and the extra fly-leaf 

798 puier] from Lat. podium, we have It. poggio, 



0. F. pui, M. F. puy ; hence the verb puier, to ascend 
a hill ; here, however, puier must be simply a subst., 
meaning slope, ' who went dragging A. to martyrdom 
towards the slope of the hill' ; cf a similar passage in 
Alix. 88. 32 : 

et fiert un Tirien, a V monter d' un pendant, 
que le teste h tolt a I'espee tranijant. 
799] %vith this whole scene may be compared the 
second nun's tale in Chaucer, Cant. T. 12299-12334, 
where Waximius behaves as Aracle in Auban. 

803 sabelun] Lat. sabulo. It. sabbione, Sp. sablon ; 
" he sees the resuscitated men walking on the sandy bed 
of the river, where never man had walked before." 

804 chiet] this is, of course, the Lat. cadit, but the 
» is purely phonetic, and may be compared with chief 
(caput), chier (carus). It is known that in O.F. this 
lotacism or insertion of the vowel i after consonants 
(which is pretty common) takes place in two ways, 

1, after sibdants or liquids (mouilles), e. gr. charier, 
clievakA;er, chancier, ensei^«ier, aparej7//er ; 2, by way 
of attraction after a root ending in d. n. r. s. ss. t. pre- 
ceded by an ;' (vowel or diphthong), e.gr. vu/rfier, deraw- 
niex, enp/Wer, envoij-;er, lai.rj'j'er, afazV/er. [This seems to 
be the case also in words Hke pitie, amitie, raoitie, (v. 
Mussafia's note in Lemcke's Jahrb. fiir Rom. Lit. 
VI. Hft. I. p. 116) ]. In both classes of verbs it is to 
be noted that the fem. of the past ptcp. is either in iee, 
or ie (rhyming with vie, signi_}{tf, &c.) 

809 ke] " during which time I have not served him ", 
or "in that I have not, &c. " ; I prefer taking ke here 
as temp, accus. 

810 mes ke a tart] "but now, however, even though 
late, I become his man", cf. Edw. Conf. 3195 : 

ne puis cunter tut le cunte, 
mais la summe a quel munte, 
e esclarcir le dit Aedward 
avere ke fu, mes ke a tard. 
(v. also note on 1 114.) 

814-816] "the water which is obedient to thee, thereby 
proves thy worth, and that which men are denying, the 
very element defends as true, furnishing testimony in 
that it waits on thee." 

819 Tervagant] for this usual connexion ^\^th Ma- 
homet, cf Spens. F. Q. VI. 7.47 : 

so did the squire (rage) 

and fume in his disdainefuU mynd the more, 
and oftentimes by Turmagant and Mahound swore. 
The pair have been transferred into the Saga literature 
of Iceland in the translation of some of the Arthur- 
cycle, thus Cleasby sub 'kla;ma' quotes "klsemdu 
mjok Maumet ok Terrogant." Cf. Ph. Mousk. 6454, 
B. du Guesc. 152574. They are well known also in 
Ital., Macon e Trivigante. In our 'termagaunt' we 
have substituted m for the older [?] v, but I do not 
know what tervagant means, nor to what god, if any, 
it is intended to apply. 

824 k'] ' quam antea habebant iram, nunc eam 
duplicant'. 

826 u] so in MS., but if it is right, it is the only case 
in the poem where it is so used to express apparently a 
definite point of time,= ' just then'. Butit may merely 



NOTES. 



lOl 



be the capital letter of the next word uiis, by a mis- 
take of the scribe. 

831k' alum vengant] the antecedent of ie is li solailz, 
•' the sun wliom we are about to avenge, sees the insult 
offered by him (Auban)". 

834 ploier] I>C. plicare vadium = pignori ponere; 
the vadium being the 'res ipsa in pignus data', cf. 
" obhgavi me et meos heredes, meo vadio phcato 
secundum morem patriae, ad omnia obseri'anda". 
[From this vadium comes M. L. guagium, gage, the 
'gage-plege' of the Norman Costumier.] Here the 
res ipsa in pignus data is itself named, and ploier le 
gant is just plicare vadium. 

— gant] M. L. wantus, It. guanto ; prob. from a 
Teutonic root, found only in O. Norse voltr (for vantr) 
glove, displaced in Mod. Icel. by the dimin. "'f/-lingr, 
gaunt-let. [Our gltn^e is Goth, lufa, Scottish loof, 
palm of the hand, as in O. Norse lofi ; this has been 
adopted by the Portug. as litva, for the common word, 
whereas guatite or manopla means only an iron gaunt- 
let.] 

836 genzives] Lat. gingiva. It. gengiva, Pr. angiva, 
Sp. encia, with omitted initial to avoid the repetition of 
the g. 

— devant] for this adverbial usage, cf. Ahx. 32. 18 : 
si grant cop li dona que le fait cliner sor son arcfon 

devant. 

838 derochent] in M. F. means to fling doism from a 
rock, but in O. F. it means 'to stone'; in both, the 
deriv. is plainly from roc, roche, &c., the origin of 
which is uncertain ; perhaps from a Keltic source, 
(cf. Welsh rli-^'g, something projecting). Diez prefers 
deriving It. roccia, F. roche, from Lat. rupes, or rather 
adj. rupea, though the persistency of in all the 
Romance is against any connexion with Lat. it, and 
F. roc is not thereby explained. 

839 brisent] Prov. brisar, also debriser 935, M. F. 
debris; of uncertain origin, (hardly to be connected 
witli O. F. bruiser, bruise, thougli the meaning is very 
similar). Cleasby sub voc. 'brjota' shows that DC. 
records a Latin-Spanish britare = destruere, and sug- 
gests its introduction into Spain by the Goths ; if 
this root brit ever existed in (jothic, it might perhaps 
have given briser, cf. saisir, O. II. G. saz-jan. Pos- 
sibly, however, even the britare of DC. is a mere 
mis-reading, and never existed at all. Diez's br'estati is 
improbable, though he quotes lisiire from O. H. G. 
lista (Gr. I. 291), as an instance of this change; but 
here we have other derivv. with st, as listcau, listen, 
&c. Scheler prefers Lat. brisa, ' the refuse grapes after 
pressing', (as still in Span. = skin of pressed grapes), 
which seems to me very unlikely. The root is 
prob. Keltic, (where bris is the regular word for break,) 
the more so as the word is only found in Fr. and Prov. 

— bras] Lat. brachium. It. braccio, .Sp. brazo, O. F. 
also brace, whence the deriv. bracelet ; from the pi. 
brachia we have brassc, fathom, [cf. toise from teise, 
tensus,] brassie, armful, embrasser. 

— gambes] form still used in violc de gambc, and in 
gambade, gambader, whicli, however, are probably 
mere borrowings from Ital. gamba, gambat.T. As all 



the Romance have gamba, the word was perhaps already 
used in Vulg. Lat. camba, as in O. Span. ; cf. Pg. 
cambais, which means knock-kneed, crook-leg, and 
camia = felly of a wheel. The root is cajtt, crooked, 
Lat. cameras, connected with which is O. II. G. hamma, 
our ham, so that ham^ V. Jamb-on, from janibe ; cf. 
also our dGox-yinib, &c. 

842 ne tant ne quant] often with first ne omitted, in 
negative sentences, (as in 1 139), cf. B. du Guese. : 

2706 car ain(;ois que la paix fust faite tant ne quant, 
ot moult li dues i. faire, 90 trouvons nous, 
ibid. 5576 terre ne doit tenir chevalier tant ne quant, 

qui ne la veult defendre a I'espee trenchant. 
Kell. Romv. 216. 29: 

desus son elme li donne un cop si grant 
que li palais en va retentissant : 
bons fu li hiaumes, n ' enpira tant ne quant. 
But also, as here, witli ne ; cf. Rom, de Tr. 183 : 
apres orrciz les propheties, 
qui pas ne voldrent estre oies, 
ne crues, ne tant ne quant. 

843 piz] Lat. pectus, Prov. peitz. It. petto, Sp. pecho, 
Pg. peito ; but M. F. has adopted poitrine (peilrine 
Aub. 16 1 2) from a Lat. pector-ina, (cf. rac-ine fur 
radic-ina, fromradic-). 

844 defulent] from this y«/t;r, we have our O. 'E.foil, 
cf. Spens. F. Q. v. 11. 33 : 

and eke that idoU deem'd so costly dere, 
whom he did all to peeces breake, o.vidfo)'le 
in filthy durt, and left so in the loathely soyle. 
Lat. hns/ui/o, a fuller, but the Rom. langg. have a verb 
fullare, to full, to beat, M. F. to trample do^vn ; and 
so, (cf. Ital. calca, crowd, from calcare, to tread,) It. Sp. 
folia, F. foule, crowd. 

846 charoinne] It. carogna, Sp. carroi5a, our carrion, 
O. E. carroyne, from Lat. nom., caro, instead of the base, 
cam-, hence prob. by dissimilation for car« -onea ; it is 
to be noted that ivr-ogne is the only instance however 
in Fr. of this termination, Lat. -oneus, It. ogno, Sp. 
ueiSo, Pg. onho, [vergogne, Bourgogne being, of course, 
quite different, — y^\Q-cuiidia, Burgundia.] 

851 hauberos] O. F. also halberc, Prov. ausberc. It. 
usbcrgo, from O. H. G. hals-berc, neck-protector, with 
meaning extended to ' shirt of mail' , (cf. Germ, kollcr, 
a doublet, from Lat. coil-are necktie.) From hauberc, 
l)y dimin. suff. comes o^x hauberg-eon, 

— buolers] our 'buclder', from bode, the umbo of 
a shield, hence bucler escu, means a bossed shield ; 
cf. Burg. II. 237 : 

granz colz se donent es escus de quartier 
(lesoz les boucles les font fraindrc et brisier. 
Rom. de Tr. 2473 : 

paniii les boucles des escuz, 
en font passer les fers aguz ; 
where boucle, buckle, from M. L. bucula, bucca, de- 
notes any round projection, hence = umbo, curl in hair, 
ring of metal, &c. 

852 gisarmes] used by Wace for the big Saxon 
battle-axes, O. F. gysarn, gysarm, Prov. gaz.amia. It. 
giusarma, O. F. also guisarme, wisarmc ; but the ori- 
gin is disputed. Hardly from bis-arme, double-edged 



I02 



NOTES. 



axe ; perhaps gaes-an/ia, from Gallic gaesum, javelin, 
by some confusion mth anna. But -we have gUser (in 
Ch. de Rol. 2075,) which implies a ^l.'L. gesdrum. 

854 cailloz] the -ou term, (the same as in genou, 
verrou,) = -uculum, the radical syU. caill- is from Lat. 
calculus = calclus, and with transvection of the voca- 
lized guttural (c = i), caiUe. 

855 charduns] Sp. Prov. cardon demand a Lat. cardo, 
onis, but It. Pg. have cardo directly from carduus. 

858 ki ne urent] " (great thirst have the people had,) 
who had not drunk anything the livelong day." 

859 breent] for this verb braire, M. L. bragire, cf. O.F. 
muire from mugire ; but whether this root brag- has 
any connexion with Kj-mric brag-al, to vociferate, bra- 
galdian, to babble, prate, (cf. our brag.) or whether it is 
not simply = ragire, (raire), with prosthetic b, as possibly 
also in bruire = rugire (v. 620), is uncertain. !M. F. 
braire, our ' bray', is a speciaUsation of the meaning to 
cry', scream, shout, &c. 

862 recreu] DC. W\. 356 "recreu, qui n'enpouvoit 
plus, et qui se confessoit vaincu ; c' est la force du mot, 
qui est tire de 1' usage des duels." Mort ou recreant 
(recreu), was the usual alternative to which a champion 
wished to reduce his opponent. Here the word = ' qui 
n ' en pouvoit plus ' ; cf Ger. de V. 1920 : 

se conbatirent ensarable maintenant 
tant ke tuit furent recreut et sanglant. 
Both terms recreu and recreant (ptcpp. of M. L. recre- 
dere,) are used to express the two ideas, of incapability 
and cowardice. They are preserved in JI. F. recru, 
recruit, (one incapable of the full toU), and our recreant, 
["hang a calf's sldn on these recreant limbs"]. How 
opprobrious the term was, may be seen from Joinville's 
'j'amais mieulx estre poulam (v. note 1841) que che- 
valier recreu comme ilz estoient'. 

863 fremissent] Lat. fremere, only used in Aub. 
with the Lat. meaning of rage, 'quare fremuerunt 
gentes', not in its M. F. acceptation. 

874 tut n'eit] "it is thy creature al-though it has 
not acknowledged thee as God". We have still a 
remnant of this idiom in the phrase albeit, but in our 
older writers its usage was not Umited to the auxiliaries; 
cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 736 al speke he never so rudely ; 
12774 ^1 couthe he lettenire or couthe he noon ; 127S9 
al loke he never so rowe ; 13627 aU wolde he from his 
purpos not converte ; [1173. 1842. 2477. 2705. 3174. 
7081. 7232. 11642. 12767. 15349. 15356 al be; 2711. 
11439. 13864. 15759 al were ; 746. 4392 al have ; 6768. 
13786 al hadde;] Spens. F. Q. I. 12. 23 : 

her own deare loved knight, 
all were she daily with himselfe in place 
did wonder much at her celestial sight. 
Ibid. II. 2. 12; 34, &c. 

889 cum fait lu] this usage of fahe to avoid tlie 
repetition of the verb is very common in O.F., cf. Fl. et 
Blancef. p. 222 : 

si soef porte le danzel 
com fait li lox porter 1' aigniel; 
[where the Editor (M. du Mcril) suggests sail for/aiV]. 
Of course, faire is not necessary, cf. B. du Guesc. 4762 
plus dru les abatoient que li leux le mouton. 



891 foeuns] no doubt, —_floc\ms, but I have not ven- 
tured to alter it, as I am not sure that the / was not 
transposed and then omitted, [Hocon = folcon = focon, 
cf note on caUloz, 854,] though I have no note of having 
met it so elsewhere. For flocon inM. F., cf Theophile 
Gautier, Emaux et Camees, p. 33 : 

1' autre a, sur un cou blanc qui ploie 

coupe par derriere un flocon, 

retors et fin comme la soie 

que r on de^de du cocon. 
The origin is Lat. floccus, our ' flock ', (whence also Pr. 
floe, Y.froc, a monk's frock, of woolly stuff). 

— orespiz] Lat. crispus ; cf. Ph. Mousk. 9194 : 

atant s'ahierst par les ceviaus, 
qu'il avoit crespis, blons et biaus. 
Spens. F. O. II.3.30: 

her yellow lockes, crisped like golden wyre 
about her shoulders weren loosely shed. 

892 gruniiiLle] by dimin. suff.-ill, from grundir, 
(cf. gandiUer from gandir;) Lat. grunnire, of which 
the grammarian Nonius has handed down an older 
form grund-ire ; [cf. cri-aill-er, grund-ill-er, gazouill- 
er, = Lat. -acul-, -icul-, -ucul-.] 

— de ren] 'at all'; even of affirmation, cf. B. du 
Guesc. 7739 se de riens vos ra'amez ; but generally in 
negative clauses, R. de Tr. 1919 : 

sor lo pecoie son espie, 
sans <;o que de riens 1 ' ait plaie. 
898 musoa] JI.F. se musser, apparently from a 
Germ, root ; Diez suggests M.H.G. sich muzen, to 
moult, hence retire into obscurity ; cf. Montaiglon, 
Recucil, p. 206 : 

et sires Jehans est muciez 
souz le degre et esconssez. 
901 esmirables] = ex-mirabUis, the Romance prefers 
ex to e, before /, m, and n (Diez Gr. 11. 398). 

903 esmere] from ex-merare, as M. F. epurer from 
ex-purare ; verj' commonly used of the refining of 
met.als, csp. of gold, cf. Vie de St. Thom. 109 mieulz 
s'est ui esmerez del 'or set feiz recuit ; O. Sp. ore 
esmerado, (P. del Cid 115); [in Portug. esmerar-se 
means to exert one's self to be accurate, perfect in any 
accomphshment, to strive to excel ;] but also of silver, 
cf Fl. et Blancef p. 108 : 

li dent sont petit et sere 

et plus blanc d ' argent esmere. 

904 jaspes] an opaque coloured quartz, through Gr. 
lacrTTiE, Lat. jaspis, from Oriental j'oj/yi, id., hence our 
jasper ; also through O. F. diaspre, our diaper, ' mar- 
bled', &c. [Scheler's conjecture, iiaimopoq, seems 
uncalled-for]. 

— esmeraudes] It. smeraldo, from Lat. smaragdus, 
Gr. <T/idpayJof, Prov. (quoted by Ra)^.) ' meraude, 
robi, safir, jaspi', cf sumer (1288) from surame, M.F. 
somme, = saume. It. salma, from sagma, aayiia : DC. 
quotes from Isidor. (Orig. 20. 16): "sagma, guae 
corrupte vulgo salma dicitur." 

908 arivez] ' to bring to port' ; for the active use, cf. 
Join\-ilIe, 104, cil qui nous conduisoient en la galie, 
nous ariverent devant une herberge ; Rom. de Tr. 4241 
1 ' isle oil 11 arriverent lor nef ; 28485 a malves port les 



^OTES. 



103 



arriva fortune ; l'"l. ct Blanccf. p. 243 il les mena, tant 
qu'al rocber Ics ariva ; p. 48 : 

son estruman [pilot] a moult proi^ 
que a eel port 1 ' arivera 
si Dieu plaist, cum plus tost porra. 
P. Meyer in Lemcke's Jahrb. vi. 2 Hft. (p. 170) : 
par foi ! Jehannot, Dex t'a aidie! 
et t ' a a bon port arive. 
Spens. F. Q. II. i. 2 a weatherbeaten ship anyv'd on 
happie shore. 

911 las] Lat. Massus', wear)', but used as a term of 
reproach, '\vretch', cf. U /iw e U dolent of 260, 'the 
miserable wretches'. 

913 sailUi] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 5091, and both his 
)'en brast out of his face. 
929 aurnas] cf Mar. de F. II. 248 : 

des pennes an poon [pavo] s'atome 
trestut sun cors bien s'en aome. 
Vie de St. Thom. 88. 3 iere de sens poi aumez ; Scheler 
in Lemckc's Jahrb. rai. p. 89 (thalamum) cilicio omatum 
gl. de heyre aumc. 

933 haut e has] a common formula, cf Vie de St. 
Thom. 74. 26 (Deus t'a esht) 90 dienteli haut e li bas. 
Matz. Altfr. 24. 28 says the plirase is used in the 
sense of ' spatial universality ', = ' everywhere ' ; it 
is simply our expression ' high and low' = ' everybody'. 

940 cutes] Lat. cubitus, Ital. ciibito, [sho gomito from 
a Milg. Lat. cumitus,] Sp. codo, O. Sp. cobdo, 
Portug. covado, (only = a cubit's length, but elbow is 
cotovello,) Prov. coide, Wallach. cot, JI. F. coude. 

— terire] ace. to Diez, from Lat. terrae torus, with 
a displacement of accent as in tyejle from trifoliian. 
Scheler supports this derivation by a comparison with 
Gr. yijXo^oc; still the analogy of F. trifonds from 
terrae fundus ■Vk'ouM lead to a very different form ; [tri- 
folium is not a parallel case). 

941 suvaus] " for he has desired to see at least the 
body of A. " ; I take suvaus to be the same as sivaus 
(v. note on 386, though I had read at first suvans for 
sivant, but in that case we could not have had mvans, 
as the final sib. would have been s, .as in tiranz, chantz, 
dolentz ; and besides, voer would be left without an 
object) ; for the position of kar in the line, cf. 134 
de barun cumpaiimie kar nc vout espruvcr. 

— voer] can hardly be other than 'to see', though 
it is elsewhere (761. 781. 943) always ver, and the 
diphthong oe is rare in A., [cf. the infinitives encroer, loer, 
poer;] still we have quoi;/-(085) equated with qU(^/-( 1277), 
and the word must be monosyllabic. It is frequently 
so written in li LivTes de Justice ; p. 57, or convient 
voerde ceausqui sont a autour, p. 228, 255, &c. 

942 destrer] M. L. dextrarius, the charger which the 
squire led on the right-hand of the knight, till needed 
for the battle, &c. ; hence war-horse. 

948 bu] (also buc,) from O. H. G. liu!i, {belly and) 
trunk; as in O. Norse iiiX'/- means chiefly 'the head- 
less trunk ', so it is here used only of decapitated bodies, 
(cf. 450. .013V 

— coupe] deriv. of coup, stroke, blow, from Lat. 
colaphus (itiiXn^oc), M. L. colanus, colpus, It. colpo, 
Sp. golpe. The verb couper tnus means to strike, 



(Ital. colpire'), and has been modified into ' to cut\ 
But either O. H. G. kolpo, (Mod. Germ, kolben), or 
even Kyniric colp, pointed spar, colp-cs pointed wedge, 
would furnish a satisfactory origin. 

953 depesce] M. L. petium. It. pezzo, M. F. piece. 
The origin of this petium is disputed, but the 
analogy of Ital. picciolo, little, and picciuolo, petiole, 
inclines me to accept Scheler's connexion of this 
petium with Lat. petiolus. 

955 faillii] common in O. F. (with a dative) = M. L. 
fallere alicui, in the sense of ' to fail in rendering service 
to one's liegeman '. 

— a seingnur] cf. JIar. de F. II. 123 a scgnur lo 
volrunt aveir; and with predic. adj. as in 557, cf. Kouv. 
Rec. deFab. II. 188: 

a fol et a mauves s ' excuse 

qui ceste requeste refuse. 

956 emhle] Prov. emblar, M. L. imbulare for Lat. 
involare, ' to liy off with', to steal, (Catullus 25. 6 pal- 
hum meum quod involasti). M. F. has presers'ed this 
verb in the adv. d' emblee, 'at the first attack', but has 
replaced the old emblerhythe simple volerirom involare. 

962 sene] M. F. has sensd from F. sens, Lat. sensus, 
while the O.F. sene is from O.F. sen. It. senno, with the 
same meaning, but derived from O. H. G. sin, = sense. 
From this old adj. M. F. has its forcene, which should 
befor-sene, sense-less, mad, It. for-sennato; cf. Mon- 
taiglon, Recueil, p. 52 : 

or n'ai-je pas dit que senez, 
ainz sui failhs et forsencz. 
967 ui] Sp. hoy. It. oggi, in M.F. only used in the 
comp. aujourd'/i!//, Ital. al giomo d ' oggi, from Lat. 
hodie ; cf puy, ap-pui, Ital. poggio, from Lat. podium. 
973 tticher] It. toccare, Sp. tocar, ace. to Diez, from 
O. H. G. zuchon, to seize ; for the relations of touching 
and seizing, cf. Goth. ' tek-an\ to touch, with our 'to 
take'. But as this root is common in Wallach. also, 
toe, it seems preferable to refer the origin to Lat. toe for 
tac, as in tac-tus, tango. 

976 delivies] cf Chauc. Cant. T. 84 : 

of his stature he was of evene lengthe, 
and vvonderly delyvcr and gret of strengthe. 
16902 this cok brak from his mouth delyverly. 
981 envolupe] O. Sp. volopar, M. F. en-velopper, 
Ital. in-vilujiparc, from the subst. It. viluppo, ' confused 
skein ofsilk',theorigin of which isunknown; Lat. 'volup' 
corresponds with the form, but not with the meaning. 

989 or] the only place where this particle is written 
without the final e : that this e was not pronounced is 
plain from the following instances : — 

344 ore vus | pri c | sumoin. 
552 ore croiz | keva | prcchant. 
554 e ore | s ' en est | binnez. 
5O I mais ben I 1 ' ad ();•(? I pruvg. 
874 ore re | quor ta | franchise. 
1088 ore pert | ben k'il | ne fu. 
1219 ore vus | requcr I e pri. 
1658 ore fai | ke te | clir.ii. 
1796 liar ore \ sunt en I cnfcr. 
In all these cases ore is monosyllabic, though followed 
by an initial consonant of the following word. 



104 



NOTES. 



— seintj there can be little doubt that this is a mere 
error ior Siin, but as 'seint' is intelligible, I have not 
altered the MS. reading. 

992 eshauce] from a Lat. form ex-altiare,-io'hf:\^\ie-a, 
magnify, whence M. F. ex-hausser, to raise, under the 
form ex-aiicer, to hear (a prayer). 

995 baratj Ital. baratto, with the meaning of fraud- 
ulent conduct, trickery (in trade), cf. our barrator, of a 
fraudulent ship-master, &c. ; from the subst., O. F. has 
its barater, bareter, (Montaiglon, RecueU, p. 155 nous 
le bareteriens au vostre,) whence our barter. Of the 
origin of the word nothing certain is estabhshed ; Diez 
suggests nfiarrtiv, which is far from satisfactory. 

997 nigromanoie] Rom. de Tr. 1209 : 
es arz ot tant 5' entente mise, 
que trop par ert sage et aprisej 
astronomic et nigromance 
sot tote par cuer de s'enfance. 
Cf. Mort. Dart. I. 2, and there she learned so much that 
she w-as a great clerk of nigromancy; Ahx. 7. 7 un 
Grius qui cuidoit estre fors de maintes sapiences et de 
sortisseours, del'art d'ingremance. 

1005 OSturs] li.astore, O.Sp. adtor, aztor, Prov. austor, 
M. F. autour ; probably from a Lat. astur-ius, (cf. M. F. 
vautour. It. avoltore, from vultur-ius ;) but Diez prefers 
the derivation from acceptor, as a popular form of ' acci- 
piter',(v. Schuch. Vulg. Lat. I. 38.) 

1006 oaractes] in Prov. occurs the word caracta = 
mark, sign, from Lat. character, which was used in 
M.L. = magic arts ; DC. quotes ' di%'inationes, sortilegia, 
sive in votis, quas brevia seu caracteres vocant ' ; 
' Judsei cessent ab usuris, sortilegiis et caracteribus, 
= GaU. sors et caraz' ; cf. Chron. des dues de N. 709 : 

1 ' aveit issi apariUiez, 
d' arz enchante e primseignez, 
e sur lui iani caractes fait, 
que ja d'armes n'en fust sane trait. 
\Ve have also the forms caraie, charroie, caraude, con- 
nected with JI.L. carainia, all of which were used pre- 
cisely as in the last lines quoted, viz., of some magic 
charm which made the wearer in\Tilnerable ; (an en- 
chanter -was named in M.L. caragus, caragius, carajus). 
These forms, charraie, encharrauder, Diez coimects with 
charme, as = charm rate, but if we compare encharauder 
with the form eitcarater, a connexion with character 
may not seem improbable; thusfrom the root carac(-ter), 
is possible a form carag-ius, (or -us),caraga, caraie. 

1008 eapertin] Ital sperone, sprone, Portug. esporao, 
Sp. espolon, from O. H. G. (accus.) sporon. Mod. 
G. sporn ; from the O. H. G. nom. ioxva sporo,vii 
have besides Portug. espora, Sp. espuela. 

— roille] the subst. rouille, Prov. roilha, corres- 
ponds to a M.L.rucula, but of what word precisely this 
is a dimin., is not quite certain : Ital. ruggine comes 
from Lat. aerugo, but Sp. robin is Lat. robigo; Scheler 
posits a form rubigula, I should prefer {ae)ru(^g). 
uciila. 

1020 atitle] titulus in JLL. was used ' de facultatibus 
sine quibus ad sacerdotium non admittitur', hence 
titulare came to mean ' ad titulum vel ecclesiam promo- 
vere ' ; DC. quotes 'dilectum nostrum Odonem presby- 



terum ad presentationem ecclesiae de B. attitula\imus 
et de cura inveslimus animarum' ; 'to induct', here to 
enrol in the troop of A. 

1031 numbre] " of the citizens there are a thousand 
or more, well told, and those too the richest and 
noblest, who have given themselves up to God". 

1035 ja tant ne] " how^ever much they may be tor- 
mented" ; cf. Montaiglon, Recueil, p. 183 : 

a paine porroit 1 ' en choisir 
fame qui se puisse tcnir 
a son seignor tant seulement, 
ja tant ne I'aura bel et gent. 

ibid. p. 176 ja tant ne vous saurez haster, 
que je n'i sole avant de vous. 

ibid. p. 289 et en jura un sereraent 

qu ' ele le fera menfongier, 
ja tant ne s' i saura gueter. 

1036 dtmt] "[and this determination of theirs is pro- 
duced] by the mighty miracles, (of which they feel quite 
sure), which God deigned to show". 

1043] SUCUrable] cf. Wace, Nicholas 332 : 

qui tant est partout sucurable, 

et qui en mer est tant aidable. 

Still used in M. F. in the active sense, 'helpful', cf. 

Telemaque vii. Pheniciens, si secourables a toutes les 

nations, &c. ; Lafont. Fab. VII. 3 : 

qui designe-je a votre avis 
par ce rat si peu secourable .' 
Moliere, I'Etourdi 11. 7 : 

mais si jamais mon bien te fut considerable, 
rfpare ce malheur, et me sois secourable. 
1047 roi esperitable] cf. Vie de St. Thom., p. 102 : 
n' aveit cure a dir de chancun nede fable 
ne nul altre chose, s'ele ne fust verable. 
mielz ameit a oir del rei esperitable 
e guarder as escriz qui erent pamienable. 
■\Ve have it again (1613) in the form ' esperital', cf. B. 
du Guesc. 4278 il en a Deu loe, le pere esperital. 

1049 meroiable] does not mean ' thankworthy', but 
'merciful', cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 15099: 

pray eek for us, we sj-nful folk unstable, 
that of his mercy God so merciable 
on us his grete mercy multiplie. 
1 134S Lord Phoebus ! cast thy merciable eye 

on wrecche Aurilius, which that am forlome ! 
And for the whole passage, cf. the end of Melibceus : 
" he is so free and merciable, that he will forgive us oure 
gultes, and bringe us to the bhsse that never hath ende." 
This -able termination of adjj. in rime is common in 
Chaucer, who even in the Cant. T. has the foUomng : 
abominable, acceptable, charitable, changeable, com- 
parable, corrumpable, dampnable, delitable, deceyvable, 
honurable, importable, incurable, merciable, mesurable, 
notable, profytable, reprovable, reasonable, semblable, 
servysable, stable, suffrable. 

IO6I ki flamboie] this relative clause, just as in 691, is 
equivalent to a ptcp., and may be translated 'flash- 
ing' : a heaven-descended, gleaming ray of a fire that 
was brighter than the noon-day sun, rested on A.'s 
tomb; cf. 961 [there arises] an unbearable heat from 
the blazing sun, which was so hot and bright. 



NOTES. 



105 



1062 arestut] we have the simple ester in the forms 
esta (1320), ester (1657. 1705), estant (623) ; of this 
comp. ad-re-stare, there are in O. F. also a regular pret. 
arestai dinA a pp. areste, neither of which occurs in A., 
but only tlie irreg. fonns, pret. arestut, and pp. arestuz 
(98). This -« termination in past ptcpp. is very common, 
even occurring with verbs in ir, thus we have in A. 
hissu (876), feru (894), vestu (850) ; it was the ordinary 
O. F. representative of Lat. -itus, cf. cuneiiz (22), 
cognitus. 

— fichi] this must be a pp. of ficher (fichier). It. 
ficcare, (prob. from a Lat. fig-ic-are,) but the termina- 
tion is anomalous, as it should be fichid ; perhaps, as 
the fem. of the ptcp. ends often in ie, (tranchie, 
&c.), this irregular masc. fichi may have arisen by 
analog)' ; cf. estrangi (1541). 

1064 ki desclot] in the parallel passage (224), we 
have li eels se desclot e uvri ; as ki here takes the place 
of the se of 224, it is plain that se is not omitted by in- 
advertence ; V. also 253. 

1067 enchaai] cf. Rom. Stud. Hft. I, p. 413, 1. 66 : 

ja n * a il jone ne chenu 

en ceste terre qui ne sache, &c. 
Vie de St. Thom. p. 38, asez i ad trove e joevenes e 
chanuz ; this is the usual spelling, (from Lat. canutus, 
M. F. chenu), the final -»' being possibly owing to the 
rime. 

1070 espani] from espanir for espandir, espandre, 
Lat. expandere; but M. F. epan-o;<-ir has probably 
followed the analogy of evan-o!<-ir, [from esvan-ir = Lat. 
ex-vanescere, where the perf. evan-!(-i seems to have 
determined the fonn of the whole verb.] 
1074 des autres] cf. Rom. de Mah. 1334: 

a I'un, qui ert de gens eslites 

et honeres de son linage, 

ainsnes et des autres ))lus sages, 

avoient baillie la parole, 

et proie que por aus parole. 
1087 esgarez] comp. of garer, Prov. garar, from 
O. IL G. waron, to tal^e heed ; from garer we have the 
inter), and subst. gare, and the deriv. garenne, (prob. for 
gar-zn^,) whence our ' warren'. 

— abri] Sp. Pg. abrigo, Prov. abric, but Ital. has 
no genuine representative of the word, hence Diez 
objects to its derivation from Lat. apricus, as further 
the meaning does not correspond, ahri meaning shade, 
shelter, and apricus sunny, open ; he proposes as the 
origin, an O. H. G. bi-ri/i-an, to cover, with prefi.xed a, 
or as an alternative the verb berg-an, pres. birgu. Still 
I prefer the derivation from apricus ; in the hot-house, 
plants are sheltered from cold, hence the apricum might 
mean a shellercd sjiot. 

1094 sustrait] lliis taking away of the water refers to 
the diminution of the river (789) by tlie prayers of A.; 
nus is either dat. commod. = for our sakes, in our 
behalf, or else, dat.-abl. = from us, out of our path ; 
"the water .also was a witness to his power and kindness, 
first when it was removed from our path as we were 
drowning, and afterwards when it rushed out from the 
mounLiin to assuage our thirst." 

1100 defl] It. disfidarc, Sp. desa&ar, M. L. diffidare, 



which DC. defines, " proprie est a fide, quam quis alicui 
debet, aut poUicitus est, per htteras aut epistolam defi- 
ccre'', to renounce allegiance. 

1102 danz] used as a prefix to pr. nn., Lat. dominus, 
domnus. It. donno, Sp. don, Pg. dom. Wall, donin ; 
Y. changes the vowel into a, as in danter from domit.ire, 
and cf. O. F. damoisele (our damsel), borrowed in Ital. 
damigella [= Lat. dominicilla], with "Wall, domnicel, 
Sp. doncel. "With this O. F. usage of datiz, cf. the 
ilod. Sp. Pg. Don, Dom, fem. Donna, Dona, and the 
Prov. use of En or N, (for dom-c«) and Na, (for dom- 
na) before proper names, e. gr., mas. En Savaric, 
N Amian, fem. Na Johana, Na Venus. 

1109 plevi] as in our law term 're-ple^-y', prob. from 
Lat. praebere (fidem) ; thus pleige, our ' pledge ', = Lat. 
praebium, while the Prov. form plevizo is precisely the 
praebitio of Varro and the codes. 

1113 aers] pp. of acrdre, from adhaerere = adher're, 
and witli interpolated d, a-erdre ; cf. sourdre from 
surgere = sur're, tordre from torquere = tor' re. 

1114 remist] Lat. manere has given two forms to 
O. F., manoir (ere), and maindre (ere) ; the pret. also 
has two tenninations, -ui and -si, thus 3 sg. is manut 
and mest, [for manuit and 7nansit,'\ or mist, remist, so 
I sg. remis, 1453. 

— mes ke] " they are a thousand, [or would be] but 
that one remained behind sick " ; cf. Montaiglon, 
Recueil, p. 296 : 

yssus sont fors a ost bennie 
toute la noble compeignie, 
mais que 11. chevalier, qui jurent 
au lit por ce que blecic furent. 
ibid. 315 et cil du b.iing ne se remue, 

mais qu'il dist : " bien viegnoiz, bel oste." 
Often used with ne, cf. Rom. Stud. Hft. 3, p. 378 : 
U veissies tant Sarrazin morir, 
mal soit de eel qui en eschapast vis, 
ne mais que C, qui en fuie sont mis. 
Besides this use of 'meske',= 'except that', and that on 
810, = '■even though' , there is a third, of quite different 
meaning, 'provided that' ; cf. B. du Guesc. 13481 : 
Ohvier de Cliijon oil tant ot baronnie, 
qui n'acconta aux gens tuer toute sa vie, 
mais qu ' il fussent Engloiz de s ' averse partie, 
nes plus que font bouchiers bestes en boucherie ; 
" to kill them lilje sheep, pro\ided they were English". 
Montaiglon, Recueil, 304 : 

qui fabloicrvelt, si fabloie, 
mais que son dit n'en afTebloie 
por dire chose desresnable. 
Ibid. 118 : ]iriveement a soi I'apclc, 
si li promet une cotelc, 
mes qu'el soit de cele oevre espie, 
et que la veritc I'en die. 

1115 feblesce] from adj. fcble, also foible, (whence 
our subst. 'foible', a weak point,) older floible, from 
Lat. flebilis, with euphonic eccope of the first / ; for the 
relation of meaning, cf. Germ, venig, little, from the 
verb weinen, to weep, and M.F. chetif (Lat. captivus,) 
miserable. [Portug. has the woxi, febre, in the sense of 
light-weighted, of money.] 



P 2 



io6 



NOTES. 



lllGenvai] M. F. has envahir, but Lat. invehere is 
not to be thought of; the Prov. envazir demonstrates 
the origin of the word to be Lat. invadere, of. M. F. 
trahir from tradere. 

1118 repeiia] iluec is to be taken with langui, not 
■with repeira, " there he languished, till Apl. returned 
home" ; Prov. repairar, from Lat. repatriare, whence 
subst. O. F. repaire, home, abode, only used in M. F. 
of the den or lair of animals. 

1125 menant] ptcp. of manoir, ' one who remains on 
the soil, peasant', a word which in JI. F. (manant) 
means coarse, rude, boor, but which in O. F. denoted 
one who cultivated his o\vn ground, and so = wealthy, 
cf. Rom. de Tr. 2253 (where Peleus says, "if we take 
Troy,) toz jors en serons mes manant" ; Montaiglon, 
Recueil, p. 297 : 

chascuns en fu manans et riches, 
se il ne fu trop fox ou nices. 

1132 un sun bien voillant] I have preferred keeping 
bien and voillant separate, and translating the phrase 
'by one mshing his advantage' ; cf. 1763 sen-ant e ami 
e vostre bien voillant, where if vostre were adj. to bien 
voillant, it should have preceded sen-ant. 

1134 bruidee] in 1212 we have the form ebnmsdee, 
with the i- of O. Sp. broslar (for brosdar), M. L. 
brosdus, from O. H. G. ga-prorton, O. N. broddr, im- 
plying a Goth, briizd-, spike; but perhaps brtiider, our 
'broider' , M. F. broder, Sp. bordar, is merely a modi- 
fication of F. border, our 'border', in the sense of 
enclosing, from O. H. G. bort, edge, &c. 

Cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 105 1 : hire yolwe heer was 
browdid in a tress; 3238 whit was hir smok, and 
browdid al byfore of cole-blak silk ; 2500 so riche 
■WTOught and wel, of goldsmithry, of browdyng and 
of steel; cf. also 90: 

embrowdid was he, as it were a mede 
al ful of freshe floures, white and reede. 
1595s of rubies, saphers and of perles white 

were alle his clothes embrowdid up and down. 

1137 le ovre] here may be noted the masc. gender, as 
in 1581 cest ovre ; in M. F. the word is both masc. and 
fem., (with a difference of meaning, however,) the two 
forms being probably owing to a felt difference of 
origin, the one being the Lat. fem. sg. opera, while the 
other is Lat. ntr. pi. opera, from opus. 

— ne] the absence of any separate form, such as 
M. F. ni, for the negative conj., with the looser structure 
in O. F., makes the distinction between the adv. and the 
conj. somewhat difficult in particular cases. As a rule, I 
do not quote ne as a conj., except after a preceding nega- 
tive, though in many instances what would by this rule 
be the adv., has re.-illy the force of a conj., thus here, 
' he well recognized the work, and did not hide. Sec' 

1138 en nn tenant] acommon adv.=uninten-uptedly; 
cf. Ph. Mousk. Vol. II. p. 701, App. : 
11 se fit ravaler x fois en un tenant 
c'onques ne resorty pour nul homme vivant. 
B. du Guesc. 3960: 

bien pourveu furent ens ou tamps de devant, 
de pain, de char salee et de bon vin friant, 
pour vivre xv mois ou plus en un tenant. 



In this phrase, the word 'tenant' is to be regarded as a 
substanti\'ized participle, of w-hich we have an example 
with the def. art. in au muriant (1185); so that in a 
similar expression 'en un acordant' (11 87), however 
natural it might seem to render, "harmonizing in one 
point", the ptcp. is really an abstract noun, and the 
phrase is to be rendered, 'in a harmonious-frame-of- 
mind' ; in 'men escient' (1560), the phrase still in use 
* a bon escient ' shows the nominal character of the 
ptcp., and cf. mun viant (808), le remenant (838) ; 
perhaps also se drescent en scant (793) may be referred 
here, (M. F. en sun seant,) unless we regard this as a 
case of the gerundive participle of modality, [as qu'alez- 
vus demurant (818), &c.,] 'se drescent' expressing the 
activity, and the grnd. 'en seant', the special cha- 
racter or direction of the activity. 

1141 gainnur] deriv. of O. F. gaaigner. It. guadag- 
nare, from O. H. G. weidatijan, to hunt, to pasture ; 
hence applied to agriculture, (as even still we find M. F. 
gagnage for pasture-land,) so that gainnur means 
farmer; thence to the profits of farming, and profit 
generally, in M. F. gagner, to gain. From the O. F. 
gaaing, gain, comes M.F. re-gain, the second crop, 
aftermath. 

1147 raed] M. F. roide, raide, from Lat. rigidus. 

— aimant] Prov. adiman, Sp. Pg. iman, from Lat. 
adamas, adamant, [corrupted into diamant, ' diamond', 
as Diez conjectures, by the influence of diafano.] The 
meaning of ' magnet ' is found even in M. L., as now in 
aU the Romance. 

1149jueus] It. gioiello, Sp. joiel, O. F. joel,juel,our 
'jewel', from a Lat. gaudi-ellum, dimin. of gaudium, 
pi. gaudia, whence F. joie, It. gioja, Sp. joya ( = jewel). 

1157 es le vus relevant] as it stands, the passage must 
refer to Auban : " behold, even as he was rising from 
his knees (cf. 775), the blood was dried up;" it is pos- 
sible however that le should be les, and refer to the re- 
suscitated (cf. 794) : " behold the drowned arising, 
and the flood dried up". 

1159 hardi] ptcp. of O. F. hardir, M. F. en-hardir, 
It. ardire, to be bold, daring, from O. H. G. hart-jan, 
to strengthen, deriv. of hart. 

1162 prisa] from Lat. pretium, come It. prezzo, Sp. 
precio, M. F, prix, O. F. pris, our ' price' ; from preti- 
are, It. prezzare, pregiare, O. F. priser, proisier, our 
' praise'. 

1168 mes fans cuntruvant] "some said, but they 
lied, (falsum tamen fingentes,) that it was the power of 
the radiant sun, who thus comforted us who were going 
to avenge him of his enemies that spoke against him" ; 
the use of the ptcpp. cuntruvant and cuntredisant in 
place of finite verbs is no doubt owing to the rime. 

Cf. KeU. Romv. 691.33: 

afin qu'on se puist delivrer 

de ces faulz menteurs mesdisans 

qui one ne furent voir disans. 

1172 arbruseu] M. F. arbrisseau, for Lat. arbor- 
iceUus ; cf. ruisseau, rivicellus; vermisseau, vermicellus ; 
so damoiseau, lionceau, &c. 

1174 vantant] has nothing to do with Lat. ventus ; 
it is M. L. vauitare from vanus. 



NOTES. 



107 



1180 proceinne] from Lat. prope, propius, we have 
proche, extended into proeh-ain, = a Lat. propi-anus, 
[cf, cert-ain, loint-ain 715 = longit-anus,] as in the 
verb approcher, from appropiare, already in the Vulgate. 

— du eel lusant] there are five possible constnic- 
tions here, \-iz., i, (radius) coeli lucens, 2, coeh lucentis, 
3, de coclo lucens, 4, do coelo descendens, 5, de coelo 
lucenti ; 1 prefer the last, ' a ray coming down from the 
bright sky, ' cf. Ed w. Conf. 634 ; 

vis li est k'il veit un ber 
du eel venant lusant e clcr. 

1186 esculant] il. F. e-couler, Lat. colore, to filter, 
used instead of fiiiere, in the sense of ' glide, flow ' ; 
hence coulisse, porte-coulisse, port-cuUis, from a form 
(porta) colalicia, a sliding gate. 

1195 baud e joiant] cf. Ahx. 58. 13 veisciesles G. 
esbaudis et joians ; B. du Guesc. 13874 et cil furent de 
lui baut, lie, et joiant. These two-membered structures 
occur frequently in A., cf. 56 devise e dresce, mun aiere 
e mun chemin ; 68 di e devin ; 266 lez e esjoi ; 276 certz 
efi; 311 present e dun; 987 guerpi e lesse, (' gurpire 
et projicere' of the O. Franiiish laws) ; 1 109 entrejurez 
sunt e unt lur foi pleri ; 1845 ci fiuis et termin ; even 
in trilogies, 795 legers, enters e seins ; 1543 enters, 
seins e gari ; v. Grimm, Rechtsalt. p. 22. 

1197 manacant] in Gloss. I have given tliis as agreeing 
with 'mort', but it is better to malce manacant and 
promettant of next Une equivalent to abridged relative 
clauses, and translate; "neither for one who threatens 
death, nor for one who promises fleeting riches. " 

1200 resortist] there are two verbs 'sortir', which 
must be distinguished ; the first is of the regular conju- 
gation, (It. sorto, M. F. je sors,) and means ' to go out, 
away, to stand out', the origin being prob. a Lat. 
surrect-ire from surrect-us ; cf. O. F. quatir from 
co-act-US, espertir from experrect-us. The other is of 
the inchoative (-isco) conjugation, It. sortisco, F. je 
sortis, to get, [cf the M.F. legal expression 'cette 
sentence sortira son plein efl'et',] and is to be connected 
with Lat. sortiri. As a comp. of the first, we have 
'ressortir', to go out again, to spring out, whence 
ressort, a spring, elasticity; of the second, ressortir, to 
have recourse to a tribunal where one may obtain one's 
rights, whence F. ressort, extent of jurisdiction, place of 
resort in cases of appeal; thus O.F. ressortir came to 
mean ' to go for shelter, protection' , hence to retire, 
retreat, or as here, to flinch, swerve ; cf 1497 ; Alix. 
89. 36 iluequcs veiscies I'un venir avant et I'autre 
resort ir. 

1208 deit] must here be impers., as Lat. decet, oportet, 
so that me is governed doubly, me deit me suvenir : 
not however, 'I ought to remember', but 'I must 
needs remember', 

1209 trespassant] the gerundive ptcp. is even yet 
sometimes used in M. F. in apposition with the object 
of the clause, [in place of the relative construction, 
as in 'je le voyais, qui se lavait',] "who deigned 
to receive me, as I passed by him", 

1217] the construction with the negatives, which 
seems awkward, will be seen to be symmetrical by 
transposing in translation the two hemistichs of this 



line : il ne vout, enfreindre ne guerpir, fauser 7ie flecchir, 
ne pur prisun, ne pur sun cors livrer. 

1218 pur sun cors livrer] for this use of the infin. as 
an abstract noun, but still governing another(preceding) 
noun, cf. (1234) pur les testes duner, and v. note on 
234 ; cf. Jourdains 2395. 3801 : 

nel lairoie por les membres tranchier. 
Ger. de V. 2015 : 

je ne laroie por les manbres coper 
ne por avoir k'en me seust doner. 
And for this use of the prep, pur with infin., cf. 
Chauc. Cant. T. 1135 : 

(swore) never for to deyen in the peyne 

neyther of us in love to hynder other, 
= ' pur murir en la peine' ; ibid. 14548 : 

ne schal I never, for to go to helle, 
bewreye word of thing that ye me telle. 
1228 sanz fln u resortir] I do not know what this 
means : sanz fin is no doubt = ' without end', and this 
seems to demand for resortir the first of the meanings 
given on 1200, which I cannot think possible, [quasi, 
which never ceases nor runs out{f) ] on the other hand, if 
resortir meaning ' to flinch', as I beheve it must, then 
'sanz fin' is not veiy intelligible tome; perhaps we 
might paraphrase thus : " that God may grant me to 
attain a post in your company, a post which I will keep 
for ever, and from which I will never retire". 

1233 oil] Lat. hoc was early used as a particle of 
affirmation, Prov. oc, pronounced North of the Loire ; 
to it was appended -it, from Lat. ii/uil, so that the form 
became o-il [hoc illud], ou-i/, M. F. oui. The presence 
or absence of the termination -il was so characteristic 
and prominent in the two languages French and Pro- 
ven9al, as even to furnish a name to distinguish them, 
viz., langue d' oil and langue d' oc, just as Dante can 
define Italy as the country dove il si [Lat. sic] suona. 
cf. Bl. of Oxf 513: 

et Uix ! ai-je son malvais gre 
quant je ne le servi a gre. 
je quic c'oil. 
— sanz repentir] cf. Matz. Altf. xxxvi. 22 : 

dame, prenge vous pities 

de moi Id apareillifis 

sui pour vous sousi'rir langours 

et por faire vo plaisir 

de vrai cucr sans repentir. 

1234 ne larrum] larrum is here used absolutely ; in 
1 197 it is followed by de with inf, ne larrum de fere, 
as in 1270, but also with subj., cf. Kell. Rom. 207. 7 : 

je ne lairoie por les menbres trenchier 
de I'un de vos ne me doie vengier. 
Cf. Aub. 1 107 ne larrum ke solum desturnez, ' we will 
not let ourselves be turned away'. 

1236 geir] from O. H. G. jek-an to declare, acknow- 
ledge, from which also (through O. H. G. bi-^ih-t) 
Mod. Germ, has its bc-ich-te, beichte, confession. "Prov. 
gequ-ir, O. Sp. jaqu-ir, to give up, show the final' 
guttural, found also in (). It. ag-gecch-ir, to humble one's 
self; so often in O.V.Je-h-ir, gc-h-ir, to confess, &c. 

1243 restenoele] from Lat. scint'iWa, by transposition 
[es-tinc-illa,] O. F. cstencele, borrowed in Prov. gsten- 



io8 



NOTES 



celar, [which Raj-n. Lex. III. 215 strangely places under 
estela, stf/ia], though Prov. has also sintilla, as It. scin- 
tilla. Sp. centeUa, Pg. centelha. 

1244 privez] Lat. privatus, which in SI. L. took the 
meaning 'familiaris, amicus', (cf. the line 'qui nimisest 
privatus, eum vitare necesse',) hence the meaning con- 
fidant, ^mj councillor, &c. There appear to have 
been two derivv. of M.L. privus, i, privalis, whence 
M. F. privaute, and 2, privensis, whence O.F. privois, 
M. F. ap-privoiser, to tame, cf. mansuetus. 

1246 besille] from O. F. besil, Prov. hecilh (Rayn. 
Lex. II. 205 trouble, renversement,) M. L. besihum, 
besilamentum ; the meaning ace. to DC. is 'maiming', 
&c., but the line quoted in DC.fromO.F., 'ilneporont 
durer, ains se besilleront', and the passage in Aub. 
certainly denote some sj-nonyra of chanceler. I do 
not know what the root is: cf. Ital. bas-ire, to die, to 
faint away, from Keltic bds, death, and so bas-iUer ? 

Chanoele] Lat. cancellare, used early in the middle 

a^es = to cancel writing by lines drawn lattice-fashion 
across the letters ; afterwards (cf. the verse ' in cruce 
cancellat pro nobis brachia Christus',) used in the sense 
'to cross the arms, or hands': ' utantur cucuUis, cum 
manicis, usque circa genua longis ad cancellandum more 
ordinis sedendo et inclinando', ' flexis pophtibus et 
manibus cancellatis' ; and so perhaps from this crossed 
position of the legs, the unsteadiness of one ' chancelant '. 

1247 sautele] by dimin. suff. -illare from Lat. saltare, 
we have It. salt-el'lare, O. F. saut-eler. M. F. has prob. 
borrowed from Ital. the subst. saut-trr-elle, as it has the 
inserted -er- pecuhar to Ital., with this suffix -ella, 
cf. acqu-er-ella, salt-er-ella. 

— avolez] M. L. advoli; DC. gives : ' advenae, qui 
aliunde venerunt, advolarunt' ; ' gens advolez, qui 
n'avoient mesnaige, feu, ne lieu' ; from Froissart, 
' ceuxqui estoient ainsi bannis, les .ippelloit on avolez'. 

1248 depanez] from Lat. pannus, cloth, whence M. L. 
depanare, of tearing clothes, &c. DC. quotes ' detonsi 
et delavati, cum drappis et calciamentis depannatis'. 
[From O. F. pan in the sense of ' fragment', and so 
' piece given in pledge', we have our ' pawn'.] 

— gunele] dimin. of O. F. gone, gune, our ' gown', 
but the root is unknown, for the Welsh ^it'n is probably 
itself a loan-word. 

1250 fevre ki martele] this comparison of the fami- 
liarity of workmen with their tools, to express the 
mastery over any art, is very common in O. F., cf. Alix. 
91. 28: 

raais li dus fet venir le mire [= doctor], 
qui plus savoit de plaies que fevres de martel. 
Ph. Mousk. 9288 : 

et si dist-on en un provierbe, 
que del fier sont mestre H fevre. 

G. de V. 1495 : .„ ^ ,. 

li dus Rollan est vaiUant chevaher 
et vassaus nobles por ses armes bailier. 
pluis en est duiz ke maistres charpantiers 
n'est de sa barde ferir et chaploier, 
kant il veut faire saule ou maison dressier. 

Alix. 161. 38 : , 

savoit 11 mult plus d'armes qu esmenus en gibier. 



— martele] from martel, (Chas. Martel,) dimin. of 
M.L. inaiiits, (Lat. marlulns, ' malleus pusillus', Isidor.) 

— fevre] l^ax.faber, still preserved in M. Y.orf'evre, 
and in family names, as Lefevre. 

— tanailles] Lat. tenacula, Prov. tenalha, but Ital., 
like Fr., has tanaglia, witli the favourite substitution of 
a in an unaccented initial syllable, in place of orig. e or 
i; cf. Sp. galardon, Ital, maraviglia, Fr. paresse, 
(pigritia,) &c. For this word. Span, has tenaza from 
Lat. tenacia, tenax; Portug. both tenaz and ienaiha. 

1258 trufle] om- ' trifle', (v. note on 254); Diez thinks 
the word may be truffe, meaning truffle, wliiclr he takes 
to be the Lat. tuber, [pi. tubera,] with revected ;•, [trube, 
truflfe] . This word, in combination with terra e, ' terrae 
tuber ' [= tar-trufo] has given birth to F. tartuffe, It. 
tartufo, Venetian tartufola, whence the Mod. Germ. 
iartoffel, tartoffel. 

— fable a rote u viele] cf. Mar. de Fr. I. 112: 

de cest cunte k'oi avez 
fu Gugemer le lai trovez, 
qu'hum dist en harpe e en rote. 
Montaiglon, Recueil, p. 8 : 

ge sui jougleres de viele ; 
si sai de muse et de frestele, 
et de harpe et de chifonie, 
de la gigue, de I'armonie, 
et el salteire et en la rote 
sai-je bien chanter une note. 

— rote] the rote denoted in O. F. two instruments, 
the harp, and the violin. The word is Keltic ; cf. chrotta 
Britanna which is mentioned by Fortunatus ("th 
cy.) in conjunction with the Roman lyra and the Barba- 
rian harpa ; hence Welsh crwlh, Gaelic cruit, both of 
which mean \iolin, (harp,) the idea being probably 
from the bulging out of the instrument, as the Welsh 
word means besides anything sweUing out, belly, &c., 
and Gaelic croit = a Immp, [cf. the Mod. Irish expres- 
sion, ' to put a critt on himself, to assume a humpy 
attitude.] This chrotta probably passed into O.H.G. 
as hrota, whence O. Fr. has rote. 

— viele] the name of some musical instrument spe- 
cially fitted for dancing and gaiety ; it was played \\\ih 
a bow, and had 3-6 strings. The origin is prob. M.L. 
vitula, (whence Qerm.Jiedel, our Jiddle,) from vitulari, 
to gambol like a calf (vitulus), hence Prov. viula, It. 
Sp. viola. 

1259 au vent] cf. B. du Guesc. 8160 : 

quant Henry vint a eulx tenir son parlement, 
ilz ne firent de lui compte nes que du vent. 
„ 1263 enfrunder] prob. an error for enfundrer, common 
enougli in the sense ' destroy, to knock the bottom out', 
from Lat. fundus ; Diez supposes that the rin effond/^r 
is a variation of I, as in It. sfondo/are ; cf. It. svent- 
olare from ventus, Lat. eventilare, O. F. venteler, 
(Aub. 1529) where M. F. h'enterhas omitted the dim. 
suff. ; for the change, and the revection of the liquid, 
cf. M. F. esc/and/^ for scanda/um. 

1264 de oi k'a Burdele] a common terminus ad quem 
in comparisons ; cf Ph. Mousk. 25257 : 

pour ses dis et pour ses boins cos 
not tel gilleur jusqu' a Bordiele, 



NOTES. 



109 



1266 estriu bailler] cf. Alix. 14.23 : 
devant lui amenerent Bucifal le legier ; 
Alixandres i monte, estrier n'i vot baillier. 

— estriu] Prov. estriub, Sp. estribo, O.F. also cstnf, 
whence cstriv-icr, (M. F. gtri-^iere), contracted estner, 
M. F. etrier. The origin is perhaps a Germ, stnepe, 
leather-thong, as the first stirrups were made of leather ; 
or from streban, to lean heavily on, v. note 1 73. 

1267 cenele] so Chauc. Cant. T. 6240 : 

but al for nought : I sette nought an hawe 
of his proverbe, ne of his olde sawe. 
Ph. Mousk. 7405 : 

poiiral, estrier, cengles ne sieles, 
ne lor valoient 11. cenieles. 
From Lat. (coc)cinella, dirain. of coccinus,from coccum. 
1283 targer] from tardare, M.F. has tarder.but O.F. 
had also larger from tard-ic-are ; cf. juger from judicare. 

1285 ost] even in the eariiest ^l.'L., hostis had ac- 
quired the meaning of ' army', probably from the phrase 
'ire in hostem ', to go against the foe, which means to 
go to the army. It is curious that the word should be 
mostly of the femin. gender in Romance ; Gregory has 
•hostem collectura', but we have ' hostem «w/ra'« m 
a charter of 1143, and it is mostly so found in M. L. 

1286 peauncel] dimin. of penon. It. pennone, where 
Sp has pendon ; the root however is not pendere, but 
penna, as it meant the \on?, feathery streamer attached to 
the point of the lance, and then generally Hag, ' pennant . 

1289 el] Lat. al-iud; in Prov. a/ was used as an adj. 
with res, ' ni al res no m fai viure', or even as a subst. 
'vei que tot I'als qu'om fai abayss' ; soused also in 
O Portu". as an adj., ' querer al ben, for se non vos ', 
though generally in O. Sp. and O. Pg. it is an indecl. 
pron. ntr. as in O.F. , where it is very common, as f/ and 
al; cf. iloutaiglon, Recueil, p. 239 : 
li preudom ne sot I'afere, 
et n'i entendoit el que bien. 

ibid. p. 202 : 

et la dame, qui fu porquise 
de sa grant honte et de son mal, 
li dist : "biaus sire, il n'i a al." 
1297 guites] from Lat. quietus, and a short form 
quiMS, we have F. coi, 'coy'. It. cheto, 'qmet', but 
also F. quitte, Sp. quito, ' quit', in the sense of freed 
from obligation, thus M. L. 'sit quietus' ='sitabso- 
lutus'; hence also our adv. 'JK/Vi;'. 

1299 ki sunt] the analysis on p. 94 (last line of note) 
malics it probable that the k'i sunt given in text is 
wrong, and should be ki sunt. 

1300 travail] It. travaglio, Sp. trabajo, Pg. trabalho, 
with a similar development in meaning as Lat. labor ; 
perhaps from Lat. trabs, whence trabare, F. en-traver, to 
throw stumbling-bloclis in the way, and so (through 
trab-acu!are) th.e verb travailler, and subst. traraU ; 
our 'travel' is the same word, and means labour in 
walking, precisely as in the Bavarian dialect, the Germ. 
arbeiten ' to labour' may mean ' to walk'. 

1304 sanz returner] 'iirevocably', so 1365 sanz 
jamais returner; cf. Ma'.z. Altfr. xxv. 23 : 
tres che que jou I'csgardai, 
fui je pris sans revenir. 



1308 tencer] M.F. tancer; from a form tentiare, 
deriv. of tentus, tenere, to maintain, hold one's opinion, 
hence to contest, [cf. Uie O. F. subst. ten(on,) to scold, 
&c. ; cf. Rom. de Tr. 1096 : 

lede chose est de manacier, 
se ne vieng pas a vos tender. 

1309 k'ami est] this k' cannot be the lel. form. masc. 
nom., for the reason assigned on 618 note and*; it is 
the conj. causal : " you know very little of the man you 
treat so contemptuously, which you certainly would 
not do if you knew him,' for he is the fiiend of the God 
who made us, as you may probably learn before evemng 
by his performance of some miracle ". 

— ki plut] v. note on 163 1. 

1314 en repruver] (v. note on 141 ;) cf. Rom. btud. 

Hft.3, p. 413: 

que j 01 dire en reproner, 
' qui mercie crie, aura pardon'. 
KeU. Rom. 207. 23 : 

on le dist souvent en reprouvier. 

— cist se fert ki ne yeit] tliis particular proverb is to 
be found among the proverbs of Master Serlo, as given 
by M. Paul Weyer in his Documents Manuscrits, Rap- 
port, p. 170: 

" si fert ki ne veil." 
" sic illi feriunt qui cassi lumine fiunt. 
sic scit percutere quem scimus luce carere. 
sic facimus scire sic cecum cito ferire." 
1321 parcener] deriv. of O.F. pardon, from Lat. 
partitio, M.L. partio ; DC. gives : ' partionarii appeUan 
videntur ii negotiatores quos inter societas est, sic 
dicti quod jacturam simul et lucrum participent'. 

1328 d'ooire] this seems a loose way of expressing a 
purpose, "they draw their swords, in order to loll" ; 
cf. 1419 sumuns d'envair, summoned for the purpose of 
attacking; 1527 se purofri de murir, went forward to 
meet death. 

1334 tut] this cannot be the adv., so it is prob. a 
mistake for tuit, as the nom. pi. masc. always takes 
ui in Aub. ; the same spelling occurs in two appa- 
rent instances, viz. : 

1359 tut unt rette a lui cest mortel encumbrer; 
1407 tut rettent Amphibal le clerc orientel; 
where tut is seemingly a nom. pi., but in both is simply 
the adv. = whollv, altogether. 

sarmuner] M. F. has its verb ' sermonner ' used 

as subst. in Aub. 1652, from Lat. sermonari, of which 
Aul. Gell. (17.2) says: ' rusticius videtur, sed rectius' ; 
the noun is from a' type ' scrmonarius', preacher. I 
translate : " all this is by the magic arts of the preacher", 
but if this is correct, it is the only passage in which the 
governing noun is without the article, and governed 
itself by a prepos. ; perhaps it might be better to explain 
'90 est au sarmuner par sortz', 'the preacher has this 
power bv means of magic'. 

1336 a sun talent] the Romance use of this word = 

inciination, wish, naturally went into O.E., cf. Chauc. : 

therfibre have they counseiled yow ratlier 

to yourc talent than to youre profyt. 

This was its natural mcanmg, from Gr. ToKavrav, 

balance, hence inclining, propensity; DC. quotes 



I lO 



NOTES. 



from a will : ' si venerit ad aliquam de meas filias in 
talentum Deo sennre', if they take a fancy to serve God. 

— rebundir] in Prov. and O. F. the verb denotes to 
resound, perhaps from Lat. bombitare, to buzz ; for the 
change of conjugation, Diez compares retent;> from 
Lat. tinnitfl/v. Tlie word would then appear to have 
taken on a secondary meaning to re-echo, and so to 
leap back, to rebound ; cf. Spcns. F. Q. T. 6. 7 the far 
rebownded noyce. 

1344 li curt sure] a not infrequent use of the adv. 
instead of the prep. (Diez, Gr. III. 300) ; cf. Vie de 
St. Thom. p. 361 jo ne li cur sure ; p. 107 tuit li 
curent sure ; Rom. de Tr. 1943, 8412 : 
en eslepas se corent sure, 
entrocis se sunt en poi d'ore. 

— esmanker] from Lat. mancus, M. L. mancare, to 
maim, dismember; DC. quotes 'si quis alteri brachium 
cum spata aut cum faste fregerit, et non mancat, solvat 
solidos sex' ; ' qui cum rcdimi se multo rogarent, imperat 
eos emancari : mancos autem pugnos referentes intus 
sociis remitti'. M. F. has adopted the word in the 
general sense, manquer = to be wanting. 

1347 senter] properly an adj., ' chemin sentier', = 
'semitarius', from Lat. semita, O.F. sente, Sp. senda; 
whence It. sentiero, Sp. sendero, path, [Portug. sen- 
deiro, hack-horse, (quasi roadster ?)'\ 

1350 duluser] this word occurs frequently in O. F. as 
verb and subst. abstr., even in Aub. (1628), but it must 
be an adj. here, = 'afflicted', although 1 have never 
met it so elsewhere. The case is not much different in 
(1357) de\'urer ; cf. also (1392) raveinner, with similar 
termination. 

1357 lion] cf Chauc. Cant. T. 2632 : 

ne in Belmary ther is no fel lyoun 
that hunted is, or is for hunger wood, 
ne of his prey desireth so the blood, 
as Palamon to sle his foo Aixite. 

1359 rette] O. Sp. reptar, from M. L. reputare ; 
Diez quotes ' si quis alteri reputaverit', shall have laid 
to the charge of another, &c. DC. wrongly refers 
M.L. reptare, retare, to rectare : I think it not impro- 
ba'ole that rectare arose by mistake from rettare, Lat. 
reputare, which already in the 2nd cy. meant to 
charge to anybody's account, ' reputaturus patri quod 
praestiterit' (Papias). 

Chauc. Cant. T. 2731 : 

it was aretted him no \ylonye. 

Spens. F. Q. II. 8. 8 : 

the charge which God doth unto me arett 
of his deare safety, I to thee commend. 

1362 dister] It. desiiiare, from Lat. de-cenare, 
desnare, (cf F. cygne, O. F. cisne from M. L. cecimis ;) 
similarly, we have O. F. reciner from re-cenare, and 
It. pu-signo is just fost-cenium. Magalotti says : 
" pusignare non si piglia mai in un altro senso che di 
mangiar dopo cena^^. 

1376 chemisej It. camicia, Sp. camisa, is the M. L. 
camisia, a word used even by Jerome ; Zeuss, Gram. 
Celt.* p. 787, thinks it is an C5ld Gallic word, Kyniric 
camse, O. Irish coimmse, and so Diez explains as from 
a stem cdmis with adj. suffix, -ia ; for the termination 



-isiiis, cf. the nn. pr. Par-isii, Bel-isia, Car-isius, Cen- 
isius, [Mont Cenis;']'but cdmis is postulated by another 
and simpler fonn of the word, viz. It. cdmi'ce, O.F. 
ch.ainse, priest's white surplice, (whence the deriv. 
cheins-il (1720), cf JI. F. cout-il from O. F. coute.) 

— girim] prop, flap or lappet of a dress, which 
could be gathered into folds (sinus) ; DC. quotes 
' anteriora frocci sui in gremium ita attrahit, ut pedes 
possint videri ; girones quoque colligit utrimque, ut 
non sparsim jaceant in terra'. This folded part was 
called in M. H. G. gere, which implies an O. H. G. gero, 
ace. gerun, whence the It. gheroiie, F. giron, were bor- 
rowed. The root seems to be ger, a javelin, and we 
have still in English a deriv. in the word 'gore', a 
hastate mseriion in a dress, cf. Tsl.J^. p:/um vestimenti. 
In M.H.G. geren were applied as ornaments, and came 
to mean the entire lappet of the coat, &:c., so that 
girun de chemise is really a shirt-tail. 

— manoe] sleeve, from Lat. manica, id., and so fem., 
but the masc. manche, hand-le. It. manico, is from 
manus by deriv. suff. -icus, cf. le porche from port-icus. 

1379 maens] M. F. moyen, from Lat. medianus, 
used in ALL. to express 'mediae magnitudinis', &c. 

— queus] aU those adjj. queus, jovres, &c., are prob. 
in the mas. sg. noni., though I should prefer to take 
them as ace. pi. in apposition with les in 1377. 

1383 ki cist] this cannot be right ; I read, but doubt- 
fully, ke cPst, ' quod hie est' ; " they do not doubt that, 
if any believes in him, there is the right behef " Un- 
fortunately the metre here does not determine whether 
a syllable may have not been omitted. 

1388 entame] Prov. entamenar, irom a Lat. in- 
taminare, to touch, (tamen = tag-men, tango ;] cf M.F. 
semcr from seminare. In M. F., entamer means ' to 
begin', which is Ulustrated by our word begin, of 
which the simple verb -ginnen meant ' to cut ' (meat, 
&c.,) the first stage towards beginning to eat. 

1391 ne saul ne peu] "sucha marvel was never before 
seen as this of the wolf of the forest, without being 
cither full or fed, and the naturally-ravenous eagle, 
which by Christ's power have become guardians of 
dead bodies". The ki of 1391, is for ke after tctc 

(1390)- 

— saul] M. F. soil. It. satollo, AVcallach. satul, de- 
stul, Prov. sadol, from Lat. satullus, (dimin. oi satur). 

— peu] pp. of paistre, still used in M. F. in the 
comp. repu, 'satiated ', and sbst. repue, Villon's 'repues 
Tranches' , ' free feeds ' ; from the same root re-pastus, 
we have repast, M. F. repas ; cf also JI. F. appdt, 
appas, now employed diflTerently, but really the same 
word, viz., O. F. appast. Cf Mar. de Fr. I. 76 : 

quant lur mangiers al vespres vint, 

la pucele tant en retint, 

dunt li chevaliers out assez, 

bien fu peuz et abc\Tez. 
1393 morticine] Lat. morticinus, defined by Papias : 
" non occisorum, sed mortuorum animalium est morbida 
caro"; so It. morticino, canie morticina, means the flesh 
of animals that have died a natural death ; the bodies 
of the martjTS lay as if they had died by natural death, 
without injury or wound. 



NOTES. 



1 1 1 



1400 sueires] Lat. sudarium, cf. St. Jolin xi. 44 ci 
facies illiiis sudario crat ligata ; DC. quotes from a regu- 
lation as to the burial of a dead monk, ' abluto corjiore, 
induatur cilieio et cuculla usque ad tales ; sudarium 
super cucullam ponatur'. 

— encusu] pp. of cousdre, M. F. coudre, from Lat. 
con-suerc = cons'rc, cousre ; but It. cucire, Sp. cusir, 
point to a M.I^. cusire, which is found in Isidorus. 
1405 leuncel] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 2628 : 
ther nas no tygvr in the vale of G., 
whan that hir whelp is stole, when it is lite, 
so cniel on the hunt, as is Arcite. 

1410 jtire lur grantz deus] Virgil's ' siderajurare' ; so 
in M. F., tlic prep, may be omitted after verbs of 
swearing, promising, cf. Lafontainc, Fab. VIII. 6, la 
femme promit ses grands dieux de se tairc. In 1 736 
we have jure ciircnt par lur deus. 

1411 panel] M.L. pnnellum, DC. 'instragulum, 
ephippii genus', 'un chcval bastfi d'un pcnnel'; still 
used in saddler}', our ' panel'. 

1412 chucezj elsewhere the final radical is ch, thus 201, 
6S2 chuch-cr, 223 chuch-cz ; its initial also is always 
rA, except 1056 cuch-ez. The root is Lat. coUocare^ It. 
colcarc, corcare, Prov. colgar, Wallach. cuica ; [but 
Sp. Pg. colgar, keeps nearer to the original sense, and 
only me.ans ' to hang up'.] 

1414 s'averunt mene] this is a very characteristic 
usage in O. F., of si (with futures in protasis and 
apodosis) = until ; cf. Alix. 61. 21 ja ne m'cn tomerai, 
si sera desiertes j B. du Guesc. 14052 ; 

car je ne finerai james en mon vivant 
s'arai le roy Henry mis ainsi que devant; 
[it occurs frequently in B.du Guesc. ; cf. 475. 1116. igoo. 
2454. 5048. 5395. 8092. 1G526. 16597. 17395. 18094. 
18227. 18247. 19701. 20390. 20421. 21682. 22669;] 
Fl. et Blancef. p. 135 : 

ne la verra mais en sa vie, 
s'cn aura eu grant doulor. 
Frequently dc is prefixed, thus Alix. 81. 35 ja n'cn 
lomera, de si qu'il r.ara prise ; [cf. ibid. 79. I" : 
notrc droit signor lige ne dcvons nus guerpir, 
de si que il nus vint desfier a trair.] 
(Also with condit.,) Fl. et Bkancef. p. 27 : 
jamais ses cors repos n'aroit, 
de si que il I'aroit trovce. 
1418 cenhel] from Lat. cyinhiilnni, through a dimin. 
cyinbcllum, the bell which summoned the monks to 
meals ; it thus came to denote any assembly for amuse- 
ment, esp. for tournaments, and so the tournament 
itself. Hence it was used even for real war, for the 
thick of the fray, where the standard is, and so finally 
can mean even the standard ; as prob. here, ' summoned 
to the standard'. [In Sj). cimbcl, It. zimbcllo, (as .also 
in O. F.,) it means 'decoy-pigeon'; cf. Prov. cem- 
belar = to entice.] 



1419 OSt aroi] I do not see any other way of explaining 
this than by reading ost a rei, cf. Rom. de Tr. 7985 : 
issi armfi com fil a rei 
s'en issircnt fors au tornei. 

Fab. et Cant. anc. IV. 155 scz tu que soics fille a roi. 
B. du Guesc. 5480 I'ost a Cliarlc. 
There is not much dilficulty in the construction, which 
is common enough, but the meaning docs not suit well 
here ; at least it would seem more natural to translate 
'like as if summoned to the standard' (= to arms, or 
' by marti.1l music, trumpets, cymbals', &c.) 'in order 
to attack an arr.ayed host, or a city or fort.' But I have 
never met such a ptcp. a/v/]. The omission of the fem. 
ending e is of no consequence, as we have ost bani 
1285 ; (qy. ost masc. ?) 

1421 ninoiil] Chaucer's 'rouncy', (Cant. T. 392;) in 
O.F. also without the interpolated nasal, mucin, as 
M. F. roussin, Portug. rossim, Sp. rocin, rociii-anle 
(Rozin.-mte), the meaning in all being 'a sorry horse*. 
The existence of an It. rosza hinders Dicz from con- 
necting O.F. roncin, &c., with the Genu, ross ; which 
yet I tliink is the origin of these words. The nasal has 
been preserved in Walloon, ronsin, a stallion, and has 
even gone over into Welsh, rhwnsi, rough-coated 
horse. 

— ignel] O. F. also isnel, inel, Pr. isncl, It. snello, 
from O. H. G. siu-l, warlike, fiery, whence might come 
esnel, swift ; but the initial ;' (instead of e) is a difficulty. 
Diez admits the possibility of a Lat. ignitellus as the 
origin of O. F. ignel, [not of isnel il and certainly a con- 
fusion with /gnis is possible. 

1425 ahuent] from O.F. Im, a natural shout of 
mockery or alarm, presen'cd in our ' hue and cry', M.F. 
hucr, c\\3.t-huant, screech owl ; from a deriv. with /, 
hu-t-er, we have our hoot. As there is a Prov. ucar, 
M. F. hucher, M. L. hucciare, Scheler takes F. huer to 
be merely a variation of hucher, which is referred by 
Dicz to Lat. hue, as a cry, hither ! comparing the 
Norman cry haro, from O. H. G. hara, harot, meaning 
here, come here. 

1426 outel] for cultcl. It. coltello, from Lat. cultellus, 
dimin. of culter ; from cutcl, we have our cutler, M. F. 
coulel-ier, while our cutlass is F. coutel-as, It. coltell- 
accio, [with augmentative suff. -aeeus. It. -accio, F. -as, 
-asse, -ache, -ace, as in coutel-as, cuir-asse, pan-ache, 
popul-ace]. 

1427 deshuel] O. F. has many spellings of this word, 
hucl ; it occurs as iuel, yevel, iwel, iuzveul, [in Gloss, 
to 'li livres de Justice', the Ed. quotes an explanation 
of equinoxial, as having ' le jour et la nuit iuweuls ;'] 
eioal, (cf. our ewer = aquaria, M. F. aiguiere ;) besides 
the forms with media, as (-^al, ing.al,* 11. 1620, M. F. 
egal. For this form (h)uel, cf. Scheler in Lcmcke's 
Jahrb. VII. i. p. 68, n. 12, cquiparetur gl. seyt en-uel-i, 
equalitatera gl. huel-ti. 



• The form given by Roquefort y«^<i/, (Gloss. Rom.) can hardly be other than a mistake for ingal; the only 
justification of the « would be its coming after the guttural ; but as a matter of fact, the guttural and the labial 
are incompatible in the word, for we have two scries, one with only the labial v or k, the other with the guttural 
media only, g ; i. e. cither cial, or c^al. 



112 



NOTES. 



— chemins ferrez] the viae ferratae are thus described 
by DC: "itinera a Romanis in provinciis exstnicta et 
confecta, ita a posteris appellata propter eonim duritiem, 
vel quod ex silicibus subnigris compacta, ferri coloretn 
referant" ; the first explanation is no doubt correct, 
' the hard highroad' ; of. B. du Guesc. : 

4345 )e grand chemin ferre s'en va esperormant. 

14900 a la voie s'cst mis, les grans chemins ferrez, 
iin. licues et plus s'en est courant alez. 

1430 veins] I suppose this = Lat. vanus, but in that 
case I do not know in what sense the brain is said to 
be veins ; light-headed (with pain) ? 

1439 nite] a word which we have preserved in our 
rout, (borrowed in M.F. rout, raout,) from M.L. rupta, 
fraction, division, hence assemblage, crowd. 

1440 criz] It. grido, Sp. grito, Prov. crit, from Lat. 
quirit-are, (= crit-are,) used by QuintiUan of an orator, 
to shriek, &c. The final s in Aub. testifies to the ori- 
ginal final t ; v. app. 

1443 fiubie] It. forbire, from O. H. G. furban, to 
clean, mpe ; whence It. furbo, M. F. fourbe, a rogue, 
* who makes a clean sweep ' ; for the connexion of 
meaning, cf. Sp. limpiar, which means both to clean 
and to steal. 

1445 esclarcie] in the Rom. treatment of the verbs 
■with inchoative affix -sc, (Lat. -escere). Span, and 
Portug. keep fairly close to Lat., Ital. and Wallach. 
drop the -sc, save in the present, [i. e. save in cases where 
tlie stem-syll. wou'd \vithout the increment be ac- 
cented ;] Fr. and Prov. in the verbs where they do keep 
the -sc, actually add another -sc in their pres. forms. 
The variations may be shown thus : — 

Lat. (inf.)clar -esc -ere, (pres. Isg.)clar -esc-o. 

( Span. ,, clar -ec -er, ,, clar -ezc-o. 

\ Portug. „ (pad -ec -er), „ (pad -e^-o). 

I Ital. ,, chiar - -ire, „ chiar-isc-o. 

(Wall. ,, chier - -1, ,, chier-esc. 

; Prov. ,, (nigr-ez -ir), ,, (nigr -ez-«xi:) . 

,, „ clar - c -ir, ,, clar -c-esc. 

[ Fr. „ clair - c -ii', ,, clair -c-is. 

This double formation is avoided however in Fr. by the 
adoption of the mixed conjugation as in Ital. ; thus F. 
avil-ir, (where Prov. has avil-z-ir,) = It. chiar-ire, and 
avil-jj' = It. chiar-;jf(7. Among the few exceptions to 
this general weakening by omission, may be noted tliis 
verb eclaircir, noircir, (Aub. 1 103), dur-cir, (1495) ; of 
new verbs with this deriv. affix, we have still accourcir, 
retrecir (re-strict-escere), enforcir, obscurcir. 

1465 kemeua] M. F. cren-eau, O. F. cren-el, cran-el, 
M. L. craneUus, quameUus, dimin. of cran, [still in 
M. F., = notch,] the origin of which is supposed by 
Diez to be a Lat. crena, occurring only in Pliny [Hist. 
Nat., if the reading be genuine, (al. rails') ]. Besides 
the technical terms, crenelle, crenelate, &c., we have 
our 'cranny' , a nook, from the O. F. cranel. 

1466 jieus] I have translated this 'fresh' in Gloss., 
as I suppose it must be re.aUy the same word as joins 
and thus would be a M. L. gaudi-osus, though it 
hardly seems an appropriate epithet. The termination 
•eus—l^^i.osiis, isfoundin piteus 821, but the root syll. 
/*• is obscure, lijietis were taken iorjii-sus, one might 



hazard a connexion with a Lat. jugaj-is, in the sense 
of ' well-watered ', but 1 have no example of this word. 
1468 aventailles] M. F. eventail. It. ventaglio, Sp. 
ventalle, mean 'fan', but It. has also the fem. ventagha 
as O. F. a-ventaille, in this sense 'visor of the helmet' ; 
the visor, M. F. visiere, is the place for seeing through, 
the vent-aille, for breathing through, from ventus, [cf. 
soupiraU (v. 55) ;] Chaucer calls it the adventayle {Cant. 
T. 9080). Besides ventail, M. F. has a form van tail = 
folding-door. 

— heumes] It. elmo, Sp. yelmo, from Goth, hilms, 
O. Norse hjalmr ; with suffix -ettus, O. F. healm-et, 
imitated in Sp. a/mele, (forelmete,) whence perhaps F. 
armet, 'head-piece'. 

— chapeus] dimin. of chape, F. cape, It. cappa, 
perhaps \'irlg. Lat. ; Isidor. gives ' capa, quia quasi 
totum capiat hominem' ; and cf. O.H.G. gi-fang, dress, 
from fahan, to take. Whatever be the origin, it has 
many derivv., F. capot, capuchon, chaperon, &c.; 
from chap-el of 1617, we have chapel-et, chaplet, like 
bracel-et, cors-1-et, &c. 

1470 frois] It. fresco, M.F. frais, fraiche, from O.H.G. 
frisc, A.-Hayi, fersc, om: fresh ; Roquefort gives an 
0.7. f risque, whence oxa frisk, frisky, &c. 

1473 pur Dens] the relative clause in follg. line, 
shows tliat the meaning here must be, " you worship 
devils instead of God, who made us in his Ukeness" ; 
the more natural way (cf. 594) would be to render " you 
invoke them as gods", but this would lea\'e the ki of 
1474 with no antecedent. 

1477 dehonaires] Diez discusses Lat. atrium and 
agrum as the possible origin of the word aire, but it 
seems unnecessary to go past aer, or rather the adj. 
aeria. It. aria ; the meanings 1° air, and 2° disposition, 
race, family, are scarcely more incongruous than in the 
case of Lat. spiritus = 1° breathing, 2" courage, haughti- 
ness. 

1480 angre] the usual 710m. pi. is angere{s), for the 
obi. pi. cases we have angles, as also in obi. sg., and the 
adj. angUn ; angre is a later form, and is perhaps the im- 
mediate parent of JI. F. ange ; cf. however JI. F. tempe, 
O. F. temple, from Lat. tempora, where we have pre- 
sen'ed the /, temp/;?, ang^?/. 

1490 asoti] cf. Mort Dart. iv. i 'how Merlin was 
assotted, and doted on one of the ladies of the lalce'. 
Of the origin of the word sot, nothing is certain : Diez 
accepts the old derivation from Hebr. shoteh, foolish, 
which seems to me very improbable. Lat. stultus 
makes O. F. estot, estout, but the derivation of an 
initial F. j from a Lat. st is not universally accepted. 
M. L. sottus was in use as early as Charlemagne in the 
sense of Lat. stultus, and perhaps sottus was all along a 
vulgar Lat. word for stultus; Schuchardt (I. 32, II. 498) 
found stulto riming with mutto, and there may have 
been a form sultus as well. 

1505 gisez] It. giacere, Sp. yacer, Pg. jazer, from 
Lat. jacere, in O. F. gesir, cf. plaisir from placere; 
hence the M. F. defective forms, ci-git, gite (= giste), 
gisemcnt, and the (inf. gt'sir, and its) deriv. gisine, 
(Lafontainc). 

1514 derami] It. diramare, M. L.jderamare, to thin 



NOTES. 



113 



the boughs, to pull off the fruits, &c., and so, generally, 
to strip off. 

1530 as plaies bender] for this construction, v. note 
on 234 ; only one other instance occurs of its use with 
plural nouns, 1548 as cors garder. 

— bender] deriv. of O. F. bende. It. benda, Sp. 
venda, from O. H. G. binda ; connected with tliis root 
is our bund-le, in O. F. boundel, [Roquefort quotes 
' boundel de myrrlie' = fasciculus mj-rrhae.] 

1536 ja sunt acumpli] this is the only exception to 
the rule in A., that ja only precedes the auxil. estre, 
when the tense is future ; (it never precedes aver as an 
au.\il.) ; here too, it is used in the affirmative ; e. gr. 
389 ja ne vus crt voiez. 
451 ja pur lignage ne serra espami. 
102 1 ja n'crt termine. 
1035 ja tant ne en serrunt requis. 
1536 ja sunt acumpli. 
So also future in 1 331 where ja precedes estre; 
1331 saisiz ja en serrez. 
In S48 ne fuissez citoicn, jas fuissez S mort livrez, we 
may trace the same principle, for jas fuissez livrez 
stands by attraction for jas seriez livrez ' you would 
already have been given up to death'. 
1541 prive ne estrangi] cf Amis et Amil. 3250 : 
a la cort voiscnt et estrainge et priviS 
et povre et riche, n'en i ait nus remez. 
This form estrangi only occurs here, and is prob. owing 
to the rime ; estrange, om- strange. It. slranio, is the 
Lat. cxtrancus. 

1544 enblanchi] I take this as intrans., ' the blood 
grew whiter than milk', rather tlian trans., 'the blood 
whitened them, more than milk would'. 

1545 Otmtasmes] the interpolation of f is no doubt 
owing to the analogy of the 2 pi., cunt-ajtes, where the 
J is org.anic, Lat. am-a.ftis = am-a\istis. 

1546 arrement] Lat. alramentnm, Prov. airamen ; 
only Sp. seems to have preserved tliis word in .iny 
shape, in its antiquated adj. atramentoso, which dyes 
black. In its stead Sp. Pg. have tinta, from Lat. tincta, 
borrowed also early in O.H.G. tincta ; but iLF. encre, 
(O. F. enque, whence our ink,') is Ital. incliiostro. 
Old Milanese incostro, Prov. encaut, from ty/cavffrpoi', 
the red pigment which the Greek emperors used for 
their sign manu.al. 

— enbrever] M. L. inbrcvi.arc, 'in breves redigere', 
the 'bruvis' being = 'chartula continens indicem, seu 
summariam rei cujuspiara descriptionem' ; from this 
brevis, breve, in the sense of an official document, came 
the subst. bref, (whence Germ, brief, letter,) and the 
dimin. bn-i>-et, brevet rank, given by royal warrant. 

1549 blesmi] with inorganic s, M.F. blemir, our 
blemish, from the O.F. adj. bleme, blesme, very pale ; 
the root is Teutonic bid, dark blue ; cf O. Norse blar 
sem Hel, black as death, bldinan the livid colour of a 
bruise ; tims blemir would mean orig. to beat ' black 
and blue', and so ' to damage'. 

1554 uoes] Lat. opus. It. uopo, O. Sp. huevos, 
huebos, [P. del Cid, 83, 125, 212, &c.] Prov. obs, in 
O. F. also oeps, cf P. Meyer, Man. de Langage, p. 3S3, 
' pour acheter des danrdes A I'oeps de mon signcur' ; 



though generally ■without the labial, cf. Rom. Stud. 

Hft. 3, p. 424 : 

ases i trovent pain et el, 

char salce, fonnache et oes, [oeufs] 

et quanque a pelerin est oes. 

1560 men esoient] v. note on 1138 ; cf Kell. Romv. 

336- 7 : 

qui le bien voit et le mal prent, 

il est fol a son cscient. 
R. de Tr. 1497 gic cuit, an mien cscient ; 
used with other prepp. also, thus B. du Guesc. has se!on 
mon cscient, 3699, 4153, &c., where indeed it is not 
uncommon as a simple noun, thus 4332 oez mon escient, 
hear my opinion. In Rom. de Tr. (1298) we have it 
even developed into an adj., de parler fu escientose (!) 
In this phrase, men is of course for mien, or mun, but 
it is not impossible that the poet may have himself con- 
nected it (wrongly) with ni en, quasi ' me sciente'. 

1561 mescinement] mecine = medicina, from Lat. 
medicus, O. F. niicge; there was also a foiTn medicien, 
M. F. medecin, from a deriv. medic-ianus, but the com- 
monest expression in O. F. was 7nire, which is prob. 
medic-arius : as °^-xm\r\aticaria, made gramma»-(?, so 
medicarius could make nieire, jnire. 

1570 mais] " who listens to these messengers"; cf 
Pli. Mousk. 9585 par son mes savoir li feroit ; Rom. de 
Tr. 4605 li mes s'est tost mis a I'estree. The form in 
A. is prob. owing to the license in the matter of mais 
[= niagis] and mes; this word should be mes. It. 
messo, M. L. missus = legatus ; so M. F. mcssager, our 
messenger, from F. message, M. L. missaticum. 

1574 fous] It. foUe, O. F. fol, our 'fool', from Lat. 
follis, bellows, i. e., a wind-bag. 

1577 toleit] from a barbarous Lat. tollectum, which 
may be inferred from It. toUelto, cf. Dante, Par. v. 33 ; 
(inlnf xi. 36, 'toilette dannose' has a var. lect. fo//c'//(';) 
so in O. pDitug. we have tollieito for the mod. tolhido, 
(cf. Mussafia, in Sitz.-Ber. der Wien. Akad. XLVI. p. 
233). Tlie verb is rich in forms, thus the perf. is 
tolui, toli, [and tols\ so impf. subj. tol«sse, tol/sse, 
tolj/sse ; the pp. is toUi and toloit (toleit). For the 
constniction, cf B. du Guesc. 9846 : 

assez m'ont fait d'cnnuy et tolu ma contice. 

1579 de puteire] I have edited as separate words, as 
we have de putage (2S9), and de puslin (1841); but 
debonaire (811. 14"") I give as one word on account of 
the deriw. dcbonnere-te (""8), and -ment, (121 1). 

1581 Ctmpere] Lat. pararc has assumed the meaning 
protect, ward off, in F. parer, our pany ; cf. It. para- 
petto, ' parapet ', breast-guard. It. para-sole, para- 
vento, and so by imitation, F. para-pluie. In cpd. we 
have It. ri])arare, F. r(;parcr, to ' repair ' ; Sp. Pg. cm- 

fiarar, F. s'emparcr, to seize, (while It. imjiarare = to 
earn,) further compounded into rcmparer, to fortifj', 
whence O.P. rempar, M.F. rcmpar/ ; but It. conijicrare, 
Sp. Pg. comprar, Wallach. cumpera, O. F. cumprer, 
mean to buy. 

1591 blasmez] It. biasim.are, M.L.blasfemare, in the 
sense of blame, reproach, condemn. Tliere is another 
common deriv. from blasfemare, exhibiting tlie rare 
change of/ into t, blastcmare, It. biastemmia, bcstcm- 



Q 2 



114 



NOTES. 



mia, O.F. blastenge, Wallach. blastam, cursing, and 
by aphaeresis, Sp. Pg. lastima, pity, lastimar, to 
liurt. 

1592 adrescement] DC. sub adrateria quotes : ' pour 
ce qu'ilz virciit qu'ilz ne le pourroient attaindre, il 
li vinrent audevant par une adresce en un bois ' ; ' pour 
abregier tout chemin, comme est il necessite aux denrees 
pour etre plutost et plus frescheraent apportees a vent, 
ils vont taut par voyes publiques, comme par adreces' ; 
'il savoit bien las adresses et les refuges du pays'. 

1594 a sernitm entent] I do not see any other way 
of translating entendre here than ' to engage the atten- 
tion', as it must govern crestiens of 1595 ; but I have 
no other example of precisely similar usage. 

1605 estal] It. stallo, W. L. stallum, from O. H. G. 
stal, = statio, locus, hence here 'prendre estal', to stop 
for rest ; it remains in il. F. etal, (butcher's) stall, shop, 
whence etaler, to expose as goods for sale ; further, in 
etalon, our stallion, M.L. 'equus ad stallum'. 

1606 a chemin juinal] this seems to mean ' as if for 
a d.ay's journey' ; it is an odd expression, but it can 
hardly be anything else ; jumee is just tlie space tra- 
velled in a day, and the phrase probably denotes the 
distance the martyr was compelled to travel in his 
torture. 

1607 bastun poinnal] It. pugnale, Sp. puilal, [M.F. 
by another suff. poign-ard,] prob. from Lat. pugnus, a 
weapon just large enough for the hand, hence dagger ; 
DC. quotes "icellui tiia un coustel qu'il portait 
appelle poignal". The connexion with lances, and 
cuteus seems to demand the meaning ' pointed ' as 
given in Gloss., but perhaps it means simply ' big 
sticks' ; cf. Alix. 65.23: 

gictent. lancent et traient, et font grant batistal : 
mult cil i ont rue mamXe piere poiiignal. 
1609 entrail] from Lat. mteraneum, we have It. 
entragno, Sp. entranas, O. F. also entraigne ; instead 
of the termination -aiiea, F. adopted, perhaps through 
the influence of trip-aille, a form with collective suffix 
-aille, cntr-ailles, Prov. intralias, and this -ailh was easily 
interchanged with -ait, the -aculum suffix (v. 55) ; our 
word has presened the O. F. form, entrail. 

1611 cursal] M. L. cursalis, used of dogs, and of 
ships, = cursarius, our corsair. It. corsale, corsare, Sp. 
corsaris, Sp. Portug. corcel, M. F. coursier. 

1612 flaunc] M. L. flanchus. It. fianco, prob. from 
I.M. Jlaciiis, with inserted nasal before guttural (v. 11), 
' the ■weak part of the body', just as in jM. H. G. krenke 
from Icranc, weak, and in Mod. Germ, weiche, the weak 
part. 

— dos] It. dosso, Sp. dorso, from Lat. dorsum ; our 
old endoss comes to us through O. F. e?tdossir, while 
the modern /wdorse reverts to the Latin. 

1613 li martirs] a nomin. pendens; for in the 
lengthy relative clause to this antecedent, the poet has 
completely forgotten the latter ; perhaps he connected 
it momentarily with lier se lessa of 1615, (which evi- 
dently refers only to /■/ of 1614). 

1616 piler] fro'm Lat. pilarium,deriv. ofpila = column, 
M. F. pilier, our pillar. Germ, pfeiler. 
1623] the construction in this line is plain enough. 



but it is not very intelligible : " the pagans were only 
angry, and saw in his patient endurance nothing mira- 
culous" (.■') 

1626 parocire] v. note on 89 ; a good example of the 
force oi par in verbs, = outright, cf. Rom. de Tr. 12687 : 

qui navrez est, 90 \e partiie ; 

ne li puet mires faire aiue. 
Cf. Spens. F. O. II. 7. 58 : 
the whiles he~stery'd with hunger and with drouth, 
he daily dyde, yet never throughly dyen couth. 

1627 tela] this form of the fern, only occurs here, 
elsewhere it is ten, tel : it is perhaps owing to the fol- 
lowing word est. 

1628 duluser] used transitively (as here, but in a 
different sense) in Alexis 119 : 

quer toit en ont lor voiz si atempredes 
que toit le plainstrent et toit le doloserent : 
eel jorn i ont cent mU lairmes ploredes. 

1630] in this Une are two mistakes, which is very 
unusual in the JIS., viz. tenc instead of tent, and teu for 
teits. 

1631 ke Deus plus saUTer] another error, for Deus 
must be WTong, (cf. 1221 dunt Deu te pint seisir, 1309 
ki (ijj) nus plut tuz crier,) as plaire is only used with 
the dative, and impersonally, [with infin. following,] 
(save in 1 281 mut me plest cist voler). 

1635 refusiim] It. rifusare, Sp. rehusar, Prov. Pg. 
refusar, show that they in this word has made good its 
hold very widely in the Rom., but it can hardly be 
other than a modification of Lat. rerusare, by the 
influence of L. reyutare, [from wliich Brachet would 
derive it, by a supposed refut-iare, but this -tare is only 
added to past ptcpp., and a few adjj. in -tits, and besides 
should have made Ital. rif«c;are, and F. ref/«'ser, cf. 
from minutus. It. minuzzare, F. menuiser ; from acutus, 
It. aguzzare, F. aiguiser]. From Lat. recusare, O. F. 
has also a verb reiiser, ruser, whence il. F. riise, prop, 
refening to the tricks of wild anim.ils to take away the 
scent from the hounds. 

1650 langetter] It. Unguettare, to stammer, from 
lingua, with dimin. verbal suffix -ettare, cf. O.F. gam- 
beter. It. gambettare, from gamba. 

1652 aoheisun] in 538. 829 we have the word spelt 
achfsun, but acheisun gives the transvected i of Lat. 
I occas-n). 

1655 recuverer] our recover, from Lat. recuperare ; 
' cf. Kell. Rom. 210. 12 : 

mors sui sans recouvrier. 
I. 32 mort sunt ti fil andui de ta mouillier; 
tes nies les a ocis sans recouvrier. 
Matz. Altfr. 26. 20 : 

car mon cuer, mon cors tot entir 
ai mis en U sans recouvrer, 
et s'onques de ricns li fausai, 
ja n'i puisse jou recouvrer. 

1656 esohaper] It. scappare, "Wallach. scapa, M. F. 
echapper, from ex and cappa, (v. 1468,) prop, to get out 
of the cape, mantel, to get rid of one's cloak to facilitate 
flight, <ind so generally ' to escape'. 

1658 se ferez] an error for si = sic ; ' now do what I 
shall tell you, and you will behave wisely'. 



NOTES. 



1 1 



1663 onnsirer] the word certainly means 'acquire', 
but I do not know its origin ; there is a common O. !•". 
consircr, Prov. cossirar, from Lat. considerare, which can 
scarcely be the same as the verb in Aub., as if ' to regret 
the loss of (?) 

1671 eglenter] deriv. of O.F. aiglcnt, Prov. aguilen, 
formed by suffix -i-nl, from F. aiguille = Lat. acucula, 
so that eglantier, (Pr. aguilancier,) would correspond 
to a Lat. .icucul-cnt-arius, with the -ier (= arius) termi- 
nation usual iu naming trees, cf. pomm-ier, ros-icr, 
prun-ier, prun-ell-icr, &cc. 

1675 puis] Lat. puteus, adopted by all the Romance, 
It. pozzo, Sp. pozo, Portug. poffo, Pr. potz, Wallach. 
putz ; (borrowed even in Germ, pfiitze ;) M, F. has 
re-inserted the /, in puits, but presened the old form in 
the verb puis-er, epuiser, to ex-haust. 

1679 ouvendra] the usual construction with cuvenir, 
is the dat., and this apparent accus., trestuz ceus, is 
only here used, but the accus. also occurs frequently 
enough in O. F., cf. Rom. de Tr. 2320 : 

s'arriere volent retomer, 
par nos Us coviendra passer. 
. 288. 25 : 
tout fin amant pueent douter 
qui ne les conviegne perir, 
s'amours en ma dame assamblcr 
ne fait pitic. 
Matz. Altfr. 11. 21 : 

quant seur nioi toument a un fais 

si vair oeil cler, 

les miens con\ient genchir et avuglcr, 

1680 mauvois] of uncertain origin ; it looks like a 
compound, of mal and some unknown root. It. mal- 
vagio, and the transvected i in F. niauva/s, demand a 
word ending in -si, i.e. vasi ; now in Goth, there is a 
subst. balvavesei, wickedness, which would infer an 
adj. balvavcsi, and a corresponding O. II. G. balvasi ; 
this . bal-v.isi was perhaps transformed into mal-vasi, 
through the analogy of malus. 

1695 puTVOier] I have entered this in Gloss, as if it 
were JI. F. pourvoir, to provide, take precautions, but 
this takes no account of the term -er ; we have indeed 
voer in 941, (v. note,) but this is not parallel, and 
besides, is itself anomalous. [There is a word voiez 
[-vetare] in 389, with which this pur-voier agrees jier- 
fectly as to the form, but I have no example nor autho- 
rity for such a word as pro-vetare.'] On the other 
hand, the analogies of M. F. pour\oi, as of our convey, 
(convoy, envoy,) and pur%ey, suggest a connexion with 
a pro-\nare, like con-\iarc, in-\nare, and so it is not im- 
possible that pur-veier, pro-Nidere, has become mixed 
with forms of a pro-viare. 

1697 envinin] ' en ^^run', in a circle, where viron is 
a sbst. from verb virer, which Diez derives from O. F. 
vire (a ring), = Lat. viriae, found in Pliny, who gives it 
as a Celtibcrian word, armlet, bracelet. This viria is 
thus perhaps a foreign word, though the verb virare is 
old; it is found in MS.S. of the Lex Alamann., [where 
DC. notes lliat other MSS. read '^//-tv;<contentionem', 
= 'agrum, de quo lis est, inspicere cum judicibus'; 
these are not however the same word, for virer cannot 



be for Lat. gjTare, because Lat. gi does not become 

F. -./.] 
1700 agraventent] DC. quotes a Lat. gloss, 'obruexe 

= agraventer' ; cf. Cliron. de Jord. Fant. 1244: 
la pieiTC de la funde a peine reversa 
e un de lurs chevaliers a terre agraventa. 

More usually written, a-rravcnter, from crever, Lat. 

crepare, Prov. crebant-ar, and with prove'cted r, Sp. Pg. 

quebrantar ; the g is perhaps omng to some confusion 

with grief, as agrever, &c. 

— zuche] DC. gives zoca, and zoccus = stipes, 
truncus ; the commoner form is soccus, whence M. F. 
souche, &c., and thus soccus is perhaps of Germ, origin, 
viz. stock ; as to the possible change of st in s^ (v. notes 
on 1491 and 231). 

— pernm] It. pietrone, where the suffix -one is aug- 
mentative; but in F. it is usually diminutive, (v. note on 
477) : Rotpiefort ^%es perrone as the pole of a plough (.■) 

1702 talun] It. talJone, Sp. talon, from Lat. talus, 

with a similar alteration as i:i chardmi (855) from Lat. 

cardnus. 

1712 la mimd] I have no parallel instance of this 

use of 7nund by itself with la, as in il. F. la-bas, O. F. 

9a-jus (Aub. 227), though a mon, amont is common 

enough ; cf. Ger. de V. 3041 : 

dex le vos monde de son ciel lai amott. 

Perhaps this is a combination of laflmunt; the MS. 

divides plainly la niund, but as the metre is iambic, 

and the cx^sura must be after mund, it would be prob. 

better to read simply amunt. 

1720 Cotun] 'whiter tlian cotton', a very common 

comparison in O. F., cf. B. du Guesc. 14694 : 
li chevaux roi dam Pietre est de telle facjon, 
qu'il ot les iiii. piez ausi blans que coton, 
et s'ot la teste noire entour et environ, 
et les ycux ot plus rouges que n'est feu de charbon, 
et s'ot le cors plus jaune que n'est or ne laiton. 

— cheinsil] (v. note on 1376,) cf. Mar. de Fr. I. "6 : 

a un bel drap de cheisil blanc 
li osterent d'entur le sane, 

1722 champivin] in M. L. campus, besides the ordi- 
nar)- Lat. meaning of battle-lield, had assumed the sig- 
nification of 'ducllum', a judicial battle between two 
in an inclosed space, whence by deriv. suff. -ione [cf. 
Lat. liid-io from ludus,] It. campione, F. champion, 
the knight who fought for another in such a duel. 
From campus, O. H. G. borrowed its kamf, (Mod. 
kampf ,) whence the verb kampf-jan, O. F. champier. It. 
campeggiare, Sp. campear witli its deriv. ' el Cid Cam- 
peador'' . 

1724 reahaite] from O. F. halt, pleasure, we find the 
derivv. O. F. deh.nit, distress, and M. F. .sou-hait, secret 
desire, wish ; its origin is O. Norse licit, solemn proiiiisc, 
I [cf Lat. votum =■ I , vow, 2, wish ;] hence haiticr, ahaitier, 
to encourage, stimulate, and re-ahaiter, to arouse, 
heighten, enthusiasm, kc. 

— entunciim] this word seems to me to be an 
error for entcnciun, as I have never seen ' entwnciun ' 
elsewhere; I have translated in Gloss, 'enthusiasm', 
because 'entenciuu' is employed by the langue d'oil 
' pour cxprimer toute cspicc d'operation de res])rit ', as 



ii6 



NOTES. 



Gachet says, and the sense seems to demand tliis mean- 
ing here. 

1727 garde n'a] cf. Kell. Romv. 236. 31 : 
dist Tuns a I'autre : " d'o vient cist anemis, 
qui tos nos a afoles et hounis ? 

de tous nos homes n'avons que c. de vis [=\ifs,] 
de nos n'a mais garde li rois Ouris." 

1728 effireent] deriv. of Lat. frigere, to be cold with 
fear, whence Prov. es-fre)'ar, O.F. effroier, (our ptcp. 
afraid, = a/rar-ed), M. F. sbst. effroi. 

1730 de randun] Sp. de rendon, Pg. de rondaa, our 
'at random' ; deriv. of randa, (ef. It. a randa a randa, 
(Dante, Inf. xiv. 12), from a Teutonic rand, border, 
edge, hence extremity, and so Prov. a randa = imme- 
diately, (quasi, end to end, with no gaps, cf. Icelandic 
' leggja saman ramlir', to lay shield close against 
shield, used of a hard struggle). 

1737] these three deities, Phoebus, Mahomet, and 
Termagant, are the three Saracen gods ' par excellence' 
in the French chansons de geste. 

1743 si le purvit dune] the difficulty of gi\'ing to the 
particle si its exact force here is heightened by the im- 
possibiUty of determining the precise meaning of dune. 
As this latter is almost exclusively used as a temporal 
adv. (v. 1526), we may perhaps best translate si by 
' yet', 'still' : " and yet, in spite of their eagerness, God 
arranged that they should peijure themselves." 

1747 de maces] I prefer to take this as adverbial to 
the verbs in 1 748, rather than as dependent on estur 
pesant of 1 746, (Spenser's ' heavie stowre', F.Q.I. 10. 40). 

1750 ke] is not elsewhere used = wliile, but it may be 
connected \rith ata>it of 1 748 : " in the meantime the 
Christian takes away the body, while the pagans are 
not looking," cf. 80S. I do not think it could be taken 
as the relative with cars as its antecedent. 

1751 si fu grant nepurquant] " the pagans did not 
see him, vft the crowd was very great Jwwever" ; cf. 
1590, and supra, 1743. 

1755 Stiz hleste] a word still common in Jersey patois, 
'souos la blicste', 'under the sod'; DC. sub 'blcsta', 
" eo nomine videtur appellata quae\'is fascis ex pluribus 
partibus composita, unde glebam bleste et blaistre dixe- 
runf ; under the same word, DC. quotes as equivalent 
bleite, bloche, bloustre, bloute. Diez gives blostre as a 
deiiv. of Dutch bluyster, our 'blister' ; I thinlc it un- 
likely that bleste and blostre are the same word, but I 
am ignorant of the origin of this M. L. hlesta. 

1760 s'il ne estoient] " the martyrs are already in 
glory, but tlie pagans were fated to go to hell, if they 
did not truly repent in the succeeding part of tlieir 
lives". This construction of «' with the imperf. indie, 
occurs nowhere else. 

— el sieole puis] ' afterwards during their lifetime' ; 
for this use of pxiis at the caesura, cf. also 147, [where 
puis seems superfluous with the phrase ' apres pou de 
tens', but the remainder of the hue itself is not very in- 
telligible, and perhaps it might be better to translate 
as if puis ke preceded pou de tens, to be governed by 
out mis.] 

1761-1765] the pronouns are in considerable con- 
fusion in this passage, which ends tliis loosely- written, 



unsatisfactoiy rime-band : " glorious martyr ! I beg and 
ask of you that we, — (inz. those who honour you here, 
and are your servants, friends and well-wishers, to them 
be a shield and protection against the devil ! — ) that we 
may be safe, and so may all say Amen". 

1769 un des merveOles] as men-eille is fem., un and 
recunte must both be wrong : the latter could not be 
altered, for the rime, as indeed the article, even if une, 
must still be monosyllabic. 

1774 maliailine] this O.F. word is the origin of our 
' maim ', (old legal ?nayhem,) but its own origin is quite 
uncertain ; Ital. has magagna, in North It. dialects 
ma«gagna, and the M. L. forms are numerous, maha- 
mium, mehagnium, mahaigruum, but the root is un- 
known. 

1777 esluisse] from Lat. luxare, and is not the same 
as elocher, eslochier, comp. of locher to shake, from 
M. H. G. liicke, loose. 

1788 al oil] " those who hear it spoken of, (go and) 
see it with their own eyes, after which they give thanks 
with one accord to God"; cf. Ch.auc. Cant. X. 3018 
this maistow understand and see at ye. 

1792 mailez] Lat. malleus, It. maglio, Wallach. 
main, our mall, (cf. the Mall, as the place where the 
game was played,) and maul ; cf. Ger. de V. 1 736 : 
U escuier en sont es murs ale, 
fierent de maux et de pix acere. 

1801 virgne] our ' virgin ', from the obi. case of Lat. 
■\irgo, but the M.F. %'ierge is from the nom. ^irgo, with 
irregular diphthong ie, probably as a distinction from 
verge = Lat. virga ; O. F. however has \-irge. 

1809 al apostoille] DC. sub apostolicus : ' verum 
sicut Papae apjiellatio, quae episcopis omnibus com- 
munis primo fuit, postmodum soli summo Pontifici 
adscripta legitur, ita et Apostolici, qua quidem scrip- 
tores medii aevi saepe Papam indigitant'; cf. Rom. 
Stud. Hft. 3, p. 417 : 

Renart, aler t'estuet a Rome, 
si parleras a I'apostoi/e 
et li conteras ceste estoi/^ 
et te feras a lui confes. 

1820 parohemin] variation from the older par^ramin, 
with an unusual substitution of the tenuis, where Prov. 
has the correcter media, as per^uamena, Ital. parga- 
mena, Portug. pergaminho, from Lat. pergamenura, 
charta pergamena, paper from Pergamus ; cf. besant, 
(1149), coin from Byzantium. 

1821 unoore vendia] cf. Vie de St. Thom. 165. 29 : 

vus di pur veir, uncor vendra U jurs. 
B. du Guesc. 12467 : 

mais de telz en y ot qui pas ne vont riant, 
en disant tout basset et en murmurant, 
qu'encor vendra un jur, ens eu tamps ci avant 
que le commun ira ce meffait amendant. 
1827 burduil] It. bordone, pilgrim's staff, from Lat. 
biirdo, jnule, [purdonem producit equus conjunctus 
asellae, procreat et mulum junctus asellus equae,] espe- 
cially used for carrying litters, the staff being re- 
garded as the mule or burden-bearer of the pilgrim ; 
cf. DC. ' a burdonibus,scu semimulis quos inequitabant, 
et insidebant, qui peregre proficiscebantur, noraen 



NOTES. 



117 



mansit longiusculis baculis quos gcstare solebant pere- 
grini nostri, quibus equitaturae loco quodanimodo 
erant'; similarly, niuleta in Span, and Poituf;. means 
both mule and cruU'h. It is not impossible further that 
the 'bourtioti' trumpet borrowed its name from this 
burdo, = lony stall, to which it bore some resemblance, 
so we should have the series, 1° mule, 2° staff, 3° organ- 
pipe, and fmally, 4° the burden of a song, complaint. 

— fresnin] from Lat. fraxinus we have It. frassino, 
Sp. frcsno, M.F. frcne, but O. F. fresne, whence the 
adj. fresn-in ; cf. Alix. 40. 30 anste ot roide de frasne; 
ibid. 213. 21 li fust fraisnin. 

1828 chauceure] cf. the name of our poet Chaucer ; 
deriv. of O.F. chauce, chausse. It. calzo, from Lat. 
calceus; from chausse, M. F. has chausson, but M. F. 
calcfon is borrowed from It. calzone. 

— cordewon] a kind of tanned goat-skin prepared by 
the Jloors in Spain, and chielly at Cordova. Scheler 
in Lemcke's Jahrb. VI. p. 21)6, no. 25 : dicitur cordevan, 
alio mode cordubanum, a Corduba, civitate Hispaniae, 
ubi fiebat primo' ; cf. Jourdain 1494 : 

chemise et braies en cnvoie Teniant, 
chauccs de paile, sellers de cordoant, 
grans piaus de martre, jusqu'as pies tra'innans. 
Montaiglon, Rccueil, p. i : 

vols quicx sollers de cordoan 
ct com bones chances de Bruges ! 
We have preserved in cordwainer (Spenser's 'buskins of 
cos\\y cord-jiain' , F. Q. II. 3. 27,) the organic w, which 
M.F. has apparently assimilated in cordonnier, for O.F. 
cordouanier. It. cordovan-iere; cf. Span, and Portug. 
cordoban, cordovao, wlicre cordobes, cordovcz, are the 
deriw. denoting the inhabitants, with suft". -eitsis ; the 
former suffix Diez refers to the Arabic form kortobani, 
perhaps unnecessarily, as the suff. -anus is common in 
gentile names. 

1832 Mun Gin] cf. Rom. de Brut. 5703 : 

por toz les crestiens destruue 

qui avoient abitcment 

oltre mon Giu vers ocident. 
Amis et Amilcs 2464 : 

li cuens Amis s'en entra en sa voie : 
celle de Rome qu'on tient la plus droile. 
haut sont li pui et les montaignes roidcs .... 
a Mongieu vinrcnt tantost com il le voient . . . 
or sont en Lombardie. 

— roiste] cf. Alix. ig6. 9 5 1' monter d'un roste pui 
agu; from Lat. rust-icus, from which O.F. and Prov. 
dropped the suffix in certain popular words, e. gr., Pr. 
gramazi = grammat-icus, indi = indicus ; perhaps the 
oi is owing to the attraction of the vocalized guttural, 
thusroiste: r«stims = mo;'ne: monat/ms. M.F. hasadded 
anrin rustre, cf. registre = registrum fromregestum. 

1833 tendrai le ohemin] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 1508 : 
and to the grove, of which that I yow tolde 
by avcnture his wcy he gan to holde. 

— chemin] It. cammino, Sp. camino, Pg. caminho, 
from M.L. caminus, = via, which occurs as early as the 
7th cy. It is prob. not the same as Lat. caminus, 
furnace, but is connected with the Kymric root cam, 
to turn; to lake a turn, is just to take a u<alk\ [Cm- 



word chimney however, M.F. chcminfe, is derived from 
the classic meaning, only not directly : M. L. caminata, 
F. cheminee, meant a chamber furnished with a cam- 
minus, and so came to represent the stove itself.] 

1836 Cornelinl in the Brut, tlie companion of Brutus 
is called Corineus, but M. de Lincy in his ' description 
des MSS.' p. LXXVlii. quotes the title of a MS., 'la 
lignee des Bretons', in which the name is given differ- 
ently : " queus il furent et de queus nons ; et coment 

Brut vint primerement en Engleteire, et dont il 

vint Brut et Cornelius, &c." 

1839 veeslin] from Lat. \itulus in the dimin. form 
ntellus, O. F. has its veel, our ' veal ', Prov. vedel, 
M.F. veau, but vel-er, to calve; with suff. -inus, 
Wt'linus becomes M.F. velin, with interpolated s, veslin, 
cf. pasle for pale, and v. note on 375. 

1840 meschin] It. meschino, Sp. mezquino, F. mes- 
quin, from the Arabic maskin, introduced into M. L. 
from Spain, (as indeed it first is met in Spanish charters). 
From the meaning poor, wretched, came that of weak, 
tender, and hence O. F. meschin, meschine, young 
person, and Ital. meschina = servant, maid. 

1841 puslin] the origin of this term of reproach is 
obscure: two explanations seem possible; (1°) Kell. 
Romv. 219. 12 qui fu Henri le culvert de put tin, 
which I regard as just pidin (with interpolated s, as in 
veeslin ;) = put lin, as O.F. Un [Lat. linum] is common 
in the sense of lignage, ligne [Lat. linea, from linum,] 
and ioT put cf. putage 289. But (2°) the word is found 
in B. du Guesc. 16274 hpaien pulant; Amis et Amil. 
1294 Judas li traitres puslans, &e., where it seems 
to be referred to M. L. pullani, cf. DC. vii. 356 : 
' dicuntur pullani qui de patre Sj'riano et matre Fran- 
cigena generantur'. So then it would mean ' degeneres 
filii '. Others say : ' qu'ils furent ainsi nomniez parcc 
qu'ils estoient originaires de laPouillc[Apulia]'. Again, 
M. Gidel, in his Etudes sur la litt. Grecque, p. 47, 
writes : " deja il s'etait forme a cote de la race franquc, 
une race nouvelle sortie du sang mele des Francs et 
des Grecs. Ces hommcs, que Ton a appeles ' les Pou- 
lains' , d'un terme innocent d'abord, dcvenu plus tard 
une injure, mettaient toute leur application et toute 
leur gloire, a imiter les chevaliers qu'ils avaient vus". 
In a note, M. Gidel adds : " poulains vient probable- 
mcnt de Troi'/Xof, employe per les Grccs modemcs dans 
le sens de -kiCiq, pullani, pullus, jrwAo^". 

— ] in allusion to the custom of appending the 
name of the author to his work ; cf. Mar. de F. II. 4 lO : 
au fmement de ccst escrit, 
k'en Romanz ai tume ct dit, 
me numeral par remembrance, 
Marie ai nun, si sui de France. 
1844 entorrin] cf. B. du Guesc. i(j662 qui cuer ot 
cntcrin ; Kell. Romv. 220. 2 or ai cuer enterin ; deriv. 
of entier. It. intero, Sp. entero, Wallach. intreg, from 
Lat. integer. 

1845] a common formula at the end oftalcs, as indeed 
in the middle ages, and in popular tales still, there is 
usually some phrase to show that the story is concluded, 
e. gr. m Icelandic, h^r kcmr A till sxfar, here comes the 
river to the sea. 



( i'8 ) 



TABLE OF ENDINGS IN THE FORTY-EIGHT RIME-BANDS. 



A 


E 


I 


TJ 


a 408 


e 339. 737. 935. 1766 


i 222. 445. 1052. 1488 


u 71. 848. 1384 


able 1039 


ee 494 


ie 716. 1434 


un 302. 1697 


age 280 


Bin 713 


in 51. 1811 


nut 620 


al 1. 1600 


el 1404 


ir 1201 


ur 541 


ance 1368 


ele 1242 


is 143 


uie 589 


ant 786. 1119. 1733 


ent 175. 1555 


ist 645 




as 921 


er 25. 102. 201. 664. 1269. 1624 
BUS 1464 


12 883 






ez 382 







VARIATIONS. 

ant (II 19) bcsantz 1 149, sergcintz 1154. 
^ (737) daninez 745, estez 752. 

— (935) Pos<=z 959, privez 1037. 
er (102) quor 104. 

ent (1555) tumientz 1576. 
ens (1464) eels 1482. 
'■ (445) flecchiz 485. 

— (1052) o'iz 1071. 

"■ ('43) p.iraletics 148, k.iifs i49,ydiopics 1 5 1 , pleiuti.'s 164, poCstifs 165, cheitifs 166, 

vifs 170, gentils 171, estrifs 173. 
ist (645) respiit 649, cheriit 655, delil 6fa2. 
iz (883) gentilz 898, cristz 899, esperitz 900, politz 901, requitz 903, eslitz 909, 

peritz 911, esjo'itz 912, enobscuritz, 914. 
u (71) recciiz 72, meiiz 73, vcnuz 74, enbeiiz 89, muluz 95, aicstuz 98. 

(848) escuz 851, muluz 852. 
unt v,62o) rund C23. pund 635, mund 637, blund, 640, parfund 642. 



APPENDIX I. 



FINAL SIBILANT. 



In the nom. sg. and in the obi. plur., a final sibilant 
is appended to substt. adjj. and ptcpp. The sibilant 
is either s or s, and the foUouing analysis is intended 
to show precisely the use of each. 

I. 

A, 3 as final sibilant. 

(a) after vowels : — 

1° after final e (mute), e. gr. aigles. 

2° in eus, for els, and aus for al-s, e. gr. cheveus, 

chevaus. 
3° after other vowels and diphthongs, e. gr. reis, 

lius. 
4° after a mute consonant, e. gr. kaifs. 

(b) after consonants (but only Uquids) : — 

5° after k, e. gr. enclins. 

6' after r, e. gr. errurs. 

7' after /, e. gr. fels. 

8° after m, (only once,) reims. 

B, z as final sibilant. 

(a) after vowels : — 

1° after e', e. gr. entrez, blez, criieutez. 
2° after t, e. gr. diz, gamiz. 
3° after «, e. gr. enbeiiz. 
. 4' after other vowels, e. gr. faiz (= feiz) . 

(b) after consonants : — 

5° after d, e. gr. cuardz. 

6' after t, e. gr. laitz. 

7° after nt, e. gr. dolentz. 

8° after n, e. gr. dolenz. 

9' after ;7, e. gr. doilz, chevoilz. 
10° after r, e. gr. morz. 
A. I. aguetes, aigles, ambes, angeres, angles, apostles, 
Araclcs, aspres, autres, aventailles, avogles, 
bestcs, buches, buies, caractes, cercusmes, 
Cesaires, centeincs, chacsnes, chambres, 
charmes, cofrcs, coiltes, cutes, debonnaires, 
dcciples, deliciuses, delitables, delivres, dia- 
blcs, escurgies, esnieraudcs, esmirablcs, csp&s, 
cspines, eslagcs, fevres, fines, freres, gambes, 
caries, genzivcs, gisarmes, graces, hautes, 
heumes, hummcs, honurablcs, hostes, jaspes, 
jointes, jovres, jumees, lances, langes, Icres, 
lermes, livres, loiinges, macjUes, maces, maistres, 
malades, maladies, maniclcs, martires, mcgrcs, 
mcnbres, mcr\eilles, miracles, mues, murnes, 



niusches, nobiles, nosces, nusches, pailles, pales, 
paroles, paumes, peccheres, prechurs, peines, 
pores (= stones), persones, plaies, plainnes, 
plantes, pointes, poples, preciuses, princes, quites, 
relevees, riches, richesces, robes, sages, seeches, 
sepulcres, sires, sueires, tanailles, temples, 
terres, testes, traitres, trespassables, tureles, 
tutes, urties, verges, viandes, Wales. 

2, aigneus, Amphibeus, beus, chapeus, chevauj, 
cheveus, corporeus, criieus, cuteus, desleus, 
desnatureus, drapeus, dreitureus, enfemauj-, 
especieus, espiriteus, igneus, jueus, juvenceus, 
kerneus, keus, leaus, leus, liunceus, maus, 
morteus, mureus, oiseus, orienteus, osteuE, 
pastureus, pens, queus, roisseus, tens. 

3, amis, buus, clous, deus, (dis), dras, enemis, 
fous.giiieus, Jesus, lius, lus,luus, mercis, [pensis], 
reis, (mes, ses, tes, sis, tis,) verais, [volentris, 
ydropis]. 

4, bucs, paraletics, ydropics, saufs, cheitifs, estrifs, 
kaifs, [pensis], pleintifs, poestifs, vifs, volentrifs, 
[volentris] ; francs, blancs, sancs, clercs, hau- 
bercs ; nerfs, serfs ; champs. 

5, anciens, bastuns, bons, charduns, chascuns, 
chemins, chens, citoiens, crestiens, cumpain- 
nuns, darreins, enclins, feluns, focuns, gardeins, 
genoiUuns, guereduns, la9uns, legiuns, liuns, 
maens, maissuns, meins, nigromanciens, nuns, 
oraisuns, paens, primereins, prisuns, quens, 
raisuns, Roraeins, Sarrazins, seins, suens, suve- 
reins, tendruns, uns, veins, veisins, vins. 

6, airs, ancesurs, auters, buclers, chers, chevalers, 
clers, creaturs, destrers, dolurs, duljlers, durs, 
enginnurs, enters, errurs, eschars, flurs, jurs, 
legers, losengers, martirs, osturs, pasturs, p.au- 
teners, plusurs, premers, purs, qucrs, safirs, 
scignurs, solers, suspirs, voirs, volenters, vulturs. 

7, Amphibals, eels, crislals, desleals, fels, gentils, 
nuls, suls. 

8, reims. 

B. I, costez; antiquitcz, citez, criieutez, fertez, veritez, 
voluntez ; alez, aloscz, amenez, anoitez, arivez, 
armez, avoglez, blasmez, bjnnez, bonurez, 
cclcz, chasliez, chucez, cloulichez, crevez, 
curucez, damnez, debrisez, decolez, defulez, 
dcp.anez, deproiez, descunfortez, desheritcz, 
dcstumcz, desvcz, detrenchcz, devisez, enchacez, 
enchaesnez, encupez, encuscz, cndoctrinez, en- 
flambez, enganez, enprisunez, entrejurez, entrez, 
esbuelez, escriez, csgarez, esloinnez, csmerez, 



B. 



I20 



APPENDIX I. 



esnez, ferrez, furmez, guetez, herbergez, irez, 
jugez, lettrez, levez, lez, (liez,) livrez, mandez, 
maufez, mensz, muntez, nez, noiez, nupez, 
ostez, pecchiz, penez, perillez, pez, (piez), 
portez, posez, privez, purgez, recunfortez, 
redutez, restorez, resuscitez, sauvez, severez, 
truvez, vaivez, voiez. 

2, crespiz, criz, diz, despiz, enviz, esba'iz, esbaudiz, 
eschamiz, eschoisiz, escriz, establiz, failliz, finiz, 
fiz, flaschiz, flecchiz, fluriz, meriz, midiz, diz, 
partiz, petiz, sailliz, saisiz, trahiz. 

3, arestuz, batuz, cuneiiz, enbeviz, entenduz, escuz, 
esluz, esmeiiz, estenduz, irascuz, luz, meijz, 
muluz, nuz, paluz, parcruz, penduz, receiiz, 
rumpuz, saluz, sarcuz, trestuz, tuz, venduz, 
renuz, vertuz, vestuz. 

4, cailloz, droiz, faiz, fiez, fiuz, (liez, piez,) preuz. 

5, cuardz, mundz, veillardz. 

6, baratz, certz, chautz, Cristz, cuntraitz, laitz, 
droitz, enobscuritz, esjoitz, eslitz, esperitz, 
estroitz, faitz, flotz, fortz, niortz, nuitz, peritz, 
politz, pretz, requitz, sortz, trestuz, tutz, vertz. 

7, argentz, arpentz, besantz, brantz, centz, chantz, 
desjointz, dolentz, grantz, guarantz, jugementz, 
parentz, poisantz, portantz, pountz, presentz, 
repentantz, sacrameiitz, seintz, senglantz, ser- 
gantz, tirantz, truantz, turmentz, vivantz. 

8, anz, cumanz, cunpainz, Danz, denz, dolenz, 
granz, poinz, repentanz, seinz, serganz, tiranz. 

9, chevoilz, cunseilz, doilz, genoilz, gentilz, gupilz, 
mailz, solailz, veilz. 

lo, descuverz, morz, terz. 

[The above are all tbe instances of the added final 
sibilant ; here may be added those of subslt. and adjj. 
with fixed sibilant. 

A, ■vrith fixed sibilant, s. 

bois, cors, Damas, dolerus, dos, engres, en\ius, 
fevenis, franceis, frois, gros, jieus, languerus, 
leprus, lis, Lungis, mais, mauvois, Messias, raois, 
Moyseus, nes (nies), pais, pais, paleis, parais, 
piteus, puis, repos, Sarrazinois, Sathanas, tens, 
treis, uis, uoes, urs, vis. 

B, with fixed sibilant, Z. 

brebiz, braz, croiz, curuz,duz, fiz,laz, piz,solaz, voiz.] 

II. 

a. It will be seen that s, not permanent, only occurs 
in dras (= draps) ; after e, we find s after « mute (so 
also in mes, ses, tes), z, when the e (= Lat. -at,) 
would be accented; after ;, — according to the rule 
that t added is used only when the word originally 



ended in t, e. gr. in the past ptcpp. (= Lat. -it-), in 

cnz, {quirit-are), diz, (diet-,) enviz, (inv it -),e%cnz, 
(script-), petiz, (cf. petit) ; [there remain only ^z, 
with z permanent all through the inflection, which 
is for filz, or fiuz, and midiz, which is simply 
owing to the rime ;] s is found with the rest, amis, 
dis, enemis, mercis, sis, tis, (pensis, volentris, 
ydropis) ; after o, — there is only one example, and 
in it the sibilant is z, cailloz, probably for caill- 
oilz, (cf. genoilz) ; after «,— the rule is fixed, viz., 
s is used after the u which forms the last vowel 
of a diphthong, an, maus; eu, deus, beus ; iu, lius ; 
ou, clous, fous ; uu, buus, luus ; but z always after 
u = Lat. -ut-, e. gr. in the substt. escuz, [scut-), 
paluz, ijpalud-), saluz, {saliit-), xeriMZ, [vertut-),3.xidi 
the ptcpp. (Lat. -utus,) arestuz, batuz, &c. [In the 
case of the three exceptions — luz, fiuz, and preuz — 
luz is simply -wTong, it only occurs once, and is 
elsewhere lus, or luus ; fiuz only occurs once 
(against 22 fiz), and preuz {ci. prud-e) is evidently 
formed on the analogy of the -d bases.] The re- 
mainder, viz. ai, ei, oi, it, follow the rule of final 
i ; thus droiz, (direct-), Irez, (laet-), piez, (ped-) 
have s, as ending in dentals, compared with reis, 
rois, and verais, which end in vocalised gutturals.* 
[There are also two anomalies, /aiz, feiz, from 
vie-, and fiez for fiefs, where faiz has perhaps fol- 
lowed the analogy of faitz (=fact-), and fiez is pro- 
bably the plur. of a word known as fie^fied, (not fief, 
which would certainly have made fiefs ;) the mere 
accented e would not necessitate z; we have nies, 
(= nas-us) ]. 

b. After the n, s is invariably found, except when a 
dental has been omitted, thus denz (dent-), granz, 
{ffrand-),poinz (purict-), seinz (sanct-), but anciens, 
bons, liuns, &c. [To this there are three excep- 
tions, viz, anz, cunpainz, Danz; now if we com- 
pare Lat. anK-us, dom'n-us = do««-us, and the 
common form in Aub. cumpai««-un, it seems not 
improbable that the double nn may follow the 
analogy of nt ; but perhaps it is better to regard it 
as a mechanical rule that -an prefers z, but -en, 
-in, -on, -un, prefer s\. 

c. In the same manner, r final takes s, unless a 
dental has been omitted, thus chers, plusurs, but 
descuverz, (dis-co-opert-), morz, [mart-), terz, 
{tert-). 

d. In the case of words ending in /, z is always 
and only used where the / is preceded by t, 
thus chevoilz, cunseilz, mailz, &c., but celst, 
cristals, nuls, suls. The one exception to this 
rule is gen tils, only once, 17 1, against ten 
instances of gentilz, but here 171, the rime is to 
blame, and the / was silent, gentis. 



• Contrast with these the substt. having a permanent sibilant, all of which have guttural stems, brebiz-, 
(veri'ec-), braz, (brach-), croiz, (cruc-), curuz(?), duz, (due-), laz, (laqu-), voiz, (voc-), except the two dentals piz, 
(pect-) solaz, (solat-) ; and fiz = filz. 

t It is quite certain that the / was not pronounced here, as the word occurs (1482) in rime -eus ; further the 
spelling ttiis or ?iu!s makes it probable that the I here also was silent. 



APPENDIX I. 



121 



c. WTiere the stem ends in mute consonants other 
than dentals, as c, f, p, nc, re, rf, mp, the sibilant 
is always s, e. gr. bucs, saufs, dras {= draps), flancs, 
clercs, serfs, champs. 

III. 

It will be thus seen that the use of the j or « is 
determined by the following principle : where the 
stem does or did end with a dental, U or d), it 
takes I, which is also used after -il ; in eveiy other 
case the sibilaat is s. 



In the case of the nom. sg. mas. the use of the final 
sibilant with the defin. article is pretty regular, and in 
conformity with the rule just given. The examples are 
as follows : 

DEF. ART. 

A. I, aigles, Cesaires, deciples, freres, martires, maistres, 
poples, princes, riches, sepulcres, temples. 

2, criieus, liunccus, maus, orienteus, pastureus, 

roisseus. 

3, deus, reis. 

4, cheitifs ; francs, sancs ; clercs. 

5, chemins, feluns, guerduns, paens, suens, uns. 

6, airs, chevalers, clers, creaturs, jurs, martirs, ors, 

quors. 

7, fels (496), eels [224, pronounced ceus, cf. 1482]. 
B. I, ferrez. 

5, mundz. 

6, esperitz, peritz ; chautz, flotz. 

7, chantz, tirantz ; dolentz ; pountz. 

8, tiranz ; seinz ; — cunpainz. 

9, doilz, solailz. 

Against these 95 cases of the use of the final sibilant, 
are 18 cases in which no sibilant is used, though with 
the nomin. form of the article /;'. Of these, eight are 
owing to the rime, viz. 51 li pelerin; 356 li redute; 
807,1123 li tut- poissant; 1338 li darrener ; 1398 lilu; 
1430 li ccri-el, (if sg.) ; 1563 li suen prechement. The 
remainder are as follows : — 
122 li haul pere du ciel. 
897 li tertre est fluriz. 
1305 li un des cresliens respunt. 

1 343 li pere va bender. 

1344 \\frere li curt sure. 

1361 li plus haul* k'est sanz per. 

1 39 1 li lu du bois. 

1408 cum li lu lait. 

1591 blasmez fu li darrener. 

1746 lores cumence li iA7«^ 
i.e. 
A, I , frere, pere, tertre. 

5, un. 

6, darrener. 



B, 3, lu. 

6, bruit, haul. 

Of these tertre, un, and darrener are altogether against 
the usage ; frere, and pere, (as also lere.) seem to prefer 
the absence of the sibil., though -we have also leres, 
peccheres, (and luz) ; haut, bruit, never have a sibilant. 
Besides these, there are twenty other cases in which 
the normal form of the nom. /; is not used, but le or f, 
as in the following list : — 

270 benoit sei'i le pere. 

304 (celui) le fiz Deuy«. 

306 le pueple ke veistes . . . . Giiieu sunt. 

"jii^ bis. estroit \\v! fu le champ e le chemin itni. 

816 tesmoine le element. 

840 t^it le cars [est] doillant. 

841 tut le -ns [est] senglant. 
915 \ejur Auban curaence. 
992 le los Jesu est (clers). 

1014 le cars a terre est trebuche. 

1 1 1 2 K /u le crucifi. 

1454 le cors m'est feble. 

1529 le pere (feri) le fiz. 

1787 ne puet le poer Jesu estre celi. 

1819 le /wnur Jesu crest. 

182 1 uncore vendra le/ur. 
482 I'un d'autre parti. 

1246 I'onur des deus besille. 

1389 I'egle oiseus enchace. 

1 609 tut est escule rentrail corporal. 
In 306, 1529, there is perhaps an attraction, le pueple 
ke veistes = populum quem vidistis ; veisez ke le pere = 
vidissetis patrem, quomodo, &c. ; in others, the ab- 
normal form seems dependent on a connexion with 
estre, but in others, such as le honur crest, uncore 
vendra le jur, I'onur des deus besille, &c., the forms do 
not seem capable of any explanation : they are so in 
the MS., and they are wrong. 

INDEF. ARTICLE. 

With the indefin. article, the usage seems arbitrary, 
as seen in this table : — 



With sibil. 


Without sibil. 


A, I, aigles, poples. 


autre, estrange, miracle. 


2, roisseus. 




3, rais. 




4> 


estrif. 


5, crestiens, paens, Sar- 


crestien, pelerin, Sarrazin. 


razins. 




6, chevalers, osturs. 


chevaler, estur, tafur. 


8, 


hom. 


B, 3. 


lu. 


6, cuntraitz. 


haut. 


7, grantz. 


grant, pesant, trespassant. 


9, veilz. 


mareschal. 



• I translate as if it were ki est li plus haut, sanz per, as /;' cannot be the accus. in opposition with deu. 



R 2 



APPENDIX II. 



VOWEL COMBINATION. 



1. The following are the vowel-combinations that 
occur in the poem : 

A, Two vowels. 

aa, ae, ai, ao, au ; ea, ee, ei, eo, eu; ia, ie, ii, io, iu; 
oa, 06, oi, ou ; ua, ue, ui, uo, uu. It will be seen that 
only 00 is wanting to complete the entire series of pos- 
sible combinations. But, of course, the proportion in 
which they are found is very different ; thus ao, 60, io, 
and UO appear once, (aorer,* leonesse, riote, ofuokes) ; 
aa, twice, (raa, raant;) ii, oa, only thrice each, (cheriit, 
despiist, respiit ; encroa, loant, roal ;) UU, only four 
times, buus, luus, ebruusdee ; puiir. Of the rest, these 
are comparatively rare : ae, 06, ea, ia, ua, OU ; the re- 
mainder occur pretty frequently, viz., ai, ei, 01, ui, au, 
eu, iu, ee, ie, ue. 

2. But these vowel-combinations do not all re- 
present each a single sound, and for distinction, it is 
convenient to use diacritic points : the rules wliich I 
have adopted in the Vie, are as follows : 

(a) Where the last vowel is or a (as in ao, eo, io, uo; 
ea, ea, ia, ua;)\ neither vowel has any accent or points. 

(b) The diacritic points, where used, simply mean that 
in my opinion, the particular combination is diph- 
thong, as contrasted with the other instances of the 
occurrence of the same combination, where it is merely 
a digraph, but monophthong ; the points themselves are 
always placed over the second vowel, except in the fol- 
lowing cases ; — 1°, in any combination with final nasal 
» J, I have placed the diacritic marks over the preceding 
vowel, (employing also the acute accent when tliis is e,) 
and 2°, in the case of thepres. (3 sg. and 2.3 pi.) of verbs, 
and in nouns and ptcpp. in ie, iie, (using also the acute 
accent in the case of a preceding e) ; thus Sum, ium, 
bum, but ium, ie ; e. gr. Pharaun, (also liun, liun- 
ceus,) dium, poura ; veum, agree, soudee, hcent, 
effreez, veez, espee, &c. ; niie, viie, siie. 

(c) I have besides judged it best to give the acute 



over single final /, not mute, e. gr., in sbstt. plente, 
maufc ; in verbs, pruve, ne ; in adj. Ie ; as also the grave 
accent over the local ad\'v. « and la. 

3. The following table will exhibit the system of 
diacritic points and accents I have adopted} : — 



au. 


chevaus. 


aS, 


maiir, 


Sun, 


Pharaun. 


eu. 


cheveus, 


eu, 


seiir, 


ium, 


veum. 


iu. 


giu. 






ium. 


dium. 


ou. 


vout, 


oil. 


poiir, 


bum. 


pbum. 


uu 


buus, 


uii 


puiir. 






ae. 


saele, 


ae. 


aers. 






'^y 


peel, 


ee. 


soudeer 


ie. 


espSe. 


'«> 


we. 


ie. 


viele. 






oe. 


voer. 


oe, 


poer. 






ue. 


puet. 


ue. 


cruel. 


iie, 


viie. 


ai. 


dclai, 


O't 


parai's. 






"', 


Icit, 


"\ 


obeir. 






01, 


trois, 


oi. 


esjoir. 






ui, 


bruit, 


ui. 


ruine. 







B, Tliree vowels. 

4. In combinations of three vowels, these occur, viz. 
oia, oua; aio; eau; oui, uei; uoe; eiu; oiu ; ieu; 
ueu; eue; iue, oue; aie, eie, oie, uie, ex. gr. : oia, 
(des)loial, joiant; oua, louant, nouant ; aio, praiol; 
eau, leans, veaus ; oui, oui ; uei, (quel,) sueires ; uoe, 
uoes ; eiu, seium ; oiu, estoium, solum ; ieu, especieus, 
jieus ; ueu, jiieus, criieus ; eue, veiie ; iue, giiie ; oue, 
ouent ; aie, aient, traient, plaie, veraie, aiere ; eie, 
eient, eiez, seiez ; oie, estoie, soie, voudroie, croient, 
soient, voient, deproiez, noiez, guerroier, joie, soie; 
uie, fuie, pluie, guie. 

5. Of these the only cases in which I use diacritic 
marks are 1°, in the fern, of past ptcpp., as esbaie, veiie, 
esjoie; 2°, the vowel preceding the monophthong 
ending -eu [= ellus] of adjj., as jiieus, criieus, 
especieus, jieus. || 



• Gaholer also might be counted here. 

t To this series might have been added ie, which has points only in viele, Diene, and in the termination of the inf. 
in ier, as lier, nuncier, and further, in the past ptcp. ii, or when followed by sibilant 2, ie'z ; so also iu, as it has diacritic 
points only in the adj. term, iur, as deliciuses, envius, gloriuse, preciuse, and in the word giu, (Jew), when followed 
Dy other vowels, viz. giiie, giiieu ; also when i is followed by nasal u, dium. 

I Except in the termination of femin. nouns in -iun = Lat. -ion, which follow the general principle of §2 (a), and 
take no diacritic mark. 

§ The only case where I have used two accents is in nie, 773 ; elsewhere only one mark is employed, thus in 
ii, ui, of past ptcpp., the accented i serves also the purpose of the 1? of the infinitives of some verbs. 

II The following have, however, been marked on special grounds, viz., aie, from the rime (1438) ; aine, [as 
given in gloss.] as being wrongly trigraph, and guier, which is of course only a diphthong. 



APPENDIX II. 



123 



In the following analysis, which is intended to exhibit 
the origin of every one of the instances of vowel-com- 
bination occurring in the poem, I have not thought it 
necessary to subdivide further than merely to show the 
Latin vowels from which these French combinations 
have proceeded. But, inasmuch as the following con- 
sonant has frequently played an active part in the 
transformation of the mother-vowel, the Latin originals 
are given accompanied by the next following consonant. 



aa. 



Lat. ad : radi-are, raa, raant. 



ae. 



The foUowingare mere cases of digraph, representing 
Lat. 6* : sangui\no]lentus, ensanglaentee ; serpent-, saer- 
pent ; aeger, (= eger,) aegre ; sera, saerreet.;— or Lat. i, 
zsrigidus (=rigidus,) raed ; sigillum, (=siglum,) saele. 
But generally the a represents a Lat. a : thus a — a,.bad- 
are, baer ; pacare, paer ; radiare, raur ; paganus, paen ; — 
a — e, a{d-h)aer-ere, aers ; catellus^ chael ; catena^ 
chaijsnesj ; — a — i : cadlitus"], chaetz ; rapida, raedde ; 
sap-it, saet (1568, usually «^, but also seet, 690). In 
one instance, it seems to stand for Lat. e, viz. e — a, 
medianus, maens (1379). 

ai. 

It will be seen that in almost every case ai is simply a 
Lat. a to wliich has been attached i, by attraction from 
the following letter or syllable ; this i may be either the 
natural vowel, or a vocalized guttural, c or g. It is only 
before m or n that we find ai = Lat. a, without any i; 
thus aime, claims, for amo, clamo, and main for manus. 

I, from Lat. a. 

Lat. ab : hab(-eo), ai, &c. (and the futt. averai, deverai, 
dirai, dormirai, ferai, flcchirai, guerpirai, musterai, pas- 
serai, prendrai, respunderai, tendrai) ; — ao : fac-, faire, 
fai, cuntre-, re-fait, failure ; lact-, laitz ; verac-us. verai ; 
lax-are (= lacs-),laist ; pac-, pais; plac-, plaist ; — 
ac'l ; ventacul-, aventailles ; com-initi-acul-, cumen- 
^ail ; intracul-, entrail ; ten-acul-, tcnaille ; trab-acul-, 
travail; calculus \= calcl-us = cacl'-ucul-) ] caill-oz; 
aquila, {- ac'la), aigle ; — aiii(i): glddius, glaive; trd- 
ditor, traitre ; radius, rai ; — adi (2) ; cadiv-us, IcaiTs ; 
paradisus, parais ; tradition-, traisun ; — aga : plag-a. 



plai-e ; pag-an-us, pal-en ; — age I pagensis, pais ; — 
ag;i : rn'igis, mais ; magister, maistre ; — agn : agtiellus, 
aignel ; — ah : trah-ere, re-traire, cun-traitz ; — aju : 
a(d)jut-are,3.\ii-et ; bajul-us,ha.\Vi\[e), bailler ; — a(l)le, 
a(l)U }: batualia, bataille; coralia, curaille ;fall-ere, faille, 
faillance, failli(r) ; malle-us, mailz; palli-um, paille; sal- 
ire, saiUi; tale-a, en-taille ; vale-o, vaillant ; — am : [ady 
amant-, aimant ; atn-o, aime, aim-ent ; clam-o, (re-)- 
claime ; — an : rnan-us, main ; font-an-a, funtainne ; 
Tnan-eo, remain, remaint ; plan-a, plainne ; — ani : 
cum-pani-, cunpainz, cumpain-nun, cumpainnie ; ntont- 
ane-a, muntainne; — ans: "W!«ci«-, maissuns, maisnee ; 
— ant : ante, ainz ; — ap : sap-io, sai ; — ar : [ {.aer, aerid), 
air, v. note on 1477] ; — aso : pasc-ent-, paissant ; nas-c- 
{ere), nais-t-re ; z'aji:-^//«;tt, vaiss-ele ; — Zi: [dilat-are), 
delai ; prat-, prai-ol ; — ati : {o)ration-, oraisun, raisun ; 
sation-, saisun; — atri: patri-are, re-paira ; — avi: in the 
perflF., recunt-ai, sung-ai. 

2, from Lat. e. 
ed : cred-ere, craire. 

3, from Lat. i. 

io ; vic-em, faiz ; — ioul : sol-icul-us, solail ;^d : fid. 
el-is, fai-ele ; — in: minus, mais-fait ; — iss : miss-us, 
mais ; — it : iter, aiere. 

4. From Germ, diphthong ai, (ei), halt, re-ahaite 
(1724); /(?//, laider (157), laidanger; or by transvection 
of i, vafi-an, vaivez (553) ; saz-j-an, sais-ir {231). 

5. aidunc seems simply a corap. of a and a form 
(not in Aub.) idutic ; it occurs only twice, and is 
certainly aidunc in 438, but not, I think, in 1C31 ; 
the interj. ai, hay, is prob. diphthongal. 

6. In proper names, as Adonai, Caim, (PalUide, ?) 
-ami: Verolaime ; -a?!«ia .• Brettainne ; -ari: Cesaires. 

ao. 

Lat. a-0 : ad-orare, aorer; in ga-h-oler, the vowel 
are separated by an inorganic h, (v. note on 671). 

au. 

I. au. 

The monophthong au is almost invariably the result 
of al, witli a conjunct following consonant; even in 
esmeraude, there must have been a form smaraldus, as 
in saume, from sagma, an intermediate salma, (cf. 
sumer 1288). 



• In the following analysis, the Latin combinations ae. and oe, are included under the e. 

t So in aesmal, (whatever be the origin, v. note on 20), which can hardly be other than a digraph, whether r 
be from the ex o{ ex-maltha, or a prefix to s impure, ^-smalt. The metre, indeed, rather makes for the diphthong, 
e nus ches de a esmal ; still I prefer c nusches de aesmal. 

X I have not given this in text or gloss, as a diphthong, because of enchaesnez of 670, where the scansion is mis 
1| fu enlchaesntz \ but I am inclined to regard the final j as a mistake of the MS. for s, which would give instead 
mis 1 fu en chacsnes ; as the word is elsewhere always scanned, (cf 666. 710. 749). 

\ In anient, 3 pi. pres. subj. of aJer, it is formed as from a base cU : qy., for all = ami = amb'l, from ambulare 
but v. note on 32. ' 



124 



APPENDIX II. 



I, from Lat. a. 

As a digraph, it is verj' common in Norman docu- 
ments written in England ; hence our spelling and pro- 
nunciation of aunt, haunl. la««ch, ii:c. It is only found 
before «• ; M. L. abandonum, (a)baundun, abaun- 
duner ; incantamentum, enchauntement ; ex-cambi-o, 
es-chaung ; ex-pand-, espaunt, espaundi \flacc-us, flaunc. 

S.^\ smaragd-us, esmeraude; — al : (in art. a{d) il-, 
au); Albamts,Anhxi\ ; aliq{uis)un-us,z\icnn\al{iud)sic, 
aussi ; al[iud) tale, autel ; altare, auter ; alter-, autre- 
(ment), autnii ; ad vall-em, aval; \balth-, baud-(ur), 
esbaudiz;] calce-a, chauce-iire ; calci-ata, chauc-ee; 
calid-us, chautz ; caball-us, chevaus, chevaucher ; cor- 
al-is, curau-ment ; inferiml-is , enfernaus ; gdlb'nus, 
en-jaun-ir ; ex-alti-are, es-hauce ; fals-us, faus, fauser, 
fausete ; fall-it, faut ; [lial(s)berc, hau-berc ;] alt-tis, 
haut, hautcment, haujte ; legal-is, leans, leaument ; 
mal-us, maus, mau-bailli, mau-dient, mau-fe, mau- 
mene, mau-talent, mau-[vois] ; patma, paume ; palit- 
(ari) paut-en-er ; salv-are, sauv-er, -as, -et, sauf, saut, 
sauvaciun ; salt-{illare), sautele ; val-, vaudra, vaut. 

2, from Lat. e. 
el : vel, veaus (386), suvaus (941). 

3, from Lat. i. 
il : sihaiicus, sauvage, ensauvagi. 

II. aii. 

The diphthong aii is rare, occurring only (a), from 
Lat. a — u, or ((3) by syncope of t or d; — a-U ; ad-un-are, 
aiiner ; matur-us, maur ; satullus, saul ; — a-0 ". ad-or-, 
aiirai, aiire, aii(r)rum, aiirrunt, aiirent, aiirer, aiira, aur. 

(b) in proper name : Pharaun. 

ea. 

1, from Lat. a. 

erat-us, agreable ; marcat-ant-^ marche-ant. 

2, from Lat. e. 

cred-ent-, creance, mescreant ; sed-ent-, seant ; cre-at-, 
creatur, creature ; leg-al-, des-leals, tlealte, leal ; reg- 
al-, real ; — as a simple compound of Lat. re, in re- 
ahaite, re-amener, re-apeler. 



vid-ent-, veant ; 



3, from Lat. i. 
vi-(are), en-vea. 

ee. 



1. With irrational duplication, from Lat. a: pal-us, 
peei ; sapit, seet ; — Lat. e ; gem-{ere), geenst ; (zv-um, 
ie ; Lat. i : vitulin-us, veej-lin. 

2. With first e from Lat. a: grat-, agre-e ; irag- 
{ire), bre-ent ; stare, a-re-ste-ent j ; [hatj-an, he-ent ;] — 
from Lat. e : nec-are, ne-e ; — from Lat. i : frig'd-us, 
ef-fre-eat, effreez ; sold-icare, soudeer ; vid-ere, veez. 

3. Its usual occurrence is in the final of fem. past 



ptcpp. or nouns thence formed, i.e. from Lat. ata ; 
I, ptcpp., adubbee, afublee, arusee, asemblee, atempree, 
avilee, aiinee. aiiree, bersee, blescee, bniidee, cerchee, 
criee, cumencee, cuntee, cuntruvee, desiree, desmesur^e, 
drescee, dunee, ebruusdee, emflee, ensanglaentee, 
entuschee, envee, figuree, honuree, levee, (maluree,) 
menee, pruvee, reclamee, redutee, saerree, salee, trans- 
latee, trespassee, trublee, tnivee, ubliee ; 2, jA.f«. celee, 
chaucee, cuntree, demuree, destinee, espee, gorgee, 
jumee, maisnee, manee, matinee, medlee, mesnee, 
pavee, relevees, renumee, rusee ; 3, adw. iree-ment, 
uumee-ment. 

4. In proper names, Beethleem, Galilee. 

5. With prefix re ; in re-estorer = re-ex-staurare. 

ei. 

I. ei. 

1, from Lat. a. 

ab : hai-, eit, ei-ent, ei-ez ; — ac '. fac-ere, fei-re ; 
pac-, peis-ible ; placere, pleisir ; — act : lact-, leit ; — am : 
fam-es, kim; [(camis-,) cheins-il;] am-o, eim, eim- 
ent ; clam-o, recleim ; ram-us, reims ; — an : (centeines), 
certein, darreins, darreinn-er, (endemein,) foreine, 
(gardein,) humein, lointein, mein, (pleinne,) primereins, 
procein(ne), (pulein,) Romeins, seins, semeine, suve- 
reins, veins; man-eo, remeint ; — anct : JawcZ-itr, seint, 
seintifie ; — audi : grandi-or, greinn-ur ; — ang : plang- 
ere, pleinent, pleinte, pleintifs ; — ant: ante, einz ; — apt \ 
captiv-us, cheitif; — [ari ; a[e]ria, debonneire-(ment), 
eir, puteire ;] — asi : occasion-, acheisun ; — aso : nasc-i, 
neiss-ent ; — ati : palati-um, paleis ; [Germ, saz-j-an, 
seisir;] — atri: re-patri-are, repeira. 

2, from Lat. e. 

e : mei, sei, tei ; vae, ivei-mentent ; — eb : deh-, 
dei, deit, deiz; the endings of impft. and condit., cun- 
duseit, feseit, pluveit, portereit, purreit, orrei-ent ; — 
eo : fec-i, fei-mes, fei-stes, feist, fei- (s) sent ; — ecl : vecl-us, 
(= vetulus,) en-veilli, veil-(lard) ; — eot : direct-us, dreit, 
-e, -ure, -ureus, -ureument ; pectorina, peitrine ; {tol- 
ledum,) toleit ; — ed ; cred-ere, crci-re, creit, crei-ent ; 
[Germ. (ge)reit-en, cun-rei;] para-vered-us, pale- 
frei ; — eg : leg-, lei ; reg-, rei ; — el : stella, esteille ; 
vel-um, veilz; — em: rem, rein; — en: poena, peine, 
deinent ; (prend-ere,] preinne ; seren-us, ■■errein ; vena, 
veine; — eni : senior, seignur(ie) ; veni-, deveingne; — 
ens : pens-are, peise ; -ens-is, franc-eis ; — er : ser-us, seir ; 
ver-us, veir; — es : tres, treis;— et: secret-utn, segreiz. 

3, from Lat. i. 
i : vi-a(re), cun-vei-a, cunvei-ant, en-veit ; in pres. 
subj. Lat. sim, &c., sei, seit, sei-um, .sei-ez; — ib : 
bib-ere, beit, beivent, beiwe;— ic: die-, deis, deise; 
vic-em, feit, feiz ; auctor-ic-are, ottreit ; pell-ici-, pelei?- 
un ; vicin-us, veisin ; explic't-us, espleiter ; — id : fid-, 
fei ; occid; oceismes ; quid, quel ; vid-, vei, veie, vei- 



* Except in saucher (258), irregularly for sacher, with an irrational u, cf. the s in hauste. 

t As contrasted with leaw-ment, leaus ; veaus for vels. 

t I can hardly regard this as a mere mistake for arestent, though it certainly is not very intelligible. 



APPENDIX II. 



125 



ent, veit, veiz. veimes, veistes, veisser ; frig'd-us, freit, 
freide, enfreidissant ; — ign : dign-art^ deigna, des- 
deingnant ; insign-^ enseignemcnt, enseinncr; — il : 
consiti-ttm^ cunseil ; mirabiii-a, es-men'eiller, mervcil- 
les ; — im : re-d-im-ere^ reinst* ;■ — in : doinini-unt^ de; s)- 
meine ; min-ari, meine, meinent, demeincnt ; rapiu-, 
raveinner; vin-c{e)-re, vein-t-re; — ing: ai-ting're, 
a-tein-d-re; cing-, es ceint ; in-fring-ere, enfrein-d-re, 
fingere, feindra, feintise ; pingere, enpeinnent, enpeinst ; 
pi[nytura^ peinture; ti'/igu-, es-teint, teint, teinst; — 
ins: insula, eille ; — ip: per-cipi-, a-per-ceivent, de- 
ceivre ; — iso : discipul-us, deisciple ; pise-, peis-un ; 
-ition-, weiment-eisum. 

4, from foreign ai. 
leidit, Germ, leit; meint, Welsh maent (?). 

II. d. 

Here also the diphthongal ei is confined to a few 
words, viz. ge-ir, geisent,' Germ, jeh- ; ha-ir, Geim. 
hat-jan ; obe-ir, obeissent, obei, obeist, obeissant, Lat. 
obedire ; deite, Lat. deitat-. 

eo. 

Only occurs in leonesse, Lat. Uon-: 

eu. 

This denotes three different sounds, distinguished 
thus : eu ; eii ; eu ; the first is for the most part the 
result of a vocahsation of / ; the second, of the contact 
(by sj-naercsis of intervening cons.) of Lat. a with a 
preceding vowel. 

I. eu. 

1, al : (cal-ere,) cheut; pal-us, peus ; — alis : corpo- 
reus, desleus, desnatureus, especVeus, espiriteus, keus, 
leus; leu-ment, morteus, orienteus, osteus, queus,t 
queu-(ke), teus, [and in the n. pr. Amphibeus, (Lat. 
-alus.) 

2, Lat. el : — ellus (-illus,) aigneus, arbruseu, beus, 
beut£, ceus [- ecc'illosj, chapeus, chasteus, cheveus, 
cutcus, drapeus, eu [= in illo,] eus [= illos,] ig^ieus, 
jii-eus, juvcnceus, kemeus, niureus, nuveus, oiseus, 
roisscus ; — elis, criieus ; — el : vetulus, (= eel for etui) 
veuz ; — [Germ, hilm-, heumcs.] 

3, Lat. ol : dol-et, deut ; sol-et, seut ; (vol-,) veut, 
veuz. 

4, It occurs also a few times as an umlaut of : 
foc-us, feu; cor, qu-eur; pro-d, preuz ; { pilosus,) 
piteus, [and perhaps ji-eus for gaudi-osus ? (v. note 
1466.) ] 

5, In Jiieus, Giii-eus, the eu seems based on the 
vocalisation of v, (or ei', judae-us, ju-d-ev-us = ju-cv, 



(M. F. ju-i/,) jU-eu, giu, [whence our jew], v. note on 
289. 

6, There remain Deus, Lat. deus, and deus, Lat. duo; 
and besides, euue (O9), where the double uu is for the 
common w in ewe, 

II. eii. 

1, This is found in (a) the pret. and past ptcp. of 
verbs of 2nd and 3rd Lat. conjug., (b) in the termination 
of nouns, - Lat. ator, atura, and (c) in one adj. in urus. 

(a) — abu: eii, eiimes, eiirent,£iis5um, eiissez; — acu : 
geii, geiisent; — apu : seii, seiiz; — ascu :pe\i; — ebu: 
deiissez, delist : — edu, creiimes, recreii ; egu, leii ; — ibu, 
enbeiiz, beii ; — idu, (pur)veii, veii-e ; — ipu, aperceii, 
deceii, receii ; — u : itu, cuneii, mes-coneli, recuneii, re- 
keneii; — otu, peiistes, peiisum; — (wz*, esmeiiz, meiiz. 

(b) -ator : — boiseiir, changetir, cumandciir, empereiir, 
enginneiir, fableiir, mireiir, peccheiir, precheiir, sau- 
veiir ; — also from . -itor : cunquesteiir ; -atuia : atem- 
preiire, chauceiire, harpeiire. 

(c) -urus, securus, seiir, seiire. 

2. P'urther, in two abstract sbstt.inLat. or : blancheiir, 
foleiir, (where o - ii, and the e is inorganic) ; [probably 
also pUiirent (1513) is a similar case, for Lat. plor-ant, 
rather than a case of umlaut for 0, as in qu-eur (158);] 
cf. also feiissez (61 1), but fuissez (465), with fussent 
(1744) and fust (612). 

III. iu. 

Only when e is followed by a nasal a of Latin or 
Romance ; Icon-, leun, leun-cel ; ■vid-(emiis't, ve-ura. 

ia. 

1, Generally = Lat. ia : amiable, bestial, diable, em- 
perial, espicial, merci-able ; with synaeresis of conso- 
nant, li-g-are, lia, aliance ; viari-t-aticum, mariage ; 
ipbli-t-are,) ubbliance; in pret. of verbs, cria, espamias, 
espia, humiMa, prias; also in pres. ptcp., tesmoniant. 

2, - L -t. ie : morient; muriant ; [vi-v-enda,) viande ; 
ziv-ent-, viant. 

3, Sometimes the i is itself a modification; thus 
prias from prec-{/iri) ; briant, (788, but bruant 1153,) 
from a Lat. bru-g-ient-, (v. note on bruit, 620). 

4, nn. pr., Bebal, Me:sias. 

ie (= ie and ie or ie.) 

1, With e for Lat. a, and inorganic i' prefixed after 
sibilants or liquids, (v. note 804,) can-, chien; cad-it, 
chiet ; cap-ul, chief; nav-, nief ; nas-, nics. 

2, From Lat. ia, in term, -ianus : ancien, celestien, 
crestien(tc), nigromanciens. 

3, As umlaut for Lat. e ; — 60, saeclum, siecle ; (veclus) 
viel;--6d: ped-, piez ; — el: coeluin, ciel;^en: bene 
bien ; — er J : ferus, fier ; heri, hier ; neri'us, nierf. 



• Probably the e of the Lat. prefix must be allowed for here ; cf. also meimes for a form mirt-i'ps-[issijm-us. 

t This seems to have influenced the spelUng of the unique qiieur, 158. 

\ acier and entier only occur once each, instead of the usual acsr, and enti;r / acier, however, is perhaps the 
better form, as being = Lat. aci-ari-us, and the » in enlier may have been influenced by the guttural in Lat. 
integer, [e^r = ei'r, cf. prim-ari-us, prem-icr]. 



126 



APPENDIX II. 



et: laetus, liez ;— eT : leii-o, lief; [Germ, feu = fev, 
fef, fiez.] 

4, lu the infin., and past ptcp. of verbs of the 1st 
conjug. tart, icare, (ec-are), igare, (egare), id-are, 
{it-are) ; devier, (esparnier,) mercier, lier, nii-r, nuncier, 
otrier, sacrifier-unt ; ali^, chastiez, crucifie, replie ; fier ; 
cner, crierum, ublier, escriez ; in the 3 pers. pres. sg. 
and pi. of the same verbs ; enmercie, enhumilie, pro- 
phecie, chastie, deslie; prie, renie; crucifie, multiplie, 
ottrie, plie, seintifie, signifie ; lie, (es)crient ; defie, fie, 
escrie(nt), treshublie ; and in the 2 pi. imper., otriez. 

5, In fern, of past ptcpp. of verbs in ir : enrichie, 
ensevelie, esclarcie, flestrie, flurie, furbie, garies, partie, 
perie, replenie ; also in the 3 pers. pres. sg. and pi. of 
dire (= Lat. dic're), die, dient, mau-dient. 

6, In sbstt. in ia : cumpainnie, cunestablie, escurgie, 
felunie, folie, losengerie, maistrie, maladie, nigro- 
mancie, partie, seignurie ;— ica : mica, mie ; utiica, 
urtie ;— id-ia : invidia, envie ;— ita : vita, vie ;— itel : 
vitella, viele. 

7, In pres. ptcpp. in -ient- : escient, orient-(el); and 
in 2 pi. condit., friez. 

8, In pri'-t'-re from pree-ari, the i - ec = ei, and the 
er = air = ari, corresponding to a normal prec-ari-a. It. 
pregh-iera; cf also anient! (1454) from nec-ens, vtiih 
anentti (1142), and the simple nent (634). 

9, mien is an irrational form of Lat. meum, which is 
not easy to explain. 

10, In nn. pr. Gabriel; Marie, Messie, Palladie ; 
Sulie; Diene. 



Only in cheriit, despiist, respiit, v. note on 1. 645. 



10. 



Only in riote, (of unknown origin). 



lU. 



The most common occurrence is in the fern, termina- 
tion iun of sbstt. from Lat. -ion- : avisiun, confessiun, 
confusiun, consolaciun, cuntenciun, danipnaciun, devo- 
ciun, encarnaciun, entunciun, Icgiun, manriun, passiun, 
perdiciun, processiun, promissiun, redempciun, regiun, 
remissiun, revelaciun, sauvaciun, subjecciun, tribula- 
ciun ; also in masc, champiun; — and further in 1st pi. 
pres. die-, dium. In addition, we have from Lat. il : 
filius, fiuz; vilis, viu ment ; -i-os-us, deliciuses, envius, 
gloriuse, preciuses ; — Lat. eo : lean-, liun, liunceus ; — 
: he-US, liu ; — u : judaeus, giu, giiie, giiieu. 

In estriu, it is perhaps for ev = eb, of Germ, streb-an. 

oa. 

{incroc-are,) encroa ; laud-ant-, lo-ant ; (M. L.) 
{roltanl-um,) roal. 



oe. 

In the infinn. encroer, loer, noer, {not-are), peer*, 
{pot-ere), and 3 pi. poent, with deriw., poestS, poestifs; 
in imper. 2 pi. from audire, oez ; laudemia, loenge. 

In n. pr. Noe. 

oi. 

I, From Lat. a : {ati), palati-um, palois ; ci(vi)tati. 
{nus), citoien. 

_ 2, From Lat.au: {na!is-ea,noKe}); [Germ, bi-saul- 
jan, soille ; katis-jan, choisir, es-choisir ;]— audi : gaud-, 
es-joir, re-joist, joie, joiant, joius ; aud{-ire), oir, 01, 
oismes, oistes, oiez. 

From Lat. e. 

3, e : in the pronn. me, se, te. moi, soi, toi ; mea, 
moie ; — ebf : deb-ere, doi, doit, doitz ; — eo : direct-us, 
droit, endroit ; prec-ari, proier, (de)proiez; nee-are, 
noiez ; — ed: cred-ere, croi,. croire, croitz, croi-ent ; 
praeda, proi-e ;— eg : leg-, loi, loial, loiele, desloial ; 
reg-, roi ; — el: Stella, estoille; — ens : mens-is, mo\% ; 
-ens-is, pantois-er, Sarrazin-ois ; — er : habere, avoir; 
sper-o, espoir; ser.us, soir ; ver-us, voir; — es : fres- 
{us,) frois-irent; tres, trois ; — at: vet-are, voi-ez; set-a, 
soi-e. 

From Lat. i. 

4, i : via, voie, [for pur-voier = pro-\iare, v. note on 
1695,] (and the subj. pres. = sim, sit, Sec, soie, soit, 
solum, soiez, soient) ; — ib : bibere, boiv-re ; — ie : expli- 
cit; exploit-er ; strict-us, estroitz ■,-icare, ploier, des- 
ploier, flamboie, guerroier, otroier, {a.uctor-icare\ 
vcrdoi-ant; — \i.: fd-es,{6\; vid-eo,VQ\%,vo\-^TA; vid- 
uiis, void-e ; — ig : dig-it-us, doi ; nig-ra, noi-re ; — ign : 
dign-ari, Aomne; — ^il: ca////-i/.f, chevoilz ; mirabili-a, 
es-mervoiller ; — ip : recip-it, revolt ; — [Germ, iso : frisk-, 
frois ;] — iv (= ui-) rivicell-us, roisseus. 

5, In benoit, benoite,benoie, [o'i .?] the diphthong has 
arisen from ei = Lat. e(d)i in benedict-. 

From Lat. 0. 

6, 00 : VOC-, voiz; noct-, a-noit-ez ; octesim-us,o\'d%xaz; 
ocul-us, oil; hoc il{lud), oil; [noxia, = nocs-ia, nois-e, 
but V. 173]; — og : co^«;V-«j-, a-coint-e ; — o\: apostol-, 
apostoiUe; spoli-are, despoille ; dol-{ere,) doillant, 
doilz ; moll-ire, es-moilli; foli-um, foille ; vol-, voil- 
lant, voille, voilz, vrisist ; — olg : collig-ere (= colg-ere,) 
a-coill-ir, acoilt ; — on: car{n]onea, charoinne (v. 846) ; 
sum-mone-, su-moin ; tes{ti)moni-um, tesmoin, tes- 
moinne ; don-are, doins, doinst ; — ong : long-us, es- 
loinn-ez, esloinnera, loing, loin-tein ; — ori: historia, 
estoire ; gloria, gloire ; ebore-um, ivoire ;— OSO : cog- 
nosc-{entia), cunoiss-ance ; — 05i: poss-{ent), poiss-ant, 
pois-ance ; — [Germ, osi : bosi, bois-eiir.J 



• There is further an infin. voer (941), which I consider as a mere mistake for ver, by a similar change as in 
quoer, — subst. (6S5), and verb 1st sg. pres. 1761 — compared with quers (1277). 

t Here may be added the endings of the impft. and of the condit. [= Lat. ebat, ebant.] viz. estoie; estoit, avoit ; 
avoient, disoient, estoient, savoient; seroie, voudroie ; ptirroit, serroit ; amerroient, diroient, ociroient. 



APPENDIX II. 



12: 



From Lat. u. 

7. no : ^r«c-, croiz ; gen-uctil-, genoilz, genoill-uns, 
agenoilla; {ae)ni(gii)cul-, roill-e, (v. 1008); suciil-, 
soille, (but V. 562) ; — ugn : pugti-us, poin, poinn-al ; — 
ulo : culc{i)ta, coiltes ; — unc, llDg : p""g-, punct-, 
poinn-ent, point, pointes ; y««rf-, des-jointz, jointes; — 
[Germ, uni : bi-siunigi, bu-soinne, (v. 124,) soing; — 
nol : urguoli,OTgo\\ (722) ;] — Tisti : angtisti-a, angoiss-e, 
rustic-US, roiste, (v. 1832) ; — [Germ, uwiso : iuwisc, 
bois]. 

OU. 

1, Is usually the representative of Lat. an : pauc-, 

f)nu ; aud-^ ou-ant, ouent ; a/awf/rt, alou-e ; laud', lou, 
ou-ant ; pauper, poure ; — elsewhere of a (or otlier 
vowel), with following u by vocalisation or transvec- 
tion ; abu : habuit, out ; — av : clav-us, clou, clou- 
fichez. 

2, ol : colaphus, (colpus), coup, couper ; {fol-h's), fou ; 
{sold-ic-are) soudcer; sol{ve)re, soudr-unt ; [vol-ere,) 
voudr-oie ; — olu : vo!u-it, vout ; — otu : potu-it, pout : — 
til : a(d)ulter, a-v-outre. 

3, It is a simple modification of mpont-, pountz ; 
hcdle, ou-i ; {not-are^ nou, nou-ant. 

4, Of the form o;V, we find poiisse, for M. F. puisse, 

iv. supra, p^KSum] ; poiir, espoiiri, from Lat. pav-or, 
= pau-or = po-or) ; also from (pot-ere,) ist pi. pres. 
po-um. 

ua. 

After gutturals from Lat. ua: language, quant, 
quatre, suage, (suaviai-e) ; or from Germ, w : guage, 
Guales, guarantz, guarde, guari, guami ; — with u 
from Lat. : joc-ant, ju-ant ; cod-a, cu-ard ; — from Lat. 
n : brug-, bni-ant ; mut-, mu-a ; /;'/-, pu-ant ; sud-, 
Ues-sua; for truantz, v. note on 524. 

lie. 

As in the case of cu, so here wc have three distinct 
sounds represented by the combination ue, siz, ue, iie, 
and uc. 

I. ue, 

1, Occurs after gutturals from Lat. gu, qu : languerus, 
quel, quere, queiuni, querant, queur, quers, queus, 
requers, requerez, requeste, cunquesteiir; — for Germ, 
initial w : gue, guerduns, gueres, guerpi, gucrroier. 
giietez, guetes. 

2, By umlaut for Lat. ; — 00 : ilhc, iluec ; — ol : {dol- 
iKOT),duel; — om: com-es, quen-s; — op: pop'lus,p\iep\e; 
— or: mor-, demucre, (de)muercnt; mori, muer-ent ; 
tori-US, des-tuers; — ot : pot-, puet ; — ov: bov-, buef; 
nov-fin, nuef;— for Lat. u, in suf-fer-, sucfre. 



II. lie. 

3, WTiere the u is derived from Lat tl, ua : sie, 
tue, [but cf. suen, tuen] ;— uh : nub-es, niie ; — uoa, 
raacjiies ; — ud, sudo, sii-e and su-eires \sudarium'] ; — 
Uga, riie ; — uta : miie, saliie, viie ; and the ptcpp. batiie, 
esmiie, veniie ; for the verb ahiient, v. note 1425. 

III. ue. 

4, From Lat. equ ; — eguah's, deshuel ;^Lat. : 00 
locare, lucr; nod-, nu-e ; — otel: (botdlaY buiile, esbu- 
elez ; [Germ, stov, estue- ;] — Lat. u : mue, salue, saluer, 
tuer, suer ; — ual : anuel ; — ud : critdcl-, cruel. 

5, In suef, from Lat. sua^■is, the initial u being prob. 
the same sound as our in. 

ui. 

In this combination ;/;, the modification of Lat. u to « 
only talics place under tlie influence of a following ;, by 
a kind of assimilation ; this / may either be the natural 
vowel /, or the i = vocalized guttural, and in eitlier case 
the transvection of the i will produce the same effect. 

1, Lat. e: %%,fress(us), fruissent ; — equ, sequ-, sui-t. 

2, Lat. icul : but-kul-arius, but-uill-er ; — il : ex- 
ilium, ex-uiU(er) ; — iv : (where iv = iu = ui,) rivic- 
ellui, missel. 

3, Lat. oi : boia, bujes ; recoctus, requitz ; — 00, Og, 
(= oi) : noct-, nuit ; noc-ere, nuire ; cog-itare, qui-der ; 
— Odi : odi-um, es-n-ui-ez, v. note on 375 ; podi-um, 
pui, puier ; hodi-e, ui ; — osti : osti-um, uis ; poste-a, 
puis, despuis ; — oti : fo</(pl.), tuit, trestuit; — olg (= oli) : 
Lat. colligere (= col-gere), a-cuill-ir. 

4, Lat. u, when followed by /, in the same manner 
gives ///; — ui, fuimes, ^'c, ru'inc ; — UC. Ug : destruct-, 
destruite, fruct-, fruit ; duct-, sus-duit ; lux-are, luc- 
sare, esluiss-er ; brug-, bruit ; fug-, fuie ; — uli : 7nuli-er, 
muill-ere ; — usti : angustia, anguisse ; [Germ, uzd, — 
bruzd, bruidee;] — -ute (= uti): pute-us, pui-s;— U7i: 
pluvia, plui-e. 

5, After the gutturals q and g; Lat. q, qui, qui ; quaes- 
{ivi), quist, requis, cun-quist, en-quis ; linqu-ere, len- 
quir ; \jiascu-\ nasqui ; qui{e)tus, quites ; — g : languere, 
languir ;. — gu (= Germ, w) : wit-an, gui-er. 

6, L.it.A<o, an-dui; J««, sui; antiquitat-,aa.ii(^iez. 

7, For lui, celui, v. note on 244. 

UO. 

Only in of-uokes = ab hoc, in the abnormal i/oes, 
for Lai. opus, and in the forms with quor, quoer, requor, 
requorai, where the u belongs to the q. 

' UU. 
As in the case of ii, a mere duplication, buns, for 
bou, V. note (680); ebruusdce, (v. 1134); luus, lupus; 
except only puiir for Lat. pu-t-or. 



GLOSSARY 



A. 

prep, at, to, towards, for, on, with, &c., used as follows : — 

A. I. I. Dative after verbs : — 

abaunduner%iTiS.\-v.s: i033iDeu: l654audeu: i " 1 8 al enfemal M. : I79ialui: 1844 a Jesu. — 
smaller 1271 au clerc. — apendre 725 a home: 1 194 a sauvaciun. — s^asentir 720 a li: 726 a lui. — 
atacher 1603 au peel. — ateindre 1227 a vostre cumpainnie. — atencer 1308 a ki. — attendre 816 a toi. — 
atumer 363 as bons : 506 a morteu medlee : 977 au martir : 1399 a chescun. — cloiificher 88 ^ 
un fust. — creire I259auvent. — t"«w/(7?/(/t?/' 377 a Jesu : 488 a lui. — cunbatre 1029 a Hot. — ciititer 214 ; 
a lui. — cunvertir 1223 a lui. — ciivenir 1239 a crestien. — dcmander 1268 a vus. — descuverir 458 a 
un tirant. — duner 663 i v'us : 817 a Id : 870 a Moyses : 1004 a lus : 1161. 1442. 1496. 1596 a 
Jesu: 1234 (v. note) au brand ferir: 1416 4 Phebun : 1481 a Deu : 1604 a cheval. — entendre ^b-, 
a eus : 1570 a ces mais. — encuser 1131 a un tirant.— /ff2>^ 365 bis. ke hem vus face au cors 
u (maufe) au quor: 577 a tei n'est fait premur (v. note) : 622 feste funt a Febum. — se humilier 
422 a un Jesu.^/uger 741. 1151 a mort. — tier 890. 950 4 un arbre : 1616 a un piler. — Uvrer 548 
bis. 745. 1648. 1785 livTe a mort: 847 bis. a luus e as oisseus : 963 a martire : 1218 a torment : 
mester 210 a crestien est mester : 1781 n'a mester a niJ. — mettre 971. 981 au cors. — (/5) 304 a 
sauvaciun : 308. 315 a mort : 308 a dampnaciun : 338 bis. a grant mine e a perdiciun : 1717 a con- 
fusiun. — ynustrer 1037 as ses martirs : 1809 al apostoille. — nuer 951 as reims. — nuncier 1834 as 
Romeins. — obeir 478 a ses diz : 814 a toi: logi a ki : 1215 a mes cumanz : 1680 a lur mauvois 
volor : 1754 a la lei.— ^ar/e'r 213 a sun hoste : 1075 as autres. — >*''«'' 498 a Id : 1528 al darreinner. — 
plaire 118 bis. a ki '1 plut ^ lui (v. note) : 1229 a keus : 1315 a Jesu. — presenter 787. 1351 4 Deu. — 
rendre (graces) 882 au deu : 1397 ^ Deu. — se rendre 1632. 1790. 1826 4 Jesu. — retter 1359 rette a 
lui. — trainer 798 a martire. 

I. 2, a, With infinitive follmuing : — 

cumencer n a demander : 133 ^ esmerveiller : 1642 a precher. — defendre 106 ^ manger. — se mettre 
773 au nocr. 

1. 2. b. After aver : — 

28 palefrei n'ai a chevauchcr : 678 n'a mais viandes a manger : 682 n'a mais lit au chucher. 

I. 2. c. After aver = ' to cnue to' ' to have to' : — 

25. 46 ad tut le mund a guvemcr : 102. 1315. 1636 tut ad i guier : 1330 vencz, li mien ami, ki ai 
4 soudfier. 

I. 2. d, After faire = ' to be worthy of (with inf. used passively) : — 

129 tant laitz d amer : 1259 ne fait plus k creire : 1345 tant fist a loer : 1559 ne fait pas 4 despire. 

I. 2. e. Dative of purpose : — 

124 fist sun mcssager 4 fere si grant busoinne : 238 (tendi) fel 4 boivre ; 766 ne nief 4 passer 
unt truvg ; 834 4 90 pruver sui prest ploicr le gant : 910. 102 1 le rcgnc 4 recever : 1530 as plaies 
bender; 1548 as cors garder (v. note). 

I. 3. Dative of aim : — 

97 m'amenc 4 vostre salu : 849 (purvu) 4 sun martire : 1418 sumuns 4 cenbel : 1554 (scisi) a sun uoes. 

I. 4. Dative of instrument : — 

affermer 237 4 clous. — decoler 1443 4 la espfie furbie. — defuler 988. 1341 as chevaus : loio 4 pez : 
1730 4 chevaus. — detrencher 1499. 1641 au brand. — enbrever 1546 4 arreraent nerci. — esgarder 
1788 al oil. — recever 879 as meins. — tuer 1280 4 glaive. 

I. 5. Dative of price : — 

1 162 prisa 4 valur d'un gant. 

a 



ii GLOSSARY. 

I. 6. In adverbial phrases expressive of state or manner : — 

(a) 6 a loi de desloiaJ : 157. 231 a tort : 327 a Icrmes : 328 bis. a jointes meins e a weimentisun : 
351 a bon ure : 369. 960. 1797 a grant humilite : 505 a hautes manaces : 523 a cruel gorgee : 
524 a pute destinee : 526 a parole simple: 558 a baudur : 600 a desmesure : 616 a dreiture : 
770 bis. a grant estrif, a volente : 787 a devociun grant: 817. 1156. 1474 a sun semblant : 821 
a piteus semblant : 899 a celee : 909. 1210. 1521. 1552 a honur : 938 a queuke peine : 1105 
a un cri : 1182 a clere voiz : 1195 a quor baud : 1240 a vostre pleisir : 1290 a jurnees : 1336 a 
sun talent: 1366 a cniele mort : 1409 a crueute : 1436. 1633 a haute voiz : 1545 a cert cunte : 
1594 a sermun: 1603 a grant tminent : 1699 a un voler coraraun : 1732 a grant processiun : 
1789 a une voiz. — (b; 762 a clieval : 762. 1422 a pe : 772 i. nou : 790 a flote : 792 a seeches 
plantes : 940 bis. a genoilz e a cutes : 1286 a penuncel leve: 239. 325. 514. 775 a genoHluns : 
1173 a genoilz. — (c) 73 a mervelles : 313. 1729 a bandun : 619. 843 a peine: 751. 1566 a pou : 
810 a tart. 

II. I. Dative after nouns (subst. and adj.') : — 

54 a lui sui enclin : 309 serfs au tirant : 343 a lui es acointe : 466 a Deu es dru : 560 (sucur) a sun 
deciple : 618 (enclins) a pecchez : 656 a lui-raeimes semblable : 1044 bis. (sucurables) a ceus ki sunt 
a vus enclins : I loi (traitres enenii) a humein lignage : 1 195 pretz suraes a fere : 1357 a proie est 
de\'urer (v. note) : 1490 a lui atrait e asoti. 

II. 2. With following infinitive of nearer definition : — 
699 fu duel a regarder : 1029 fort est a cunbatre. 

II. 3. Dative of determination : — 

17 a solers e estages : 20 a robe d'or batue : 677 a ser\'ant butuiller : 681 ter. a plume ne a 
cotun ne a pailles d'utre mer : 788 a flot briant : 890 a reims bas e petiz ; 1167 Sl grant missel : 
1617 a cunme de espines. — (b) 1258 fable a rote : 1288 cofres i. sumer. 

II. 4. Dative of attribution : — 

1091 le sen au maistre : 1334 par sortz au sarmuner : 1343 au fiz la plaie : 1387 les cors as martirs : 
1419 ost a rei (v. note) : 1462 li Deus as crestiens : 1749 le cors au martir. 

B. I. a, Local, of place 'whither,^ [^) in phrase, figuratively : — 

a/c"/- 116 a Sathan : 4 r 4 a un prince : 507 as maissuns : 626 au temple: 629 a lur temple : 1807 a 
Rumme : 1645 al haut rei de gloire. — aprocer 1432 a Auban. — ariver 908 a bon port. — desendre 1386 
a terre. — cnveier 1722 a sun champiun. — mener 540 a queu chief : 761 au queu chief: 1363, 1414. 
1739 a Verolaime. — reamener 1275 a maisun. — reapeler 1672 a vie. — trainetre 168 as apostles. — 
trebucher 1014 a terre. — venir (a) 10 a Varlam : 75 a une maisun : 266 al encuntre : 455 3. 
sun maistre : 499 bis. a eus, a la curt : 539 a curt : 613 %. vus : 765 a une ewe grant : 122 1 au 
grant gueredun : 1242 a Verolame; 1485 bis. a Verolaime, a lur osteus. — (/3) 433. 1463 a pleisir : 
966 a volente : 1012 a gre. 

Of limit, in phrases with ' de ci ke,' ' geske' : — 

de ci k' 69 ci k'a I'euue du Rin: 1264 de ci k'a Burdele. — gcst' 1702 du frund gesc' au 
talun. — (^degree) 234 gesk' au sane espandre. — {time) 1815 gesk' a tant k'il furent mis ensarcu. 

I. b, Local, of place ' where ' .• — 

15 entre a un portal : 18 seant al uis : 167 asis a destre sun pere : 409 a ime fenestra : 412 a la 
croiz s'agenoUla : 699 as reims : 798 au puier le pendant : 803 au sabelun : 804 chiet as piez A. : 
942 (munte) a sun destrer: 1095 a sa tumbe resplendi : 1413 ne mangerunt a table : 1466 a une 
pleinne se aresteent : 1705 al destre tun pere : 1S31 au procein port. — fcrir 88. 1529 au quor : 158 
au queur : 235 a la face. — {gesir) 859. 971 a terre : 1 164 au pe du munt. — a = chez 671 en garde a 
felun gaholer ; 1023 en la prisun est au maufe. 

II. Temporal : — ■ 

(a.) period of day 2 1 2 par tens al enjumer : 494 al endemein par tens : 683 bis. au soir e au 
disner : 703 bis. au seir n'al enjumer : 902 a midiz : 1830 bis. au vespre, au matin. — {y>) generally 
39 au paraler : 145 au jur oitisme : 166. 263 au terz di : 181 au cumencement : 366 a la fin : 562 
au chef du tur : 621 au jur quant feste funt : 858 au jur ki dune fu lung : 1140 a nul jur: 1185 
au muriant : 181 1 a ceu tens. — (c)=for ever 1796 (damne) a tut dis. — (d) occasion 102 al nun 
le fiz Marie : 895 au coup : 1588 a ceste sumunse : 1606 a chemin jurnal. — (with inf.) 258 au 
saucher de la lance : 913 au coup duner : 973 au seint cors tucher: 1057 au partir de cest seclc : 
1153 au passer de un pund. 
c. With secondaty predicate .•— 

557 a fause fust pruvee : 955 a seingnur I'as clame. 

a II. under aver. 

abandun j v. tr. to give up, or over ; to entrust, commend ; to bestow. 

abandune > ind. pres. I sg. 48S i. lui\-us cumant e abandun: 813 a vus m'alme e mun cors abandun e cumant : 

abanduner ) „ „ „ „ 1844 a Jesu me abaundun. 

infin. 1718 par abanduner al enfernal Mahun : 1278 par largement tresor abaunduner. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ill 



(abanduner) pp. (nj.. ^- y^)^^J-::^l ^"^^J^^ ^^^^^^ abandun. (au deu .ucm..) 

abatre v. tr. to knock down. , , . u 

intin. .341 (veissez les uns) abatre e detiencher. 

abaundun-«-er under abandun. 

n. pr. Abel. . 

prp. 399 d'Abcl, cum rocist Caim. 

n.pr. Abraham. .„ j 1 

prp. 402 d'Abram e Moyses, les veillardz alosez. 

s. m. shelter. . . , u^ 

ace. sg. 1087 qui quist, cum esgarez, ci ostel e aDn. 

s. ra. agate-on\-x (v. note). . 

nom. sg. 4 n'i out acastonee ne gemme ne cnstal. 

s. m. steel. 

I7:sf'^, ^d^ecoU'duXaTd'^eer : .64: les detrenchent au brant d'acer. 

adj. of steel. , ^ ,. - 

mas. prp. sg. looi coup de mace e de brant acere. 
adj. of steel, 
mas. prp. sg. 1838 decole fu du brant acenn. 

r-^ ^8 dJ ^l^:t ^f^^ =^- : 964 bien le croi de ft e bten sui acert. 
' pi 1036 par les grantz miracles dunt il sunt acerte. 

|£m.°sg"53T(Urtu\%strenumee)r 
ace 829 mes jo sai I'achesun. 

} IZ f?' if^^^^^h* 'r J sf grant busoinne : 209 la vie en la croi. aehever (deingna) : 
1284 Caillent) ceste grant busoinne sanz delai aehever. ^ 
^m (ind ant. 3 sg.) 373 apres 90 ke U out trestut cest acheve 
^■^r (subj. pft. 3 pi.) .026 bein quideut Id tut eient lur voler acheve. 
....>.. under accr. 

acoilli, acoilt under acuillir. , ,- ■ 1 -n, 

V tr to make acquainted, to make friends mth. 
nnn mas. se. U3 parsarevelaciunaluiesacomte. 

^^'Jun to hi inhaJmony, only in phrase en un-, umtedly (v. note on 1.38). 
grnd 1 187 pur i;o nus assemblames en un acordant. 
ind^pS'^sg T^^"^^ ^I^Sufr^! ioS honur Pacoilt Deus of ses desmeine eslitz : 

P ■ ^ s Jgg^ ,^^ pecchurs repentanz acoUt sanz reprover. 

Srida'SnS'^t^^sW^^ 

ppp. mas. pi. 152 1 ahonur sunt egloire eu ciel acoilli. 

V ref to join oneself as a companion. . , 
pp. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1038 a A. e Aracle Id s est acumpamne. 
v. tr. fullil, accomplish, Imish, end. 

t (nrp )innn. 1241 lors les ad baptize pur la loiacumpln. _ 

nn-i /ind Dft ?d1) 1012 qant iluntacumpliquankelurvmt agre 
^^p mas sg ^25 1 de mol'est ja tut acumpli : .052 li martires de A. fait est e acumpli. 
., pi. 1536 pur turraentz corporeuskija sunt acumph. 

U%^^. '^SO^us tcurent : 1 699 lors tuit i acurent a un voler commun. 

V. tr. to cut out the heart. 

infin. 1263 acurer frai (Id prechera de cele Ici). 

under aver. 

n. pr. Adam. ^ , , , , c 

ace. 105 Deus out fait Adam : 655 Deu k'Ad.am furma. 

prp.;398 d'Adam. 

s. f. breaking-in. , , , , 

prp. sg. 619 (pulein) a peine ublie 90 k'aprent en sa adanture. 

n. pr. Almighty. ... 

voc. 250 en tcs meins mun espent, pere Adonai, cumant. 

s. m. short cut, cross road. 

prp. sg. 1592 U uns deeuss'en vunt par un adrescement. 

a 2 



Abel 
Abram 
abri 
acastonfie 



acere 



acerin 
acertfi 



acheisun 

achesun 

acheve 
aehever 



acier 

acoilli 
acointe 

acordant 

acuillir 



acumpainn6 

acumpli 
acumplir 



acurent 
acurer 

ad 

Adam 



adanture 

Adonai 

adrescement 



IV 



GLOSSARY. 



iulubb^e 

adunc 

adverser 

adversite 

aegre 

aers 

aesmal 

afferma 

afichent 

afublee 

age 

agenoilla 

agraventent 

agreable 

agree 

agu 

agaetes 

aheiint 

ai I. 

ai II. 

aide 



aidunc 
a'ie 



aient 
aiere 

aigles 



aignel 
aigneus 

aillent 
aimant 



V. tr. to adorn. 

ppp. fern. sg. 2 mes ne ert adubbee d'or. 
adv. temp, thereupon. 

183 adunc respundi : 438 aidunc orra : 1483 adunc se sunt muntez : 1631 aidunc (plusurs se rendirenl). 

s. m. adversary ; de\Tl. 

gen. sg. 113 en les laz le adverser. 

voc. ,, 1669 entenc vers moi, paen adverser ! 

nom. pi. 154 envie en urent adverser enemis : 1332 (jo ouent sarrazins, li glut adverser. 

s. f. adversity. 

prp. sg. 364 ne soiez esmeiiz pur nule adversite. 

adj. fiercely eager. 

mas. nom. pi. 1624 il en sunt plus aegre de li turmenter. 

(aerdre) v. intr. to be attached, adhere. 

pp. mas. sg. 1 113 U sancs A. i pert, aers e endurci. 

s. m. enamel (It. smalto). 

prp. sg. 20 nusches d'aesmal. 

V. tr. to fasten (with nails). 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 237 a clous le afferma. 

V. tr. to fix, set up (a stake). 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1 600 un peel en terre afichent. 

V. tr. to put on (as a garment). 

ppa. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 519 I'esclavine k'il voient k' A. ad afublee. 

s. m. age. 

prp. sg. 152 puis ke il fu d'age e de anz treis feiz dis : 288 tant estoit dune d'age : 
,, „ 550 ki sages es de aprise e d'age estes maur. 

v. ref. to kneel down. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 412 \it cum a la croiz A. s'agenoiUa. 

V. tr. to overwhelm. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1700 de peres I'agraventent, de zuche e de perrun. 

adj. acceptable. 

mas. sg. 1417 sacrifice agreable plus ke buef u torel. 

V. intr. to be agreeable to (used impers.) 

subj. pres. 3 sg. 498 i ki peise u agree (= no matter whom it may vex or please). 

adj. sharp, pointed. 

mas. nom. pi. 855 turtles e charduns k'aspres sunt e agu. 

s. m. watcher. 

ace. pi. 1065 aguetes e pasturs paens en unt garni. 

v. tr. to chase with cries. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1425 escrient e I'ahiient plus viument k'un chael. 

interj. of calling, oh ! 

921. 1043. 1219. 1503. 1619. 1708 bis. (ai). 24O. 354. 572. 811. 1646. 1795 (hai). 946 (hay). 

under aver. 

v. tr. to aid. 

subj. pres. 3 sg. 609 Jesus me haid e sucure ! 

ppa. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 980 le gentil chevaler Aracle unt aide. 

under adunc. ;^- 

s. f. assistance. 

nom. sg. 672 k'aie ne rescusse n'i pust aver mester. 

prp. ,, 1220 par ta aie (venirau gueredun) : 1438 pite te preinne de moi ki peris sanz aie. 

under aver. 

s. m. journey, wandering. 

ace. sg. 56 il devise e dresce mun aiere e mun chemin. 

s. m. eagle. 

nom. sg. 1386 un aigles of lui (est venu) : 1389 I'egle oiseus enchace : 
„ ,, 1392 li aigles raveinner : 1550 (vunt un gr.int lu) e uns aigles (ki. . .). 

prp. pi. 957 (ke ne soit) de egles u wltures ne de lus devore. 
1 s. m. lamb. 

J ace. sg. 28 1 Deus I'at fait aignel d'un leun sauvage : 1408 pris I'unt e seisi cum li lu fait aignel. 
„ pi. 1478 il vus apele cum pastur ses aigneus. 

under aler. 

s. m. diamond. 

nom. sg. 1 147 raed fu e estable cum fer u aimant. 

under amer. 



GLOSSARY. 



air 
airs 



ajurne 

ajurnfie 

ajust£ 

al 

alames, alas 
alasse ) 

alass£ ) 

aler 



V. intr. to go 
' ind. pres. i 

1. 2 

„ „ 3 



Alexandres 

alez 
aliance 

alii 

alme 

almosne 



(a.) adv. I, beforehand; 2, sooner, rather; (b.)conj. I, nay rather; 2, -n-ithke, (and subj.), before that. . . 

(a, i). 376 ii or einz purpose : 752 & urent ainz estez. 

(a, 2). 636 ainz purra raer secchir ke jo treshublie Jesus. 

(b, i). 1369 einz les honure. 

(b, 2). 1363 (ne se desjunerunt) einz ke a V. aient fait mener. 

s. m. air, atmosphere. 

nom. sg. 1055 U airs enobscuri : 1059 purs estoit li airs : 1092 li airs obei. 

ace. ,, 85 ki fist les elumentz, terre, unde, air, e fu : 1336 1'eir fait a sun'talent rebundir e suner. 

prp. „ 1259 (vent) k'en I'air ventele. 

V. intr. to dawn (used impers.) 

pp. (ind. ant. 3 sg.) 967 plus a fait ui vertu puis k'il fut ajurne. 

s. f. da«Ti. 

prp. sg. 527 il s'en ala ben devant I'ajumee. 

V. tr. (to place near), to fit on, to adjust to. 

ppa. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 971 au cors I'ad mis e ajustfi(le chef A.) 

under U. 

under aler. 

v. tr. to fatigue. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1428 U chemins ferrez I'alasse. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1003 de kibattre tuit fuimes alassfi. 

often with foU. gerund, (and shading off into a mere auxil. 818); s'en aler, to go away. 
sg. 376. 380 e (= en) mun pais m'en vois. 
,, 1 190 (Jesu) de ki vas sermunant. 

,, 198 dormir s'en va : 213 hastivement s'en va a sun hoste parler : 
,, 426 par ci sermunant va : 525 va par ci prechant : 552. 806. 1251 va prechant . 
i> 553 s'sn va vaivez : 763 enviz va bon gre : 

,, 789 (I'eue ?) va si apetizant: 81 1 va prisant : 854 entre espines ki va : 
■343 1' P^''^ ^^ fi^ '3 pl''i^ v^ bender ; 1433 U ne va querant el. 
83 1 k'alum vengant. 

818. 887 k'alez-\-us demurant ? 1295 k'alez-vus simple gent enganer? 
503 s'en \'unt curant ; 507 as maissuns A. \-unt : 508 chambres vunt cherchant ; 
510 A. \-unt querant : 824 k'avant trrent ire, ore la vunt-il dublant : 
1025 \Tint s'en en lur citS : 1080 tuit \-unt une part : 11 58 vunt Deu loant : 
1285 s'en \-unt : 1352 s'en \-unt (demurer eu ciel) : 1548 as cors garder vunt : 
1592 s'en vunt par un adrescement : 1819 vunt en declin. 
828 mar I'alas cuntruvant. 

414 a un prince hastivement ala : 527 il s'en ala : 797 ala trainant A. A martire : 
803 ii nuls unc horn ala : 1 174 ne s'en ala vantant. 
I pi. II 70 (nus) ki I'alames vengant. 
I pi. 1276 nus i irrum. 
,, ,, 3 ,, 626 au temple santz demure irrunt. 
subj. pres. 3 pi. 1283 cumande k'en Wales tuit aiUent. 
imper. 2 sg. 754 va t'en ! his ! 949 va quere tun seinnur ! 

,, 2 pi. 468 alez \-us ent ! 1644 bis. alez, martirs ! alez, leus chevaler ! 
infin. 32 11 penses tu aler ? 1 12. 1 15 (lurcmint) aler : 1416 aler le sumunent ; 
„ 1587 il il aler tent : 1684 la te cuvendra aler. 
„ 1 590 se penent d'aler : 1 591 lent d' aler. 
pp. (ind. pft. 3 sg.') 201 s'en est alez chucher. 
» ( >. ..3 !'•■) 9^*4 d'Uuec sunt al6 : 1807 e sunt a Rumme ale. 
n. pr. Alexander (the Great), 
nom. 355 il est Alexandres, li princes alosfi ? 
under aler. 
s. f. alliance. 

nom. sg. (pred.) 298 aliance seit batesme. 
v. ref. to ally one's self to. 

pp. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1272 au clerc d'utre mer se sunt alifi. 
s. f. soul. 

nom. sg. 360 I'alme tuz jurs \'iit : 1014 I'alme s'en part : 1731 I'alme s'en ist. 
ace. „ 660 eu cors m'alme mist : 813 a \'us ni'alme e mun cors abandun ecumant 
prp. „ 846 charoinne sanz alme: 1445 pur I'alme esclarcie. 
s. f. almsgi\Tng. 
prp. sg. 100 eu franchise e almosne as tun tens despendu. 



ind. pres. 



pret. 



fut. 



pi. 
pi. 



2Sg. 

3 .. 



GLOSSARY. 



aloue 



alum 
amant 

ambesdeus 
Ambibal 
ame 
amen 

amene 
amenez 



alose \ (pp. =) adj. renowned. 

alosez / mas. nom. sg. 355 u est Alexandres, li princes alosg .' 1775 ki avant fu chevaler preuz e alose. 

,, prp. „ 1770 merieaies fist Deus pur Apl. sun martir alose. 
,, voc. ,, 946 hay ! Aracle, chevaler alose I 
'■ Pi"?- pl- 402 d'Abram e Jloyses, les veillardz alosez. 
s. f. lark. 

nom. sg. 50 Jesu heent cum aloue esper\er. 
adj. Alpme. 

mas. ace. sg. 1831 passerai Mun Giu, le roiste munt alpin. 
under aler. 
s. m. lover. 

nom. sg. 1200 ki resortist pur mort n'est pas verai amant. 
under andui. 
under Amphibal. 
under amer. 
interj. Amen. 

933 si en dient ' amen' e haut e bas : 1765 si en dient ' amen' veil e enfant. 
^ v. tr. to bring, to lead. 

i ind. pres. 3 sg. 97 par Deu ki m'amene a vostre salu. 
condit. 3 pi. 1738 (jure eurent) k'il tuit amerroient le clerc a V. 
ppp. mas. sg. 1 15 1 a mort estoit jugez e amenez avant. 
amer v. tr. to love. 

ind. pres. i sg. 477 (jo ta esclavine ke . . . .) plus I'eim ke pelei9un. 

,, ,, 3 pi. 1370 Id lui eiment e en lui unt amur. 
subj. „ 3 pi. 1586 (ke tuz le sivent) cum il aiment lur vie e tenement (v. note), 
iniin. 129 ki tant faitz a amer : 121 1 (me deingnat) tant deboneirement e amer e cherir : 

,, 1231 plest vus dune Deu amer: 1681 desdeingnant Deu amer. 
ppa. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1 793 repentant k'il les unt tant ame. 
amerroient under amene. 
amesurer v. intr. to grow moderate ; ref. to restrain oneself. 

(prp.) infin. 700 dure U chautz de nuit sanz rein amesurer : 1358 Apl. unt seisi sanz sei amesurer. 
ami s. m. friend. 

nom. sg. 9 Id ert amis Jesu : loi cum sis amis e dm. 
>' >> 345 soiez amis verais e hem de lealte : 1309 k'ami est le Deu verai. 
,, I489 unt perdu A. lur bon ami. 

„ 277 beus ostes e ami ! 339. 375. 456. 592. 1 123 amis ! (alone, always with dis/). 
,, 1437 ami Jesu! 1519 beus duz amis cheri ! 1636 ami Deu ! 
pi. 146 Jesu I'apelerent si parent e amis : 640veisin u parent, ami : 
,, 97S li parent A. e si ami prive : 1015 si parent e ami I'lmt musce : 
,, 1273 noz veisins e amis e parentz (v. note) : 1382 si ami ne sunt pas en balance : 
,, 1763 (mis sunt honurant,) servant e ami. 
,, 1 244 ki ses hurames e amis e ses privez apele. 

,, 171 venez, mes leans amis gentils ! 1076 vesin, parent, ami ! 1330 venez, li mien ami ! 
amiable adj. lo^ngly disposed. 

mas. nom. pi. 1044 ceus Id sunt a x-us enclins e amiable, 
amis under ami. 

amiste s. f. friendship. 

prp. sg. 604 de lui retenc par amiste ceste moie vesture. 
Amphibal \ n. pr. Amphibalus, name of the itinerant cleric who converted Alban (v. note on 96). 
Amphibals I nom. 103 Amphibals : 1422 Amphibel : 1469 suls Amphibeus : 

Amphibel 1 ,, 96. 199. 280. 339. 389. 47S. 11 18. 1203. 1236. 1348. 1456, 1619. 1668. Amphibal. 
Amphibeus ) gen. 1601 du ventre Amphibal. 

ace. 1120. 135S. 1407. 1436. 1515. 1594. 1814. Amphibal. 
prp. 1306 pur Amphibal : 1488 d'Amphibal : 1770 pur Ambibal. 
voc. 1437. !636 Amphibal ! 

abs. 1642 veant Amphibal (= vidente Amphibalo). 
amur s. m. love. 

ace. sg. 662 en vus met ma esperance e m'amur : 1370 en lui unt amur e esperance, 
prp. ,, 371 en I'amur Deu I'a conferme : 542 ad retenu par amur : 
,, ,, 1 108 ke solum de s'amur desturnez : 1 190 pur I'amur Jesu. 
an under anz. 

ancesur 1 s. m. ancestor. 

ancesurs ) nom. pl. 23 si ancesur estoient Romein original : 546 qui guerpi as ke tindrent ti gentil ancesur. 
ace. ,, 1794 pleinent lur ancesurs ki sunt j a de\ie. 



ace. 
voc. 



ace. 
voc. 



GLOSSARY. 



vu 



nncele 



:mdui 



angere 
angeres 
angle 
angles 



anglin 

angoisse 

angre 
anguisse 
anentti 
anienti 



iclui cist e cele. 



s. f. maiden. 

prp. sg. 1251 de Marie va prechant, uue simple ancele. 
(adj. = ) s. m. men-of-old. 

prp. pi. 1257 la prophecie d'anciens 90 conferme e saele. 
pron. both. 

nom. pi. 403 cum furent andui de Damne Deu privez : 461 si pris sumes .indui : 
.. » 479 atant se sunt andui d'iluec meiiz : n 31 encusez fustes andui : 
„ „ 1 175 li oil li sunt chaet andui du chief: 1260 cum autres morteus furent , 
ace. „ 1O9 de parais les ruva arabesdeus exuiller. 
s. m. angel. 
' prp. sg. 125 del angle Gabriel en fist sun messager. 

' nom. pi. 1064 li beus angeres du eel (muntent) : 1097 du eel li angere joius e esbnudi (runt strv'i) : 
' ,, „ 11S2 angeres i aparurent : 1353 li angere les cunveient : 

„ „ I480 unt grant joie li angre espiriteus : 1732 angeres eu ciel la portent ; 
.1 » 1719 atant es-vus deus angeres. 

1069 ben unt paens les angles veil e eschoisi. 
267. 905 Icgiuns des angles : 1706 (une grant legiun) des angles. 
900 des angles est portez eu ciel li esperitz : 17 14 m'enveit de angeres consolaciun. 
.idj. angelic. 

fem. prp. sg. 303 sen-i e honure de anglin legiun. 

s. f. anguish, torture. ^ 

nom. sg. 669 (plus seut demurance pener) ke ne fait anguisse : 1458 s'angoisse tute s en est partie. 
under angere. 
under angoisse. 
, intr. to perish, to be shrivelled. 



ace. 
prp. 



J ind. pret. 3 sg. 1 142 flestri e anentti quaneke estoit verdoiant. 



anoitez 
antiquitez 
anuel 



pp. (=adj.) mas. sg. 1454 le cors m'est feble e anienti. 

V. intr. to become evening (used impers.). 

pp. (ind ant. 3 sg.) 396 des relevees e quant fu anoitez. 

s. f. antiquity. 

prp. sg. 397 escriz d'antiquitez. 

adj. annual. 

mas. ace. sg. 625 servise e wu anuel custumel soudrunt. 

fem. „ „ 1416 si en frunt feste anuel. 

s. m. year. 

nom. sg. 7 1 2 passe en fu ja dimi an plener. ,. . , , ■.< 

(temp.) ace. sg. 1093 demi an (ne rendi fruit) : 1 1 39 d'nii an (ne pluveit). 

ace. pi. 288 parcruz crt e trente anz out. 

prp. „ 152 puis ke U fu d'age e d'.anz treiz feiz dis. 

V. tr. to blow on (and cool, as the wind). 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 694 ne venta vent si ki les peiist aorer. 
) V. intr. to appear. 
..p..,u ind. pret. 3 pi. 1182 angeres i aparurent. ,■,,,„ 

aparurent ) intin. 1 28(1 a penuncel leve, ii unt fait aparer le soleil e la lunc. 

pp. mas. sg. 1 398 teu miracle k'en lur terre est aparu. 



aparer 
aparu 



apele 

apeler 

apelerent 



apendant 
apendra 
a pent 



k'alez-vus demurant .' ' 

1478 il vus apele cum pastur ses aigneus. 



ai)crceivent 

aperceu 

apercevant 

apcrtement 



PP- 

V. tr. to call, to summon ; to appeal to ; to name, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 31 une part I'apele: 818 e tei tuz jurs apele 
,, „ ,, 1244 ses hummes e amis e ses privez apele 
',', pret. 3 pi. 146 Jesu I'apelerent si parent e ami. 
infin. 1 351 a Deu lus presente ki les deigne apeler. 
v. intr. to be lifting, proper (impers.). 

ind pres. 3 sg. .39 par droit apent naistre : 182 ke ferei apent .' 725 cele mort apent a home. 
,, ,, ;, r, 1583 vengcment cum de itel traitre prendre apent : 1683 of lur deu lur apent sujurner 
" fut. ,,",',' 441 s'enpcrnez teu vengeance cum il i apendra. 
p'eriph. pres. pte. 1 194 a sauvaciun de nus k'est apendant. 
v. tr. to perceive, observe : ref. id. 
ind. pres. 3 pi. 985 paen s'aperceivcnt. 

ppp. mas. pi. 76 (ke ne soient) 01 ne aperceu (de veisms u serganz). 
periph. pres. ptc. 1750 Sarrazinnecrent apercevant. 
adv. openly before ajl, plainly, (visibly or audibly ;) cert.amly. 
214 sa avisiun i lui apertcmcnt cuntcr : 257 du cors — sane e ewe his.si : 
333 _ reni I'cnchantemcnt M. : 439 orra la curt — : 827 tu mentz — : 
1067 voicnt li jovre — : 1 102 Jovin — reni : 1 562 poiim bien s.iver — . 



VIU 



GLOSSARY. 



apetizant v. to grow small. 

grnd. 789 (I'ewe) va si apetizant. 
Apoliu 1 n. pr. Apollo. 
ApoUin / gen. sg. 65.1816 la loi Apolin. 

^cc. „ 334 ApolUn ne prise raes valiant un butun. 
prp. „ 14 k'en Apolin creient, Sathan, e Belial, 
apostles s. m. apostle. 

prp. pi. 168 d'iluec fuas apostles li seinz esperitz tramis. 
apostoille s. m. the Pope. 

prp. sg. 1809 mustrer al apostoille tute la verite. 
aprent v. tr. to teach ; to learn. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 178 ke Jesus en ses establiz aprent : 619 90 k'aprent pulein en sa adanture : 
,, ,, „ „ 1599 cum diable les aprent. 

„ pret. ,, „ 606 90 ke m'aprist ne guerpirai : 1335 tant aprist nigromant kant il ert escoler. 
ppa. (ind. pft. i sg.J 83 jo ne I'ai apris, ne pruve, ne leii. 
,, ,, „ 2 „ 1193 clers es e apris I'as en tes U\Tes lisant. 
„ „ ,, 3 ,, 372 de la fei Deu la summe (a) apris e demustre. 
,, „ „ „ pi. 1781 apris unt [v. note] n'a mester a nul (guenoier le rei). 
ppp. mas. sg. 407 A. est ja apris e bien endoctrinez. 
„ ,, pi. 341 par humme suntU autre apris e endoctrine : 998 li crestien en sunt apris e entusce. 
apres (a) prep. temp, after ; (b) adv. aftem^ards. 

(a) 147 apres pou de tens : 190 apres la mort : 373 apres 90 keil out acheve. 
209. 1165 apres 90 ; 1253 apres I'enfantement : 1445 apres la mort du cors. 

(b) 1 180 la nuit proceinne apres. 
apreste v. tr. to prepare. 

ppp. mas. sg. 755 ke tu as deseni, luer tei est apreste. 
apris under aprent. 

aprise s. f. learning. 

prp. sg. 550 ki sages es de aprise e d'age estes maur. 
aprist under aprent. 

aproce v. intr. to approach. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1432 despuis ke 4 A. aproce. 
Aracle \ n. pr. AracUus. 

Aracles j nom. 935 Li chevalers Aracle : 969 li francs chevaler Aracle : 974 Aracles : 1039. 1159 Aracle. 

ace. 799 Id Aracle avoit nun : 944. 986 (veit) Aracle : 980 le gentil chevaler Aracle unt aide. 

prp. 1038 mustrer as sez raartirs privez, A. e Aracle. 

voc. 946 Aracle, chevaler alose ! 
arage v. ref. to become enraged. 

pp. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1780 U princes tost s'en est arage. 
arbre s. m. tree. 

prp. sg. 890 (les cheveus A. lie) a un arbre ki Id fu : 950 sun chief purras truver a un arbre lie. 
,, „ 106 d'un arbre lur defendi le fruit k manger : 970 le chef A. del arbre ad oste. 
arbniseu s. m. small tree. 

prp. sg. 1 1 72 suz un arbniseu ki eu munt fu cresant. 
Architriclin n. pr. Architriclinus (but v. note). 

nom. 62 quant manga as nosces lu ber ArchitricUn. 
ardent I. (arder), v. intr. to bum, to be hot ; to be inflamed, enraged. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 174 eu feu ki art tut dis : 644 fust art: 1243 li princes, espris de ire, art e restencele. 
,, „ 3 pi. 1779 les langes liu- ardent, 
ardent II. adj. eager. 

mas. nom. sg. 1742 tant par fu ardent, 
aresteent ) v. intr. to stop ; ref. id. 

arestut ! ind. pres. 3 pi. 1466 a une pleinne se aresteent. 

arestuz ) „ pret. 3 sg. 1062 sur la tumbe A. arestut tichi. 

pp. mas. sg. 98 sui en cest pais entrez e arestuz. 
argent ) s. m. silver, 

argentz J nom. sg. 877 plus clers ke n'est argentz esmerez e fundu. 

ace. ,, 1288 or portent e argent : 1149 asez li ofrimes, jiieus, argent, besantz. 

prp. ,, 292 ne mist d'or ne d'argent pur nus ran9un ne guage : 16O4 tresor de argent e de or cler. 
argument s. m. argument. 

prp. sg. 193 ne purroit estre pruve par argument, 
arivez V. tr. to conduct. 

ppp. mas. sg. 908 (A. est) a bon port arivez. 



GLOSSARY. 



IX 



arpentz 
arrement 



art 
art 



I. 
II. 



arus^e 

as I. 
as II. 
asemblee 
asent 
asentent 

asez 



V. tr. to arm. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1587 ben armez le sivent. 

s. m. a measure of length, arpent, O. E. 

(ace.) pi. 481 le cunduseit treis arpentz e dcmi. 

s. m. ink. 

prp. sg. 1546 feimes enbrever a arrement nerci. 

under ardent I. 

s. m. art, deceit. 

prp. sg. 1249 mes plus set d'enchantement, d'art e de favele. 

V. tr. to bedew. 

ppp. fern. sg. 515 des lermes arus^e est sa face. 

under aver. 

under li. 

under assemblames. 
\ V. intr. to assent to ; ref. id. 

J ind. pres. 3 sg. 196 droitz ne raisuns n'i assent : 726 le plus a lui s'asenl ; 1374 ki les ol e i ass:nl. 
,, ,, 3 pi. 720 des sarrazins s'asentent bien a li grant partie. 

adv. enough (of quantity) : long enough (of time). 

380 asez ai sujume : 1 149 asez U ofrimes. 

V. intr. to be seated. 

pp. mas. sg. 16" a destre sun pere est asis. 

s. m. ass. 

nom. sg. 615 nel eiissez plus entendu ke asne harpeure. 

V. intr. to be infatuated. 

pp. mas. (ace.) sg. 1490 (unt perdu A.) e lur parent (i. e. Aracle) a lui atrait e asot'. 
1 adj. rough, rugged. 
) mas. nom. sg. 1427 li chemins ferrez, aspre e deshuel (r.-ilasse). 

„ ,, pi. 855 charduns k'aspres stmt e agu. 
assemblame \ v. intr. to assemble ; ref. id. 

assemblames I ind. pret. i pi. 1 187 pur 90 nus assemblames tuit en un acordant : 
assemble | „ ,, ,, „ 1446 assemblame pur 90 gent en une cumpainnie. 
assemblerunt 1 ,, fut. 3 ,, 624 u tuit se assemblerunt. 

pp. mas. pi. 713 sunt assemble trestuit li citoien: 738 iluec sunt assemble. 
„ fern. sg. 499 venir a la curt assemblee. 

under asent. 

under aver. 

V. tr. to tie, fasten, 

ppa. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1603 au peel I'unt atache a grant turraent cural. 

adv. thereupon, just then ; always at the beginning of the line (and clause), save in 201. 368. 984. 

i;3i-(i748)- 
142. 197. 20[, 368. 479. 493. 713. 821. 835. 875. 884. 888. 968. 9S4. 1025. nil. 145S. 1481. 1532. 

1719, 1731- 1733- 1748- 
v. intr. to attain to. 
infin. 1228 a vostre cumpainnie ateindre (me doinst Deus). 



aspre 
aspres 



assent 

at 

atachg 

atant 



ateindre 



atempr^e 
atemprer 

atempreiire 

atencer 

atendant 

atendi 

atendre 

atendu 

atent 



atitle 



\ v. tr. to temper, restrain. 
J infin. 



atrait 



690 une chalur ki pas ne se seet atemprer. 
ppp. fern. sg. 526 (A. dist) a parole simple e atempr^e. 
s. f. tempering, restraint. 

PT' sg. 590 (justise sun curage) par sage atempreiire. 
v. tr. to attack with insult. 

infin. 1308 a ki tu cumences tant ^^umcnt rtencef. 
V. intr. to wait ; await ; stay behind ; listen (vers) ;obey (i). 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 190 turment (atcnt ki 90 ne croit) : 199 Apl. sul i demuere e atent : 

)> >> „ ,, 1588 nuls ne remaint ne atcnt. 

,, pret. „ „ 1117 en sujur atendi. 
infin. 1742 ne vout tant atendre. 
ppa. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 857 (pueple) ki les ad atendu. 
gmd. 540 atendant la parole 4 queu chief fust men6e. 

periph. pres. ptc. 816 le clement ke i toi est attendant ; 1124 soicz ore vers nus atendant. 
v. tr. to enrol. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1020 en la mesnce A. est atitle. 
v. tr. to attract, 
ppp. mas. (ace.) sg. 1490 (unt perdu) lur parent i lui atrait c asoti. 



GLOSSARY. 



/ppp- 

1 v!'tr. 
ind 



attendant under atendre. 
atur s. ra. dress. 

prp. sg. 19 en atur festival : 54 1 en eel estrange atur. 
atume ^ v. tr. to prepare. 

atume > ind. pres. 3 sg. 506 cum gent ki s'atume a morteu medlee. 

atument ) „ „ 3 pt. 1399 sepulture atument e a chescun sarcu. 

ppa. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 977 lors ad la sepxilture au martir atumS. 
ppp. (ntr.) sg. 781 ki ver desirent co ke m'est atume. 
„ mas. (appos. nom.) sg. 363 h guereduns est grantz, as bons atume. 
au under li. 

Auban n. pr. Alban, name of Britain's protomartyr (929). 

nom. 41. 104. 175. 191. 201. 322. 382. 407. 412. 439. 444. 452. 480. 483. 493. 519. 526. 535. 589. 
633. 646. 654. 673. 685. 717. 722. 730. 740. 745. 774. 787. 806. 811. 838. 866. 897. 906. 963. 
1072. 1090. 1132. 1136. 1155. 1173. 1179. 1183. 1443. 1449. 1813. [1160. 1489. 1707. 

acc. 21. 369. 418. 510. 513. 627. 630. 710. 719. 798.800. 821. 848. 864. 889.948. 1057. 1086, 1129. 

[1185. 1201. 1451. 
gen. 437. 497. 507. 738. 785. 804. 891. 915. 920. 940. 970. 978. 1020. 1062. 1068. 1113. 1166. 1181. 
prp. 416 d' — : 885. 1052 de — : 1208 d' Auban le gentU: 1844 de — : 

„ 432 a : 448 d' : Ii26ches — : 1726 of — : 1 143 — : par — : 1837 pur — . 
voc. SI. 285. 
) adj. pr. some, somebody. 

) mas. acc. sg. 131 1 (garir e restorer) aucun langurus. 
,, prp. „ 453 guaiTii par aucun de la curt, 
fem. (acc.) sg. 574 ki n' est aucune feit susduit par foleiir. 
\ V. tr. to assemble. 

mas. sg. 760 pueple ki ]k fu aiine. 
fem. „ 539 i fu gent aiinee. 
to adore. 

pres. I sg. 58 lui pri e aiir lu soir e lu matin. 
,, 3 ,, 8 ceste croiz aiire serrein e matinal. 
„ I pi. 830 (li solailz) ke aiirum. 

3 „ 1797 la croiz aiirent a grant humilite : 
3 sg. 422 a Jesu, fiz Deu ke il aiira. 
I „ 1267 Jesu ne aiirai. 
„ „ I pi. 246 e toi tuit aiirrum e crienim merci. 
„ „ 3 „ 622 a Phebura, deu du solail ke il aiimint. 
subj. pres. i sg. 642 (chose faire) par unt diables mais aiire. 
imper. 2 „ 584 noz deus poestifs aiir ! 

infin. 1287 li solail e la lune ki lur plut aiirer : 1674 diable ki servez e vus plaist avirer. 

ppa. (ind. perf. 3 sg.) 514 suvent I'ad aiiree (= la croiz). 
aiimas v. tr. to honour. 

ind. pret. 2 sg. 929 ki primers Engletere par martire aiimas. 
aiirmm,-mnt,-ura under aiirer. 
ausi adv. also. 

10S2 serum nus ausi. 
autel adj. pr. the same (thing). 

ntr. acc. sg. 1 106 nus d'ium autel. 
auter ] s. m. altar, 

auters | prp. sg. 1365 eu temple par devant lur auter. 

acc. pL 1791 lurs temples e auters k lui (unt) abaundune. 
autre adj. pr. other. 

mas. nom. sg. 444 nus autres (cumencera) : 733 ja nul ne voie, mes autres lui. 

807 n'est autre se U nun: 1447 n'est autie D;u fors cist. 

13S4 un autre ad Deus fait miracle : 1822 ne sai autre language fors le mien. 
2 ne d'autre metal : 482 I'un d'autre parti : 123 en autre k'en sun cher fiz: 
64 pur meint autre sarrazin : 295 par autre sermun. 
1340 d'autre (scil. part). 

341. 533. 918. 1337 U autre : 357 li autre prince : 773. 862 autres : 
1 192 cum funt cist autre tuit : 1260 cum autres morteus furent andui cist e cele. 
242 autres de toi : 748 autres jugementz : 763. 1293 les autres : 1367 autres. 
236 en un fust dresce, autre entravers parmi (v. note) : 431 d'autres I'esloinnera : 
432 par les autres li maus s'espandera : 551 as autres essample : 734 par autres gamiz: 
,, „ „ 1074 (plus sages) des autres : 1075 parole as autres. 
Icm. ,, ,, 1549 (blesmi) d'autres bestes. 



aucun 
aucune 



aune 
aiinee 

aiir 

aiira 

aiirai 

aiire 

aiiree 

aiirent 

aiirer 



1 798 e lui tuit aiirent. 



pret. 
fut. 



„ acc. 
» prp- 




») it 
fem. „ 
mas. nom 


pi 


„ acc. 
„ prp. 


pi. 

If 



GLOSSARY. 



XI 



autrement 

autres 
autri 

aval 

avaler 

avance 

avant 



avau 

avenant 

avendra 
avenge 

aventailles 
aventure 



avenu 

aver 

averai 

averez 

averunt 

avez 



adv. othenvise, 

718 autrement ke li maistres sis hom ne murra mic ; 833 ki autrement le dit. 

under autre. 

adj. belonging to others. 

(mas. ace. sg.) 244 sauf tun cors demcine cum sauver seiiz autri. 

adv. dowTiwards, below. 

17 celers grantz aval : 914 (li oil) aval sunt chaetz : 1610 li sancs raa aval. 

v. intr. to come down. 

infin. 207 Deus deingna du ciel desendre e avaler. 

v. tr. to exalt. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1369 tuz jurs cherist e avance. 

(a) adv. temp, and loc. i, forward; 2, before, beforehand, heretofore ; 3, in front, be'ore others. 

(b) conj. -nith ke (and a subj. pres., fi ind. fut.), before that. 

ia, l), 888 avant est sailliz : 1151 estoit amenez avant. 
a, 2), 260 ki avant [I'urent hai] : 823 k'avant urent ire, ore la \-unt tl dublant : 
791 u avant passer ne pout hom : 803 i nuls unc hom ala avant : 
1009 I'und niut plus k'avant pene : 1374. 1544 sancs k'avant les (cors out) teint, 
1396. 1551 avant (les urent en despit) : 1736 jure eiirent avant. 
(a, 3^ 1 122 (cist) I'ad salue avant : 1527 (chescun) av.-int se purofri. 
(I5, a) 429 avant ke plus avenge. 
fb, /3) 434 avant ke nus hom garde s'en dura. 
(i. e. aval) prep, down along bj'. 

7 avau I'un des costez raa li sancs cural: 878 avau le pendant s'espant. 
adj. suitable. 

mas. prp. sg. 1752 en sarcu avenant. 
\ v. intr. to happen. 

) ind. fut. 3 sg. 418 dunt grant mal avendra. 
subj. pres. 3 sg. 429 avant ke plus avenge, 
pp. (ntr.) sg. 1 128 90 ke est puis avenu. 

s. f. upper front of the coat of maU, for the protection of the chin, 
ace. pi. 1468 deslacent aventailles, heumes e chapeus. 
s. f. incident, chance ; par — , by chance, 
ace. sg. 1493 I'un de eus I'aventure cunta. 

prp. „ 179 si par aventure curage me prent : 621 fu par aventure au jur : 
under avendra. 

"I V. tr. I, to have, possess ; — 2, periphrastically with foUg. substantive to express a verbal idea, ex. gr. 
I aver cure, garde, soing, to care for; aver desir, envie, ire, merci, piete, poiir, volunte, to desire, 8cc. ; 
Saver nun, to be called ; aver en despit, to have in despite, hate ; aver feim, freit, sei, chaut, to be 
I hungry, thirsty, hot, cold ; aver mester, to be useful, profit : — 3, to have, to owe (to do anything) : — 
J 4, with or without i, to express M. F. y avoir. 

[In two dinsions: — A, independent verb; B, au.\iliar)'.] 
ind. pres. 1 sg. ai A 28 palefrei n'ai: g6i n'ai soing ne volunte: 1330 ai a soudeer. 
,, ,, B 83. 215. 380. 387. 440. 808. 809. IIIO. 1227. 1820. 1835 ai. 

2 sg. (U A 570 as tu hisdur. [1648. 1659. 1662 as. 

B 52. 100. 131. 418. 545. 546. 600. 755. 777. 921. 922. 955. 1193. 1298. 1647. 

3 ,, (7 A 591 n'a cure: 678 n'a mais viandes : 682 n'a mais lit : 

1612 teinte cnala peitrine: 1727 garde n'a de fu : 1 78 1 n'a mester a nul. 
(= il y a) 381 tant i a plente : 

650. 1303. i42on'a cist ki (ne obei'st) (ne seit decolez) (n'est muntez); 
703 n'apluie nerosec: 146 1 n'a nul la ne die : 1 589 tant i a gent. [1803. 18 10 a. 
B 176. 296. 328. 346. 371. 408. 423. 449.472.967. 995. 1022. 1057. 1155. 1567. 
,, ,, ad A 21 A. ad nun : 25. 46 adle mund aguvemer : 102. 1315. 1636 tut ada guier: 
138 du mund ad poer: 679 prisun ad obscure : 683 feim ad e sei e freit : 
684 pur lit ad roche bise : 1375 de leit ad ja sembl.ince : 1456 piete en ad : 
(= il y a) 580 en noz deus ad gran t franchise : 1 03 1 des citoiens ad bien mil u plus. 
B 71. 191. 211. 270. 284. 323. 327. 340. 362. 3&8. 374. 379. 397. 419. sil. 
513. 514. 516. 519. 520. 535. 541. 542. 544. 561. 758. 776. 783. 785. 832. 
856. 866. 868. 894. 910. 938. 939. 940. 941. 960. 970. 971. 972. 977. 1013. 
1017. 1028. 1122. 1155. 1237. 1241. 1282. 1294. 1384. 1403. 1487. 1554. 
1577 bis. 1668. 1691. 1755. 1837 ad. 
„ „ at B 281. 945 at. 

1 pi. avum B 457. 1078. 1191. 1511. 1653 a^•um. 

2 ,, avez B 463. 618. 1534 avez. 

h 2 



1 1 15 Id par aventure enpali. 



Xll 



GLOSSARY. 



avilce 

avis 

arisa 
aWse 



avogle 



impft. 3 sg. 


avoit 


., pl- 


avoie. 


pret. I sg. 
3 .. 


oi 
out 



ind. pres. 3 pi. und B 629. 1009. 1500 und. 

„ unt A 49 unt lur lei : 359 n'unt plus de tere : 395 iluec unt lur segreiz : 

581. 63opieie unt (de): 1370 en lui untamur: 1 38 1 en unt en\ie: 

1480 en unt grant joie: 1633 en unt cure. 
B 44- 353- 393- 5i2- S'S. 53i- 533- 620 bis. 737. 746. 748. 749. 750. 753. 

7S7. 766. 767. 857. 859. 879. 882. 980. 981. 982. 983. 986. 989. 1012. 

1014. 1034. 1065. 1069. 1096. 1109. iiii. 1120. 1202. 1286. 1291. 1355. 

1358. 1359- 1360. 1382- 1387. 138S. 1394- 1395- 1397- Moo- HOi- 1408. 

1409. 1410. 1488. 1514. 1552. 1594. 1598. 1599. 1603. 1604. 1610. 1768. 

1781. 1785. 1788. 1789. 1792. 1793. 1795. 1800 unt. 
A 799 Aracle avoit nun: 1135 avoit le grant: 1469 n'avoit repos. 
B 391. 448. 1539 avoit. 

A 1406 unc n'avoient tel (travail) : 1484 destrers avoient plus fortz. 
B 1735 avoient. 
B 376 oi einz purpose. 
A 288 trente aiiz out : 557 il out poiir. 

(= il y eut) 4 n'i out acastonee : 22 n'i out plus cuneiiz : 

1325. 1639 n'i out ke curucer : 1771 n'i out ki I'ust . . . ke il ne fust . . . 

769 de pueple i out plente : 1766 meint en i out blesce. 
B 105. 147. 319. 373. 710. 799. 936. 943. 986. 991. 1375 out. 
I pi. eiimei A 1273 parentz k'eiimes cher. 

B 1522 eiimes. 
3 „ eiirent B I736eiirent. 

urent A 154 en\-ie en urent : 358 tant urent tresor: 824 urent ire. 
B 162. 752. 858. 987. 1396. 1551 urent. 
A 1 840 tesmoin averai of moi. 

A 367. 1537 le regne averez du ciel: 473 vus ma robe averez. 
averunt A 582 n'averunt vers toi ne ire ne rancur. 
B 1414 s' averunt mene. 

A 731 eit la \-ue perie : 733 poiir eit : 92S n'tit part de ceus. 
B 874 n'eit tei Deu rekeneii. 
A 463 trop seroie mari si mal eiez. 
A 643 mal aient deu. 
B 1363 einz ke a V. aient fait mener. 
A 1716 ne eient (part de moi). 
B 1026 quident ki tut eient lur voler aclieve. 
A 1346 ne faUli ke n'i eiist mil enter. 

B 1783. 1784 nese pout nul vanter ki iluec eiist este, ke . . . le eiist deshonure, 
ust A 162 1 se rejoist cum se il n'ust imc mal. 

„ „ B 1771 n'i out ki I'ust mesdit. 

1 pi. eiissum B 1525 n'eiissura un de eus flecchi. 

2 „ etissez B 615 ne I'eiissez plus entendu. 

3 „ ussent B 795 cum geii ussent dormant. 
2 pi. eiez A 299 ne eiez vers lui quor Ugger. 

aver A 114.672. 702. 1279 aver mester : 706 par bei\Te e chaut aver: 1300 sanz 
„ plus aver par vus travail : 1327 sanz merci aver: 1342 piete aver: 1452 

„ pur aver de vus batesme : 1665 pardun purrez aver; 1676 tuzjurs santz 

„ fin aver, 

ppa. (ind. pft.) eii A 44 unt eii damage : 857 grant sei i unt eii : 867 pite en ad eii. 

1227 tant ai eii desir: 1396 ke il urent eii (en despit). 
V. tr. to defame. 

ppa. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 51 1 le crestien demandent k'ad lur lei avUee. 
s. m. appearance ; used mth estre, to appear. 

nom. sg. 206 avis lui est (cum Deus deingna) : 224 avis m'ert ke li eels se desclot, 
^ v. tr. to behold, perceive. 

) ind. pret. 3 sg. 41 1 lur faitz e lur cunseilz o'l e avisa. 
ppa. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 408 es-^Tis un sarraziu ki avise les a. 
s. f. vision. 

nom. sg. 277 ceste a\isiun (k'est ke signiiie).' 
ace. „ 214 sa a\Tsiun a lui cunter. 

prp. „ 316 veistes en vostre avisiun : 778 ki en avisiun \-i : 205 par a\isiun lui esmoillir le quoer : 
,, „ 296 par avisiun viis a Deu mue le curage : 1223 par avisiun i. lui cunvertir. 
V. tr. to blind, 
ppp. mas. sg. 732 orb est de quor e avoglez : 1774 (ke il ne fust) desve u avogle. 



fut. I sg. averai 
2 pi. averez 
3 

subj. pres. 3 sg. eit 

2 pi. eiez 

3 „ aient 

„ „ eient 
„ impft. 3 sg. eiist 



nnper. 
infin. 



GLOSSARY. 



xiu 



avogles 

avoglez 
avoient 
avoir 

avoit 
avolez 

avou6 



avoutre 
a\Ta,-rai-um 

baer 
bailU 

bailUe 

bailler 

balance 

bandun 

bani 



baptizant 

baptizas 

baptize 

baptize 

baptizer 

baptizez 

barat 
baratz 



barbarin 

barnage 
barun 

bas 

basti 

bastun 
bastuDS 



adj. blind. 

mas. ace. p!. 149 (sana) feverus, avogles. 

under avogle. 

under aver. 

s. ra. wealth. 

prp. (partit. gen.) sg. 1301 del avoir \'us en ferum mut largement duner. 

under aver. 

(pp. =) adj. runaway. 

mas. prp. sg. 124; par un clergastre avolez lu sautele. 

s. m. advocate. 

nom. sg. 559 (venuz dust estre) cum maistre e avoue. 

ace. ,, 949 va quere tun seinnur, tun maistre e avoue. 

s. m. adulterer. 

nom. pi. 1682 avoutre e homicide. 

under aver. 

B. 

v. intr. to open the mouth, (gasping for breath) . 

infin. 697 (veisez) oises e bestes miies baer e pantoiser. 
s. m. ruler, chief. 

nom. sg. 459 de cast pais ki est tut sires ke bailli (v. note). 
„ pi. 714 li prince de la terre, li bailli e gaidcin. 

s. f. power, dominion. 

prp. sg. 1448 pur delivrer nus d'enferaal bailUe. 

v. tr. to command, manage. 

infin. 1 266 tant cum vif e estriu puis bailler pur munter sele. 

s. f. hesitation. 

prp. sg. 1382 (si ami) ne sunt pas en balance. 

s m. (adv ), d — , at discretion, at will, without resen-e. 

prp. sg. 313 sun fiz lur livra a bandun : 1729 le delapident trestmt a baundun. 

V. tr. to summon together (the anny). 

ppp. mas. sg. 1285 cist s'en vunt cum ost bani e plener(v.note). 
„ ,, pi. 1494 furent tuit sumuns e bani. 
^ V. tr. to baptize. 

I ii)d. pres. 3 sg. 369 b.iptize (A.) a grant humilite. 
1 „ pret. 2 ,, 1 130 le baptizas. 
f (ref.) infm. 1804 baptizer se funt tuit. 

ppa. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1241 lors les ad baptizd pur la loi acumplir. 

ppp. mas. sg. 419 noz deuski ad guerpie baptizez est ja. ,,.,.-. 

grnd. 1 121 grantz vertuz fesant e paens baptizant : 1292 (unt le clerc truve) prechant et baptizant. 

s. m. deceit, fraud. 

nom. sg. 1576 trop dure cist baratz, trop dure cist turmentz. 

ace. ,, 995 trop i a sun barat par cest pais semme. 

pq>. „ 1 295 simple gent par barat enganer. 

adj. foreign, barbarian. . 

mas. ace. sg. 1823 ne sai autre language fors le mien barbann. 
„ prp. „ 63 en cest pais estrange e barbarin. 

s. m. assemblage of the nobility. 

prp. sg. 301 of lui regncras eu cclestien barnage. 

s. m. banin ; man, husb.ind. 

voc. sg. 1 708 ai, gentil barun ! 

pr]i. sg. 134 (kar nc vout espruver cumpainnie) de barun. 

adj. low, physically or socially. 

mas. nom. pi. 933 si en dient ' amen' e haut e bas ! 
„ prp. ,, 890 a reims bas e petiz. 

V. tr. to build, to cause. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1 5 10 par ses enchauntements* ces grantz maus nus basti. 

s. m. stick, cudgel. 

prp. sg. 835 Ic fert du poin e du bastun pesant : 

1607 (ferent) dc lances e cuteus e gros bastun poinnal : 1701 batent de mace e de bastun. 

ace. pi. 504 portantz bastuns, ma9iies, u hache u espee. 

prp. ,, 651 (batist) de pens e dc bastuns. 



XIV 



GLOSSARY. 



bataille s. f. battle. 

nom. sg. 1766 grant fula bataille. 
batant under batre. 

batel s. m. boat. 

nom. sg. 790 ke n'i fust nus a flote, ne batel ne chalant. 
ace. „ 766 ne batel ne nief unt truve. 
batent under batre. 

batesme s. m. baptism. 

nom. sg. 298 aliance seit batesme. 

ace. „ 1 192 batesme demant : 1324 recever batesme : 1452 aver batesme: 1843 batesme requorai. 
prp. ,, 1692 par batesme tes pecchez espurger. 
bati "I V. tr. to strike ; intr. to beat (of the heart) ;— grnd. batant = hastily (with s'en venir, v. note on 424). 

batist ind. pres. 3 pi. 1 701 batent de mace : 1608 ferent, batent, e poinnent. 

batre I „ pret. 3 sg. 234 gesk'au sane espandre de escurgies bati. 

batu f subj. impft. 3 „ 651 (n'a cist ke ne) de peus e de bastuns u enpeinst u batist. 

batiie infin. 711 (fait) batre : 1003 (alasse)de batre : 1616 lessa batre : 1625 (aegre) de batre. 

batuz J ppa, (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 757 (I'unt) batu e laidange: loio (I'und) batu de ma^iies : 

• ,, „ „ „ „ 1610 des verges I'unt batu. 
ppp. mas. sg. 649 cumande ke batu seit : 1 163 batuz e debrisez. 

„ fem. „ 20 a robe d'or batiie. 
gmd. 424 Id s'en vent batant des terres de dela. 

pres. ptc. 843 a peine chaut remeint li quors eu piz batant. 
baud adj. bold, courageous. 

mas. prp. sg. 1 195 a quor baud e joiant. 
baudur s. f. boldness, courage. 

prp. sg. 558 (venuz dust estre) i baudur. 
baundun under bandun. 
BeetUeem n. pr. Bethlehem. 

61. 484 k'en Beethleem (naski). 
beit \ V. tr. to drink. 

beivent ! ind. pres. 3 sg. 676 ne beit des bons Wns. 
beivre ) „ ,, „ pi. 879 li mescreant en beivent. 

infin. 238 a boivre fel tendi : 706 emflent ydropis par bei\Te e chaut aver, 

ppa. (ind. ant. 3 pi.) 858 au jur ki dune fu lung ki ne urent beii. 
bel 1 adj. beautiful, fair ; (ethically, in voc), fair, kind. 

bele j mas. nom. sg. 222 li tens (estoit) beus e seri : 225 (li eels se desclot) beus e delitables. 

,, obi. ,, 1420 n'a cist ki n'est muntez palefrei bon e bel. 
,, voc. ,, 51 bel hoste! 388. 468. 484beu maistre! 777 beu su-e Deus! 

, 215 beus hostes! 277 beus hostes e ami! 329 beus sire Deus! 377 beus ostes! 

„ ,, ,, 868 beus duz sire Jesu ! 1519 beus duz amis cheri ! 

„ nom. pi. 1064 11 beus angeres du eel (desendent) : 1070 plus furent beus que rose : 
„ ,, „ 1373 (les cors) beus devenent: 1380 unc plus beus ne estoient. 
fem. obi. sg. 1261 (fei ke dei) Diene la bele. 
„ prp. „ 876 d'une bele funtainne est li roisseus hissu. 
Belial n. pr. Belial. 

gen. 1622 paien se curucent, li fil Belial, 
prp. 14 k'en Apolin creient, Sath;in e Behal. 
ben I. adv. very, indeed, truly ; (b) in phrase, bien dire, to speak well of; bien fere, to act aright. 
(ben) 262 ben clos e garni : 1089 ben certz : 1 146 ben repentant : 1587 ben armez : — 
527 ben devant I'ajumee : 1 133 ben devant I'enjurnant :— 

162 ben savoient : 324. 421. 1069 ben (veit, \'i, veil) : 557, 1088 ben pert : 561 ben ad pruve : 
957 ben gar: 1097 ben unt send: 1 137 ben recunust : 1533 ben entendi : — 
571 ben s'en puet gabber: 966 si lui ben vent a volente : 1822 ben le di e di\in. 
{bien) 276. 1542 bien certz : 378. 964 bien acerte : 407 bien endoctrinez : 740 bien enparente: 
743 bien ne : 747 bien pae : — 

421 bien oi : 964. 1455 bien croi : 1026 bien quident : 1034 bien unt dit e jure : 1202 bien set : 
1208 bien deit: 1562 bien poum saver : 

1534 bien m'avez servi : 1550 bien defendi : 1800 bien unt recunu : 1803 bien geisent. 
1031 des citoiens en ad bien mil e plus numbre. 
(b) 3612 bien fere e dreiture : 1570 ki bien de lui dira. 



GLOSSARY. 



kV 



"- "■ a=cc'";|T.t.^l^ltt)nu:S ,763(vomant)vostrebien^ 

pi 1663 tu en purras granz bens* e honur cunsirer (v. note), 
p'ip. ,. 314 mes nc li firent pur ses bens si mal n>m. 
K«n>1<>r V. tr. to bind up (wounds). , , . , , 

''* iiifin. 1 343 tant cum li pere au fiz la pla.e va bender : 

1530 tant k'as plaies bender li freres mam tendi. 

Su 1 s'ubj-. (op't!) pres. 3 sg. 26 (De-) ^s benoie e guard ! 

benoite j PPP- mas- sg. ^^70 ^^e-^ -^J^, P^ , „ ,,„oi,e mulier! 

■bens under ben 11. , , . 1, v 

5cr s. m. nobleman, gentleman (ethically). 

nom. sg. 26 ki tant pars prude ber. .,.,.,;„ 

let ? ^30^rtZr: p"em"eit p'^df bt^ts tu as . mort li.. tant meint prude ber. 
^"^'' ^cc: sg'431 despuis ke U verra une brebiz malade : 889 (saisist A.) cum fait lu la berbiz. 

hfr^fe V. tr. to wound (with arrows). > , . u„_^5= 

PPP fem sg. 521 plus est esmeiiz ke n'est Geonesse) quant est bersee. 
besantz s. m. a coin, O. E. besant, (Byzantme coin). 

ace. pi. 1 149 asez li ofrimes jiieus, argent, besantz. 
hesUle V. intr. to totter, be insecure. . ■ -n i,,„...i» 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1246 I'onur des deus suverems ja besiUe e chancele. 

Vieite ) s. f. beast. , , ■. . 

bestes j nom. sg. 1574 ''• l^s ot e i assent plus est fous ke beste. 

nl 17,6 keneles dev-urassent bestes, n'oisel volant i,„ct,. li 1„ 

ace , 697 (veisez) oises e bestes miies baer : 1389 I'egle oiseus enchace e ks bestes h Ui. 

prp'. „ 1549 de Chens ne d'autres bestes ke nul ne fust blesmi. 
bestial adj . of animals. . 

mas. prp. sg. 1602 ki desire char de cors bestial. 
beii under beit. 

hen I. adv. well. ., , 

734 beu se chastie : 910 U ad beu meriz : 1099 il beu men. 
beu II., beus under bel. 



II. 



beut£ 

bien I. 
binnez 

bis 
bise 



blancheiir 

blancliir 

blancs 

blandi 
blandir 

blasmcz 

blesci 
blescde 

blesmi 

blestc 

blez 



s. f. beauty. 

nom. sg. 348 trespassable est li mundz e tute sa beute. 

under ben I., II. 

V. ref. to go away (v. note). 

pp. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 554 s'en est binnez en tenegre dcvant jur. 
1 adi. of a dark grey colour. , ., v 

I mas. nom. sg. (pred.) 160 mua lune culur, devint li solailz bis. 

fem. ace. sg. 684 pur Ut ad roche bise, si dure cum acier. 

s. f. whiteness. 

nom. sg. 267 les legiuns des angles ke blancheur vesti. 

V. intr. to grow white, blanched (of leaves from want of moisture). 

infin. 695 foille veisez blanchir. 

adi. white. , , . ... 

mas. nom. pi. 1376 (sunt) plus blancs ke de chemise n est girun : 
1720 erent plus blancs ke cheinsU ne cotun. 



}v!'tr. to blandish, to entreat caressingly, 
infin "' ' '' ' '- 



59rki de-biandir na cure: '.'2f5 (ne larrum) our losengerie, pur duns, nc pur bU'idir. 
ppp. mas. pi. 1524 furent manacez, deproicz e blandi. 
v. tr. to blame. , . ,, , r 1 i 

mas. Bg. 159I blasmez fu li darreiner e ki d aler lu lent. 



PPP 
) v. tr. 

) PPP- , 

,1 fem. ,, 
. tr. to hurt 



to wound 
ppp. mas. sg 



.'766 grant fu la bataillc, meint en i out blesce. 
522 saerpcnt quant elc se sent blescte. 

1549 kc nul ne fust blesmi. 



ppp. mas. sc 

s. f. turf, sod. J • . 

prp. sg. 1755 les cors nJ cntcrre suz bleste vcrdoiant. 

s. m. com, wheat. 

nom. pL 692 flestrisent blcz en terrc, pensent li verger. 

ace. „ 1 141 pcrdircnt blcz e fruit h gainnur paisant. 



kvi 



GLOSSARY. 



•blund adj. blond. 

mas. nom. pi. 640 ami ne bnin ne blund. 
bois s. m. wood, forest. 

prp. sg. 1391 U lu du bois. 

nom. pi. 693 (perisent) li bois e li gardin, li praiol e herber. 
boiseiir s. m. deceiver. 

nom. sg. 561 ben I'ad ore pruve ke il est boiseiir: 1560 si il fust boiseiir. 
boivTe under belt. 

bon adj. good, righteous; bon gre, mllingly ; de bon quoer, heartily, 

mas. nom. sg. 1470 sis bons quors tut frois est e nuveus. 
„ ace. ,, 1489 unt perdu A. lur bon ami. 
„ obi. „ 1420 est muntez palefrei bon e bel. 

„ prp. „ 346 (eschoisi) de bon gre : 763 enviz va bon gre : 908 a bon port arivez : 
„ ,, ,, 471 de bon quor esjoi : 685 de verai e bon quoer: 1632 de bon e verai quoer. 
,, ,, pi. 363 U guereduns est grantz as bons atume : 676 ne beit mais des bons vins. 
bonaventure s. f. good luck. 

ace. sg- 592 si te doinst Deus bonaventure. 
bonement adv. findly. 

30 cist bonement li grante ostel. 
bons under bon. 

bonure s. m. happiness, good luck, 

prp. sg. 351 a bonure fu n6. 
bonurez adv. happy. 

mas. voc. sg. 1043 ai, martir bonurez ! 
brand \ s. ra. sword. 

brant J ace. sg. 804 engette sun brant : 1 160 loing engetta sun brant, 

brantz ' prp. ,, looi (coup) de brant acere : 1 107 pour pour de brant furbi : 

,, 1747 un estur de lance e de brant : 

,, 450 le chief U fra voler de brant furbi : 894 I'ad feru du brant ki ert furbiz : 
,, 1013 li ad du brant le chief (se\T^) : 1234 pur les testes duner au brand ferir: 
„ 1303 decolez ne seit du brand d'acer: 1499 les detrenchames tuz au brand furbi : 
„ 1641 (les detrenchent) au brant d'acer: 1838 decole fu du brand acerin. 
pi. 95 detrenchez ja de brantz muluz. 
braz s. m. arm. 

prp. sg. 1773 (defigiu-6) de \-isage u de braz u de main u de pe. 
nom. pi. 1374 les membres lur sunt restorez pez e braz sanz iaillance. 
ace. ,, 839 brisent braz e gambes : 1360 les braz U unt lie : 
,, „ 1691 les braz ad estenduz pur embracer, 
brebiz under berbiz. 

breent v. intr. to lament loudly. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 859 crient e breent e i. terre unt geii. 
Brettainne n. pr. Britain. 

prp. 1 127 passastes par Brettainne d'Orient venant. 
briant under bruant. 

brisent v. tr. to break. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 509 uis brisent e porte : S39 brisent braz e gambes : 1701 le cors brisent e batent. 
bruant adj. noisily-rushing (of water). 

mas. nom. sg. 1153 ii li flotz fu bruant. 
„ prp. ,, 788 I'ewe ki est parfunde e raeJde 4 flot briant. 
bruidee v. tr. to embroider. 

ppp. fern. sg. 1 134 sa robe \'us duna, bruidee d'or lusant. 
bruit s. m. noise, hubbub. 

nom. sg. 883 est ja levez noise e bruit e criz : 1 746 lors cumence li bniit. 
ace. „ 620 grant cri e bruit fait unt. 
prp. „ 505 i. hautes manaces e grant bruit e criee. 
brun adj. brown, dark. 

mas. nom. pi. 640 ami ne bnm ne blund. 
bruni v. tr. to polish, burnish. 

ppp. mas. sg. 473 robe li lut li ors bumi. 
„ prp. „ 624 un' image d'or bruni. 
Brutus n. pr. id. 

nom. 1836 en I'eille ke cunquist Brutus e Coniehu. 
bu s. m. trunk (of the human body). 

prp. sg. 450 du bu le chief h fra voler : 948 ki chief est ja du bU coup^ : 
„ „ 1013 ad le chief du bu sevre. 



GLOSSARY. 



XV u 



buche 
buches 

buclers 

bucs 

buef 

buele 

buies 

buntd 

Burdele 

burdun 

burni 

busoingne 

busoinne 

bute 
bute 
buter 

hutuiller 

butun 

buus 



s. f. mouth. , . . 

t prp. sg. 837 An nies e de la buche h sancs 1st e espant. 
nom. pi. 1778 les buches traversent. 
adj. furnished with a boss (or umbo). 

mas. prp. pi. 851 (garni) de haubercs dublers e de buclers escuz. 
s. m. goat, 
nom. sg. 66 en enfer gist puant cum bucs u mastnn. 

nom'. sg. 141 7 sacrifice agreable plus ke buef u torel. 

ace! srr^65 fors sacher du ventre la buele : .601 la buele en sachent du ventre. 

s. f. g\"V'es. ,. , , J, 1 

ace. pi. 680 ad manicles e buies en hu de buus d or cler. 
5. f. goodness. , . r ^ 

ace. sg. 1089 sa bunte tesmoinne A . . . ki saufs est e gan. 
n. pr. Bordciux. . , ,. „ j 1 

prp. 1264 si quis deust estre de ci k a Burdele. 
s. m. pilgrim's staff. , , r • 

ace. sg. 1827 penant deveng e preng burdun fresnm. 
under bruni. 
} ace' sg^'fi r^ant busoinne fere e achever : .284 ceste grant busoinne achever : 
„ „ 1471 labusoingne Jesufaire. 

I ini"pr°es Ysg- ^3^ U -s trait, li uns bute, U uns ses draz desrunt 
md. pres. 3^s^g ^ 3^^ ^^ sacher e buter li est ensanglaentee ^a robe). 

ppa. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 753 I'^nt trait e bute. 
nrT'slJ^e-'T'Cne belt vins)derichevaissele a servant butuiUer. 
l^m f bud (only used contemptuously, as a measure of value ; v. note on 334)- 
ace se 1-xi ApoUin ne prise mes valiant un butun : 
, ,f' .67 . kar ne vaut lur poisance un butun d'eglenter. 

^•,i^pl™80 (adTmtricles e buies enUu de buus d'or cler. 



9a 

Caim 

Ciiilloz 

capital 

caprin 

caractes 

casal 

eel I. 
eel II. 

celant, cele 

cele 

celfie 

celer I. 



,dv here hither (in 41 7, used for obi. case of dem. adj. pron. ; cf. M. F. y). 
ltvtle^'s^^!\i-227^^i^rrec^insdeB.ndi: 4.7enten9a: 438 9^ venu- les face . 
t^b'^C^sclavLe) ke 9a porter vus v4 : 613 ^ ^'us 9a fust h clers venuz. 

n. pr. Cain. „ . . - 

noni. 399 d' Abel,-cum I'ocist Caim si frere esnez. 

s. m. pebble. , ... 

prp. pi. 854 entre espines ki va e les cailloz menu. 

mli.ti'sg.' .ti; a curune de espines pur chapel capital. 

adi. of goat-skin. 

mas. prp. sg. 1828 sanz chauceure de cordewon caprin. 

prJ5!"pb^oo6"tant se est par caractes e par sortz enchante. 

s. m. house (of a commoner kind). 

nom! sg. (pred.) 16 un palois perrin trove ki ne pert pas casal. 

(541. 1 1 57) under cil. 

under ciel. 

under celer. 

under cil. 

(4 — ,) adv. secretly. 

899 a celae crut eu seint nun Jesu. 

i'nf^n:2°rsanrrenceler. ,269 ne vus devum celer : ,306 sanz v.rit. celer. .633 n'unt cure de celer. 

ppp. (ntr.) sg. 339 ne vus serra cele. 



XVUl 



GLOSSARY. 



(celer I.) ppp. mas. sg. 1030 herberge en muntaiiine ne puet estre cele: 
,, „ ,, 1787 ne puet mais le poer Jesu estre cel6. 
„ ,, nom. pi. 979 crestiens plusurs cuvert e cele. 
,, ,, ace. ,, 395 iluec unt lur segreiz e cunseilz celez. 
periph. pres. ptc. 1137 ne ren ne fu celant. 
celer II. 1 s. m. cellar. 
celers ) prp. sg. 676 (^^ns) gisantz en sun celer. 

,, pi. 17 a solers e estages e celers grantz aval. 
\ adj. celestial. 
) mas. ace. sg. 275 me descu\-ri segrei celestien. 

,, prp. ,, 301 of lui regneras en celestien bamage. 
„ ace. pi. 723 ki noz deus celestiens despersone e defie. 
,, voc. ,, 1 5 1 1 chers deus celestiens ! 
under celer I. 
(224. 1482) under ciel. 
under cil. 
s. m. tournament. 

prp. sg. 141811 paen sunt grant pueple cum sumuns a cenbel. 
s. f. haw, berr)'. 

ace. sg. 1 267 pur ki ne doins une cenele. 
num. hundred. 

prp. sg. 1595 crestiens nuveus plus de cent, 
ace. pi. 1403 nuef centz e nonante nuef la summe ad cuntenu. 
s. f. hundred ; used absol., by hundreds, 
ace. pi. 1282 lors ad mande sa gent centeines e miller, 
under cent. 
I V. tr. to seek, search. 

j ind. fut. 3 sg. 436 chambres A trestutes cerchera. 
ppp. fem. sg. 497 ke la maisun A. seit tute cerchee. 
grnd. 508 chambres \-unt cherchant. 

adj. certain (trustworthy; assured), 
mas. prp. sg. 1545 (establi) a cert cunte. 
,, nom. pi. 1337 (li autre) muerent certz de luer. 

,, ,, ,, 276 bien seiez certz e fi : 1089 ben sumes certz de fi : 1542 bien soiez certz de fi. 
adj. sure, convinced. 

mas. nom. sg. 559 (venuz a baudur) cum certein prechur. 
under cert. 
) s. m. brain. 

) nom. sg. 1430 doillant li sunt li nerf e tut veins U cervel. 
prp. „ 1263 enfiTindrer de teste u de cervele. 
under cist. 
n. pr. Cesar. 

nom. 356 u est Cesaires li riches e li redute .' 
adj. subject to Cesar. 

dat. sg. mas. (appos.) 1834 as Romeins nuncier, le pueple cesarin. 
under cist, 
under cil. 

s. m. hunter (horse). 

obi. sg. 142 1 est muntez (palefrei) cha^ur u fort runcin u grant Jestrer ignel. 
chael s. m. little dog, whelp. 

ace. sg. 1425 I'ahiient plus viument k'un chael. 
chaesnes s. f. chain. 

prp. pi. 666 de chaesnes lie : 710 lier de chaesnes de fer : 749 I'unt de chaesnes li£. 
chaet, chaeth, chaetz, under chiet. 
chalant s. m. kind of boat. 

nom. sg. 790 n'i fust nus 3 flote ne batel ne chalant. 
chalur s. f. heat. 

nom. sg. 690 une chalur Id pas ne se sect atemprer (v. note), 
ace. ,, 857 gi'ant chalur e grant sei i unt eii. 
chambre ) s. f. room, chamber, 
chambres ) ace. sg. 512 une chambre sutife i unt truvee. 

„ pi. 436 chambres A. trestutes cerchera : 508 chambres vunt cherchant. 
champ s. ra. field, open field. 



celestien 
celestiens 



celez 

eels 

celui 

cenbel 

cenele 
cent 



centemes 

centz 

cerchee 

cerchera 



cert 



certein 

certz 

cervel 

cervele 

ces 
Cesaires 

cesarin 

cest, ceste 
ceu, ceus 
cha9ur 



GLOSSARY. 



XIX 



(champ) nom. sg. 764 estroit lur fu le champ e le chemin ferre . 

prp. „ 349 (trespassable) cum est la flur du champ. 

„ pi. 1540 gurent par ces champs, 
champiun s. m. champion. 

prp. sg. 1722 (angeres) enveit Deus a sun loial champmn. 
champs under champ, 

chancele v. intr. to totter, reel. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1246 I'onur des deus suvereins ja besille e chanc ele. 
chan9un s. f. chanson, song, ballad. 

nom. sg. 1042 (de lui) n'est chan9un ne fable. 
chanel s. m. channel (of a river). 

prp. sg. 789 (I'ewe), retraite e (= en) sun chanel, va si apetuant (v. note). 
changer v. tr. to change, alter. 

infin. 667 ke sun voler poiisse e llecchir e changer. 
changeiir s. m. exchanger, barterer. 

voe. sg. 572 hai ! queu changeiir ! 
chant s. m. song, chant, hymn. . , , . 11 

nom. sg. 905 (des angles) en est li chantz oiz : 107 1 teus estoil lur chantz entenduz e oiz. 

ace. „ 269 lur chant rentinc e entendi. 
chantant ) v. intr. to sing. 

chantent > ind. pres. 3 pi. 1353 haul chantent e cler. 
chanterent ) ,, pret. ,, ,, 269 chanterent, e lur chant rentinc. 

grnd. 1063 chantant e esjoi : 1 182 a clere voiz chantant. 

chantz imder chant. 

chapel \ s. m. chaplet ; cap, head-piece, 

chapeus J prep. sg. 161 7 a curune de espines pur chapel capital. 

ace. pi. 1468 deslacent aventailles, heumes e chapeus. 
char s. f. flesh, body ; char prendre, to become incarnate. 

nom. sg. 652ch.ar emHe : 841 la char (li est) noire e emfl^e : 1454 la char (m est) pal e Mestrie. 

ace. „ 659 k'en terre char prist : 922 ta char ne esparni as : 1602 desire char de cors bestial. 

prp. ,, 293 mes de sa char demeine, sacrifice e ostage (mist), 
charduns s. m. thistle. 

prp. pi. 855 (va entre) urties e charduns, k'aspres sunt e agu. 
charmes s. m. charm, magic. 

prp. pi. 8S5 par ench.intement d'A. e les charmes e diz. 
charnel adj. of the body, corporeal. 

fem. prp. sg. 1731 (I'alme) s'en ist de sa charnel maisun. 
charoinne s. f. canion. 

nom. sg. 1505 eu desert gisez cum charoinne guerpi. 

factit. ace. 846 charoinne le tenent sanz alme enfreidissant : 
,, ,, 1004 charoinne le teniracs a lus e chens dun6. 

prp. sg.'*673 A. en la chartre ne fina Deu urer : 7 1 1 en chartre estuer : 1144 de chartre fu menez. 
chascuns imder chescun. 

chastel ) nom. sg. 57 escu m'est e guarant plus ke chastel penn. 
chastens ] ace. „ 1419 d'envair ost a rei, u citfi u chastel (v. note). 

„ pi. 586 (cunsirer) flez, chastens e tur. 
chastie ) v. tr. to chastise, check ; ref. reform one's self, 

chastier > ind. pres. 3 sg. 7 54 ki par autres est gamiz, cist beu se chastie : 
chastiez ) intin. 1 367 ocire le ferum pur autres chastier. 

ppp. mas. sg. 442 ki en seit chastiez chascuns ki la saverra. 
chaucfie s. f. causeway, street. 

prp. sg. 531 lors I'unt cist pris e trahit par la rue c chaucfie. 
chauceiirc s. f. shoe. , 

prp. sg. 1423 sanz chauceiire e nuz : 1828 sanz chaucevire de cordewon caprm. 
chaut I. s. m. heat ; chaut faire, to be he.iting ; chaut aver, to be heated. 

nom. sg. 700 dure li chautz de nuit sanz rein amesurer. 

ace. „ 695 (veisez) le ch.aut tendruns uslcr. 

(ace.) „ 691 (solail)kitant fist chaut e cler; 706 (emflent) par beivre e chaut aver. 

chautz 1. ' } mas. nom. sg. 830 (li solailz) ki chautz est e raant : 860 ki plus ert chautz kc feu. 

,, (i)rcd.) ,, 843 a peine chaut remeint li quors. 
chautz II. under chaut I. 

C 2 



1439'la rute des S. de crier le chastie. 



XX 



GLOSSARY. 



chef 
cheinsil 

cheitif 
cheitifs 



chemin 
chemins 



chemise 
chens 

cher 



cherchant 
cherement 

cheri 
cheriit 
cherir 
cherist 



chers 
ches 

chescun 



cheut 
cheval 



chevaler 
chevalers 



chevaucher 

chevaus 
cheveus 
cheveuz 
chevoilz 

chief 



under chief. 

s. m. sort of linen cloth. 

nom. sg. 1720 (angeres) plus blancs ke cheinsil ne cotun. 
J adj . ^^Tetched. 

} mas. nom. sg. 911 roes ki le decola, li las cheitifs peritz. 
„ „ pi. 353 mes li felun cheitif ki Deu unt ublie. 
„ ace. ,, 166 d'enfer rescut ses prisuns cheitifs. 
) s. m. road, way. 
J nom. sg. 764 estroit lur fu le champ e le chemin ferre. 

„ „ 1427 li chemins ferrez (I'alasse) : 1 589 (tant i a gent) U chemins nes (= ne les) cumprent. 
ace. „ 56 il dense e dresce mun aiere e mun chemin. 
prp. „ 1 1 1 1 unt droit Vers W. lur chemin acoiUi : 1833 (vers R.) tendrai droit le chemin : 

„ ,, 11 17 eu chemin demura : 1434 par chemin remist : 1606 cam a chemin jumal. 
s. f. shirt. 

prp. sg. 1376 les cors plus blancs ke de chemise n'est girun ne mance. 
s. m. dog. 
prp. pi. 847 a luus u chiens livTez* : 1004 a lus e chens dune : 

„ „ 1549 de chens ne d'autres bestes ke nul ne fust blesmi. 
adj. dear, beloved ; in phr. aver cher, to hold dear, 
mas. prep. sg. 123 en autre k'en sun cher fiz ne se vout fier. 
,, voc. pi. 1511 chers deus celestiens ! 

(phr.) 1273 (noz veisins) k'eiimes cher. 
under cerchee. 
adv. dearly, at great cost. 
1 58 1 ke il ne cunpere cest ovre cherement. 
V. tr. to cherish, hold dear. 

iiid. pres. 3 sg. 1369 einz les honure tuz jurs, cherist e avance. 
,, pret. ,, ,, 655 Deu k'Adam furraa, e ki tant le cheriit. 
infin. 121 1 tant deboneirement e amer e cherir. 
ppp. mas. sg. 453 (par aucun) dunt il estoit cheri. 

,, voc. pi. 1 5 1 9 beus duz amis cheri ! 
under cher. 
prep, at the house of. 
1126 ii herbergez ches A. fustes. 
pron. each one, ever)' one. 

mas. nom. sg. 442 seit chastiez chascuns : 521 plus est chascuns esmeiiz : 768 s'est chescun eforce : 
,, ,, ,, 1084 (penance demenum) chescun endroit de soi : 1502 dist chescun : 
„ ,, „ 1527 chescun de eus (se purofri) ; 1533 une voiz oismes, chescun I'entendi. 
„ prp. ,, 1399 a chescun (aturnent) sarcu. 
V. intr. to care for. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 464 de moi ki cheut .' 
s, m. horse ; a cheval, on horseback, 
prp. sg. 762 a cheval e a pe. 
,, ,, 141 1 de cheval n'osterunt ne sele ne panel : 1604 (unt) dune resne a cheval : 
,, pi. 9S8. 1341 as chevaus defuler: 1730 na^Tent e defulent a chevaus de randun. 
s. m. knight. 

nom. sg. 576 (perist meint) chevaler en estur : 686 deit sufrir leal chevaler : 
., ,, 797 uns chevalers gentilz cliiet as piez A. : 935 li chevalers Aracle (le \'is ad dresc^) : 
,, ,, 969 li francs chevaler est demure : 1 159 un chev.aler hardi e empernant : 
,, ,, 1331 cum loial chevaler: 1775 ki avant fu chevaler preuz e alose. 
980 le gentil chevaler unt aide. 
158 au queur feru du chevaler Lungis. 
946 chevaler alosS ! 1644 leus chevaler ! 
pi. 844 des pez le defulent chevaler e sergant : 1 154 sunt chaeth e peritz chevalers e sergantz. 
472 gentilz chevalers ! 1534 mi chevaler. 
V. intr. to ride. 

infin. 28 palefrei n'ai a chevaucher : 
under cheval. 
s. m. hair (of the head). 

ace. pi. 891 les cheveus A. he : 1514 lur cheveus decirent. 
prp. ,, 1388 il n'unt nis un des cheveuz entame. 
i> >■ 53* P^r l^s chevoilz (I'unt pris) : 951 par les cheveus i pent, 
s. m, head ; end ; in phr, chef de tur, finally, in the end. 



ace. 
prp. 
voc. 

nom. ■ 
voc. 



1290 ne finent a jumees tut serre chevaucher. 



GLOSSARY. 



(chieQ 



chiens 
chiet 



choisi 
chose 



chucez 

chucher 

chuchez 



cief 
ciel 



nom Si? QiS A. ki f= cuius) chief est ja du bu coupg. , • r^. n 

ace f' 450 ^ chief li fra voler : 895 fait volcr le chef senglant : 9S0 sun chief (tniver) = 
Q-o le chef (unt oste) : 981 le chief unt au cors mis : 1573 J en perdera le cief. 

PW :: 540 a queu chief fust menee (la parole) : 76, au queu chief fust mene (le gugemenl) 
„ ',' 562 au chef detur (fausetesesoille): v .v j vr 

„ " 913 li sunt li oU du chief sailliz : 1 ■ 75 0' o^ ^ sunt chaet) du chef. 

under chen. 

V. intr. to fall. 

ind. pres. ■t sg. 804 chiet as piez A. , , ,. , , , • j 1, r 

pp. mas. pT. 9 1 4 (li oil) aval sunt chaetz : 1 1 75 U oJ li sunt chaet andui du chef : 
J_ ,, „ 1154 sunt chaeth e peritz chevalers. 

V, tr. to choose. 

ppp. mas. sg. 466 a Deu es dru choisi. 

s. f. thing. , ^ r . 

ace. sg. 444 (mar cumencera) tea chose : 641 chose ne purrunt fau-e : 
,, „ 1002 e veirs funt tut parer chose k'est fausetfi. 
V. intr. to go to bed. 

infin. 201 A. s'en est alez chucher : 682 n'a mais Ut au chucher. 
pp. mas. sg. 223 en mun lit fu chuchez. 

„ pi. 1056 paens se reposent cuchez e endormi : 

', „ 1412 ne dormirunt chucez en ht suz lincel. 
adv. here, hither ; de ci k'i — , from here to — . 
286 veez ci : 634 ci vei : 1657 ci ester : 1667 ci sunt morz , 

457 nus avum fait ci : 558 venuz dust estre ci : 1087 Cqmst) ci ostel 
245 devant le pople ci : 1085 en cest mund vivantz sumes ci. 
69 [de] ci k'al euue du rin (v. note) : 1264 de ci k'a Burdele 
426. 525 par ci va : 996. 1509 par ci p.assa. 
under chief, 
s. m. heaven, 
nom. sg. 224 avis m'ert ke h eels se desclot e uvn 



1 844 ci finis : 



ace. 



prp. 



pi. 
sg- 



cU 



(A) 



. 1 78 eel e terra guvemant : 1437 ciel e terre guie. 

',22'pere°dVcidr36T. g'^S- ' 5 37 regne du ciel : 1323 joie du ciel • log'jdu eel U angere : 
i2-'6 eloire du eel : 1410 Deus de eel : 1802 sires de terre e du eel estoille :— 
" ;: 207 dn ciel desendre : 487 du ciel desendi : 65S du ciel tramist : .06 . du ce descendi : 
" ,064 li beus angeres (desendent) du eel : . .80 (un rais) (descendant) du eel l"sant :- . 

" 38. 167. 264. 3.8. euciel(munter1: 33.eucielvi: 352- 822-924- "'83 (eu ciel) (regner) . 

" " goo. 1732 eu ciel (porter): 1016 regne en eel esteiUe: 
" ", 1352 s'en vunt eu ciel ; 1521 sunt eu ciel acoiUi : 1693 en eel entrer :— 
" " 776 938 vers le ciel dresce : 1704 vers lu ciel regarde. 
p'ron. dem. that ; he, she ; A, absolutely,— B, quaUfjing subst. foUowing. 
mas. nom. sg. 1 18 cU,— a ki'l plut a lui (v. note). 
„ „ 302- 528. 591 celui ki. 

43. 130. 500. 73('- 930 celui ki. 

650 ceus 1 acurent . 1762 ceus, k en cest mund (v. note). 

1557 ecus lei; 1640 trestuz ceus: 1643 ceus: 1667 ceus Id. 

1679 U cuvendra il trestuz ceus demurer (v. note). 

928 n'eit ja part de ceus ki : 1044 sucurable a ceus ki. 



acc. ,, 
nom. pi 
acc. ,1 
obi. „ 
prp 



fem nom sg '33 cele ert esbaie : 142 I'ottreit cele : 1260 furent andm cist e cele. 



(B) mas. acc 



circumcis 
cist 

(A) 



M^ cele ert esoaie : 142 loiireii ceie : i^uu luicni. .tnuu, v...-,^ v. >.^.-. 

50 ecu Jesu heent ; 809 ecu Deu n'ai servi : 857 ecu jur : io8b qucrum ceu crestien ki : 

1 15 7 eel mal restoiez : 1264 ceu tafur (v. note). 

541 en eel estrange atur ; 1512 de ceu tafur : iSi i il ceu tens : 

1:36 se curuce cele gent malurce ; 725 cele mort apent. 

i"i5 cele p.art aler : 570 (engettez) cele croiz : 746 cele sentence unt conferme. 

1262 de cele lei nuvele: 17 12 en cele regiun. 
v. tr. to circumcise. 

nnu mas se 1 4c fu au iur oitisme eu temple cncumcis. .,,.., 

^J^Tn. dem. tWsrhe, she. it ; A, absol.,-B, quaUfying subst. follg. ; n'a est ki, there^.s no^onc^^^ 

raa'^^'nora'. sg. 30. 33. 135. 247- 352. 486. 492. 758. 807. 892. 944- 955- 960. 1260. .440. .459- .'629- 
mas. nom. sg. 3 -Ji ^ii _4- «_^ J^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^1^^ ,„^g „„ „-^. ,,^3. ,3,^. ,..st Ivi. 

" ',', » '447 "'"^st autre deu for cist lei . . . (v. note). 



fem. nom. sg 

,, acc. ,, 

prp. 



XXll 



GLOSSARY. 



(cist) 



(B) 



cite 
citez 



citoiem 
citoien 
citoiens 



claime 

claimes 

claine 

clarte 

cler 



cleic 
clercs 



1 cist Ivi. 



708 cist grantz maus : 

1255 cist deus k' : 128 1 cist voler : 

1568 cist faus enginneiir : 



dere 



mas. nom. sg. 650. 1303. 1420. n'a cist Id ne . . . (obeist), (seit), (est). [1819 cist. 

„ „ pi. 503. 518. 531. 1105. 1158. 1192. 1233. 1240. 1285. 1350 bis. 1352. 1488. 1500. 1597. 
„ „ „ 739. 1790. cist de la cite : 1394 cist de la teiTC. 
„ „ „ 629. 634. 781. 848. 1494 (pur). 1551. 1735. 178S 
„ ace. „ 1722 ces i enveit Deus. 
(ntr.) „ sg. 373 il out trestut cest acheve. 
mas. nom. ,, 524 cist faus truantz ki : 571 cist enchantur ki : 
„ „ „ 996 cist pelerin lettre ki : 1 143. 1245 cist maus : 
,, ,, „ 1509 cist nigromanciens ki : 1556 cist Jesus ki : 

„ „ „ 1576 bis. cist baratz, cist turmentz ; 1579 cist clers : 1619 cist turment. 
„ ace. „ 1307 cest prude ber a ki ; 1359. 1647 cest mortel encumbrer : 1581 cest ovre. 
„ prp. „ 63. 98 (en). 459 (de). 995 (par) cest pais : 1051 de cest secle ke : 
„ „ „ 1085. 1199. 1319. 1475. 1623. 1680. 1762 en cest mund : 
„ „ „ 1406 de cest travail ; 1652 de cest grant mal. 

„ nom.pl. 1608 cist pautener vassal: 1715 cist mescreant felun : 1745 cist pautener tirant. 
„ ace. „ 569 engettez ces drapeus : 1510 ces grantz maus basti. 
,, prp. „ 469 de ces paens ; 1540 par ces champs : 1570 a ces mais. 
fem. nom. sg. 277 ceste avisiun (k'est ke signifie) (v. note). 
„ ace. „ 8. 605 ceste croiz : 604 ceste moie vesture : 1224 ceste vie: 1284 ceste grant busoinne. 
,, prp. „ 291 en ceste croiz: 500 en ceste cuntree : 579 de cest grant foleiir : 
„ „ „ 745 a ceste mort : 1345 de cest (v. note) cumpainnie : 1444 en ceste vie : 
„ ,, ,, 1453 en ceste voie : 1588 a ceste sumunse: 1812 de ceste estoire. 
) s. f. city. 

) nom. sg. 537 la cite en est tute (esmiie) : 752 a pou n'est voide U temples e citez. 
ace. ,, 415 la cite V. guvema : 1419 (envaVr) u cite u chastel. 

prp. ,, 21 de la cite un haul mareschal : 588 de la cite la flur : 739. 1790 cist de la cite : 
„ „ 754 deus de la cite : 1780 li princes de la cite : 

„ „ 1 1 il vent a V. une cite nobile : 480 de la cite issi : 750 hors de la cite : 
,, ,, 1025. vunt s'en en lur cite : 1 152 dehors la cite : 1414 a V. lur cite natural: 
„ „ 1441 (de V. sui), la cite enrichie : 1585 en la cite : 1739 a V. lur cite : 1832 vers R. la cit6. 
ace. pi. 586 (consirer) terres e citez grant, fiez, chastens, e tur. 
j s. m. citizen. 

nom. sg. 547 ne fuissez citoien de parente majur. 
) ace. ,, 19 (trove le seingnur), nobile citoien en atur festival. 
voc. ,, 285 A, citoien nobiles de parage ! 

nom. pi. 713 stmt assemble trestuit h citoiein : 1 119 wnt li citoien : 1271 mil citoien nus fajllent. 
(pred.),, 1 125 tuit fuimes citoiens e riches e menant (de V.). 

prp. „ 93 fuissez des citoiens ja recuneii : 103 1 des citoiens en ad bien mil u plus numbre. 
voc. ,, 1076 citoiens, vesin, parent, ami ! 1229, e vus, citoiens gentilz ! 
\ V. tr. to name ; claim. 

) ind. pres. 2 sg. 583 reni Jesu ke claimes fiz Deu. 
) „ „ 3 „ 79 fiz d' une pucele, k'em claime Jesu. 
app. (ind. pft. 2 sg.) 955 cist ne vus deit faUlir, a seingnur I'as clame. 
s. f. brightness, splendour. 

nom. sg. 265 gloire e clarte les esceint e fluri : 495 du solail parut la clarte k'est levee, 
adj. clear, bright (of colour, or sound) ; faire cler (by zeugma), to be shining. 

mas. nom. sg. 877 (li roisseus) plus clers ke n'est argentz : 992 parunt le los Jesu clers est e eshauci : 
„ ,, „ 1060 un feu ki plus ert clers ke solailz de midi. 
„ prp. „ 680 buus d'or cler : 1664 tresor de argent e de or cler. 
fem. nom. sg. 1167 fimtainne freide e clere est siu-se. 
,, prp. ,, 1182 (angeres i aparurent) a clere voiz chantant. 

adv. 691 (solail) ki tant fist chaut e cler : 1353 (li angere) haut chantent e cler. 
^ s. m. a clerk, clergyman. 

) nom. sg. 15 vent s'en li clers : 24 li clers le salue : 183 adunc respundi li clers : 
„ „ 322 (A.) I'entent cum clere fait sa lescun : 493 s'en part li clers : 
,, „ 600 li clercs n'est pas desleals : 6 1 3 9a fust U clers venuz : 1 193 clers es: 
X )i 1558 li clercs ne fait pas a despire : 1579 cist clers de puteire damage est k'il ne pent : 
» >i 1754 li clers fu prechant la lei crestiene. 
ace. „ I291 unt le clere truve : 1364 aient fait mener le clere : 

„ „ 1407 rettent Apl. le clere orientel : 1738 amerroient le clere, mort u vivant. 
prp. ,, 1271 au clere d'utre merse sunt alie. 
under cler. 



GLOSSARY. 



xxni 



clergastre s. m. cleric-aster, wretched cleric. 

prp. sg. 1247 (cist maus surt) parun clergastre avolez ki par terres sautele. 
clers I. (877. 992. 1060) under clcr. 
clers II. under clerc. 
clos V. tr. to close. 

ppp. mas. sg. 262 li sepulchres estoit ben clos e ben garni, 
cloufichez V. tr. to fix by nails. 

ppp. mas. sg. 6 (uns corsj penduz e cloufichez : 88 (estre) a un fust cloufichez. 
clous s. m. nail. 

prp. pi. 237 a clous le afferma, cncroa, e pendi. 
CO deni. pron. ntr. sg. that, that (thing, word, matter, circumstance, &c.); only used absol. in nom. (or 

prcd., where it often means ' to this effect,') — in obi. cases either absol., or followed byrel. clause. 
nom. 192 90 ne re9oil sen : 674. 1292 90 fu sun mester : 732 90 mustre : 

,, 116990 fu la vertu: 1254 90 est la lei faiele : 1279 trestut 90 puet aver mester : 
„ 1320 90 est nostre sentence : 1334 90 est : 1693 90 est la porte : 1694 90 fait renaistre. 
„ 1302 si 90 nun (= si 90 ne puet aver mester, as in 1279). 
ace. 68. 189. 279. 429. 468. 606. 619. 645. 685. 721. 774. 781. 815. 834. 1084. 1155. 
„ 1184. 1236. 1254. 1257. 1272. 1310. 1325. 1332. 1348. 1382.. 1441. 1492. 1564. 1639. 169- CO. 
prp. 209. 373. ii65apres9o: 42.77.457. Ii28de90: 452 de trestut 90 : 
„ 589. 616 de tut 90 ! 747. 916 de 90: 1187. 1446 pur 90 : I268sur90. 
cofres s. m. coffer. 

prp. sg. 1288 or portent e argent en cofres a sumer. 
coiltes s. f. quilt, [Lat. culcita puncta]. 

(prp.) pi. 682 de sole (a ?) coiltes pointes n'a mais lit au chucher (v. note). 
comraun adj. common. 

mas. nom. sg. 742 (horn) Id est coramun enemi. 
,, prp. „ 1699 tuit i acurent a un voler commun. 
communal adj. public, known to all. 

mas. nom. sg. 22 n'i out plus cuneiiz ne nus plus communal. 
commune s. f. community (assembly ?). 

nom. sg. 737 li prince e la commune ne I'unt pas otrie. 
communement adv. in common, all together. 

1 105 e cist communement respunent a un cri. 
conferme ) v. tr. to confirm (decree, sacrament) ; to establish (in the faith). 
confermfi ) ind. pres. 3 sg. 1257 la prophecie d'anciens 90 confenne e saele. 

infin. 1643 (cumence a precher) e ecus en la creance J. cunfermer. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 371 en I'amur Deu I'a par sermun conferme. 

,, ,, ,, 3 pi.) 746 cele sentence unt joure e viel conferme. 
ppp. mas. pi. 404 des sacrementz d'igUse, — cum il sunt cunfermez. 

confessiun s. f. confession. - . , . , 

ace. sc. 326 de ses errurs fait veraie cunfessiun : 1806 pernent confessiun de folic e pecche. 
confusiun s. f. confusion. 

prp. sg. 171 7 de mettre mei a confusiun. 
conquestciir s. m. conqueror. 

nom. pi. 563 (tun lingnage) ki grant conquesteiir de R. (furent .') nez. 
consirer v. tr. to acquire, win. 

infin. 585 tu en purras consirer gueredun e honur : 1663 granz bens* e honur cunsirer. 
consolaciun s. f. consolation. 

ace. sg. 1 7 14 m'enveit de angeres consolaciun. 
contruvure s. f. fiction, deceit, mere invention. 

nom. sg. 598 semblance est e faussete purpens e cuntrevure : 1258 mes trufle est e contruvure. 
convcrti v. tr. to convert (to the faith) ; to change (joy into tears). 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1086 cresticn ki A. converti : 1 501 en lermes e grant due! lur joie convcrti. 

infin. 381 (m'en vols) sarracins cunvertir : 1223 par avisiuu tei a lui cunvertir (vout). 
cordewon s. m. cordwain, leather. 

prp. sg. 1828 sanz chauceiire de cordewon caprin. 
Comelin n. pr. Cornelius, Corineus (in Wace's Brut, v. note). 

nom. 1836 en rcille ke cunquist Brutus e Comelin. 
corporal \ adj. bodily, possessed of a body ; belonging to, inflicted on, the body. 
corporeus J mas. nom. sg. 1475 (tant m.ir fustes nez) corporeus : 1609 tut est cscule I'entrail corporal. 

„ prp. pi. 1536 pur turmentz corporeus. 
cors s. m. body. 



XXIV 

(cors) 



costal 
Coslentin 
costez 
cotun 

coup 



coupe 

craire 
creance 



creature 



creaturs 

creient 

creire 

creil 



prp. 



nom. 
ace. 



prp. 



crerei 
cresance 



GLOSSARY. 

nom. sg. 5 uns cors d'um mortal (fu fumiez) : 959 li cors soit posez en sarcu marbrin : 
„ „ 840 tut le cors (m'est feble) : 1014 le cors est trebuche : 1454 le cors m'est feble : 
>> >> 975 sis cors est restore : 1470 si cors est las, mais sis bons quors (frois est), 
ace. „ 244 sauf tun cors demeine : 668 le cors pener : 670 sun cors grever : 
„ „ 813 a ^•us m'alme e mun cors abandun : 853 mes sul A. i est, le cors e les pez nu : 
„ ,, 923 tun cors livras : 941 suvans le cors A : 952 le cors (truver) : 953 k'il garisse tun cors : 
» )i 95*' sun cors gar ben : 973 au seint cors tucher le martir (v. note) : 
„ „ 991 despuis k'il out le cors lu martir tuche : 1218 sun cors livTer* : 
,, „ 1616 batre sun seint cors real : 1673 mun cors garir : 
„ „ 1701 le cors brisent : 1 749 le cors (sustrait) : 1752 mist le cors en terre. 
„ 365 (hem) au cors u au quor maufe : 
,, 971 au cors Pad mis : 981 le chief unt au cors mis : — 

„ 362 les faitz du cors : 838 du cors le remenant : 1445 apres la mort du cors : 
„ 1602 char de cors bestial : — 

„ 257 du cors sane e ewe hissi: 653 li sancs ki s'espand, ist (du cors en plusurs lius) : 
„ 896 (sane) ki du cors est flaschiz : 1 1 86 (sane) de sun cors esculant : — 
,, 661 eu cors m'alme mist : 842 ne remeint seiu ne entier eu cors. 

pi. 1371 les cors (beus devenent): 1376 lescors plus blancs devenent(ke de chemise n' est girun). 
„ 137s k'avant les cors out teint : 1387 les cors unt garde : 1395 les cors unt honure : 
„ 1548 as (- ales) cors garder : 1550 les cors defendi : 1755 les cors ad enterre : 
„ 1 547 mil cors i truvas[mes] : 

,, 1561 (ne feist teu mescinement) des cors detrenchez. 
adj. of the side (ribs), 
mas. ace. sg. 1612 teinte en a la peitrine, le dos e flaunc costal, 
n. pr. Constantine (the Great), 
gen. 1825 pur tut I'or Costentin. 
s. m. side (of the body, 
prp. pi. 7 avau I'un des costez raa li sancs. 
s. ra. cotton. 

nom. sg. 1720 (angeres) plus blancs ke cheinsil ne cotun. 
prp. „ 681 lit a cotun (v. note). 
s. m. blow, stroke. 

ace. sg. 913 au = (a le) coup duner (v. note) : lOOi coup desturnent de mace, 
prp. ,, 895 au coup li fait voler le chef. 
V. tr. to cut oft". 

ppp. mas. sg. 948 chief est ja du bu coupe, 
under creire. 
s. f. faith, creed. 

nom. sg. 886 est la nostre creance (maubailliz) : 
ace. „ 646 A. lur creance e Im- loi si despiist. 
prp. „ 1643 ceus en la creance Jesu cunfeiTOer. 
s. f. creature. 

nom. sg. 593 est li creaturs plus haut, u siie creature ? 
(pred.) „ 874 ta creature est tut n'eit tei Deu rekeneu. 
s. m. creator. 

nom. sg. 593 queus est li creaturs plus haut, u sue creattrre .' 
V. tr. to beheve ; beUevein; trust; think. 

ind. pres. i sg. 378 de v-us croi estre seur : 609 en Jesu croi : 964 bien le croi de fi : 
,, „ ,, ,, 1455 bien croi ta priere ert oie : 1569 nel croi plus ke vent. 
,, ,, 2 „ 552 ore croiz ke va prechant un estrange tafur. 

„ „ 3 „ 189 Id 90 ne croit : 429 me croit : 7 1 7 en li creit et se fie : 1383 en Jesu creit. 
,, „ „ pi. 14 en Apolin creient : 1557 en lui croient. 
„ prt. ,, sg. 899 a celee crut eu seint nun. 
„ „ I pi. 1 146 creiimes ke de sa enprise fust (repentant). 
„ „ 3 ,, 566 en noz deuscrurent. 

infin. 185 tu la trinite voz craire : 210 quancke a crestien croire est raester : 
,, 1238 la trinite ke crere (cuvent a crestien) : 1259 ne fait plus a creire k'au vent, 
v.tr.to fear. 

pp. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1395 les cors unt honure redute e cremu. 
under creire. 
s. f. growth, 
prp. sg. 1379 grantz de cresance. 



1383 ci'st la dreite creance (v. note). 



GLOSSARY. 



XXV 



cresant 
crespiz 



crestien 
crestiene 

crestiens 



under crest. 

adj. curled (v. note in loc.) 

mas. prp. ]il. 891 les cheveus A. lie par les focuns crespiz. 

V. intr. to grow. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1819 le honur Jesu crest. 

periph. pres. ptc. 11 72 un arbruseu qui eu munt fu cresant. 

under crestiens. 

adj. christian. 

fem. prp. sg. 1754 (obeisant) a la lei crestiene : 1808 de la lei crestiene estre endoctrine. 

s. m. a christian. 



nom. 

(pred.; 

ace. 

prp. 

nom. 

ace. 

prp. 



sg. 898 (la croiz prist) uns crestiens gentUz : 1 749 un crestien le cors (sustrait). 
,, 180 ke crestiens deveingne ; 420 crestiens est. 
,, 510 le crestien demandent ; 1086 querum ceu crestien. 
„ 210 a crestien est mester (croire) : 1239 cuvent .a crestien. 
pi. 979 crestiens plusurs cuvert e cele (unt aide) : 998 li crestien en sunt apris. 
„ 1595 h sermun entent crestiens nuveus (v. note). 
„ 1305 li un des crestiens (respunt). 
,, 1462 niut est li Deus as crestiens de grant seignurie. 
crestiente s. f. Christianity. 

nom, sg. 1027 quident ke destruit i seit crestiente. 
creiimes under creire. 

crevfi j V tr. to thrust out (eyes) ; intr. to be split (of the earth). 

crever [ infin. 696 (veisez) les grantz paluz secchir e la terre crever. 

crevez ) ppp. mas. sg. 875 du munt k'est crevez e fendu. 

.. » pl- 731 li oil creve li soient, eit la viie perie. 
cri s. m. cry, shout. 

nom. sg. 883 est ja levez noise e bruit e criz. 

ace. „ 249 haut getta un cri : 620 grant cri e bruit fait unt : 1500 funt grant noise e cri, 
prp. „ 1105 communement respunent a un cri. 
ace. pl. 1440 ne laist cist ke ses cris ne eshauce e multiplie. 
cria, crii under crier 1. 

crifie s. f. shouting. 

prp. sg. 505 a hautes manaces e grant bruit e criee. 
crient under crier II. 

crier I. V. tr. to create. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 528 ki cria la terre e mer salee : 637 cria tut le niund : 
i> )> II .. bbi moi cria e en mun eors m'alme mist. 

infin. 29. 118 ki nus dein(g)na crier : 1309 ki nus plut tuz crier, 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 783 quancke il ad crie. 
crier II. ] V. intr. to shout ; to ask (pardon) ; Aiire crier, to announce publicly. 
crierum f ind. pres. 3 pl. 859 crient c breent : 863 fremissent e crient. 
,, fut. I ,, 246 toi tuz aiirrum e crierum merci. 

infin. 1439 la rute des S. de crier le chastie : 1584 lores fait crier real cumandemenl. 
criminal adj. pagan ; savage. 

mas. nom. pl. 1600 un peel en terre afichent li paicn criminal, 
fern. pq). sg. 12 (cite) entuschee de la lei crimin.al. 
Crist, Cristz under Jesu. 
cristal ) s. ni. crystal, precious stone. 

cristals j nom. sg. 4 n'i out acastonee ne gerame ne cristal. 

>i II 901 (esperitz) purs c esmirables cum cristals politz, 
criz under cri. 

croi, croient, croire, croit I. croiz I. (525), under creire. 
croit II. (1185. 1618) under croiz. 
croiz II. s. f. a cross. 

nom. sg. 897 la croiz e li tcrtre est fluriz, 

ace. ,, 8 eeste croiz aiire : 284 sa croiz li ad mustre : 286 veez ci la croiz : 
II II 323 ^<1 la croiz vcue : 491 ma croiz vus doins : 513 ad sa croiz \e\€c : 
.. 11 535 A. sa croiz retent ; 570 (engettez) cele croiz : 605 ccste croiz jo retenc : 
1. II 898 la croiz prist e musca : 1 1 1 2 la croiz of eus portent : 1 122 la croiz porte: 
II II 1135 vostre croiz retenir: 1 176 seisi sa croiz ; 1 185 veez ci la croit : 
„ I, 1201 la croiz les veit tenir: 1797 la croiz Jesu aiirent. 
prp. „ 412 A la croiz A. s'agenoilla : — 
,1 „ 2CX) davant sa croiz la nuit en uraisuns despent : — 

d 



XXVI 



GLOSSARY. 



(croiz II.) 



crucifi 



crucifie 
crucifie 



cruel 
cruele 



prp. sg. 90 de croiz ostez : 245 de la croiz desent : 261 de la croiz fu ostez :— 
„ ,, 209 la vie en la croiz achever : 291 cum veiz en ceste croiz figuree la image : — 
.. .) 37 en croiz murir : 502 murut en haute croiz drescee : 1448 en croiz murut : — 
„ „ 87 estre en croiz pendu : i5o8pendi: 1618 en croit le pendirent li Giti desloial :^ 
» » 157 (fu) en croiz mis : 289 en croiz lui mistrent li Giiie de putage : — 
» » 344 pur Deu en croiz pene : 427 Id Giiieu en croiz penerent : 
.. » 7S9 en croiz fu pene : 1798 en croiz murut pene : — 
„ „ 719 k'em A. en croiz crucifie: 778 \-i estre en croiz pose : — 
„ „ 931. 1496 en croiz mort sufri : 1256 mort sufri en croiz dure e cruele : — 
„ „ 1451 d'iluec esmeiiz of la croiz. 

Toc. „ 1205 (bis) croiz gloriuse ! croiz ki tant desir ! 
,, ,, 1206 croiz plus desirable k'esmeraude ! 1 207 croiz tant gloriuse ! 

E. ra. figure of Christ crucified. 

nom. sg. 1 1 12 (la croiz) u fu le crucifi. 

ace. „ 323 quant ad la croiz veiie e le crucifi en sun. 
) V. tr. to ciTicify. 
5 subj. pres. 3 sg. 719 si en droitz k'em A. en croiz crucifie. 

ppp. mas. sg. 716 ki crucifie fu eu pais de Sulie. 

sg. (obi.) 947 mar reclamas le deu crucifie : 1654 au deu crucifie (se sunt abaundun^). 



) adj. cruel. 
(1 



„ (pred.) 

„ prp- 

fem. ace. 

„ prp- 



mas. nom. sg. 229 (un poples) e cruel e hardi (vint) : 445 li tirantz criieus (entendi). 
„ „ 708 dura cist grantz mans tant cruel c tant fer. 
ace. „ 306 le pueple ke veistes tant cruel e felun. 
prp. „ 1 131 (encusez) a un cruel tirant. 
voc. „ 164b tres cruel pautener ! 
nom. pi. 1356 (paens) plus criieus e irez ke n'est urs u sengler. 

„ 1404 sunt curucez li sarrazin cruel : 1467 se reposent les sarrazins criieus : 
» 1333 '•'•r'' ^nnt il plus criieus e plus fier : 1476 estes criieus, durs e desnatureus. 
pi. 469 (huni) de ces paens criieus. 
sg. 1256 mort sufri dure e cruele. 

„ 523 dient en hauste voiz e a cruel gorgee : 1366 (ocire) a la plus cruele mort : 
„ 607 pin- nule mort tant cruele e dure, 
criieument adv. cruelly. 

235 des paumes a la face criieument feri. 
criieus under cruel, 

criieute \ s. f. cnielty. 

criieutez ) ace. sg. 38'5 trop friez criieutez. 

prp. „ 1409 les meins li unt lie a criieute e duel, 
ace. pi. 614 jo cunus voz criieutez, custusmes e porture. 
crurent, crut I. (899) under creire. 
crut II. (153) under crest, 
cuard I adj. cowardly. 

) mas. nom. sg. 474 ne te osera nuire ne cuard ne hardi. 



cuardz 

cuchez 
culur 



A, 



543 de ire e raautalent tut miie la culur. 



B, 



(". 



(«. 



,, voc. pi. 887 fous, cuardz, failliz ! 
under chucher. 
s. f. colour. 

ace. sg. 160 mua lune culur, devint li solailz bis : 
conj. as, like ; as if; how ; while, so long as. 
introducing case sentences of subj. or p red. — -oith verbs of seeing, sho-ving, telling, seeming, etc. : — 
207 avis lui est cum D. deingna : 398. 399. 400. 401. 4.03. 404 cum fu, &c. : 412 \nt cum A. 
s'agenoilla; 413 cum il guerpi M. : 42ivicumi]sc humUia : 556 entenc cum sa doctrine folage 
est : 1028 ne sevent cum Deus Pad devise : 1810 mustrer cum Deus les a revisite. 
in adverbial sentences, — modal, 1. ofgualitatiz'e likeness or similarity, unth following (ja^')substantive, 
(JiySi) clause : — 

i) 66 en enfer gist cum bucs : 91 posez en sarcu cum un de nus morteus : 506 vunt curant cum gent ki 
s'aturne : 510%'unt querant cum gent desmesuree : 554 bis. binncz cum luz u cum gupilz : 825 fre- 
missent cum liuns: 864 escrient cum lu : 1260 cum autres morteus furent cist e cele : 1285 s'en 
vunt cum ost bani ; 1418 sunt grand pueple cum sumuns a cenbel ; 1429 li sancs curt cum ewe de 
missel; 1531 li sancs cum un roiseus se espaundi : 1602 la buele sachent cum liuns: 1698 flam- 
boient cum saerpent ; 1826 a Jesu me sui rendu cum mi veisin. 

2) as appositive concept, {in the shape, quality, nature, capacity of, etc.) : — 

101 tu regneras cum sis amis: 137 lii toi cumme mere vudra enumbrer : 165 J. releva cume sires 
poestifs; 282 Deu primes enmercie cum lettrez : 559 bis. (venuz) cum maistre e cum certein pre- 



GLOSSARY. ^'^'■'^ 

lessames: '179 (A. est) of lui cum si leal sen am 1331 i ^ ^^^ charomne 

'^etI:^T7 rdlt'clm'tiseSl^sKrel^^^ 
(a 3) Of «iron</ao' preJicaU after ' recognizi .•— 

^^h:Lr\^^^^^^:^-^^^^^ —pen. ..o 

(3) s^tu^^^hL^Tur^u^Tsp^^^r^'^^^^ut^^ apelecum pastur ses aigneus : 1C06 renchacen. 
cum a cheram jurnal (v. note). „ . . „, i„„ r„;t sa Ipscun • 880 A. prent cum fait lu la 

sancs raa cum fait li roisseus. 
^^^ :^1i^r^ ^:ii:iungance : 958 ^d-cum faire doitz-ke U seit enterre : .559 ne fait pas 

a despire, — cum meint quide. 
^^> -^tf^:i::^Sf^i:rM'^^:t?^i;:'Sp;^^^^ 6.o<.rcemedoinsta 

cum cist ki poisantz est. , , . , ;, , s . 

rejoist cum se il n'ust mal. 

ijf taT^'fri c"iz7638 pur tant cum portereit de fin or : 1569 (tant saet) cum nuls d:re purra. 

III. of degree, usually without correlative :— _ 684 roche si dure cum acier; 

(,^ bis. trespassab le <^^^^^\'^^^^^^l^^,^'^^^r^.'j^^^ : 1005 ligger cum 

Ss^o^^rrmuT'nTmeg;^-^ -- '^ " — ' ^ '^57 

senglantz cum liun. 
ly- = in proportion as : — 

C ' }^^^^/1Z:::^^'nporal (a, point of tin., ft duration, y. .nterr^al) :- 

' {a\ 170^ curail estoit enmortel passiun. 

ui 606 tant cum vie me dure : 1085 tant cum vivantz sumes ci. 
g| ,343 tant cum li pere va : 1687 taut cum il Im plest espace otroier. 
cumanilc, cumande under cumander. 
eumandement^ . m^con^andment, P->an.t^^^^^_^^^^_ 

cumandent | 1^-^,^?^^ en tTs^rs'mre~t'cumant : 488 . lui vus cumant, e abandun, e U : 
cumander / ind. pres. g. 25 _^^,^,^^^ ^ _^^/^^^^ ^^^^^^^ e cumant. . 

" V no cumande entrer : 496 cumande (sa mesnee ke la maisun A. seit cerchee) . 

" " ^" f49rmande kebatu seit: 688 leselementz cumande (vengerle tort): 

•; ;; ;; ;; 728 emendez ke raisuns cumande e veut e pne : 1283, cumande k en W. (aiUent) . 

" „ „ 1640 cumande decolcr. 

" 3 pi. 665 (en prisuni le cumandent getter. 

" " infm. 1276 s'il vus plaist cumander. 

rumandeiir s. m. commander. .. 

cumanacur ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ j^. ^^^^^^ ju mund cumandeur. 

cumant I. under cumander. 

=1 '' ) :;c^sg.T9re"sV:uf St'cunt^-de dccoler A. : ..9. Tere le tuen cumant. 

dat. pi. I »I5 a mcs cumanz tant leument obeir. 
curae(i65) under cum. 

cumencail s. m. begnmmg. •,„<:„ 

cumeuv ^^^ ^g jg|2 de ceste estoire vi le cumen9aJ e fin. 

prp. ,, 55 regnera sanz cumenifail e hn. 
cumence, cumencfic under cumencer. 



XXVlll 



GLOSSARY. 



cumencement s. m. commencement. 

prp. sg. i8i di moi ke ferai tut au cumencement ? 



cumencer 

cumencera 

cumences 



cumme (137 
cumpainnie 



cumpamnun 

cumpainnuns 

cumpainun 



cumprent 

cunbatre 
conduseit 
cunestable 
cunestablie 



tr. to begin, commence, 
ind. pies. 2 sg. 1308 a Id tu cumences tant viument a tencer. 
,, „ 3 „ 31 cumence a demander : 133 cumence a esmerveiUer : 1642 curaence J precher : — 

, 42 cumence esmervoiller : 103 cumence (desploier sun sermunn) : — 

„ „ „ ,, 915 le jur A. cumence : 1746 lores cumence li bruit. 

„ fut. ,, ,, 443 mar ja cumencera nus autres teu chose, 
infin. 1688 retraire te cuvent e par tens cumencer. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 518 unt grant noise cumencee. 
adv. interrog. how. 

43 cument, dist il, OSes tu cclui numer ? 
under cum. 
s. f. company, society. 
prp. sg. 134 (kar ne vout espruver) cumpainnie (de barun) : 1227 (ateindre) a vostre cumpainnie : 

,, ,, 1345 de cest cumpainnie (ne failli ke un sul) : 1446 (assemblame) gent en une cumpainnie. 

s. m. companion, associate. 

nom. sg. 67 Apolin gist en enfer (cunpainz e vesin) lez Sathan. 



ace. ,, 1707 veit A. sun cumpainnun. 

nom. pi. 318 of lui si cumpainun (munterent). 

ace. ,, 1435 ses cumpainnuns si%Te: 1753 ses cumpainnuns martirs (mist en terre). 
V. tr. to contain. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1589 tant i a gent li.chemins nes cumprent. 
V. tr. to fight. 

infin. 1029 fort est a cunbatre a flot k'est surunde. 
V. tr. to conduct, accompany. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 481 Id bien le conduseit treis arpentz e demi. 
s. m. constable, ruler. 

ace. sg. 1040 ne dute mais tirantz, prince ne cunestable. 
s. f. troop, company. 

prp. sg. 1450 mil fumes d'iluec esmeiiz en une cunestablie. 
under cunustre. 



cunfermer, cunfermez under confermer. 



cunfessiun 
cunforte 

cunfundu 

cunge 

cunoissance 

cunpainz 
cunpere 

cunquist 

cunrei 



cunseil 

cunseilz 

cunsel 

cunsirer 

cunta, 

cunte 



284 Id le cunforte e suage. 



under confessiun. 

V. tr. to comfort. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 59 ki guarde e cunforte le poure e le frarin : 

V. tr. to confound. 

ppp. mas. sg. 871 quant eu desert tis poples de sei fu cunfundu. 

s. m. permission to depart. 

ace. sg. 374 le cunge li ad requis e demande. 

s. f. (carnal) acquaintance ; consciousness (life). 

prp. sg. 141 sanz cunoissance d'umrae u repruver : 1371 les cors ki ne estoient de nule cunussance. 

under cumpainnun. 

V. tr. to buy, pay for. 

subj. pres. 3 sg. 1581 (plus ne mangera) ke il ne cunpere cest ovre cherement. 

V. tr. to conquer. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1836 en I'eille ke cunquist Brutus e Comelin. 

s. m. arrangement (of precaution). 

nom. sg. 428 si cunrei n'en est pris, grant duel ensurdera. 

s. m. advice ; deliberation. 

ace. sg. 116 Sathan ki (i. e. cujus) cunseil lur plust escuter: 1268 a \-us cunsel sur co demant. 
.1 pl- 395 ilu^t^ unt lur segreiz e cunseilz celez : 411 lur faitz e lur cunseilz 01 e a\isa. 

under consirer. 
cuntasmes under cunter. 

s. m. enumeration. 

prp. sg. 1545 (cuntasmes) a cert cunte establi. 
cunte, cuntee under cunter. 
cuntenciun s. f. contention. 

prp. sg. 1713 u est vie sanz raort, pais sanz cuntenciun. 
cuntenement s. m. manner of life. 

ace. sg. 177 ne sai vostre lei ne cuntenement. 
cuntenu v. tr. to contain, amount to. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1403 nuef centz e nunante nuef la sumnie ad cuntenu. 



GLOSSARY. 



XXIX 



cuntrait 
cuntraitz ) 
cuntre 

cuntree 

cuntredisant 

cuntrefait 

cuntrevure 
cuntruvant ' 
cuntruvee ^ 
cuntruver ', 
cunus 
cunussance 
cunussez 
cunustre 



V. tr. to enumerate ; to narrate. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 416 la nuvele dcscura e cunta : 1493 I'aventure cunta e descu\Ti. 
„ „ I pi. 1545 nuz les cuntasmes tuz i cert cunte. 

infin. 214 sa a\isiun a lui apertenicnt cunter (va). 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 70 la [estoire n'ert (v. note)] cuntee en frances e latin. 
V. tr. to twist out of shape ; (ppp. =) adj. deformed, awr>-. 



1772 ke U ne fust du cors cuntrait, defigure : 1776 ore est un cuntraitz. 



mas. nom. sg. 

prp. against. 

229 un poples cuntre lui e cruel e hardi (vint) : 1764 soiez cuntre diable lur escu e guarant : 

s. f. countrj-. 

pp. sg. 500 en ceste cuntree d'un deu nuvel preche. 

V. intr. to contradict (dat.) 

prs. ptcp. 1 171 I'alames vengant de sesenemislui cuntredisant (v. note). 

V. tr. to imitate, represent. 

ppp. mas. sg. 597 (un deu) ki par engin est cuntrefait en entaille u peinture. 

under contruvure. 
j V. tr. to pretend, invent. 

' infin. 1298 desdi ke tu dit as par tes gas cuntruver. 
) gmd. 828 mar I'alas cuntruvant : 1 168 li uns le disoient (mes faus cuntruvant). 

under cunustre. 

under cunoissance. 
) V. tr. to know ; recognize. 
] ind. pres. i sg. 614 jo cunus vos criieutez. 

,, ,, 2 pi. 1307 mut cunussez petit cest prude ber. 

infin. 1377 cunustre les pout horn : 1541 n'i peiist hem cunustre prive ne estrangi. 

(ppp. = adj.) mas. sg. 22 n'i out plus cuneuz ne nus (i. e. nuls) plus communal. 



cunveia 
cunveient 



cunvertir 
cupa 

capable 

curage 

curaiUe 
curat 



curant 
curaument 



cure 
curent 



cursal 



\ v. tr. to escort (cf. convey, convoy). 



ind. pres. 3 pi. 1353 li angere les cunveient. 
,, pret. 3 sg. 1 133 d'iluec vus cunveia. 
V. intr. to sojourn. 

infin. 208 eu mund entre morteus e vi\Te e cunverser. 
under convertir. 
v. tr. to blame. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 231 sa doctrine despit e eschivi e a tort la cupa. 
adj. culpable. 

mas. ace. sg. 1842 (jo ne me os numer) mes pecchur cupable. 
s. m. will, determination, 
nom. sg. 179 si par aventure curage me prent. 
ace. ,, 280 entent sun quor e sun curage : 590 sun curage e quor (A.) justise. 

,, ,, 296 par avisiun vus a Deu mue le curage. 
s. f. side, vital parts of the side near the heart, 
ace. sg. 256 un de eus la curaille d'un glaive U o\Ti. 
adj. belonging to the heart (physically), 
mas. nom. sg. 7 avau I'un des costez raa li sancs cural. 
„ prp. ,, 1603 au peel I'unt atache a grant turment cural. 
under cure 11. 

adv. from the heart, sincerely. 
925 pur tes enemis curaument Deu prias. 
s. f. care ; aver cure de, to care to (do anything), 
ace. sg. 783 de tut prent cure quancke il ad crie. 
,, ,, 591 cum celui ki de blandir n'a cure: 1633 n'unt cure de celer. 
) V. intr. to run. 

J ind. pres. 3 sg. 1344 li frere li curt sure : 1429 li sancs en curt raant. 
,, ,, ,, pi. 762 curent e poinnent a cheval e a p6. 

infin. 636 (ainz purra) ruisseu cure vers munt : 1424 devant eus funt cure le gentil juvcnccl. 
grnd. 503 cist s'en vunt curant : 1 167 funtainne (est surse) i grant ruissel curant. 
pp. mas. sg. 878 (roisseus) ki avau le pendant s'espant e est curu. 
s. m. chariot. 

prp. sg. 623 (un' image) en un curre estant. 
adj. running (of a stream). 

mas. nom. sg. 161 1 cum fait de la funtainne li roisseus cursal. 
s. f court (of a prince). 
nom. sg. 439 la curt apertement (orra). 



XXX 



GLOSSARY. 



1 144 tuz de la curt veant. 



curt 

curuce 

curuce 

curucent 

curucer 



■| V. tr. 
1 ind. f 



(curt I.) nom. sg. 499 facent venir S la curt asembUe : 539 a curt sunt ja venuz. 
prp. „ 453 guami par aucun de la curt : 726 le plus de la curt s'asent ; 
II., cum under cure 11. 

to make angrj' ; ref. to become angry, 
pres. 3 sg. 536 dunt plus se curuce cele gent maluree. 
I ,, „ ,, pi. 1622 dunt paien se curucent. 
f infin. 1325 quant 90 ouent S., n'i out ke curucer : 

J,, 1639 quant ot 90 li princes, n'i out ke curucer. 
app. (pft. 2 sg.) 1662 tu les as curuce par tun grant nun saver, 
ppp. mas. pi. 1404 mut en sunt curucez li sarrazin cruel, 
curuna v. tr. to crown. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 238 un poples vint ki de espines curuna (Jesu). 
ppp. mas. sg. 352 regnera eu ciel sanz fin curune : 903 cuiiine est de cinune d'or. 
,, ,, ,, 905 eu regne du ciel est martir curune: 1073 martu's est glor'ius curunez e fluri. 
,, ,, pi. 1 3 19 en cest mund princes curunez regner. 
,, prp. ,, 1018 entre les* seintz martirs fluriz e cumne (v. note), 
curune s. f. crown. 

prp. sg. 903 curune est de curune d'or : 1617 k curune de espines pur chapel capital, 
curune, curnnez under curuna. 



custumme 



custumel 

custusmes 
cutel 



cutes 

cuteus 
cuvenant 

cuvendra 
cuvent 



[625 de cuteus naverer. 



s. m. anger. 

prp. sg. 544 puis li ad dit par curuz e irur. 
s. f. (established) custom, mode of action, 
nom. sg. 744 custumme est e dreiture ke il seit decole. 
ace. pi. 614 jo cunus voz crueutez custusmes e porture. 
adj. customar}'. 

mas. ace. sg. 625 ser\ise e wu anuel custumel soudrunt. 
under custumme. 
s. m. linife. 

prp. sg. 1426 aler le sumunent de lance e de cutel. 
ace. pi. 852 portent gisarmes e grantz cuteus muluz. 
prp. pi. 1607 (ferent) de lances e cuteus e gros bastun poinnal : 
,, ,, 1747 de maces e cuteus (ferent nafrent e traient). 
s. m. elbow. 

prp. pi. 940 a genoilz e a cutes ad le tertre mimte. 
under cutel. 
s. m. covenant. 

nom. sg. 1 740 tel fu lur cuvenant. 
) V. intr. (inipers.) to be incumbent. 
/ ind. pres. 3 sg. 1239 crere cuvent a crestien: 1302 tuz lur cuvent passer (par la mort). 

)) » >> ^Si^i guerpir M. vus cuvent : 16S8 retraire te cuvent: 

,, ,, ,, 1693 90 est la porte p.^r unt cuvent eu eel entrer. 
pret ,, ,, no lur cuvint lur vie demener en labur : 

,, ,, ,, 1 15 (ne pout estre guarantz) ke tuz ne lur cu\'int cele part aler. 

„ ,, ,, 117 lur cuvint of lui demurer: 121 ki par humme cuvint descumfire (diable). 
fut. ,, „ 1679 la cuvendra il trestuz ceus demurer : 1684 la te cuvendra aler. 
(ppp. =) adj. concealed, covered. 

mas. nom. pi. 979 crestiens plusurs cuvert e cel£ (I'unt aide), 
s. f. concealment. 

prp. sg. 613 a VTis fust li clers venuz sanz fuie e cuverture. 
under cuvent. 



GLOSSARY. XXXI 



D. 



damage s. m. harm ; damage est, it is a pity. 

nom. se. iqro cist clers damage est k'il ne pent. j,„,„. 

ace. ,r 44 unt eu damage e desturber: 1140 damage encuniraes : 1577 trop nus ad fait damage, 
damager v. tr. to damage. 

infin. 140 sanz pucebge perdre u damager. 
Daraas n. pr. Damascus. 

prp. 1497 pur tut Tor de Damas. 
damne v. Ir. to condemn, to damn. 

pop. mas. sg. 99 ne vout Deus ke soiez damnez ne perdu : r-, . j s 

" „ pl- 1790 sunt en enfer a tut dis damne: 1818 sunt dampne diable en enfer. 
)| prp. „ 1684 la te cuvendra of les dampnez aler. 
',', voc. „ 174 vus, pecchur dampnez ! (venez eu feu). 
Damnedeu (Dominus Deus) Tlie Lord God (v. note, 403). 
ace sa. 0^9 ad umblement D.imnedeu mercie. 

prp. ,, 403 cum furent andui de Damnedeu privez : 884 un paens de Damnedeu maudiz. 
damnez under damne 

dampnacium s. f. damnation. 

prp. sg. 308 mistrent Jesu i mort e a dampnacmm. 
dampnfi, dampnez under damne. 
danz king, chief, (Don) ; in this form only before proper names. 

ace. sg. 1 102 Jovin e Danz Phebun reni. 
darreiner adj. hindermost (in place). 
darreinner mas. nom. sg. 1338 premers voisist estre ki est Ii darrener : 

„ „ 1591 blasmez fu 11 darremner e ki d aler fu lent. 
" pip. ,, 1 528 pesa al daneinner k'il taut fu esparni. 

darreins adj. last (in time). . . , . r % 

mas. nom. sg. 577 n'estes pas darrems, a tei n est fiiit preraur. 
darrener under darreiner. 

davant (uV. 200) under devant. 

n't:^d^^f^rvJrl^i-^rSj.,tn.adved.ially;-B,inat.ribution;-C,^^^^^ 

,., ''•'±^f-^l;;'rr;^:'^;:(:"l^'/^:.;;^ 207.227. ^45. 487...06,. n8o (.nojeM7.9: 

' ' esaJr 11S6: esmuvoir x^^O: flaschir 896: (h)issir 257. 48°- 837 bis 876. '73 -/j"^ "• J^S- 

4-9 482. .05^: (raer) 161 1 : rel€^<ey n : saillir 913- ■094= «"-'^« "'^'^ • febucher in ■ '"'"'- 

27. 32. 33. 170. 424- "^7- 1385- i558:-(/3) faiUir 1346. 

(2> transitive, (a) of seTnance,(li) of defc?ice, (y) of reception :— 

' Zper 948 : cunveier ..33 : deih.;ilcr 398 : desturner 1.08 : eslotnnir 43i- 489 : 'xudle'- 109 : 

ZLr ..44. .736: ^r/.rgo. 261. 970: iacher 1265. .60, : sevrer 954- '0'3- >3'6: trametre .68. 

6s8: faire voter ±^0. %■;,(>. ^<)^. . , .„. „ j, 

(31 defeJreiS^o. 1/57: Av.-r' 3,9. ,448: engel/cr ..9. 310: garantir 12^: gardcr :o;. .048. 

^'^' \%tM^^ mehirur .666 : reimbre ?\m '-rescure 38. .66. 287 bis. rcsusatcr 794 : ^'"'er 974 ■■ 

(y) 7v"rl\p:' liver St! : prendre (>S9- '801 : recever Zoo : retenir s^2. 604. ..35. 
(3) of origin: — , ,, , 

naistre 87. 564. 1781 : estre .44. de \erolame sui. 

'^> 1^^'C:lZ f ;^^:d7vcrtu : . 52 Ms. il (u d'age e de ans Ireis feiz dis : 288 , ant esUiit d'age : 

c66 tant sunt de valur : 786 tant sunt de vcrtu : 1661 tant sunt de poer : 7^7 esto.t de grande felunie : 
,371 denule cum.ss.ance: ,462 de grant seignurie : 1556 de grant ense.gnement : i8.6esto.ede 
la loi A. : — 643 ki de metal sunt. 

(in contracted clause with omitted estre") :— .,,•,■ v 1 r , 

77i» li jourc volcmrifs [ki sunt] de force c pocste : 1060 un rais (ki lu) de un feu . 

/CI denotina in) the instrument, {^) the agent: — ■ r -j .,0 ^ 

*^ («) 88 ferru du glaive : 95 delrekeliez de brantz : 234 bati de escurgies : 235 fendes paumes : 238 curun* 

' ' de espines : 256 ovri d'un glaive : 258 de [mes oilz 90 v.] : 450 fra voler de brant : 515 anisie des 

lermes 647 laidist de paroles : 65. bis. batist de pens e de basluns : 666. 7.0. 749 !■« de chaesnes : 



xxxii GLOSSARY. 

835 bis. fert du poin e du bastun : 844 defulent des pez : 894 feru du brant : 880 recunfortez de 
I'ewe : 98 1 envolupe de dras : loio batu de ma9iies : loii deroche de roche : 1013 sevTe du brant : 
1252 nurri de sa mamele : 1303 decolez du brand : 1372 bis. esbuelez de espee u de lance : 1426 
bis. sumunent de lance e de cutcl : 1580 mangera de la dent : 1607 batent de lances : 1610 batu des 
verges: 1625 na\Ter de cuteus : I700ter. de pares I'agraventent, de zuche e de perrun : 1701 bis. 
batent de mace e de bastun: 1747 ter. (ferent) de maces e de lance e de brant: 1792 depece de 
mailz : 1838 decole du brant. 
(/?) I redutee de diable : 76 01 de veisins : 93 recuneii des citoiens : 150 purpris de maufe : 158 feru du 
chevaler : 303 honore de anglin legiun : 410 veil de eus : 469 huni de ces paens : 555 escriez de 
pastur: 884 maudiz de Deu : 900 portez des angles : 957 bis. devore de egles ne de lus : 1549 blesmi 
de chens ne d'autres bestes : 1776 purpris de maufe : — 1 7 14 enveit de angeres (v. note). 

(6) of the caitse, (a) viental^ {^') physical : — 

(a) 446 d'ue tressua : 543 de ire tut niiie la culur : 871 cunfundu de sei : 993 suspris de rancur : 993 
envenime de ire : 1 1 1 5 de feblesce enpali : 1165 laburant de sei : 1243 espris de ire : 1434 suspris 
de maladie : 1453 de langur : 1491 refait de joie : 1565 enflambez de ire : 1566 fent de ire. 

(/3) 534 ensanglaentee du sacher : 691 du solail flestrisent. 

(7) 0/ the motive and ground : — (a) sorrow, fear, emotion, — (/3) astonishment, repentance, — (y) care, 
need, pity, — (^) rejoicing, — (() mocldng, — (t) thanks, accusation, vengeance. 

(a) 867 des maus dolenz est : 916 eflreez de 90 : 1728 de la voLx se eflreent : 589 de 90 n'est esmuz : 

73 de ses diz est meiiz. 
(/3) s'esmervoiller 1^2. 77. 549: repentir <^(i%. 579. 1 146. 
(y) aver garde 1727 ter.: aver merci 1327: aver piete 581. 630: — {chaloir) 464 de moi ki cheut .' — 

prendre cure 783 : prendre pite 927. 1438 : — se suvenir 1208 : — 
(S) 912 n'est mie esjoitz de sun fait : 1480 de teus en unt grant joie. 
(f) 571 ben s'en pent gabber de vus. 
(J) prendre vengeance 1512. 1583. 1768 : rend re graces 1398 : retter 1406 : venger 1171. 1492. 

(8) of the substance of which an object is made : — 

(a) 61. iSiufstde I'ewe vin : 188 de toi li fras sacrifice: 281 Vat fait aignel d'un leun : 392 d'une 

maisun sutive unt fait lur escole : 635 de glzce fates pund : — 5 de fust lufurmez:— 
(/3) 292 bis. ne mist d'or ne d'argent pur nus ran9un : 293 de sa char (mist) sacrifice. 

(9) of the object concerning which anything is done : — 

519. 520. une grant noise curaencee de I'esclavine, e de la croiz nuvele : 251 de moi est acumpli : 
465 de vus senoit grant duel : 1238 un sermun lur ad fait de la trinite. 

(10) of fillings clothing, &c. : — 

(a) 129 replenie de grace : 1525 empli d'or : — 

(/J) 2 b's. adubbee d'or ne d' autre metal : 3 bis. de pere, de ivoire : 20 batiie d'or : 850 vestu de robes : 

851 bis. garni de haubercs e de buclers : 903 curune de curune : 1134 bruidee d'or: 1212 vestir de 

sa robe : 1248 vestuz de viu gunele : — 
(y) 896 fluriz du sang : 1837 teinte de sang : — 

\S) 12 entuschee de la lei criminal : 89 de fel enbeiiz : 1362 ne se desjunerunt nis de un disner. 
(Ti) of investiture, participation : — 

311 de la lei lur fist present. 

seisir{Ae gueredun, dun) 908. 1017. 1045. 1098. 1726 : aver part (As ceus, de moi) 92S. I7r&. 

(12) of narrative : — 

desclore . . . 398.399.402.404.405: descuverir ^^J, : dire dien l$~o: ditevo'irs 1128: endoctti- 
ner 997. 1808 : enseinner 387 : garnir 452, 616 : o'ir 448. 936 : patler 41 : penstt 5O3. 1013 : 
precher y>i, 525. 1251. 1262. 1558 : recunter 61'] : saver 1250: sermuner 42O. 1190. 

(13) partitive : — 

368. 870 de I'ewe : 676 ne belt raais des bons vins : 1301 del avoir. 
II. with adjectives: — 
(i) (o) 1297 quites de mort : 1322 parcener de la joie: 1337 certz de luer : 378 seiir de vus. 
((3) of qualitative determination : — 

285 nobiles de parage : 550 bis. sages de aprise, e d'age maiir : 732 orb de quor : 743 gentilz de 

parage : 1378 gentil de nesance : 1379 grantz de cresance. 

(2') with indeterminate (a) pronouns, un, aucun, plusurs, &c. — (J^') adverbial expressions of quantity: — 

(a) 9iundenus; 7. 1305. 1388. 1483. 1769 un(s) des : 256.721. 1493. 1525. 1592 un(s) de eus : 453. 

aucun de la curt : 739. 1394. 1790 cist de (la terre, cite) : 1144 tuz de la curt : J4bi nul des S. : 

1 48 1 li plusur de eus : 1527 chescun de eus : 1631 plusurs de eus. 

(/3) 147 pou de: 290, bis. 638. 1516. 1554. 1568 tant de: 769 plente de : 359. 425. 1249 ter. 1595 

plus de. 
(III.) adverbially ; (i) of place, — (a) of general reference = on the side of, — (^) of the part of the body 
affected,— (y) of the terminus a quo, — (f,) in compound prepositions : — 
(1) (a) 875 du munt : 1339 d'une part : i340d'autre. 



GLOSSARY. xxxiii 

(/i) 989 renuvel^ du cors : 1263 bis. enfrundrer de teste u de cerv-ele : 1350 bis. martir de cors, duluser 
de quor : 1772 cunttait du cors : 1773 quater. defigure de visage, braz, main, pe. 

(y) 1264 de ci k'a Burdele : 1702 du frund gesc' au talun. 

(c) 750 hors de la cite : 1464 pres de V. :— 6 a loi de desloial : 680 en liu de buus : 1084 endroit de soi : 
1423 fors d'un mantel. 

(2) of time .; — • 

396 des relcvees : "00 de nuitz. 

(3) of manner : — 

104. 175. 322 de quor entent : 471 prendrai de bon quor: 647 ha'i de quor : 685 suefre de verai 
quoer : 1033 abaundune de quoer : 123O gei'r de quor: 1348 gent de quor : 1O32. 1843 de quor 
verai : 483 de tendnir gent : 775 gent de piete : 749. 1009 de rechief : 823. 1 136 de meintenant : 
892 de ren : 964. 1089. 1542 de fi : 1203 de parfuud : 1442. 1696 del tut: 1620 de loing : 
1730 de randun : i77idegre. 
(IV.) in place of conjunction after comparatives : — 
242 autres de toi : 1074 plus sages des autres. 
B in attributive clauses : — 

a. of material: — 

20 nusches de aesmal : 477- 1829 pelei(;un d'emiine : 624 image d'or : 680 buus dor: 682 coutes 
pointes de soie : 710 chaesnesj de fer : 903. 904 curune d'or. de jaspes : 1303. 1641. brand d'acer : 
l6r" curune de espines : 1664 bis. Iresor de argent e de or : 1828 chauceiire de cordewon. 

b. of determination, quality, &c. : — , , . ■ t, 

(a) 69 ewe du Rin : 240 rois de Giueus : 501 Jesu de Galilde : 716 pais de Sulie : 741 lei de Kumme : 
ii26citoien de Verolame : 1497 or de Damas:— 681 pailles d'utre mer: 1271 clerc d'utre mer : — 
424 terres de dela : 836 genzives de devant : — 122 pere du ciel : 144 reis de parais : 3(17. 965. 
jrj- regne du ciel : 1064 1097 angere du eel : 1226 gloire du eel : 1322 joie du eel : 1410 deus de 
eel : I '\z prisun de emfer : 599. 108 1 prisun d'enfer : 1675 puis de enfer : 1759 fu d' enfer. 

(3) 289 Giue de putage : 1841 paiens de puslin. 

(y) 312 terre de promissiun : 330 funtainne de remissiun : 345 hem de lealtg : 547 citoien de parente 

majur: 6iibis.gent de sen, de raisun : 1019 deus de majeste : 1645 rei de gloire: 1710 fiz de 
perdiciun : 1 78Z rei de majeste. 

c. of cause, origin, occasion: — 

317 volz du liun : 495 clarte du solail : 905 chantz des legiuns 1—394 fertez des sarracms : 596 ovre 
de uns enginnurs : 657 traisun de la saerpent : 885 enchantement d'A. : 960 presse du pueple : 
JO43 encurnbrer de diable : 1257 prophecie d'anciens :— 153 renumee de lui : 831 huntage de lui : 
1058 gloire de lui : 1194 sauvaciun de nus : 1226 essample de vus :— 36 nuvele du fiz Deu : 416 _n. 
d'A.: 735 n. deli: 1042 chan9un de lui : I202 estoire de li : 1488 nuvele d'Apl. : 1845 estoire 
de a! 

d. of possession, general reference :— ., , , o ■ 
(a) 4.668 cors d'um: 18 uis de sun ostal : 106 fruit d'un arbre : 253 veilz du temple: 349 flur du 

champ: 349. 999 erbe du pre : 653 lius du cors : 838 remenant du cors : ii64pedu munt : 1376 
girun de chemise : 1428 pel des plantes : 1429 ewe de missel ; 1465 tureles de lur temples : i6o» 
char de cors bestial. 

(i5) 7 fiz d'une pucele : 134 cumpainnie de barun : 138 seignune du mund : 141 cunoissance d umme : 

226 1532 gloire de Deu : 311 dun de la lei : 326 cunfessiun de ses errurs : 329. 812 pardun de mes 
pecchcz : 362 faitz du cors : 370. 1804 nun de (la) trinite : 372 summe de la fei : 403. 784 privfi de 
Deu (lui) : 404 sacramentz d'iglise : 529 juis de mun ee : 562 chef de tur : 588 flur de la cit€ : 
60? fi"ure de T- : 622- 882 deu du solail : 922 gloire du mund : loot bis. coup de mace e de brant : 
1052 martiies de A. : 1060 solailz de midi : 1107 poiir de br.ant : 1 162 valur d'un gant : 1169 vertu 
du solail: 1246 onur des deus : 1375 semblance de leit : 1393 gardeins de morticine : 1439 rute 
des S. : 1445 mort du cors : 1561 mescinement des cors : 1652 acheisun de ccst mal : 1671 butun 
d'clenter: 1747 ter. estur de mace, &c. : 1806 confessiun de folic: 1812 cumen^ail de ceste 
estoire :— 459 sires de cest p.ais : 546 cumandeiir du munde : 565 seingnur de grantz terres ; 
714 prince de la teire : 754 deus de la citS : 1391 lu du bois : 1 780 princes de la cite ; 1 802 bis. 
sires de terre e du eel. 

(y) after infinitive, used substantively: — 

258 au s.aucher de la lance : 1051 au partir de cest sccle : 1 153 au passer de un pund. 

'■ fe?. 905. 1706 legiun(s) des angles: 720 grant partie des Sarrazins : 726 le plus de la curt : 

1031. 1032 mil des eitoiens, des plus honurables. 
C Before infinitives after— I, nouns, (^) attributively; 2, adjectives; i, verbs; 4, clause, to exf rest 

purpose : — ,..,,,, 

, 591 n'a cure de blandir : 961 n'ai soing de gas oir : 633 n unt cure de ccler, 

(/3) 800 Ic cumant de decolcr A. 



XXXIV 



GLOSSARY. 



(2) 1003 alasse de batre : 1650 las de langetter : 1624. 1625 ter. aegre de li turmenter, &c. 

(3) 768 de passer s'est eforce : 1196 ne larnam de fere: 1204 bis. se retenir de gendre e de lenner : 
1439 de crier )e chastie : 1590. 1717 se pener (d'aler) (de mettrc) : 1629 ne fine de urer : 
1695 \nis lou de vus purvoier. 

(4) 1328 (sachent leurs epees) d'ocire : 1419 sumuns a cenbel d'envair : I471 (nuveus est) de faire : 
1527 (avant se purofri) de murir. 

debatent v. tr. to maul. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 838 derochent e debatent du cors le remenant. 
debonaire \ adj. gentle, 
debonaires ) mas. nom. sg. 1477 duz e debonaires est Deus e dreitureus. 

,, voc. ,, 81 1 hai Jesu debonaire ! 
deboneireraent adv. kindly. 

1 21 1 tant deboneirement e aver e cherir. 
debonnerete s. f. kindness. 

prp. sg. 778 pur tiie franchise e debonnerete (fai I'ewe decrestre). 
debrise 1 v. tr. to bniise. 
debrisez j ppp. mas. sg. 935 senglant e debrise : 1 163 batuz e debrisez : 

1 702 tut est debrise du fiTind gesc'au talun. 

deceivre ) v. tr. to deceive. 

deceii ) infin. 165: (n'estes las de) decei\Te . . . e par diz enganer. 

ppp. mas. sg. 92 trop i es enganez, trop i es deceii. 
deciple, deciples under disciple. 



decirent 
declin 

decline 
declinercnt 

decola 
decole 
decoler 
decolez 



defendi 
defendu 
defent 



defi 
defie 

defigure 

defule 
defulent 
defulcr 
defulez 



dehors 



dei 



'339 veissez les uns decoler : 



under desire 11. 
s. m. decrease, decline. 

prp. sg. 1819 le honur Jesu crest, e cist vunt en declin. 
) V. intr. to decline, go down (sun, day) ; degenerate. 
f ind. pres. 3 sg. 454 li jurs decline e nuit enobscuri ; 1054 li solailz ja decline e li jurs envespri. 

,, pret. 3 pi. 163 tuz jurs declinerent puis de mal en pis. 
") V. tr. to behead. 

I ind. pret. 3 sg. 911 (li las cheitifs) ki le decola. 
I iuJin. 800 (out receii le cumant) de decoler A. : 

J ,, 1640 cumande trestuz ceus decoler. 

ppp. mas. sg. 744 custumme est ke il seit decole : 937 est ja decole : 1 1 73 fu A. decolez : 

,, ,, ,, 1303 n'a cist ki decolez ne seit du brand d'acer : 

,, ,, ,, 1443. 183S decole fu (a la espee furbie) (du brand acerin). 
V. tr. to defend, maintain or uphold ; to forbid, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1557 (ceus) de huntage defent : 1567 losengers ki sun emir defenU 

,, pret. ,, ,, 106 d'un arbre lur defendi le fruit a manger : 

,, ,, ,, ,, 1550 (uns aigles) d'oiseus les cors bien defendi. 
app. (pft. 3 pi.) 1387 les cors unt as martirs garde e defendu. 
V. tr. to renounce, repudiate, 
ind. pres. i sg. i lOO les deus ke servi ai, desore mais defi. 

,, ,, 3 ,, 723 noz deus despersone e defie. 
v. tr. to disfigure. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1772 ke il ne fust du cors cuntrait, defigure. 
V. tr. to trample down, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 844 des pez le defulent : 1730 navrent e defulent St chevans. 

infin. 1341 (veissez) as chevaus defuler. 
app. (pft. 3 pi.) lOio (I'unt) batu de ma9iies e a pez defule. 
ppp. mas. sg. 988 as chevaus defule : 1 163 defule e senglant : 1767 mort e defule. 

,, ,, pi. 1540 defulez e guerpi. 
prep, outside of 
1 152 dehors la cite. 
V. tr. to owe ; intr. id. 
ind. pres. I sg. 1261 fei ke dei Palladie : 1572 fei ke dei Phebun : 

,, ,, ,, ,, 1824 fei ke doi porter lui ki fist d'ewe \'in. 

,, ,, 2 „ 297 fai, cum fere deiz : 958 fai, cum faire doitz. 

,, „ 3 „ 132 Messie Id deit tut le mund restorer : 406 par unt doit horn estre sauvcz : 

,, ,, ,, ,, 686 mut deit sufrir leal chevaler : 955 cist ne vus deit faillir : 

,, ,, ,, ,, 1208 bien me deit (d'A. le gentil) suvenir. 

,, ,, I pi. 1007 fei ke nus devum Mahum : 1269 ne ^'us devum celer : 

„ 1318 de\'um pur Jesu murir desirer: 1553 devum estre dejoie repleni. 

,, fut. I sg. 182 (di moi) ke fere deverai. 



GLOSSARY. 



XXXV 



(dei) 



deigna 

deignas 

deigne 

deingna 

deingnast 

deingnat 

deinna 

deis, deise 

deisciple 

deit, deiz 

deitg 

del 
deia 

delai 



delapident 

deliciuses 

delit 

delitable 
delitables 



subj. impft. 3 sg. 558 vcnuz dust estre ci : 1264 si quis deust estre. 

,, ,, 2 pi. 551 deiissez estre asautres essample e raireiir : 

J, „ „ 962 ne deiissez esjoir si leiisez sen^. 

V. iiitr. to deign (always said of God or Clirist, save in 1 209). 
ind. prcs. 3 sg. 204 Ici'li doinne sun scgiei demustrer : 1351 Id les deigne apeler. 

„ pret. 2 „ 1156 Ivi horn furmer deignas a tun semblant. 

„ 3 „ 29 nusilcingna criiir : 36 nus deingna sauver: 118 deinna crier : 
„ „ „ „ 207 deingna du cicl desendre : 

,, „ „ 10^7 deigna mustrer : 1209 me deingnat acuillir : 1444 fere deingna vertuz. 
J subj. impft. 3 sg. 87 (ne I'ai apris ke Deu) deingnast de femme naistre. 
under dire, 
under disciple, 
under dei. 
s. f. godhead. 

ace. sg. 1800 unt ja recunu sa haute deite. 
under de. 
adv. beyond. 

424 s'en vent des terres de dela. 
s. m. delay, 
prp. sg. 756 tu muiTas santz delai : 1284 ceste grant busoinne sanz delai achever : 

,, „ 1582 jo en prendrai sanz delai si hautvengement: 1640 cumande sanz delai ceus decoler. 
v. tr. to stone. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1729 lors le delapident trestuit a baundun. 
adj. delicious. 

fern. ace. pi. 678 n'a mais deliciuses viandes a manger, 
s. m. dehght. 
ace. sg. 662 en \-us met ma espcrance, e m'amur e delit. 



1 adj. delightful. 
/ 1 



mas. nom. sg. 225 (li eels) beus e delitables e purs e esclarci. 
fern. „ ,, 1050 [la joie) ki par est delitable. 
) v. Ir. to deliver. 
J infin. 1448 en eroiz murut pur delivrer* nus d'enfemal baillie. 

app. (ind. ant. 3 sg.) 319 k' (= quos) il out delivrfi d'enfernal dragun. 
1 adj. light, unembanassed. 

1 mas. nom. sg. 976 ne fu unc plus delivres : 1459 seins est e tut delivres. 
„ ace. „ 990 (I'unt veil tut seint) delivre e tut legger cum oisel enpenne. 
s. m. the deluge. 

prp. sg. 400 cum par le deluge estoit li raundz* purgez. 
v. tr. to demand, beg. 

ind. pres. I sg. 29 ostel demand pur Deu : 329. 8i2demespecchezpardun demant : 
,, ,, ,, ,, 1 192 batesme demant : 1268 a vus cunsel sur 90 demant : 
,, ,, ,, ,, 1761 jo vus quoer e demant (Ue nussoiezescu). 
„ ,, 3 „ 368 de I'ewe atant demande, e hom li ad portc, (e baptize A.). 
>> II 3 pl- 51 1 Ic crcsticn demandent k'ad lur lei avilee. 

infin. 31 cumence 4 demander : 107 sanz pardun demander : 
,, 1291 (unt truvej par querre e demander. 
pres.plcp.mas.pl. 1 188 mil sumcs par numbre e vus sul demandant. 
app. (pft. 3 sg.) 374 le cungc li ad requis e demande. 
adj. one's own, ' proprius.' 
mas. ace. sg. 244 sauf tun cors dcnieine. 
,, prp. ,, 1 186 teinst en sun sane demeine. 
,, ,, pl. 909 4 honur I'acoilt Deus of ses dcsmeine eslitz. 
fern. ,, sg. 293 de sa char demeine (mist) sacrifice e ostage. 
V. tr. to perform (penance) ; to spend (life) ; to manifest (joy, grief), 
ind. pres. 3 pl. 1807 ])enance demeinent. 
imper. i ,, 1083 penance demenum kc ne seium peri. 

infin. 1 10 lur cuvint lur vie demener en labur : 1354 chantent pur joie demener. 
app. (pft. 3 pl.) 983 si parent pur sa mort grant duel unt dcmene. 
adj. half. 

mas. nom. sg. 712 passe en fu ja dimi an plener. 
„ (ace.) „ 481 le cunduseit treis arpentz e demi : — 

„ ,, ,, 1093 (la terre) fruit ne herbe demi an ne rendi : 1 139 dinii an n'en la tene ne pluveit. 
demuere, demura under demurer. 

e 2 



deli\T^ 
delivrer 

delivre 
delivTCS 

deluge 

demand 

•demandant 

demande 

demande 

demandent 

demander 

demant 



demeine 



demeinent 
demenfi 
demener 
demenum 

demi 



XXXVl 



GLOSSARY. 



demurance 



clemurant, 
demure 



demuree 



demurer 

demurez 



demustre 
demustre 
demustrer 

dener 

dent 
denz 

depanez 

depece 
depece 
depesce 

deproiez 

derami 

deroche 
derocheiit 

des I. 

des ir. 



s. f. delay ; continuous imprisonment. 

nom. sg. 668 plus seut demurance le cors d'um pener ke ne fait anguisse ki s'en put tost passer, 
prp. ,, 1373 beus devenent e enters sanz nule demurance. 
demure under demurer, 
s. f. delay. 

prp. sg. 626 au temple santz demure irrunt. 
s. f. delay. 

prp. sg. 50; as maissuns A. vunt sanz nule demtiree. 
) V. intr. to delay ; stop, abide, dwell. 
J ind. pres. 3 sg. igg Apl. sul i demuere e atent. 
iniper. 2 pi. 386 une semeine veaus of moi demurez. 

jufin. 117 lur cu\int of lui demurer : 221 k'en vostre doctrine ne voille demurer : 
„ 666 (le cumandent) la demurer : 1352 vunt eu ciel demurer (sanz fin)': 
,, 1679 la cuvendra U trestuz ceus demurer. 

,, 1326 sachent les espees sanz demurer : 1685 si tu ne gueqiis tes deus sanz demurer, 
gmd. 818. 887 k'alez vus demiu'ant .'' 
pp. mas. sg. 391 dumurez est (Apl.) : 969 A. est demure. 
V. tr. to demonstrate, manifest, 
imper. 2 sg. 872 demustre ta vertu. 

infin. 135 la recunforte par raisuns demustrer : 204 ki li doinne sun segrei demustrer. 
app.(pft.3 sg.) 372 de la fei Deu la summe (a) apris e demustriJ. 
s. m. penny, ' denarius.' 

(ace. sg.) 40 sanz ki ne vaut pas tut li mundz un dener. 
s. f tooth. 

prp. sg. 1580 plus ne mangera jamais de la dent, 
ace. pi 836 les denz lui fait voler des genzives de devant. 
V. tr. to tear (cloth) ; pp. = adj. ragged, 
mas. nom. sg. 1248 nu-pez e depanez, vestuz de viu gunele. 



\ V. tr. to pull to pieces ; intr. to fall in pieces. 

'■ ind. pres. 3 sg. 644 pere perist e depece, fust art e metal funt. 

) app. (pft. 3 pi.) 1792 lur deus de mailz unt depece. 

ppp. mas. sg. 953 di li k'il garisse tun cors k'est depesce. 

V. tr. to beseech. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1524 mut furent manacez, deproiez e blandi. 

V. tr. to rend (clothes). 

app. (pft. 3 pi.) 1514 lur dras unt derami. 
) V. tr. to stone. 
] ind. pres. 3 pi. 838 derochent e debatent du cors le remenant. 

app. (pft. 3 pi.) ion de pere (I'und) deroche. 

prp. from, since. 

215 des hier : 1 161 des dune en avant. 

under de. 



descendant, descendi under desendre. 



desclore 

desclos 

desclot 



V. tr. to disclose ; ref to be opened. 



J ind. pret. 3 sg. 224 .a\is m'ert ke li eels se desclot e u\Ti : 1064 du eel ki desclot e uveri (t. note). 
) infin. 275 (Deus me descuvri) segiei ke desclore ■vnis ni. 

app. (pft. 3 sg.) 397 lors li ad desclos escriz d'antiquitez. 
descrestre v. intr. to decrease. 

infin. 780 fai I'ewe descrestre. 
descumfire v. tr. to discomfit. 

infin. 121 par humme cuvint descumfire e mater, 
descunfortez v. tr. to afllict. 

ppp. (= adj.) mas. sg. 384 dolenz en serroi e trop descunfortez. 
descunus v. tr. to disown. 

ind. pres. i sg. 335 Jo\in descunus e sun frere N. 
descuverir \ v. tr. to discover ; to disclose. 

descuverz | ind. pret. 3 sg. 274 (me mustra) e me descm-ri : 416 d'A. la nuvele descuvri e cunta : 
descuvri ) ,, ,, ,, ,, 1058 (Jesus) de lui la gloire descuvri : 1493 I'aventure cunta e descuvri. 
infin. 276 descuverir ne I'os : 1222 ki te vout sun segrei descuverir. 

ppp. mas. pi. 457 descuverz sumes de 90 ke nus avum fait ci. 
desdeingnant v. tr. to disdain. 

pres. ptc. mas. pi. 1 68 1 (li felun guerroier) desdeingnant Deu amer. 



GLOSSARY. 



XXX vu 



desdi 
desdit 



\ V. tr. to unsay, contradict. 

j ind. pres. 3 sg. 815 (le element tesmoine) 90 ke hem desdit. 



imper. 2 „ 1298. 1659 desdi ke tu dit as (par tes gas cuntruver) (pur ki gent enginner). 
app. (pft. 3 pk) "48 autres jugementz unt desdit e fause. 
desendent "l v. intr. to descend. 

desendi ind. pres. 3 pk 1063 muntent e desendent di beus angeres) : 

desendrc > ,, >> ,, „ 1720 es vus deus angeres ki de lur mansiun desendent. 
desendu ,, pret. 3 sg. 227 uns horn en terre 9a jus desendi : 487 ki du ciel desendi : 

dcsent J „ „ „ „ 1061 (un rais) du eel descend!, 

imper. 2 ,, 245 de la croiz desent ore. 

infin. 207 Deus deingna du ciel desendre e avaler. 
gmd. 1 181 (un rais du eel) resplendi descendant (sur la tumbe A.), 
pp. mas. sg. 1386 (un aigles) lei a. terre est desendu. 
desert s. m. wilderness. 

prp. sg. 871 eu desert tis poples de sei fu cunfundu : 1505 eu desert gisez (cum charoiiine guer|ii). 
.. >. '385 est du desert un grant lu venu. 
deservi v. tr. to deserve. 

app. (pft. 2 sg.) "55 ke tu as deservi, luer tei est aprestg. 
,, ,, (2 pi.) 463 seroie mari si mal eiez ki point n'i avez deservi. 
desheritez v. tr. to disinherit. 

ppp. mas. sg. 398 de para'is cum fu desheritez. 
deshonur s. m. dishonour. 

ace. sg. 545 ki es tu ki nus as fait si grant deshonur ? 
,, ,, 1270 le deshonur noz deus ne larrum de venger. 
deshonure v. tr. to dishonour. 

app. (subj. plpft. 3 sg.) 1784 (ne se pout nul vanter) ke sanz vengement le eiist deshonuie. 
deshucl adj. uneven, rugged. 

mas. nom. sg. 1427 li chemins ferrez aspre e deshuel (I'alasse). 
desir l. s. m. desire. 

ace. sg. 1227 (ateindre a vostre cunpainnie) dunt tant ai eii desir. 
desir II. (1205) under desire I. 



desira 
desirable 



desire I. 
desir£e 



under desire II. 
adj. desirable. 

mas. prp. sg. 1045 seisiz estes ja du guerdun desirable. 
fern. voc. „ 1206 croiz plus desirable k'esmeraude u safir. 



\ V. tr. 
) ind. ] 



to desire, 
pres. 



sg. 1205 croiz ki tant desir ! 
3 ,, 1433 of ki estre desire, k'il ne va querant el. 
,1 11 " p'- 7^' cist ki ver desirent 90 ke m'est atume. 
intm. 1318 plus devum pur Jesu murir desirer. 
app. (pft. 3 5g.) 941 voer ad desire (le cors A.) : 1017 du gueredun) k'il t.int ad desire, 
desire II. \ v. tr. to tear in pieces ; intr. to be torn. 
desir£e J ind. pres. 3 sg. 1602 cum liun ki desire char de cors bestial. 

,, ,, ,, pi. 15 14 lur cheveus decircnt, lur dras unt derami. 
„ prct. 3 sg. 253 un grantz veilz du temple desira e rumpi (v. note), 
app. (pft. 3 pi.) 533 (I'unt pris) par la robe k'il unt tost desiree. 
desirent, desirer under desire. 



desjointz 

desjunerunt 

deslacent 

desleals 
desleus 



deslie 

desloial 
desmeine 



V. tr. to disjoint. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1777 lur menbres sunt destuers, desjointz e esluissfi. 
v. ref. to break one's fast. 

ind. fut. 3 pi. 1362 ne se desjunerunt nis de un disner. 
v. tr. to unfasten. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1468 deslacent aventailles heuraes e chapeus. 
1 adj. disloyal, perjured. 
j mas. nom. sg. 601 (li clercs) n'est pas dcslc-ils, mes sa doctrine veraie est e seiirc. 

„ ace. „ 1615 lier se lessa cum kirrun desloial. 

,, prp. ,, 6 (penduz) a loi de desloial. 

,, nom. pk lbi8 en croit le pendirent li Giu desloial. 

„ prp. „ 1487 tant ad gent trahi par ses sermuns desleus. 
V. tr. to unloose. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1463 ki lie k'i plcisir li vent, e ki li plest, deslie. 
under desleals. 
under demeine. 



XXXVIU 



GLOSSARY. 



desmenbrer v. tr. to tear limb from limb. 

infin. 1 340 (d'autre part veissez les uns) desmenbrer. 
desmesure* s. f. want of restraint, a — , unmeasuredly. 

prp. sg. 6cx3 li clercs dunt utrage as dit a desmesure.* 
dcsmesuree adj. unrestrained, ill-regulated. 

fem. nom. sg. 510 A. vunt querant cum gent desmesuree. 
desnatureus adj. unnatural. 

mas. nom. pi. 1476 estes durs e desnatureus. 
desore adv. henceforth. 

195 desore guerpis : 332 tis serfs deveng d — : 1535 desore of moi serrer: 1827 d — penant deveng ; 

1 100 desore mais defi : 1 104 desore mais recleim : 1262 ki prechera desore mais. 
desoremes adv. henceforward (see also under mais li.) 

584 desoremes aiir (noz deus). 
despendi J v. tr. to spend (time) ; to inflict (torture). 

despendu > ind. pres. 3 sg. 200 davant sa croiz la nuit en uraisuns despent. 
despent ) „ pret. 3 ,, 232 e divers turmentz en lui despendi. 

app. (pft. I sg.) 808 despendu e perdu ai trestut mun ^•iant. 
„ „ 2 ,, too en franchise e almosne as tun tens despendu. 
despersone v. tr. to defame, disesteem. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 723 ki noz deus celestiens despersone e defie. 
despiist J v. tr. to despise. 

despire | inJ. pres. 3 sg. 646 (veit) k'A. lur creance e lur loi si despiist. 

despit I. ) ,, pret. ,, ,, 230 despit e eschivi (sa doctrine). 

infin. 1559 ne fait pas a despire, cum meint quide. 

app.(plpft. 3pl.) 155 1 avant les urent mut despit e hai. 

ppp. mas sg. 241 tu es e despit e guerpi : 919 n'est droitz k'il seit despiz. 
despit II. s. ra. scorn. 

prp. sg. 239 par despit disoient a genoilluns devantli : 1396 (les cors) ke il avant urent en despit eii. 
despiz under despu-e. 

desploier v. tr. to unfold. 

infin. 103 cumence Apis, sun sermunn desploier. 
despoille 1 v. tr. to despoil ; ref. to undress. 
despoille j ind. pres. 3 sg. 698 gent ki se despoille (veisez) e nercir e suer. 

app. (pft. 3 pi.) 1598 lores I'unt seisi e despoille viuraent. 
despuis a. adv. thereafter; i. conj. since ; (a) illative, = seing that ; (;3) temporal, ■\\-ith past tenses, = from 

the time that, with fut., = as soon as. 
(a) 1 10 despuis lur cuvint lur vie demener en labur. 

(b, a) ig6 d — ke raisuns n'i assent : 379 d — ke Deu ad tun quor saele : 1432 d — ke 3 A. aproce. 
(*i jS) 430 d — '^^ il verra : 709 d — ki . . . out fait Her : 991 d — k'il out tuche : 

1443 d — k'A. decole fu : 1813 d — ke A. re9ut. 
desrunt v. tr. to tear. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 631 li uns ses dras desrunt. 
destin^e s. f. destiny. 

prp. sg. 524 cist fans truantz Id a pute destinee va par ci prechant. 
destre adj. (used assubst.) the right (hand). 

prp. sg. 167. 1705 (a destre) (al destre) sun pere (ester) (asis). 
destrer ) s. m. war-horse, charger, 

destrers* ] obi. sg. 1421 (palefrei) chafur u fort runcin u grant destrer ignel (est muntez i. e. sur). 

prp. ,, 942 li princes k'ert venuz a sun destrer munte. 

ace. pi. 1484 Id destrers avoient plus fortz e plus igneus. 
destresce s. f. confinement, " carcere duro." 

prp. sg. 671 (fu mis) en garde e en destresce a felun gaholer. 
destruit 1 v. tr. to destroy, 
destruite ] ppp- mas. pi. 15 16 tant sunt de lur parentz destruit e maubailli. 

,, fem. sg. 1027 par tant ke destruite i seit crestiente. 
destuers (pp. =) adj. twisted awr)-. 

mas. nom. pi. 1777 lur menbres sunt destuers desjointz e esluisse. 
desturbant \ v. tr. to disturb; (infin. =) s. m. disturbance, trouble, 
desturber j (inf ) ace. sg. 44 unt eii damage e desturber : 1300 aver par vus travail e desturber. 

periph. pres. ptcp. 832 le flot ad tut secchi ki nus fu desturbant. 
destument ) v. tr. to guard off ; to turn away. 
desturnez J ind. pres. 3 pi. looi coup destument de mace. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1 108 ke soium de s'amur desturnez ne fiecchi. 



GLOSSARY. 



XXXIX 



dcsver adj. insane (v. note on 1774). 

mas. nom. sg. 1774 (kc il ne fust) desvd* u avogle, &c. 
„ ace. „ 149 (sana) feverus, avogles, desvez e kaifs, &c. 
dctrenchames , v. tr. to slaugliter. 

detrenehent / ind. pres. 3 pi. 1641 li paicn les detrenchcnt tuz au brant dacer. 

detrenchcr ( „ pret. I „ 1499 les dctrenchames tuz au brand furbi. . , , , , 

detrenchez ; infin. 1328 sanz merci aver d'ocire e dctrencher : 1341 (vcis.sez) abatre e detrenclier. 

ppp. mas. nom. pi. 95 kc ne fuissez detrenchez ja de brantz muluz. 
(prp.) ,, „ „ 1 56 1 des cors detrenchez teu mescinement (ne feist). 
dcu \ s. m. God ; pagan deitj'. 

deus I. J In two di\'isions ; A, deus, B, deu. 

920 li deus A. : 1019 li deus de majeste : 1462 li deus as crestiens. 

(without article) 25. 99. 105. 108. 203. 207. 211. 274. 281. 310. 472. 592. 687. 

909. 943. 972. 986. 1028. 1037. 1080. 122S, 1255. 1368. 1384. 1444. 1477. 1539- 1 

1620. 1O31. 1637. 1722. 1743. 1757- 1768. 1770- iSiodeus. 

84. 128. 184. 296. 379. 655. 658. 782. 1221. 1672 deu. 

806 cist est deus poestifs ; 1254 si fiz est deus e hom. 

80 ki (fu) deu : 1447 n'est autre deu. o /- , 

371. 372. 923. 1309. 1636. 16S9 deu:— 36. 41. So. 304. 422. 583 fiz deu. 

187. 282. 350 353. 485. 605. 673. 725. 802. 809. 820. 874. 925. 939. 947 

1232. 1361. 150S. 1O81. 17H. i7S9deu. 

458. 466. 622. 787. 1033. 1 351. 1397- 1481 a deu: 882. 

de deu : 78. 426. 501 d'un deu : 1710 en dcu : 

97. 342. 3O6 par deu : 29. 68. 344. 382. 388. 4S4. 594. I 

329. 777. 1 1 56 deus ! 

44. 49 noz deus. 

643 mal aient deu ki de metal sunt ! 

754 nus deus: 1246 des deus: 1270 noz deus. 

449. 1078. 1 100 les deus : 1364. 1410. 1792 lur deus : 

419. 584. 723. 1162. 1661 noz deus: 1670. 1685 tes deus. 

566. 580 en noz deus : 1683 of lur deus : 1737 par lur deus 

151 1 chers deus celesliens. 



nom. sg. 


A 
A 


(pred.) „ 


B 
A 
B 


ace. „ 


B 



»r7. 

5.S4- 



prp. 



voc. 


1* 


A 


nom. 


pi. 


A 
B 


gen. 


)t 


A 


ace. 


»» 


A 



II58. I 

654 au deu : 226. 403. 

199. 1431. 1838 pur deu. 



473 pur noz dfuj 



S84 



19 es-vus deus angeres. 



prp. „ il 
voc. „ „ 
numer. two. 

169 par numbre deus faiz sis : I 
deiiit under dei. 

V. intr, to grieve. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 589 de tut 90 n'est A. esmuz, ne geenst, ne deut, ne plure. 
A prep, before, a, of place, /3, of time ; B adv. forward, 
(a) 45 devant moi ; 239. 461 devant li : 558 devant nus : 1424 devant eus funt cure : 

200 davant sa croiz : 1363 (mener) par devant lur auter. 
(/3) 527 devant I'ajurnee: 554 devant jur : 1133 devant I'enjurnant : 13 10 devant vespre. 
B 836 les denz lui fait voler des genzives devant. 

deveingne ") v. intr. to become. , 

devenent I ind. pres. i sg. 332 ti serfs deveng desore : 810 mes ke a tart deveng sis hom e sis se 
( „ „ ,, „ 1827 desore penant deveng. 
J „ ,, 3 pi. 1373 (les cors) beus devenent e enters. 

„ pret. 3 sg. it)0 devint li solailz bis : 1256 devint hem : 1614 devint hom mortal. 
„ „ 3 pi. 161 devindrent Jiicus murnes e pensis. 
subj.pres. i sg. 180 (sieuragc me prent) ke crestiens deveingne. 
pp. m-as. pi. 1392 Id sunt ja devenu gardeins de morticine. 
under dei. 
\ v. intr. to die. 

/ infin. Ill (lur cuvint) doler, languir, e devier. 
pp. mas. pi. 1 794 lur ancesurs ki sunt ja devig. 
,, ,, „ 1000 les mortz funt vifs parer, e les vifs deviS. 
V. tr. to foretell. 

ind. pres. I sg. 68 90 vus di e devin : 182 1 ben le di e devin. 
devindrent, devint under deveng. 

devis \ v. tr. to appoint, arrange ; imagine, devise ; narrate. 

devise I ind. pres. I sg. 143 tut issi cum vus recunt e dcvis. 

devisfi I ,, 11 3 .. 56 i' devise e drcsce mun aicre e mun chemin. 

deviser ) infin. 13O6 la plus cruele niort k'em purra deviser. 

app. (pft. 3 sg.) 1028 ne sevent mie cum Deus I'ad devise. 



deus II. 

deiissez, 
deut 

devant 
A 



deveng 
devenu 



deverai 

devifi 

devier 



devin 



xl 



GLOSSARY. 



(deviser) ppp. mas. sg. 849 (eu munt = on the hiU) ki fu a sun martire dii-isez e pumi. 

dcvociun s. f. devotion. 

prp. sg. 325 a genoiUuns se met par grant devociun : 787 (oraisuns) a Deu presente a devociun grant, 
devore under devurassent. 

devum under dei. 

devurassent 1 v. tr. to devour. 
devurent ) ind. pres. 3 pi. 1507 oisel te devurent e lu ensauvagi. 

subj. impft. 3 pi. 1756 ke (= ut) ne les devurassent bestes n'oisel volant. 

ppp. mas. sg. 957 (sun cors gar ben ke ne soit pas) de egles u wlturs ne de lus devorfi. 
devurer s. m. ravenous beast. 

nom. sg. 1357 senglantz cum liun k'^proie est devurer. 
di I. under dire. 

di II. s. m. day ; (^a) tut dis, for ever. 

prp. sg. 166. 263 au terz di releva. 

(ace.) pi. 174 eu feu ki art tut dis. 

prp. „ 1796 a tut dis damne (sunt en enfer). 
diable > s. m. devil (always without the article), 

diables J nora. sg. i599curr diable les aprent. 

ace. ,, 120 diable (descumfire e mater) : 921 diable vencu as. 

prp. ,, 104S del encumbrer nus gard de diable : — 
,, „ I redutee de diable enfern.il : 28" rescust de diable : 1764 soiez cuntre diable lur escu. 

nom. pi. 1674 diable mort sufrent el puis de enfer: 1818 ki sunt dampne diable en enfer susterin. 

ace. „ 642 diables mais aiire k'en enfer sunt : 1473 diables enfernaus reclamez pur deus. 
„ „ 1792 lur deus, mais diables, de mailz unt depece. 
die under dire. 

Diene n. pr. Diana. 

obi. (= gen.) 1817 (de la loi) Pallaide e Diene. 
,, (= dat.) 1261 fei ke dei Palladie e Diene la bele. 

under dire. 

adj, worthy. 

mas. ace. sg. 1630 k'il le tenc digne pur li teu peines endurer. 

under demi. 

V. tr. to say, tell ; bien dire de, to speak well of. 

ind. pres. i sg. 68 90 vus di e devin : 1821 ben le di e devin : 

,, „ 456 entenc ke jo vus di : 1077 entendez ke jo vus lou e di. 

2 ,, 77 me esmerveil de 90 ke me dis tu. 

3 ,, 382 en suspirant li dit : 833 ki autrement le dit, fableiir est : — 
,, ,, 562 'dit horn': 1314 'dit hem ' : 1254. 1441 ' 90 dit '. 
I pi. 1 106 e nus dium autel. 

3 ,, 523 dient en hauste voiz : 753 dient en reschisnant : 919 dient entre eus suef : 
i> II 994 dient par envie : 1555 dient veraiment : 1632 dient a haute voiz : — 
,, ,, 1272 90 dient messager: 1492 90 dient: 151 8 dient: — 
>i i> 933- 1765 si ^"^ dient 'Amen' : — 
,, ,, 626 dient k' (imint) : 1334 dient ke 90 est par sortz. 
,, ,, 239 par despit disoient ; 1 168 li uns le disoient. 

1 sg. 616 de tut 90 I'engami e dis a dreiture. 

2 ,, 828 mar unc le deis. 

3 ,, 77 dist : 375 sili dist : 339. 1616 dist Apl. : 654uraedist : 727distunspaens : — 
,, ,, 43. 215. 285. 417. 946. 1 123. 1245. 1644. 1669. 1708 ' dist il': — 
II .. 484- 592- 654- 722- 777- 805. 822. 1076. 1205. 1307. 1472 e dist :— 
,, „ 456 en plurant dist : 527 a parole simple dist : 1502 dist chescun lermant. 
I „ 433 ore frez k'i dirai: 1658 ore fai ke te dirai. 

„ ,, 3 „ 1 7 1 quant dirra : 439 A. vus dirra : 1570 ki bien de lui dira. 
subj. pres. ,, ,, 733 (autres) poiir eit e die: 1449 quel k'envius die : 1461 (u'a nul ki) ne die. 

,, ,, 3 pi. 443 (pemez vengance) k' (= ut) en dient trestuit. 

,, impft. I sg. 1825 ne i deise fausete pur tut I'or Costentin. 
imper. 2 „ 1 8 1 di moi ke ferai : 278 k'est ke signifie me recunt e di : 953 di li k'il te garisse. 
infin. 248 savoient fere e dire : 425. 1569 mils dire purra : 
,, i486 (sunt venuz) dire ke est venuz. 
periphr. pres. ptcp. 829 jo en ere voir disant : 1128 \-us ere voirs disant. 
app. (ind. pft. I sg.) 440 quancke vus ai dit. 

,, ,, 2 ,, 600 dunt as dit utrage : 1298. 1659 desdi ke tu dit as. 

„ ,, 3 „ 191, 544. 1294 ad dit (ireenient) (par curuz e irur) (par grant ire) : — 



dient 
digne 

dimi 

diia 

dirai 

dire ^ 

dirra 

djs 



.. J 



impft. 
pret. 



fut. 



GLOSSARY. 



xli 



(Jis 



I-) 



app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 868 en plurant ad dit : 1 155 a dit en suspirant : — 

318 a jointes meins a dit e a weimentisun : 1567 a dit cum losengers. 



dis 
dis 

disant 
disciples 



disoient 
disner 



dist, 
divers 



divisez 
diz 



doctrine 



doi I. 



„ „ 3 pi. 1034 bicn I'unt dit c jure. 

II. (174. 1796) under di II. 

III. numcr. ten. 
152 puis ke il fu d'age e de anz treis feiz dis. 
under dire, 
s. m. disciple. 

nom. sg. 1090 (sa bunte tesmoinne) A. si deciples : 
(pred.) sg. 717 A. est sis disciples, 
prp. ,, 560 estre a sun deciple e guarant e sucur : 
under dire. 

s. m. dinner, dinner-time, 
prp. sg. 683 feim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner : 

dit, diuni, under dire. 



1091 le sen au maistre prove li deciples. 
1726 of A. tun deisciple seisi serras du dun. 

1362 ne se desjunerunt nis de un disner. 



doi II. 
doillant 
doilz 
doinne 



adj. diverse, various. 

mas. nom. pi. 704 neissent maladies e divers encumbrer. 

,, ace. ,, 232 divers turmentz en lui despendi. 
under deviser. 

s. m. sajnng, word. .... 

prp. pi. 53 n'oiez vers mes diz quor dur ne ferrin ; 73 de ses diz est meiiz : 478 a ses diz obei : 

„ ,, 885 par enchantement d'A. e les charmes e diz : 165 1 par diz enganer. 
s. f. doctrine, teaching. 

nom. sg. 556 sa doctrine folage est c errur : 601 sa doctrine veraie est e seure. 
ace. „ 230 sa doctrine despit e eschivi : 736 Id (= cujus) doctrine (e maistrie) tant prise, 
prp. „ 221 k'cn vostre doctrine ne voille demurer : 

„ „ 295 n'est par autre sermun, doctrine, u language. 
s. m. finger. 

nom. pi. 1779 li doi .sunt replie. 
doit, doilz under dei. 

under doler. 



under duel. 

under deigna. 
doins, doinst under duner. 
ilolent 



dolentz 
dolenz 



doler 



dolerus 

dolurs 

dormant 

dormi 

dormir 

dormirai 

dormirunt 

dos 

dragun 



drapeus 

dras 
draz 



adj. sorrowing ; miserable. 

mas. nom. sg. 3S4 dolenz en serroi : 867 des maus ses enemis dolentz est e meu : 

,, ,, ,, 1022 li las dolentz (en la prisun est au maufe). 

,, ace. „ 1842 (me nunier) pccchur cupable, dolent poure e frarin. 

„ nom. pi. 260 furent [esmoilli ?] li las e li dolent : 863 fremissent e crient dolent e irascu : 

„ „ ,, 1498 nus en fumes irez e dolent e mari. 
V. intr. to suffer, to be in pain, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 589 A. ne geenst, ne deut, ne ])lure. 

infin. Ill (lur cuvint) doler, languir, e devier. 

(periph.) pres. ptc. mas. sg. 840 li nicrf li sunt rumpu e tut le cors doillant. 

„ „ ,, „ pi. 1430 doillant li sunt li nerf. 
under dulurus. 
under dulurs. 
V. intr. to sleep. 

ind. fut. I sg. 1830 ne dormirai au vespre il jo lief au matin. 
>i )i 3 pl- 1412 ne dormiiTint chucez en lit suz linccl. 
infin. 198 dormir s'en va. 
gmd. 331 quant geii dormant en ma maisun : 795 cum geii ussent dormant, 

pp. (pft. I sg.) 215 mut ai dormi des hier. 

s. m, the back. 

ace. sg. i6i2 tcinte en a la peitrine le dos e flaunc costal. 

s. m. dragon. 

ace. sg. 320 ferm lie Sathan le viel sanglant dragun. 

nom. pl. 1698 fremissent e flamboient cum saerpent u dragim. 

s. m. clothes, garments. 

ace. pl. 569 engcttez ces drapeus. 

Ss. m. clothes, cloths. 
ace. pl. 631 li uns ses draz desrunt ; 1 5 14 lur dras unt derami. 
prp. ,, 981 le chief unt au cors mis, de dras envolup^. 

f 



xlii 



GLOSSARY. 



dreite 



dreiture 



dreitureus 

dresce 
dresce 
drescee 
drescent 



droit I. 



droit 

droitz 

droiz 



II. 



adj. right, proper. 

fem. nom. sg. 1383 ci'st la dreite creance. 
s. f. righteousness ; propriety ; a — , faithfully. 

nom. sg. 530 par tut ii veritez e dreiture est pruvee : 744 custurame est e dreiture ke il seit decole. 
ace. „ 61 2 veritez voissez o'ir, bien fere e dreiture. 
prp. „ 616 de tut 90 I'engarni e dis a dreiture. 
dreitureument adv. righteously. 

1803 bien geisent ke U a dreitureument u\Te. 

adj. righteous. 

mas. nom. sg. 108 Deus ki est dieitureus : 1477 duz e debonaires est Deus e dreitureus. 

V. tr. to direct ; raise ; — en joie, to fill with joy. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 56 il de\-ise e dresce mun aicre e mun chemin. 

1) >> 3 pT' 793 li mort se drescent en scant. 
app. (pft. 3 sg.) 776. 938 ad vers le ciel dresce (le visage) (le \'is). 
ppp. mas. sg. 236 en un fust dresce (a clous le afferma). 

,, ,, pi. 268 en joie sunt trestuit dresce e esbaudi. 

,, fem. sg. 502 en haute croiz drescee. 
adv. straightway, 
unt droit vers W. liu- chemin acoiUi : 1833 vers R. tendrai droit le chemin. 

, m. right, propriety ; par droit, of right, by right. 
' nom. sg. 196 despuis ke droitz ne raisuns n"i assent : 719 si en droitz (v. note) k'em A, crucilie : 
,, 724 droiz est ke (\'if hom I'enseveUe) : 919 n'est droitz k'U seit despiz. 
prp. ,, 139 par droit apent naistre. 
s. m. a kind of ship, galley, O. E. dromond, 
nom. sg. 638 pur tant cum portereit de fin or un dromund. 
s. m. friend, beloved. 

nom. sg. loi tu regneras of lui cum sis amis e dm ; 466 a Deu es dni choisi, 
prp. ,, 870 de I'ewe duuas a Moyses, tun dru. 
under de. 
I V. tr. to redouble. 
I infin. 1627 pur ses turraentz dubler. 
grnd. 824 k'avant urent ire, ore la vunt U dublant. 
adj. double (v. note). 

mas. prp. pi. 851 (gamiz) de haubercs dublers e de buclers escuz. 
s. m. duke. 

nom. pi. 567 a eus sunt entendant roi, due, empereiir. 
adv. kindly. 

785 la requeste A. ducement ad grante. 
s. f. gentleness. 

nom. sg. 580 en noz deus ad (= il y a) grant franchise e ducur. 
s. m. siiflering, grief, misfortune ; mom-ning. 
nom. sg. 13 dunt fu grant duel e mal : 173 it nafra jamais mortz (=mortuos) noise ne duelne estrifs: 

„ ,, 428 grant duel ensurdera : 465 de ^■us serroit grant duel : 587 li doflz serroit grantz : 

,, ,, 699 fu duel a regarder : 771 dunt fu grant duel mene. 
ace. „ 482 mut veissez grant duel : 983 pur sa mort grant duel unt demene. 
prp. „ 1 409 les meins li unt lie a criieute e duel : 1 501 en lermes e grant duel lur joie convert!, 
s. m. pain, 
prp. sg. 548 fuissez a mort li\Tez e a dulur. 

,, pi. 974 se sent de ses doltirs (sane), 
adj. wretched. 

mas. nom. pi. 1 64 vaivez, dulurus, serfs plemtifs : 354 li las dolerus tant sunt malure. 
v. intr. to be afflicted, 
infin. 1628 pur murir e lunges duluser. 
adj. afflicted (but v, note). 

mas. nom. pi. 1350 cist sunt niartir de cors, cist de quor duluser. 
under demurer, 
s. m. a gift. 

ace. sg. 311 de la lei lur fist e present e dun. 
prp. ,, 1726 seisi serras du dun Id garde n'a de fu. 

„ pl. 1235 pur losengerie pur duns ne pur blandir : 

,, „ 1317 par duns, ne par turment ne par mort manacer. 
duna, dunas under duner. 
dune adv. I, temporal, then ; 2, illative, therefore. 



dromund 



dra 



du 

dublant 

dubler 

dublers 

due 

ducement 

ducur 

duel 



dulur 

dulurus 

duluser 

duluser 11 

duraurez 
dun 



I. 



GLOSSARY. 



xliii 



(■) 



(2) 

dune 
dun£ 
dun€e 
duner 



subj 



pi. 
prcs. 3 sg. 



infin. 



159 dune trembla tcrre : lOl — devindrent murnes : 183 — respundi : 259 — furent [esmoiUi] : 
288 tant cstoit — d'age : 415 — guvenia : 440 — pur voir parra : 
858 — fu lung Id nc urcnt beu : 1 161 des — en avant : 1743 si Ic purnt — . 
1231 plest \-us — amer : 1526 — les oceismes (v. note). 
V V. tr. to give ; ref. to give oneself up ; se duner garde, to be aware. 
I ind. pres. i sg. 491 ma croiz vus doins : 663 a vus sacrifice me doins jo : 
1 „ ,, „ „ 1267 pur l<i ne doins une cencle. 
I „ ..3 II 8 1 7 hem ;\ Id Dcus dune raisun il sun semblant. 
ind. fut. „ „ 434 avant ke nus hom garde s'en dura. 
1416 a Phebun le dumint. 

592 si te doinst bon aventure : 660 force e estabilite me doinst il : 
1228 (k'a vostre cunipainnie) me doinst Deus ateindre : 
1 712 (k'il mei) part doinst of vus. 

1301 del avoir vus en frum duner : 1637 la gloire ke Deus \-us veut duner. 
(prp.) „ 913 ail coup duner : 1234 ne larrum pur les testes duner : 
,, „ 1289 (or portent e argent) pur duner. 
app. (pft. 3 pi.) 1604 (unt) dune resne a cheval. 
„ (ref.) I sg. 1442 me sui del tut dune a Jesu. 
„ „ 3 „ 1161 a Jesu s'est dune. 
„ ,, 3 pi. 148 1. 1596 se sunt dune (a Jesu) (a Deu). 
ppp. mas. pi. 1496 tant furent a Jesu dune. 
„ fem. sg. 1304 dunee est la sentence sanz returner. 
duns under dun. 

dunst adv. whence ? (v. note). 

32 ki est tu, e dunst vens ? & penses tu aler ? 
dunt I. adv. used for obi. case of rel. pron., and referring to antecedent (a) word (at, by, concern- 

ing, with, which or whom), or (/3) clause, at which thing, wherefore ; 2. conj. Ulative, therefore. 
I la) %Si sarracins dunt (= quorum) tant ia plente : 1227 vostre cumpainnie dunt( = i;j) tant ai eu desu- :— 
131 iMessic.— as 01 lire: 600 li clercs,— utrage as dit : 80& cist,— A. va prechant, est Deus; 
1322 la joie,— quor nc puetpenser : 1754 la lei,— U clers fu prechant :— 
394 feluns,_il sunt guetez ; 453 par aucun,— il estoit cheri : 1036 miracles,- 
1 22 1 gueredun, — Dcu te plut seisir. 

13 dunt fu duel: 418 — mal avendra : 462 — seroie man : 536 — plus se curuce cele gent: 
771 — fu duel mene: 1 140— damage encurumes : 1158 — cist \iint Dcu loant : 1243— lipnnces de ire 
art: 1 246— I'onur besiUe : 1459— cist I'enmercie : 1461— n'anulki ne die : 1622— se curucent. 
1 26 1 dunt, fei ke dci Palladie. 
dur adj. hard. 

mas. aec. sg. 53 n'oiez vers mez diz quor dur ne ferrin. 
,, nom.pl. 1476 trop par estes criieus durs, e desnatureus. 
fem. ace. sg. 594 pur Deu recleim pere dure : 684 roche, si dure cum acier : 125 6 mort dure e cruele. 
,, prp. ,, 607 pur nide mort tant cruele e dure, 
dura I. (434) under duner. 
dura II. ) v. intr. to endure, to last. 

durant [ ind. pres. 3 sg. 606 tant cum vie me dure : 700 dure li chautz de nuitz : 

dure I. ' „ >> » ., 1576 bis. trop dure cist baratz, turmentz. 
,, pret. „ „ 708 dura cist grantz maus. 
pcriph. pres. ptcp. 1 143 veimcs ke par A. fu cist maus tant durant. 
dure II. durs under dur. 



-il sunt acertg : 



i(/3) 



(») 



durrunt 

dust 

dutance 

dutant 
dutc 
dutcr 
ifatera 

duz 



under duner. 

under dei. 

s. f. doubt. , ,. , . 

prp. sg. 1377 (cunustre) sanz faille u dutance : 1563 verai est sanz dutance li sucn prechement. 

v. tr. to fear ; intr. to doubt. 

ind. prcs. 3 sg. 907 ne dute mais morteus, feluns tirantz hardiz : 

„ „ „ „ 1040 ne dute mais tir.mtz prince ne cunestable. 

,, fut. ,, ,, 420 mar nus en dutcra. 

infin. 142 sanz nicr u dutcr: 206 sanz fentosme u duter. 
adj. sweet ; gentle, 
mas. nom. sg. 1477 duz e debonaircs est Deus. 

,, voc. ,, 808 bcus, duz sire Jesu ! 

,, ,, pi. 1519 beus duz amis cheri. 
ntr. nom. sg. 1431 quancke il pur Deu suefre plus li est duz ke mel. 



fa 



xliv 



GLOSSARY. 



E. 



241. 283. 311. 475. 560. 603. 667. 698. 743. 745. 850. 933. 1 125. 

1539) under en. 



e I. conj. copul. connecting two or more words or clauses, and 

e — e, both — and. 
(o) passini (840 times). 
(/3) 86. 122. 162. 208. 229 

1381. 1538. 1634. 
e n. (376 V. note, 380. 789. 

ebruusdge v. tr. to embroider. 

ppp. fem. prp. sg. 1212 (honurer e vestir) de sa robe ebruusdee. 
ee s. m. age, life. 

prp. sg. 529 tutz les jurs de mun ee. 
effreent v. tr. to affright ; ref. to be terrified. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1728 de la voiz se effreent U sarrazin glutun. 

ppp. raas. pi. 916 efifreez sunt paens de 90 e esbaiz. 
eforce v. ref. to strive. 

(pp.) ind. pft. 3 sg. 768 de passer (le pund) s'est chescun eforce. 
egle, egles under aigles. 
eglent[er] s. m. eglantine. 

prp. sg. 167 1 ne vaut lur poisance un butun d'eglenter. 
eglise s. f. church. 

ace. sg. 490 sa eglise sur pere funda e establi. 

prp. „ 404 des sacramentz d'iglise, cum il sunt cunfermez. 
eient, eiez under aver, 
eille s. f. island. 

prp. sg. 1836 en I'eille ke cunquist Brutus e CorneUn. 
eira, eiment under amer. 
einz under ainz. 

eir under air. 

eit under aver, 

el 1. ntr. adj. used substantively, anything else [aliud]. 

prp. sg. 1 2 89 pur duner si par el ne poent espleiter. 

ace. „ 1433 ne va querant el. 
el II. (1675. 1758. 1759. 1760. 1804) under en. 

ele C522) under il. 

em under horn. 

erablanchi v. tr. to become white. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1544 sancs k'avant les teint, plus ke laitz, emblanchi (v. note). 

pp. mas. sg. 477 plus I'eim ke pelei9un enblanchi. 
emble v. tr. to attack, cany oiT. 

ppp. mas. sg. 956 sun cors gar ben ke ne soil pas emble. 
embracer v. tr. to embrace. 

infin. 1 69 1 les braz ad estenduz tuz tens pur embracer, 
emfer ("2) under enfer. 

emfle \ v. intr. to sweU. 

emilee > ind. pres. 3 sg. 652 fruissent os, char emfle, e la pel enpalist. 

emflent ) ,, ,, ,, pi. yo6 emflent ydropis, par bei\Te e chaut aver. 

pp. fem. sg. 841 la char (li est) noire e emflee. 
empereiir s. m. emperor. 

nom. pi. 567 a eus sunt entendant roi, due, empereiir, 
emperial adj. imperial. 

mas. prp. sg. lO il vent a V., un hu emperial. 
empernant adj. enterprising. 

mas. nom. sg. 1159 un chevaler, hardi e empernant. 
empemura v. tr. to take (care) ; to choose (a rule). 

ind. pres. i pi. 1082 si garde ne empemum. 

app. (pft. I sg.) 387 de la lei k'ai enpris plus m'enseinnerez, 
empli v. tr. to fill. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1525 flecchi pur un val empli (d'or). 



(P) preceding the first member also. 



78. 121 1. 



GLOSSARY. xlv 

emprise s. f. enterprise, project. 

ace. sg. 1 1 10 il lur emprise ne larrunt pur nuUi. 

prp. „ 1 146 creiimes ke de sa emprise fust repentant. 
en prep, in, at, on, during ; into ; with, &c. 

A, space ; B, manner ; C, time. 
A (a) Place, with n.ames of countries, &c. : — 

61. 484 en Beethleem naski: 1120. 1 283 en Wales truve, aillent : 427. 502. 1447 en Sulie murut : 

716 crucifie cu pais de Sulie. 
(*) frequently with these following words, (i) ciel [always with def. article], {2) croiz, (3) mund, 

(4) terre : — ■ 

(1) 38. 1O7. 264. jiSeuciel raunter: 331 eu ciel vi: 352. 822. 924 eu ciel regner : 1016. 1183 en celr. : 
1352 vunt eu ciel : 1482 es eels ; 900. 1732 porter eu ciel : 1521 eu ciel acoiUi : 1693 eu eel entrer. 

(2) 37. 502. 1448. 1798 en croiz murir : 87. 1508. 1618 pendre : 157. 289 mettre : 344. 427. 759 pener : 
719 crucifie: 778 poser: 931. 1256. 1 496 mort sufrir : — 

209 la vie en la croiz achever : 291 en ceste croiz veiz. 

(3) o, en terre = on earth, /3, in the ground ; y, tene = land, territory : — 

(a) 1261a nuvele™tnuncier: 227 fa-jus desendi : 228bis. fu w'ant, nurri : 659charprist: 1072 mort 
sufri : 1099 beu meri : 1 139 (en la teire) ne pluveit : 1390 tea merv-eiUe ne fu veii : 1782 guerroier le 
rei de majestfi : 1802 prist humanite : — 

(fi) 692 flestrisent blez : 724 hom I'ensevelie vif: 1015 I'unt musce : 1600 un peel afichent : 1752 mist 
le cors : — 

(y) 312 en terre les mena de remissiun : 1398 en lur terre est aparu. 

(4) a, cest mund ; /?, le mund : — 

(o) 1085 e>i cest 7««n</ vivantz : 1 199 sun sane espant : 1319 regner: 1475 tant mar fustes nez : 
1623 \irent la mei-veiUe : 1680 obeissent a lur voler : 1 762 vus sunt honurant. 

iP) 208 eu mund \-i\Te : 362 eu mund ad este : 848 eu mund venu : 1572 en tut le mund resplent. 
(c) generally, of rest or motion — , in, into, on, at, &c. 

{') 45- 33' ^" ™^ maisun precher, dormant: 52 herberge en tun paleis : 63.98 en cest pai's veng, 
entrcz: 66. 321. 60S. 642. 1683. 1796. 1818 en enfer gist, lie S., trait, sunt, sujurner, sunt : 90. 959. 
982. 1506. (1752. 1815 mist) en sarcu poser : 112. 599. 1081 en la prisun de emfer aler, gisent, ense- 
veli: 113 sujm-ner en les laz : 136 en toi vendra recunser: 145. 1365 eu temple circumcis, paer lur 
deus: 159 trembla terre en tuz lius : 174 eu feu [alez!]: 202 bis. en sun lit s'endort ki ert en 
un soler : 223 en mun lit fu chuchez : 236 en un fust dresce : 250 en tes meins mun esperit cumant : 
301 regncras eu celestien barnage : 323 le crucifi en sun (= on the top) : 376. 3S0 e (v. note) mun 
pais m'en vols : 500 en cest cuntrfc preche : 576 bis. marcheant en feire, chevaler en estur : 
623 en un curre estant : 653 en plusurs lius ist : 661 eu cors m'almemist : 665 en prisun getter : 673 
en la chartre Deu urer : 676 vins gisantz en sunceler: 711 en chartre estuer: 772 trebuche en 
I'ewe : 789 retr.aite en* sun chanel : 843 li quors eu piz batant : 845 eu sabelun gisant : 848 sunt eu 
mund (mountain) venu : 871. 1505 eu desert de sei fu cunfundu, gisez : 965 eu regne du ciel est 
curune : 9S8 eu tcrtre gisant : 1020 en la mesnee A. est atitle : 1023 en la prisun est au maufe : 
1025 \-unt en lur cite: 1030 herberge en muntainne : 1039 Wt en gloire : 1117 bis. eu chcmin 
demura, en sujur atendi : 1 172 eu munt fu cresant : 1210 en sun paleis tenir : 1255. 1535 en parais 
fist hom, serrez of moi : 1259 en I'air ventele : 1347 remist en un scnter : 141 2 donnirunt en lit : 
1400 ensueires les unt mis : 1413 bis. ne mangeruni n'en tcnte, n'en ostel : 1453 remis en ceste 
voie : 15?! es pl.ainnes se espaundi : 1552 en sarcuz acoilli : 1585 en la citg fait crier real cumande- 
ment : 1675 mort sufrent el puis de enfer : i709suien tel prisun : 1712 part doinst of vus en celc 
regiun: 1758 bis. sunt en glohe, el regne pcrmenant : 1759 sunt el fu d'enfer : i8i3re9Ut en sun 
palois : 1831 en nicf me niette: 1836 jo ai veii en I'eille. 

(2) 632 ferent en face: 842 ne remeint entier eu cors. 

(3) 178 en scs est.abliz aprent : 1193 en tes livres lisant. 

(4) 221 en vostre doctrine demurer : 332 ti serfs deveng en ta subjecciun : 35imurtensun servise : 
370 : 1804 baptizcr eu (e!) nun de la trinite : 371. 1643 cunfermer en I'amur, creance : 1041 sis nuns 
est en estoire : — 580 en noz deus ad grant franchise. 

(5) mettre 120 en encumbrer : 491. 1057. 1539 en ubbli : 1368 en ubbliance : 1401 en escrit. 

(6) 1501 en lermeslur joie converti : — 1819 vunt en declin. 

(7) <rra« 14 en Apolin : 566 en noz deus: 609. 1 383 en Jesu : 7i7cnli: 899 eu seint nun: 1557 en 
lui : 123 bis. en autre k'en sun fiz se tier: 1104 en lui me fi : 662 en vus met ma esperance ; 1370 
esperance unt en lui : 1710 n' ai esperance fors en Deu. 

B, M.inner, generally ; also materi.al, purpose, &c. : — 

(i) 19 en atur fcstiv.al : 523. 805 en haute voiz : 541 en eel estrange atur : 597 cuntrefait en entaille. 

(2) 1446 en unc cumpainnic : 1450 en une cuncslablie. 

(3) 1186 tcinst en sun s.anc : 1201. 1451 teinte eu sane : 1288 or portent en cofres : 1820. 1839 escrit en 
parchemin, en veeslin. 



xlvi GLOSSARY. 

(4) 1314 dit hem en (by way of) repruver : 1402 en lunge remembrance seit escrit. 

(5) 1 1 1 vie demener en labur : 268 en joie sunt diesce : 671 bis. en garde e endestresce : ySl regner en 
majeste : 869 r. en poeste : 1046 r. en joie pardurable : — 

1382 sunt en balance ; 1396 en despit eii : 1495 en emir enduici. 

(6) 70 recuntee en frances : 1822 translatee en franceis. 

(7) deipendre 100 tun tens en franchise : 200 la nuit en uraisuns : — (/3) 232 tumientz en lui. 

(8) 47 en queu manere : 689. 1058 en ten manere. 

(9) In adverbial phrases :— 

61O en vein : 680 en liu de : 719 en droitz (v. note) : 1 138 en un tenant : 1 187 en un acordant : — 

163 de mal en pis : 1 161 des dune en avant. 
C, Time or period : — 

316. 778 en a\isiun : 466 en vostre jofnesce : 554 en tenegre : 61 9 en sa adanture : 1092 en la grant 

secchereece : ii36en I'endemein : 1 444 en ceste vie : 1703 en mortel passiun : 1721 en sa saisun : 

1723 en iribulaciun : 1 760 el siecle puis. 
(10) With gerundive, of time or manner : — 

249 en murant : 382. 1155 en suspirant: 456. 868 en plurant : 753 en reschisnant : 793 en seant. 
en II. pers. pron. (a) of (in, by, &c.) him, her, it, them; (b) used pleonastically ; (c) wth verbs of 

motion, 'away' : — 
a (i) of motive and ground, — (a) anger, sorrow, anger, emotion, — (/3) astonishment, repentance, — 

(y) doubt, en\y, pity, — (^) rejoicing, — (e) thanks, accusation, vengeance : — 
(a) 3S4 dolenz en serroi : 537 en est esmiie : 9S5 en sunt ire : 1404 en sunt curucez : 1498 en fumes 

irez : 1780 s'en est arage. 
(/3) 796 en sunt esbaiz : 1066 s'en esmeneUent ; 1793 en sunt repentant. 
(7) '54- '381 en aver emie : 420 mar nus en dutera : 434 garde s'en dura: 866. 1342. 1456 en aver 

pile : 1080 en aver merci. 
(t) 918 en sunt joins : 1538 en estoium liez. 
(t) 492 Ten enmercie : 8S2. 1397 en unt graces rendu : 939. 1789 en averDeu mercie : — 441 s'enpernez 

vengance : 1582 jo en prendrai vengement. 

(2) cause, object, occasion, /3, with comparative: — 

1612 teinte en a la peitrine : 428 si cunrei n'en est pris : 1416 en frunt feste anuel : — 442 en seit 
chastiez : 444 A. s'en murra : 588 tu t'en murs : 585. 1663 en cunsirer gueredun : 1035 tant ne en 
serrunt requis : 1552 en de\-um estre repleni de joie ; 1573 il en perdera le cief : 1670 en pecches. 
(^) 568 n'en serras le pejur : 162411 en sunt plus aegre. 

(3) teaching, warning, — speaking : — 

998 en sunt apris : 1065 en unt garni : 1132 en fu gamiz : 176 li en a respundu : 443. 933. 1765 en 
client, ' amen ' : 829 jo en ere voir disant : 1788 en oient parler. 

(4) clothing, investiture : — 

475 t'en veie vestu: 1331 saisiz en serrez. 

(5) sharing :— 

1638 en seum parcener. 

(6) of time, termmus a quo. 
712 passe en fu ja dimi an. 

(7) of motion from : — 
1429 li sancs en ciu-t. 

(b) pleonastically ;( I ) agent ; — (2) material ; — (3) object ; (a) warning, (/3) mockery, (y) joy, (i) ven- 
geance ; — (4') possession ; — (5) partitive ; — (6) motion from : — 

(1) 342 par Deu meimes en es revisite ; — 880 recunfortez en sunt de I'ewe. 

(2) 125 del angle G. en fist sun messager. 

(3) (") 45^ ^" estoit de 90 guami : 616 de tut 90 I'en garni. 
(/3) 571 ben s'en puet gabber de toi. 

(y) 1480 de tens en unt grant joie. 

(^) 1512 pernez ent vengance deceu tafur. 

(4) 588 ki en es de la cite la flur : 905 des angles en est li chantz oiz. 

(5) 1031 des citoiens en ad bien mil : 1 301 del avoir \-us en duner: 1554 en ad tant des noz seisi. 

(6) 772 en sunt Irebuche du pund : 1601 la buele en sachent du ventre. 

(c) with pronominal verbs of motion, ' away' : — 

27. 63 m'en veng : 15. 424 s'en vent : — 376. 380 m'en vols : 198. 213. 553 s'en va : 503.1025.1285. 
1352. 1592 s'en ^Tint : 527. Il74s'enala: 2O1 s'en est alez: 754 va t'en : 468 alez vus ent :—:- 
197. 49;. 1014 s'en part : 984 s'en partent : 1053 s'en est parti: 1458 s'en est partie : 1025 s'en 
sunt partiz : 347 ne vus en partez : 383 ne vus en partirez ; — 554 s'en est binnez : — 1731 s'en ist. 

enbeiiz v. tr. to cause to drink. 

p])p. mas sg. 89 (estre) penez e eschamiz e de fel enbeiiz. 

enblanchi under emblanchi. 



GLOSSARY. 



xlvii 



enclins 
encroa 
encrocr 



»nhr<>ver V tr. to reoister (a number). 

enbrc% er v ^ir ^ ^^^t-^^^^ jV^^ cuntasmes) e feimes enbrever a arrement nerci. 

encamaciun s.^f^ 'll^'^^^'l^-,,,,,-,,, ™i,t nus tuz par sa encamaciun. 
eSchacc" „ ■ r',f pt 1606 enfm- le pel I'enchacent cum a ehem.n jumal. 

enchaesnez ^;^:^^^^;^^ en prisun) enchaesnez pur sun cars grever. 

enchani a^dj^ hoar,-, aged. ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^,^^^ ^^^,^ ^ „„ g^^„, ,, ,„,i,ani. 

pi. 1067 (voient) li jo\Te e enchani (le sepulcre A.}, 
enchant. ^^^^ ^^f^Z ^^'.^f^^^actes e par sort, enchant., 
enchantement s. m. in.antatK»; ^^-^^:,^^l, ,eni rench.antcment Mahun. 
nrn 42 c plus set de enclwntement : ,568 tant saet d'enchantement : 
.?■ " 865 pal? vostre enchantement sumes perdu : 885 par enchantement d'A. e les charmes e d.... 
pi. 1 5 10 par ses enchaunteraents* ces maus nus basti. 

enchantur s. m. a magician. . , . 

encnaniur ^^^ ^^ ^_ ^ ^^^ ^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ enchantur. 

enchauntement under enchantement. 

encUn adi. inclined, given up. -,.■,• 

mas nom se 54 Tesu Crist recleim e a lui sui enclm. - >• • ki 

mas. nom. sg. ^^^J^^^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^ j^^^ ^^^^ ^ p^cchez e ordure : 1044 sunt a vus enchns e amiable . 

ending v'.'intr.'to worship (ace. of pers. before whom). 

ind. pft. 3 sg. 758 cist mot ne sune, mcs les ad encline. 
under enclin. 

V. tr. to crucify. ,. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 237 a clous le afferma, encroa e perdi. 
infin. 1660 Giu oserent encroer (Jesu). 

encumbrer ^- "•/'^^Jf'"^;^' ^^ !„; ^est mortal encumbrer : .647 nus as oui fait cest mor.el encumbrer. 
prp". „' 48 sanz mort e sanz encumbrer : 120 diable mist en encumbrer : 

1048 (k'il nus gard) del encumbrer de diable. 
nom.'pl. 704 neissent maladies e divers encumbrer. 
encuntrant v. tr. to encounter. 

gmd. 174: les vint encuntrant. 
encuntre adv. ' obviani,' venir al — , to go to meet. 

266 vindrent .il encuntre lez e esjoi. 
encupez v. tr. to incriminate. 

ppp. mas. sg. 157 (fu) a tort encupez. 
encurumcs v. tr. to incur. _ 1 • , , 

ind. pret. i pi. 1 140 damage encurumcs unc a nul jur tant. 
encusez v. tr. to denounce. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1 131 encusez fustes andui a un cruel tirant. 
encusu v. tr. to sew up. 

ind. pft. 3 pi. 1400 en sucires les unt e mis e encusu. 
endemein adv. en 1' — , al — , on the morrow. 

494 al endemein par tens : 1 136 en 1 endemein. 

endoct^'z } ppp.' mai" sg"407 (de) plusurs poinz par unt doit hom estre sauvez, est A. ja bien endoc.nnez. 
endoclrmez ) ppp. ma fc 4^/ ^^ ^A^^^^_^^ ^^ ^^^(^^ endoctrine : 1808 de la lei crestienc pur estre en.loctrind. 

','. '.'> P'- 34' ?="■ buinme sunt li autre apris e endoctrine. 
endormi ) v. rcf. to fall asleep, 
endort f ind. pres. 3 sg. 202 en sun lit s endort. 

pp. mas. sg. 223 en mun lit fu chuchez e ferm fu endormi. 
„ pi. 1056 pai-iis se reposent cuchez e endormi. 
endroit prep. — de, with reference to. 

1084 chescun endroit de soi. 
endurci v. tr. to harden ; to coagulate, encrust. 

ppp. mas. sg. 11 13 li saiics A. i pert, aers e endurci. 



xh-iii 



GLOSSARY. 



(endurci) 
endurer 

enemi 
enemis 



enfance 
enfant 



enfanta 
enfantement 



enfanter 
enfanlerez 



1 765 si en dient ' amen ' veil e enfant ! 



enfei 



enfernsl 
enfernaus 



enflambez 

enfreidissant 

enfreindre 

enfrundrer 

engane 

engane- 

engaiiez 

engaunir 

engetta 
engette 
engetter 
engettez 



enginner 
enginneiii- 



ppp. mas .pi. 1495 tant furent en errur entrez e endurci. 

V. tr. to endure. 

infin. 1630 Jesu mercier li'il le tenc digne pur li teu peines endurer, 

s. m. enemy. 

nom. sg. 458 a Deu est enemi : 742 est commun enemi. 

ace. „ 627 A. lur enemi la venir fenmt : 1415 (avenint) mene lur enemi mortel. 

voc. ,, 754 va t-'en, Iiis ! enemi nus deus de la cite! 

nom. pi. 154 envie en urent adverser enemis : 1381 li enemi Jesu en unt e envie e pesance : 

,, „ iioi a huraeiu lignage sunt traitres enemi : 1657 tuit sunt ti enemi. 
gen. ,, 8b7 des maus ses enemis dolcntz est e meii. 
prp. „ 925 pur tes enemis Deu piias : 1 171 I'alames vengant de ses enemis lui cuntredisant : 

,, „ 1213 pur moi de mes enemis garantir. 
s. f. period of cliildliood. 

prp. sg 1 380 unc plus beus ne estoient jur puis lur enfance. 
s. m. chUd. 

ace. sg. iigi pur Id avum guerpi maisun, muillere, enfant, 
nom. pi. 792 a seeches plantes passent nis li petit enfant : 
under enfanter. 
s. m. childbirth, 
prp. sg. 1253 apres I'enfantement remist mere e pucele. 
1 V. tr. to bring forth. 
J ind. pret. 3 sg. 1252 enfanta e nurri Jesu de sa mamele. 

„ fut. 2 pi. 130 celui enfanterez ki vent le mund sauver. 
infin. 139 ki (par droit apent) lui enfanter. 
s. m. hell, 
prp. sg. 38 de enfer nus rescure (deingna) : 166 d'enfer rescut ses prisuns cheitifs : — 

,, „ 112. 599. 1081 en la prisun (de emfer aler) (d'enfer gisent) (d'enfer sunt enseveli), 

„ „ 1675 mort sufrent el puis de enfer : 1759 (sunt) el fu d'enfer: — 

„ „ 66 en enfer gist puant : 321 ferm lie Suthan en enfer : 

„ „ 642 en enfer sunt parfund ! 1683 lur apent en enfer sujurner : 

,, „ 1796 sunt en enfer : 18 18 sunt dampne diable en enfer susterin : — 

„ „ 608 reni (Mahou) k'en [=into] enfer trait ki lui sert. 
infernal. 

nom. sg. 189 enfemal turment (atent). 
„ prp. ,, I redutee de di.ible enfernal : 287 (rescust) d'enfernal ser\-age. 
fem. „ ,, 319 deU\Te d'enfern.nl regiun : 1449 deUvTer* nus d'enfernal baillie : 

„ ,, „ 1799 (nus reinst) d'enfernal poeste. 
mas. ace. pi. 1473 enfernaus diables reclamez pur deus. 

V. tr. to inflame. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1565 tut est enflambez de ire e mautalent. 

V. intr. to grow cold (in death). 

pres. ptcp. fem. 846 charoinne le tenent (enfreidissant) sanz alme. 

v. tr. to break (a commandment). 

infin. 1216 il ne les vout unc enfreindre ne guerpir (scil. mes cumanz). 

v. tr. to dash in pieces. 

infin. 1263 acurer frai u enfnindrer de teste u de cervele. 

v. tr. to deceive. 

infin. 1295 enganer (simple gent parbarat) : 1651 deceivre e par dizenganer (simple gent). 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 423 (un pelerin) ki tut engane I'a. 

ppp. mas. sg. 92 trop i es enganez, trop i es deceu. 

v. intr. to grow 5'ellow (jaundiced with disease). 

infin. 705 fevres ki funt la gent engaunir e trembler. 

v. tr. to throw away ; to dehver. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 804 engette sun brant. 
„ pret. „ ,, 310 Deus les engetta de sen-age e prisun ; 
imper. 2 pi. 569 engettez ces drapeus. 

infin. 119 (il plut a lui) par sa grace nus d'iluec engetter. 

s. m. skill. 

prp. sg. 597 par engin est cuntrefait en entaille u peinture. 

V. tr. to deceive. 

infin. 1659 desdi ke tu dit as pur la gent enginner. 

s. ra. deceiver. 

nom. sg. 1568 cist fans enginneiir tant saet d'enchantement. 



adj. 
mas. 



1 160 loing engetta sun brant. 



GLOSSARY. 



xlix 



s. m. skilled workman, designer. 

prp. pi. 596 dc uns enginnurs raorteus ki est one e laiture. 

n. pr. England. 

ace. 929 ki primers aiimas Engletere par martire. 

adj. headstrong. 

mas. nom. sg. 722 A. U engres (v. note). 

V. rcf. to bow down. , . , , v 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1456 Apl. piete en ad, vers lui s enhumilie. 

s. m. dawn. ,. . , 

prp. sg. 1 133 d'Uuec ntis cunvcia ben devant 1 enjumant. 

S."sg:*2;2"i; maUn est leve.. par tens al enjurner : 703 n'a pluie ne rusee au seir n'al enjurncr :- 

1677 it est grant tenebrur, nmt sanz enjurner. 
V. intr. to fall sick. . 

pp. mas. sg. 1114 mU sunt mes ke li uns remist enmaladi. 

ind' pres^.'^l'S'. 282 Deu primes enmercie cum lettrez e sage : 492 cist Ven enmercie : 
, 1459 mut I'cnmercie. 

(pp. =) adj. swartliv. 

mas. ace. sg. 1103 (jo reni) Plutun rennerci. 
> V intr to £TOW dark, be tlirown into darkness. , 

ind p'et 3^sg 25^ silaU enobscuri : 454 quant li jurs decline c nmt enobscun : 
1055 P-'"' 1^ ""''• '^' suriint h airs enobscun. 

pp. mas." sg. 914 (li las cheitifs) tut est enobscuritz. 

(pp. =) adj. orphaned. . 

nias. nom. pi. 1504 frarins sumes e suls e tuz enorfam. 
\ V. intr. to grow p.-ile. 

j ind. pres. 3 sg. 652 char emfle e la pel enpahst (v. note), 
prct. ,, ,, 1 1 1 5 lei par aventure de feblescc enpah. 

adi. well-connected. 

mas. nom. sg. 740 kar A. ert gentilz e bien enparente. 



enginnurs 

Engletere 

engres 

enhumilie 

enjurnant 

enjurner 

enmaladi 
enmercie 

enncrci 

enobscuri 
enobscuritz 

cnorfani 

enpali 
enpalist 

enparente 

enpeinncnt 

•^"P'"'' ' Zi. \m;h. I S: 6^1 ;;^a cht M'{;robei;;i:"e^peinst u batist. 

enpenne adj. winged. ... 

mas. nom. sg. 990 legger cum oisel enpenne. 
cnnorte v. tr. to carry off. , . , 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 572 cist enchantur ki ta robe enporte. 
enpris under empcmum. 

enorisunez v.tr. to imprison. ... , , 

ppp. mas. sg. 1 138 enprisunez fu pms sis mors en un tenant. 
enauis v. tr. to inquire, discover by inquir)'. .. , ■, .,„.„n 

ppp. (= infin. pass.) 82 ne par fines raisuns enquis ne seu (purreit estre). 
enrichi adj. enriched, wealthy. 

mas. voc. sg. 240 hai ! rois de Gmeus, poisant e ennchi ! 

ensanglaent^e^ V. '- 4° ^^^ ^Jg*^^" fe mins) Valasse e I'ensenglante (la pel des plantes). 
ppp. mas. sg. 952 (purras truver) sur I'erbe Ic cors ensenglante 
,; fern. „ 534 du sacher c buter U est ensanglaentee (la robe). 

cnsauvaei adj. savage. ... 

mas. nom. pi. 470 raisun plus n'orreient ke tigre ensauvagi : 
ensegncment \ s. m. teaching ; authority. , .. , . ^. 
enscicncmcnt ) ace. sg. 1214 m'ensegncment (oir demgnat). 

prp. „ iSocrestiensdevemgneparvostreenseignement : 
X 1316 (nus sevrer*) de sun cnscignemcnt : — 
,', 1556 mut est cist Jesus dc grant enseignement. 

cnseinncr ) v. tr. to teach. . . 

cnseinncrcz C ind. fut. 2 pi. 387 de la lei k'ai enpns plus m'enseinnercz. 

infin. 218 si tu me sez ensemner (ke signifie). 
ensement adv. also, e<iually. 

186 (craire) le pere e le fiz, semt espent ensement. 
ensenglante, ensenglante under ensanglaentee. 



1 v. tr. 
j ind. 



to wound. 

pres. 3 pi. 632 ferent c enpeinnent en face e nes e frunt. 



507 oisel te devurent e lu ensauvagL 



1 



GLOSSARY. 



enseve[li] 1 v. int 

cnsevelie / subj. 

ppp. 



intr. to bury. 

pies. 3 sg. 724 droiz est ke en terre vif hom I'ensevelie. 
mas. sg, 261 de la croiz fu ostez e puis enseve[li]. 

„ pi. 1081 en la prisun d'enfer sunt enseveli : 1506 n'estes en sarcuz posez ne enseveli 
ent I. (468) under en I. 
ent n. (1512) under en II. 
cntaille s. f. intaglio, carved work. 

nom. sg. 324 ben veit ke signifie la entaille e la fa^un. 

prp. „ 597 (un deu) cuntrefait en entaille u peinture. 
entame v. tr. to touch, damage. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1388 il n'unt nis un des cheveuz entamS ne perdu. 
enten, entene, enteudant under entendre, 
entendement s. m. understanding. 

ace. sg. 192 CO ne refoit ne sen ne entendement, 
cntendez 
cntendi 
cntendimes 
entendre 
entendu 
entenduz 
entent 



pret. 



tr. to hear; perceive, understand ; conceive ; engage the attention of (v. note on 1594). 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 104. 175 A. I'escute e de quor i entent : 280 quant entent sun quor e sun curage : 
,, ,, ,, ,, 322 A. de quor I'entent : 1559 cum meintquidee entent: 1570 ki aces mais entent : 
,, 1594 a sermun entent (crestiens nuveus entur lui). 
,, 269 lur chant rentinc e entendi. 

» 445 entendi (la parole) : isiyentendi (lurgrefpleinte) : 1533 chescunbenl'entendi. 
„ I pi. 1 1 77 plusurs cntendimes. 
imper. 2 sg. 417 enten 9a : 456 entene ki jo vus di : 

» )) .. 556 entene cum sa doctrine (folage est e errur) : 1669 entene (vers moi) ! 

„ ,, pi. 728 entendez ke raisuns cumande : 

II II II 1077 entendez tuit vers moi ke jo vus lou e di. 

infin. 294 tun sunge puez entendre sanz fentosme u folage. 
periph. pres. ptcp. 567 a eus sunt entendant roi, due, empereiir. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 71 ad sun oste entendu. 
„ ( „ ,, ,,p!.) 620 ill'unt entendu : 1500 cist Fund entendu. 
ppp. (infin. pass.) 8r ne purreit estre entendu. 

mas. sg. 107 1 tens estoit lur chantz entenduz e oiz. 
under enters. 
v. tr. to inter, bur}'. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1755 les cors ad enterre suz bleste verdoiant. 
ppp. mas. sg. 958 (fai) ke U seit enterre. 

adj. sincere. 

mas. ace. sg. 1844 i Jesu me abaundun, serf loial, enterrin. 
\ I adj. whole, (a) in body, unharmed; {b) in mind, self-contained : 2 adv. wholly. 
J mas. nom. sg. 842 ne remeinst sein ne entier eu cors : 1305 un plus ferms e plus enter (respunt). 
11 ,1 pi. 795 (levent) legers, enters e seins : 1373 beus devenent e enters. 
I, ace. ,, 1543 CJesus les restora) enters, seins e gari. 

adv. 1346 (ne faUli ke un sul) ke n'i eust mil enter, 
s. m. entrails. 

nom. sg. 1609 tut est escule I'entrail corporal, 
adv. obliquely (v. note). 
236 en un fust dresce autre entravers parmi. 
prep, among. 

147 entre nus mis : 208 entre morteus (\ivre) : 854 entre espines va : 883 entre eus (est levez criz) : 
919 dient entre eus : 1018 entre les* seintz martirs (v. note': 1469 repos n'i avoit entre eus). 
entre ll. (15) under entrent. 
entrecunbatent v. ref. to fight ivith each other. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1734 s'entrecunbatent li paien mescreant. 
V. intr. to take a mutual oath. 

pp. mas. pi. 1 109 entrejurez sunt e lur foi unt plevi. 
V. intr. to enter. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 15 entre a un maistre portal. 
,, ,, ,, pi. 518 cist entrent. 

pp. (ind. pft. I sg.) 98 sui en cest pais entrez e arestuz. 
(1, II 3 II ) 72 [ki est en] sun ostel entrez e receiiz. 

(11 II 3 pl.) 392 il il sunt ja entrez : 1495 furent en errur entrez c endurci. 
mas. (ace.) sg. 1707 veit entre A. sun cumpainnun. 
s. f. enthusiasm. 
ace, sg. 1724 (ot) une voLz ki reahaite mut sa entunciun. 



enter 
enterre 



enternn 



enters 
entier 



entrail 



entravers 



entre I. 



entrejurez 

entrent 

entrer 

entrez 



entunciun 



GLOSSARY. 



li 



entur 

entusc6 
entuschfie 

cnumbrer 

envai 

envair 

envea 
env4e 



enveilli 

enveit 
envenimfi 

envespri 

en\ie 

en\irun 

enTius 

envU 

envolupe 

erbe 

ere, erent 
ermin 
ermine 
errant 

emir 
errurs 



ert, es I. 
es n. 

es III 



esample 



esba'i 

esbaie 

esbaiz 



1722 ces i enveit Deus a sun loial champiun. 

II J sun fiz lur envea e li\Ta a Ixindun. 

1714 (requerez Deu k'il) m'enveit de angeres consolaciu.i. 

517 ke sa vertu li seit tramise e envfie. 



esbaudi 
esbaudiz 



^o^s: "'retur U : .595 entur lui : 1606 entur le pel Venchacent. 

V. tr. to contaminate, pollute. 

ppn mas. pi. 998 li crestien en sunt apns e entusce. . . 

^1'^ Ifcm. sg. .2 si (la cite) ne fust entusched de la lei cnm.nal. 

V. tr. to overshadow. 

infin. 137 (seintz esperitz) toi cumme mere vudra enumbrer. 

V. tr. to attack. 

ind. pret. ? sg. JI 16 raorteu maladie le quor lui envai. 

infin. 1419 (pueple, sumuns a cenbel) d'envair est. 
v. tr. to send, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 

,, pret 

subj. pres. „ „ 

ppp. fern. sg. 

adj. aged. , .. .... ■, 

mas. prp. sg. 464 de moi ki cheut, peccheur enveiUi .■' 

nom. pi. 15 13 pleurent e weimentent U joure e enveilU. 

under envea. 

v. tr. to poison. . . , 

ppD. mas. pi. 993 suspris sunt de rancur e de ure envenime. 

v. i'ntr. to draw towards evening. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1054 li solaUz ja decline e li jurs envespn. 

acc.'r;54 envie en urent (adverser enemis) : 1381 U enemi J en unt e envie e pesance. 

prp. ,; 722 dist A. par* orgoil e en\-ie : 994 'lient par envie li las. 

adv. around. 

I6y7 ki estoient envirun. 

adj. em-ious. 

mas. nom. sg. 1449 quel k' emius die. 

adj. unwilling. 

mas. nom. sg. 763 enviz va bon gre. 

„ pl. 917 le poer Jesu prisent volentris e en^nz. 

ppp.' mar(rcc.)'sg. 981 unt au cors mis (le chieQ, de dras envolupe. 
under herbe. 
under estre. 

1 pr|^'477"Si9un d'ermine enblanchi : .829 pur esclavine eschaung mun peli?un d'ermm. 

adv. immediately. 

: 175 li oil li sunt chaet du chef errant. 
\ s. m. error. 
I nom. sg. 556 sa doctrine folage est e emir. 

ace. „ 1 567 cum losengers ki sun errur defent. 

prp. „ 1495 '=>"•• furen' f:" ^""'^ entrez e endurci. 

ace. pl. 1805 guerpissent lur errurs e maus e vamtfi. 

prp. „ 326 de ses errurs fait veraie cunfcssiun. 

under estre. 

(= en les 1482. 1531) under en. 

inter). Behold ! Look you ! 

823. 1 157 es-le-vus. 

408. 875. 972- 1458- 17'9 es-Tus. 

s. m. example. . .. 

nom. sg. 551 deussez estre as autrcs essample e mireur. 

prp. „ 1226 par esample de vus. 

V. tr. to frighten. 

nno mas. ■m 4^5 i sun maistre est venuz tut esbai. ,^ . . u ■; 

ppp. mas. .^u. 45^5 ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^.^ . ^j^ ^^^^^^ ^„„j g ^^baiz : 1066 mut sunt esbai. 

fern. sg. 133 cele ert esbaie. 
V. tr. to delight. 

nnn mas sp Q06 A. est ia seiir, ioius e esbaudiz. u j: 

ppp. mas.^sg. 900^_^..^.^J^^_^^ ^'i^^^ ^ ^^^^^^. , ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^,^^ j„„ .^fait c esbaudi. 

,, ,, 109" c du eel li angore joius e esbaudi. 

&2 



lii 



GLOSSARY. 



esbueler 
esbuelez 

esceint 

eschaper 

eschami 
escharniz 

eschars 

eschaung 

eschivi 

eschoisi 

eschoisir 

eschoisiz 



escient 

esclarci 
esclarcie 



esclavine 

escole 

escoler 

escrie 

escrient 

escriez 

escrit i. 



escnt II. 
escriz 



esculant 
escule 

escurgies 

escutfi 

escuz 

esgarda 

esgarde 

esgarez 



iv. ti. to disembowel, 
ppp. mas. pi. 1372 (les cors ki estoient) decolez, esbuelez de espee u de lance, 
infin. 1340 d'autre (part, veissez) esbueler. 

V. tr. to envelope. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 265 gloire e clarte les esceint e fluri. 

V. tr. to escape. 

infin. 1656 (morz es), ne purrez eschaper. 
\ V. tr. to mock, to scorn. 
J ind. pret. 3 sg. 233 repruva, laidit e escharni. 

app. (ind. pft. ,, ,, ) 945 par felunie I'at eschami e gabbfi. 

ppp. mas. sg. 89 penez e escharniz (fu) : 920 raortz est e escharniz. 

s. m. mockery. 

ace. pi. 961 de (o'ir) eschars ne gas n'ai soing ne volunte. 

V. tr. to exchange. 

ind. pres. i sg. 1829 pur escla\-ine eschaung mun pelifun d'ermin. 

V. tr. to reject. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 230 (un pople) rint, ki sa doctrine despit e eschivi. 
\ V. tr. to perceive ; to choose; (ppp. =) adj. choice. 
I app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 346 eschoisi vus a, e vus lui de bon gre. 



( 



I pl.j 1522 les eiimes tnivez e eschoisi. 

3 ,, ) 10O9 ben unt paens les angles veii e eschoisi. 



methinks. 



infin. 1229 citoiens a keus plest eschoisir. 
ppp. mas. pi. 904 (curune) de jaspes, esmeraudes e safirs eschoisiz. 
s. ra. knowledge ; men escient, ace. to my knowledge, 'quod sciam, 
1560 ne feist, men escient, (teu mescinement). 
v. tr. to light up ; to beautify, (= beatify). 

ppp. mas. sg. 225 (li eels se desclot) beus e deUtables e purs e esclarci. 
,, ,, 1068 (voient) le sepulcre A. ke tut fu esclarci. 
fern. ,, 144s (fere deingna Deus vertuz) pin- I'alrae esclarcie. 
s. f. coarse pilgrim's dress. 

ace. sg. 476 jo ta esclavine, plus I'eim ke pelei9un d'ermine. 

prp. „ 519 de (= propter) I'esclavine (k' A. ad afublee) : 1829 pur esclavine eschaung mun pelifun. 
s. f. schoolroom. 

ace. sg. 393 (d'une maisun sutive) unt fait lur escole. 
s. m. scholar. 

nom. sg. 219 tu serras mi maistres e jo tis escoler : 1335 kant il ert escoler. 
V. intr. (and ref.) to shout ; to shout at, drive away by shouting, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 826 uns paens haut s'escrie : 884 s'escrie un paens : 1436 a haute voiz s'escrie. 

,, ,, ,, pi. 864 maudient A., e escrient cum lu : 1425 escrient el'ahiient plus viument k'un chael. 
ppp. mas. sg. 555 (s'en est binnez) cum luzu cum gupUz escriez de pastur. 
v. tr. to WTite. 

app. (ind. pft. i sg.) 1820 (la geste ai) escrit en parchemin. 
ppp. mas. sg. 1402 k'en lunge remembrance seit escrit e leii. 

,, „ ,, 1839 musterai i mun livre, escrit en veeslin. 

s. m. writing. 

prp. sg. 1041 (sis nuns est en) escrit reraembrable : 1401 en escrit unt mis le numbre. 
ace. pi. 397 lors li ad desclos escriz d'antiquitez. 
s. m. shield, protection, 
nom. (pred.) sg. 57 escu m'est plus ke chastel perin : 94 n'um mortal escu ne te serroit : 

„ „ ,, 1764 soiez cuntre diable lur escu e guarant. 

prp. pi. 851 (vestu sunt) de buclers escuz. 

v. intr. to flow, ooze out. 

pres. ptcp. 1 186 en sun sane, (esculant) de sun cors. 
pp. mas. sg. 1609 (batent) ke tut est escule I'entrail corporal, 
s. f. scourge. 

prp. pi. 234 (bati) de escurgies (gesk'au sane espandre). 
v. tr. to hear. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 104. 175 A. ben I'escute e de quor i entent. 
under escu. 
V. tr. to behold. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 409 a une fenestre par unt les esgarda. 
app. ( ,, pft. „ ,, ) 1788 al oil ( = with their eye) I'unt esgarde. 
adj. belated. 



GLOSSARY. 



liii 



mas. nom. sg. .087 quisl, cum esgarez, ci ostel e abri. 
] rni' pr^es'tt'MroT'l^-st cist ke ses criz ne eshauce emultipUe. 
^ i >"- '"■ "'' I'-r unt Ic los Jesu clcrs est e eshauce. 
V. intr. to be glad ; (pp. = ) a<l]. joyous. 

infm. qti2 nc deussez esjoir. . 

(op ) mas. nom. sg. 912 "'est mie de sun fait lunges esjoitz. 
(pp.) mas. no t. j . ^^ ^^„ esjoi. 

" n^; pi 266 vindrent lez e esjoi : ,063 chantant e esjoi . 
I csS nus en estoium e licz e esjoi. 
fern. ace. sgl 35 Unuvele esjoic precher e nuncier. 

p.^pl'.Vo9"'.o.9 I'acoilt Deus (of ses desmeine eslitz) (of* ses eslitz). 

] l^Z IT 43' -e'brebiz malade d'autres esloinnera. 
' ppp. mis^ pT. fsl ke ne soiez de lui esloinnez pur nulh. 
;;^: ;;^S:^-;7?1- -nbres sunt destuers. desjointz e esluiss.. 
:pMi°rK"g-) 34° -int esperitz ad tun quor eslume. 
\nl\l:c::^i.% si Deu tant tun quor eslumine e esprcnt. 
ppp.- mas'^pr 169 (apostles) Id estoient esluz par numbre deus faiz sis. 
V. tr. to maim (v. note), 
inftn. 1344 (li frere) le vent esmanker. 
esmeraude 1 s. m. emeraW U'esmeraude u safir. . . 

esn>eraudes ) nom. sg. ^^^oG^-^^P ^^.^^^^^^ esmeraudes e satyrs eschoisiz. 

''""=" 1 ppp- marlr ^'77 plus clers ke n'est .argentz esmerez e fundu. 

esmerez i PPPp^p"^' f °- eurune d'or esmere reqmtz. 

;;;rir^.T|!'=77 tn^ - J;S--|^-° ^^^^--r : .006 mut s'en esmervel.ent. 
, " " i?,^l:'4fcum;ncee'smervoillerde9o:.33cumenceaesmerveUler. 

V rcf. to moderate one's self. 
;mni>r 2 pl I ? 1 8 esmcsurez \-us ! 

Sp.' fim. s'g. 537 la cite en est tutc tost esmue e trublee. 
mis.'nlm'^. 9°. (U esperitz) purs e esmirables cum cristals politz. 
i'nt;n.^2°orSn»e) lui esmoUlir le quoer (par avdsiun). 
esmiie, esmuz under esmeiiz. 



(esgarez) 

eshauce 

eshaucf 

esjoi 
esjoTe 
esjoir 
esjoitz 



eslitz 

esloinnera 
esloinnez 

esluisse 

eslum^ 

eslumine 

esluz 

esmanlcer 



esmer\-cU 

esmerveiller 

esmervellcnt 

esmervoillcr 

esmesurez 

esmeiiz 



esmirables 
esmoillir 



esnfi 
esnez 

esnuifi 

espace 

cspand 
espandera 
espandi 
espandrc 



1 mt Voin sg. %99 Caim, si frere esnez (I'ocist). 

i mas. nom. sg. 399 j. ^^.^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ y^^^ ^^^ ot^e). 

V. tr. to annoy. 

ppp. mas. pl. 375 ne s°'<=!= =^""'^- 

acc"'s^''''687° UanT cum il lui plest espace (otroier). 
tr!^o shed (tears, blood i->^<^ ' -f- to spread 



lui plest espace (oiroier;. 

3d li"ht); ref. to spread itself fof a stream, news evil), 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 5-5 lern^'l''"' t- ■ ''53^..s-s Id^^spanjU ,.: i^7^h »n<^^ 



pret. 
fut. 



Ill ;^-:s^^,:^^p.?iant%;^tV^^rcu;;.. u^d pur Deusun sane espan. : 

,786 tost s'espaunt la nuvcle par trestut le regne. 
" " 2;; ne r.ai nc lumere solail ne cspandi : 
" " , ; n li sancs cum un roiseus cs plainnes sc espaundi. 
" " A2 par les autrcs li maus s'espandera. 
i'nlin. 234 (de escurgies bati) gesk'au sane espandre. 



liv 



GLOSSARY. 



I V. ref. to bloom, open (as lily) ; pp. = full-blown. 

J ind. pres. 3 sg. 1 721 (plus blancs ke) quant se espanist lis en sasaisun. 



espani 
espanist 

pp. mas. sg. 1070 (plus beus) ke n'est lis espani. 
espant under espandre. 

esparni v. tr. to spare. 

ppp. mas. sg. 451 pur lignage ne serra esparni : 1528 pesa al darreinner k"il taut fu esparni 
espamier v. tr. to spare. 

app. (ind. pft. 2 sg.) 922 ta char nc esp.irnias. 

infin. 108 (Deus) nes vout espamier : 1280. 1653 sanz (nul) espamier. 
espaundi, espaunt under espandre- 
especieus 



espee 
espces 



espe 



esperit 



esperitable 
esperital 



esperitz 
esperun 

esperver 

espia 

espicial 
espines 



espirable 

espiriteus 

espleite 

espleiter 

esploitcr 

espoir 

espoiiri 

esprent 
espris 

espruver 

espurger 



essample 
est 



s. m. 
nom 



ace. 



adj. especial; = s. particular (friend), 
mas. nom. sg. g ert amis Jesu espicial. 

„ ,, pi. 1479 les pecchurs repentantz sunt ses especieus. 
s. f. sword. 

ace. sg. 504 (portantz) hache u espee : 888 sache I'espee. 
prp. „ 1372 esbuelez de espee u de lance: 1443 (decolfi) a la espSe furbie. 
acc.pl. 1326 sachent les espees. 
s. f. hope, 
ace. sg. 662 en -vnis met ma esperance e m'amur : 1370 en lui unt amur e esperance : 

„ „ 1710 jo n'ai esperance fors en Deu e vus nun. 
spirit; (Holv) Ghost. 

sg. 136 Seintz Esperitz en toi vendra recunser : 168 fu as apostles li Seinz Esperitz tramis : 
,, 340 Seint Esperitz ad tun quor eslume : 

„ 900 est portez eu ciel li esperitz : 1016 li esperitz santz fin regne eu eel esteilU : 
„ 186 (craire) le Pere e le Fiz, Seint Esperit ensement : 

„ „ 250 en tes meins mun esperit (jo cumant) ; 

„ „ 893 le Seint Esperit reclaime e le Pere e le Fiz. 
adj. spiritual. 

mas. ace. sg. 1047 proiez pur nus pecchurs le roi esperitable. 
adj. spiritual, heavenly, 
mas. prp. sg. 1613 pense du rei esperital. 

„ nom. pi. 1480 de tens en unt grant joie li angre espiriteus. 
under esperit. 
s. m. spur. 

aee. sg. 1008 tut ne U vaudra un esperun roille : 1 150 il ne prisa tut un esperun vaillant. 
s. m. sparrow-hawk. 

ace. sg. 50 ceu Jesu heent cum aloue esperver. 
V. tr. to spy. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 410 de eus ne fu veii ke les espia. 
under especieus. 
s. f. thorn, 
prp. pi. 1617 a curune de espines : — 

„ ,, 238 de espines cumna : 854 entre espines Id va e les cailloz menu, 
adj. spiritual (v. note). 

fem. nom. sg. 602 sa vie (est) espirable e seinte e nette e pure, 
under esperital. 

V. intr. to be successful, effective, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 648 ne ren n'i espleite hom p.ir peine k'em i mist. 

infin. 664 ne poent par tant esploiter ; 1 289 ne poent par el espleiter. 
adv. perhaps. 

131O 90 punez ^•us, espoir, devant vespre espraver. 
(pp. =) adj. frightened, 
mas. nom. pi. 486 ne soiez ja espoiiri ! 
[ V. tr. to light up, inflame, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 184 si Deu tant tun quor eslumine e esprent : 1597 grant ire les esprent. 
pp]). mas. sg. 1 243 li princes, espris de ire, art e restencele. 
V. tr. to have proof of, experience. 

infin 134 kar ne vout espmver (cumpainnie de bamn) : 1310 (90 purrez vus) espmver. 
v. tr. to expurgate, wipe away, 
infin. 675 sa penance i meine pur ses mans espurger : 1324 (recever batesme) pur voz maus espurger : 

,, 1692 par batesme te lou tes pecchez espurger. 
under esample. 
tmder estre. 



GLOSSARY. 



Iv 



esta 
estabilit£ 

estable 



establi 



establtz 

estages 

estal 

estant 

esteille 

esteint 

estenduz 
estent 

ester 



under ester. 

s. f. steadfastness. 

ace sg. 660 force e estabilitfi me doinst-U ! 

adj. lasting, steadfast. 

mas. nom. sg. 1147 raed fu e estable cum fer u aimant. 

fern. prp. ,, 1039 vit en gloire remenant e estable. 

V. tr. to establish, assign ; ppp. = determinate. 

ind pret. 3 sg. 490 ki sa eglise sur pere funda e establi. 
(app.) ( „ pft. „ „ ) 472 (prendrai) quancke Deus m'a purveii e establi. 
ppp. ma's, (prp.) sg. 1545 nus les cuntasmes tuz a cert cunte establi. 
s. m. rule, ordinance. 

prp. pi. 178 (ne sai) ke Jesus en ses establiz aprent. 
s. m. stor)', room. 

prp. pi. 17 a solers e estages e celers grantz aval. 
s. m. stoppage,— prendre estal, to stand stiU (,to take breatli). 
ace. sg. 1605 nel lessent reposer ne nul liu prendre estal. 
under ester, 
under estre. 

adj. starry. , , , ■„. 

mas. prp. sg. 1802 cist est sires de terre e du eel estoiUe. 
„ „ 1016 regne eu eel esteille. 

V. intr. to become extinguished. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1678 feu ki pas ne esteint. 
) V. tr. to stretch out ; (intr.) to extend. 
( ind. pres. 3 sg. 1585 partut ii sun poer estent. 

pp. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1691 les braz ad estenduz tuz tens pur embracer. 

V. intr. to stand ; to stand fixed (of a judgment). 

ind pres ^ sg. 1320 90 est nostre sentence k'esta sanz ja fauser. 

' infin 1657 veiz ci ester : 1 705 al destre sun pere veit ester Jesun. 



pres. ptcp. 623 (image) en un curre estant 
estes, estez, estoie, estoient under estre. 
estoillfi under csteUle. 

estoire s. f. story, history. 

nom. sg. 1822 la estou-e ert translatge. . ^ ,-,-■. ■ 

ace. ,, 1202 de li I'estoire unt cunte : 1845 la estoire de A. ci lims e terrain. 
prp' ,',' 1812 deceste estoire vile cumenfail e fin. 

„ 1041 sis nuns est en estoire e escrit reraembrable. 
estoit, estoium under estre. 

estrange ^^;/°o'ilf'4-'2nr?spassant sui estrange : 55^ "" estrange tafur (va prechant). 

prp „ 426 d'un deu tel estrange par ci sermunant va. 
',', ,, .. 63 (en cest pais) estrange : 541 en eel estrange atur. 
estrangi (adj. =) s. m. stranger. . _ . 

ace. sg. 1 541 n'i pctist hem cunustre prive ne estrangi. 
estre v. intr. to be, to exist ; auxil. _ . ,■ .■ /ov 

A with past ptcpp.,-(a) intransitive, (|3) reflective, (y) passive ; B, with adjectives, (f3) per 
pres. ptcpp. ; C, with general predicatc.^or denoting simple existence. 



iph. 



ind. pres. i sg. sui 



est 



A (a) 98 :— O") 1442- 1826. 

B 54. 834. 964. 

C 27. 1441. 1709. , ^ 

A (a) 243 es peri: 1656 morz es ;— (y) 92 bis. 241. 242. 342. 343 (v. note). 

B 55°:— (/3) ;'30- 

A fa) 7t''20i^'2 ■2'! 3V.! 455. 49.?; 554- 876. 878. 883. 888 89O. 912. gM- 920. 968. 
iOm7i029. .053. 1.2S. 1166. 1242.1385. 1386. 1398. 1420. 1458. i486. 15O 
(0) 768. 775. 1038. 1161. 1780:— (y) I- 73- 86. 167. 251. 367. 405. 407- 4'9- 
S08. 515. 521 ter. 530. 534. 537- 538- 574 577- S89- 597- 605. O33. 734- 74' • 
7S'- 755- 774- 7^'- ^'S- 8S6- 892- 897. 900. 903- 9^$- 9^5- 937- 94!-- 95'- 953- 
1006. 1020. 1052. 1098. 1199. 1304. 1565. ibog. 1702. o o o/L 
108. 271. 348. 349. 363- 448- 573- 593- t-oi I'is- 661. 724- 732- »07- 030- 86/ • 
006. 919. 992. 1005. 1029. 1049. 1050. 1051. 1070. 1090. i35(). '357- 1370 
1454. 1459. 1470 bis. 1477- 1563- >574- '6'9- 1620. 1627. 1686:— (/3) 816 
1178. 1 194. 



B 



428. 
745- 
963- 



■43 ■■ 

1 176. 



Ivi GLOSSARY. 

(3 sg. est) C 34. 57. 81. 84. 206. 210. 278. 295. 355. 420. 458. 459. 460. bis. 487. 524. 556. 
561.578.596. 598. 717. 742 bis. 744. 784. 806.807.833. 853.869.874.930. 
965. 1002. I02V 1041. 1042. 1073. 1183. 1200. 1254 bis. 1258. 1309. 1320. 1554. 
1338. 1342. 1361. 1383.'. 1422. 1447. 1449. '4*^2. 1518. 1556. 1579. 1676. 1677. 
1693- T'S- '776- 1802. 
iiul. pres. i pi. sitmes A (a) 865 : — (y)457. 461. 

B 1085. 1089. 1 1 88. 1 195. 1504. 
C 932. 

2 „ es/es A {y) 1045. 1506. 

B 550. 577. 1 268. 1472. 1476. 1650. 

3 „ su)it A (a) 392.479- 539- 773- 79^. ^S. 913. 914. 984. 1025. 1066. 1079. 1154. 1175. 

1392. 1485. 1667. 1794. 1808:— (/3) 1033. 1272. 1481. 1483. 1596. 1655. (y) 268. 
341. 394. 404. 713. 738. 747. 772. 780. 845. 850. 880. 916. 954. 975. 993. 998. 
1081. nog. 1374. 1491. 1516. 1520. 1521. 1536. 1777. 8. 9. 
B 354- 855.918. 985. 1044. 1114. 1333. 1405. 1430. 1624. 1795:— (/3) 567. 1430. 

1762. 1783. 
C 307. 566. 599. 643. 786. IIOI. 1299. 1350. 1382. 1418. 1464. 1479. 1655. i6bi. 
1758. 1796. 
., impft. I. I sg. estoie C 181 1. 1816. 

3 ,, estoit A (a) 263 : — (y) 262. 400. 452. 453. 1 151. 
B 222. 769. 1059. 1071. 1564:— (/3) 1142. 
C 288. 727. 1703. 
ipLestohimB 1538:— (|8) 1177. 
3 „ estoient A (y) 169. 
B 13S0. 

C 23. 1371. 1697. 1760. 
„ „ n. 3 sg. ei-t A (a) 288. 942 :— (y) 2. 133. 894. 
B 740. 760. 788. 860. 1060. 
C 9. 202. 224. 321. 1335. 
i pi. erent B i72o:_(/3) 1750. 17.53. 
ind. pret. 1 sg. fu A (n) 223 :— (y) 223. 

3 ., /« A («) 351- 396- 712. 976:— (y) 5- '45- iS5- i68- 222. 261. 398. 401. 539. 670. 716. 
759- 760. 771. 849. 944. 1068. 1132. 1136. 1138. 1144. 1173. 1390. 1443. 1451. 
1528. 1591. 1838. 
B 24. 764. 772*. 975. 1147. 1466. 1591. 1742. 1751. 1766:— (/3) 228. 832. 1137. 

1143. 1153. 1172. 1754. 
C 13.80.152.272. 304. 621.674.699. 869.890. 1053. 1088. 1169. 1292. 1447. 

1775- 

1 pl./itmes B 1450. 1498. 

,, ,,fui»ies A (y) 1003 tuit fuimes alasse. 
C 1 1 25 tuit fuimes citoieiis. 

2 „ fvstes A (a) 1475: — (y) H26. 1131. 

3 „ fiireiit A (a) 1495:— (y) 259- 793- 1495- '524- iSi5- 

B 1070. 

C 309. 403. 564. 
fut.(l.)2sg. i(?rra.f A (y) 1726. (II.) I sg. ere B (j3) 829. 1128. 

€219. 366. 568. 
3 „ serm A (y) 339. 451. 3 „ ert A (y) 3S9. 1021. 1455. 1537. 1822. 

B 1274. 
C 869. 

1 pi.serriim C 1082 

2 „ semz A (y) 1331. 

C 1535- 

3 „ serrunt A (y) 1035 {rr). 1492 (r). 
cond. i%g.serroi B 384. 

seroie B 462. 
3 ,, seyroit B 587. 

„ C 94. 465. 
subj. pres. i s^.soie A (yj 485 pioiez pur moi ke ne soie flecchiz. 

3 „ seit A (y) 442. 497. 517. 649. -35. 744. 873. 919. 958. 1027. 1303. I402 :_ 

B. 743. 

C. 279. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ivii 



subj. pres. 3 sg. soil 

1 pi. soium 

2 ,, soiez 

3 „ soient 
.. impft. 3 sg. fust 



A (r) J70. 735- o , ,. , 
A (y) 1 108 :— (a) 1083 (saum). 
B 1765 : 1638 {seum'). 
A (a) 1696:— (y) 469. 489. 

A (a) 612 :— (y) i2. 540. 557. 761. 1549. 1769. 1772- 
B 194:— {/3) 1 146. 
C 790. 1560. 
2 pi. fuissez A (a) 465 -.— (y) 93. 95- 54^. 
-- feus(s)ez B 611 (j-j). 962 (j). 

fu(s)sent A (o) 1497 (■<■)■ '744 (-f-^)- 



imper. 



infin. 



3 .. 
3sg 

I pi. 



pp. 



seit A {yi 270 bcnoit seit ! 735 enchacez seit ! 

C 298 aliance seit batesme ! 
soium C 1 106 soium freres uni ! 
soiez A (a) 96 :— (y) 364. 375. 377- 486. 

B 1043. i542:_(/3) 1 124. 

C 345. 1764. 
soient A (y) 731 li oil creve li soient ! 
estre A (a) 558 :— (y) 81. 87. 193. 406. 467. 778. 

B 378. 1297. 1321. 1338. 

C 114. 551. 5''0- '432- 
este 362 ad este : 618 enclins avez este. 

estez 752 il urent ainz estez. 



1030. 



1264. 1553. 1787. 1807. 



eslrif 
estrifs 



estriu 

estroit 
estroitz 
estufi 
estuer 



estur 



^ s. rn. quarrel, strife. 



s. rn. quarrel, biiuc. 
: nom. sg. 173 il nafra jamais mortz noise ne duel ne estrrfs : 
.. '733 atant surt une noise e un estrif mut grant. 
prp. „ 770 a grant estrif i passent e nul a volente. 
s. m. stirrup. 

ace. sg. i2(j6 tant cum vif e estriu puis bailler pur munter sele. 
1 adj. narrow. , •, ^ ■, 

J mas. nom. sg. 764 estroit lur fu le champ : 769 Ii pountz estoit estroitz. 
1 V. tr. to shut up (in a coffin, a prison) ; to keep, preser\-e, reser\-e. 
( app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 982 pose I'unt (e estue) en marbrin sarcu. 
ppp. mas. sg. 367 (averez le regne) ki \-us est estue. 

infin. 711 (out fait A. Uer) e en chartre estuer. 
s. m. affray, fray. 

nom. sg. 1746 lores curaence li bruit e un estur pesant. 
prp. ,, 576 (perist) chevaler en estur. 
(44. 857. 866. 1227, 1396 'j under aver, 
under en. 



eu ■ 11. U..U... -— .. ^ , 

eiimes, eiircnt, eiissez, eussum, eust under aver. 



eus 
euuc 
ewe I. 



prp. 



under il. 

\ nom^^s/'^2';7 du cors sane e ewe hissi : 788 I'ewe va si apetizant (v. note) : 
814 I'ewe, a toi obeissant (prove ta vertu) : 1094 (a ki obei) 1 ewe : 
" " 1429 li sancs en curt raant cum ewe de ruissel. 
ace ,',' 772* (passent a nou) I'ewe (ki parfund fu e le) : 
780 fai I'ewe descrcstrc : 926 I'ewe lur secchis. 

69 a I'euue du rin ; 765 a une ewe venent grant e parfund sanz gue :— 
368 de I'ewe demande : 870 de I'ewe dunas i Moyses :— 
„ 61. 1824 ki fist (de I'ewe) (d'ewe) \\n : 
" ,, 880 recunfortez en sunt de I'ewe e sustenu :— 
'' ', 772 du pund en I'ewe sunt trebuchg. 
ace. pi. 999 Ics ewes funl secchir. 

Ewe II. "• pr- Eve. , . . , t- 

ace. 105 quant Deus out fait Adam e Ewe sue per. 

v. tr. to exile, thrust out. 

infin. 109 de Parais les ruva ambesdeus exuiller. 



exuiller 



Iviii 



GLOSSARY. 



fable s. f. story. 

nom. sg. 1042 de lui n'est ja chan9un ne fable. 
„ „ 1258 trufle est e contruvure fable a rote u viele. 
fableiir s. m. story-teller. 

nom. sg. 833 ki autrement le dit, fableiir est mentant. 
face I. s. f. face. 

nom. sg. 515 des lermes est sa face arusee. 

prp. ,, 235 a la face crueument feri ; 632 (ferent) en face e nes e frunt. 
face n. facent, facez under faire. 
fafun s. f. fashion, shape. 

nom. sg. 324 ke signifie la entaUle e la fa^un. 
fai under faire. 

faiele adj. faithful. 

fem. nom. sg. 1254 90 est la lei faiele. 
faillance s. f. deficit ; sanz - , fully. 

prp. sg. 1374 les menbres lur sunt restorez, pez e braz sanz faillance. 
faille s. (f. ?) error. 

prp. sg. 1377 cunustre les pout hom sanz faille u dutance. 
faillent •, v. intr. to be deficient ; to fail (in helping one); — (pp. =) adj. faithless, 

failli ind. pres. 3 sg. 1189 (mil sumes par numbre) mes ke un suls i faut. 

faillir „ ,, „ pi. 1271 mil citoien nus faUlent. 

fajlliz „ pret. 3 sg. 1346 ne faiUi rundement ke n'i eiist mil enter : 1547 (mil cors) mais ke un sul i failli. 

infin. 955 cist ne \tis deit faUlir : 1238 crere sanz faillir. 
pp. mas. nom. sg. 1088 ore pert ben k'U ne fu ne truan ne failli. 
,, „ voc. ,, 827 tu mentz, vassal faUli puant I 
„ ,, prp. „ 1512 pernez ent vengance de ceu tafiu- faUli. 
,, „ voc. pi. 887 fous, cuardz failliz. 
faire ) v. tr. to do, act, make, render, form ; perform ; inflict (evU) ; repay (benefits) ; faire — de — , to 

fait ! make one thing of another, to transform ; vdih inf. follg., to cause or compel to (do anything) ; 

faite ) often used, as in English " do," in place of repeating the principal verb ; — phr. faire a, with infin. 

act. foUg. " to be worthy to be — ed " ; faire cler, faire chaut, to be clear, to be hot. 
ind. pres. 2 sg. 129 ki tant faitz a aimer. 
,, „ 3 „ 317 (relever le veistes) cum fait li liunceus : 322 I'entent cum clerc fait sa lesifun : 
,, ,, ,, ,, 326 de ses errurs fait veraie cunfessiun : 350 ki sert Deu e fait la siie volunte : 
,, ,, ,, ,, 430 90 ke fait li pastureus : 669 (plus sent demurance pener) ke ne fait anguisse : 

, , 688 (venger) le tort k'em fait : S36 les denz lui fait voler des genzives : 

„ ,, „ „ 888 prent A. cum fait lu la berbiz : 895 au coup li fait voler le chef du piz : 
„ „ „ ,, 1259 ne fait plus a creire k'au vent : 1336 I'eir fait a sun talent rebundir : 
,, „ „ „ 1408 pris I'unt cum li lu fait aignel : 1559 ne fait pas a despire : 
„ „ ,, „ 1584 lores fait crier real cumandement : 161 1 li sancs raa cum fait li roisseus ; 
,, ,, ,, 1694 90 fait hom renaistre : 1704 fait sa oraisun. 

621 au jur quant feste funt : 705 fe%Tes ki funt la gent engaunir : 
999 les ewes funt secchir : 1000 les mortz funt vifs parer : 

1002 veirs funt parer (fausete) : 1 192 cum funt cist autre tuit, batesme demant : 
1424 devant eus funt cure Apl. : 1500 mut funt grant noise : 1804 baptizer se funt. 
1 170 teu solaz nus feseit. 

61. 1824 ki fist del'ewevin : 85 ki fist les elementz : 122. 283. 1634 ki fist eterreemcr: 
125 del angle G. en fist sun messager : 148 vertuz fist grantz : 
247 noise ne fist : 311 de la lei lur fist e present e dun : 603 ki fist le mund : 
656 a lui meimes semblable le fist : 691 ki tant fist chaut e cler : 
1255 en parais fist hom : 1345 tant fist a loer : 1474 a sun semblant fist nus tuz : 
1757 ki fist solail raant : 1770 merveilles fist Deus. 
1 546 feimes enbrever. 
1129 A. feistes guerpir la lei T. 
>> 3 >> 314 '' "^ " hrent unc pur ses bens, si mal nun; 1079 si firent noz parentz. 
fut. 1 sg. 181 di moi ke ferai : 390 partut frai tutes tes volentez : 
,, ,, ,, 1 263 acurer frai : 1265 prendre le frai. 
„ 2 „ 1 88 de toi li fras sacrifice. 



3 Pl- 



impft. 3 sg. 
pret. 3 sg. 



pl. 



GLOSSARY. 



lix 



(ind.) fut. 



condit. 
subj. prcs. 



impft. 
imper. 



ppp. 



3 sg. 429 CO fra : 450 du bu le chief li fra voler : 
„ ,, 462 nunte \'us fra : 1578 uncore fra il plus. 

1 pi. 1301 del avoir \"us en frum duner : 1367 ocire le ferum. 

2 „ 433 ore frez k'i dirai : 1668 ferez grant saver. 

3 ,, 627 A. lur enemi la venir fenint : 1416 en fhint feste anuel. 

2 pi. 385 trop friez criieutez. 

3 ^S- 3*^5 P'"' n"lc adversite ke hem ^•us face au cors : 
,, ,, 438 (la vostre niaisnee) 9a venir les face. 
,, pi. 499 facent a eus venir (lui e sun hoste). 
3 sg. 1560 si il fust boiseiir, ne feist teu mescinement. 
„ pi. 1745 (punit Deus ke . . . . ) ne lur voler feisent. 

2 sg. 297 fai lui lingance e huraage : 780 fai I'ewe descrestre : 
,, „ „ 958 fai ke il seit enterre : 1 668 fai ke te dirai. 
,, ,, pi. 635 de glace fates pund. 

infin. 124 a fere si grant busoinne : 182 bis. ke fere deverai, e ke fere i apent ? 
„ 248 quancke il savoient fere : 297 cum fere deiz : 578 fere purrez retur : 
„ 612 voissez bien fere e dreiture : 958 cum fere doitz : 

„ 1 195 pretz sumes tuit a fere (v. note) : 1 196 ne larrum de fere le tuen cumant : 
„ 1444 (vertuz) fere deigna Deus : 1473 de la busoingne J. faire (v. note), 
pres. ptcp. 1 121 Apl. unt truve, grantz vertuz fesant. 
app. (ind. pft. 2 sg.) 545 nus as fait si grant deshonur : 1647 tant mar as fait cest encumbrer. 
„ 3 „ ) 281 Deus I'at fait aignel d'un leun : 327 a lermes fait ad sa uraissun : 
>> 11 >> ) 967 a fait vertu ; 1237 un sermun lur ad fait : 
„ „ „ ) 1384 un .autre miracle ad fait : 1577 trop nus ad fait damage. 
,, I pi.) 457 90 ke nus avum fait ici. 

>> 3 I) ) 393 d'une maisun sutive unt fait lur escole : 620 grant cri e bruit fait unt : 
,, „ ,, ) 1286 i unt fait aparer le solail. 
ant. 3 sg.) 105 quant Deus out fait Adam : 710 despuis ki li tiranz out fait lier A. 
(subj. pft. 3 pi.) 1363 einz ke a V. aient fait mener le clerc. 

mas. sg. 86 par Id li niundz est faitz : 577 a tei n'est fait premur : 
„ „ „ 1052 li martiies de A. fait est. 

„ fern. „ 605 il de J. est faitc la figure, 

failure s. f. workmanship. 

595 de uns enginnurs morteus ki est ovre e faiture ; 932 (nus) ki sa failure sumes. 
faitz I. (= facis 129), faitz 11. (= faclus 86) under faire. 
faitz m. s. ra. deed. 

ace. pi. 411 lur faitz e Ivu- cunseilz oi e avisa. 
prp. „ 362 sulum Ics faitz du cors. 
faiz under feit. 

famillus adj. hungrj-. 

mas. ace. sg. 60 ki pest le famillus, ki sustent I'orfanin. 
fates under faire. 

faus \ .adj. false. 

fause J mas. nom. sg. 524 il est cist faus truantz ? 1568 cist faus enginneiir tant saet d'enchantemenl. 

(ntr.) ace. „ 1 168 mes faus cuntruvant (v. note). 

mas. prp. pl. 1571 (Id a ses mais entent) faus pautencrs, ki vus mentent. 
fern. ,, sg. 557 (ben pert) k'4 fause fust pruvee (sa doctrine), 
fause ) V. intr. to act falsely; tr. to falsify (a jmlgmcnt). 

fauser / ind. pft. 3 pl. 748 autres jugcmcntz unt desdit e faus£. 

infin. 121 7 ne pur lunge prisun (vout) fauser ne (Iccchir : 
,, 1231 amer sanz fauser u trahir : 1320 noslrc sentence k'csta sanz ja fauser. 
fausetf ) s. f. falsehood. 

fausset^ J nom. sg. 279 feintise u fauselfi ke n'i seit ja : 562 fausetfi se soille au chef de lur. 
i> I, 598 semblance est e faussete purpens e cuntrevure : 
„ „ 1002 veir funt tut parer chose k'esl fausetc. 
ace. ,, 1825 ne i deisc fausetd pur tut I'or C. 
prp. „ 361 sanz nule fausetfi. 
faut under faillir. 

favcle s. f. tale. 

prp. sg. 1249 plus set d'enchantement, d'art e de favcle. 
,, „ 80 sulum ta favele. 
feble adj. feeble. 

mas. nom. sg. 1454 le cors m'cst feble c anicnti. 

h 2 



Ix 



GLOSSARY. 



feblesce s. f. feebleness. 

prp. sg. 1115 ki par aventure de feblesce enpali. 
Febum under Phebura. 

feffe (pp. =) adj. enfeoffed, possessed of land, wealthy. 

mas. nora. pi. 357 li autre prince tant riche e tant feffe. 
,, prp. ,, 1032 (mil) des plus honurables, riches e feffe (citoiens). 
fei s. f. faith. 

ace. sg. 1 1 09 lur foi unt plevi. 

obi. „ 1007 fei ke nus de\'um Mahura : 1261 fei ke dei PaUadie ; 

,, ,, 1572 fei ke dei Phebum : 1824 fei ke doi porter lui (ki fist d' ewe vinj. 
prp- >. 372 de la fei Deu la summe apris e demustre. 
feim s. f. hunger. 

ace. sg. 683 feim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner. 
feimes under faire. 

feindra v. ref to delay. 

ind. fut. 3 sg. 435 la vostre maisnee lei pas ne se feindra. 
feintise s. f. false pretence. 

nom. sg. 279 (ke) feintise u fausete n'i seit. 
prp. ,, 1 197 fere santz feintise partut le tuen cumant. 
feire s. f. fair, market. 

prp. sg. 576 (perist) marcheant'Cn feire. 
feisent, feist, feistes under faire. 
feit i s. f. time, occasion. 

feiz j (ace.) sg. 574 (n'est nul) ki n'est aucune feit susduit par foleiir. 

„ pi. 152 de anz treis feiz dis : 169 (apostles) par numbre deus faiz sis. 
fei s. m. g<all. 

ace. sg. 238 tendi fei a boi\Te. 
felun adj. felon; fell, scoundrel. 

mas. nom. sg. 496 li fels tirantz cumande : 709 li feluns tiranz pautoner out fait lier A. 
„ „ ,, 1741 U prince feluns (ne vout tant atendre). 
,, ace. ,, 306 le pueple ke veistes tant cruel e felun (v. note). 
„ prp. „ 414 a un prince felun ala : 458 descuverz sumes a un tirant felun : 
„ „ „ 671 (mis i fu en garde) a felun gaholer : 1583 cum de itel felun traitre prendre apent. 
„ nom. pi. 259 furent li felun tirant [esmoilli] : 353 li felun cheitif (sunt malure) : 
„ „ „ 664 ne poent li felun esploiter : 1682 li felun guerroier: 

„ „ „ 1715 ne me flecchissent cist mescreant felun : 175911 paen felun (sunt) e! fu d'enfer. 
„ ace. „ 907 ne dute mais morteus, feluns tirantz hardiz. 
„ prp. „ 394 pur les grantz fertez des sarracins feluns. 
felunie s. f. rascality. 

prp. sg. 727 dituns paens ki estoit de grant felunie : 945 par felunie I'at escharni. 
feluns, feiz under felun. 
femme s. f. woman. 

prp. sg. 87 deingnast de femme naistre. 
femmele adj. female. 

ace. sg. 1255 en parais fist hom, masle e femmele. 
fendu V. intr. to burst. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1566 tant par est iraseuz, a pou de ire ne fent. 
pp. mas. sg. 875 du munt k'est crevez e fendu. 
fenestre s. f. window. 

prp. sg. 409 (a\'ise les a) a une fenestre par unt les esgarda. 
fent under fendu. 

fentosme s. ra. foolish fancy. 

prp. sg. 206 (a™) sans fentosme u duter : 294 (entendre) sanz fentosme u folage. 
fer I. s. m. iron. 

nom. sg. 1 147 raed fu e estable cum fer u aimant. 
prp. „ 710 fait Uer a de chaesnes de fer. 
fer II. adj. fierce. 

mas. nom. sg. 708 dura cist grantz maus tant cruel e tant fer. 
„ „ pi. 1333 tant sunt il plus criieus e plus fier. 
ferai, fere, ferez under faire. 
ferent \ v. tr. to strike. 

feri ' ind. pres. 3 sg. 835 le fert du poin e du bastun pesant ; 1314 cist se fert ki ne veit. 

ferir ) ,, „ „ pi. 632 ferent e enpeinnent : i5o8 ferent, batent e poinnent : 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixi 



(fcrir) 



1174 cist ki le feri : 



ind. pres. 3 pi. 1 748 ferent, nafrent e traient. 

Dret % se 235 des p.iumes a la face crueuracnt ten . 
' 1529 veisezkelepereletizauquor fen. 

ppp. raas-.-^.^ j^^^ ^S-^ ,,^^^^ ^^ 1^, testes duner au brand fenr. 

fenn. fenn. ^^^f^^^f^.^^s^r. plus fe^s e plus enter (respunt). 
adv. 223 ferm fu endormi : 320 ferm lie sathan. 
adv. firmly, steadfastly. 
185 tu la trinite voz craire fcrmement. 

mis nom se. 1427 Uchemins ferrez aspre e deshuel (I'alasse). 

, ac" ,7 764 estroit lur fu le champ e le cherain ferre (v. note). 

adi. of iron. ,. , . . 

mas. ace. sg. 53 n'oiez vers mes diz quor dur ne ferrm. 

under ferir. 

s. f. cruelty. , ■ r 1 ^ 

prp. pi. 393 pur les grantz fertez des sarracms leluns. 
,„u under ferir. 

ferura, fcrunt, fesant, feseit under faue. 

s. f. a festival. 

ace. sg. 621 au jur quant feste lunt : 

adj. festive. . ^ r ^- 1 

mas. prp. sg. 19 nobUe citoien en atur festival. 

nom 5^1095 (a ki obe^t) feu ki a sa tumbe lut : 1678 (u est, feu, ki pas ne esteiut : 

■ 860 li solaUz les greve ki plus ert chautz ke feu. 
I'r'r " 8s fist les elementz, terre, unde, air e fu. , ■, , ■ r 

nrn " 1060 (se arestut un rais) de un feu ki plus ert clers ke solailz de midi. 
^ ^' " ,-i- (dun) kig-arden'adefu.de verm, nedelaiTun. 
;; ;; 1 7I (alez) eu feu ki art tut dis : 1 759 (sunt) el fu d'enfer puant. 
feiisez, feiissez under estre. 



fermement 

ferrg 
ferrez ] 

ferrin 

ferni, fert 
fertez 

feru 

ferur 

feste 

festival 

feu 



1416 en frunt feste anuel. 



feverus 
fevre 
fevres 
ft 



ti 
fichi 

fie 
fier 



fier 
fiez 

figure 

figurfie 

fil 

fin 1 

fin 



adi. sick of a fever. 

mas. ace. pi. 149 sana paraletics, feverus, avogles. 

nom.^g.''^25o"(pl"s set d'art) ke ne set de tenaiUes fevre lei martele. 

nom^''pr705 (neissent) fevres ki funt la gent engaunir e trembler. 

adj. certain ;— adv. de ft, surely. 

mas. nom. pi. 276 bicn seiez certz e fi. 

adv. 964 bien le croi de fi e bien sui acerte. 
„ 1089 ben sumes certz de fi ; 1542 bien soiez certz de ti. 
(1 104) under fier. 

(DPP. =) adj. fixed. ...•.• 

mas. nom. sg. 1062 (un rais) sur la tumbe A. se arestut fichi. 
> v. ref. to trust. 

f ind. pres. i sg. 1104 (Jesu recleim , en lui me fi. 
' J 7,7 A. est sis disciples: en hcreitese he. 

" infin. 123 en autre k'en sun cher fiz ne se vout fier. 
(1333) under fer. 

acc"pl. 586 (tu en purras consirer) fiez, chastens c tur. 

s. f. image, figure. , ., , c 

nom. sg: 605 (croiz) il de Jesu est faite la figure. 

V. tr. to shape out. . 

ppp. fern. ace. sg. 291 cum vciz en cestc croiz figurfie la image. 

Tdf finc'lof gold) ; sincere (of the heart) ; subtle (of reason), 
mas prp sg? 638 tant cum portereit de lin or un dromund. 

ig^jbatesmcirequoraidequoerveraie hn. 
fern. ',', pi- 82 (par fines raisuns ne purreit estre) enquis ne sen. 
s. f. end. 



Ixii 



GLOSSARY. 



ilin II.) 



hna 
tine 
liiient 

lilies 

lini 

tinir 

tinis 

liiii/ 

firent 
lirmament 

list 
tiz 
tiuz 



ace. sg. igo (tunuent) sanz fin prendre : 1676 tuz jurs sanz fin aver : 

„ „ 1812 de ceste estoire vi le cumenyail e fin. 
prp. „ 366 a la fin serras raartir : — 
„ „ 55 regnera sanz cumen9ail e fin : 352 regnera eu ciel sanz fin : 
„ ,, 1016 santz fin regne eu eel esteille: 1352 (eu ciel demurer) sanz fin : 
„ ,, 1228 (a vostre cumpainnie) rae doinst Deus ateindre sanz fin u resortir. 
] V. intr. to cease (always negative). 

[ ind. pres. 3 sg. 1629 e cist ne fine de urer e Jesu mercier. 
) „ „ „ pi. 1290 ne finent a jumees tut serre chevaucher. 
,, pret. 3 sg. 673 A. en la chartre ne fina Deu urer. 
under fin i. 



V. tr. to finish, 
ind. pres. i sg. 
' ppp. mas. sg. 



1 845 la estoire de A. ci finis e termin. 
915 le jur A. cumence e li suens est finiz. 
1537 le regne averez du ciel ki jamais n'ert fini. 
1224 k'il m'ottreit par sa grace ceste vie finir. 



ilamboie 
tlamboient 

flaschiz 

tl.iunc 

tlecchi 

Hecchir 

tleccliirai 

tlecchirunt 

flecchissent 

flecchiz 



flestri 
flestrie 
flestrir 
flestrisent 

llot, flotz 



infin. 
under faire. 
s. m. firmament. 

ace. sg. 1575 par Jovinki guie terre e firmament, 
under faire. 
) s. m. son. 
( nom. sg. 80 Deu e fiz Deu fu : 304 le fiz Deu meiraes fu : 

,, „ 271 benoit seit le pere e sun fiz ki li est parilgal e uni : 1254 si fiz est Deus e hem. 
ace. ,, 186 (craire) le pere e le fiz, seint esperit ensement : 
„ „ 893 le seint esperit reelaime e le pere e le fiz : — 
,, „ 313 sun fiz lur envea : 659 Deu du ciel tramist sun fiuz : 

i> >> 583 reni Jesu ke claimes fiz Deu le sauveiir : 1230 (plest eschoisir) Jesu le fiz Marie : 
„ „ 1328 (ocire) fiz, fi-ere, nevu : 1529 veisez ke le pere le fiz au quor feri. 
gen. „ 102 al nun le fiz Marie. 

prp. ,, 422 (cum U se humilia) a un Jesu, fiz Deu : 1343 li pere au fiz la plaie va bender. 
,, ,, 1442 me suidel tut dune a Jesu, fiz Marie. 
„ „ 36 (la nuvele precher) du fiz Deu : 41 (I'ot parler) du fiz Deu : 

„ ,, 79 nuveles d'un deu fiz d'une pucele : 123 en autre k'en sun cher fiz ne se vout fier. 
voc. ,, 1503 fiz, frere, ne\'u ! 

nom. pi. 1622 paien se curucent, li fil Belial ; 1716 ne part ne eient de moi fiz de perdicium. 
prp. ,, 401 par Noe e ses fiz cura puis fu restorez (liraundz*). 
1 v. intr. to blaze, flame. 

] ind. pres. 3 sg. 691 du solail ki flamboie : 902 solailz ki flamboie a midiz : 1061 un rais ki flamboie. 
,, ,, ,, pi. 1698 fremissent e flamboient cum saerpent u dragun. 
v. intr. to gush forth. 

pp. mas. sg. 896 sane glorius ki du cors est flaschiz. 
s. m. flank, side. 

ace. sg. 1612 teinte en a la peitrine, le dos, e flaunc costal. 
"1 v. tr. to bend, subdue ; intr. to jield. 
ind. fut. I sg. 607 ne flecchirai pur nule mort tant cruele e dure. 
,, ,, 3 pi. 1034 ki ne flecchirunt, bien I'unt dit e jure, 
subj.pres.,, ,, 1715 ke ne me flecchissent cist mescreant felun. 
,, plpft. I pi. 1525 n'eiissum un de eus fleechi pur un val d'or empli. 
j ppp. mas. sg. 485 proiez ke ne soie flecchiz : 633 A. n'est flecchiz ; 892 de ren n'est flecchiz ; 
,, ,, pi. 1 108 ke solum de s'aniur desturnez ne fleechi. 
infin. 667 ke sun voler pousse e flecchir e changer : 
,, 1 148 veintre ne flecchir nel ]iout hem vivant. 
,, 1217 ne pur lunge prisun fauser ne flecchir (vout). 
v. intr. to fade, wither. 
I ind. pres. 3 pi. 692 flestrisent blez en terre. 
( ,, pret. 3 sg. 1 142 flestri e anentti quaneke estoit verdoiant. 
' pp. fern. sg. 1454 le cors m'est feble e anienti, la char pal e flestrie. 
infin 999 (funt) flestrir I'erbe du pre. 
s. m. wave, water ; body of water (river). 
nom. sg. r 1 1;3 au passer de un pund ii li flotz fu bruant. 

ace. „ 832 le flot ad tut secchi ki nus fu desturbant : 1 158 (es-le-Mis) le flot tut secchi. 
prp. ,, 788 (Tewe) est parfunde e raedde a flot briant ; 
„ „ 1029 fort est a cunbatre a flot k'est surunde. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixiii 



flole 

llui, flurs 



fluri 

flurie 

fluriz 



focuns 

foi 
foille 

folage 
foleiir 

folic 

for 
force 

forcine 

forfist 

fors 

fors 

fort- 
fortz 

fous 



fra, frai 
franceis 
frances 
franchise 



francs 

frarin 
frarins 



fras 
freidc 

freit I. 



! ki es de la cite la flur. 



(i— ) adv. afloat. , , . 

790 ke n'i fust nus a Hole, ne batel ne chalant. 
s. f. flower. , n J v 

nom. sg. 349 (trespassables) cum est la flur du champ : 
ace. pi. 699 as reims raurir (veisez) les flurs. 
\ V. tr. to beautify, adorn. , . 

' ind pret 3 sg. 265 gloire e clarte les escemt e Hun. 
I ppp. mas. nom. sg. 1073 martirs est glonus curunez e flun. 
prp. „ 1535 desore of moi serrez en parais Hun. 
" " „ pi. 1018 entre les* seintz martirs fluriz e curune. 
" fern. nom. „' 1451 of la croiz, k'eu sane A. fu teinte e flurie. 
s. m. lock (of hair) v. note. 

prp. pi. 891 les cheveus A- lie par les focuns crespiz. 
under fei. 

s. (f. .=)leaf (of tree), 
ace. sg. 69s foille veisez blanchir. 
s. n. extravagance. 

nom. sg. 556 entenc cum sa doctrine folage est e errur. 
prp. „ 294 (tun sunge puez) entendre sanz fentosme u folage. 
s. m. fooUshness. 

prp. sg. 579 repentir te purras de cest grant foleur. 
.. 574 ki n'est aucune feit susduit par foleiir. 
s'.'f. folly. 

prp. sg. 1806 pement confessiun de folie e pecche. 
(1447) under fors i. 
s. f. \ngour, power. 

ace. sg. 660 force e estabilite me domst il. ' 
prp. „ 84 (Deu) ki tant est de force e de vertu : 771* de force (v. note) e poeste (passent I ewe). 

.. » 1393 par la force Jesu. 
adj. out of doors : maisun — , out-house, 
fem. prp. sg. 75 of lui est venuz a une maisun foreine. 
V. intr. to commit a crime (a forfeit) 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 657 puis par traisun de la saerpent forfist (v. note), 
prep, except ; save. » . r j. .1 

J W n'unt ore plus de tere fors saet pez mesurg : 1423 nuz tut fors d un mantel ; . , , . 
1447 n'est autre Deu for cist k'en Sulie (murut) : 1823 ne sai autre language fors le mien barbann :- 
1 7 10 jo n'ai esperance fors en Deu e vus nun. 
adv. out. . 

1265 prendre le frai e fors sacher du ventre la buele. 
\ adj. strong; difficult. 

f mas nom. sg. 573 n'est nul tant sage, tant fort ne tant seur. 
(ntr.) ,, „ 1029 fort est a cunbatre 4 flot k'est surundg. 
mas. ob. ,, 1421 muntez (i. e. snr) fort runcin. 

ace. pi. 14S4 destrers avoient plus fortz e plus igneus. 
adj. foolish. ,- 1 t 

mas. nom. sg. 1574 (ki les ot e i assent) plus est fous ke beste. 

voc. pk 887 k'alez vus demurant, fous cuardz failliz. 
under faire. 
) adj. French (language). • , ,„ 

J pqi. sg. 70 cuntee en frances e latin : 1822 translatee en franceis e latin, 
s. f. kindness. , , . , 

nom. se. ';8o en noz deus ad [= il y a] grant franchise e du(;ur. 

ace 872 ore requor ta franchise : 1689 la franchise Deu ne puet nuls parcunter. 

prp'. ", 100 en franchise e almosne as tun tens despendu : 779 pur '"c franchise e debonncretd. 
adj. noble. 

mas. nom. sg. 969 mais li francs chevaler A. est demure. 
\ adj. miserable. , , ■ 

) mas. ace. sg. 59 Id guarde e cunforte le poure e le frann : 

,, „ 1842 (ne me os numcr mes pecchur) pourc e frann. 
', nom. pi. 1504 frarins sumes c suls e tuz enorfani. 
under faire. 

Sadj. cold, 
mas. ace. sg. 987 k'il urcnl cum freit mord guerpi. 



Ixiv 



GLOSSARY. 



itieit I.) 
freit n. 

fremi 
Iremissent 



fem. nom. sg. 1167 (est surse) funtainne freide e clere. 

s. m. cold. 

ace. sg. 683 feim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner. 



) V. intr. to yell, roar with anger. 



1698 fremissent e Hamboient. 



ind. pres. 3 pi. 825 fremissent cum liuns : 863 fremissent e crient : 
„ pret. 3 sg. 446 d'ire e mautalent tressua e fremi 
) s. m. brother. 

( nom. sg. 399 Caim si frere esnez (I'ocist) : 1344 li frere li curt sure : 
,, „ 1530 li freres main tendi (as plaies bender), 
ace. „ 335 Jovin descunus e son frere Neptun : 1328 (d'ocire) fiz, frere, nevu. 
voc. ,, 1503 fiz, frere, nevu ! 
adj. ashen, of ash(\vood). 

mas. nom. sg. 1827 desore penant deveng e preng burdun fresnin. 
under faire. 
adj. fresh. 

mas. nom. sg. 1470 si cors est las, mais sis bons quors tut frois est e nuveus. 
\ V. intr. to burst, crack. 

j ind. pres. 3 pi. 652 fruissent os, char emfle e la pel enpalist. 
„ pret. „ „ 254 froisirent peres, e la lune enpali. 
s. m. fruit, 
ace. sg. io5 d'un arbre lur defendi le fruit a manger : 1093 fruit ne herbe demi .m nerendi (lateiTe) : 

„ ,, 1 141 perdirent blez e fruit U gainnur paisant. 
under faire. 
s. m. forehead. 

prp. sg. 032 ferent e enpeinnent en face e nes e frunt. 
,, „ 1702 tut est debrise du fraud gesc' au talun. 
frunt II. (1416) under faire. 
fu I. (85. 1727. 1759) under feu. 
fu II., fu III. (223 bis.) under estre. 
fuie s. f. flight. 

prp. sg. 613 a vus 9a fust li clers venuz sanz fuie e cuverture. 
fuimes, fuissez, fumes under estre. 



frere 
freres 



fresnin 

frez, friez 
frois 

froisirent 
fruissent 

fruit 



frum 
frund 
frvnit 



funda 

fundu 
funt I. 

funt II. 
funtaine 
funtainne 



furbi 

furbie 

turbid 



furent 

furma 

furme 

furmer 

furmez 



V. tr. to found. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 490 sa eglise sur pere funda e establi. 
( V. intr. to melt. 
J ind. pres. 3 sg. 644 pere perist e depece, fust art, e metal funt. 

pp. mas. sg. 877 plus clers ke n'est argentz esmerez e fundu. 

under faire. 
1 s. f. a fountain. 
J nom. sg. 1 167 est surse funtainne freide e clere a grant ruissel curanl. 

aec. ,, 861 funtaine ne trovent, rivere ne p.ilu. 

prp. ,, 876 d'une bele funtainne est li roisseus hissu : 
„ „ 161 1 (li sancs raa aval) cum fait de la funtainne li roisseus cursal. 

voc. „ 330 ai Jesu, funtainne de remissiun ! 

V. tr. to furbish (swords). 

ppp. mas. (nom.) sg. 894 I'ad feru du brant ki ert furbiz. 

450 fra voler de brant furbi : 1499 les detrenchames au brand furbi. 
1443 A. decole fu a la espee fuibie. 



(prp.) 
„ fem. ( „ ) , 
under estre. 
\ V. tr. to form, make. 
I ind. pret. 3 sg. 

I app. ( „ pft. 2 sg.) 
; ppp. mas. sg. 
infin. 
fusent, fussent, fust I. under estre. 
fust II. s. m. wood. 

nom. sg. 644 pere perist e depece, fust art e metal funt. 

prp. „ 5 de fust i fu furmez uns cors d'um mortal : 88 a un fust cloufiehez : 
„ „ 236 en un fust dresce ; 643 mal aient deu pere u fust u ki de metal sunt (v. note), 
fustes, fut under estre. 



655 Deu k'Adam furma. 

777 Deus ! ki as le mund furmfi. 

5 de fust i fu furmez uns cors d'um mortel. 

1 1 56 Deus ! ki horn furmer deignas a tun semblant. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixv 



gabbe 1 v. tr. to mock ; ref. id. 

gabber ] app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 945 par felunie I'at cscharni e gabbe. 

infin. 57 1 ben s'en puet gabber de vus cist enchantur. 
Gabriel n. pr. id. 

prp. 125 del angle G. en fist sun messager. 
gaholer s. m. gaoler. 

prp. sg. 671 (fu mis en garde) 4 felun gaholer. 
gainnur s. m. husbandman. 

nom. pi. 1 141 perdirent blez e fruit li gainnur paisant. 
Galilee n. pr. Galilee. 

prp. 501 Jesu de Galilee, 
gambes s. f. leg. 

acr. pi. 839 brisent braz e gambes par lui li trespassant. 
gant s. m. glove. 

ace. sg. 834 a (JO pruver sui prest ploier le gant. 
prp. „ 1 162 ne prisa mais noz deus a v.ilur d'un gant. 
gar under garder. 

garantir v. tr. to protect. 

infin. 12 13 pm- moi de mes cnemis morteus garantir. 
gard, garde I. under garder. 

garde 11. s. f. ward (= watch) ; heed (= fear) ; care, an.\iety ;— se duner, to take note of, be aware. 
ace. sg. 434 avant ke nus horn g.irde s'en dura : 

„ „ 1082 si garde ne empemum : 1727 (dun) ki n'a garde de fu, de vcnn, ne de larmn. 
prp. „ 67 1 (mis fu) en garde e en destresce a felun gaholer. 
gardein \ s. m. guardian. 
gardeins J nom. pi. 714 li prince de la terre, li baillie gardein (sunt assemble). 

I. » 1393 (sunt devenu) gardeins de raorticine. 
garder v. tr. to guard, protect. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 59 Id guarde e cunforte le poure e le frarin. 

subj. „ „ ,, 26 (Deus) vus benoie e guard ! 52S celui le g.ird ! 1 123 Jesus te* gard ! 
„ ,, ,, ,, 1048 (proiez) k'il del encumbrer nus gard de diable. 
imper. 2 sg. 956 c sun cors gar ben ke ne soit pas emble. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1387 Ics cors unt as gentilz martirs garde e defendu. 
infin. 707 de musches e vermine ne se pout nul garder : 

„ 1296. 1649 ki ne se sevent de tes (sortz) (Ia(;uns) garder. 
,, 154S as cors garder (= a garder les cors) \-unt. 
s. m. g.arden. 

nom. pi. 693 li bois e li gardin (periscnt). 
V. tr. to heal. 

ind. prct. 3 sg. 151 guari les ydropics. 
> subj. pres. ,, ,, 953 di (= die) li k'il garisse tun cors k'est depesce. 

infin. 966 garir me puet : 1C73 mun cors, garir e reestorer (sul Deu puet). 
prp. „ 131 1 (fo espruver) par aucun langurus garir e restorer (v. note), 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 270 benoit scit le pere ki tuz nus ad guari. 
ppp. mas. (nom.) sg. 467 meint hom purra uncore par vus estre gari : 
„ „ ,, „ 1 090 saufs est e gari : 1 199 g.ariz est k'en cest mund purDeu sunsanc espant 

„ „ (ace.) pi. 1543 (Jesus les restora) enters, seins e gari. 
„ fcra. (nom.) ,, 975 garies sunt ses plaies e sis cors reslorfi. 
) V. tr. to warn ; watch ; furnish. 
J ind. pret. I sg. 61630 de tut 90 Ten garni, 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1065 (li beus angeres) en unt garni (aguetes e pasturs p<aens). 
ppp. mas. sg. 262 li scpulcrcs estoit ben clos e ben garni : 452 en estoit de trestut ^oguami ; 
,, ,, ,, 734 ki par autres est gamiz, cist bcu se chastie : 
„ ,, ,, 1 132 en fu gamiz par un sun bien voillant. 
„ „ pL 850 de robes sunt trestuit e garniz e vestu. 



gardin 

gari 

garies 

garir 

garisse 

gariz 



garni 
garniz 



Ixvi 



GLOSSARY. 



gas 

geenst 

geir 

geisent 

gemme 

gendre 



genoilluns 



genoilz 

gent I. 
gent II. 



gentU 

gentils 

gentUz 



(gab) s. m. mockery. 

ace. pi. 961 (n'aivolunt6)de eschars ne gas o'lr : izgSdesdike tu dit as par tes gascuntruver (v. note), 
under gendre. 
\ V. tr. to affirm, assert. 

} ind. pres. 3 pi. 1803 bien geisent ke il a dreitureument uvre. 
infin. 1236 (les ot) 90 de quor geir. 
s. f. gem. 

nom. sg. 4 n'i out (= il n'y eut) acastonee, ne gemme, ne cristal. 
V. intr. to groan. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 483 A. de tendrur gent, plura e pali : 775 gent de pietfi : 
,, ,, ,, ,, 892 cist ne gent, ne grundille ne de ren n'est flechiz : 1348 plure e gent de quoer. 
,, pret. 3 ,, 589 de tut 90 n'est A. esmuz ne geenst ne deut ne plure. 
intin. 1204 de gendre e de lermer ne se puet retenir. 
a — , adv. on one's knees. 

239 a gonoiUuns devant li : 514 a genoilluns suvent I'ad aiiree : 
325 a genoilluns se met par gr;int devociun : 775 a genoilluns s'est mis. 
s. m. knee ; a — , in a kneeling posture. 

prp. pi. 940 a genoilz e a cutes ad le tertre munte : — 1 1 73 fu A. decolez a genoilz Deu urant. 
(483- 775- 892. 1348) under gendre. 
s. f. people, folk, multitude ; followers, 
nom. sg. 506 (s'en ^-unt) cum gent ki s'aturne a morteu medlee : 

,, ,, 5 10 A. \'unt querant cum gent desmesuree : 536 dunt plus se curuce cele gent malur^e : 
>> >> 539 (venuz .^ curt) il fu gent aiinee : 611 si feiissez gent de sen, de raisun e mesure : 
,, ,, 1517 quant la gent paene lur gi'ef pleinte entendi : 

1589 tant i a gent li chemins nes (= ne les) cumprent. 
1739 lur gent veant [=illorum gente vidente]. 

698 (veisez) gent ki se despoille enercir e suer: 705 fevTes ki funt la gent engaunir e trembler : 
1 165 veimes grant gent de sei labm'ant : 1282 lors ad mande sa gent, centeines e miller ; 
1295 simple gent par barat enganer: 1446 assemblame pur 90 gent en une cumpainnie : 
1452 batesme Id la gent seintifie : 14S7 tant ad gent tralii par ses sermuns desleus : 
1577 trop nus ad toleit gent : 165 1 decei\Te simple gent e par diz enganer : 
1659 pur la gent engimier. 

1268 a vus cunsel surco demant, ma gent k'estes loiele. 
adj. noble (of birth, character, &c.). 
mas. nom. sg. 740 A. ert gentilz e bien enparente : 743 seit de parage e gentilz e bien ne : 
,, „ ,, 797 uns chevalers gentilz (chiet as piez A.) : 898 la croiz muS9aunscrestiens gentilz. 
980 le gentU chevaler unt aide : 1424 devant eus funt cure le gentU juvencel. 
1208 bien me deit d'A. le gentil suvenir. 

417 ai, princes gentilz ! 921 ai, martir gentilz ! 1708 ai, gentil barun ! 
546 guerpi as ke tindrent ti gentil ancesur. 

1378 queus gentil de nesance : 1785 (le eiist deshonure) e ses martirs gentilz. 
1387 les cors unt as gentilz martirs garde e defendu. 



(abs.) 
ace. 



prp. 



ace. 

prp. 

voc. 

nom. 

ace. 

prp. 

voc. 



pi. 



genzives 



171 mes leaus amis gentils ! 1229 citoiens gentilz ! 1472 gentilz chevalers ! 



s. f. gums. 

prp. pi. S36 les denz lui fait voler des genzives devant. 
gesc' ) A prep, up to, (of place, degree, time) ; B conj. until, 

gesk' > A 48 passer geske 9a : 1702 tut est debrise du frund gesc'au talun : 

geske ) 234 gesk'au sane espandre de escm-gies bati : — 1815 gesk' a tant k'd furent mis en sarcu marbrin. 

B 1118 (langui) iluec, geske Apl. repeira. 
geste s. f. storj', incident. 

ace. sg. 1S20 la geste ai (escrit en parchemin, cum la vi). 
getta ) v. tr. to throw (into prison) ; he-ive (a sigh); utter (acrj-). 

gette ] ind. pres. 3 sg. 1203 Apl. lors gette de parfund im suspir. 

getter ) „ pret. „ „ 249 en murant getta un cri. 

infin. 665 en prisun obscure le cumandent getter, 
geii, geiisent under gisent. 
girun 



gisant 
gisarraes 

gisent 
gisez 



s. m. shirt-front. 

nom. sg. 1376 (les cors) plus blancs ke de chemise n'est girun ne mance. 



under gisent. 

8. f. battle-axe. 

ace. pi. 852 portent gisarmes e giantz cuteus muluz. 

J v. intr. to lie down, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 66 en enfer gist puant. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixvii 



(gisez) 



Giu I. 

Giu II. 
Giue 
Giiieu 
Giiieus 

glace 

glaive 

gloire 



glorius 
gloriuse 



glut 

glutun 

gorgee 

grace 
graces 



grant i. 



ace. 



prp. 



ind. pres. 2 pi. 1505 eu desert gisez cum charoinne guerpi. 
^ qgo en la prisun d'enfer gisent obscure. 

" nret I sg 331 ki eu ciel %-i, quant geii dormant en ma maisun. 

' ' ■i 9-1 aucorskiateregutl'admiseajustg. 

" " ^ nl 1 c-o gurent par ces champs defulez e guerpi. 
subj impft. 3 „" 1543 cum si U geiisent (tuz ^•ifs, enters, sems e gan). 

P^-(sSpft.t ■:!) m (v^l^rt^, enters e seins,) cum geii ussent dormant. 
prl pic^p.Vc. sg.j 845 ^^^.^^^Z^S^Z^ ^^^^ S ^. tertre gisant : 
'[ " (" " ) ,i64cummortlelessamesaupedumunt gisant. 
n'.' pr. Mount'st. Bernard {" Mons Jo^^s"). 
ace. sg. 1 83 1 passerai Mun Giu, le roiste munt alpin. 
) nom'J^'6Iduncde^'indrentTiieusmumesepensis: 289 quant en croiz lui mistrent li Giiie de putage : 
nom. pi. '" ™^"=T"g^".g4te5x Giiieu suSt : 42" ^ Giiieu en Sulie en croiz penereut a : 
" " ^6^8 en'^crorie penS U Giu desloiaI:'i66o (reni Jesu) ki Giu oserenl encroer. 
prp. pi. 240 hai rois de Giueus ! .55 P^-" J^^^^ ^ J'^'l^^ ^^ ^■^^^"'^ ^" 'I'"'- 
s. f. ice. , , .- . J 

prp. sg. 635 gravele semmez, de glace fates pund. 

s. m. sword. ... 

nrn se. 1280 tuztuerum a glaive sanznulesparmer. 

^,? f, 88 du glaive au quor ferru : 256 un de eus la curaille d un glaive U ovri. 

nomfs°g?»6 il la gloire de Deu parut e resplendi : 265 gloire e clarte les esceint e fluri : 
ic:i2 de Tesu la gloire resplendi. , • . „„..:. 

922 gloire du mund guerpis : 1058 de lui en teu manere la glou-e descuvn . 
1226 par esample de \-us glou-e du eel menr : 
n?4 chantent " gloire e loenges " pur joie demener : 
ifij- nus veum ia la eloire ke Deus ^•us veut duner. 

=2 ThonurTunt e gloire eu ciel acoilli : 1645 al haut rei de gloire sun regne recever. 
,039 vit en gloke remenant e estable : 1 758 les martirs sunt eu gloire el regne permenant. 

I adj. glorious. . .. 

mas. nom. sg. 1073. Ii83martu-sest glonus. 

voc 1219. 1761 (ai glorius martir !) (martir glorius !). 

", prp! „ 896 (li tertre est fluriz) du seint sane glorius. 

fern. voc. „ 1205. 1207 croiz gloriuse! 

1 mi'^nom. pi. .332 ?o ouent Sarrazins, U glut adverser : 1 728 se eiTreent U Sarrazin glutun. 

s. f. insult, mockery. 

prp. sg. 523 dient en hauste voiz e a cruel gorgee. 
\ s f . grace, favour ; pi. thanks. 
^ P^"- ''■ \% 1^'rt'grte^nu: dtefen^^tter : ,224 k'il m'ottreit par sa grace ceste vie fin.r. 

ace. pi. 882 au deu*du solaU en unt graSes rendu : .397 4 Deu en unt graces e mercis rendu, 

adj. great, much, vast. 

mas nom sg. 2;^ un grantz veUz : 708 cist grantz maus ;— 

raas. nom. sg. i3 t. _^ ^^^^ ^,^^| . ^^g ^^^^ ^^^^ . ^5, g^^^^t puepl» : 

" " ligc. 1548 un grant lu: 1733 un estnfmut grant. 
" (pred.) ',', 363 li guereduns est grantz : 587 U doilz serroit grantz :— 
" 1418 li paen sunt grant pueple. 

482. 983 grant duel: 545 grant deshonur : 620 grant cri : 
856 gr.ant pueple : 1640 le grant poiir : 1658 grant saver ; 
117. 1078 gr.ant tens: 1421 grant destrer (v. note). 

?o; a want bruit : 770 i. grant estrif : 1167 a grant ruissel : 1210 a si grant honur : 
1221 au grant gucredun : .603 a grant turment 1-405 du grant jugement : 
" c-o de ccst gr.int foleiir : 1406 de cest travail si grant : 1652 acheisun de cest grant mal : 
" I coi en grant duel :-iC62 par tun grant nunsaver :_. 784 sanz grant vengement. 
nl WO li grant e li mcnur : 563 grant conquesteiir (furent) : 747 1> y""' ^ ' P^^"'- 
' c86grantfiez: O96 les giantz paluz : 852grantzcuteus:-l379quj;usgrantzdecresance. 
',' 1410 lur gr.antz deus : 15 10 ces grantz maus : 1661 noz grantz deus : 
!,' i663granzben (v. note). 

17a celers grantz aval : 1036 par les grantz miracles, 
i 2 



ace. 

( .. ) 
prp. 



nom. 
ace. 



prp. 



Ixviii 



GLOSSARY. 



(pred.) „ 
ace. ,, 



prp. 



(^aant I.) fem. nom. sg. 264 grant turbe : 580 grant franchise : '20 grant partie : 

1597 grant ire : 1677 grant tenebrur. 

760 la presse ert grant : 1 75 1 si fu la presse grant : 1766 grant fu la bataille. 
124. 1284 grant busoinne: 518. 1500 grant noise : 857 grant chalur : 
„ 857 grant sei : 972 grant merveille : 1 165 grant gent : 
,, 1342 giant piete : 14S0 grant joie : 1706 (veit) une grant legiun. 
>. 338 a grant ruine : 369. 960. 1797 a grant humilite: 765 a une ewe grant e parfunci : 
„ 787 i devociun grant : 1732 a grant processiun : — 727 estoit de grant felunie : 
„ 1462 (est) de grant seignurie : 1491 de grant joie (sunt refait) : — 
,, 1092 en la grant seccheresce : — 

„ 307 (par) lur grant mesprisun : 325 par grant devociun: 1294 par grant ire. 
pi. 148. 447. 1121. 1313 grantz vertui (fist) (.jure) (fesant) (savez). 

565 seingnur de grantz terres : 1 769 un des grantz merveiUes : 393 pur les grantz fertez. 
s. in. gi'ant, gift. 

ace. sg. 1 135 vostre croiz retenir de vub avoit le gi-ant. 
I V. tr. to grant. 

1 ind. pres. 3 sg. 30 cist bonement li grante (ostel). 
I subj. ,, „ ,, 1050 (proiez lui k'il) nus grante la joie. 

imper. 2 pi. 1220 grantez mei (par martire venir par ta aie au gueredun). 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 785 la requeste A. ducement ad grante. 
grantz, granz under grant. 



grant 

grante 
grante 
grantez 



ace. 
prp. 



gravele 
gre 

gref 

greinnur 

greve 
greve 
grever 

gros 

grundille 

guage 

Guales 
guarant 
guarantz 



s. f. gravel. 

ace. sg. 635 gravele semmez, de glace fates pund. 

s. m. good pleasure ; adv. bon gre, de bon gre, willingly, venir a gre, to please, 
(ace. sg.) 763 en™ va bon gie. 

prp. ,, 1012 unt acumpli quanke lur \-int a gre : — 
„ „ 346 (eschoisi vus a) de bon gre : 1771 ki I'ust mesdit u mesfait de gre. 
adj. grievous. 

fem. ace. sg. 1517 (entendi) lur gref pleinte. 
adj. (compar. of grant,) greater. 

mas. ace. sg. 587 (li doilz serroit grantz, — )ne veimes une greinnur. 
v. tr. to grieve, annoy, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 729 flangur e maladie) plus nuit e gieve ke mort : 85o li solailz les greve. 

infin. 670 enchaesnez pur sun cors plus grever : 1360 les braz li unt lie pur lui plus grever. 
ppp. mas. sg. 774 A. raarriz est e greve. 
adj. big, huge. 

mas. prp. sg. 1607 (ferent) de gros bastun poinnal. 
V. intr. to moan. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 892 cist ne gent, ne grundille, ne de ren n'est flechiz. 
s. m. gage. 

ace. sg. 292 (ne mist) pur nus rani;un ne guage (d'or ne d'argent). 
under Wales. 

\ s. m. guarantee, protection. 
J nom. sg. 57 escu m'est e guarant plus ke chaste] : 



114 guarantz ne pout estre, ne nus aver niester : 
560 estre a sun deciple e guarant e sucur: 1764 soiez cuntre diablelur escu e guarant. 
guard, guarde under garder. 



guan 

guami 

gue 

guerdun 

gueredun 

guereduns 



gueres 

guerpi 

guerpir 

guerpirai 

guerpiras 

guerpis 

guerpissent 

guerpissez 



under garir. 

under garni. 

s. m. ford. 

prp. sg. 765 a une ewe venent grant e parfund sanz gu6. 

s. m. guerdon, reward. 

nom. sg. 363 (grantz est) li guereduns (as bons atume). 

ace. „ 585 tu en purras consiver gueredun c honur : 1725 ui receverez pur tun travail guerdun. 

prp. ,, 1221 par martire venir au grant gueredun dunt Deu te plut seisir: — 
,, ,, 908 de gueredun saisiz : loi 7 du gueredun seisiz k'il tant ad desire: 
,, „ 1 045 seisiz estes du guerdun desirable: 1098 de sun gueredun est hautement seisi. 

adv. hardly, scarcely. 

1 1 une cite nobile, sanz gueres paringal. 

V. tr. to give up, renounce ; abandon ; forsake. 

ind. pres. 2 sg. 385sitU5ul meijuerpis, tropfriezcriieutez: 1 685 si tune guerpis tesdeussanz demurer. 
)> » 3 pl- §45 P"'' "lort le guerpissent eu sabelun gisant : 
„ ,, ,, 1805 guerpissent lur errurs e maus e vanitS. 

2 sg. 922 gloire du mund guerpis. 

3 „ 413 cum il guerpi JIahura e Jesu reclama. 
I „ 606 90 ke m'aprist ne guerpiiai tant cum vie me dure. 



pret. 
fut'. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixix 



(guerpissez) 



guerroie 1 
guerroier I. ) 

guerroier ll. 

guetez 



gugement 
guie } 

guier ) 



gunele 

gupilz 

gurent, gut 

guvema 

guvemant 

guveme 

guverner 



ii,H flit a se. 6s pur Tcsu guerpiras la loi Apolin. 
imDcr" 2 1 95 de. ore g^er,>is le tun enchantement. 

r .. pi- 8.9 bis. karVerpissez Mahom guerp.ssez Tervagant^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

^- I°?,^rf^r;:^r,arTe'^-S-- = Vs's g-p. vus cuveut Mahu.. 
app. ,ind. pft. . sg.) 546 ^^i™ ^^ JJ^^^ ^^^J^"^. deus) savraziuois (v. noteV 
" i" " inh IIgIpurida^^lraguerpimaisun, muiUere,_enfant. 
" f " ant ^ ) 987 k'il urent cum freit mord guerpi e lesse. 
DDD mks sg. 241 ore perl ke tu es e despit e guerpi. 
ppp. raa> „ ^^^ eu desert gisez (guerpi) cum charoinne : 
" ,," 154° gurent par ces champs defulez e guerpi. 
v'.'tr.to'oppose in fight. j^ ^^. ^^ ^^.^^j- („,,, ,„ester a nul). 

app. (ind. pft. 37) J768- Deut (kCtant unt guerroie) prent de eus vengance. 

p. m. warrior. 

(pendens) nom. pi. 1 6S2 h felun guerroier. 

V tr to watch, spv, lie m wait tor. 

npp mas 'r 56 k (guetez, travez e ptns) par Jueus. 

ppp. mas. s^^. ^3^ ^j^^»s^„3eins) dunt U sunt guetez. 

under jugement. 

lnrp^ftl^95^t^lesau»es^^^^ 

" " infin" !o2.' 1315 1636 ki tut adl guier ^Deu) (Jesu) (le fiz Mane). 

s. f. gown, dress. 

prp. sg. 1248 vestuz de %au gunele. 

nom. sg!'s55 cum luz u cum gupUz escriez de pastur. 

under gisent. 

V tr. to govern. 

ind pre?. 3 sg. 782 Deu la tut guvenie. 

•■--U 5^Sad^f;::ri't^:e^^;(Deus)aesus,. 
periph.pres ptcp. ..78 Jesus est e eel e ten-e guvemant. 



H. 



hache 

hai 
hai 



haid 
hale 
hard! 
hardiz 



harjieiire 

hastiveroent 

haubercs 

hauste 

haut 

haute 



s. f. axe. , , 

ace. s-J. ■^01 (portantz) u hache u espee. 
,ntei|.^240. 354- 573- 8u. .646. .795 under ai i. 
VI' pres.' 3 'pi- 50 Id ceu Jesu hSent cum aloue esperver. 
" r\- L'^^U KU dst k'avant les urent mut despit e hai. 

f^. fern.- p"p. 's"^:' .453 susp';^ de langur remis en ceste voie haie. 

under aide. 

under hai. 
1 adj. hardy, daring. , ^ j; ^ ^ , - „£ te osera nuire ne cuard ne liardi : 

\ mas. nom. sg. "2;"^^ d\sTSl-™ages e har di : il^Ar. un chev,.ler hardi e empern.nt. 
" ace. pi. 907 ne dute mais morteus feluns tiramz hardiz. 

ace. sr6^?ne"v eiissez plus entcndu ke asne harpeiire. 
adv. hastily. 
213.414- 1590 (aler). 

pnT nl^'ssrlde robes sunt gamiz) u de haubercs dublers. 

T- T-?tzS^^^^^" !;Su s^:cl:iture . .3O. lur deu U'est H plus haut : 



Ixx 



GLOSSARY. 



hautes 



„ prp. 

fem. ace. 

., prp. 



hautcment 

hay 
hfient 
hem 
her be 



herber 

herberge 

herberge 
herbergez 



mas. nom. sg. 1449 pur ki A. haut martirs* est. 

1582 jo en prendrai si haut vengeraent. 

1645 (alez) al haut rei de gloire I 

i8cx) bien unt ja recunu sa haute deitfi. 

1436. 1633 a haute voiz (s'escrie) (dist) : — 370 cu nun de la veraie e haute triiiitfi : — 

502 murut en haute croiz drescee: 523 dient en hauste voiz : 805 dist en haute voiz. 
„ ,, pi. 505 (s'en vunt) a hautes manaces e grant bruit e criec. 

adv. 249 haut getta un cri : 826 haut s'escrie : 1353 haut chantent e cler. 
adv. amply, richly. 

784 — sendee ki de lui est prive : 1098 de sun gueredun est — seisi : 
946 under ai I. 
under hai. 
under horn. 
s. f. herbage, grass. 

nom. sg. 349 (trespassable est li mundz) cum I'erbe du prfi. 
ace. ,, 999 (funt) flestrir I'erbe du pre : 1093 la terre (ne rendi) fruit ne herbe. 
s. m. herb- garden. 

nom. pi. 693 (perisent) li praiol e herber. 
s. m. dwelling-place, 
nom. sg. 1030 herberge en muntainne ne puet estre cele. 



1492 — 90 dient. 



1 V. tr. to harbour, give shelter. 



' app. (ind. pft. 2 sg.) 52 herberge m'as ja en tun paleis marbrin. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1 126 VI (fustes) herbergez ches A. 

heumes s. m. helmet. 

ace. pi. 1468 deslacent aventailles, heumes e chapeus. 
hier adv. yesterday. 

215 mut ai dormi des hier. 
his, hissi, hissu under issi. 



hisdur 

hom 
home 



homicide 



honur 



s. f. fright. 

ace. sg. 570 (engettez) cele croiz ke tu la tens dunt as tu hisdur. 
1^ s. m. man, liege-man, servant ; people, "on." 

', nora. sg. etn 79 k'em claime Jesu : 648 k'em i mist : 688 (venger le tort) k'em fait : 
,, ,, „ 719 k'em A. crucifie : 1366 k'em purra deviser : 1678 k'em ne puet tuer. 
„ „ /tern 365 ke hem \'us face : 815 ke hem desdit : 817 hem [pendens ? or vocat. .' v. note] : 
„ „ „ 1148 veintre nel pout hem vivant : 1314 dit hem en repruver: 
„ „ „ 1541 n'i peiist hem cunustre : — 
„ „ „ 1471 la busoingne Jesu faire cum sis hem leus : — 

,, „ „ 345 soiez amis veraisehem delealte : i254sifizestDeusehem: I256puisdevinthem. 
„ „ kom 227 unshorn (ifa-jusdesendi) : 368 hom had porte (ewe) : 
„ ,, ,, 406 par unt doit hom estre sauvez : 

,, ,, ,, 434 avant kenus hom garde s'en dura : 467 meint hom estre gari : 562 dit hom : 
„ ,, ,, 648 ne ren n'i espleite hom : 724 droiz est ke en terre \if hom I'ensevelie: 
„ ,, „ 718 autrement ke U maistres sis hom ne muna mie : 
„ „ „ 741 hom k'a mort est juge [pendens] : 

791 u avant passer ne pout hom : 803 u nuls unc hom ala avant : 
1342 n'est hom ki n'en peiist giant piete aver : 1377 cunustre les pout hom : — 
810 deveng sis hom e sis sergant : 1614 devint hom mortal. 
94 ne te serroit or ranfum, n'ura mortal escu. 
1 20 ki mist hom en encumbrer : 1 1 56 ki hom furmer deignas : 
1255 k'en parai's fist hom, masle e femmele : 1694 90 fait hom renaistre. 
338 met hum a grant ruine e a perdiciun. 
725 cele mort apent a home ki le suen deu renie. 
5 uns cors d'um mortal : 668 (pener) le cors d'um. 
141 sanz cunoissance d'umme u repruver, 
„ ,, humme i2i par humme cuvint descumfire : 341 par humme sunt li autre apris. 
ace. pi. hunwies 1244 ki ses hummes e amis e ses privez apele. 
prp. ,, ,, 639 ne pur tuz les hummes ki w-ent e murunt. 
s. m. homicide. 

nom. pi. 1682 avoutre e homicide, 
s. m. honour. 

nom. sg. 1246 I'onur des deus suvereins ja besille e chancele : 1819 mes le honur Jesu crest, 
ace. ,, 585 tu en purras consirer gueredun e honur : 1663 granz "ben e honiu-" cunsirer : 
„ „ 1757 Deus li rende I'onur. 



nom. 


sg' 


. hom 


>» 


»> 


»» 


ace. 




um 

hom 


prp- 

»» 


)1 
>> 


hum 
home 
um 
ttmme 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixxi 



(hoaur) prp. sg. 



909 i honur I'acoilt Deus of ses desmeine eslitz : 
121O me deingnat a si grant honur en sun palois tenu- : 

1521 a honur sunt e gloire eu del acoiUi : 1552 a honur les unt en sarcuz acoiUi. 
honurables adj. honourable 



bonurant 

honure 

honurfi 

honurfie 

honurent 

honurer 



auj. nonourjuit 

prp. pi. lo?2 (mil u plus) des plus honurables, nches e iette. 
^ V. tr. to honour. 



V. tr. to Honour. , . , . , 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 608 Jlahom reni k'en enfer trait ki lui sert e honure : 

,. » "369 einz les honure tuz jurs, cherist e avance. 
"■ " " „ pi. 928 (Sathanas n'eit part) de ceus ki toi houurent. 

" " inlin. 1212 (me deingnat) de sa robe ebruusdee honurer e vestir. 
app.(ind.pft. 3 sg.) 520 la croiz nuvele k'il adtant honuree. 

( » » >> P'O 1395 1^^ '^°^^ ""' honure, redute, e cremu. 
ppp. mas. ace. sg. 303 (celui ke veistes) servi e honure de angUn legiun. 

gen. „ 973 au seint cors tucher le martir honure. 
pe'riph."p''es. ptcp. 1762 ceus k'en cest mund,vus sunt honurant. 
hers adv. outside. 

750 hors de la cite I'unt trait. 
hoste ) s. m. guest, host. 

hostes J ace. sg. 71 ad sun oste entendu : 498 (facent vemr a eus) lui e sun hoste : 

„ 1814 despuis ke A. reifut sun oste Apl. 
prp.,, 213 (s'en vaparler) asunhoste. - , , , 

voc. „ 51 A. belhoste! 215 beus hostes ! 277 beus ostes e ami : 377 beus osles ! 
hum under hom. 

humage s. ra. homage. „ , . ,. , 

ace. sg. 297 fai lui, cum fere deiz, lingance e humage. 
humanite s. f. humanity. , ■.- 

ace. sg. iSoi de virgne pnst en terre humamte. 

humblement adv.^lmmbly.^ ^^^ u„,blement : 939 en ad umblement (mercie Deu) : 

1457 mut humblement pur Im requert. 
humein a^> ^™_a°- ^g^ ^,^ rescust de diable) humein lignage. 

prp. ,, I loi a humein Ugnage sunt traitres enemi. 
humilia v. ref. to bow down. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 42. (ben vi) cum U se humiha (a un Jesu). 
humilitfi s. f. humility. 

prp. sg. 369. 960. 1797 a grant humUite. 
humme, hummes under hom. 
huni V. tr. to dishonour. . , , , u ■ 

ODD mas sg. 242 autres de toi sauvas,— tant es le plus hum. 
„ pi. 469 ke ne soiez huni (de ces paens criieus). 

huntage ^'J- '^^^l veit la huntage de lui k' [= laquelle] alum vengant. ' 

prp'. s'g. 290 tant sufri de peine e de huntage :— 1557 Je huntage defent ceus ki en lui croicnt. 

hunte s. f. disgrace. 

ace. sg. 462 vus fra hunte. 



I. 



1(a) 



(0 



adv I there {a) in that place, (J) on it, (<•) in that matter (those circumstances) ; 2 thither, to that 
place : t, pronominally, as obi. case (dat.) after verbs ; 4 phr. i aver, there is, was, &c. 
7i; n'i soient veQ : 199 Apl. sul i demucre : 272 bis. la joie ki 1 fu c ke jo 1 01 : 512 1 unt truv& . 
il^ A sul i veienl : 599 maufcz i sunt : 645 juge i sist : 670 mis i fu : 675 penance 1 meine : 767 1 
unt truvd ■ 7-0 i passent : 771 i perisent : 790 i fust i flote : 853. 1422 sul 1 est : 857 sei 1 unt eu : 
ioutovrfi- 972Deusiadmustrfi: 1027 destraite i seit : 1182 1 aparurent : 1469 repos n'l avnit : 



truvasmes: 1564 i estoit present: 1839 musterai i mun livre 



9431 

1 541 1 peust cunustre: 1547 

1843 batesme i requorai. 

c de fust i fu furmez : 951 par les chcveus 1 pent : 1113 li sancs A. i pert aers. 

02 bis trop i es enganez, deceU : 279 fausete ke n'i seit : 463 mal ki point n'l avez deservi : 

648 bis. ren n'i espleite par peine k'em i mist : 672. 702 n'i pust (pout) aver mester : 

995 trop i a sun barat semfi (v. note) : 1825 ne i deise fausetg. 



Ixxii GLOSSARY. 

(i) 630 A. i trainent : 650. 1C99 i acurent : 1276 nus i iimm : 1 722 ces i enveit Deus. 

(3) 104. 175 i entent : 182 i apent : 196. 1574 i assent : 441 i apencira : 

1 189 un suls i faut : 1547 un sul i failli. 
(4) 381 tant i a plente: 1589 tant i a gent : — 

4 n'i out acast : 22 n'i out plus cuneiiz : 769 i out plente : 1766 raeint en i out blesce : — 
1325. 1639 n'i out ke curucer (^nothing but anger) ; 1771 n'i out ki (not one who). 
1346 ne failli Ice n'i eiist mil enter ke un sul. 
ignel adj. swift. 

mas. ob. sg. 1421 muntez [sur] grant destrer ignel. 
„ ace. pi. 1484 ki destrers avoient plus fortz e plus igneus. 
ignelement adv. swiftly. 

J 593 pur tost venir poinnent ignelement. 
igneus under ignel. 

il pers. pron. he, (she), it. 

Mas. nom. sg. il 10. 56. 152. 319. 373. 413. 421. 422. 430. 449. 453. 475. 515. 520. 527. 542. 557. 
561. 744. 783. 807. 910. 919. 932. 953. 958. 976. 991. 1017. 1048. 1088. 1094. 
1099. 1150. 11S5. 1216. 1224. 1239. 1335. 1431. 1433. 14-7. 1528. 1560. 1573. 
1579. 1580. 1581. 1587. 1621. 1&30. 1703. 1711. 1772. 1S03. 
foUoii'iug its verb : — 

43. 215. 285. 417. 946. 1123. 1245. 1644. 1669. 1708 dist il : 660 doinst il. 
ace. sg. le 24. (107 or ntr. .') 198. 264. 284. 315. 316. 481. 528. 655. 656. 665. 823. 835. 
844. 845. 846. 911. 1004. 1130. 1157. 1164. 1174. 1265. 1344. 1367. 1416. 1426. 
1439. 1587. 1597. 161S. 1630. 1729: — (before vowels) 237. 1599. 1784. 
-/ 203 nel vout guerpir : 687 nel vout pas ubUer : Il48flecchir nel pout hem : 

1569 nel croi : 1626 nel volent parocire. 
/' 31. 41. 74. 104. 146. 175. 281. 322. 371. 399. 421. 423- 43'- 492. 531- 541- 615- 
616. 620. 629. 724. 726. 749. 750. 753. 757. 894. 909. 945. 955. 971. 982. 989. 
1009. 1015. 1019. 1022. 1042. 1096. H22. 1170. 140S. 1425. 1428 bis. 1459. 
1500. 1533. 1598. 1603. 1606. 1610. 1668. 1700. 1735. 1740. I77'- 1788. 
lui 139 lui enfanter : 346 \-us (avez eschoisi) lui : 437 susprendra lui e sun maistre : 
498 lui e sun hoste facent venir : 733 uul ne voie mais autres lui : 
751 lui suit grant pueple : 1370 lui eiment : 1723 lui recunforter. 
It 1624 li turmenter. 
dat. sg. /;' 30 h giante : 1 76 li a respundu : 188 li fras sacrifice : 191. 544 li ad dit : 

204lidemustrersunsegrei: 271 li est paiilgal: 284 li ad mustre : 3 1 4 li firent mal : 
36S li ad porte : 391 li avoit proiez : 397 li ad desclos : 517 li seit tramise : 
953 di li (.tell him) : 1008 ne li vaudra un espenin : 1 149 li ofrimes : 
1 134 li curt sure : 1431 U est duz : 1463 a pleisir U vent: 1463. 1673 li plest : 
1757 li rende I'onur. 
lui 58 lui pri : 206 a\is lui est : 211 lui ad mustre : 297 fai lui humage : 608 lui sert : 
617 lui recuntai : 966 lui vent a volente : 1 1 7 1 lui cuntredisant : 1222 proiez lui : 
1798 lui aiirent : 1864 lui porter fei. 

as dat. of personal reference, in place of possess, adj. : — 
// 256 la curaille li ovri : 534 la robe li est ensanglaentee : 731 li oil creve li soient : 
S40 li nierf U sunt rumpu : 895 li fait voler le chef: 913 H sunt li oil saiUiz : 
ioi3liad le chief sevre : li75lioil li sunt chaet : 1360. 1409. 1604 les braz 
(meins) h unt he : I430 doillant h sunt li nerf : 
lui 205 lui esmoiller le quoer : 8361esdenzlui fait voler : 1 1 1 6 le quor lui envai. 
prp. sg. /(' 720 a li : 720. 1202 deli: 239.461 devant li : 7i7enli: 1075. i7o6enturli: 
1O30 pur li. 
lui 54. 118. 214. 343. 488. 656. 726. 1223. 1359. 1490. 1751 a lui : 229 cuntre lui : 
153. 4S9. 604. 630. 784. 831. 1042. 1058. 1558. 1570 de lui: 232. 1104. 1370. 
1557 en lui: 1595 entur lui: 74. loi. 117. 301. 318. 1179. 1387. of lui: 
480 ofuokcs lui : 839 par lui: 300. 529. 658.1124. 1225. 1457 pur lui: 229. 

nom. pi. il 
ace. pi. ies 



1456 vers lui. 






107. 248. 315. 392. 404. 509. 


519. 620. 622. 824. 987. 1012. 1036. 


1 110. 1388. 


1396. 1543. 1586. 1624. 1738. 


1760. 1768. 1785. 1793- "S'S- 




following its verb : — 






'333 t^n' sunt il plus criieus. 






109. 265. 310. 312. 408. 409. 


410.438. 647. 6q4. 758[dat.?] 1241. 


1216. 1236. 


1241. 1275. 1351 bis. 1353. 


1369. 1400. 1499- 1522. 15^6. 1542. 


1544. 1545. 


1551. 1552. 1574. 1597. 1599. 


1641. 1662. 1665. 1741. 1756. 1793. 1 


795. 1810. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixxiii 



iluec 



image 



irascu 
irascuz 



irez 



iricmenl 



issi 
ist 



dat. 



- s 



prp. 



[112 of eU5 : 



1398 lur 



1768 de eus. 
1525 par eus : 



Fern. 



nom. sg. 
ace. „ 



1820. 



Nlr. nom. 



/' 



U 



833 k> 



- / 

r 



following its verb : — 
1377 ke cunustre les pout horn. 

108 nesvoutesparnier. 1589 lichemins nescumprent. „ . , 

106 lur defcndia manfjer : 1 15. 117- "3" lur cuvmt (demener, &c.) : IIO. 
1257 1287 lur plut (escuter, &c.) : 3' > l""- fist dun : 313 lur euvea ; 7O4 estroit 
lur fu le chami. : 881 lur tramist : 926 bis. I'ewe lur secchis e puis la lur dunas : 
1012 lur Vint a gre: 1076 lur dist : 1374 les menbres lur sunt restorez : 
est aparu : 1683 lur apent. 

of personal reference, in place of possess, adj. .•— 
1779 les langes lur ardent (their tongues bum). 
fKJ 499. 567 a eus : 256. 410. 721. 1481. 1493. 1525. 1527. 1592- 
1424 devant eus : 883. 919. 1469 entre eus : 
1329 pur eus [but v. note]. 
ele 522. 

la 13. 135- 231. 442. 492. 509. 824. 926. 1732. 
477- 514- 535- 879- 1533. 
used -with impersonal verbs : — 

118 cil, a k'il plut a lui (v. note): 388. i276s'ilvus plaist ; 441 cum il lapendra : 
967 puis k'il fut ajume : 1679 la cuvendra il demurer. 
lO' il le trespasserent [id or eiim .^ : 388 le m'otnez ! 828 mar le dels : 
autrement le dit : 964 bien le croi . . . ke est martir : 1 168 le disoient . . . 
ke 90 fu, Sec: 1519 n'est pas si cum tos le quidez : 1562 le poum saver: 
1 743 le purvit : 1 82 1 ben le di. 

27 3 bis. quors nelpuet penser, ne jo nel vTispardi. , u „ . 

Sjionel-aiapris . . . Deu deingnast : 142.478. 737 1 ottreit : 56. ben lad 
pruvii ke il est boiseiir : 828 mar I'alas cuntruvant : 1028 cum Deus I'ad devise : 
1034 bien runt dit : r 1 30 si tu I'es recordant : 1193 apris I'as. 
following its verb : — 

276 descuverir ne r OS. „ , ■,■ 1 

adv. there ; d'iluec, from thence : (always precedes the verb, and generally the auxihai^ also, save in 
448. 479. 1450 where it comes between). 
395. 448. 738. 1 118. 1467. 1783 iluec. 
,.g. 168. 170. 227. 479- 984- 1053- ii33- -450 d iluec. 
s. f. image. . 

ace. sg. 291 cum veiz en ceste croiz figuree la image. 
ob. „ 624 un image d'or bruni (v. note). 
) adj. angr)'. ^ , . . . 

1 mas. nom. sg. 1566 tant par est irascuz, a pou de ire ne fent. 

pi. 96 ne soiez irascu : 863 fremissent e crient dolent e irascu. 

s. f. anger. 

I t;q7 grant ire les esprent : 1627 tele est lur ire. ., , , , 

1:82 n'averunt vers toi plus ne ire ne rancur : 824 k'avant urent ire, ore la vunt il dublant. 
446 1:43 1565 de ire e mautalent (fremi) (tut mue la culur) (tut est enflambez) : 
993'su5pris sunt de rancur e de ire envenime : 1243 (art e restencele) de ire : 
',', ','. 1566 tant par est irascuz, a pou de ire ne fent :— 

„ 197 s'en part par ire e mautalent: 1294 ad dit par grant ire. 

) adj. angry. . , , ^ 1 

} mas. nom. pi. 1356 (paens) plus crueus e irez ke n'est urs u sengler. 

^ 985 (paen) en sunt trop ire : 1498 nus en fumes irez e dolent e man. 

adv. angrily. 

191 A. li ad dit ireement. 
irrum, iiTunt under aler. 
irur s. m. anger. , ,. ■ 

prp. sg. 544 puis li ad dit par curuz e irur. 
issi I. adv. thus. 

127 tut issi salucr ; 143 tut issi cum vus recunt. 
) V. intr. to come out, issue, go out. , , , , 

j ind. pres. 3 sg. 653 du cors II sancskis'espand, ist : 837 du nies e dc la buthe li bancs 1st e espant ; 
,. .. » t73> I'alme atant s'en ist de sa ch.irnel maisun. 
" pret. „ „ 257 du cors apcrtement sane e ewe hissi : 480 A. de la cite ofuokcs lui issi. 
,', imper. 2 sg. 754 va-t-en ! his ! enemi nus deus de la cite (v. note). 
pp. mas. sg. 876 d'une bcle (untainne est li roisseus hissu. 



nom. sg. 
ace. ,, 
prp- .. 



Ixxiv GLOSSARY. 

itel adj. such. 

mas. prp. sg. 1583 (prendrai vengement) de itel felun traitre. 
ivoirc s. f. ivoiy. 

prp. sg. 3 (ne ert adubbee) de ivoire ne roal. 



ja adv. of asseveration ; already, in truth, of past or future time. A, with simple tenses, («) following, 

(/)) preceding the verb ; B, in compound tenses, as below. 
A(u) 243. 279 299. 427. 491. 641.906. 928. 931. 1042. 1 107. 1146. 1331. I637. 

(i) 172. 247. 347. 443. 733. 1054. 1246. 1320. 1464. 1509. 
B (o) az'er ja p/cp. ^ig. 629. 1552. 1653. 1800 : aver ptcp. ja "50: ptcp. aver ja 52. 
iti) estre ]-^ ptcp. 93. 251. 392. 407. 486. 539. 848. 883. 937. 948. 1392. 1794 : 
estre ptcp. ja 95 : ptcp. estreja4i9. 712. 1045: ptcp. ja estre 1331 : 
ja estre ptcp. 389. 451. 1021. 1035. 1536. 

(In this last case, where ja precedes both au.xil. and ptcp. it is onh- future), 
jadis adv. formerl)'. 

309 ki jadis furent serfs, 
jamais adv. (with or without ne), never. 

1 73 ii nafra jamais mortz : 220 jamais ne nus ])urra sevrer : 

1537 ki jamais n'ert fini : 1580 plus ne mangera jamais : 1635 sanz jamais returner, 
jas adv. certainly [cf note on 1536]. 

548 ne fuissez citoien, jas fuissez a mort livrez. 
jaspes s. m. jasper stone. 

prp. pi. 904 curune de jaspes, esmeraudes, &c. 
lesu \ n. pr. Jesus. 

lesum ( nom. 46. 178. 487. 609. 935. 1057. 1123. 1178. 1542. 1556 Jesus :— 

fesun I ,, 165 Jesu (only instance M'ithout s). 

jesus ) gen. 9. 286. 516. 917. 992. 1190. 1381. 1393. 1437. 1460. 1472. 1643. 1787. 

» 899 Jesu Cristz (in rime), 
ace. 50. 79. 146. 308. 413. 583. 609. 637. 654. 759. Sot. 820. 947. H04. 
1634. 1650. i'66o Jesu. 
,, 491 Jesum : — 1 705 Jesun (in rime) : — 54 Jesu Crist. 
(dat.) 822 proiez Jesu; 1267 Jesu ne aiirai. 

prp. 3"7- 421- 1161. 1315. 1442. 1496. 1596. 1632. 1790. 1826. 1844 a Jesu: 
36 du fiz Deu, Jesu Crist : 501 d"un deu, Jesu : 605. 1532 de Jesu : — 
609. 1383 en Jesu: — 65. 1072. 1318. 1482. pur Jesu. 
voc. 330. 8ri. 868 Jesu ! 663 Jesu Crist ! 
adj. fresh (but v. note), 
fern. nom. sg. 1466 une pleinne ki vertz fu e jieus. 



jieus 
jo 



1797. 1 819 Jesu : — 
1230. 1252. 1457. 1629. 



pers. pron. I. 
nom. sg. jo 



83. 172. 258. 272. 273. 456. 471. 594. 614. 616. 829 bis. 1077. 1207. 1582. 1710. 1761. 

1830. 1841. 

foUoaoing its verb : — 

663 me doins jo. 

sepafated by relative clause from its verb : — 

476 jo ta esclavine, ke 9a porter vus vi, plusl'eim: iSi i jo, ki estoie 8., vi le cumcni^ail. 

as disjunctive pronoun : — 

219 tu serras mi maistres e jo tis escoler : 1835 jo, peccheres orfanin. 
ace. ,, me 179.218.385.429.609.610.966.1209.1715. 

moi 661 ki moi cria ; 1213 pur moi garantir (v. note) : 1709 regardez moi* (^mo M.S.). 

mei 1717 mettle mei a confusiun. 

nC 52. 97. 387. 606. 689. 1 184. 1534. 

with pronominal verbs : — 
m[e) 77. 663. 1 104. 1208 1442. 1826. 1841. 1844 me : 27. 63. 376. 380 ni'. 
dat, ,, me 77 me dis tu : 78 me portes nuveles : 274 bis. me mustra, descuvri : 278 me recunt : 

660. 1228 me doinst : 1281 me plest. 
;«' 57 escu m'est : 81 m'cst vis : 224 avis m'ert : 388 lem'otriez : 472 quancke m'a purveii : 

781 n-.'est aturne : 1224 il m'ottreit : 1714 m'enveit. 



GLOSSARY. 



Uxv 



H 



jofnesce 

joiant 

joie 



•^ ««.r 29 36. 38. 39- ■ ■ 8- ■ ' 9- 220. 270. 3oy 832- 93^- 93\^^ + J ^ ^^^^^j^ ^f„, o^i, ,aUes) 

;; „„. 545 nus\s fait deshonur:. 050 nusi^am^^^ '"''.Vvirnus f u : .5.° -s bast, maus 

l^J^^^LZJ:^ -.S;: birnu^'<i faU daUge, nus ad toleK gent : 

:6;- nus - ff ^7"„-^y^^558 Levant nus : .+7 entre nus : .32.. -324 

" ""'V».%:m.9%-^ol:,iUu.: ...4 vers nus. 

prp.lg" 466 si fiissez peri en vostre jofnesce. 

mLt4". ^g- ■ -95 pret^ sumes tuit i fere a quor baud e joiant. 

s. f. joy, gladness. , ^ :„ : r,i niiors nel puet penser (v. note) 

ace. 



lirp. 

nom 
ace. 
dat. 



prp. 



of nus 



PT- 

Jointes (joindre) v 
ppp 
joius 



joure 
joures 



Jnvin 



juant 

Judas 

Jiieus I. 
jiieus II. 

juge 

juge 

jugeincnl 

jugementz 



juger 

jugeras 

jugcz 

jur 



Duet penser iv. iioic;. , . 

i: ';;c^eTez"lVj"oie-ke jo ja ^s^promis : ^osoUs grante la joie let par est deUtable . 
" ;; /pur oie Sene.?: ^.480 d^ tens en unt jo>e 1. angre : 

:: - r;^^}^^Mi^ ^ =\^ -e de jo. replent :- 
" ;f8'en j^slfd^i ^^^ ■ ro?rW- -^ i- - joie pardurable. 

S^'^- J^^^urll\Si-eu!i^:t:;riz: .097 liangere joius eesbaudi ^Vunt seVvi). 

"• '"■;J"?«'iovin descunus e sun frere Neptun : 1 102 (reni) Jovin e danz Phebun : 
'"■ ^' ?^6MurTnr JoTn lur deu. li plus haut k'est sanz per. 

Irp' :, 575 I'«r Jovin Id guie te,Te e hnnament. 
^ 1; ,^ nvin,' livine fcf. " alive and kicking ]. . 

pr^'isttrahi par Judas : 93- (fu q-s) par Jiieus e Judas le traitre. 

(155. lOi) under Giu 11. 

:ec'"prMi9'rs"; li ofrimes,H>ieus, argent, besantz. 

nom! £145 (li princes) ki presentz juge i sist. 
under juger. 

I7c pi. 748 autres jugementz unl desdit e fause. 

'Lr-r^t?ti;^rS^f:gr:!ur;uzaupara,er 

IpniifcS-^-^^i-J--'-- 

i: m. day, time, period ; l"V",'l^;."!."nuit"enobscuri • 1054 li solailz ja decline e li jurs envespn : 
„om.sg.454<lu-tMu.d^^^^^^^^ 



) 



Isxvi GLOSSARY. 

'j"<) (ace.) sg. 1380 unc plus beus ne estoient jur puis lur enfance. 

prp. „ 145 fu au jur oitisme circumcis : 621 (fu) au jur quant fesle funt : 

„ „ 858 au jur ki dune fu lung ki ne urent beii : 1 140 damage encurumes unc a nul jur tant. 
(ace.) pi. 163 tuz jurs declinerent : 30r. 924. 1046 tuz jurs regneras : 
II ). 321 en enfer il ert tuz jurs sa mansiun : 360 I'alme tuz jurs viit : 
„ „ 618 enclins avez tuz jurs este a pecchez : 818 tei tuz jurs apele : 
,, ,, 1023 en la prisun est tuz jurs au maufe : 1369 les honure tuz jurs : 
,, ,, 1676 la est lur mansiun tuz jurs sanz fin aver : — 
>' •> 529 pur lui respunderai tutz les jurs de mun ee. 
jure \ V. tr. to swear, adjure. 

jure J ind. pres. 3 sg. 447 jure les gr.intz vertuz Mahonimet sun ami. 

jurent ) „ „ „ pi. 1361 jurent Jo\'in lur deu. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1034 bien I'unt dit e jure; 1410 jure unt Mahomet elur granlz deus de eel. 
,, ( ,, ant. „ ,, ) 1736 jure ciirent avant. 
jiunal adj daily (v. note). 

prp. sg. 1606 entur le pel I'enchacent cum a chemin jurnal. 
jurnees s. f. daily journey. 

prp. pi. 1290 ne finent a jurnees tut sene ehevaucher. 
jurs under jur. 

jus adv. below, here below. 

227 uns horn d'iluec en terre 9a jus desendi. 
justice V. tr. to rule, moderate. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 590 justise par sage atempreiire (sun curage e quor). 
juvencel \ s. m. youth, 
juvenceus / ace. sg. 1424 devant eus funt cure le gentil juvencel. 

prp. pi. 1483 adunc se sunt muntez li uns des juvenceus. 



K. 

under ki. 
under ke. 

adj. epileptic (.- v. note). 
ace. pi. 149 (sana) . . , desvez e k.iils. 
kant under qant. 

conj. causal, for, because ; except before imperatives, where it = XI. F. done. 
97. 134. 189. 198. 206. 217. 251. 276. 288. 300. 346. 366.420. 432. 438. 470. 487. 587. 668. 728; 
740. 964. 1 1 77. 1260. 1266. 1492. 1518. 1520. 1671. 1689. 1735. IT)^- 
with imperatives : — 

485 kar proiez Deu pur moi : 819 kar guerpissez M. : 1043 kar soiez sueurable : 1157 eel mal kar 
restorez : 1638 kar requerez J. 
ke^ I. conj. that, &e. 

A, in adversative sentences ; B, in noun sentences ; C, in adverbial sentences i, of time, — 2, place, 

3, of cause, (a) causal, (b) hypothetic, (c) concessive, (d) consecutive, (e) final, — 4, of manner, after 
comparatives, Sec. 

[Examples under two rubrics, (a) followed by verb in indicative, (j3) subjunctive.] 
A mes ke, except that : — 

(a) 1 1 14 mil sunt mes ke li uns remist : 1 189 mil sumes mes ke uns suls i faut : 1547 mils cors i truvas- 
mes mais ke un sul i failli. 
B in case sentences ; 1, nom.. 2 ace., 3 gen., 4 dat. (5 other cases) : — 

jB) I (n) 224 avis m'ert ke li eels se deselot : 241 ore pert ke tu es despit : 

955 sui acerte ke eu regiie du eicl est m.artir: 1088 ore pert k'il ne fu iruan : 
1528 pesa al darreinner k'il fu cs|)anii : 1579 damage est k'il ne pent. 
1/3) 557 k'a fause fust pruvee, ben pert. 

(li) 719 [est] droitz k'em A. crucifie : 724 droi/. est ke en terre vif horn I'ensevelie : 
744 custunime est ke il scit decole : 919 n'est droitz k'il seit despiz. 
2 [a] 281 Apl. entent ke D. I'at fait aigncl : 410 veil ke les espia (v. note) : 437 saeez ke susprendra : 
449 avoit o'i . . . ke il a gucrpi : 519 voicnt k'A. ad afublee : 527 dist k'il s'en ala : 561 .ad pruve 
ke il est boiseiir ; 61O sacez k'cn vein laburc : 618 reeuntai k'enelins avez este (w note): 626 dient 
k'au temple irrunt : 646 veit k'A. lur loi des])iist : 1068 voient le sc])ulcrc ke tut fu csclarci : 
1 143 veimes ke par .\. fu durant : 1 169 disoient ke 90 fu la vertu du solail : 1 178 entendimes ke J. 
est eel guvernant : i486 dire ke est vcnuz : 1494 cunta ke cist furent sumuns : 1529 veiscz ke lepere 
feri : 1738 jur£ eiirent k'il amerroient : 1803 geisent ke il a dreitureumeiit uvre. 



k- 


I. 


k' 


II 


kaifs 




kanel 


<e. 


kar 





GLOSSARY. Ixxvii 

with subj. after negative principal clauses : — 
S) 84 jo ne I'ai leii ke Deu dcinj^ast naistre : 99 ne vout D. ke soiez damnez : 194 nc piirroil estre 
pruvc ke un fust trois: 730 ne voudroie ke A. perdist lane: 873 ne suefre ke pur moi seit tis 
poples perdu : 1316 ne place a J. ke nus puissez se\Ter* : 1784 ne se pout nul vanter ke le eiist 
deshonure. 

after verbs of comnuinding^ prayings ^c, : — 
(^) 279 fauset6 ke n'i seit ja, 90 pri ; 489 a lui vus cumant, [beseeching you] kc ne soic/. ile kii esloinnez : 
497 cumande ke la maisun A. seit cerchee : 594 quidez ke jo recleim : 649 cumande ke batu seit : 
1 146 creiimes ke fust repentant : r283 cumande k'en W. aillent : 1586 fait crier cuniandement kc 
tuz li sivent : 1762. 1765 jo vus quoer ke nus . . . ke [pleonastic] saufsoium. 
with subj. after imperatii'es, of p raver, request : — 
(/3) 485 proiez D. ke ne soie flecchiz : 932 proiez k'il nus ne perde pas : 9i;3 di li k'il garisse : 058 fai 
ke il seit enterre : 959 (fai) ke soit le corps pose en sarcu : 1048 proiez k"il nus gard : 1227 proiez k'a 
vostre cumpainnie me doinst I), ateindre : 1638 requerez J. k'en seum parcener : 1711 rcquerez D. 
k'il mei part doinst. 
(3) (") 963 ne deiisse/ esjoi'r ke par vus est A. livre : 1539 esjoi ke D. n'avoit mis en ubli : 1554 de joic re- 
pleni ke D. ad tant seisi. 
(a) 1630 Jesu mercier k'il le tenc digne : 1793 sunt repentant k'il les unt tant anie. 
(/3) 180 curage me prent ke crestiens deveingne (v. note). 
14) (a) I J 10 lur foi unt plevi ke il lur emprise ne larrunt. 
(S) elliptically, introducing substantivized adjeeti^'e-ehiuses \\. note on 557): — 

557 ben pert k'il out poiir (by this that he had) : 816 tesnioine le element ke a loi est atendant. 
J (i) temporal, a, until, — b, ichilst, during the time that, — c, before that, — d, after that, since :^ 

a (a) 315 tant ke il le mistrent a mort : 512 tant k'une chambre unt Iruvee : 1815 gesk' a tant k'il fureni 

mis en sarcu. 
b (/3) 667 tant la demurer ke sun voler pousse flecchir (v. note). 

1831 ne dormirai ... si la k'en nief me mette au procein port marin. 
808 ai perdu mun viant ke ne I'ai servi (v. note). 

1530 tant k'as plaies bender li freres main tendi : 1750 ke sarrazin ne erenl apercevant. 
c (a) 434 avant ke nus horn garde s'en dura. 

(li) 429 av.ant ke plus avenge, 90 fra : 1363 einz ke a V. aient fait mener A. 
'' (") 373 apres 90 ke il out trestut cest .acheve. 

(a) 147 apres pou de tens puis ke out entre nus mis : 152 puis ke il fu d'age • 

967 puis k'il ful ajurne : 976 puis k'il fu ne : 1522 puis ke les eiinies truvez, 
(a) 379 despuis ke D. ad tun quor saele : 430 despuis ke il verra : 999 despuis k'il out le cors tuclie : 
I432 despuis ke a A. aproce ; 1443 despuis k' A. decole fu : 1813 despuis ke .\. recut. 

(2) local, in phr. deci k^ a, from here to : — 

169 ci k'a I'euue du Rin : 1264 de ci k'a Burdele. 

(3) a causal ; because, since, for : — 

(a) 196 despuis ke raisuns n'i assent : — 

(a) 451 ke ja ]mr lignage ne serra esparni : 1292 ke 90 fu sun mester : 
1309 k'ami est le Deu verai : 1433 k'il ne va querant el. 

(/3) 1027 acheve lur voler par tant ke destruite i seit crestiente. 
b hypothetic, provided that .•— 

(/3) 475 pur quel k'il t'cn veie vestu. 
c concessive, — ever, evai though ; — 

(/3) 1449 quei k'envius die (in elliptic clause) : 810 ore . . . mes ke a tart, deveng sis honi. 
d consecutive, that, so that, to such an extent that : — 

(a) 185 tant tun quor tsluniine ke tu voz crairc : 650 tant le cheriit ke a lui meimes semblable le tisl : 
751 tanl lui suit grant pueple k'a pou n'est voide : 788 sunt tant ke I'ewe va si aj)etizant : 1 120 tant 
vunt querant ke Apl. unt tnive : 121O tant leument obeir k'il ne les vout unc cnfreindre : 1334 tant 
sunt plus criieus ke dient : 1377 les cors plus blancs . . . ke cunustre les pout horn : — 1388 les cors 
unt defendu k'il n'unl cntame • 1406 cest travail si grant ke unc n'avoicnt tel : 1473 estes vus tens 
ke vus reclamcz : 1O99 batent fercnt ke tut est escule : 1610 I'unt batu ke li sancs raa aval: 
1 702 batent ke tut est debris^. 

Ui) 790 va si apetizanl ke n'i fust nus h flote : 1744 si le purvit Deus ke tuit fussent parjure. 

ifi) 1 108 nc larrum . . ke solum flecchi : 1440 nc l.iist ke ses criz ne eshauce. 
modal-consecutive (-- sans que) : — 

(/3) 95 n'um mortal [nc te serroit escu] ke ne fuis>ez delrenchez : 1 15 ne pout estre guarantz ke tuz lu- 
lur cuvint aler : 221 ne nus purra sevrer k'en vostre doctrine ne voille demurer. 

(/3) 1581 ke il ne cunpcre cerl ovre cherement : 1772 ke il ne fust du cors cuntrait. 
c final, in order that : — 

(/3) 491 ma croiz vus doins ke ne mettez (.'') J. en ubbli : 517 ad reclanife la lei J. ke sa vertu li seit 



Ixxviii GLOSSARY. 

tramise : 672 mis i fu enchaesnez k'aie n'i pust aver mester : 1402 en escrit unt mis le numbie k'en 
lunge remembrance seit leii : 1549 as cors garder \Tint ke nul ne fust blesmi : 1696 vus purvoier ke 
ne soiez del tut peri : 17 15 m'enveit consolaciun ke ne me flecchissent : 1756 les cors ad enterreke 
ne les devurassent. 
after imperatives : — 
(/3) 443 pernez vengance, k'en dient : 469 alez vus ent, ke ne soiez huni : 735 enchacez seit ke mais de 
li ne seit nuvele oie : 1083 penance demenum ke ne seium peri: 1299 desdi . . . ke peiisum 
repairer. 
(4) modal, after comparatives with />/;«, verb of clause being (l) omitted, (2) expressed, [in which case 

it is always accompanied by a negative] : — 

(1) 470. 477. '615. 729.860. 1009. io5o. 1070. 1206. 1259. 1319. 1405. 1417. 1425. 1431. 1544. 15G9. 
1574. 1720 plus . . . ke. 

(2) 425. 460. 521. 669. 877. 1070. 1250. 1356. 1376 plus . . . ke ne — . 
with other expressions of comparison or difference : — 

637 ainz purra mer secchir ke Jcsu treshublie. 
123 en autre k'en sun cher fiz : 718 autrement ke li maistres. 
after negative clauses, = except, save : — 
1325. 1639 n'i out ke curucer. 
ke II- under ki. 

keineu> s. m. embattlement. 

ace. pi, 1465 (ja veient) tureles e kerneus (de lur temples e paleis). 
keus under queus. 

ki I. pvon. intenog. who .' what.' — ntr. used as interrog. adv., why ? 

mas. nom. sg. 32. 464. 545 ki ? — 881 ki (dependent). 
ntr. ,, ,, 278 k' est .' — 181. 182 bis. ke (dependent), 
adv. 818. 887. 1295. 
ki II. pron. rel. who, which ; often used as demonstrative-relative, he who, that which. 

mas. nom. sg. ti 9. 16. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 36. 39. 55. 59. 60 bis. 61. 78. 80. 84. 85. 97. 102. 108 
Ii8. 120. 122. 126. 130. 132. 137. 174. 202. 204. 230. 243. 263. 270. 271. 283.286, 
304. 367. 405. 408. 415. 419. 423. 424. 442. 459. 466. 481. 487.490. 492. 500. 513 
524. 528. 545. 550. 553. 572. 574. 578. 588. 591. 603. 637. 645. 653. 654. 655. 661 
687. 691 bis. 723. 725. 726(.?) 727. 742. 759. 760. 774. 777. 782. 783. 797. 799, 
830. 832. 849. 854. 856. 858. 860. 869. 870. 878. 890. 894. 896. 899. 902. 921.925 
93'- 937- 944- 07>. 966. 1021. 1022. 1038. 1042. 1053. 1057. 1060. 1061 bis. 1064 
1072. 10S6. logo. 1095. 1115. 1122. 1132. 1156. 1172. 1 174. 1209. 1222. 1244 
1247. 1250. 1293. 1303. 1314. 1315. 1342. 1344. 1347. 1348. 1351. 1368. 1386. 
1420. 1434. 1435. 1437. 1438. 1442. 1452. 1461. 1463. 1474. 1487. 1496. 1509 
1337- '550- 1557- 1558 bis. 1564. 1567. 1572. 1575. 1594. 1602. 1613. 1614. 1634 
1636. 1642. 1678. 1686. 1709. 1727. 1741. 1757. 1783. 1811. 1824. 1837. 1838. 
*' 61. 66. ICO. 362. 452. 458. 478. 484. 502. 511. 608. 655. 659. 741. 875. 930. 942 
953. 1029. 1160. 1199. 1255. 1259. 1357. 1361. 1375. 1398. 1447. 1508. 1544 
1798. 
gut S46. 1087. 

ke 650 (n'a cist ke). 105 1. 1170. 

a (= celui qui) 138. l8g. 350. 608. DIG. 734. 784. 833. 911. I200. 1262. 1338. 1383. 
1463 bis. (ki) (k') 1570. "1574. 1591. 1775.— 1771 (n'i out ki). 
gen. sg. ki 116 ki cunseil : 736 ki doctrine : 948 Id chief. 
ob. ,, ki 1309 ki nus plut tuz crier (y. note). 

ace. „ ke 275. 302. 306. 422. 542. 583. 622. 755. 830. 910. 986. 1099. 
/{■' 688. 811. 987. 1017. 1678. 1768. 
ki 331. 427. 463. 788. 1003. 1237. 1287. 1660. 
prp. ,, ki 118. 498. 817. 1091. 1308 a Id: iigodeki: 1433 of ki: 44.86. 1489. 1515 par 

ki : 920. 1191. 1267. 1444. 1449. 1494 pur ki : 40 sanz ki. 
nniii. pi. ki 50. 163. 169. 260. 307. 309. 353. 35S. 563. 564. 566 bis. 581. 629. 630. 639. 643. 
738- 753- 772- 773- 781- 793- 802.825. 84S. 857. 858 (v. note). 928. 932. 954. 
1033. 1034. 1044. 1045. 1049. 1066. 1079. 1080. 1081. 1 170. 1271. 1296 (v. note). 
1329- '353- '370. 1371. 1382. 1392. 1482. 1484- >534- '536- "557. i57i- '593- 
1649. 1661. 1667. 1680. 1697. 1719. 1735. 1794. 1818. 
/•' 14. 599. 642. 855. iioi. I2Q9. 1551. 1596. 1654. 1720. 1753. 1762. 178S. 
ke 1 717. 

• g"i '795- 
ace. ,, ke 267.654. 1037. rioo. 1396. 1631. 1657. 
/■• 319. 1273. 1785. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixxix 



'; ?'';.o'^%:'^^."S'5o6. 595. 590.669.690. 698, 70.. l:^'■ 788. 95^. .050. 



fcni.nom. sg. ki i. 129. 272 



1055. 1095. 1252. 1345. ■405- 1466. I;M. 1-69. 
• 495: .002. 1268. 1320. i45>.-337 fc(v. note). 



49v 1002. 1200. 13.:^. 1431. —jj/ -- ^ ■ — y .... ,0,, ,0,/-, 
k, i-l 365. 476. 570. 972. -oa:. "85. ■ZSS. 126.. 15, ^. ■824. 1836. 
"-" " I- ;;, 387 5'y. 533. 648. S24. 83.. 897. .094.-366. 

/{•/■ 1205. 
nom. pi. *' 705. 
arc tU) i;i=;. 787 k . — 943 ke. 

" I. 8.(=iciquo.i,v note): 78.. u^8^'■94• 
fe 77.430.457. 606. 619. 815 (k-). ■■8490 ke. 

[= ?o ke] '78. 2.8. ^78. 324. 433. 439. 448. 456. 546. , 28. 10, , . .20 



ntr. nom. sg 
ace. „ 



98. 1658. 1659. 



r, la I. 
r, la II. 
la 

labur 

laburant 
labure 

la^uns 

laidange 

laidir 

laidist 

laidit 



laisl 
laitz 



lance 
lances 



langc.; 

langetter 

language 

languenis 

langui 

languir 

langur 
langurus 

largemcnl 

larniin 



L. 

under U. 

s. m. labour. 

prp. sg. Ill cuvint lur \ie demener en labur. 

V intr to toil ; to be afflicted. • i , 

Ind ores 3 sg 610 ki reapeler me veut sacez k'en vem labure. 

pre's. M'. (fe-. ace. sg.)'.i6s veimes apres ?o grant gent de se. laburant. 

s. m. snare. , , , , 

prp. pi. 1649 ki ne se sevent de tes la9uns gardei. 

Ip'-O^dH^a^Smy-Ur^ l-unt e sad... batu e laidang.. 

Int^uT^. .33 Ha e repruva laidH e es^arni : 647 de quor les hai, de paroles la.d.t. 

intin. 711 (out fait) laidir e batre A. 
app. (ind. pft. perf. 3 pL) 'on (lors Fund) e leidit enafre. 
ppp. mas. sg. 157 (fu) leidiz e en croiz mis. 
under lesser. 

^?\^ {l*rri.a;anr;:^^iSr^i:it ad^a semblance. 

^ ^- - ^Sn^l^^eV^Jc^^r ^^ :!^^rfpl^X lance e de brant. 
" pi. 1607 de lances e cuteus e gros bastun pomnal. 
s. f. tongue. 

nom. pi. 1779 les langes lur ardent. 
V. tr to mouth, speak of constantly. 
infin. 1650 n'estes las ne saul de Jesu langetter. 

ac^■sc"f82^^ne sai autre language fors le mien barbarin. 

prp. ,!' 295 n'est par autre sermun, doctrine, u language, mes par av.s.un. 

under langurus. 
I V. intr. to languish. . 

( ind. pret. 3 sg. 1 1 18 iluec, geske Apl. rcpeira, langui. 
' inlin. 1 1 1 (lur cuvint) doler languir e devier. 

s m. lanijuor. , ,. 

nom se. 729 langur e maladie (plus nuit e greve ke morl). 

prp. ■ „ 1453 suspris de langur (jo) remis en ceste voie haie. 

adi. sick, diseased. . , . , 

mas. nom. sg. 1434 1' languerus (a haute vou s escne). 
ace. „ 131 1 jw aucun languius ganr e restorer. 

it^slT^oslltS'cni abaunduner : 130. del avoir vus en frum n„U largemen, duner. 
under lesser. 



Ixxx 



GLOSSARY. 



liimin s. m. robber. 

nom. sg. 742 ki est commun enemi mes n'est leres pruve. 
ace. „ 1615 lier se lessa cum lamin desloial. 
prp. ,, 1727 ki garde n'a de fu, de verm, ne da Kinun. 
I.irrunt under lesser, 

l.is I. inteij. alas I 

1 502 dist chescun lermant — "las ! purquei nasqui ?" 
las II. adj. weary ; miserable; — (s. m.) wretch, caitiff'. 

mas. nom. sg. 28 (m'en veng) las, ki palefrei n'ai a chevaucher (v. note). 
,, ,, ,, 911 li las cheitifs peritz n'est mie esjoitz : 1022 li las dolentz ert en la prisun : 
,, ,, ,, 1470 si cors est las : 1650 n'estes las ne saul de Jesu langetter. 
,, ,, pi. 260 furent [v. note] li las e li dolent : 354 li las dolerus (sunt malure) : 
,, ,, ,, 994 dient par envie li las, li malure. 
,, prp. ,, 927 piete te preinne de nus tuz pecchurs las. 
lassesce s. f. weariness. 

prp. sg. 674 90 fu sanz lassesce jur e nuit sun mester. 
latin adj. Latin (language). 

prp. sg. 70 la [estoire «V't] cuntee en frances e latin : 1822 la estoire ert translatee en franceis e latin, 
laz s. m. bond, snare. 

prp. pi. 113 (sujumer) en les laz le adverser, 
le 1. under il. 

le II. under li. 

le adj. wide. 

fern. nom. sg. 772* I'ewe passent a nou ki parfund fu e le. 
leal adj. faithful, loyal. 

mas. nom. sg. 686 mut deit pur sun seignur sufrir leal chevaler : 1179 A. (est) of lui cum si leal servant : 
,, ,, ,, 1331 saisizja enserrezcumloialchevaler: I47i(fairela busoingneJesu)cumsishemleus. 
,, ace. ,, 1844 a Jesu me abaundun serf loial enterrin. 
,, voc. ,, 1644 alez, leus chevaler. 
,, prp. ,, 1722 ces i enveit Deus a sun loial champiun. 
,, voc. pi. 1 7 1 venez, mes leans amis gentils ! 
fem. nom. sg. 1268 ma gent k'estes loiele. 
lealte s. f. loyalty. 

prp. sg. 345 soiez amis ver.ais e hem de lealte. 
leaument adv. loyally. 

1215 a mes cumanz tant leument obeir ; 1232 leaument sen-ir (Jesu). 
leaus under leal. 

legers ) adj. light, nimble ; fickle. 

legger ) mas. nom. sg. 1005 ore est seins e ligger cum uns osturs mue. 

„ ace. ,, 299 ne eiez vers lui quor ligger ne volage : 
„ ,, ,, 990 (or I'unt veu) delivre e tut legger cum oisel enpenne. 
,, nom. pi. 795 (levent) legers, enters, e seins. 
legiun ) s. f. legion. 

legiuns ) ace. sg. 1 706 (veit) une grant legiun-(des angles entur li). 

pr. ,, 303 servi e honure de anglin legiun. 
nom. pi. 267 les legiuns des angles (en joie sunt dresce). 
prp. ,, 905 des legiuns des angles en est li chantz oi'z. 
lei s. f. law ; 4 loi de, like, in the fashion of. 

nom. sg. 1254 90 est la lei faiele. 

ace. ,, 49 a noz deus unt lur lei e lur poer : 65 pur Jesu guerpiras la loi Apolin : 
,, ,, 177 ne sai vostre lei ne cuntenement : 337 (Jovin descunus) e tute la lei pacne : 
,, ,, 511 (le crestien) k'ad lur lei avilee : 516 la lei Jesu suvent ad reclamee ; 
,, ,, 646 a; lur creance e lur loi si despiist : 1129 A feistes guerpir le lei Ter\-agant : 
,, ,, 1 241 lors les ad baptize pur la loi acumplir. 
prp. ,, 6 a loi de desloial : 1753 erent obeisant a la lei crestiene: 
,, ,,12 entuschee de la lei criminal ; 31 1 de la lei lur fist e present e dun : 
„ „ 387 de la lei k'ai enpris plus m'enseinnerez : 525 prechant de la lei cuntruvee : 
,, „ 1 262 ki prechera de cele lei nuvele : 1808 (endoctrine) de la lei crestiene : 
,, ,, 1816 estoie de la loi Apolin: — 
,, ,, 923 tun cors a raartire pur la lei Deu livras : — 
,, ,, 741 sulum la lei de Rumme. 
leidit, leidiz under laidir, 
leil under laitz. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixxxi 



lenqui ? 

lenquir J 

lent 

leonesse 

lepras 

leres 

lerraant ) 
lermer ) 

lermcs 



les I. 

les II. 
les^un 

Icssa 
less.imes 
lesae 
lessent 



Icttri 

lettrez 

leii 

leument, Icus 

14un, Igunccl 

levant 

levd 

\ev€e 

levent 

levcz 



Icz 
Icz 
li 



V. tr. to give up, renounce. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 492 ki pas ne la lenqui. ■ 

infin. i230(akeusplestesclioisir Jesu)eMahummetlenquu-. 

adj. slow. , . J, 1 r T 1. 

mas. nom. sg. 1591 blasmcz fu li darrcinner e ki d aler tu lent. 

s. f. lioness. , ^ v « 

nom. sg. 522 plus est esmeiiz ke n'est leonesse quant est bers6e: 

,< .. 1405 (curucL.;) plus ke leonesse ki pert sun leuncel. 
adj. leperous. 

mas. ace. pi. 150 (sana") lepras e cuntrez, &c. 
under larrun. 
V. intr. to weep. 

infin. 1 204 (ne se puet retenir) de gendre e de lermer. 
gmd. 1502 dist chescun lermant. 
s. f. tear, weeping. 

nom. pi. ;86 les or.iisuns e lermes de vertu sunt tant. , , . , 1 ,-, . 

prp. „ 327 a lermes e suspirs fait ad sa uraissun : 5 1 S (sa face est aras«e) des lermes k J espant : 

„ „ 1 501 (converti lur joie) en lermes e grant duel. 
imder U. 

„ le. , 
s. f. reading, lesson. 

ace. sg. 322 A. de quor I'cntent cum clerc fait sa les9un. 
V. tr. to let; permit; leave ;— intr. cease, leave off; fail, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1440 pur tant ne laist ke ses criz ne eshauce. 

,, „ ,, pi. 1605 nel lessent reposer. 

pret. 3 sg. 1615 lier se lessa cum lamin desloial. 

I, ,, I pi. 1 164 cum mort le less.ames au pe du munt gisant. 
fu't. I pi. 1 107 ne larram pur poiir (ke soium desturnez) : 

1 107 ne lamim ]mr losenge (de fere le tuen cumant) : 

" " " ^_ , 234 nelarnim pur les testes duner: 1270 (ledeshonurnoz deus)ne larram devenger. 

" " 3 ", I no il lur emprise ne larrunt pur nulli. 
app. Cant. 3 pi.) 9S7 k'U urent cum freit mord guerpi e lesse. 
adj. learned, clerldy. ,-,..- 

: mas. nom. sg. 282 cum lettrez e sage : 996 cist pelenn lettre. 
under lire, 
leal. 
,, liun, liunceus. , , , . , 

V. tr. to raise ;— intr. to rise up, rise (of sun, dawn) ; be stirred up. 
iiid. pres. i sg. 1830 ne dormirai au vespre il jo lief .lu matin. 

3 pl- 794 '^^ '"°''' rcsuscitez vifs levent e juant. 
pres.ptcp.(prp.sg.) 1152 verssolaillev.ant. _ 

hpp. (ind. oft. 3sg.)Si3(veientA.)kiadsacroizlevee. _ 

pp; mas. nom. sg. 2 1 2 ( A. ) est levez (le matin) par tens al enjumer : 
' J 883 entre eus est ja levez noise e bruit e criz. 

" prp. „ 1286 a penuncel leve. 
" fern. nom. „ 495 du solail parut la clarte k'est levee. 

mas. noni. pi. 266 vindrent al encuntre lez e esjoi : 1538 nus en estoium e Uez e esjof. 

prp. near, beside. 

67 en enfer gist lez Satlian le mauffi. 

dcf. art, the. 

mas. nom. sg. with final sibilant : — o i- 1 > 

U 7lisancs cural : 15. 24. 183.493.613. i7S4 bclers: (600. 1558 liclercs:) 40. 
252 tut li mundz: 86.348.400 li mundz : I44lireis: 160.830. 860. 1054 li 
solailz : 168 li scinz espcntz : 222 li tens : 224 li eels : 262 li sepulcres : 317 li 
liunceus: 355. 541. 645. 942. 968. 1243. 1281. 1564. 1639. 1780 li pnnces : 356 
Cesaires li riches : 363 li gucreduns : 430 li pastureus : 432 li maus : 445 li 
tirantz crueus: 454. io54lijurs: 473 li ors burni : 496 li fels tirantz : 532.631 
tcr. 1013. II 14 li uns : 587 li doilz : 593 li creaturs : 653. 837. 1 1 13. 1375- '429- 
1531. 1610 li sancs : 700 li chautz ; 709 li feluns tiranz : 718 li maistres : 722 
A. li engres : 752 li temples : 769 li pountz : 843 li quors : 876 li roisseus : 894 
li paens ■ 900. 1016 li esperitz : 905 li chantz : 911 li las cheitifs pentz : 915 li 
suens: 920. 1019. 1461 U Deus : 935 U chevalers : 959 li cors : 969 li francs 
1 



ixxxii GLOSSARY. 

(li) chevaler : 1022 li las dolentz : 1052 li martires : 1053 ^ poples : 1053. 1059. 

1092 li ails: 109 1 li deciples : 1153 li flotz : 1392 li aigles : 1427 li chemins 
ferrez ; 1434 li languerus : i486 li tiaitre orienteus : 1539 li freres : 1589 li 
chemins : 161 1 li roisseus cuial : 1613 li martirs : 1741 li prince feluns. 
■without a final sibilant : — 

51 li pelerin : 122 li haul pere : 356 li redute : 807. 1123 li tut poissant : 897 li 
tertre : 1305 li un : 1338 11 darrener : 1343 li pore : 1344 li fiere ; 1361 li plus 
haut : 1389. 1 39 1. 1408 li lu : 1430 li cen'el(or pi. ?) : 1563 li suen prechement : 
1591 li daiTeinner : 1 746 li biiiit. 

/' 482 I'un : i246ronur: I389regle: 1 609 I'entrail corporal. 

le 370 benoit seit le pere : 304 le fiz Deu fu : 306 le pueple ke veistes . . . Giiieu 
sunt: 764 bis. estroit lur fu le champ e le chemin ferre : 816 tesmoine le ele- 
ment ; 840 tut le cors (liest) doiUant : 841 tut le vis (li est) senglant : 915 le jur 
A. cumence : 992 le los J. clers est : 1014 le cors est trebuche : iii2fulecru- 
cifi : 1454 le cors m'est feble : 1529 veisez ke le pere le fiz au quor feri : 1787 
ne puet mais le poer J. estre cele : 1819 le honur J. crest : 1821 vendra le jur. 
ace. sg. le 18. 25. 46. 59 bis. 60. 106. 130. 132. iSb bis. 195. 205. 212. 217. 296. 320. 323. 
SS*^- 367- 3"4- 436- 450. 511. 603. 637. 668. 688. 725. 761. 77Gbis. 777. 799. 
801. 820. 832. 834. 838. 853. 893 ter. 895. 910. 917. 938. 940. 941. 947. 952. 
970. 980. 981. 992. 1013. 1021. 1047. 1068. 1091. 1103. 1116. 1135. 1137. 1158. 
1196. 1230. 1270. 1287. 1291. 1364. 1401. 1407. 1424. 1460. 1508. 1515. 1529. 
1537- I573- '6'2- I70t. 1738. 1749. 1752. 1782. 1812. 1832. 1833. 

V 60 I'orfanin : 333 I'enchantement : 1103 I'eunerci: :336reir: 1757 I'Dnur. 

lu 58 bis. lui pri . . . lu soir e lu matin, 
gen. „ le 102 al nun le fiz M. : 113 en les laz le adverser ; 583 fiz Deu le sauveiir ; 798 
au puier le pendant : 973 cors le martir : 1709 ami est le verai Deu. 
„ ,, I" 62 as nosces lu ber AichitricUn : 992 le cors lu martir. 
(dat.) „ [le] 1007 deNTim M. le redute. 

prp. „ al 18 al uis : 212.707 al enjurner : 2G6 al encuntre : 1718 al enfemal M. : 1788 
aloil: 1809 al apostoilc : — 
1528 al darreinner : 1645 ^' haut rei : 1705 al destre. 

au 39. 88. 145. 158. 166. i8l. 234. 258. 263. 365 bis. 562. 621. 626. 683 bis. 703. 
761 (au queu) : 773. 803.845. 858.882.895.913. 971. 977. 9S1. 1023. 1051. 
1091. 1153. 1164. 1185. 1220. 1234. 1259. 1271. 1334. 1343. 1499. 1529. 1603. 
1641. 1655. 1702. 1749. 1830 bis. 1831. 

[le] 1482 a A. aproce, le seint martir. 

del 125 del angle: 1048 del encumbrer : 1 301 del .avoir : 1558 del orient. 

[le] 1208 d'A. le gentil. 

du 69. 122. 138. ij8. 207. 317. 362-. 367. 405. 450. 487. 495. 564. 622. 658. 691. 
760. 800. 835 bis. 837. 838. 875. 8S2. 894. 895. 896 bis. 913. 948. 965. 989. 
1013 bis. 1045. 1061. 1094. 1164. 1166. 1169. 1175. 1180. 1226. 1265. 1303. 
1322. 1391. 1445. 1537. 1601. 1613. 1702. 1726. 1772. 1802. 183S. 

t?«/'37i en I'amur : 1136 en Tendemein : i259enrair. 

eu 38. 146. 167. 174. 20S. 264. 301. 318. 331. 352. 362. 370. 66r. 716. 822. 842. 
843. 848. 871. 899. 900. 924.965. 988. 1117. 1172. 1183. 1201. 1352. 1365. 1451. 
1505. 1521. 1693. 1732. 

el 1675 el puis: 175S el regne : 1760 el siecle : 1804 el nun. 

[le] 1572 en tut le mund. 

after other prepositions : — 

1(e) (7.) 67. 155. 245. 400. 878. 937. 93S. (1253. 1497O 'fio''- '"Sfi- '823. (1825.) 

ht 1704 vers lu ciel. 
noni. pi. // li'ithoitt a final sibilant : — 

259 li felun tirant : 260 bis. li las, li dolent : 289 li Giiie : 341 li autre : 353 li 
felun cheitif : 354 li las dolerus : 357 li autre prince feffe : 533. 133711 autre: 
549 bis. U grant e li menur : 664 li felun: 6921! verger: 693 ter. li bois, li 
gardin, li praiol : 713. 1119 li citoien : 714.737 li prince: 71411 bailli: 731. 
910. 1175. '77S li oil : 738. 978. li parent : 73911 vcijlard : 747 bis. li gr.int e li 
petit: 792 li petit enfant: 793 li mort : 796. 1734 li paien mescreant : 839 li 
trespassant : 840. i43olinierf: 879 li mescreant : 91 S bis. li un, li autre : 994 
bis. li las, li m.ilure : 998 li crestien : 1067. i5i3lijoure: 1096 li quatre ele- 
ment: 1097. 1353 li .angere : 1141 h g.iinnur paisant : 133011 mien ami : 1332 
li glut adverser: 1381 li enemi : 1404 li Sanazin cniel : 1408. 1555. 1641 li 
pa(i)en : 1422 li precheiir Apl. : 1481 li plusur : 1600 U p.iien criminal : i6i8 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixxxiii 



(li) 



1078. 
1672. 



b Giudesloial: 1622 li fil: 1682 U felun guerroier : 1728 li Sarrazin glutun : 
1744 li traitre senglant : 1 759 li paen felun : 1779 Udoi. 
with final sibilant : — ^ ,. . , ^ r /- 11 

763. 767. 772. 116S. 1483. I592liuns: 771* U joure volentnfs : ro64 Ubeus 
angeres: 1 480 li angre espiriteus. , , ^ ■ - . ,„ i„ 

Us 1371. 1376 les cors: 1374 les mcnbres : 1467 les Sarrazins crueus : 1479 •« 
pecchurs repentantz : 1758 les* (MS. U) martirs : 

ace. d1. lis (alioays with final sibilant) : — _ „ „ ,■ ^ 

^ S:. I c,. ,70.243. 449. 675.688. 696. 763.802.853. S91. 1000 bis. 1069. 

iloo 1293. isig. 1349- u6o. 1368. 1375. 1387- '395- «464- IS39- I5S0. 

i6go. 1691. 1755. 
„ 805 les Sarrazins ouanl. 
as 16S. 363. 529. 551. 699. 804. 847. 951. 988. 1037. 1075. 1341 

1834. 
des 93. 267. 394. 404- (>-(>■ 72°- 844. 867- 9°°- 905- 936- '03>- 

1439. 1461. 1483. '554- '706. 
[&j] 402 de A. e M. les veillardz alosez. 
es 1 48 2 es eels. 
les after other prepositions : — 

362. 532. 639. 854. 885. 891. 951. 1018. 1036. 1299. 1684. 1816. 

ijj. foS. 2i2. 226. 254. 27^- 3H- 349- 435- 439- 494- 495- 497- 537- 569- 588 

60s. 652. 737. 760. 841. 886.897. 1093. 116^. 1254. 1257- 1274. 1304- '383 

1403. 1439. 1455- 1517. •532- 1693. I75I- i7<^o- '"SS- 

before vo-wels : — 

2QI la image : 324 la entaille : 1822. 1845 la estoire. 

349l'erbe: 360. 1014. 1731 I'alme : 538 I'achesun : 788. 814. 1094 1 ewe. 



(abs.) 
prp. , 



. 1387- '462. 
1032. 1074. 



1548. 
1388. 



fem. nom. sg. la 



35- 



126. 128. 172. 185. 



(dat.) 
prp. 



nom 
ace. 
prp 



i.pl. 



, sg. 



200. 209. 256. 286. 323. 337. 350- 37^- 415- 4'6- 

I45. 516. 528. 540. 543- 696. 705. 73°- 731- 785- 831- 8S9. S98. 977- 1050. 1058. 

1112. 1122. 1129. iiSo. ii8j. 1201. 1241. 1242. 1287. 1343. 1394. '42S- '45^- 

1471. 1488. 1601. 1612. 1623. 1637. 1689. 1797. 1809. 1820. _ 

I' 772*. 780. 9261'ewe: 829 I'achesun: 888 I'cspee : 999 I'erbe : 1202 1 estoire: 

1493 I'aventure. 
la 1 26 1 fei ke dei Diene, la bele. 

after other prepositions : — 
/(al 1235. 366. 412. 499. 1366. 1754 «:— 1443 a la espee:— 693! euue. 

12.21.245. 258.261. 311. 370. 372. 387. 453. 480- 5"- 425- 588.657. 714. 
726. 739. 750 (hors). 837. 1144. 123S. 1322. 1394. 1580. i6li. 1728. 1780. 1790 
1807. 1816 de .•—61. 368. 870. 880 de I'ewe : 519 de I'esclavine. 
112.209.599.673. 1020. 1023. 1081. 1092. 1139. 1585. i643<f«:— 772enlewe: 
1836 en I'eiUe;— 190. 1445 apres:— 527 devant I'ajurnee :— 1152 dehors:— 1451 
of:— 317. 503. 531. 533. 1055. 1166. 1302. 1393 par:— 923 pur: 1445 P"' 
I'alme: — 741 sulum : — 1062. 1181 sur. 
[la] 1441 de V. sui, la cite enrichie: 1833 vers R. la cite. 
les 267 les legiuns : 786 les oraisuns : 1778 les buches : 1779 les langes. 
les 447. 699. 836. 943. 099. 1234. 1326. 1389. 1409. 1604. 
as 62. 507. 879: 1530 (v. note). 

des 235. 396 (p.artit. ace. temp.). 424. 515. 836. 905. 1610. 1769. 
es 1531 es pleinncs se esp.iundl. 
after other prepositions : — 

393 puf :— 43^ P^""- 
726 le plu.s de la curt. 

242 lant es le plus huni : 568 n'en serras le pejur (v. note). 

1442. 1696 del tut (adv. = wholly.) 



les 
le 
le 
del 



li II. 
li III 
lief 
liiir 



ntr. nom 
(ace.) 
prp. 
under il. 
, li (488), lia, lie, 116 under licr. 
under lever. 
V. tr. to bind. 

ind. pres. i sg. 488 4 lui vus cumant, e abandun, e li. 
,. .1 3 » 320 ferm 'ie Sathan : 891 les cheveus A. lie par les focuns crespu : 
,, „ „ „ 1463 lie k'a pleisir li vent c ki li plest, dcslie. 

„ pret. „ ,, 233 (ki) lia e repruva (Jesu). , , ■ , 

infin. 7 10 out fait lier A. de chaesnes de fcr : 1615 lier se lessa cum larrun desloial 
app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 749 (I'unt) de chaesnes lie : 1360. 1409. 1604 les meins li unt lie. 

1 2 



Ixxxiv 



GLOSSARY. 



(her) ppp. fmas. ace. sg.) 666 (le getter en prisun) liS de chaesnes : 590 (truver sim chief) S un arbre U6 ; 

» » „ „ 1160 (mena A) lie. 
liez under lez. 

ligger „ leger. 

lignage s. m. lineage. 

ace. sg. 286 (rescust de diable) humein lignage. 

obi. „ 1 13 (lur cuvint sujurner) e trestut lur lingnage en les laz le adverser (v. note). 
prp. ,, 1 101 a humein lignage sunt traitres enemi : — 563 pens de tun lingnage : — 
„ „ 451 pur lignage ne serra espami : 658 pur lui e sun lignage (Deu tramist sun fiuz). 
lincel s. m. linen sheet, bed-clothes. 

prp. sg. 141 2 chucez en Ut suz lincel. 
lingance s. f. (oath of) allegiance. 

ace. sg. 297 fai lui, cum fere deiz, lingance e humage. 
lingnage under lignage. 

lire V. tr. to read. 

infin. 131 dunt as 01 lire e prophetizer. 
grnd. 1 193 clers es e apris I'as en tes livres lisant. 
app. (ind. pft. I sg.) 83 ne jo ne I'ai apris ne pruve ne leii. 
ppp. mas. sg. 1402 k'en lunge remembrance seit escrit e leii. 
lis s. m. lily. 

nom. sg. 1070 plus fment beus ke rose u ke n'est lis espani : 1721 quant se espanist lis en sa saisun. 
lisant under hre. 

lit s. m. bed. 

ace. sg. 6S2 de soie coUtes pointes n'a mais lit au chucher. 

prp. ,, 202 en sunlit s'endort : 223 en mun lit fu chuchez : I4i2ne dorrairunt chucez en lit suz lincel : 
,, ,, 684 pur lit ad roche bise si dure cum acier. 
liu 1 s. m. place ; — nul liu, nowhere ; en liu de, in lieu of. 

lius J ace. sg. 1605 nel lessent reposer ne nul liu prendre estal. 

prp. ,, 10 il vent a V. un liu emperial : — 
„ ,, 680 manicles e buies en Uu de buus d'or cler. 

,, pi. 159 dune trembla terre en tuz lius e pais : 653 en plusurs lius du cors (ist) li sancs. 
liun \ s. m. lion. 

liuns j nom. sg. 1357 senglantz cum liunk'S proie est devurer : 1602 cum liun ki desire char de cors bestial, 

prp. „ 281 Deus I'at fait aignel d'un leun sauvage : 317 par la voiz du liun. 
nom. pi. 825 fremissent cum I'iuus ki vunt proie sivant. 
liunceus s. m. lion-cub. 

nom. sg. 317 cum fait li liunceus par la voiz du liun. 
ace. „ 1405 plus ke leonesseki pert sun leuncel. 
livra "I V. tr. to give up. 

livras ] ind. pret. 2 sg. 923 tun cors k martire pur la lei Deu livras. 

livre I. ( ,, ,,3 ,, 313 sun fiz lur envea e bvra a bandun. 
livre ( infin. 12 18 ne pur sun cors livrer* a torment. 

livrer | app. (ind. pft. 2 sg.) 1648 tu as a mort livre tant meint prude bar. 

livrez J n ( >> >> 3 pi-) '7^5 ^^^ martirs gentUz k'il unt a mort livre. 

ppp. mas. sg. 745 a ceste mort est A. e livTez e damnez : 963 parvus est A. a martire livre. 
,, ,, ,, 548 jas fuissez a mort livrez e a dulur. 
,, (.ace.) ,, 847 charoinne le tenent, a luus e cliiens livre.* 
livre II. > s. m. book, 
livres J ace. sg. 1839 musterai i mun livre, escrit en veeslin. 

prp. pi. II 93 apris I'as, en tes li\Tes lisant. 
loant under loer. 

loenges s. f. praise. 

ace. pi. 1354 (chantent) "gloire e loenges" pur joie demener. 
loer v. tr. to praise ; to recommend. 

ind. pres. i sg. 1077 entendez tuit vers moi ke jo vus lou e di. 

„ ,, ,, ,, 1692 par batesme te lou tes pecchez espurger : 1 695 vus lou par tens de vus purvoier. 
„ „ 3,, 1460 lot e glorifie le grant poer Jesu. 
infin. 1345 cumpainnie ki tant fist a loer. 

grnd. 802 ki venent Deu louant : 1158 dunt cist vunt Deu loant. 
loi under lei. 

loial, loiele under leal. 
Icing adv. to a distance ; de loing, by far. 

1 160 loing engetta sun brant : — 1620 n'est de loing paringal. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixxxv 



. ^f-Sp1hJn? ra""\ty^Sri;use ; and always (save 649, q- v.) tl^e fivst word in the line 
^ tr S: 53'.'7:S77.'fo09. ..03. ..4.- -83. .3^6. .6... :699. K^9- 

no";rf993ta?;nt le los Jesu clers est e eshauce. 

prj- fg!':";^^":^™ pur losenge ne pur mort n>ana,ant. 

pi'lg'.l'^s'nal^Tur les testes duner) pnr losengerie pur duns. 

nom. sg-''s'69 a dit cum losengers ki sun errur defent. 
lot, lou, louant under loer 

lu 11. 



lointein 

lores 
lors 

los 

losenge 

losengerie 

losengeres 



"[5s"bt 6^99.. .704) [def. art. mas. sg. obi. cases] under U i. 
s. m. wolf, 
nora 



luer 



lui 
lumcre 

lune 



lung 
lunge 

lungement 

lunges 

Lungis 



lur I. 
lur 11. 
lus 

lusant 
lut 



wolf. , , ,, „„!,,„:. ccc rs'en est binnez') cum luz""^"'" S^P.," 

...... sg. 460 plus est pauteners ke n^s^^ lu enchan, • 555 ^^"/^Jj'„„ ',„. 1, enchani e uns a.gles. 

„ „ 889 (saisist) '^^J^^^^^'^'l^^,^''}'''.^^^^^ 
prp pi 847 charoinne le tenent a luus e cluens (uvre ;. lu^^ 

„ ,, 957 (ke ne soit pas) de lus devore. 
s. m. reward. 

nom SB TCi; luer tei est apreste. .. 

p^' f, 1337 li autre volenters muerent certz de luer. 
under il. 

s f. lieht, brilliancy. . , 

ace. sg. 255 (solail ne espandi) ne rai ne lumere. 

r^^'i^^uS^er^^^ariTS^^ 

^~?S-Clui^^ll^"^^^^^ 
,t;8 lru^ive!u;^cment : .626 nel volent parocire mais lungement pener. 

5'?ri°est'mie"'di'run fait lunges esjoxU : .6.8 (pur) lunges duluser. 

n. vt. Longinus (v. note). 

prp. 158 au queur fern du chevaler Lungis. 

under il. 

under sun. 

under lu. 

V. intr. to shine, gleam. 



luus, luz under lu 11. 



M. 



m' 
ma 
raa99us 

mace 
maces 



ma9ues 



under jo. 

under mun. 

s. m. club, bludgeon. 

ace. pi. 504 portantz bastuns, ma(;(;us, &c. 

T pi- >747 "° ^^"^ P"^"' '^' '"^"' ' '"''°' *"■ " '■ 
s'.'f. club, 
prp. pi. lOlO batu de raa9ues. 



Ixxxvi 



GLOSSARY. 



niahainne 

Mahom 

Mahomet 

Mahommet 

Mahum 

JMahummet 

Mahun 

mailz 

main 
mais I. 



'737 jure eiirent par lur deus, Phebum, Mahum e T. 



(^) 



mais III. 
maisfait 

raaisnee 
maissuns 
raaistre 
raaistres 



maistne 



majeste 

majur 
mal I. 



mal II. 

malade 
malades 



ace. 
prp. 



adj. of middle (age or stature). 

ace. pi. 1379 queus petiz, queus maens, queus grantz de cresance (eunustre). 
V. tr. to maim. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1774 (ke il ne fust) u mort u mahainne. 
n. pr. Mahomet, (Mohammed). 

ace. 413 il guerpi Mahum : 608 reni Mahom : 819 guerpissez Mahom : 1230 Mahummet lenquir : 
L >> 1323 guerpir Mahum : i4iojme unt Mahomet : Ib35 refusum JIahum. 
\ obi. (gen.) ^^^ reni renehantement Mahun : 447 (jure les grantz vertuz) Mahommet. 
I „ (dat.) 1007 fei ke devTim Mahum le redute. 
J prp. 1718 abanduner al enfernal Mahun : 
s. m. hammer, mallet, 
prp. pi. 1 792 de mailz unt depeee lur deus. 
under meins. 
s. m. messenger, 
prp. pi. 1570 ki bien de lui dira, u i ces mais entent. 

adv. (a) ever (in negative sentences) ; (J) ne . . . mais, no longer ; (r) desore mais, henceforth, 
(a) 64^ (chose faire par unt ja . . .) mais aiire diables : 1390 ne fu unc mais veii : 
(6) 676 ne beit mais (\ins) : 678 n'a mais viandes : 682 n'a mais ht : 735 ke mais de li ne seit nuvele oie : 
907. 1040 ne dute mais : 1787 ne puet mais . . . estre cele. 
HOC. 1104. 1262 desore mais : 584 desoremes (v. note), 
(conj.) under mes II. 
s. m. misdeed. 

prp. sg. 568 repent toi de tun maisfait. 
under mesnee. 

under maisuns. ^ 

s. m. master ; adj. (15) chief, main (v. note). 

nom. sg. 219 tu serras mi maistres ejo tis escoler : 7 18 autrement ke li maistres, sis hom ne murra mie. 
>> " 559 (venuz dust estre) cum maistre e avoue. 

437 susprendra lui e sun maistre : 949 va quere tim seinnur, tun maistre e avoue. 
15 vent s'en li clers a un maistre portal : 

455 a sun maistre est venuz tut esbai : 1091 le sen au maistre prove li deciples : — 
,, ,, 542 (atm) ke il ad de sun maistre retenu par amiu'. 
voe. ,, 388. 468. 484 beu maistre ! 
s. f. (mastership,) guidance. 

ace. sg. 736 celui sive ki (= cujus) doctrine e maistrie tant prise, 
s. f. house. 

nom. sg. 497 ke la maisun A. seit tute cerchee. 
ace. ,, 1 191 pur ki a\Tim guerpi maisun, muiUere, enfant. 
prp. „ 75 est venuz a une maisun foreine : 1275 a maisun rcamener : — 
„ ,, 392 d'une maisun sutive (unt fait lur escole) ; 1731 (I'alme) s'en ist de sa ehamel maisun : — 
,, ,, 45 OSes devant moi en ma maisun precher : 331 quant geu dormant en ma maisun. 
,, pi. 507 as maissuns A. vunt. 
s. f. majesty, 
prp. sg. 101911 Deus de majeste : 1782 le Rei de majesty : — 

„ ,, 782 Deu ki tut guverne regnant en majeste. 
adj. (compar.) greater, very high (used absolutely), 
fern. prp. sg. 547 citoien de parente majur. 
s. m. evil (words, disease, treatment, conduct, phght, &c.). 
nom. sg. 13 dunt fu grant duel e mal : 418 dunt grant mal avendra : 
„ „ 432 par les autres h maus s'espandera : 708 dura cist grantz maus tant cruel e tant fer : 
,, ,, 1 143 par A. fu cist maus tant durant : 1245 cist maus mut surt e renuvele. 
ace. „ 314 ne li firent pvu- ses bens si mal nun : 463 si mal eiez ki point n'i avez deservi : 
,, ,, 600 dunt utrage as dit e mal a desm[es]ure : 643 mal aient deu (ki de metal sunt) : 
,, ,, 1157 eel mal kar restorez : 1621 lors se rejoist cum se il n'ust unc mal. 
1652 tu sid es acheisun de cest grant mal plener. 

675 penance i meine pur ses maus espurger : 1 324 (recever batesme) pur voz maus espurger : 
1510 ces grantz maus nus basti : 1805 guerpissent lur errurs e maus e vanite. 
617 de voz maus lui recuntai : 867 des maus ses enemis dolentz est e meii. 
adv. only in phr. de mal en pis, from bad to worse. 
163 tuz jurs declinerent de mal en pis. 
) adj. sick, diseased. 

/ mas. nom. sg. 1 1S9 un suls i faut, malade sugumant : 1347 un sul ki remist malade en un senter : 
„ „ pL 862 uns mortz, uns malades, autres recreii (fremissent) (v. note). 



prp. 
ace. 

i» 

prp. 



pi. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixxxvii 



(malade) 
maladie 
maladies 



malure 
malur^c 



niamele 

mana^ant 
manace 



manacer 



mance 

mande 
mandez 

manfe 

manerc 

manga 
manger 
mangera 
mangerunt 

manicles 

mansiun 



mantel 
mar 

maragc 

marbrin 

marcheant 

marcschal 

mari 

mariage 
Marie 

mariii 



fem. ace. sg. 431 il verra une brebiz malade. 

noml^sg-IVlan^'e maladie (plus nuit e greve ke mort) : . n6 morteu maladie le quor lui envai. 

prp. „ 1434 (remist) par chcmm, suspns de maladie. 

nom. pi. 704 neissent m.-iladies e divers encumbrer. 

adj. unhappy, ill-fated. 
I mas voc. SE. 7<6 tu muras, malure ! . ,. , ,■ . - 

nom. pi. 354. 1795 tant sunt malure : 994 dient par envne h las, h m.ilure. 

fem. ,, sg. 536 dunt plus se curuce cele gent maluree. 

s. f. breast, pap. . _ , , 

prp. sg. 1252 ki enfanta e num J. de sa mamele. 

under manacer. 

s. f. menace. 

prp. sg. 1277 par promesse u manace lur quers reapeler. 
pt. 505 a hautes manaces e grant bruit e criee. 

V. tr. to threaten. 

infin. 1317 par duns ne par turmentne par mort manacer. 

pre" ptcp. (fem. prp. sg ) ..97 ne lamim pur losenge ne pur mort mana^ant (v. note), 
ppp. mas. pi. 1524 mut furent manacez, deproiez e blandi. 
s. f. sleeve. 

nom. sg. 1376 plus blancs ke de chemise n'est girun ne mance. 
) V. tr. to send for. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1282 lors ad mand6 sa gent, 
ppp. mas. pi. 715 (sunt) mandez e sumuns de pais lointein. 
s. f. restraint, 
prp. sg. 532 (I'unt trahit par la rue) sanz mesure e manee. 

prp'- sg^"^ en queu manere peiistes vus passer: 689. 1058 en teu manere. 

V. tr. to eat. , , , , -. • , ■ 

ind pret. 3 sg. 62 quant manga as nosces lu ber Architnchm. 
fut. „ ., 1580 plus ne mangera jamais de la dent. 

" nl 1 113 ne maneei-unt a table (s'averunt mene A.). -„ „ , 

" " infin. I06 d'unTrbre lur defendi le fruit a manger : 678 n'a mnis delic.uses viandes a mang., . 

s. f. manacles. ,. , , ,,1 

ace. pi. 680 (ad) manicles e buies en liu de buus d or cler. 

nom!''sg.7/''e''n tij-er u ert tuz jurs sa mansiun : .676 U est lur mansiun tuz jurs sanz fin aver. 

ace. „ 361 mansiun truvera sanz nule fausete. 

prp. , , 1 7 1 9 (angeres) ki de lur mansiun desendent . 

s. m. cloak. - ,, . , 

prp. sg. 1423 sanz; chauceure e nuz tut fors dun mantel. 

adv. lucklessly, vnth an ill result. 

420 mar nus en dutera : 443 m" j^ cumencera nus autres teu chose : 

828 bis mar unc le dels, mar I'alas cuntruvant : 947- '5°^ m--"- reclamas (Jesu) . 

,475 tanrmar"ustes ne^: .503 tant mar vus vi : .647 tant mar nus as fait cest (encumb.e,). 

adj. of the sea. 

mas. ace. sg. 283 (ki fist) peisun marage. 

mL°OT."?S2 en tun paleis marbrin: 959- 982. .8.5 en sarcu marbrin. 

s. m. merchant. . 

nom. sg. 576 (par traisun pcrist) marcheant en teire. 

s. m. marsh.al. 

nom. sg. 21 de la cite un haut mareschal. 

TT^-h U"^ rL^;r'e1i^ai(^ = :t9/::^en iumes ire. e dolent e man. 

s. m. marriage. 

nom. sg. 298 {-batesme seit) aliance e primer manage. 

n. pr. (The Virgin) M.ary. 

voc. sg. 128 Marie, Dcu te saut, la benoite mulicr ! 

gen.,, 102. 1230. 1442 fiz Marie. 

prp. „ 1 25 1 de Marie va prechant, unc simple ancele. 

adj. marine. , 



Ixxxviii 



GLOSSARY. 



(marin) 

mariz, maniz 
martele 

martir 



maufe 
maufez 



maumenfi 

mailr 

maus 
mautalent 



gen. 
prp. 




voc. 


„ 


nom. 
ace. 


pi. 

it 



prp. 



martire 
martires 



martirize 

martirs 
masle 

mastiin 

mater 

matin 

matinal 

matinee 

maubailliz 
maubailli 



maudient ) 
maudiz J 



mas. ace. sg. 1103 (reni) Neptun le marin. 

,, prp. ,, 1831 k'en nief me mette au procein port marin. 

under mari. 
V. tr. to hammer. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1250 fe\Te ki martele. 
s. m. martjT. 
nom. sg. 68 pur Deu raurras martir : 300 tu murras pur lui martir par vasselage : 

>> >> 366 a la fin serras martir par Deu pnive : 965 eu regne du ciel est martir curune : 

)> >> i°73' '183 martirs est glorius : 1449 A. haut martirs* est: 

„ „ 1613 li martirs (Uer se lessa). 

973 (seint cors) le martir honure : 991 il out le cors lu martir tuehe. 

977 lors ad la sepulture .iu martir aturae : 1432 (aproce) a A., le seint martir nuvel : 

1749 (sustrait) le cors au martir vaillant. 

921 ai, martir gentilz ! 1043 martir bonurez ! 1219. 1761 glorius martir ! 

1644 martirs! 1708 martir! 

1350 cist sunt martir de cors : 1758 les martirs sunt en gloire el regne permenant. 

1342 puet sanz martire les martirs regarder : 1753 (mist en terre) ses cumpainnuns martirs ! 

178^ le eiist deshonure e ses martirs gentilz. 

1037 deigna mustrer as ses martirs privez : 13S7 les cors unt as gentilz martirs garde : — 

,, „ 1018 entre les* seintz martirs (I'acoUt Deus, v. note) : — 

„ „ 1384 un autre (miracle) ad Deus pur ses martirs fait, 
s. m. mart)Tdom. 

nom. sg. 1052 li martires de A. fait est e acumpli. 
prp. „ 798 ala trainant A. a martire : 849 ki fu S sun martire dinsez e pur^Ti : 

,, ,, 923 tun cors a martire ]iur la lei Deu livras : 963 par \-us est A. a martire livTe : — 

,, „ 929 ki primers E. par martire aiirnas : 1099 (gueredun) ke il par martire en terre beu meri : 

„ „ 1220 par raartiie veiiir au grant gueredun : 1349 sanz martire les martirs regarder. 
V. tr. to martirize. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1022 li las dolentz ki I'a martirize. 
under martir. 
adj. male. 

ace. sg. 1255 en parais iist hom, masle e femmele. 
s. m. dog. 

nom. sg. 66 en enfer gist puant cum bucs u mastiin. 
V. tr. to kill. 

infin. 121 par humme cu^int descumfire e mater, 
s. m. morning. 

(ace.) sg. 58 lui pri e aiir lu soir e lu matin : 212 le matin (A.) est levez par tens al enjumer. 
prp. ,, 1 830 ne dormiiai au vespre il jo lief au matin, 
adj. (as adv.) in the morning. 
8 ceste croiz aiire senein e matinal. 
s. f. dawn, morning. 

nom. sg. 494 al endemein par tens quant part la matinee : 702 n'i pout matinee ne vespre aver mester. 
V. tr. to ill-treat, 
ppp. mas. sg. 886 est la nostra creance e poples maubailliz : 1656 morz es e maubailli : 

,, „ ,, 1767 meint [i out] maubailh e nafre. 

„ ,, pi. 1 5 1 6 tant sunt de iur parentz destruit e maubailli. 
V. tr. to curse. 

ind. ])res. 3 pi. 864 maudient A. e eserient cum lu : 15 15 maudient Apl. le precheiir. 
ppp. mas. (nom.) sg. 884 atant s'escrie un paens de Damnedeu maudiz. 
s. m. devil, Satan. 

nom. sg. 365 ke hem vus face au cors u au quor maufe (v. note), 
prp. „ 1023 (est) en la prisun au maufe : 1776 ore est un cuntraitz e purpris de maufe : — 

,, ,, 67 eunpainz e vesin lez Sathan le maufe. 
(pred.) pi. 599 maufez i sunt k'en la prisun d'enfer gisent obscure, 
prp. ,, i.so leprus e cuntrez e de maufez purpris. 
v. tr. to ill-treat. 

ppp. mas. sg. 944 Arade ki tant fu maumene. 
adj. rijje. 

mas. nom. sg. 550 ki sages es de aprise e d'age estes maiir. 
under mal. 

s. m. displeasure, ill-will. 
prp. sg. 446. 543. 1565 de ire e mautalent (tressua e fremi) (tut miie la culur) (tut est enilambez). 

„ ,, 197 atant s'en part par ire e mautalent. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ixxxix 



mauvois 

me 
medlee 

megres 

mei 

meimes 



mein 



. sg. 



1680 ki obeissent a lur mauvois voler. 



adj. evil. 

mas. prp. 

under jo. 

s. f. strife. , 

prp. sg. 506 cum gent ki s'aturne a morteu medlee. 

adj. haggard. 

mas. nom. sg. 1145 nu-pez e megres e pales cum penant. 

under jo. 

pron. indeclin. (in apposition,) self. 

(nom.) sg. 379 Deu meimes ad tun quoer saele. 

Ipfn ") T,Oi le fiz Deu meimes fu. . . . 

(prp.) ,; 65b a lui meimes semblable le fist :-342 mes vus par Deu meimes en es revisitg. 

under meint. 



meinS? meinent under mener. 



meins 



meint 



meintanant 
meintenant 
mel 

men 

mena 
nienant 

menbres 

mene 
mcnee 
mener 
menez 



mcntant 
mcntent 
menlir 
mcntz 

menu 

menur 

menz 
jner 



s. f. hand. - ^ j- 

ace. sg. 1530 tant fas plaies bender b freres main tendi. 

prp. „ 1773 (mahainne) de main u de pe. 

ace. dL 1 40q. 1604 les meins U unt lie. . 1. » „„•; . 

prp. „ 328 a jointes meins a dit e a weimentisun : 879 en beivent, as mems 1 unt receu .- 

„ „ 250 en tes meins mun esperit (cumant). 
adj, manv ; (pron.) many a one. 
mas. nom. sg. 467 meint hom purra (estre gan) : 

575 bis. par traisun perist meint quens, memt vavasur : 

" \\ y, 1559 ne fait pas a despire cum meint quide e entent :^ 

" \\ I, 1766. 1767 meint en i out blesce, meint mort e defule. 

" ace. ,',' 1648 tu as a mort livre tant meint prude ber : 

" ^/ „ 1840 tesmoin of moiaverai mein veiUart e meschm. 

1 de — , adv. immediately. . . , , • , » 

I 823 es le vus seisi e pris de meintenant : 1 136 A. en I'endemem pns fu de memtanant. 

s. m. honey. 

nom. s". 143 1 plus li est duz ke mel. . 

adi pron. in phr. men escient, to my knowledge, ace. to my judgment. 

1560 si il fust boiseiir, ne feist, men escient, teu mescmement. 

under mener. 

adj. -wealth v. . 

mas. nom. pi. 11 25 tuit fuimes citoiens e nches emenant. 

nom' pi" 1 374 les menbres lur sunt restorez : 1777 lur menbres sunt destuers desjointz e esluisse. 
v tr to lead ; bring ; perform (penance), experience (sorrow), 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 675 sa penance i meine pur ses maus espurger. 
„ „ pi. 848 cist ki A. meinent. 
pret. ,, sg. 312 en terre les mena de promissmn : 1 160 k A. lie mena. 
" infin. 1363 einz ke a V. aient fait mener (ie clerc). 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 7 SO lio" de la cite I'unt trait ja e mene. _ 

( fut.-pft. 3 pi.) 1415 (s'averunl) vif u mort mene lur enemi morteL 
ppp. mas. sg. 761 pur ^•'-^'' ^^ gugcmcnt an queu chief fust mene : 
, M " 771 dunt fu grant duel mene: 1 144 dechartrefu menez. 

p'l. 461 si pris sumes andui e menez devant li. 
" fern. sg. 540 atendant la parole t queu chief fust menge. 
v'.'intr. to lie, tell lies. 

ind. pres. 2 sg. 827 tu mentz apcrtement : 1670 en pecches mut e menz. 
' 11 3 P'- '57' faus pauteners ki vus mentent uvertement. 

I " infin 1202 I'cstoire unt cunle sanz mentir. 

pres. plcp. (mas. nom. sg.) 833 Id autrement le dit fableiir est mentant. 
adj. small, minute. 

mas. prp. pi. 854 (entrc espines) e les cailloz menu, 
adj. (compar.) less,— young, used absolutely, 
mas. nom. pi. 549 li grant e li menur (s'esmervellent de vus). 
under mentir. 

s. f. sea ; utre mer, beyond sea. 
nom. sg. 63f) ainz purra mer secchir. 

ace 1 22 283. 1634 ki fist e terre e mer : 528 ki cna la terre e mer salge. 

prp. ,',' 27 m'en veng d'utre mer : 681 paiUes d'utre mer : 1271 clerc d'utre mer. 

m 



xc 



GLOSSARY. 



merciable 

mercie 
mercier 



mercis 
mere 



men 
merir 
meriz 

merveille 

merveilles 

raervelles 



mes I. 
mes II. 

(«) 

(*) 
(d) 

(e) 
mescHn 

mescinement 

raesciner 

mescreant 



mescuneu 

mesdit 

mesfait 

mesnee 
mespris 



s. f. pardon ; pi. thanks ; aver — , to forgive ; crier — , to ask pardon. 

ace. sg. 246 toi aiirrum e crierum merci : 1080 si Deus n'en eit merci : 1327 sanz merci aver. 

prp. „ 1526 les oceismcs sanz piete e merci. 

ace. pi. 1397 a Deu en unt graces e mercis rendu. 

adj. merciful. 

mas. nom. sg. 1049 cist ki tant poisant e tant est merciable. 

V. tr. to thank. 

infin. 1629 cist ne fine de urer e Jesu mercier. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 939 si en ad umbleraent Damnedeu mercie. 

„ ( „ „ ,, pi.) 1789 trestuit a une voiz en unt Deu mercie. 
under merci. 
s. f. mother. 

nom. sg. 1253 apres I'enfantement remist mere e pucele. 
ace. ,, 137 toi cumme mere vudra enumbrer. 
prp. „ 1781 J nul de mere ne. 
v. tr. to merit, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 1099 (gueredun) ke il par raartire en terre beu meri. 

infin. 1226 par esample de vus gloire du eel merir. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 910 le regne a recever ke il ad beu meriz. 
s. f. mar\'el, wonder; a mervelles, adv. wonderfully, very much, 
nom. sg. 1390 teu merveille en terre ne fu unc mais veil, 
ace. ,, 972 es-vus grant merveille ke Deus i ad mustre. 

„ ,, 1623 ne ^nrent la merveille en cest mund temporal. 

,, pi. 943 pur les merveilles ver ke Deus i out o\Te. 
prp. „ 73 est a mer^'elles meiiz : 1769 un des grantz mer%'eilles ki unc fust recunte (v. note). 
(S3- 171- 3^9- ^■-' i2'3- '215) under mun. 

conj. (a) but ; (i) nay rather ; (c) ne . . . mes, only ; [d) mes (or mais) ke, except, save ; (e) mes ke, 
even though. 

2. 13. 152. 165. 179. 203. 248. 263. 277. 293. 310. 314. 342. 350. 353. 360. 410. 464. 5-3- 601. 633. 
721.733.742. 758. 768. 771*. 809. 829. 853,881.911. 1007. 1028. 1042. 1049. 1147. 1150. 1174. 
1249. 1258. 1351. 1422. 1431. 1469. 1575. 1597. 1741. 1819. 1842 {mes). 
561. 614. 933. 969. 1276. 1297. 1321. 1470. 1493. 1517. 1527. 1580. 1626. 1824 (mais). 
1792 lur deus, mais diables, de mailz unt depece. 
334 ApoUin ne prise mes valiant un butun. 

1 1 14 (mil) mes ke U uns remist : 1 189 (mil) mes ke un suls i faut : 
1 547 (mil cors) mais ke un sul i failli (v. note). 
810 ore, mes ke a tart, deveng sis hom. 
adj. young. 

mas. ace. sg. 1841 tesraoin averai of moi mein veUlart e meschin. 
s. m. cure, remedy. 

ace. sg. 1 56 1 des cors detrenchez (ne feist) teu mescinement. 
V. tr. to cure. 

infin. 1666 de tes morteus plaies te purrunt mesciner. 
adj. unbelieving, miscreant, 
mas. nom. sg. 181 1 (jo ki) estoie mescreant sarrazin. 

,, prp. ,, 64 pur toi e pur meint autre mescreant Sarrazin. 

,, nom. pi. 796 sunt esbaiz U paien mescreant : 879 li mescreant en beivent : 

,, ,, „ 1681 parjure e mescreant, desdeingnant Deu amer : 

,, ,, ,, 1715 ne rae flecchissent cist mescreant felun : 

,, ,, ,, 1734 s'entrecunbatent li paien mescreant. 

(pp. =) adj. unkno%vn. 

mas. prp. sg. 78 nuveles me portes d'un deu mescuneii. 

v. tr. to defame. 

app. (subj. plpft. 3 sg.) 1771 ki I'ust mesdit u mesfait. 

V. tr. to injure. 

app. (ind. ant. 3 pi.) 162 ki urent e mesfait e mespris. 

,, (subj. plpft. 3 sg.) 1771 ki I'ust mesdit e mesfait. 
s. f. band, troop, company. 
nom. sg. 435 la vostre maisnge (cerchera). 
ace. ,, 496 li fels tirantz cumande trestute sa mesnfie. 

prp. ,, 1020 en la mesnee A. est atitle : — 968 of sa mesnee est li princes passe. 
V. tr. to ill-use. 
app. (ind. ant. 3 pi.) 162 ki urent e mesfait e mespris. 



GLOSSARY. 



xci 



mespnsun 
message!- 



Messias 
Messie 

mester 



mesure 
mesure 



metal 



met 
mette 
mettez 
mettre 



meu 
meiiz 



midi 
midiz 



miller 



pn'^sg!''3^07 paTenvieTlur grant mesprisun (mistrent Jesu a mort). 

s. m. messenger. 

ace. sg. 125 del angle Gabnel en fist sun messager. 

nom. pi. 1272 90 dient messager. 

n. pr. Messiah. 

nom. qwproiezceluik'estverai Messias. 

r • ^^"- %^ n;',^XSrr.rrzVn:nu: r mesrV/a ^e"nT;escusse n. p.st aver mester: 
, :; 7otn-1 pout matinlenevespre aver mester: 1279 si trestut 90 ne puet aver mester : 
" 1 78 1 n'a mester a mil de mere ne. 

V tr. to measure, mark out. 

ppp. mas. pi. 359 n'unt ore plus de tere fors saet pez mesure. 

s f. measure, moderation ; prudence. 

- ? ^?^^^:^^'^^^: ]^^'^.^^ la rae) sanz mesure e man.e. 

s. m. metal. 

nom. s. g. 644 pere perist, fust art, e metal funt. 

err CQd nuidez ke io pur Deu recleim metal u pere dure. 

'rn " ^2 n-ert d'or adubbee ne d'autre metal : 643 nral aient deu ki de metal sunt, 

V tr to place, put ; involve; expend ;-refl. to put one's sell ; to begin, 
ind. pres. . sg. 66. - - met ma esperance. ^^^ ^^. ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^ ^ ^^,.^.^^^„ . 

l^^S^;'^l^^^^^^^^-rn^- (ran,un ne.guage) d'or pur nus : 
20!i h sauvaciun) mist nus tuz morteus : 648 par peine k em 1 mist : 
661 eu cors m'alme mist : 1752 puis mist le cors en terre 
289 en croiz lui mistrent li GiUe : 30S. 315 le (= Jesu) mistrent a mort . 
7"' J autres ki au noer se mistrent, sunt nee. 
ISC' iS^i silak'enniefmemetteauproceinportmarm 
'2 pi 491 ma croiz vus doins ke ne mettez ja Jesum en ubbli (v. note). 
" " infin 1717 se pcinent de mettre mei a confusiun. 
app.(ind.pft.3sg.),75^^encullur^_s|^tn,^.^^^ 1057 (Jesus) n'a mis A. en ubli. 

" " ,',' „"pl') 981 ^<= ':l"'=f "i^' ^-^ <^°''= ""' • '■*°° ™ '''^"■^' "" ^ "'" ^ ' 

" /" " " 1 i/ioi en escrit unt mis le numbre. ... ,,• 

" " an" "s" )\47 apres pou de tens ke out entre nus mis : .539 "'avoit mis les noz en ubh. 
nnn ' mas'.' sg. 157 en croiz (fu) mis : 670 mis i fu enchaesnez. 
PPl'- ^] ,^; r gesk'atant k'il furent mis en sarcu marbnn. 

> vl'tr. to mo';c (physically, or mentally), to affect ;-refl. to set out. 
>■ /• 1 „f, ^r,i^ A-n atant si sunt andui d iluec meuz e parti. 

^ p^^^ mas.\g!'^ ^73 desesdL est meiiz : 867 des maus' ses enemis dolentz est e meu. 

under mun. 
) s. m. mid-dav. , . „ , • - • ,• 

( prp s-'. 902 raant cum solailz ki flamboie a midiz :— 
1060 un feu ki plus ert clcrs ke solailz de midi. 

^?^i=^^^- 9J^^eS'(5i : .028 ne sevent m. : .,7 n'a mie mis en ubU: 
13.2 lie savez mie : I4« ne pout mie : 1539 n'avoit mie mis en ubh. 
DOSS adi. pron. mine; [see also men 1560]. . , , • 

mas. (prp.) sg. .823 ne sai autre language fork mien barbann. 

voc pi. 1330 venez, li mien ami ! 
fern. ace. sg. 604 (de lui retenc) ceste moie vesture, 
num adi. indecl. thousand ; mil mes ke un, a thousand save one. 
Zm.) .271 mil citoien nus faillcnt : 1346 ne fail h ke n'l eust mil enter :_ 
pd.) 1 1 14 mil sunt : 1 .88 mil sumes : .45° mil fumes. 
(accS lou des citoiens en ad bien mil u plus numhre : 

„ 1547 mil cors i truvas[mes»]: 1653 mil en avum ja mort. 
(s'.'m.) only adverbially, by thousands. _ 
(ace. pi.) 1282 lors ad mandS sa gent centemes e miller. 

m 2 



3 

,, pret. ,, ,, 
,, i> )) '1 
„ ,> ,. " 
„ „ .. pi- 
ll M »J 1» 

subj.pres. isg. 



xcu 



GLOSSARY. 



miracle ) s. m. miracle. 

miracles / ace. sg. 8oi quant veit le miracle: — 1384 (ad fait un autre) miracle e vertu. 
prp. „ 1398 (unt gr.ices rendu) de teu miracle. 
„ pi. 935 quant ot des miracles : 1036 par les grantz miracles, 
mireiir s. ra. mirror. 

mas. sg. 551 deiissez estre as autres essample e mireiir. 
mis 1. (216 bis) under mun. 

mis II. mist, mistrent under mettre. 
moi under jo. 

moie „ mien. 

mois s. ra. month. 

(ace.) pi. 1 1 38 enprisunez fu sis mois en un tenant, 
mord, mort I. under murir. 
mort II. s. f. death. 

nom. sg. 220 mort ne vie (ne nus purra) sevrer : 725 cele mort apent a home Id deu renie : 

,, ,, 729 (langur e maladie) plus nuit e greve ke mort. 
ace. ,, 931. 1255. 1496 en croiz mort sufri : 1072. 1225 mort (sufrir) : 1317 par mort m.anacer: 
„ „ 1675 mort sanz parmurir sufrent el puis de enfer. 
prp. ,, 308 mistrent Jesu a mort e a dampnaciun : 315 il le mistrent a mort e passiun : 
„ „ 548 a mort livrez e a dulur ■ 745 a ceste mort est A. e livrez e damnez : 
,, ,, 741 a mort est juge : 1151 a mort estoit jugez : 1367 (ocire le ferum) a laplus cruele mort 
„ ,, 1648 tu as a mort li\Te tant meint prude ber: 1785 (martirs) k'il unt a mort livrfi : — 
,, ,, 190 .ipres la mort (turment atent) : 1445 apres la mort du cors : — 

)> >i 37 Crelever) de mort : 794 (resuscitez) de mort : 1297 estre quites de mort e repruver : — 
,, „ 1302 (passer) par la mort : 1799 nus reinst par sa mort d'enfernal poeste : — 
,, ,, 607 ne flecchirai pur nule mort tant cruele : 983 pur sa mort grant duel unt demenS : 
„ ,, 1 197 ne larrum pur losenge ne pur mort mana9ant : 1200 resortist pur mort : — 
,, ,, 48 sanz mort e sanz encumbrer : 1713 u est vie sanz mort. 
adj. mortal ; (differs from next word, in that it is only used with 'man.') 
mas. nom. sg. 94 um mort.al (ne te serroit) escu: 16 14 de%int hom mortal. 

„ prp. „ 5 de fust i fu furmez uns cors d'um mortal, 
s. f. liability to death. 

prp. sg. 360 mes I'alme tuz jurs viit santz mortalite (v. note), 
adj. mortal; fatal; deadly; final; huge; — subst. a mortal, 
mas. ace. sg. 1359- 1647 cost mortel encumbrer : 1415 mene lur enemi mortel. 
„ nom. pi. 1260 cum autres morteus furent andui cist e cele. 



aortal 



mortalite* 

mortel 
morteu 
morteus 



305 a sauvaciun mist nus tuz morteus : 907 ne dute mais morteus (feluns, &c.) : 
,, ,, ,, 1474 a sun semblant fist nus tuz morteus. 
,, prp. „ 91 cum un de nus morteus : 596 (faiture) de uns enginnurs morteus : 
,, ,, ,, 1213 pur (garantii) moi de mes enemis morteus : — 
,, ,, ,, 20S entre morteus e vivre e cunverser. 
fem.nom.sg. 1116 morteu m.aladie (lui env.ii le quor) : 1751 si fu la presse grant e mortel nepurquant- 
,, prp. ,, 506 cum gent ki s'aturne a morteu medlee. 
>, „ ,, 1703 estoit en mortel passiun : 1 709 sui en tel mortel prisun. 
,, „ pi. 1666 (te mesciner) de tes morteus plaies. 
morticine s. f. carrion, dead bodies. 

prp. sg. 1393 (sunt devenu) gardeins de morticine. 
raortz, morz under murir. 



mot 



Moyses 



mua 
miie 
mue 



muerent 
miies 

muillere 
raulicr 



s. m. word ; with negat., not a word. 

ace. sg. 247 cist ja noise ne fist ne mot ne respundi : 758 cist mot ne sune. 

n. pr. Moses- 

prp. 870 de I'ewe dunas 4 Moyses tun dm : — 

,, 402 (escriz) d'Abram e Moyses, les veillardz alosez. 
V. tr. to change (colour, feelings) ; — ppp. (bird) that has moulted, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 543 de ire e mautalent tut mue la culur. 

„ pret. ,, ,, ibo mua lune culur, devint li solailz bis. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 296 mes par avisiun vus a Deu mue le curage. 
ppp. mas. sg. 1005 ore est seins e ligger cum uns osturs mue. 
under murir. 

adj. mute, dumb (animals). 

fem. ace. pi. 697 (veisez) oises e bestes mues baer e pantoiser. 
s. f. woman, wife, 
ace. sg. 128 Marie ! Deu te s.aut, labenoite mulier (v. note). 



GLOSSARY. 



XCllI 



mun 
mun 



I. 
II. 



(mulicr) ace. sg. 1191 pur ki avum gucrpi maisun, muillere, enfant, 

muhiplie v. tr. to multiply. 

subj. pres. 3 sg. 1440 (cist ne laist) ke ses criz ne eshauce e multiplie. 
mulu.! adj. sh.irpened, sharp. 

mas. ace. pi. 852 portent gisannes e grantz cuteus muluz. 
,, prp. „ 95 detrenchez ja de brantz muluz. 
(1832) under munt. 

poss. adj. pron. my ; [v. also mien, moie]. 
mas. nom. sg. 34 est mun purpos : 
,, ,, ,, 216 mis quors ne mis penser : 219 mi maistres. 
„ ace. „ 56 bis. mun aiere e mun chemin : 808 trestut mun viant : 
II ,) ,1 813. 1673 mun cors : 1829 mun pelican : 1839 mun livre. 

34 vers G. mun pais ; 223 en mun lit : 376. 380 en mun pais : 529 de mun ce. 

1826 a J. me sui rendu, cum mi veisin. 

53 vers mes diz : 329. 812 de mes pecehez : 1213 de mes enemis : 1215a mes cuninnz. 

171 venez, mes leaus amis gentils ! 1534 venez, mi chevaler ! 

473 ma robe : 491 ma croiz : 662 ma esperance. 

45- 331 sn nia maisun : 1268 a vus, ma gent k'estes loiele. 



pi. 



fem 



mund 



I. adv. 



prp. 
nom. 

P>T- 1. 
voc. „ 
ace. sg. 

prp- » 
above. 



mund II. 
mundz 



mund III. 
munt 



muntainne 

niunta 

muntd 

muntcnt 

munler 

muntez 



mureus 

murant 

muras 

muriant 

murir 

murra 

murras 

murs 

murt 

murunt 

murut 



1712 (k'il mei) part doinst of vus l.a mund en cele regiun (v. note). 

Is. m. world, 
nom. sg. 40 ne vaut pas tut li mundz un dener : 86 par ki li mundz est e faitz e .sustenu ; 
„ ,, 252 trembla trestut li mundz : 348 trespassable est li mundz e tute sa beute : 
„ „ 400 p.ar le deluge estoil li mundz* purgez. 
ace. „ 25. 46. ad tut le mund a guverner: 130 sauver le mund : 132 deit tut le mund restorer : 

,, ,, 603 fist trestut le mund : 637 cria tut le mund : 777 as le mund furmo. 
prp. ,, 138 du mund ad seingniu'ie : 564 (cumandeiir) du mund : 922 gloire du mund guerpis : — 
„ „ 208 eu mund entre morteus (\-ivre) : 362 (cors) k'eu mund ad este : 
„ ,, 1085. 1 199. 1319. I475. 1623. 1680. 1762 en cest mund: 1572 en tut le mund resplent. 
^ s. m. mountain. 

\ ace. sg. 1832 passerai Mun Giu, le roiste munt alpin. 

prp. ,, 875 du munt est li roisseus hissu : 1094 (I'ewe) ki puis du munt sailli : 
,, „ 1164 le Icssamcs au pe du munt gisant : — 

„ „ 848 sunt ja eu mund venu : 1 1 72 suz un arbruseu ki eu munt fu cresant. 
>> •> 3^3 (ai'iz purra) ruisseu cure vers munt. 
s. f. mountain. 

prp. sg. 1030 herberge en muntainne ne puet estre cele. 
V. tr. (and intr.) to ascend, climb, mount ; — red. to get on horseb.-ick, mount, 
ind. pres. 3 pi. 1063 (li beus angeres) muntent e dcsendcnt (du celj. 
„ prct. 3 sg. 167. 264. 318 eu ciel munta. 

infm. 38 eu ciel munter : 1266 tant cum estriu puis b.ailler pur munter sele. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 940 a genoilz e a cutes ad le tertre munte : 942 (li princes) a sun destrer muntc. 
PP' ( It )» M »' ) 142O n'a cist la n'est muntez palefrei bon e bel. 
„ ( „ „ „ pi.) 1483 adunc se sunt muntez li uns des juvenceus. 
s. m. \v.all (of city). 

ace. pi. 1464 pres sunt de V., ja veient les mureus. 

V. intr. to die; rel!. s'en m., id. ; tr. to kill ; — pp. = adj. dead, the dead, 
ind. pres. 2 sg. 588 si tu t'en murs ki en es de la cite la llur. 
„ „ 3 ,, 351 (ki sert Deu) e murt en sun servise, a bonure fu ne. 
,, ,, „ pi. 1337 li .autre volenters muerent certz de luer. 
> ,, pret. 3 sg. 159. 249 murut: 502 murut en haute croiz drcscee: 1448. 1798 en croiz murut. 
,, fut. 2 ,, 68 pur Deu murras martir : 300 tu munas pur lui martir par vasselage : 
,, ,, ,, ,, 756 bis. tu murras santz delai, tu nuiras malure. 

„ ,, 3 ,, 444 quant A. s'en muira : 71S autrcment ke li maistres, sis horn ne murra mie. 
,, ,, ,, pi. 639 ne pur tuz les hummes ki vivcnt c muiiint. 

infin. 37 (deingna) en croiz murir ; 699 (fu duel a rcgarder) les flurs as reims murir : 
,, 1218 ne pur sun cors livrcr* a torment e murir : 1 318 plus devum (desircr) pur Jcsu murir. 
„ 1527 chescun de eus de murir avant se purofri : 1628 pur murir e remurir. 
gmd. II 85 ke il au muri:mt teinst en sun sane : 249 en murant getta un cri. 
app. (ind. pft. i pi.) 1653 mil en avum ja mort ui sanz esparnier. 
ppp. mas. sg. 90 (fu) mort, e posez eu sarcu : 1774 (ke il ne fust) u mort u niahainni. 



XCIV 



GLOSSARY. 



(murir) 



(adj.) mas. nom. sg. 263 cist ki mortz estoit : 862 uns mortz, uns malades, autres recreii : 
,, ,, „ 920 mortz est e escharniz : 1656 mors es e maubailli : 
„ ,, „ 1767 meint (en i out) mort e defule. 

„ (ace.) „ 987 k'il urent cum freit mord goierpi: 1 164 cum mort le lessaraes : 
,, ace. ,, 1415 (mene) lur enemi, \if u mort : 1738 araerroient le clerc mort u vivam. 
,, prp. ,, 845 pur mort le guerpissent. 
„ nom. pi. 793 li mort ki noiez furent, se drescent en scant : 
„ „ „ 1079 ki mort sunt e purri : 1667 (resusciter) ceus ki par tei sunt morz. 

,, ace. „ 151 resuscita mortz : 170 juger les mortz e vifs : 
„ ,, ,, 173 u (noise) nafra jamais mortz. 

„ 1000 les mortz funt vifs parer : 1672 sul Deu puet les morz a vie reapeler. 



adj. sad. 
mas. nom. pi. 
V. tr. to hide, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 



61 devindrent Jiieus murnes e pensis. 



mus^a 

musce I ind. pret. 3 sg. 898 la croiz prist e mus^a uns crestiens gentilz. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1015 si parent e ami I'unt en terre musce. 
musches s. f. fly. 

prp. pi. 707 de musches e vermine ne se pout nul garder. 
musterai "| v. tr. to show, make known, 
mustra j ind. pres. 3 sg. 732 90 mustre e signifie. 

mustre )> „ pret. ,, „ 274 plus me mustra Deus e plus me descuvri. 

mustre ,, fut. i ,, 1839 musterai i mun line, 

niustrer J infin. 1037 mustrer as ses martirs privez : 1809 mustrer al apostoille tute la verite. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 211 lui ad mustre sanz ren celer: 284 sa croiz li ad mustre. 
milt adv. much, verv-, greatly ; (a) with verbs, (b) with ptcps., (c) with advs., (d) with adj. [only grant]. 

42. 1066 milt esmervoiller : 215 mut ai dormi : 686 mut sufrir : 1237 mut lur plut : 1235 mut surt : 

1245 mut me plest: 1364 mut paer : 1459 mut I'enmercie : 1551 urent mut despit : 1590 mut se 

penent ; 1670 pecehes mut : 1724 reahaite mut sa entunciun. 

796. 1066 mut sunt esbaiz : 997 mut fut endoctrine : 1404 mut sunt curucez : 

1524 mut furent manacez : — 1793 mut sunt repentant. 

1009 mut plus k'avant : 1301 mut largement : 1307 mut petit : 1457 mut umblement. 

482 mut veissez grant duel : 1274 mut serra la perte grant j 

1500 mut funt grant noise : 1 733 (atant surt) un estrif mut grant : — 

1462 mut est de giant seignurie : 1491 mut sunt de grant joie refait : 

I j86 mut est de grant enseignement. 



(a) 



(*) 

(rf) 



N. 



iiafra, nafre, 
naistre 
naski 
nasqui 



nature 
nature! 

naverer 

n.ivrent 



under ne. 

nafrent under naverer. 
j v. intr. to be born. 

' ind. pres. 3 pi. 704 ntissent maladies e divers encumbrer. 
) ,, pret. I sg. 1502 dist chescun lermant, "las! purquei nasqui" ? 

,, „ 3 „ 61 en B. naski : (484 en B. nasqui :) 144 pur nus tuz nasqui li reis de Parai's. 

infin. 37 deingna naistre : 87 deingnast de femme naistre : 139 par droit apent naistre. 
pp. mas. sg. 351 a bonure fu ne : [743 seit gentilz e bien ne (v. bien)]: 976 puis k'il fu ne. 
„ ,, pi. 564 (ki furent) de Rumme nez : 1475 ''in' "lar fustes nez en cest mund. 
,, ,,prp. sg. 1781 a nul, ni (de mere), 
s. f. nature. 

prp. sg. 595 ne parole, ne ot, ne veit, par nature, 
adj. natural. 

fem. prp. sg. 1414 (mene) a V., lur cite naturel. 
) v. tr. to scathe, wound. 

i ind. pres. 3 pi. 1730 navrent e defulent a chevaus : 1748 ferent, nafrent e traient. 
,, pret. 3 sg. 173 il nafra jamais mortz noise ne duel ne estrifs. 
infin. 1625 (aegre) de batre, e de cuteus naverer. 
ppp. mas. sg. 1767 (meint en i out) maubailli e nafre. 



GLOSSARY. >^c\ 

1. conj. and not ; nor, neither [v. note on 1 137]. 

conjoining " co-ordinate negative clause : — , 1 „„ . 

(,) 22 n'i out plus cuneuz, ne nus plus communal : 94 ne te serroit or ran9um, n'um mortal escu 

IQ" CO ne recoit sen, ne purreit estre pruve : 247 noise ne fist, ne respundi : 273 quors nel puet 
Denser, ne jo pardi : 607 ne guerpirai, ne flecchirai : 1588 nuls ne remamt, ne atent. 
(i3) 83 ne jo ai apris : 1 137 ben recunust Ic ovre, . . ne ren fu celant. 
(21 ne . ne, introducing two subordinate members of a negative sentence :— 

a 102 CO ne recoit . . ne sen ne entendement : 203 nel vout . . ne guerpir ne ubblier : 255 ne rai ne 

lumere . . solail ne espandi : 474 "^ te osera nuire . . ne cuard ne hardi: 582 naverunt vers loi . . 
ne ire ne rancur : 640 ami ne brun ne blund . . chose ne purrunt faire : 790 n 1 fust nus a Hote, . . 
ne batel ne chalant : 842 ne remeint sein . . ne tant ne quant : 1088 il ne fu . . ne truan ne failli : 
l2i6Unevout, &c. . . ne pur large prisun ne pur sun cors livrer (v. note,: 1520 ne sunt . . ne . 
perdu ne peri. 
1) u'ith omission of the first ne : — , , . j r ,„;„ . 

2 bis ne ert adubbee . . d'or ne d'autre metal, d'ivone ne roal : 53 n'oiez quor . . dur ne fernn 
196 droitz ne raisuns . . n'i assent : 220 (sevrer) ne nus purra . . raort ne vie : 292 bis. ne mist . . 
rancum ne guage, d'or ne d'argent : 297 "e eiez quor . . Ugger ne volage : 672 n 1 peust aver 
mester . aie ne rescusse : 702 n'i pout aver mester . . matinee ne vespre : 703 bis. n a . . pluie 
ne rosee, au seir n'al enjurner : 766 ne . . batel ne nief unt truve (v. note) : 842 ne remeint . . sem 
ne enter- Q<;7 ne seit . . emble ne devore : 961 bis. n'ai . . soing ne volunte, de eschars ne gas oir 
(v note) • 1042 n'est ja . . chan(;un ne fable : 1093 (ne rendi) . . fruit ne herbe ; 1 139 ne pluveit . 
tant ne quant : 1 14S (nel pout horn) . . veintre ne flecchir : .216 bis. il ne les vout . . enfreincre 
ne guerpir, fauser ne flecchir : 1376 n'est . . girun ne mance : 1 5 16 n'estes . . posez ne ensevel. : 
lUl n'i peiist cunustre . . prive ne estrangi : 1549 (ke nul ne fust blesmi) de ehens ne d autres 
bestes: 1605 nel lessent . . reposer ne prendre estal : 1650 n'estes .. las ne saul : I7i6ne me . . 
flecchissent ne part eient de moi : 1756 ke ne les devurassent . . bestes n oisel : — 
fi3) in dependent clauses virtually negative:— . n 1 : . 

qq ne vout Deus ke soiez . . damnez ne perdu : 1108 ne larrum ke soium . . desturnez ne llecchi . 
636 ainz purra mer secchir ke Jesu treshublie . . pur tant de fin or ne pur tuz les hommes. 
(y) 1720 plus blancs ke cheinsil nc cotun [v. ne 11. No. 6]. 
c in predicate of elliptic negative relative clause :— 

1391 li lu dubois, ne saiil ne peii [= without being either full or fed]. 
1 21 in three-numbered nemtive predication with ne only between the last tiuo members :— 

-1 76 ki n'i soient . . veil, o'i ne aperceu ;, 573 n'est nul . . tant sage, tant fort ne tant seur : 861 fun- 
taine ne trovent, rivere ne palu : 1040 ne dute mais . . tirantz, pnnce ne cunestable : 1727 garde 
n'a . . de fu, de venn ne de larrun. 
b with ne precedim; each of the last two members :— 

4 n'i out . . acastoneene gemme nc cristal : 81 ne purreit estre . . entendu ne enquis ne seu : 
%x io ne I'ai . apris ne pruve ne leii : i73 il n^fra jamais mortz . . noise ne duel ne estrifs : 177 
ne sai vostre lei ne cuntenement ne ke J. aprent (v. note) : 682 (n'a mais lit) . . a plume ne a 
cotun ne a paiUes : 738 (ne I'unt pas otrie) . . h prince ne li parent ne cist dela cite : 11 97 ne lar- 
rum . . purlosengene pur mort ne pur richesces : 1313 vus ne savez . . sa vertu ne pocr nc ses 
grantz vertuz : 1413 ne mangerunt . . .a table n'en tente n'en ostel :— 
(|8) 1316 ne place i J. ke nus puissez sevrer . . par duns ne par turment ne par mort. 
(il conjoining huo co-ordinate negative clauses : — 

892 ne gent, ne grundille, n'est flecchiz : 141 1, 2, 3 n'ostenint, ne dormirunt, ne mangerunl. 
(;) con/oinint' three co-ordinate negative clauses : — 

589 n' ert esmuz, nc geenst, ne deut, ne plure : 595 ki ne parole, ne ot, ne sent, ne veit. 
e II. adv. not, never, &c. [v. note on 1137]- 

fila of simple nemtive without anv strengthening particle :— 

2. 4. 22. 28. 68. 81. 94. 99. 108 (ncs). 114. 134- '77- i89- ■92- "X")- 203 (nel). 216. 247. 255. 292. 
29S. 3?9. 359. 389. 410. 45>- 470. 474- S^S. 577- 578. 582. 589. 591. 595- 606. 615 (nel). 630. 633. 
O41. 650. 664. 673. 694. 701. 702. 703- 730- 742. 758. 791. 809. 858. 86,. 881. 892. 919- 922. 955- 
q6i 962. 1008. 102 1. 1030. 1034. 1042. 1088. 1093. 1107. mo. 1148 (nel). 1150. 1174. 1177. 
1107. 1204. 1234. i2j9. 1267 bis. 1269. 1270. 1290. 1296. 1303. 1314. 1322. 1342. 1346. i34q. 1362. 
uii 1420. 1433. 1440. 1447. 14^)9. 1497- 1506- '525- '541- '560- 1569 (nel). 1579- "509 (nes). 1605 
(nel). 1620. 1623. 162O (nel). 1629. 1633.1649. 1650. 1656. 1671. 1678. 1727. 1742.1750.1771. 
b of limited negation, -with (a) i-e or (/3) mes following, = nothing but, only:— [1825. 1830. 

(a) 1325. 1639 ri'i out ke curucer. 

(3) 334 Apolhn ne prise mes valiant un butun : 1841 jo ne me os numcr mes pccchur cupable. 
c followed by {a) fors or autre, or{l3) the elliptic si . . . nun :— 

(a) 359 n'unt ore plus de tere fors saet pez : 1710 jo n'ai esperance fors en Deu e vus nun :— 
1447 n'est autre Deu for cist : 1823 nc sai autre language fors le mien :— 



XCVl 



GLOSSARY. 



(ne 11.) 123 ne se vout fiijr en autre k'en sun cher fiz. 

(/3) 314 ne li firent pur ses bens si mal nun : 807 n'est autre se il nun. 
d after a poii = nearly : — 

751 a pou n'est voide li temples: 1566 a pou de ire ne fent. 

(2) accompanied by a strengthening particle. — pas, point, mie ; nul : — 

16. 40. 383. 435. 492. 535. 577. 601. 687 (nel). 690. 721. 737. (932. 956.) izoo. 1368. 1382. 1518. 
1520. 1559. 1619. 16-8 pas : — ^b}, point : — 718. 912. 1028. 1057. 1312. 1435. 1539 m;>. 
508. 573. 707. (733.) 768. (790.) 1371. 1461. 1549. 1588. 1689. 1781. 1783 nul. 

(3) with line, jamais, mais, = neier : — 

217. 314. 587. 976. 1216. 1380. 1390. 1406 unc .-—220. 1537. i5Soya7«a;'j.-— 676. 678. 682. 735. 907. 
1040. Il6i. 1787 tnais. 

(4) with imperatives, — ((3) suhj. used imperatively, (/iy'i) : — 
53. 96. 299. 347. 364. 375- 486. 873. „ . . 

(/3) 5*^9 ne wis nuit (v. note) : 733 ja nul ne voie : 928 n'eit ja part : 13 15 ne place a Jesu. 

(5) in dependent sentences, — {d,),Jinal, causal, consecutive, [ke\ — (b), hypothetic [si], — (c) concessive: — 
a 75- 95- "5- 221. 279- 469- ^^S■ 4^9- 49'- 672- 735- 79°- 932- 956- ''083. (I2j6.) 1346. 13118. (1406.) 

1440. (1549.) 1580. 1696. 1715. 1745. i-^d ketie. 
b 12. 42S. 547 [j-/ omitted]. loSo. 1082. 1239. 1275. 1279. 1289. 1621. 1685. y-^bo si ne. 
c (a) 7vith tut, = although . . . not; (fi) with Ja taut, = houiei'er much :— 

(a) 874 tut n'eit tei Deu rekeneii. 

(/3) 1035 ja tant ne en serrunt requis. 

(6) after ke of comparison in clauses where the verb is expressed : — 

460 plus est pauteners ke n'est lu : 521 plus est esmeiiz ke n'est leonesse : 669 plus seut demurance 
pener ke ne fait anguisse : 877 plus clers ke n'est argentz : 1070 plus beus ke n'est lis : 1250 plus 
set (de e.) ke ne set (de t.) fevre : 1356 plus criieus ke n'est urs : 1376 plus blancs ke n'est ginin. 

(7) in attributive-relative sentences, after a negative principal verb : — 

650 n'a cist ke ne obeist : 1303 n'a cist ke decolez ne seit : 1420 n'a cist ki n'est muntez : — 

57S n'est kineprent sum : 1342 n'est horn ki n'en peiist averpiete : 1772 n'i out ki. . , keilnefust: — 

574 n'est nul tant fort . . . ki n'est susduit : 1461 n'a nul . . ki ne die. 

(8) pleonastically : — 

83 ne jo ne f ai apris : 247 ne mot ne respundi : 273 ne jo nel pardi : 648 ne ren n'i espleite : 892 ne 

de ren n'est flechiz : 1137 ne ren ne fu celant : 1 139 n'en terre ne pluveit : 1 7 1 6 ne part ne eient. 
ne, neissent under naistre. 

nee under noiez. ^ 

nel under ne and le [= ilium, illud]. 

nent s. m. nothing ; pur n., for nought. 

prp. sg. 634 pur nent travaiUerunt. 
Neptun n. pr. Neptune. 

ace. 335 Jovin descunus e sun frere Neptun : 1 103 reni N. le marin e Plutun I'ennerci. 
nepurquant adv. however. 

609 ore nepurquant, mes ke a tart : 1590 mut nepurquant se penent d'aler hastivement. 

175 1 si fu la presse grant e mortel nepurquant (v. note), 
nerci \ v. intr. to grow black, 

nercir J infin. 698 (veisez) gent e nercir e suer. 

pp. mas. prp. sg. 1546 e feimes enbrever a arreraent nerci, 
nerf \ s. m. nerve, 

nerfs ) nom. pi. 840 li nierf li sunt rumpu e tut le cors doillant : 1430 doillant li sunt li nerf. 

ace. ,, 954 (k'il garisse) tes nerfs ki sunt rumpuz e de tes os se\Te. 
nes I. s. m. nose. 

prp. sg. 837 du nies e de la buche li sancs ist e espant : — 632 ferent en face e nes e fnint. 
nes II. (108. 632. J389.) under neand les. 
nesance s. f. birth. 

prp. sg. 1378 gentil de nesance, 
nette adj. clean, morally blameless. 

fern. nom. sg. 602 sa vie (est) espirable e seinte e nette e pure, 
nem s. m. nephew. 

ace. sg. 1328 fiz, frere, nevu, d'ocire e detrencher (v. note). 

voc. pi. 1 503 tiz, frere, nevu, ai ! tant mar vus vi. 
nez under naistre. 

ni under nier. 

nief s. f. ship. 

ace. sg. 766 ne batel ne nief a passer unt truve. 

prp. ,, 1 83 1 si la k'en nief me mette au procein port marin, 



GLOSSARY. 



xcvii 



nier v. tr. to refuse, deny. . , , , 

ind. pres. i sg. 275 segrei celestien ke desclore vus m. 
infin. 142 cele I'ottreU sanz nier u duter. 

nierf under nerf. 

nies under nes. 

nigTomancic s. f. magic art (necromancy). . . • x 

prp. sg. 997 de nigromancie mut lu endoctnne. 

nigromanciensj^^m^. magician. ^ nigromanciens ces grantz maus nus basti. 

nieromant s. m. magic (magician ? v. note). , ., ^ , 

ace se. i-l>=; tant apristnigromantkantilert escoler. 

nU adv. Lengthening the assertion - (a) affirmative, or (,3) negative ) even, 

(a) 792 nis li petit enftnt :-(/3) .362 ne se desjunerunt ms de un disner . 
1388 n'unt nis un des cheveuz etitame. 
adj. noble. , ., ... 

mas. ace. sg. 19 (trove le seingnur) nobde citoien. 



nobile 
nobiles 



nobilite 
Noe 



nosces 

nostre 
noz 



nou 

nouant 

nu 

nue 

niie 



nuef 

nuire 
nuit 



nuit 
nuitz 



voc. „ 285 A., citoien nobUes de parage ! 
',' nom. pi. 565 (ki furent) sarrazins nobiles (,v. note), 
fern. prp. sg. 1 1 il vent a V. une cite nobile. 
s. f. nobility. _ , .,._ 

ace. sg. 358 ki tant urent tresor e tant nobilite. 
n. pr. Noah. ,. , . 

prp. sg. 401 Par Noe e ses fiz (fu restorez h mundz). 
V. intr. to swim. 
fprp.;) infin. 773 au noer se mistrent. 

grnd. 791 il avant passer ne pout hom nouant. 

pp!°m;s%'^?3°-t:e; ki au noer se mistrent sunt ne. : 793 H -' 1- furent noiez. 

adi . black. . . , 

fern. nom. sg. 841 la char (est) noire e emflee. 

s. f. noise, disturbance, quarrel. , , , „„ „ctrif<: • 

nom. sg. .73 " nafra J^n^='il'"°"^-^°!f "^ll^'t'^ criz . 733 surt une noise e un estrif mut grant. 

ace. :: ^^:Z:tJ(^:r;:^^^^^^^- iSoo runt grant noise eeri. 

prn}p\'\T^^tni=^ng^ as nosces lu ber Architnclin. 

^ Ls. nom. pi 44^49 noz_deus: .079 no^P—^^^^ ^, lesnoz enubli. 

„ ace. „ 41 9- 5»4- ./ 23- ■ i b2 i ooi noz l y (^enger) le deshonur noz deus. 

s.'m. sxrimming; a nou, [M. F. a la uage.] by swnnmmg. 
prp. sg. 772* passent I'ewe a nou. 
under noer. 
,, nuz. 
V. tr. to tie. , . ^ 

ppp. mas. sg. 951 as reuns est nue (sun chiel). 
s. f. cloud. ,. , 

nom. sg. 701 nue ne panit ki terre peust umbrer. 
prp. „ 1059 purs estoitli airs e (sen) sanz nue. 
num. nine. 
1403 bis. nuef centz e nunante nuef. 

] inrpres*!"/ sg. 7^9 (langur e maladie) plus nuit e gieve ke mort. 
' subj. „ ■ „ „ 569 ne vus nuit la puur (but v. note). 

infin. 474 ne te osera nuire ne cuard ne hardi. 

prp. !! 1055 par la nuit ki survinl U airs enobscuri. 



XCVlll 



GLOSSARY. 



(nuit) 
nulli 

mil 

nule 

nuls 



numbre 
numbre 

numeement 



nun I. 
nun II. 



(I) 
(2) 

(3) 
(4) 



nunsaver 
nupez 
nureture 
nurri 

nusches 

nus I. 
nus II. 
nus III. 
nuvele I. 



prp. pi. 700 dure li chautz de nuitz sanz rein amesurer. 

pron., in phr. pur — , for nobody, (for nothing). 

489 ke ne soiez de lui esloinnez pur nulli : 1 1 10 ke 11 lur emprise ne larrunt pur nulli. 

adj. no, none. 

mas. nom. sg. nus 22 n'i out plus cuneiiz ne nus plus communal: 114 ne pout estre guarantz ne 
nus aver mester : 420 mar nus en dutera : 434 nus horn garde s'en dura: 
444 (mar ja cumencera) nus autres teu chose : 768 nus ne remaint : 790 ke n'i 
fust nus a flote (v. notej. 
mils 425. 1569 nuls dire pvu-ra : 803 il nuls unc horn ala avant : 1588 nuls ne re- 
maint: 1689 ne puet nuls parcunter. 
mil 573 n'est nul tant sage (ki n'est susduit) : 707. 1783 ne se pout nul (garder) 
(vanter) : 770 a grant estrif i passent e nul a volente : 1460 n'a nul (ki ne die) : 
1549 ke nul ne fust blesmi. 
„ ace. „ 733 ja nul ne voie : 1280 sanz nul espamier : 1355 sanz nul passer ; — 

( „ ) 1605 nel lessent reposer ne nul liu prendre estal [no place, nowhere]. 

„ prp. „ 1 140 unc a nul jur tant : 1 781 n'a mester a nul de mere ne. 

fem. nom. ,, nule 508 n'est nule (chambre) trespassee. 
„ prp. ,, 1371 de nule cunussance: 347 par nule vanite : 364 pur nule adversite : 607 pur 

nule mort : 361 sanz nule fausete : 507. 1373 sanz nule demuree (demurance). 

V. tr. to number 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 103 1 des citoiens en ad bien mil u plus numbre. 

s. m. number, count. 

ace. sg. 1 40 1 en escrit unt mis le numbre. 

prp. ,, 169 ki estoient esluz par numbre deus faiz sis : 1 188 mil sumes par numbre. 

adv. especially, in particular. 

500 numeement celui (ki preche, &c.) 

V. tr. to name, speak of. 

infin. 43 cument oses tu celui numer ? 1S41 jo ne me os numer (mes pecchur cupable). 

under nuns. 

adv. not, no ; si . . nun, except but, nothing but ; phr. voiUe u nun, whether one will or no. 

314 ne li firent unc pur ses bens si mal nun : 807 n'est autre si il nun : — 

17 10 jo n'ai esperance fors en Deu e vus nun. 

432 kar si nun, li maus s'espandera : 1302 si 90 nun, par la mort cuvent passer. 

628 voille u nun, verra : 1461 n'a nul Id, voille u nun, ne die. 

1214 nun pas sulement oi'r, mes, &c. 

num. ninety. 

1403 nuef centz e nunante nuef. 

v. tr. to announce, declare. 

infin. 35 la nuvele precher e nuncier (est mun purpos) : 126 vint en terre nuncier (la nuvele) : 
,, 1834 (tendrai le chemin a Rome) as Roraeins nuncier kancke ai veii. 

s. m. name. 

nom. sg. 1 04 1 sis nuns est en estoire e escrit remembrable. 

ace. „ 2 1 A. ad nun : 799 Aracle avoit nun. 

prp. „ 102 al nun le fiz Marie (= on the mention of the name) : — 
>> )) 370 (baptize A.) eu nun de la trinite : 899 a celee crut eu seint nun Jesu Cristz : 
,, ,, 1804 baptizer se funt tuit el nun de trinite. 

(nun saver) s. m. ignorance. 

prp. sg. 1662 tu les as curuce par tun grant nunsaver. 

adj. barefooted ; (v. also under nuz). 

nom. sg. 514 nupez : 1 145 nupez e megres : 1248 nupez e depanez : 1828 nupez sanz chauceiire. 

s. f. training, feeding ; (riote e n., riotous living, hendiadys ?) 

prp. sg. 617 (lui recuntai de voz maus,) riote e nureture. 

v. tr. to nourish. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1252 ki enfanta e nurri Jesu de sa mamele. 

ppp. mas. sg. 228 en terre fu nurri. 

s. f. ornament, bracelet, (nouche O. E.) 

prp. pi. 20 k robe d'or batue e [a] nusches de aesmal. 

under jo. 

(754 = noz) under nostre. 

(22. 114. 420. 434 444. 768. 790) under nuls. 

s. f. news, account ; la nuvele esjoie, the Gospel. 

nom. sg. 735 enchacez seit ke mais de li ne seit nuvele oie : 
„ ,, 1242 tost est a V. veniie la nuvele : 1786 tost s'espaunt la nuvele par le regne. 



GLOSSARY. 



XCIX 



(nuvele) ace 



nuvelcment 

nuvel 

nuvele 

nuveus 



ic (precher) la nuvele esjoie : 126 vint nuncier la nuvele: 
416 d' A. la nuvele descuvri e cunta : 1488 cist unt la nuvele d Apl. 01. 
',, pi. 78 nuveles me portes d'un deu raescuneu. 
adv. newly, lately. 

1596 a Jesu se sunt dune nuvelement. 
adj. new, newly made, 
mas. nom. sg. 1470 sis bons quors tut frois est e nuveus. 

1432 a A. aproce, le seint raartir nuvel : 501 d'un deu nuvel preche. 

1595 entur lui crestiens nuveus (4 sermun entent, v. note). 

520 (noise) de la croiz nuvele : 1262 ( prechera) de cele lei nuvele. 



,. prp. .; 

,, ace. pi 
fem. prp. sg. 
adj. naked, 
raas. nom. sg. 853 sul A. i est le cors e les pez nu : 



1423 sul Apl. i est, sanz chauceiire e nuz. 



o 



obei 

obeir 

obei'sant 

obeissant 

obeissent 

obe'ist 

obscure 



oceismes 

ocire 

ociroient 

ocis 

ocist 



oez 
of 



ofrimes 

ofuokes 

oi I. 
di II. 
oil I. 



oil 11. 

oir 

oismes 

oistes 



V. intr. to obey (dat.). 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1680 en cest mund ki obeissent a lur mauvois voler. 
„ pret. 3 sg. 478 a ses diz obei : 1092 a ki en la grant seccheresce h airs obei. 
subj.impft. „ „ 650 n'a cist ke ne obe'ist. 

infin. 1215 (deingnat) a mes cumanz tant leument obeir. 
gi-nd. 814 I'ewe, a toi obeissant, prove ta vertu. 
periph. pres. ptcp. mas. pi. 1753 ses cumpainnuns k'erent obeisant. 
adj. dark, obscure. 
fem. ace. sg. 670 prisun^d obscure pur sale e pur soler. j . .. 

„ prp- .r 599 en la prisun d'enfer gisent obscure : 665 en pnsun obscure le cumandent getter, 
") V. tr. to slay. . 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 399 d' Abel,— cum I'ocist Cairn : 1042 ki 1 ocist. 

„ ,, I pi. 1526 dune les oceismes sanz piete e merci. 

'condit. 3 „ I740jure eiirent k'ill'ociroient. , ■ , r /- -i .n 

inlin. 1328 d'ociie : 1340 (veissez les uns) ocu-e : 1367 ocire le ferum (a cruele mort). 
app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1355 quant paens unt ocis tuz sanz nul passer. 
under oir. 

prep, with, (avec ; cliez) ; on the side of. „ , , . ^ , ■ r 

38C. 1535.1840 of moi; 74. 101. 117. 301- 318- JI79. 1386 oflui: 1433 ofki; 1321. 1324 of mis : 
487 17 1 2 of vus • 1 1 12 of eus :— 909 of ses desmeine eslitz : 968 of sa mesnee : 1299 of les noz : 
145 1 of la croiz: 16S3 of lur deus : 1684 of les dampnez : 1726 of A. : 1816 of les paens. 
V. tr. to offer. 

ind. pret. I pi. 1149 asez li ofrimes, jvieus, argent, besantz. 
prep. with. 

480 A. de la citfi ofuokes lui issi. 
(376) under aver, 
oi'c, oient, oiez, under oir. 
s. m. eye. 
prp. sg. 
nom. pi. 



J 



1788 cist k'en oient parler, al oil I'unt esgardfi. 



31 li oil creve li soient : 913 li sunt li oil du chief sailliz : 
„ „ II 75 U oU U sunt chaet andui du chef : 177 8 li oil sunt reverse, 
adv. yes. 

1233 cist respunent tuit, ' oil,' sanz repentir. ri. • 

V tr to hear, listen to ; hear about ; oir parler, hearspoken of; used abs., of the sense of hearing, 
ind pres. 3 sg. 41 quant I'ot du fiz Deu parler : 595 ki nc parole, neot, nc veit, parnature: 

„ „ 726 ki I'ot, i lui s'ascnt : 936 quant ot dcs miracles : 1236 les ot Apl. 90 de quor 
'I '„ „ „ geir : 1564. 1639 quant ot 90 li princes : 1574 ki les ot e i assent : 1725 ot une voiz. 
" '' 2 pi. 1184 nus tut CO veimes ke m'oez recuntant. 

3,, 1325. 1332 90 ouent : 1329 oient une voiz : 1697 oient : 1788 cist k en oient parler. 
,', pret. I sg. 272 la joie ke jo 01 : 42 1 ben vi e bien I'oi : 1670 quant te 01 tes deus priser. 
„ ,, 3 „ 411 lur faitz e lur cunseilz oi. 
„ ,, I pi. 1533 une voiz oismes, chescun ben I'entendi. 
,, ,, 2 ,, 217 kar un sunge sungai, ne oistes une le per. 
,, fut. 3 sg. 438 kar aidunc orra la curt apertemcnt k' A. vus dirra. 
„ ,, 2 pi. 689 en teu manere cum m'orrez recunter. 

n 2 



GLOSSARY. 



oisel 
oises 
oiseus 
oisseus 

oitisme 

ol'z 
onur 
or I. 
or II. 



(oir) condit. 3 pi. 470 kar raisun plus n'orreient ke tigre ensauvagi. 

infin. 612 veritez voissez oir : 1214 (oir) ra'ensegnement : 1237 ki mut lur plut oir. 
(abs.) gmd. 805 dist en haute voiz, les Sarrazins ouant. 

app. (ind. pft. sg.) 1835 kancke at veil e 01 : 131 dunt as 01 lire : 1668 quant I'ad oi parler. 
„ ( ,, plpft. 3 ,, ) 448 si voirs est ke d'A. avoit iluec oi. 

ppp. mas. sg. 905 est li chantz oiz : 1071 teus estoit lur chantz entenduz e oiz. 
,, „ pi. 76 (ke n'i soient de veisins) oi ne aperceii. 
„ fem. sg. 735 ke mais de li ne seit nuvele oie : 1455 ta priere ert oie. 

sm. bird. 

ace. sg. 283 (ki fist) oisel, peisun marage : 990 (or I'unt veil) delivre e tut legger cum oisel enpenne. 

nom. pi. 1507 oisel te de\-urent : 1756 ke ne les devurassent bestes n'oisel volant. 

ace. ,, 697 (veisez) oises e bestes mues baer e pantoiser: 1389 I'egle oiseus enchace. 

prp. „ 847 a luus li\Ter e as oisseus volant : 1550 ki d'oiseus les cors bien defendi. 

num. adj. ord. eighth. 

mas. prp. sg. 145 (circumcis) au jur oitisme. 

under oir. 

under honur. 

(989) under ore (v. note). 

s. m. gold. 

nom. sg. 94 (or) ne te serroit ranfum n'um mortal escu : 473 (ma robe) il lut li ors burni. 

ace. ,, 1288 or portent e argent en cofres a sumer. 

prp. „ 292 (guage) d'or ne d'argent : 624 image d'or bruni : 683 pur tant de fin or : 
„ „ 680 buus d'or cler : 903 curune d'or esmere requitz : 1664 tresor de argent e de or cler : — 
,, ,, 2 (croiz adubbeel d'or : 20 robe batue d'or : 1134 robe bruidee d'or lusant : 
,, „ 1525 pur un val (erapli) d'or: 1497. 1825 pur tut I'or (de Daraas, Costentin). 
oraisun \ s. f. orison, prayer, 
oraisuns j ace. sg. 327 a lermes e suspirs fait sa uraissun : 1704 vers lu ciel regarde e fait sa oraisun. 

nom. pi. 7S6 les oraisuns e lermes de vertu sunt tant. 

prp. ,, 200 la nuit en uraisuns despent. 
orb adj. blind. 

mas. nom. sg. 732 orb est de quor e avoglez. 
ordure s. f. filth. 

prp. sg. 618 enchns avez tuz jurs este a pecchez e ordure, 
ore adv. now; (precedes the verb, save in 245. 1124). [1482. 1658. 1776' '19^- 

241. 243. 245. 344. 359. 433. 552. 554. 561. 809. 824. 872. 924. (989 or). 1005. 1088. 1124. 1219. 
orfanin adj. orphan, wretched. 

mas. nom. sg. 1835 jo peccheres orphanin. 
,, ace. ,, 6b ki pest le famiUus, ki sustent I'orfanin. 
orgoil s. m. pride. 

prp. sg. 722 A. li engres par orgoil e envie (v. note). 
orient s. m. east, the East. 

prp. sg. 33 de orient veng : 1 127 d'orient venant : 1558 li clercs ki vint del orient, 
orientel > adj. oriental, eastern, 
orienteus J mas. nom. sg. 14S6 est venuz h traitre orienteus. 

,, ace. ,, 1407 tut rettent Apl. le clerc orientel. 
original adv. native, by origin, by birth. 

mas. nom. pi. 23 si ancesur estoient Romein original, 
orphanin under orfanin. 
orra, orreient, orrez, under oir. 
ors under or II. 

OS I. s. ra. bone. 

nom. pi. 652 fruissent os, char emfle. 

prp- » 954 t^s nerfs id sunt rumpuz e de tes os sevre. 
OS II. 'v V. intr. to dare. 

OSes I ind. pres. I sg. 276 kar descuverir ne I'os : 1841 jo ne me os numer. 

osera 1 <, ..2 „ 43 cument oses tu celui numer : 45 oses en ma maisun precher. 

oserent ) ,, fut. 3,, 474 ne te osera nuire ne cuard ne hardi. 

,, pret. 3 pi. 1660 reni Jesu ki Giu oserent encroer. 
ost s. f. host, army. 

nom. sg. 1285 cist s'en vunt cum ost bani e plener. 

ace. sg. 1419 d'envair ost a rei u cit€ u chastel (v. note), 
ostage s. m. hostage. 

ace. sg. 293 mes de sa char demelne (mist) sacrifice e ostage. 



GLOSSARY. 



ci 



ostal 
ostel 
osteus 



oste, ostes 
oste 

ostenint 
ostez 

osturs 

otrie 

otriez 

otroier 

ottreit 

ottrie 



ot, ouant, 
oui (1647 
out ("147) 

0\Tfi 



1 s m dwelline-house, residence (= shelter). . , . 

„ 1413 ne mangcnint a table n'en tente, n'en ostel. 
" pi. 1485 sunt a V. venuz, a lur osteus. 
under hoste. 

V. tr. to take (down, away). 

ind fut. % pi. 141 1 de cheval n'osterunt ne sele ne panel. 

app. (ind'pft. 3 sg.) 97° ad oste (le chef A. del arbre u Vf^)^ ^^^^^ ^ ;, enseve[li]. 

ppp. mas. sg. 90 mort, de crotz ostez e posez en sarcLuJ . 26i ae la croii lu f 

s. m. h.aw'k. 

nom. sg. lOOS ore est seins e Ugger cum uns osturs mue. 
V. tr. to grant, accord, agree to. 

ind. pres. . sg. 7- f° P-.,"-"ranz nier u duter : 478 Apl. rottrie. . 
subi " ', i»4 (proiez I'^O k'il nTottreit, par sa grace, ceste \ie finir. 

iinper. 2 pi. 388 beu maistre ! pur Deu le m'otnez. 
infin. 1687 tant cum il lui plest espace otroier. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 737 » P""<:e « ^^ commune ne 1 unt pas otne. 
ouent under oir. 
I under ui. 

under aver. . . u v 

V tr. to work (miracles) ;— v. mtr. to act, behave. 

T f "'■^: t :S S^^^^^s'lr^;:^^'^ "^les merveiUes ke Dens t out o... 

s (m. .') work done, deed. 

r,'^m sff cq6 de uns enginnurs morteus ki est ovre e faiture. 

ace f ??37 ben recufust le ovre : .58. ke U ne cunpere cest o^Te cherement, 

tai'p^etTsg'l^ii'cds se desclot e uvri : 256 un de eus la curaUle d'un glaWe li ovri : 
,, ' ,, ,, 1064 du eel ki desclot e uveri. 



paen 

paene 

pacns 

paien 

paiens 



pa£ 
paer 

pailles 

pais 



1841 ione me OS numer pur paiens de pushn. 
fern. nom. sg. 15.7 quant la gent paene lur gref pleinte entendi. 

ace. ,, 337 (descunus) tute la lei paene. 
v'.'tr. to satisfy ; appease. 

infin I ^64 par unt lur deus mut purrunt paer. 
ppp. mas. pi. 747 1' gfant e li petit bien sunt de 90 pae. 
s. f. stuff, cloth. .„ „ . 

prp. pi. 681 a plume ne a cotun ne a paiUes d utre mer. 

pri^sg- 459dc cest pais ki est tut sires : 7 >S mandez de pais lointein :- 

1/ on rp>it mis m'en vene : 08 sui en cest pais entrcz : ■• , l- r 



I voc. 
J nom. 



ace. 
prp. 



cu 



GLOSSARY. 



(pais) 
pais 

paisant 

pal 
pales 

palefrci 
paleis 

pali 

Palladic \ 
Pallaiclc / 



prp. pi. 159 dune trembla terre en tuz lius e pais : 1 1 19 tant %-unt U citoien par pais querant. 

s. f. peace. 

nom. sg. 1713 ii est vie sanz mort, pais sanz cuntenciun. 

adj. peasant. 

1 141 perdirent blez e fruit li gainnur paisant. 



mas. nom. pi. 
adj. pale. 
' mas. nom. sg. 
fern. „ „ 
s. m. palfrey, 
ace. sg. 28 las 



1 145 nupez e megres e pales cum penant. 
1454 la char (m'est) pal e flestrie. 



palois 

palu I 

paluz J 

panel 

pantoiser 

par I. 

(.)a 
(«) 



(/3) 



(y) 

b 



ki palefrei n'ai S chevaucher. 
obi. ,, 1420 n'a cist Id n'est muntez palefrei bon e bel. 
s. m. palace. 

ace. sg. id un palois perrin trove ki ne pert pas casal : 436 le paleis e chanbres A. cerchera. 
prp. ,, 1465 (tureles e kemeus) de lur temples e paleis : — 

,, ,, 52 herberge en tun paleis marbrin : 1210 tenir en sun palois : 1 8 1 3 re^ut en sun palois perrin . 
V. intr. to grow pale. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 483 A. de tendrur gent, plura e pali. 
n. pr. Pallas (Miner\'a). 
ace. 336 (descunus) Tetim e Pallaide. 
obi. (dat.) 1 26 1 fei ke dei PaUadie e Diene la bele. 

,, (gen.) 1817 de la loi Apolin, Pallaide e Diene. 
under paleis. 

s. m. marsh, morass, pool, 
ace. sg. 86 1 funtaine ne trovent, rivere ne palu. 

„ pi. 696 (veisez) les grantz paluz seccliir e la terre crever. 
s. m. housings, horse-cloth. 

ace. sg. 141 1 de cheval n'ostenint ne sele ne panel. 
V. intr. to pant. 

iniin. 697 (veisez) oises e bestes miies baer e pantoiser. 
prep, by, tlirough ; among, &c. 

denoting the means by which an action is accomplished, (a) person, {P) thing, or {y) action (infin.) : — 
44 par ki unt eii damage : 86 par lei est faitz : 97 par Deu (v. note) : 12 1 descumtire par humme : 
155 quis par Jiieus : 341 endoctrine par humme : 342 revisite par Deu meimes : 3C6 pnrv^ par Deu : 
401 restorez par Noe : 453 guami par aucun de la curt : 467 gari par vus : 734 gamiz par autres : 
931 trahi par Judas : 963 livre par vus : 1 132 gamiz par un sun bien voUlant : 1 143 cist maus fu 
durant par A. : 1247 cist maus renuvele par un elergastre : 1300 aver desturber par vus : 1489 par 
ki unt perdu : 1515 par ki sunt destruit : 1667 par tei sunt morz. 

82 enquis par fines raisuns : 180 par vostre enseignement deveingne Xns. : I93 pruve par argument : 
205 esmoiller le quoer par avisiun : 295. 296. mue le curage par sermun, par avisiun : 302 veistes 
par revelaciun : 305 a sauvaeiun mist par sa encarnaciim : 317 (relever) par la voiz du liun : 337 met 
a mine par teu traisun : 343 par sa revelaciun a lui es acointe : 371 conferme par sermun : 400 pur- 
gez par le deluge ; 406. 409. 641. 992. 1364. 1693 par unt = whereby : 574 susduit par foleiir : 590 
justise par sage atempreiire : 597 par engin est cuntrefait : 648 espleite par peine : 657 forfist par 
traisun: 664. 1C27. 1562 par tant (thereby): 780 1' ewe par quel sunt travaille : 865 perdu par vostre 
enehantement : 885 par e. d'A. : 89I par les focuns crespiz : 929 aurnas par martire : 1006 bis. en- 
chante par caractes e par sortz : 1036 par les grantz miracles (v. note) : 1055 par la nuit ki smrint 
li airs enobscuri : 1099 nien par martire : 1166 est surse par la priere A. : 1220 bis. venir, partaaie, 
par martire : 1223 cunvertir par avisiun : 1225 finir par peine: 1226 merir par esample de \-us : 
1277 reapeler par promesse : 1289 espleiter par el : 1295 enganer par barat : 1317 bis. sevrer par 
duns, par tumient : 1334 90 est par sortz : 1385 venu par sun cumant : 1393 devenu par la force J. : 
I472parquei: 1487 trahi par ses serrauns desleus : 1510 basti par sesenchauntement : 1 651 enganer 
par diz : 1654 sunt abandune par vostre sermuner : 1662 curuce par tun nunsaver : 1692 espurger 
par batesme : 171 1 par sa redempciun : 1799 reinst par sa mort : 18 lO revisite par sa vertu. 
135 par raisuns demustrer: 706 par beivre: 1278 par tresor abaunduner : 1 29 1 par querre : 1298 par 
gas cuntruver ; i3iipar langurus garir : 1 317 par mort manacer : 1696 par trop targer : 1718 par 
the state of mind owing to -which, or in which, the action is effected : — [abanduner. 

119. 1224 par sa grace : 197. 1294 par ire : 239 par despit : 300 par vasselage : 307. 994 par envie : 
325 par grant devociun : 347 par nule vanite : 542 par amur : 544 par cumz e imr : 604 per amistd: 
722 par orgoil : 945 par felunie. 
the manner or circumstance, of the action : — 

139 par droit apent naistre : 169. 1 188 par niunbre : 1 79. 621. 1 1 1 5 par aventure : 212. 494. 1688. 
1695 par tens : 595 par nature : 1573 U en perdera le cief par jugement. 



GLOSSARY. 



cm 



(par) d 

2 

(a) 



(/3) 
par 11. 

parage 
para'is 

paraler 

paraletics 

parant 
parcener 

parchemin 

parcruz 

parcunter 

pardevant 

pardi 

pardun 

pardurable 

parent 
parent z 



parents 

parer 



. 398 dc parais cum fu desheritez : — 
1535 desore ofmoi serrez en parais iluri. 



parfund 
parfundc 



the deity sworn by : — 

IC75 par Tovin (no verb"): 1737 jur^eurent par lurdeus. 

in local relations, to denote (a) passage through, or along by, (/3) place of seizure ;— 

4«oarlesautreslimau3s'espandera: 839. 1209 (trespassant) par lui : 1523 une part par cus (aside 

by themselves) :-426. 5=5- 996. -509 (va) par ci : 503. 53- P-^^ '^ '^<' ■ 553- 1^47 par terres : 995 

narcestpais: Iii9(querant)parpai5: 1127 par Brettainne : 1302 (passer) par la mort : 1434 par 

chcmin (remist) : 1540 gurent par ces champs : 1592 vunt par un adrescement : 17S6 s espaunt par 

trestut le regnfi. . 

532 par les chevoilz (,1'unt pris) : 533 par la robe : 951 par les cheveus 1 pent. 

adv. very ; (wholly, 243). 

243 par cs peri : 1050 par est delitablc : 

1476 trop par estes criieus : 1566 tant par est irascuz : 1742 tant par fu ardanl. 

s. m. birth, origin. ., , . . 

prp. sg. 285 ciloien nobiles de parage : 743 seit de parage e gentilz e bien-ne. 

s. m. paradise. 

prp. sg. 144 pur nus tuz nasqui li reis de parais : 
„ „ 109 de parais les ruva ambesdcus exuiller : 
» '255 ^° parais fist hom m.-isle e femmele : 
(i'nfin.) s. m. return, of Christ's second coming. 

prp. sg. 39 ki puis jugera nus tuz au paraler. 

adj. palsied. 

mas. ace. pi. 148 sana paraletics. 

under parer. 

s. m. co-parcener, sharer. , , . 

nom. pi. 1321 si estre volez of nus parcener : 1638 requerez Jesum k en seum parcener. 

s. m. parchment. 

prp. sg. 1820 la geste ai, cum la vi, escrit en parchemin. 

(pp. =) adj. full-gTO\vn. 

mas. nom. sg. 288 parcruz ert e trente anz out. 

v. tr. to recount fully. 

infin. 1689 la franchise Deu ne puet nuls parcunter. 

prp. (cpd.) in front of. 

1365 pardev.ant lur auter. 

v. tr. to say out, utter. 

ind. pres. i sg. 273 quors nel puet penser ne jo nel pardi. 

acc"'sg" oTsanz pardun demander : 329. 812 de mes pecchez demant pardun : l6()5 pardun aver. 

adj. everlasting. . . , , , 

fem. prp. sg. 1046 regnerez tuz jurs en joie pardurable. 
) s. m. relative, kinsman. , . . 

I ace. sg. 1490 (unt perdu) A., e lur parent a Im atr.ait e asoti. 
Dro. ,. n^: (^anz merci aver) de parent u veisin. 
nom d1. I4() Tesu I'apelerent si p.arent e amis : 640 veisin, u parent (ne puirunt faire) : 

738 ne li parent A. (ne I'unt pas otrie :) 978 li parent A. e. si ami pnve (unt aide) : 
" 983 si parent pur samort giant duel unt demcne: 1015 siparcnt e ami I'unt en terre musce : 
'J, ',', 1079 si firent noz parentz : 1273 (se sunt .alifi) noz veisins e .amis e parents k'eumes cher. 
voc. , 1076 citoiens ! vesin, parent, ami. 
prp'. ',, 1516 tant sunt de lur parentz destruit e maubailh. 
s. f. parentage, birth. 

prp. sg. 547 ne fuissez citoien de parente majur. 
V. intr. to appear, be seen. 

ind. pres. 2 sg. 26 ( vus . . . .) ki tant pcrs prude bcr. , , , ■. 

3 „ 16 un palois perrin, ki ne pert pas casal : 241 ore pert ke tu es (guerpi) : 
" ',', ,, .'. 494 al endemein par lens quant part la matinee (v. note) : 
" " " " 1:1:7 k'.a fause fust pruvC-c ben pert k'il out poiir : 

,o88orepert benVilnefu(failli): in3hsancs A. ipert aerseeiidurci._ 

',', pret. 3 ,',' 226 a la gloire de Deu parut e resplendi : 495 e du solail panil la clartfi k est levee : 
,, ,', 701 niie ne parut ki terre peiist unibrcr. 
fu't. 3 ,, 440 c quancke vus ai dit, dune pur voir parra. , , , 

infin. 1000 les mortz funt vifs parer : 1002 veir funt tut parer chose k est fausetiS. 
periph. pres. ptcp. 11 76 sa croiz a si sancs est parant. 
\ adj. deep, low ; de parfund, heavily, deeply. 
} mas. prp. sg. 642 (diables) k'en enfer sunt parfund. 



GLOSSARY. 



(parfunde) fem. nom. „ 772* (I'ewe) ki parfund fu e le : 788 I'ewe lii ert parfunde e raedde. 
,, prp. „ 765 (a une ewe) grant e parfund sanz gue (venent). 
adv. 1 203 lors gette de parfund un suspir. 
parilgal \ adj. quite equal, 
paringal j mas. nom. sg. 271 U est parilgal e uni : 1620 (cist turment) n'est de loing parmgal cum Deus sufn. 

(fem.) prp. sg. 11 une cite nobUe sans gueres paringal (= with scarcely an equal). 
perjure s. ra. perjurer. 

nom. pi. 1 68 1 parjure e mescreant, &c. (v. note). 
parjure (pp. =) adj. perjured. 

mas. nom. pi. 1744 ki tuit fussent parjure li traitre senglant. 
parler v. intr. to speak ; speak of. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 595 Id ne parole, ne ot, ne sent, ne veit, par nature : 
,, ,, „ „ 1075 parole primereins as autres enturli : 
„ ,, „ „ 1293 cist, ki les autres guie, parole premer. 

infin. 41 quant I'ot A. du fiz Deu parler: 213 hastivement s'en va a sun hoste parler : 
,, 1668 quant I'ad 01' parler: 1788 cist k'en oient parler. 
parmi pr^P- amid. 

236 en un fust dresce autre entravers parmi (v. note), 
parmurir v. intr. to die wholly ; sanz p. (= adj.) unending. 

infin. 1675 mort sanz parmurir sufrent el puis de enfer. 
parocire v. tr. to slay outright. 

infin. 1626 nel volent parocire, mais lungement pener. 
parole I. under parler. 
parole II. ? s. f. word, speech. 

paroles J ace. sg. 445 la parole entendi : 540 atendant la parole, a queu chief fust menee. 
prp. ,, 526 (dist) a parole simple e atemprge. 
,, pi. 647 de quor les hai, de paroles laidist. 
parra, part I. (494) under parer. 
part II. s. f. part, portion, share ; side ; une part, (a side =) aside (adv.) ; cele part, thither. 

.-ICC. sg. 928 n'eit ja part de ceus : 1 7 1 2 part doinst of vus la mund : 1716 ne part ne eient de nioi. 
( „ ) ,, 31 une part I'apele : 74 une part Facoilt : 115 lur cmint cele part aler : 
,, ,, 1080 tuit vunt une part : 1523 une part par eus tuz severez e parti, 
prp. ,, 1339 d'une part, veissez les uns decoler. 
part IIJ. ^ V. intr. to depart (482), — refl. s'en partir, to go away; — v. tr. (1523) to set apart, 
partem 1 ind. pres. 3 sg. 197. 493 atant s'en p.art : 1014 I'alme s'en part, le cors a terre est trebuche. 

partez ,, „ » pi. 984 partent s'en atant e d'Uuec sunt ale. 

parti > „ pret. 3 sg. 482 veissez grant duel quant I'un d'autre parti, 

partie i. ,, fut. 2 pl. 383 uncore de mo: pas ne vus en partirez. 

partir imper. „ „ 347 ja ne vus en partez par nule vanite. 

partirez inlin. = (s. m. prp. sg.) 1051 au partir de cest secle ke si est trespassable. 

partiz J app. (ind. pft. i pl.) 1523 (puis ke les eiimes) tuz severez e parti, 

pp. mas. sg. 1053 U poples ki la fu, d'iluec s'en est parti. 
,, „ pl. 1025 atant s'en sunt partiz, vunt s'en en lur cit6. 
„ fem. sg. 1458 (atant s'angoisse) tute s'en est partie. 
p.artie ir. s. f. party, body. 

nom. sg. 720 grant partie des Sairazins s'asentent bien a li. 
partut adv. every^vhere. 

390 partut frai tes volentez : 538 I'achesun partut est renumee : — 
530 partut ii veritez est pruvee ; 1585 partut ii sun poer estent. 
parut under parer. 

pas particle, strengthening the negative, no, not. 

(a) after the verb,( — after the auxil. ; if a compd. tense); (b), preceding the verb, and standing 

immediately before the diiect negative ne, in which cases also it is always (save 383) immediately 

preceded by I'i. 

16. 40. 535. 577. 601. 687. 737. 932. 956. 1200. 1368. 1382. 1518. 1520. 1559. 1619 ne . . . . pas. 

383. 435. 492. 690. 721. 1678. (ki pas ne &c.) 

1 2 14 nun pas sulement oir, (mes obeir). 

v. intr. to pass, go over or through ; v. tr. to cross, get beyond, get before. 

ind. pres. 3 pl. 763 Ii uns les autres passent : 770 a grant estrif i passent : 

772 I'ewe passent a nou : 792 S seeches plantes passent nis li petit enfant. 

pret. 3 sg. 996. 1509 ki par ci passa. 
,, 2 pl. 1 1 27 passastes par Brettaine, d'orient venant. 
J „ fut. 1 sg. 1832 passerai Mun Giu, le roiste munt alpin. 



(b) 
(O 

passa 

passastes 

passg 

passent 

passer 

passerai 



> 



GLOSSARY. 



cv 



(passer) 



passiun 

pastur 

pasturs 



pastureus 

paumcs 

pautencr 

pauteners 

pautoner 

pav^e 

P' ^.■ 
peccne 

peccheres 

peccheiir 

pecchur 

pecchurs 



jiecchcs 
pecchez 

peel 



peine 
peines 



peinent 
peinture 

peise 
peisible 

peisun 

peitrine 

pejui- 

pel I. (l 



prp. ,, 

(= s. m.) „ 
pp. mas. sg. 
pi. 



infin. 47 neustes \'us passer : 669 anguisse ki s'en put tost passer : 

■^qi il avant (horn nouant ne pout) passer : 1302 par la mort tuz lur cuyent passer. 

766 ne batel nc nief u passer unt truve : 768 de passer s'est chescun eforcfi : 
1355 unt ocis tuz, sanz nul passer. 
Ii^l au passer <le un puntl, ii li tlotz fu bruant. 
968 atant of sa mesnee est li princes passe : 712 passe en fu ja dimi an plener. 

767 un pund i unt truve il sunt li uns passS. 
s. f. passion, suffering, death-agony. ... , , • 
prp. sg. 315 il lemistrent i mort e passiun : 1703 cum il estoit en mortel passmn. 

) s. m. shepherd. 

) nom. sg. 1478 il tuz \tis apele cum pastur ses aigneus. 

prp- " 555 '^""i 1"^ " '^"'^ Kupil'- escriez de pastur. 

ace. pi. 1065 (en unt garni) aguetes e pasturs paens. 

s. m. herdsman. 

nom. sg. 430 90 fra ke fait li pastureus. 

s. f. palm of the hand. 

prp. pi. 23S des paumes i la face criieument fen. 

adi. fs. m.) base, ruffian, ^vTetch. 

nom. s". 460 plus est pauteners ke n'est lu enchani : 709 h feluns tiranz pautoner. 

voc T ! 294 vassal pautener ! 1646 tres cruel pautener ! 

nom pi. 1608 cist pautener vassal (ferent): 1745 cist pautener tu-ant. 

prp. „ 1571 (ki a ces mais entent,) faus pauteners ki vus mentent (v. note). 

(pp. =) adj. paved. 

fem. prp. sg. 503 s'en vunt curant par la rue pavee. 

under pez. 

under pecchez. 

!' s. m. sinner. . 

nom. sg. 1835 kancke ai veii e 01 jo peccheres orphamn. 
.icc 1842 (io ne me OS numer) mes pecchur cupable. 

prp". „ 464 de moi ki cheut, peccheiir enveilli : 581 piete unt tost de repentant pecchm'. 
nom. pi. 1479 les pecchurs repentantz sunt ses especieus. 
ace ,, 1690 les pecchurs repentanz acoilt sanz reprover. 

prp'. „ 927 piete te preinne de nus tuz pecchurs las : 1047 proiez pur nus pecchurs. 
voc. ,, 174 -i-us, pecchur dampnez ! 
V. intr. to sin. 
ind. pres. 2 sg. 1670 en pecches mut, e menz, quant te 01 tes deus pnser. 

s. m. sin. , ^ ,. , - 

prp. sg. 1806 pement confessiun de folic e pecche. 
ace. pi. 1692 par batesmetelou tes pecchez espurger. 

prp. ,, 618 enclins a pecchez e ordure :— 329. 812 de mes pecchez demant pardun. 
s. m. stake, pole. 

ace se. 1600 un peel en terre afichent. , ,, . 

prp. ,7 1603 au peel I'unt atache a grant turment cural : 1606 entur le pel 1 enchacent. 
pi 6; I de pens e de bastuns u enpeinst u batist. 
1 s"f pain suffering ; trouble, difficulty ;— a peine, mth difficulty, scarcely. 
} prp. sg. 619 a peine ublie : 843 a peine chaut remeinl h quors eu piz batant : 
938 le vis a queuke peine ad vers le ciel dresce :— 
!! 290 tant sufri de peine e tant sufri de huntage :— . , . , 

„ 648 ren n'i espleite par peine k'em i mist : 1225 (ceste vie finir) par peine e repruver. 
ace. pi. 1630 k'il le tenc digne [jur li teu peines endurer. 
under pener. 
s. f. painting. 

prp. sg. 597 par engin est cuntrcfait en cntaUle u peinture. 
under pesa. 

adj. peaceful. . ..,,,., , 

fem. nom. sg. 222 la nuit estoit peisiblc, h tens beus e sen. 
s. m. fish. 

ace. sg. 283 (ki fist) oisel, peisun marage. 
s. f. breast. 

ace. sg. 161 2 teinte en a la peitrine. 

adj. compar. worse. , . , 

568 repent toi de tun maisfait, n'cn serras le pejur (you wUl be none the worse for it). 

606) under peel. 



CVl 



GLOSSARY. 



pel II. 



)>eleii;un 

peli(;un 

pelerin 



[lenance 

penant 
pendant 



pendi 
pendirent 
pendu 
penduz 



penfi 

penent 

jiener 

penerent 

penez 



pens 
pense 
penser 
penses 



pensis 

pent 
penuncel 

per 



perdiciun 

perde 

perdera 

perdirent 

perdist 

perdre 

perdu 



pere I. 



s. f. skin, sole (of foot). 

nom. sg. 652 fruissent os, char emfle e la pel enpalist. 

(ace.) ,, 1428 I'-alasse e I'ensenglante des plantes la pel. 

s. m. cloak, mantle. 

ace. sg. 477 plus I'eim ke pelei^un d'ermine : 1829 pur esclavine eschaung mun ppli9un d'ermin. 

s. m. pilgrim. 

nom. sg. 51 respond li pelerin : 423 un pelerin trespassant (par ci sermunant va) : 

„ ,, 996 cist pelerin lettre (trop i a sun barat par cest pais semme). 
ace. „ 1814 (A. re9ut sun oste Apl.) trespassant pelerin. 
s. f. penance. 

ace. sg. 675 sa penance i meine pur ses maus espurger. 
,, ,, 1083 penance demenum ke ne seium peri : 1807 penance demeinent. 
s. m. penitent. 

nom. sg. 1 145 nupez e megres e pales cum penant : 1827 penant deveng e preng burdun fresnin. 
s. m. hUl. 

gen. sg. 798 ala trainant A. i martire au puier le pendant (v. note), 
prp. „ 878 Id avau le pendant s'espant : 1 166 par lapriere A. est surse du pendant. 
V. tr. to hang ; — intr. to be hanging. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 951 par les cheveus i pent : 1579 damage est k'il ne pent. 
,, pret. „ ,, 237 a clous le afferma, encroa e pendi. 

„ „ ,, ,, 970 del arbre fl pendi : i5o8tant mar reclamas le deu k'en croiz pendi. 
,, ,, ,, pi. 1618 en croit le pendirent li Giu desloial. 
ppp. mas. sg. 6 penduz e cloufichez a loi de desloial : 87 estre en croiz pendu. 
~] V. tr. to torture ; — ref. to trouble one's self, to labour. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1590 mut se penent d'aler hastivement : 1717 se peinent de mettre raei a confusiun. 
y ,, pret.,, „ 427 ki Giiieu en Suhe en croiz penerent ja. 

I infin. 668 plus seut demurance (pener) le cors : 1 626 nel volent parocire mais lungement pener. 

J app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1009 lors I'und de rechief mut plus k'avant pene. 
ppp. mas. nom. sg. 89 (deingnast estre) penez : 759 ki en croiz fu pene : 1798 en croiz murut pene. 
,, ,, ace. ,, 1740 Tociroient pene. 
,, ,, prp. ,, 344 (ore vnis pri) pur deu en croiz pene. 
V. intr. to think, reflect ; — tr. conceive (273) ; — infin. = s. m. thought, mind, 
ind. pres. 2 sg. 32 Q penses tu .aler ? 
,, ,, 3 ,, 1613 hraartirs ki pense du rei esperital. 
imper. 2 ,, 563 pens de tun hngnage. 

infin. 273 (la joiekiifu) quorsnel puet penser : l322lajoie duciel dunt quor nepuet penser. 
nom. sg. 216 mis quors ne mis penser (ne prist sum), 
adj. pensive, sad. 

mas. nom. pi. 161 dune devindrent Jiieus mumes e pensis. 
under pendi. 
s. m. banner, flag. 

prp. sg. 1 286 (s'en vunt cum ost bani e plener) 3 penuncel leve. 
adj. equal, peer ; mate, 
mas. aec. sg. 217 un sunge sungai, ne oi'stes unc le per. 

„ prp. „ 1 361 jurent Jovin lur deu, li plus haut k'est sanz per. 
fem. ace. sg. 105 quant Deus out fait Adam e Ewe siie per. 
s. f. perdition, ruin, 
prp. sg. 338 met hum a grant mine e a perdiciun : 1716 ne part ne eient de moi fiz de perdiciun. 

IV. tr. to lose, destroy, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1405 plus ke leonesse ki pert sun leuncel. 
,, pret. 3 pi. 1 141 perdirent blez e fruit li gainnur paisant. 
,, fut. 3 sg. 1573 il en perdera le cief par jugement. 
subj. pres. „ ,, 932 (proiez) k'il nus, ki sa faiture sumes, ne perde pas. 
,, impft. ,, ,, 730 ne voudroie ke A. uncore perdist la \'ie. 
infin. 140 sanz pucelage perdre u damager. 
app. (ind. pft. sg.) 808 despendu e perdu ai trestut mun viant : 418 A. as perdu. 

,, ( ,, ,,3 pi.) 1388 il n'unt nis un des cheveuz entame ne perdu : 1489 unt perdu A. 
ppp. mas. sg. 873 ne suefre ke pur moi seit tis poples perdu. 
,, ,, ,, 865 par vostreenchantement trestuit sumes perdu : 1520 (ne sunt pas) ne perdu ne peri. 
,, ,, pi. 99 ne vout Deus ke soiez damnez ne perdu, 
s. m. father. 

nom. sg. 122 li haut Pere du ciel (ne se vout fier) : 270 benoit seit le pere (v. note). 
,. » 1343 li P^rs ^" fi^ v^ bender (la plaie) : 1529 le perele fiz au quor feri (v. note). 



GLOSSARY. 



cvu 



(pere i.) 



pere 
peres 



167 a desire sun pere est asis : 1705 al destre =™ P^J^,^;''^^'^'' J/J""„„ , ,, pe,e e le Fi/ 
186 (craire) le Pere e le Fiz, Seint Espent enseraent : 893 le S. E. reclame e le fere e le r iz. 

250 pere Adona'i ! 



gen. 

ace. 

voc. „ „ . 
1 s. f. stone, rock. 
J nom. sg. 644 pere perist e depece. 

ace. ,, 

prp. „ 



loli (deroche) de pere : 



0,14 pere pcitsL c v»»,|j>-v.«_. 

col quidez ke jo pur deu recleim metal u pere dure ? 
643 mal aient deu pere u fust u ki de metal sunt (v. note) ; 
„ 490 ki sa eglise sur pere funda e establi. 
^- t j^S:rd^^: J^^^^^to de peres Vagraventent, de .uehe e de perrun. 

under perir. 

adi. imperilled, exposed to danger. 

mas. ace. pi. 243 les perillez rescuz ja lu ore par es pen. 

under perrin. 

V. intr. to perish. 

ind ores, i se. U'SS raoi ki peris sanz are. . ,„„„„„ 

" " ,, 1696 ke ne soiez del tut peri 1—465 si fuissez pen. 

m'ii^prp!''sg!°f7j8 les* martirs sunt en gloire, el regne peraienant. 
pement, pemez, under prendre. 



peri, perie 
perillez 

perin 

perir 

peris 

perisent 

perist 

peritz 



permenant 



adi. of stone. , , 1^1 

mas. nom. sg. 57 escu m'est e guarant plus ke chastel perin. 
ace. „ 16 unpaloispenin trove kine pert pas casal. 
", prp. „ 1813 A. re^ut ensunpaloispenin. 
s. m. huge stone. 

prp. sg. 1700 de peres I'agraventent, de zuche e de penun. 
under parer. 
s. f. person. 

ace. pi. 187 (craire) trois persones, un Deu. 
(1405) under perdre. -.u j f ^ 

V. intr. to be weighty, grievous (used impers. with dat.). 
ind orct i. se 1,28 pesa al daneiner k'U tant fu espami. 

subj.^res. I ,! ^98 ali peise u agree [no matter whom it may offend or please]. 
s. f. grievous displeasure. 

ace. sg. 1381 li enemi Jesu en unt e envie e pesance. 
adj. weighty, heavy. ,. , . ^ „„„„. 

mas. nom. sg. 1746 lores curaence h bniit e un estur pesant. 

prp. „ 835 le fert du poin c du bastun pesant. 
V. tr. to feed. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 60 ki pest le famillus. 
pp. m.as. nom. sg. 1391 U lu du bois ne saul ne peu. 
\ adj. little ; — adv. id. 
) mas. nom. sg. ' 3 [9 q-- pet- q-s ma^^^^^^^ .^^ ^^^ U.et.t enfa.it. 

", prp. t' 890 1 f^ims has e petiz : 91 cum un de nus morteus petiz e [malotruz ?] 
" adv. 1307 mutcunussez petit cest prude ber. 

peii (1391) under pest, 
peus „ peel, 

peiibt, peiistes, peiisum, under poer. 

np7 s. m. foot : a pc, on foot. , ^ , ^ , . , - .^ ^ . 

^ prp. sg. 762 eurcnt e poinnent a cheval c i pe : .422 (Ap .) sul i est a pe . 

„ „ 1164 gisant au pe du munt :-.7-3 (dcfigure) u de mam u de pd. 
nom. pi. 1374 !es menbrcs lur sunt restorcz, pez e braz sanz faillance. 
(ace.) „ 8 s^ sul A. i est le corse les pez nu. 1 j r.i „. ■ 

prp ' 804 chict as piez A. : lo.o defule (i pez) : 844 des pez le defulent .- 
,. .. 359 n'unt ore plus de tere fors saet pez mesurfi. 
Pharaun n. pr. Pharaoh. . .. 

prj). 309 ki jadis furent serfs au turant Pharaun. 

O 2 



pemn 



perrun 

pers, pert I. 
persones 

pert n. 
pesa 



pesance 
pesant 

pest 



petii 
petiz 



CVlll 



GLOSSARY. 



Phebum 
Phebun 



piete 



piez 
piler 

pis 

pile 
piteus 

piz 

place 
plaie 
plaies 



plainnes 

plaist 
plantes 

pleineut 

pleinne 
pleinte 

pleintifs 

pleisir 

plener 



plente 
plest 



pleurent 
plevi 

plie 

ploier 



In. pr. Phoebus (Apollo, although in 1817 the two are used as names of different deities), 
ace. 1 1 02 (Jo\-in) e danz Phebun reni. 
ob. (gen.) 181 7 (de la loi Apolin) e Phebum e Jo\-in. 

„ (dat.) 1572 fei ke dei Phebum ki en tut le mund resplent. 
prp. 622 quant feste funt a Febum deu du solail : 1416 a Phebun le durrunt : — 

>' "737 P^r l*"" deus, Phebum, Mahum, e Ten'agant. 

s. f. pity. 

nora. sg. 927 piete te preinne de nus : 1438 pite te preinne de moi. 
ace. ,, 581 piete unt tost de repentant pecchur : 630 de lui piete n'unt : 866 pite en ad eii : 

,, ,, 1342 n'est hom ki n'en peiist giant piete aver : 1456 Apl. piete en ad. 
PT- )i 775 gent [= he groans] de piete : 1526 dune les oceismes sanz piete e merci. 
under pez. 
s. m. pillar, post. 

prp. sg. 1616 Uer se lessa a un piler. 
adv. compar. "worse. 

163 tuz jurs decUnerent puis de mal en pis (from bad to worse), 
under piete. 
adj. piteous. 

mas. prp. sg. 821 A. regarde a piteus semblant. 
s. m. breast, bosom. 

prp. sg. 895 li fait voler le chef senglant du piz : — 843 a peine chaut remeint li quors eu piz batant. 
under plest. 
) s. f. wound. 

J ace. sg. 1343 tant cum li pere au dz la plaie va bender, 
nom. pi. 975 garies sunt ses plaies, e sis cors restore, 
ace. ,, 1530 tant k'as plaies bender li freres main tendi (v, note). 
prp. ,, 1 666 (te purrunt mesciner) de tes morteus plaies. 
s. f. plain, 
prp. sg. 1466 a une pleinne se aresteent. 

,, pi. 1531 li sancs cum un roiseus es plainnes se espaundi. 
under plest. 
s. f. sole of the foot. 

prp. pi. 792 a seeches plantes passent nis li petit enfant : — 1428 I'ensenglante des plantes la pel. 
V. tr. to bewail. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1794 pleinent lur ancesurs ki sunt ja devie. 
under plainne. 
s. f. complaint. 

ace. sg. 1 5 1 7 quant la gent paene lur gref pleinte entendi. 
adj. miserable. 

mas. nora. pi. 164 dulurus, serfs pleintifs (se declinerent). 
s. ra. pleasure ; venir a p., to please, 
prp. sg. 433 s'a pleisir vus vendra : 1240 sire ! tut a vostre pleisir : 

,, ,, 1463 ki lie k'a pleisir li vent e ki li plest deslie. 
adj. entire, complete ; vast. 
mas. nom. sg. 712 passe en fu ja dimi an plener. 

,, prp. ,, 1652 tu sul es acheisun de cest grant mal plener. 
fem. nom. ,, 1285 cist s'en vunt cum ost bani e plener. 
s. f. plenty, great quantity. 

nom. sg. 381 tant i a plente : 769 de pople i out plente. 
V. intr. to be pleasing, (impers. and with dat. of pron. ; for 1631 v. note). 

nd. pres. 3 sg. 388 s'il \-us plaist : 1229 a keus plest eschoisir (Jesu) : 123 1 plest vus dune amer .' 

,, ,, „ „ 1276 s'il vus plaist cumander : 1 28 1 mut me plest cist voler : 1463 (deslie) ki li plest : 

,, ,, ,, „ 1673 si li plest : 1 67 4 diable ki ser\ez e vus plaist aiirer : 1687 il lui plest espaceotroier. 

„ pret. ,, ,, 116 ki cunseil lur plust escuter : iiS a ki'l plut a lui (v. note) : 

,, „ ,, ,, 1221 dunt Deu (riji) te plut seisir: 1237 mut lur plut oir : 1287 lur plut aiirer. 

„ ,, „ ,, 1309 ki(i(;) nus plut tuz crier : 1631 plusurs de eus, ke Deus plust sauver(v. note). 
1315 ne place k Jesu (ke nus (t'l/ias) puissez sevrer de sun enseignement). 



subj. pres. ,, , 

under plure. 

V. tr. to pledge. 

app. (md. pft. 3 pi.) 

V. intr. to comply. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 726 a lui s'asent e plie. 

V. tr. to throw down (the glove) in challenge. 



1109 entrejurez sunt e lur foi unt ple\i. 



CIX 



GLOSSARY. 

(ploier) infin. 834 a 90 pruver, sui prest ploier le gant. 

nluie s. f. rain. , . , , 

nom. sg. 703 n'a pluie ne rusfie al seir n al enjuraer. 

plume s.^. eat^er. ^^,^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ , ^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^,^^^ ^^^^.^ 

g:;^nt V'nd'pres" jlg'sSg ne geenst. ne deut, ne plure : .348 P'- e gent de quoer. 

D^ J „p1. l5i3plturenteweimententlijoureeenveiUi. 

,',' pret. 3 sg. 483 A. de tendrur gent, plura e pah. 

grnd. 456 en plurant dit. ■ , , u 

plus I. adv., = more ; used a, ^^•ilh adjj., b, ^v•ith verbs, c, with adverbs .- 

a I simply, to form comparatives :— , j^ , (^ (■„ ^^f. plus 

feir;^s"\°3"oVt^.^;:irr;^:sTp£l"^^^^^^^ 

ne estoientf r484 bis. plus fortz e plus igneus : 1624 plus aegre. 
2 follo-aied by (a) de, or (,3) Xv, -^vV/; term of comparison :-- 

(a) .074 Plu^ ^ages des autres : ['WS crest.ens plus de c t]^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^_^ 

'n-er;'^MrJ^r- 1^06 ^^nt ^^t^S^^^^eVi^^^ ■^3- P^" 

estl^ke mcV: :574 Plu^ est fous ke beste : .720 plus blanes ke ekemsd ne cotun. 
•» 'hy^rpil^'il hv di'f art., to form siiperlativfs : — . 

^ {«2 f min des plus honurables :, 366 a la plus cniele mort l^em purra deviser, 

b , J:^//]" a) = I" to a greater eJtent, degree ; ((i) in negative clauses, = no longer .- 

i^\ r^iwliinr nhm se cuTUCe : 670 pur sun cors plus grever : — . . 

S ^ioo srnztslvxTavail ■. ,^26 san^ plus'demurer : 1584 plus ne mangera jama.s. 

c 1425 I'ahiient plus viument k'un chael. 

(dIusI n. as substantive {neuter), = a greater amount :— 
^^ ' , la) siwply, (/3) with follmjoing noun m {genitive) :- 

(«) 275plusmemustraDeus: .578uneorefraUgus^:^^ n^-enseinnerez : 425. .^5° pl- -> 

^''^ ^di'nc^an eTen^'cL'L Xe^pm^au'lcrf:;.! nl set de tan^ailles) : ,03. mil u plus des cito.ens. 
, iw'rf n</. a,t., (a) = the greater paH,-^ adv. by so much the more :- 

M-26 le plui de la curt ^ lui "s'asent :-(/3) 242 tant es le plus hum. 
f Dins) III. as adjective (in comparative), = more numerous :- 
(pms) ^__ ^^ j^^^;^^ pju-^ seg^ei celestien : 96^ ?!"= a fait vertu. 

(|8) ' 595 crestiens nuvcus plus de cent, 
f '"' iSrre'ral, many ;^vithdef. art., the greater portion 
plusur I pruu. . ' , {. j nerisent : 979 crestiens plusurs (unt aide) : 

plusurs ] nom. pi. , , . _plusurj, . \^;^^l^^]\^^^ li pl^^ur de eus (se sunt dune a Deu). 

ac'c !, 406 (li ad desclos) plusurs poinz. 

prp. „ 653 (li sancs ist du cors) en plusurs bus. 

^'"''"' acc'?''sg^'"]6Jovin descunus e le subterin I'lutun : . .03 Jovin reni e Plutun rcnnerci, 

pluveit ^„^"\';;,|°a'7;(,. , , 3^ dimi an n' en la terrc ne pluveit tant ne quant. 

'"^"' Ind"pre's° 'rsg!''r266 tant cum vif e estriu puis baiUer pur muntcr sele. 

" ■• \ " m '^r:^^::';::^-%^ ben s-en puet gabber de vus : 66, U, sVn pui tost 

" " ^ " passer Cv note) : 966 garir me puct : 1030 ne puet estre cele : 1 204 de lermer ne se 

nuet re enir : . 279 si 90 ne puet Aver mester : . 322 dunt quor ne puet penser : I349.n<= 

puet (regalder) ? ^672 puet les morz i ^'ie reapeler : 1678 verm, k'em ne puet tuer : 

, pi \'il "i - n"l^: S^Sn maisun reamener : ,562 par tant le pOum^bien saver. 
•• " \ ^ 66l nar"ant ne point li felun esploiter. .289 si par el ne poenl espleUer. 
;; pre't". I sg. ul ne pout estre guaranty : 702 n^i pout matinde ne vcspre aver mester : 70, ne se 



ex 



GLOSSARY. 



(poent) (ind.pret.3sg.)pout nul garder: 791 passer ne pout hom nouant ; 1148 flecchir nel pout hem 

vivant : 1377 cunustre les pout hom : 1435 ki ses cumpainnuns sivre ne pout mie : 
1783 ne se pout nul vanter. 
,, „ 2 pi. 47 en queu manere peustes-^•us passer ? 
„ Alt. 2 sg. 579 repentir te purras : 585 tu en purras consirer gueredun : 
„ „ „ „ 950 sun chief purras truver : 1663 tu en purras (honur) cunsirer. 
,, „ 3 „ 220 jamais ne nus purra vie ne mort se\Ter : 425 (plus) ke nuls dire purra : 467 meint 
hom purra estre gari : 636 ainz purra mer secchir : 1366 a la plus cruele mort k'em 
purra deviser : 1569 (tant) cum nuls dire purra. 
„ ,, 2 pi. 578 fere purrez retur : 1310 90 purrez \'us (espruver) : 
,, „ ,, ,, 1656 ne purrez eschaper: 1665 pardun purrez aver. 

„ „ 3„ 641 chose nepurruntfaire : 1364 mutpurruntpaerlurdeus: 1666 tepurruntmesciner. 
condit. „ sg. 81 ne purreit estre entendu : 193 ne purroit estre pruve. 
subj.pres. ,, ,, 667 ke sun volerpoiisse flecchir (but v. note). 
„ ,, I pi. 1299 ke peiisum repairer of les noz, k'i stmt. 
,, „ 2 „ 1316 {ne place a Jesu) ke nus puissez se\Ter. 

,, impft. 3 sg. 672 k'aie ne rescusse n'i pust aver mester : 694 ne venta vent si ki les peiist aorer : 
701 niie ne parut Id terre peiist umbrer: 1342 n'est hom ki n'en peust grant piete 
aver : 1541 n'i peiist hem cunustre (prive ne estrangi). 
poer s. m. power, authority. 

nom. sg. 1585 par tut a sun peer s'estent : 1787 ne puet raais le poer Jesu estre cele. 
ace. ,, 49 11 noz deus unt lur lei e lur poer : 138 du mund ad seingnurie e poer. 

„ ,, 917 le poer Jesu prisent : 1460 (lot e gloriiiej le grant poer Jesu. 
prp. „ 1661 (noz deus) ki tant sunt de poer. 
poeste s. f. abilitj' ; majesty ; sway. 

prp. sg. 77:* (U joure) deforce e poestfi: 869 ki regne en poeste : 1799 (nus reinst) d'enfernal poeste. 
poestifs adj. mighty, powerful. 

mas. nom. sg. 165 mes Jesu releva cume sires poestifs ; 806 cist est Deus poestifs. 
,, ace. pi. 584 noz deus poestifs desoremes aiir. 
poin s. m. fist. 

prp. sg. 835 atant le fert du poin e du bastun pesant. 
poinnal adj. pointed (v. note). 

1607 (ferent) de lances, e gros bastun poinnal. 
poinnent v. tr. to spur. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 762 curent e poinnent a cheval e a pe : 1593 pvu" tost venir poinnent ignelement : 
„ „ „ ,, 1608 ferent, batent e poinnent cist pautener vassal. 
point adv. strengthening the negation. 

463 (mal) ki point n'i avez deservi. 
pointes v. tr. to stitch. 

ppp. fem. (prp.) pi. 682 (n'a) coUtes pointes de sole (but v. note). 
poinz s. m. point, matter. 

ace. pi. 406 (li ad desclos) plusurs poinz par unt doit hom estre sauvez. 
poisance s. f. power. 

nom. sg. 167 1 kar ne vaut liu- poisance un butun d'eglenter. 
poisant \ adj. powerful ; tut — , almighty. 

poisantz J mas. nom. sg. 66i ki poisantz est : 807 cist est li tut-poissant : 1049 ki tant poisant est : 
poissant ) ,, ,, ,, 1 1 23 Jesu te gard, li tut-poisant : 1 743 si le purWt dune Deus li tut-poisant. 
politz (pp. =) adj. polished. 

mas. nom. sg. 901 purs e esmirables cimi cristals politz. 
pople, poples under pueple. 
port s. m. harbour. 

prp. sg. 908 a bon port arivez : 1 831 en nief me mette au prOCein port marin. 
portal s. m. gateway. 

prp. sg. 15 vent s'en li clers e entre a un maistre portal, 
porta ' V. tr. to carry, bring. 

portant ind. pres. 2 sg. 78 nuveles me portes d'un deu mescimeii. 

portantz ,, ,, 3 ,, 1122 cist ki la croiz porte. 

porte ,, „ „ pi. 852 portent gisarmes : 1112 la croiz of eus portent: 

porte I. I 1288 or portent e argent en cofres : 1732 angeres la portent eu ciel a grant processiun. 

portent ' condit. 3 sg. 638 pur tant cum portereit de fin or un cbomund. 

porter infin. 476 (ta esclavine) ke 9a porter \'us \-i : 1824 fei ke doi porter lui ki fist d'ewe -vin. 

portereit pres. ptcp. mas. nom. sg. 826 u uns paens haut s'escrie, une mace portant. 

portes ,, ,, ,, pi. 504 (cist s'en \Tint) portantz bastuns. 

portez J app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 368 (de I'ewe demande) e hom li ad porte. 



GLOSSARY. 



CXI 



(portez) 
porte u. 



posez 



pou 

poum 
pountz 



pour 



poure 

poiisse, pout 
praiol 

pre 

prechanl 
precher I 
precher i 
prcchera 



prechemer 

precheiir 
prechur 

preciuses 



preinne 
premer 
premers 



premur 

prendrai 
prendre 
preng 
prent 



ppp. mas. sg. 900 des angles est portez eu ciel U esperitz. 

s. f. door. ^ . 1 „»_„^ 

nom sg. 1693 CO est la porte par unt cuvent eu ciel entrer. 
ace. „ 509 "'s brisent e porte si il la trovent saerree. 
V. tr. to place. , . . , 

nnn rind nft X ol.") qSi pose Vunt en marbnn sarcu e estufi. . 

"Xp mat: S.'go'^de ?roiz^stez, e posez en sarcu : 778 ki W estre en crotz pos« : 
,7 959 en sarcu marbrin ke soit U cors posez. 
" " pi 1506 n'estes en sarcuz posez ne enseveli. 

it^l^^-^^po. n-est void. H temples = . 566 ^ pon de ire ne .ent. 

under poent. 

s. m. bridge. 

nom se. tCq li pount'- e^toit estroitz. 

ICC ' bv-, de glace fates pund : 767 un pund 1 unt truve. 

pr^". „ 772 Uulsdu pund en I'ewe sunt trebuche: ,153 au passer de.un pund. 

s. f. fear ; aver — , to be afraid. ..... 

ace. sg. 557 il <>«' V^^'^ ■ 733 <> nul ne voie, mes) pour eit. 

prp. „ 1 107 ne larrum pur poiir ja de brant lurbi. 

mt.Cc"sg. 59 Id guarde e cunforte le poure e le frarin : .842 (me numer) dolent, poure e fvarin. 

under poent. 

s. m. meadow. 

nom. pi. 693 (perisent) li praiol e herber. 

pn^'sg.lS -m est la flur du champ u cum Terbe du pre : 999 funt flestrir Ferbe du pre. 
I ind"p;es° Tsl% (ki) d'un deu nuvel preche : tSSS « clercs Id de lui preche. 
1 " ^'- Ln.iS^i^^S^^^^-SSo:^:enr::^unprecber:.C4.cu^^^^^ 

^■S^:i. tS'c'l^^l^:i^^^'^croi^ ,,0) Ue va prechant (un tafur) : 

8o6(Deus)dunt A. vaprechant: I25r deMane vaprechant. -■ „. . 

(ace.) 1120 (Apl! unrtruve) prechant : 1292 (unt le clerc truve) prechant e baptizant . 
1735 '^ q"is I'avoient e truve prechant. 

s. m. preaching. i. „ „► 

nom. sg. 1563 verai est sanz dutance U suen prechement. 

I nom srstg (venuz dust estre) cum certein prechur- : .4" mes sul i est a pe H precheur Apl, 
ace. „ I5i5maudient Apl. le precheur. 
adj. precious. 

fem. prp. pi. 3 adubbee de peres preciuses. 
under prendre. 

> adj. first i-'^'l^- if; „iria?e (seit batesme) : 929 ki primers aiirnas (Engletere par martire) 

} mas. nom. sg. ^98 ppe^r^mana^e^(seit^^^^^^^^ Uil'adtcinte premers de sancros 

" " adv. 1293 cist ki les autrcs guie, parole premer. 
s m the first of any thing, initiative, inauguration. 

r^ :iii!l<r;:^lhS^ Xt^'^^Sr;!f^.^o become mcamate ; p. estal, to haU. 
ind ores, i sg. 1827 penant deveng e preng burdun fresmn 
"1^ 6 ..„':' „„ r„„ Tirptit : crS n'est ki ne nre 



;in. 



reng ourauii iicsmn. 
578 n'est ki ne prent sum : 783 ki de tut prent cure 



.79 si curage me prent : 

889 saisist e prent A. 

441 s'en pemez leu vengance (v. note). 

1806 pement confessiun de folic e pccche. , 

216 fmis auorsne mis penser) ne prist sum: 231 prist e seisi J. . 

659en tern char prist : 898 la croiz prist : 180. de virgne prist enterre humanUe. 

47 1 prendrai (de bon quor) quancke Deus m'a purveu : 

1582 jo en prendr.ai si haut vengement. 

I q 1 2 pemez ent vengance de ecu tafur failh. 

-^■^-{ii: ?2^/S^r[:tr:''?^^(V^ii^^;:^rnJ?irtra,tre prendre apen. : 
160'; nel lessent reposer ne nul liu prendre estal. 
prp. ,',' 190 (turment) sanz fin prendre (= that has no end). 



„ 3 " 
pret. 3 sg. 

J) It t* 
fut. I „ 

„. " " ■• 
imper. 2 pi. 



cxu 



GLOSSARY. 



(prent) 



pres 

present 

present 

presentz 

presente 

presse 

prest 
pretz 

preuz 



pri 

prias 

prie 



I. 



■■•}: 



app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 531 lors I'unt pris e trahit par la riie : 1408. 1598 I'unt pris e seisi. 
ppp. mas. sg. 156 fu pris : i 136 pris fu: 428 si cunrei n'en est pris : 823 es-le-\Tis seisi e pris. 

„ „ pi. 461 si pris sumes andui e mcnez devaut li. 
adv. near. 

1464 pres sunt de V. 
s. m. present, gift. 

ace. sg. 188 detoi li fras sacrifice e present : 311 de la lei lur fist e present e dun. 
adj. present. 

mas. nom. sg. 645 (M princes) ki presentz juge i sist : 1564 (li princes) Id i estoit present. 
V. tr. to present. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 787 a Deu presente A. a devociun grant : 135 1 a Deu les presente. 
s. f. crowd. 

nora. sg. 760 la presse ert grant du pueple ki la fu aiine : 1751 si fu l.i presse grant e mortel. 
adj. ready. 

mas. nom. sg. 834 a f pruver sui prest ploier le gant : 1686 ki prest est tuz sauver. 
„ ,, pi. 1195 pretz sumes a fere a quor baud e joiant. 
adj. gallant, 
mas. nom. sg. 26 ki tant pers prude ber (v. note) : 1775 ki avant fu chevaler preuz e alose. 

„ ace. „ 1307 raut cunussez petit cest prude ber : 1648 tu as a mort livre tant meint prude ber. 
V. tr. to beseech, pray to, beg. 

ind. pres. I sg. 58 lui pri e aiir: 279 (jo pri : 468. 1084. 1219 (9o)\'us requor e pri ; 
,, „ ,, ,, 344 ore vus pri e sumoin piu- Deu en croiz pene : 11 24 pri (parenthetically). 
,, ,, 3 „ 728 entendez ke raisuns cumande e veut e prie : 1457 pur lui requert e prie. 
„ pret. 2 ,, 925 ki pur tes enemis curaument Deu prias. 
imper. 2 pi. 485. 822 proiez Deu (Jesu) pur moi: 930 pur nus proiez celui k'est Messias : 
„ ,, „ 1047 proiez piu' nus le roi esperitable : 
,, ,, „ 1222 proiez lui Id te vout sun segrei descuverir. 
irifin. 1665 pardun purrez aver si tu les voilz proier. 
app. (ind. plpft. 3 sg.) 39 1 demurez est cum A. li avoit proiez. 
s. f. prayer. 

nom. sg. 1455 si tu requers pur moi, ta priere ert oie. 
prp. ,, 1 166 par la priere A. est surse (une funtainne). 
primer, primers under premer. 
primereins adj. first, taking the lead. 

mas. nom. sg. 1075 parole primereins as autres entur li. 
adv. firstly, before all else. 
282 Deu primes enmercie. 
\ s. m. prince, chief. 
) nom sg. 355 li est Alexandres li princes alose : 541 quant li princes I'ad veii : 

,, ,, 645 li princes, ki presentz juge i sist, cumande ke batu seit : 942 li princes, (I'at eschami) : 
„ ,, 968 of sa mesnee est li princes passe : 1243 li princes, espris de ire, art e restencele ; 
,, ,, 12S1 respund li princes : 1564. 1639 quant ot 90 li princes : 

,, ,, 1741 li prince feluns (ne vout tant atendre :) 1780 de la cite li princes tost s'en est arage. 
ace. ,, 1040 ne dute mais tirantz — prince ne cunestable. 
prp. „ 414 a un prince felun (ala) ! 
Voc. „ 417 ai, princes gentilz ! 

nom. pi. 357 (ii sunt) li autre prince tant riche e tant feffe : 7 14 li prince de la terre (sunt assemble) : 
i> )> 737 li prince e la commune ne I'lmt pas otrie : 1319 (regner) en cest mund princes curunez. 
s. m. esteem. 

nom. sg. 153 de lui crut la renumee e pris. 
prist under prendre. 

V. tr. to prize, value. 

ind. pres. i sg. 334 ApoUin ne prise mes valiant un butun. 
„ ,, 3 ,, 736 celui sive ki doctrine (e maistrie) tant prise. 
1, 1' 11 pi- 9'" (volentris e en%iz) prisent le poer Jesu. 

„ pret. 3 sg. 1 150 U ne prisa tut un esperun vaUlant : 1 162 ne prisa noz deus a valur d'un gant. 
infin. 1670 te oi tes deus priser. 
gmd. Si I (Jesu) k'A. va tant prisant. 
s. f. prison, imprisonment. 

ace. sg. 679 prisun ad obsure pur sale e pur soler. 

pi-p. „ 310 Deus les engetta de servage e prisun :. — 112 en la prisun de emfer aler : 1023 en la 
prisun est tuz jurs au maufe : 1081 en la prisun d'enfer ki sunt enseveli : 1709 ki sui en tel 
mortel prisun ; — 1217 ne pur large prisun fauser ne flecchir. 



pnere 



pnrnes 

prince 
princes 



pris I. 

pris n., 

prisa 

prisant 

prise 

prisent 

priser 



pnsun 



GLOSSARY. 



CXIU 



^ ace pi 1 66 d'enfer rescut ses prisuns cheitifs. 

) adi intimate ; s. m. intimate, familiar Inend. _ 
1 nora se. 78+ hautement soudee Id de lui est pnve. 

ace 1244 Id ses hummes e amis e sis pnvez apele. 

prp ,037 keDeusdeignamustrer as ses martirs pnvez. 

) adj . neighbouring, next (of space or dme). „ . ^ , ^ n 

( mas pr^. sg. 1831 en niefmemette au procein port nlarin. 
fera. (ace.) „ 1 1 80 la nuit proceme apres. 

prp.^sg°"73°angerereu ciel la portent a grant processiun. 

acc's'g.'^si? fremissent cum liuns ki v-unt proie sivant. 

prp. ,; 1357 senglantz cum liun k'a proie est devurer (v. note). 
proier, proiez, under pri. 
promesse s.^. P^mise. ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^p^l^^_ 

s. f. promise. , . . 

prp. sg. 312 (.les raena en terre) de promissiun. 

nomf"sg^ 1277 1» prophecie d'anciens 90 cbnferme e saele. 

V. tr. to prophesy. . 

inlin. 131 dunt as oi lire e prophetizer. 

under preuz. 

rnd'^ pries' Tsg sTo^wtt tei obeissant) prove ta vertu : 109 . (U deciples) prove le sen au m.istre. 

app ,ind'?s|YA^:r^:i:;K^^':^^:- S6.benl-adore pn.. VU est boiseiir. 

;; ntr.'(= infin. pass.) 193 ne purroit estre pnive. 
adj. striking, 
mas. voc. sg. 827 vassal failU puant ! 

„ prp- .. '759 (sunt) el fu d'enfer puant : 66 en enfer gist puant. 
s. m. virginity. , ^ , 

ace. sg. 140 sanz (perdre u damager) pucelage. 

nom''(p^")' sg. 1253 e anres I'enfantement remist mere e pucele. 

^^ !f • ^^"^^^ pSe>:^59^'lu. d-u[ne] pucele k'en terre char prist (v. note). 

nom rtg un'po^t cuntre lui e cruel e hardi (vint) : 75: tant lui suit grant pueple (v. note). 
^ 87 1 quant eu desert tis poples de sei fu cunfundu : 
" " ^^|^i;r:!^^Jrc?=iS^s^Sl:Xfto53Hpopleskil.ni.d.UuecsVnestpard:- 

" '^il^pSc kelStTs\!int i;™el, GiUeu sunt (v. note) : 856 Id trovent grant pueple. 

^:]^t^^!^i:^^^^ 769 de pople i out plant.:- 
", " 245 de la croiz desent ore devant le pople ci. 
under poer. 

s. m. slope of hill. . . , „j,„t 

prp. sg. 798 (ala trainant) A. i. martire au puier le pendant. 
(1266) under poer. 

pr!!i!'sg"'i67S mort sanz parmurir sufrent el puis d'eni;er 



pnve 
priver 



procein 
proceine 

processiun 

proie 



promis 

promissiun 

prophecie 

prophetizer 

prude 

prove 

pruve 

pruvSe 

pruver 

puant 

pucelage 
pucele 



pueple 



ace. 
prp. 



puet, puez 
puier 



puis 
puis 

puis 



I. 
II. 



CXIV 



GLOSSARY. 



(puis) 



pmssez 
pulein 

pund 
pur 



591 puis respund : 657 puis par traisun forfist : 1094 ki puis du munt sailli : 1 1 28 ke est puis avenu ; 

1 138 emprisunez fu puis : 1256 puis devinl hem : 1 752 puis mist le cors. 

38. 176. 231. 261. 544. 92b e puis : — 147 pou de tens puis (v. note) : 1760 el siecle puis (v. note.) 

1380 puis lur enfance. 

152 puis ke il fu d'age : 967 p-k'il fut ajume : 976 p-k'il fu ne : 1522 p-ke les eiimes truvez. 

under poer. 

s. m. colt, foal. 

nom. sg. 619 a peine ublie 90 k'aprent ptilein en sa adanture. 

under pountz. 

prep, for, as instead of, on account of, &c. 

denoting substitution or exchange, (i) of object exchanged, (S-'c, (a) inplace of,{fi) in return for ; 

(2) of object taken in excliange ; (3) after respiindre, to answer for : — 

1 (a) 679 bis. prisun ad obscure pur sale e pur soler : 684 pur lit ad roche bise : — 

{fi) 314 ne li firent pur ses bens si mal nun : 1267 pin- ki ne doins une cenelc : 1536 pur turmentz cor- 
poreus . . . le regne averez du ciel : 1725 receverez pur tun travail guerdun, 

2 65 pur J. guerpiras la loi Ap. : 1S29 pur escla\ine eschaung mun peli^un. 

3 529 pur lui respunderai : 1306 respunt pur Apl. 

b denoting equality, introducing secondary predicates : — 

440 dune pur voir parra : 594 ke jo pur Deu reclaim metal : 8 15 90 ke hem desdit pur vers recum- 
batant : 845 pur raort le guerpissent : 1473 diables reclamez pur deus : 161 7 a curune de espines 
pur chapel capital. 

c denoting motii'e or aim : — 

1 in the name of : — 

29. 344. 382. 388. 484. 1 1 24 pur Deu (for God's sake). 

2 in the cause of: — 

68. 300 pur Deu murras : 686 pur sun seignur sufrir: 920 pur ki A. mortz est : 923 tun cors a 
martire pur la lei Deu livTas : 1072. 1225. 1318. 1431 pur J. mort (sufrir): 1191 pur ki a\-um guerpi 
maisun : 1 199 pur Deu sun sane espant : 1449 pur ki A. haut martirs est : 14S2. 1838 pur J. decole ; 
1630 pur li teu peines endurer. 

3 in honour of : — 

937 miracles out uvre pur le martir : 1444, $. pur U Deus deingna fere vertuz, — pur I'alme esclarcie : 
1770 merveiUes fist pur Apl. 

4 for the sake of .'— 

451 ja pur lignage ne serra esparni : 638, 9 ainz ke J. treshubUe pur tant de fin or, ne pur tuz les 
hummes : 779 pur tiie franchise, fai I'ewe descrestre : 873 ne suefre ke pur moi seit tis poples perdu : 
983 pur sa mort grant duel unt demene : 1 190 pur I'amur Jesu : 1 197. 1235 ne larrum pur losenge 
ne pur richesces (duns) : 1494 pur ki furent tuit sumuns : 1497 pur tut I'or ne fusent resorti: 1525 
n'eiissum flecchi pur un val d'or empli : 1825 ne i deise fausete pur tut I'or C. : 1837 pur A. musterai 
i mun livre. 
(/3) 475 pur quel ke : 538 1'achesun pur quel : 1502 pur queinasqui: — 1 187. 1446 pur coassemblames : — 
1440 pur tant ne laist. 

5 in behalf of : — 

[a) 485. 759. 822. 930. 1047 proiez pur moi (nus) : 925 pur tes enemis Deu prias : 1384 pur ses martirs 
ad fait miracle : 1455 si tu requers pur moi : 1457 pur lui requert : 1620 Deus pur moi sufri. 

(/3) 64 bis. en cest pais m'en veng pur toi e pur meint autre S. : 144 pur nus tuz nasqui : 292 ne mist 
ran(;un d'or pur nus : 658 pur lui tramist sun fiuz. 

6 for fear of : — 

364 ne soiez esmeiiz pur nule adversity : 393 d'une maisun sutive unt fait lur escole pur les grantz 
fertez des S. : 489 ne soiez de lui esloinnez pur nulli : 607 ne flecchirai pur nule mort : 1107 ne 
larrum pur poiir : 1 1 10 ne larrunt pur nuUi : 1 197 (ne larrum) pur mort : 1 200 resortist pur mort : 
121 7 ne flecchir pur lunge prisun; 1841 jo ne me os numer pur paiens de puslin. 
d -with infinitive, (a) of motive, {(3) = final clause : — 

(a) 1281 nevout guerpir pur sun cors U\Ter: 1234, 5. ne larrum pur les testes duner . . . ne purblandir. 
(/3) 670. 1360 pur sun cors (lui) plus grever : 675. 1324 pur ses (voz) maus espurger: 761 pur ver le 
gugement ; 943 pur les men-eiUes ver : 1 2 1 3 pin- moi de mes enemis garantir : 1 24 1 pur la loi 
acumplir : 1266 pur munter sele : 1289 pur duner : 1329 pur eus recumforter : 1354 pur joie deme- 
ner: 1 367 pur autres chastier : 1448 pur deUvTer nus : 1452 pur aver de \-us batesme : i593purtost 
venir ; 1 6 1 4 pur ses serfs sauver : 1627 pur ses turmentz dubler: 1628 pur murir (to kill) ; 1659 pur 
la gent enginner : 1691 pur embracer : 1808 pur estre endoctrine. 

pure under purs. 

purgez v. tr. to purify. 

ppp. mas. sg. 400 par le deluge estoit li mundz purgez. 



GLOSSARY. 



cxv 



purofri 

purpens 

purpos 

purpose] 

purpris 



purra, purras 
purri 



purs 



purveu 
pur\'it 
purvoier 
purvu 

puslin 

pust, put 
putage 

pute 

puteire 

puiir 



V refl. to put oneself forward, stand forth, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 1527 chescun de eus de muru- avant se puroln. 
s. m. product of reflection, figment. 

nom. sg. 598 semblance est e faussetfi, purpens e cuntrevure. 
s. ra. purijose. 

nom. sg. 34 (teser vers G. mun pais) est mun purpos. 
V. tr. to purpose. . . ■ ■ 

app. (ind. ant. i sg.) 376 en mun pais m'en vois u 01 einz purpose, 
fppp. =) adj. possessed (by the de\Tl). , 

mas. nom. sg. 1776 ore est un cuntraitz u purpns de maufe. 
,, ace. pi. 150 (sana) purpris de maufez. 
;, purreit, purrez, purroit, purrunt under poiir. 
V. intr. to grow putrid, 
pp. mas. pi. 1079 ^°'- parentz Id mort sunt e pum. 

mis.^nom. sg. 225 (U eels se desclot) purs e esclarci : 901 (H esperitz) purs e esmirablcs cum cristals. 

1059 purs estoit li airs, e sanz nue sen. 
fem. ',', „ 602 sa v-ie est espirable e seiute e nette e pure. 
V. tr. to pro\'ide. 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 1743 si le purvit Deus. 

infin. 1695 vus lou par tens de vus pun-oier. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 472 quancke Deus m'a pun-eii e establi. 
ppp. mas. sg. 849 Id fu a sun martire divisez e pun-u. 
infamy (v. note). . 

prp. sg. 1841 jo ne me os numer pur paiens de puslin. 
under peer. 

s. m. debauched life. ,. ^... , 

prp. sg. 289 en croiz lui mistrent h Giue de putag«. 
adj. vile, detestable, 
fem. prp. sg. 524 a pute desdnee. 
s. f. (i. q. pntage). 

prp. sg. 1579 cist clers de puteire, damage est kil ne pent. 
s. f. filth, filthy thing, 
nom. sg. 569 engettez ces drapeus,— ne vus mut la puur. 



Q. 



qant (lOi 

quancke 

quanlce 



quant 



3 

4 
quant i 

quatre 

quei 



2) under quant. 

}pron. comp. as much as, whatever, 
nom nom. 1 142 flestri quancke estoit verdoiant. 1 -w r v 

°, ac?; 440 quancke vus ai dit, pur voir parra : 143' Cplus h estduzke mel,) quancke il (suefre). 
ace. nom. 1012 il unt acumpli quanke lur ™it a gre. 
ace. ace. 210 mustre quancke croire (est mester) : 248 (sufn) quancke il savoient fere : 

472 prendrai quancke Deus m'a purveu. ...,.,,. , 

c'o'nj. temporal, (never causal,)-almost always (33 out of 45) initial in the l'ne,-when ; '.as soon 
as, at the time that, (a) xWth pres. ( b) with pft. ; 2, on the occasion that, (with pret.) ; 3, after that, 
Cwith ant or fut.l ; 4, = and then (fut.). 
4" 280. 454. 494. 52.. 5". 62.. 645. 664. 801. 936. 944- i2o>- '^or- .^36. .3^5- ■436- ■564- 

U^^i.Vii. 620. 986. I0I2 (qant.) iiSS- '355- I394- M^S. 1500. 1668. 

62. 289. 331. 396. 445- 482. 926. 1126. 1517. 1670. 

105 quant Deus out fait A. : 444 quant A. s en murra. 

171 rvendra iugerl, quant dura, " venez, &c." . 

adj pron how much, only in phr. ' (ne) tant ne quant,' = at all, stongthening the negative 

842 ne remeint sein ne entier Ae tant ne quant : 1 .39 dimi an n'en la terrc ne pluve.t tant ne q 

num. adj. four. 

1006 li quatre element, tuitl'untbeuservi. ., , .1 

rei; pron. ntr. which, what ; pur quei, why ; quel ke, whatever ;— as adv. wliy. 
538 I'achesun pur quei (the reason why) : 

P 2 



(a) 



'597 



; quant. 



GLOSSARY. 



(quei) 



quens 

querant 
quere 
querre 
quenim 



quels 
queu 
i|ueus 



queuke 

queur 

qui 

quide 

quident 

(juidez 

quis, quist 
quites 

cjuoer I. 
quoer II. 
quor 
quors 



(') 



(2) 



1502 pur quei nasqui : — 1472 par quei estes vus teus .' 
780 fai I'ewe descrestre par quei (owing to which) cist sunt travaille : — 
1449 quei Ic'enN^us die (let en\'ious people say what they like) : — 
475 pur quei k'il t'en veie vestu (provided that he see), 
s. m. count, knight. 

nom. sg. 575 par traisun perist meint quens. 
V. tr. to seek, ask ; find. 
ind. pres. I sg. 1761 jo vtis quoer e demant. 
,, pret. 3 ,, 1087 qui quist, cum esgarez, ci ostel e abri. 
imper. I pi. 1086 querum ceu crestien Id A. converti. 

infin. 949 va quere tun seinnur : 1291 unt le clerc truve par querre e demander. 
gind. 510 NTint querant (A.) 1 119 vunt li citoien par pais querant : 1433 il ne va querant el. 
app. (ind. plpft. 3 pi.) 1735 cist ki quis I'avoient e truve prechant. 
ppp. mas. sg. 155 (par Judas) fu quis : 1264 si quis delist estre de ci k'i Burdele. 
under quoer. 

pron. interrog., what, which; queu, — queu, one, another; — (1229) rel. pron. 

mas. nom. sg. 593 queus est (plus haut) ? 
,, ,, ,, 1378 queus joures, queus veuz : 1379 queus petiz, queus maens &c. 
,, voc. ,, S7- hai ! queu changei-r ! 
,, prp. ,, 540. 761 (a queu) (au queu) chief fust raenee. 
,, „ pi. 1229 (citoiens) a keus plest eschoisii- J. 
fem. ,, sg. 47 en queu manere peiistes vus passer .' 
pron. indef. some, (considerable). 

fem. prp. sg. 938 le vis a queuke peine ad vers le ciel dresce. 
under quoer. 

(546. 1087. 1795) under ki. 
v. intr. to think, imagine. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1559 cum meint quide e entent. 
„ „ 2 pi. 594 quidez ke jo pur deu recleim metal : 1519 (n'est pas si) cum vus le quidez. 
„ „ 3 ,, 1026 bien quident ki tut eient lur voler acheve. 
under querre. 
adj. quit, free. 

mas. nom. sg. 1297 si veuz estre quites de mort e repruver. 
(1 761) under queire. 
s. m. heart ; de quor, heartily ; in heart, 
nom. sg. 216 mis quors ne mis penser (ne prist sum) : 273 quors nel puet penser : 

843 a peine chaut remeint U quors (batant) eu piz : 1322 dunt quor ne puet penser: 
1470 si cors est las mais sis bons quors tut frois est e nuveus. 
ace. ,, 53 n'oiez vers mes diz quor dur ne ferrin : 184 (Deu eslumine) tun quor : 
205 lui esmoUlir le quoer : 280 entent sun quor e sun cinage : 
299 ne eiez vers lui quor ligger ne volage : 340 S. Esperitz ad tun quor eslume : 
379 (Deu) ad tun quor saele : 590 (justise) sun curage e quor : 

776 le quor e le visage vers le ciel ad dresce : 1116 morteu maladie le quor lui envai. 
prp. ,, 88 au quor ferru : 158 au queur fem : 365 Ice hem vus face au cors u au quor maufe : 
1 195 pretz sunies tuit a fere a quor baud e joiant : 1529 au quor feri (le tiz) : — 
104. 175. 322 (entent) dequor: 471 prendrai de bon quor esjoi : 647 de quor les hai : 
685 (A. suefre) de verai e bon quoer : 1033 tuit se sunt de quor a Deu abaundune : 
1236 (les ot) 90 de quor geir: 134S plure e gent de quoer : 

1632 a J. se rendirent de bon e verai quoer : 1843 batesme i requorai de quor verai e fin : 

,, ,, 732 orb est de quor : 1350 cist sunt martir de cors, cist de quor duluser. 
ace. pi. 1277 par promesse u manace lur quers reapeler. 



R. 

raa ) v. intr. to flow. 

raant l. J ind. pret. 3 sg. 7 avau I'un des costez raa li sancs cural : 1610 li sancs raa aval. 

grnd. 1429 li sancs en curt raant cum ewe de ruissel. 
raant n. adj. radiant. 

mas. nom. sg. 830 (li solailz) ki chautz est e raant : 902 (li esperitz) raant cum solaUz. 
,, ace. ,, 1757 (Deus) ki fist solaU raant. 
„ prp. ,, 1 1 69 90 fu la vertu du soloil raant. 



GLOSSARY. 



cxvu 



raed 

raedde 

rai 
rais 

raisun 
raisuns 



ranfum 
ran^un 



adj. stiff, firm, (rigidus). . 

mas. nom. sg. 1 147 raed fu e estable cum fer u amiant. 

adi. impetuous, (rapida). » n ^ i • i 

fem. nom. sg. 788 (I'ewe) ki ert parfunde e raedde, 4 flot briant. 

' nom. sg.' fob!' un rais ki flamboie (se arestut) : l .80 un rais du eel lusant (resplendi). 
ace „ 25s (solail ne espandi) ne rai ne lumere. 

pro. , 61 1 si feiissez gent de sen de raisun e mesure. 
ace. pi. 135 cist la recunforte par (deraustrer) raisuns. 
prp. ,, 82 ne par fines raisuns enquis ne seu. 
ransom 



rancur 

randun 

raveinner 

reahaite 

real 

reamene 
rcamener 

reapealer 

rebatre 

rebundir 

receii 

receiiz 

recevcr 

reeeverez 

recevez 



rechief 

reclaime 

reclama 

reclamas 

reclamfic 

reclamer 

reclamez 

reclamun 

reclelm 



nom. sg. 94 (or) ne te scrroit ran(;um. 

ace. ,; 292 ne mist d'or ne d'argent pur nus randun ne guage. 

prp. ,, 1024 sanz ran9un u rescusse. 

s. m. rancour. 

aec. sg. 582 n'averunt vers toi plus ne ne ne rancur. 

prp. „ 993 suspris sunt de rancur e de ire envcnime. 

de — , adv. savagely, violently. 

1730 na\Tent e defiilent a chevaus de randun. 

adj. ravenous, of prey. 

mas. nom. sg. 1392 U aigles raveinner. 

V. tr. to heighten. . • „ 

ind. pres. 3. sg. 1724 (une voiz) ki reahaite mut sa entunciun. 

mi;.''acc.''sg'f584 lores fait crier real cumandement : i6i6 batre sun seint cors real. 
I V. tr. to bring back. , , tit 1 

app. (ind. plpft. 3 pi.) 1736 (I'avoient) reamene de Wales. 

infin. 1275 sinusneles poum amaisunreamener. 

V. tr. to recal, call back, away (from a purpose). „,.„,„p<:=p „ nnnace ■ 

infin. 610 ki reapeler me veut, en vein labure : 1277 reapeler lur quers par promesse u inanace . 

1672 sul Deu puet les niorz a vie reapeler. 
v. tr. to beat again and again, 
infin. 1625 (aegre) de batre c de rebatre. 
v. intr. to re-echo. 

infin. 1336 I'eir fait a sun talent rebundu- e suner. 
1 v. tr. to receive, 
ind prcs. x sg. 192 <;o ne re9oit ne sen ne entendement. 

' prct. „ „ 1813 dcspuis kc A. re9ut (sun oste) en sun palois pemn. 
" fut. 2 pi. 1725 ui reeeverez pur tun travail guerdun. 
"imner . .. 172 recever la joie ke jo ja vus promis. 
^ infin. .323 recevez batesme: .645 (alez al haut rei de gloire) sun regne rece\er .- 
,, 910. 1021 le regne a recever. 
app. find. pft. 3 pi.) 879 as meins I'unt receii. , , , , 

„ ( „ ant. 3 5g.)8oo (cist out) receu le cumant de decoler .V. 
ppp. mas. sg. 72 [est en] sun ostel entrez e receiiz. 
de — , adv. once more, afresh. 
749 de rechief de chaesnes lie : 1009 de rechief (pcnS). 

Int^f:^ sTlC-'recleu. e a lui sui enclin : 594 q-^le^ >- jo pur Deu recleim metal : 
,, „ ,T 609 en J. croi, Jesu recleim : 1 104 Jesu recleim, en lui me fi. 

3 .> 893 le seint esperit reclaime e le pere, e le fiz. 
',', 1 pi. 1634 nus reclamun Jesu (e refusum M.). 

2,, 1473 vus recl.amez (diables enfernaus) pur deus. 
, pret. 2 sg. 947. 1508 mar reclamas (Jesu) (le deu). 

„ 3„ 413 cum il guerpiM. e reclama Jesu. 
imper. 2 ,, 1661 recleim noz grantz dcus. 

„ 2 pi. 820 guerpissez M. e reclamez Jesu. 

infin. 1686 (te cuvendra) reclamer Jesu (v. note), 
.-ipp. f. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 516 la lei Jesu suvent ad reclam^c. 



J 



cxvni 



GLOSSARY. 



recoil 
recordant 



recumbatant 

recuneii 
recunforte 
recunforter 
recunfortez 



recunser 

recunt 

recuntai 

recuntant 

recunte 

recunter 



recunu 

recunussent 

recunust 

recunustre 



re^ut 
recuverer 

redempciun 



redute 

redutee 

redutez 



reestorer 
refait 

refusum 

regarde 
regarde 
regarder 
regardez 



regiun 

regnant 

regne 

regne i 

regnent 

regner 

regnera 

regneras 

regnerez 

regnes 



under recever. 

V. tr. to remember. 

periph. pres. ptcp. 1 130 si tu I'es recordant. 

adj. recreant, who has given up in despair. 

mas. nom. sg. 862 uns mortz, uns malades, autres recreii (crient). 

V. tr. to \-indicate. 

gmd. 815 le element tesmoine, (recumbatant) pur vers 90 ke hem desdit. 

under recunustre. 

V. tr. to encourage, refresh. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 135 cist la recunforte par raisuns demustrer. 

iniin. 1723 (ces i enveit Deus) lui recunforter en tribulaciun : — 
prp. „ 1329 oient une voiz pur eus recunforter. 
ppp. mas. pi. 880 recunfortez en sunt de I'ewe e sustenu. 
V. intr. to hide. 

infin. 136 seintz esperitz en toi vendra recunser. 
") V. tr. to recount. 

I ind. pres. i sg. 143 tutissi cum -iTis recunt e de^-is. 
y ,, pret. ,, ,, 617 de voz maus lui recuntai, riote e nureture. 
I imper. 2 ,, 278 k'est ke signific me recunt e di. 
J infin. 689 en teu manere cum m'orrez recunter. 

pres. ptcp. (ace.) sg. 1 184 nus tut 90 veimes ke m'oez recuntant. 
ppp. mas. ? nom. „ 1769 un(v. note) des grantz merveillesld unc fust recunte. 
V. tr. to recognize, acknowledge. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 881 mes ne recunussent ki lur tramist salu. 
„ pret. 3 sg. 1 137 ben recunust le o\Te ne ren ne fut celant. 

infin. 1232 (plest vus) cum Deu recunustre e leaument ser\Tr ? 
app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1800 bien unt ja recunu sa haute deite. 

,, (subj. „ 3 sg.) 874 ta creature est, tut n'eit tei Deu rekeneii. 
under recever. 

V. tr. to recover ; (infin. =) s. m. recovery, 
prp. 1655 tuit sunt abandune, peri sanz recuverer. 
s. f. redemption. 

prp. sg. 171 1 requerez Deu k'il mei (part doinst of vus) par sa redempciun. 
V. tr. to dread. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1395 unt honure, redute e crerau (les cors). 

ppp. mas. nom. sg. 356 (ii est) Cesaires U riches e li redute : 405 (jugement) ki tant est redutez. 
,, „ ob. „ 1 007 fei ke nus de\'um Mahum le redute. 
„ fem. nom. ,, i (croiz) ki tant est redutee de diable enfernal. 
under restorer. 
V. tr. to cheer. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1 49 1 mut sunt de grant joie refait e esbaudi. 
V. tr. to repudiate. 

ind. pres. i pi. 1635 reclamun Jesu e refusum Mahum. 
V. tr. to see, look at, consider ; — v. intr. to look, gaze. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 821 regarde A. a piteus semblant : 774 ki 90 regarde : 866 A. les regarde : 
,, ,, ,, ,, 1704 vers lu ciel regarde : 1707 regarde e veit A. entre. 
imper. 2 pi. 1709 regardez moi ki sui en tel mortel prisun. 
infin. 1349 ne puet sanz martiie les martirs regarder. 
pqj. 699 fu duel a regarder (les flurs murir as reims). 

app. (ind. ant. 3 sg.) 986 (Ar.) ke Deus out regarde. 
s. f. region. 

prp. sg. 319 delivTe d'enfemal regiun : 1712 of \-us en cele regiun (la mund). 
V. intr. to reign. 

ind. pres. 2 sg. 924 eu ciel ore regnes. 
,, ,, 3 ,, 55 lui ki regne: 869 ki regne en poeste : 1016 regne eu eel esteille. 
,, ,, ,, pi. 1482 ki ore regnent es eels. 
,, fut. 2 sg. loi tu regneras of lui cum sis amis e dm. 

,, ,, ,, ,, 301 regneras tuzjurs eu celestien bamage : 924 (eu ciel) tuz jurs regneras. 
,, ,, 3 ,, 55 ki regne e regnera sanz cumen93il e tin : 352 cist regnera eu ciel. 
,, ,, 2 pi. 1046 e regnerez tuz jurs en joie pardurable. 

infin. 1319 (desirer) regner en cest mund princes curunez. 
pres. ptcp. nom. sg. 782 Deu, regnant en raajeste: 1183 martirs est glorius A. eu eel regnant. 
,, ace, ,, 822 proiez pur moi Jesu eu ciel regnant. 



1 



GLOSSARY. 



CXIX 



regne 
regne 



rei 

reis 



(sun chief) as reims est nue. 



} ace se fe?. I ?37 le regne averez du ciel (ki v-us est cstue) (ki jamais n ert fim) : 
„ " „ ' 910. to2i le regne a recevcr (ke U ad beu meriz) (ki ja n'ert termine) : 

" 1645 (alez) al haul rei dc gloire, sun regne recever. 
prp. „ 965 eu regne du ciel : 1758 en gloire el regne permenant : 
„ 1-86 tost s'espaunt la nuvele par trestut le regne. 

\ s. m. king. . ,. . , 

I nom. sg. 144 pur nus tuz nasqui h reis de parais. 
ace ,, 1047 (proiez pur nus) le roi esperitable : 1782 guerroier le rei de majeste. 
prp. „ 1645 (alez) al haul rei de gloire :— 1613 ki pense du rei espental :— 164 sanz rei. 
voc. „ 240 hai, rois de Giiieus poisant e enrichi ! 
nora. pi. 567 .1 eus sunt entendant roi, due, empereiir. 
s. m. bough, branch. 

prp. pi. 699 as reims murir fu duel a regarder : 
„ „ 890 (un arbre) a reims bas e petiz : 951 
under ren. 

V. tr. to redeem. , .. , 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1799 nus reinst par sa mort d enfernal poeste. 
V. rell. to rejoice. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1621 lors se rejoist cum se il n ust unc mal. 
under recunustre. 

V. intr. to rise up ; to rise (from the dead). , . ,. , . ■ , . ,■ 

ind nret. 3 sg. 16; T. releva cume sires poi-stifs ! 263 cist ki mortz esloit, releva au terz d.. 

' infin. 37 (deingna) de mort relever : 316 relever le veistes en vostre avisiun. 

pres. ptcp. (ob.) sg. 1157 es-le-vus relevant, 
s. f. afternoon. 

prp. pi. 396 des relevees e quant fu anoitez. 
j V. intr. to remain, stay behind. 
' ind. pres. I sg. 471 jo remain. 
I 3 768 nus ne remaint : 842 ne remeint sein ne entier eu cors : 

',', ','. .. .. 843 a peine chaut remeint U quors : 1588 a ceste sumunse nuls ne remaint ne atent. 

pret V '■' 1453 suspris de langur remis en ceste voie ha'ie. 
" ^ ■,' ,,i4Uunsremistenm.aladi: 1253 apresl'enfantementremist mere e pucele: 
',', ,, ',', '347 ki reniist malade en un senter : 1435 li langup""^ /ri-mwi. k-il ne noul sivre. 

remembrable adj. memorable. , , , , 

mas. nom. sg. 1041 sis nuns est (remembrable) en estou-e e escnl. 

remembrances, f. id. •. •. 1 ■■ 

prp. sg. 1402 k'en lunge remembrance seit e escnt e leu. 

remenant l. adj. lasting. . . 1,1 

fem. prp. sg. 1039 vit en gloire remenant e estable. 
remenant 11. sm. remnant, rest. , , , , 

ace. sg. 838 derochent e debatent du cors le remenant. 
tr. to look upon. 



rein 
reinst 

rejoist 

rekeneii 
releva 
relevant 
relever 

relevees 

remain 
remaint 
remeint 



1435 li languerus (remist, ki) ne pout sivre. 



remir 
remire 



' ind. pres. i sg. 1207 croiz ! quant jo te remu-. 



3 „ 687 Deus, ki tut remire, nel vout pas ublier. 
rerais, remist under remaint. 

reraissiun s. f. forgiveness. .. , 

prp. sg. 330 ai Jesu 1 funtainne dc remissiun ! 
remurir v. tr. to kUl again. 

infin. 1628 pur murir c remunr e lunges cluJuser. 
ren s. f. thing ; (always in \-irtually negative sentences). 

ace. sg. 2II sanz ren celer : 648 ne ren n'i espleite horn : 
„ ,, 700 sanz rein amesurcr : 1 137 ne ren ne fu celanl. 
prp. ,, 892 (cist) de ren n'est flechiz. 
T. intr. to be bom again. 

infin. 1694 90 fait horn renaistre e tut renuveler. 
^ V. tr. to give up, repay, produce, give. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1790 4 Jesu se rendent tuit cist de la citd. 
\. ,, pret. 3 sg. 1093 la terre ki (nc rcndi) fruit ne herbc. 
I '.! >i 3 P'- '^3- ^ J*^*" "^ rcndiient de bon e verai ijuoer. 
I subj. pres. jsg. 1757 Deus li rendc I'onur. 
app. (ind. pft. I sg.) 1826 a Jesu me sui rendu cum mi veisin. 
( ., .. 3 pl-) 882. 1397 (ii dcu) en unt graces rendu. 



renaistre 

rendc 

rendent 

rcndi 

rendirent 

rendu 



cxx 



GLOSSARY. 



rem 
renie 



rentinc 
renumee I. 

renumee II 

renuvele 
renuvele 
renuveler 

repairer 
repeira 

repent 
repentir 



V. tr. to deny, repudiate. 

ind. pres. i sg. 608 reni Mahom k'en enfer trait ki lui ?ert. 
„ „ 3 ,, 725 cele mort apent a home ki le suen deu renie. 

imper. 2 „ 333. 1102 reni aperteraent (renchantement M.) (Jovin) : 583. 1 660 reni Jesu. 

under retenir. 

s. f. renown. 

nom. sg. 153 de lui cnit la renumSe e pris. 

V. tr. to bruit abroad. 

ppp. fem. sg. 538 I'achesun est renumee partut. 
\ V. intr. to grow afresh, be renewed. 
> ind. pres. 3 sg. 1245 '^i^' maus mut surt e renuvele. 
) infin. 1694 ^:o fait hom renaistre e tut renuveler. 

pp. mas. ace. sg. 989 or I'unt veil tut seint, (renuvele) du cors. 
\ V. intr. to return. 

} ind. pret. 3 sg. riiS (langui) iluec, geske Apl. repeira (v. note), 
infin. 1299 ke peiisum (repairer) of les noz k'i sunt. 



] V. refl. to repent 
jin 



repentant 

repentantz 

repentanz 



repleni 
replenie 

replie 

repos 

reposent 
reposer 

reprover 
repruva 
repruver r. 

repruver II. 

requerez 

requers 

requert 



imper. 2 sg. 568 repent toi de tun maisfait. 

infin. 579 repentir te purras de cest grant foleiir. 
(infin. = s. m.) prp. 1 233 cist respunent : " oil, sanz repentir !" 
pres. ptcp. = adj. repentant, penitent, 
mas. nom. sg. 1146 creiimes ke de sa emprise fust ja ben repentant. 

„ prp. „ 581 piete unt tost de repentant pecchur. 

„ nom. pi. 1479 les pecchurs repentantz sunt ses especieus (v. note). 

„ ,, „ 1 760 (s'il ne estoient) repentant : 1793 en sunt repentant k'il les unt tant ame. 

,, ace. ,, 1690 les pecchurs repentanz acoilt sanz reprover, 
tr. to fiU. 



» v. 

J ppp. mas. nom. pi. 1553 devura tuit estre dejoie repleni. 



fem. voc. sg. 129 (Marie) de grace replenie ! 

V. tr. to bend back. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1779 li doi sunt replie. 

s. m. repose, rest. 

ace. sg. 1469 mes repos n'i avoit entre eus suls Amphibeus. 

V. intr. (refl.) to rest. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1056 se reposent cuchez e endormi : 1467 iluec se reposent. 
infin. 1605 nel lessent reposer, ne nul Uu prendre estal. 

V. tr. to reproach ; (infin. =) s. m. reproach. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 233 lia e repruva, laidit e eschami. 

prp. sg. 1297 estre quites de mort e repruver : — 
,, ,, 141 sanz cunoissance d'lmime u repruver : 1690 acoilt sanz reprover. 

s. m. proverb. 

prp. sg. 1314 dit hem en repruver. 
"j V. tr. to beg, implore. 
Vind. pres. I sg. 468. 1084. 1219 (90) ^-us requor e pri ; 872 ore requor ta franchise. 






request e 

requis 
requitz 



rescure 
rescust 
rescut 



„ fut. I ,, 

imper. 2 pi. 

app. (ind. pft. 

ppp. mas. pi. 



1455 SI tu requers pur moi. 

1457 mut humblement pur lui requert e prie (Jesu). 
1 843 batesme i requorai de quoer verai e fin. 

1638 requerez J. k'en seum parcener: 1711 requerez D. k'il mei (doinst part of \-us). 
3 sg.) 374 li ad requis e demande (le cunge). 
1035 ja tant ne en serrunt requis e turmente. 
s. f. prayer, request. 

ace. sg. 785 la requeste A. ducement ad grante. 
under requerez. 
V. tr. to refine (gold). 

ppp. mas. prp. sg. 903 curune est de curune d'or esmere requitz. 
requor, requorai, under requerez. 
reschisnant v. intr. to gnash the teeth. 

gmd. 753 dient en reschisnant. 
V. tr. to rescue, deliver. 

ind. pret. 2 sg. 243 les perillez rescuz ja (but v. note). 
,, ,, 3 ,, 166 d' enfer rescut ses prisuns cheitifs : 287 rescust humein lignage de diable. 

infin. 38 (deigna) de enfer nus rescure. 
s. f. rescue, deliverance. 



GLOSSARY. 



CXXl 



(rescusse) 

resne 

resorti 

resortir 

resortist 

respiit 

resplendi ] 
resplent ) 

respond 

respund 

respunderai 

respundi 

respundu 

respunt 

respunent 

restencele 

restora 
restore 
restorer 
restore/. 



resuscita 

resusciter 

resnscitez 



retenc 
retcnir 
rctent 
rctcnu 



retraire 

retraite 

rett£ 
fetlent 

retur 

returner 

revelaciun 

reversfi 

rcverti 

revisitd 



nom. sg. 672 k'aie ne rescusse n'i pust aver mester. 

prp. „ 1024 (retenu e damn^) sanz ran^un u rescusse. 

s. f. rein. 

ace. sg. 1604 unt dune resne i cheval. 

V. intr. to swen-e, apostatize ; — infin. = s. m. flinching. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1200 Id resortist pur mort, n'est pas verai amant. 

(s. m.) prp. 1228 atcindrc sanz fin u resortir (v. note). 

pp. mas. pi. 1497 pur tut Tor de Damas ne fusent resorti. 

s. m. respite. 

prp. sg. 649 cumande Ice batu seit lores sanz resput. 

V. intr. to sliine forth. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1572 (Phebum)ki en tut lemund resplent. 

pret 226 11 la gloire de Deu parut e resplendi : 1095 (feu, ki) hit e resplendi : 

" ,, ' ,'' „ 1 181 (un rais du eel lusant) resplendi : 1532 de Jesu la gloire resplendi. 
V. intr. to answer, reply. , o . 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 33. 96. 486. 591. 1281. 1668 respund : 51 respond : 389 respunt : 

„„ 6^3 simplcment respunt : 1306 respunt pur Apl. 
■> " 3 pi. 1 105 communcment respunent a un cri : I233- '24°. I269. 1555 respunent. 

',', pret. 3 sg. 183. 721 respundi : 247 noise ne fist, ne mot ne respundi. 

fut I ,, C2Q pur lui respunderai tutz les jurs de mun ee. , ■,• - 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 176 U en a respundu simplement : 960 li ad respundu a gr.ant humilite. 
V. intr. to blaze. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1243 li princes espris de ire, art e restencele. 
V. tr. to restore whole, cure; (1274) infin. = s. m. remedy. 
ind. pret. 2 sg. 1542 Jesus les restora. 

imoer. 2 pi. 1 1 ';7 eel mal kar restorez. . 

infin 1 32 ki deit tut le mund restorer : 1673 sul Deu puet (ganr e reestorer) mun cors .— 
,274 mut serra la perte grant sanz restorer : 131 1 par (garir e restorer) aucun langurus. 
ppp. mas. sg. 975 sis cors (est) restore : 401 (Par Noe) puis fu restorez (h mundz). 
,, ,> pl- '374 l<=s menbres lur sunt restorez pez e braz sanz faUlance. 

!v. tr. to resuscitate, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 151 resuscita (mortz). 
infin. 1667 purrunt resusciter (ecus ki par tei ci sunt mortz). 
ppp. mas. nom. pl. 794 de mort resuscitez (levent vifs e juant). 

„ ace. „ 802 (qu.ant veit) les resuscitez ki venent Deu louant. 
\ v.'tr. to'rctain', hold, keep (in memory 269) ;— refl. to refrain. 
I ind. pres. i sg. 604 de lui retenc par amiste ccste moie vesture. 
( ,, » 3 >■ 535 ^- ^^ croiz rctent. 
) " pret. I ,, 269 rcntinc e entendi lur chant (v. note). 

infin. 11 35 vostre croiz retenir de vus avoit le grant : 1 204 de lermer ne se puet retenir. 
app (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 542 ke il ad de sun maistre retenu par amur. 
( „ ph) 140: en escrit unt e mis (e retenu) le numbre. 

ppj). mas. sg. 1024 (est en la prisun) retenu e damnfi (sanz ran9un u rescusse). 
v. intr. to retract, recant (used absol.). 
inf. 1G88 retraire te cuvent. 

V. intr. to retire. , , . .... , , 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 789 (ke I'ewe) retraite, e sun chanel va si apetizant (v. note). 
J v. tr. to blame, lay to the charge of. 
i ind pres. 3 pl. 1407 tut rettent Apl. le clerc onentel. 
app. (ind. i^ft. 3 pl.) 13S9 tut unt rettfi h lui cest mortel encumbrer. 
s. m. return. 

aec. sg. 578 (purrez fere) retur. 

V. intr. to return ; sanz —, unalterably. . . 

infin. 1304 dunee est la sentence sanz returner : 1C35 refusum M. sanz jamais returner, 
s. f. revelation. 

prp. sg. 302 celui ke veistes par revelaciun. 
V. tr. to twist, turn away, 
ppp. mas. pl. 1778 U oil sunt reverse. 
V. intr. to return. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 493 atant s'en part li clers, e A. reverti. 
V. tr. to visit. . . 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1810 Deus par sa vertu les a revistte. 
ppp. mas. sg. 342 vus par Deu meimes en es revisits. 

q 



cxxu 



GLOSSARY. 



riche \ adj. rich. 

riches ] mas. nom. sg. 356 u est Cesaires li riches. 

,, ,, pi. 357 li autre prince tant riche e tant feffe : 1 125 tuit fuimes citoiens, e riches, emenant. 
„ pip. „ 1033 (mil des citoiens) des plus honurables, riches e feiTe. 
fem. „ sg. 677 (ne belt mais vins) de riche vaissele. 
richesces s. f. riches. 

ace. pi. I iq8 (promettant) trespassables richesces (v. note). 
Rin s. m. the Rliine. 

pip. sg. 69 n'a pl[ace ne li]us ci k'i I'eaue du Rin (v. note), 
liote s. f. riot, quarrel. 

prp. sg. 617 de voz maus lui recuntai, riote e nureture (v. note). 
rivere s. f. river. 

ace. sg. 861 funtaine ne trovent, rivere ne palu. 
roal s. m. rock-ciystal. 

prp. sg. 3 (croiz adubbee) de ivoire ne roal. 
robe \ s. f. robe, garment. 

robes J ace. sg. 473 vus ma robe averez & lut li ors burni : 572 ta robe enporte : 

,, ,, 1 134 sa robe vus duna biuidee d'or lusant. 
prp. ,, 20 a robe (batue) d'or : 1212 (honurer e vestir) de sa robe ebruusdee : — 
,> n 533 (I'unt pris) par la robe k'il unt tost desiiee. 
,, pi. 830 de robes sunt trestuit e garaiz e vestu. 
roche s. f. rock, stone. 

ace. sg. 684 pur lit ad roche bise si dure cum acier. 
roi, rois under rei. 

roille adj. rusty. 

mas. (ace.) sg. 1008 tut ne li vaudra un esperun roille. 
roiseus > s. m. riNTilet, stream, 
roisseus ) nom. sg. 636 (ainz purra) ruisseu cure vers munt : 876 d'une funtainneest li roisseus hissu : 

>> I) 153 1 li sancs, cum un roiseus, seespaundi : 161 1 cum fait de la funtainneli roisseus cursal. 
prp. ,, 1167 funtainne a grant ruissel cuiant : 1429 (li sancs) en curt raant cum ewe de ruissel. 
roiste adj. steep. 

mas. ace. sg. 1832 passerai Mun-Giu, le roiste munt alpin. 
Romein \ s. m. Roman ; pi. the Roman people. 
Romeins ) nom. pi. 23 si ancesur estoient Romein original. 

prp. ,, 1834 asRomeins nuncier, le pueple cesarin. 
rose s. f. rose. 

nom. sg. 1070 plus furent beus ke rose uken'est lis espani. 
rosin adj. rosy, rose-coloured. 

mas. pip. sg. 1837 I'ad teinte premers de sane rosin. 
rote s. f. l>Te. 

prp. sg. 1258 fable a rote u viele. 
nibi s. m. ruby. 

ace. sg. 623 tenant un rubi rund. 
riie s. f. street. 

prp. sg. 503 curant par la rue payee : 531 (I'unt trahit) par la riie e chaucee. 
rmne s. f. ruin. 

prp. sg. 338 met hum a grant mine e a perdiciun. 
ruissel, ruisseu under roisseus. 
Rumme s. f. Rome. 

prp. 1807 sunt a R. ale : — 74r sulum la lei de R. : — 1833 vers R. la cite tendrai le chemin. 
to break. 

pret. 3 sg. 253 un grantz veilz du temple desira e rumpi (intr. ? v. note), 
ppp. mas. pi. 840 li nierf li sunt rumpu : 954 tes nerfs ki sunt rumpuz e de tes os sevre. 
s. m. good stout horse, roadster. 

obi. sg. 142 1 (muutez) chafur u runcin u grant destrer ignel. 
adj. round. 

mas. ace. sg. 623 tenant un rubi rund. 
adv. in round numbers. 
1346 ne failh runderaent ke n'i eiist mil enter. 
s. f. dew. 

nom. sg. 703 n'a pluie ne rusee au seir n'al enjurner. 
nite s. f. troop, multitude. 



rumpi 

rumpu 

rumpuz 

runcin 

rund 

rundement 

rusfie 



1 V. tr. 
) PPP- 



GLOSSARY. 



CXXUl 



(rute) 
ruva 



nom. sg. 1439 la rute des S. de crier le chastie. 

V. tr. to command. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 109 de parais les ruva ambesdeus exuiUer. 



S. 



sa, s' 
sabelun 

sacez 

sachfi 

sache 

saclient 

sacher 



sacramentz 
sacrifice 

sacrifierunt 

saele 
saele 

saerpent 



saerrce 

saet I. 

saet 11. 
safir 

safirs 

sage 
sages 



-845 gisant eu sabelun. 



sal 

sailli 
sailliz 



saisist, 
saisun 

sale 

s.iMe 

salu 



under si and soi. 

under sun II. 

s. m. sand ; plain. 

prp. sg. 803 au sabelun fi nuls unc horn ala avant : 

under saver. 

V tr. to unsheath, tear out, drag. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. f^l^f^^^^^^^f^-^^,^^ ^ ,,0, la buele en sachcnt du ventre Apl. 
" p; ^f°- -gS<tr^}rL^;:!^;3:^ut:Herebuterli est ensanglaent.e (lar.be). 
app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 757 tire I'unt e sache, batu e laidangg. 
s. m. sacrament, 
prp. pi. 404 des sacramentz,— cum il sunt cunlermez. 

s. m. s.icriiice. sacrifice e present : 293 (mist) de sa char demeine, sacrifice e ostage. 

(appos {":: '!: 1% fT.':Ic:^T:^l^:^sTo ■. ^.e^LJle derO cum sacrifice eu temple : 

( r ) „ " nn (a P- le durrunt) sacrifice agreable plus ke buef u torel. 

V. tr. to sacrifice. 

ind. fut. 3 pi. 628 verra k'U sacnfierunt (v. note). 

I ind.Vrcst^i sg. 1257 la prophecie d'anciens 90 conferme e saele. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 379 Deu meimes ad tun quor saele. 

nom!'^s^.^522 (plus esmeuz ke n'est) saerpent quant ele se sent blescee. 

prp 657 par traisun de la saerpent. 

nom. pi. 1698 fremissent e flamboient cum saerpent u dragun. 

V. tr. to lock, fasten. . 

ppp. fem. ace. sg. 509 (brisent) porle si il la trovent saerrSe. 

num. adj. seven. 

359 fors saet per mesure. 
1568) under saver. 
> s. m. sapphire. , , , , j c 

f nom. sg. 1206 croiz plus desirable kVsmeraudeu safir. 

prp pir904 (curunc) de safirs eschoisiz. 

fern. prp. ',', 590 Qustise sun cmage) par sage atempreure. 
under saver. 



\ v. intr. to leap forth. 
) ind. 



pp. 



nr. 10 leap luiiii. , . ii- 

pret. 3 sg. 1094 (I'ewe) ki puis du munt sailU. 
mas. sg. 888 avant est sailliz (un paens). 
pl- 9i3lisuntli oil du chief sailliz. 
saisiz under seisir. 
s. f. season. 

pip. sg. 1721 quant se espanist hs en sa saisun. 
s. f. mansion, (large) house, palazzo. 
prp. sg. O79 piisun ad obscure pur sale e pur soler. 
adj. salt (of the sea). 

fem. ace. sg. 528 ki cria la terre e mer salfie. 
s. m. salvation. 

ace. sg. 881 ki lur tramist salu. 
prp. „ 97 Deu ki m'amene a vostre salu. 



CXXIV 



GLOSSARY. 



saliic 
salue 
saluer 

saluz 

Sana 
sane 

sane 
sancs 



sanglant 
santz \ 

sanz / 

I 



(/3) 





M^) 




%/3) 


sarcu 


\ 


sarcuz 



sarmuner 

Sarracins 

Sarrazin 

Sarrazins 



sarrazinois 



Sathan 
Sathanas 



saucher 

sauf 

saufs 



■■ 1 



V. tr. to salute. 

ind. pies. 3 sg. 24 li clers le saliie. 

infin. 127 (^•int) tut issi saluer (une pucele). 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1122 I'ad salue avant. 

s. m. salutation. 

nom. sg. 24 si saluz fu tal. 
I V. tr. to heal. 
I ind. pret. 3 sg. 148 sana paraletics. 

ppp. mas. (ace.) sg. 974 se sent de ses dolurs tut sane. 

s. m. blood. 

nom. sg. 7 raa li sancs cural : 257 sane e ewe hissi : 653 li sancs ki s'espand, ist (du cors) : 
,, „ 837 de la buche li sancs ist e espant : 1 1 13 li sancs A. i pert aers e endurci : 
„ ,, 1 1 76 u si sancs est parant : 1375 li sancs (de leit ad ja semblance) : 
,, ,, 1429 li sancs curt raant cum ewe de missel : 1531 li sancs (cum un roiseus) se espaundi : 
„ ,, 1544 li sancs (emblanchi plus ke laitz) : 1610 des verges I'unt batu ke li sancs raa aval. 

ace. sg. 234 gesk'au sane espandre : 1 199 gariz est k'en cest mund pur Deu sun sane espant. 

prp. „ 896 (li tertre est fluriz) du seint sane glorius : 1837 (I'ad teinte) de sane rosin : — 
„ ,, 1186 teinst en sun sane demeine : 1201. 1451 (la croiz, teinte) eu sane A. 

under senglant. 

prep, without ; used r, with simple subst., — 2, with infin., — 3, with two words connected (a) by e, 

(b) by ;/, — 4, with adj. (adv.) negat. : — 

40. 48 bis. 352. 553. 649. 674. 765. 846. 1059. 1284. 1349, 1352. 1361. 1374. 1423. 1438. IJ63. 1582. 

1640. 1713 bis. 1784. 1828 sans : — 360. 626. 756. 1016. 1196 san/s [only cases of santz.] 

33. 1202. 1233. 123S. 1274. 12S3. 1304. 1320. 1326. 1635. 1653. 1655. 1675. 1677. 1685. 1690. 

107 sanz pardun demander : (140 s. pucelage perdre) : 190 s. fin prendre : 211s. ren celer: 700 

s. rein amesurer : 1280 s. nul espamier ; 1306 s. verite celer : 1327 s. merci aver : 1355 s. niJ passer : 

1358 s. sei amesurer; 1676 s. fin .aver. 

55 sanz cumenfail e fin : 532 s. mesure e manee : 613 s. fuie e cuverture : 1526 s. piete e merci. 

140 s. pucelage perdre u damager : 141 s. cunoissance d'umme u repruver: I42 s. nier u duter : 

20&. s. fentosme u duter: 294 s. fentosme u folage : 1024 s. ran9un u rescusse : 1228 s. fin u 

resortir : 1231 s. fauser u trahir : 1377 s. faiUe u dutance. 

361 sanz nule fausete : 507 s. nule demuree: 1371 s. nule demurance. 

1 1 sanz gueres paringal. 

s. m. coffin. 

ace. sg. 1399 sepulture atumenl e a chescun sarcu. 

prp. ,, 90 posez en sarcu : 959. 982 (pose) en sarcu marbrin: 
,, „ 1752 puis mist le cors en terre en sarcu avenant : 1 8 1 5 U furent mis en sarcu marbrin. 
„ pi. 1506 n'estes en sarcuz posez ne enseveli : 1552 i honur les unt ja en sarcuz acoilli. 

s. m. preacher. 

prp. sg. 1334 90 est par sortz au sarmuner (v. note). 

s. m. Sarracen ; in pi. used as a general name for pagans. 

nom. sg. 1074 un sarrazins des autres plus sages e hardi (parole) : 1646 dist un .Sarrazin : 
„ ,, 181 1 jo, ki a ceu tens estoie mescreant sarrazin. 

prp. ,, 64 pur toi e pur meint autre mescreant sarrazin. 

obi. ,, 408 es-%Tis un Sairazin Id a\ise les a. 

nom. pi. 13 Sarrazins la tindrent: 565 (Id furent) Sarrazins nobiles: 1269 Sarr.azins respunentr 
>i 11 ('S-S' '332) ?° ouent Sarrazins, (li glut adverser): 1404 en sunt cm-ucez li Sarrazin cruel : 
,, ,, 1467 iluec se reposent les Sarrazins criieus (v. note) : 1697 90 oient Sarrazin : 
,, ,, 1728 de la voiz se effreent li Sarrazin glutun : 1750 ke Sarrazin ne erent apercevant. 

ace. ,, 381 Sarracins cunvertir, dunt tant i a plente. 

obi. ., 805 dist en haute voiz, les Sarrazins ouant. 

prp. ,, 394 pur les gr.intz fertez des Sarracins : 720 (grant p.artie) des Sarrazins (s'asentent a li) : 
,, ,, 1439 la rute des Sarrazins de crier le chastie : 1461 n'a nul des Sarrazins (ki ne die). 

adj. of the Saracens, worshipped by the pagans. 

mas. ace. pi. 449 (.il a gnerpi les deus) sarrazinois (v. note) : 1078 a\'um les deus s. sivi. 

(n. pr. Satan, 
nom. 928 de ceus ki toi honurent n'eit ja part Sathanas. 
prp. 1 16 (lur cu\-int aler) a Sathan : — 14 k'en Apolin creient, Sathan e Belial ; — 

,, 67 (cunpainz e vesin) lez Sathan le maufe. 
under sacher. 
adj. safe, 

mas. nom. sg. 1090 si deciples ki s.aufs est e gari. 
„ ,, pi. 1765 (jo vus quoer) ke sauf soium '. 



GLOSSARY. 



cxxv 



sauf Ji. 
snul 



saut 
sautele 

sauvaciun 

sauvage 

sauvas 
sauver 
sauvez 



sauveiir 



saver 



(244) under sauver. 

adj. satisfied, satiated. 

mas. nora. sg. 1391 li lu du bois, ne saul ne peu. 

„ pi. 1650 n'estes las ne saul dc Jesu langetter. 
under sauver. 

V. tr. to go wandering about, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1247 un clergastre avolcz lei par terres sautele. 

prp.'sfsormist nus tuz morteus (a sauvaciun) : 1194 k'est apendant a sauvaciun cie nu.. 

adj. savage. 

mas. prp. sg. 281 Deus I'at fait aignel d'un leun sauvage. 

V. tr. to save, deliver. 

ind nret. 2 sg. 242 autres de toi sauvas. . 

' ,28 Maiie, Deu te saut ! 933 (^'U nus ne perde pas) mats nus saut. 

244 sauf tun cors demeine ! .. . 

t6 Id nus deingna sauver : 130 lu vent le mund sauver : 244 cum sauver seuz autri 

7631 Deus plust sauver : 16 ,4 pur (sauver) tes serfs : 1686 ki prest est tuz sauver. 

406 par unt doit horn estre sauvez. 



se . 
seant 



seccheresce 

seeches 

sccchi 

secchir 

secchis 



secle 

seet 

segrei 

segreiz 



subj. pres. 3 
imper. 2 ,, 
intin. 



1658 ferez grant saver. 




} 



sei n. (135**) 
seiez 



ppp. mas. sg. 
s. m. Saviour. 

gen. sg. 583 fiz Deu le sauveiir. 
s. m. knowledge. 

ace. sg. 1313 (vus ne savez) ses vertuz e saver : 

V. tr. to know. „ . ■ ,. u 

ind pres. i sg. 177 ne sai vostre lei ne cuntenement : 829 jo sai 1 achesun . 
,, ,, 1823 ne sai autre language fors le mien barbann. 

" " 2" 2 1 8 si tu ke signifie me sez enseinner. 

" ',', 3 „ 425. 1249. 156S plus set, plus set, tant saet (d'enchantement) ; 

" .',' „ !! 690 chalur ki pas ne se seet atemprer : , j f„„ ,:^^^^ 

" „ „ „ 1 202 bien set, unt cunte (v. note) : 1 2.50 (plus ke fevre ki martele) ne set de tanailles. 
2 p'l. 1312 vus ne savez mie sa vertu ne poer. 

" " , ,028 ne sevent mie cum Deus I'ad devise: 

" " 1206. 1649 ki ne se sevent de tes (sortz) (la(;uns) garder. . 

" impft. ',', „ i62bensavoientldurent(mesfait): 248 (sufri) quancke il savoient fere e dire, 
pret. 2 sg. 244 cum sauver seiiz autri. 
fut. 3 „ 442 ki en seit chastiiiz ki la savena. 

" imper. 2 pi. 390. 610. 1304. 1520 sacez (parenthetically), 
infin 1562 par tant le poum bien saver apertement. 
ppp. (infin. pass.) 82 (ne puiTeit estre) par fines raisuus enquis ne seu. 

under soi. 
V. intr. to sit. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 645 ki presentz juge 1 sist. , . , . , 

ptcpfpres. ace. sg. 18 (trove) le seignur seant al uis de sun ostal. 

gmd. 793 (H mort) se drescent en seant (= sit upnghi). 

s. f. drought. „• . u A 

prp. sg. 1092 en la grant seccheresce (li airs obei). 

adj. dry. 

fern. prp. pi. 792 a seeches plantes passent. 

V. tr. and intr. to dry up. 

ind nret. 2 sg. 926 lur secchis (I'ewe). r . i.- 

infin. 636 purra mer secchir: 696 (veisez) les paluz secchir : 999 les ewes funt secchir. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 832 le Hot ad tut secchi. 
ppp. mas. obi, sg. II 58 (es-le-vus)leflot tut secchi. 

s. in. age, life-time. . , . , . , , 

prp. sg 1051 au partir dc ccst seclc :-i76o s'il ne estoient el siecle puis verai repentant. 

under saver, 
s. m. secret. 

ace. sg. 204. 1222 sun segrei demustrer, (descuvenr) 
pi. 395 iluec unt lur segreiz e cunseilz celez. 

ace sg.'683 fcim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner : 857 grant chalur e grant .sei i unt tu. 
prp.',; 871 eu desert tis poples de sei fu cunfundu : 1 165 grant gent de sei labiu-nnt. 
under soi. 
under estre. 



275 plus me descuvri segrei celestien. 



CXXVl 



GLOSSARY. 



seignur, seignurs under sire, 

seignurie ) s. f. lordship, authority. 

seingnurie j ace. sg. 138 ki du mund ad seingnurie e poer. 

prp. ,, 1462 mut est li deus as crestiens de grant seignurie. 
seingnur, seinnur under sire. 
sein 1 adj. sane, healthy, whole, 

seins j mas. nom. sg. 1005 ore est seins e ligger : 1459 seins est e tut delivres. 

,, ,, pi. 795 (vifs levent) legers, enters, e seins, cum geii ussent dormant. 
,, ace. ,, 1543 (les restora) enters, seins, e gari, (cum si il geiisent tuz vifs). 
seint \ adj. holy. 

seinte I mas. nom. sg. 340 Seint Esperitz (ad eslume) : 136 seintz E. vendra : 168 (fu) li seinz E. tramis. 

seintz 1 ,, ace. „ 1S6 (craire) seint Esperit : 893 (reclaime) le seint Esperit : 973 au seint cors tucher : 

seinz ' ,, ,, „ 989 or I'unt veii tut seint du cors renuvele : 1616 batre sun seint cors real. 

,, prp. ,, 1432 a A. aproce, le seint martu nuvel : — 896 (est fluriz) du seint sane : — 
,, ,, ,, 899 crut eu seint nun. 
,, ,, pi. 1018 entre les* seintz martirs. 
fem. nom. sg. 602 sa vie (est) seinte e nette e piu'e. 
seintifie v. tr. to sanctify. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1452 batesme ki la gent seintifie. 
seir s. m. evening, even-tide. 

(temp.) ace. sg. 58 lui pri e aiir lu soir e lu matin. 

prp. ,, 6S3 feim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner : 703 n'a pluie ne rusee au seir n'al enjumer. 
seisi ) V. tr. to seize, lay hold of; — to enfeofl, (de) ; (used absolutely 1331). 

seisir > ind. pres. 3 sg. 889 A. saisist e prent cum lu fait la berbiz. 

seisiz ) ,, pret. „ ,, 231 prist e seisi : 1 176 tantdi seisi sa croiz. 

infin. 122 1 (gueredun) dunt Deu te plut seisii'. 
app. (ind. pit. 3 sg.) 1554 Deus en ad des noz 3 sun uoes tant seisi. 

„ ( ,, „ ,, pi.) 629 I'und ja seisi : 1358 Apl. unt seisi : 1408. 1598 I'unt seisi e pris. 
ppp. mas. sg. 908 de gueredun suisiz : 1017 du gueredun seisiz k'il tant ad desire : 
,, ,, ,, 1098 de sun gueredun est hautement seisi: 1726 seisi serras du dun. 
,, „ pi. 1045 seisiz estesja du guerduu desii able : 1331 saisiz ja en serrez cum loial chevaler. 
seit, seium under estre. 
sele s. f. saddle. 

ace. sg. 1266 (estriu bailler) pur munter sele : 141 1 de cheval n'osterunt ne sele ne panel, 
semblable adj. like. 

mas. ace. sg. 656 a lui meimes semblable le fist, 
semblance s. f. appearance, imitation. 

nom. sg. 598 semblance est e faussete. 
ace. ,, 1375 li sancs de leit ad ja semblance, 
semblant s. m. countenance, likeness. 

prp. sg. 8 1 7 a ki Deus dune raisun a sun semblant : 821 regarde A. a piteus semblant : 
,, ,, 1 156 hom deignas furmer a tun semblant ; 1474 a sun semblant fist nus tuz. 
semeine s. f. week. 

(temp.) ace. sg. 38G une semeine vaus of moi demurez. 
semme \ v. tr. to sow. 

semmez ) imper. 2 pi. 635 gi-avele semmez. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 995 trop i a sun barat par cest pais semme. 
sen s. m. sense. 

ace. sg. 192 90 ne revolt ne sen ne entendement : 109 1 le sen au maistre prove li deciples. 
prp. ,, 61 1 si feiissez gent de sen, de raisun e mesuie. 
sene adj. sensible. 

mas. nom. pi. 962 ne deiissez esjoir si feiisez sen6. 
senglant | adj. bloody; abominable. 

senglantz / mas. nom. sg. 841 tut le vis (est) senglant : 935 senglant e debrise : 1 163 defule e senglant. 
,, ace. ,, 320 ferm lie Sathan le viel sanglant dragun. 

,, nom. pi. 1357 senglantz cum liun: 1744 ke tuit fussent parjurfi li traitre senglant. 
senglement adv. singly, only. 

194 ke un fust trois e trois un senglement. 
sengler s. m. boar. 

nom. sg. 1356 plus criieus e irez ke n'est urs u sengler. 
i;ent v. tr. to feel. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 522 quant ele se sent blescee : 595 ki ne ot ne sent ne veit par nature : , 

„ ,, „ ,, 974 se sent de ses dolurs tut* san^. 



GLOSSARY. 



cxxvn 



Lm^t-.-^'unife"' faTent-ence san. returned .3- 90 e. nostre sentence, 
ace ,f 746 eele sentence unt joure e viel confe.-me. 

prp.'s'^g^'TslT'ki reraist malade en un senter. 

) nom. fg'^t' iTsepulcves estoit ben clos e ben garni, 
ace. „ 106S (voient) le sepulcre A. 

s.f.' burial. ,„ mirtir atume ■ ,399 sepulture aturnent e a chescun sarcu. 

ace sg. 977 lors ad la sepulture au martir aturne . ijyy p 

] !,,;;;• :nf^' tulrfs deveng desore en ta subjecciun. 

^ r • f ^H^ Jesu n,e ^>--;|- ^j^ J^S^?^^ Ui jadis A>rent serfs au tirant K 

r • t letj Ui^rsersl;Slerd:^nt bon> n^or'tal. 

s. m. attendant, servant. , 

"°'"- ;f si: ferp"erie deMent'Se" e sergant : ..54 (sunt perU.) chevalers e sergant.. 

prp ^ ■ 76 de veisins u serganz oi ne aperceu. 

Lt.'im."g!"22 U tens (estoit) beus e sen: .059 P-s estoit li airs e san. nue seri. 

s. m. sermon, discourse. Hesnloier • i2-?7 un sermun lur ad fait. 



sentence 



senter 

sepiJcre 
sepulcres 

sepulture 

serf 
serfs 



sergant 

sergantz 

serganz 

seri 

sermun 



a 



^1:1:^:1^:^ ne finent a jumees tut se.e chevaucher. 
adi. evening, (used adveroiaUy). 
8 ceste croiz aiire senera e matmal. 
under sei-vir. 

^n^'sS're--' ^^ ^^"^'^ ^ '^'^"'^"^ ""^^^ ■ '" """^ '" "''"' '' """'' ' '"""■ 
nonrsr"79A.(est)ofluicun.sileal servant, 
pi. 1763 (sunt) servant e ami. 

rnd"pres°'/sg. 350 ki sert Deu e fait la siie volunte : 608 ki lui sert e honure. 
ind. prcs. 3 ^t,- ii , . y^ piaist aurer. 

•• " in,\i- .3' Sell 'vus)cum Deu re^unustre e leaument se,-v,r. 

pres. ptc;. prp. sg^. 6,', V^r de'"n""i'"er^'"' no"oTdefi) les deus ke servi ai. , 
'app. (ind. pft. I sg 8°9 U -" ^^^k t nt avum seni : .534 mi chevaler ki be. m'avez servn. 
•• " " \ ' o ,6 U element) Vunt beu servi : . 795 qui tant les unt servt. 
ppp.^m'is., ae^. s|. " ' '^^i ke veLs) seM e honur. de anglm legtun. 

acr'sg^Or'servise e ^vu anuel custurael soudrunt. 
pi-p. >, 35' "'"'■' ^" s"" servisc. 
set, seii, seur, sevenl, sez under saver. 



serrfi 

serrein 

sert 
servage 

servant i. 



servant 
servez 
servi 
ser\'ir 



servise 



ses 

seiir 

seiire 



sent 



severez 

sevr4 

sevrer 



under sun II. 
\ ± 'Zn^si I'TTc l^s c,S':^re seur (e acert.) = 573 ("Vst nul, tant H. t nc tant seur : 
> '"^^- " ^ 006 A. est ja seiir joius e esbaudiz. 
ni'as. fern. sg. 601 sa doctrine veraie est e seure. 
Ind" pres. 3^008 plus sent demuranee le cors d'um pener. 
V. tr. to separate, dissever ^^^^ ^^ ^^ n,ort sevrer : 

,U6 de sun enseignement ke nus pmssez sevrer. 
,;„,1 nft" 1 siA lOi 3 li ad du brant Ic chief du ou sevr6. 
app. md. pf . 3 sk.) ■°'^ „i, k, ,,, eumes) severez e part.. 

ppp.*nVas.795!l ies L^f^'ki sunt rumpuz e de tes os sevr.. 



cxxviii GLOSSARY. 

si I. conj. if; — A, with indie. — I, pres., and apodosis in"(a) ind. pres., (;8) fut. or imper., (y) condit., 

(5) omitted, — 2, inipft., 3, fut.; B, with subj. i, pres., and apodosis in (a) ind. pres., (/3) fut., 
(7) condit., — 2 impft., and apodosis in (a) ind. fut., (/3) condit., (y) irapft. subj. (= condit.), 
(S) omitted. 
A I (a) 509 porte brisent si il la trovent saerree : 966 garir me puet si lui ben vent a volente: 1239 crere 
cuvent si il ne veut perir : 1302 si 90 nun (= if that fails,) par la mort vus cuvent passer: 1321 si 
estre volez parcener, guerpii- \tis cuvent M. : 1763 D. pent mun cors garir, si li plest. 

(/3) 179 si curage me prent . . . di moi ke ferai : 184 si Deu tun quor eslumine ke tu . . , de toi li 
fras sacrifice: 218 situ me sez enseinner, tu serras mi maistres : 388 s'il vus plaist, le m'otriez ! 
428 si cunrei n'en est pris, grant duel ensurdera ; 432 si nun, li maus s'espandera : 448 si voirs est, 
. . . le chief li fra voler : 461 si pris sumes, hunte \'us fra : 1082 si garde ne empemum, serrum nus 
ausi: i275serra la perte grant sinus ne les poum reamener : 1276 nus i irrum s'il vus plaist cu- 
mander : 1279 si cone puet aver mester, tuz tuerum : 1289 pur duner si par el ne poent espleiter : 
1297 si veuz estre quites, desdi ke tu dit as : 1455 si tu requers pur moi, ta priere ert oie : 1665 
pardun purrez aver si tu les voilz proier : 1685 la te cuvendra aler, si tu ne guerpis tes deus. 
1S31 ne domiirai . . . si la k' en nef me mette [= before that, (until) I embark]. 

(y) 385 si tu ne guerpis, friez criieutez : 588 U doilz serroit grantz si tu I'en murs. 

(^j 441 s'en pernez vengance (v. note) : 1 130 (le baptizas) si tu I'es recordant [= as you remember]. 

2 1 760 li paen el fu d'enfer s'il ne estoient el siecle puis verai repentant. 

3 433 ore frez k'i dual, s'a pleisir vus vendra : — 

1414 jure unt [lie] ne mangerunt . . . s'averunt a V. mene lur enemi [= until they have brought]. 
B I (a) 1080 ki tuit vunt une part si Deus n'en eit merci. 
(^) 1 53° uncore fra il plus si il vive lungement. 
(y) 463 seroie mari si mal eiez (but v. note). 
2 (a) 1264 si quis delist estre, prendre le frai. 
(;(3) 465 de vus serroit grant duel si fuissez peri, 
(y) 611 si feiissez gent de raisun, a vus 9a fust venuz : 962 ne deiissez esjoir, si feiisez sene : 

1 560 si il fust boiseiir, ne feist teu mescinement. 
(I) 12 (une cite sanz guere paringal) si ne fust entuschee de la lei criminal. 
Tifith cum, = as if : — 

1543 les restora cum si il geiisent tuz \ifs : 1621 lors se rejoist cum se il ne ust une mal. 
C in elliptic setitences "with }iun, si . . . nun, = except, unless : — ■ 

314 ne li tirent une pur ses bens, si mal nun : 807 n'est autre si il nun : (for 432. 1302 v. A, i, (o)). 
si II. adv. veiily, surely (cf. Lat. sic). 

479 etant si sunt d'iluec meiiz e parti (but v. note) : 

575 si li dist : 518 si unt grant noise curaencee : 592 si te doinst Deus : 719 si en droitz (v. note) : 
804 si engette sun brant : 934. 1761; si en dient : 938 si en ad Deu mercie : 105 1 si est trespassable : 
1079 si firent noz parentz : 1082 si serrum ausi : 1155. 1294. 1567 s'a dit : 1291 si unt truve ; 1416 
si en frunt feste : 1553 si en de\'um estre repleni : 1658 se ferez grant saver : 1743 ^i le piinit Deus 
(v. note) : 175 1 si fu la presse grant, 
si in. adv. so (Lat. tam), to such an extent ; (a) with adjj., (b) with verbs. 

(a) 124. 545. 1210. 1406 si grant : 684 si dure cum acier : 1582 si haut vengement cum apent. 

(b) 646 si despiist : — 694 venta vent si (ke) : 7S9 va si apetizant (ke) : — 
1518 n'est pas si cum vus le quidez. 

siecle under secle. 

signifie v. tr. to signify, mean. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 218 si tu ke signifie me sez enseinner : 278 k'est [ce ke] signifie, me recunt e di. 
,, ,, ,, ,, 324 ben veit ke signifie la entaille e la fa9un : 732 90 mustre e signifie. 
simple adj. simple. 

fem. ace. sg. 1295. 1651 (enganer) simple gent. 
,, prp. ,, 526 a parole simple e atempree : 1251 de JI, va preehant, une simple aneele. 
simpkment adv. simply. 

176 a respundu simplement : 633 simplement respunt. 
sire 1 s. m. lord, master, liege-lord, sire, 

sires j nora. sg. 165 J. releva cume sires poestifs : 

,, ,, 459 de cest pais ki est tut sires ke bailli ; 1802 cist est sires de terre. 

voc. ,, 812. 1240. sire ! 329 beus sire deus ! 777 beu sire deus ! 868 beus duz sire Jesu ! 

ace. ,, 18 (trove) le seingnur scant al uis de sun ostal : 949 va quere tun seinnur. 

prp. ,, 955 a seingnur I'as clame : 686 (leal chevaler) mut deit pur sun seignur sufrir, 

nom. pi. 565 (ki furent) de grantz terres seingnur. 

voc. ,, 1245 seignms .' dist-il. 
sis I. num. adj. six. 

169 par nurabre deus faiz sis : 1138 emprisunez sis mois. 



GLOSSARY. cxxix 

sis ir. under sun II. 

sist under se.Tnt. 

sivant ") v. tr. to follow. • 

sive I ind. pres. 3 sg. 75 1 tant lui suit grant pueple. 

sivent j> ,, pret. ,, „ 264 grant turbe le si\i. 

sivi I subj. pres. „ „ 736 sive (celui) ki doctrine tant prise. 

sivre J ,, ,, ,, pi. 1587 (ke tuz) le sivent li il il aler tent. 

intin. 1435 ki ses cumpainnuns sivre ne pout mie. 
gmd. 825 liuns ki \'unt'' proie sivant. 
app. (ind. pft. i pi.) 1078 grant tens avum (sivi) les deus sarrazinois. 
soi pron. refl. self; — ser\-ing for all genders and numbers ; withrefl. verbs, sometimes redundant {444), — 

sometimes omitted (v. note on 1064). 
ace. s' before pron. en : — 

15. 434 vent s'en : 197. 493- 984- i0'4- I02S- 1053- I4S8 s'eajiartir : 198. 201. 213. 503. 527. 553. 
1174. 1285. 1352. 1592 s'en a/if/- ; — 
• ,, 434 g.nrde s'en dura : 444 s'en muira : 571 s'en puet gabber de \tis : 1066 s'en esmervellent : 1 731 
s'en ist : 1780 s'en est arage. 
generally : — 
,, 202 s'endort : 412 s'agenoilla : 432 s'espandera : 506 s'aturne : 549 s'esmerveUent : 653. 878. 1786 
s'espant: 720. 726 s'asent : 768 s'est eforce : 775 s'est mis: 826.884 s'escrie : 984 s'aperceivent : 
1038 s'est acumpainne : 1 161 s'est dune : 1456 s'enhumilie : 1585 s'estent : 1734 s'entrecunbatent. 
se before consonants : — 

123 se vout fier : 224 se desclot : 325 a genoilluns se met : 435 se feindra : 479 j-;'sunt meiiz (v. 
note) : 522 se sent blescee : 536 se curuce : 562 se soille : 690 se seet atemprer : 698 se despoille : 
707 se pout garder : 7 1 7 se fie : 734 se chastie : 773 se mistrent : 793 se drescent en scant : 974 se 
sent sane : 1033 se sunt abaundune : 1056. 1467 se reposent : 1204 se puet retenir : 1272 se sunt 
alie : I3i4sefert: 1362 se desjunerunt : 1481. 1596 se sunt dune : 1483 se sunt muntez : 1527 se 
purofri : 1590. 1717 se penent : 1615 lier se lessa : 1632 se rendirent : 1 649 se sevent garder : 1783 
se pout v.anter : 1 790 se rendent : 1804 baptizer se funt. 
„ before Z'Oii'els : — 

421 se humUia : 624 se assemblerunt : 1006 se est enchante : 1062 se arestut : 1358 sanz set 
amesurer (v. note) : 1466 se aresteent : 1531 se espaundi : 1721 se espanist : 1728 se effreent. 
prp. soi 1084 chescun endroit de soi. 
soie I. s. f. silk. 

prp. sg. 682 de soie coiltes pointes. 
soie II. (485), soient, soiez, soit, solum under estre. 
soille V. refl. to soil, besmirch itself. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 562 fausete se soille, au chef de tur. 
soing ■ s. m. care, desire. 

ace. sg. 961 de eschars ne gas oir n'ai soing ne volunte. 
soir under seir. 

solail \ s. ni. sun. 

solailz 1 nom. sg. 160 mua lune culur, devint li solailz bis : 252 solail enobscuri : 

,, ,, 255 ne rai ne lumcre solail ne espandi : 830 li solailz Id chautz est e raant, (veit) : 
,, ,, 860 li solailz les greve, ki plus est chautz ke feu ; 902 raant cum solailz lu flamboie k midiz : 
,, ,, 1054 li solailz ja decline : lodo (plus) clers kt solailz de midi. 
ace. ,, 1287 il unt fait ap.arer le solail e la lune : 1757 ki fist solail raant. 
prep. ,, 495 du solail parut la clarte : 691 du solail lei flamboie : 
„ „ 622. 882 deu du solail : Ii69lavertu du solail raant : 11 52 vers solail levant. 
solaz s. m. solace, comfort. 

ace. sg. 1 1 70 ke teu solaz nus feseit. 
soler ) s. m. upper-room, 

solers ) prp. sg. 202 en sun lit s'endort ki ert en un soler: 679 prisun ad obscure pur sale e pur soler. 

„ pi. 17 (un palois) A solers e estages e celers grantz aval, 
sortz s. m. magic arts. 

prp. pi. 1296 ki ne se sevent de tes sortz garder : — 1006 (est enchantii) par caractes e par sortz : 
i> '> '334 ?° ^5t par sortz au sarmuner. 
soudee ) v. tr. to pay, repay. 

soudeer ) ind. pres. 3 sg. 784 hautement soudee ki de lui est prive. 

infm. 1330 venez, li mien ami, ki ai i soudeer. 
soudrunt v. tr. to perform. 

ind. fut. 3 pi. 625 servise e wu anuijl soudrunt. 

r 



cxxx 



GLOSSARY. 



suage 

subjecciun 

subterin 

sucur 

sucurable 

sucure 

siie, suen, 
suef 

suefre 
sueires 



sufrent 
sufrez 

sufri 
sufrir 



sugumant 

sujume 

sujumer 



sui 
suit 
sujur 

sul 
suls 



sulement 

Sulie 

sulum 

sum 

sumer 

sumes 
summe 



sumoin 

sumunent 

sumuns 



V. tr. to assuage, soothe. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 284 (sa croiz) ki le cunforte e suage. 
s. f. subjection. • 

prp. sg. 332 ti serfs deveng des ore en ta subjecciun. 
adj. infernal. 

mas. ace. sg. 336 (descunus) le subterin Plutun. 
„ prp. „ 1818 sunt dampne diable en enfer susterin. 
s. m. succour. 

nom. sg. 560 estre a sun deciple e guarant e sucur. 
adj. aidful. 

mas. nom. sg. 1043 soiez sucurable a ceus ki sunt a vus enclins. 
V. tr. to succour. 

subj. pres. 3 sg. 609 Jesus me haid e sucure ! 
suens under sun. 
adv. gently. 

919 dient entre eus suef. 
under sufrir. 
s. m. grave-cloth. 

prp. pi. 1400 en sueires les unt mis e encusu. 
V. intr. to sweat. 

infin. 698 (veisez gent ki se despoille) nercir e suer. 
V. tr. to suffer ; permit, allow. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 654 ki tut suefre ; 68 5 tut 90 suefre A. : 1431 quancke il pur Deu suefre. 
,, ,, ,, pi. 1675 sufrent (mort) el puis de enfer. 

,, pret. 3 sg. 248 (sufri) quancke il savoient fere : 290 bis. tant sufri de peine e tant sufri de huntage 
,, ,, „ ,, 931. 1072. 1256. 1496 sufri (mort) : 1620 turment (tal) cum Deus pur moi sufri. 
imper. 2 ,, 873 ne suefre ke pur moi seit tis poples perdu ! 
,, ,, pi. 382 pur Deu sufrez. 

infin. 686 mut deit pur sun seignur sufrir leal chevaler : — 
,, 1225 ceste \-ie finir par peine e par (sufrir) mort pur lui. 
V. intr. to sojourn ; rest on the way. 
infin. 112 (lur cuvint) aler puis sujurner : 1683 of lur deus lur apent en enfer sujumer : — 

,, 33 de orient veng sanz sujurner. 
pp. (ind. pft. I sg.) 380 asez ai sujume. 

gmd. 1189 un suls i faut malade sugurnant. 
under estre. 
,, sivre. 
s. m. sojourn, abode. 

prp. sg. 1 1 1 7 en sujur atendi : — 553 ki s'en va vaivez par terres sanz sujur. 
\ adj. alone ; lonely. 
/ mas. nom. sg. 199 Apl. sul i demuere. 

,, ,, ,, 853 sul A. i est le cors e les pez nu : 1 189 mes ke un suls i faut : 

,, ,, ,, 1347 ne failli ke un sul : 1422 sul i est a pe li precheiir Apl. : 

„ ,, ,, 1469 repos n'i avoit entre eus suls Amphibeus : 1547 mais ke un sul i failli ; 

,, ,, ,, 1652 tu sul es acheisun : 1672 sul Deu puet (reapeler). 

385 si tu sul me guerpis, trop fr'iez cmeutez : 118S \-us sul demandant. 
1504 frarins sumes e suls e tuz enorfani. 



502. 1447 en S. murut. 



,, ace. ,, 

,, nom. pi. 
adv. only. 

1 2 14 nun pas sulement (o'ir, mes obe'ir). 
f. n. pr. S\Tia. 

prp. 716 crucifie eu pai's de Sulie: — 42" en S. en croiz penerent : 
prep, according to. 

80 sulum ta favele : 362 sulum les faitz du cors: 741 sulum la lei de Rumme. 
s. m. sleep, nap. 

ace. sg. 216 (mis quors ne mis penser) ne prist sum : 578 n'est ki ne prent sum (is caught napping), 
s. m. beast of burden. 

prp. sg. 1288 or portent e argent en cofres a smner. 
under estre. 
s. f. sum ; sum-total. 

nom. sg. 1403 nuef centz e nunante nuef la summe ad cuntenu. 
ace. ,, 372 (demustre) de la fei Deu la summe. 
v. tr. to siunmon. 
ind. pres. I sg. 344 ore vus pri e sumoin. 

,, ,, 3 pi. 1426 aler le sumunent de lance e de cutel. 



GLOSSARY. 



CXXX.1 



(sumuns) ppp.mas.pl. 715 mandcz e sumuns de pais loinlcin : 1418 pueple cum sumuns a cenbel ; 

„ ,, „ 1494 furcnt tuit sumuns e bani. 
sumunse s. f. summons. 

prp. sg. 1588 a ccste sumunse nuls ne remaint ne atent. 
sun I. s. m. top, summit. 

prp. sg. 323 e le crucifi en sun. 
-un II. poss. adj. pron. his, its; — pi. /wr (uninflcctcd), their. 

mas. nom. sg. sis loi sis amis : 717 sis disciples : 718 sis horn : 810 bis. sis horn e sis sergant : 975 
sis cors : 1041 sis nuns : 1470 sis bons quors : 1471 sis hem leus. 
si 24 si saluz : 399 si frere esnez : 1090 si deciples: ii75sisancs: 1 179 cum si 

leal servant : I254sifiz: 1470 si cors. 
sun 271 benoit seit le perc, e sun fiz : 674. 1292 90 fu sun mesler: 789 sun chanel 
va si apetizant : 1585 ii sun poer s'estent. 
Ti'it/i dt'finite article : — 
siieiis 915 le jur A. cumence e li suens est finiz. 
sueii 15O3 verai est li suen prechement. 
,, ace. ,, sun 71. 498. l8i4sunoste: 103 sun sermun : 125 sun messager : 204. 1222 sun 
segrei : 280 sun quor : 280. 590 sun curage : 313. 659 sun liz ; 437 sun maistre : 
447 sun ami: 667 sun voler : 670. 956. 1218. 1616 sun cors: 804. n6o sun 
brant: 950 sun chief: 995 sun barat : 1132 sun bien : 1199 sun sane : 1405 
sun leuncel : 1567 sun errur : 1645 sun regne : 1 707 sun eumpainnun. 
with def. art. : — 
suen 725 Id le suen deu renie. 
,, gen. ,, sun 167. 1705 (a) (.il) destre sun pere. 

,, prp. ,, sun 213 a sun oste : 455 .a sun maistre: 560 & sun deciple : 817. 1474 a sun sem- 
blant : S49 a sun martire : 942 a sun destrer : 1336 ^ sun talent : 1554 a sun 
uoes : 1722 a sun loial chamjjiun : — 18 de sun ostal : 542 de sun maistre: 
912 de sun fait: 109S de sun gueredun : 1186 de sun cors: iji6 de sun 
enseignement : — 7 2 en sun ostel : 1 23 en sun cher fiz : 202 en sun lit : 351 en sun 
senise : 676 en sun celer : 1210. 1813 en sun palois : — 1385 par sun cumant : — 
658 pur lui e sun lignage : 686 pur sun seignur: 1770 pur A. sun martir. 
s' 1108 de s' amur (v. note). 
„ nom. pi. si 23 si ancesur: 146. 983. 1015 si parent : 318 si cumpainun: 978. 1382 si ami. 

ses 1479 les pecchms repentantz sunt ses especieus (v. note). 
„ ace. ,, ses 166 ses prisuns cheitifs : 631 ses dras : 675 ses maus : 1244 bis. ses hummes 
e ses privez : 1435 ses cumpainnuns : 1440 ses criz : 1478 ses aigneus : 1614 
ses serfs : 1627 ses turmentz : 1753 ses cumpainnuns martirs: 1785 ses martirs 
with def. art. : — [gentilz. 

suens 1368 ne met pas les suens en ubbliance. 
,, gen. ,, ses 867 maus ses encmis. 

,, prp. ,, ses 478 a ses diz : — 326 deseserrurs: 974 de ses dolurs : 1171 de ses enemis : — 
178 en ses establiz : — 909. 1019 of ses (desmeine) eslitz : — 401 par Noe e ses fiz : 
1487 par ses sermuns : 1510 par ses enchauntements : — 1384 purses martirs. 
liiith def. art. : — 
ses 103" mustrer as ses martirs. 
fcm. nom. sg. sa 321 sa mansiun : 34S tute sa beute : 515 sa face : 517 sa vertu ; 556. 601 sa 
doctrine : 602 sa vie : 932 sa fiiiture. 
sue 593 siie creature. 
„ ace. ,, sa 230 sa doctrine : 284. 513. 535. 1176 sa croiz : 322 sa les9un : 496 sa mesnee : 
675 sa penance : 1089 sa bunte : 1 134 sa robe : 1282 sa gent : 1312 sa vertu : 
1800 sa haute de'ite. 
before vowels, {nez'er elided) : — 

214 sa avisiun : 327 sa uraissun : 490 sa eglise : 1704 sa oraisun : 1724 sa 
entuneiun. 
siie 105 out fait Adam e Ewe, sue per : — 

7ifith def. art. : — 
,, 350 fait la siie volunte. 
,, prp. ,, sa 1095 a sa tunibe: — 293 de sa char: 1212 de sa robe : 1252 de sa mamelc : — 
1731 de sa ch.arnel maisun : — 200 devant sa croiz : — 1721 en sa saisun : — 968 
of sa mesnCe : — 119. 1224 par sa grace: 343 par sa revelaciun : 1711 par s;i 
rcdcnipeiun : 1 799 par sa mort ; 1810 p.ar sa vertu : — 983 pur sa mort. 
before vowels : — 
1 147 de sa emprise : — 619 en sa adanture: — 305 par sa encarnaciun. 

r 2 



cxxxu 



GLOSSARY. 



(sun) 



sune 
suner 

sungai 

sunge 

sunt 
sur 

sure 

surdera 
surse 

surt 

sumnde 

survint 

susduit 

suspir 
suspirs 

suspirant 

susprendra 

suspient 

suspris 



sustent 
sustenu 



sustenn 
sustrait 

sutife 
sutive 

suvaus 

suvenir 



») 


nom. pi. 


JJ 


ace. „ 


mas 


. nom. sg 


>> 


ace. „ 


ty 


(obi.) „ 


»» 


prp. J, 


n 


nom. pi 


tt 


ace. „ 


)t 


prp. „ 


fern 


. nom. sg 


JJ 


ace. ,, 


»i 


(abs.) „ 


,) 


prp. „ 



1489 lur bon ami : 1490 hir 



ses 975 garies sunt ses plaies. 

ses 13 1 3 (vus ne savez) ses grantz vertuz. 

1627 lur voler : 1 740 lur cuvenant : 1764 lur escu. 

49 lur peer: 627. 1415 lur enemi : iiii lur chemin : 

parent : 1745 liu- voler. 

113 lur lingnage. 

629 a lur temple : 1680 a lur mauvois voler : — 1380 puis lur enfance. 

1777 lur menbres sunt destuers. 

395 lui'segreiz .•411 bis. lur faitz e lur cunseilz ; 1277 lur quers : 1 4 10. 1792 lur deus : 

15 14 bis. lur cheveus, lur dras : 1791 lur temples : 1794 lur ancesurs ; 1S05 lur errurs. 

1485 a lur osteus : — 1465 de lur temples : 1516 de lur parentz : — 1683 of lur deus : — 

'737 P^r lur deus. 

1627 tele est lur ire : 1676 la est Im' mansiun. 

49. 646 lur loi : no. 1586 lur vie : 646 lur creance : iioglurfoi: 1 1 10 lur emprise . • 

1 50 1 lur joie : 1 5 1 7 lur gref pleinte. 

1739 lur gent veant. 

1414. 1739 a V. lur cite : — 1719 de lur mansiun : — 1398 en lur tene. 
v. intr. to sound, utter, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 758 cist ne sune (mot). 

infin. 1336 (fait) rebundire suner (I'eir). 
v. intr. to dream. 

ind. pret. i sg. 217 un sunge sungai. 
s. m. dream. 

ace. sg. 217 un sunge sungai : 294 tun sunge puez entendre sanz fentosme u folage. 
under estre. 

prp. over, upon ; anent. 

490 sa eglise sur pere funda : 952 (truver) sur I'erbe : 1062. 1 181 sur la tumbe A. : — 
1268 cunsel sur 90 demant. 
adv. against, upon, (of attack). 
1344 li frere li curt sure, 
v. intr. to arise, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1245 cist mans mut surt e renuvele : 1 733 atant surt une noise e un estrif mut grant. 

,, fut. ,, ,, 428 grant duel en surdera, si eunrei n'en est pris. 
pp. fern. sg. 1 1 66 (funtainne) est surse du pendant. 
v. intr. to rise high in waves. 

pp. mas. sg. 1029 fort est a cunbatre a flot k'est surunde. 
V. intr. to come on, supervene, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 1055 par la nuit lei survint. 
V. tr. to seduce, lead astray. 

ppp. mas. sg. 574 (n'est nul tant sage) Id n'est aucune feit susduit par foleiir. 
s. m. sigh. 

ace. sg. 1 203 gette de parfund un suspir. 
prp. pi. 327 a lermes e suspirs fait ad sa uraissun. 
V. intr. to sigh. 

grnd. 382. 1 155 dit en suspirant. 
V. tr. to surprise, seize, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 198 la nuit le susprent. 
,, fut. ,, ,, 437 saeez, ke susprendra (lui e sun maistre). 
ppp. mas. nom. sg. 1434. 1453 suspris de (maladie) (langur). 
,, „ „ pi. 993 suspris sunt de rancur. 
V. tr. to sustain, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 
ppp. mas. sg. 
„ pl- 
under subterin. 
V. tr. to take away, carry off. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1094 I'ewe, k'il nus sustrait : 1750 un crestien (sustrait) le cors au martir. 
adj. underground. 

fern. ace. sg. 512 une chambre sutife i unt truvee. 
,, prp. ,, 392 d'une maisun sutive (unt fait lur escole). 
adv. at least. 

94 1 (voer ad desire) suvaus le cors A. (but v. note). 
v. refl. to remember. 



60 ki sustent I'orfanin. 

86 li mundz est e faitz e sustenu. 

880 recunfortez en sunt de I'ewe e sustenu. 



GLOSSARY. 



cxxxin 



(suvenir) 
buvent 



suvereins 
suz 



infin. 1208 bien me deit (suvenir) d'A. le gentil. 

adv. often. , , 

514 suvent I'ad aiiree : 516 la lei J. suvunt ad reclaraee. 

adj. sovereign, supreme. ■ , ,. 1 s 

mas. prp. pi. 1246 dunt Tonur des deus suverems (chancele). 

l'r72dS'lu. un arbruseu : .4.2 chuce^ en lit su. lincel : .755 enterre suz bleste verdoiant. 



t' 

ta, t' 
table 

tafur 



tal 
talent 

talun 

tanailles 

lant I. 



(lant) II. 



(tant) III 



. under atant) ; par tant, thereby, — 
1554 en ad des noz tant seisi : 



T. 

under tu. 

„ tun. 
s. f. table. 

prp. sg. 141 3 ne mangerunt a table, 
s. m. scoundrel. 

nom. sg. 552 ke un estrange tafur (va prechant). , . ■, „„,„> 

ace. ,; 1264 ceu tafur ... (si quis deust estie) . . . prendre le frai (v. note). 
prp. ,',' 1512 pernez ent vengance de ceu tatur faillL 
under teu. 

s. m. wish, good pleasure, 
prp. sg. 1336 a sun talent fait rebundir (1 eir). 
s. m. heel. 

prp. sg. 1702 tut est debrise du frund gesc au talun. 
s. f. pincers. . 

nrn. pi. 12^0 (plus ke fe\Te) ne set de tanaiUes. 
s. ntr so niuch, so many, followed by de, and cum ; (for atant, v. 
par tant ke, with subj., because; pur tant, however. 
nom. 1516 tant sunt delurparentz destruit. 
ace. 290 bis. tant sufri de peine, de huntage : 1335 tant apnst : 

„ 1568 tant saet d'enchantement: 
'ace") 842. 1 139 (ne) tant ne quant {= at all). 

prp. 664 par tant ne point esploiter : 1 562 par tant le poum saver :— 
„ 1027 quident ki eient lur voler achevS, par tant ke destruite 1 seit crestiente — 

638'pur tant de tin or cum portereit un dromund :— 
',' 1440 pur tant (= for all that) ne laist ke ses criz ne eshauce. 
adj. (indccl.) so great, so much, 
nom. 381 tant i a plente : 1589 tant 1 a gent. 

ace 358 bis. tant urent tresor e tant nobilite : 1 140 tant damage encurumes : 
1227 dunt tant ai eiidesir: 1487 ki tant ad gent trahi: 
84 ki tant est de force : 28S tant cstoit d'age (but v. note) : 
c66 tant sunt de valur : 786 de vertu sunt tant : 1661 tant sunt de poer. 

a, so, so much, so greatly, with (n) verbs, (^3) adjj., {y) adw. ; b, so long. ,, ^ ^_ , , , 
."doc tant est redutez : i2y tant faitz a amer : 184 tant tun quor eslumme (ke) : 520 tant ad 
honuree • 0?? tant le cheriit (ke) : 736 tant prise : 811 va tant prisant : 944 tant fu maumene : 1006 
tant se est enchante : 1017 tant ad desire: 1035 tant ne (= however much) en serrunt requis : 
1205 jo tant desir : 1345 tant fist a low : 1495 tant furent en emir entrez , „ r fl- 

(B) 26 tant prude : 306. 607. 70S tant cruel : 354. .795 '»"' m^hne : 357 bis. tant riche e tant fefle . 
,-, ter tant sa^c tant fort, ne tant seQr: 69. tant chaut : 708 tant fer : 75. tant giant : 1049 bis. 
tant po'isant e tSnt merciable : .207 tant gloriuse : .566 tant irascuz : .O48 tant me.nt : .742 tam 

ardant ; — ., , 

242 tant esle plus huni: 1333 tant sunt il plus crueus. or.. 

,2.1 ta..t deboneirement : .2.5 tant leument : .308 tant vmment : 1475- '5o3; 'S"«- '^47 tan mar. 

, tant, so long, absol. ; 2, tant ke, (a) until, (fi) whUst ; 3, tant cum = (a) so long as, (/i wh.l.t :- 

1 143 tant durant: 151 1 tant avum servi : 1528 tant fu esparn. : 1742 tant atendre ; 1768 tant unt 

euerroie; 1793 unt ta.it ame : 1795 tant unt ser\i. ...... ,^ , 1 

(■a^ m tant ke il le mistrent a mort : 5>2 tant k'une chambre unt truv^e: 666 tant la demurer ke >un 

vu!er pousse flecchir: 1 119 tant vunt qucrant ke Apl. unt truvc : .815 gesk' a tant k d furc.u mis 

en sarcu: — 
iP) 1 53° 'ant k'as plaies bender li frercs main tend.. 



prp. 
adv 



(«) 



(r) 



CXXXIV 



GLOSSARY. 



1266 tant cum vif ; 1687 



3 (n) 606 tant cum vie me dure : 1085 tant cum en cest mund \ivantz sumes ci 
tant cum il lui plest espace otroier. 
(/3) 1343 tant cum li peve au fiz la plaie va bender, 
tantdi conj. whilst, in the moment that. 

1 176 li oil h sunt chaet . . . tantdi seisi sa croiz. 
larger v. intr. to delay. 

infm. 1283 aillent sanz larger : 1696 ke ne soiez del tut peri par trop larger. 
tart a — , adv. late. 

810 (ore) mes ke a tart, deveng sis horn. 
te, lei under tu. 

leinst j V. tr. to tinge, stain. 

teint > ind. pret. 3 sg. 1 186 ke il au muriant leinst en sun sane : 

teinte ) ,, „ ,, ,, 1544 li sancs, k'avant Ics teint, plus ke laitz emblanchi. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1837 ki I'ad teinte preniers de sane rosin. 

,, ( „ anl. ,, ,, ) 1375 li sancs k'avam Ics cors out teint, de leit ad ja semblance, 
ppp. fern. nom. sg. 145 1 eu sane A. fu teinte e flurie. 

„ ,, ace. „ 1201 tenir la croiz teinte eu sane A. : i6r2 teinte en a la peitrine. 
tel, tele under teu. 

temple 1 s. m. temple, 

temples J nom. sg. 752 a pou n'est voide li temples. 

prp. ,, 626 au temple irrunt : 629 a Im- temple vunl : 253 un grantz veilz du temple desira : — 
,, ,, 145 eu temple fu ciicumcis : 1363 cum sacrifice eu temple pardevanl lur auter. 
ace. pi. 1 79 1 (a lui unt abaundune) lur temples e aulers. 
prp. ,, 1465 de lur temples e paleis (ja veient) tureles e kemeus. 
temporal adj. temporal. 

mas. prp. sg. 1623 en cest mund temporal, 
tenant i. en un — , adv. uninterruptedly. 

1 1 38 emprisunez sis mois en un tenant, 
tenant 11., tenc under tenir. 

lendi v. tr. to stretch out, offer ; v. intr. to direct one's course, to aim. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 15S7 le sivent la u il aler tent. 
,, jiret. ,, ,, 23S a boivTe fel tendi : 1530 as plaies bender li freres main tendi. 
tendrai under tenir. 

tendruns s. m. tendrils (v. note). 

ace. pi. 69s (veisez) le chaut tendruns usler. 
tendiiir s. f. tenderness, pity. 

prp. sg. 483 A de tendrur gent, 
tenebrur s. f. darkness. 

nom. sg. 1677 est grant tenebrur, nuit sanz enjumer. 
tenegre en — , adv. secretly. 

554 s'en est binnez en tenegre devant jur. 
tenement s. m. property, fief. 

ace. sg. 15S6 cum il aiment lur vie e tenement, 
tenent \ v. tr. to hold ; deem, esteem ; tenir le chemin, to go. 

tenimes ( ind. pres. 2 sg. 570 cele croiz ke tu la tens. 

tenir I ,, „ 3 » 1630 (mercier J.) k'U le tenc digne pur li teu peines endurer. 

tens I. / ,, ,, ,, pi. S46 charoinne le tenent. 

„ pret. I ,, 1004 charoinne le tenimes. 

,, ,, 3 ,, 13 Sarrazins la tindrent : 546 qui guerpi as ke tindrent li genlil ancesur. 

,, fut. I sg. I S33 vers Rumme tendrai droit le chemin. 

infin. 711 (out fait) A. tenir, laidir e balre : 1201 la croiz les veil tenir : 

,, 12 10 me deingnat a si grant honur en sun palois tenir. 
giTid. 623 tenant un rubi rund. 
tl. s. m. time, life ; weather ; par lens, betimes, early (in the day), at an early opportunity, 
nom. sg. 222 la nuit estoit peisible, li tens beus e seri. 
ace. ,, 100 en franchise e almosne as tun tens despendu : — 

(„) „ 117 hu- cmint grant tens (demurer) : 1078 grant tens avum (ser\i les deus). 
prp. „ 181 1 a ceu tens esloie mescrcmt sarrazin : — 147 apres pou de tens : — 
,, ,, 212 (le matin) par lens al enjurner: 494 al endemein par tens quant part la matinee : 
,, ,, 1688 te cuvent par tens cumencer : 1695 (\'us pur\oier) par tens. 
1691 les braz ad estenduz tuz tens pm- embracer. 



tens 



tent 
tente 



ace. pi. 
under tendi. 
s. f. tent. 



GLOSSARY. 



cxxxv 



termm 1 

termini ) 

terc I 

terre > 

terres J 



prp. 



(.0 



(2) 



tertre 



Tervagant 



tes 
teser 

tcsraoin 

tesmoine 

tcsmoinne 

tesmoniant 

teste 

testes 

Tetim 

teu 
teus 



ace. 
prp. 



ti, tis 
tigre 



prp. sg. 1413 ne mangerunt a table, n'en tente, n'ea ostel. 
V. tr. to terminate. 

ind. pres. i sg. 1845 la estoire de A. ci finis c termm. 

niin mas sc 1021 fie rejine') ki ja n'ert termine. _ ■ . .1 i,,i 

FTV^rld ?;« ° land ; en teire, ., on earth,-., in the soil,-3, m the eount.y,-4, into ihc land, 
nom sg .59 d ne trembla terre' en tuz lius e pais : .093 la terre (obe,, ki fruit ne rendi) 
ace .: 8s ki list les elements, terre, unde, air e fu : 122. 283. 1634 ki fist e terre e me. 
S-'S ki cria la terre e mer salee : 1 178 (guvemant) e eel e terre : 
" " 1437 kiguieciele terre: 1575 kiguie terre e firmament:— 
;; ," 696 (veisez) la terre crever : 701 niie ne parut ki peust umbrer terre. 

„ 8?() a terre unt geii : 971 (cors) kia tere gut : . j.>,„„j„ . 

,0.4 le cors a teire est trebuche : 1386 Cun aigles) ki a terre est desendu .- 
", 7 14 li prince de la terre : 359 n'unt ore plus de tere fors saet pez mesure : 

•SQ-l cist de la terre (unt veu) : 1802 sires de terre e du eel estotUe :— 
" foVn ten-e (nuneier) : 227 en terre 9a jus desendi : 228 bis. en terre fu (vivant) (rturri) : 
' 659 en terre prist char : ,072 en tei-re mort sufri : 1099 en terre beu men : 
;; 1390 en terre ne fu une veii: 1782 en terre guerroier le rei de majeste . 
1801 en terre prist humanite : — - ,, . 

69° nestrisent blez en terre: 724 en terre vif I'enseveUe • 10,5 I'unt en terre musce : 
1600 un peel en terre afichent : 1 752 mist le cors en terre :— 
',' 1 139 en la terre ne pluveit : 1398 miracle k'en lur terre lur est aparu :— 

312 en terre les niena de promissiun. 
p'l'. ,86 (tu purras consirer) terres e eitez. • „ , 

424 s'en vent batant des tenes de dela : 565 de grantz terres semgnur :- 
" 535 s'en vavaivez par terres sanzsujur: 1247 par terres sautele. 

s. m. hUlock. 

nom. sg. 897 li tertre est flunz (du sane A.). 

ace. „ 940 a genoilz e a cutes ad le tertre munte. 

prp. „ 988 (urent lesse) eu tertre gisant. 

n. pr. (of a deity,) Tervagant (v. note 1129). 

ace. 819 guerpissez Mahom, guerpissez Ten-agant. 

gen. II 29 guerpir la lei Tervagant. 

prp. 1737 (jure) par lur deus, Phebum, Mahum, e Ten.-agaiit. 

num. adj. ord. third. 

mas. prp. sg. 166. 263 releva au terz di. 

under tun. 

V. intr. to make one's way, journey towards. 

infin. 34 (teser) vers Guales mun pais est mun purpos. 

s. m. \rilness. 

ace. sg. 1840 tesmoin avcrai of moi mem veiUart e meschin. 

, ind''pres.'fsg. SiMedement tesmoine (vo ke hem desdit) : 1089 A. tesmoinne sa bunle. 
pres. ptep: mas. ace. sg. 801 quant veit le miracle Jesu tesmomant (v. note), 
s. f. head. 
[ prp so^. 1 263 enfrundrer de teste u de cervele. 
ace. pF. 1234 ne larrum pur les testes duner au brand feru-. 
n. pr. Tethys .' Thetis ? 
ace. 336 de'scunus Tetim e Pallaide. 
I pron. adj. such. . , , . ^1 

mas nom. sg. 24 si saluz fu tal : 1071 teus estoit lur chantz entenduz e oiz : 
' _^ _^ „ ib'ig (n'est pas) tal cum Deus sufri : 1740 tel fu lur cuvenant. 
ace ',', 1406 travail si grant ke unc n'avoient tel :— 

,,70(nusfeseit) teu solaz: 1561 (ne feist) teu mescinement. 
',' pVp. „ 426 d'un deu tel estrange (sermunant va) : 1398 niercis rendu de teu miracle. 
", nom. pi. 1472 par quci estes vus teus ? 
prp. ,, 14X0 de teus en unt grant joie. 
fem nom. sg. 1390 teu merveille (ne fu unc veii) : 1627 tele est lur ire. 

'ace „ 441 pernez teu venganee: 444 nusautres (cumencera) teu chose. 
';, prp. " 689. >o58'-'nleumanere: I709Suientelmortelprlsun:-337l«rt<•■"t■•••'»u"• 
,',' ace. pi. 1630 (cndurcr) teu pcines. 
under tun. 
s. m. tiger, 
nom. |)1. 470 raisun plus n'orreient kc tigre ensauvagi. 



cxxxvi 



GLOSSARY. 



tindrent under tenir. 

tirant j s. m. tjTant. 

tirantz ) nom. sg. 445 li tirantz criieus la parole entendi : 496 li fels tirantz cumande sa mesnee : 

tiranz ) „ „ 709 li feluns tiranz pautoner (out fait A. lier). 

prji. „ 309 furent serfs au tirant Pharaun : 458 descuverz sumes a un tirant felun : 
,, ,, 1 131 encusez fustes a un cruel tirant : — 800 out receii du tirant le cumant. 

nom. pi. 259 furent li felun tiiant [esmoilli] : 1745 "^ lur voler feisent cist pautener tirant. 

ace. ,, 907. 1040 ne dute mais tirantz. 
tire V. tr. to drag. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 757 tire I'unt e sache. 
toi under tu. 

toleit V. tr. to carrj' off. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1577 trop nus ad toleit gent. 
tore! s. m. bullock. 

nom. sg. 1417 sacrifice plus agreable ke buef u torel. 
torment under turment. 

tort s. m. WTong ; a tort, %vrongfully. 

ace. sg. 688 (venger) le tort k'em fait. 

prp. „ 157 a tort encupez : 231 a tort la cupa. 
tost adv. speedily, quickly, soon. 

533 unt tost desiree : 537 (est) tost esmue : 581 piete unt tost : 669 s'en put tost passer: 1242 tost 

est veniie la nuvele: 1593 pur tost venir : 1780 tost s'en est arage : 1786 tost s'espaunt la nuvele. 
trahi \ v. tr. to betray. 

trahir > infin. 1 23 1 amer sanz fauser u trahir. 

trahiz ) app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1487 ki tant ad gent trahi par ses sermuns desleus. 

ppp. mas. sg. 156 (fu) trahiz e venduz : 931 trahi ja par Judas, 
trahit, traient under trait, 
trainant 1 v . tr. to drag, 
trainent / ind. pres. 3 pi. 630 A. i trainent. 

grnd. 797 ala trainant A. a martire. 

s. f. treason. 

prp. sg. 337 par teu traisun met hum a grant mine : 
" » 575 par traisun perist meint quens : 657 (forfist) par traisun de la saerpent. 

V. tr. to drag, draw. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 608 en enfer trait ki lui sert ; 631 li uns trait, li uns bute. 
,, ,, ,, pi. 1748 ferent, nafrent e traient. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 53 1 I'unt pris e trahit par la riie : 
„ ( „ „ „ „ ) 750 hors de la cite I'unt ja trait e raene ; 753 I'unt trait e bute. 

s. m. traitor. 

nom. sg. i486 li traitre orienteus (est venuz). 

prp. ,, 1583 vengement (prendre) de itel ielun : 155 (fu quis par) Judas le traitre. 

nom. pi. I lOi a humein lignage sunt tiaitres enemi ; 1744 ke tuit fussent parjure li traitre senglant. 

V. tr. to send down. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 658 Deu du ciel tramist sun fiuz : 881 ki lur tramist salu. 

ppp. mas. sg. 168 d'Uuec fu as apostles h seinz esperitz tramis. 

_,, fern. „ 517 ke sa vertu li seit tramise e envee. 

V. tr. to translate. 

ppp. fern. sg. 1822 la estoiie ert translatee en franceis e latin. 

s. ra. labour, toU. 

ace. sg. 1300 sanz plus aver par vus travail e desturber. 

prp. „ 1406 (tut rettent Apl.) de cest travail si grant; 1725 ui receverez pur tun travail guerdun. 
) V. intr. to toil ; v. tr. to pain. 
travaiUerunt f ind. fut. 3 pi. 634 pur nent travaiUerunt. 

ppp. mas. pi. 780 pur quel cist sunt travaille. 

v. intr. to go crosswise, be twisted, awrj'. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1778 les buches traversent, li oil sunt reverse. 

v. intr. to stumble, fall. 

pp. mas. sg. 1014 le cors a terre est trebuche. 
,, „ pi. 772 ki en sunt trebuche (du pund en I'ewe). 

num. three. 

152 de ans treis feiz dis : 187 trois persones: 481 treis arpentz e demi: — 

194 bis. ke un fust trois, e trois un senglement. 

V. intr. to tremble. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 159 trembla terre en tuz lius e pais : 252 trembla trestut li raundz. 



traisun 



trait 



traitre 
traitres 



tramis 

tramise 

tramist 



translatee 



travail 



travaille 



traversent 



trebuche 



treis 



trembla 
trembler 



GLOSSARY. 



cxxxvu 



(trembler) 
trente 



treshublie 



infin. 705 fe^Tes ki funt !a gent cngaunir c trembler. 

num. adj. thirty. 

288 trente anz out. 

adv. ver>'. 

378 tres bien acerte : 1646 tres cruel pautener. 

lu^^: ^^Tli^'^pn^^ Purra mer secchir) Ue treshublie Je.u. 

acc\r«"ki tant urent tresor e tant nobilite : , 278 par largement trosor abaunduner : 
, !f ' 1664 (eunsirer) terrcs e tresor de argent e de or cler. 
trespassable \ adj. transitor)-, transient. „,,nd7 • loa secle ke si est trespassable. 

.4a.ab.s } ma. nom. sg. -^^-p^^^&c^p— ant^_ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^.„,^ ,„ ^„,,^. 

tres^asserent ) U'tcpO nom. sg. f^„7;P-i-?;;;;,::frm: defnlnat Luillir : 18% re.ut Apl. pelenn trespassant. 
" nom. pi. 839 par lui U trespassant (brisent braz). 
ppp. fern sg^osfhambres vunt cherchant.-n'est nule trespassee. 
V. intr. to sweat greatly. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 446 d'ire e mautalent tressua e fremi. 
~1 adj. all, whole, 
mas. nom. sg. 252 trembla trestut b mundz 



tressua 



trestuit 

trestut 

trustute 

trestutes 

trestut/. 

trestuz 



ace. ,, 
obi. „ 
prp. „ 
nom. pi. 



tribulaciun 
trinitfi 



trois 
trop 



(a) 
(b) 



603 fist trestut le mund : 808 perdu ai trestut mun viant. 
113 (lur cuvint sujurncr) e trestut lur Imgnage. 

,786 (s'espaunt) par f^f "' '^/f|"!- ^tuit • 7.3 sunt assemble trestuit U citoiein 
268 sunt trestuit esbaudi : 443 dient trestuu . / ■ 3 ,,„,„ jpi.-pHent trestuit • 
850 sunt trestuit vestu : 865 trestuit sumes perdu : 1 , 29 le delapident trestuu 
1789 trestuit a une voiz en unt Deu mercie. 
1640 decoler trestuz ceus. 
1679 la cuvendra-il trestuz ceus demurer. 
812 (pardun) de trestutz mes pecchez. 
496 cumande trestute sa mesnee. 
436 chanbres A. trestutes cerchera. 
, 279 si trestut 90 ne puet aver mester. 
373 out trestut cest acheve. _ 
452 estoit de trestut 90 guarm. 
tribulation. ., , . 

sg. 1723 lui recumforter en tribulaciun. 
the Trinity. 

''■ ''i t^:^ S^ lat:S;r;^te tnmt. : ..38 un sermun lur ad mit de la trinit. : 
,, ■ ,',' 1804 (baptizer se funt tuit) el nun de trinitg. 
ai^i'wlth adjj., too ; 2, with verbs &c., (a) too much, (b) too long. 
2: u:^:!:^^ • S' trop Mez criieutez : ^5 t-P i a sun barat semme : 
', C77 bis. trop nus ad fait damage, trop nus ad toleit gent. 
.576 bis. trop dure cist (baratz), (turmentz; : .696 par trop targer. 



„ ace. ,, 

„ obi. „ 

„ prp. „ 

fem. ace. sg. 

,. .■ Pl- 
ntr. nom. sg. 

,, ace. ,, 

„ prp 
s. f. 
prp, 
s. f. 
ace. 
prp 



trove, trovent under truver 



1 



truan 

truantz 

trubl^e 

trufle 

truvas[mes]" 

truvfi 

truvde 

truver 

truvera 

truvez 



1088 ore pert ben k'il ne fu ne truan ne failli. 



s in. vagabond, impostor. 

nom. sg. 524 ii est cist faus truantz 

ppp'.'fc^^fg^ts? la cit6 en est tute tost esmiie e trublee. 

s. f. foolish tale. 

nom. sg. 1258 trulle est e contruvure. 

V. tr. to find. 

ir.,1 nrps 2 SL'. 16 un palois perrin trove. 

I ^Z „ pi- 509 «i >' '-^ '™^'^"' ''''"^'' ■• ^56 14 "°^"" K''^"' 1^"'^'^''^ ■ 

' " pret 'i ,, 1547 mil cors i truvasmes. 
" fut. I sy. 30 1 (I'alnic) truvera mansiun. 

infill. 9S0 sun chief punas truver k un arbie lifi. . 

app. (ind. pft 3 pl.) 7b6 ne bitel a passer unt truvfi : 767 un pund 1 unt truvfi : 



861 funtainc ne trovent. 



CXXXVlll 



GLOSSARY. 



(iruver) 



tuche 
tuchei" 

tiie, tuen 

tuer 

tuerum 

tuit 
tumbe 



app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1 120. 1594 Apl. unt truve : 1291 untie clerc trave par querre e demander. 
„ ( ,, ,, ,, „ ) 512 une chambre sutife i unt tru%-ee. 
„ ( ,, plpft. „ ,, ) 1735 quis I'avoient e truve prechant. 
„ ( „ ant. I ,, ) 1522 puis ke les eiiraes truvez e eschoisi: 
ppp. mas. sg. 1 56 fu guetez truvez e pris. 
pron. pers. thou, 
nom. sg. tu 32 bis. 4^ 77. loi. 185. 218. 219. 241. 300. 385. 545. 570 bis. 585. 588. 755. 756 bis. 

827. I130. 1298. 1508. 1455. 1648. 1652. [1657 tu*.] 1659. 1662. 1663. I6b^. 1685. 
acc. ,, te i2o. 5-0. 927. 1207. 122!. 1438. 1507. 1O66. 1670. 1692. 
f 475 t'en veie vestu : 588 si lu t'en murs : 754 va t'en. 
tei 818 tei tuz jurs apele : 874 n'eit tei Deu relceneii : 1223 tei a lui ciinvertir. 
toi 137 toi cumme niese enunibrer : 246 toi tuz aiinum : 568 repent toi : 92S toi honurent. 
te 94 te serroit ranfum : 474 te osera nuire : 592 te doinst Deus bonaventure : 

1222 te descuverir sun segrei : 1658 te dirai : 16S4. 1688 te cuvent. 
tei 139 tei apent lui enfanter : 755 luer tei est apreste. 
tei 577 a tei: — 1667 par tei. 
toi 814. 816 a toi : — 188. 242 de toi : — 136 en toi : — 64 pur toi : — 582 vers toi. 



dat. 



prp. 



nom. pi. vus 47. 174. 342. 346. 377. 473. 818. 887. 1229. 1295. 1310. 1312. 1472. 1473. 1519. 

acc. ,, vus 26. 344. 346. 347. 333. 468.476. 488. 1077. 1084. 1133. 1188. 1219. 1478. 1503. 1518. 

1695 bis. 1751. 1762. 
dat. „ vus 68. 456 mis di : 143 vus recunt : 172 ^■us promis : 275 desclore \'us ; 339 ne \tis serra 
cele : 365 ke hem vus face : 367 vus est estue : 388. 1276. 1674 \-us plaist : 389 ne vus 
ert voiez : 433 a pleisir vus vendra : 439 vus dirra : 440 vus ai dit : 462 hunte vus 
fra : 491 \-us doins : 569 vus nuit : 955 ne vus deit faiilir : i j 28 vus ere voirs disant : 
11341115 duna : 1231 plestvus: 1269 ne vus denim celer: 1301. 1637 vus duner: 
1323 vus cuvent. 

of personal reference, in place of pass. adj. pron. : — 
296 par avisiun vus a Deu mue le curage. 
obi. „ vus 408. 875. 972. 1458. 1719 es-vus : 823. 1157 es-le-vus. 

prp. „ wttj 613. 653. 813. 1044. i26Savus: — 378. 465. 549. 571. 1135. 1226. 1452 de vus: — 
662 en vus: — 487. 17 12 of vus: — 467. 963. 1300 par vus. 
\ v. tr. to touch. 

) infin. 973 au seint cors tucher le marlir. 
app. (ind. ant. 3 sg.) 991 despuis k'U out le cors lu martir tuche. 
under tun. 
1 v. tr. to kill. 

J ind. fut. I pi. 1280 tuz tuerum 5 glaive, 
intin. 1678 verm, k"era ne puet tuer. 
under tut. 
s. f. tomb. 

prp. sg. 1095 a sa tumbe lut (feu) : — 1062. 1181 un rais sur sa tumbe (se arestut) (resplendi). 
poss. adj. pron. thy. 

mas. nom. sg.