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J. IfCrerry, Tooks Couit, 
Chmoctry Laae, London. 





The Dunciad, in four books 1 

A letter to the publisher^ occasioned by the first 

correct edition of the Dunciad . . . .17 
Mardnus Scriblerus^ his Prolegomena and illustra- 
tions to the Dunciad, with the hyper-critics of 

Aristarchus 29 

Testimonies of Authors . . . . . 33 

Martinus Scriblerus, of the poem .... 64 
Richardus Aristarchus, of the Hero of the poem . 72 

Book 1 93 

Book 11 147 

Book III 209 

Book IV 261 

Declaration by the Author .... 345 


I. Preface to the five first imperfect editions of the 

Dunciad 340 

II. A list of books, papers, and verses, in which our 

author was abused before the pubUcation of 
the Dunciad ...... 355 

After the Dunciad 359 

III. Advertisement to the first edition with notes, in 
quarto, 1729 362 




IV. Advertisement printed in the Journals^ 1730 • 365 
V. Advertisement to the first edition of the fourth 
book of the Dunciad^ when printed separately 

m 1742 366 

VI. Advertisement to the complete edition of 1743 368 
VII. Of the Poet Laureate . . . . . 370 
VIII. A parallel of the Characters of Mr. Dryden and 

Mr. Pope 378 

Index of persons celebrated in this Poem . . 389 




D U N C I A D, 









When the first complete and correct edition of the Dunciad 
was published in quarto, 1729, it consisted of three books ; and 
had for its hero Tibbald ; a cold, plodding, and tasteless writer 
and critic, who, with great propriety, was chosen, on the death 
of Settle, by the Goddess of Dulness, to be the chief instrument 
of that great work which was the subject of the poem ; namely, 
*' the introduction (as our Author expresses it) of the lowest di- 
Tersions of the rabble of Smithfield, to be the entertainment of the 
court and town ; the action of the Dunciad being, the removal of 
the imperial seat of Dulness from the city to the polite world ; 
as that of the ^neid is the removal of the empire of Troy to 
Latium." This was the primary subject of the piece. Our au- 
tfior adds, " as Homer, singing only the wrath of Achilles, yet in* 
dudes in his poem the whole history of the Trojan war, in like 
manner our Poet hath drawn into this single action the whole his- 
tory of Dulness and her chOdren. To this end, she is represented, 
ftt the very opening of the Poem, taking a view of her forces, 
which are distinguished into these three kinds, piurty-writers, dull 
poets, and wild critics. A person must be fixed upon to sup- 
port this action, who (to agree with the design) ntust be isuch an 
one ad is capable of being all three. This phantom in the poet's 
mittd must h&ve a name. He seeks for one who bath been con- 
cerned in the journals, written bad plays or poems, and published 
low criticisms. He finds hid name to be Tibbald, and he becomes 
of course the hero of the poem." 

This design is carried on in the firdt book, by a description of 
th6 Goddess fixing her eye on Tibbald ; who, On the evening of 
a Lojfd-mayor's day, is represented as sitting pensively in his 
study, and apprehending the period of her empire, from the old 
•A^ of the present monarch Settle ; and also by an account of a 
sacrifice he makes of his unsuccessful works ; of the Goddess's 
retrenlug herself to hhn, announcmg the death of Settle that night, 
aHiHuting tthd proclaiming him successor. It is carried on in the 
M<;^li3r bo5k> by a description of the various games instituted in 
lUyhOUr Of the new king} in which booksellers, poets, and critics 
^^eonttod. Tin desigA is, badyi completed in the third book, by 


the Goddess's transporting the new king to her temple, laying 
him in a deep slumber on her lap, and conveying him in a vision 
to the banks of Lethe, where he meets with the ghost of his 
predecessor Settle ; who, in a speech that begins at line 35, to al- 
most the end of the book, shews him the past teiumphs of the em- 
pire of Dulness, then the present, and lastly the future : enume- 
rating particularly by what aids, and by what persons, Great Bri- 
tain shall be forthwith brought to her empire, and prophesying 
how first the nation shall be over-run with farces, operas, shows, 
and the throne of Dulness advanced over both the theatres : then, 
how her sons shall preside in the seats of arts and sciences ; till, 
in conclusion, all shall return to their original chaos. On hearing 

Enough ! enough ! the raptur'd Monarch cries ; 

And thro* the Iv*ry Gate the Vision flies. 

With which words, the design above recited being perfected, the 
poem concludes. Thus far all was clear, consistent, and of a 
piece ; and was delivered in such nervous and spirited versifica- 
tion, that the delighted reader had only to lament that so many po- 
etical beauties were thrown away on such dirty and despicable 
subjectAj^as were the scribblers here proscribed; who appear like 
monsters preserved in the most costly spirits. But in the year 
1742, our Poet was persuaded by Dr. Warburton, unhappily enough, 
to add a fpurth book to his finished piece, of such a very different 
cast and colour, as to render it at last one of the most motley com- 
positions, that perhaps is any where to be found in the works of 
so exact a writer as Pope. For one great purpose of this fourth 
book (where, by the way, the hero does nothing at all) was to 
satirize and proscribe infidels and firee-thinkers, to leave the ludi- 
crous for the serious, Grub-s^eet for theology, the mock-heroic 
for metaphysics: which occasioned a marvellous mixture and 
jumble of images and sentiments, pantomime and philosophy, 
journals and moral evidence. Fleet-ditch and the High Priori 
road, Curl and Clarke. To ridicule our petulant libertines, and 
afiected minute philosophers, was doubtless a most laudable in- 
tention ; but speaking of the Dunciad as a work of art^ in a cri- 
tical, not a religious light, I must venture to affirm, that the sub- 
ject of this fourth book was foreign and heterogeneous, and the 
addition of it as injudicious, ill-placed, and incongruous, as any 
of those dissimilar images we meet with in Pulci or Ariosto. It 

is like introducing a crucifix into one of Teniers's burfesqne con^ 
versation-pieces. Some of his most splendid and striking linea 
are indeed here to be fomid ; but I must beg leave to insist, that 
they want propriety and decorum, and must wish they had adorned 
some separate work against irreligion, which would have been 
worthy the pen of our bitter and immortal satirist. 

But neither was this the only alteration the Dunciad was des- 
tined to undergo. For in the year 1743, our Author, enraged 
with Gibber (whom he had usually treated with contempt ever 
since the affair of Three Hours after Marriage) for publishing a 
ridiculous pamphlet against him, dethroned Tibbald, and made the 
laureate the hero of his poem. Gibber, with a great stock of 
levity, vanity, and affectation, had sense, and wit, and humour : 
and the author of the Gareless Husband was by no means a pro- 
per king of the dunces. ** His treatise on the stage (says Mr. 
Walpole) is inimitable : where an author writes on his own pro- 
fession, feels it profoundly, and is sensible his readers do not, be 
is not only excusable, but meritorious, for illuminating the sub- 
ject by new metaphors, or bolder figures than ordinary. He is 
the coxcomb that sneers, not he that instructs by appropriate 
diction." The consequence of this alteration was, that many lines, 
which exactly suited the heavy character of Tibbald, lost all their 
grace and propriety when applied to Gibber ; such as 

Sinking firom thought to thought, a vast profound! 

Such also is the description of his gothic library, for Gibber 
troubled not himself with Gaxton, Wynkyn, and De Lyra. Tib- 
bald, who was an antiquarian, had collectied those curious* old 
writers : and to slumber in the Goddess's lap, was adapted to his 
stupidity, not to the vivacity of his successor. 

On the whole, the chief fault of the Dunciad, is the violence 
and vehemence of its satire, and the excessive height to which it 
is carried ; and which therefore I may compare to that marvellous 
coliunn of boiling water, near Mount Hecla in Iceland, thrown up- 
wards, above ninety feet, by the force of a subterraneous fire. 
What are the impressions left upon the mind after a perusal of this 
poem ? Gontempt, aversion, vexation, and anger. No sentiments 
that enlarge, ennoble, move, or mend the heart ! Insomuch that I 
know a person, whose name would be an ornament to these pa- 
pers, if I were suffered to insert it, who, after reading a book of 

the DtuD^iad, always sooths himself as he calls it, by turning to |i 
canto in the F^dry Queen. This is not the case in that very der 
^ghtfid and beautiful poem, Mac Flecnoe, from which Pope ha? 
borrowed no many hints, and images, and ideas. But Dryden's 
poem was the ofi&pring of contempt, and Pope's of indignation : 
0|ie is fUll of mirth, sgid the other of maligi^ty. A vein of plea- 
aatitry is unifomdy preserved through the whole of Mac Flecnoe, 
and the piece begins and ends in the same key. It is natural and 
obvious to borrow a metaphor from music, when we are speak- 
ing of a poem whose versification is particularly and exquisitely 
sweet and harmonious. The numbers of the Dunciad, by being 
vpieli laboured, and encumbered with epithets, have something in 
them of stifihess and harshness. Since the total decay of learning 
and genius was foretold in the Dunciad, how many very excelleojt 
pieces of Criticism, Poetry, History, Philosophy, and Divinity, 
have apj^eao^ in this country, and to what a degree of perfection 
has almost every art^ either useRd or elegant, been carried! 


These observations by Dr. Warton are in general very just and 
sensible, tinctured in one or two places with his favourite mode of 
iHustration ; the chief fault of th^ Dunciad being, it is said, the 
excessive height to which it is carried, and which he compares to 
that '< marvdlous column of boiling water on Mount Hecla, which 
is carried by subterraneous fires upwards of ninety feet high /" To 
the account of the plan of the Punciad as it originally was conr- 
ceived, with a more appropriate Personage than Theobald for its 
King, nothing can be added. The fourth book, subjoined by the 
advice of Warburton, though it is not certainly of the same tex- 
ture or piece with the others, yet I by no means think so meanly 
oi^ as Dr. Warton. The objects of satire are more general and 
just The one is confined to persons, and those of the most insig- 
nificant sort ; the other is directed chiefly to things, such as faults 
of education, false knowledge, and false taste. In polished and 
pointed satire, in richness of versification and imagery, and in the 
happy introduction of characters, speeches, figures, and every sort 
of poetical omamoit -adapted to the subject, this book yields, in 
my opinion, to none <»f Pope's writings, of the same kind. 


When AtterbUry, on reading Pope's character of Atticut^ told 
the author that he had now discovered where the strength of his 
talents layi and advised him pot to neglect the cultivation of thenv 
he was probably not aw^e of the impression he had made, ^^^ 
the extent to which his reconunendation would be carried int;p 
eflfect.^ Who, indeed, could have conceived, that a sulgect of so 
vague and desultory a nature as the defence of a person's character 
and con4uct, moral and literary, against upromiscupufSf herd of as^- 
sailants, various m rank, in abilities, and. in the motiveB and de- 
grees of their animosity, could, by any effort of geniuSy be so ar- 
ranged, uiiited, and bound together, as to allpt to ^vexy, ii|dividud 
that due share of ignominy, to which, from his labour^, be W9B so 
justly intitled, and to unite and embody the whole in one gr«a^ dct 
cf retributive justice ? In almost every poetical producti<^ there 
18 a specific and acknowledged foimdation, on which t^ author 
raises his superstructure^ and the very proposition of the subject 
generally suggests the nature of the work. The Fate of Troy — 
the Foundation o£ Rome — the Conquest of Jerusalem— :or the 
Fall of MajdL, are no sooner named, than they indicate the course to 
be pursued ; and although the subject proposed is sometimes of 
so ^ght and unimportant a nature, as to excite our admiration of 
those powers, which can produce so great an effect from so slight 
and trivial a cause, as in the case of the Secchia Rapiia^ the Lutrin, 
or The Rape <\f the Lock^ yet it must be owned, that it requires a 
much greater effort of the imagination to create, as it were, from 
a chaos of discordant materials, a simple, consistent^ and uni&)rm 
plan, than it does to amplify and extend any given subject, how- 
ever unpromising and minute it may be. How then, can we too 
highly estimate the astonishing powers of invention displayed by 
P<^ in the following poem ? by which we are instantly introduced 
into a new world, the affairs of which are directed by its own 
peculiar deity,, the Goddess of Dulness ; who has her courts, and 
her altart, her priests, and.her votaries, her mysteries, her celebra- 
tions. And her games! She has also her particular &vorites, 
heroest^ and prime ministers ; and as on this earth these important 
stations are supposed to be filled by persons of the greatest know- 
ledge and ability^ — 60, in the dominions of dulness, the chief recom- 


mendations are indolence, ignorance, and stupidity ; which, in the 
contests to obtain the favour of the goddess, are all displayed to 
the greatest advantage, so as to diversify the action, and add to the 
interest of the poem. By these means the dominions of the god- 
dess are extended, and her authority is secured. Science, and 
taste, and wit, and learning, are extinguished, or put to flight ; 
till at length, all gives way to her soporific influence, the empire 
of chaos is restored, and '' universal darkness buries all,** 
' Such is the original and happy idea, that burst upon the 
mind of Pc^, when he determined to write the Dunciad ; and 
whicfa, if he had given no other instance of his inventive powers, 
would have placed him in the very first rank of poets, of either 
ancient or modem times. Here was, properly speaking, no sub- 
ject; all was created by the power of fancy. The discordant 
materials, of which the work is composed, had not yet taken theit 
places, or been embodied into shape ; they were at the most an 
};eterogeneous assemblage of dull pedants, actual dunces, and pre- 
tended wits, and might have been strung up together in a thou- 
tsand different forms, *' to shew us which way blows the wind ;^ hut 
at the coimnand of the poet, they all retired to their proper sta- 
tions, and formed a constituent part of that mighty mass, which 
presents itself to our imagination with all the air of reality. There 
they speak, and act, and doze, as in actual life.- " Sedet et sedebit 
iitfelix T/ieseus." Nearly a century has passed away, and they 
remain without diminution, redemption, or change ; and if another 
deluge of ignorance should overrun the world, they will be found, 
on its removal, like die inhabitants of Herculaneum or Pompeii, 
each in his proper place and occupation, unaltered and imperish- 
able, to the latest period of time. 

If, however, we were to give implicit credit to the assertions of 
that arch-critic Martinus Scriblerus, the IHmcia(2 had not only been 
preceded by a poem of a similar nature, but such poem was of the 
highest antiquity and authority, anterior even to the Iliad and 
Odyssey, being no other than the Maroites of Homer himself; 
by which appellation we are to understand " the personage whom 
antiquity recordeth to have been Dunce the First, and surely not 
unworthy to have been the root of so spreading a trcie, aiid so nu- 
merous a posterity.^' We are also informed, that " forasmuch as 
our poet hath translated those two &mou8 works of Homer, which 


ure yet left, be did conceive it in some sort his duty, to imitate 
that also which was lost ; and was therefore induced to bestow on 
it the same form which Homer's is reported to have had, namely 
that of an Epic poem ; with a title also framed after the Greek 
manner, to wit, that of Dunciad/' This idea of the antiquity of 
the subject on which the poem is founded, and the celebration of 
the most ancient of things, chaos, night, and dulness, is admirably 
calculated to throw an air of ludicrous mystery over the perform^ 
ance; which is supported with infinite gravity, not only through 
the poem itself, but by the notes and observations that accompany 

', hi forming a whole, that imposes upon the imagination; and 
from which, ias from all other works of fancy, we derive a plea- 
• surcj in proportion as we resign ourselves to the impressions which 
it is calculated to produce. 

Having thus, under the pretext of reviving the poem of Homer, 
given birth to a creation of his own, there still remained the 
mighty task, which could alone entitle him to the name of a poet, — 
to give life and effect to what he had so happily conceived, and to 
communicate to others what yet existed only in the unexpressed 
ideas of his own mind. For this purpose he adopted a mode pre- 
cisely the reverse of that which he had before employed. In its 
{dap the Dimciad has no prototype; but in its execution he sought 
assistance from every quarter, and collected his materials where- 
ever they were to be found. The works of the ancients, and of 
the modems — ^the result of the author's meditation, and of his 

, reading — the progress and revolutions of science and literature — 
the anecdotes, squabbles, and events of the times, with the whole 
storehouse of his amply furnished mind, were laid under contri- 
bution, and perhaps a greater abundance of miscellaneous know- 
ledge, or on a greater variety of subjects, w^ never poured out 
in any one work. It must not however be supposed that the 
Dunciad is an assemblage of extracts, or CentOf in which the poet 
has availed himself of the works of others in a crude and inartifi- 
cial form. They compose, indeed, the substance and materials of 
the poem ; but they are so modified and amalgamated with his 
own, that they no longer appear the same ; and by being con- 
verted to an object, or used in a sense, not only different from, 
but oflen the reverse of their original intention, give rise to an 
endless variety of singular allusions, striking parodies, and unex- 
pected strokes of wit, which at once surprise and delight the reader. 


Innumerable incidents an4 passages in the ancjent authorti are 
thu9 l»ought to our recollection, after having suffered 

a change 

Into something new and strange ; 

How greatly the effect is heightened by this continual assumption 
of Epic dignity, is apparent in every page of the poem, where the 
gravest passages are combined with the most ludicrous ideas, and 
an effect is produced which it is impossible for human gravity to 

In rapidity, vigour, and effect of style, the Dunciad stands un- 
rivalled. In no other work can there be found «uch a numb^ of 
ide^s, so concisely and clearly expressed ; yet wijth such infinite 
variety and brilhancy, that they resemble the coruscations of 
lightning, following each other in succession without a moment's 

But in no respect are the inventive powers of the author more 
fidly displayed, than in the endless diversity with which he dis- 
tributes to every person, who has had the misfortune to incur his 
displeasure, an appropriate punishment It has been said of Homer> 
that all his heroes die a different kind of death ; and it may be 
said« with equal truth, that the objects of the poet's resentment 
present asiooilar variety in their fate. They remind us of the mar- 
^dom of the Theban legion by the order of the Emperor Maxi- 
mian, in the valley of the Penine Alps, where every individual 
was put tp death by a different mode of punishment. In the one 
case, as in tlie other, we can perceive neither pity nor remorse. 
ThsM^ spari^ of compassion which was e:^ited in the mind of 
Ulysses by the fate of his rivals, and which caused him to exclaim 

appears never once to have touched the unrelenting bosom of Pope. 
In the execution and style of his poem. Pope has also freely 
availed himself of the Mac Flecnoe of Dryden, one of the most^ 
vigorous productions of that great poet, upon which he has himself 
observed, that if any thing of his was good, it was that poem ; but 

♦ T* insult the dead is cruel and unjust ; 

Fate, and their crime, have sunk them to the dust. 

Odyss. B. xxii. 


which fumifthes bo idea of the great outline and pkn of the Dun* 
ciad. It is in fact little more than a speech of Mac Flecnoe to 
Shadwell, on his being invested with the insignia which virere to 
render him *' through all the realms of nonsense aksolute:" yet there 
is a certain tone and expression in the poem of Dryden, whidi 
Pope has closely imitated, and gen!erally improved. It is howev^ 
impossible to agree with Dr. Warton in his opinion that Dryden'a 
poem is full of mirth^ and Pope's of malignity. In resentment 
and vituperation they appear to be nearly equal; nor, when we 
speak of the vehemence of Pope's satire, is it to be understood that 
it extends further than a literary animosity, founded on the just 
antipathy which must £ox ever exist between real and sterling ex- 
cellence, and vain presumption, affectation, and pretence* The 
impressions of *' contempt, aversion, vexation, and anger," which 
Dr. Warton complains are, left upon the mind, after a perusal of 
this poem, are directed only against the individuals as bad writers, 
and as enemies of sound learning and true taste ; in which capacity 
they are intitled to no mercy. Nor can we, with any degree of 
justice, assent to the opinion of Warton, that " the Dunciad con« 
tains no sentiments that enlarge, ennoble, move, or mend the 
heart." On the contrary it may with safety be averred that there 
is scarcely a line, or a sentiment throughout the poem, which, if 
justly and impartially considered, and taken in connexion with the 
context in which it is placed, and the object to which it relates, 
does not tend to enforce some great moral duty, to repress some 
inveterate abuse, to defend the real interests of truth and virtue, 
to expose somie ignorant pretender, or to vindicate the cause of 
true learning agunst all its adversaries, whether mitred or cas- 
socked, in palaces or in gaols, in universities or in garrets, 

** Men bearded, bald, cowl'd, uncowl'd, shod, unshod." 
Insomuch, that we may with confidence assert, that the Dunciad 
had a surprising and powerful effect, in repressing the haughti- 
ness of pedagogues, and the ribaldry of poetasters, and in esta- 
blishing the empire of correct taste and sound sense. " All trutb 
is yaluable," says Johnson, " and satirical criticism may be consi- 
dered as useful, when it rectifies error and improves judgment. 
He that refines the public taste, is a public benefactor/' — From 
the period of its publication, a perceptible alteration aj^)ears in 
the manners and conduct of literary men towards each other. The 
ignorance and folly of pretenders to science and learning were ex- 


-posed; they no sooner found that there was one who could de- 
tect their pretences and punish their presumption, than they 
shrunk into their original ohscurity. No attempt that deserves 
^ny notice was made to answer the Dunciad. There was indeed 
a general idea of its severity, but it was a severity which the oc- 
casion required, and without which it could not have answered the 
purpose for which it was intended. 

In order however to derive either pleasure or instruction from 
the- Dunciad, it is requisite it should be read in the same spirit, in 
some degree, with which it was written.* Its object is to ridicule 
vice and folly, and to throw contempt on ignorant pretension, af- 
fected learning, and false taste. This is accomplished by a conti- 
nual, severe, and well supported irony, in which every thing is de- 
^ scribed as exactly the reverse of what (in just and correct estima- 
tion) it ought to be ; and it is for want of sufficient attention to 
this, that so many captious objections have been made against the 
poem, both in parts and in the whole ; as may sufficiently appear 
in the remarks of some of the former editors of Pope. Thus, in 
the first book, when Bayes addresses his prayer to the Goddess, 

" Me, emptiness and dulness could inspire. 
And were my elasticity and fire, &c." — Line 185. 

Dr. Warton remarks, that " this first speech of the Hero is full of 
an impropriety that one could hardly believe our author could fall 
into ; it being contrary to all decorum, character, and probability, 
that Bayes should address the Goddess Dulness, without disguis- 
ing or mistaking her as a despicable being ; and should even call 
himself fool and blockhead ; it is in truth outrageously unnatural 
and absurd." But if Warton had paid suflScient attention to the 
nature of the poem, he would have perceived that Bayes was en- 
deavouring to recommend himself to the Goddess of Dulness ; 
that emptiness and stupidity were therefore his best qualifications; 
that to be a, fool and a blockhead could alone entitle him to her fa- 
vour ; and that to have set up any pretence to real wit, and sound 
sense, on such an occasion, would indeed have been outrageously 

* A perfect judge will read each work of wit 
With the sanie spirit that its author writ ; 
Survey the whole, nor seek slight fiiults to find. 
Where nature moves and rapture warms the.mind. 

Essay on Crit. v. 234. 


unnatural and absurd. Again, as regards the general scope and 
intentipn of the poem, the same critic has fallen into a still greater 
error, in supposing that the passage at the dose, which describes 
the entire overthrow and destruction of literature and sei^ice, and 
the re-establishment of chaos, anarchy, and night, is to be consi- 
dered as the deliberate opinion of the poet, as to the character 
and state of the age in which he lived. " Since the total decay of 
learning and genius was foretold in the Dunciad,'* says Warton, 
"how many very excellent pieces of criticism, poetry, history, 
philosophy, and divinity, have appeared in this country, and to 
what a degree of perfection has every art, either useful or elegant, 
been carried !*' It is however abundantly evident, that the con- 
clusion of the Dunciad, like the rest of the poem, is wholly ironi" 
caly and purports nothing more than that the methods adopted by 
the Goddess of Didness, and so eagerly prosecuted by the pe- 
dants and dunces who are devoted to her cause, must undoubtedly 
have their natural result — the establishment of her empire. But 
this is all perfectly hypothetical and imaginary ^ and is intended only 
to furnish the strongest possible inference, that if ignorance and 
bad taste should be allowed to prevail, such wotdd he the unavoid- 
able result ; and thereby to excite all the friends of real wisdom, 
science, and virtue, to exert themselves to prevent it. Can we in- 
deed for a moment suppose that the poet, at the close of his la- 
bours, would seriously have admitted that his opponents had been 
too powerful for him ? that the opinion of the public had been 
decidedly expressed in favour of the Blackmores and the Budgells, 
the Gibbers and the Dennises, the Goncanens, the Gildons, the 
Tibbalds, and the Wards ? and that the real friends of science and 
of taste, who formed the literary circle by which Pope was sur- 
rounded, at a period of the highest cultivation which this country 
has known, were compelled to retire from the contest and to hide 
themselves in oblivion and disgrace ? A due consideration of the 
nature of the work would have shewn not only the utter impro- 
priety of such an idea, but that the termination of the poem was 
intended to demonstrate, that if his adversaries were allowed to 
succeed in their efforts, there would then indeed he an end to every 
thing that was truly great and valuable, wise and good, upon 
earth ; that truth, and art, and philosophy, and religion, and mo- 
rality would be extinguished ; 

" Nor human spark be left, nor glimpse divine." 



This intention of the poet, although sufficiently evident from 
the poem itself, is further manifested in the notes, in one of 
which (on Book iii. ver. 983,) it is said, " It may perhaps seem in- 
credible, that so great a revolution in learning as is here prophe- 
siedt should be brought about by such weak instruments as have 
been hitherto described in our poem. But do not thou, gentle 
reader, rest too secure in thy contempt of these instruments. Re- 
mefmber what the Dutch stories somewhere relate, that a great 
part of their provinces was once overflowed, by a small opening 
made in one of their dykes by a single water-rat" 

Of the causes which led to the production of the Dunciad, and 
of the provocation which Pope had received, before he finally de- 
voted himself to the task, as well as of the reception it met with, 
and the consequences resulting from its publication, an account 
Will be found in the Life of the Author prefixed to the present edi- 
tion. With regard to the poem itself, it is here given as finally 
corrected and completed, in four books, together with the notes 
and observations, as either written or approved by the author, and 
which may be considered as embodied with, and forming a consti- 
tuent part of the work. Those persons who are more deeply in- 
terested in the subject, and are desirous of being acquainted with 
the alterations that have taken place as to the Hero of the poem, 
and oifher particulars of this nature, must resort to the early edi- 
tiohs which appeared in rapid successicm after its first publication, 
and are not of tare occurrence. To r^rint the poem in two dif- 
fbrent forms, as Dr. Warton has done, by no means answers the 

To the illustrations and remarks of Warburton, subsequent 
editors have added but little that merits preservation. Their ob- 
jfM appears to have been rather to blame than to elucidate, and 
radier to diminish than enhance the pleasure of perusal. Hence 
die pages of Pope are occupied with observations intended, as 
we h&ve seen, to demonstrate that the e&ed of the poem <^is in- 
jur^ 6t destroyed by die substitution of Gibber as the heto in- 
sttod Off Theobald," and that ** the fourth book is an unha{^ ad- 
dition, of such a very different east and celonr^ as to render it one 
df the liiost motley compositions that is any where to be found 
in the works of so exact ik writer as Pope.'' To these have been 
added other remarks, tending to doubt^ or dei^i the mctrA justice 
of the casttgatkm adjcBinislered by die author to his adversaries, 


and accufiing him, frequently in gross and illiberal terms^ of hav- 
ing " been guilty of personal abuse in the first place^ and making 
an ovBbctyf when what he measured to others was measured to hiigl 
again"— ^f disingenuousness* cant, and meanness, and *^ of having 
directed his abuse against Dennis, a man^" we are told, *^ whose 
learning, talents, and pleasant manners, have been acknowledged 
by Dryden and Congreve." (v. Bowles's ed. voL v. p. 4, 5, 9, 8, 10^ 
&c«) That these critics have a right to entertain and avow their 
opinions no one will deny ; but that they should be spread over 
the pages of Pope, to accompany his works, to counteract their 
Qbjecti and asperse and degrade his character, is more than can 
reasonably be allowed. In this respect such critics seem to re- 
semble a species of gad-fly, which by a singular instinct is taught 
to insert its young into the flesh of the living animal ; being the 
only situation, where, by llie course of nature, it can be preserved 
from destructicm. 

It is very remarkable, that in the preceding editions of Dr. 
Warton and Mr. Bowles, the greater part of the notes of Pope on 
the Dunciad are erroneously attributed to Warburton : in the for- 
mer by being marked with a W.— in the latter, by the name of 
Warburton at length. This mistake is the more extraordinary, 
as Warburton has, in his editions, precisely defined the marks by 
which the notes wefre to be distfiignished ;-^those marked widi an 
asterisk (*) being Warburton's ; those marked with a P. iand an 
asterisk being written by Pope and Warburton in conjunction ; 
and aH the rest being Pope's. Of the reaBty of this important 
error, which deprives Pope of a great shao^d of his own Work, and 
frequently weakens the effect, by attributing to the commentator 
what ought to be received on the higher authority of the poet) any 
one may be convinced who will take the trouble of comparing the 
editions of Warton or of Bowles, with any of the editions of 1729 — 
long before Warburton undertook to comment upon the Dunciad; 
— where he will find the very notes which in the two last editions 
are almost uniformly attributed to Warburton. So extensive is 
this error, that it leads one to suppose that in Warton's edition the 
editor had taken it for granted, that the notes in the former edi* 
tions without a mark were all by Warburton, in contradiction to 
the information of Warburton himself; an error' which seems to 


have been adopted without examination in the subsequent edition 
of Mr.«Bowles. 

Kt js further observable, that this mistake has, in all probability, 
been the cause of the omissian, in the two last editions, of many 
remarks on the Dunciad, which were, perhaps, supposed by the 
editors to be Warburton's, and are therefore discarded ; but which 
are,in fact, the original notes of Pope, and are necessary to complete 
the work, as he gave it. In the present edition these notes are 
carefully restored from the second edition of the Dunciad, with 
additional notes, in 1729, which Pope considered as the best, and 
which was the standard of all that followed it, until the complete 
editian in four books, published in quarto in 1743. In these notes 
Pope had the assistance of several of his friends, particularly of 
Cleknd, Arbuthnot, and Gay ; but as their contributions have 
never been appropriated to their different authors, they are here 
given as the remarks of Pope. The reader is therefore requested 
to observe, that in this edition. 

The Notes marked with the letter P. are those published by 
Pope, in the octavo edition of 1729. 

The subsequent Notes of Pope, as they appeared in the joint 
edition of Pope and Warburton, in 1743, are marked P.f 

The Notes with the letters P. W. were written by Pope and 
Warburton in conjunction. 

Those marked W. are by Warburton, as they appeared in the 
edition of 1743, and were consequently approved by Pope ; and 
those marked W.f did not appear till after the death of Pope, in 
the general edition of his works by Warburton, in 1751. 

To the remainder, the names of the authors are affixed ; except 
to the few by the present editor. 






D U N CI A D. 

It is with pleasure I hear, that you have procured 
a correct copy of the Dunciad, which the many 
surreptitious ones have rendered so necessary ; and 
it is yet with more, that I am informed it will be 
attended with a Commentary : a work so requi- 
site, that I cannot think the author himself would 
have omitted it, had he approved of the first ap- 
pearance of this poem. 

Such notes as have occurred to me I herewith 
send you : you will oblige me by inserting them 
amongst those which are, or will be transmitted to 
you by others ; since not only the author's firiends, 
but even strangers, appear engaged by humanity, 
to take some care of an orphan of so much ge- 
nius and spirit, which its parent seems to have 
abandoned from the very beginning, and suffered 
to step into the world naked, unguarded, and un- 

It was upon reading some of the abusive papers 
lately published, that my great regard to a person, 

VOL. IV. c 


whose friendship I esteem as one of the chief ho- 
nours of my life, and a much greater respect to 
truth, than to him or any man living, engaged me 
in inquiries, of which the enclosed notes are the 

I perceived that most of these authors had been 
(doubtless very wisely) the first aggressors. They 
had tried, till they were weary, what was to be got 
by railing at each other. Nobody was either con- 
cemed or surprised if this or that scribbler was 
proved a dunce : but every one was curious to read 
what could be said to prove Mr. Pope one, and 
was ready to pay something for such a discovery : 
a stratagem, which, would they fairly own it, 
might not only reconcile them to me, but screen 
them from the resentment of their lawful superiors, 
whom they daily abuse, only (as I charitably hope) 
to get that hy them, which they cannot get from 

I found this was not all : ill success in that had 
transported them to personal abuse, either of him- 
self, or (what I think he could less forgive) of his 
friends. They had called men of virtue and ho- 
nour bad men, long before he had either leisure or 
inclination to call them bad writers; and some 
had been such old offenders, that he had quite for- 
gotten their persons as well as their slanders, till 
they were pleased to revive them. 

Now what had Mr. Pope done before, to incense 
them ? He had published those works which are 
in the hands of every body, in which not the least 


mention is made of any of them. And what has 
he done since ? He has laughed, and written the 
DuNCiAD. What has that said of them ? A very 
serious truth, which the public had said before, 
that they were dull ; and what it had no sooner 
said, but they themselves were at great pains to 
procure, or even purchase room in the prints, to 
testify under their hands to the truth of it. 

I should still have been silent, if either I had 
seen any inclination in my friend to be serious with 
such accusers, or if they had only meddled with 
his writings ; since whoever publishes, puts him- 
self on his trial by his country. But when his 
moral character was attacked, and in a manner 
from which neither truth nor virtue can secure 
the most innocent ; in a manner, which though it 
annihilates the credit of the accusation with the 
just and impartial, yet aggravates very much the 
guilt of the accusers; I mean by authors without 
names ; then I thought, since the danger was com- 
mon to all, the concern ought to be so ; and that it 
was an act of justice to detect the authors, not 
only on this account, but as many of them are the 
same who for several years past have made free 
with the greatest names in Church and State, ex- 
posed to the world the private misfortunes of fa- 
milies, abused all, even to women, and whose pros- 
tituted papers (for one or other party, in the un- 
happy divisions of their country) have insulted the 
fallen, the friendless, the exiled, and the dead. 

Besides this, which I take to be a public con- 



cem^ I have already confessed I had a private one. 
I am one of that number^ who have long loved and 
esteemed Mr. Pope ; and had often declared it was 
not his capacity or writings (which we ever thought 
the least valuable part of his character) but the 
honesty open^ and beneficent man^ that we most 
esteemed, and loved in him. Now, if what these 
people say were believed, I must appear to all my 
friends either a fool or a knave ; either imposed on 
myself, or imposing on them ; so that I am as much 
interested in the confutation of these calumnies, as 
he is himself. 

I am no author, and consequently not to be sus- 
pected either of jealousy or resentment against 
any of the men, of whom scarce one is known to 
me by sight; and as for their writings, I have 
sought them (on this one occasion) in vain, in the 
closets and libraries of all my acquaintance. I had 
still been in the dark, if a gentleman had not pro- 
cured me (I suppose from some of themselves, for 
they are generally much more dangerous friends 
than enemies) the passages I send you. I solemnly 
protest I have added nothing to the malice or ab- 
surdity of them ; which it behoves me to declare, 
since the vouchers themselves will be so soon and 
so irrecoverably lost. You may in some measure 
prevent it, by preserving at least their titles,* and 
discovering (as fer as you can depend on the truth 
of your information) the names of the concealed^ 

* See a List of them printed in the Appendix. P^ 


The first objection I have heard made to the 
poem is^ that the persons are too obscure for satire. 
The persons themselves, rather than allow the ob- 
jection, would forgive the satire ; and if one could 
be tempted to afford it a serious answer, were not 
all assassinates, popular insurrections, the inso- 
lence of the rabble without doors, and of domes- 
tics within, most wrongfully chastised, if the mean- 
ness of offenders indemnified them from punish- 
ment ? On the contrary. Obscurity renders them 
more dangerous, as less thought of: Law can pro- 
nounce judgment; only on open facts; Morality 
alone can pass censure on intentions of mischief ; 
so that for secret calumny, or the arrow flying 
in the dark, there is no public punishment left, but 
what a good writer inflicts. 

The next objection is, that these sort of authors 
are poor. That might be pleaded as an excuse ajt 
the Old Bailey, for lesser crimes than defanuition, 
(for 'tis the case of almost all who are tried there,) 
but sure it can be none here. For who will pre- 
tend that the robbing another of his reputation, 
supplies the want of it in himself ? I question not 
but such authors are poor, and heartily wish the 
objection were removed by any honest livelihood. 
But poverty is here the accident, not the subject. 
He who describes malice and villainy to be pale 
and meagre, expresses not the least anger against 
paleness or meanness, but against malice and vil- 
lainy. The Apothecary in Romeo and Juliet is 
poor ; but is he therefore justified in vending poi- 


son ? Not but poverty itself becomes a just sub- 
ject of satire, when it is the consequence of vice, 
prodigality, or neglect of one's lawful calling ; for 
then it increases the public burden, fills the streets 
and highways with robbers, and the garrets with 
clippers, coiners, and weekly journalists. 

But admitting that two or three of these offend 
less in their morals, than in their writings ; must 
poverty make nonsense sacred ? If so, the fame of 
bad authors would be much better consulted than 
that of all the good ones in the world ; and not one 
of an hundred had ever been called by his right 

They mistake the whole matter. It is not cha- 
rity to encourage them in the way they follow, but 
to get them out of it ; for men are not bunglers 
because they are poor, but they are poor because 
they are bunglers. 

Is it not pleasant enough, to hear our authors 
crying out on the one hand, as if their persons and 
characters were too sacred for satire ; and the 
public objecting on the other, that they are too 
mean even for ridicule? But whether bread or 
fame be their end, it must be allowed, our author, 
by and in this poem, has mercifully given them a 
little of both. 

There are two or three, who by their rank and 
fortune have no benefit from theYormer objections, 
supposing them good, and these I was sorry to see 
in such company. But if, without any provoca- 
tion, jtwo or three gentlemen will fall upon one, in 


an affair wherein his interest and reputation are 
equally, embarked; they cannot certainly, after 
they have been content to print themselves his 
enemies, complain of being put into the number 
of them. 

Others, I am told, pretend to have been once 
his friends. Surely they are their enemies who 
say so, since nothing can be more odious than to 
treat a friend as they have done. But of this I 
cannot persuade myself, when I consider the con- 
stant and eternal aversion of all bad writers to a 
good one. 

Such as claim a merit from being his admirers, 
I would gladly ask, if it lays him under a personal 
obligation ? At that rate he would be the most 
obliged humble servant in the world. I dare swear 
for these in particular, he never desired them to 
be his admirers, nor promised in return to be 
theirs. That had truly been a sign he was of 
their acquaintance ; but would not the malicious 
world have suspected such an approbation of some 
motive worse than ignorance, in the author of the 
Essay on Criticism ? Be it as it will, the reasons 
of their admiration and of his contempt are equal- 
ly subsisting, for his works and theirs are the very 
same that they were. 

One, therefore, of their assertions I believe may 
be true, '' That he has a contempt for their writ- 
ings." And there is another, which would pro- 
bably be sooner allowed by himself than by any 
good judge beside, " That his own have found 


too much success with the public." But as it 
cannot consist with his modesty to claim this as a 
justice^ it lies not on him, but entirely on the pub- 
lic^ to defend its own judgment. 

There remains what in my opinion might seem 
a better plea for these people^ than any they have 
made use of If obscurity or poverty were to 
exempt a man from satire^ much more should 
folly or dulness, which are still more involun- 
tary; nay^ as much so as personal deformity. 
But even this will not help them. Deformity be- 
comes an object of ridicule when a man sets up 
for being handsome ; and so must dulness when 
he sets up for a wit. They are not ridiculed, be- 
cause ridicule in itself is^ or ought to be^ a plea- 
sure ; but because it is just to undeceive and vin- 
dicate the honest and unpretending part of man- 
kind from imposition^ because particular interest 
ought to yield to general^ and a great number who 
are not naturally fools^ ought never to be made 
so, in complaisance to a few who are. Accord- 
ingly we find that in all ages, aU vain pretenders, 
were they ever so poor, or ever so dull, have been 
constantly the topics of the most candid satirists, 
from the Codrus of Juvenal to the Damon of 


Having mentioned Boileau, the greatest poet 
and most judicious critic of his age and country, 
admirable for his talents, and yet perhaps more 
admirable for his judgment in the proper appli- 
cation of th,em ; I cannot help remarking the re- 


semblance betwixt him and our author^ in quali- 
ties^ fame^ and fortune ; in the distinctions shewn 
them by their superiors^ in the general esteem of 
their equals^ and in their extended reputation 
amongst foreigners ; in the latter of which ours 
has met with the better fate^ as he has had for his 
translators persons of the most eminent rank and 
abilities in their respective nations.* But the re- 
semblance holds in nothing more^ than in their 
being equally abused by the ignorant pretenders 
to poetry of their times ; of which not the least 
memory wiU remain but m their own writings, 
and in the notes made upon them. What Boi- 
LEAU has done in almost all his poems, our author 
has only in this. I dare answer for him he will do 
it in no more ; and on this principle, of attacking 
few but who had slandered him, he could not have 
done it at all, had he been confined from censur- 
ing obscure and worthless persons, for scarce any 
others were his enemies. However, as the parity 
is so remarkable, I hope it will continue to the 

* Essay on Criticism, in French verse, by General Hamilton ; 
the same, in verse also, by Monsieur Roboton, Counsellor and 
Privy Secretary to King George I. ; after, by the Abb6 Reynel, in 
verse, with notes. Rape of the Lock, in French, by the Princess 
of Conti, Paris 1728, and in Italian verse, by the Abbe Conti, a 
noble Venetian ; and by the Marquis Rangoni, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary from Modena to King George II. Others of his works by 
Salvini of Florence, &c. His Essays and Dissertations on Homer, 
several times translated into French. A 

Essay on Man, by the Abbe Reynel, in verse ; by Monsieur 
Silhouette, in prose, 1737 ; and since by others in French, Italian, 
and Latin. P.f ' 

26 ^ A LETTER 

last ; and if ever he should give us an edition of 
this poem himself^ I may see some of them treated 
as gently, on their repentance or better merit, as 
Perrault or Quinault were at last by Boileau. 

In one point I must be allowed to think the 
character of our English poet the more amiable. 
He has not been a follower of fortune or success : 
he has lived with the great without flattery ; been 
a friend to men in power, without pensions, from 
whom, as he asked, so he received, no favour, but 
what was done him in his friends. As his satires 
were the more just for being delayed, so were his 
panegyrics ; bestowed only on such persons as he 
had familiarly known, only for such virtues as he 
had long observed in them, and only in such times 
as others cease to praise, if not begin to calum- 
niate them, I mean when out of power, or out of 
fashion.* A satire, therefore, on writers so noto- 
rious for the contrary practice, became no man so 
well as himself; as none, it is plain, was so little 
in their friendships, or so much in that of those 
whom they had most abused, namely, the greatest 
and best of all parties. Let me add a further 
reason, that, though engaged in their friendships, 
he never espoused their animosities ; and can al- 

* As Mr. Wycherley, at the time the Town declaimed against 
his book of Poems ; Mr. Walsh, after his death ; Sir William 
Trumball, when he resigned the office of Secretary of State ; 
Lord Bohngbroke, at his leaving England, after the Queen's 
death ; Lord Oxford, in his last decline of life ; Mr. Secretary 
Craggs, at the end of the South-Sea year, and after his death : 
others, only in epitaphs. P. 


most singly challenge this honour^ not to have 
written a line of any man, which, through guilt, 
through shame, or through fear, through variety 
of fortune, or change of interests, he was ever 
unwilling to own. 

I shall conclude with remarking what a plea- 
sure it must be to every reader of humanity, to 
see all along that our author, in his very laughtelr, 
is not indulging his own ill-nature, but only pu- 
nishing that of others. As to his poem, those 
alone are capable of doing it justice, who, to use 
the words of a great writer, know how hard it is 
(with regard both to his subject and his manner) 


I am 

Your most humble servant, 

William Cleland.* 

St. James's, Dec. 23, 1728. 

* This Gendeman was of Scotland, and bred at the University 
of Utrecht, with the Earl of Mar. He served in Spain under Earl 
Rivers. Afler the peace, he was made one of the Commissioners 
of the Customs in Scotland, and then of Taxes in England ; in 
which, having shewn himself for twenty years diligent, punctual, 
and incorruptible, though without any other assistance of fortune, 
he was suddenly displaced by the Minister, in the sixty-eighth 
year of his age, and died two months after, in 1741. He was a 
person of universal learning, and an enlarged conversation ; no 
man had a warmer heart for his friend, or a sincerer attachment 
to the constitution of his country. — And yet, for all this, the 
public would never believe him to be the author of this Letter. 

Many reasons have been alleged to prove it was written by our 
author himself. Warton. 

1 \i^\i«st 


I believe there is now no doubt of the circumstance ; it is of a 
piece with Pope's other modes of describing his own virtues : but, 
if supposed to be written by Pope, the self-love and assumed vir- 
tues are disgusting ; if written by another, the arguments are nei- 
ther well-founded, nor the conclusions just. Bowles, 

It might have been as well if the former editors had stated the 
reasons which have been aUeged for the opinion they have avowed ; 
but whoever was the writer, this can make no difference in the 
validity of the arguments, or in the justice of the conclusions. 








Dennis^ Remarks on Pr. Arthur. 

I CANNOT but think it the most reasonable thing 
in the world, to distinguish good writers, by dis- 
couraging the bad. Nor is it an ill-natured thing, 
in relation even to the very persons upon whom 
the reflections are made. It is true, it may de- 
prive them, a little the sooner, of a short profit 
and a transitory reputation ; but then it may have 
a good effect, and oblige them (before it be too 
late) to decline that for which they are so very un- 
fit, and to have recourse to something in which 
they may be more successful. 

Character of Mr. P. 1716. 

The Persons whom Boileau has attacked in his 
writings, have been for the most part authors, and 
most of those authors, poets; and the censures 
he hath passed upon them have been confirmed by 
all Europe. 

Gildon, Pref. to his New Rehearsal. 

It is the common cry of the poetasters of the 
town, and their fautors, that it is an ill-natured 
thing to expose the pretenders to wit and poetry. 
The judges and magistrates may with full as 
good reason be reproached with ill-nature for put- 
ting the laws in execution against a thief or im- 
postor. — The same will hold in the republic of 


letters, if the critics and judges will let every 
ignorant pretender to scribbling pass on the world. 

Theobaldy Lett, to Mist, June 22, 1728. 

Attacks may be levelled, either against fail- 
ures in genius, or against the pretensions of writ- 
ing without one. 

Cancaneuy Ded. to the Author of the Dunciad. 

A satire upon dulness is a thing that has been 
used and allowed in all ages. 

Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee, 
wicked scribbler. P. 






Before we present thee with our exercitations on 
this most delectable poem (drawn from the many 
volumes of our Adversaria on modem authors) we 
shall here^ according to the laudable usage of edi- 
tors^ collect the various judgments of the learned 
concerning our poet : various indeed^ not only of 
different authors^ but of the same author at differ- 
ent seasons. Nor shall we gather only the testi- 
monies of such eminent Wits^ as would of course 
descend to posterity^ and consequently be read 
without our collection ; but we shall likewise with 
incredible labour seek out for divers others^ which, 
but for this our diligence, could neyer at the dis- 
tance of a few months appear to the eye of the 
most curious. Hereby thoumayest not only receive 
the delectation of variety, but also arrive at a more 
certain judgment, by a grave and circumspect 
comparison of the witnesses with each other, or of 
each with himself. Hence also thou wilt be en- 
abled to draw reflections, not only of a critical, but 




a moral nature, by being let into many particu- 
lars of the person as well as genius, and of the for- 
tune as well as merit of our author : in which if 
I relate some things of little concern peradventure 
to thee, and some of as little even to him, I en- 
treat thee to consider how minutely all true critics 
and commentators are wont to insist upon such, 
and how material they seem to themselves, if to 
none other. Forgive me, gentle reader, if (follow- 
ing learned example) I ever and anon become te- 
dious: allow me to take the same pains to find 
whether my author were good o* bad, well or ill- 
natured, modest or arrogant ; as another, whether 
his author was fair or brown, short or tall, or whe- 
ther he wore a coat or a cassock. 

We purposed to begin with his life, parentage> 
and education; but as to these, even his cotem- 
poraries do exceedingly differ. One saith,* he was 
educated at home ; another,f that he was bred at 
St. Omer's by Jesuits ; a third^^J not at St. Om©r's> 
but at Oxford ; a fourth,§ that he had no univer- 
sity education at all. Those who allow him to be 
bred at home, differ as much concerning his tu-^ 
tor. One saith, || he was kept by his father on pur- 
pose ; a second,^ that he was an itinerant priest ; 
a third,** that he was a parson; oneff calleth 

* Giles Jacob's Lives of the Poets, vol. ii. in his Life. 
t Dennis's Reflections on the Essay on Criticism, p. 4. 
^J Dunciad dissected, p. 4. § Guardian, No. 40. 

II Jacob's Lives, &c. vol. ii. IF Dunciad dissected, p. 4. 

** Farmer P. and his son. f f Dunciad dissected. 



hitti a secular clergyman of the church of Rome ; 
another,* a monk. As little do they agree about 
his father, whom onef supposeth, like the father of 
Hesiod, a tradesman, or merchant; another,^ a 
husbandman; another, § a hatter, ^&c. Nor has 
an author been wanting to give our poet such a 
father as Apuleius hath to Plato, Jamblichus id 
Pythagoras, and divers to Homer, namely a De- 
mon. For thus Mr. Gildon :|| '' Certain it is, that 
his original is not from Adam, but the Devil ; and 
that he wanted nothing but horns and tail to 
be the exact resemblance of his infernal father." 
finding therefore such contrariety of opinions, 
and (whatever be ours, of this sort of generation) 
not being fond to enter into controversy, we shall 
defer writing the Life of dur Poet, till authors can 
determine among themselves what parents or edu- 
cation he had, or whether he had any education oi! 
parents at all. 

Proceed we to what is more certain, his works, 
though n6t less uncertain the judgments concem- 

* Characters of the times, p. 45. 

'f Female Dmiciad, p. ult, 

j; Dimciad dissected. 

§ Roome, paraphrase on the ivth of Genesis, printed 1729. 

II Character of Mr. P. and his Writings, in a Letter to a Friend, 
printed for S. Popping, 1716, p. 10. Curl, in his Key to the 
Dtmciad (first edit, said to be printed for A. Dodd), in the 10th 
page, declared Gildon to be author of that libel ; though in the 
subsequent editions of his Key he left out this assertion, and af- 
finoned (in the Curliad, p. 4 and 8.) that it was written by Dennis 
only. P. 



ing them ; beginning with his Essay on Criticisih, 
of which hear first the most ancient of critics^ 

Mr. John Dennis. 

'* His precepts are false or trivial^ or both ; his^ 
thoughts are crude and abortive^ his expressions 
absurd^ his numbers harsh and unmusical^ his 
rhymes trivial and common :— instead of majesty, 
we have something that is very mean ; instead of 
gravity, something that is very boyish ; and in- 
stead of perspicuity and lucid order, we have but 
too often obscurity and confusion." And in ano* 
ther place : '' What rare numbers are here ! Would 
not one swear that this youngster had espoused 
some antiquated muse, who had sued out a divorce 
from some superannuated sinner, upon account of 
impotence, and who being poxed by her former 
spouse, has got the gout in her decrepid age, which 
makes her hobble so damnably."* 

No less peremptory is the censure of our hyper- 
critical Historian, 

Mr. Oldmixon^ 

*' I dare not say any thing of the Eiteay on Cri- 
ticism in verde ; but if any more curious reader has 
discovered in it something new which is not in 
Dryden's prefaces, dedications, and his Essay on 
Dramatic Poetry,not to mention the French critics, 

* Reflections, critical and satirical, on a Rhapsody, called an 
Essay on Criticism. Printed for Bernard Lintot, octavo. P. 


I should be very glad to hare the benefit of the 

He is followed (as in fame^ so in judgment) by 
the modest and simple-minded 

Mr. Leonard Welsted ; 

Who^ out of great respect to our poet not naming 
Bim^ doth yet glance at his Essay> together with 
the Duke of Buckingham's^ and the Criticisms of 
Dryden^ and of Horace^ which he more openly 
taxeth :f '' As to the numerous treatises^ essays^ 
arts^ &c. both in verse and prose^ that have been 
written by the modems on this ground-work^ they 
do but hackney the same thoughts over i^in^ 
making them still more trite. Most of their pieces 
are nothing but a pert^ insipid heap of common- 
place. Horace has even in his Art of Poetry 
thrown out several things which plainly shew he 
thought an Art of Poetry was of no use, even while 
he was writmg one.*' 

To all whieh great authorities, we can only op- 
pose that of 

Mr. Adpison. 

'* X The Art of Criticism (saith he) which was 
published some months since, is a master-piece in 
its kind. The observations follow one another, like 

^ Essay on Criticism in prose, octavo, 1728, by the author of 
The Critical History of England. P* 

f Preface to his Poems, p. 18, 53. P. 
% Spectator, No. 253. P. 


those in Horace's Art of Poetry^ without that me- 
thodical regularity which would have been requi- 
site in a prose writer. They are some of them un- 
common^ but such as the reader must assent to^ 
when he sees them explained with that ease and 
perspicuity in which they are delivered. As for 
those which are the most known and the most re- 
ceived^ they are placed in ^so beautiful a lights and 
illustrated with such £^pt allusions^ that they have 
in them all the graces of novelty ; and make the 
reader, who was before acquainted with them, still 
more convinced of their truth and solidity. And 
here give me leave to mention what Monsieur Boi- 
leau has so well enlarged upon in the preface to 
his works : That wit and fine writing doth not 
consist so much in advancing things that are new, 
as in giving things that are known an agreeable 
turn. It is impossible for us who live in the latter 
ages of the world, to make observations in criti- 
cism, morality, or in any art or science, which have 
not been touched upon by others ; ive have little 
else left us, but to represent the common sense of 
* mankind in more strong, more beautiful, or more 
uncommon lights. If a reader examines Horace's 
Art of Poetry, he will find but few precepts in it 
which he may not meet with in Aristotle, and 
which were not commonly known by all the poets 
of the Augustan age. His way of expressing and 
applying them, not his invention of them, is what 
we are chiefly to admire. 
" Longinus, in his reflections, has given us the 


same kind of sublime^ which he observes in the se- 
veral passages that occasioned them : I cannot but 
take notice that our English author has after the 
same manner exemplified several of the precepts in 
the very precepts themselves." He then produces 
some instances of particular beauty in the num- 
bers, and concludes with sapng, that '' there are 
three poems in our tongue of the same nature, and 
each a master-piece in its kind: The Essay on 
Translated Verse ; the Essay on the Art of Poetry ; 
and the Essay on Criticism." 

Of Windsor Forest, positive is the judgment of 
the affirmative 

Mr. John Dennis. 

*' ♦That it is a wretched rhapsody, impudently 
writ in emulation of the Cooper's Hill of Sir John 
Denham : The author of it is obscure, is ambigu- 
ous, is affected, is temerarious, is barbarous." 

But the author of the Dispensary, 

Dr. Garth, 

in the preface to his poem of Claremont4' differs 
from this opinion ; '* Those who have seen these 
two excellent poems of Cooper^s Hill, and Wind- 
sor Forest^ the one written by Sir John Denham, 
the other by Mr. Pope, will shew a great deal of 
candour if they approve of this." 

* Letter to B, B. at the ^oA of t)ie Remarks on Pope's Homer, 
1717. P. 

t Printed 1728, p. 12. P. 


Of the Epistle of Eloisa, we are told by the ob- 
scure writer of a poem called Sawney, ''That be- 
cause Prior's Henry and Emma charmed the finest 
tastes, our author writ his Eloise in opposition to 
it; but forgot innocence and virtue: if you take 
away her tender thoughts and her fierce desires, all 
the rest is of no value." In which, methinks, his 
judgment resembles that of a French taylor on a 
villa and gardens by the Thames : " All this is very 
fine, but take away the river, and it is good for 

But very contrary hereunto was the opinion of 

Mr. Prior 

himself, saying in his Alma,* 

'' O Abelard If ill-fated youth. 
Thy tale will justify this truth. 
But well I weet, thy cruel wrong 
Adorns a nobler Poet's song : 
Dan Pope, for thy misfortune griev'd. 
With kind concern and skill has weav'd 

^ Alma, Cant ii. P. 

t Prior's is abeautiAil, delicate, and poetical compliment. Pope 
never returned it in kind, or by the least notice, I believe, on any 
occasion. Bowles, 

Pope has noticed Prior several times, amongst his nearest 
friends, particularly in the Duncia^i Bopk Q. ver. 123. 

Three wicked imps of her own Grub-street choir, 
She drest like Congreve^ Addison^ and Prior, 

And again in the same book, ver. 138. 

Cook shall be Prior, and Concanen, Svnft^ 


A silken web ; and ne'er shall fi^de 
Its colours : gently has he laid 
The mantle o'er thy sad distress^ 
And Venus shall the texture bless," &c. 

Come we now to his translation of the Diad, ce- 
lebrated by numerous pens, yet shall it suffice to 
mention the indefatigable 

Sir Richard Blackmore, Kt. 

Who (though otherwise a severe censurer of our 
author) yet styleth this a '' laudable translation."* 
That ready writer 

Mr. Oldmixon, 

in his forementioned essay, frequently commends 
the same. And the pamful 

Mr. Lewis Theobald 

thus extolls it rf " The spirit of Homer breathes 
all through this translation. — I am in doubt, whe- 
ther I should most admire the justness to the ori- 
ginal, or the force and beauty of the language, or 
the sounding variety of the numbers ; but when I 
find all these meet, it puts me in mind of what the 
poet says of one of his heroes. That he alone 
raised and flung with ease a weighty stone, that 
two common men CQuld not lift from the ground ; 
just so, one single person has performed in this 
translation, what I once despaired to have seen 

" * In his Essays, vol. i. printed for £. Curl. P. 
•}■ Censor, vol. ii. No. 33. p.f 


done by the force of several masterly hands." In- 
deed the same gentleman appears to have changed 
his sentiment in his Essay on the Art of sinking in 
Reputation (printed in Mist's Journal^ March 30^ 
1728), where he says thus : '^ In order to sink in 
Reputation, let him take it into his head to des- 
cend into Homer (let the world wonder as it will, 
how the devil he got there) and pretend to do him 
into English, so his version denote his neglect of 
the manner how." Strange variation! We are 
told in 

Mist's Journal, June 8. 

*' That this translation of the Hiad was not in all 
respects conformable to the fiQe taste of his friend 
Mr. Addison; insomuch, that he employed a 
younger muse in an undertaking of this kind, which 
he supervised himself." Whether Mr. Addison 
did find it conformable to his taste, or not, best ap- 
pears from his own testimony, in the year follow- 
ing its publication, in these words : 

Mr. Addison, Freeholder, No. 40. 

'' When I consider myself as a British free- 
holder, I am in a particular manner pleased with 
the labours of those who have improved our lan- 
guage with the translations of old Greek and Latin 
authors. We have already most of their Histo- 
rians in our own tongue, and what is more for the 
honour of our language, it has been taught to ex- 
press with elegance the greate3t of their poets in 


each nation. The illiterate among our own coun- 
trymen may learn to judge from Dryden's Virgil 
of the most perfect epic performance. And those 
parts of Homer which have been published al- 
ready by Mr. Pope, give us reason to think that 
the Iliad will appear in English with as little dis- 
advantage to that immortal poem." 

As to the rest, there is a slight mistake, for this 
younger muse was an elder. Nor was the gentle- 
man (who is a friend of our author) employed by 
Mr. Addison to translate it after him, since he 
saith himself that he did it before.* Contrariwise 
that Mr. Addison engaged our author in this work 
appeareth by declaration thereof in the preface to 
the Iliad, printed some time before his death, and 
by his own letters of October 26, and November 2, 
1713, where he declares it as his opinion, that no 
other person was equal to it. 

Next comes his Shakespear on the stage : '^ Let 
him (quoth one, whom I take to be Mr. Theobald, 
Mists Journal, June 8, 1728) publish such an 
author as he has least studied, and forget to dis- 
charge even the dull duty of an editor. In this 
project let him lend the bookseller his name (for a 
competent sum of money) to promote the credit oiF 
an exorbitant subscription." Gentle reader, be 
pleased to cast thine eye on the proposal below 
quoted, and on what follows (some months after 
the former assertion) in the ssune Journalist of 

* Vid. pref. to Mr. Tickel's translation of the first book of the 
fliad, 4to. P. 


June 8 : " The bookseller proposed the book by 
subscription^ and raised some thousands of pounds 
for the same: I believe the gentleman did not 
share in the profits of this extravagant subscrip- 
'' After the Iliad, he undertook (saith 

Mist's Journal, June 8, 1728) 

the sequel of that work, the Odyssey ; and having 
secured the success by a numerous subscription, 
he employed some underlings to perform what, ac- 
cording to his proposals, should come from his 
own hands." To which heavy charge we can in 
truth oppose nothing but the words of 

Mr. Pope's Proposal for the Odtsset, 
(printed for J. Watts, Jan. 10, 1724.) 

" I take this occasion to declare that the subscrip- 
tion for Shakespear belongs wholly to Mr. Tonson; 
and that the benefit of this Proposal is not solely 
for my own use, but for that of two of my friends, 
who have assisted me in this work." But these 
very gentlemen are extolled above our poet him- 
self in another of Mist's Journals, March 30, 1728, 
sajdng, " That he would not advise Mr. Pope to 
try the experiment again of getting a great part of 
a book done by assistants, lest those extraneous 
parts shpidd unhappily ascend to the sublime, and 
retard the declension of the whole." Behold! 
these underlings are become good writers ! 
Jf any say, that before the said Proposals were 


printed^ the subscription was begun without de- 
claration of such assistance ; verily those who set 
it on foot^ or (as the term is) secured it^ to wit^ the 
right honourable the Lord Viscount Harcourt, 
were he living, would testify, and the right ho- 
nourable the Lord Bathurst^ now living, doth 
testify, the same is a falsehood. 

Sorry I am, that persons professing to be learn- 
ed, or of whatever rank of authors, should either 
falsely tax, or be falsely taxed. Yet let us, who 
are only reporters, be impartial in our citations, 
and proceed. 

Mist's Jou&kal, June 8^ 1728. 

'* Mr. Addison raised this author from obscurity, 
obtained him the acquaintance and friendship of 
the whole body of our nobility, and transferred his 
powerful interests with those great men to this 
rising bard, who frequently levied by that means 
unusual contributions on the public.*' Which 
surely cannot be, if, as the author of the Dunciad 
dissected reporteth ; '' Mr. Wycherley had before 
introduced him into a familiar acquaintance with 
the greatest Peers and brightest Wits then living." 

'^ No sooner (saith the same Journalist) was his 
body lifeless, but this author reviving his resent- 
ment, libelled the memory of his departed friend ; 
and, what was still more heinous, made the scandal 
public.'* Grievous the accusation I unknown the 
accuser ! the person accused no witness in his own 
cause ; the person, in whose regard accused, dead! 


But if there be living any one nobleman whose 
friendship^ yea^ any one gentleman whose subscrip- 
tion Mr. Addison procured to our author^ let him 
stand forth^ that truth may appear! '' Amicus 
Plato^ amicus Socrates^ sed magis amica Veritas." 
In verity the whole story of the libel is a lie; 
witness those persons of integrity, who, several 
years before Mr. Addison's decease, did see and 
approve of the said verses, in no wise a libel, but 
a friendly rebuke, sent privately in our author's 
own hand to Mr. Addison himself, and never made 
public, till after their own Journals, and Curl had 
printed the same. One name alone, which I am 
here authorised to declare, will sufficiently evince 
this truth, that of the right honourable the Earl of 

Next is he taxed with a crime (in the opinion of 
some authors, I doubt, more heinous than any in 
morality), to wit, plagiarism, from the inventive 
and quaint-conceited 

James Moore Smith, Gent. 

'' *Upon reading the third volume of Pope's 
IMQscellanies, I found five lines which I thought 
excellent ; and happening to praise them, a gen- 
tleman procured a modem comedy (the Rival 
Modes), published last year, where were the same 
verses to a tittle. 

'' These gentlemen are undoubtedly the first 
plagiaries, that pretend to make a reputation by 

♦ Daily Journal, March 18, 1728. P. 


stealing from a man's works in his own lifetime, 
and out of a public print." Let us join to this 
what is written by the author of the Rival Modes, 
the said Mr. James Moore Smith, in a letter to 
our author himself, who had informed him, a month 
before that play was acted, Jan. 27, 1726-7, that 
"These verses, which he had before given him 
leave to insert in it, would be known for his, some 
copies being got abroad. He desires, neverthe- 
less, that since the lines had been read in his co- 
medy to several, Mr. P. would not deprive it of 
them," &c. Surely if we add the testimonies of 
the Lord Bolingbroke, of the lady to whom the 
said verses were originally addressed, of Hugh 
Bethel, Esq. and others who knew them as our 
author's, long before the said gentleman composed 
his play ; it is hoped, the ingenuous that affect not 
ierror, will rectify their opinion by the suffrage of 
so honourable personages. 

And yet followeth another charge, insinuating 
no less than his enmity both to Church and State, 
which could come from no other informer than 
the said 

Mr. James Moore Smith. 

'' ♦The Memoirs of a Parish Clerk was a very 
dull and unjust abuse of a person who wrote in 
defence of our Religion and Constitution, and who 
has been dead many years." This seemeth also 
most untrue; it being known to divers that these 

* DaQy Journal, AprU 3, 1728. P. 


Memoirs were written at the seat of the Lord 
Harcourt in Oxfordshire^ before that excellent 
person (Bishop Burnet's) deaths and many years 
before the appearance of that history^ of which 
they are pretended to be an abuse. Most true it 
is that Mr. Moore had siich a design^ and was him- 
self the man who pressed Dr. Arbuthnot and Mr. 
Pope to assist him therein ; and that he borrowed 
those Memoirs of our author^ when that history 
came forth^ with intent to turn them to such 
abuse. But being able to obtain from our author 
but one single hint^ aixd either changing his mind; 
or having more mind than ability^ he contented 
himself to keep the said Memoirs^ and read them 
as his own to all his acquaintance. A noble per- 
son there is, into whose company Mr. Pope once 
chanced to introduce him, who well remembereth 
the conversation of Mr. Moore to have turned 
upon the ''Contempt he had for the work of that 
reverend prelate, and how full he was of a design 
he declared himself to have of exposing it." This 
noble person is the Earl of Peterborough. 

Here in truth should we crave pardon of all the 
foresaid right honourable and worthy personages, 
for having mentioned them in the same page with 
such weekly riff-raff railers and rhymers ; but that 
we had their ever-honoured commands for the 
same ; and that they are introduced not as wit- 
nesses in the controversy, but as witnesses that 
cannot be controverted; not to dispute, but to 


Certain it is, that dividing our writers into two 
classes, of such who were acquaintance, and of 
such who were strangers to our author ; the for- 
mer are those who speak Well, and the other, those 
who speak evil of him. Of the first class, the most 


John Duke of Buckingham 

sums up his character in these lines : 

''♦And yet so wond'rous, so sublime a thing. 
As the great Diad, scarce could make me sing ; 
Unless I justly could at once commend 
A good companion, and as firm a friend. 
One moral, or a mere well-natiir'd'deed. 
Can all desert in sciences exceed." 

So also is he decyphered by the honourable 

Simon Harcourt. 


"f Say, wond'rous youth, what column wilt thou 
MHhat laurel'd arch forthy triumphant Muse? 
Tho' each great ancient court thee to his shrine ^ 
Tho' ev'ry laurel through the dome be thine. 
Go to the good and just, an awful train I 
Thtf souTs delight J' 

Recorded in like manner for his virtuous disposi- 
tion, and gentle bearing, by the ingenious 

Mr. Walter Hart, 
in this ajjiostrophe : 

* Verses to Mr. P. on his translation of Homer. P^ 
t Poem prefixed to his works, P. 


^♦O I ever wcjrthy, ever crown^^d witK pirmsel 
Btest in thy life^ and blest in aE thy kys t 
Add, that the Sisters ev'ry thought rei»e> 
And ev'n thy life be faultless as thy fine. 
Yet envy still with fiercer rage pursues. 
Obscures the virtue, and defames the Muse. 
A soul like thine, in pain, in grief, resigned, 
Views with just scorn the malice of mankind." 

The witty and moral satirist 

Dr. Edward Yqunc^ 

wishing some check to the cormptixm and evil 
manners of the times, calleth out upon our poet 
to undertake a task so worthy of hia virtue : 

^'f Why slumbers Pope, who leads the Muses' train. 
Nor hears that virtue, which be loves, complain ?" 

in his epistle on Verbal Criticism : 

'* Whose, life severely scann'd, transcends his lays ; 
For wit supreme is but his second praise.'* 

Mr. Hami^ionb, 

that delicate and correct imitator of Tibulbts, in 
hml^ve I^egies, Elegy xiv. 

^ Now, ftr- d by Pope and Virtue, leave the age. 
In low pui^uit of self-un^mg^ wrong. 
And trace the author through his m^ral pagQ, 
Whose blameless life still answers to his song." 

* In his Poex^s, printed for B* I^intot. P. 
t Universal Passion, Sat. h P. 


Mr. TfiKMifsoN^ 

in his^ elegant as(d philosophical poem of the Sea- 
sons : 

''Altho' not sweeter his own Homer sings^ 
Yet is his life the more endearing song" 

To the same tune also singeth that learned 
clerk of Suffolk, 

Mr. Williakt Broome. 

^'♦Hius, nobly rising in fair Virtue's cause. 
From thy own life transcribe th' unerring laws." 

And, to close all, hear the reverend Dean of St. 

^^ A soul with ev'ry virtue fraughtjr 
By patriots, priests, and poets tatight; 
Whose filial piety excels 
Whatever Grecian^ story telTs ; 
A genius for each business fit> 
Whose meanest talent is his wit;" &c. 

Let us now recreate thee hy turning to t^e 
o^^r side^ and' shewing his character drawn by 
those with whom he never conversed, and whose 
coiuitenances he could not know, though turned 
agajnst him : first again commencing with the high 
voiced and never enough quot^ 

Mr. John Dennis^; 

wboy in^ his Reflections on the Esis» J' on €rftiei8m, 
thus describeth him : ''A little affected hypocrite; 

*' In his Poems, and at the end of the Odyssey. P. 



who has nothing in his mouth but candour^ truth, 
friendship, good-nature, humanity, and magnani- 
mity. * He is so great a lover of falsehood, that 
whenever he has a mind to calumniate his cotem- 
poraries, he brands them with some defect which 
is just contrary to some good quality y for which aU 
ih&ixfriends and their acquaintance commend them. 
He seems to have a particular pique to people of 
quality, and authors of that rank. He must de- 
rive his religion from St. Omer's." — But in the 
Character of Mr. P. and his writings (printed by 
S. Popping, 1716), he saith, '* Though he is a pro- 
fessor of the worst religion, yet he laughs at it;'' 
but that, " nevertheless, he is a virulent Papist ; 
and yet a pillar for the church of England.'' 
* Of both which opinions 

Mr. Lewis Theobald 

seems also to be ; declaring, in Mist's Journal of 
June 22, 1718, " That if he is not shrewdly abused, 
he made it his business to cackle to both parties in 
their own sentiments." But, as to his pique against 
people of quality, the same Journalist doth. not 
agree, but saith (May 8, 1728), '' He had, by some 
means or other, the acquaititance and friendship of 
the whole body of our nobility.'' 

However contradictory this may appear^ Mr. 
Dennis and Gildon, in the character last cited, make 
it ail plain, by assuring us, *' That he is a creature 
that reconciles all contradictions ; he is a beast, and 
a man ; a Whig and a Tory ; a writer (at one and 


the same time) of Guardians and Examiners ;* an 
asserter of liberty, and of the dispensing power of 
kings ; a Jesuitical professor of truth ; a base and a 
foul pretender to candour." So that, upon the 
whole account, we must conclude him either to 
have been a great hypocrite, or a very honest man ; 
a terrible imposer upon both parties, or very mo- 
derate to either. 

Be it as to the judicious reader shall seem good. 
Sure it is, he is little favoured of certain authors, 
whose wrath is perilous : for one declares he ought 
to have a price set on his head, and to be hunted 
. down as a wild beast. f Another protests that he 
does not know what may happen ; advises him to 
insure his person; says he has hitter enemies, and 
expressly declares it will be well if he escapes with 
his life.X One desires he would cut his own throat, 
or hang himself,^ But Pasquin seemed rather in- 
clined it should be done by the government, repre- 
senting him engaged in grievous designs with a 
Lord of Parliament, then under prosecution-^T Mr. 
Dennis himself hath written to a Minister, that he 
is one of the most dangerous persons in this king- 
dom ;\ and assureth the public, that he is an open 
and mortal enemy to his country; a monster, that 
wiU, one day, shew as daring a soul as a mad 

• The names of two weekly Papers. P.f 

f Theobald, Letter in Mist's Journal, June 22, 1728. P. 

X Smedley, Pref. to GuUiveriana, pp. 14, 16. P. 

§ GuUiveriana, p. 332. P. 

f Anno 1723. P. || Anno 1729. P. 


Indian, who runs a muck to kill the first Christian 
he meets,* Another gives information of Treasim 
discovered in his poem-f Mr. Curl holdly supplies 
mi imperfect verse with Kings and Princesses.^ 
And one Matthew Concanen^ yet more impudent^ 
puhlishes at length the two most sacred namss 
in this nation, as members of the Dunciad !§ 

This is prodigious ! yet it is almost as strjmge, 
that in the midst of these invectives his greatest 
enemies have (I ]cnow not how) home testimony to 
some merit in him. 

Mr. Theobald, 

in censuring his Shakespear, declares, '' He ha^ so 
great an esteem for Mr. Pope, and so high an opi- 
nion of his genius and excellencies ; that notwith-^ 
standing he professes a veneration almost rising to 
idolatry for the writings of this inimitable poet, 
he would be very loth even to do Mm justice, at 
the expense of that other gentleman's character."ir 

Mil. Charles Gix-don, 
after having viol^tly attacked him in many pieces, 

* Prd*. to Rem. on the Rape of the Lock, p. 12. and in the last 
page of that treatise* F* i 

f Page 6, 7. of the Preface (by Concanen) to a book intided, 
A Collection of all the Letters, Essays, Verses, and Advertise- 
ments, occasioned by Pope and Swift's Miscellanies. Printed for 
A. Moore, octavo, 1712. P. 

X Key to the Dunciad, 3d edit. p. 18. P. 

§ A List of Persons, &c. af the end of the fore-mentioned Col- 
lection of all the Letters, Essays, &c. P. 

% Introduction to his Shakespear Restored^ in quarto, p. 3. P- 


at last ^ame to wish from Im hearty ^ That Mr. 
Pope Would be ptevailed lipon to give uo Ovid's 
E^sties bj his hand^ for it is cert^n we see the 
ordinal of Sappho to Phaon with much more life 
and likeness in his yersion> than in that of Sir Car. 
Scrope. And this (he adds) is the more to be 
wished^ because in the English tongue we have 
scarce any thing truly and naturally written upon 
Love/'* He ^o^ in taxing Sir Richard Blackmore 
for his heterodox opinions of Homer^ challengeth 
him to an6w.ei: what Mr. Pope hath said in hii^ 
preface to that poet. 

Mr. Oldihxon 

calls hiXA a gteat madtet bf our tofigiitd ; declares 
'' the pUdty and perfection of the English language 
tb be found iA his tloioier ; and^ saying there are 
more good verses in Dryden's Virgil than in any 
other work, excepts this of our author only.^f 

The author of a Letter to Mr. Cibber says, 
I " Pope was BO good a versifier \jonce2 that his 
predecessor Mr. Dlyden, and his cotemporary Mi^. 
Pritn* excepted, the harmony of his numbers is 
^ual to any body's : and that he had all the merit 
that a ttian c«a have that way." And 

Mr. TnoMAd Cooke, 

after much blemi&hmg our author's Homer, crieth 

* Commentary on the Duke of Buckingham's Essay, octavo, 
1721, pp. 97, 98. P. 

f In bis prose EUslty dH Cridckrfia. P» 
% Printed by J. Roberts, 1742, p. 11. P.f 


*' But in his other works what beauties shine. 
While sweetest music dwells in ev'ry line! 
These he admir'd, on these he stamp'd his praise. 

And bade them live to brighten future days,"* 
So also one who takes the name of 

H. Stanhope, 

the maker of certain verses to Duncan Campbell,t 
in that poem, which is wholly a satire on Mr, Pope, 

" 'Tis true, if finest notes alone could show 
(Tun'd justly high, or regularly low) 
That we should fame to these mere vocals give. 
Pope more than we can offer should receive : 
For when some gliding river is his theme. 
His lines run smoother ths^n th^ smoothest 
;stream," &c. 

Mist s Journal, June 8, 1728. 

Although he says, '' The smooth numbers of the 
punciad are all that recommend it, nor has it any 
other merit ;" yet that same paper hath these words : 
'' The author is allowed to be a perfect master of 
an easy and elegant versification. In all his works 
we find the most happy turns and natural similieSj 
wonderfully short and thick sown." 

The Essay on the Dunciad also owns, p. 26, it 
is very full of beautiful images. But the paneg5nric, 

* Battle of Poets, folio, p. 16. P. 

f Printed under the title of the Progriessof Dulness, duodecimo, 
1728. P.f 


which crowns all that can be said on this poem^ is 
bestowed by our Laureate, 

Mr. Collet Cibber, 

who ^^ grants it to be a better poem of its kind than 
ever was writ :" but adds, '' it was a victory over a 
parcel of poor wretches, whom it was almost 
cowardice to conquer. — A man might as well tri- 
umph for having killed so many silly flies that 
offended him. Could he have let them alone, by 
this time, poor souls ! they had been buried in 
oblivion."* Here we see our excellent Laureate 
aDows the justice of the satire on every man in it, 
but himself; as the great Mr. Dennis did before him. 
The said 

Mr. Dennis and Gildon, 

in the most furious of all their works, the fore-cited 
Character (p. 5.) do in cdncertf confess, " That some 

* Gibber's Letter to Mr. Pope, pp. 9, 12. P.f 
•f* in concert] Hear how Mr. Dennis hath proved our mistake in 
thii place. " As to my writing in concert with Mr. Gildon, I de- 
clare, upon the honour and word of a gentleman, that I never 
wrote so much as one line in concert with any one man whatsoever. 
And these two Letters from Gildon will plainly shew that we are 
not writers in concert with each other. 
-T — " The height of my ambition is to please men of the best 
judgmrat ; and finding that I have entertained my master agreeably, 
I have the extent of the reward of my labour." 
" I had hot the opportunity of hearing of your excellent piainphlet 



ttien of good under^dmiiHg value hiqi foif biis 
rhymes." And (p, 17.) '' That he has get, lik^ M|r. 
Bays in the Rehearsal, (that is, like Mr. Dryden) a 
notable knack at rfayming, and writing smooth 

Of his Essay on Man, numerous were the prakies 
bestowed by his avowed Enemies, in the hnagi*- 
nation that the Same was not writtw by hitti^ as it 
was printed anonymously. 

Thus saaoig of it even 

Bezaleel Morris. 

'' Auspicious bard ! while all admire thy strain. 
All but the selfish> ignorant, and vain ; 
I, whom no bribe to servile flatt'ry drew. 
Must pay the tribute to thy merit due : 
Thy muse sublime, significant, and clear. 
Alike informs the soul, and charms the ear." 


Mr. Leonard Welsted 

thus wrote^ to the unknown author on the first 
publication of the said Essay : ^' I must own, after 
the reception which the vilest and most immoral 

till this day. I am infinitely satisfiecl ahd pleased witJf it, and hopo 
you will meet with that encouragement your admirable perfiMlance 
des^rres, Sec* " Ch. Gildon." 

** Now is it tiot plain, that any on^ who sends such compHm^ts 
to another, has not been used to write in partnership wkh hkfi id 
whom he sends them V* Dennis, Rem. on the Dune. p. 60. Mr. 
D^iiis is therefore welcome to take tbas pi6ce to himself. P.f 

^ In a letter under his hand, dated March 12, 1733. P* 


ritoldiy^ath lately met mtfa, I was surprised to 
see what I ioA long despaired^ a performance de* 
senring the name of a poet. Such^ Sir^ is yotir 
work. It is, indeed^ above ail commendation, and 
ought to have heen {mblished in an age and country 
Bun:e worthy of it. Jf my testimony be of weight 
any where, you are sure to have it in the amplest 
manner/' &c. &c. &e. 

Thus we see every one of his works hath been 
extolled by one or other of his most inveterate 
enemies ; and to the success of them all they do 
™«d« give testunony. But it is s.fflie»t. 
instar ommum, to behold the great critic, Mr. 
Dennis, sorely lamenting it, even from the Essay on 
Criticism to this day of the Dunciad ! '' A most 
notorious instance (quoth he) of the depravity of 
genius axA taste, the approbation this Essay meets 
with.* — I can safely affirm, that I never attacked 
any of these writings, unless they had success infi- 
nitdy beyond their merit. — This, though an empty, 
has heen a popular scribbler. The epidemic mad* 
ness of the times has given him reputation.1i — If, 
after the crud treatment so many extraordinary 
men (iSpenser, Lord Bacon, Ben Jonson, Milton, 
Butler, Otway, and others) have received from this 
country, for these last hundred years, I should shift 
the 4Bcene, and shew all iJiat penury changed at 
once to riot and profuseness ; and more squandered 
away upon one object^ than would have satisfied 

* Denais, Pref. to his Reflect, on the Essay on Criticism. P. 
\ Pref. to his Rem. on Homer. P. 


the greater part of those extraordinary men ; the 
reader to whom this one creature should be un- 
known^ would fancy him a prodigy of art and 
nature^ would believe that all the great qualities of 
these persons were cientered in him alone : — ^But if 
I should venture to assure him^ that the People 
of England had made such a choice — the reader 
would either believe me a malicious enemy, and 
slanderer ; or that the reign of the last (Queen 
Anne's) Ministry was designed by fate to encou- 
rage Fools.''* 

But it happens, that this our poet never had 
any place, pension, or gratuity, in any shape, from 
the said glorious Queen, or any of her Ministers. 
All he owed, in the whole course of his life, to any 
court, was a subscription for his Homer, of 200/. 
from King George I., and 100/. from the Prince 
and Princess. 

However, lest we imagine our author's success 
was constant and universal, they acquaint us of 
certain works in a less degree of repute, whereof> 
although owned by others, yet do they assure us 
he is the writer. Of this sort Mr. DENNisf as- 
cribes to him twofarceSyX whose names he does not 
tell, but assures us that there is not one jest in 
them; and an imitation of Horace, whose title he 
does not mention, but assures us it is much more 
execrable than all his works. The Daily Jour- 
nal, May 11, 1728, assures us, '^He is below 

* Rem. on Horn. pp. 8, 9. JP. f Rem. on Horn. p. 8. P. 
X Dennis, Pref. to his Reflec. on the Essay on Criticism. P. 


Tom Durfey* in the Drama^ because (as that wri- 
ter thinks) the Marriage-Hater matched^ ^and. the 
Boarding School, are better than the What-d'ye- 
call-it :" which is not Mr, P,'s, but Mr. Gay's. Mr. 
61LDON assures us, in his New Rehearsal, p. 48, 
*' That he was writing a Play of the Lady Jane 
Grey ;** but it afterwards proved to be Mr. Rpwe's. 
We are assured by another, '^ He wrote a pamph- 
let called Dr. Andrew Tripe :"f which proved to 
be one Dr. WagstaflTs. Mr. Theobald assures us, 
in Mist of the 27th of April, " That the treatise of 
the Profound is very dull, and that Mr. Pope is 
the author of it." The writer of GuUiverjana is of 
another opinion; and says, ''the whole, or great- 
est part, of the merit of this treatise must and can 
only be ascribed to Gulliver."! [[Here, gentle 
reader I cannot I but smile at the strange blind- 
ness and positiveness of men ; knowing the said 
treatise to appertain to none other but to me, Mar- 
tinus Scriblerus.3 

We are assured in Mist of June 8, " That his 
own Plays and Farces would better have adorned 
the Dunciad, than those of Mr. Theobald; for 
he had neither genius for tragedy nor comedy." 
Which, whether true or not, it is not easy to judge, 
in as much as he had attempted neither. Unless 
we will take it for granted, with Mr. Gibber, that 
his being once very angry at hearing a friend's 
Play abused, was an infallible proof the Play was 

• Character of Mr. Pope, p. 7. P. t Ditto, p. H. P. 

X Gulliv. p. 336. P. 


big own ; the said Mr. Cibber thinking it nnpeif* 
sible for a man to be much concerned: £&r any 
but himself: ^* Now let any man judge (saith he) 
by this concern^ who was^ the true mother of the 
child r* 

But from all that hath been said, the discemmg 
reader will coHeet, th^t it Kttle availed our author 
to' hftve any candour, smce, when he declared he 
did not write for others, it was not credited; as 
Utile to have any modesty^ since, when he decKned 
writing m any way himself, the presumption of 
others^ was knputed to him. If he singly enter- 
pri^ed one great work, he was' taxed^ of boldbess 
M^ madness to a prodigy :f if he took, assistants^ 
in^ another, it wa* complained' of, and represented 
as a* great injury to the pubiie. J The loftiest he* 
roie», the lowest ballads, treat^s against the state 
or churchy satires on lordis andladies, raillfery on 
wits and authors, squabbfes with* booksefllers, and 
even full and true accounts of monsters, poisons; 
amd murders ; of any hereof was there nothing' so 
good, nothing so- bad^ which had not at one^ or 
other season been to him ascribedl IP it bore no 
auther^s^ name, then lay he concealed^; if it ditf, fie 
&Oiered il upon' that author to be yef^ better con*- 
ceded. If it resembled- any of his styles, ifien it 
was evidient ; if it did not, then disguiised he^ it on 

^ Cibbei.'s Letter to Mr.' Bl'p.m^ P.f 
f Btirnet's Homerides, p. 1 of his translation of the Iliad. P* 
% Thfe Eondon^ and Mist'tf Joftnxali, on liir u^dbtthking the 
Odyssey. P. 

OF AtllTHORS. 63 

set purpose. Yea^ even direct oppositions in reli- 
gion^ principles^ and politics^ have equally been 
supposed ia him inherent. Surely a most rare and 
singular character ! Of which let the reader make 
what he can. 

Doubtless most commentators would hence take 
oceaedon to tun» aU to tibesr author's advaHtage^ 
aad, from the testimony q£ his yery enemies would 
affinn^ That his: capacity was boundless^ as weU as 
his imBginatron ; that he was^ a perfect miaster of 
aH styks> and all arguments^; and that there was 
in those times na other writer^ in any Mnd^ of awf 
degree of excellBnce^ save he himself But as thi« 
i& not our owii sentiment^ we shall determiiiie on 
noHung ; biit leave thee, gentle reader> to steev thsy 
jm^ment equally between rarioiBS opini6n)», and 
tp. chuse whether thou wilt indine to the Testis 
iMiues of Authors avowed, or of Aul&ors conceal- 
ed ; of those rfho knew hiin^ or ef those who knew 
Man not P; 




This poem^ as it celebrateth the most grave and 
ancient of things^ Chaos^ Nighty and Dulness ; so 
is it of the most grave and ancient kind. Homer 
(saith Aristotle) was the first who gave the form^ 
and (saith Horace) who adapted the measure, to 
tl^roic poesy. But even before this, may be ra- 
tionally presumed from what the ancients have left 
written, was a piece by Homer composed, of like 
nature and matter with this of our poet. For of 
epic sort it appeareth to have been, yet of matter 
surely not unpleasant, witness what is reported 
of it by the learned archbishop Eustathius, in 
Odyss. X. And accordingly Aristotle, in his Poetic, 
chap. iv. doth further set forth, that as the Iliad and 
Odyssey gave example to tragedy, so did this poem 
to comedy, its first idea. 

From these authors also it should seem, that the 
Hero, or chief personage of it, was no less obscure, 
and his understanding and sentiments no less quaint 
and strange (if indeed not more so), than any of 
the actors of our poem. Margites was the name 
of this personage, whom Antiquity recordeth to 
have been Dunce the first; and surely from what 
we hear of him, not unworthy to be the root of 
so spreading a tree^ and so numerous a posterity^ 

09 THE POEIL 66 

The poem therefore celebrating him was properly 
and absolutely a Dunciad ; yrlach though now un- 
happily lost, yet is its nature sufficiently known by 
the infallible tokens aforesaid. And thus it doth 
appear, that the first Dunciad was the first epic 
poem, written by Homer himself, and anterior even 
to the Iliad or Odyssey. 

Now, forasmuch as our poet hath translated 
those two famous works of Homer which are yet 
left, he did conceive it in some sort his duty to 
imitate that also which was lost ; and was therefore 
induced to bestow on it the same form which Ho- 
mer's is reported to have had, namely, that of epic 
poem ; with a title also framed after the ancient 
Greek manner, to wit, that of Dunciad. 

Wonderful it is, that so few of the modems have 
been stimulated to attempt some Dunciad ! since, 
in the opinion of the multitude, it might cost less 
pain and toil than an imitation of the greater epic. 
But possible it is also, that on due reflection, the 
maker might find it easier to paint a Charlemagne, 
a Brute, or a Godfrey, with just pomp and dignity 
heroic, than a>Margites, a Codrus, or a Fleckno. 

We shall next declare the occasion and the cause 
which moved our poet to this particular work. He 
lived in those days, when (after Providence had 
permitted the invention of printing as a scourge 
for the sins of the learned) paper also became so 
cheap, and printers so numerous, that a deluge of 
authors covered the land : whereby not only the 



p.eao<p of the honesl imwriting suliject wm dafljr 
molested, biut immerciM demands were made ef 
his applaus!^, yea, of bis m&aej, by sucb as woiiM 
Beithei earn tbe one, nor deserve tbe other. At 
the same time, the licence of the press was such, 
that it grew dangerous to refuse them eitbei : fev 
they would forthwith publish slanders unpunished, 
the authors \mng SLUonymovtB, smd skulking under 
the wings of publishers, a set of men who never 
scrupled to vend either calumny or blasphemy, as 
long as the town would call for it. 

♦Now our author, living in those times> did 
conceive it a^ endeavour well worthy an honest 
satirist, to dissuade the dull, and punish the wick^ 
the only way that was left. In that public-spirited 
view he hiA the plan of this poem, as the greatest 
service he was capable (without much hurt or 
being slain) to render his dear country. First tak- 
ing things from their original, he considereth the 
causes creative of such authors, namely Dulneas 
and Poverty ; the one bom with them, the other 
oontracted by neglect of their proper talents, 
througkself^onceit of greater abilities. This truth 
^ wrappeih in 9xl aUegotyf (as the construction 
of epic poesy requireUi) and feigns that one of 
these Goddesses had taken up her abode with the 
otiier> and th^t they jointly inspired all such writ^ 
ers and i»ich works«| He proceedeth to shew the 

• Vide Bossu, Du PoSme Epiqu^, ch. viii. P. 
t Bossu, ch. vii. P. J Book I. ver. 32^ &c. P. 


^uaiitiei tib^y bei^w on these authors^ and thfc 
effieti tbey produce ;^ theti tlie indterials^ onfJtock, 
With which ih^y futnish them ;f aikd (abov6 all) 
that self-opinionX which causeth it to seetn t6 
themselves vastly greater thai! it is> aiid is the 
prime motive of their setting up in tliis s^ and 
HMttjf merchandize. The great power of these ©od^ 
desses acting in alliance (whereof ^ the One is the 
metW of Industry, so is the other of Plodding) 
was to be exemplified in some one grteA imd re- 
mai^Ukbh attion:^ atid nohe co\M be more so 
tliaii f htft which our poet hath chosen^ vii. the res- 
toration |{ of the reigti of Chaos and Night> by the 
mili^istrf ef Didness their daughter^ in the reitiOTal 
^ het im^rial seat from the city to the polite 
Wert^ ; as the action of the iEneid is tiie i^estona- 
tion of the empire of Ti^oy, by the removid o^ the 
i^IUmbt fr€M thefice' to Latium. Biii as Hoiner^ Bthg- 
i^ odly the wi^ath of A^hiliesy yet includes in his 

• Bodk L 46 fb 54^ P. f Ver. 67 to 77. P. 

X V^. 80. JP* § Ibid. chap, vii, viii. P. 

II Altered from the edition 1729. See the note at the beginning 
of ft. IV. of thel Dunciad. fVarian. 

The note refo]*^ to by Df. Warton, as it relates to the Duh- 
ciad generally f it nOW j^aoed at the beginning of the present vo- 
lume. The passage above referred to stood thus in the edition of 
iWd. — " And none could be more so than that which our poet 
hath chosen ; the introduction of the lowest diversions of the 
rabble in Smithfl^ld to Be the entertainment of the Court and 
Town ; or in oth^f Words, die action df the Dunciad, is the remo- 
val of the Imperial Seat of^ DUlness^ from the City to the polite 
world, as that of the ^neid is the removal' of the Empire of Troy 
to Latiuffi,*' 



poem the whole history of the Trojan war ; in 
like manner our author hath drawn into this single 
action the whole history of Dulness and her 

A person must next be fixed upon to support this 
action. This phantom in the poet's mind must have 

a Tiame :* He finds it to be ; and he becomes 

of course the Hero of the poem. 

The/able being thus, according to the best ex- 
ample, one and entire, as contained in the propo- 
sition ; the machinery is a continued chain of alle- 
gories, setting forth the whole power, ministry, 
and empire of Dulness, extended through her sub- 
ordinate instruments, in all her various operations. 

This is branched into Episodes, each of which 
hath its Moral apart, though all conducive to the 
main end. The crowd assembled in the second 
book, demonstrates the design to be more exten- 
sive than to bad poets only, and that we may ex- 
pect other episodes of the patrons, encouragers, 
or paymasters of such authors, as occasion shaU 
bring them forth. And the third book, if well 
considered, seemeth to embrace the whole world. 
Each of the games relateth to some or other vile 
class of writers : the first concemeth the plagiary, 
tp whom he giveth the name of More ;f the second, 

* Bossu, chap. viii. Vide Aristot. Poetic chap. ix. P. 
f More is the person satirised under the name of " Umbra :'' 

" Close to each weU-known author Umbra sits." 

Hence he is called in the Dunciad, 

" the phantom More.'' Bowles, 


the libellous novelist, whom he styleth Eliza ; the 

• • • • • • 

third, the flattering dedicator; the fourth, the 
bawling critic, or noisy poet ; the fifth, the dark 
and dirty party-writer ; and so of the rest ; assign- 
ing to each some proper name or other, such as he 
could find. 

As for the Characters^ the public hath already 
acknowledged how justly they are drawn. The 
maimers are so depicted, and the sentiments so 
peculiar to those to whom applied, that surely to 
transfer them to any other or wiser personages, 
would be exceeding difficult; and certain it is, 
that every person concerned, being consulted apart, 
hath readily owned the resemblance of every jpor- 
tri^t> his own excepted. So Mr. Cibber calls them, 
^ a parcel of poor wretches, so many silly flies ;*•♦ 
but adds, our author's wit ^' is remarkably more 
bare and barren, whenever it would fall foul on 
Cibber, than upon any other person whatever.'* 

The descriptions are singular, the comparisons 
very quaint, the narration various, yet of one co- 
lour. The purity and chastity of diction is so pre- 
served/that in the places most suspicious, not the 
words but only the imxjiges have been censured, and 
yet are those images no other than have been sanc- 
tified by ancient and classical authority, (though, 
as was the manner of those good times, not so cu- 
riously wrapped up), yea, and commented upon by 
the most grave Doctors, and approved Critics. 

As it bear^th the name of Epic, it is thereby 

• Gibber's Letters to Mr. P. pp. 9, 12, 41. P.f 


subjected to ^uch severe m^ispens^ble rukis as are 
laid on aU Neoterics^ a strict imitation of the An- 
cients ; insomuch that any d^viatiquj, accompanied 
with whatever poetic beauties^ hath always been 
censured by the sound critic. How exact that 
imitation hath been in this piece^ appeareth not 
only by its general structure, but by particular al- 
lusions infinite, many whereof have ei^caped both 
the commentator and poet himself; y^a^t div^^ by 
his exceeding diligence are so alter^^ and inteff wo^ 
ven with the rest, that several have already b^o,^ 
and more will be, by the ^orant ahu&ie4i a^ alto- 
gether and originally his own- 

In a word, the whole poem proveth itself to b?f 
tl^e wor^ of our author, when his faculties were 

in f uJl vigpur and perfeqtiw ; at that exact tim^ 
wfe?n ye»« h^^ve ripened the jw^n^ntji wiiho^ut di- 
nwisit^nig the imagination : which^ by good critiij^ 
is held to b^ punptually at/ar#jf. F^r at that a^h 
gfon it wM that Virgtt finished \m Gwrgi?s ; »nd 
Sir Richai^ BktQkmofe^ at th^Uke age coB?|)osing 
hi«i Arthurs, d^clar^d th^ i^ani« t« ^^ the vary A^me 
ajfid pitch of life lor epic po^y ; though since he 
Ij^th altgr^ it to 4«>^5j, the yea? ^ wWch bei pub» 
listed hjki Alfecid.'^ Tr«e it is, thaA the talents fqx 
critimm, namefy, smartaeas, quick cenauie, viva- 
city of yenwwrk, o^ainty «f a^ae^watiojfe inde^ 
aft by,^ ajBetbity* seewi r^HlgLtx the gifts <rf j^vAh 
than of rip(W age. Buit it m flir otherwiie in 
imtrjt i witneaft t^be woriw of Mr. Bymer and Mr. 


Dennis^* who beginning with criticism^ became 
afterwards such poets as no age hath paralleled. 
With good reason therefore did our author chuse 
to write his ^ssay on that subject at twenty^ and 
reserve for his maturer years this great and won- 
derful work of the Dunciad. P. 

* So in his Essay on Criticism, where appeared his first strokes 
of spleen: 

" ttilrttVl Critic iiext, and proV'd plain fool al last." 


72 BiCHARmjs: aristabchus 




Of the nature of the Dunciad in general^ whence 
derived^ and on what authority founded, as weU 
as of the art and conduct of this our poem in par- 
ticular, the learned and laborious Scriblerus hath,, 
according to his manner, and with tolerable share 
of judgment, dissertated. But when he cometh to 
speak of the person of the Hero fitted for such 
poem, in truth he miserably halts and hallucinates. 
For, misled by one Monsieur Bossu, a Gallic critic, 
he prateth of I cannot tell what phantom of a Hero, 
only raised up to support the fable. A putid con^ 
c^it ! As if Homer and Virgil, like modem un-^ 
dertakers, who first build their house, and then 
seek out for a tenant, had contrived the story of a 
war and a wandering, before they once thought 
either of Achilles or ^neas^ We shall therefore 
set our good brother and the world also right in 
this particular, by assuring them, that, in the 
greater epip, the prime intention of the Muse is 

* It is a singular circumstance, that the hero of the Rehearn 
sal, as well as of the Dunciad, should have been changed. Howard, 
not Dryden, was the original hero of the former. And perhaps 
these changes, in both pieces, were for the worse. Warion. 


to exalt heroic virtue, in order to propagate the 
love of it among the children of men ; and conse- 
quently that the poet's first thought must needs be 
turned upon a real subject meet for laud and cele* 
bration; not one whom he is to make, but one 
whom he may find, truly illustrious. This is the 
primum mobile of his poetic world, whence every 
thing is to receive life and motion. For, this sub- 
ject being found, he is inmiediately ordained, or 
rather acknowledged, an Hero, and put upon such 
action as befitteth the dimity of his character. 

But the Muse ceaseth not here her eagle-flight. 
For sometimes, satiated with the contemplation of 
these suns of glory, she tumeth downward on her 
wing, and darts, with Jove's lightning, on the. 
goose and serpent kind. For we apply to the Muse 
in her various moods, what an ancient master of 
wisdom affirmeth of the Godii in general ; ^* Si Dii 
non irascuntur impiis et injustis, nee pios utique 
justosque diligunt. In rebus enim diversis, aut in 
utramque partem moveri necesse est, aut in neu- 
tram. Itaque qui bonos diligit, et males edit ; et 
qui males non edit, nee bonos diligit. Quia et di- 
ligere bonos ex odio malorum venit; et males 
odisse ex bonorum caritate descendit." Which in 
our vernacular idiom may be thus interpreted : *' If 
the gods be not provoked at evil n^en, neither are 
they delighted with the good and just. For con- 
trary objects must either excite contrary affections, 
pr no affections at all. So that he who loveth good 
men, must at the same time hate the bad ; and be 


who hateth not bad men, cannot love the good,^ 
because to love good men proceedeth from an 
aversion to evil ; and to hate evil men^ from a ten- 
derness to ihe good." From this delicacy of the 
Muse arose the httle Epic, more lively and cho*^ 
leric than her elder sister,, whose bulk and com- 
plexion incline her to the phlegmatic. And for tiiis^ 
some notorious vehicle of vice and folly was sought 
out> to make thereof an example. An early in- 
stance of which (nor could it escape the accurate 
Scriblerus) the Father himself of Epic-poem, af- 
fordeth us. From him the practice descended to 
the Greek dramatic poets, his offspring ; who in 
the composition of their Tetralogy ^^ or set of four 
pieces, were wont to make the last a Satiric Tror 
gedjf. Happily, one of these ancient Dunciads (as 
we may well term it) is come down unto us, 
amongst the Tragedies of tiie poet Euripides* And 
what doth the reader suppose may be the subjject 
thereof} Why^ in truth> anci it is worthy pbservar 
tion, ike unequal c(mtest of aa 9ldg duU^ ddnmehed, 
buffbom, Ctfclop$^mi\i the heaven-directed Favour 
rite (^Minerva : who^ after having quietly borne aU 
the monster^s obsoene and impious ribaldry, endeth 

^ Bichardus Aristaxchus is fond of briBging things, however 
improper and incongruous, into a system. Our Duhciad is to be 
^Adei to t)i6 epks of Homer, Virgil, htii MHu^, ba « salirie piddcf, 
to loakci is it i^ccs, « complete Telnflogy,. as i^ C^cli^ of Eii<- 
Tipidca wa* added to serious- tragedies. This conceit is extremely 
(Strained and tortured. Warton. 

ft Is astonishing that Dr. Watton did not perceive that i^s h 
giilog^Qm a tadeM|ue. 


the &rce in puniBhing him with the mark of an in- 
delible brand in his forehead. May we not then 
be excused^ if for the future we consider the Epics 
of Homer, Virgil, and Milton, together with this 
our Poem, as a complete Tetralogy ; in whichj the 
last worthily holdeth the place or station of the sor. 
tiric piece ? 

Proceed we therefore in our subject. It hath 
been long, and, alas for pity! still remaineth a 
question, whether the Hero of the greater Epic 
should be an honest man, ; or, as the French critics 
express it, un honnitehomme:*h\it it never admitted 
of any doubt, but that the Hero of the little Epic 
should be his very opposite. Hence, to the advan- 
tage of our Dunciad, we may observe, how much 
juster the Moral of that poem must needs bej 
where so important a question is previously de- 

But tibien it is not every knave, nor (let me add) 
every fool, that is a fit subject for a Dunciad. 
There must stiU exist some analogy, if not reaem- 
blance of qualities, between the Heroes of the two 
poems ; and this^ in order to admit what neoteric 
critics caU the Parody „ one o£ the liveliest graces 
of the little Epic. Thiw it being agreed, that the 
constituent qualities of the greater £^ic Hero, are 
Wisdom^ Bravery 3 and Lorn, from whence spring-^ 
etb he^yoic Virtue ; it foUowethj that those of the 

* Si un Hevos Poeliq«e ddt ^tre un hoiui^e hofmne. Bossu 
du Poeme Epique, liv. v. ch. 5. Wi 


lesser Epic Hero should be Vanity, Assurance, and< 
Dehanchery, from which happy assemblage result- 
eth heroic Dulness, the never-dying subject of this 
our poem. 

This being settled^ come we now to particulars. 
It is the character of true Wisdom, to seek its chief 
support and confidence within itself; and to place 
that support in the resources which proceed from 
a conscious rectitude of will. — And are the ad- 
vantages of Vanity, when arising to the heroic 
standard^ at all short of this self-complacence? 
Nay^ are they not^ in the opinion of the enamoured 
owner, far beyond it ? '' Let the world (will such a 
one say) impute to me what Folly or weakness 
they please ; but till Wisdom can give me some- 
thing that will make me more heartily happy, I am 
content to be gazed at."* This, we see, is vanity 
according to the heroic gage or measure ; not that 
low and ignoble species which pretendeth to viV- 
tues we have not; but the laudable ambition of 
being gazed at for glorying in those vices, which 
every body knows we have. '^ The world may 
ask (says he) why I make my follies public ? MHby 
not ? I have passed my time very pleasantly with 
them."f In short there is no sort of vanity such 
a Hero would scruple to exult in, but that which 
might go near to degrade him from his high star 
tion in this our Dunciad, namely, '^ Whether it 

* Dedication to the Life of Colly Gibber. W* 
f Life, p. 2. octavo edit. W, 


would not be vanity in him^ to take shame to hitn- 
self/br not being a wise man ?"* 

Bravery y the second attribute of the true Hero> 
is Courage, manifesting itself in every limb ; while 
its coirespondent virtue in the mock Hero, is, that 
same Courage all collected into the Face. And 
as Power, when drawn together, must needs have 
more force and spirit than when dispersed, we ge* 
nerally find this kind of courage in so high and 
heroic a degree, that it insults not only men, but 
Gods. Mezentius is, without doubt, the bravest 
character in all the .^^eis : but how ? His bravery, 
we know, was a high courage of blasphemy. 
And can we say less of this brave man's, who* hav- 
ing told us that he placed ^^ his summum bonum 
in those follies, which he was not content barely 
to possess but would likewise glory in," adds, 
'' If I am misguided, 'tis nature's fault, and 
I follow HER."f Nor can we be mistaken in 
making this happy quality a species of Courage, 
when we consider those illustrious marks of it, 
which made his face '' more known (as he justly 
boasteth) than most in the kingdom;" and his 
language to consist of what we must allow to be 
the most 'daring figure of speech, that which is 
taken from the Name of God. 

Gentle Love, the next ingredient in the true 
Hero's composition, is a mere bird of passage, or 
(as Shakespeare calls it) Summer-teeming Lust, 
and evaporates in the heat of Youth; doubtless by 

♦ Life, p. 2. octavo edit. W, t Life, p. 23. octavo. W. 


that refinement it ilufiPer» in passing tbf ough those 
certain strainers whidi our poet somewhere »p€isQ£* 
eth of.^ Bnt when it i^ let alone fD work apon 
Uie Lees, it acquiretfa strength by Old age f sind 
beeometb a lasting ornament to the little Epi& It 
isjr tinie^ indeed, there is one objection to its fitness 
fiir such an use. For not only the ignorant may 
think it common, bat it is admitted to be h6, even 
by him who best knoweth its value. '' Dont you 
think (argneth he), to say only a man has his 
whore,f ought to go for little or nothing ? Be^ 
cause difendit numems; take the first ten thousand 
men ycm meet, and I believe you would be no 
loaer if you betted ten to one, that every single 
ttnner of them,^ one with another, had been guiltf 
of the same firailty.";|; But here he S€emetfa not 
to have done justice to himself ;§ the man is su^e 
enough a Hero, who hath his Lady at fourscore. 
How doth his modesty herein lessen the merit 
of a whole weU^ent life : not taking to himsebf 
the commendaftion (which Horace accounted the 
greatest in a thea(ferical efaaracter) of contimimg to 

* " Lust through some certain strainers well refin*d, 

Is gentle love, and charms all womankind. PT.f 

t Alluding to these Knes in the Epist. to Dr. Arbuthnot : 

*< And has not Colly siill his L«wd and Whore^ 
His^ Butdkero Henky, ki» Free^Masons Moor^ ? W.f 

t C. Gibber's Letter to M«. P. p. 46. W. 

§ Here Aristarchus descends improperly from his gravity into 
a strain a Ultk ludicrous. Warton. 

The gravity of Aristarchus^ is evidently intended to be hidicrom 
through the whole dissertation. 


the very iregs, the same he wa» from the he* 

** Servetur ad imum 

Quails Sjb ioccpto piocesaeiat."- 


But here, in justice hoth to the poet and the 
Hero, let us &rther remark, that the caDmg het 
his whore, impKeth she was his own^ and not hi# 
neighbouw't. Truly, a commendahle continence f 
and such as Scipio himself must have apfdaaded. 
For how much self-denial was exerted not to covet 
his neighbour's whore ? and what draor&rs nrart 
the coveting her have occasioned in Urat society, 
where (according to this political calcn&tor) nine 
in ten of all ages have their eonctAvnes ! 

We have now, as briefly as^ we could devise, gone 
Hirough the three constftuent qus£ties of either 
Hero. But it i!s not in any, nor in aB of these, 
that Heroism properly or essentially resideth. It 
is a lucky result rather from the cofiision of these 
lively qualities against one another. Thus, as 
ftom Wisdom, Bcavery, and Love, ariseth Magna- 
nimity the object oi Admirutiofi, wfaiefar is^ the aim 
of the greater Epic ; so from Vanity, Impudence; 
and DebauicJicry, springeth Buffoonery, the source 
of Ridicule, that 'laughing ornament,'' as the 
owner wefl termeth it,* of the little Epic. 

B^e is not ashamed (God forbid he ever should 
be ashamed!); of this c^acter; who deemeth, that 
not Reason but RieibOity distinguisheth the hu- 

* CoUy Gibber's Letter to Mr. P. p. 31. W. 


man species from the brutal. ^' As Nature (saith 
this profound philosopher) distinguished our spe^ 
cies from the mute creation by our risibility^ her 
design must have been by that faculty as evidently 
to raise our happiness, as by our Os suhUme, our 
ERECTED FACES^ to lift the dignity of our form 
above them/'* All this considered^ how complete 
a Herof must he be^ as well as how happy a man^ 
whose risibility lieth not barely in his muscles, as 
in the common sort^ but (as himself informeth us) 
in his very spirits ? And whose Os sublime is not 
simply an erect face^ but a brazen head; as should 
seem by his preferring it to one of Iron, said to 
belong to the late king of Sweden.^ 

But whatever personal qualities a Hero may 
have^ the examples of Achilles and Maes^ shew us, 
that all these are of small avail, without the con- 
stant assistance of the Gods: for the subversion 
and erection of Empires have never b^en adjudged 

* Cibber*s Life, p. 23, 24. W. 

-j* In this and many other passagcfs ojf this discourse, the at- 
temj^ts of Aristarchus at' satire and ridicule, are very frigid^ and 
awkward indeed. Warjion, 

In fact, the laugh of Pope is that of a man who affected raillery 
and contempt, whilst he boiled with anger; the laugh of Cibbar is 
hearty, careless, and natural. Bowies. 

The foregoing may serve as a specimen of the notes that accom- 
pany the works of Pope, in the two last editions. We seldom re- 
lish a jest from a person we dislike ; and Mr. Bowles might have 
perceived that Dr. Warton*s remark was intended to refer to War- 
burton only, and had nothing to do with the laugh of Pope, who 
was not the author of the Dissertation. 

} Letter, p. 8. W. 


the work of man. How greatly soever then we 
may esteem of his high talents^ we can hardly con- 
ceive his personal prowess alone sufficient to re- 
store, the decayed empire of Dulness. So wei^ty 
an achievement must require the particular fa- 
vour and protection of the Great ; who being the 
natural | patrons and supporters of Letters y as the 
ancient Gods were of Troy, must first be drawn 
off, and engaged in another interest, before the to- 
tal subversion of them can be accomplished. To 
surmount, therefore, this last and greatest diffi- 
culty, we have, in this excellent man, a professed 

* * « , • . 

Favourite and Intimado of the Great. And look, 
of what force ancient piety was to draw the Gods 
into the party of ^SSneas, that, and much stronger 
is modem mcense, to engage the Great in the party 
of Dulness. 

Thus have we essayed to pourtray or shadow 
out this noble Imp of Fame. But now the im- 
patient reader will be apt to say, if so many and 
various graces go to the making up a Hero, what 
mortal shall suffice to bear his character ? Ill hath 
he read, who seeth not, in every trace of this pic- 
ture, that individual, all-accomplished person, 
in whom these rare virtues and lucky circum- 
stances have agreed to meet and concentre, with 
the strongest lustre and fullest harmony. 

The good Scriblerus, indeed, nay, the World it- 
self, might be imposed on, in the late spurious edi- 
tions, by I can't tell what Sham Hero, or Phan- 
tom. But it was not so easy to impose on him 



whom this egregious error most of all eanoeroedt 
For no sooner had the fourth book laid open the 
high and swelling scene, but he recognized his 
own heroic acts; and when he came to the 

Soft on her lap her Laureat son reclines, 

(though Laureat imply no more than one aHrmtmed 
with laurel, as befitteth any associate or Consott in 
Empire) he loudly resented this indignity to Tio- 
lated Majesty. Indeed not without cause, he bein^ 
there represented Sisfast asleep; so misbeseem- 
ing the eye of Empire, which, like that of Jove, 
should never doze nor slumber. '' Hah ! (saith he) 
fast asleep, it seems! that's a little too strong. 
Pert and dull at least you might have allowed me, 
but as seldom asleep as any fool."* However, the 
injured Laureat may comfort himself with this 
reflection, that though it be a sleqp, yet it is not 
the sleep of death, but of immortality. Here he 
willf live at least, though not awake; and in no 
worse condition than many an ^ichanted Hero 
before him. The famous Durandarte^ for instance, 
was, like him, cast into a long slumber by Merlin 
the British Bard and Necromancer : and his ex- 
ample, for submitting to it with a good grace, 
might be of service to our Hero. For that disas- 
trous knight being sorely presised or driven to 
make his answer by several persons of quality X 

* CoUy Gibber's Lettar to Mr. P. p. 63. W. 
•j" Colly Cibbier's Letter to Mr. P. p. I. W. 
X See Gibber's Letter to Mr, P. W. 


Only replied with a s^h> Patience, and shuffle the 

But now, as nothing in this world, no, not the 
most sacred or perfect things either of religion or 
government, can escape the stings of envy, me- 
thinks I already hear these carpers objecting to the 
clearness of our Hero's title. 

It would never (say they) have been esteemed 
sufficient to make an Hero for the Hiad or Mneis^ 
that Achilles was brave enough to overturn one 
Empire, or Mnea» pious enough to raise another, 
had they not been Goddess-bom, and Princes-bred. 
What then did this author mean, by erecting a 
player, instead of one of his patrons, (a person, 
'^ never a Hero even on the stage"!) ^ this dig- 
nity of colleague in the empire of Dulness ; and 
achiever of a work that neither old Omar, Attila, 
nor John of Leyden, could entirely bring to pass. 

To all this we have, as we conceive, a sufficient 
answer from the Ronaan historian, Fabrum esse sua 
quemque fortuna : That every man is the Carver of 
his cwnfortune. The politic Florentine, Nicholas 
Machiavel, goeth still further, and affirmeth, that a 
man needeth but to believe himself a Hero to be 
one of the worthiest that ever breathed. '' Let 
him (saith he) but fancy himself capable of high 
things, and he wiU of course be able to achieve the 
highest.'' From this principle it foUoweth^ that 
nothing can exceed our Hero's prowess ; as nothing 

^ Don Quixote, Patt ii. Book ii. chap. 22. W^ 
t See Cibber'a Life, p. 148. W. 



ever equalled the greatness of his conceptions* 
Hear how he constantly paragons himself; at one 
time^ to Alexander the Great and Charles the 
XII. of Sweden, for the excess and delicacy of his 
ambition;* to Henry the IV. of FRANCBy £>r 
honest policy ;t to the first Brutus, for love of li- 
berty ; J to Sir Robert Walpole, for good govern- 
ment while in power :§ at another time, to the 
godlike Socrates, for his diversions and amnse- 
ments ;^ to Horace Montaigne, and Sir William 
Temple, for an elegant vanity, that maketh them 
for ever read and admired ;|| to two Lord Chan- 
cellors, for law, from whom, when confederate 
against him at the bar, he carried away the prize 
cf eloquence ;** and, to say all in a word, to the 
right reverend the Lord Bishop of London himself, 
in the art of writing Pastoral letters.^ 

Nor did his actions fall short of the sublimity 
of his conceit. In his early youthy he met the 
Revolution'^ face to face in Nottingham ; at a time 
when other patriots contented themselves Xo follow 
her. It was here he got acquainted with Old 
BattUrarray y of whom he hath made so honourable 
mention in one of his immortal Odes.§§ But he 

* See Gibber's Life, p. 149. W. f Ibid. p. 424. . W, 

. J Ibid. p. 366. W. § Ibid. p. 457. W. 

% Ibid. p. 18. W. II Ibid. p. 425. W. 

♦♦ Ibid. pp. 436, 437. W. ff Ibid. p. 52. W. 

tt Ibid. p. 47. W. 
' §§ " Old Battle-array in confusion is fled; 

And olive-rob'd Peace is come in his stead," &c. 

Colley Gibber's Birth-day Ode, orNew-yea»*s Ode, 
(I don't know* which) on the Peace. - W.f 

I don't 


shone in courts as well as camps : He was called up^ 
when the Nation /ell in labour of this Revolution:^ 
and was a gossip at her christenings with the 
BSshop and the Ladies.f 

As to his Birth, it is true he pretendeth no rela- 
ti(m either to heath^i God or Goddess ; but what 
is as good^ he was descended irom a Maker of 
both.;]; And that he did not pass himself on the 
world fora Hero^ as well by birth as education/ 
wa^ his own fault : for^ his lineage he bringeth into 
his life as an anecdote^ and is sensible he had it in 
his power to he thought nohodjfs son at alL\ And 
what is that^ I pray you^ but coming into the world 
a Hero ? 

But be it (the punctilious Laws of Epic Poesy 
so requiring) that a Hero of more than mortal birth 
must needs be procured for this achievement: 
even for this we have a resource. We can easily 
derive our Hero's pedigree from a Goddess of no 
small power and authority amongst men ; and legi- 
timate and install him after the right classical and 
authentic fashion. For^ like as the ancient sages 

I don't know whether this be a mistake. Isaac Hawkins Brown, 
in his Imitation of Gibber, has — 

" Old Battle-array, big with Horror, is fled ; 
And olive-rob'd Peace again lifls up her head." 

Pope's raillery upon " Old Battle-array" is very pleasant. 


Mr. Bowles is as unlucky in his praise as in his censure ; — 
the raillery is not Pope's, but Warburton's. 
♦ Colly CibWs Life, p. 57. W. ^ Ihid. p. 58, 69. W. 
J A Statuary. W. § Gibber's Life, p. 6. W. 


fbimd a son of Mars in a mighty warrior ; a son 
of Neptune in a skilful seaman; a son of Phcebus 
in a harmonious poet ; so have we here, if need be^ 
a son of Fortune in an artful Gamester.* And 
who, I pray you, fitter than the Offspring of Chtmce, 
to assist in restoring the Empire of Night and 
Chaos ? 

There is in truth another objection of greater 
weight, namely, '' That this Hero still existeth, and 
hath not yet finished his earthly course. For if 
Solon said well, that no man could be called happy 
till his death, surely much less can any one, till 
then, be pronounced a Hero : this species of men 
being far more subject than others to the caprices 
of Fortune and Humour." But to this also we 
have an answer, which will, we hope, be deemed 
decisive. It cometh from himself; who, to cut this 
matter short, hath solemnly protested that he will 


With regard to his vanity, he declareth that 
Clothing shall ever part them. *' Nature (saitb he) 
hath amply supplied me in vanity; a pleasure 
which neither the pertness of wit, nor the gravity 
of wisdom, will ever persuade me to part with."t 
Our poet had charitably endeavoured to administer 
a cure to it : but he tdleth us plainly, *' My supe- 
riors perhaps may be mended by him ; but for my 
part I own myself incorrigible. I look upon my 

* A very pitiful jest ifideed I Warton^ 
ThiS| a$ Dr. Warton observes, is a poor jest indeed ! Bowles* 
•tCibber'sLifejp.424.^ W. 


follies as the best part of my fortune.*** And 
with good reason: we see to what they have 

Secondly^ as to buffoonery ; '' Is it (saith he) a 
time of day for me to leave off these fooleries, and 
set up a new character ? I can no more put off my 
foUies than my skin ; I have often tried, but they 
stick too close to me ; nor am I sure my friends 
are displeased with them, for in this light I afford 
them frequent matter of mirth, &c. &c."t Having 
then so publicly declared himself incorrigible, he 
is become dead in law, (I mean the law Epopaian) 
and dievolveth upon the poet ; is now his property ; 
and may be taken and dealt with like an old 
Egyptian Hero ; that is to say, emhowelled and 
embalmed for posterity. 

Nothing therefore (we conceive) remaineth to 
hinder his own prophecy of himself from taking 
immediate effect. A rare felicity ! and what few 
prophets have had the satisfaction to see, alive! 
Nor can we conclude better than with that extraor- 
dinary one of his, which is conceived in these 
oraculous words. My Dulness will find some- 
body TO DO IT RIGHT.;}; 

7\in^em Phoebus adest^ mormsque infen^e parantem 
Congelaty et patulos, ut erant, ikdurat hiattis.^ W. 

♦ Gibber's Life, p. 19. W. f Ibid. p. 17. »^. 

X Ibid. p. 243. octavo edit. W. 
§ Ovid, of the serpent biting at Orpheus's head. W.f 
It is difficult to see the propriety and justness of this application 
from Ovid. Warton, 

As Apollo petrified the serpent, just as he expanded his jaws to 



devour Orpheus, so the poet arrests his adversary, at the moment 
he was preparing to attack him ; agreeing with what was before 
said, that he was dead in law, and might be converted into a 
mummy and embahned for posterity. This may be supposed to be 
the meaning of the quotation ; but it would be presumptuous to 
call upon so great a critic as Aristarchus, to account for the pro- 
priety and justness of its application. 

It is remarkable that this quotation did not originally occupy its 
present place, but was prefixed as the mottOf on the title page to 
the edition of 1743. 

By authority. 

Sp bctttte of t^t ^ttt|)Or(t? in ^ be£!teti« bp 

tt)( * Act for subjecting Poets to the Power of a 

Licenser, W |)abe tebisieTi tbte $Cece; tobere 
fiiflrinjB: ti)e £Stple ann appellation of King to 
|)abe been giben to a certain Pretender, Pseudo< 

Poet, or Phantom, Of tbe name of TiBBALD ; anti 

apprebetiOing tbe luime map be tieemeb in £Hmte 
sort a i^ection on Majesty, or at leasit an in« 
suit on tbat iCegal autboritp \sil)U\f b^ss be« 

StOlOetl on anOti)er ^eriUin tbe Crown of Poesy : 
^e ba^^ OrtiereH ti)e SSaitl Pretender, Pseudo- 
Poet, or Phantom, Utterly tO vanish aiiO eva- 
porate out Of t^is WSUitiix 'Mi tm Hectare tbe 
gain Ci)rone of ^oegp from bencefOrtb to be ab« 
bicateH anti bacant, nnlegg tiulp anti latofUUp 

inipplietl bp tbe Laureate himself. 9Utr it iS 

berebp enacted, tbat no otber Version no pre- 
dwne to fill t^t £(ame. 

oc Ch. 

* A stroke of Satire against the act for licensing Plays, which 
was opposed with equal wit and vehemence by many of our 
poet's friends, and particularly by the Earl of Chesterfield. 








The Proposition, the Invocation, and the Inscripttoft. TTien the 
Original of the great Empire qf Dulness, and cau$e of the con^ 
iinuance thereof The College qf the Goddess tit the City, with 
her piHvate Academy for Poets in particular: the Governors of 
it, and the four Cardinal Virtues. Then the Poem hastes into 
the midst of things, presenting her on the evening of a Lord 
Mayor's day, revolving the long succession of her Sons, and the 
glories past and to come. She fixes her eye on Bays to be the 
Instrument of that great Event which is the Subject qftlie Poem, 
He is described pensive among his Books, giving up the Cause, 
and apprehending the Period of her Empire. 4fter debating 
whether to betake himself to the C/turch, or to Gaming, or to 
Party-writing, he raises an Altar of proper books, and (making 
first his solemn prayer and declaration) purposes thereon to 
sacrifice all his unsuccessful writings. As the pile is kindled, the 
Goddess, beholding the flame from her seat, flies and puts it out 
by casting upon it the poem ofThule. She forthwith reveals her' 
seff to him, transports him to her Temple, unfolds her Arts, and 
initiates him into her Mysteries; then, announcing the death of 
£usden> the Poet Laureate, anoints him, carries him to Court, 
and proclaims him Successor, 



The Mighty Mother, and her Son, who bringis 
iTie Smithfield Muses to the ear of Kings, 
I sing. Say you, her instruments, the Great ! 
Call'd to this work by Dulness, Jove, and Fate ; 


The DuNciADy sie MS. It may well be disputed whether this 
be a right readings Ought it not rather to be spelled Duncdad^ 
as the etymology evidently demands ? Dunce with an Cy therefore 
Dunceiad with an e. That accurate and punctual man of letters, 
the restorer of Shakespeare, constantly observes the preservation 
of this very letter e, in spelling the name of his beloved author, 
and not like his common careless Editors, with the omission of 
one, nay sometimes of two ee*s (as Shakspear) which is utterly 
unpardonable. " Nor is the neglect of a single letter so trivial 
as to some it may appear ; the alteration whereof in a learned 
language is an achievement that brings honour to the critic who 
advances it ; and Dr. Bentley will be remembered to posterity for 



Ver. 1. The Mighty Mother, ^c] In the first Edit, it was 

Books and the Man I sing, the first who brings 

The Smithfield Muses to the Ear of Kings. 

Say, great Patricians ! since yourselves inspire 

These wond'rous works (so Jove and fate require) 

Say, for what cause, in vain decried and curst, 

Still P. 


Say, great Patricians ! since yourselves inspire 
These wond^rous works — 
- *-^ « Dii coeptis (nam vos mut^stis et illas).'* 

Ovid. Met. 1. P. 


You, by whose care, in vain decried and curst, 5 
Still Dunce the second reigns like Dunce the first; 


his performances of this sort, as long as the world shall have 
any esteem for the remains of Menander and Philemon." 

Theobald. P, 

I have a just value for the letter £, and the same affection for th« 
name of this poem as the fore-cited critic for that of his author; 
yet cannot it induce me to agree with those who would add yet 
another € to it, and call it the Ikmcdade; which being a French 
and foreign termination, is no way proper to a word entirely English 
and vernacular. One e therefore in this case is right, and two 
ee*s wrong. Yet, upon the whole, I shall follow the manuscript 
and print it without any e at all ; moved thereto by authority (at all 
times with critics equal, if not superior to reason). In which me- 
thod of proceeding, I can never enough praise my good friend^ 
the exact Mr. Thomas Heame; who, if any word occur, which to 
him and all mankind is evidently wrong, yet keeps he it in the 
text with due reverence, and only remarks in the margin m* M8, 
In like manner, we shall not amend this error in the Title itself, 
but only note it obiter, to evince to the learned that it was not our 
&ult, nor any effect of our ignorance or inattention.— -Scbibl. F.j^ 

This poem was written in the year 1726. In the next year an 
imperfect edition was published at Dublin, and reprinted in liOn- 
don in twelves ; another at Dublin, and another at London in oc^ 
tavo ; and three others in twelves the same year. But there was 
no perfect Edition before that of London in quarto ; which was 
attended with Notes. We are willing to acquaint posterity, that 
this poem was presented to King George the Second and his 
Queen, by the hands of Sir Robert Walpole, on the 12th of March 
1728-9.— ScHOL. Vet. P.f 

It was expressly confessed in the preface to the first edition^ 
that this poem was not published by the author himself. It was 
printed originally in a foreign country. And what foreign coun- 
try? Why, one notorious for blunders; where, finding blanks 
only instead of proper naioes, these blunderers filled them up at 
their pleasure. 

The very Hero of the poem hath been mistaken to this hour ; 
so that we are obliged to open our Notes with a discovery who 



Say^ how the Goddess bade Britannia sleep^ 
And poured her spirit o'er the land and deep. 


he really was. We learn from the former Editor, that this piece 
was presented by the hands of Sir Robert Walpole to King 
George II. Now the author directly tells us, his Hero is the 

" who brings 

The Smithfield Muses to the ear of Kings." 

And it is notorious who was the person on whom this Prince con- 
ferred the honour of the Laurel, 

It appears as plainly from the Apostroplie to the Great in the 
third verse, that Tibbald could not be the person, who was never 
an author in fashion, or caressed by the Grreat : whereas this 
single characteristic is sufficient to point out the true Hero ; who, 
above all other poets of his time, was the Peculiar Delight and 
Chosen Companion of the Nobility of England ; and wrote, as he 
himself tells us, certain of his Works at the earnest desire of Per' 
sons of duality. 

Lastly, The sixth verse affords full proof; this poet being the 
only one who was universally known to have had a Son so exactly 
like him, in his poetical, theatrical, political, and moral capacities, 
that it could justly be said of him, 

" Still Dunce the second reigns Uke Dunce the first.'' 

Bentl. P.f 

Ver. 1. The Mighty Mother and her Sony Sfc] The reader 
ought here to be cautioned, that the Mother, and not the Soti, is 
the principal agent in this poem. The latter of them is only cho- 
sen as her colleague, as was anciently the custom in Rome before 
some great expedition ; the main action of the poemi being by no 
means the Coronation of the Laureate, which is performed in the 
very first book, but the Restoration of the Empire of Dulness in 
Britain, which is not accomplished till the last. W. 

Ver. 1. Iter Son who brings, ^c] Wonderful is the stupidity of 
Ul the former Critics and Commentators on this work ! It breaks 
forth at the very first line. The author of the Critique prefixed 
to Sawney, a Poem, p. 5. hath been so dull as to explain the Man 
who brings, tfc* not of the Hero of the piece, but of our Poet him- 


In eldest time, ere mortals writ or read^, 
Ere PaUas issued from the Thunderer's head, 10 


self, as if he vaunted that Kings were to be his readers ; an honour 
which though this Poem hath had, yet knoweth he how to receive 
it with more modesty. 

We remit this Ignorant to the lines of the Mneidy assuring him 
that Virgil there speaketh not of himself, but of Mneas: 

" Arma virumque cano, Trojae qui primus ab oris 
Italiam, fato profugus, Lavinaque venit 
Littora : multum ille et terris jactatus et idto," &c. 

I cite the whole three verses, that I may by the way offer a Con- 
jectural Emendation^ purely my own, upon each : First, oris should 
be ' read arisy it being, as we see, Mn. ii. 513. from the altar of 
Jupiter Hercaus that Mneas fled, as soon as he saw Priam slain. 
In the second line I would read^^ for fato, since it is most clear 
it was by winds that he arrived at the shore of Italy. Jactatusy in 
the third, is surely as improperly applied to terris as proper to 
alto ; to say a man is tossed on land, is much at one with saying he 
walks at sea : Risum teneatis, amici ? Correct it, as I doubt not it 
ought to be, vexatus, — Scriblerus. JP. 

Ver. 2. The Smithfield Muses'] Smithjield is the place where 
Bartholomew Fair was kept, whose shews, machines, and drama- 
tical entertainments, formerly agreeable only to the taste of the 
rabble, were, by the Hero of this Poem, and others of equal 
genius, brought to the Theatres of Covent Garden, Lincolns-inn- 
fields, and the Ha3rmarket, to be the reigning pleasures of the 
Court and Town. This happened in the reigns of King George 
I. and II. See Book iii. P. 

Ver. 6. Still Dunce the second] Alluding to a verse of Mr. Dry- 
den, not in Mac Fleckno, (as is said ignorandy in the Key to the 
Dunciady p. 1.) but in his verses to Mr. Congreve, 

" And Tom the second reigns like Tom the first. ^^ . P. 

Ver. 6. . Still Dunce the second reigns, like Dunce the first^ .A 
satirical dash at the reigning- monarch, George the Second. 

This construction seems at least to be very doubtfid* 


Dulness o'er all possess'd her ancient rights 
Daughter of Chaos and eternal Night : 
Fate in their dotage this faiif ideot gave. 
Gross as her sire, and as her mother grave^ 
Laborious, heavy, busy, bold, and blind> IS 

She rul'd, in native aiiarehy, the rn'nd^ 


Ver. 12. Daufrhter of Chaos, 8fc.'} The beauty of the whole 
Allegory being purely of the poetical kind, we think it hot our 
proper businesi^, as a Scholiast, to meddle with it : but leave it (a» 
we shall in general all siich) to the reader ; remarking only that 
Chaos (according to Hesiod's Qioyo/ta) was the Progemtor of all 
the Gods. Scriblerus. P, 

Ver. 12. Dautfhter of Chaos and eternal Night :'\ Conformably 
to Milton's doctrihe, Par. Lost, ii. 894 and 960. 

" where eldest Niglu 

And Chaos, ancestors of Nature, hold 
Eternal anarchy : 

when strait behold the throne 

Of ChaoSi and his dark pavilion spread 
Wide on the wasteful deep : with him enthroned 
S^t sable-vested Night, eldest of things^ 
The coTMorf of his feign." Wakefield. 

Ver. 14. Gross as her sire, and as her mother grave,"] A parody 
on a verse of Dryden, iEn. vii. 1044. 

" Fam'd as his sire, and as his mother fair." Wakefield, 

Ver. 15. Laborious, heavy, busy, bold, and blind,'} I wonder the 
kamed Scriblerus' has omitted to advertize the reader at the 
(filing of this poem, that Dulness here is not to be taken con^ 
tractedly for mere stu]pidityi but in the enlarged sense of the word, 
for all slowness of apprehension, shortness of sight, or imperfect 
sense of things. It includes (as we see by the poet's own words) 
labour, industry, and some degree of activity and boldness; a 
ruling principle not inert, but turning topsy-turvy the under- 
standing, and inducing an anarchy or confused state of mind. 
This remark ought to be carried along witk the read^ throughout 
the wc»:k ; and without this caution he vfill be-ji{|t to mistake the 


. VOI/. IV, H 


Still her old Empire to restore she tries^ 
For, bom a Goddess, Dulness never dies. . 

O Thou ! whatever title please thine ear. 
Dean, Drapier, Bickerstaff, or Gulliver! 20 

Whether thou chuse Cervantes' serious air. 
Or laugh and shake in Rab'lais' easy chair, 


importance of many of the characters, as well as the design of the 
poet. Hence it is, that some have complained, he chuses too 
mean a subject, and imagined he employs himself, like Domitian, 
in killing flies ; whareas those who have the true key, will &id he 
sports with nobler quarry, and embraces a larger compass ; or, as 
one saith on a like occasion, 

" Will see his work, like Jacob's ladder, rise. 
Its foot in dirt, its head amid the skies." Bend* P.f 

Ver. 18. For, bom a Goddess^ DtUnas never dies.] So Sloths in 
the Dispensary, i. 116. 

" With godhead bom, but curs'd tha^cannot die." Wakefield, 

Ver 20. Drapier, Bickerstaff, or Gidliver!'] The several names 
and characters he assumed, in his ludicrous, his splenetic^ or his 
party writings ; which take in all his works. W.\ 

Ver. 21. Cervantes' serious airy"] In the Traveb qf Gulliver; 
written to decry the lying vanities of travellers, just as Don 
Quixote's adventures were to expose the absurdities of books of 
chivalry; and with the same serious and solemn air.— The- 
laughing with Rabelais, in the next Hne, alludes to the Tale of a 
Tub, which is in the manner of the satirical and more regular parts 
of that ^unous French droll. Dr. S. Clark, in the first Edition 
of his Boyle's Lectures, gives this book for an example of scoffing ' 
atheism. And though I think there be neither im{»ety nor irre- 
ligion in the conduct of his Tale, yet surely it was impossible 
for a man really penetrated with a serious sense of religion, evar 
to prevail (Hi himself to expose the abuses of it in the manner he 
has done. W,f 

The Travels of GuUiver were not written to decry the lying 
vanities of .travellerg,;but chiefly and principally to expose the 
politics and measures of the English government, as well as the^ 
pride and depravity of human nature in general. Nor are they 


BOOK I. ras dunciad. 99 

Or praise the Courts or magnify maniknd^ 
Or thy grier'd country's copper chains unbind ; 
From thy Bceotia though her ppw'r retires, 25 
Mourn not, my Swift I at ought our realm ac^ 

Here pleas'd behold h^r mighty wings outspread 
To ha^teh a new Satumian age of Lead. 

Close to those walls where Folly holds her throg^ 
And laughs to thmk Moiiroe would take her down, 


carried on or conceived in^ the.nianner of Cervantes* . Vokaire. 
called Swift, for writing the Tide of a Tub, Rabdais in his senses. . 
When so many undeserving persons have been persecuted, partis, 
cularly under the an)itrary government of France, for the fireedom 
of their opinions, it is marvellous that Rabelais, who levelled his 
bitter satire against so many haughty princes, »aiid as haughty^ 
priests, could possibly escape their v6bgeance, Garagantua cer- 
tainly meant Francis I. ; Louis XII. is Grand Gousier ; Henry IL\ 
Pantagruel ; Charles V. Picrocote. The' Monks of that time are: 
disguised under the name of Brother John des Ei^tomureis. The 
genealogy of Christ is ridiculed by that of Garagantua. The 
Treatises of Theology were laughed at under' the titles, of the 
books found in the Library of §t. Victor ; such as Biga Salutis, 
Braguelta Juris, PentoufHe Decentorum ; and by such question^ 
as, utrum chimera in vacuo bombinans possit comedere s^undas 
intentiones. Lotd Peter's Loaf is minutely copied from Rabelais. 
Scarron had a master named J. Moreau, who wrote in Heroic 
verse a comic poem called The Pigmeid ; which Scarron copied in 
his Gigantomachei. Had Swift ever seen these poems which bear 
so near a resemblance to his Liliput and Brobdignac ? Warton. 


After Ver. 22. in the MS. 

Or in the gtaVei^ Gown instruct mankind. 
Or silent, let thy morals tell thy mind. 
But this was to be understood, as the Poet says, iramce, like the 
28d Verse. P.f 

Ver. 29. Cloie to ihae toalk, ^c.] In the former Edd. thus ; 

H 2 Where 


Where o'er the gates, by his fam'd father's hancU 
Great Gibber's brazen, brainless brothers stand ; 

Ver 23. Or praise the Court, or magnify mankindf'} Ironice, 

alluding to Gulliver^ representations of both.; The next line 

relates to the papers of the Drapier against the currency of Wood^s 
copper coin in Ireland^ which, upon the great discontent of the 
people, his Majesty was graciously pleased to recal. P. 

Ver. 25. From thy Btxotia.'] BoDotia of old lay under the raillery 
of the neighbouring wits, as Ireland does now ; though each of 
those nations produced one of the greatest wits and greatest 
generals of their age. P. 

Ver. 26. Mourn not, my Swift,] Ironici iterum. The politics of 
England and Ireland were at this time by some thought to be. 
opposite, or interfering with each other. Dr. Swift, of course, was 
in the interest of the latter, our author of the former. P. 

Ver. 28. To hatch a new Satumian age of Lead.'] The ancient 
golden age is by poets styled Satumian ; but in the chymical lan- 
guage, Saturn is Lead. P. 

Ver. 28. To hatch a new Satumian age of Lead.] For the old 
Satumian age was of gold. So Hall, Book iii. Sat. 1. from Juve- 
nal, vi. 1. in very polished verses for that age : 

" Time was, and that was term'd the time of gold, 
When World and Time were young, that now are old : 
When quiet Satume swayed the mace of lead, 
And Pride was yet unborn, and yet unbred." 
Our Poet further develops this thought in the Dunciad, iv. 16. 
" Of dull and venal a new world to mould. 
And bring Satumian dayt of lead and gold** Wakefield, 
Ver. 31. By his fam*d father* s hand,] Mr. Caius Gabriel Gibber, 

father < 


Where wave the tatter'd ensigns of Rag-fair, 

A yawning ruin hangs and nods in air ; 

Keen, hollow winds howl through the bleak recessr. 

Emblem of Music caus'd by Emptiness ; 

Here in one bed two shiv'ring Sistera Jk, 

The cave of Poverty awl Poetry, P.f 

Var. Wliere wave the tatter'd ensigns of Rag-fair,] Rag-fair is a;,- 
place near the Tower of Lomdon^ where dd clothes and frippery 
are sold. p. 


One cell there is, eonceard from vulgar eye/ 

The cave of Poverty and Poetry. 

Keen, hollow winds howl thro' the bleak recess, 35 

Emblem of Music caused by Emptiness. 

Hence Bards, like Proteus, long in vain tied down. 

Escape in Monsters, and amaze the town ; 


father of the Poet Laureate. The two statues of the Lunatics 
over the gates of Bedlam-hospital were done hy him, and (as the 
son justly says of them) are no ill monuments of his fame as an 
artist. P.-j- 

Ver. 34. Poverty and Poetry, "] I cannot here omit a remark that 
will greatly endear our author to every one, who shall attentively 
observe that humanity and candor, which every where appears 
in him towards those unhappy objects of the ridicule of all maa- 
kind, the bad poets. He here imputes all scandalous rhymes, 
scurrilous weekly papers, base flatteries, wretched elegies, songs, 
and verses, (even from those sung at Court, to ballads in the 
streets,) not so much to malice or servility, as to Dulness ; and 
not so much to Dulness, as to Necessity. And thus, at the very 
commencement of his Satire, makes an apology for all that are to 
be satirized. P.f 

Ver. 37. Hence Bards^ like Proteus^ long in vain tied down^ 
Escape in Monster Sy and amaze the town,'\ 
Ovid has given us a very orderly account of these escapes ; 
^' Sunt quibus in plures jus est transire figuras : 
Ut tibi, complexi terram maris incola, Proteu ; 
Nunc violentus Aper ; nunc, quem tetigisse timerent, 
Anguis eras ; modo te faciebant comua Taurum : 
Saepe Lapis poteras." Met. viii. 

Neither Palaephatus, Phumutus, nor Heraclides, give us any steady 
light into the mythology of this mysterious fable. If I be not 
deceived in a part of learning which has so long exercised my pen, 
by Proteus must certainly be meant a hacknied Town scribbler ; 
and by his transformation, the various disguises such a one as- 
sumes, to elude the pursuit of his natural enemy, the Bailiff. And 
in this light, doubtless, Horace understood the fable, where, 
speaking of Proteus^ he says, 

** Quum 


Hence Miscellanies springs the weekly boast 
Of CurVs chaste press, and Lintot's rubric post ; 40 
Hence, hymning Tyburn's ele^ac lines ; . 
Hence, Journals, Medleys, Merc'ries, Magazines ; 

" Qn^^l eapieb in jV9malis ridentemalwiUi 
Fiet aper," &c. 
Proteus is represented as one bred of the mud and slime of Egypt, 
the original soil of Arts and Letters ; and what, I pray you, is a 
Town-scribbler, but a creature made up of the excrements of 
luxurious Science ? By the change then into a Boar, is meant his 
character of a furious and dirty Party-writer ; the Snake signifies a 
Libeller ; and the Horns of the Bull, the Dilemmas of a Polemical 
Answerer. These are the three great parts he assumes ; and when 
he has completed his circle, he sinks back again (as the last change 
into a Stone denotes) into his natural state of immoveable stupidity. 
Hence it is, that the Poet, where speaking at large of all these 
various Metamorphoses in the second Book, describes Mother 
Osborne, the great Antitype of our Proteus, in ver, 312, after all 
her changes, as at last quite stupified to Stone, If I may expect 
thanks of the learned world for this discovery, I would by no 
means deprive that excellent Critic of his share, who discovered 
before me, that in the character of Proteus was designed Sophistam^ 
Magum, Politicum, prasertim rebus omnibus sese accommodaniem. 
Which in English is, a political Writer, a Libeller, and a Disputer, 
writing indifferently for or against every party in the state, every 



Ver. 41. In the former Edd. 

Hence hymning Tyburn's elegiac Lay, 
Hence the soft sing-song on Cecflia's Day. 
Ver. 42. Alludes to the annual Soi%s composed to music on 
St. CeciHa's Feast. JT.f 


Ver. 41, 42. JJence^ hymning TyburrCs — Hence, i^c. 

" Genus unde Latinum, 

Albanique patres, atque ahae moenia Romae." 

ViRG. ^neid. i. P. 


S^ulchral Lies, our holy walls to grace. 

And New-year Odes, and all the Grub-street race. 


sect in religion, and every character in private life. See my 
Fables of Ovid explained. — Abbe Banier. W. 

' A v6ry close resemblance to the following lines of Dr. Young, 
in his first epistle on the authors of the age, addressed to Mr. 

" How justly Proteus* transmigrations fit 

The monstrous changes of a modem wit ? 

Now, such a gentle stream of eloquence, 

As seldom rises to the verge of sense ; 

Now, by mad rage transformed into a flame. 

Which yet fit engines, well applied, can tame ; 

Now, on immodest trash the swine obscene 

Invites the town to sup at Drury-Lane ; 

A dreadful Lion, now, he roars at Pow*r, 

Which sends him to his brothers at the Tow'r ; 

He's now a Serpent, and his double tongue 

Salutes, nay licks, the feet of those he stung." Warton. 
Ver. 40. CurVs chaste press, andLiiUot's rubric post :'] Two book- 
sellers, of whom see Book ii. The former was fined by the Court 
o^ King's Bench for publishing obscene books ; the latter usually 
adorned his shop with titles in red letters. P. 

Ver. 41. Hence, hymning Tyhum^s elegiac lines^ It is an ancient 
English custom, for the male&ctors to sing a psalm at their exe- 
cution at Tyburn; and no less customary to print Elegies on their 
deaths, at the same time, or before. P. 

Ver. 42. Magazines ;] The common names of those monstrous 
collections in prose and verse; where Dulness assumes aU the 
various shapes of Folly to draw in and cajole the rabble. The 
eruption of every miserable scribbler ; the dirty scum of every 
stagnant newspaper ; the rags of worn-out nonsense and scandal, 
picked up from every dunghill ; under the title of Essays, Reflections, 
Shteries, Songs, Epigrams, Riddles, Ifc, equally the disgrace of wit, 
morality, and common sense. P. W, 

It is but justice to add, that the Gentleman's Magazine, the first 
of its kind, does by no means deserve this severe sarcasm ; but has 
been a means of preserving many useful and fugitive pieces on 
many interesting subjects. Warton, 

|04f 7HE PUNCUP* BOOK !• 

In clouded Majesty here Dulness shone ; 45 
Four guardian Virtues, round, support her throne: 
Fierce champion Fortitude, that knows no fears 
Of hisses, blows, or want, or loss of ears : 
Calm Temperance, whose blessings those partake 
Who hunger and who thirst for scribbling sake : 50 


Ver. 43. Sepulchral Lies,"] Is a just satire on the flatteries and 
falsehoods admitted to be inscribed on the walls of Churches, in 
Epitaphs. P, 

Which occasioned the following Epigram ; 

" Friend ! in your Epitaphs, Tm griev'd, 
So very much is said : 
One half wiD never be believ*d, 

The other never read." fT.f 

The Epigram here inserted, alludes to the toa long, and some- 
times fulsome Epitaphs, written by Dr. Friend, in pure Latinity 
indeed, but full of antitheses. Warton. 

Ver, 44. New-year Odes,"] Made by the Poet Laureate for the time 
being, to be sung at court on every New-year's day, the words 
of which are happily drowned in the voices and instruments. P. 
The New-year Odes of the hero of this work were of a cast dis- 
tinguished from, all that preceded him, and made a conspicuous 
part of his character as a writer ; which doubtless induced our 
author to mention them here so particularly. P.f 

Ver. 50. Who hunger and who thirst , Sfc] " This is an allusion 
to a text in Scripture, which shews, in Mr. Pope^ a delight in 
profaneness," said Curl upon tjiis place. But it is very familiar 
with Shakespear tp allude to passages of Scripture. Out of a great 



Ver. 45. In clouded Majesty] 

-r — : — " the Moon 

Rising in clouded Majesty." Milton, book iv. P. 

Ver. 48. that knows no fears 

Of hisses, blows, or want, or loss of ears:] 
^ Quern neque pauperies^ ne(}ue mo^js, neque vincula terrent." 

Hqr. p. 

BOOK t. tH£ BUKCIAD. l05 

Prudence^ whose glass presents th' approaching jail : 
Poetic justice, with her lifted scale. 
Where, in nice balance, truth with gold dhe weighs. 
And solid pudding against empty praise. 

Here she beholds the Chaos dark and deep, 55 
Where nameless Somethings in their causes sleep, 


number I will lelect a few, in which he not only alludes to, but 
quotes, the very Text from holy Writ. In All*s well that ends 
well, / am no great Nebuchadnezzar, I have not much skill in grass. 
Ibid. 77iey are for the flowery way that leads to the broad gate and 
the great fire. Matt. vii. 13. In Much ado about nothing, All, all, 
and moreaoer God saw him when he was hid in the Garden^ Gen. iii. 
8. (in a veVy jocose scene). In Love's Labour Lost, he talks of 
Samson carrying the gates on his back ; in the Merry Wives of 
Windsor, of Goliah and the weaver's beam ; and in Henry IV. 
FalstafTs soldiers are compared to Lazarus and the prodigal 

8on. The first part of this Note is Mr. Curl's, the rest is Mr. 

Theobald's, Appendix to Shakespear restored, p. 144. P. 

It seems to be rather an odd and a weak defence of using a 
phrase of Scripture lightly and profanely, to say that Shakespear 
did so* Warton^ 

Ver. 65. beholds the Chaos'\ This passage from hence down to 
verse 78, is an instance of great power and elegance of style on a 
subject that with such difficulty admits of either. Warton, 

Ver. 55. Here she beholds the Chaos dark and deep^ 

Where nameless Somethings in their causes sleep,^ 
Milton, Par. Lost, iii. 11. 



Ver. 55. Here she beholds the Chaos dark and deep^ 
Where nameless Somethings, 4*^.] 

That is to say, unformed things, which are either made into 
Poems or Plays, as the Booksellers or the Players bid most. 
These lines dlude to the following in Garth's Dispensary, 
Cant, vi, 

" Within 


Tm ^nial Jacobs or a wann Third day^ 

Call forth each mass/ a Poem^ or a Play : 

How hints, like spawn, scarce quick in embryo lie. 

How new-born nonsense first is taught to cry, 60 

Maggots half^form'd in thyme exactly meet, 

4nd learn, to crawl upon poetic feet. 

Here one poor word an hundred clenches makes. 

And ductile dulness new meanders ta^es ; 


*^ The rising world of waters, dark and deep,** 
Garth*B Dispensary, vi. 113. 

^f Here his forsaken seat old Chaos keeps ; 
And, undisturVd by Form, in silence sleeps :" 
which is an imitation of a fine passage in Cowley, David : i. 79. 
^* Where their vast court the mother-waters keep ; 
And, undisturb'd by moons, in silence sleep.'' 

'Ver. 57i Jacobs} A race of booksellers, that did honour to 
their profession- for integrity and encouragement of authors. Ja* 
cob Tonson was admitted to the femiliarity and friendship of the 
most eminent writers of his time ; who made him a present of 
their portraits by good masters. Warion. 

Ver. 57. genialJacdh^ Tonson made a great fortune, and built 
Down-Place in Berkshire, on the banks of the Thames, near Wind- 
sor; which was afterwards* the seat of the Duke of Argyle, and is 
now in the possession of Johtl Huddlestone, Esq. who purchased 
it of Mr; Church. Bowles. 

Ver, 63. Here one poor word an hundred clenches makeSf"] It may 



" Within the chambers of the globe they spy. 
The beds where sleeping vegetables lie, 
Till the glad summons of a genial ray 
.Unbinds the glebe, and calls them out to day." P. 

V«r.v64. And ductile didness, ifc.} A parody on a verse in 
Garth, Cant. i. 

" How ductile matter new meanders takes." P. 


There motley, linages her fi^cy strike, 65 

Figures itt-pau-'d, and SiiwUes unlike. 
She sees^ ^ mpl>: of ^Metaphors advance, 
Pleas'd with the madness pf the niazy dance ; 
How Tragedy, and Comedy embrace ; 
How Farce and Epic get a jumbled race ; 70 

How Time himself stands still at her command. 
Realms shift their place, ^nd Ocean turns to land. 
Here, gay description Egypt glads with, show'rs. 
Or gives to Zembla fruits^ to Ba^ca flow'rs; 


not be amiss to give an instance or two of these operations of 
Dulness out of the works of her Sons, celebrated in the Poem. 
A great Critic formerly held these clenches in such abhorrence, 
that he declared, " he that would pun, would pick a pocket." 
Yet Mr. Dennis's works afford us Dotable examples in this kind ; 
V Alexander Pope hath sent abroad into the world as many BuUs 

as his namesake Pope Alexander^ Let us take the initial and 

final letters of his name, viz. A.P-r-E, .^nd they gi^re you the 
idea of an Ape,— Pope comes fi:om^.th6 Ls^tin word Popa, which 
signi^ a little wart : or from /)op/>y«}7i(i, l^ecause he was continu- 
^^y popping out squibs of wit, or rather PopysmatOy or Po^pisms.^' 
— Denius on Him. and Daily Journal, June 11, 1728. P. 

The -aversion of this learned and indignant critic to so innocent 
an amusement, which drew from him that unworthy comparison of 
puntUn to pickpockets^ plainly arose from the supposed original of 
both ; that a certain poverty of spirit, which first tempted men to 
puni that is, to ^Isify current sounds, wa^ an^Jpgous ^.^at po- 
ver^ of purse which first made men yoiture to com^ or falsify the 
current specie* W.\ 

Ver. 70, ifc. How Farce and Epic — How Time hifnseif,Sfc.] Al- 
lude to the transgressions of the, l/hi^,^ in the Inlays of such po^ts. 
For the miracles wrought upon Time and Piace^ and the mixture 
of Tragedy and Comedy, Farce and Epic, see Pluto and Proser- 
pine, Penelope, &c. if yet extant. P» 

Ver. 73. Egypt glads withjhw'rs,] In the Lower Egypt rain is 
of .no use, the overflowing of the Ni}e being sufficient to im? 



Glitt'ring with ice, here hoary hills are seen ; 75 
There, painted valleys of eternal green ; 
In cold December fragrant chaplets blow. 
And heavy harvests nod beneath the silow. 

All these, and more, the cloud-compelling Queen 
Beholds thro' fogs, that magnify the scene. 80 
She, tinsel'd o'er in robes of varying hues. 
With self-applause her wild creation views ; 
Sees momentary monsters rise and fall. 
And with her own fools-colours gilds them all. 

'Twas on the day, when Thorold, rich and grave. 
Like Cimon, triumph'd both on land and wave : 


pregnate the soil. — These six verses represent the inconsistencies 
in the descriptions of poets, who heap together all glittering and 
gaudy images, though incompatible in one seascm, or in one 

See the Gruardian, No. 40. parag. 6. See also EusdaCa wliole 
"works, if to be found. It would not have been unpleasant to 
have given examples of all these species of bad writing from these 
authors, but that it is already done in our Treatise of the 


Ver. 79. The cloud-compelling] Gray has left a very fine frag- 
ment of an hymn to Ignorance, very much in the manner of th6 
Dunciad; " Many of the lines of this fragment (says Mr. Mason) 
are so strong, and the general cast of the versification so musical, 
that I believe it will give the generality of readers a higher opinion 
of his poetical talents, than many of his lyrical productions liav6 
done. I speak of the generality ; because it is a certain fact, that 
their taste is founded upon the ten-syllable couplets of Dryden 
and Pope, and upon these only." p. 176. Warton, 

Ver. &5. 'Twas on the day when Thorold,] Sir George Thorold, 



Ver. 79. Tlie cloud compelling Queen'] From Homer's epithet 
of Jupiter, n^iXnytfira Zivg. P. 


(Pomps without guilty of bloodless swords and 

Glad chaius^ warm furs^ broad banners^ and broad 

Now Night descending^ the proud scene was o'er. 
But liv'd, in Settle's numbers^ one day more. 9& 


Lord Mayor of London, in the year 1720. The proceMiofi of a 
Lord Mayor is made partly by land, and partly by water. — Cimon» 
the famous Athenian General, obtained a victory by sea, and ano- 
ther by land, on the same day, over the Persians and Barbarians. 


Ver. 85. 'Twos on the day,'] Viz. a Lcwrd Mayor's Day ; his 
name the author had left in blanks, but most certainly could never 
be that which the Editor foisted in formerly, and which no way 
agrees with the chronology of the poem. BentL P.f 

Ver. 88. Glad chains,] The ignorance of these Modems ! fldi 
was altered in one edition to Gold Chains, shewing more regard 
to the metal of which the chains of Aldermen are made, than to 
the beauty of the Latinism and Grsecism, nay, of jQgurative 
speech itself: Latas segetes, glad, for making glad, &e. 


Ver. 90. But liv*d, in Settlers numbers, one day moreJ\ A 
beautiful manner of speaking, usual with poets, in praise of 
poetry, in which kind nothing is finer than those lines of Mr. Ad- 

** Sometimes, misguided by the tuneful throng^ 
I look for streams immortalized in song. 
That lost in silence and oblivion lie, 
Dumb are their fountains, and their channels dry ; 
Yet run for ever by the Muse*s skiD, 
And in the smooth description murmur still." P. 

Ibid. But liv'd in Settle's numbers, one day more.] Settle wasr 
poet to the City of London. His office was to compose yearly 
panegyrics upon the Lord Mayors, and verses to be spoken in the 
Pageants. But that part of the shows being at length frugally 
abolished, the employment of City-poet ceased; so that upon 
Settle's demise there was no successor to that place. 



Now May'rs and Shrieves all hush'd and satiate 

Yet eat, in dreams, the custard of the day; 
While pensive Poets painful vigils keep. 
Sleepless themselves to give their readei*s sleep. 


Much to the mindfull Queen the fedst recals 95 
What City Swans once sung within the walls ; 
Much she revolves their arts, their ancient praise. 
And sure succession down from Heywood's days. 
She saw, with joy, the line immortal run. 
Each sire imprest and glaring in his son : 100 
So watchful Bruin forms, with plastic care. 
Each growing lump, and brings it to a Bear. 
She saw old Pryn in restless Daniel shine. 
And Eusden eke out Blackmore's endless line ; 


Mr. Settle was once a writer in some vogue, particularly with 
his party ; for he was the author, or publisher, of many noted 
pamphlets in the time of King Charles the Second. He answered 
all Dry dm* s politick poems ; and being cried up ion one side, suc- 
ceeded not a little in his Tragedy of Jlie Empress of 'Morocco, (the 
first that ever was printed with cuts). " Upon this, he grew inso-^ : 
lent; the wits writ against his play; he replied, and the Town 
judged he had the better. In short. Settle was then thought a 
formidable rival to Mr. Dryden; and not only the Town, l^ut the 
University of Cambridge was divided which to prefer : and in both 
places the younger sort inclined to Elkanah."'^DeTinis, Prrf. to Re- 
marks on Horner^ P. 

Ver. 98. John Heywood, whose Interludes were printed in the 
time of Henry VIII. P. 

Ver. 103. Tn restless Darnel shine,'] The first edition bad it 
She saw in Norton all his father shine, 

A great mistake ! for Daniel de Foe had parts, but Norton de Foe 
was a wretched writer, and never attempted poetry. Much more 



She saw slow Philips cr^p like Tate-s poor pa^e^ 
And all the mighty^ Mad in Dennis rage; 


justly is Daniel hiiliself inade suQcesfcnr taiW. Fvytif both* of whom 
wrote verses as well as politipisi, tu» fippears by (be poem '* De 
jure divinOf ifc.'* of De Foe, and by these lines in Cowley's Miscel« 
lanies, of the other. 

" One lately did not fear 

(Without the Musei leave J to plant verse here ; 
"But it produced such base, roughs crabbed^ hedge^ 
Rhymes, as e*en set the hearers^ ears on edge : 
Written by William Prynn, Esqui-re, the 
Year of our Lord, six hundred thirty-lhree. 
Brave Jersey Muse ! and his far his high stile 
CalVd to this day the Homer of the Isle/* 

And both these authcnrs had a resembUmce in their fiites, as well* 
as writings, having been alike sentenced to the pillory, P. 

Ver. 103. Restless Daniel] I am sorry to find De Foe placed 
in such company. He was a writer of uncommon genius and fer-< 
tility of fancy. Witness his Robinson Crusoe, in which a wonder- 
ful reach of invention is displayed ; his .History of the Plague in 
London, which for a long time imposed on Dr. Mead, who thoughts 
it genuine ; and his Memoirs of a Cavalier, a favourite book of 
of the great Earl of Chatham, who spoke of it as the best account 
of the Civil Wars extant ; and who, when he was at last convinced 
that it was all a fiction, cried out, 

Sic extorta voluptas, 

Et demptus per vim mentis gratissimus error. 

Among other entertaining works, De Foe wrote, in prison, 1703, 
a Review, consisting of a Scandal Club, as he entitled it, on ques- 
tions of Theology, Morals, Politics, Trade, Language, Poetry, 
Love, &c. which Mr. Chalmers thinks gave a hint for the plan of 
the Tatler and Spectator. Warton, 

Ver. 104. And Eusden eke out, ifc."] Laurence Eusden, Poet 
Laureate. Mr. Jacob gives a catalogue of some few only of his 
works, which were very numerous. Mr. Cook, in his Battle of 
Poets, saith of him, 

" Eusden 



In each she marks her Image full exprest. 
But chief in Bats's monster-breeding breast ; 


" Eusden, a laureFd Bard, by fortune rais*d, 
By very few was read, by fewer prais'd.*^ 

Mr. Oldmixon, in his Arts of Logic and Rhetoric, p. 413, 414, 
affirms, " That of all the Galimatias he ever met with, none 
comes up to some verses of this poet, which have as much of the 
Ridiculum and the Fustian in them as can well be jumbled toge- 
ther, and are of that sort of nonsense, which so perfectly confounds 
all ideas, that there is no distinct one lefl in the mind/' Further, 
he says of him, ** That he hath prophesied his own poetry shall 
be sweeter than Catullus, Ovid, and Tibullus ; but we have little 
hope of the accomplishment of it, from what he hath lately pub- 
lished." Upon which Mr. Oldmixon has not spared a reflection, 
** That the putting the Laurel on the head of one who writ such 
verses, will give futurity a very lively idea of the judgment and 
justice of those who bestowed it." Ibid. p. 417. But the well- 
known learning of that noble Person, who was then Lord Cham- 
berlain, might have screened him from this unmannerly reflection. 
Nor ought Mr. Oldmixon to complain, so long after, that the 
Laurel would have better become his own brows, or any others. 
It were more decent to acquiesce in the opinion of the Duke of 
Buckingham upon this matter : 

" In rush'd Eusden, and cried. Who shall have it. 

But I, the true Laureate, to whom the King gave it ? 

Apollo begg*d pardon, and granted his claim. 

But vow'd that till then he ne'er heard of his name." 

Session of Poets, 
The same plea might also serve for his successor, Mr» Cibber;: 



Ver. 108. But chief in Bays's, SfcS] In the former Editions- 

But chief, in Tibbald's monster-breeding breast ; 
Sees Gods with Demons in strange, league engage. 
And earth, and heav'n, and hell, her battles wager 




Bays^ fonn'd by nature Stage and Town to bl6§^s^ 
And act^ and be^ a coxcomb with success. 110 


and is further strengthened in the following Epigram, Made oh 
that occasion: 

" In merry Old England it once was a rule, 
The King had his Poet, and also his Fool : 
But now we*re so frugal, I'd have you to know it. 
That Cihher can serve both for Fool and for Poet." 
Of Blackmore, see Book ii. Of Philips, Book i. ver. 262, and 
Book iii. propefin, 

Nahum Tate was Poet Laureate, a cold writer, of no invention; 
but somefimes translated tolerably, when befriended by Mr. Dry- 
den. In his second part of Absalom and Achitophel are above 
two hundred admirable lines together of that great hand, which 
strongly shine through the insipidity orthe rest. Something pa- 
rallel may be observed of another author here mentioned. P. 

Ver. 106. And all the mighty Mad] This is by no means to be 
understood literally, as if Mr. Dennis were really mad, (according 
to the narrative of Dr. Norris, in Swift and Pope's Miscellanies, 
vol. iii.) No — it is spoken of that excellent and divine madnessy so 
ofben mentioned by Plato ; that poetical rage and enthusiasm, 
with which Mr. D. hath, in his time, been highly possessed ; and of 
those extraordinary hints and motions, whereof he himself so feel- 
ingly treats in his preface to the Rem, on Prince Arthur, P. 

Ver. 106. And all the mighty Mad in Dennis rage.] Mr. Theo- 
bald, in the Censor, vol. ii. N. 33. calls Mr. Dennis by the name 
of Furius. " The modern Furius is to be looked upon as more an 
object of pity, than of that which he daily provokes, laughter and 
contempt. Did we really know how much this poor man [/ wish 
that reflection on poverty had been spared] suffers by being con- 


She ey'd the Bard, where supperless he sate. 
And pin'd, unconscious of his rising fate ; 
Studious he sate, with all his books around. 
Sinking from thought to thought, &c. 
Var. Tibbald] Authot of a pamphlet intitled, Shakespear restored. 

VOL. IV. I ^^""» 


Dnki^sd with traaipoi^ dyes the lively DiuK^e, 
Rcanemb'riB^ ffhe l^rself was Pertness once. 


tradiotedf or, which is the same thing in effect, hy hearing ano- 
ther praised ; we should, in compassion, sometimes attend to him 
with a silent nod, and let him go away with the trimnphs of liis 
^-nature. — Voor Furius \a^ain\ when any of his cotemporaries 
are spoken well of, quitting the ground of the present dispute, 
steps back a thousand years to call in the succour of the Ancients. 
His very paneg3rric is spiteful, and he uses it for the same reason 
as some Ladies do their commendations of a dead beauty, who 
would never have had their good word, but that a living one hap- 
pened to be mentioned in their company. His applause is not the 
tribute of his Hearty but the sacrifice of his Revenge" Sfc. Indeed 
his pieces against our poet are somewhat of an angry character, 
and as they are now scarce extant, a taste of his style may be 



Daring two whole years, while Mr. Fope was preparing his Edi- 
tion of Shakespear, he published Advertisements, requesting as- 
sistance, and promising satisfaction to any who would contri- 
bute to its greater perfection. But this Restorer^ who was at that 
time soliciting fiivonrs of him by letters, did wholly conceal his 
design, till after its publication : (which he was since not ashamed 
to own, in a Daily Journal, of Nov. 26, 1728.) And then an out- 
cry was made in the Prints, that our author had joined with the 
bookseller, to raise an extravagant subscription; in which he had 
BO share, of which he had no knowledge, and against which he had 
publicly adv^tised in his Own proposals for Homer. Probably that 
proceeding elevated Tihhald to the dignity he holds m thia poem, 
which he seems to deserve no other way better than his brethren.; 
mdess we impute it to the share he had in the Journals, cited 
among the Testimonies of Authors prefixed to this work. P. 

Var. Tibbald] Yet this Tibbald, contemptible as he is here 
represented to be, was assisted in his edition of Shakespear by 
Warburton, published ui six volumes octavo ; and he mentions, as 
he weU might, Warburton's assistance, as a great support of his 
work. This edition of Tibbdd' was justly esteemed the best, till 
those of Malone and Steevens appeared. Watttm. 

BOOK I. tKB mnciAM. 115 

Now (shame to Fortune !) an iQ run at pfaqr 
Blank'd his bold vhs^, euoA a thin Third day : 


^mtiafccloiy to.tke ciinoiift. << A yomig, aqoBhf than gmUemaii, 
wiiose'outward fonn» tkoujg^ it should bethatof dpwnrigkt nonkey, 
would hot differ so mudi fium hvansn shape as hit unthinking 
immatetifll |Mirt does from hiHRan laidierstanding'w — He is as stupid 
and as TenomottB aff a hunch^faack'd toad. — A book through 
wlddi lolly and ignorance, those brethr^i so lame and impotent, 
do ridiculously look very big and very dull, and strut and hobble, 
ebeek by jovdy with their arms on kimbo, being led and supported, 
«Dd bsfly-back'd by that b%nd Hector, Impudence.'' — ^Reflect, on 
the Essay on Criticism, p. 26, 28, 30. 

It would be unpi^ not to add his reasons for tins Fury, they 
are so strong and so coercive : '* I regaid him (saidi he) as an 
Eneo^f not so much to me, as to my Kmg, to my CoiMitry, to my 
Rdigion, and to tiiat Liberty which has been the sole Midty of 
my life. A vagary of Fortune, who is sometimes pleased to be 
frolicksome, and the ejmlemic madness qfthe times have given him 
repuiatioHf and reputation (as Hobbes says) is power , and thtU has 
made bim dangeroks. Therefore I look on it as n^ duty to King 
CfeorgCf whose fiuthfiil subject I am; to my Cmmtfy^ pf which I 
have appeared a constant kver ; to the Lawsy under whose pro- 
tection I have so long lived ; and to the Liberty of my Cotmtry, 
more dear to me than life, of wbi^ I have now for forty years 
been a constant assertor, &c. I look upon it as my duty, I say, to 
do— lyott shall see what^^to pull the lion's skin from this little Ass, 
which popular errcur has thrown round him ; and to shew that this 
author, who has been lately so much in vogue, has neither sense 
in Ilia thoughts, nor English in his e9q)ressions.''^>DENNis, Rem. 
on Hom. Pref. p. 2, 91, &c. 

Besides these public-spirited reasons, Mr. D. had a private one; 
whidi, by his manner of expressing it in p. 02, appears to have 
been equally strong. He was ev^i in bodily fear of his life from 
the machinations of the said Mr. P. <' The story (says he) is too 
Ux»g to be told, but who would be acquainted with it, may hear 
k from Mr. Curl, my Bookseller. — However, what my reason has 
auggested tome, that I have with a just confidence said, in defiance 
of bis two dandestine weapons, his Slander and his Poison.** 

I 2 Which 


Swearing and suppeiiess the Hero sate^ 1 15 

Blasphem'd his Gods^ theDice^ and damn'dhis Fate; 


tVhich last words of his book plainly discover Mr. D^'s suiq^icion 
was that of being poisoned^ in like manner as Mr. Curl had been 
before him : Of which fact see a full and true account of a horrid 
and barbarous revenge, by poison, on the body of Edmund Curl, printed 
in 1716, the year antecedent to that wherein these Remarks of 
Mr. Dennis were published. But what puts it beyond all question, 
is a passage in a very warm treatise, in which Mr. Dennis was 
also concerned, price two-pence, called A true Character of Mr. 
Pope and his JVritings, printed for S. Popping, 1716 : in the tenth 
page whereof he is said " to have insulted people on those cala- 
mities and diseases which he himself gave them, by admkiistering 
Poison to them :-' and is called (p. 4) " a lurldng waylaying 
coward, and a stabber in the dark." Which (with many other 
things most lively set forth in that piece) must have rendered him 
a terror, not to Mr. Dennis only, but to all Christian people. 
This charitable warning only provoked our incorrigible poet to 
write the following epigram : 

Should Dennis^ publish, you had stabbed your brother, 
Lampoon'd your Monarch, or debauch'd your mother ; 
Say, what revenge on Dennis can be had ? 
Too dull for laughter, for reply too mad : 
On one so poor you cannot take the law ; 
. On one so old your sword you scorn to draw ^ 
Uncag'd then let the harmless monster rage. 
Secure in dulness, madness, want, and age. 
For the rest ; Mr. John Dennis was the son of a Saddler, in 
London, bom in 1657.« He paid court to Mr. Dryden : and having 
obtained soine correspondence with Mr. Wycherley and Mr. 
Congreve, he immediately obliged the public with their Letters. 
He made himself known to the government by many admirable 
schemes and projects ; which the ministry, for reasons best known 
to themselves, constantly kept private. For his character, as a 
writer, it is given us as foUow»: " Mr. Dennis is excellent at Pin- 
daric writingSy perfectly regular in all his performances, and a person 
of sound learning. That he is master of a great deal of penetration 
and judgment, his criticisms (particularly on Prince Arthur) do 



Then gnaw'd his pen^ then dash'd it on the ground. 
Sinking from thought to thought^ a vast profound ! 


sufficiently demonstrate." From the same account it also appears 
that he writ Plays " more to get Reputation than Money.** Dennis 
of himself. See Giles Jacob's Lives of Dram. Poets, p. 08, 69, 
coQ^IMured with p. 286. P. 

7he most candid and ample accoui>t of Dennis is given in the 
New Edition of the Biographia Britannica by Dr. Kippis. Warton, 

Ver. 109. Bays form' d by nature ^c] It is hoped the poet 
here hath done full justice to his Hero's character, which it were a 
great mistake to imagine was wholly sunk in stupidity: he is 
allow(9d to have supported it with a wonderful mixture of vivacity. 
This character is heightened according to his own desire, in a 
Letter he wrote to our author : ** Pert and dull at least you might 
have allowed me. What ! am I only to be dull, and dull still, and 
again, and for ever?" He then solemnly appealed to his own* 
conscience, " that he could not think himself so, nor believe that 
ojir poet did ;. but that he spoke worse of him than he could 
possibly think ; and concluded it must be merely to show his Wit, 
or for some ProJU or Lucre to himself." Life of C. C. chap. vii. 
and Letter to Mr P. pag. 16. 40. 63. P.f 

And to show his claim to what the poet was so unwilling to allow 
him, of being pert as well as dull, he declares he will have the last 
word; which occasioned the following Epigram : 

Quoth Gibber to Pope, Tho' in verse you foreclose, 

111 have the last word ; for, by G — , 111 write prose! 

Poor Colly, thy reas'ning is none of the strongest, 

For know, the last word is the word that lasts longest. W,j^- 

It is a singular fact in the history of the English Stage, that 
the very first comedy, acted afler the libertine times of the restora- 
tion, in which any decency, purity of manners, and respect to the 
honour of the marriage-bed, were preserved, was this very Gibber's 
Love's Last Shift. It was received with the greatest applause, 
particularly the scene of reconcilement in the last act. Warton. 

Ver. 116. Supperless the Hero satey"] It is amazing how the sense 
of this has been mistaken by all the former commentators, who 
most idly suppose it to imply that the hero of the poem wanted a 
supper. In truth, a great absurdity ! Not that we are ignorant 



Pki^*d for his sense^ but found no bottom there. 
Yet wrote and floundered on, in mere despair. 120 
Round him much Embryo, much Abortion lay. 
Much future Ode, and abdicated Play ; 


diat f9ie hero of Horner^ s Odyssei/ is frequently in that circumstance, 
and therefore it can no way derogate from the grandeur of Epic 
poefttf to represent such hero under a calamity to which the 
greatest, not only of critics and poets, but of kings and warriors, 
have been subject. But much more refined, I w31 venture to say, 
is the meaning of our author. It was to give us obliquely a 
curious precept, of what Bosm calls a disguised sentence^ diat 
*< temperance is the hfe of study.'' The language of poesy brings 
all into action ; and to represent a critic encompassed with books, 
but without a supper, is a picture which lively expresseth how 
much the true critic prefers the diet of the mind to that of the 
body, one of which he always castigates, and often totally neglects, 
for the greater improvement of the other. — Scrib. P. 

But since the discovery of the true hero of the poem, may we 
not add, that nothing was so natural, after so great a loss of money 
at dice, or of reputation by his p3ay, as that the poet should have 
no great stomach to eat a supper? Besides, how well has the 
poet consulted his heroic character, in adding that he swore aB the 
time? — BEirri.. P.\ 

Ver. 118. Sinking from tho^hiy From Lord Rochester on Man, 
" Stumbling from thought to thought."—- Warton. 

Ver. 118. Sinking from thought to thought^ a vast profound f\ 
Besides an allusion to Satan's precipitation in (he second book of 
Paradise Lost, our Poet probably consulted Rochester also, at a 
vigorous passage in his Satire against Mankind: 

'* Stumbling, from thought to thought, falls headlong down 
Into Doubt's boundless sea ; where, like to drown, 
Books bear him up a while, and make him try 
To swim with bladders of philosophy." Wakefield. 


Ver. 121 . Round him much Embryo, 4rc.] In the former Editions 

He roU'd his eyes that witness'd huge dismay. 
Where yet unpawn'd, ihuch learned lumber lay ; 



Ncmsense. pi:ecipitate^ like rmmiiig Lead^ 
That slipp'd thro' cracks and zig-zags of tiie head; 
AU that on FoUy Frenzy could b^et, 125 

Fruits of dull heat^ and Sooteikins of wit. 
Next^ o'er his Books his eyes b^;an to roll^ 
In pleasing memory of all he stole ; 
How here he sipp'd, how there he plunder'd snug^ 
And suck'd all o'er^ like an industrious Bug. 180 


Ver. 125. All that an Folly] << To dwell too much on the follies, 
blunders, and blemishes, of i>ad and despicable Dunces, (says 
Plutarch, with his usual humanity), remiiids one of Philip's prefect 
of collecting together all the most abandoned and incorrigible 
villains he could find, to people a new city which he had built, and 
called Poneropolis." Warton. 

Ver. 129. How here he sipp'd,'] Congreve borrowed much from 
Ben Jonson, (of whom he was remarkably fond), particularly the 
character of Blu£^ and the first scene of the fijfth Act of the Way 
of the World, betwixt Lady Wishfixrt and her Maid Foible; where 
she minutely describes her former way of li&, and upbraids her for 
ingratitude, evidently firom the scene betwixt the two sharpers. 
Subtle ,iuid F^ce, in the Alchymist. Wartofu 


Volumes, whose size the space exactly fill'd. 

Or which fond authors were so good to gild, 

Or where, by sculpture made for ever known. 

The page admires new beauties not its own. 

Here swells the shelf, &c. ■■ W.f 


Var. He rolTd his eyes that witnessed huge dismay,] 
'** round he throws his eyes, « 

'*JJ UIA'. 

That witnessed huge a£9iction and dismay." Milt. b. i. 
The pvogM88/of abad poet m his thoughts bong (like the progress 
of the Defil in Mihon) throi^h a Chaos^ might prdiuMy suggest 
tiiis inutadon. P' 


Here lay poor Fletcher's half-eat scenes, and here • 

The frippery of crucified Moliere ; 

There hapless Shakespear, yet of Tibbald sore, 

Wish'd he had blotted for himself before. 

The rest on out-side merit but presume, 135 

Or serve (hke other fools) to fill a room ; 


Ver. 131. poor Fletcher^s half-eat sceneSf] A great number of. 
them taken out to patch up his plays. P.f 

Ver. 132. Tlie frippery] " When I fitted up an old play, it was 
as a good housewife will mend old linen, when she has not better 
employment." Life, p. 217, Octavo. P,f 

Ver. 133. hapless Shakespear, fyc,'] It is not to be doubted but 
Bays was a. subscriber to Tibbald's Shakespear. He was fre-^ 
quently liberal this way : and, as he tells us, " subscribed to Mr. 
Pope's Homer^ out of pure generosity and civility; but when Mr. 
Pope did so to his Nonjuror, he concluded it could be nothing but 
a joke.*' — Letter to Mr. P. p. 24. 

This Tibbald, or Theobald, published an edition of Shakespear, 
of which he was so proud himself as to say, in one of Mist's 
Journals, June 8, " That to expose any errors in it was imprac- 
ticable." And in another, April 27, " That whatever care mighit 
for the future be taken by any other Editor, he would still give 
above five hundred emendations, that shall escape them all." P.f 

Ver 134. Wished he had blotted'\ It was a ridiculous praise which 
the Players gaye to Shakespear, " that he never blotted a line." 
Ben Jonson honestly wished he had blotted a thpusand; and, 
Shakespear woujd certainly have wished the same, if be had live4 
to see those alterations in his works, which, not the Actors only 
(and especially the daring Hero of this Poem) have made on 
the Stage, but the presumptuous critics of our days in their 
Editions, P.f 

Ver. 135. The rest on outrside merit, Sfc] This Library is 
divided into three parts ; the first consists of those authors from 
whom he stole, and whose works he mangled ; the second^ of such 
as fitted the shelves, or were gilded for shew, or adorned with 

pictures ; 


Such with their shelves as due proportion hold^ 
Or their fond parents dress'd in red and gold ; 
Or where the pictures for the page atone^ 
And Quarles is sav'd by beauties not his own. 140 
Here swells the shelf with Ogilby the great ; 
There, stamp'd with arms, Newcastle shines com- 
Here all his suff'ring brotherhood retire. 

And 'scape the martyrdom of jakes and fire ; 


pictures ; the third class our author calls solid learning, old Bodies 
of Divinity, old Commentaries, old English Printers, or old English 
Translations; all very voluminous, and fit to erect altars to 
Dulness. P.f 

These six lines are below the usual vein of our author ; and the 
note upon them is very forced and unnatural. The prints in 
Ogilby's China, many of them by Hollar, atone for the page. 
Dryden used to say that Quarles excelled him in a facility of 
rhyming. Warton, 

Ver. 141. Ogilby the great;'] " John Ogilby was one who, from 
a late initiation into literature, made such a progress as might well 
style him the prodigy of his time ! sending into the world so many 
large Volumes ! His translations of Homer and Virgil done to the 
Ufe, and with such excellent sculptures! And (what added great 
grace to Ms works) he printed them all on special good paper ^ and 
in a very good /c/^cr."— Winstanly, Lives of Poets. P. 

Ver. 142. Newcastle shines complete;'] The Duchess of Newcastle 
was one who busied herself in the ravishing delights of poetry ; 
leaving to posterity to print three ample volumes of her studious 
endeavours. WinstanAt, ibid, Langbaine reckons up eight folios 
of her Grace\ which were usually adorned with gilded covers, and 
]^d her arms upon them. P, 


Ver. 140. In the former Edd. 

Xhe page admires new beauties not its own.] 
' ff Miraturque novas frondes et non sua poma." 

Vi»o. Georg. ii. * P, 


A GoUuc library ! of Greece and RoDde 145 
Well purg'd, and wwthy Settle, Banks^ and Broome. 


Ver. 146. Worthy Settle^ Batiks, and BroomeJ] The Poet has 
mentioned ihes^ three authors in particular^ as they are pmraUd to 
our Hero in his three capacities : 1. Settle was his Brother Lau* 
reate ; only indeed upon half-pay, for the City instead of the 
Court ; but equally famous for unintelligible flights in his poems 
on public occasions, such as Shows, Birth^lays, &c. 2. Baidcs 
was his Rival in TVagei^, though more sucoessftil in one of Jbis Tra- 
gedies, the Earl of Essex,* which is yet alive : Anna Bol^^ the 
Qiicen of Scots, and Cyrus the Great, are dead and gone. These 
he dressed in a sort of Beggar's Vehei, or a happy mixture 4if^be 
thick Fusiian, and thin Prosaic; exactly imitated in Pcrotta and 
Isidora, Qtsar in Egypt, and the Heroic Daughter. 9. Broome 
was a «erving man of Ben Jonson, who once picked up a Comefy 
from his betters, or from some cast scenes of his master, not en* 
tirely -contemptible. P.t 

Ver. 146. In the fu-st Edit, it was, 

Well purg'd, and worthy W— y, W— s, and Bl— 

And in the following $lter^ to Withers, Quarks^ 9nd ^Umne^ QQ 
which was the following note : 

It was printed in the surreptitious edition3» Westky^ Wattf^ who 
were persons eminent for good life.; the one writ tbp liife of 
Christ in verse, the other some valuable pieces in the lyric kind 
on pious subjects. The line is here restored ^u^cording to its 

" George Withers was a gri^t pretender to poetical zeal a^j;iMi^t 
i!a& vipes of the times, and abused the greatest perso^agen iii 


* The Earl of Essex of Banks. Of this |4ay I thiidc Addison 
says, that it is impossible to see it or read it without tears, although 
it does not contain one good line. T3ie Foet was doubtless happy 
in the choice of a subject ; but this <x>uld not produce the effect, 
without a judicious 'diqBositioii of the events, iffid an aeoiirate dis- 
criminatiiiii «f the ^uuracters.— Bannister. Bowles. 


But^ high abore^ more solid learning shone. 
The Classics of an age that heard of none ; 
There Caxton slept, with Wynkyn at his side. 
One dasp'd in w<iod, and one in strong cow-hide; 

Ver. 147. More solid learning] Some have objected that books 
of this sort suit aot so well the Lflyrary of our Bays, which they 
imagined consisted of Novels, Plays, and obsc^ie b6dks ; but they 
are to consider that he furnished his shelves only for ornameiM:,. 
and read these books no more than the dry bodies of Divinity^ 
whidi, no doubt, w«re purchased by his father, wh^fi he designed 
him for the gown. See note on ver, 200. P. j* 

Ver. 149. Caxton\ A Printer in the time of Edw. IV. 
Rich. III. and Hen. VII. Wyrikyn de Worde, his successor, in 
that of Hen. VII. and VIII. The former, whom Bayle intitles, 
Vir non omnino stupidus, translated into prose, Virgil's ^neis, as a 
history ; of which he speaks in his Proeme, in a very singular' 
manner, as of a book hardly known. ** Happened £hat to my 
hatide cam a lytyl book in frenche, whiche late was translated out 
of latyn by some noble clerke of fraunce, whiche booke is named 
EnetfdoSf (made in latyne by that noble poete & grete clerk 
Vyrgyle): whiche booke I sawe over and redde therein. How 
after the generall destruccyon of the grete Troy, Eneas departed 
berynge his old fader anchises upon his sholdres, his lytyl son 
yolas on his hande, his wyfe with moche other people foUowynge, 
and how he shipped and departed ; wythe all thystorye of his 
adventures that he had er he came to the atchievement of his 
conquest of ytalye, as all alonge shall be shewed in this present 
booke. In whidhe booke I had grete playsyr, by cause of the 
fayr and honest termes & wordes in frenche, whiche X never sawe 
to fore lyke, ne none so playsauht ne so well ordred ; whiche booke 
as me semed sholde be moch tequysite to noble men to see, as wel 



powet) which brought upon him frequent correction* The Mar" 
skabea and Newgate winc no strangers to him." Winstanx.t. 

§tuarles was a dull writer, but an honester man. Blome*s books 
are rema^ble for their cuts. P» 


There, sav*d by spice, like mummies, many a year. 

Dry bodies of divinity appear : 

De Lyra there a dreadful front extends. 

And &ere the groaning shelves Philemon bends. 

Of these twelve volumes, twelve of amplest size. 
Redeemed from tapers and defrauded pies. 
Inspired, he seizes : these an altar raise : 
A hecatomb of pure, unsullied lays 
That altar crowns : a folio Common-place 
Founds the whole pile, of all his works the base : 


for the eloquence as the historyes. How wel that many hondred 
yeryes passed was the sayd booke of Eneydos wyth other workes 
made and lemed dayly in scolis, especyally in ytalye and other 
places, which hystorye the sayd Vyrgyle made in metre." Tibbald 
quotes a rare passage from him in Mist's Journal of March 16> 
1728, concerning a straunge and mervylUmse beaste called Sagittaiye, 
which he would have Shakespear to meaii rather than Teucer, the 
archer celebrated by Homer, P. 

An undeserved piece of ridicule, on an industrious man, whose 
labours introduced literature into this country. See what is said 
of him by one who was a real and rational lover of antiquity, in 
the History of English Poetry, vol. ii. Warton^ 

Ver. 152. Dry bodies of divinity] The impropriety of placing 
such sort of books in the library of Gibber, is not tQ b^ vindicated. 


Ver. 163. De Lyra there"] A very voluminous Commentator, 
whose works^ in five vast folios, were printed in 1472. P. 

He was bom in Normandy, of Jewish parents, educated under 
some learned Rabbis, and for many years devoted to Judaism. He 
afterwards was converted to Christianity, and became a Cordelier 
at Verneuil, 1201. He taught with great reputation at Paris, and 
was made executor to the will of King Philip's Queen. He died 
in an advanced age, 1340. Warton. 

Ver. 164. Philemon Holland^ Doctor in Physic. " He translated 

* But see note on ver. 147. 


Quartos^ octavos, shape the lessening pyre ; 
A twisted Birth-day Ode completes the spire. 

Then he : Great Tamer of all hmnan art ! 
First in my care, and ever at my heart ; 
Dulness ! whose good old cause I yet defend, 165 
With whom my Muse began, with whom shall end. 
E'er since Sir Fopling's periwig was praise. 
To the last honours of the Butt and Bays : 


SO many booksf that a man would thin)^ he had done nothing else ; 
insomuch that he might be called Ttanslafor general of his age* 
The books alone of his turning into English are sufficient to make 
a Country Gentleman a complete Library, — Winstanly. P. 

Ver. 167. E*er since Sir Fopling*s peritoig'] The first visible 
cau6e of the passion of the Town for our Hero, was a fair flaxen 
full-bottomed periwig, which, he tells us, he wore in his first play 
of the Fool in Fashion, It attracted, in a particular manner, the 
friendship of Col. Brett, who wanted to purchase it. " Whatever 
contempt (says he) philosophers may have for a fine periwig, my 
friend, who was not to despise the world, but to live in it, knew 
very well that so material an article of dress upon the head of a 
man of sense, if it became hitii, could neVer fail of drawing to him 
a more partial regard and benevolence, than could possibly be 
hoped for in an ill-made one. This, perhaps, may soften the 
grave censure, which so youthful a purchase might otherwise have 



Ver. 162. A twisted, Sfc,"] In the former Edd. 

And last a little Ajax tips the Spire. fV. 

Var. a little 4i^ ^^ duodecimo, translated fi'om Sophocles by 
Tibbald. P. 


Ver. 166. With wliom my Muse began, %oith whom shall end,"] 
" A te principium, tibi desinet. — " Virg. Eel. viii. 

'* 'Ex A»o( »^xui*,i9^»f xa» CK A»« Xijyilc, Mtf^'At." Theoc. 

'' Prima dicte mihi, summa dicehde Camoena." Hor. P. 


O thou t erf bus'ness the directing soul ! 

To this our head like bias to the bowl, 170 

Which, as more ponderous, made its aim more 

Obliquely waddling to the mwk in view : 
O ! ever gracious to perplexed mankind. 
Still spread a healing mist before the mind ; 
And, lest we err by wit's wild dancing light, 176 
Secure us kindly in our native night. 
Or, if to wit a coxcomb make pretence, 
Guaird the sure barrier between that and sense ; 


laid vcpon him. In a word, he made his attack upon this periwig, 
as your young fellows generally do upon a lady of pleasure, first 
by a few familiar praises of her person, and then a civil inquiry 
into the price of it ; and w6 finished our bargain that nig^t over a 
bottle." See Life, octavo, p. 303. This remarkable periwig usu'^ 
ally made its entrance upon the stage in a sedan, brou^ in by 
two chairmen, with infinite approbation of the audience. P.f 
Ver. 170. To this our head like bias to the bowl. 

Which, as more ponderous, made its aim more truCf 
Obliquely waddling to the mark in mewJ] 
An improvement on Dryden's Mac-Flecknoe : 
" This is that boasted bias of the mind ; 
By which, one way, to Dulness 'tis inclin'd ; 
Which makes thy writings lean on one side still. 
And, in all changes, that way bends thy will." 



Ver. 177. Or, if to wit, ^-c] In the former Edd. 

Ah ! still o'er Britain stretch that peaceful wand, 
Which lulls th' Helvetian and Batavian land ; 
Where rebel to thy throne if Science rise, 
She does but shew her coward fiu;e and dies : 
There thy geod Scholiasts, mdi unwearied pains, 
Make Horaet^ flat, and humble Maro's strains : 


Or qttite unravd all the reas'niitg thready 
And hang some csurious cobweb in its stead ! 180 
As, forc'd firom wind-guns, lead itself can fly. 
And pond'rous slugs cut swiftly thro' the sky ; 

Ver. 181. As forced finm wmd-gunty S^cJ] The thought of 
tliose four verses is found in a poem of our author's of a very 
eurly date (namely, written at fourteen years old, and soon afler 
printed) to the author of a poem called Successio. W.f 



Here studious I unlucky modems save, 

Nor sleeps one error in its Other's grave ; 

Old puns restore, lost blunders nicely seek, 

And crucify poor Shakespear once a week ; 

For thee supplying, in die worst of days, 

Notes to SecS^ books, and prologues to dull plays. 

Not that my quiil to critics was conifin'd, 

My verse gave ampler lessons to manknid : 

So gravest precepts may successless prove, 

But sad examples never fail to move. 

As, forc'd firom wind^'gnns, Sec. W, 

These lines af^^ear to be better than those in the present text. 

Var. And crucify poor Shakespear once a week,'] For some time, 
once a week or fortnight, he printed in Mut*s Journal a single re- 
mark or poor conjecture on some word or pointing of Shakespear^ 
either in his own name, or in letters to himself as from others, 
without name. Upon these somebody made this Epigram : 
'* 'Tis gen'rous, Tibbald! in thee and &y brothers, 
To help us thus to read the works of others : 
Never for this can just returns be shown ; 
For who will help us e'er to read thy own ?" P. 

Var. Notes to dull books, and prologues to dull plays ;'} As to 
Cook^s Hesiod, where sometimes a note, and sometimes even ha(ftL 
note are carefully owned by him : and to Moore's Comedy of the 
Rival Modes, and other authors of the same F»ik. These were 
pe^le who writ about the year 1726. P. 


As clocks to weight their nimble motion owe. 
The wheels above urg'd by the load below. 
Me, Emptiness, and Dulness could inspire, 185 
And were my Elasticity, and Fire. 
Some Demon stole my pen (forgive th' oflTence) 
And once betray'd me into common sense : 
Else all my prose and verse were much the same ; 
This, prose on stilts ; that, poetry fall'n lame. 190 
Did on the stage my Fops appear confin'd ? 
My Life gave ampler lessons to mankind. 


Ver. 185. Me, Emptiness,] This first speech of the Hero is full 
of an impropriety that one could hardly believe our author could 
fall into ; it being contrary to all decorum, character, and proba-' 
bility, that Bays should address the Goddess Dulness, without 
disguising or mistaking her, as a despicable being ; and should 
even call himself fool and blockhead. It is in truth outrageously 
unnatural and absurd. And so also is another and even more 
glaring breach of truth and decorum in Book iv. v. 210, in mak- 
ing Aristarchus, that is, even the great and able Bentley, abuse 
himself, and laugh at his own labours. Bramstone has fallen ihto 
the same absurdity ; 

" A Footman I would be in outward shew. 
In sense and education truly so !" Man of Taste. 

The absurdity in this instance is not in Pope, but in his Com* 
mentator ; who seems to have forgotten that the whole poem is 
ironical, that the merit of Dulness consists in stupidity, and that to 
qualify themselves for her favour, her votaries must be fools and 

Ver. 188. And once betray* d me into common sense.] Alluding, I 
presume, to the same performance, which he has so handsomely 
commended in his Imitations, Epist. ii. 1. 92. 

" To Gammer Gurton if it gives the bays, 
And yet deny the Careless Husband praise." Wakefield. 

MOtiU THE DtJKCIA!)4 1^ 

Did the d^ad letter unsuccessf\d prove t 

The l)risk example neVer fidl'd to movei 

Yet sure/ had Heav'n decreed to save the State> 

He^v^h had decreed the^e works a longer date : 

Could Troy be sav'd by any single hand. 

This grey-goose Weapon must have made her stand. 

MTiat can I now ? my Fletcher cast aside. 

Take up the Bible, once my better guide? 20p 

Ver. 108. Grey^gpose weap(m\ Alluding to the old English 
weapon, the arrow of the long bow, which was fletched with the 
feathers of the grey-goose. W,\ 

Ver. 199. my Fletcher] A familiar manner of sjpeaking, used 
by modem critics, of ^ favourite author. Bays might as justly 
^^k thus of Fletcher, as a French wit did of Tully, seeing hig 
works in a library, " Ah ! mon cher Ciceron ! je le connois bieti ; 
e'est le m^me que Marc Tulle.'* But he had a better title to call 
Fletcher his cfwn, having made so free with him. P. 

Ver. 199, my Fletcher] In the early editions My Flacctts, to 
whom the above note was originally applied. 

Ver. 200. Take up the Bible, once my better guide f] When, 
according to his Father's intention, he had been a Clergyman, or 
(as he thinks himself) a Bishop of Che Church of England. Hear 



Ver. 195« Yet surci had Heav'n, Sfc] In the folmer Edd. 
Had Heav*n decreed such works a longer date, 
Heav'n had decreed to spare the Grubstreet-state. 
Biit see gteat Settle to the dust desc^od, 
And all thy cause and empire at an end t 
Could Troy be sav'd, &c. /F.f 


Ver. 195. had Heaven decreed, ifcJ\ 

" Me si coelicolae voluissent ducere vitam, 
Has mihi serv^sent sedes.""— Virg. ^neid. ii. P, 
Ver. 197| 198. Could Troy be saxfd — This grey-goose weapon] 

"Si Pergama dextrft 

Defendi possent, etiam hac defensa fuissenU" Virg. ibid. P. 

VOL. IV. ^ K 

Or tread the path l&y t^nt'rouft Heroes ti^, 
This box my thMdef , this right-hand my god ! 
Or, ehair'd at Whitens, aitddst the Ddctbrs sit. 
Teach iMOsA to 6ameste]tis> tod to Nobles wit ? 
Or bid'st tk»«L rathfet Party to embrace i 805 
(A fiie&d to Party thou> and ^ her race ; 
'Tis the tetee rope at diff'reiit ends they twi^ ; 
To Duhie^> Ridpath id ^ dfear as Mist) 
Shall I, like Curtius, desp'rate in my zeal. 
O'er head and earis plunge for the Gommofi-weal ? 


Itis own words : <* At the time diat the fate of K. James^ the 
PHneie of Orange^ and m3rself, were on the anri], Proridence 
thbught fit to postpone mine, 'till theirs were determined. But had 
my &tker carried me a month sooner to the University* who knows 
Imt that purer fountain might have washed my imperfections intq 
a capacity of writing, instead of Plays and annual Odc^^ Semons 
and Pastoral Letters f*— Apology fw his life, chap, iir* P.f 

Gibber was sent to Winchester school at an earfy age, with a 
vic# fliat lie might succeed to a £^wship of New-CJoH^jge. 


Vtr. W3. at WtaXe% amidst the Doctors] These Doctors had 
a modest and upright appearance, no air of overbearing ; but, Kke 
true Masters of Arts, were only habited in black and white. They 
were juMly styled ^Piks and grdoai, IbPut l^t always irrtffi^agabileSi 
being some^mes •exaMnned) tod l>y a nice distmd^cto, divided and 
laid c^en;-'-^ScfaiBL:Eau9. W, 

The learned cri^ is to be imdersftood idlegoiically. The Doc- 
TOBs in this place xneto iio more than false dice^ a cant phrase 
usdd fcmongst Gamesters. So Ae meaning of these four sonorous 
lines is only this, " Shall I ^ay fiur or foul ?" P.f 

Ver. 208. Ridpath^Mzst.] Ofeorge Ridpadi, author of a Whig 
Paper, called the Flying Postij l^thairidL Mist, of a fataious Tory 
Journal. px 


Ver. 202. litis box my thundar^ ^kis right'^kand my god f ] 
Dextra mihi Deus, let t^taaquod missile Ubro^ 

Virgil, of the Gods of Mezentius. W. 

BOOK {• T0£ DUNCIAP. 131 

Or rob Rome% ancient geese of aU their glories^ 
AikI cackling save the Monarchy of Tories ? 
Hirfd— to the Minister I more incline ; 
To serve his cause^ O Queen ! is serving thine. 


Ver. 210. O^cr hpad and ears] Thore is, it seems, some little 
difference between: ancient and modem patriotism. Tacitus, 
speaking of a patriot of his times, says, he was master of his oum, 
thofugh not of other people*s ears. Our patriots are become, I don't 
loiow how, masters of other people's ears, but not of their own^ 

Ver. 211. Or rob Rome's ancieni geese of all their glories,'] Re- 
lates to the well-known story of the geese diat sav^d the Capitol ; 
of which Virgil, ^neid viii. 

'* AtqOe hie auratis volitaiis argefeute^s anser 
P^rtioibiis, GaUos in limiBe adesse canebat*" 
A passage I have niways suspected. Who sees not the antithesis 
of auratis and argenteus to be unworthy the Virgilian mijesty ? And 
what absurdity to say a ^oose sings t eanelmt. Virgii gives a con- 
trary character of the voice of this silly bird, in Eel. ix. 

" argntos inter strepere anser olores." 

Read it, therefore, adesse strepebat. And why ata^atis portidbus f 
does not the very verse preceding this inform us, 

'* Romuleoque recens horrebat regia culmo..*' I 
Is this thatch in one line, and gold in another, consistent ? I scruple 
not (repugnantibus omnibus manuscriptis) to correct it awfiHs. Ho- 
race uses the same epithet in the same sense, 

" Auritas fidibus canoris 

Ducere quercus." 
And to say that walls have ears is common even to a proverb. 


Ver. 213. And cackling save the Monarchy of Tories f] Not out 
of any preference or affection to the Tories. For what Hobbes so 



Ver. 213, Hold-^to the Minister"] In die former Edd. 
Yeis, to my Country I my pen consign; 
Yes, from this moment, mighty Mist ! am thine. P. 

K"2 ■ • 


And see ! thy very Gazetteers give o'er ; 215 

Even Ralph repents^ and Henley writes no more. 
What then remains ? Ourself. Stilly still, remain 
Cifoberian forehead, and Cibberian brain. 
This brazen brightness, to the 'Squire so dear ; 
This polish'd hardness, that reflects the Peeri 220 
This arch absurd, that wit and fool delights ; 
This mess, toss'd up of Hockley-hole and White's ; 
Where Dukes and Butchers join to wreathe my 

At once the Bear and Fiddle of the town* 


ingenuously confesses a£ himself, is true of all mi^sterial writers 
whatsoever ; '* that he defends the supreme powers, as the geese by 
their cackling defended the Romans who held the Capitol ; for they 
faTonred them no more than the Gauls, their enemies, but were ^s 
ready to have defended the Gauls, if they had been possessed of 
the Capitol." — Ep, Ded, to the Leviathan, W^ 

Ver. 215. Gazetteers] A band of ministerial writers, hired at 
the price mentioned in the note on book ii. ver. 316» who^ on the 
Very day their patron quitted his post, laid down their paper, and 
declared they would never more meddle in politics. F.f 

Ver. 217. What then remains f Ourself,] A happy, parody on 
the famous Moi of Comeille in his Medea ; who unluckily weak- 
ened the force of this word by adding, et c^est assez, But the 
original is, in Seneca's Tragedy of Medea, 

^ " Medea superest." Warton. 

Ver. 218. Cibberian forehead^] So indeed all the MSS. read ; 
but I make no scruple to pronounce them all wrong, the Laureate 
being elsewhere celebrated by our poet for his great modesty — 
modest Cibber.'-^'SiesAy therefore, at my peril, Cerberian forehead. 
This is perfectly classical, and, what is more, HomericaL The 
Dog i¥as the ancient, as the Bitch is the modem symbol of impu- 
dence (Kvyo; oft/Actr* c%a>v>. says Achilles to Agamemnon), which, 
when in a superlative degree, may well be nominated from Cer- 
berus, the dog with three heads. But, as to the latter part of this 
verse, Cibberian brain^ that is certainly the genuine reading. W, 


O bom in sin/aiid forth in folly brotight ! 226 
Works damn'd/ or to be damn'd ! (your father^ft' 

Go, purified by flames, ascend the sky. 
My better and more christian progeny ! 
Unstained, untouch'd, and yet in maiden sheets ; 
While all your smutty sisters walk the streets. 230 


Ver. 225. bom in nn^ ifc%'\ This is a tender, passionate apos- 
trophe to his own works, which he is going to sa^crifice, agreeable 
to the nature of man in great affliction, and reflecting like a pa- 
rent on the many miserable fiites to which they would otherwise 
be subject. P. 

Ver* 228. My better] Notwithstanding all our author's or his 
commentator's efforts, to reduce to contempt Cibbev's Apology 
for his Life, they will never be able to convince sensible and dis- 
passionate readers, that it is not a work abounding in curious 
anecdotes, and in characters nicely and accurately drawn, though 


Ver. 225. bom in sin, 4*^.] In the former Edd. 
Adieu, my Children ! better thus expire 
Uhstall'd, unsold ; thus glorioilis mount in fire. 
Fair without spot, thaii greas'd by grocers* hands, 
Or shipp'd with Ward to Ape-ahd-monkey larids, 
Or wafting ginger, round the streets to run. 
And visit ale-house, where ye firs^ begun. 
With that, he lifted thrice the sparkling branid^ 
And thrice he dropp'd it, &c. ^ fT.f 


Var. And visit ale-house,'] Waller on the Navy, 
" Those tow'rs of oak o'er fertile plains may go, 
An4 visit mounta^ls where they once did grow," f^* 
Ver. 229. Vnstain*d, untouch' d, *c.] 

■ " Fejix Priameia yirgo ! 

Jussa mori : quae sortitus non pertvljt ullos, 
Nee victoris heri tedgit captiva cubile ! 
Kos, patriJL incensi, diversa per sequora vectse," &c. 

Virg. iEneld, m, "P • 


Ye shall not beg^ like gratis^ven Bkmd^ 

Sent with a pass, and vagrant thro' the land ; 

Nor sail with Ward, to Ape-and-monkey climes. 

Where vile Mundungus trucks for viler rhymes : 

Not, sulphiir-tipt, emblaze an alehouse fire ; 235 

Not, Mrrap up oranges to pelt your sire ! 

O ! pass more innocent, in infant state. 

To the mild Limbo of our Father Tate : 

Or peaceably forgot, at once be blest 

In ShadwelTs bosom with eternal rest ! 240 


in a style indeed singular and affected. Swift was so highly fdeas^ 
.with Gibber's Life, that he sat up all night to read it,' and would 
not quit it till he had finished the volume; of which, when Gibbet 
was informed, he shed tears of joy. Warton, 

Ver. 231. gratis-given Bland — Sent with apass^'] It was aprac-* 
tice so to give the Daily Gazetteer and ministerial pamphlets (in 
which this B. was a writer) and to ttaad them past-free to all the 
towns in the kingdom. P.-jr 

Bland was the Provost of Eton. Warton. 

Ver. 233. — with Ward^ to Ape-and-monk^ climes.'] " Edward 
Ward, a very voluminous poet in Hudibrastic verse, but best 
known by the London Spy^ in proae^ He has of late yean kept a 
public house in the Gity, (but in a genteel way,) and with his 
wit, humour, and good liquor, (ale,) afforded his guests a plea- 
surable entertainment, especially those of the bi^-chwrch party.'' 
— Jacob, Lives of Poets, voL ii. p. S25. Great numbexs of his 
works were yearly sold into the Plantations.— Ward, in a book 
called Apollo's Maggot, declared this account to be a great fal- 
sity, protesting that his public house was not in the City, but in 
Moorfields. P. 

Ver. 238 — 240. Tate, ShadweS] Two of his predecessors in 
the Laurel. P.f 

Ver. 239. ' at once he blest 

In ShadweWs bosom with eternal rest*] 
An indecorous allusion to Luke, xvi« 22^ and in the same manner 
below, ver. 301. and iL 174. Wakefield. 


Soon to that mass of nonsense to vetum, 

Where things destroyed are swept to things un))onL 

With that, a tear (poytei^tous sign of grace !) 
Stol^ from the Master of the sey'nfold Face ; 
And thrice he tifted high the Birth-day brand, 245 
And thrice he dropt it from his quivering hand ; 
Then lights the structure with averted eyes : 
The roVmg smpke Inyolyes the sacrifice. 
The op'ning clouds disclose each work by turns. 
Now flames the Cid^ smd now PeroUa^ bun^i ; 250 


Ver. 244. '• — the Master of the seven-Jbld Face :] A happy 

parody on Ovidt ^^t, xiii. 2. 

■ ^ ' elypei dominus «6ptempHcis Ajax ^ 

<< the master qfthe sev^n-fold sbield.^ Dryden. 

Ver. 247.. Hien Hgkts the structure vnth aaserted ^«.] Au imita- 
tion of Virgil^ ^n. v\, !^. 

^— " sulyectaip, wore p^urentiim 

At^tsi, tenuere facem :*'• 

'< And fire die pie, their fsices tum'd away." Dryden. 

Ver. 260. Ncwjiames the Cidf S^e."] In the first notes on the 

Pimeiady it waa said, that this author was particularly exc^ent at 



Ver. Mft. And thrice he lifted high the Btrth-day brand,^ Ovid, 
of Altfaea on a like occasion, burning her effiipring : 

^ Turn conata quater flammis imponere torrem, 
CoBpta quater tenuit.'' P. 

Ver. 250. Natojlames the Cid, Sfc. 

— — *' Jam De'iphobi dedit ampla ruinam, 
Vulcano superante domus ; jam proximus ardet 
Ucalegon,*' -P. 


Ver. 260. Npwjlames the CUd, 4*^.] In the fornier Edd. 
Now flames old Memnon, now Rodiigo fourns. 


136 THE DUNCIAD'. BOQtiLji^ 

Great Caesar roars, and hisses in the fires ; 

King John in silence modestly expires ; "" .' 


Tragedy. " This (says he) is as unjust as to say I could danced 
on a rope.*' But certain it is that he had attempted to dance on 
this rope, and fell most shamefully, having produced no less thah 
four Tragedies, the names of which the Poet preserves in these 
few lines. The three first of them were fairly printed, acted, ^d 
damned ; the fourth suppressed, in fear of the like tr^tment. Pm\ 


In one quick flash, see Proserpine expire, 
And last, his own cold Eschylus took fire. 
Then gush'd the tears, as firom the Trojan's eyes. 
When the last blaze, &c. Wnf 

Var. Now flames old Memnon, now Rodrigo hums^ 
In one quick flashf see Proserpine expire.] 

Memnon, a Hero in the Persian Princess, very apt to take fire, sot 
appears by these lines, with which he begins the play,. 

" By heav'n, it fires my frozen blood with Tage, - 

And makes it scald my aged trunk." 

Rodrigo, the chief personage of the Perfidious Brother (a play 
written between Tihbald and a Watch-maker). The Rape ofPrO' 
serpine, one of the Farces of this author, in which Ceres set- 
ting fire to a corn-field, endangered the burning of the Plaj^ 
house. P. 

Var. And last his own cold Eschylus took Jlre."] He had been 
(to use an expression of our Poet) about Eschylus for ten years, 
and had received subscriptions for the same, but then went about 
other books. Th^ character pf this tragic Poet is fire and bold- 
ness in a high degree, bi|t our author supposes it very much cooled 
by the translation ; upon sight of a specimen of which was made 
this Epigram, 

" Alas ! poor Eschylus ! unlucky Dpg ! 
Whom once a Lobster kill'd, and now a Log u'^ 
But this is a grievous error, for Eschylus was not slain by the fall 
of a Lobster on his head, but of a Tortoise, teste Val.. Max. 1, ix. 

cap. 12. — SCRIBLERUS. P. 

B00K.1. 1?HK JDUNCIAD. 137 

JS[o ^lerit now the dear Nonjuror claims ; 
Moliere's jold stubble in a moment flames* . 
Tears gush'd again, as from, pale Priam's eyes^ 255 
When the last blaze sent Ilion to the skies. 



Ver. 252. King John] He has omitted a fifUi tragedy written 
)9lsp by Cibber, Xerxes ; which being rejected by the Patentees of 
Drury-Lane, was condemned at Lincoln's Inn Theatre ; though 
Betterton and Mrs. Barry acted in it. Warton, 

Verl 253. the dear Non-juror— ^Moliere^s old stubble] A Comedy 
threshed out of Moliere's Tartuffe, and so much the Translator's 
fiivourite, that he assures us all our author's dislike to it could only 
arise from disaffection to the Government : 

** Qui meprise Cotin, n*estime point son Roi, 
Et n'a, selon Cotin, ni Dieu, ni foi, ni loi." Boil. 
He assures us, that ** when he had the honour to kiss his Majesty's 
hand upon presenting his dedication of it, he was graciously 
pleased, out of his Royal bounty, tQ order him two hundred pounds 
for it. And this, he doubts not, grieved Mr. P.** P.f 

V^r. 256. JVhen the last blaze sent Jlion to the skies,^ See Vir- 
gil, Mn, II, where t would advise the reader to peruse the story 
of Troy's destruction rattier than in Wynkin. But I caution him 
alike in both to beware of a most grievous error, that of thinking 
it was brought about by I know pot what Trojan Horse ; there 
having never been any such thing. For first, it was not Trojan^ 
having been made by the Greeks ; and secondly, it was npf a 
horse, but a mare. This is clear from many verses in Virgil : 
— " Uterumque arm^to milite complent." 

" Inclusos utero Danaos."- 

.Can a horse be said utero gerere ? 


" Uteroque recusso, 

Insonuere cavae." 

" Atque utero sonitum quater arma dedere.'* 

Nay, is it not expressly said, 

*< Scandit fatalis machina muros 

Foeta armis." 

How is it possible the word fc^ta can agree with a horse? And, 

indeed, can it be conceived that the chaste and virgin goddess PaU 


Rous'd by the lights old Dulness heav'd the head. 
Then snatch'd a sheet of Thul^ from her bed ; 
Sudden she flies, and whelms it o'er the pyre ; 
Down sink the flames, and with a hiss expire. 200 

Her ample presence fills up all the place ; 
A veil of fogs dilates her awful face : 
Great in her charms! as when on Shrieves ai)d 

May rs 
She looks, and breathes herself into thdr airis* 


las, would employ herself in formmg and fashiooing the male of 
that species ? But this shall be proved to a demonstration in our 
Virgil restored. P, 

Priam lived to see the beginning of the conflagration, but ngt 
the end of it ; having been murdered, according to Virgil, not very 
late in the fatal evening, A cursory recollection of Drydm's vi- 
sion, at Mn. ii. 692. might possibly be the cause of Pope'3 mistakj^ 


Ver. 258, Thule] An unfinished poem of that name^ of which 
one $heet was p^ted many years ago, by Ambrose Phflip^, a 
northern author. It is an usual method of putting out a fire, to 
cast wet sh^ts upon it. Some critics have been of opinion that 
this sheet was of the nature of the Asbestos, which cannot be coiv- 
aumed by fire : but I rather tliink it an allegorical allusion to th^ 
coldness and heaviness of the writing. P. 

Philips certainly deserved not to be treated mth such acrimo- 
nious contempt, if we consider his epistle from Denmark ; his 
imitation of Strada ; his translation of Sappho* and Pindar ; and 
his Distrest Mother ; though copied indeed from Badne. Pope 
himself commends the Epistle firojcn Denmark in his Letters. 


Ver. 262. A veii (^/ogs diktesh^ av^lfoQeJ] He had his eye 
on a couplet of Dryden, in Mac fl^l^o ; a coupj^t of in^m- 
parable elegance : 

" His brows thick fogs, instead of glories, grace ; 
And lanibeot duln^ss pja/d around his face." Wakefield. 

BOmt f* THE DUKCIAD. 139 

She bids him wait her to her sacred Dome : 265 
Well-pleas'd he enter'd^ and confess'd his home. 
So, Spirits^ ending their terrestrial race^ 
Ascend^ and recognize their native place. 
This the Oreat Mother dearer held than all 
The clubs of Quidnuncs^ or her own Guildhall : 270 
Here stood her opium^ here she nurs'd her owls^ 
And here she plann'd th' imperial seat of fools. 
Here to her chosen all her works she shows ; 
Prose swell'd to verse, verse loit'ring into prose : 
How random thoughts now meaning chance to find. 
Now leave all memory of sense behind : 
How prologues into prefaces decay. 
And these to notes are fritter'd quite away : 


After Ver. 1208, in the fbnner Edd. followed these two lines, 
Rs^tur'd, he gazes round the dear retreat, 
And in sweet numbers celebrates die seat. W.f 

Var. And in gvxet numbers celebrates the seatJ] Tibbald writ a 
poem called the Cave qf Poverty, which concludes with a very ex- 
traordinary wish, ** That som^ great genius, or man of distin- 
guished merit, may be starved, in order to celebrate her power, 
and describe her Cave.'' It was printed in octavo, 1716. P, 


Ver. 263. Chreat in her charms ! as when on Shrieves and May*rs 
She looks, and breathes herself into their airsJ] 
** Ahna parens confessa Deam ; qualisque videri 

Coelicolis, et quanta solet* Virg. JEiu ii. 

"* Et laetos oculis afflavit honores." Id. Mn. i. P. 

Ver. 289. This the Great Mother, ^c] 
** Urbs antiqua fuit 
Quam Juno fertur terris magi^ omnibus unam 
Posthabit^ coluisse Samo : hie iUius arma, 
Mic curms fuit : hoc regnum Dea gentibus esse 
(Si qua fata sinant) jam tum tenditque fovetque.** 

ViRo. JEneid. i. P.f 


How index-learning turhs no student pale. 
Yet hdids the eel of science by the tail : 2^0 

How, with less reading than makes felons 'scape. 
Less human genius than God gives an ape. 
Small thanks to France, and none to Rome or 

A past, vamp'd, future, old, reviv'd new piece, 
'TwixtPlautus, Fletcher, Shakespear, andComeille, 
Can make a Cibb^r, Tibbald, or Ozell, 


yer.386. Tibbald,^ Lewis Tibba}d (as pronounced), or Theobald 
(as written), was bred an Attorney, and son to an Attorney (says 
Mr. Jacob) of Sittenburn in Kent. He was author of some 
forgotten Flays, Translations, and other pieces. He was con- 
cerned in a paper called the Censor, and a Translation of Ovid. 
'* There is a notorious Idiot, one hight Whachum, who, from an 
under spur-leather to the law» is become an under-strapper to the 
Playhouse, who hath lately burlesqued the Metamorphoses of Ovid 
by a vile translation, &c. Thisi fellow is concerned in an imper- 
•tinent paper called the Ce^sor."— -Dennis, Rem. on Pope's Horn. 
^.9,10. P.f . 

Ibid. OzelL] " Mr, John Ozell (if we credit Mr. Jacob) did go 
to school in Leicestershire, where somebody left him something to 
live on, when he shall retire from business. He was designed to 
be sent to Cambridge, in order for priesthood ; but he chose rather 
to be placed in an office of accounts^ in the City,, being qualified for 
the same by his skill in arithmetic^ and writing the necessary hands. 
He has obliged the world with many translations of French Plays." 
Jacob^ Lives of Dram. Poets, p. 198. P. 

Mr. Jacob's character of Mr, Ozell seems vastly short of his 
merits, and he ought to have further justice done him, having since 
fully confuted all sarcasms on his learning and genius, by an 
advertisement of Sept. 20, 1 729, in a Paper called the Weekly 
Medley, &c. " As to my learnings this envious wretch knew, and 
every body knows, that the whole Bench of Bishops, not long ago, 
were pleased to give me a purse of guineas, for discovering 5ie 
erroneous translations of the Common-prayer in Portuguese, 


Book t. 'PttE DUKCU0. 111 

The Goddess then, o*er his anointed head. 
With mystic words, the sacred opium shed. 
And lo ! her bird (a monster of a fowl. 
Something betwixt a Hddeggre and owl) 290 

Perch'd on his crown. '^ All hail I and hail again. 
My son ! the promised land expects thy reign. 


Spanish, French, Italian, &c. As for my genius^ let Mr. Cleland 
shew better verses in all Pope's works, than Ozell's version of 
Bojleau's Lutrin, which the late Lord Halifax was so pleased with, 
that he complimented him with leave to dedicate it to him, &c. 
Let him shew better and truer poetry in the Rape of the Lock, 
than in Ozell's Rape of the Bucket (la Secchia rapita). And Mr. 
Toland and Mr. Gildon publicly declared Obeli's translation of 
Homer to be, as it was prior, so likewise superior to Pope's, Surely, 
' surely, every man is free to deserve well of his country !" 

John Oz£Lt. 

We cannot but subscribe to such reverend testimonies, as those 
of the Bench of Bishops, Mr. Toland, and Mr. Gildon. P.f 

Ibid, a Cibber, Tibbald, or OzellJ] A triumvirate surely not of 
authors on a level. The^r^^ far superior to the other two. What 
did they produce, in any respect, e<][ual to the Careless Husband, 
and the History of the Stage! War ton. 

Ver. 287. The Goddess then^ There was a poem published, 
1712, entitled Bibliotheca, by Mr. Thomas Newcomb, a friend of 
Dr. Young, and reprinted in the fifth volume of Nicols's Collec- 
tion, p. 19, in which the Goddess Oblivion is introduced, speaking 
and acting, so very like the Goddess Dulness, and which throughout 
bears so close and striking a resemblance to the Dunciad, that it 
is impossible Pope should not have seen and copied it, though 
with exquisite improvements. The expression, " o'er his anointed 
head," is from Mac Fleckno : 

" That for anointed Dolne^d he was made." 
As also is the preceding line, 262 : 

" His brows thick fogs, instead of glories, grace. Warton. 

Ver. 290. a Heideggre] A strange bird from Switzerland, and 
not (as some have supposed) the name of an eminent person, who 



Know^ Eusden thirsts np more for sack or praise ; 
He sleeps among the dull of ancient days ; 
Safe^ where no critics damn^ no dmis molest^ 295 
Where wretched Withers, Ward, and Gildon rest^ 
And high-bom Howard, more majestic sire. 
With Fool of Quality completes the quire. 
Thou, Gibber! thou, his Laurel shalt support; 
Folly, my son, has still a friend at Court. 300 


was a man of parts, and, as was said of Petronius, Arbiter Ble- 
garUiarum, P»f 

Ibid. Gildori] Charles Gildon, a writer of criticisms and libels 
of the last age, bred at St. Omer's with the Jesuits ; but renouncing 
popery, he published Blount^s books against the Divinity of Christ, 
the Oracles of Reason, &c. He signaUzed himself as a critic, 
having written some very bad Plays ; abused Mr. P. very scanda- 
lously in an anonymous pamphlet of the Life of Mr. Wycherley, 
printed by Curl ; in another, called the New Rehearsal, printed in 
1714 ; in a third, entitled the Complete Art of English Poetry, in 
two volumes ; and others. P. 

Ver. 297. Howard^'} Hon. Edward Howard, author of the 
British Princes, and a great number of wonderful pieces, celebrated 
by the late Earls of Dorset and Rochester, Duke of Buckingham, 
Mr. Waller, &c. P. 


Ver, 293. JGww Eusden, SfcJ] In the former Edd. 
Know, Settle, cloyed with custard and with praise. 
Is gather'd to the dull of ancient days. 
Safe, where no critics damn, no duns molest. 
Where Gildon, Banks, and high-bom Howard rest 
I see a King ! who leads my chosen sons 
To lands that flow with clenches and with pims : 
Till each fam'd theatre my empire own ; 
Till Albion, as Hibemia, bless my throne ! 
I see ! I see !— Then rapt she «poke no more, 
God save Kipg Tibbald ! Grub-street alleys roar. 
So when Jove's block, &c. W,f 

Lift up jroiir gates, ye Princes, see him come ! 
Sound, sound, ye viols, be the catrcall dumb t 
Bring, bring the madding bay, the dmnken vine; 
Th6 creeping, dirty, courtly ivy join. 
And thou, his Aid-^e^amp, lead on my sons, 305 
Light-arm'd with Points, Antitheses, and Puns. 
Let Bawdry, Billingsgate, my daughters dear, 
Support his front, and Oaths bring up the rear : 
And under his, and under Archer's wing. 
Gaming andGrub-street skulk behind the Khig.310 


Ver. 301. Lift up your gates,"] t know not what can excuse this 
very profane alludbii to a sublkne passage in the Psahns ; which 
was added to the last edition of the Dunciad in fbur books ; kni 
this too under the auspices and direction of Dr. Warburton. So 
again in Book iii. ver. 126. Ahd klso again Book iv. ver. 562. 

'< Dove-lik^ she gathers to her wings again.^ 
And in the Arg«im«tlt)i, he talks of giving a PiBgalh-sight of the 
future Ailfiess of her Glory ; and even of sending Priests, and 
Coif&rters, Warton. 

Ver. 309, 310. tmider Archer's toing, Oammgy 4^.] When the 

Statute against gaining was drawn up, it was represented, that 
the King, by aiKSient Custom, plays at Hazard one night in th^ 
ye^; and therefore a dause was ins^ned, witSi an exception as to 
(hat paiticukt. Under this pret£Sice„ the Oro^nn^porter had a 
tffom appropriated to gattiitig all the summer the Court wan iiC 
Kensington, which his Majesty accidentally h&aetg acquainted of> 
with^a just indigtiation prohibited. It is reported the same practioe 
is y«it continued wherever the Court resides, and the Hazard TaUe 
there open to aU the professed Gamesters in Town. 

« Greatest 

Ver. 804. The treepingy rft>#y, courtly ipyjoin.] 

** Quorum Imagines lambunt 

Hederse sequaces." P«rs. If, 


O ! when shftU rise a Monarch all our own^ 
And I, a nursing mother, rock the throne; 
'Twixt Prince and people close the curtain draw. 
Shade him from light, and cover him from law ; 
Fatten the courtier, starve the learned band, 315 
And suckle armies, and dry-nurse the land : 
Till Senates nod to lullabies divine. 
And all be sleep, as at an Ode of thine." 

She ceas'd. Then swells the Chapel-royal throat : 
God save king Gibber ! mounts in ev'ry note. 320 
Familiar White's, God save king Colly ! cries ; 
God save king Colly ! Drury-lane replies ; 
To Needham's quick the voice triumphal rode> 
Bift pious Needham dropt the name of God ; 


" Ch'eatesi and juslesi Sov'reign, know you this ? 
Alas ! no more, than Thames' calm head can knolv 
Whose meads his arms drown^ or whose cotn overflow.*' 

Donne to Queen Eliz. P,f 

This practice has been laid aside for many years. fVartan. 

Ver. 319. Chapel-royal] The voices and instruments used ilt 
the service of the Chapel-royal being also employed in the pei^ 
formance of the Birth-day and New-year Odes. P.f 

Ver. *324. But pious Needham"] A Matron of great fame, and 
very religious in her way ; whose constant prayer it was, that she 
might ** get enough by her profession to leave it off in time, and 
make her peace with God." But her fate was not so happy ; fwr 
being convicted, and set in the pillory, she was (to the lasting 
shame of all her great friends and votaries) so ill used by the 
populace, that it put an end to her days* P.f 


Ver. 311. 0/ when shall rise a Monarchy t/^c] Boileau, Lutrin, 
Chant II. 

" Helas ! qu'est devenu ce tems, cet heureux tems, 
Ou les Rois s'honoroient du nom de Fain6ans ;" &c. P.f 


Back to the Devil the last echoes roll, 325 

And CoD f each Butcher roars at Hockley-hole. 

So when Jove's block descended from on high, 
(As sings thy great forefather, Ogilby,) 
Loud thunder to its bottom shook the bog. 
And the hoarse nation croak'd, God save King Log! 


Ver. 326. Back to the Devil] The DevU Tavern in Fleet Street, 
where these Odes are usually rehearsed before they are performed 
at Court. P.f 

Upon which a Wit of those times made this Epigram : 
" When Laureates make Odes, do you ask of what sort ? 
Do you ask if they're good, or are evil ? 
You may judge — From the Devil they come to the Court, 
And go from the Court to the Devil." W. 

Ver. 328. Ogilby)^ God save King Logf] See Ogilb/s Esop's 
Fables, where, in the story of the Frogs and their King, this ex'- 
ceUent hemistic is to be found. 

Our author manifests here, and elsewhere, a prodigious tender- 
ness for the bad writers. We see he selects the only good passage, 
perhaps, in all that ever Ogilby writ ; which shews how candid 
and patient a reader he must have been. 

But how much all indulgence is lost upon these people may 
appear from the just reflection made on their constant conduct and 
constant fate, in the following Epigram : 

<* Ye little Wits, that gleam'd a while. 
When Pope vouchsafed a ray, 
Alas ! deprived of his kind smile, 
How soon ye fade away ! 
^* To compass Phoebus' car about. 
Thus empty vapours rise ; 
Each lends his cloud, to put him out. 
That rear'd him to the skies, 
** Alas ! those skies are not your sphere ; 
There he shall ever bum : 
Weep, weep, and fall ! for Earth ye were. 
And must to Earth return." P. 








T/ie King being proclaimed, the solemnity is graced with public 
Games and sports of various kinds ; not instituted by the Hero, 
as byJEneas in Virgil, but, for greater honour, by the Goddess in 
person, in like manner as the games Pythia, Isthmia, ^c. were 
anciently said to be ordained by the Gods, and as Thetis herself 
appearing, according to Homer, Odyss. xxiv. proposed the prizes 
in honour of her soti Achilles. Hither fiock the Poets and Critics, 
attended, as is but just, pith their Patrons and Booksellers, The 
Goddess is first pleased, for her disport, to propose games to the 
Booksellers^ and seiteth up the phantom qfa Poet, which theycon^ 
tend to overtake. The Races described, with their divers acci- 
dents, Nexty the game for a Poetess. Then follow the Exercises 
for the Poets, of tickling, vociferating, diving : the first holds 
forth the arts and practices of Dedicators, the second of Dispu- 
tants and fustian-Poets, the third q/* profound, dark, and dirty 
Party-writers. Lastly, for the Critics, the Goddess proposes, 
with great propriety, an Exercise, not of their parts, but their 
patience, in hearing the works qftwo voluminous Authors, the one 
in verse, and the otlier in prose, deliberately read, without sleep" 
ing : the various effects of which, with the several degrees and 
manners of their operation, are here set forth; till the whole nttin- 
ber, not of Critics only, but of spectators, actors, and all present, 
fall fast asleep ; which naturally and necessarily ends the games. 


BOOK 11. 

High on a gorgeous seat^ that far out-shone 
Henley's gflt tub, or Fleckno's Irish throne. 
Or that where on her Curls the Public pours. 
All bounteous, fragrant grains and golden show'rs,* 


Two things there are, upon the supposition of which the yery 
basis of all verbal criticism is founded and supported: the first, 
that an author could never fail to use the best word on every oc- 
casion ; the second, that a critic cannot chuse but know which 
• that is. This being granted, whenever any word doth not Ailly 
content us, we take upon us to conclude, first, that the author 
could never have used it; and,- secondly, that he must have used 
that very one^ which we conjecture, in its stead. 

We cannot, therefore, enough admire the learned Scriblerus for 
his alteration of the text in the two last verses of the preceding 
book, which in all the former editions stood thus : 

" Hoarse thunder to. its bottom shook the bog, . 
And the loud nation croak'd, God save King Log T 
He has, with great judgment, transposed these two epithets ; put- 
ting hoarse to the nation, and loud to the thunder. And this being 
evidently the true reading, he voudisafed not so much as to men- 
tion the former ; for which assertion of the just right of a critic, 
he merits the acknowledgment of all sound commentators. P. 

Ver. 2. Henley*s gilt H^,] The pulpit of a Dissenter is usually 



Ver. 1. High on a gorgeous seaty"] Parody of Milton, book ii. 
" High on a throne of royal state, that fax 
Outshone the wealth of Ormus and of Ind, 
Or where the gorgeous East, with richest hand, 
Show'rs on her kings Barbaric pearl and gold, 
Satan exalted sate." P- 


Great Cibber sate. The proud Parnassian sneer, 6 
The conscious simper,, and the jealous leer, 


called a Tub ; but that of Mr. Orator Henley was covered with 
velvet, and adorned with gold. He had also a fair altar, and over 
it this extraordinary inscription : The Primitive Eucharist. See 
the histoiiy of this person^ Book iii* •P- 

Ver. 2. or Fleckno's hriih throne^ Richard Fleckno wa&am Iriili 
priest, but had laid aside (as himself expressed it) the mechanic 
part of priesthood. He printed some plays, poems, letters*, snd 
travek. I doubt sot, our authoi took occasion to meiidoii him m 
respect to the poem of Mr. Dryden, to which this bears some 
resemblance, though of a character more different from it than 
that of the £ndd from the Iliad, or tbe Lutrin of Boileau from 
the Drfaiie des Bouts rimees of Sarazin. P* 

It may be just worth mentioning, that the eminence from whence 
the ancient sophists entertained their auditors, was called by tiie 
pompous name of a throne. — iict O^qw rtvof ^l|/D^S /xoAa 0-of iri»*^( 
xcit cfSat^St, — ThemistittSf Orat. 1. P^f^ 

Andrew MarveB wrote a satirical poem on Fleckno, with his 
usual spirit. There is a Comedy of Fleckno, 1667, entitled, 
Demoiselles k la Mode. Warton, 

Ver. dk Or that where on her Curls the Public pours,] Edimund 
Curl stood in the pillory at Charing-Cross, in March ITST-B. 
*' This (saith Edmund Curl) is a felse assertion — I had indeed the 
corporal punishment of what the Gentlemen of the long Robe are 
pleased jocosely ta call mounting the Rostrum for one hour : hnt 
that scene of action was not in the month of March, but in Fe* 
bruaryj* [Curliad, 12mo, p. 19.] And of the History of his being 
tossed in a Blanket, he saith, " Here, Scriblerusf thouleeseth in-what 
thou assertest concemmg the blanket : it was not a blanket, but a 
rug." p. 25. Much in the same manner Mr. Cibber remonstrated, 
that his Brothers, at Bedlam, mentioned Book L were not Brazen, 
but Blocks ! yet our author let it pass unaltered, as a trifle that no 
way altered the relationship. P.f 

Ver. 5. Great Cibber sate.] It is observable that^in this passa^ 
the lines run more into one another, than in any other part of our 
author's works. See lines 5, 7. Perhaps it might be wished he 
had more frequently done so, as it would have added variety to 
his numbers. Hart and Fenton thougirt^ so; Warton. 

jiOOk n. ^THE DUNCIAD. 151 

Mix on his look : all eyes direct their rays 
On him^ and crowds turn coxcombs as they gaze. 
His Peers shine round him Wiih reflected graee. 
New edge their dtOnei^s^ and new bronze their face. 
So from the Stin's htMA heata, in shallow urns 
Heav'n's twinkling Sparks draw lights and point 
their homs« 

Not with more glee, with hatitds Pontific erown'd. 
With scarlet hats wide-waving circled round, 
Rome in her Capitol saw Querno sit, 15 

Thron'd on seven hills, the Antichrist of wit. 

And now the Queen, to glad her sons, proclaimig 
By herald Hawkers, high heroic Games. 


Ver. 15. Rome in her Capitol saiv 2uemd sity] Camillo Quernb 
was of Apulia, who hearing the great encouragement which Leo X. 
gave to poets, travelled to Rome with a harp in his hand, and 
sung to it twenty thousand verses of a poem called Alexias. He 
was introduced as a Buffoon to Leo, and promoted to the honour 
of the Laurel; a jest which the court of Rome and the Pope him- 
self entered into so far, as to cause him to ride on an elephant to 
the Capitol, and to hold a solemn festival on his coronation ; at 
which, it is recorded, the Poet himself was so transported as to 
weep for joy* He was ever afler a constant frequenter of the 
Pope's table, drank abundantly, and poured forth verses without 
number. Paulus Jovius, Elog. Vir. doct. cap. Ixxxii. Some idea 
of his poetry is given by Fam. Strada, in his Prolusions. P. 

Ver. 16. Antichrist of wit."] Chaucer, as well as Dante, as- 
serted that the Ctiurch of Rome was Antichrist ; a notion Bossuct 
has taken so much pains to refute. Wartan, 

Ver. 18. high heroic GamesJ] It is impossible to read without 

smiling, the gravity with which Dennis attacks these games, and 

the reasons he gives for their impropriety. " Is it not monstrous 

to imagine they could take place in the master-street of a great 

city; a street eternally crowded widl carriages, carts, coaches, 

* See Life of C. C. chap. vi. p. 140. 


They summon all her race : an endless band 
Pours forth^ andleaves unpeopled half the land. 20 
A motley mixture! m long wigs, in bags. 
In silks, in crapes, in Garters, and in rags. 
From drawing-rooms, from colleges, from garrets. 
On horse, on foot, in hacks, and gilded chariots ; 
^11 who true Dunces in her cause appear'd, 25 
And all who knew those Dunces to reward. 

Amid that area wide they took their stand. 
Where the tall May-pole once o'erlook'd the Strand, 
But now (so Anne and Piety ordain) 
A Church collects the saints of Drury-lane. 30 

With Authors, Stationers obey'd the call ; 
The field of glory is a field for all ! 
Glory, and gain, th' industrious tribe provoke ; 
And gentle Dulness ever loves a joke. 
A Poet's form she plac'd before their eyes, 35 
And bade the nimblest racer seize the prize ; 


chairs, and men, passing in the greatest hurry about private and 
public affairs ?" — Remarks on Dunciad, p. 19, 1729. Warton. 

Ver. 35. A Poet*sform\ A clear, energetic, and lively descrip- 
tion, especially line 41, and the three succeeding ones, of this truly 
ridiculous Phantom. Dr. Young, who was well acquainted .with 
More, told me the portrait was not over-charged. Wartorii 


Ver, 35. A Poet* s form she placed before their eyes,] This is what 
Juno does to deceive Turnus, ^neid, x. 

*' Turn Dea nube cav^ tenuem sine viribus umbram 
In faciem ^neae (visu mirabile monstrum !) 
Dardaniis ornat telis, clypeumque jubasque 
Divini assimilat capitis 

•Dat inania verba, 

Dat sine mente sonum,** 



No meagre^ muse-rid mope^ adust and thin. 
In a dun night-gown of his own loose skin ; 
But such a bulk as no twelve bards could raise/ 
Twelve starv'ling bards of these degenerate days. 40 


Vir. 39. BtU such a bulk'] Parodies are the chief and constant 
ornaments of a mock-heroic poem. The many introduced by our- 
author are made with singular pleasantry, happiness, and judg- 
ment. The ancients, particularly the Athenians, were fond of pa- 
rodies ; especially such as were made on passages of Homer, with 
whose works they were so familiarly acquainted. In the fourth 
book of Athenaeus, page 134, of Casaubon*s excellent edition, is a 
parody, consisting of more than one hundred verses, of Matron, 
whom Eustathius frequently quotes and praises. It is a ridiculous 
description of a supper. See Fabricius, Bib. Grsec. p. 354. B. 1. 
It is well known how many parodies Aristophanes has given us on- 
Euripides, and other tragedians. Hegemon, says Athenseus, in' 
his ninth book, p. 406, was the first author very famous for -paro- 
dies ; he was called, faxn, Lenticula. He was also an excellent 
actor ; and the Athenians were so fond of him, that one day when 
news was brought of their defeat in Sicily, they would not quit the 
theatre, but insisted that Hegemon should finish the piece. He 
was a great favourite of Alcibiades, of whom and Hegemon, 
Athenseus relates a story worth the reader's perusal ; p. 407 of 
Casaubon's edition. There are some excellent parodies in the 
Rehearsal, in Bramston's Art of Politics, in the Scribleriad, in the 
Battle of the Wigs, in the Tale of a Tub, and in the works of 
Fielding. fVarion. 


The reader will observe how exactly some of these verses suit 
with their allegorical application here to a Plagiary. There seems 
to me a great propriety in this Episode, where such an one is 
imagined by a phantom that deludes the grasp of the expecting 
Bookseller. P. 

Ver. 39. But such a bulk as no twelve bards could raise,] 

** Vix illud lecti bis sex 

Qualia nunc hominum producit corpora tellus." 

VtRO. ^neid. xii. 



All as a partridge plump, f uU-fed^ and fair. 

She form'd this image oi well-bodied air ; 

With pert flat eyes she window'd well its head ; 

A brain of feathers, and a heart of lead ; 

And empty words she gave, and sounding strain, 45 

But senseless, lifeless ! idol void and vain ! 

Never was dash'd out, at one lucky hit, 

A fool, so just a copy of a wit ; 

So like> that critics said, and courtiers swore, 

A wit it was, and cali'd the phantom More. 50 

Ver. 44. A brain of feathers,'] i. e. 

'* A trifling head and a corrupted heart," 
as the Poet, Book iv. describes the accomplished Sons of Dulness ; 
of whom this is only an image, or scarecrow ; and so stuffed out 
witih these corresponding materials. Scriblerus. W, 

Ver. 47. Never was dashed out, at one lucky hit,] Our author 
here seems willing to give some account of the possibility ofDid- 
ness making a wit, which could be done no other way than by 
chance. The fiction is the more reconciled to probability, by the 
known story of Apelles, who being at a loss to express the form 
of Alexander's horse, dashed his pencil in despair at the picture) 
and happened to do it by that fortunate stroke. P. 

Ver. 50. and calVd the phantom More.] Curl, in his Key to 
the Dunciad, affirmed this to be James-Moore Smith, Esq. and it 
is probable (considering what is said of him in the Testimonies} 
that some might fancy our author obliged to represent this gentle- 
man as a plagiary, or to pass for one himself. His case indeed 
was like that of a man I have heard of, who, as he was sitting in 
company, perceived his next neighbour had stolen his handker- 
chief. " Sir, (said the thief, finding himsdf detected), do not expose 
me, I did it for mere want ; be so good but to take it privately 
out of my pocket again, and say nothing." The honest man did 
so, but the other cried out, '* See, gentlem^ what a thief we 
have among us ! look, he is stealing my handkerchief!" 

Some tinxe before, he had borrowed of Dr. Arbuthnot a paper 
called an EUstorico-physical account of the South'Sea ; and of Mr. 



All gaze with vdour : some^ a poet's natne^ 
Otben^ a gword-kiioi and lac'd suit inflame. 


Vofptj tfae Memoirs of a Parish Ckrk, whkh for two yearn he kept, 
aad read to the Rev. Dr. Youngs F, BiUers^ esq. and many 
others, as his own. Being applied to for them, he pretended theyr 
were lost ; but there happening to be another copy of the latter^ 
it came out in Swift and Pope^n Miscellanies. Upon this, it seems, 
he was so far mistaken as to confess his proceeding by an endeap 
vour to hide it ; unguardedly prmting (in the Daify Journal of 
^^ril 3, 172B,) " That the contempt which he and odiers had for 
those pieces** (which only himself had shown and handed about atf 
his own) '* occasioned their being, lost, and for that cause only not 
returned." A Handy of which as none but he could be conscious, 
none but he could be the puUish^ of it. The plagiarisms of this 
person gave occasion to the following Epigram : 

•* More always smiles whenever he recites ; 
He smiles (yow thmk) approring what he writes. 
And yet in this no vanity is shown ; 
A modest man may like what's not his own.'' 

This young Gentleman's whole misfortune was too inordinate a 
passion to be thought a wit. Here is a very strong instance at- 
tested by Mr. Savage^ son of the late Earl Rivers ; who having 
shewn some verses of his in manuscript to Mr. Moore, wherein 
Mr. Pope was called Jfr*^ of the tunefid train, Mr. Moore the next 
morning sent to Mr. Savage to desire him to give those verses 
another turn, to wit, "That Pope might now be the first, because 
Moore had left him unrivalled in turning his style to Comedy." This 
was during the rehearsal of the Rival Modes, his first and only 
work ; the Town condemned it in the action, but he printed it in 
1726-7, with this modest motto. 

Hie vastus, artemque repono. 
The smaller pieces which we have heard attributed to this author, 
are, An Epigram on the Bridge at Blenheim, by Dr. Eoans ; Cos- 
melia^ by Mr. Pitt, Mr. Jones, &c. The Mock-marriage of a 
mad Divine^ with a CI — for a Parson, by Dr. W. The Saw-pit, 

a.Simile, by a Friend. CertaiaPhysical works of Sir James Baker ; 



But lofty Lintot in the circle rose : 
This prize is mine; who tempt it' are my foes;: 
With me began this genius^ and shall end!" 55 

He spoke : and who with Lintot shall contend? 
Fear held them mute. Alone, untaught to fear. 

Stood dauntless Curl ; ^' Behold that rival here ! 


and some unowned Letters, Advertisements, and Epigrams against 
otir author in the Daily Journal. 

Notwithstanding what is here collected of the person imagined 
by Curl to be meant in this place, we cannot be of that opinion ; 
smce our Poet had certainly no need of vindicating half a dozen 
verses to himself, which every reader had done for him ; since the 
name itself is not spelled Moore but More ; and lastly, since the 
learned Scrihlerus has so well proved the contrary. P, 

Of this note, which is entirely Pope*S| from the editions of 
1729, Mr. Bowles has attributed the former part to Warburtorit 
and the latter to Warton. 

Ver. 50. the phantom More,'] It appears from hence, that this is 
not the name of a real person, but fictitious. More from fAu^it 
stultus, fAu^laf stultitia, to represent the folly of a plagiary. Thus 
Erasmus, Admonuit me Mori cognomen tihi^ quod tarn ad Moriae 
vocabulum accedit quam es ipse a re alienus. Dedication of Morise 
Encomium to Sir Tho. More ; the farewell of which may be our 
author's to his plagiary, Fa/e, More! et moriam tuam gnaviter 
dtfende. Adieu, More ! and be sure strongly to defend thy own 

folly. SCRIBLERUS. P. 

Ver. 53. But lofty Lintot'] We enter here upon the Episode of 
the Booksellers ; persons, whose names being more known and 
famous in the learned world than those of the authors in this 
poem, do therefore need less explanation. The action of Mr. Lin- 
tot here imitates that of Dares in Virgil, rising just in this man- 
ner to lay hold on a Bull. This eminent Bookseller printed the 
Rival Modes before mentioned. P. 

Ver. 5S. Stood dauntless Curl;] We come now to a character 
of much respect, that of Mr. Edmund Curl. As a plain repetition 
of great actions is the best praise of them, we shall only say of 



'' The race by vigour^ not by vaunts, iia won ; 

'' So take the hindmost. Hell!" He said; and run. 60 


this eminent man, that he carried the Trade many lengths beyond 
what it ever before had arrived at ; and that he was. the envy and 
admiration of all his profession. He possessed himself of a coiii-* 
mand over all authors whatever : he caused them to write what lie 
pleased ; they could not call dieir very names their own. He 
was not only famous among these ;- he was taken notice of by the 
State, the Church, and the Law, and received particular marks of 
distinction from each. • 

It will be owned that he is here introduced with all possible 
dignity.' He speaks like the intrepid Diomed ; he runs like the 
swifl-footed Achilles ; if he falls^ 'tis like the beloved Nisus ; and 
(what Homer makes to be the chief of all praises) he \s favoured 
of the Gods ; he says but three words, and his prayer is heard; a 
Goddess conveys it to the seat of Jupiter. Though he loses the 
prize; he gains the victory; the great Mother herself comforts 
him; she inspires him with expedients; she honours him with an 
immortal present (such as Achilles receives from Thetis, and :£neas 
from Venus) at once instructive and prophetical. After this he is 
unrivalled and triumphant. 

The tribute our author here pays him is a grateful return for 
several immerited obligations. Many weighty animadversions on 
thepiublic affairs, and. many excellent and diverting pieces on pri- 
vate, persons, has he given to , his name. If ever he owed two 
ve];ses to. any other, he owed Mr. Curl some thousands. He was 
everyday extending his fame, and enlarging his writings : wit- 
Q^s innumerable Instances ! But it shall sufRce only to. men^qn 
the Court Poems, which he meant to. publish as the . work of the 
true writer, a Lady of quality ; but being first threatened,: and. afr 
terwards punished for it^ by Mr.. Pope, he generously tranferred 
it from her, to him, and ever since printed it in his name. The 



Ver. 60. .So take the hindmost, Hellf] 

^* Occupet extremum scabies ; mihi turpe.relinqui est." 

Hor. de Arte. P. 

158 THE DUtfCIiH. BOW 11^ 

Swift as a bard the bailiff leaves behind. 
He left huge Lintot, and aut-stripp'd the wind. 
As when a dab-chick waddles thro* the copse 
On feet and wings, and flies, and wades, and hops ; 
So laboring on, with shoulders, hands, and head, 65 
Wide as a wind-mill all his figure spread. 
With arms expanded Bernard rows his state^ 
And left4egg'd Jacob seems to emulate. 



Single time that ever he spoke to C. was on that affair^ and to 
thi^t happy incident he owed all the &vours since receired from 
him. So true is the saying of Dr. Sydenham, " that any one shall 
be, at some time or other, the better or the worse, for haying but 
t^en or ^oken to a good or bad man.'* P. 

Ver. 60. So take the hmdmoit,'] In that eccentric puUicatioii 
called the Life of John Buncle, is an account of Curl, with whom 
the author professes to have been well acquainted ; describ- 
ing him as '^ in person very tall and thin, an ungainly, awk*- 
ward, white-&ced man : his eyes were a light^grey, large, pro- 
jecting, goggle, and purblind. He was splay^&oted and bakers- 


Ver. 61. Swift as a bard] Something like this in Homer, H, Xi 
ver. S30. of Diomed. Two different manners of the same author 
in his similes are also imitated in the two following ; the first, of 
the baili£P, is short, unadorned, and (as the critics well know) from 
familiar l\fe ; the se^sond, of the water-fowl, more extended, pic- 
turesque, and from rural life. The 50th verse is likewise a literal 
translation of one in Homer. P. 

-^ Ver. 64, 65. On feet and mngs, andJUes, and wades, and hops ; 

So laboring on with shoulders, hands, and head,"] 

■ ■ " So eagerly the Fiend 
O'er bog, o*er steep, thro* strait, rough, dense, or rare. 
With head, hands, wings, or feet pursues his way, 
And swims, or sinks, or wades, or creeps, or flies." 

Milton, Book ii. P. 


Full in thq laiddle way there stood a lake. 
Which Curl's Corinua chanc'd that taom to make: 
(Such was her wont, at early dawn to drop 
Her ev'ning cates hefore his neighbour's shop ;) 
Here fqrtun'd Curl to slide ; loud shout the hmd. 
And Bernard! Bernard! rings thro' all the Strand. 


Ver. 67. fViih arms expanded, Sfc,'] That is, Jacob Tonson ; to 
whom Dryden, on being refused the price asked for his Virgil, 
sent the following verses : 

" With leering look, bull-fac'd, and freckled 
With Hvo left legs, with Judas-colour' 
And frowsy pores, that taint the ambient 

adding to the messaiiger, " Tell the dog that he who wrote them» 
can write more." The money was paid accordingly. 
The couplet before us stood thus in a former edition : 

With legs expanded Bernard ur^d the race, 

And seem*d to emulate great Jacob's pace, Wakefield. 

Ver. 70. CurPs Corinna"} This name, it seems, was taken by 
one Mrs. Thomas, wlio procured some private letters of Mr. Pope, 
while almost a boy, to Mr. Cromwell, and sold them, without the 
consent of either of those Gentlemen, to Curl, who printed them 
in 12mo, 1727. He discovered her to be the publisher, in his 
Key, p. LL. We only take this opportunity of mentioning the 
manner in which those letters got abroad, which the author was 
ashamed of as very trivial things, full not only of levities, but of 
wrong judgments of men and books, and only excusable from {he 
youth and inexperience of the writer. P. 

Ver. 67, 68. With arms expanded, Bernard rews his state. 

And l^'legg'd Jacob seems to emtdate,'] 
Milton, of the motion of the Swan, 


His state with oary fe^t." 

And Dryden, of another's,-^ fTiM two left legs — W. 


Obscene with filth the miscreant lies bewray'd, 75 
Fall'n in the plash his wickedness had laid : 


Ver. 75. Obscene with JUih, 4*^0 Though this incident may 
seem too low and base for the dignity of an 'Epic poem, the learn- 
ed very well know it to be but a copy of Homer a^d Virgil : the 
very words M^ andfimiis are used by them, though our poet, in 
compliance to modem nicety, has remarkably enriched and co- 
loured his language, as well as raised the versification, in this Epi- 
sode, and in the following one of Eliza. P. 

Ver. 75. Obscene^ AU this, and the following, is as nauseous 
as it is stupid. Warburton defends it by a note still more nause- 
ous, if possible. Bowks, 

The note referred to by Mr. Bowles is not fVarbiarion% but 
Pope's, who defends the passage by comparing it with the grosser 
language ofDryden ; to which he adds, " but our author is more 
grave ; and, (as a fine writer says of Virgil in his Georgics) tosses 
about his dung with an air of majesty. If we consider that the ex- 
ercises of his authors could with justice be no higher than tickling, 
chattering, braying, or diving, it was no easy matter to invent such 
games as were proportioned to the meaner degree of booksellers. 
In Homer and Virgil, Ajax and Nisus, the. persons drawn in this 
plight, are Heroes ; whereas here they are such with whom it had 
been great impropriety to have joined any but vile ideas ;. besides 
th^ natural connection there is between libellers and common nttt- 
sances. Nevertheless, I have heard our author own, that this paprt 
of his poem was (as it firequently happens) what' cost him most 
trouble, and pleased him least ; but that he hoped it was excus- 
able, since levelled at such as understood no delicate satire. Thus 



Ver. 73. Hereforturid Curl to slide;] 
" Labitur infelix, cassis ut forte juvends 
Fusus humum viridesque super madefecerat herbas — 
Concidit, immundoque fimo, sacroque cruore." 

Virgil, ^neid. v. of Nisus. P. 
Ver. 74. And Bernard ! Bernard /] 

" Ut littus, Hyla, Hyla, omne sonaret.'' 

Virgil, Eel. vi. P. 


Then first, if poets aught of truth declare^ 
The caitiff Vaticide conceiv'd a pray V^ 

Hear, Jove ! whose name my bards and I adore, 
As much at least as any God's^ or more ; 80 

And him and his^ if more devotion warms^ 
Down with the Bible, up with the Pope's Arms. 

A place there is, betwixt earth, air, and seas, 
Where, from Ambrosia, Jove retires for ease. 
There in his seat two spacious vents appear ; 85 
On this he sits, to that he leans his ear. 
And hears the various vows of fond mankind ; 
Some beg an eastern, some a western wind : 
An vain petitions, mounting to the sky. 
With reams abundant this abode supply ; 90 

Amus'd he reads, apd then returns the bills 
Sign'd with that ichor which from Gods distils. 

the politest men are obliged sometimes to swear, when they hap- 
pen to have to do with porters and oyster-wenches." 

Ver. 82. Dovm with the Bihle^ up with the Pope's Arms,'] The 
Bible, CurVs sign; the Cross-keys, Lintot's.. P. 

Ver. 83. See Lucian*s Icaro-Menippus ; where this fiction is 
more extended. P, 

Ver. 92. Alludes to Homer, Iliad v. 

— — — |fi ^* eifjiSpolov aJiAa 0ioio, 

" A Stream of nect'rous hmnour issuing flow*d, 
Sanguine, such as celestial sp'rits may bleed." 

Milton. P. 


Ver. 83. A place there is, betwixt earth, air, and seas,"} 

" Orbe locus medio est, inter terrasque, fretumque, 

Coelestesque plagas"- 

Ovid. Met. xii. P. 



In office here fair Cloacina stands. 
And ministers to Jove 'with purest hands. 
Forth from the heaps he pick'd her vot'ry's pray'r. 
And plac*(} it next him, a distinction rare ! 
Oft had the Goddess heard her servant's call. 
From her black grottos near the Temple-wall, 
Listening delighted to the jest unclean 
Of link-boys vile, and watermen obscene ; 100 
Where, as he fish'd her nether realms for wit. 
She oft had favoured him, and favours: yet. 
Renew'd by ordure's sympathetic force,. . 
As oil'd by magic juices for the courjse> . 
Vig'rous he rises ; from th' effluvia strong 105 
Imbibes new life, and scours and stinks along ; 
Re-passes Lintot, vindicates, the race. 
Nor heeds the brown dishonours of his face. 

And now the victor stretch'd his eager hand 
Where the tall Nothing stood, or seem'd to stand ; 
A shapeless shade, it melted from his sight. 
Like forms in clouds, or visions of the night. 
To Seize his papers. Curl, was next thy care ; 
His papers light, fly diverse, toss'd in air ; 


Ver. 93. Cloacina] The Roman Goddess of the common- 
sewers. P. 

Ver. 101. Where, as he fished, ^c] See the preface to Swift's 
and Pope's Miscellanies. P. 

Ver. 104. As oiVd with magic juices] Alluding to the opinion 
that there are ointments used by witches to enable them to fly in 
the air, &c. P. 


Ver. 108, Nor heeds the brown dishonours of his face,] 

" faciem ostentabat, et udo 

Turpia membra fimo" Virg. .£neid. v. P. 


Songs^ sonnets^ epigrams^ the winds uplift, 1 15 
And whisk them hack to Evans, Young, and Swift, 
Th' emhroider'd suit at least he deem'd his prey ; 
That suit an impaid tailor snatch'd away ; 
No rag, no scrap, of all the heau, or wit. 
That once so fluttered, and that once so writ. 120 
Heav'n rings with laughter. Of the laughter vain, 
Dulness, good Queen, repeats the jest again. 


Ver. 116. EvanSf Youngy and Swift.l Some of those persons 
whose writings, epigrams, or jests he had owned. P. 

JDr. Evans was of St. John's College, Oxford ; author of the 
Apparition, and of an Epistle to Bobart the Botanist, entitled, 
Vertumnus. He was a man of remarkable wit and vivacity, and 
many of his repartees were long remembered and repeated at Ox- 
ford. The Apparition was a satire on Tindal. Warton. 

Ver. 118. an unpaid tailor] This line has been loudly com- ' 
plained of in Mist, June 8, Dedic. to Sawney, and others, as a 
most inhuman satire on the poverty of poets. But it is thought our 
author will be acquitted by a jury of tailors. To me this instance 
seems unluckily chosen ; if it be a satire on any body, it must be 
on a bad pay-master, since the person to whom they have here 
applied it was a man of fortune. Not but poets may well be jea- 
lous of so great a prerogative as non-payment ; which Mr. Dennis 
so far asserts, as boldly to pronounce that, *' If Homer himself was 
not in debt, it was because nobody would trust him.** Pref. to 
Rem. on the Rape of the Lock, p. 15. P. 


Ver. 111. ^ shapeless shade, ^c] 
— ^— " Effugit imago 
Par levibus vends, volucrique simillima somno.'* 

Virg. iBneid. vi. P. 
Ver. 114. His papers light , fly diverse, toss'd in air;"] 
" Carmina 


turbata volent rapidis ludibria vends.'' 

Virg. ^neid. vi. of the Sibyl's leaves. P. 

M 2 


Three wicked imps^ of her own Grub-street choir. 
She deck'd like Congreve, Addison, and Prior } 
Mears, Warner, Wilkins run : delusive thought ! 
Breval, Bond, Besaleel, the varlets caught. 


Ver. 124. like Congreve, Addison, and Prior;] These authors 
being such whose names will reach posterity, we shall not give 
any account of them, but proceed to those of whom it is neces- 
sary. Besaleel Morris was author of some satires on the trans- 
lators of Homer, with many other things printed in newspapers. 
— " Bond writ a satire against Mr. P — . Capt. Breval was author 
of The Confederates, an ingem'ous dramatic performance to ex- 
pose Mr. P., Mr. Gay, Dr. Arb., and some ladies of quality," says 
Curl, Key, p. 11. P. 

This is the passage in which our author has mentioned Prior 
with rather more honor than in any other part of his works. 
Prior was mortified that Pope did not commend his Solomon so 
highly as he wished. Warton, ■ 

Ver. 126. Mears, fVamer, Wilkins^ Booksellers, tod printers 
"of much anonymous stuff. P. 

Ver. 126. Breval, Bond, Besaleel^ I foresee it will be objected 
from this line, that we were in an error in our assertion on ver. 50 
of this book, that More was a fictitious name, since these persons 
are equally represented by the poet as phantoms. So at first sight 
it may seem ; but be not deceived, reader ; these also are not real 
persons. It is true. Curl declares Breval, a captain, author of a 
piece called the Confederates ; but the same Curl first said it was 
written by Joseph Gay. Is his second assertion to be credited any 
more than his first ? He likewise affirms Bond to be one who 
writ a satire on our poet. But where is such a satire to be found? 
Where was such a writer ever heard of? As for Besaleel, it carries 
forgery in the very name ; nor is it, as the others are, a surname. 
Thou ma/st depend upon it, no such authors ever lived ; all 
phantoms. Scriblerus. P. 

Ver. 126. Brevaly] See an account of him and his works, and 
the cause of Pope's resentment, in the List of Dramatic Authors, 
subjoined to Cibber's Life of himself, 4th edition. Wakefield, 


Curl stretches after Gay, but Gay is gone. 
He grasps an empty Joseph for a John ; 
So Proteus, hunted in a nobler shape. 
Became, when seiz'd, a puppy, or an ape. 130 

To him the Goddess: Son! thy grief lay down. 
And turn this whole illusion on the town : 
As the sage dame, experienc'd in her trade. 
By names of Toasts retails each batter'd jade ; 
(Whence hapless Monsieur much complains at Paris 
Of wrongs from Duchesses and Lady Maries ;) 
Be thine, my stationer ! this magic gift ; 
Cook shall be Prior, and Concanen, Swift : 

Ver. 128. Joseph Gay,"] A fictitious name put by Curl before 
several pamphlets, which made them pass with many for Mr. 
Gay's. P. 

The ambiguity of the word Joseph, which likewise signifies a 
loose upper-coat, gives much pleasantry to the idea. W.f 

Ver. 128. He grasps an empty Joseph for a John ;] A pleasant 
allusion to Ixion, embracing a cloud instead of Juno ; or a parody 
on Homer, II. iii. 376. 

" And lefl an empty helmet in his hand.'' Pope. Wakefield. 

Ver. 132. And turn this whole illusion on the totvn.'] It was a 
common practice of this bookseller to publish vile pieces of ob- 
scure hands, under the names of eminent authors. P. 

Ver. 138. Cook shall be Prior,"] The man here specified writ a 
thing called The Battle of Poets, in which Philips and Welsted 
were the Heroes, and Swift and Pope utterly routed. He also 
published some malevolent things in the British, London, and 
Daily Journals ; and at the same time wrote letters to Mr. Pope, 
protesting his innocence. His chief work was a translation of 
Hesiod, to which Theobald writ notes and half notes, which he 
carefully owned. P.f 

Ibid. And Cancanen, Swift:] In the first edition of this poem 



So shall each hostile name become our own. 
And we too boast our Gartli and Addison. 140 


there were only asterisks in this place, but the names were since 
inserted, merely to fill up the verse, and give ease to the ear of 
the reader. P.f 

Ver. 140. And we too boast our Garth and AddisonJ] Nothing 
is more remarkable than our author's love of praising good writers. 
He has in this very poem celebrated Mr. Locke, Sir Isaac Newton, 
Dr. Barrow, Dr. Atterbury, Mr. Dryden, Mr. Congreve, Dr. 
Garth, Mr. Addison ; in a word, almost every man of his^ time 
that deserved it ; even Gibber himself (presuming him to be author 
of the Careless Husband). It was very difficult to have that 
pleasure in a poem on this subject, yet he has found means to in- 
sert their panegyric, and has made even Dulness, out of her own 
mouth, pronounce it. It must have been particularly agreeable 
to him to celebrate Dr. Garth ; both as his constant friend, and as 
he was his predecessor in this kind of satire. The Dispensary 
attacked the whole body of Apothecaries, a much more useful 
one undoubtedly than that of the bad Poets ; if, in truth, this can 
be a body, of which no two members ever agreed. It also did, 
what Mr. Theobald says is unpardonable, drew in parts oi private 
character, and introduced pcrsoTZ^ independent of his subject- Much 
more would Boileau have incurred his censure, who left all sub- 
jects whatever, on all occasions, to Ml upon the bad poets, which, 
it is to be feared, would have been more immediately his concern. 
But, certainly, next to commending good writers, the greatest ser- 
vice to learning is to expose the bad, who can only that way be 
made of any use to it. This truth is very well set forth in these 
lines addressed to our author : 

" The craven Rook, and pert Jackdaw, 
(Tho* neither birds of moral kind) 
Yet serve, if hang'd, or stufF'd with straw, 
To shew us which way blows the wind. 

'♦ Thus dirty knaves, or chatt'ring fools, 
Strung up by dozens in thy lay. 
Teach more by half than Dennis' rules, " 
And poiut instruction ev'ry way. 


BOOK II. Tfi£: DUNCIAD. 167 

With that she gave him (piteous of his case. 
Yet smiling at his rueful length of fslce,) 

" With Egypt's art thy pen may strive ; 
One potent drop let this hut shed, 
And ev'ry rogue that stunk alive, 

Becomes a precious mummy dead." P. 

Ver. 142. rueful length of face,'] " The decrepid person or figure 
of a man are no reflections upon his genius. An honest mind will 
love and esteem a man of worth, though he he deformed or poor. 
Yet the author of the Dunciad hath lihelled a person for his rueful 
length of face /" Mist's Journal, June 8. This genius and man 
oftDorthf whom an honest mind should love, is Mr. Curl. True it 
is, he stood in the Pillory, an incident which will lengthen the face 
of anyman, though it were ever so comely, and therefore is no re- 
flection on the natural heauty of Mr. Curl. But as to reflections on 
any man's face or figure, Mr. Dennis saith excellently ; *< Natural 
deformity comes not hy our fault ; 'tis often occasioned by cala- 
mities and diseases, which a man can no more help than a monster 
can his deformity. There is no one misfortune, and no onie dis- ■ 
ease, but what all the rest of mankind are subject to. — But the de- 
formity of this author is visible, present, lasting, 'unalterable, and 
peculiar to himsel£ 'Tis the mark of God and Nature upon him«^ 
to give us warning that we should hold no society with him, as a 
creature not of our original, nor of our species : and they who 
have refiised to take this warning which God and Nature have given 
them, and have, in spite of it, by a senseless presumption, ventured 
to be familiar with him, have severely suffered, &c. 'Tis certain 
his original is not from Adam, but firom the Devil," &c. Dennis, 
Character of Mr. P. octavo, 1716. 

Admirably is it observed by Mr. Dennis against Mr. Law, p. 33. 

" That 


Ver. 141, 142. piteous of his case, 

Yet smiling at his rueful length of face,"] 

" Risit pater optimus illi. — 

Me liceat casum misereri insontis amici — 
Sic &tu8, tergum Gaetuli immane leonis," &c. 

Virg. ^neid, v. P. 


A shaggy tap'stry, worthy to he spread. 
On Codrus' old, or Duntotfs modem hed ; 


" That the language of Billingsgate can never be the language of 
charity, nor consequently of Christianity.'^ I should else be 
tempted to use the language of a critic ; for what is more pro- 
voking to a commentator, than to behold his author thus por- 
trayed ? Yet I consider it really hurts not him ; whereas to call 
some others dull, might do them prejudice with a world too apt to 
believe it. Therefore, though Mr. D. may call another a little ass, 
or & young toad, far be it from us to call him a toothless lion, or an 
old serpent. Indeed, had I written these notes (as once was my 
intent) in the learned language, I might have given him the ap- 
pellations of balatro, calceatum captit, scurra in triviis, being phrases 
in good esteem and frequent usage among the best learned. But 
in our mother tongue, were I to tax any gentleman of the Dunciad, 
surely it should be in words not to the vulgar intelligible ; where- 
by Christian charity, decency, and good accord among authors, 
might be preserved. Scriblerus. P. 

The good Scriblerus here, as on all occasions, eminently shews 
his humanity. But it was far otherwise with the gentlemen of the 
Dimciad, whose scurrilities were always personal, and of that 
nature which provoked every honest man but Mr. Pope; yet 
never to be lamented,- since they occasioned the following amiable 

*' While malice, Pope, denies thy page 
Its own celestial fire ; 
While critics, and while bards in rage, 
Admiring, won't admire : 

" While wayward pens thy worth assail. 
And envious tongues decry ; 
These times, tho* many a friend bewail. 
These times bewail not I. 

" But when the world's Ipi^d praise is thine. 
And spleen no more sha}) |)lame. 
When with thy Homer thou $b^t shine 
In one established fame : 




Instructive work ! whose wry-mouth'd portraiture 
Display'd the fates her confessors endure. 
Earless on high^ stood unabashed De Foe^ 
And Tutchin flagrant from the scourge below ; 


" When none shall rail, and ev'ry lay 
Devote a wreath to thee ; 
That day (for come it will) that day 
Shall I lament to see/' P. 

Ver. 143. A shaggy tap'stty,'] A sorry kind of tapestry fre- 
quent in old inns, made of worsted or some coarser stuff; like 

that which is spoken of by Donne Faces as frightful as tlieirs 

who whip Christ in old hangings. The imagery woven in it alludes 
to the mantle of Cloanthus, in Mneid v. P. 

Ver. %44. On Codrus* old, orDunton*s modem hedi] OfCodrus 
the poet's bed, see Juvenal, describing his poverty very copiously. 
Sat. iii. ver. 103, &c. 

Lectus erai Codro, Sfc* 

" Codrus had but one bed, so short to boot. 
That his short wife's short legs hung dangling out 
His cupboard's head six earthen pitchers grac'd, 
Beneath them was his trusty tankard plac'd ; 
And to support this noble plate, there lay 
A bending Chiron, cast from honest clay. 
His few Greek books a rotten chest contain'd, 
Whose covers much of mouldiness complain'd, 
Where mice and rats devour'd poetic bread, 
And on heroic verse luxuriously were fed. 
'Tis true poor Codrus nothing had to boast. 
And yet poor Codrus all that nothing lost.". Dryden. 
But Mr. Concanen, in.his dedication of the Letters, Advertise- 
ments, &c. to theauthor of the Dunciad assures us,^^ that Juvenal 
never satirised the poverty of Codrus." 

John Dunton was a broken bookseller, and abusive scribbler : 
he writ Neck or Nothing, a violent satire on some ministers of 
state, a libel on the Duke of Devonshire and the Bishop of Peter- 
borough, &c. P. 
Ver. 148. And Tuichinjlagrant from the scourge] John Tutchin, 



There Ridpath^ Roper,- cudgell'd might ye view ; 
The very worsted still look'd black and blue ; i50 
Himself among the storied chiefs he spies. 
As, from the blanket, high in air he flies ; 
And, Oh ! (he cried) what street, what lane, but 

Our purgings, pumpings, blanketings^ and blows ? 


author of some vile verses, and of a weekly paper caUed The 
Observator. He was sentenced to be whipped through severid 
towns in the west of England, upon which he petitioned King 
James II. to be hanged. When that prince died in exile, he wrote 
an invective against his memory, occasioned by some htlmane ele^ 
gies on his death. He lived to the time of Queen Ann^. P. 

Ver. 149. There Ridpath^ Roper,'] Authors of the Flying-post 
and Post-boy, two scandalous papers on different sides, for which 
they equally and alternately deserved to be cudgelled, and were 
so. P. 

Ibid. ctulgeWd] It is painful to reflect, that even Dryden once 
underwent this discipline. Mr. Nelson, whose truili cannot be 
questioned, writes thus to Dr. Mapletoft, Jan. 2, 1679 ; " Your 
friend and schoolfellow Mr. Dryden has been severely beaten for 
being the supposed author of a late very abusive lampoon. There 
has been a good sum of money offered to find who set them on 
work; 'tis said they received their orders from the Duchess of 
Portsmouth, who is concerned in the lampoon." Warton. 

Ver. 151. Himself among the storied vhirfs he spies/} The history 
of CurVs being tossed in a blanket, and whipped by the scholars 
of Westminster, is well known. Of his purging and vomiting, 
see A fuU and true account of a horrid Revenge on the body of 
Edm. Curlyi^c. in Swifl and Pope's Miscellanies. P. 


Ver. 161. Himself afnong the storied dUefs he spiesj"] 
** Se quoque principibus permixtum agnovit Achivis 
Constitit, et lacrymans : Quis jam locus, inquit, Achate ! 
Quae regio in terris nostri non plena laboris?" Virg. ^n. i. P. 



In every loom our labours shall be seen, 155 

And the fresh vomit run for ever green! 

See in the circle, next, Eliza plac'd. 
Two babes of love close clinging to her waist ; 
Fair as before her works she stands confessed. 
In flowVs and pearls by bounteous Kirkall dress'd. 


Ver. 167. See in the circle, next, Eliza placed,'] In this game is 
exposed, in the most contemptuous manner, the profligate licen- 
tiousness of those shameless scribblers (for the most part of that 
sex, which ought least to be capable of such malice or impudence) 
who, in libellous Memoirs and Novels, reveal the faults or misfor- 
tunes of both sexes, to the ruin of public fame, or disturbance of 
private happiness. Our good poet, (by the whole cast of his work 
being obliged not to take off the irony,) where he could not shew 
his indignation, hath shewn his contempt, as much as possible ; 
having here drawn as vile a picture as could be represented in the 
colours of Epic poesy. Scriblerus. P. 

Ibid. Eliza Haywood; This woman was authoress of those most 
scandalous books called The Court of Carimania, and the New 
Utopia. For the two babes of love, See Curl, Key, p. 22. But 
whatever reflection he is pleased to throw upon this Lady, surely 
it was what from him she little deserved, who had celebrated CurFs 
undertakings for reformation of manners, and declared herself 
" to be so perfectly acquainted with the sweetness of his disposi- 
tion, and that tenderness with which he considered the errors of his 
fellow-creatures, that, though she should find the little inadverten- 
cies of her own life recorded in his {Papers, she was certain it would 
be done in such a manner as she could not but approvew^' Mrs. 
Haywood, Hist, of Clar. printed inthe Female Dunciad, p. IS, P. 

Ver. 160. Kirkall, the name of an Engraver. Some of this 
Lady's works were printed in four volumes in 12mo. with her 
picture thus dressed up before them. P. 


Ver. 156. And the fresh vomit run for ever green /] A parody on 
these hues of a late noble author : 

<' His bleeding arm had furnish'd all their rooms, 
And run for ever purple in the looms." P. 


The Goddess then : Who best can send on high 
The salient spout^ far-streaming to the sky. 
His be yon Juno of majestic size. 
With cow-like udders, and with ox-like eyes : 
This China Jordan let the chief o'ercome 165 
Replenish, not ingloriously, at home. 

Osborne and Curl accept the glorious strife, 
Tho' this his son dissuades, and that his wife ; 


Ver. 167. Oshame, Thomas] A bookseller in Gray's Inn, very 
well qualified by his impudence to act this part; therefore placed 
here instead of a less deserving predecessor. This man published 
advertisements for a year together, pretending to sell Mr. Pope's 
subscription books of Homer's Iliad at half the price ; of which 
books he had none, but cut to the size of them (which was quarto) 
the common books in foho, without copper-plates, on a worse 
paper, and never above half the value. 

Upon this advertisement the Gazetteer harangued thus, July 6, 
1739. " How melancholy must it be to a writer to be so unhappy 
as to see his works hawked for sale in a manner so fatal td his 
fame ! How, with honour to yourself, and justice to your sub- 


Ver. 158. Two babes qflove close clinging to her waist;] 
'* Cressa genus, Pholoe, geminique sub ubere nati." 

Virg. ^neid. v. P. 

Ver. 163. ■ yon Juno 

With coW'Uke udders, and with ox^like eyesi] 
In allusion to Homer's Bouwk^ vortta^Hpn' P» 

Ver. 165. This China Jordan] 

" Tertius Argolicd hac gale4 contentus abito." Virg. £neid. vi. 
In the games of Homer, Iliad xxiii. there are set together, as 
prizes, a Lady and a Kettle, as in this place Mrs. Haywood and a 
Jordan. But there the preference in value is given to the Kettle, 
at which Mad. Dacier is justly displeased. Mrs. H. is here treated 
with distinction, and acknowledged to be the more valuable of the 
two. P. 


One on his manly confidence relies. 

One on his vigour and superior size. 170 

First, Osborne lean'd against his letter'd post ; 

It rose, and labouir'd to a curve at most : 

So Jove's bright bow displays its wat'ry round ; 

Sure sign that no spectator shall be drown'd. 

A second eflfbrt brought but new disgrace; 175 

The wild meander wash'd the artist's face : 

scribers^ can this bedone? What an ingratitude to be charged on 
the onfy honest poet that lived in 1738 ! and than whom virtue has 
not had a shriller trumpeter for many ages ! That you were once 
generally admired and esteemed^ can be denied by none ; but that you 
and your works are now despised, is verified by this fact :'' which 
being utterly false did not indeed much humble the author, but 
drew this just chastisement on the bookseller. P,\ 

Ver. 167. Oshome^ This Osborne was the bookseller who pur- 
chased the great library of the Earl of Oxford, for 13,000/. which, 
says Mr. Oldys, was not more than the binding of the books had 
cost. Dr. ;Johnson wrote the pre&ce to the catalogue, and is re- 
ported, during this employment, to have knocked Osborne down 
with a folio in his shop. But Johnson himself used to say, " I 
beat him for being impertinent to me; but it was in my own 
chamber, and not in his shopJ* Warton. 


Ver. 169, 170. One on his manly confidence relies^ 
' • One on his vigourl 

" Ille — melior motu, fretusque juvent4 ; 
Hie membris et mole valens." Virg. ^neid. v* P. 

Ver. 173, 174. So Jove*s bright bow- 

Sure sign, ] 

The words of Homer, of the Rainbow, in Iliad xi. * 

— :"--"- a? Tf K^t'wt 

" Que le ills de Satume a fonde dans les niies, pour hrt dans 
tous les dges une signe d tons les mortels.'' Dacier. P. 


Thus the small jet, which hasty hands unlock. 
Spirts in the gard'ner's eyes who turns the cock. 
Not so from shameless Curl ; impetuous spread 
The stream, and smoking flourished o'er his head. 
So, fam'd like thee for turbulence and horns, 
Eridanus his humble fountain scorns ; 
Thro' half the heav'ns he pours th' exalted urn ; 
His rapid waters in their passage bum. 

R£lf ARKS* 

Ver. 183. Thro^ half the heavns he pours ih* exalted urn;'] In a 
manuscript Dunciad (where are some marginal corrections of 
some gentlemen some time deceased) I have found another read- 
ing of these lines, thus : 

And lifts his urn, thro' half the heav'ns to flow ; 
His rapid waters in their passage glow. 

This I cannot but think the right. For, first, though the difference 
between bum and glow may seem not very material to others, to 
me I confess the latter has an elegance, a je ne sai quoi, which is 
much easier to be conceived than explained. Secondly, every 
reader of our poet must have observed how frequently he uses 
thid word g/ott; in other parts of his works. To instance only in 
his Homer : 



Ver. 181, 182. So,fam*d like thee for turbulence and horns, 

Virgil mentions these two qualifications of Eridanus, Georg. iv. 

" Et gemina auratus taurino comua vultu, 
Eridanus, quo non alius per pinguia culta 
In mare purpureum violentior influit amnis." 

The poets fabled of this river Eridanus, that it flowed through 
the skies. Den^am, Cooper's Hill : 

" Heav'n her Eridanus no more shall boast. 
Whose fame's in thine, like lesser currents, lost ; 
Thy nobler stream shall visit Jove's abodes, 
To shine among the stars, and bathe the Gods." P. 


Swift as it mounts^ all follow with their eyes : 186 
Still happy impudence obtains the prize. 
Thou triumph'st, victor of the high-wrought day. 
And the pleas*d dame^ soft-smiling, lead'st away. 

R£ Harks* 

(1.) Iliad ix. ver. 726. — With one resentment glows. 

(2.) Iliad xi. ver. 625. — There the battle glows. 

(3.) Iliad xi. ver. 984. — The closing flesh that instant ceas'd 

to glow. 

(4.) Ihad xii. ver. 55. — Encompassed Hectorjiglows. 

(5.) Iliad xii. ver. 475. — His beating breast with genVous ar- 
dour glows. 

(6.) Iliad xviii. ver. 591. — Another part glow'd with refulgent 


(7.) Iliad xviii. ver. 654. — And, curl'd on silver props, in order 

I am afraid of growing too luxuriant in examples, or I could 
stretch this catalogue to a great extent ; but these are enough to 
prove his fondness for this beautiful word, which, therefore, let all 
future editions replace here. 

I am aware, after all, that bum is the proper word to convey an 
idea of what was said to be Mr. Curl's condition at this time ; but 
from that very reason I infer the direct contrary. For surely 
every lover of our author wiiW. conclude he had more humanity than 
to insult a man on such a misfortune or calamity, which could 
never befal him purely by his own fault, but from an unhappy 
communication with another. This note is half Mr. Theobald, 
half SckibijErvs. P. 

Warton justly adds, " It reflects shame on whoever wrote it J' 


Warton says, " It reflects shame on both of them;'" entertaining 
no doubt, it seems, that Tlieobald and Scriblerus were the authors! 

Ver. 187. The high-wrought day."] Some affirm that this was 
originally the well-p — t day ; but the poet's decency would not 
suffer it. P. 

Here the learned Scriblerus manifests great anger. He exclaims 
against all such conjectural emendations in this manner. " Let it 
suffice, O PaUas ! that every noble ancient, Greek or Roman, hath 



Osborne^ thro' perfect modesty o'ercome, 
Crown'd with the Jordan^ walks contented home. 

But now for Authors nobler palms remain ; 
Room for my Lord ! three jockeys in his train ; 
Six huntsmen with a shout precede his chair : 
He grins^ and looks broad nonsense with a stare. 
His Honour's meaning Dulness thus exprest : 195 
^' He wins this Patron who can tickle best." 

He chinks his purse^ and takes his seat of state : 
With ready quills the Dedicators wait ; 
Now at his head the dext'rous task commence^ 
And^ instant^ fancy feels th' imputed sense ; 200 
Now gentle touches wanton o'er his &ce^ 
He struts Adonis^ and affects grimace : 
Rolli the feather to his ear conveys ; 
Then his nice taste directs our Operas. 


suffered the impertinent correction of every Dutch, German and Swin 
Schoolmaster ! Let our English at least escape, whose intrinsic is 
scarce of marble so solid, as not to be impaired or soiled by such 
rude and dirty hands. Suffer them to call their works their own, 
and after death, at least, to find rest and sanctuary from critics ! 
When these men have ceased to rail, let them not begin to da 
worse — to comment. Let them not conjecture into nonsense, cor- 
rect out of all correctness, and restore into obscurity and confu- 
sion. Miserable fate ! which can befal only the sprightliest wits 
that have written, and will befal them only from such dull ones as 
could never write." Scriblerus. P.+ 

It has been thought expedient here to restore this prophetic ap- 
peal of the learned Scriblerus, which has been omitted in the 
two last editions of the works of our author, for reasons best known, 
to the editors. 

Ver. 303. Rolli] Paulo Antonio Rolli, m Italian Poet, and wri- 
ter of many Operas in that language, which, partly by the he^ 



Bentley his mouth with classic flatt'ry opes, 206 
And the puflfd orator bursts out in tropes. 


of his genius, prevailed in England near twenty years. He 
taught Italian to some fine gentlemen, who affected to direct the 
Operas. P. 

He also translated Paradise Lost, with spirit and elegance ; and 
published Marchetti's fine translation of Lucretius. Warton. 

Ver. 205. Bentley his mouth ^c] Not spoken of the famous 
Dr. Richard Bentley, but of one Thomas Bentley, a small critic, 
who aped his uncle in a Utele Horace, The great one was intended 
to be dedicated to the Lord Halifax, but, on a change of the Mi- 
nistry, was given to the Earl of Oxford ; for which reason the " 
little one was dedicated to his son, the Lord Harley. A taste of 
his classic elocution may be seen in his following Panegjrnc on 
the Peace of Utrecht. Cupimus patrem tuum, fulgentissimum ilhtd 
orbis Anglicani jubar, adorare ! ingens Reipublicae nostra colu" 
men! Ofortunatam tanto Heroe Britanniam ! Jlli tali tantoque viro 
Deum per omnia adfitisse, manumque ejus et mentem direxisse, cer- 
TissiMUM EST. Hujus cnim Vniusf emie operd, sBquissimis et per- 
hbnorificis conditionibus, diutumo, heu nimium! bello,Jinem imposi- 
turn videmus, diem aternd memond dignissimam / qud terrores 
PatruB omnes excidit, Pacemgwe diu exoptatam totifere Eurjoptt res- 
tkuit, tile Populi Anglicani Amor, Harleius, 

Thus critically (that is, verbally) translated : 

" Thy Father, that most refulgent star of the Anglican Orb, 
we much desire to adore ! O mighty Column of owe- Republic ! O 
Britain, fortunate in such a Hero ! That to such and so great a 
man God was ever present in every thing, and all along directed 
both his hand and his heart, is a most absolute certainty ! For it 
is in a manner by the operation of this man alone, that we behold 
a war (alas ! how much too long an one !) brought at length to an 
end, on the most just and most honourable conditions. O Day 
eternally to be memorated ! wherein all the terrors of his country 
were ended, and a Peace (long wished for by almost all Europe) 
was restored by Harley, the Love and Delight of the People of 

But that this gentleman can write in a different style may be 

VOL. IV. N seen 


But Webted most the poet's healing balm 
Strives to extract from his soft, giving palm ; 
Unlucky Welsted ! thy unfeeling master^ 
The more thou ticklest^ gripes his fist the faster. 210 

seen in a letter he printed to Mr. Pope, wherein several nohle 
Lords are treated in a most extraordinary language, particularly 
thf Lord Bolinghroke abused for that very Peace which he here 
makes the single work of the Earl of Oxford, directed by God 
Almighty. P.f 

Ver. 305. Bentky hii mouth ^c] An imitation of Butler, Hu- 
dibras, Part i. Canto i. v. 81. 

" For rhetoric, he could not ope 
His mouth, but out there flew a trope '^ Wakefield, 

Ver. 207. Welsted] Leonard Welsted, author of The Triumvi- 
rate, or a Letter in verse from Palemon to Celia at Bath, which was 
meant for a satire on Mr. P. and some of his friends, about the 
year 1718. He writ other things which we cannot remember. 
Smedley, in his Metamorphosis of Scriblerus, mentions one, the 
Hymn of a Gfentleman to his Creator; and there was another, in 
praise either of a Cellar or a Garret. L. W. characterized in the 
treatise ntpl BaOii;, or the Art of Sinking, as a Didapper, and 
af^r, as an Eel, is said to be this person, by Dennis, Daily Jour- 
nal of May 11, 1728. He was also characterized under another 
animal, a Mole, by the author of the ensuing simile, which was 
handed about at the same time : 

" Dear Welsted, mark, in dirty hole, 
That pain^ animal, a Mole ; 
Above ground never bom to go. 
What mighty stir it keeps below ! 
To make a Mole-hill all this strife ! 
It digs, pokes, undermines for life ; 



Ver. 207. In the first Edd. 

But Oldmixon the poet's healing bahn. See. W.f 


While thus each hand promotes the pleasing 
And quick sensations skip from vein to vein, 


How proud a litde dirt to spread ; 
Conscious of nothing o*er its head ! 
Till, lab'ring on for want of eyes, 
It blunders into light — and dies." 

You have him again in Book iii. ver. 169. P. 

Ver. 209. Unlucky Welstedf] How unfortunate poor Leonard 
was in the art of ticklings will appear from the following extract of 
an original Letter of his to Dodington, dated the << Tower, Satur- 
day, Nov. 14, 1730 : 
« Sir, 

<< I cannot but be in fear, that I do not stand in that degree of 
favour with you, which I had reason to hope I did ; and some sus- 
picions have occurred to me on this occasion, which give me in- 
expressible uneasiness, not to say torment. 

*^ I must therefore beg leave to assure you, on my honour, as a 
gentleman, and by every thing sacred, that as I have never men* 
tioned you in conversation but with the highest respect and grati- 
tude, so I have never writ any thing that had a view to you, but 
what was perfectly honourable and well intended. 

" There is a line in a late poem, viz. the " One Epistle" which 
I presume you may have seen, that carries in it a slight raillery of 
Dr. Young ;* but this was sincerely without my approbation, and 
I was overborne in it, as a thing of that nature that I could not 
well give offence to him, or any one else : and as for the first Ode 
of Horace, which I had the honour to address to you, I hope it is 
not in the heart of men to conceive, that I forestno and wilfully 
designed the ridicule, which I found with gritf followed upon it ; 
or that I could be guilty of such low and wretched disingenuity 
and impertinence. I am indeed utterly incapable of every thing 
of this sort : and I wish you. Sir, nothing worse, than that the 


* Young, Thomson, Fielding, Bentley, Voltaire, Glover, Lyttel- 
ton, Lord Chesterfield, Lord Peterborough, Dr. Sharpe, &c. were 
among Dodington's intimate friends. 

N 2 


A youth, unknown to Phcebus, in despair. 
Puts his last refuge all in heav'n and pray'r. 


whole world may always have the same sentiments of esteem to- 
wards you that I have, and speak of you at all times as I do, and, 
when they write in your praise, be more happy in their way of doing 
it^ than I was. 

" It concerns me not at all how much lower I may be in your 
estimation as a writer, than Mr. Thomson, or any other person, 
fiirther than seriously to reflect, if I do not deserve to be so, and 
if you do not judge truer than any other man in that regard ; but 
whether I may be ever so happy to receive any mark of your pa- 
tronage hereafter, or not, nothing has, nothing ever will tempt me 
to treat ill, or lightly, or with any paltry slyness whatever, a gen- 
tleman of your character and quality, and that has laid great obli- 
gations on me. 

" Think of me, Sir, as you please in every other light, no mat- 
ter how meanly ; but I beg you will be so just as to give me cre- 
dit in what I have here said, and not suppose any thing in these 
or other instances which I am not capable of, even in imagi- 

It would be an uncommon satisfaction to me to know, if I were 
really acquitted in your thoughts ; and this. Sir, if you will please 
to exact so severe a thing from me, shall be the last favour I will 
ever request of you ; and I have the honour to be, with the great- 
est truth and respect. Sir, 

*' Your most obedient and obliged humble servant, 

" Leon. Wel8t;ep." 
One might be tempted to suppose Pope had seen this very Let- 
ter when he wrote, 

" Unlucky Welsted, thy unfeehng master. 
The more thou ticklest, gripes hisfst the faster." 
It should not be forgotten, that in the^r«/ edition, printed in 
London, 1729, Oldmixon is the unfortunate tickler. The charac- 
ter was afterwards given to Welsted. Welsted was originally the 
" Diver," instead of Amall, as it is now : 

" Who brings up half the bottom on his head." 
And Dennis was introduced where Oldmixon now appears : 
" In naked majesty Oldmixon stands.'* 



What force have pious vows ! The Queen of Love 
His sister sends^ her vot'ress, from above. 
As, taught by Venus, Paris learnt the art 
To touch Achilles' only tender part. 
Secure, thro' her, the noble pri2;e to carry. 
He marches off, his Grace's Secretary. 220 

Now turn to diflfrent sports (the Goddess cries) 
And learn, my sons, the wond'rous power of Noise. 
To move, to raise, to ravish ev'ry heart. 
With Shakespear's nature, or with Jonson's art. 
Let others aim. 'Tis yours to shake the soul 225 
With thunder rumbling from the mustard bowl, 


It must be owned, these alterations take off from the propriety 
of the satire ; but they lead us to think Pope substituted Welsted 
in the place of Oldmixon, from the circumstance of his tmfortU' 
nate misunderstanding with his patron, which this Letter explain^!; 

Bowles. '• 

Ver. 213. A youths unknown to Phabus, S^cJ] The satire of 
this episode being levelled at the base flatteries of authors to 
worthless wealth or greatness, concludes here with an excellent 
lesson to such men, that although their pens and praises were 
as exquisite as they conceit of themselves, yet, even in their own 
mercenary views, a creature unlettered, who serveth the passions, 
or pimpeth to the pleasures, of such vain, braggart, puffed Nobi- 
lity, shall with those patrons be much more inward, and of them 
much higher rewarded. Scriblerus. P.- ' 

Ver. 226. With thunder rumbling from the mustard bowl,'] The 


Ver. 223, 225. To move, to raise, d^c. 

Let others aim* * Tis yours to shake, Sfc,'] 
^< Excudent alii spirantia mollius sBra, 

Credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore vultus, &c. 

Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento ; 

Hae tibi erunt artes" Virgil, ^neid. vi. P. 


With horns and trumpets now to madi^ess sweU> 
Now sink in sorrows with a tolling bell ; 
Such happy arts attention can command^ 
When fancy flags^ and sense is at a stand. ^30 
Improve we these. Three cat-calls be the bribp 
X}{ Ydm, whose chatt'ring shames the monkey t^be ; 
And his this drum> whose hoarse heroic base 
Drowns the loud clarion of the braying ass* 

Now thousimd tongues are heard in one loud din : 
The monkey-mimics rush discordant in ; 
'Twas chatt'ring, grinning^ mouthing, jabb'ri^g aJi, 
And Noise and Norton, Brangling and Breval, 
Dennis and Dissonance, and captious Art, 
And Snip-snap short, and Interruption smart, 240 


old way of making thunder and mustard were the same ; but 
since, it is more advantageously perfiKmed by troughs oi wood 
with stops in them. Whether Mr« Dennis was the inventor of 
^at improvement, I know not ; but it is certain^ that being ohce 
at a Tragedy of a new author, he fell into a great passion at heatf 
i»g some, and cried, ** 'Sdeath 1 that is mjf thunder." P, 

Ver. 298. Ntn'ton,'] See y&% 415. — J. Durant Breval, author 
of a y^ extraordinary book o£ travels, aad some poems. See 
bof<Nre, Note on yer» 126. P. 

Ver. 289. Uemds and Disaonancet'] *< Which two linea, (aays 
Harris, in his Philological Enquiries, p. 101.) diou^ truly poeti«- 
cal and humourous, may be 8Ufi|)ected by some to fhew their art 
Uk> consi^cuouriy, and too nearly to resemble that verse of old 

*' O Titi, tuti, tati, tibi tanta, tyranna tulisti." 
Alliteration, I must add, is a figure too lavishly used by inai^y mo- 
dem writers ; there are beautiful examples of it in Lucretius and 
Virgil; and Dryden, who had so fine and just an ear, oflen 
adopted it with much success. But in his most harmofuous lines, 
he seldom extended it beyond two words i kin a^pt tQ &11 jifto af- 
fectation if earned £uther« ^rfon. 


And Demonstiatioti thin, and Theses thicks 
And M^*or, Minor^ and Condusion quick. 
Hold (cried the Queen) a cat-call each shsdl wm ; 
Equal your merits ! equal is your din ! 
But that this well-disputed game may end^ 245 
Sound forth, my Brayers, ajid th^ welkin read. 
As when the long-ear'd mflky mothers wait 
At some sick miser's triple-bolted gate^ 
For their defrauded^ absent foals they make 
A moan so loud, that all the guild awake; 250 
Sore sighs sir GObert, starting at the bray. 
From dreams of millions, and three groats to pay. 
So swdls each wmd-^i^ ; Am intones to Ass, 
Harmonic twang of leather, horn, nai brass ! 
Such as from laVxing lungs th' fkithusiast blows. 
High sound, attempered to the vocal nose ; 
Or such as bdiow frcmi the deep Divine ; 
There^ Webster 1 peal'd thy voice^ and Wfaitfidd! 

Ver. 247. milky mothers] The epithet is from Spenser. Watkm* 
Ver. 25^. Webaer-^-ani Whitfield f\ The xnit die writer of a 
Newspaper ca(Hed^ Weddy Hfyeellany; lliet>ther aFieid-preacher« 
The Bndiusiast thought the only means of advancing religion 
was hy the New-birth of spiritiial madness ; the Bigot, by the 
•M deMh of fire mi. faggot; and therefore tibey agieedin this, 
though in no other earthly thing, to abuse all the sober Clergy. 



Ver. 243. ««a^MV€«G6dMltf«m;4*c.] ' 

^ Non nostrum inter vos tantas componere Utes ; 
EtvHidliudigBiia^etliii:/'-- Vu«il. £gL iii. P. 

\te.'S49(. A ^hmtke, if€u] ▲ siaik wkh a Ung taS, in the 
ffHoMor. P.t 

1 84 *rHE - DUNCI AD. JBOOK ai. 

But far o'er all^ sonorous Blackmore's strain ; 
Walls, steeples, skies, bray back to him again. 260 


.From the small success of these two extraordinary persons, we 
may learn how little hurtful bigotry and enthusiasm are, while 
the civil magistrate prudently forbears to lend his power to the 
one, to be employed against the other. P. f 

In a letter of Warburton, preserved in the British museu];n, 
among Dr. Birch's papers, addressed to M. Demaizeux, he says very 
pleasantly ; << I have seen Whitfield's Journal, and he appears to 
me to be as mad as ever George Fox the Quaker was. These 
are very fit Missionaries, you will say, to propagate the -Christian 
faith amongst infidels. There is another of them, one W. who 
came over firom the same Mission. He told a friend of mine, 
that he had lived most deliciously the last summer in. Georgia, 
sleeping under trees, and feeding on boiled maize, sauced with 
the ashes of oak leaves ; that he will return thither, and then will 
cast off his English dress, and wear a dyed skin, like the savages, 
the better to ingratiate himself with them. It would be well for 
virtue and religion, if this humour would lay hold generally of our 
over-heated bigots, and send them to cool themselves in the In- 
dian marshes. I fancy that Yen and Webster would make a very 
entertaining as well as a proper figure in a couple of bear skins, 
and marching in this terror of equipage, like the Pagan priests 
of old : 

' ** Jamque sacerdotes, primusque Potitius, ibant 
Pellibus in morem cinctis, flammasque ferebant." 


. ; ilMITATIONS. ,/ 

Ver. 260. bray back td him agdin.^ A figure of speedi taken 
firom Virgil: 

" Et vox assensu nemorum ingemiiiata remugit.** Georg. iii. 
" He hears his numerous herds low o'er the plain. 
While neighb'ring hills low back to them again." 

The poet here celebrated, Sir R. B. delighted much in the word 
ftrfly^Vhich he endeavoured to ennoble, by .'applying 'it to the 
sov(nd of armour, war, &c; In imitation of him, and streng- 


In Tofnam fields^ the brethren^ with amaze^ 
Prick all their ears up^ and forget to graze ; 
Long Chanc'ry-lane retentive rolls the sounds 
And courts to courts return it round and round ; 
Thames wafts it thence to Rufus' roaring hall^ 265 
And Hungerford re-echoes bawl for bawl. 
All hail him victor in both gifts of song^ 
Who sings so loudly^ and who sings so long. 


Ver. 268. Who sings so loudly, and who sings so longJ] A just 
character of Sir Richard Blackmore, knight, who, as Mr. Drydeh 
expresseth it, 

" Writ to the rumbling of his coach's wheels ;" 
and whose indefatigable Muse produced no less than six Epic 
poems : Prince and King Arthur, twenty books ; Eliza, ten ; 
Alfred, twelve; the Redeemer, six; besides Job, in folio; the 
whole Book of Psalms ; the Creation, seven books ; Nature of 
Man, three books: and many more. It is in this sense he is 
styled afterwards the everlasting Blackmore, Notwithstanding all 
which, Mr. Gildon seems assured, that " this admirable author 
did not think himself upon the same foot with Homei\** Comp. 
Art of Poetry, vol. i. p. 108. 

But how different is the judgment of the author of Characters 
of the Times, p. 25, who says, " Sir Richard Blackmore is un- 
fortunate in happening to mistake his proper talents ; and that 



thened by his authority, our author has here admitted it into 
heroic poetry. P. 

Ver. 262. Prick all their ears up, and forget to graze;] 
" Immemor herbarum quos est mirata juvenca.*' 

Virgil. Eel. viii. 
The progress of the soimd from place to place, and the scenery 
here of the bordering regions, Tottenham-fields, Chancery-lane, 
the Thames, Westminster-Hall, and Hungerford-stairs, are imi- 
tated from Virgil, iEneid vii. on the sounding the horn of Alecto : 
<< Audiit et Triviae longe lacus ; audiit amnis 
Sulphured Nar albus aqu^ fohtesque Velini." P. 


This labour pasti by Bridewell all descend^ 
As morning pray r and flagdlation end^ 270 


he has not for many years been to much as named, or cfven thought 
of among writers." Even Mr. Dennis dilfers greatly from bis friend 
Mr. Gildon : " Blackmore's Action (saith he) has neith^ unity, 
nor integrity, nor morality, nor universality ; and consequently 
he can have no Fable, and no Heroic Poem, His Narration is 
neither probable, delightful, nor wonderful ; his characters have 
none of the necessary qualifications ; the things contained in his 
Narration are neither in their own nature dehghtful, nor nume- 
rous enough, nor rightly disposed, nor surprising, nor pathetic.'^ 
— Nay he proceeds so far as to say Sir Richard has no genius; 
first laying down, *^ that genius is caused by ^furious joy and pride 
qf soul, on the conception of an extraordinary hint, . Many men, 
(says he) have their hints^ without these motions oi fury and 
pride qf soui, because they want fire enough to agitate \Sa&x 
spirits ; and these we call cpld writers. Others, who have a great 
deal of fire, but have not excellent organs, feel the forementioned 
^notions without the extraordinary hints; and these we call fusdan 
writers: Bui he declares that Sir Richard had neither the hints^ nor 
the motioms.*' Remarks on Prince Arthur, octavo, 1696. Pre&ce. 
This gentleman, in his first works, abused the character of 
Mr. Dryden, and in his last, of Mr. Pope, accusing him in very 
high and sober terms of profaneness and immorality (Essay on 
Polite Writing, vol. iL p. 270.) on a mere report from Edm. 
Curl, that he was author of a travestie on the first Psalm. Mr. 
Dennis took up the same repoit, but with the addition of what 
Sir Richard had neglected, an argument to prove it ; which being 
very curious, we shall here transcribe. " It was he who bur- 
lesq[ued the Psalm of David. It is apparent to me that Psalm was 
burlesqued by a Popish rhymester. Let rhyming persons who have 
been brought up Protestants be otherwise what they will, let them 
be rakes, let them be scoimdrels^ let them be atheists, yet educ^ 
tion has made an invincible impression on them in behalf of the 
aacred writings. But a Popish rhymester has been brouglkt up 
with a contempt Hot those sacred writings ; now shew me another 
Popish rhymester but he." This manner of argumentation is usual 
with Mr. Dennis ; he has employed the aame against Sk Richard 


WOK }I. THE ]>XJNCIM)« 14 T 

To where FleeMltch^ with disemboguing stteum&j 
Aolls the large tribute of dead dogs to Thanids ; 
The Ki^g of dykes ! than whom no daice of mud 
With deeper sable blots the silver flood. 
^^ Here strip, my children ! here at once leap in. 
Here prpye who best can dash thro' thick and thin, 


himself, in a like charge of dmpiety and irrdigion. '* AM Mr. 
Blackmore's cdestial machines, as they cannot be defended «o 
much as by common received opinion, so are they directly contnry 
to the doctrine of the church of England ; for the visttile descent 
p£ an angel must be a miracle. Now it is the doctrine of the 
church <^ England, that miracles had ceased a long dme before 
Prince Arthur came into die world. Now if the doctrine of the 
church of England be true, as we are obliged to beUeve, then are 
all the celestial machines in Prince Arthur unsufierable, as wantmg 
not only human, but divine probability. But if the machines are 
sufierable, that is, if lliey have so much as divine probability, dien 
it follows of necessity that the doctrine of the Church is false. iSe 
I leave it to every impartial Clergyman to consider," &c, Frefitct 
to the Remarks on Prince Ardiur. P, 

Ver. 270. As morning prayer andfiageUation end^ It is between 
eleven and twelve in the mommg, after church service, that the 
criminals are whipped in Bridewell. — ^This is to mark pimctually 
the time of the day. Homer does it by tlie circumstance of the 
Juc^s rising from court, or of the Labourers' dinner ; our author, 
by one very proper both to Ae persons and the scene of his poem, 
which we may remember commenced in the evem'ng of <^ Lord- 
mayor's day. The first book passed in that night ; liie next m&mmg 
the games begin in the Strand ; thence, along Fleet-street (places in- 
habited by books^ers) ; then th^ {wooeed by firideweH towards 
Fleet-ditcb, and lastly through Ludgaibe to the City and ^le Temple 
of Ibe Goddess. F. 


y^, 273. The king of dykes, *c.] 
** Fluviorum rex Eridmus, 
■ quo non alius, per pinguia enAta, 

In mare purpwam violentior aifiuit matik,^ — Virg. P. 


And who the most-in love of dirt excel. 

Or dark dexterity of groping weU. 

Who flmgs most filth, and wide pollutes around 

The stream, be his the Weekly Journals bound ; 280 

A, pig of lead to him, who dives the best ; 

A peck of coals a-piece shall glad the rest." 


• Ver. 276, 277, 278. — dash through thick and thin — love of dirt — 
dark dexterity] The three chief qualifications of party- writers : to 
stick at nothing, to delight in flinging dirt, and to slander in the 
dark hy guess. P. 

Ver. 280. the Weekly Journals] Papers of news and scandal 
intermixed, on different sides and parties, and frequently shifting 
from one side to the other, called the London Journal, British 
Journal, Daily Journal, &cl the concealed writers of which for 
some time were Oldmixon, Roome, Arnall, Concanen, and others ; 
persons never seen by our author. P. 

' Ver. 281. who dives the best ;] The idea of this game is evidently 
taken from Lord Dorset's fine verses on Howard. I wonder 
Swift in his Rhapsody on poetry would venture on the same sub-^ 
ject and idea of diving, after Pope had succeeded so weU. 
" For instance ; when you rashly think 

No rhymer can like Welsted sink, 

His merits balanc'd, you shall find, 

That Fielding leaves him far behind." 

Foho, Ver. 392. 1733. 
Little did Swifr imagine that this very Fielding would hereafter 
equal him in works of humour, and excel him in drawing and sup- 
porting characters, and in the artfiil conduct and plan of a Comic 
Epopee. Warton. 

Ver. 282. A peck qf coals a^piece] Our indulgent poet, when- 
ever he has spoken of any dirty or low work, constantly puts 'us 
in mind of i^tie poverty of the offenders, as the only extenuation of 
such practices. Let any one but remark, when a tbief, a pick- 


Ver. 263. In the first Edition,— 

In naked majesty great Dennis stands. 


In naked majesty Oldmixon stands^ 
And^ Milo-like^ surveys his arms and hands ; 


pocket, a highwayman, or a knight of the post, are spoken of, 
how much our hate to those. characters is lessened, if they add a 
needy thief, a poor pickpocket, a hungry highwayman, a starving 
knight of the post, Ifc. P. 

Here again has Swift borrowed from his friend, on the great 
number of our scribblers, who, he says, 

'^ Computing by their pecks of coals, 
Amount to just nine thousand souls." 

This Rhapsody, and the verses on his own death, are the best 
of Swift's poetical productions, though they cannot be called true 
poetry. Wartm. 

Ver. 283. In naked majesty Oldmixon stands^ Mr. John Old- 
mixon, next to Mr. Dennis, the most ancient critic of our nation ; 
an imjust censurer of Mr. Addison in his prose Essay on Criticism, 
whom also in his imitation of Bouhours (called the Arts of Logic 
and Rhetoric) he misrepresents in plain matter of fact ; for in p. 
45, he cites the Spectator as abusing Dr. Swifl by name, where 
there is not the least hint of it ; and in p. 304, is so injurious as to 
suggest that Mr. Addison himself writ that Tatler, No. 43, which 
says of his own simile, that '' Tis as great as ever entered into the 
mind of man." '* In poetry he was not so happy as laborious, and 
therefore characterised by the Tatler, No. 62, by the name of 
Omicron, the Unborn Poet" Curl, Key, p. 13. " He writ dramatic 
works, and a volume of poetry, consisting of heroic Epistles, &c. 
some whereof are very well done," saith that great judge,* Mr. Jacob, 
in his Lives of Poets, vol. ii. p. 303. 

In his Essay on Criticism, and the Arts of Logic and Rhetoric, 
he frequently reflects on our author. But the top of his character 
was a perverter of history, in that scandalous one of the Stuarts, 
in folio, and his Critical History of England, two volumes, octavo. 
Being employed by Bishop Kennet, in publishing the Historians 
in his collection, he fidsiiied Daniel's Chronicle in numberless 
places. Yet this very man, in the preface to the first of these 
books, advanced a, particular fact to charge three eminent persons 
of falsifying the Lord Clarendon's History ; which fact has been 
disproved by Dr. Atterbury, late Bishop of Rochester, then the 



Then sighing^ thus^ ^ And am I now threescore ? 
Ah why, ye Gods^! should two and two make fourr 
He said, and climb'd a stranded lighter's height. 
Shot to the black abyss, and plung'd downright. 
The Senior's judgment all the crowd admire. 
Who but to sink the deeper, rose the higher. 290 
Next, Smedley div'd ; slow circles dimpled o'er 
The quaking mud, that clos'd, and op'd no more. 


only survivor of them ; and the particular part he pretended to be 
&]sified, produced since, after almost ninety years, in that noble 
author's original manuscript. He was all his life a virulent party- 
writer for hire, and received his reward in a small place, which he 
enjoyed to his death. P.f 

Ver. 286. "Ah why, ye Gods! should two and two make four f^ 
Very reasonably doth this ancient critic complain. Without doubt 
it was a fault in the constitution of things ; for the worlds as a great 
writer saith, being given to man for a subject qf disputation^ he might 
think himself mocked with a penurious gift, were any thing made 
certain. Hence those superior masters of wisdom, the Sceptics and 
Academics, reasonably conclude that two and two do not makefouT* 


But we need not go so far, to remark what the poet principally 
intended, the absurdity of complaining of old age, which must 
necessarily happen, as long as we are indulged in our desires of 
adding one year to another. P.\ 

Ver. 291. Next, Smedley div'd;] In the surreptitious editions, 
this whole episode was applied to an initial letter E — , by whom, 
if they meant the Laureate, nothing was more absurd, no part 
agreeing with his character. The allegory evidently demands a 
person dipped in scandal, and deeply immersed in dirty work ; 
whereas Mr. Eusden's works rarely offended but by their length 
and multitude, and accordingly are taxed of nothing else in Book i. 



Ver. 286. Then sighing, thus, " And am I now threescore? S^cJ 

" Fletque Milon senior, cum spectat inanes 

Herculeis similes, fluidos pendere lacertos.'^ Ovid. P. 


All look^ all sigh^ and call on Smedley lost ; 
Smedley, in vain, resounds thro' all the coast. 

Then * essay'd ; scarce vanish'd out of sight, 295 
He buoys up instant, and returns to light : 


ver. 102. But the person here mentioned, an Irishman, was author 
and publisher of many scurrilous pieces, a weekly WhitehallJour- 
nal in the year 1722, in the name of Sir James Baker ; and parti- 
cularly, whole volumes of Billingsgate against Dr. Swif^ and 
Mr. Pope, called GuUiveriana and Alexandriana, printed in octavo, 
1728. P. 

Ver. 295. Then • essay d;'} In the early editions it stood, 
Then • * try*d, but hardly snatched from sight, 
Instant buoys up, and rises into light. 
Upon which is the following note. 

This is an instance of the tenderness of our author; The person 
here intended writ an angry preface against him, grounded on a 
mistake, which he aflerwards honourably acknowledged in another 
printed preface. Since when, he feU under a second mistake, and 
abused both him and his friend. 

He is a writer of genius and spirit, though in his youth he was 
guilty of some pieces bordering upon bombast. Our poet here 
gives him a panegyric instead of a satire ; being edified beyond 
measure at this only instance he ever met with in his life, of one 
yaho was much a poet confessing himself in an error ; and has sup- 
pressed his name, as thinking him capable of a second repen- 
tance. P. 

In the edition of 1743, the foregoing note is omitted, and the 
following appears in its stead. 

Ver. 296. Then • essay' d ;] A gentleman of genius and spirit, 
who was secretly dipt in some papers of this kind, on whom our 
poet bestows a paneg3nric instead of a satire, as deserving to be 
better employed than in party quarrels, and personal invec- 
tives. P,f 


Ver. 293. and call on Smedley lost ; Sfc.y 
<< Alddes wept in vain for Hylas lost ; 
Hylas, in vain, resounds through all the coast." 

Lord Roscom. Translat. of Virgil's 6th Eel. P. 

192 THE DUNCf AD. BOOK 11/. 

He bears no tokens of the sabler streams. 

And mounts far* off among the swans of Thames. 

True to the bottom, see Concanen creep, 
A cold, long-winded, native of the deep : 300: 


Ver. 295. Then * essnj/d;'] Warton says, " supposed to be Hz//,? 
but Pope denied it." Pope denied he meant tbe Duke of Chandos ; 
but Johnson speaks very decidedly, that " he was sometimes the 
aggressor, and, before Chandos and Hill, was mean in his retreat." 
That he meant Aaron Hill, there can be no doubt: see Aaron. 
Hill's Letters to him on this subject, in which he, with the most 
manly but severe tone, calls Pope to an account, who seems to 
shrink before him. — See Letters to and from Aaron Hill, in another 
volume of this work. 

Hill was too hasty in resenting it so much ; for the compliment « 
infinitely exceeds the abuse : and it is indeed a most happy image, 
and introduced with the greatest beauty and effect ; particularly 
his mounting 

" far off among the swans of Thames." 

I do not know in the English language where we could find a 
more elegant and poetical compliment. Bowles, 

Ver. 299. Ckyncanen] Matthew Concanen, an Irishman, bred 
to the law. Smedley (one of his brethren in enmity to Swift) in 
his Metamorphosis of Scriblerus, p. 7, accuses him of " having 
boasted of what he had not written, but others had revised and- 
done for him." He was author of several dull and dead scurri- 
lities in the British and London Journals, and in a paper called the 
Speculatist. In a pamphlet, called a Supplement to the Profund, 
he dealt very unfairly with our poet, not only frequently imputing 
to him Mr. Broome's verses, (for which he might indeed seem in 
some degree accountable, having corrected what that gentleman ^ 
did,) but those of the duke of Buckingham, and others : to this 
rare piece somebody humorously caused him to take for his motto, 
De profundis clamavi. He was since a hired scribbler in the Daily 
Cdurant, where he poured forth much Billingsgate against the 
Lord Bolingbroke, and others ; afler which, this man was sur- 
prisingly promoted to administer justice and law in Jamaica. P.f 
This is theiscribbler to whom Warburton wrote his famous Letter, 



If perseverance gain the Diver's prize. 
Not everlasting Blackmore this denies : 
No noise, no stir, no motion canst thou make, 
Th' unconscious stream sleeps o'er thee like a lake. 
Next plung'd a feeble, but a desp'rate pack> 305 
With each a sickly brother at his back : 
Sons of a day 1 just buoyant on the flood. 
Then numbered with the puppies in the mud. 
Ask ye their names ? I could as soon disclose 
The names of these blind puppies as of those. 310 
Fast by, like Niobe, her children gone^ 
Sits Mother Osborne, stupified to stone ; 
And monumental brass this record bears, 
*^ These are, — ah no I these were the Gazetteers!" 


published by Dr. Akenside ; by which it appears, that Concanen 
was intimately acquainted with Dn Warburton in the year 1728, 
at the time when he published a Supplement to the Profound. 


Ver. 306, 307. Wkk each a sickly brother at hU back: Sons of a 
Day ! 4r<^.] These were daily Papers, a number of which, to lessen 
the expense, were printed one on the back of another. P.f 

Ver. '^ Niobcy'] See the story in Ovid, Met. vii. where the 
miserable petrifaction of this old lady is pathetically described. 

Ver. 312. Osborne^'] A name assumed by the eldest and gravest 
of these writers, who at last being ashamed of his pupils, gave his 
paper over, and in his age remained silent. P.f 

Ver. 314. Gazetteers !'\ We ought not to suppress that a modern 
critic here taxeth the poet with an anadiromsm, affirming these 
Gazetteers not to have lived within the time of this poem, and 



Ver. 302. Not everlasting Blackmore'] 

*^ Nee bonus Eurytion praelato invidit honori;'' kc, 

Virg. £neid. v. P. 



Not SO bold Amall ; with a weight of skull, 315 
Furious he dives, precipitately dull ; 


challenging us to produce any such paper of that date. But we 
may with equal assurance assert these Grazetteers not to have lived 
since, and challenge all the learned world to produce one such 
paper at this day. Surely therefore, where the point is so obscure, 
our author ought not to be censured too rashly. Scriblerus. P.\ 
Notwithstanding this affected ignorance of the good Scriblerus, 
the Daily Gazetteer was a title given very properly to certain 
papers, each of which lasted but a day. Into this, as a common 
sink, was received all the trash, which had been before dispersed 
in several Journals, and circulated at the public expense of the 
nation. The authors were the same obscure men ; though s(»ne- 
times relieved by occasional essays from Statesmen, Courtiers, 
Bishops, Deans, and Doctors. The meaner sort were rewarded 
with money ; others with places or benefices, from an hundred to 
a thousand a-year. It appears from the Report of the Secret Com- 
mittee for inquiring into the conduct of R. Earl of O. '* That 
no less than^^ thousand seventyseven pounds, eighteen shiUings^ 
were paid to authors and printers of Newspapers, such iM Free^ 
Britons, Daily-Courants, Corn-Cutters' Journals, Gaz^ttieers, arid 
other political papers, between Feb. 10, 1731, and Feb. 10, 1741:" 
which shews the benevolence of one Minister to have expended, 
for the current dulness of ten years in Britain, double the sum 
which gained Louis XIV. so much honour, in annual pensions td 
learned men all over Europe. In which, and in a much longer 
time, not a pension at Court, nor preferment in the Church, or 
Universities, of any consideration, was bestowed on any man 
distinguished for his learning, separately from party-merit or 

It is worth a reflection, that of all the paneg3nric8 bestowed by 
these writers on this great Minister, not one is at this day extant 
or remexhbered ; nor even so much credit done to his pergonal 
character by all they have written, as by one short occasional com- 
phment of our author ; 

Seen him I have ; but in his happier hour 
Of social pleasure, ill exchanged for power ; 
Seen him, tmcumber'd by the venal tribe, 
Smile without art, and win without a bribe. P.f 



MTiirlpools and storms his circling arms invest. 
With all the might of gravitation blest ; 


If the paneg3rrists of Sir Robert Walpole and his administratioa 
are all forgotten, it is the fate of all party-writers. It is different 
with regard to poetry ; for the excellence of the verses will insure 
them readers, when the parties to whom they allude are forgotten : 
but, notwithstanding this, every day detracts something, 

(Anni praedantur euntes) 
from the popularity of these writings, which were indebted for their 
greatest success to particular circumstances of the times. If Sir 
Robert's pamphleteers and gazetteers are forgotten, so also are the 
papers supported by what Pope would consider the ablest hands ; 
witness, the " Examiner," the " Craftsman," &c. : but who now 
reads them ? They are all, both " Capulets and Montagus, gone 
40 the same vault,^ Bowles, 

Ver. 316. Arnally\ William Arn all, bred an Attorney, was a 
perfect genius in this sort of work. He began under twenty with 
furious party-papers; then succeeded Concanen in the British 
Journal. At the first publication of the Dunciad, he prevailed on 
the author not to give him his due place in it, by a letter professing 
his detestation of such practices as his predecessor's. But since, 
by the most unexampled insolence and personal abuse of several 
great men, the poet's particular friends, he most amply deserved a 
niche in the Temple of Infamy : witness a paper, called the Free- 
Briton; a Dedication intitled, To the Genuine Blunderer, 1732, 
and many others. He writ for hire, and valued himself upon it ; 
not indeed without cause, it appearing by the aforesaid Report, 
that he received ** for Free-Britons, and other writings, in the 
space oifour years^ no less than ten thousand nine hundred and 
ninety-seven pounds^ six shillings, and eight-pence, out of the Trea- 
sury." But frequently, through his fury or foDy, he exceeded all 
the bounds of his commission, and obliged his honourable Patron 
to disavow his scurr^ties. P,f 

Those who arraign Sir Robert Walpole for his practice of em- 
ploying, at a great expense, public writers, forget, or are ignorant 
of, the circumstances and peculiar difficulties of the times. Wal- 
pole was the main prop of the Protestant Succession ; against him 
were united splendid, but opposite forces, — the Jacobites, the 

O 2 Tories, 


No crab more active in the dirty dance. 
Downward to climb, and backward to advance ; 820 
He brings up half the bottom on his head. 
And loudly claims the Journals and the Lead. . 


Tories, the discontented Republicans, the Dissenters, and the 
High-Churchmen. It was necessary to maintain one great and 
essentialfortress, our laws and liberties, under the house of Hanover : 
if Walpole was attacked, by whatever weapons, it was necessary 
that he should be enabled to repel the attack, from whatever 
quarter, and oppose the arms by which he and his cause were 
assailed. Bolingbroke, his most crafty, inveterate, and, I may 
add, ungrateful opponent, directed the " Crafbman," a periodical 
paper : the same abuse was fulminating from every quarter ; and 
this was only to be repelled by having recourse to the same weapons. 
Hence the number of gazetteers, pamphleteers, &c. in the pay of 
Sir Robert W. : they did their duty, as far as they were concerned ; 
he did his, in his place in the House of Commons ; but I very 
much doubt whether his wisdom, his intrepidity, his eloquence, 
and his promptitude, in that place, could have preserved the arx 
reipublica (assaulted as it was), unless he had made use of fliose 
subordinate aids, which many, without considering all the drcum- 
stances, have so much decried, Bowles, 

This defence of a minister who applies the public money to 
hireling writers^ in order to maintain himself in power, under the 
plea or pretext that it is necessary to the prosperity or safety of 
the state, cailnot be admitted. Whatever may be the' doctrines 
advanced, and whether the administration be whig or tory, it is 
equally inexcusable; and is, in fact, neither more nor less than 
making the country pay for being imposed upon ; as the writer does 
not promulgate his real and impartial opinions, but such as are 
dictated to him by those by whom he is paid. The principles of 
honour, good faith, and sincerity, are not to be sacrificed eidier to 
state necessity or to the peculiar difficulties of the times. The con- 
descending to make use of such measures is the greatest blot in 
the character of the illustrious statesman referred to ; whose life, 
by Archdeacon Coxe, is a most valuable addition to English history. 

Ver. 318. gravitation blest;] From Dorset oq Howard, who had 
such alacrity in sinking. Warton, 


The plon^ig Prelate^ and his ponderous Gtae^ 
With holy envy gave one Layman piace; 
When lo I a burst of thimder shook the flood ; 325 
^w rose a form^ in majesty of itmi. 
Shaking the horrors of his sable brows^ 
And each ferocious featwe grim with ooze ; 
Greater he looks^ and more than mortal stares^ 
Then thus the wonders of the deep declares, 330 

First he relates, how jinking to the chin, 
Smit with Ms. mien, the mud-nymphs suck'd him in : 
How young Lutetia, softer than the down, 
Nigrina black, and Merdamante brown. 
Vied for his love in jetty bow'rs below, 336 

As Hylas fair was ravish'd long ago ; 


Ver. 323. The phmging Prelate^ It was imagined he meant 
Bishop Sherlock, whom Bolinghroke attacks so violently in the 
Dissertation on Parties, for defending the measures of Sir Robert 
Walpole, who was Sherlock's Contemporary at Etbn College, and 
w^ osed' to relate, that when some of the sdiol^ going' to bathe 
in the Thames, stood shivering on the bank, Sherlock plunged in 
immediately over his head and ears. Warton, 

Ver. 33i. First he relatesil The adventures of Smedley, and 
what he saw in the shades below, from thence down to line 352, 
are finely imagined, and one of the most poetical passages in any 
of his works. Warton. 

Ver. 336. As Hylas fair'] Who was ravished by the water- 
nymphs, and drawn into the river. The story is told at large by 
Valerius Flaccus, lib. iii. Argon. See Virgil, Eel. vi. • P. 

But it is better told by Theocritus, Idyll. 13. Warton. 


Ver. 329. QreaJter he looks^ and imrt thanmortal staresi] Virg; 
£neid. vi. of the Sibyl: 

" -^— — mnjorque videri. 
Nee meitate sowamr." - P. 


Then sung,how, shown him by the nut-brown maids, 

A branch of Styx here rises from the shades. 

That tinctur'd as it runs with Lethe's streams. 

And wafting vapours from the land of dreams, 340 

(As under seas Alpheus* secret sluice 

Bears Pisa's off 'rings to his Arethuse) 

Pours into Thames : and hence the mingled wave 

Intoxicates the pert, and lulls the grave : 

Here, brisker vapours o'er the Temple creep, 345 

There, all from Paul's to Aldgate drink and sleep. 


Ver. 338. A branch of Sty r, ft-c] 

Ovo oyt Untsiu avfi,fA.\oytTen etfyvfo}Uyit 
Opxtf yk^ ^ftyS "Lrvyoq v^oio; Irty a70^|^|. 

Homer, 11. ii. Catal. 
Of the Land of Dreams in the same region, he makes mention, 
Odyss. xxiv. See also Lucian*s True History. Lethe and the 
Land qf Dreams allegorically represent the stupefaction and vision' 
ary madness of poets, equally dull and extravagant. Of Alpheus's 
water gliding secretly under the sea of Pisa, to mix with those of 
Arethuse in Sicily, see Moschus, Idyll, viii. Virg. Ed. x. 

" Sic tibi, cum fluctus subterlab^re Sicanos, 
Doris amara suam non intermisceat undam." 

And again, .Sneid. iii. 

" Alpheum fama est hue Elidis amnem, 

Occultas egisse vias subter mare, qui nunc 

Ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis confunditur undis." P. 

Ver. 341. secret sluice'} Not so much from Moschus or Virgil, 

as mentioned in the above note, but clearly taken from the Arcades 
of Milton ; 

" Divine Alph^us, who, by secret sluice, 
Stole under seas to meet his Arethuse^'' Warton, 


Thence to the banks where rev'rend Bards repose^ 
They led him soft ; each rev'rend Bard arose ; 
And Milboum chief, deputed by the rest, 
jGrave him the cassock, surcingle, and vest. 350 
■ ' Receive (he said) these robes which once were mine ; 
'^ Dulness is sacred in a sound divine." 

He ceas'd, and spread the robe ; the crowd confess 
The rev'rend Flamen in his lengthened dress. 
Around him wide a sable army stand, 355 

A low-bom, cell-bred, selfish, servile band, 


Ver. 349. And Milbourn] Luke Milbourn, a Clergyman, the 
fairest of critics; who, when he wrote against Mr. Dryden's 
Virgil, did him justice in printing at the same time his own trans- 
lations of him, which were intolerable. His manner of writing 
has a great resemblance with that of the gentlemen of the Dun- 
ciad against our author, as will be seen in the Parallel of Mr. 
Dryden and him. P. 

Ver. 355. Around him wide, Sfc."] It is to be hoped that the 
satire in these lines will be understood in the confined sense in 
which the author meant it, of such only of the Clergy, who, though 
solemnly engaged in the service of religion, dedicate themselves, 
for venal and corrupt ends, to the service of Ministers or factions ; 
and though educated under an entire ignorance of the world, aispire 
to interfere in the government of it, and consequently to. disturb 
and disorder it ; in which they fall short of their predecessors only 
by being invested with much less of that power and authority, 



Ver. 347. Thence to the banks^ *c.] 
** Tum canit errantem Permessi ad flumina Gallimi, 
Aonas in montes ut duxerit was. sororum ; 
Utque viro Phoebi chorus assurrexerit omnis ; 
Ut Linus hsec illi divino carmine pastor, 
Floribus atque apio crines omatus amaro, 
Dixerit : Hos tibi dant calamos, en accipe, Musse, 
Ascraeo quos ante seni ;''— &c. Virg. Eel. vi. P. 


Prompt or to guard or stab^ or saint or danm, 
Heav'n's Swiss, who fight for any God, or Man. 
Through Lud's fiEun'd gates, along the well-known 

Rolls the black troop, and overshades the street,360 
Till show'rs of Sermons, Characters, Essays, 
In circling fleeces whiten all the ways : 
So clouds, replenish'd £rom some bc^ below. 
Mount in dark volumes, and descend in snow. 
Here stopp'd tl^ Goddess, and in pomp prodaiins 
A gentler exercise to close the games. 

*' Ye Critics ! in whose heads, as equal wales, 
^' I weigh what author^s heaviness prevails ; 


which they employed iadifferently (as is hinted at in the lines above) 
either in supporting arbitrary power, or in exciting rebdlion ; in 
canonizing the vices of tyrants, or in blackening the virtiKS of 
patriots ; in cormpdng religion by superstition, or betra3ring it by 
libertinism, as either was thought best to serve the ends of pcdicy^ 
or flatter the foMies of the great. W. 

I fear, notwithstanding the pains taken by the Conunentator^ in 
his note on this passage, that it will be thought to contun too 
general and unmerited a censure on die (3ergy. The expression 
is taken from Dryden's Hind and Panther : 

" Those Swisses fight for any side for pay.** Warton, 

Ver. 359. Lud^s fanCd gates^ ** King Lud, repairing the city, 
called it after his own name, Lud's Town ; the strong gate which 
he built in the west part, he likewise, for his own honour, named 
Ludgate. In the year 1260, this gate was beautified with images 
of Lud and other %dngs. Those images in the reign of Edward 
VI. had their heads smitten off, and were otherwise defaced by 
unadvised folks. Queen Mary did set new heads upon their old 
bodies again. The 2dth of Queen Elizabeth, the same ^te was 
dean taken down, and ncTtiy and beaudfifly boilded, wi^ images 
of Lud and others, as afore." Stowe's Surviy qf London. P. 


'' Whidimostcoiiduce to sooth the soul in slumb^rs^ 
'* My H — ley's periods^ or my Blackmore's num* 
bers ; 370 

/' Attend the trial, we propose to make : 
'' If there be man, who o'er such works can wake, 
'' Sleep's all-subduing charms who dares defy, 
" And boasts Ulysses' ear with Argus' eye, 
'' To him we grant our amplest pow'rs to sit 376 
" Judge of all present, past, and fixture wit ; 
" To cavil, censure, dictate, right or wrong, 
'' Full and eternal privilege of tongue." 
Three College Sophs, and three pert Templars 
The same their talents, and their tastes the same ; 
Each prompt to query, answer, and debate. 
And smit with love of poesy and prate. 
The pond'rous books two gentle readers bring ; 
The heroes sit, the vulgar form a ring ; 
The clam'rous crowd is hush'd with mugs of Mum, 
Till all, tun'd equal, send a gen'ral hum. 
Then mount the Clerks, and in one lazy tone 
Thro' the long, heavy, painful page drawl on ; 

Ver. 374. See Horn. Odysd. xii. Ovid. Met i. P. 


Ver. 380, 381. The same their uUetUs^Each prompt 4*0.] 
" Ambo florentes setatibiu. Arcades ambo, 
£t certare pares, et respondere parati.'' Virg. Ed. vi. P. 
Ver. 382. And smit with love of poem/ and prate^ 

" Smit with the love of sacred song" Milton. P. 

Ver. 384. The heroes sit, the vulgorform a ring ;] 

<* Consedere duces, et vulgi stante coroni." 

Ovid. Met, xiii. P.f 


Soft^ creeping^ words on words the sense compose; 
At ev'ry line they stretch, they yawn, they doze. 390 
As to soft gales top-heavy pines bow low 
Their heads, and lift them as they cease to blow. 
Thus oft they rear, and oft the head decline. 
As breathe, or pause, by fits, the airs divine; 
And now to this side, now to that they nod, 395 
As verse, or prose, infuse the drowsy God. 
Thrice Budgel aim'd to speak, but thrice supprest 
By potent Arthur, knocked his chin and breast. 
Toland and Tindal, prompt at priests to jeer. 
Yet silent bow'd to Christ" s no kingdom here. 400 


Ver. 397.] Thrice Budgel aim'd to speak^ Famous for his 
speeches on many occasions about the South Sea scheme, &c. 
** He 'is a very ingenious gentleman, and hath written some excel- 
lent Epilogues to Plays, and one small piece on Love, which is very 
pretty." — Jacob, Lives of Poets, vol. ii. p. 289. But this gentle- 
man since made himself much more eminent, and personally well 
known to the greatest statesmen of all parties, as well as to all the 
Cburts of Law in this nation. P. 

Ver.. 399. Toland and Tindal,'] Two persons, not so happy as 
to be obscure, who writ against the religion of their coimtry. 
Toland, the author of the Atheist's Liturgy, called Pantheisticon, 
was a spy in pay to Lord Oxford. Tindal YfB& author of the Rights 
qfthe Christian Church, and Christianity as old as the Creation, He 

also wrote an abusive pamphlet against Earl S , which was 

suppressed, while yet in MS. by an eminent person then out of 
the ministry, to whom he shewed it, expecting his approbation. 
This Doctor afterwards pubhshed the same piece, mutatis mutan' 
dis, against that very person. P. 

Ver. 399. Toland\ Toland, by the confidence of his assertions, 



Ver. 399. in the first Edit it was, 

Collins and Tindal, pron^t at priests to je». W.^ 



Who sate the nearest^ by the words o'ercome^ 
Slept first ; the distant nodded to the hum. 

and affectation of learning, acquired in his time more reputation 
than he deserved. He travelled to Germany, where he received 
many marks of distinction, particularly at the court of Hanover. 
He was likewise noticed by Prince Eugene, and in England he had 
the honour of reckoning Mr. Locke among his friends. He is 
remarkable for the perplexity of his style, and confusion of his 
ideas ; and not less for his unfairness and disingenuity in the ma- 
nagement of an argument. He has been detected in false quota- 
tions and strange blunders. He put no restraint on his passions ; 
and in the latter part of his life he was reduced to great distress. 
Bannister. Bowles. 

Ver. 400. Christ^s no kingdom here] This is scandalously said 
by Curl, Key to Dune, to allude to a sermon of a reverend Bi- 
shop. But the context shews it to be meant of a famous public 
orator, not more remarkable for his long-winded periods, than his 
disaffection to Ecclesiastical hierarchy, and to the doctrine that 
Christ's kingdom is of this world. P. 

It certainly did allude to the famous sermon of Bishop Hoadley, 
whom our author disliked on account of some letters signed Brit- 
tanicus, in the London Journal, against Bishop Atterbury ; whom 
also Hoadley had vigorously attacked for his false and perverse 
interpretation of that text in St. Paul, ** If in this life only we 
have hope, we are of all men most miserable :" and also for a fa- 
mous sermon on another ill-imderstood passage of Scripture, 
** Charity shall cover a multitude of sins :" and for his sermon be- 
fore the Convocation. Atterbury, I believe, was one of the last 
preachers that ever injudiciously urged the authenticity of the Sy- 
billine verses, as proofs of the coming of our Saviour. Warbur- 
ton was not of Atterbury's opinion with respect to Church-power. 
See his " Alliance.'' Warton. .. 

Ver. 400. Yet silent bow'd to Chrises no kingdom here^ The 
deliberate, unimpassioned hostility of Pope, and the misanthropic 
virulence of Swift, against Bishop Hoadley, are easily accounted 
for, upon the same laudable principle which excited their antipa- 


Then down are roll'd the books; stretch'd o'er 

them lies 
Each gentle clerks and mutt'ring seals his eyes. 
As what a Dutchmisui plumps into the lakes, 405 
One circle firsts and then a second makes ; 
What Dulness dropped among her sons imprest 
Like motion from one circle to the rest : 
So from the mid-most the nutation spreads 
Round and more round o'er all the sea of heads. 


thies in so many other instances ; namely, his zeal and abilities in 
vindicating the civil and religious liberties of mankind. The 
Sermon here alluded to, On the Nature of the Kingdom or 
Church of Christ, is well known to have occasioned a long, vehe- 
ment, and learned debate, under the name of the Bangorian Con- 
troversy ; of which See, Hoadley was at that time Bishop. It 
was preached before George the First, at St. James's, March 1, 
1717, and published by his special command; and soon went 
through many editions. Wakefield, 

Ver. 405. As what a Dutchman] It is a common and foolish 
mistake, that a ludicrous parody of a grave and celebrated pas- 
sage is a ridicule of that passage. The reader, therefore, i^e will, 
may call this a parody of the author's own sublime similitude in 
the Essay on Man, Epis. iv. 

<* As the small pebble," &c. 

but will any body therefore suspect the one to be a ridiciile of the 
other ? A ridicule there is in every parody ; but when the image 
is transferred from one subject to another, and the subject is not 
a poem burlesqued (which Scriblerus hopes the reader will distin* 
guish from a burlesque poem^ there the ridicule falls not on the 
thing imitated, but imitating. Thus, for instance, wh»i 

Old Edward's armour beams on Cibber's breast ; 

it is, without doubt, an object ridiculous enough. But I think it 
falls neither on old King Edward, nor his armour; but on his 
armour-bearer only. Let this be said to explain our author's paro- 


At. last Centlivre felt her voice to fail, 
Motteux himself unfinish'd left his tale, 
Boyer the state, and Law the stage gave o'er, 
Morgan and Mandevil could prate no more ; 


dies (a figure that has always a good elSect in a mock -epic poem) 
either from profane or sacred writers. fV.-f 

Ver. 411. Centlivre] Mrs. Susannah Centlivre, wife to Mr. 
Centlivre, Yeoman of the Mouth to his M^esty. She writ many 
Plays, and a Song, (says Mr. Jacob, vol. i. p. 32.) before she w^s 
seven years old. She also writ a Ballad against Mr. Pope's Ho- 
mer, before he began it. P. 

Ver. 413. Boifer the state^ and Law the stage gave o'er^] A. 
Boyer, a voluminous compiler of Annals, Political Collections, 
&c. — William Law, A. M. wrote with great zeal against the stage ; 
Mr. Dennis answered with as great : their books Were printed in 
1726. Mr. Law affirmed, " The playhouse is the temple of the 
devil ; the peculiar pleasure of the devil ; where all they who go, 
yield to the devil; where all the laughter is a laughter among 
devils; and all who are there are hearing music in the very 
porch of hell." To which Mr. Dennis replied, that " There is 
every jot as much difference between a true Play, and one made 
by a Poetaster, as between two religious Books, the Bible and the 
Alcoran" Then he demonstrates, that " All those who had writ- 
ten against the stage were Jacobites and Non-jurors ; and did it 
always at a time when something was to be done for the Tre- 
tender. Mr. Collier published his Short View, when France de- 
clared for the Chevalier ; and his Dissuasive, just at the great 
storm, when the devastation which that hurricane wrought, had 



Ver. 410. o'er all the sea of heads.'] 

** A waving sea of heads was round me spread, 
And still fresh streams the gazing deluge fed." 

Blackm. Job. P. 


Ver. 413. in the first Edit, it was, 

T ■ s and T the Church and State gave o'er, 

Nor • * * talked, nor S whisper'd more. JT.f 


Norton^ from Daniel and Ostroea sprung^ 415 
Bless'd with his father's front, and mother's tongue, 


amazed and astonished the minds of men, and made them obnoxi- 
ous to melancholy and desponding thoughts. Mr. Law took the 
opportunity to attack the stage upon the great preparations he 
heard were making abroad, and which the Jacobites flattered them- 
selves were designed in their favour. Ajad as for Mr. Bedford's 
Serious Remonstrance, though I know nothing of the time of pub- 
lishing, yet I dare to lay odds ^ wis either upon the Duke d*Au- 
mont's being at Somerset-house, or upon the late Rebellion,'* Den- 
nis, Stage defended against Mr. Law, p. ult. P. 

How Boyer, who was indeed a dull but useful writer, offended 
our author, I have never heard. But indeed most of the scribblera 
here proscribed, were of a rank much inferior to the writers whom 
Boileau thought proper to attack ; particularly Quinault, whom 
he so unjustly and impotently censured. It was said of Boileau, 
that though he made vice odious, he never made virtue amiable. 
Law was a melancholy enthusiast, who disguised and misrepre- 
sented true rehgion by dressing it up in dark gloomy colours. 

' Ver. 414. Morgan] A writer against religion, distinguished 
no otherwise from the rabble of his tribe, than by the pompousness 
of his title, of a Moral Philosopher, W, 

Ibid. Mofgart\ Morgan was bred a dissenting minister ; he 
afterwards turned physician, and settled in Bristol, but never could 
get much practice, owing, it is said, to his ungracefid form and 
uncouth manner. He was a man of some learning, and uncom- 
pion acuteness, with a strong disposition to satire, which very of- 
ten degenerated into scurrility. His most celebrated work is the 
Moral Philosopher, first published in the year 1737. It is written 
with great art ; and the author endeavours to conceal the mischiev- 
ous tendency of his principles, tiQ he thinks he has brought the 
reader over to his opinion : he then displays his malice without 
disguise. He is remarkable for the indecency and impiety of his 
expressions, and the indulgence of a coarse strain of humour, or ra- 
ther buffoonery. He was answered by Leland, Lowman, and 
Chandler, and tretted by the latter with great severity. He died 
in the yearl748« Bavnister.' Bowles, 


Hung silent down his never-blushing head ; 
And all was hush'd, as Folly's self lay dead. 

Thus the soft gifts of Sleep conclude the day^ 
And stretch'd on bulks^ as usual^ poets lay. 420 
Why should I sing, what bards the nightly Muse 
Did slumb'ring visit, and convey to stews ; 


Ver. 414. Mandevif] Author of a famous book called ihe Fable 
of the Bees ; written to prove, that moral virtue is the invention of 
knaves, and Christian virtue the imposition of fools ; and that vice 
is necessary, and alone sufficient to render society flourishing and 
happy. P.f 

Ver. 415. iVor/on,] Norton De Foe, said to be the natural off- 
spring of the famous Daniel De Foe. " Fortes creantur fortibus." 
One of the authors of the Flying Post, in which well-bred work 
Mr. P. had sometime the honour to be abused with his betters, 
and of many hired scurrilities and daily papers to which he never 
set his name. P. 

Ver. 418. And all was hushed,'] Alluding to the first line of 
Dryden's description of night in the Indian Emperor; a descrip- 
tion which Rhymer produces as a specimen of the superiority 
of English poetry to that of other nations : after quoting the de- 
scriptions of Apollonius, Virgil, Ariosto, Tasso, Marino, Chape- 
lain, and Le Mo3rne ; as if, by one description, such a question 
could be determined! Rhymer introduces this criticism in the 
preface to his translation of Rapin's Reflexions on Aristotle's Po- 
etics ; and Rhymer, at that time, gave the law to all writers, and 
was appealed to as a supreme judge of all works of taste and 
genius. How well he was qualified for this character, will ap- 
pear by observing, that after making remarks on what he calls our 
three Epic Poets, Spencer, Davenant, and Cowley, he mentions 
not one syllable of Milton. But Milton was not relished and com- 
prehended either by Rapin or Rhymer. Warton, 

Ver. 418. And all was hush'df as Folly's seff.lay dead.] Creech 
in his translation of the story of Lucretia, from Ovid, Fast. ii. 

" And all was husk*d, as Nature's self lay dead'* 
And Hughes, in his Morning Apparition : 

*' All things were hush*d, as Noise itself were dead.** 



Who prouder march'd^ with magistrates in state^ 
To some &m'd romid-house^ ever open gate ! 
How Henley lay inspir'd beside a sink, 425 

And to mere mortals seem'd a priest in drink ; 
While others, timely, to the neighb'ring Fleet, 
Haunt of the Muses, make their safe retreat 


Ver. 421. Why should I sing what bards the nightly Muse 
Did slumbering visit, and convey to stews ;] 
A parody on Paradise Lost, ix. 20. 

" If answerable style I can obtain 
Of my celestial patroness, who deigns 
Her nightly visitation unimplor'd, 
And dictates to me slumbering. Wakefield. 

Ver. 426. And to mere mortals seemed a priest in drink i] This 
line presents us with an excellent moral, that we are never to pass 
judgment merely by appearance ; a lesson to all men, who may 
happen to see a reverend person in a like situation, not to deter- 
mine too rashly : since not only the poets frequently describe a 
bard inspired in this posture, 

" On Cam's fair bank, where Chaucer lay inspir'd,'* 
and the like, but an eminent Casuist tells us, that " if a priest be 
seen in any indecent action, we ought to account it a deception of 
sight, or illusion oi the devil, who sometimes takes upon him the 
shape of holy men on purpose to cause scandal." Scriblerus. P. 
Ver. 427. Fketi] A prison for insolvent debtors on the bank of 
the Ditch. P.f 



D U N C I A D 





After the other persons are disposed in their proper places of rest y the 
Goddess transports the King to her Temple^ and there lays him to 
slumber with his head on her lap : a position qf marvellous virtue, 
which causes all the Visions qfwild enthusiasts, projectors^ politi- 
cians, inamoratos, castle-builders, chemists, and poets. He is im- 
mediately carried on the wings qf Fancy, and led by a mad poetical 
Sibyl to the Elysian shade ; where, on the banks (/Lethe, the souls 
of the dull are dipped by Bavius, before their entrance into this 
world. There he is met by the ghost of Settle, and by him made 
acquainted with the wonders of the place, and with those which he 
himself is destined to perform. He takes him to a Mount of Vision, 
from whence he shews him the past triumphs of the empire ofDul- 
ness, then the present, and lastly the future : how small a part of 
the world was ever conquered by Science ; hoy) soon those conquests 
were stopped, and those very nations again reduced to her domi- 
nion. Then, distinguishing the Island of Great Britain, he shews by 
what aids, by what persons, and by what degrees, it shall be brought 
to her Empire. Some of the persons he causes to pass in review be- 
fore his eyes, describing each by his proper figure, character, and 
qualifications. On a sudden the scene shifts, and a vast number 
of miracles and prodigies appear, utterly surprizing and unknown 
to the King himself, till they are explained to be the wonders of his 
own reign now commencing. On this subject. Settle breaks into a 
congratulation, yet not unmixed with concern, that his oum times 
were but the types of these. He prophecies how first the nation 
shall be over-run with Farces, Operas, and Shows ; how the throne 
ofDulness shall be advanced over the Theatres, and set up even at 
Court: then, how her Sons shall preside in the seats of Arts and 
Sciences: giving a glimpse, or Pisgah-sight, of the future fulness 
of her glory, the accomplishment whereof is the subject of the fourth 
and last book. 


BOOK in, 

But in her Temple's last recess enclos'd. 
On Dulness' lap th' anointed head repos'd ; 
Him close she cuirtains round with vapours blue. 
And soft besprinkles with Cimmerian dew ; 
Then raptures high the seat of sense o'erflow, 5 
Which only heads refin'd from reason know. 
Hence, fromthe straw whereBedlam's prophet nods. 
He hears loud oracles, and talks with Gods ; 
Hence the fooVs paradise, the statesman's scheme. 
The air-built castle, and the golden dream, 10. 


Ver. 5, 6, &c.] Hereby is intimated, that the following Vision 
is no more than the chimera of the dreamer's brain, and not a real, 
or intended satire on the present age, doubtless more learned, 
more enlightened, and more abomiding with great geniuses in 
divinity, politics, and whatever arts and sciences, than all the pre- 
ceding. For fear of any such mistake of our poet's honest mean- 
ing, he hath again, at the end of the Vision, repeated this monition, 
saying that it all passed through the Ivory gate^ which, (according 
to the ancients) denoteth falsity. Scriblerus. P' 

Ver. 8. He fiears loud oracles, and talks with Godsi] Ogilb/s 
version of the passage, imitated from Virgil, is : 

<< When wond'rous shapes of fleeting forms appear. 
He talks with Gods^ and doth strange language hear.'' 
Prior, in his Simile : 

" In noble songs and lofty odes, 
We tread on stars, and talk with Gods!^ Wakefield. 


Ver. 7, 8. Hence, from the straw where Bedlam*s prophet nods. 
He hears loud oracles^ and talks with Gods :] 
** Et varias audit voces, firuiturque deorum 
CoUoquio Virg. ^neid. viii. P. 



The maid's romantic wish, the chemist's flame. 
And poet's vision of eternal fame. 

And now, on Fancy's easy wing convey'd. 
The King descending, views th' Elysian shade. 
A slifHshod Sibyl led his steps along, 15 

In lofty madness meditating song ; 
Her tresses staring from poetic dreams. 
And never wash'd, but in Castalia's streams. 
Taylor, their better Charon, lends an oar. 
Once swan of Thames, tho' now he singis no more ; 


Ver. 16. A slip-shod Sihyt\ This allegory is extremely jtist ; no 
conformation of the mind so much subjecting it to real fnadnesg, as 
that which produces real didness. Hence we find the religious, as 
well as the poetical enthusiasts, of all ages, were ever, in their 
natural state, most heavy and lumpish ; but on the least applica- 
tion of heat, they run like lead^ which of all metals falls quickest 
into fusion : whereas fire, in a Genius, is truly Promethean ; it 
hurts not its constituent parts, but only fits it (as the furnace does 
well tempered steel) for the necessary impressions of art. But the 
common people have been taught, I know not on what fi>unda- 
tion, to regard lunacy as a mark of wit, just as the Turks, and our 
modem Methodists, esteem it a mark of holiness. But if the 
cause of madness assigned by a great philosopher be true, it will 
unavoidably fall upon the Dunces, He supposes it to he the dxveU 
ling over long on one object or idea. Now, as this attention is oc- 
casioned either by grief at study, it will be fixed by dulness ; which 
hath not quickness enough to comprehend what it seeks, nor force 
and vigour enough to divert the imagination firom the object it 
laments. W. 

Ver. 19. Taylor] John Taylor, the Water-poet, an honest man, 
who owns he learned not so much as the accidence. A rare ex- 
ample of modesty in a poet ! 

« I must 


Ver. 15. A^ip'Shod Sibyl, ^c] 

" Conclamat Vates 

furens antro se immisit aperto." Virgil. W.^ 

book;!!!. the dunciad. 213 

Benlowes^ propitious still to blockheads^ bows ; 21 
And Shadwell nods the poppy oii his brows. 
Here, in a dusky vale where Lethe rolls. 
Old Bavins sits, to dip poetic souls, 


" I must confess I do want eloquence, 
And never scarce did learn my accidence ; 
For having got from possum to posset, 
I there was gravell'd, could no &rther get." 

He wrote fourscore books in the reign of James I. and Charles I. 
and afterwards (like Edward Ward) kept an alehouse in Long- Acre. 
He died in 1664. P. 

Ver. 21. Benlowes,'] A country gentleman famous for his own 
bad poetry, and for patronizing bad poets, as may be seen from 
many Dedications of Quarles, and others to him. Some of these 
anagrammed his name, Benlowes into Benevolus ; to verify which, he 
spent his whole estate upon them. P.f 

Ver. 21. Beidowes — Brov3r^^Mears\ How coidd he waste so 
much time, and throw away such charming poetry on objects so 
very unknown and despicable ! What a state of anger and irrita- 
tion must his mind (and such a mind !) have been in, during the 
many hours, nay years, he spent in writing the 1670 lines of the 
Ihmciad ! Warion. 

It does not appear from the passage referred to, that Pope was 
in any extraordinary state of anger or irritation when he wrote it. 
His obje(st was fo ridicule his enemies, and to induce others to 
laugh at them. Anger aM irritatioji fcould not have effected this. 
In order to succe^^ it wfis necessary that he shou]4 be 
" The ipaster of oiu: passions and his own." 

Ver. 22. And Shadwell nods the poppy, 4*c.] Shadwell took 
opium for many years^ a^d died of too large a dose, in the year 
1692. F.t 

Ver. 24. Old Bavius sits,] B^vius was ^ ancient poet, cele- 
brated by Virgil for the like cause as Bays by oi|r author, though 
not in so christian-like a manner. For hjeathenishly it is declared 
by Virgil of Bavius, that he ought to be hated and deUUed for his 
evil works ; ^tui Bavium non odit ; whereas we have often had oc- 
casion to observe our poet's great good nature and mercifidness 
through the whole course of this poem. Scriblsbus. P. 


And Munt the sense, and fit it for a skiill 25 

Of solid proof, impenetrably duli. 

Instant, when dipp'd, away they wing their fiight. 

Where Brown and Meats unbar the gates of light. 

Demand new bodies, and in calf's array. 

Rush to the world, impatient for the day. 30 

Mr. Dennis warmly contends, that Bavins was no inconsiderable 
author; nay, that "He and Msevius had (even m Augustus's 
days) a very formidable party at Rome, who thought them mudi 
superior to Virgil and Horace. For (saith he) I canndt b^ev i^ 
they would have fixed that eternal brand upon them, if thc^ had 
not been coxcombs in more than ordinary credit." Res?* on Pr. 
Arthur, part ii. c. 1. An argument which, if this poem should 
last, will conduce to the honour of the gentlemen of the Dimduidr. 

Ver. 28. Brown and Mears] Booksellers,printers'fora]q^yte(ly« 
— ^The ^legory of the souls of the dull coming forth in t^ foin 
of books, dressed in calTs leather^ and being let abroad ¥i va^l 
numbers by booksdlers, is sufficiently intelligible. P, 


Ver. 23. Hercy in a dusky vale 4rc.] 
" ■■ Videt ^neas in valle reduct4 

Seclusum nemus 

Lethseumque, domos placidas qui praenatat, amimm ; &c. 
Hunc circum innumeras gentes," (&c. Virg. i^neid. vi. P. 
Ver. 24. Old Bavins sUs, to dip poetic ^otcZs,] Alluding to the 
story of Thetis dipping AchiDes to render liim impenetrable : 
" At pater Anchises pienitus convalle virenti 
Inclusas animas, superumque ad lumen itufias, 

Lustrabat." Virg. ^neid. vi. P. 

By no means with an intent to render him impenetarable ; but 
metely infusion to the passage in Virgil here quoted. Wdrton. 
Ver. ite. Unlar the gates of light,'] Milton. P. 

Ver. 3i, 3i. Millioris and millions—Thick as the stars, ifc.^ 
^ Quam ihulta in silvis iautuinni frigore primo 
Lapsa caJdunt folia, aut ad terram gurgite ab alto 
Quam mult^ gjloineraritur aves,** &c. P. 


Millions and millions on these banks he views. 
Thick as the stars of night, or morning dews. 
As thick as bees o'er vernal blossomis fly. 
As thick as eg^s at Ward ih pillory. 

Wond'ring he gaz'd ; when lo ! a Sage appears. 
By his broad shoulders known, and length of ears> 

Ver. 34. Ward in pilloryj] John Ward, of Hackney, Esq. 
Member of Parliament, being convicted of forgery, was first 
expelled the House, and then sentenced to the pillory on the 17th 
of February, 1727. Mr. Curl (having likewise stood there) looks 
upon the mention of such a gentleman in a satire, as a great act of 
barbarity^ Key to the Dune, dd edit. p. 16. And another author 
reasons thus upon it. Durgen, 8vo. p. 11, 12. " How unworthy 
is it of Christian charity to animate the rabble to abuse a worthy 
man in such a situation ? What could move the poet thus to men- 
tion a brave sufferer, a gallant prisoner, exposed to the view of all 
mankind ? It was laying aside his senses ; it was committing a 
crime, for which the Law is deficient not to punish him ; nay, a 
crime which man can scarce forgive, or time efface I Nothing 
surely could have induced him to it but being bribed by a great 
Lady/' &c. to whom this brave, honest, worthy Gentleman was 
guilty of no offence but forgery, proved in open court. But it is 
evident, this verse could not be meant of him ; it being notorious, 
that no eggs were thrown at that gentleman. Perhaps therefore it 
might be intended of Mr. Edward Ward, the poet. P. 

Ver. 35. When lo! a Sage appears, 

By his broad shoulders knaom^ 
An imitation of Homer, II. iii. 226. / 

aviif %ui rt fi,*yaq rtf 

"^^^^ 'ApyiHvy Kf^AXnv Vf tvpta^ vfA^ii, 
And Settk's ^zc is thus intimated by our poet's master, in his 
Absalom and Aebitophel, part ii. 

** Dvink, swear, and roar; forbear no lewd delight 
Fit for tby btdk: do any thing but write.'' Wakefieidk 
Ver. 36. emd length cf^rs,"] This is a sophisticated reading. I 
think I may ventof^ to affirm all i^e cdpyis^ a^ inistaiiien hei^ 

I believe 


Known by the band and suit which Settle wore 
(His only suit) for twice three years before. 
All as the vest, appeared the wearer's frame^ 
Old in new state, another, yet the same ; 40 


I believe I may say the same of the critics ; Demiis, Oldmixon, 
Welsted, have passed it in silence. I have also stumbled at it, and 
wondered how an error so manifest could escape such accurate 
{)ersons. I dare assert it proceeded originally from the inadver- 
tency of some transcriber, whose head ran on the pillory, men- 
tioned two lines before ; it is therefore amazing that Mr. Curl 
himself should overlook it ! Yet that Scholiast takes not the least 
notice hereof. That the learned Mist also read it thus, is plain 
from his ranging this passage among those in which our author 
was blamed fbr personal satire on a man* s face (whereof doubtless 
he' might take the ear to be a part ;) so likewise Concanen, Ralph, 
the Flying-Post, and all the herd of commentators. — Tata armenta 

A very little sagacity (which all these gentlemen therefore 
wanted) will restore to us the true sense of the poet, thus, 

" By his broad shoulders known, and length of j^ear*." 
See how easy a change ; of one single letter ! That Mr. Settle 
was old, is most certain; but he was, happily, a stranger to the 
pillory. This note partly Mr. Theobald's, partly Scribl. P. 

Ver. 37. Settle^ Elkanah Settle was once a writer in vogue, as 
well as Gibber, both for dramatic poetry and politics. Mr. Dennis 
tells us, that " he was a formidable rival to Mr. Dryden, and that 
in the University of Cambridge there were those who gave him 
the prrferenceJ* Mr. Welsted goes yet farther in his behalf: 
" Poor Settle was formerly the mighty rival of Dryden ; nay, for 
many years bore his reputation above him." Pref. to his Poems, 
8vo. p. 31. And Mr. Milbourn cried out, " How little was Dry- 
den able, even when his blood ran high, to defend himself against 
Mr. Settle !" Notes on Dryd. Virg. p. 176. These are conifort- 
able opinions, and no wonder some authors indiilge themi ! - 

He was author or publisher of many noted pamphlets in the 
tim^ of king Charles II. He an^w^red all Di^dei^'s po^l^ical 
poems ; and being cried up on one side, succeeded not a little' in 



Bland and familiar as in life^ begun 
Thus the great Father to the greater Son. 

^' Oh born to see what none can see awake! 
Behold the wonders of th* oblivious Lake. 
Thou^ yet unborn^ hast touch'd this sacred shore; 
The hand of Bavins drench'd thee o'er and o'er. 
But bliiid to former as to future fate^ 
What mortal knows his pre-existent state ? 
Who knows how long thy transmigrating soul 
Might from Boeotian to Boeotian roll ? 50 

his Tragedy of the Empress of Morocco, the first that was ever 
printed with Cuts. " Upon this he grew insolent ; the wits writ 
against his Play, he replied, and the Town judged he had the 
better. In short, Settle was then thought a very formidable rival 
to Mr. Dryden ; and not only the Town, but the University of 
Cambridge, was divided which to prefer ; and in both places the 
younger sort inclined to Elkanah."'— Dennis, Pref. to Rem. on 
Homer. W» 

Where there is no true taste to direct the judgment, as was the 
case when this rivalship, ran high, bad poetry had a fair chance to 
be mistaken for, and so to be preferred to, good. But where true 
taste has directed to the good, one would hardly think it should 
so far blunder as to mistake the good for bettery in the same spe- 
cies of composition. Yet, Quintilian tells us that has happened ; 
and even at a time when poetry was at its height in Athens ; even 
then, he says, there were critics who preferred Philemon to ilftf- 
nander. " Habent tamen alii quoque Comici, et prsecipue PhiU' 
moTif qui ut pravis sui temporis judiciis Menandro saepe praelatus 
est, ita consensu omnium meruit credi secundus." This would be 
scarce credible, had we not seen, in our own times, fastidious critics 
of true taste, prefer Dryden to Pope; though the former is cer- 
tainly as inferior to the latter, as Quintilian thought Philemon was 
to Menander, W.f 

Ver. 60. Might from Baotian, ^c] Boeoda lay under the ridi- 
cule of the wits formerly, as Ireland does now ; though it pro- 


How many Dutchmen she voucfaskf 'd to tlirid 2 
How many stistges thro' old monks she rid ? 
And all who sinee^ in mild benighted days, 
Mix'd the. owl's ivy with the poet's bays 2 
As man's meanders to the vital spring 55 

Roll all their tides, thai back their circles bring; 
Or whirligigs, twirl'd round by skilful swain. 
Suck the thread in, then yield it out again ; 
All nonsense thus, of old or modem date. 
Shall in thee centre, from thee circidate. 00 

For this, our Queen unfolds to vision true 
Thy mental eye, for thou hast much to view : 
Old scenes of glory, times long cast behind 
Shall, first recalled, rush forward to thy mind : 
Then stretch thy sight o'er all her rismg r^gn, 65 


And let the past and future fire thy brain. 


duced one of the greatest poets, and one of the greatest generals 
of Grreece : 

" Boeotuni crassojurares aere natum/' — Horat. P. 


Ver. M. Mix^d the owl's ixy wiih the poet's hm^ f\ 
«< ■ I sine tempora circum 
Inter victrices hederam tibi serpere kniros. 

Virg. Ed. vin. P. 
Ver. 61, es. For tkis^ our ^ueen toxoids to viskm true 

Thy menttd ej^^for thou hast mack to STtenu] 
This htti meiniBlaiice to that passage in Mikdn, faddk ad; viiere 
tin Angd 

^< To hobk sights from Adam's eye reniov'd 
The fihn ; then purg'd with euphrasie and me 
The ▼unial nerve — For he had fmtch to see" 
1%er6 is a geiiendaHuaicm, in what Mows^ to £iai whcd^ episabi 


BOOK It)f» THE BUNCtAt). 210 

'' Aiscend thiis hill, whose cloudy point coihmands 
Her boundless empire ovei* seas and lands. 
See, round the Poles where keener span^es shine. 
Where spices smoke beneath the burning Line, 70 
(Earth's wide extremes) her sable flag displayed. 
And all the nations cover'd in her shade! 

^' Far eastward cast thine eye, frditt whence the 
And orient science their bright course begun : 

K'£ JR ARKS • 

Yen 67. Ascend this hiU, 4rc.] The scenes of this vision are re- 
markable for the order of their appearance. First, from ver. 67 
to 73, those places of the globe are shewn where Science never 
rose ; &en, firom ver. 74 to d3, those, Whiere she w^ destroyed by 
Tyratvmf; from ver. 86 to 95, by inmidations (if Ba}rhafian» ; from 
ver. 96 to 106, by Superstition, Then Rome, the mistress of 
arts, is described in her degeneracy ; and lastly BritEuh, the scene 
of the action of the poem ; which furnishes the occasion of draw- 
ing out ihe pri^peny of Duhiess in review. W. 

It cannot be believed ^at oxA Author ever di^amt of the drdet, 
which the learned Reinarker has supposed to be observed in this 
vision. Thiis libte is priebisely in the style and manner off a forced 
and refined c6nceit of smother emiheht prdate, the j^dod Bishop 
of Thessalonica, Eustathius : '* Aurora was in love with Orion, 
who was a great hunter ;" by which it was hinted that the morn* 
ing was the most flvotarable time fe^ huntii^. Wdrton, 

Ver. 69. &e, round the F&ks, 9"^.] Almdst th^ Wh<de Southern 
and Northern continent wrapped in ignorance. P, 

Ver. 69. See^ round the Poles, ^^r.] Thesis are eirtiellent verses 
indeed ; and may owe some obligations to a vei*y ahimatisd and 
polished passage in TitfleeWs !PrbBpOct df t^tsltce ; 
" Now o-er his head the polar bieair he spied. 
And freezing spangled of tk& lia^ahd skiei^ ; 
Now »W€& his canvas to th6 ctvdtary Mne, 
Wiih glittering dpdOs ^whfere Lsdian gi^tos rtlne, 
Where >fiun»8 of tnce&lie gkkd the%etttfaeto sM, 
And wafted citron scents the ^ASAy bireeze." fl^akt)kld. 


One god-like Monarch all that pride confounds, 75 
He, whose long wall the wand'ring Tartar bounds; 
Heav'ns! what a pUe! whole ages perish there. 
And one bright blaze turns learning into air. 


Ver. 73.] Our author &vours the opinion that all sciences came 
from the Eastern nations. P* 

Ver. 73. Tar eastward^ ^c] In the former Edd. 

Far eastward cast thine eye, from whence the suji 
And orient science at a birth begun. 
But as this was thought to coptr^ct that line of the intro- 

In oldest times, ere mortals writ or read, 

which supposes the sun and science did not set out together, it 
was altered to, their bright course begun. But this slip, as usual, 
escaped the gentlemen of the Dunciad, . W:\ 

See selections from Pauw, with curious and valuable additiiHis 
by Daniel Webb, Esq. an author who unites profound philosophy 
with fine taste. Warton* 

Ver. 74. orient Science'] Indostan was in all probability the pa- 
rent of all the sciences, that arose first in the East. Many new 
lights will be thrown on this subject by the curious investigations 

of Sir William Jones at Calcutta. Since this was written, I am 

sorry to hear of the loss the world and his friends (of whom I had 
the hap^nness of being one) have sustained by his death. 

Warton* . 

Ver. 75.] Chi Ho-am-ti Emperor of China, the same who built 
the great wall between China and Tartary, destroyed all the books 
and learned men of that empire* P. 

Ver. 76. He, whose long waif] Other nations, says Voltaire, for- 
tify their towns ; the Chinese fortified their empire. The great 
wall which separated and defended China against the Tartars, and 
which was built an hundred and thirty-seven years before our sera, 
subsists to this day, on a circuipference of five hundred leagues, 
rising on the tops of mountains, and descending down into preci- 
pices, being almost every where twenty feet broad and above thirty 
feet high ; a monument superior to the pyramids ot Egypt, both 
by its utility and its immensity. Wartm. 

MOIt lit. f HR J)UNCIAD. 221 

'^ Thence to the south extend thy gladdened eyes; 
There rival flames with equal glory rise ; 80 

From shelves to shelves see greedy Vulcan roll. 
And lick up all their physic of the soul. 

'' How little, mark ! that portion of the ball. 
Where, faint at best, the beams of science fall : 
Sdon as they dawn, from hyperborean skies 85 
Embodied dark, what clouds of Vandals rise ! 
Lo ! where Maeotis sleeps, and hardly flows 
The freezing Tanais thro' a waste of snows, 


Ver. 81, 82.] The Caliph, Omar I. having cdnquered Egypt, 
caused his general to bum the Ptolemean library, on the gates of 
which was this inscription, ^YXHE lATPEION, the Phjrsic of the 
Soul. P. 

Ver. 86. from hyperborean skies] The Roman, like other great 
empires, having degraded, debased, and destroyed^ a great part of 
the human species, ajbout the fourth century, there rushed forth 
firom the North prodigious swarms of warlike nations, from regions 
unknown, to take vengeance on those tyrants, for the various 
calamities they had inflicted on mankind. Their mighty armies 
could not have been conducted, nor could their victories have 
been so important, without more skiU, and address, and know- 
ledge, than they are commonly represented to have possessed. 
When the Goths, it is said, had sacked Athens, and were going 
to set fire to its libraries, one of their Chiefs dissuaded them firom 
the design, by observing to them, that as long as the Greeks were 
addicted to the study of books, they would never apply themselves 
to the exercise of arms. Warton. 

Ver. 87. Lo ! where Mteotis'] This is said to be Pope's favou- 
rite line of all his works. Warton. 

Ver. 87. Lo ! where Maotis^ ^cJ] Dr. Johnson tells us, that 
this was the couplet, with which Pope, as he had been told,' de- 
clared his own ear to be most gratified ; but profedsiBs himself un- 
able to see the reason of this preference. I thi& the coiqplet 
excellent in two respects, both from a judicious paiuse and a de- 


The North by myriads pour^ her mighty ao«s. 
Great nurse of Goths^ of Alm^, and of Huns ! 90 
See Alaric's stem port ! th^ martial frame 
Of Genseric ! and Attila's dread name ! 
See the bold Ostrogoths on Latium M ; 
See the fierce Visigoths, on Spain and Gaul I 
See, where the morning gilds the pahny shore, 95 
(The soil that arts and infant letters bore) 

criptive tenour in the numbers, and a curious fblicity of oiost ap- 
propriate expression. We may compare some lines in A. Phil- 
lips's celebrated letter from Copenhagen, on a congenial subject ; 
lines, if you except the insipid epithet delightfulf not unworthy of 
Pope himself: 

'< The hills and dal^, and the delightful woods. 
The flowery plains, and silver-streaming floods. 
By snow disguised, in bright conJTusion lie, 
And with one dazzling waste fatigue the eye." 

Ver. 82. Aitila'i dread name /] At an entertainment given by 
Attila to the Ron^an ambassadors, two Scythians advanced to bim, 
and recited a poem, in which they celebrated his victories and mi- 
litary virtues. All the Huns fixed their eyes with atteotioa on 
these bards ; some, remen^bering their own exploits, exulte^ with 
joy ; others, feeble with age, burst into tears, bf^waOing the de^ 
cay of their vigour. 

See also a fine chapter, the 19th of Montesquieu's Orandeur^ 
&c. for a character of this great hero. 

A poet of Calabria, named Mandlus, having written a pane- 
gyric on Attila, afbr he had taken Padua, 461, in whidi he had 
called Attila a God* and said he was of divine origina), AUih^ Ql^der- 
ing the verses to be interpreted to him, with indigfi$tioii ojrd^red 
the poem to be burnt, and the poet with difficulty escaped the 
same punishment.— See Fabricius, Bibl. Mediae et Infimse Latini- 
tatis, t. 5. The noble painting by Raphael of Attila, St Peter, 
and St. Paul, is well known. Warton, 

Ver. 96. {The soU that afi$ and ir^n4 letters hcare)'] Ph(si|ic]a« 



His canqu'ring tribes th' Arabian prophet draws, 
And saving ignorance enthrones by laws. 
See Christians, Jews, one heavy sabbath keep. 
And all the western world believe and sleep. 100 
^'Lo! Rome herself, proud mistress now no 
Of arts, but thund'ring against heathen lore ; 


Syria, &c, where Letters are said to have been invented. In these 
countries Mahomet began ^is conquests. P. 

Ver. 99, See Chrisiians, Jews, one heavy sabbath keep. 
And all the western world believe and sleep,"] 
A modification of his exemplar, Dryden, Epist. xiv. 
" Long time the sister-arts, in iron sleeps 
A heavy sabbath did supinely keqt,^ Wakefield. 

Ver. 102. thundering against heathen lore ;] A strong instance 
of this pious rage is placed to Pope Gregory's account. John of 
Salisbury gives a very odd encomium of this Pope, at the same 
time that he mentions one of the strongest efiects of this excess of 
zeal in him : Doctor sanctissimus ille Gregorius, qui mdleo pradica- 
tionis imbre totatn rigavit et inebriavit ecclesiam ; non modo Mathesin 
jussit ab auldf sed, ut traditur a tnqjoribus, incendio dedit probatte 
kctionis scripta, Palatinus quacunque tenebat Apollo, And in ano-> 
ther place : Fertur beatus Gregorius bibliothecam combussisse genti^ 
lem; quo divina pagina gratior esset locus, et major authoritas, et 
diligentia studiosior, Desiderius, Archbishop of Vienna, was sharply 
reproved by him for teaching grammar and literature, and ex- 
plaining the poets ; because (says this Pope) In uno se ore cum 
Jams laudibus, Christi laudes non capiunt. Et quam grave nrfan- 
dumque sit Episcopis canere quod nee Laico reUgioso conveniat, ipse 
considera. He is said, among the rest, to have burned Livy: 
ituia in supersiitionibus et sacris Romanorum perpetud versaiur. The 
same Pope is accused by Vossius and others, of having caused 
the noble monunients of the old Roman magnificence to be 
destroyed, lest those who came to Rome should give more at- 
tention to Triumphal Arches, &c, than to holy things. Bayle^ 

iwct. p. 


Her grey-hair'd Sjmods damning books unready 
And Bacon trembling for his brazen head. 
Padua, with sighs, beholds her Livy bum, 105 
And ev'n th* antipodes Virgilius mourn. 
See, the Cirque falls, th' unpillar'd Temple nods ! 
Streets pav'd with heroes, Tyber choak'd with 

Gods ! 
TiQ Peter's keys some christen'd Jove adorn. 
And Pan to Moses lends his pagan horn ; 110 
See graceless Venus to a virgin tum'd. 
Or Phidias broken, and Apelles bum'd. 


Ver. 104. And Bacon trembling] Trembling, lest tliat awful tri- 
bunal, which condemned his philosophy unread, should give credit 
to the foolish stories of his magic, and the tricks with his brazen 
head. W.^ 

Ver. 109. Till Peler*s keys some christened Jove adom,'\ Afteif 
the government of Rome devolved to the Popes, their zeal was for 
some time exerted in demolishing the heathen temples and sta- 
tues, so that the Goths scarce destroyed more monumetits of anti- 
quity out of rage, than these out of devotion. At length they 
spared some of the temples, by converting them to churches ; and 
some of the statues, by modifying them into images of saintft. tn 
much later times, it was thought necessary to change die statuies 
of the Apollo and Pallas, on the tomb of Sannazarius, into David 
and Judith ; the Lyre easily became a Harp, and the Gorgon's 
Head turned to that of Holofemes. P. 

Ver. 111. Graceless Venus'] Marty pleasing instances of this 
kind are given in MiddletcAi's entertaining Letter from' Romei 
'< As it is in the Pantheon, (he says,) 'tis just the same in all the 
other heathen temples that still remain at Rome ; they have only 
pulled down one idol to set up another in its place, and changed 
rather the name than the object of their worship. Thus the 
little Temple of Vesta, near the Tiber, mentioned by Horace, is 
now possessed by the Madonna of the Sun ; that of Fortuna Viri- 
lis, by Mary the Egyptian ; that of Saturn (where the puUic 



'^ Behold yon isle, by palmers, pilgrims trod. 
Men bearded, bald, cowl'd, uncowl'd, shod, un- 
Peel'd, pateh'd, and pye-bald, linsey-woolsey bro- 
thers, 115 
Grave mummeriS! sleeveless some, and shirtless 

That once was Britain ! — Happy ! had she seen 
No fiercer sons, had Easter never been. 
In peace, great Goddess, ever be ador'd ; 
How keen the war, if Dulness draw the sword ! 
Thus visit not thy own ! on this blest age. 
Oh ! spread thy influence, but restrain thy rage. 


treasure was anciently kept), by St. Adrian; that of RoiAulus 
and Remus in the Via Sacra^ by two other brothers) Cosmus and 
Damianus; that of Antonine the Godly, by Laurence the Saint. 
But for my part, I should sooner be tempted out of devotion for 
Romulus or Antonine, to prostrate myself before their statues, 
than those of a Laurence or a Damian ; and much rather with pa- 
gan Rome give divine honours to the founders of empires, than 
with popish Rotne to the founders of monasteries." Middleton 
borrowed much from Les Conformites des Ceremonies modernes 
avec les anciennes. A Leyde, 1667. Warton. 

Ver. 112. Or Phidias broken^ Poggius, sitting with a friend 
on the top of the Capitoline hill, makes a pleasing and eloquent 
description of the Ruins of Rome, which lay in prospect below 
him ; inserted in the Dialogue De Varietate Fortunae, republished 
at Paris, 1723 ; written about the year 1440. Warton, 

Ver. 117, 118. Happy! — had Easter never been."] Wars in Eng- 
land anciently, about the right time of celebrating Easter. P. 


Ver. 117, 118. Happy ! — had Easter never been."] 
** Et fortundtam, si nunquam armenta fuissent/' 

Virg. P. 



see^ my son ! the hour is on its way» 
That lifts our Goddess to imperial sway ; 
This fav'rite isle, long sever'd from her rdgn^ 125 
Dove-like, she gathers to her wings again. 
Now look thro' fate ! behold the scene she draws ! 
What aids, what armies to assert her cause ! 
See all her progeny, iQustrious sight ! 
Behold, and count them, as they rise to light. 130 
As Berecynthia, while her offspring vie 
In homage to the Mother of the sky. 


Ver. 126. Dove'like, she gathers] This is fulfilled in the fourth 
book. P.f 

" Dove-like, sat'st broodii^ on the vast abyss." Milton. 


Ver. 128. Jfhat aids, tohat armies, ifc.'] i. e. of poets, antiqua- 
rians, critics, divines, fireethinkers. But, as this revolution is 
only here set on foot by the first of these classes, the poets, they 
only are here particularly celebrated, and they only jMroperly 
fall under the care and review of this colleague of Dulness, the 
laureat. The others, who finish the great work, are reserved for 
the fourth book, when the Goddess herself appears in full glory. 


Ver. 127, 129. Now look through Fate ! — See all herprogemf, ifc.'] 

" Nunc age, Dardaniam prolem quae deinde sequatur 
Gloria, qui maneant Ital^ de gente nepotes, 
niustres animas, nostrumque in nomen ituras, 
Expediam." Virg. £neid. vi. P. 

Vers 131. As Berecynthia^ ^c] 

"Felix prole virAm; qualis Berecynthia mater 
Invehitur curru Phrygias turrita per urbes, 
Laeta deAm partu, centum complexa nepotes, 
Omnes ccelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes." 

Virg, £neid. vi. P. 


Surveys around her, in the blest abode, 

A hundred sons, and ev'ry son a God : 

Not with less glory mighty Dulness erown'd, 135 

Shall take thro' Grub-street her triumphant round ; 

And her Parnassus glancing o'er at once. 

Behold a hundred sons, and each a Dunce. 

'^ Mark first that youth who takes the foremost 
And thrusts his person full into your face. 140 
With all thy father's virtues blest, be born ! 
And a new Cibber shall the stage adorn. 

*' A second see, by meeker manners known. 
And modest as the maid that sips alone ; 
From the strong fate of drams if thou get free, 145 
Another Durfey, Ward ! shall sing in thee ; 


Ver. 138. and each a Dunce.'] Never was there a happier pa- 
rody ! Merum sal — heightened by its allusion to one of the most 
magnificent passages in Virgil, Anchises shewing to ^neas his fu- 
ture progeny. War ton. 


Ver. 139. Mark first that youth, 3rc.] 

" Ille vides, pur^i juvenis qui nititur hasti, 

Proxima sorte tenet lucis loca" 

Virg. JEn. vi. P. 
Ver. 141. With all thy father's virtues] A manner of expres- 
sion used by Virgil, Eel. viii. 

" Nascere ! praeque diem veniens, age, Lucifer"—^ 
As also that ofpatriis virtutibus. Eel. iv. P, 

It was very natural to shew to the Hero, before all others, his 
own son, who had already begun to emulate him in his theatrical, 
poetical, and even political capacities. By the attitude in which 
he here presents himself, the reader may be cautioned againist as- 
cribing wholly to the father the merit of the epithet Cibberian, 
which is equally to be understood with an eye to the son. P.+ 




Thee shall each ale-house, thee each giU^hotise 

And answering gin-shops sourer sighs return. 

'* Jacob, the scourge of grammar, mark with awe. 
Nor less revere him, blunderbuss of law. 150 


Ver. 145. Prom the strong fate of drams if thou get free, 

Another Durfey^ Ward! shall shine in thee;'] 

He appears to have consulted Dryden's translation of the verstes 

parodied with so much humour : 

" Ah ! could'st thou break through fate's severe decree, 

A new Marcellus shall arise in thee,** Wakefield. 

Ver. 149. Jacob, the scourge qf grammar, mark with dwe^ 

*^ This gentleman is son of a considerable maltstei' of Romsey in 

Southamptonshire, and bred to the law under a very eminent at' 

tdrney: who, betweeh his more laborious studies, has diverted 

himself with poetry. He is a great admirer of poets and their 

works, which has occasioned him to try his genius that way. — He 

has writ in prose the Lives of the Poets, Essays, and a great many 

law-books, The Accomplished Conveyancer, Modem Justice, fyc, — 


Ver. 145. Prom the strong fate of drams if thou get free,'] • 

" si qu^ fata aspera rumpas, 

Tu Marcellus eris !" Virg. JEneid. vi. P. 

Ver. 147. Thee shall each ale-house, SfcJ[ 

" Te nemus Anguitiae, vitresL te Fucinus und4, 
Te liquidi flevere lacus." Virg. ^neid, vii. 

Virgil again, Eel. x. 

" — ilium etiam lauri, etiam flevere myricae," &c. P. 

Ver. 150.] « duo fuhnina belli 

Scipiadas, cladem Libyae !" 

Virg. ^neid. vi. P. 



Ver. 149.] In the first Edit, it was, 
Woolston, the scourge of scripture, mark with awe ! 
And mighty Jacob, blunderbuss of law! W.\ 


Lo ! Popple's brow, tremendous to t}ie town, 
Homeck's fierce .eye, and Roomers funereal frowii. 


Giles Jacob of himself, Lives of Poets, vol. i. He very grossly, 
and unproviokedy abused i^i that book, the author's friend, Mr^ 
Gay. P, 

Ver. 149, 160. Jacob, the scourge of granimar, mark with awe. 

Nor less revere him, blunderbuss qflawJ] 
There may seem some error in these verses, Mr. Jacob It^aving 
proved 'Our author to have a respect for him by this undeniable ar- 
gumeati '* He had once a regard for ray judgment ; otherwise he 
would never have subscribed Two Guineas to me for one small 
book in octavo." Jacob's Letter to Dennis, printed in Dennis's 
Remarks on the Dunciad, p. 49. Therefore I should think the ap- 
pellation of bfunderbuss to Mr. Jacob, like that of thunderbolt to 
Scipio, was meant in his honour. 

Mr. Dennis argues the same way. " My writings haying made 
great impression on the minds of all sensible men. Mr. P. repented, 
and, to give ^oof of his repentance, subscribed to my two volumes 
of select works, and afterwards to my two volumes of I<etter8."-r— 
Ibid. p. 80. We should hence believe, the name of Mr. Denni? 
hath also crept into this poem by some mis.take. JBut from hence, 
gentle reader ! thou may*st beware, when thou givest thy money 
to such authors, not to flattier thyself that thy motives are goocU 
nature or charity. P.f 

Ver. 161. Lo ! Poppy s brow^ Popple was the author of some 
vile plays and pamphlets. He published abuses on ouj: author in 
apapi^jT called The Prompter, P.f 

Ver. 162. Horneck and Roome"] These two were virulent party- 
writers, worthily cpupled together, and one would think prophe- 
tically, since after the publishing of this piece, the former dying, 
the latter succeeded him in honour and employment. The first 
was Philip Horneck, author of a Billingsgate Paper, called The 



Vier. 161. Lo ! Popples brow, S^c.} In the former Edd. 
Haywood, Centlivre, glories of their race ! 
Jjo ! Homeck's fierce, and Roome's peculiar f^e. 


Lo ! sneering Goode^ half malice and half whim^ 
A fiend in glee^ ridiculously grim. 
Each cygnet sweet, of Bath andTunbridge race, 155 
Whose tuneful whistling makes the waters pass. 
Each songster, riddler, ev'ry nameless name. 
All crowd, who foremost shall be danm'd to fame. 

High Gennan Doctor. Edward Roome was son of an undertaker 
for funerals in Fleet-street, and wrote some of the papers called 
Pasquin, where by malicious inuendos he endeavoured to repre- 
sent our author guilty of malevolent practices with a great man 
then under the prosecution of Parliament. On this man was made 
the following Epigram : 

** You ask why Roome diverts you with his jokes. 
Yet, if he writes, is dull as other folks ; 
You wonder at it. — This, Sir, is the case ; 
The jest is lost unless he prints his face." P. 

Is it surprising, shall I say, or mortifying, to see the pains and 
patience of our author and his friends who compiled these large 
notes, in tracing out the lives and works of such paltry and for- 
gotten scribblers ! It is like walking through the darkest alleys of 
the dirtiest part of St. Giles's. To pull out these literary Cacuses, 
incendia vana vomentes, from their dark dungeons and deep re- 
treats, was a truly Herculean (though not very heroic) labour. 
These, in truth, were Avia Pieridum loca ! Warton, 

Ver. 163. Goode,'] An ill-natur*d critic, who wrote a satire on 
our author, called The mock Esop^ and many anonymous b'bels in 
newspapers for hire. P. 

Ver. 166. Each cygnet sweet,'] Borrowed from two lines of 
Young's Universal Passion, S. 6. 

'' Is there a wit who chants the reigning lass, 
And sweetly whistles as the waters pass !" Warton, 
Ver. J 66. Wfiose ttmeful whistling] There were several succes- 
sions of these sort of minor poets, at Tunbridge, Bath, &c. singing 
the praise of the Annuals flourishing for that season; whose 
names indeed would be nameless, and therefore the poet slurs them 
over with others, in general. P.t 

Ver. 167. ev*ry nameless name,] Personal satire, on objects so 



Some strain in rhyme; the Muses^ on their racks. 
Scream like the winding of ten thousand jacks : 
Some, free from rhyme or reason, rule or check. 
Break Priscian's head, and Pegasus's neck : 
Down, down they larum, with impetuous whirl. 
The Pindars, and the Miltons of a Curl. 
'' Silence, ye wolves ! while Ralph to Cynthia 
howls, 165 

And makes Night hideous ! Answer him, ye owls ! 


.obscure, is unamdaMy attended with the inconvenienee of accom- 
IMUiyii^ it with brge notes and explanations^ whidbt, tfaou^ tedi- 
ous, are necessary ; and without which it would be unintelligible. 
Brossette has been forced to use this method in his many notes on 
die Lutrin, and on the Sadres of Boileau. Warton. 

Ver. 165. Silence^ ye wolves f while Ralph to Cynthia Aot&b,] 
A. Phillips, ill his Letters £rom Copenhagen : 

" The starving wolves along the main sea prowl. 
And to the moon in icy valleys howL" WaktfieleL 

Ver. 165. Ra^h"] James Ralph, a name inserted after the 
first editions, not known to our author till he writ a swearing- 
piece called Sawney, very abusive of Dr. Swift, Mr* Gay, and 



Ver. 166. And makes Night hideous'] 

" Visit thus the glimpses of the moon, 

Making Night hideous.''—^ Shakesp. P. 


Ver. 157. Each songster , tiddler^ 4*^.] In the former Edd. 
Lo! Bond and Foxton, ev'ry nameless name. 
Two inoftensive offenders against our poet; persons unknown, 
but by being mentioned by CurU P« 

After ver. 158, in the first Edit followed. 

How proud, how pale, how earnest all sqppear i 

How rhymes eternal jmgle in their ear ! W,\ , 


'' Sense^ speech, and measure, living tongues, and 
Let all give way— and Morris may be read. 
Flow, Welsted, flow ! like thine inspirer. Beer, 
Tho' stale, not ripe; tho' thin, yet never clear; 170 


himself. These lines allude to a thing of his, intitled) Nighty a 
Poem. This low writer attended his own works with panegyrics 
in the Journals, and once in particular praised himself highty 
above Mr. Addison, in wretched remarks upon that author's ac* 
count of English Poets, printed in a London Journal, Sept. 1728. 
He was whoUy illiterate, and knew no language, not eveii 
French, Being advised to read the rules of dramatic poetry be- 
fore he began a play, he smiled and replied, '^ Shakapear writ 
without rules." P. 

He ended at last in the common sink of all such writers, a po*' 
litical newspaper, to which he was recommended by his friend 
Amall, and received a small pittance for pay ; and being detected 
in writing on both sides on one and the same day, he publicly 
justified the morahty of his conduct. P.f 

He was afterwards patroi^zed by Lord Melcombe (Bubb Dod- 
dington) who assisted )mn in compilipg a very curious History of 
Englaiid, from the Restoration to the Revolution, and ia £re-^ 
quently mentioned in Lord Melcombe's Diary. Warton, 

Ver. 169. Flow, Wehted, ifcJ] Of this author see the Remark 


Ver. 168.] In the first editions it stood : 

Let all give way — and Durgeh may be read. 
Ver. 168.] Durgen. A ridiculous thing of Ward's. P, 


* • # 

Ver. 169. Flow, Welsted, Jloiv f ^c] Parody on Daiham^ 
Cooper* s Hill: 

'* O could I flow like thee, and make thy stream 
My great example, as it is my theme : 
Tho* deep, yet clear ; tho' gentle, yet not duU ; 
Strong without rage ; without o'erflowing, full t" P. 


So sweetly mawkish^ and so smoothly dull ; 
Heady, not strong ; o'erflowing, tho' not full. 

" Ah Dennis! Gildon ah! what ill-starr'd rage 
Divides a friendship long confirm'd by age ? 


on Book li. ver, 209. But (to be impartial) add to it the follow- 
ing difierent character of him : 

Mr. WelsUd had, in his youth, raised so great expectations of 
his future genius, that there was a kind of struggle between th^ 
most eminent in the two universities, which should have the ho^ 
nour of his education. To compound this, he (civilly) became a mem- 
ber of both, and after having passed some time at the one, he re- 
moved to the other. From thence he returned to town, where he 
became the darling expectation of all the polite writers, whose encouf 
ragement he acknowledged in his occasional poems, in 9, manner 
that will make no small part of the fame of his protectors. It also 
appears from his works, that he was happy in the patronage of 
the most illustrious characters of the present age. — Encouraged by 
such a combination in his favour, he published a book of poems, 
some in the Ovidian^ some in the Horaiian manner, in both which 
the most exquisite judges pronounce he even rivalled his masters. 
His Love verses have rescued that way of writing from contempt. 

' Ixfi his Translations, he has given us the very soul and spirit 

of his author. His Ode his Epistle his Verses his 

Love-tale all, are the most perfect things in allpoeiry, Welst^d, 

of Himself Char, of the Times, 8vo. 1728, pp. 23, 24. P, 

It should not be forgot to his honour, that he received at one 
time the sum of 500 pounds for secret service, among the other 
excellent authors hired to write anonymously for the Ministry. 
See Report of the Secret Committee, &:c. in 1742. P,f 

An ode of merit on the Duke of Marlborough by Welsted, was 
inserted in Dodsley*s Miscellanies, at the desire of Dr. Akenside, 
who, I remember, much commended it. The simile of Beer is 
exactly copied from Addison in the Freeholder, No. 20. Warton* 

Ver. 172. overflowing, tho' not fiillJi It was stronger in the first 
Edition, J 

" and foaming, thougp not full.'* Bowles. 

Ver. 173, Ah Dennis! 4'c.] The reader who has s^n, through 



Blockheads with reason wicked wits abhor^ 175 
But fool with fool is barb'rous civil war. 
Embrace^ embrace, my sons! be foes no more ! 
Nor glad vile poets with true critics' gore. 


the course of these notes, what a constant attendance Mr. Dennis 
paid our author and all his works, may perhaps wonder he should 
be mentioned but twice, and so slightly touched, in this poem. 
But in truth he looked upon him with some esteem, for having 
(more generously than all the rest) set his name to such writings. 
He was also a very old man at this time. By his own account of 
himself in Mr. Jacob's Lives^ he must have been above threescore, 
and happily lived many years after. So that he was senior to Mr. 
Durfey^ who hitherto of all our poets enjoyed the longest bodily 
life. P.f 

Ver. ITS'. Ah Dennis ! Gildon ah /] These men became the 
pubUc scorn by a mere mistake of their talents. They would 
needs turn critics of their own country writers (just as Aristotle 
and Longinus did of theirs) and discourse upon the beauties and 
defects of composition ; 

How parts relate to parts, and they to whole : 
The body's harmony, the beaming soul. 
Whereas had they foUowed the example of those microscopes of 
wit, Kuster, Wasse, Burman, and their followers, in verbal criti- 
cism on the learned languages, their acuteness and iifdustry might 
have raised them a name equal to the most famous of the Scho- 
liasts. pr,\ 

Ver. 177. Embrace, embrace^ rm/ sons ! be foes no more! 
Nor glad vile poets with true critics* gore,"] 
This much resembles the beginning of Lucan's Pharsalia : 

" quae tanta licenda ferri 

Gentibus invisis Latium praebere cruorem ?*' 
" Say, Romans, whence so dire a fury rose 
To glut with Latian blood your barbarous foes?" Rowe. 
But the language of the former verse is more closely modelled 
from Dryden's version of the verses in the -^Eneid, expressly pa^ 
rodied : 

" Embrace again, my sons; be foes no more, 
Nor stain your country with her children's gore. 



Behold yon pair^ in strict embraces join'd ; 
How like in manners^ and how like in mind; 180 


Ver. 179. Behold yon pair, flrc] One of these was author of a 
weekly paper called The Grumbler, as the other was concerned in 
another called Pasquin, in which Mr. Pope was ahused with the 
Duke of Buckingham, and Bishop of Rochester. They also joined 
in a piece against his first undertaking to translate the Iliady in- 
titled HomerideSf hy Sir Iliad Doggrel, printed 1715. 

Of the other works of these gentlemen the world has heard no 
more than it would of Mr. Pope\ had their united laudable 
endeavours discouraged him from pursuing his studies. How few 
good works had ever appeared (since men of true merit are always 
the least presuming) had there been always such champions to 
stifle them in their conception ! And were it not better for the 
public, that a million of monsters should come into the world, 
which are sure to die as soon as bom, than that the serpents 
should strangle one Hercules in his cradle ? 

The union of these two authors gave occasion to this epigram, 

" Burnet and Duckit, friends in spite, 
Came hissing out in verse ; 
Both were ao forward, each would write. 
So dull, each hung an a — . 



Ver. 177. Embrace, embrace, my sons! be foes no more f] Virg. 
^neid. vi. 

" Ne tanta animis assuesdte bella, 

Neu patriae validas in viscera verdte vires : 

Tuque prior, tu parce — sanguis mens !" P, 

Ver. 179. Behold yon pair, in strict embraces join'd ;'] Virg. 
^neid. vi. 

" nise autem paribus quas fulgere cemis in armis, 
Concordes animae."— - 

And in the fiflh. 

" l^uryalus formd insignis viridique juventii 
Nisus amore pio pueri." P. . 


Equal in wit, and equally polite. 

Shall this a Pasquin, that a Grumbler write ; 

Thus Amphisboena, I have read) . 

At either end assails ; 
None knows which leads or which is led, 

For both heads are but tails.'' 

After many editions of this poem, the author thought fit to onrit 
the names of these two persons, whose injury to him was of so old 
a date. In the verses he omitted, it was said that one of them had 
a piotu passion for the other.* It was a literal translation of VirgiJ, 
Nisus amore pio pueri — and there, as in the original, applied to 
friendship. That between Nisus and Euryalm is allowed to make 
one of the most amiable episodes in the world, and surely was 
never interpreted in a perverse sense. But it will astonish the 
reader to hear, that, on no other occasion than this line, a Dedica^ 
tion was written to that gentleman to induce him to think some- 
thing further. " Sir, you are known to have all that affection for 
the beautiM part of the creation which God and Nature designed 
—Sir, you have a very fine lady — ^and. Sir, you have eight very 
fine children," — &:c. [Dedic, to Dennis's Rem. on the Rape of the 
LocAr.] The trudi is, the poor Dedicator's brain was turned upon 
this article. He had taken into his head, that ever since some 
books were written against the stage^ and since the Italian Opera 
had prevailed, the nation was infected with a vice not fit to be 
named. He went so far as to print upon the subject, and concludes 
his argument with this remark, '* That he cannot help thinking 
the obscenity of Plays excusable at this juncture ; since, when that 
execrable sin is spread ;30 wide, it may be of use to the reducing 
men's minds to the natura) desire of women," Dennis, Stage de^ 
fended against Mr. Law, p. 20. Our author solemnly declared, he 
never heard any creature but the Dedicator mention that vice apd 
this gentleman together. P. 

Settle, for we must remember that it is he that is still speaking, 
passes from character to character in a very abrupt, incoherent 


* Fam'd for good-nature, Burnet, and for truth ; 
Duckit, for pious passion to the youth. 


Like are their merits^ like rewards they share ; 
That shines a Consul^ this^ Commissioner. 

" But who is he, in closet close y-pent, 185 
Of sober face, with learned dust besprent ? 
Right well mine eyes, arede the myster wight. 
On parchment scraps y-fed, and Wormius hight. 


triahner. Surely not in the manner in which Virgil proceeds in the 
vision pointed out in the notes, from the 6th Book of the JEneid. 
The Pasquin, mentioned in line 182, was a weekly Paper, and not 
the comedy written by Fielding, full of humour,, pleasantry, and 
satire, on the ministry ; and which occasioned the act of parlia- 
ment for licensing plays, an act that met with a very powerful op- 
position at the time. Warton, 

YeVi 179. Behold yon pair^ Meaning Thomas Burnet, third 
son of the ^med Bishop of Salisbury ; and Colonel Duckit. 


Burnet, the youngest son of the famous Bishop Burnet. He 
was bred to the Bar, and was made a Judge. I know not how he 
conducted himself in that station ; but his writings give us no 
favourable idea of his taste or genius. 

Duckit lived at Hartham near Corsham, Wilts. He was con- 
cerned with Edmund Smith in an. infamous attempt to discredit 
Lord Clarendon's History, by charging the University of Oxford 
with making interpolations ; unless we suppose that the whole 
story,, as related by Oldmixon, was a forgery of that writer, which, 
considering his character, is far from being improbable.. 

Bannister. Bowles, 

Ver..l84. Thai shines, a Consul, thiSf Commissioner.] Such 
places were given at this time to such, sort of writers. P.f 

Ver. 186. Of sober face, with learned dust besprent f] So Gay i in 
his Epistle to our Poet, stanza 18. 

" O Wanley, whence com'st thou with shortened hair. 
And visage from thy shelves with dust besprent.^' 


Ver. 187. arede] Read, or peruse; though sometimes u^ for 
counsel, "Reade thy read, take thy Counsaile, Thomas Stem- 


To future ages may thy dulness last^ 

As thou preserv'st the duhiess of the past! 190 


hold, in his translation of the first Psalm into English metre, hath 
wisely made use of this word, 

'' The man is hlest that hath not hent 
To wicked read his ear." 
But in the last spurious editions of the singing Psalms, the word 
READ is changed into men, I say spurious editions, because not 
only here, but quite throughout the whole book of Psalms, are 
strange alterations, all for the worse ; and yet the Title-page stands 
as it used to do ! and all (which is abominable in any book, much 
more in a sacred work) is ascribed to Thomas Sternhold, John 
Hopkins, and others. I am confident, were Sternhold and Hop- 
kins now living, they would proceed against the innovators as 

cheats. A liberty, which, to say no more of their intolerable 

alterations, ought by no means to be permitted or approved of by 
such as are for uniformity^ and have any regard for the old Eng- 
lish Saxon tongue." Hearne, Gloss, on Rob. of Gloc. artic. Rede. 

I do herein agree with Mr. Hearne. Little is it of avail to ob- 
ject that such words are become unintelligible; since they are truly 
English, men ought to understand them ; and such as are for uni- 
formity should think all alterations in a language strange, abomi- 
nable, and unwarrantable. Rightly therefore, I say again, hath 
our poet used ancient words, and poured them forth as a precious 
ointment upon good old Wormius in this place. Scriblerus. P. 

Ver. 187. myster wight,'] Uncouth mortal. P. 

Ver, 188. Wormius hight.'] Let not this name, purely fictitious, 
be conceited to mean the learned Olaus Wormius; much less (as it 
was unwarrantably foisted into the surreptitious editions) our own 
antiquary Mr. Thomas Hearne, who had no way aggrieved our 
poet, but on the contrary published many curious tracts, which he 
hath to his great contentment perused. 



Ver. 185. But who is he, Sfc.'] Virg. ^neid. vi. questions and 
answers in this manner, of Numa : 

" Quis procul ille aUtem ramis insignis oliva. 
Sacra ferens ?— nosco crihes, incanaque menta," &c. P. 


'' There^ dim in clouds^ the poring Scholiasts mark^ 
Wits, who, like owls, see only in the dark ; 
A lumberhouse of books^ in ev*ry head. 
For ever reading, never to be read ! 

^' But, where each Science lifts its modem type, 
Hist'ry her pot. Divinity his pipe, 


Most rightly are ancient words here employed in speaking of 
such who so greatly delight in the same. We may say not only 
rightly, but wisely, yea, excellently, inasmuch as for the like practice 
the like praise is given to Hopkins and Sternhold by Mr. Heame 
himself. Glossar. to Rob. of Glocester, Artie. Behett : " Others 
say, BEKiQKT, promised ; and so it is used excellently well by Tho- 
mas Norton, in his translation into Metre of the cxvith Psalm, 
ver. 14. 

I to the Lord will pay my vows. 

That I to him berioht ; 
where the modem innovators, not understanding the propriety of 
the word (which is truly English, from the Saxon), have most un- 
warrantably altered it thus : 

I to the Lord will pay my vows. 

With joy and great delight, P, 

Ver. 188. hight,'] " In Cumberland they say to hight, for to pro^ 
mise, or vow ! but hight, usually signifies, was called ; and so it 
does in the North even to this day, notwithstanding what is done 
in Cumberland." Hearne, ibid. P, 

Ibid. On parchment scraps'] In consideration of the many very 
accurate and very elegant editions, which Hearne published of our 
valuable old Chronicles, which shed such a light on English his- 
tory, he ought not to have been so severely lashed as in these bit- 
ter lines. Every year gives a greater value to these books and 
these editions of Heame ; as well as to his Livy, and Pliny's 
Epistles. Warton. 

Ver. 192. Wits, who like mols^ These few lines exactly describe 
the right verbal critic. The darker his author is, the better he is 
pleased ; like the famous quack-doctor, who put up in his bills, 
he delighted in matters of difficulty. Somebody said well of these 
men, that tlieir heads were libraries out of order, P. 


WhUe proud Philosophy repines to show. 
Dishonest sight ! his breeches rent below ; 
Imbrown'd With native bronze, lo ! Henley standi^. 
Tuning his voice, and balancing his hands. 200 


Ver. 199. lo ! Henley stands, b^c,^ J. Henlejr, the Orator ; he 
preached on the Sundays upon theological matters, and on the 
Wednesdays upon all other sciences. Each auditor paid one shil- 
ling. He declaimed some years against the greatest persons, and, 
occasionally did our author that honour. Welsteo, in Oratory 
Transactions, No. 1, published by Henley himself, gives the fol- 
lowing account of him. " He was bom at Melton-Mowbray, in 
Leicestershire. From his own Parish-school he went to St. John's 
College in Cambridge. He began there to be uneasy; for it 
shocked him to find he was commanded to believe against his own 
judgment in points of religion, philosophy, &c. for his genius 
leading him freely to dispute all propoaitimiSf and call all points to 
account, he was impatient under those fetters of the free-born 
mind.— —Being admitted to Priest's orders, he found the exami- 
nation very short and superficial, and that it was not necessary to 
conform to the Christian religion, in order eidier to Deaconship or 
Priesthood,*' He came to town, and, after having for some years 
been a writer for booksellers, he had an ambition to be so for 
Ministers of State. The only reason he did not rise in the Church, 
we are told, " was the envy of others, and a disrelish entertained 
of him, because he was not qualified to be a complete spaniel" How- 
ever, he offered the service of his pen to two great men, of opi- 
nions and interests directly opposite ; by both of whom being 
rejected, he set up a new project, and styled himself the Restorer 
of ancient eloquence. He thought " it as lawful to take a licence 
from the King and Parliament at one place, as another ; at Hicks's 



Ver. 197. In the first Edit, it was, 

And proud Philosophy with breeches tore. 

And English music with a dismal score. 

Fast by, in darkness palpable inshrin'd 

W-— s, B— r, M— n, all the poring kind. W.f 


How fluent nonsense trickles from his tongue I 
How sweet the periods; neither said^ nor sung! 

, . ■ ■ •■ v. • * • 


Hall, as at Doctors* Commons ; so set uf) his Oratory in Newport- 
Market, Butcher-Row. There (says his Mend) he had the a^ur' 
ance to form a plan, which no mortal ever thought of. He had 
success against all opposition ; challenged his adversaries to fair 
disputations, and none would dispute with him ; writ, read, dnd 
studied twelve hours a day ; composed three dissertations a week 
on all subjects; undertook to teach in one year what schools and 
universities teach iajive; was not terrified by menaces, insults, or 
satires, but still proceeded, matured his bold scheme, and put the 
Churchy and all that, in danger" Welsted, Narrative in Orat. 
Transact. No. 1. 

After having stood some prosecutions, he turned his rhetoric to 
buffoonery upon all public and private occurrences. All this passed 
in the same room ; where sometimes he broke jests, and some-' 
times that bread which he called the Primitive Eucharist, 
This wonderful person strutrk medals, which he dispersed as 
tickets to his subscribers ; the device, a Star rising to the meri- 
dian, with this motto, ad summa ; and below, inveniamviAm attt 
iPaciam. JP. • 

This man had a hundred pounds a year given him for the 
secret service of a weekly paper of unintelligible nonsense, '<^lled 
the Hyp-Doctor. " ^ P.f 

Ver. 199. lo ! Henley stands, 4*<^0 ^^* ^^ ^'^^ disgraceful in 
Government not only publicly to license, but to encourage by a 
pension, a profligate and impudent buffoon, to insult the established 
religion, to abuse the universities, calumniate the most respectable^ 
characters, and, in a word, to ridicule every thing that has been 
held sacred and venerable among mankind. Bannister. Bowles. 

Ver. 201. How fluent nonsense trickles from his tongue f\ He had 
Homer's celebrated verse in view, 11. i. 249. 

Ttf Kon ufro yTiuo'crm /bciXiT^ y^VKtaiv |ffy av^n' 

** Words from his tongue, more sweet than honey, flow'd:'* 
which Milton has elegantly varied, Par. Lost, ii. 112. 

*^ But all was false and hollow, though his tongue. , . 
Dropped manna." .. Wakefield. 



Still break the benches^ Henley t with thy strain^ 
While Sherlock5 Hare^ and Qibs(m preach in Yain. 
O great restorer of the good old stage, 205 

Preacher at once, and zany of thy age ! 
O worthy thou of Egypt's wise abodes, 
A decent priest, where monkeys were the gods ! 
But fate with butchers plac'd thy priestly stall. 
Meek modem faith to murder, hack, and maul ; 
And bade thee live, to crown Britannia's praise, 
in Toland's, Tindal's, and in Woolston's djiys. 


Ver. 203. Still break the benches,'] 

« Subsellia fregit !" Bowies. 

Ver. 204. Sherlock, Hare, Gibson,'] Bishops of Salisbury^ Chi- 
chester, and London ; whose Sermons and Pastoral Letters did 
honour to their country as well as stations. W. 

In the former editions Kennet was named, not Sherlpck. The 
Sermons of the latter, though censured by Mr. Church, are master- 
pieces of argument and eloquence. And his Discourses on Pro- 
phecy, and Trial of the Witnesses, are perhaps the best defences 
of Christianity in our language. Wqrton. 

Ver. 207. Egypt*s wise abodes,] 

" — — Qualia demens 
Egyptus portenta colit." Juvenal. 
Not one of whose superstitions equalled the gross absurdity of the 
doctrine of Transubstantiation. The Egyptian did not make the 
onion which he eat, and worshipped. The Bramins are shocked 
at this doctrine, and challenge our Missionaries to produce any 
opinion so absurd from their Vedam. Wartcn. 

Ver. 207. worthy thou of Egypt's wise abodes, 

A decent priest, where monkeys were the gods !] 
^ You shall see in Egypt (say Lucian and Clemens Alexandrinus) 
a most magnificent temple, large, and decorated with precious 
stones ; but if you enter, and look for the God, you shall find a 
goat, a numkey, or a cat" Wak^ld. 

Ver. 209* Bmfate with butchers] So, in another place, 

'< His butchers Henley" Bowles. 

9Q0K III. THE DUNCU]>. 248 

^ Yet ob! wiy mm, a father's words attend : 
So may the &teB preserve the ears you lend ! 
'Tis yours^ a Bacon or a Locke to blame, 216 
A Newton's genius^ or a Milton's flame : 
But oh ! with One^ immortal One^ dispense^ 
The source of Newton's lights of Bacon's sense ; 
Contents each emanation of his fires 
That beams on earth, each virtue he inspires, 220 
Each art he prompts, each charm he can create, 
Whate'er he gives, are giv'n for you to hate. 
Persist, by all divine in Man unaw'd. 
But learn, ye Dunces ! not to scorn your God." 


Ver. 212.] Of Toland and Tindal, see Book ii. Humas Wool- 
ston was an impious madman, who wrote in a most insolent style 
against ^ Miracles of the Gospel, in the years 1726, &c. P, 

Ver. 213. Yet oh! my sons, ^c] The caution against blasphemy 
here gi^en by a def^arted son of Dulness to his yet existing 
brethren, is, as the poet rightly insinuates, not out of tenderness 
to the ears of othws, but their own. And so we see, that when 
that danger is removed, on the open establishment of the Goddess 
in the fourth book, she encourages her sons, and they beg her 
assistance to pollute the source of Light itself, with the same 
virulence they had before done the purest emanations from it. W» 

Ver. 224. But leam, ye Dunces /] The hardest lesson a Dunce 
can learn ; for, being bred to scorn what he does not understand, 
that which he understands least he will be apt to scorn most : of 
which, to the disgrace of sl\ government, and (in the poet's opinion) 
even that of Dulness herself, we have had a late example in a book, 
indtled, Philosophical Essays concerning human Understanding, W.f 


Ver. 224. Learns ye Dunces ! not to scorn your Gfo(f.] Virg» Mxl. 
vi. puts this precept into the mouth.of a wicked aian». as hem of a 
stupid one. r 

«< Discite justitiam mpiuti) et oon temnere diitos." P.. 




Thus he,, for then a ray of reason stole 225 

Half thro' the ^oHd darkness of his soul ; 
But soon the doud retum'd — and thus the Sire : 
*' See now, what Dulness and her Sons admire ! 
See what the charms that smite the simple heart. 
Not touch'd by nature, and not reach'd by art." 

His never-blushing head he tum'd aside, 231 
Not half so pleas'd when Goodman prophesied, 


Ver. 224. Learn, ye Dunces! not to scorn your God."] This 
striking passage is perhaps the only one in, the whole poem that is 
not ironical. The offence of those who attempt to destroy the 
foundations of religion and morality by impugning the Being, 
Attributes, and Providence of God, being too heinous to be left to 
the correction of ridicule; and it is therefore here subjected to. the , 
most. severe and serious reprehension. It may, perhaps, appear 
improper that such a sentiment should be supposed to proceed 
from a professed Dunce ; but this, it may be observed, gives great 
additional strength to the passage ; as it implies that this great 
truth is so manifest as irresistibly to impress itself on the mind of 
every one not wholly deprived qf reason. This glimpse, however, 
was not of long duration, for we find that although 

A ray of reason stole 

Half thro' the solid darkness of his soul, 

Yet soon the cloud returned.—— , 
Warton thinks that the four lines commencing, ver. 219, " Content^ 
each emanation" fyc. are << perhaps the most obscure of any part of. 
our poet's writings," and Mr. Bowles has flierefore undertaken to 
explain them, in a note not so clear as the lines themselves. . 

Ver. 232. Not half so pleased when Goodman prophesied] Mr. 
Gibber tells us, in his Life, p. 149, that Goodman, being at the 
rehearsal of a Play, in which he had a part, clapped him on the 
shoulder, and cried, " If he does not make a good actor, 111 be 

d d,"— "and," (says Mr. Gibber,) «I make it a question, 

whether Alexander himself, or Gharles the Twelfth of Sweden, 
when at the head of their first victorious armies, could feel a 
greater transport in thek bosoms than I did in mine." P.f 


And look*^^ and saw a sable sorc'rer rise^ 
Swift to whose hand a winged volume flies : 
All sudden^ gorgons hiss^ and. dragons glare^ 235 
And ten-hom'd fiends and giants rush to war. 
Hell rises^ Heav'n descends^ and dance on Earth ; 
Gods^ imps^ and monsters^ miisic^ rage^ and mirths 
A fire^ a jig^ a battle^ and a ball^ 
Till one wide conflagration swallows all. 240 

Thence a new world, to nature's laws unknown/ 
Breaks out reftilgent, with a heav'n its own : 
Another Cynthia her new journey runs. 
And other planets circle other suns. 
The forests dance, the rivers upward rise, 245 
Whales sport in woods, and dolphins in the skies; 

RE n ARK S • 

Ver. 233. a sabk sorc'rer] Dr. Faustus, the subject of a set of 
Farces, which lasted in vogue two or three seasons, in which both 
playhouses strove to outdo each other for some years. All the 
extravagances in the sixteen hues foUowing were introduced on 
the stage, and frequented by persons of the first quality in Eng- 
land, to the twentieth and thirtieth time. P. 

Ver. 237. Hell rises. Heaven descends, and dance on Earth ;] 
This monstrous absurdity was actually represented in Tibbald^s 
Rape of Proserpine, P. 

These absurdities were indeed brought on the stage by Tibbald, 
but not by Gibber ; who again and again disclaimed and despised 
them, as may be seen in various passages of his Apology. It is 
therefore unjust to charge him with favouring and promoting such 
spectacles, which for a long time he resisted, and was forced, very 
unwilhngly, to gratify by them the depraved appetite of the public ; 
of which he much and loudly complains. Warton, 


Ver. 244. And other planets'] 

" solemque suum, sua sidera nfirunt** 

Virg. £neid. vi. P. 
Ver. 246. Whales sport in woods, and dolplnns in the skies;'] " ^ 

" Delphinum sylvis appingit, fluctibus aDrum." Hor. P. 


And last^ to give the whole creation grace^ 
Lo ! one vast egg produces human race* 

Joy fills his soul^ joy innocent of thought ; 
" What pow'r," he cries, '' what pow'r these won* 
ders wrought T 250 

^' Son, what thou seek'st is in thee! Look, and find 
Each monster meets his likeness in thy mind. 
Yet would'st thou more ? In yonder cloud, behold. 
Whose sarcenet skirts are edg'd with flamy gold, 
A matchless youth ! his nod these worlds controls. 
Wings the red lightning, and the thunder rolls. 
Angel of Dulness ! sent to scatter round 
Her magic charms o'er aU unclassic ground : 
Yon stars, yon suns, he rears at pleasure higher, 
niumes their light, and sets their flames on fire. 260 
Immortal Rich ! how calm he sits at ease 
'Mid snows of paper, and fierce hail of peas ; 


Ver. 248. Lo ! one vast egg\ In another of these Farces, Har- 
lequin is hatched upon the stage, out of a large egg. P» 

Ver. 261. Immortal Rich /] Mr. John Rich, Master of the 
Theatre Royal in Covent-Garden, was the first that exceDed this 
way. P. 


Ver. 251. Son, what thou seek*st is in thee!'] 

" Quod petis in te est 

Ne te qusesiveris extra." Pers. P. 

Ver. 256. Wings the red lightning, S^c.'] Like Salmoneus in 
^neid. vi. 

" Dum flammas Jovis, et sonitus imitatur Olympi. 

nimhos, et non imitabile fulmen, 

-Sire et cornipedum pulsu simul^at equorum." P. 

Ver. 258. o'er all unclassic ground ;] Alludes to Mr. Addison's 
verse, in the praises of Italy : 

« Poetic 


And proud his mfetress' orders to perform. 
Rides in the whirlwind, and directs the storm* 

*' But lo ! to dark encounter in mid air 265 

New wttards rise ; I see my Cibber there ! 

Ver. 261. ImmtjrtalBich /] To this gentleman's wonder-working 
exhibitions Fenton thus refers in Yai Prologue to Southeme's 
Spartan Dame : 

" We hop'd that Art and Genius had secur'd you ; 
But soon facetious Harlequin allur'd you : 
The Af uses blush'd to see their friends exalting 
Those elegant delights of jig and vaulting." 
" Whilst we were acting (says Cibber somewhere in his Life) the 
best Plays in the language to empty houses, Rich, with hia 
raree-shows, was drawing the whole town after him." Wak^ld. 
Ver. 265. to dark encounter in mid air"] 

" Mingle the dark encounter in mid air.'' Milton. Batolesm 
Ver. 266. New wizards'] Yet it is plain from many passages in 
Cibber's Life, that he despised these fooleries and abuses of the 
stage ; and there are many other passages in his Life strongly 
written to the same purpose. Neither Booth nor Cibber ever 
degraded themselves to the appearances mentioned in the two next 
lines. Warton. 

Ver. 266. / see my Cibber there /] The history of the foregoing 
absurdities is verified by himself, in these words, (Life, chap. xVr) 
" Then sprung forth that succession of monstrous medleys that 
have so long infested the stage, which arose upon one another 
alternately at both houses, out-vying each other in expense." He 
then proceeds to excuse his own part in them, as follows. " If I 
am asked, why I assented ? I have no better excuse for my error 
than to confess I did it against my conscience, and had not virtue 



" Poetic fields encompass me around, 
And still I seem to tread on classic ground.'' 
As ver. 264 is a parody on a noble one of the same author in 
The Campaign ; and ver. 259, 260, on two suUime verses of 
Dr. Y. P. 


Booth in his cloudy tabernacle shrin'd ; 

On grinning dragons thou shalt mount the wind. 

Dire is the conflict^ dismal is the din/ . . 

Here shouts all Drury^ there all Lincoln's-inn ; 270 

Contending theatres our empire raise^ 

Alike their labours^ and alike their prai$e. 

'' And are these wonders^ Son^ to theeunknown ? 
Unknown to thee ? These wonders are thy own. 


enough to starve. Had Henry IV. of France, a better reason for 
changing his religion ? I was still in my heart, as much as he could 
be, on the side of truth and sense ; but with this difference, that I 
had their leave to quit them when they could hot support me. 
But let the question go which way it will, Harry IV. has always 
been allowed a great man*^ This must be confesited a full answer ; 
only the question still seems to be, first. How the doing a thing 
against one*s conscience is an excuse for it ? and secondly, It will 
be hard to prove how he got the leave of truth and sense to quit 
their service, unless he can produce a certificate that h^ ever was 
in it. P.\ 

Ver. 266, 267.] Booth and Gibber were joint managers of the 
Theatre in Drury Lane. P. 

Ver. 267. Booth in his cloudy tabernacle shrin'd ;"} Alluding to 
Exodus, xl. 38. as Milton, Par. Lost, viii. 248. 

" she in a cloudy tabernacle 

Sojoum'd the whije." . Wakefield, 

Ver. 268. On grinning dragons thou shalt mount the windJ] In 
his Letter to Mr. P., Mr. C. solemnly declares this not to be li- 
terally true. We hope therefore the reader wiU understand it al- 
legorically only. p.-j- 

Ver. 269. Dire is the conflict, dismal is the din,'] From Paradise 
liost, vi. 

ti : - , -. dire was the noise 
' Of coriflict ; oVer head the dismal hiss • > - 
Of fiei^ darts in flaming volleys flew." Wakefield. 


ThesiB fete reseiYd to grace thy reign divine^ 275 
Foreseen by me, but ah ! withheld from mine. 
In Lud's old walls tho' long I rul'd; renown'd 
Far as loud Bow's stupendous bells resound ; 
Tho' my own Aldermen conferred the bays. 
To me committing their eternal praise, 280 

Their full-fed heroes, their pacific May'rs, 
Their annual trophies, and their monthly wars : 
Tho'* long my party built on me their hopes. 
For writing pamphlets, and for roasting Popes ; 


Ver. 282.] Annual trophies, on the Lord-mayor's Day ; and 
monthly warsy in the Artillery ground. P. 

Ver. 283. Tho' long my party] Settle, like most party-writers, 
was very uncertain in his political principles. He was employed to 
hold the pen in the Character of a Popish successor, hut afterwards 
printed his Narrative on the other side. He had managed the 
ceremony of a famous Pope-burning on Nov. 17, 1680; then 
became a trooper in King James's army, at Hounslow-heath. 
After the Revolution he kept a booth at Bartholomew-fair, where, 
in the droll called St. George for England, he acted in his old age 
in a dragon of green leather of his own invention. He was at 
last taken into ^e Charter-house, and there died, aged sixty 
years. P. 


After Ver. 274. in the former Edd. followed, 

For works like these let deathless Journals teU, 
" None but thyself can be thy parallel,'' ff,f 

After Ver. 284. in the former Edd. foUowed, 
(Diff'rent our parties, but with equal grace 
The Goddess smiles on Whig and Tory race ; 
'Tis the same rope at difiTrent ends they twist; 
To Dulness, Ridpath is as dear as Mist) 
George Ridpath, author for several years of the Flying-post, a 
Whig paper ; Nathaniel Mist, pubUsher of the weekly journal, a 
Tory paper. p. 


Yet lo ! in me what authors have to brag on 1 285 
Reduc'd at last to hiss in iny own dragon^ 
Avert it, Heav'n ! that thou, my Cibber, e'er 
Should'st wag a serpent-tail in Smithfield fair ! 
Like the yile straw that's blown about the streets. 
The needy poet sticks to all he meets, 290 

Coach'd, carted, trod upon, now loose, now fast. 
And carried off in some dog's tail at last. 
Happier thy fortunes ! like a rolling stone, ' 
Thy giddy dulness still shall lumber on. 
Safe in its heaviness, shall never stray, 295 

But lick up ev'ry blockhead in the way. 
Thee shall the patriot, thee the courtier taste. 
And ev'ry year be duller than the last ; 


Ver. 288. Smithfieldfairf] That is, Bait Aofomw /air, which is 
kept in Smithfield, where these pantomimical wonders were exhi- 
bited. Wakefield. 

Ver. 297. Tliee shall the patriot^ thee the courtier taste^ It 
stood in the first edition with blanks, * * and * *• Concanen was 
sure, " they must needs mean nobody but King GEORGE and 
Queen CAROLINE; and said he would insist it was so, till the 
poet cleared himself by filling up the blanks otherwise, agreeably 
to the context, and consistent with his allegiance" — Pref. to a 
Collection of verses, essays, letters, &c. against Mr. P. printed for 
A. Moore, p. 6* P. 


Ver. 295. Safe in his heaviness, fyc] In the former Edd. 
Too safe in inborn heaviness to stray, 
And Uck up ev*ry blockhead in the way. 
Thy dragons, magistrates and peers shall taste. 
And from each shew rise duller than the last ; 
Till rais'd from booths, &c. fT.f 


Till rais'd from booths^ to theatre, to court. 

Her seat imperial Dulness shall transport 300 

Already Opera prepares the way. 

The sure fore-runner of her gentle sway : 

Let her thy heart, next drabs and dice, engage. 

The third mad passion of thy doting age. 

Teach thou the warbling Polypheme to roar, 305 

And scream thyself, as none e'er scream'd before I 

To aid our cause, if Heav'n thou can'st not bend. 

Hell thou shalt move ; for Faustus is our friend ^ 

Ver. 301. Already Opera] The Italian Opera is said to owe its 
origin to a sacred drama, intitled, Conversion^ di S. Paolo, set to 
music by Francesco Beverini, a most celebrated composer at that 
time, and represented before Cardinal Riario, nephew to Pope 
Sixtus IV. in the Carnival Season of 1480. This was followed 
by another at the Carnival at Venice, 1485. But in this latter 
drama was a mixture of comic characters, lawyers, physicians, 
ladies, servants, merchants, &c. though oq a serious subject, and 
intitled. La Verity Raminga. JVarton, 

Ver. 305. Polypheme'] He translated the Italian Opera of Po- 
lifemo ; but unfortunately lost the whole jest of the story. The 
Cyclops asks Ulysses his name, who tells him his name is Noman. 
Afler his eye is put out, he roars and calls the Brother Cydops to 
his aid. They inquire, who has hurt him f he answers, Noman ; 
whereupon they all go away again. Our ingenious translator 
made Ulysses answer, I take no name; whereby all that followed 
became unintelligible. Hence it appears that Mr. Cibber, who 
values himself on subscribing to the English Translation of Ho- 
mer^s Iliad, had not that merit with respect to the Odyssey, or lie 
might have been better instructed in the Greek Pun*ohgy, P.*!* 


Ver. 30V. To aid our cause, ifHeat>*n thou cafCst not bend. 
Hell thou shalt move ;] 
" Flectere si nequeo superos, Acheronta movebo." 

Virg. JBneid. viL P* 



Pluto with Cato thou for this shalt join. 

And link the Mourning Bride to Proserpine. ^10 

Gruh-street! thy fall should men and Gods conspire. 

Thy stage shall stand, ensure it but from fire. 

Anpther Eschylus appears ! prepare 

For new abortions, aU ye pregnant fair ! 

In fls^mes, like Semele's, be brought to bed, 315 

While op'ning hell spouts wild-fire at your head. 


Ver. 308, 309. Paustus, Pluto, 4^.] Names of miserable Farces, 
which it was the custom to act at the end of the best Tragedies, 
to spoil the digestion of the audience. P* 

Ver. 312. ensure it hut from fire.'] In Tibbald*s Farce of Pro- 
serpine, a corn-field was set on fire : whereupon thp other play- 
house had a bam burnt down for the recreation of the spectators. 
They also rivalled each other in shewing the burnings of hell-fire, 
in Dr. Faustus. P. 

Ver. 313. Another Eschylus appears /] It is reported of Eschy- 
lus, that when his tragedy of the Furies was acted, the audience 
were so terrified, that the children feU into fits, and the big-bellied 
women miscarried. P. 

On mentioning this abortive attempt of Tibbald to translate the 
Prometheus, one cannot forbear thinking of the spirited and feith- 
fiil translation which Mr. Potter has given us of this great Father 
of the Greek Tragedy. Warton, 

. Ver. 316. like SemeU's,'] See Ovid. Met. iii. P. 

It seems strange that a writer of Congreve's good and classical 
taste should choose Semele for the subject of a drama, where the 
catastrophe is so very absurd. The stage direction in the last act 
is — " As. the cloud which contains Jupiter is arrived just over the 
canopy of Semele, a sudden and great Hash of lightning breaks 
forth, and a clap of. loud thunder is heard ; when at one instant 
Semele, with the palace, and the whole scene, disappears, and Ju- 
piter re-ascends swiftly." It was with justice he took, for a motto 
to his Opera, these words of Seneca — " A natur^ discedimus, 
populo nos damns, nullius rei bono auctori, et in h^c re, sicut in 



''Now, Bavius! take the poppy from thy brow. 
And place it herie ! here, all ye^ heroes, bow ! 
This, this is he, foretold by ancient rhymes ; 
Th' Augustus bom to bring Satumian times. 320 
Signs, following signs, lead on the mighty year ! 
See ! the dull stars roll round and re-appear ! 
See, see, our own true Phoebus wears the bays J 
Our Midas sits Lord Chancellor of plays ! 
On poets' tombs, see Benson's titles writ ! 325 
Lo ! Ambrose Philips is preferr'd for wit ! 


omnibus, inconstantissimo." I wonder Pope mentioned the story 
of Semele, as his friend Congreve had introduced it on the stage., 

Ver. 325. On poets' tombs see Benson's titles writ /] W — m Ben- 


Ver. 319, 320. This, this is he, foretold by ancient rhymes : ^ 

Th* Augustus, ^c,"] 
^* Hie vir, hie est ! tibi quem promitti saepius audis, 
Augustus Caesar, divum genus ; aurea condet 
Secula qui rursus Latio, regnata per arva 

Satumo quondam" Virg. ^neid. vi. 

Satumian here relates to the age of Lead, mentioned Book i. 
ver. 28. P. 


Ver. 323. See, see our own, S^c] In the former Edit. 
Beneath his reign, shall Eusden wear the bays, 
Gibber preside Lord Chancellor of plays, 
Benson sole Judge of architecture sit, 
And Namby Pamby be preferr'd to wit ! 
I see th* unfinished Dormitory wall, 
I see the Savoy totter to her fell ; 
Hibernian politics, O Swift ! thy doom, 
And Pope's, translating three whde yen's with Broome. 
Proceed, great days, &c. W/f^ 

254 TH£ DUNCIAD. BOOK ll|. 

See» under Ripley^ rise a new White-hall^t 
Whfle Jones' and Boyle's united labours fall ; 


BOH, Sunreyor of the Buildings to his Majesty Kiag George !• 
gave in a report to the Lords, that their House and the Paints 
chamber adjoining were in immediate danger of fidling. Where- 
upon the Lords met in a committee to appoint some other place to 
sit in, while the house should be taken down. But it being pro- 
posed to cause some other buUders first to inspect it, they found 
it in very good condition. The Lords, upon this, were going 
upon an address to the King against Benson, for such a misrepre- 
sentation ; but the earl of Sunderland, then secretary, gave them 
an assurance that his Majesty would remove him, which was done 
accordingly. In favour of this man, the famous Sir Christopher 
Wren, who had been Architect to the Crown for above fifty years, 
who built most of the Churches in London, laid the first stone of 
St. Paul's, and lived to finish it, had been displaced firom his em- 
ployment at the age of near ninety years. P. 

Ver. 325. On poets* tombs^ see BcnsorCs titles writ f] Auditor 
Benson erected a monument to Milton in Westminster Abbey, in 
the year 1737, on which his own name is inscribed as the founder. 
Concerning him, see Pennant's London, p. 381. 2d edition. 


Ver. 326. Ambrose Philips'] " He was (saidi Mr. Jacob) one of 
the wits at Button's, and a justice of the peace." But he hath 
since met with higher preferment in Ireland ; and a much greater 
character we have of him in Mr. Gildon's Complete Art of Poetry, 
vol. i. p. 157. Indeed, he confesses, '* he dares not set him quite 
on the same foot with Virgil, lest it should seem flattery : but he is 
much mist£^en if posterity does not afiS>rd him ^gixater es^ewk tihan 
he at present er^oys*^ He endeavoured to create spmie n^sunder- 
standing between our author and Mi?. Addiiso^, w^|M>m also soon 
after he abused as much. His constant ery was, t^uMt Mr. P. was 
an enemy to the government ; and in particutor W; was tjfee avowed 
author of a report very industriously spvead, ^t he h^ a hand 
in a party-paper called the Exa»niner; a fali|eh|0od ;we]l l^own to . 
those yet living, who had the direction and pujaihc^ti^n qf it. P. 

He proceeded to grosser insults^ says Pr. Joh^spo, pnd hung 
up a rod at Button's, with which he threatened to» cha9li«€ Pope, 



While Wrei^ with sorrow to the grave descends ; 
Gay dies unpension'd^ with a hundred friends ; 380 

R£ ISA KK8 • 

who appears to be extremely exasperated. It was an honour to 
Philips to be join^ with so excellent a prelate as Dr. Boulter in 
writing the Freethinker ; who, when he was made Primate of Ire- 
land, did not forget the con^panion of his labours, but took him 
to Ireland as partaker of his fortune ; and making him his secre- 
tary, added such preferments as enabled him to represent the 
county of Armagh in parliam^nt. JVarton. 

Ver. 327. See, under RipUjfy rise a new While-hall,'] This archi- 
tect was employed in repairing the building in question at the 
time of the first edition of this poem : hence is explained a passage 
in Windsor Forest, ver. 377. 

** I see, I see, where two fair cities bend 
Their ample bow, a new Whitehall ascend." 
This Ripley is mentioned satirically again in Moral Essays^ iv. 18. 
and in the Imitations, Epist. ii. 1. 186. Wakefield, 

Ver. 328. Whil^ Jones^ and Boyle's united labours fall ;] At the 
time when this poem was written, the Banquetting-house of White- 
hall, the church and piazza of Covent-garden, and the .palace and 
chapel of Somerset-house, the works of the famous Inigo Jones, 
had been for many years so neglected, as to be in danger of ruin. 
The portico of Covent-garden church had been just then restored 
and beautified at the expense of the Earl of Burhngton ; who, at 
the same time, by his pubUcation of the designs of that great mas- 
ter and Palladio, as well as by many noble buildings of his own, 
reyived the true taste of architecture in this kingdom. P. 

Ver. 329. While Wren] " The length of his life enriched the 
reigns of several princes, and disgraced the last of them. A va- 
riety of knowledge proclaims the universality, a multipUeity of 
works the abundance, St. Paul's the greatness, of Shr C^stopher's 
genius. The noblest temple, the largest palace, the most sump- 
tuous hospital, in such a kingdom as Britain, are all works of the 
tame hand. He restored London, and recorded its faU. I do 
not mean to be very minute in the account of Wrmi, even aii an 
architect. Every circumstance of his story has been written and 
repeated. Bishop Sprat, Anthony Wood, Ward in his Livea of 



Hibernian politics^ O Swift ! thy fate ; . 

And Pope's, ten years to conunent and translate ! . 


the Gresham Professors, the General Dictionary, and the New 
Description of London and its Environs, books in the hands of 
every body, are voluminous on the article of Sir Christopher. In 
1680 he was chosen President of the Royal Society ; was. in two 
parliaments ; was twice married ; had two sons and a daughter ; 
and died in 1723, at the age of ninety-one, having lived to see 
the completion of St. Paul's ; a fabric, and an event, which one 
cannot wonder left such an impression of content on the mind of 
the good old man, that, being carried to see it once a year, it 
seemed to recal a memory that was almost deadened to every 
other use. He was buried under his own fabric, with four words 
that comprehend his merit and his fame : " Si quseras monumen- 
tum, circumspice!" Walpole's Anecdotes, 8vo. vol. iii. p. 163. 

Ver. 330. Gay dies unpension^d, fyc.'] See Mr. Gay's fiible of 
the Hare and many Friends. This gentleman was early in the 
friendship of our author, which continued to his death. He wrote 
several works of humour with great success, the Shepherd's Week, 
Trivia, the What-d'ye-call-it, Fables ; and lastly, the celebrated 
Beggar's Opera; a piece of satire which hit all tastes and degrees 


Ver. 331.] In the former Editions thus ; 

O Swift ! thy doom, 

And Pope's, translating three whole years with Broome. W,f 

He concludes his irony with a stroke upon himself: for whoever 
imagines this a sarcasm on the other ingenious person, is surely 
mistaken. The opinion our author had of him was sufficiently 
shewn by his joining him in the undertaking of the Odyssey: in 
which Mr. Broome, having engaged without any previous agree- 
ment, discharged his part so much to Mr. Pope's satis&ction, that 
he gratified him with the full sum o£ Jive hundred pounds^ and a' 
present of all those books for which his own interest could procure 
him subscribers, to the value of one hundred more. The author 
only seems to lament, that he was employed in translation at all, '' 


'^ Proceed, great days ! till leamingily the shore, 
TiH birch shall blush with noMe blood no more, , 


of men^s from those of the highest quality to the very rabble. That 
verse of Horace, 

«* PrimoreS'populi arripuit, populumque tributim," 
coiild neVet be so justly applied as to ' this* The vast success of 
it was unprecediented, and almo^ incredible. What is related of 
the wonderful effects of the ancient mUsic or tragedy hardly came 
up>to it. So{>hocles and Euripides Were less followed and famous* 
It was' act^ in London sixty-three days, uninterrupted; and re^ 
Hewed the next' season with equal applauses. It spread into all 
the great towns of England, was played in many places to the 
thirtieth and fortieth time, at Bath and Bristol fifty, &c. It made 
its progress into Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, where it was per- 
foiled twenty-four days together. It was at last acted in Minorca. 
The fame of it Was not confined to the author only ; the ladies 
carried about with them the favourite songs of it in fans V and 
houses were furnished with it in screens. The petsOn who acted 
Polly, till then obscure, became all at once the favourite of the 
town ; her pictures were engraved, and sold in great numbers \ 
her life written i books of letters and verses to her published ; and 
pamphlets made even of her sayings and jests. ^ 

Furthermore, it drove out of England, for that season, the Ita- 
lian Opera, which had carried all before it for ten years. That 
idol of the nobility and people, which the great critic Mr. Dennis, 
by the labours and outcries of a whole life, could not overthrow, 
was demolished by a single stroke of this gentleman's pen. This 
happened in the year 1728. Yet so great was his modesty, that he 
constantly prefixed to . all the editions of it this motto, "Noi hac 
novimui esse nihil. P» 

The Duchess of Queensberry was forbid to appear at Court, on 
account of her patronizing Mr. Gay, on w^ich occasion she sent 
the following reply to King George II* 

« Thursday, Feb. 27, 17«8. 

'* That the Duchess of Queensberry is surprised, and w^ 
pleased, that the King hath given her so agreeable a command as 
to stay from Court, where -she never came for diversion, -but to 

VOL. IV. S bestow 


Till Thames see Eton's sons for ever play, 335 
Till Westminster's whole year be holiday^ 


bestaw a great civility upon the King and Queen. She hopes by 
such an unprecedented order as* this, that the King will see as few 
as he wishes at his court (particularly such as dare think or speak 
the truth). I dare not do otherwise, and ought net ; nor co^ 
I have imagined that it would not have been the highest coTi^Uf 
ment that I could possibly pay the King, to endeavour to su]^hwI^ 
truth and u^iocence in his house ; particularly when the King and 
Queen had both told me diat they had not read Mr. Gay's p]ay. 
I have certainly done right then to stand to my own word, rath^ 
thun his Grace of Grafton's, who hath neither made use of truUi^ 
judgment,, or honour, through this whole affair, either for himfif^ 
or his friends. C. Queei^sbsbry*" 

What follows was written by her Grace at the bottom of the 
copies of the above answer, which she gave to her p^rticiilat 
friends : 

" This is the answer I gave in writing to the Vice Chambarlaiii 
to read to the King, in answer to the message he brought me from 
the King to refrain coming to oourt.'^ Warton, 

Ver. 3d0. Gay dies unperuion'dymth a hundred friends;'] An al- 
lusion seems intended to this poet's fable. The Hare and xoxtq 
Friends ; the introducdon to which thus concludes : 
" Tis thus in friendship, who depend 
On many, rarely find a friend.*' Wakefield, 

Ver. 331. Hibernian politics, Swift! thy fate;'] See Booki. 
▼er. 26. P. 

Ver, 332. And Pope's^ ten years to comment and translate,"] John- 
son says in his Life of Broome, upon the subject of the disagree^ 
ment and alienation between him and Pope, ** I have been told that 
they were afterwards reconciled." The verse before us may be 
fiiirly considered as a strong presumption of this reconciliation^ 
from the reading of former editions : 

" And Pope's translating three whole years with Broome:^' 
where his name was unpleasantly associated with circumstances of 
misfortune and regret. Wtikefidd. 

Ver, 332. And Pope's, ten years to comment and traiislate.^ Thfe 



TillJsis'eldm red^ t^eir pupils sporty 
And Alma Mater lie dissolv'd in p^rt r' 


ai^or here plainly laments that he was so long'employed in trans- 
lating and commenting. He began the Iliad in 1713^ and finished 
ii in 1719. The edition of Shakespeat (which he undertook merely 
because nobody else would) took up near two years more in the 
drudgery of comparing impressions, rectifying the Scenery, &cw 
and the translation ^ half the Odyssey employed him from that 
time to 1725. P.f 

Ver« 993. ^^Pnxeed, great days I ifcJ] It may perhaps seem in- 
crediUe, that so great a revolution in learning as is here prophe- 
sied, should be brought about by such weak instruments as have 
been [hitherto] described in our poem ; but do not thou, gentle 
reader, rest too secure in thy contempt of these instruments. 
Remember what the Dutch stories somewhere relate, that a great 
part of their Provinces was once overflowed, by a small opening 
made in one of their dykes by a single Water^Rat. 

However, that such is not seriously the judgment of our poet, 
but that he conceivedi better hopeis from the diligence of our 
schools, from the regularity of our universities, the discernment 
of our great men, the accomplishments of our nobility, the en- 
couragement of our patrons, and the genius of our writers in all 
kinds, (notwithstanding some few exceptions in each,) may plainly 
be seen from his conclusion ; where, causing all this vision to pass 
through the Ivory Gate, he expressly, in the language of poesy, 
declares all such imaginations to be wild, ungrounded, and ficti- 
tious. SCRIBLERUS. P. 

Ver. 333. ** Proceed, great days! 3^c. —Till birch shall blush, ^c] 
Another great prophet of Dulness, on this side Styx, promiseth 



After Ver. 338. in the first Edit, were the foUowing lines : 
Then when these signs declare ^e mighty year, 
When the dull stars roll round and re-appear ; 
Let there be darkness! the dread Pow'r shall say ; 
All shall be darkness, as it ne'er were day ; 
To their furst Chaos Wit's vain works shall fall, 
And universal darkness cover all. W.j- 



^' Enough f endugh!" the raptur'd Monareh cries; 
And thro* the Ivory Gate, the Vision flies. 340 

those days to be near at hand. "The devil (saithfae) licensed 
Bishops to license Masters of Schods to instruct youth in the 
knowledge of the Heathen Gods, thar religion, &c. The Schools 
and Universities will soon be tired aAd ashamed of Classics, and 
such trumpery." Hutchihtson'i ll$e of Mcason recovered. 


Ver. 340. And thro* the Ivory Gate^ See what the truly learned 
Jortin has said in his- Sixth Dissertation^on die' subject of this 
Ivory Gate. This Sixth Dissertation very unfortunately produced 
a Seventh, on the Deljcacy of Friendship, .which it la- 
mented was ever published. Warton. . 


Ver. 333. " Proceed, great days!] Virgil, Eel. iv. 12. 

" incipient magiu procedere menses.'' P. 

Ver. 340. And thro' the Ivory Gate, ^c] 

" Sunt geminaB Somni portae ; quarum altera fertur . 
Cornea, qu^ veris facilis datur exitus umbris ; 
Altera candenti perfecta nitens elephanto, 
Sed falsa ad coelum mittunt insomnia manes." 

Virg. ^neid. vi. P, 

tut: END or TflE THIRD BOOK 







The Poet beings in this Book, to declare the completion of the pro- 
phecies mentioned at the end of the former, makes a new Invoca- 
tion ; as the greater Poets are wont, when some high and worthy 
matter is to be sung. He shows the Goddess coming in her Ma* 
jes^, to destroy Order and Science, and to substitute the Kingdom 
of the Dull upon earth. How she leads captive the Sciences, and 
silenceth the Muses ; and what they be who succeed in their stead. 
All her Children, by a wonderful attraction, are drawn about her, 
and bear along with them divers others, who promote her Empire 
by connivance, weak resistance, or discouragement of Arts; such 
as HaJf'WitSy tasteless Admirers, vain Pretenders, the Flatterers qf 
thmcesy or the Patrons of them. All these crowd around her ; one 
of them offering to approach her, is driven back by a Rival, but 
she commends and encourages both. The first who speak in form 
are the Geniuses of the Schools, who assure her of their care to 
advance her Cause by confining Youth to Words, and keeping them 
out of the way of real Knowledge. Their Address, and her gra* 
Clous Answer ; with her Charge to them and the Universities. The 
Universities appear by their proper Deputies, and assure her that 
the same method is observed in the progress of Education. The 
speech of Aristarchus on this subject. Tliof are driven off by a 
band of young Gentlemen returned from Travel with their Tu- 
tors ; one of whom delivers to the Goddess, in a polite oration, an 
account cf the whole conduct and fruits qf their Travels ; prC" 
seating to her at the same time a young Nobleman perfectly accom^ 
plished. She receives him graciously, and endues him with the 
happy quality of Want of Shame. She sees loitering about her a 
number qf indolent persons abandoning all business and duty, and 
dying with laziness. To these, approaches the Antiquary Annius, 
intreating her to make them Virtuosos, and assign them over to 
him; but Mummius, another Antiquary, conq>laining qf hii 


fraudulent proceeding, she finds a method to reconcile their dif" 
ference. Then enter a troop of people fantastically adorned, 
offering her strange and exotic presents. Amongst them, one stands 
forth and demands justice on another, who had deprived him of 
one of the greatest Curiosities in nature ; hut he justifies himself so 
well J that the Goddess gives them both her approbation. She re- 
commends to them to find proper employment for tlie Indolents be» 
fore-meniionedf in the study qf Butterflies, Shells, Birds-nests, 
Moss, b;c, but with particular caution, not to proceed beyond 
Trifles, to any usrful or extensive views of Nature, or of the Author 
of Nature, Against the last of these apprehensions^ she is secured 
by a hearty Address from the Minute Philosophers and Free- 
thinkers, one cf whom speaks in the name of the rest. The Youth, 
thus instructed and principled, are delivered to her in a body by 
the hands of Silenus ; and then admitted to taste the cup of the 
Magus her High Priest, which causes a total oblivion qf all Ob' 
ligations, divine, civil, moral, or rational. To these her Adepts^ 
she sends Priests, Attendants, and Comforters, of various kinds; 
coffers on them Oriers and Degrees; and then dismissing them 
with a speech, confirming to each his Privileges, and telling what 
she expects from each, concludes with a Yawn qf extraordinaty 
virtue; the progress and effects whereof on all orders of men^ 
and the consummation of all, in the restoration of Night and 
Chaos, conclude the Poem, 



Yet, yet a moment^ one dim ray of light 
Indulge, dread Chaos, and eternal Night ! 
Of darkness visible so much be lent. 
As half to shew, half veil the deep intent. 

The Dunciad, Book IV.] This Book may properly be distin- 
guished from the former, by the name of the Greater Dun- 
ciad,* not so indeed in size, but in subject ; and so far, contrary 
to the distinction anciently made of the Greater and Lesser Iliad. 
But much are they mistaken who imagine this work to be in any 
wise inferior to the former, or of any other hand than of our poet ; 
of which I am much more certain than that the Iliad itself was 
tlie work of Solomon, or the Batrachomyomackia of Homers as 
Barnes hath affirmed. Bentley. P,f 

Ver. 1. 4rc.] This is an invocation of much piety. The poet, 
willing to approve himself a genuine Son, beginneth by shewing 
(what is ever agreeable to Dulnes^) his high respect for antiquity 
and a great faniiltfy how dead or dark soever ; next declareth his 
passion for explaining Mysteries ; and lastly, his impatience to be 
re-united to her. Scriblebus. P. W. 

Ver. 2. dread Chaos, and eternal Night /] Invoked, as the re- 
storation of their Empire is the action of the poem. P. W» 

Ver. 3. Of darkness visible so much he lent. 

As half to shew, half veil the deep intent, "] 
This is modeUed from Par. Lost, i..63. as every reader of English 
poetry will immediately recollect : 

" No light, but rather darkness visible^ 
Serv'd only to discover, sights of woe." Wakefield. 

Ver. 4. half ^o shew, half veil the deep iiaeta.'] This is a great 



Ye Pow'rs ! whose Mysteries restor'd I sing, 5 
To whom Time bears me on his rapid wing, 


propriety ; for a dull poet can never express himself otherwise than 
by halves, or imperfectly. Scriblerus. P, W. 

I understand it very differently ; the author in this work had 
indeed a deep intent ; there were in it Mysteries, or anro^^ifla, whidi 
he durst not folly reveal ; and doubtless in divers verses, accord- 
ing to Milton, 

— " more is meant than meets the ear." Bentlet. P. W» 

Ver. 6. To whom Time bears me on his rapid wing,'] Fair and 
sofUy, good Poet ! (cries the gentle Scriblerus on this place.) For 
sure, in spite of his unusual modesty, he shall not travel so fast 
toward oblivion, as divers others of more confidence have done. 
For when I revolve in my mind the catalogue of those who have 
most boldly promised to themselves inmiortaltty, viz.PiTMiar, iiuM 
Gongora, Ronsardf Oldham, Lyrics ; Lycophron, Statins, Chapman^ 
BUtckmare, Herc^s; I find the one half to be already dead, and 
the other in utter 4arkness. But it becometh not us, who have 
laken ^xp the offieis of his commentator, to suff^ our poet thus 
prodigally to cast away his life ; contrariwise, the more hidden 
and abstruse his work is, and the more remote its beauties from 
common understaqding, the more it is our duty to draw forth and 
exalt the same, in |he face of men and angels. Herein shall w^ 
imitate the laudable spirit of those, who lukye, for this very rea* 
son, delighted to comment on dark and uncouth authors, and even 
on their darker fragments ; have preferred Ennius to Virgil^ and 
have chosen rather to turn the dark I^anthom of LTCopuRONy 
than to trim the everlasting Juamp oi Homer ^ Scj^ibleeus. 

P. W. 

Ver. 6. To whom Time hears me (m his rapid wing^} The poet 
had in his memory Milton's Sonnet vii. 

V* How soon hath Time, the sitbtle diief of youth, 
StoFn on his wing my three and twentieth year 
To that same lot, however vtean m high, 
Toward wkieh Time kadi mr, ind the wiU of Heav'n— /' 



Suspend awhSe your force inertty stroBg, 
Then take at once the poet and the song^ 

Now flamed the Dog-atar^is un]Hro]dt]oii» ri^y^ 
Smote ev'ry brain, and wither'd er'ry bay ; 10 
Sick was the sun, the awl fcMrsook hiis bow'r. 
The moon-struck prophet felt the madding hour : 
Then rose the seed of Chaos and of Night, 
To blot out order, and extinguish light. 
Of dull and veiuil a new world to mould, 15 

And bring Satumian days of Lead and Gold, 

Ver. 7*^ /oree mertfy tirmfg,"] AIisdHig to idie Vii inoHia of 
Matter, which, thaugh k leally be no Power, is yet the Ibtin^ 
d»tfon of att the qualities and attrilniles of that sluggish sulb* 
stance. P. W. 

Vet. 11, 1$. Sick W0S the 8am, ipo.'] The poet introdoceth this 
(a» all great events are supposed foy sage historians to be pre- 
Cfsdcd) by an Eclipse of the Sun ; but wit^ a peculiar propriety, as 
the Sim is the envUem of diat intellectual light which dies before 
the &ce of DidaesB. Very i^^oske likewise is H, to make diis 
EeHpse, which is ocucasioiyed by the Moon's predominancy, at the 
r^gpj time wfafsi Dmhe» and Madnes* are in conjunction ; whose 
relation and influence on each other the poet hath i^wn in many 
places. Book I. ver. 29. Book III. ver. 5. et seq, W» 

Ver. 14. To blot out order, and esctingmh light,] The two 
gre^ ends of her insssion ;^ the one in quality of daughter of Chaoi, 
the other as> daughter of NiglH, Order here is to be understood 
extensively, both as civil amd moral ; the distinctions between high 
and low in society,, aad true and false in individudb ; Idght, as 
intellectual only ; wit, Icience, artp. P. W, 

Ver. 15. Of duS and venaf} The allegory continued ; dull re- 
ferring to the extinction of %ht or science; venal to the destruc- 
tion of order, or the trutk of things. F.W. 

Ibid, a new WorkL\ In refereace to the Epicurean opinioi^ tliait 
from the dossolution of the natmal world into Night and Chao0y,a 
neyr one should arise; thn the poet aUiidmg to^ in the productim 



She mounts the throne; her head a cloud con- 
In broad effulgence all below reveal'd ; 
(*Tis thus aspiring Dulness ever shines :) 
Soft on her lap her Laureat Son reclines. 20 


of a new moral world, makes it partake of its original prin- 
ciples. P. W. 
Ver. 16. Lead and Gold] i, e, dull and venal. P. W, 
Ver. 18. all helow reveaVd;"] It was the opinion of the And^its, 
that the Divinities manifested themselves to men by their Back- 
parts, Virg. ^neid. i. et avertens, rosed ccrvice refulsit. But this 

passage may admit of another exposition. Vet. Adag. The 

higher you climby the more you show your a — ^. Verified in na in- 
stance more thsui in Dulness aspiring. Emblematized also^by an 
ape climbing and exposing his posteriors. Scriblerus. P. W, 
. Ver. 20. her Laureat Son reclines.'] With great judgment is it 
^aagined by the poet, that such a colleague as Dulness 'had 
elected, should sleep upon the Throne, and have very little share 
in the action of the poem. Accordingly he hath done little orno- 
thing from the day of his anointing ; having passed through -the 
second book without taking part in any thing that was transacted 
riktovit him ; and through the third, in profound sleep. Nor ought 
this, well considered, to seem strange in our days, when samany 
King-consorts have done the like. Scriblerus. P. W» 

This verse our excdlent I^uireat took so to heart ^atfae ap- 
pealed to all mankind, *^ if he was not as seldom asleep as any 
fool ?" But it is hoped die poet hath not injured him, but'ra<her 
verified his prophecy (p. 2^. of his own Life, 8vo. ch;ix.)'where 
he says, "the reader will be as much pleased to &idme a dunce 
in, my old age, as he was to. prove me a brisk blockhead in my 
youth.** • Wherever there was any room for briskness of any sort, 
tven in sinking, he hath had it allowed ; but here, where 'there is 
nothing for him to do but to .take his natural rest, he must permit 
his historian to be silent. It is from their actions only that Princes 
have their character, and poets from their works; and if in those 
he be 6» much asleep as anyfoolf the poet must leave him and than 
io sleep to all eternity. Bentlet. P*f 


Beneath her foot-stool^ Science groans in chains^ 
And. Wit dreads exile/ jpenalties^ and pains. 
There foam'd rebellious. iogtc, gagg'd and bounds 
There, stripped, fair Rhetoric languish'd on the 

His blunted arms by Sophistry are borne, 25 

And shameless Billingsgate her robes adorn. 
Morality, by her false guardians drawn. 
Chicane in furs, and Casuistry in lawn, 


Ver. 20. her Laureat] " When I find my name in the satirical worki^ 
of this poet, I never look upon it as any malice meant to me, but 
Profit to himself. For he considers that my face is more hnpttm 
than most in the nation ; and therefore a Lick at the Laureat will 
be a sure bait ad captandum vulgusy to catch little readers." — Life 
of Colly Gibber, ch. ii. 

Now if it be certain, that the works of our poet have owed their 
success to this ingenious expedient, we hence derive an unanswer- 
able argument, that this Fourth Dunciad, as well as the former 
three, hath had the author's last hand, and was by him intended 
for the press ; or else to what purpose hath he crowned it, as we 
see, by this finishing stroke, the profitable Lick at the Laureat? 
Bentley. P.f. 

Ver. 21, 22. Beneath her foot -stool, Sfc.'] We are next presented 
with the pictures of those whom the Goddess leads in captivity. 
Science is only depressed and confined so as to be rendered useless ; 
but Wit or Genius, as a more dangerous and active enemy, punished^ 
or driven away ; Dulness being oflen reconciled in some degree 
with Learning, but never upon any terms with Wit. And accor- 
dingly it will be seen that she admits something like each Science, 
at Casuistry, Sophistry, &c. but nothing like Wit, Opera alone 
supplying its place. P. ^. 

Ver. 21. Morality, by her false guardians dravn,'] Morality is the 
daughter of Astrcsa. This alludes to the mythology of the ancient 
poets, who tell us that in the golden and silver ages, or in the state 
of nature, the Gods cohabited with men here on earth ; but'wheii, 
by reason of man's degeneracy, society was forced to have recourse 



Gagps> as they straiten at each end the cord> 
And dies^ when Duhiess gives her Page the wwd. 
Mad Mathesis Bkim was unconfin'd^ 
Too mad for mere material chains to bind» 
Now to pure space lifts her extatic stare. 
Now running round the circle, finds its square. 
But held in ten-fold bonds the Muses lie, 35 

Watch'd both by Envy's and by Flattery's eye. 


to a magistrate, and that the ages of brass and iron came on, (that 
is, when laws were written on brazen tablets, enforced by the sword 
of justice) the celestials soon retired from earth, and Astraa last 
of all ; and then it was she left this her orphan daughter in the 
hands of the guardians aforesaid. Scribl. W. 

Ver, 30. gives her Page the wordJ] There was a Judge of this 
name, always ready to hang any man that came in his way ; of 
which he was suffered to give a hundred misera"ble examples during 

a long life, even to his dotage Though the candid Scriblerus 

imagined Page here to mean no more than a Page or Mute, and to 
allude to the custom of strangling State criminals in Turkey by 
Miites or Pages. A practice more decent than that of our Page, 
who, before he hanged any one, loaded him with reproachful 
language. Scriblerus. P. W. 

Ver. 31. Mad Mathesis] Alluding to th^ strange conclusions 
some Mathematicians have deduced from their principles, con- 
cerning the real quantity of matter, the reality of space, ^.] P. W* 

Ver. 31. Mad Mathesis] Not only at liberty, but got to the 
head of an Academy, and turned Metaphysician. See UEssai sur 
la formation des corps organises, W*f 

Ver. 31, Mad Mathesis] This vicious accent of the word is 
authorized by Prudentius, and other authors of declining Latmity. 


Ver. 33. Pure space"] i. e. pure and defecated from matter — 
extatic stare; the condition of men who look about with full as- 
surance of seeing what does not exist ; such as those who expect 
to find space a real being. W. 

Ver. 34. running round the circle, finds its square,'] Regards the 
wild and fruitless attempts o£ squaring the circle. - P. W. 


There to her heart sad Tragedy address'd 

The dagger wont to pierce the Tyrant's breast ; 

But sober History restrain'd her rage. 

And promised vengeance on a barb'rous age. 40 

There sunk Thalia, nerveless, cold, and dead. 

Had not her sister Satire held her head : 

Nor could'st thou, Chesterfield ! a tear refuse ; 

Thou wept*st, and with thee wept each gentle Muse. 


Ver. 36. WatcKd both by Envy's and by Flatt'ry'f eye ;] One of 
the misfortunes &lling on authors, from the Act for subjecting 
Plays to the power of a Licenser^ being the false representations to 
which they were exposed, from such as either gratified their envy 
to merit, or made their court to greatness, by perverting general 
reflections against vice into libels on particular persons. P, W. 

Ver. 39. But sober History] History attends on Tragedy, Satire 
on Comedy, as their substitutes in the discharge of their several 
functions ; the one in high life, recording the crimes and punish- 
ments of the great ; the other in low, exposing the vices or ^[^es 
of the people. But it may be asked, how came History and 
Satire to be admitted wkh impunity to minister comfort to the 
Muses, even in the presence of the Groddess, and in the midst of 
all her triumphs? A question, says Scriblerusy which we thus 
resolve : History was brought up in her infancy by Dulness herself; 
but being afterwards espoused into a noble house, she forgot (as 
is usual) the humility of her birth, and the cares of her early friendti. 
This occasioned a long estrangement betwe^i her and Dulness. 
At length, in course of time, they met together in a monk's ceU, 
werie reconciled, and became better friends than ever. Afber this, 
they had a second quarrel, but it held not long, and are now again 
on reasonable terms, and so are like to continue. Hiis accounts 
for the connivance shewn to History on this occasion. But the 
boldness of Satirb springs from another causes l%e reader 
ought to know, that she ak>ne of aU the sisters is unoofiquerBUe, 
never to be silenced, when truly inspired and animated (as ^I6uld 
seem) from above, for this very purpose, to oppose the kingdom 
of Dulness to her last breath. W, 

372 THE dukciad; BOOKriv:* 

Whenlo! a harlot form soft sliding by; 45. 

WitlumnciDg step, small voice, and languid eye : 
Foreign her air, her robe's discordant pride 
In patch-work flutt'ring, and her head aside : 


Ver. 43. Nor could! st t?tou, ^fc] This Noble Person, in the year 
11217 f when the Act aforesaid was brought into the House of 
Lords, opposed it in an excellent speech (says Mr. Cibber) " with 
a lively spirit, and uncommon eloquence.^' This speech had the 
honour to be answered by the said Mr. Cibber, with a lively spirit 
akO) and in a manner very uncommon, in the 8th Chapter of his 
Life and Manners, And here, gentle reader, would I gladly insert 
the other speech, whereby thou mightest judge between them: 
but I must defer it on account of some differences not yet aciyusted 
between the Noble Author and myself, concerning the true reading 
of certain passages. Bentley. P. W* 

Ver. 45. When Id ! a harlot form] The attitude given to thu 
phantom represents the nature and genius of the Italian Opera; 
ita affected airs, its effeminate sounds, and the practice of patching 
up these Operas with favourite songs, incoherently put together. 
These things were supported by the subscriptions of the Nobility. 
This circumstance, that Opera should prepare for the opening of 
the grand Sessions, was prophesied of in Book iii. ver. dOl. 
" Already Opera prepares the way. 
The sure fore-runner of her gentle sway." Pi W. 

Our author had not seen the charming dramas of .Metastasio ; 
who is indeed a very fine tragic poet ; the plans of some x>f his 
pieces are conducted with the truest art and judgment, whidi 
cannot be surprising to those who know that this enchanting 
writer has been excelled by few moderns in genius and in learnings 
HeMT a very serious philosopher asserting, " that nothing can be 
more deeply affecting than the interesting scenes of the seriott» 
Opera ; when to good poetry and good music, to the poetry of 
Metastasio and the music of Pergolese, is added the execution of 
a.gpod actor/' Essays of Adam Smith, p, 169. 

See also p. 167. of the Musical Imitations in the same works. 

Voltaire thinks more highly of the Opera than Pope : 



By singing Peers uphjeld on either hand^ 
She tripp'd and laugh'd^ too. pretty much to stand; 
Cast on the prostrate Nine a scornful look. 
Then thus in quaint Recitativo spoke. 

'^ O Car a ! Cara ! silence all that train ! 
Joy to great Chaos !. let Division reign ! 
Chromatic tortures soon shall drive them hence^ 55 
Break all their nerves^ and fritter all their sense; 


'' Oi^ les beaux vers, la danse, la musique, 
L'art de tromper les yeux par les couleurs, 
L'art plus heureux de seduire les coeurs, 
De cent plaisirs font un plaisir unique." 

If Pope, therefore, had lived to read the Operas of Metastasio, 
he would probably have altered his opinion of this species of 
poetry. And he seems to have not been acquainted with* those oF 
Quinault ; • or perhaps took his opinion concerning them from 
Boileau. Some are far above love stories ; see the incantations 
of Medea ; the opening of Pluto ; the speeches of Medusa, Ceres, 
and Alceste. . Warton* 

Ver. 54. let Division reign f"} Alluding to the false taste of 
playing tricks with music, with numberless divisions, to the neglect 
of that harmony which conforms to the sense, and applies to the 
passions. Mr. Handel had introduced a great number of hands 
and more variety of instruments into the orchestra,' and employed 
even drums and cannon to make a fuller chorus ; which proved so 
much too manly for the fine-gendemen of his age, that he was 
obliged to remove his music into Ireland, After which they were 
reduced, for want of composers, to practise the patch- work abote 
mentioned. P. W, 

This subject is- treated with accuracy and taste in Avison's Essay 
on Musical Expression, and the superiority of expression' to exe- 
cution insisted on and demonstrated. 'Warton, 

Ver. 55. Chromatic tortures] That species of the ancient music 



Ver. 54. Jcy to great Chaos /] 
Joy to great Casar — The beginning of a famous did s«ng. IV. 



One trill shatt harmonuse joy, griefs and f age^ 
Wake the dull Churchy and tuU the rantii^Sta^; 
To the same notes ihy sons shall hum, or snore^ 
And all thy yawning daughters cry, E»can I 6Q 
Another PhoBhus, thy own Phcebiis, reigns^ 
Joys in my jigs, and danoes in my chains. 
But soon, ah ! soon, reheltion will commenca. 
If music meanly borrows aid from senaa 
Strong in new arms, lo ) Giant Handel stands, 65 
Like bold Briareus, with a hundred hand)^ ; 

called the Chromatic waa a variation and ^ulicllwlMPfiant, in odd 
icregularitLes, of the DiaUmic kind.. Thiej aiay it was invented 
4bout the tione of AUxwatdcTi and that the S^artam £>):bade> th^ u^e 
^f it, a^^ languid and effeminate. 1^^ 

Ver. 5^ Ckeomatic tprUtret] The judicious and ek;gant dJUiAm 
qf the General History of Music ha^ given us accyacsfile aopo.wity 
of every species of this art, and enriched his vfOfk with a^ vmet^ 
of curious particulars concerning it, unknown before. Wmrto/L^ 

Yer^ 5Q. Wake the dull Churchy and lull the ra$iting Sktige^ i. e. 
Dissipate the deQotion of the, one by light ai»d ws^ntQU.s^i and 
«iibdue the patliot of the other by recitative and sing-^song; It^.i 

Ver. 61. thy own Phoebus, reigns^'} 

" Tuus jam regnat ApoUo." Yirg. 
Not the ancient Pbabw^ the God qC Haiwony, but a. modita 
Phmbua of French extraction, mar?:ied to iim Princess Galimafthiap 
one of the luMcidmaid^ of Duli^ps^, said ao^assistsuut to 0pei9» Of 
whom see BouhourSf and other critics of tbAt oation^. 


Ver. 65. Giant Handef\ The honour, paid to this txriJy 8^blime 
genius, by the repeated performances of his noblest wqrksat West? 
minster Abbey, under the patronage of the King, will not soqn b^ 
forgotten, The magnificence and accuracy of which jerfsimWfi^ 
were beyond compare. It is remarkable, that in the earlier part 
of iiis life, Pope was so very insensible to the charms of music, 
that he^nce asked his friend Dr. Arbuthnot, who luuLa fiofttar, 
'^ whether^ al Iiord Burlington's oonoects!». the rapture ii4iiQh Ae 


To Stir, to rouse, fo &hake the soul ht eoMeiSy 
And Jove's own tbtooidets £d&ow Mars s dnitiiksv 

company escpresasefd upoii he&'mg fb^ coAlpoiitibi^ iAdI p^rfctful^ 
ance of Handel, did not pf oceed wboUy from affectadcm V* 

Dr. Bumey observes, vol. i. p. 329, that both Dryden and my 
friend Pitt havcf ina'c^tirately aha improperly translated the passage 
6f Virgil, b. vi. relating to Orpheus, v. 646. 

*' Obloqiutur numeris septem discrimina vocittn.'' Wart<m* 

Ver. 65. Giant Handtl'\ When Pope found that his friends, 
liord Burlington and Dr. Arbuthnot, thought so highly of Handel, 
he not only lashed his enemies in the Dunciad, but wished to have 
his Eurydice set to music by him. Mr. Belchier, a common friend, 
undertook to negociate the business ; but Handel, having heard 
that Pope had made his ode more lyrical, that is, fitter for music, 
by dividkig it into airs and recitatives, for Dr. Green, who had 
already set it, and whom> as a partisan for Bononcini, and confe- 
derate with his enemies, Be had long disliked, says, '* It is de very 
ding vat my peHows-phwer has set already for ein tocktor's tecree 
at Cambridge." Burnbt. Bowles. 

Ver. 68. And Jove's ovm ihtrnders^ ^c.J. By this passage it might 
be imagined, by those who are unacquainted with the real merits 
of that great master, Handel, that his only excellence consists in 
the effect of accumulated harmony in his full choruses and loud 
instrumental pieces. It is understood, that Pope was himself in- 
' sensible to the charms of music ; but those who are best ab]e to 
judge of its comparative excellence, and most sensiiUe to its effects, 
will give Handel as great credit for his pathetic airs, and his ele- 
gant and rich accompaniments, as. for those grand and sublime 
combinations of sound which astonish and enrapture his audiences. 
The universality, indeed, of Handel's genius, and thepower which 
he so eminently possessed, of producing a general effect, in a 
place corresponding to our feelings, or the subject which it re^^e- 
sents, is that which gives him the highest title to our admiration ; 
but still, in die Iiamentation on the Death of Jonathan (perhaps 
the most pathetic composition- that ever existed)^ and in the lively 
and playful strains of Acis and Galatea, and the Allegro and 
Penseroso, we experience the same sensation of satisfaction and 
delight as ui his ohorneer and martial airs, to^whiehr i^e passage 

T 2 » 




Arrest him. Empress ! or you sleep no more !" 
She heard, and drove him to th' Hibernian shore. 70 
And now had Fame's posterior trumpet blown. 
And all the nations summon'd to the throne. 
The young, the old, who feel her inward sway. 
One instinct seizes, and transports away. 


in question particularly alludes. But the most popuktr of Handd's 
numerous productions, the Messiah, exhibits this variety of genius 
in a most conspicuous light ; in which the pastoral symphony, the 
pious and affecting air, / knoWf tfc, and the Chorus, Hallelujah ! 
far the Lord God^ Ifc. and still more, the highly-finished and sub- 
lime conclusion, could only be the production of one whose ta- 
lents comprehended the most varied powers. It is a curious fact, 
which is also alluded to in these lines, that, so little was the public 
aware of the merits of that sublime composition, and so duQ were 
t&e musicians of that day to its excellence, that Handel, after try- 
ing in vain to get the Messiah performed in London, returned 
with it in disgust to Dublin, where he first produced it to the 
world, though in a manner by no means satisfactory to his ideas 
and expectations. Bowles, 

Ver. 71. Fatness posterior trumpet] Fosterior, viz. her second or 
more certain report : unless we imagine this word posterior to 
relate to the position of one of her trumpets, according to 
Hudibras : 

** She blows not both with the same wind, 

But one before and one behind ; 

Ai^d therefore modem authors name 

One good, and € other evil fame.** P. W, 

Ver. 73. The young, the oldf who feel her inward sway, 4rc.] In 
this new world of Dulness each of these three dasses hath its ap- 
pointed station, as best suits its nature, and concurs to the har- 
mony of the system. The frst, drawn only by the strong and 
simple impulse of attraction^ are represented as ^felling directly 
down into her ; as conglobed into he> substance, 'and resting in 

her centre. 

■all their centre found, 

. Hung to the Goddess, and coher'd around. 



None need a guide, by sure attraction led, 75 
And strong impulsive gravity of head ; 
None want a place, for all their centre found. 
Hung to the Goddess, and coher'd around ; 
Not closer, orb in orb, conglob'd are seen 
The buzzing bees about their dusky queen. 80 

The gathering number, as it moves along. 
Involves a vast involulitary throng, 


The secondf though within the sphere of her aHractUm^ yet having 
at the same time a projectile motion, are carried, by the composi- 
tion of these two, \n planetary revolutions round her centre, some 
nearer to it, some further off: 

" Who gently drawn, and struggling less and less. 
Roll in her vortex, and her pow'r confess." 
The tJdrd are properly eccentrical^ and no constant members of 
her state or system ; sometimes at an immense distance from hei 
influence, and sometimes again almost on the surface of her brood 
effulgence. Their use in their Perihelion, or nearest approach to 
Dulness, is the same in the moral world, as that of comets in the 
natural, namely, to refresh and recreate the dryness and decays of 
the system ; in the manner marked out from ver. 91 to 98. W. 

Ver. lb. None need a guide, — None want a place,] The sobs of 
Dulness want no instructors in study, nor guides in life. They 
are their own masters in all sciences, and their own heralds and 
introducers into all places. P» W, 

Ver. 76 to 101.] It ought to be observed that here are three 
classes in this assembly. The first of men absolutely and avowedly 
dull, who naturally adhere to the Goddess, and are represented in 
the simile of the bees about their queen. The second involun- 
tarily drawn to her, though not caring to own her influence ; from 
ver. 81 to 90. The third, of such as, though not members of her 
state, yet advance her service by flattering Dulness, cultivating 
mistaken talents, patronizing vile scribblers, discouraging living 
merit, or setting up for wi^s, and men of taste in arts they under- 
stand not; from ver. 91 to 101. P. W. 

■ .4 


Who geritlj 4rftwn, and fiftruggling less and l§m 
Roll in her voftex^ ^.nd hpr ppwV (^nfesg ; 
Not tl^cwp aloap who passive owja Upr Jfltws* 8fi 
But who, we^k rehels^ mpr^ qdvApcp hier Cftus^p ; 
Whate'er of i^nfxp^ w College or fp Town 
Speers pt anotjier, in toupee or gowii ; 
Whate'eF of mongrel no w^ eliwB fl4miti3, 
A wit with duncps^ and a dunc^o with witSf 90 

Nor absent they, no members of her state^ 
Who pay her homage in her sons, the Great ; 
Wl^o false to Phoebus, bow the knee to V^ I 
Or impious, preach his Word without a call ; 
Patrons, who sneak from living worth to dead, 95 
Withhold the pension, and set up the heacl ; 
jPr vest dull Flatt'ry in the sacred Gown ; 
Or give from fool to fool the Laurel crown ; 
Apd, last and worst, with all the capit of wit. 

Without the sQul, the Muse'3 Hypocrite, 100 


Ver. 93. fylse to Phoebus,] SpokfBn pf the ancient^ igid true 
^^<r^; ^o\, the French Fhoffms^ who h^lth ^q chosen p^i^ts or 
poets, hut equally inspires any ma^ that pl^aseth to sii^ or 
preaph. Scriblerus. JP, W. 

We have not y^t i^4^ ns^turaliz^ this J^rench Ph(ebm^ but 
we are not ther^^^n^ to f^pppse that ^e hav^ iiq coqiBtierce wi^ 
hiiQ. 7l^e il^tins hf^d ^ moral mode, in^ptus. The Qre^ 
h^ nq^uiig equivalent ^ it ; y^ we are not tpi thijl^ that thi9 
^f^es ojT fpH^ d^d nf>i i^bPUA^ ^ Greece, as well as in Rc^ne. It 
was so abund^t fs npt to be distingui^bl^, and wbi^t i^ not 
dwtinguished will }uiv^ m wanie, W.f 

Ver. Op, ipQ. Andf Iqfit ond wprstf with qH ^I^e c^ qfmtp 

WiUiouf tji^ soifl, the Muse*8 Hj/pocriie,'] 
In this division are reckoned up, X. Xhe idpU^ers pf Puln^s in 



There miirch'd the bard and blockhead^ side by 
Who rhym'd for hire, and patroniz'd for pride. 
Narcissus, prais'd with all a parson's pow'r, 
Look'd a white lily sunk beneath a show'r. 
There mov'd Montalto with superior air ; 105 
His stretch'd-out arm displayed a volume fur i 
Courtiers and patriots in two ranks divide. 
Thro' both he passM, and bow'd from side to side ; 
But as in graceful act, with awful eye 
Compofi'd he stood, bold Benson thrust hiM by : 


tlie QnaLU^% lU /inlgM.-^--a. Hi Writeni.— 4. Dl VAit^m. But 
the km and worsts a« he juddy calk him, ift the Muse's Hypocrite^ 
^ho ik, at it were, the epitome of them all. He who thinks th^ 
only end of poetiy is to atnuse, tuid the <nily bnsinesd of the poet 
to he witty; and consequently who cultirates only such trifling 
talentt in himsdf, and exMSourages only such in others. W. 

Vet. 10d« NarcissuSf prais'd'] Means Dr. Middleton's lahoinred 
encomimn on Lord Hervey in his dedication of the Life of dicero. 
Had Mr. Po^ eret read Dr. Warb«rt<m's dedication of his Essi^ 
on Prodigies, to Sir Robert Sutton ? Warfom. 

Ver. 10§. There fnov*d MontaUo] Sir Thomas Hanmer. — ^B. 
To this charaeter is subjoined a facetiotis note in the first inopres- 
sion : ** An eminent person of quality, who was about to publish 
a very pompous edition of a great author, very much at his own 
expense indeed !" And the verses from 116 to 119 are explamed 
by the circumstance of Sir Thomas's etfition of Shakespear coming 
from the Oxibrd press ; jthey did not appear at first. Dr. Johnson, 
however, who delighted in contradiction, commends Hanmer, as 
eminently qualified for his undertaking. WakefielSk 

Ver. 108. haufdfrom side to side;] As being of no one party. 


Ver. 110. boid Benson] This man endeavoured to raise himself 
to fame by erecting monuments, striking coins, setting up heads, 
and procuring transhttidns, of Mikcn ; and afterwards by as great 




On two unequal crutches proppd he came/ 
Milton's on this^ on that one Johnston's name. 


passion for one Arthur Johnston^s "(a Scotch physician) Version of 
the Psalms, of which he printed many fine editions. - See more of 
him, Book iii. ver. 325. P. W» 

Ver. 112. Milton* 8 on this^ Benson is here spoken of too con- 
temptuously. He translated faithfully, if not very poetically, the 
second book of the Georgics, with useful notes; he' printed ele- 
gant editions of Johnston's Psalms ; he wrote a Discourse :on 
Versification ; he rescued his country from the disgrace of having 
no monument erected to the memory of Milton in Westminster 
Abbey ; he encouraged and urged Pitt to translate the iBneid ; 
and he gave Dobson a thousand pounds for his Latin translation 
of Paradise Lost. Dobson had acquired great reputation by his 
translation of Prior's Solomon, the first book of which he finished 
when he was a scholar at Winchester College. He had not - at 
that time, as he told me (for I knew him well), read Lucretius, 
which would have given a richness and force to his verses ; the 
chief fault of which was a monotony, and want of variety of • Vir- 
gilian pauses. Mr. Pope wished him to tr.anslate the Essay on- 
Man; which he began to do, but relinquished on; account of the 
impossibility of imitating its brevity in another language. He has 
avoided the monotony above mentioned in his Milton; which 
monotony was occasioned by translating a poem in rhyme. Bishop 
Hare, a capable judge, used to mention his Solomon as one' of 
the purest pieces of modern Latin poetry. Though he had .so 
much felicity in translating, yet his original poems, of which I 
have seen many, were very feeble and flat, and contained no mark 
of genius. He had no great stock of general literature, and was 
by no means qualified to pronounce on what degree of learning 
Pope possessed ; and I am surprised that Johnson should quote 
him, as saying, " I found Pope had more learning than I ex- 
pected." Warton. 

To jth^ disgrace of the nation in general, and his friends and 
patrons in particular, Dobson died in great distress. 

Bannister.' Bowles. 


Ver. 114.] ** What! no rei^>ect, he cried, for Shakespear's 

page?" W.\ 


The decent Kjiight retired with sober rage^ 
Withdrew his hand^ and clos'd the pompous page. 
But (happy for him as the times went then) 115 
Appear 'd Apollo's Mayor and Aldermen, 
On whom three hundred gold-capp'd youths await, 
^o lug the ponderous volume off in state. 

When Dulness, smiling : " Thus revive the Wits ! 
But murder first, and mince them all to bits ; 120 
As erst Medea, cruel, so to save ! 
A new edition of old ^son gave ; 
Let standard-authors, thus, like trophies borne. 
Appear more glorious as more hack'd and torn. 
And you, my critics ! in the chequer'd shade, 125 
Admire new light thro' holes yourselves have made. 


Ver. 113. ' Tfie decent Knight] An eminent person, who was 
about to publish a very pompous edition of a great author at his 
ofton. expense, P.W. 

Ver. 116. BtU (happy for hini] These four lines, of which the 
first is a very indifferent one, were not in the quarto edition of 
1743, page 165 ; but were added on occasion of Sir Thomas 
Hanmer's ectition, printed at Oxford in six large quarto volumes: 
which edition occasioned a violent quarrel betwixt Sir Thomas 
and Dr. Warburton. Wartan, 

Ver. 119. " Thus revive, Sfc] The-Goddess applauds the prac- 
tice of tacking the obscure names of persons not oninent in any 
branch of learning, to those of the most distinguished writers ; 
either by printing editions of their works with impertinent altera- 
tions of their text, as in the former instances ; or by setting up 
monuments disgraced with- their own vile names and > inscriptions, 
as in the latter. P. ^W» 

Ver. 122. old ^son] Of whom Ovid (very applicable to these 
restored authors), 

" ^son miratuTf 
Dissimilemque stt^mnm subii^'-^ P* W, 

Ver. 125. the chequered shade^ 

" Dancing in the chequer'd shade '^ Miltok. Wartan. 


'' Leave not a foot of varse, a foot of stone, 
A page, a graye, tliat they can call their own ; 
But spread, my sons, your glory thin or thick. 
On passive paper, or on solid brick* 136 

So by each Bard an Alderman shall sit, 
A heavy Lord shall hang at ev'ry Wi(^ 


Ver. 128. A page, a grwocy"] For what less than a griive ean 
be granted to a dead author ? or what less than a page can be 
afforded a living one ? P, W, 

Ver. 128. A page,"] Pagina, not Pedissequus, A page of a book, 
not B servant, follower, or attendant ; no poet having had a Page 
since the death of Mr. Thomas Dorfey. Scriblbrus. P. IF. 

Ver. 131. So by each Bard an Alderman, SfcJ] Vide the Tombi 

qfthe Poets, Editio Westmonasteriensis. P. W. 

Alluding to the monument erected for Butler, the author of 

HudibraSf by Alderman Barber. W.\ 

Ver. 132. A heavy Lord shall hang at every Wit,'] For Lord, I 
read Load ; that is, of debts here, and of commentaries hereafter* 
For the author is speaking of Alderman Barber and poor Buder, the 
author of HudibraSy whose hody^ long since weighed down to the 
grave by a load of debts, has lately had a more unmerciful load of 
GcnnmeBtanes laid upon his ^irit ; wherein the editor has achieved 
UMre th«iVnrgil himself, wbenhe turned critic, could boast of, whii^ 
was only, that he had picked gold out cf another man^s dmig ; where- 
as the editor has picked it out of his own. Sgribierus. W.f 

Aristardius thinks the common reading. Loan, not Load, 
right; and that the author himself had been struggling with, and 
but just shaken off his LMk/, when he wrole die following epigram : 
My Loan complains, that Pope, stark mad with gardens. 
Has lopp'd three trees the value of three &rthmgs : 
^ But he's my neighbour," cries the peer pdiite, 
" And if hell visit me, I'll wave my right." 



Ver. 126. Admire new light, 4r.] 
" The soul's dark cottage^ batter'd and decayed. 
Lets in new light, thro' chiaka that time has made." 

Waiabk. W.f 


And while on Fame's triumphal car they ride^ 
Some 3laye of mine be pinion'd to their side." 

Now crowds on crowds around the Goddess press^ 
Each eager to present the first address. 
Dunce scorning Dunce beholds the next advance^ 
But Fop shews JPop superior complaisance. 
When lo ! a Spectre rose, whose index-hand 
Held forth the virtue of the dreadful wand ; 140 
His beaver'd brow a birchen garland wears^ 
Dropping with infant's blood, and mother's tears ; 
O'er ev'ry vein a shuddering horror runs ; 
Eton md Winton shake thro' all their sons ; 


What! on compulsion? and against my will, 

A Lord's acquaintance ? Let him file his Bill ! W.f 

The concluding line alludes to a famous one of Augustas Caesar, 
In some gross verse^.-^The Lord is said to be his next neighbouTt 
the then Lord Radnor. Wation. 

Ver. 137, 138. Dunce scorning Dunce beholds the next e^vmee^ 

But Fop shews Fop superior complwanee.'] 
This is not to be ascribed so much to the difierent manners of a 
Court and College, as to the different effects which a pretence to 
learning, and a pretence to wit, hare on Uoekheads. For as judg« 
nient consists in finding out the differences in things, and wH k^ 
finding out their hkenesses^ therefore the Dunce is all discord and 
dissention, and constantly busied in repromng, exwnimngi con^fiu* 
ing, ifc. while the Fop flourishes in peaoe, with aongt and hjmns 
of praise, Addresses, Choaractcrs, Epitbabtmimm, 4rc« W^ 

Ver. 14jOl Me dreadful wsmd;"} A cane usually borne by sdkooK 
masters, which drives the poor souk about like the wand ef Mer- 
cury. ScKtiLsaua. . P. IT, 

Ver. 144. Eton and Wintoi^ shake thro* aU their «ont;} Cmt& 

Ver. 142. Dropping mth infant's bhad^ ifc] 

*^ First Molorii^ honrid king, besmeai'd widi blood 
Of human sacrifice, and parents' tears/' Milton. W.f 


All flesh is humbled; Westminster's bold race 145 
Shrink^ and confess the! Genius of the place ; 
The pale boy-senator yet tingling stands^ 
And holds his breeches close with both his hands. 
Then thus : '' Sincfe Man from beast by words is 
Words are Man's province ; words we teach alone. 


pare his Iliad, xvi. 672. Odyssey, xi. 684. And for this and the 
next )couplet the first edition gave the following : 

*< All flesh is humbled ; youth's bold courage cools ; 
Each shuddering owns the genius of the schools." 


Ver. 148. And holds his breeches'\ An effect of fear, somewhat 
like this, is described in the viith i£neid, 

" Contremuit nemus 

£t trepidae matres pressure ad pectora natos ;" 
nothing being so natural in any apprehension, as to lay close hold 
on whatever is supposed to be most in danger. But let it not be 
imagined the author would insinuate these youthful Senators, 
though so lately come from school, to be under the undue influ- 
ence of any Master, Scriblerus. P, Wi 

Ver. 150." Words we teach al<meS\ Here is a gross misrepre- 
sentation of a fact, easily confuted by a great cloud of witnesses. 
When he tnade this' assertion, our poet must have been very ill- 
informed of what is constantly taught in our great schools. To 
read, to interpret, to translate the best poets, orators, and histo- 
rians,' of the best ages; that is, those authorsj " that supply most 
axibhis of prudence, most principles of moral truth, most examples 
of vutueand integrity,' most materials for conversation ;" cannot 
be caUed confining youth to words alone, and keeping them oift 
of the way of real knowledge. And as to plying' the memory, 
and' loading' the brain,' as in verse 157, it was the opinion of 
Milton, and is a practice in our great seminaries, " that if passages 
from the heroic poems, orations, and tragedies of the ancients, 
were solemnly pronounced,' mth right' accent and grace, they 
would endue 9ie' scholars "ev(6n with the' spint and* vigour of 



When Reason doubtful^ like the Samian letter^ 
Points him two ways, the narrower is the better. 
Plac'd at the door of Learning, youth to guide. 
We never suffer it to stand too wide. 
^To ask, to guess, to know,, as they commence, 155 
As Fancy opens the quick springs of Sense, 
We ply the Memory,, we load the Brain, 
Bind rebel Wit, and double chain on chain. 
Confine the thought, to exercise the breath. 
And keep them in the pale of words till death. 160 


Demosthenes or Cicero, Euripides or Sophocles." The illustrious 
names of Wyndham, Talbot, Murray, and Pulteney, which our 
author himself immediately adds, and which catalogue might be 
much enlarged with the names of many great statesmen, lawyers, 
and divines, past and present, are a strong, confutation of this op- 
probrious and futile objection. Perhaps he adopted this false 
opinion from that idle book on education, which Locke disgraced 
himself by writing ; who seems, never to have read the second 
chapter of the first book of Quintilian on this subject ; and which 
is as much superior in strength of reasoning, as it is in elegance 
of style, to the treatise of our great British philosopher. Warion. 

Ver. 161. like the Satnian letter,] The letter Y, used by Pytha- 
goras as an emblem of the different roads of Virtue and Vice. 
• " Et tibi quae Samios diduxit litera ramos.'* Pers. P. fT, 

Ver. 163. Plac'd at the door, S^c] This circumstance of the 
Geniua Loci (with that of the index-hand before) seems to be an 
allusion to the Table of Cebes, where the Genius of Human Nature 
points out the road to be pursued by those just entering into life. 

ia^rtp h%K9vu9, rt, Sr^ AaifAut x»^t7rait' &C. P. W. 

Ver. 154. To ttand too wideJ] A pleasant ullusion to the de- 
scription of the door of Wisdom, in the Table of Cebesy @vfa9 thw 

f4,iK^9. '^•] 

Ver. 160, to exercise the breath;'] By obliging them to get the 
classic poets by heart, which furnishes them with^ endless. matter 
for conversation and verbal amusement for their whole lives. . 

P. W. 


MThate'er the tatents^ or Ykowefer design'd^ 
We hang one jingUi^ padlock on the mind : 
A poet the first daj he dips his quiU; 
And what the hist ? a very poet stiE 
Pity 1 the diarm works oidj in oni wall^ 165 

Lost, lost too soon in yonder House m HtSk 
There truant Wt]»dham er'ry nrase gave q'^x^ 
There Talbot sunk> and wias a wit no more I 
How sweet an Ovid> Murrav tras otir Boast! 
How many Martials Were in Fult'nbt lost! HO 
Else sure some bard, to our eternal praise, 
in twice ten Ihomiand rhyn^g nights aixd da;ys. 
Had reach'd the Work, th^ AH that mortal can ; 
And South beheld that master-piece of maaJ' 

''Obr cried the Goddess ""fev some pedant reignl 
Some gentle Jakss; to bless the land again ; 176 

Ver. 166* in yonder House or (fall.] Westmkister-hall and tbc 
Hbiuie of Commons. W. 

Ver. 174. thai mmter^pkee of man,'} Viz. an epigram^^ The 
famous Dr. South used to declare that a perfect ^pigraia was- as 
difficult a perfonnance as an epic poem. And the erities say, 
'* an epic poem is the greatest work human nature is capable of." 

. T.W. 

Ver. 175. *< Ok r cried the Goddissr ^.} The Miatfei!'«ndeF de- 
bate is how to eonfine men to wcM'-ds f&e life. Th^ insttiDOCters 
pf youth shew how well they do their parts ; but complftin^ that 
when men come into the world they are ap(i td forget tiiek l&urtr 
ing» and turn theraseLves to useM knowle^e* This was aa evil 
that wanted to be redressed. And this the Goddestf^ ^ssurei^thcm 
will need a more extensive tyranny than that of Grammar-schools. 
She thesefove poijiCs out to them the remedy, in her wishes for 
€irbiirairy power;, whose interest it being, to keep men^ ^Dom iHie 
study of Mt9i^ ^!^ encourage the pvopag^ilion^ of tv^nlr and 


BOOK IV. TH9 i>I>li€lA|>. 28? 

To stick the DoctM'a chsi^ into the thoroiie, 
Giye law to wordsi^ osr war with woitU aloae, 

9ounds; and, to make all iOMf^ die wiskai fer aBOlber jwhni 
monarch. The sooner to obtain so great a blessing, she is will- 
ing even for once to violate tike irmdamental principle of her po- 
Ktic89 lA having iMrsQDfltaHgliiL at kfuitoiieii&sl^ faottfaiitwhich 
eeunpdsea all» the doetriae ^fidkomc tiffvL, 

Nothing can be justa thsB theobwnatbn. hese imstnaatedy. that 
no bsanch of learning thnises well imilier arbitsarj GoveriMient 
but the vnhaL The reaaons are evident It is nnssfe nnder such 
GovemnMntB to cohrrata tibe atu^ of <&ti^;% especially tfainga of 
impoitance. Besides, when men have lost their public virtue^ 
they naturalljrdiBlight in trifles, if their private morab secure them 
ficoBL vice. Hence so great a clottd of Scholiasta and GvaiBuna- 
nana so soon overspread Greece and Italy^ when once these fifc- 
mous lights of the world had lost their liberties. Another reason 
is the encouragewkoU which arbitrary Crofemments give to the 
study of words, in order to busy and amuse active g^iiuses, who 
mi^t otherwise prove tvoubleaome and. inquisitive* Tlnia yAok 
Cardinal Richeheu had destroyed the peer remaina of GUlie h- 
berty, and made the supreme Court o£ Parliament merdy sn'miir- 
rial, he instituted the French Academy^ &r the perfeeting their 
language. What was said upon diet occaaieB,, fay a brave Magis- 
trate, when the letters patent of its eseetioncame to be verified in 
the Parliam^it of Paris^ deserves to be rementbered. He loM 
the assembly, that it put him in mind fiow an Emperor (^Rome once 
treated his Senate; who, when he had depritfed ikem^ef^e direction 
€(f public matters^ sent a message to them inform, far their opiman 
(U»ut the best sauce fir a turboi. W. 

Ver. 176. Some gentle Jambs, ipc.'] WilaoO' telfe na that this 
King, James the First, took upon Umsctf ta teach the Latin tongue 
to Carr, Earl of Somerset ; and that Gondamaiv tihe Spanish Am* 
bassador, would speak &lae Latin to him, on purpose tof give him 
the pleasuze of connecting it, wherelsiy he wrought, hiaoidtf into 
his good graces. 

This great pdnce was the first who aosumed the tide of Sacred 
Majesty, which his loyal CHergy transferred from God to Him^ 



Senates and Courts with Greek aiid Latin rule^ 
And turn the Council to a Grammar School ! 130 
For sure^ if Dulness sees a grateful day, 
>Tis in the shade of arbitrary sway. 


** The principles, of Passive Obedience imd Kon^-resistance (says 
the author of the Dissertation on Parties, Ijetter. viii.)> which before 
his time had skulked perhaps in some old homily, were talked, 
written, and preached into vogue in that inglorious reign.'' P. R^. 

King James prevailed on Camden to alter some passages in the 
first part of his history, for which. Thuanus reproached him. 


Ver. 181, 182. if Dulness sees a grateful day, — 'Tis in the shade 

o/* arbitrary sway.] And grateful it is^in Dulness to make this 

confession. I will not say she alludes to that celebrated verse of 


*^ nunquam Liberias gratior exstat 

Qnam suh Rege pio ;** 
But this I will. say, that, the words Liberty and Monarchy have 
. been frequently confounded and mistaken one for the other, by 
the gravest, authors. I should therefore conjecture, that the ge-> 
nuine reading of the forecited verse wa« thu», ^ 

, «« nunquam Ubcrtas gratior exstat 
Quam sub Legepid" 
and that Rege was the readingx)nly of Dulness herself; - and there- 
fore she might aUude to it. Scriblerus. 

I judge quite otherwise of this passage : the genuine reading is 
lAbertas and Rege ; so Claudian gave it. But the error lies in the 
verb ; it should be exit^ not exstat^- and then the meaning will be, 
that Liberty was never lost, or went at&oy with so go<ld a grace, as 
under a good King ; it being without doubt a tenfold shame to 
lose it under a bad one. ' 

This further leads me to animadvert upon a most grievous piece 
4>f nonsense, to be found in all the editions of the author of the 
Dunciad himselfl A most capital one it is, and owing to the con- 
fusion, mentioned above by Scriblerus, of the two .words Xi^ify 
and Moharc/|y. Essay on Crit. . j ' 

** Nature 


O ! if my, sons may learn one earthly thing. 
Teach but.that one, sufficient for a King ; 
Thatwhiehmy priests, and mine alone, maintain, 185 
Which, as it dies, or lives, we fall, or reign : 
May you, my Cam and Isis, preach it long ! 
'' The. Right Divine of Kings to govern wrong." 

Prompt at the call, around the Goddess roll 
Broad hats, and hoods, and caps, a sable shoal ; 190 
Thick and more thick the black blockade extends, 
A hundred head of Aristotle's friends. 


" Nature, like Monarchy^ is but restrain'd 
By the same Laws herself at first ordain'd." 
Who sees not, it should be. Nature, like Liberty ? Correct it there- 
fore, rept/gnan/z6t<« omnibttsi (even though the author himself should 
' oppugn) in aU the impressions which have been, or shaU be, made 
of his works. Bentley. ' P,W. 

Ver. 183. 0/ if my sons may learn] The doctrines of true 
Whiggism; as it is called, were never placed in a stronger light, or 
set oflP with more forcible language, than in this and the five fol- 
lowing lines. What will the disciples of Hobbes or Filmer say to 
this passage ? Warton. 

Ver. 189. Prompt at the caU,— Aristotle's friends,] The author, 
with great propriety, hath made these, who were so prompt, at the 
call of Dulness, to become preachers of the Divine Right bCKings, 
to be the friends o£ Aristotle; for this philosopher, in his Politics^ 
hath laid it down as a principle, that some men were by nature 
made to serve, and others to command. W.'\ 

Ver. 192. Aristotle's friends.] A satire on the School Philosophy, 
which was founded in a corrupt Aristotelianism, and is the art 
of making a great deal firom nothing, in Theology ; and the art of 
making nothing fi-om a great deal, in Physics. W,f 

Ver. 192,. A hundred head, Sfc] It appears by this that the God- 
dess had been careful of keeping up a succession, according to 
the rule, 

VOL. IV. U Semper 

290 THIi Ilt^Kf^IAD. POOH IV 

Nor wert thou^ Isis ! wanting to the day> 
CTho' Christ-Ghurch long kept prudishly 9»W9y.3 
Each staunch Polemic, stubborn as a rock>. l;9f 
Each fierce Logician, still expeUing Locke, 


Semper eoim refice : ac, ne post amifta raquiraa^ 
Anteveni ; et sobolem armento sortire quotannU^ 
It is remarkable with what dignity the poet here describes the 
friends of this ancient philosopher. Horace does not observe the 
same decorum with regard to those of another sect, when he says, 
Cum ridere voles Epicuri de grege Porcum, But th|^ word Drou, 
Armeittum, here understood, is a word of honour, as the most 
noble Festusj the Grammarian^ assures us, Armentum id genus pecoris 
appellatur, quod est idoneum opus arnknrum. And aUudidg to the 
temper of this warlike breeds our poet very appositely oalls them a 
hundred head. ScRiBir£&ts» W* 

Ver. 192. qf Aristotle's friends.'] Let those wha wantoidy and 
ignarantly condemn the philosophy of Aristotle^ oarefiiOy read 
the truly learned treatise of the late Jamea Harria, Esq. entiHed^ 
Philosophical Arrangements ; where they may see in what madder 
the preceptor of Alexander the Great arranged his pupils idsna, 
so that they might not cause confusion for want of aocuratt d}»- 
position. Wiirtim* 

Ver* 194. \Tho* Christ-church'] This line is doubtleBa:apttipoiis, 
and foisted in by the impertinence of the editor ; and accordingly 
we have put it between hooks. For I affirm this College qnpne 
as early as any other, by its prop^ Deputies; nor did any C(dl6|ge 
pay homage to Dulness in its whole Body. Bentlst. P« W, 

Ver. 196. still expelling Locke^ In the year 1703 there wni a 
meeting of the heads of the University of Ojtford to censure Mr* 
Locke's Essay on Human Understanding, and to forbid the read- 
ing it. See his Letters in the last Edit, of his works* P. W. 

Such was the £ite of this new PhilosopJiy at Oxford, The nem 
Theology of Erasmus met with pretty much the same treatmeqt, a 
century or two befwe, in the University of Camkridge, See Dr. 
Knight's Life of Erasmus, p. 137. But our obnoxious IS^ssqiyiM 
had given scandal to the scholiastic spirit of Anthony Wq#4> the 
famed Oxford Historian, long before ; who, in the Journal of his 


boos: it* thb dunciad. 291 

Came whip ai^ (spur, and dash'd through thin and 

On German Crouzaz and Dutch Burgersdyck. 


own life, has furnished us with this curious anecdote. ^' April 23d9 
1063, I began a Course of Chemistry, [in Oxford,] under the 
noted Chemist and Rosicrusian^ Peter Sthael of Strasburg in Royal 
Prussia. The club consisted of ten at least, whereof was Johk 
Lock, oi Christ Church, afterwards a noted writer. This John 
Lock was a man of a turbulent spirit, clamorous, and never con- 
Uvited. The club wrote, and took notes from the mouth of their 
Master : but the aaid John Lock scorned to do it : so that while 
tvfry man besides was writing, he would be prating and trou* 
Wespme." W.\ 

Whatever might have been l^e case in the year 1703, certain 
I am, that Locke's Essay has been universally read and recom- 
mended at Oxford, for above fifby years last past. Warton, 

Ver. Id6. Lockc^ I could never learn that Locke was expelled 
the University. He was deprived of his studentship of Christ- 
Church for being privy to the designs oi Lord Shaftesbury against 
the Government ; and if we consider the nature of the offence, 
we shall have reason to admire the mildness of the punbhment. 


They who would wish to see our Universities most ably and 
eloquently vindicated, must consult Dr. Parr's note in kis cele- 
brated Spital Sermon* Bowks. 

Ver. 198b CrouMt} Author of a very absurd and abusive com- 
mentary (m the Eisay on Man. W.f 

Ver. Id8. On GersMii Crouzaz aiu/X>K/cABurgersdyck.] There 
seems to be im improbability that the Doctcnrs and Heads of Houses 
should ride on horseback, who, of late days, being gouty or un- 
wieldy, have kept their coaches. But these are horses of great 
strength, and fit to carry any weight, as their German and Dutch 
extraction may manifost; and very £unous we may conclude, 
being honoured with nameSf as were the horses P^asus and 
Biieeidialus. Scbiblbrus. P. IV, 

Ver. 198. On German Crouzaz and Dutch Burgers^ck,} The 
hostility of Pope tb Crouzaz is readily accounted for by the attack 

U 2 made 


As many quit the streams that murm'ring. fall 
To lull the sons of Marg'ret and Clare-hall, 200 
Where Bentley late, tempestuous wont to sport 
In troubled waters, but now sleeps in port. 
Before them march'd that awful Aristarch ; 
Plough'd was his front with many a deep^ remark ; 
His hat, which never vail'd to human pride, - 205 
Walker with rev'rence took, and laid aside. 

made by the latter on the Essay on Man, which he represented as 
inculcating the principles of fatalism and infidelity ; but it has 
been observed by a philosophical writer of the first authority, that 
Pope should not have committed so gross a mistake as to intro- 
duce his adversary in the Dunciad amongst Locke's Aristotelian 
opponents — 

" Each fierce logician, still expelling Locke," 
" He having not only spoken in terms of high approbation of 
Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding, but having (as ob- 
served by Mr. Gibbon) formed his philosophy in the school of 
Locke. Dugald Stuart's Diss. i. p. 2, Encycl. Brit. Suppl. vol. v. 
p. 12. 1821. 

Ver. 199. the streams] The river Cam, running by the walls of 
these Colleges, which are particularly famous for their skill in 
disputation. P. W. 

Ver. 202. sleeps inport,"] viz. " Now retired into harbour after 
the tempests that had long agitated his society." So Scriblerus, 
But the learned Scipio Maffei understands it of a certain Wine 
called Partf from Oporto^ a city of Portugal, of which'this pro- 
fessor invited him . to drink abundantly. Scip. M aff; De Compo- 
tcuionibus Academicis, P,W, 

Ver. 205.. His Hat, Sfc, — So upright Quakers please both, Man 
and God,] The Hat-worships as the Quakers call it, is an abomi- 
nation to that sect ; yet, where it is necessary to pay that respect 
to man (as in the Courts of Justice and Houses of Parliament) 
they have, to avoid offence, and yet not violate their conscience, 
'j)ermitted other people to uncover them. Pi W. 

Ver. 206. Walker with reverence iook,] He was Bentley's con- 


Low bow'd the rest : he, kingly, did but nod ; 
So upright Quakers please both Man and God. 
''Mistress! dismiss that rabble from your throne ! 
Avaunt— is Aristarchus yet unknown ? 210 

Thy mighty Scholiast, whose unwearied pains 
Made Horace dull, and hiunbled Milton's strains. ' 
Turn what they will to verse, their toil is vain. 
Critics like me shall make it prose again. 

stant friend in College. B. This appears sufficiently from the 
records of the controversies alluded to in ver. 201, 202. Wakefield* 

Ver. 210. Aristarchus] A famous commentator and corrector 
of Homer, whose name hath been frequently used to signify a 
complete critic. The compliment paid by our author to this emi- 
nent Professor, in applying to him so great a name, was the rea- 
son that he hath omitted to comment on this part which contains 
his own praises. We shall therefore supply that loss to out* best 
abihty. Scriblerus. P. W, 

Ver. 214. Critics like wic] Alluding to two famous editions of 
Horace and Milton ; whose richest veins of poetry he had prodi- 
gally reduced to the poorest and most beggarly prose.— —Verily, 
the learned Scholiast is grievously mistaken. Aristarchus is not 
boasting here of the wonders of his art, in annihilating the sub- 
lime, but of the usefulness of it, in reducing the turgid to its pro- 
per class; the words make it prose again plainly shewing that' 
prose it was, though ashamed of its original ; and therefore re- 
solved he was that to prose it should return. Indeed, much is it to 
be lamented that Dulness doth not confine her critics to this usefuT 
task, and commission them to dismount what Aristophanes calls 
Pi)/Aad' »ir«roj3«jiAo»a, all prose on horseback, wherever they meet with 
it. ScRiBL. W.-i 


Ver. 207. — He, kingly, did but nod ;] Milton. 
■ " He, kingly, from his state 

« Declin'd not" P.f 

Ver. 210. — " is Aristarchus yet unknown ^] 

-, — « Sic notug Ulysses /" Virg. 

" Dost thou not feel me, Rome f * Ben Jonsoh. P.t 

294 THE DUKCIAD. BCK« 17* 

Roman and Greek Grammarians ! know yowtheMet ; 
Author of i^mething yet more great than letter ; 
While tow'ring o'er your alphabet, like Saul, 
Stands our Diganuna, and o'ertops them all. 

'' Tis true, on words is still our whole debate. 
Dispute of Me or Te, of aut or at, 2&0 


Ver. 214. Critics like me] This is the line in whi^h, contrary to 
nature, character, and decorum, Bentley is made to condemn and 
ridicule himself, and his own labours. Besides, his Horace ought 
not to be ranked with his Milton, as containing many acute re- 
marks and happy emendations ; and therefore did not make Ho- 
race dull. Warum, 

Ver. 216. AtUhor cf something yet more great than letter i] Allud- 
ing to Grammarians, such as Palamedes and Simonides, who in- 
vented single letters. But Aristarchus, who had found out a double 
one, was therefore worthy of double honour. Scribl. W.'f 

Ver. 217, 218. While tow'ring o*er your alphabet, like Saul, 
— Stands our Digamma,] Alludes to the boasted restoration of the 
Eolic Digamma, in his long projected edition of Homer. He 
calls it something more than letter, from the enormous figure it 
would make among the other letters, being one Gamma set upon 
the shoulders of another. P« fP. 

Ver. 220. of Me or Te,] It was a serious dilute, about 
which the learned were much divided, and some discourses written. 
Had it been about Meum and Tuum it could not have been more 
warmly contested, than whether at the end of the first Ode of Ho- 
race, we should read. Me doctarum hedera pnmnia frontium^ or, 
Te doctarum hedera — By this the learned scholiast would seem to 
insinuate that the dispute was not about Meum and Tuum, which 
is a mistake ; for, as a venerable sage observeth, Wards are the 
counters qf wise men, but the money qf fools; so that we see their 
property was indeed concerned. Scribl. W,f 


Ver. 21.5. Roman and Greek Grammarians, ifcl Imitated fi'om 
Propertius speaking tJf die ^neid: 

" Cedite, Romani scriptdres, ^adfJftr, Graii ! 
Nescio quid majns iiascitur IlindeT* P.f 


To sound or sink in cano, O or A^ 

Or give tip Cicero to C or K. 

Let Freind affect to dpeak as Terence spoke. 

And Alsop never but like Horace joke : 

From me, what Virgil, Pliny may deny, 226 

Manilius or Solinus shall supply : 

For Attic phrase in Plato let them seek; 

I poach in Suidas for unlicens'd Greek. 

Ver. 220. DufHUofM^orTefOfAiitorsit,'] It it temstk&hle 
that there is an old Greek epigram of Herodicus, quoted by Athe- 
naeuf in hi* fifth book, p^e 112. Basiled^, apud J. Valderum, 
168i5y folio ; ndiculing verbal critienm, in a manner eitactly re- 
aenibling^ these lines of Porpe, which it is not at all probaMe he had 
etm read. The two second lines follow : 

Ver. 282. Or give up Cicero to C. or K.] Grammatical disputes 
about the manner of pronouncing Cicero's name in Greek. It is 
a dispute, too, whether in Latin the name of Hermagoras should 
end in 05 or a. Quintilian quotes Cicero as writmg it Hermagora, 
which Bentley rejects, and says Quintilian must be mistaken, Ci- 
cero could not write it so, and that in this case he would not be- 
lieve Cicero himself. These are his very words : Ego vero Cicc" 
ronem ita scripsisse ne Ciceroni quidem affirmanti crediderim,'-^ 
Epist. ad Mill, in Jin. Frag. Menand. et Phil. W. 

Ver. 223, 224. Freind — Alsop'] Dr. Robert Freind, master of 

Westminster-school, and canon of Christ-church Dr. Anthony 

Alsop, a happy imitator of the Horatian style. P. W. 

Ver. 226. ManiRus or Solinus] Some critics having had it in 
their choice to comment either on Virgil or Manilius, Pliny or So- 
linus, have chosen the worse author, the more fredy to display 
their critical talents. P. W. 

Ver. 228. dfc. Suidas, Gcllius, Siobtcus] The first a dictionary- 
writer of impertinent facts and barbarous words ; the second a 
minute critic ; the third a collector, who gave his common-]^aoe 



In ancient sense if any needs will deal. 

Be sure I give them fragments, not a meal ; 230 

What Gellius or Stobaeus hash'd before. 

Or chew'd by blind old Scholiasts o'er and 6*er. 

The critic eye, that microscope of wit. 

Sees hairs and pores, examines bit by bit : 

How parts relate to parts, or they to whole, * 235 ' 

The body's harmony, the beaming soul, 


book to the public, where we happen to find much mince-meat of 
good old authors. P,W. ' . 

All these three writers abound in useful and elegant' remarks, 
and in facts, which, but for their collections, would have been lost 
and unknown ; and therefore deserved not this ridicule,. especially 
from a poet, who, as Dr. Jortin observes, knew very httle of their 
works. Burman, Kuster, and Wasse, mentioned verse 237, were 
men of real and useful erudition. Warton. 

Ver. 228. 231. I poach on Suidasfor unlicensed Greek — 

What Gellius or Stohcsus hashed hejore^ 
On which verses thus Pope and Warburton ; " The first a dic- 
tionary writer, of impertinent facts and barbarous words, ficc." — 
Now, if we should deduct from the compilation of Suidas all his 
chronological, historical, and biographical communications, which 
are very copious and important^ as they consist of extracts from 
the best authors of antiquity ; and should leave only his philologi- 
cal information with its concomitant examples ; a mass of litera- 
ture would remain, of much the same value as Johnson's diction- 
ary, if a general wreck of English authors should be produced by 
casualty and time : but how inestimably valuable such a reposi- 
tory would then be, it is easy for any man to discover. Consi- 
dering, therefore, this strange and ignorant decision of Warbur- 
ton, what can possibly be conceived more unseasonable and out of 
place, than Toup*% critical epistle, as addressed to this prelate ? 


Ver. 232. Or cJiev/d by blind old Scholiasts oW and o[erJ] These 
men taking the same things eternally from the mouth of one ano- 
ther. ^"^ P.W. 


Are things which Kuster, Burman^ Wasse shall see. 
When man!s whole frame is obvious to a Flea. 

''Ah, think not. Mistress ! more true dulness lies 
In Folly's cap, than Wisdom's grave disguise. -240 
Like buoys that never sink into the flood. 
On Learning's surface we but lie and nod. 
Thine is the genuine head of many a house. 
And much divinity without a NotJ^. 


Ver. 239, 240. " 4h, think not. Mistress ! ^fc.—In Folh/s cap, 
4rc.] By this it appears, that the Dunces and Fops mentioned ' 
ver. 139,' 140, had a contention for the Goddess's favour on this 
great day. Those got the start ;' but these make it up by their 
Spokesman in the next speech. It seems as if Aristarchus here 
first saw him advancing with his fair Pupil. P, W. 

Ver. 241, 242. Like buoys, 3fc, — On Learning's surface, flfc] 
So that the station of a Prq/e^^or is only a kind of legal Noticer to 
inform us where the shattered hulk of Learning lies sunk and foua- 
dered; which after so long unhappy navigation, and how without 
either Master or Patron, we may wish, with Horace, may lie there 

Nonne vides, ut 

Nudum remigio latus ? 

non tibi sunt integra lintea ; 

Non Di, quos iterum pressa voces malo. 
Quamvis pontica pinas, 
Sylvse filia nobilis, 
Jac/e5 et genus, et nomen 271^/2^. Hor. W, 

Ver. 243. Thine is the genuine] It has been suggested that Dr. 
Warburton inserted some lines of his own composition in this 
fourth book of the Dunciad, which the poet wrote at his earnest 
request ; and these two verses, as containing some common cant 
*words peculiar to the university, are mentioned as some of them ; 
as also the following, 

'^ As erst Medea, cruel so to save, 
A new edition of old JSson gave%" 
And' the calling the members of the University of Oxford, 
" ApoHo's May'r and Alderman," ' 


Nor eould a Barrow work on tev'ry blocks 245 
Nor has one Attrrbury spoil'd the flock. 
See ! still thy own, the heavy Canon roD, 
And metaphysic smokes involve the Pole. 


is said to be one of Dr, Waiburton's witticisms. For die truth of 
this assertion I cannot rouch. Watton* 

Ver. 244. And much divinity without a N«v(.] A wcnrd much 
affected by the learned Aristarchus in common conversation, to 
signify genius or natural acumen. But this passage has a farth^ 
view : nS^ was the Platonic term fbr Mind^ or ihejirst cause; and 
' that system of Divinity is here hinted at which terminated in blind 
Nature, without a Nv;: such as the Poet afterwards describes, 
peaking of the dream of one of these later Platonists, 
Or that bright image to our fancy draWs 
Which Theocles in raptured Vision »t&, 
That Nature *c. P. Vf. 

Ver. 245, 246. Barrow, Atterhury] Isaac Barrow, Matter of 
Trinity ; Francis Atterbury» Dean of Christ-church ; both great 
geniuses and eloquent preachers ; one more conversant in the tub' 
lime geometry; the other, in classical learning; but who equally 
made it their care to advance the polite arts in their several so* 
cieties. P. W. 

No compositions can be more different than the sermons of these 
two eminent divinen. If there be more eloquence and taste in the 
discourses of Atterbury, there is certainly more matter, more pe- 
netration, more knowledge of human nature, in those of Barrow. 


Ver. 246. Nor could a Barrow work on eo^ry hhck^ An allu- 
don to the Latin proverb : ** Non ex quovis ligno fit Mercurius." 


Ver. 247. the heavy Canon"] Canon here, if spoken of Artillery^ 
is in the plural number ; if of the Canons of the HousCy in the an- 
gular, and meant only of one : in which case I suspect the Pole to 
be a false reading, and that it should bfe the Poll, or Head of tint 
Canon. It may be objected, that this is a mere Paronomasia or 
Pun, But what of that ? Is any figure of speech more apposite 
to our gentle Goddess, or more frequently used by her and h«r 
Children, especially a£ die Vmversity ? Doubtless it better suits 



For thee we dim the eye8> and stuff the head 
With all such reading as was never read ; 260 
For thee explain a thing till all men doubt it. 
And write about it. Goddess, and about it ; 
So spins the silk-worm small its sl^ider store. 
And labours till it clouds itself all o'er. 

'' What tho' we let some better sort of fool 255 
Thrid ev'ry science, run through ev'ry school ? 


the character of DiUness, yea, of a Doctor, than that of an Angel ; 
yet Milton feared not to put a considerable quantity into the 
mouths of his. It hath indeed been observed, that they were the 
Devil's Angels, as if he did it to suggest that the Devil was the 
author as well of fidse wit, as of false religion, and that the 
&ther of lies was also the &ther of puns. But this is idle ; it 
most be owned to be a Christian practice ; used in the primitive 
times by some of the Fathers, and in the latter by most of the 
Sons of the Church ; till the debauched reign of Charles the Second, 
when the shameful passion for %vit overthrew every thing; and 
even then the best writers admitted it, provided it was obscene, 
under the name of the Double entendre. Scriblbkub. P. W. 

Ver. 248. And metaphyde unokes, ^c,} Here the learned Aris- 
tardius ending the first member of his harangue in behalf of 
Wiords^ and entermg on the other half, which regards the teaching 
of mng$, very artfidly connects the two parts in an encomium 4im 
MiTAPttYsics, A kind of Middle nuture between words and things : 
coMtnunicating, in its obscurity, with Substance^ and, in its empti- 
neis, with Names^, Scribl. W, 

Ver. 256 to «71. •* fVkni tM wr kt some beuer mri offboi, 
4*0.] Hitherto Aristarchus hath displayed l^e art of teaching his 
pupils words, without things. He shews greater skill in what fid- 
lows, which is to teach things without profit. For with the heiier 
sort of fool the first expedient is, ver. 254 to 258, to run him so 
swifUy thmugh the chrde of the sciences that he shall stkk at 
nothing, nor nothing stick with him ; and though some little, both 
of words and things, should by chance be gathered up in his |ns- 
sage, yet he shews, ver. 259 to 261, that it is never move of Ae 
one than just tCf enable him to persecute with rhymes or of the ulhsi 



Never by tumbler tlirough the hoops was shown 

Such skill in passing all, and touching none. 

He may indeed, (if sober all this time,) 

Plague with dispute, or persecute with rhyme. 260 

We only furnish what he cannot use. 

Or wed to what he must divorce, a Muse ; 

Full in the inidst of Euclid dip at once. 

And petrify a Genius to a Dunce : 

Or set on metaphysic ground to prance, 265 

Show all his paces, not a step advance. 


than to plague with dispute. But if, after all, the pupil will needs 
learn a, science, it is then provided by his careful directors, ver. 
261, 262, that it shall either be such as he can never enjoy when 
he comes out into life, or such as he will be obliged to divorce. 
And to make all sure, ver. 263 to 267, the useless or pernicious 
sciences, thus taught, are still applied perversely; the .man of wit 
petrified in Euclid, or trammelled in metaphysics ; and the man .of 
judgment married^ without his parents' consent, to a Mute. ; Thus 
far the particular arts of modern education, used partially, and 
diversified according to the subject and the occasion. But there 
is one general method, with the encomium of which the great 
Aristarchus ends his speech, ver. 267 to 270, and that is Autho- 
rity, the universal Cement, which fills the cracks and chasms of 
lifeless matter, shuts up all the pores of living substances, and brings 
all hu^nan minds to one dead' level. For if Nature should chance 
to struggle through all the entanglements of the foregoing inge- 
nious expedients to hind rebel tvit^ this claps upon her one sure 
and entire cover. So that well may Aristarchus defy all human 
power to get the Man out again from under so impenetrable a 
crust The poet alludes to this master-piece of the Schools in 
ver. 601, where he speaks of Vassals to a name. P.f 

Ver. 267. Never by tumbler] These two verses are verbatim 
from an epigram of Dr. Evans, of St. John's College, Oxford ; 
givento my father twenty years' before the Dunciad was written. 
The parenthesis in ver. 269, (if sober all this tjme,)is a poor ex- 
pletive. Wartqn. 


With the same Cement, ever sure to bind,^ 
We bring to one dead level every mind. 
Then take him to develop, if you can. 
And hew the block off, and get out the man, 270 
But wherefore waste I words ? I see advance 
Whore, Pupil, and lac'd Governor from France. 
Walker ! our hat :" nor more he deign'd to say. 
But, stem as Ajax' spectre, strode away. 


Ver. 264. petrify a Grenius] Those who have no genius, em- 
ployed in works of imagination ; those who have, in abstract 
sciences. P. W, 

Ver. 266. not a step advance J\ He has condescended to borrow 
this illustration en metaphysicians, from Lord Hervey's Observa- 
tions on Alciphron. Warton. 

Ver. 270. And hew the block off,'] A notion of Aristotle, that 
there was originally in every block of marble, a statue, which 
would appear on the removal of the superfluous parts. P. W. 

Ver. 272. lac^d GffDemor\ Why lac^d f Because gold and silver 
are necessary trimming to denote the dress of a person of rank; 
and the Governor must be supposed so in foreign countries, to be 
admitted into courts and other places of fair reception. But how 
comes Aristarchus to know at sight that this Governor came from 
France ? Know ? Why, by his laced coat. Scriblerus. P. W. 

Ver. 272. Whore, Pupil, and lac*d Governor] Some critics have 
objected to the order here, being of opinion that the Governor 
should have the preference before the Whore, if not before the 
Pupil. But were he so placed, it might be thought to insinuate 
that the Governor led the Pupil to the Whore : and were the 
Pupil placed first, he might be supposed to lead the Governor to 
her. But our impartial poet, as he is drawing their picture, re- 
presents them in the order in which they are generally seen ; 
namely, the Pupil between the Whore and the Governor ; hut 
placeth the Whore first, as she usually governs both the others. 

P. W. 

Ver. 272. Whore, Pupil,] Meaning the late Duke of Kingstcm, 
and his celebrated mistress. Mad. De La Touche. Warton. 

Ver. 274. stem as Ajax' spectre, strode away^ See Homer, 



In flow'd at once a gay embroidered race^ 275 
And titt'ring push'd the Pedants off the place : 
Some would have spoken^ but the voice was drown'd 
By the French hom^ or by the op'ning hound. 
The first came forwards with an easy mien^ 
As if he saw St. James's and the Queen. 280 

When thus th' attendant Orator begun : 
'* Receive, great Empress ! thy accomplished Son : 
Thine from the birth, and sacred from the rod, 
A dauntless infant, never scar'd with God. 


Odyss. xi. where the Ghost of Ajax turns sullenly froBd Ulysses 
the Traveller, who had succeeded agamst hun ia the dispute for 
the anus of Achilles. There had been the same contention be-^ 
twoen the Travelling, and the University Tutor, for the spoils of 
oiir young heroes, and fashion adjudged it to the Cornier; so that 
this might well occask)n the sullen dignity in departure^ n^iich 
Longinus so much admired. Scribeerus. W.^ 

Ver. 276. And tittering pushed, ^Tc] Hor. 
" Rideat et pidset lasciva decentius aetas." P. W. 

Ver. 280. As if he saw St. James's] Reflecting on the disre* 
spectfiil and indecent bdiaviour of several forward young persons 
in the Presence, so ofifensive to all serious men, and to none more 
than the good Scriblerus. P. W, 

Ver. 281. th' attendant Orator'] The Governor above-said. Thq 
poet gives him no particular name ; being unwilling, I presume, 
to offend or do injustice to any, by celebrating one only with 
whom this character agrees, in preference to so many who equally 
deserve it. Scriblerus. P. W. 

Ver. 284. A dauntless infant^ never scared with God,] i. e. 
Brought up in the enlarged principles of modem education; 
whose great point ia to keep the infant mind free from the pre- 
judices of opinion, and the growing spirit unbroken by terrifying 
names. Amongst the happy consequences of this reformed dis- 
eipline, it is not the least, that we have never afterwards any oc- 
casion for the priest, whose trade, as a modem wit informs us^ is 
only U^ finish what the nurse began* ScribI'. W.^ 


The Sire saw^ one by one, his virtues wake : 28S 
The Mother heggd the blessing of a Rale. 
Thou gar'st that ripeness, which so soon began. 
And ceas'd so soon, he ne'er was boy,, nor man. 
Thro' School and CoDege, thy kind dond o'er-cast. 
Safe and unseen the young iEneas pass'd ; 290 
Thence bursting glorious, all at once let down, 
Stunn'd with his giddy larum half the town. 
Intrepid, then, o'er seas and lands he flew : 
Europe he saw, and Europe saw him too. 


Ytt, S8SS. be ne'er was bo^f nor manJ] Nature hath bestowed 
on the human species two states or conditions, truancy and man- 
hood. Wit sometimes makes the^r^^ disappear, and folly, the lat- 
ter; but true dulness annihilates both. For, want of apprehensior^ 
in bojTS, preventing that conscious ignorance and inexperience 
which produce the awkward bashfulness of youth, makes them as- 
sured; and want of imagination makes them grave. But this 
gravity and assurance, which is beyond boyhood^ being neither wis- 
dom nor knowledge, do never reach to manhood. Scribl. W. 

Ver. 290. unseen the young Mneaa passed; Thence bursting glori- 
ous,"] See Virg. ^neid. i. 

" At Venus obscuro gradientes aere sepsit, 
£t multo nebula circum Dea fudit amictu«, 
Cernere ne quis eos ; — 1. neu quis contingere possit ; 
2. Molirive moram ; — aut 3. veniendi poscere causas." 
Where he enumerates the causes why his mother took this care of 
him: to wit, 1. that no body might touch or connect him: 2. 
might stop or detain him : 3. examine him about the progress he 
had made, or so much as guess why he came there. P. W. 

Ver. 294. Europe he saw,'] The pernicious effects of too early 
travelhng are here ridicided and exposed with equal good sense 
and charming poetry. Wartan. 


Ver. 284. A dauntless infant^ never scar*d with God.] 
" sine Dis animosus infans.^ Hob. P.f 


There. all thy gifts and graces, we display, \ 295 
Thou, only thou, directing all our way. 
To where the Seine, obsequious as she runs. 
Pours at ^eat Bourbon's feet her silken sons ; 
Or Tyber, now no longer Roman, rolls, ., v 
Vain of Italian arts, Italian souls ; 300 

To Jhappy convents, bosom'd deep in vines. 
Where slumber abbots, purple as their wines ; 
To isles of fragrance, lily-silver 'd vales. 
Diffusing languor in the panting gales ; 
To lands of singing, or of dancing slaves, 305 

Lo ve-whisp'ring woods, and lute-resounding waves ; 


Ver. 301. To happy convents,'] I cannot forbe|ir saying, though 
indeed every reader of taste will perceive the thing, that Pope has 
never written, nor indeed does our language afford, six more de- 
licious lines. . The three compound epithets, which are more in 
number than he ever has used so near each other, have a fine effect, 
and are most happily constructed. So also is greatly'daring, in 
line 318. Ver. 302, Abbots, purple as their wines, is from Rous- 
seau, the poet. Warton. 
Ver. 303. lily-'Silver'd vales^ Tuberoses. P^f 

Ver. 305. To lands of dancing slaves^ In the year 1413, 

when the city of Paris was in the utmost desolation, in the mur- 
ders and proscriptions of the Great, by the uncontrolled fury of 
a mad populace, who had destroyed one half of the Courtj and 
had kept the other half, with the King and Dauphin, prisoners in 
the palace, devoted to destruction. At this dreadful juncture, the 
insolence of one Jacqueville, the Captain of the mob, has been 
the occasion of bringing down to us a circumstance very declara- 
tive of the singular temper of this gay nation. As that fellow, 
with his guards at his heels, was going his rounds, to see that the 
work of ruin went on without interruption, when he came to the 
Palace he went abruptly up into the apartments, where he found 
the Dauphin and the principal Lords and Ladies of the Court 
dancing, as in the midst of peace and security : on which, with 



But cliief her shrine where naked Venus keeps. 
And Cupids ride the Lion of the deeps ; 
Where, eas'd of fleets, the Adriatic main 
Wafts the smooth eunuch and enamour 'd swain. 
Led by my hand, he sannter'd Europe round. 
And gather'd ev'ry vice on Christian ground ; 
Saw ev'ry Court, -heard ev'ry King declare 
His royal sense of Op'ras or the Fair ; 
The stews and palace equally explor'dy 315 

Intrigu'd with glory, and with spirit whor'd ; 
Tried all hors-d'ceuvresy all liqueurs defin'd ; 
Judicious drank, and greatly-daring din'd ; 
Dropp'd the dull lumber of the Latin store, 
Spoil'd his own language, and acquir'd no more ; 
All classic learning lost on classic ground ; 
And last turn'd Air, the echo of a sound ! 


the air of a Cato, he reproached them for the levity of their beha- 
viour, at a time when the rest of the Court were languishing in 
the dungeons of the common prisons. W,f 

Ver. 308. And Cupids ride the Lion of the deeps;"] The winged 
Lion, the Arms of Venice. This Republic heretofore the most 
considerable in Europe, for her naval force and the extent of her 
commerce ; now illustrious for her Carnivals, P. }V, 

Ver. 318. greatly 'daring din^d;] It being indeed no small risk 
to eat through those extraordinary compositions, whose disguised 
ingredients are generally unknown to the guests, and highly in- 
flammatory and unwholesome. P. W» 

Ver. 3*22, And last turned Air, the echo of a sound /] Yet less a 
body than echo itself; for echo reflects sense or words at leasts 
this gentleman only airs and tunes : 

Sonus est, qui vivit in illo. Ovid. Met. 

So that this was not a metamorphosis either in one or the other, 
but only a resolution of the soul into its true principles ; its.real 
essence being harmony, according to the doctrine' of Orpheus, the 




See now, half-cur'd, and perfectly well-bred. 

With nothing but a Solo in his head^ 

As much estate, and principle, and wit, 325 

As Jansen, Fleetwood, Cibber shall think fit ; 

Stolen from a duel, follow'd by a nun. 

And, if a Borough chuse him not, undone ; 

See, to my country happy I restore 

This glorious Youth, and add one Venus more. 330 

Her too receive, for her my soul adores ! 

So may the sons of sons of sons of whores, 


inventor of Opera, who first perfonned to a select assembly of 
beasts. Scribl. W. 

Ver. 324. With nothing but a Solo in his head;'] With nothing 
but a Solo f Why, if it be a Solo^ how should there be any thing 
dse ? Palpable tautology ! Read boldly an Opera^ which is enough 
of conscience for such a head as has lost all its Latin. 

Bentk. p. W. 

Ver. 326. Jansen, Fleetwood^ Cihher] Three very eminent per* 
sdku, all Managers of Plays ; who, though, not Governors by pro- 
fession, had, each in his way, concerned themselves in the educa- 
tion of youth, and regulated their wits^ their morals^ ox their 
finances^ at that period of their age which is the most important, 
their entrance into the polite world. Of the last of these^ and his 
talents for this end, see Book i. ver. 190, &c. P. W. 

Ver. 328. And, if a Borough chuse him no/,] A severe stroke 
on some parts of the English Parliament. Worton. 

Ver. 331. Her too receive, 4*^.] This confirms what the learned 
Scriblerus advanced in his note on ver. 272, that the Governor, 
as well as the Pupil, had particular interest in this Lady. F. FT. 

Ver. 332. sons of whores^ For such have been always esteemed 
the ablest supports of the throne of Dulness, even by the confes- 


Ver. 332. So may the sons ofsonsy ^c] 
<< Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis.'' 

VirgvJEiidd* iii* jP«t 

BOOK IV. THE dunciad. 30T 

Prop thine, O Empress ! like each neighbour throue. 
And make a long posterity thy own." 
Pleas'd, she accepts the Hero and the Dame, 335 
Wraps in her veil, and frees from sense of shame. 

Then look'd, and saw a lazy, lolling sort. 
Unseen at Church, at Senate, or at Court^. 
Of ever-listless Loiterers, that attend 
No cause, no trust, no duty, and no friend. 340 
Thee too, my Paridel! she mark'd thee there, 
Stretch'd on the rack of a too easy chair. 
And heard thy everlasting yawn confess 
The pains and penalties of idleness. 
She pitied ; but her pity only shed 345 

Benigner influence on thy nodding head. 


sion of those her most legitimate sons, tv^ho have unfortunately 
wanted that advantage. The illustrious Vanini in his divine «nco- 
niiums on our Goddess, intided, De admirandis Natura Regina 
Deaqt*e martaHum Arcanis, laments that he was not horn a bastard } 
tUinam extra legitimum ac cormubialetn thorum essem pracreatus ! 
Sfc. He expatiates on the prerogatives of a free birth^ and on 
what he would have done for the Cheat Mother with those advan- 
tages ; and then sorrowfully concludes, At quia Conjugatorum sum 
soboleSf his arbaius sum bonis, W* 

Ver. 341. Thee too, my Paridel !] The poet seems to speak of 
this young gentleman with great afiection. The name is taken- 
from Spenser, who gives it to a wandering courtly Squire^ that 
travelled about for the same reason, for which many young Squires 
are now fond of travelling, and especially to Paris, P, W, 


Ver. 342. Stretch' d an the rack 

And heardj fyc,"] 
*^ Sedet, cetemumque sedebit^ 
Infelix Theseus, Phlegyasque miserrimus omnes 
Admonet*^. Virg. iEoeid' vi. Rf 



But Annius, crafty Seer, with ebon wand. 
And well-dissembled em'rald on his hand. 
False as his gems, and canker'd as his coins, 
Came,cramm'd with capon, from where Pollio dines^ 
Soft, as the wily fox is seen to creep, 351 

Where bask on sunny banks the simple sheep. 
Walk round and round, now prjdng here, now there. 
So he ; but pious, whisper'd first his pray'r. 

" Grant,gracious Goddess, grant me still to cheat ! 
O may thy cloud still cover the deceit ! 
Thy choicer mists on this assembly shed. 
But pour them thickest on the noble head. 
So shall each youth, assisted by our eyes. 
See other Caesars, other Homers rise ; 360 


Ver. d41. AnniuSf'] The name taken from Annius, the Monk of 
Viterbo, famous for many impositions and forgeries of ancient 
manuscripts and inscriptions, which he was prompted to by mere 
vanity ; but our Annius had a more substantial motive. P. W. 

The sudden appearance of this character, whom we never heard 
of before, makes this passage very obscure. By Annius, was 
meant Sir Andrew Fountaine. Wafton, 

Annius appears in his place ; nor does there seem to be any 
particular reason why he should have been heard of before, , It is 
not likely that Pope meant to allude to Sir Andrew Fountaine, 
who was a particular firiend of Svjift. Vide Journal to Stella. 

Ver. 355. still to cheat /] Some read skilly but this is frivolous; 
f(Nr Annius hath that skill already ; or if he had not, skill were not 
wanting to cheat such persons. Bentley. P. fV, 


Ver. 366. grant me still to cheat / ' : * 

may thy cloud still cover the deceit /] 
« — .^-. Da, pulchra Lavema, 

Da mihi fallere 

Noctem peccatis et fraudibus objice nubem," Hon P.f 


Thro' twilight ages hunt th' AtheniaB fowl. 
Which Chalcis, Gods, and mortals call an Owl ; 
Now see an Attys, now a Cecrops clear. 
Nay, Mahomet ! the pigeon at thine ear ; 
Be rich in ancient brass, tho' not in gold, 365 
And keep his Lares, though his house be sold ; 
To heedless Phoebe his fair bride postpone. 
Honour a Syrian Prince above his own ; 
Lord of an Otho, if I vouch it true ; 
Blest in one Niger, till he knows of two." 370 
Mummius o'erheard him; Mummius, fool-re- 
Who like his Cheops stinks above the ground, 


Ver. 361. hunt th'' Athenian /ow/,] The Owl stamped on the 
reverse of the ancient money of Athens. 

" fVhich Chalcis, Gods^ and mortals call an Owl/' 
is the verse by which Hobbes renders that of Homer, 

Ver. 363. Attys and Cecrops'] The first Kings of Athens, of 
whom it is hard to suppose any coins are extant ; but not so im- 
probable as what follows, that there should be any of Mahomet, 
who forbade all images ; and the story of whose pigeon was a 
monkish fable. Nevertheless one of these Anniuses made a coun- 
terfeit medal of that impostor, now in the possession of a learned 
Nobleman. P. W. 

Ver. 364. Nay^ Mahomet!] The circumstance of Mahomet 
professing to receive his inspiration from Heaven through the 
means of a pigeon, is well known. Bowles. 

Ver. 367. To heedless Phcebe his fair bride postpone^ — 
\ Lord of an Otho,] 

A trivial variation from himself, in his Epistle to Addison : 
" And Curio, restless by the fair-one*s side, 
Sighs for an Otho, and neglects his bride.*' Wakefield^ 

Ver. 371. Mummius] This name is not merely an allusion toth^ 
Mummies he was so fond of, but probably referred to the Rmnan 

Genesal ^ 



Fierce as a startled adder^ swell'd, and ssdd^ 
Rattling an ancient Sistrum at his head : 
'* Speak'st thou of Syrian Princes ? Traitor base ! 375 
Mine> Goddess ! mine is all the homed race. 


General of that name, who burned Corinth, and committed the 
curious statues to the captain of a ship, assuring him, " that if 
any were lost or broken, he should procure others to be made in 
their stead :'* by which it should seem (whatever may be pretended) 
that Mummius was no Virtuoso. P, W. 

Who> or from whence, was Mummius ? we know as little of him, 
thus abruptly brought out, as of Annius in the preceding passage, 
ver. 347. It is painful, but necessary, to make an observation on 
such a fault in our poet. To say the name alluded to Egyptian 
Mummies, is frigid enough ! I have been lately informed, that by 
Mummius was meant Dr. Mead, a man too learned and too liberal 
to be thus satirized. Warton, 

Dr. Warton was probably misinformed on this head. Pope was 
not in the habit of abusing those anonymously whom he openly 
praised. He had a high opinion of Dr. Mead, whom he occa- 
sionally consulted, as appears by the lines, 

111 do what Mead and Cheselden advise. 

To save these limbs and to preserve these ey^. 

Ver. 371. fool-renown* d,'] A compound epithet in the Greek 
manner, renowned byfooky or renowned for making fools. P, W. 

Ver. 372. Cheops] A King of Egypt, whose body was certaiidy 
to be known, as being buried alone in his Pyramid, and is there- 
fore more genuine than any of the Cleopatras. This Royal 
Mummy, being stolen by a wild Arab, was purchased by the 
Consul of Alexandria, and transmitted to the Museum of Mum- 
mius ; for proof of which he brings a passage in Sandys*s Travels ; 
where that accurate and learned voyager assures us that he saw 
the sepulchre empty, which agrees exactly (saith he) with the time 
of the theft above-mentioned. — But he omits to observe that 
Herodotus tells us it was empty in his time. P. W. 

Ver. 375. " Speak* st thou of Syrian Princes f 4rc.] The strange 
story following, which may be taken for a fiction of the poet, is 
justified by a true relation in Spon's Voyages. Vaillant (who 
wrote the History of the Syrian Kings, as it is to be fi:>und on 



True, he had wit, to make their value rise ; 
From foolish Greeks to steal them, was as wise ; 
More glprious yet, from barb'rous hands to keep. 
When Sallee Rovers chac'd him on the deep. 380 
Then taught by Hermes, and divinely bold, 
Down his own throat he risk'd the Grecian gold, 
Receiv'd each Demi-god, with pious care. 
Deep in his entrails — I re ver'd them there ; 
I bought them, shrouded in that living shrine, 385 
And, at their second birth, they issue mine." 

" Witness, great Ammon ! by whose horns I swore, 
(Replied soft Annius,) this our paunch before 


medals) coming from the Levant, where he had been collecting 
various coins, and being pursued by a Corsair of Sallee, swal- 
lowed down twenty gold medals. A sudden Bourasque freed him 
from the Rover, and he got safe to land with the medals in his 
belly. On his road to Avignon he met two physicians, of whom 
he demanded assistance. One advised purgations, the other, vomits. 
In this uncertainty he took neither, but pursued his way to Lyons ; 
where he found his ancient friend, the famous physician and anti- 
quary, Dufour, to whom he related his adventure. Dufour, 
without staying to inquire about the uneasy symptoms of the 
burthen he carried, first asked him, whether the medals were of the 
higher Empire T He assured him they were. Dufour was ravished 
With the hope of possessing so rare a treasure ; he bargained with 
him on the spot for the most curious of them ; and was to recover 
them at his own expense. P» W, 

Ver. 383. each Demi^god,'] They are called Qho$ on their coins. 

Ver. 387. ** Witness, great Ammonl'] Jupiter Ammon is called to 



Ver. 383. Receiv'd each Demi-god^'] 

'< Emissumque im^ de sede Typhoea terrse 
Coelitibus fecisse metum ; cunctosque dedisse 
Tefga fugse : donee fessos ^gyptia tellus 
Ceperit" Ovid. W.j; 


Still bears them^ faithful ; and that thus I eat, 
Is to refund the medals with the meat. S90 

To prove me. Goddess ! clear of all design^ 
Bid me with Pollio sup, as well as dine : 
There all the learn'd shall at the labour stand. 
And Douglas lend his soft, obstetric hand.'' 

The Goddess smiling seem'd to give consent ; 395 
So back to Pollio, hand in hand, they went. 
Then, thick as locusts black'ning all the ground, 
A tribe, with weeds and shells fantastic crowned, 
!E^ach with some wond'rous gift approached the 

A Nest, a Toad, a Fungus, or a Flow'r. 400 

But far the foremost, two, with earnest zeal. 
And aspect ardent to the throne appeal. 

The first thus open'd : '' Hear thy suppliant's call. 
Great Queen, and common Mother of us all ! 


witness, as the father of Alexander, to whom those Kings succeeded 
in the divisioi;i of the Macedonian Empire, and whose Hams they 
wore on their Medals. P, W^ 

Ver. 3d4. Douglas^ A physician of great l^rning and no less 
taste \ above all, curious in what related to Horace ; of whom he 
pollected every edition, translation, and comment, to the number 
of several hundred volumes. P. W. 

Ver. 397. Then^ thick as locusts] The similitude o{ Locusts does 
];iot refer more to the numbers than to the qualities of the Virtuosi: 
who not only devour and lay waste every tree, shrub, and green 
Jeaf in their course of experiments ; but suffer neither a moss nor 
fungus to escape untouched. Scribl. W, 

Ver. 403. " Hear thy suppliant's call,] The character and speech 
of the Florist in this passage, and those of the Butterfly-Hunter, 
verse 421 to verse 436, cannot escape the attention and applause 
of the elegant and judicious reader. Why, therefore, it will be 
said, point them out I V^rse 418, '* where no carnation fedes," is 



Fair from its hiimble bed I rear'd this Plow'r 405 
Suckled, and cheer'd, with air, and sun, and show'r. 
Soft on the paper ruflf its leaves I spread. 
Bright with the gilded button tipp'd its head. 
Then thron'd in glass, and nam'd it Caroline: 
Each maid cried. Charming ! and each youth. Di- 
vine ! 410 
Did Nature's pencil ever blend such rays. 
Such varied light in one promiscuous blaze ? 
Now prostrate ! dead ! behold that Caroline : 
No m^id cries. Charming! and no youth. Divine! 
And lo! the wretch! whose vile, whose insect lust 
Laid this gay daughter of the Spring in dust. 


pardcularly happy, and appropriated to the character of the person 
speaking. Warton, 

Ver. 409. and nam'd it Caroline :] It is a compliment whiclv 
the Florists usually pay to Princes and great personages, to give 
their names to the most curious flowers of their raising. Some 
have been very jealous of vindicating this honour ; but none more 
than that ambitious gardener at Hammersmith, who caused his 
favourite to be painted on his sign, with this inscription. This is 
my 2ueen Caroline. P, W, 


Ver. 406. Fair from its humble bed, ^c. — nam'd it Caroline : 
Each maid cried^ Charming ! and each youth, Divine ! 
Now prostrate / dead ! behold that Caroline : 
No maid cries , Charming ! and no youth, Divine !] 
These verses are translated from Catullus, £{»th. 
" Ut flos in septis secretus nascitur hortis, 
Quam mulcent aurse, firmat Sol, educat imber, 
Multi ilium pueri, multae optavere puellae : 
Idem quum tenui carptus defloruit ungui, 
NuUi ilium pueri, nullae optavere puellae," &c. P.f 

It is also elegkfx^y translated by Aripsto. Warton. 


Oh ! punish him, or to th' Elysian shades 
Dismiss my soul> where no Carnation fisides." 
He ceas'd^ and wept. With innocence of mien, 
Th' accus'd stood forth^ and thus addressed the 
Queen. 420 

'' Of all th' enamell'd race, whose silv'ry wing 
Waves to the tepid zephyrs of the spring. 
Or swims along the fluid atmosphere. 
Once brightest shone this child of Heat and Air. 
I saw, and started from its vernal bow'r, 425 

The rising game, and chac'd from flow'r to flow'r. 
It fled, I followed ; now in hope, now pain ; 
It stopp'd, I stopp'd; it mov'd, I mov'd again. 
At last it fix'd, 'twas on what plant it pleas'd. 
And where it fix'd, the beauteous bird I seiz'd: 430 
Rose or Carnation was below my care ; 
I meddle, Goddess ! only in my sphere, 
I tell the naked fact without disguise. 
And, to excuse it, need but shew the prize ; 
Whose spoils this paper ofiers to your eye, 436 
Fair ev'n in death ! this peerless Butterfly T 

'' My sons ! (she answer'd) both have done your 
Live happy both, and long promote our arts. 


Ver. 421. " Of all th* enamelVd race^'] The poet seems to have 
an eye to Spenser, Muiopotmos : 

" Of all the race of silver-winged flies 
Which do possess the empire of the air." P.f 

Ver. 427, 428. It fled, IfoUcnv'd; ifc.'\ 

" I started back, 

It started back ; but pleas'd, I soon retum'd, 

Pleas'd, it returned as soon," ^ MiLioir. J?.t 


But hear a Mother, when she recommends 
To your firatemal care, our sleeping friends. 440 
The common soul, of Heaven's more frugal make. 
Serves but to keep fools pert, and knaves awake : 
A drowsy watchman, that just gives a knock. 
And breaks our rest, to tell us what's o'clock. 
Yet by some object ev'ry brain is stirr'd ; 445 
The dull may waken to a humming-bird ; 
The most recluse, discreetly open'd, find. 
Congenial matter in the cockle-kind ; 
The mind, in metaphysics at a loss. 
May wander in a wilderness of moss ; 450 

The head that turns at superlunar things, 
Pois'd with a tail, may steer on Wilkins' wings. 

*' O! would the sons of men once think their eyes 
And reason giv'n them but to study Flies / 


Ver. 440. our sleeping friends.^ Of whom see verse 345, above. 

Ver. 450. a wildemeu of mou;'\ Of which the NaturaHsto 
count I cannot tell how many hundred species. P. W, 

Ver. 452. Wilkins' mi^sJ] One of the first projectors of the 
Royal Society ; who, among many enlarged and useful notionsy 
entertained the extravagant hope of a possibility to fly to the 
Moon ; which has put some volatile geniuses upon malcing wings 
for that purpose. P. jfp^, 

Ver. 453. / \x>oidd the tons of men, 4rc.] This is the third 
speech of die Goddess to her supplicants, and completes the ^diole 



Ver. 441. The common soul, 4rc.] In the first Edit thus, 
Of souls the greater part. Heaven's common make. 
Serve but to keep fools pert, and knaves awake ; 
And most but find that centindL of God, 
A drowsy watchman in the land of Nod, fF.f 


See Nature in some partial narrow shape^ 455 
And let the Author of the whole escape : 
Learn but to trifle ; or, who most observe, 
To wonder at their Maker, not to serve." 

" Be that my task (replies a gloomy Clerk, 
Sworn foe to mystery, yet divinely dark ; 460 

Whose pious hope aspires to see the day 
When moral evidence shall quite decay. 


of what she had to give in instruction on this important occasion, 
concerning Learning, Civil Society, and Religion. In the first 
speech, ver. 119, to her editors and conceited critics, she directs 
how to deprave wit and discredit fine writers. In her second, 
ver. 175, to the educators of youth, she shews them how all civil 
duties may be extinguished, in that one doctrine of Divine Here- 
ditary Right. And in this third, she charges the investigators of 
Nature to amuse themselves in trifles, and rest in second causes, 
with a total disregard of the first. This being all that Dulness can 
wish, is all she needs to say ; and we may apply to her (as the 
poet hath managed it) what hath been said of true wit, that She 
neither says too little, nor too much, P. W, 

, Ver. 469. a glootny Clerk,] The epithet gloomy in this line may 
se^m the same with that of dark in the next. But gloomy relates 
to the uncomfortable and disastrous condition of an irreligious 
sceptic ; whereas dark alludes only to his puzzled and embroiled 
systems. P. W, 

Ver. 462. When moral evidence shall quite decay,] Alluding to 
a ridiculous and absurd way of some mathematicians, in calculat- 
ing the gradual decay of moral evidence by mathematical propor- 
tions ; according to which calculation, in about fifty years it will 
be no longer probable that Julius Caesar was in Gaul, or died in 
the Senate-House. See Craig*s Theologies Christiana; Principia 

MatJiematica» But as it seems evident, that facts of a thousand 

years old, for instance, are now at probable as they were five hun- 
dred years ago, it is plain that if in fifty more they quite disap- 
pear, it must be owing, not to their arguments, but to the extra- 


And damns implicit faith and holy lies^ 

Prompt to impose^ and fond to dogmatize :) 

Let others creep by timid steps^ and slow^ 465 

On plain experience lay foundations low. 

By common sense to common knowledge bred, 

And last, to Nature's Cause thro' Nature led. 

All-seeing in thy mists, we want no guide. 

Mother of arrogance, and Source of pride ! 470 

We nobly take the high Priori road. 

And reason downward, till we doubt of God : 


ordinary power of our Goddess ; for whose help therefore they 
are bound to pray. P. W, 

Ver. 466 — 68. Lei others creep — thro' Nature led.l In these 
lines are described the disposition of the rational inquirer ; and 
the means and end of knowledge. With regard to his disposition, 
the contemplation of the works of God with human faculties must 
needs make a modest and sensible man timorous and fearful ; and 
that will naturally direct him to the right means of acquiring the 
little knowledge his faculties are capable of comprehending, name- 
ly, plain and sure experience; which, though it supports only a 
humble foundation^ and permits only a very slow progress, yet 
leads, surely, to the end, the discovery of the God of Nature, P.f 

This note may well remind us of what Lord Bacon finely says 
on the subject of strained interpretations : " Wines which at the 
first treading run gently, are pleasanter than those which are 
forced by the wine-press ; for these taste of the stone and of the 
husk of the grape." Warton, 

Ver. 471. the high Priori road,"] Those who, from the effects 
in this visible world, deduce the Eternal Power and Godhead of 
the First Cause, though they cannot attain to an adequate idea of 
the Deity, yet discover so much of him, as enables them to see the 
end of their creation, and the means of their happiness ; whereas 
they who take this high Priori road, (such as Hobbes, Spinosa, 
Des Cartes, and some better reasoners,) for one that goes right, 
ten lose themselves in mists, or ramble after visions, which deprive 



Make Nature still incroach upon his plan ; 
And shove him off as far as e'er we can ; 


them of all sight of their end, and mislead them in the choice of 
the means. P. W, 

He alludes to Dr. Clarke's i^ous Demonstrations of the Attri* 
butes of God ; a book which Bolingbroke, who hated Clarke be- 
cause he was a favourite of Queen Caroline, impotently attacked. 
In Bolingbroke's works are many passages in ridicule of this 
Queen's pretences to understand philosophy and religious con- 
troversies, and particularly the controversies relating to the Tri- 

Dr. Clarke and Woolaston considered moral obligation as aris- 
ing from the essential differences and relations of things ; Shaftes- 
bury and Hutcheson, as arising from the moral sense ; and the 
generality of Divines, as arising solely from the will of God. On 
these three principles practical morality has been built by these 
di£ferent writers. " Thus has God been pleased (says the author 
of the Divine Legation) to give three different excitements to the 
practice of virtue ; that men, as he finely adds, of all ranks, con« 
stitutions, and educations, might find their account in one or othef 
of them ; something that would hit their palate, satisfy their rea* 
son^ or subdue their will. — But this admirable provision for the 
support of virtue hath been in some measure defeated by its pre- 
tended advocates, who have sacrilegiously untwisted this three- 
fold cord, and each, running away with the part he esteemed the 
strongest, hath affixed that to the throne of God, as the golden 
diain that is to unite and to draw all to it." Book i. p. 39, first 
edition. WarHm. 

Ver. 471. We nobly take the high Priori road. 

And reason downward^ till we doubt qf God :] 
An oblique censure of Dr. S. Clarke's celebrated Demonstration 
of the Being and Attributes of God d priori ; af^er the example of 
his " guide, philosopher, and friend," who is perpetually attack- 
ing Clarke in his fragments of Essays, and thus expresses himsdf 
in his Letters to our poet : ** Rather than creep up slowly, d pos- 
teriorif to a little general knowledge, they soar at once as fsu* and 
a« hig!^ as imagination can carry them. From thence they des- 
cend again, armed with systems and arguments, d priori; and, 



Thrust some mechanic cause mto his place ; 475 
Ot bind in matter^ or diffuse in space ; 
Or^ at one bounds overleaping all his laws^ 
Make God Man's image^ Man the final cause, 


regardless how these agree, or class with the phaenomena of Na- 
ture, they impose them on mankind." Wakefield. 

Ver. 473. Make Nature stilf] This relates to such as, being 
ashamed to assert a mere mechanic cause, and yet wiwilling to 
forsake it entirely, have had recourse to a certain Plastic Nature, 
Elastic Fluid, Subtile Matter, Sfc, P. W. 

Ver. 475. Thrust same mechanic cause into his place; 
Or bind in matter, or diffuse in space ;] 
The first of these Follies is that of Des Cartes ; the second, of 
Hobbes ; the third, of some succeeding Philosophers. P. W. 

Ver. 476. Thrust some mechanic cause into his place; ^c] *'I am 
afraid," says Mr. Dugald Stewart, " that Pope suffered himself so 
far to be misled by the malignity of Warburton, as to aim a secret 
stab at Newton and Clarke ; by associating their figurative, and 
not Altogether unexceptionable language, concerning space (which 
they called the sensorium of the Deity) with the opinion of Spi* 
nosa.^' '< How little," he adds, " was it suspected by the poet, 
when this sarcasm escaped him, that the charge of Spinosism^ and 
Pantheism, was afterwards to be brought against himself, for the 
sublimest passage to be found in his writings." Encycl. Brit. 
Diss. Part ii. p. 75. 

On this it may be observed, that the lines which are supposed 
to convey the censure on Clarke and Newton, are spoken by 

— ^— a gloomy Clerk, 
Sworn foe to mystery, yet divinely dark, 
who gives an enumeration of the different species of infidelity, one 
of which is by " thrusting some mechanic cause into the place of 
the Deity, binding him in matter, or difiusing him in space;" 
which is evidently a ridicule of the doctrines of Spinoi^, but can- 
not be applied to such as inculcate the existence of a supreme in- 
telligent first cause, and the free agency of man. 

Ver. 477. Or, at one bound, ^c] These words are very signifi- 
cant. In their physical and metaphysical reasonings it was a chain 
of pretended dcmomtrationi that drew them into all these absurd 



Find virtue locals all relation scom^ 
See all in selfy and but for self be bom : 480 

Of nought so certain as our Reason stilly 
Of nought so doubtful as of Soul and Will. 
Oh ! hide the God still more ! and make us see 
ISuch as Lucretius drew, a God like thee : 
Wrapt up in self, a God without a thought, 485 
Regardless of our merit or default. 


conclusions. But their errors in morals rest only on bold and im- 
pudent assertions^ without the-least shadow of proof, in which they 
over-leap all the laws of argument as well as of Nature. W, 

Ver. 477. at one bound, overleaping] From Paradise Lost. 

Ver. 478, &c. 
X Make God MarCs image, Man the final cause, 

Find virtue local, all relation scorn, 
See all in self — ] 
Here the poet, from the errors relating to a Deity in natural phi- 
losophy, descends to those in moral, Man was made according 
to God's image : but this false theology, measuring his attributes 
by ours, makes God after Man*s image : this proceeds from the 
imperfection of his reason. The next, of imagining himself the 
final cause, is the effect of his pride : as the making virtue and 
vice arbitrary, and morality the imposition of the Magistrate, is 
of the coiruption of his heart. Hence he centers every thing in 
himself. The progress of Dulness herein differing from that of 
Madness ; this ends in seeing all in God ; the other in seeing all in 
self. P. W, 

Ver. 481. Of nought so certain as our Reason 5/2'//,] Of which 
ive have most cause to be diffident. Of nought so doubtfUl as of 
Soul and Will ; i. e, the existence of our Soul, and the freedom of 
our Will ; the two things most self-evident. F. W. 

Ver. 484. Such as Lucretius drew^ Lib. i. ver. 57. 
" Omnis enim per se Divam natura necesse est 
Inmiortali sevo summd cum pace fruatur, 
Semota ab nostris rebus, summotaque longe — — 
Nee bene pro meritis capitur, nee tangitur ird ;" 


Or. that bright image to our fancy draw, . 
Which Theodes in raptur'd vision saw, 


from whence the two verses following are translated ; and won- 
derfully agree with the character of our Goddess. 


Ver. 487. Or that bright image] Bright image was the title 
given by the later Platonists to that Vision oi Nature^ which they 
had formed out of their own fancy ; so bright that they called it 
AvroirtQf "AyaXfAay or the Self-seen image, i. €. seen by itis own 
light W. 

Ver. 487. Or that bright imc^e"] i. e. Let it be either the Chance- 
God of Epicurus, or the Fate, of this Goddess. W.\ 

Ver. 488. Which Theocles in raptured vision saw,'] Thus this 
philosopher calls upon his friend to partake with him in these 
visions : 

" To-morrow, when the eastern Sim 
With his first beams adorns the front 
Of yonder hiU, if you're content 
To wander with me in the woods you see, 
We will pursue those loves of ours. 
By favour of the sylvan Nymphs ; 
and invoking first the Genius of the Place, well try to obtain at 
least some faint and distant view of the Sovereign Genius and Jirst 
Beauty.** Charac. Vol. ii. p. 245. 

This Genius is thus apostrophized (pag. 345.) by the same phi- 
losopher : 

" — O glorious Nature / 

Supremely Mr, and sovereignly good ! 

AU-loving, and all-lovely ! all divine ! 

Wise substitute of Providence ! impower*d 

Creatress ! or impoto*ring Deity ! 

Supreme Creator ! 

Thee I invoke, and thee alone adore." 
Sir Isaac Newton distinguishes between these two in a very dif- 
ferent manner. (Princ. SchoL gen. sub fin.)— — Htmc cognosci- 
mus solummodo per pToprietates suas et attributa, etper sapientissi- 
mas el optimas rerum structuras, et causas finales; veneramur autem et 




While thrau^ poetic scenes Hie Genius ^ove». 
Or wanders wild in Academic groves ; 490 

That Nature our Society adores^ 
Where Tindal dictates^ and Silenus snores." 

colimm ob dominium, Deus etenim sine dominio, protndeniid^ et 
ifausU finalibus^ nihil aliud est quam Fatum et Natura. P» W* 

K Pope liad intaided to glance at Newton in ver^ 475, ^, It is 
scarcely probable that he and Warburton conjoiBlly» WMdd hare 
quoted hun here, as furnishing a decisive answer to doctnn^ si- 
milar to those of Spinosa. 

Ver. 488. Which Theoclesi There is a manifest ii^ustiioe in istro- 
ducing Shaftesbury, who was a rigid deist, though not a CSIiiistiaB, 
and who wrote so strongly in favour of an intelligent first cause. 
Dr. Berkeley was the first author who printed in his Aldphron 
some passages of Shaf^sbury, which certainly border on the bom- 
bast, as blank verses. In the London Journal, May 18, 1732, 
there is a vindication of Shaftesbury against Akiphron, supposed 
by Bishop Hoadley. Warton. 

Ver. 489. rofoes^ — Or wanders mid m Academic graoes ;] <* Above 
aU things I loved ease^ and of all pUlosoi^rs Aose who rea- 
soned most at their ease^ and were never angry or disturbed, as 
tibose called Sceptics ioever were. I looked up^n this kajui fiijid^ 
l^ophy as the prettiest, agreeablest, raving esercis^ f^ th^ m^ pos- 
sible to be imagined." Vol. ii. p. 206. P. Jf* 

Ver. 491. That Nature out Society adores,] See th^ Pjan^hgifti' 
con^ with its liturgy and rubrics, composed by Tolan4i ^}4^ 
very lately, for the edification of the Society^ has been translated 
into English, and publicly sold by die booksdlers of London and 
Westminster. W.f 

Ver. 492. Silenus'} Mr. Thomas Gordon.— <Silenus was an Epi- 
curean philosopher, as appears firom Virgil, Eclog. vL where he 
sings the principles of that philosophy in his drink. P. W, 

By Silenus he means Gordon, the translator of Tacitus ; which 
translation be made in an affected, hard, abrupt, and inharmoni- 
o^ style, under the notion of imitating the pregnant bsevity of 
the original, crowded as it, is, with sense and matter. He also waa 
tjhe publisher of the Independent Whig» and obtained a lucrative 
place under government. IVarton. 

BOOS t^. OPttfi DtKClAH. 3^)3 

BouiS'd a^ kis name, ilp rose the bousy Sire, 
And shook tfom out his pipe the i^eed^ of fire ; 
Then snapped his box> and str<^*d his bell|i^ down : 405 
Rosy and reverend, tho* without a Gt)Wn« 
Bland and fitmiliar to the Undone he oame> 
Led up the Youth> and called the Goddess J^hme. 
Then thus : ** From priest-craft happily set free, 
Lo ! every finished son returns to thee : 6d0 

First slistve to words, then vassal to a name. 
Then dupe to party; child and- man the same; 
Bounded by nature, narrow'd still^ by B.ttr, 
A trifling head> and a contracted hearts 


Ver. 494; seeds qffire;'] The Epidtrean language, SemirUi ft- 
rum^ or Atoms. Virg. Eclog. vi. Semina ignis — semina fiammm, 

P. W. 
Vet, 499, 600. "Prom ptiest^craft happily set free, 

Lo ! ev^ty finished son returns to tkeei] 

The learned Scriblerus is here very whimsical. It would se^m> 
says he, by this, as if the Priests (who are always plotting mis- 
chief against the Laxo of Nature) had inveigled these harmless 
youths from the bosom of their Mother, and kept them in open 
rebellion to her, till Silenus broke the charm, and restored' them 
to her indulgent arms. But this is so singular a fancy, and at' the 
same time so unsupported by proof, that we must in justice a<;- 
quit them of all suspicions of this kind. A'bistab. Jr» 

Ver. 601. First slave to words, fyc.} A recapitulation of thifi 
whole course of modem education described in this book, which 
confines Youth to the study of words only in Schools ; subj^CS 
them to the authority of si/stems in the Universities ; and ddud^ft 
them with the names of party-distincHons in the world : all equally 
concurring to narrow the understanding, and establish slavery 
and error in literature, jjiilosophy, and politics. The whole 
finished in modem Free-thinking ; the completion of whatever 
is vain, wrong, and destmctive to the happiness of mankind, as it 
establishes iS({f-/ope for the sole principle of action, T. W. 



Thus bred, thus taught, how maay have I seen, 505 
Smiling on all, and smil'd on by a Queen ! 
Mark'd out for honours, honoured for their birth. 
To thee the most rebellious things on earth : 
Now to thy gentle shadow aU are shrunk. 
All melted down, in pension, or in punk ! 510 
So K * so B * * sneak'd into the grave, 
A monarch's half, and half a harlot's slav^. 
Poor W * * nipp'd in folly's broadest bloom. 
Who praises now ? his Chaplain on his tomb ! 
Then take them all, oh ! take them to thy breast ! 
Thy Magus, Goddess ! shall perform the rest." 516 

With that, a Wizard old his cup extends ; 
Which whoso tastes, forgets his former friends, 


Ver. 506. smiVd on h^ a Slueen f] i. e. Thi» Queen or Groddess 
of Dulness. W.f 

But it certainly was intended as a sly and satirical stroke on 
Queen Caroline, and did not relate to the Goddess of Dulness. 


Ver. 511. SoK* soB*^, poor W."] Jt is vain to inquire the 
names that belong to these initial letters. Some of the finest pas- 
sages in Absalom and Achitophel, one of Dryden's capital poems, 
though concerning persons. of £ax more consequence and import- 
ance, are now already unknown ; and the satire has lost all its 
force and poignancy. Warton. 

Ver. 513. Poor fV* ♦.] Philip duke of Wharton, so much ce- 
lebrated for his profligacy, wit, and eccentricity; who died an 
exile and an outlaw, in 1731. Bowles, 


Ver. 518. Which whoso tastes ^ forgets his former friends^ — Sire^ 
^c] Homer, of the Nepenthe, Odyss. iv. 


Sire^ ancestors^ himself. One casts his eyes 

Up to a Star, and like Endymioh dies : 520 


Ver. 517. With that, a Wizard old, ifc."] Here beginneth the ce- 
lebration of the GREATER Mtsteries of the Goddess, which the 
Poet in his Invocation, ver. 5, promised to sing. For when now 
each aspiraht, as was the custom, had. proved his qualification 
and claim to a participation, the High-Priest of Dulness first 
initiateth tlfe assembly by the usual way of Libation, And then 
each of the initiated, as was always required, putteth on a rtisw 
Nature, described in ver. 530: Firm impudence and stuprfaction 
mild : whii^h the ancient writers on the Mysteries call t?( "^v^q 
f^/xa, the great prop or fulcrum of the human mind. When the 
High-Priest and Goddess have thus done their parts, each of them 
is delivered into the hands of his Conductor, an inferior Minister, 
or Hierophant, whose names are Impudence, Stuprfaction, Self-con- 
ceit, Sejf 'inter est, Pleasure, Epicurism, Sfc. to lead them through the 
several apartments of her Mystic Dome or Palace. When all 
this is over, the sovereign Goddess, from v. 565 to 600, conferreth 
her Titles and Degrees; rewards inseparably attendant on the par- 
ticipation of the Mysteries; which made the ancient Theon say of 
them — xaAAir^ f^h w, xal rSv fAtyirt^v ayeb^Sf, r^ Mvf^^iuv fAtrixp^** 
Hence being enriched with so many various Gifts and Graces, 
Initiation into the Mysteries was anciently, as well as in these our 
times, esteemed a necessary qualification for every high office 
and employment, whether in Church or State. Lastly, the great 
Mother, the Bona Dea, shutteth up the Solemnity with her gra- 
cious benediction, which concliideth in drawing the curtain, and 
laying all her children to rest. It is to be observed that Dul- 
ness, before this her restoration, had her Pontiffs in Partibus ; 
who from time to time held her Mysteries in secret, and with 
great privacy. But now, on her re-establishment, she celebrat- 
eth thnn, like those of the Cretans (the most ancient of all Mys- 
teries) in open day, and offereth them to the inspection of all 
men, Scribl. W. 

Ver. 517. his cup — Which whoso tastes, 4*^.] The cup of Self- 
love, which causes a total oblivion of the obligations of fiiendship 
or honour, and of the siervice of God or our Country ; aU sacri- 

326 TiHjB 9yi^c%4i>. BOOXlY. 

A Feather y shoot^ig &oin wpthcir >s lieadf 
^^racts his brain^ iBtnd p^ciple 1$ flcsd ; 
Lost is his God, his country, ev'ry thing ; 
And nothing left but homage to a king ! 

$Qe4 to yainr^lory, G<Hirt^^<Hrship, or the yeit loeaner AWMidem^ 
tions of li^re and bjruti^ pleasures. From ver. dSQ to .628. 

y^r. 517. Wiih that, d Wizard] The greater myntmeii menti^iojQd 
in It irenuojc of Warburtoo on this passage, have no more to 4o wiik 
tlbe DuQciad) than they have with the hock f^ the Mvt^i* 
I^^pt can be coUe^cted about the mysteries is to be found in 
S^eursixis's Co&^^m on this subject, in the 27 vol. foiio^ of 
Gbraeyius'^ and Qronoyius's Thesaur. From which ^oUec^oas 
"jiyarburton borrowed largely in his famous Pissartj»4(^ on ^f^ 
subject, vfhich bfts been 90 completely refuted by Gib]^n« 


y&f $17. With thatf a Wizard] Dr. Wartpn, wh^ he wrQjte tbif 
note, must have forgott^, that in his Translation of Virgi} he h^u^ 
introduced W^burton's Disffertatio|[) on the vith 4?Qpi4i 9^ 4At 
he bestowed on it die highest praise. Warburton's Dissertf^lioii is . 
u^jqujE^stiopii^bly # ^orjf of ypry uii^pmmox^ le^pwig a«4 ti^^lity* ft 
abounds with noble seiitiinents ; and no persoii c^ rea4 ^ Yfi^ 
attention, without fe^ng his mind exalted, and his love of reli-f 
giqn ai^d virtue strengthened a^d confirmedr Oibboi^'s Answers 
which Dr. WfM^n colliders s^s a complete refotation* has a very 
diffarent t^]4<sncy ; he degrades Virgil iQto a mere Epiciureaiij fnid 
with the ;^eal of a true deist, endei^vours to persu^do the r^^d^r, 
that the great poet had the s^n^e ideas on the s^lQect of ^religion 
as himsd£ Bannister Bowkh 

V^r. 523,' 524. Lost is his God, his coutttryr^And nothing kft 
biu homage to a king /] So str^^ng^ as thi^ must seem tp a mese 
En^h reader, the fiunpus Mpns. de la Bruy^re declares it to be 
the cha]:fu:ter of ^very good subj^t in a Moi^urchj : " Whpre («iys 
he) there is no such thing as love of our country^ the intj^r^^t, the 
glory, and the ^ervic? of the Prince^ suj^ly its place." Ik la 
tUpiihUqi/ie^ chap. x. jp.f 

Of this duty another celebrated Fr<9c4 author iBfij^9k% m^eed, 
a little more disrespectfuUy ; which, for that reason, we shall not 


BOOK IV. Ttt* dunciad: 327 

The Vidgar herd ttum off to roll with hogs, 525 
To run with horses, or to hunt wit& dogs ; 
Butylsad example ! never to' escape 
Their infs^ny, stHl keep the human shape. 

But she, good Goddess, sent to ev'ry child 
Firm impudence, or stnpe&ction mild ; 5S0 

BEKARK8. '* 

translate, but ^ve in his own words, " L'amour de la patrie, le 
grand motif des premiers h^ros, n'est plus regard^ que comma 
une chim^re ; Fid^e du service du Roi, ^tendiie jusqu'd Toubli 
de tout autre principe, tient lieu de ce qu'on appelloit autrefois 
grandeur d'ame et fid^liti." — Boulainvilliertf Hist, de$ ancicns 
ParUmens de France, ^c. — And a much greater man than either of 
them, the Cardinal de Retz, speaking of a conversation he had 
with the Regent, Anne of Austria, makes this observation on the 
Court, — " Je connus en cet endroit, qu'il est impbssible que la 
Cour con^oive ce que c'est le public. La flatterie, qui en est la 
peste, rinfecte toujours ^ un tel point, qu'elle lui ^ cause un dilire 
ineurable'sva cet article." 1f»f 

Ver. 528. siill keep the human shape.] The effects of the Ma- 
gus-8 cup, by whidi is allegorized a total corruption of heart, are 
just contrary to that of Circe, which only represents the mdden 
plunging into pleasures. Hers, therefore, took away the shapes 
and left the human mind ; his takes away the mind, and leaves the 
human shape. But, as the philosopher observes, " Quid interest 
utrum ex homine se convertat quis in belluam, an inhominis figur& 
immanitatem gerat belluae ?" P» W. 

Ver. 628. keep the human shape^ Few pieces of satire are more 
finely imagined, than the Circe of Gelli, (co{»ed from Plutarch,) 
ill which the men transformed into beasts, refuse to return again 
into the human shape, and be again subject to the follies and mi- 
series of that species of animals. Warton. 

Ver. 529. But she, good Goddess, ^c] The only comfort such 
people can receive, must be owing in some shape or other to Dul- 
ness ; which makes one sort stupid, another impudent ; gives self- 
^nceit to some, arising from the flatteries of their dependants ; 
presents the false colours of interest to others, and busies or 
amuses the rest with idle pleasures^ or sensualities, till they be- 
come easy under any in&my. Each of which species is here sha- 
dowed under allegorical persons. P* ^- 


And straight succeeded, leaving shame no toom, 
Cibberian forehead, or Cimmerian gloom. 

Kind Self-conceit to some her glass applies, ; ' 
Which no one looks in with another's eyes : 
But, as the flatt'rer or dependant paint, 535 

Beholds himself a patriot, chief, or saint. 

On others Interest her gay liv'ry flings, 
Int rest, that waves on party-colour'd wings : 
Tum'd to the sun, she casts a thousand dyes. 
And, as she turns, the colours fall or rise. 540 

Others, the Syren Sisters warble round. 
And empty heads console with empty sound. 
No more, alas ! the voice of Fame they hear. 
The balm of Dulness trickling in their ear. 
Great C ♦ *, H ♦ *, P * ♦, R * *, K ♦, 545 

Why all your toils ? your sons have leam'd to sing. 
How quick ambition hastes to ridicule ! 
The sire is made a peer, the son a fool. 

On some, a priest, succinct in amice white. 
Attends ; all flesh is nothing in his sight ! 550 


Ver. 644. The halm of Dulness] The true halm of Dulness^ cal- 
led by the Greek Physicians KoA«xc»a, is a sovereign remedy against 
Inanity, and has its poetic name from the 'Goddess herself. Its 
ancient Dispensators were her Poets ; and for that reason our au- 
thor, Book ii. V. 207, calls it the Poe^s healing halm : but it is now 
got into as many hands as Goddard's Drops or Daffy's Elixir. It 
is prepared by the Clergy, as appears from several places of this 
poem ; and by ver. 534, 535, it seems as if the Nohility had it 
made up for domestic use, like their chocolate, in their own houses. 
This, which Opera is here said to administer, is but a spurious 
sort. See ipy Dissertation on the Silphium of the ancients. 

Bektl. W, 

Ver. 549. a priest, succinct in amice white,"] Milton^ paradise 
Regained, iv. 426. , 

« Thus 


Beeves, at his touch, at once to jelly turn. 
And the huge boar is shrunk into an urn : 
The board with specious miracles he loads. 
Turns hares to larks, and pigeons into toads. 
Another, (for in all what one can shine ?) 555 

Explains the Shve and Verdeur of the vine. 


<< Thus pass'd the night so foul, tiU morning fair 
Came forth with pilgrim steps in amice grej^.*^ Wakefield, 

Ver. 553. The board with specious miracles he loads, Ifc.l Scrib- 
lerus seems at a loss in this place. Speciosa miracula (says he) 
according to Horace, were the monstrous fables of the Cyclops, 
Laestrygons, Scylla, &c. What relation have these to the trans- 
formation of hares into larks, or of pigeons into toads ? I shall 
tell thee. The Laestrygons spitted men upon spears, as we do 
larks upon skewers; and the fair pigeon turned to a toad is 
similar to the fair virgin Scylla ending in a filthy b^ast. But 
here is the difficulty, why pigeons in so shocking a shape should 
be brought to a table. Hares indeed might be cut into larks at 
a second dressing, out of frugality ; yet that seems no probable 
motive, when we consider the extravagance before mentioned, of 
dissolving whole oxen and boars into a small vial of jelly ; nay, 
it is expressly said, that alljlesh is nothing in his sight. I have 
searched in Apicius, Pliny, and the Feast of Trimalchio, in vain. 
I can only resolve it into some mysterious superstitious rite, as it 
is said to be done by a Priest, and soon after called a Sacrifice, at- 
tended (as all ancient sacrifices were) with Libation and Song. 


This good Scholiast, not being acquainted with modem luxury, 
was ignorant that these were only the miracles of French Cookery, 
and that particularly Pigeons fn crapeau were a common dish at 
elegant tables, which never want toadhunters. P. W. 

Ver. 556. S^ve and Verdeur] French terms relating to wines, 
which signify their flavour and poignancy. 

" Et je gagerois que chez le Commandeur 
Villandri priseroit sa Seve et sa Verdeur,*^ Despr^aux. 
St. Evremont has a very pathetic letter to a Nobleman in disgrace, x 
advising him to 'seek comfort in a good table ; and particularly to 
be attentive to these qualities in his Champaigne. P. W. 


What cannot copious sacrifice atone ? 

Thy treufles, Perigord ! thy hams, Bayonne ! 

With French libation, and Italian strain. 

Wash Bladen white, and expiate Hays's stain. 560 

Knight lifts the head, for what are crowds undone. 

To three essential parteidges in one ? 

Gone ev'ry blush, and silent all reproach. 

Contending Princes mount them in their coach. 

Next, bidding all draw near on bended knees, 565 
The Queen confers her Titles and Degrees. 
Her children, first, of more distinguish'd sort. 
Who study Shakespear at the Inns of Court, 

Ver, 560. Bladen-^Hayi] Names of Gamesters. Bladen is a 
blaek man. Robert Knicht, Cashier of the South-Sea Com- 
pany, who fled from England in 1720 (afterwards pardoned in 
1742.)— These lived with the utmost magnificence at Pafis^ and 
kept open tables, frequented by persons of the first quality of 
England, and even by Princes of the Blood of France. P. Wn 

Ver. 560. Bladen] The former Note of—Bladm is a black man^ is 
very absurd. The manuscript text is here partly obliterated* and 
doubtless could only have been— <*^ Wash Blackamoors toAzV allu- 
ding to a known proverb. ScwbItEBUS. P. W. 

Colonel Martin Bladen was a man of someUterature^ and trans- 
lated CsBsar's Commentaries. I never could learn tliat he had 
offended Pope. He was uncle to my dear and lamented j&iend 
Mr. William Collins, the poet, to whom he left an estate, which he 
did not get possession of till his faculties were derangsd and he 
could not enjoy it. Warton. 

Ver. 661. Knioht lifts the head^'] ^This very man, or his son, was 
made Lord Catherlough in Ireland.— B. WakefiM. 

Ver. 667. Her children, first, of more distinguished sort. 
Who study Shakespear at the Inns of Court,'] 
111 would that Scholiast discharge his duty, who should neglect to 
honour those whom Dulness has distinguished: or suffer them to 
lie forgotten, when their rare modesty Would have left diem iunne- 



iiopale a glow-worm, or Vert6 profess. 

Shine in the dignity of F. R. S. 570 

Some, deep Fr^e-^nasons, join the silent race. 

Worthy to fill Pythagoras's place : 

Some Botanists, or florists at the least. 

Or issue Members of an annual feast. 


less. Let us not, therefore, overlook the services which have 
been done her cause, by one Mr. Thomas Edwards, a gentleman, as 
he is pleased to call himself, of Lincoln's Inn ; but, in reality, a 
gentleman only of the Dunciad ; or, to speak him better, in the 
plain language of our honest ancestors to such mushrooms, A 
gentleman qf the last edition : who nobly eluding the solicitude of 
his careful father, very early retained himself in the cause of Du/- 
ness against Shakespear ; and with the wit and learning of his an- 
cestor Tom Thimble in the Rehearsal, and with the air of good na- 
ture and politeness of Caliban in the Tempest, hath now happily 
finished die Dunces Progress, in personal abuse. For a libeller is 
nothing but a Grub-street critic run to seed. Scribl. W,'\ 

This attack on Mr. Edwards is not of weight sufficient to weaken 
the effects of his excellent Canons of Criticism. Wdrton, 

Pr. Johnson knew best how to appreciate the Canons of Criti- 
cism. Afler bestowing on it the applause it deserved, as an effu- 
sion of wit, on some person's observing that the author had shewn 
himself to be a better critie than Warburton, "That," replied the 
Doctor, " is going rather too fan A fly may sting and tease a horse ; 
but yet the horse is the nobler animal." Bannister. Bowles. 

Ver. 570. Shine in the dignity] A line taken from Bramston's 
Man of Taste ; a satire in which Bramston has been guilty of the 
absurdity of maJdng his hero laugh at himself and his own follies. 


Ver. on. Some^ de^p Free-masans, join the iUent race,'] The 
poet all along expresses a very particular concern for this silent 
race. He }ms hare provided, that in case they will uot waken or 
ap^n (as was before proposed) to sl Humming-bird, or &CocUe„ yet 
at worst they may be made Free-masons ; where Taciturnity is the 
only essential qualification, as it was the chief of the disciples of 
Pythagoras. P. W. 


Nor pass the meanest, unregarded ; one ' 575 
Rose a Gregorian^ one a Gormogon. , , 

The last^ not least in honour or applause^ 
Isis and Cam made Doctors of her Laws. 

Then, blessing all, '' Go, Children of my care ! 
To practice now from theory repair. 580 

All my commands are easy, short, and full : 
My Sons ! be proud, be selfish, and be dull. 


Ver. 676. a Gregorian, one a Gormogon.~\ A sort of lay-bro- 
thers, two of the innumerable slips from the root of the Free- 
masons. P, W. 

Ver. 677. Doctors of her Laws.] Pope expected, at one time, 
to have been made LL.D. of Oxford, but was disappointed. 
Hence this stroke of resentment ! Bowles. 

Pope had the offer, when at Oxford with Warburton, of being 
made LL. D., but refused it ; because the University would not 
confer the degree of D. D. on Warburton, to whom some of the 
members had proposed it. 

Ver. 681. All my commands are easy^ short, and full : 
My Sons ! be proud, he selfish^ and he dull^ 
He here treads in the steps of his poetic master, part ii. of Absa- 
lom and Achitophel : 

'< The midwife laid her hand on his thick skull. 
With this prophetic blessings Be thou duUT Wak^ld, 
Ver. 681. All my commands are easy, shorty and full : 

My Sons ! he proud, he selfish and he dull.] 
We should be unjust to the reign of Dulness not to confess that 
hers has one advantage in it rarely to be met with in modem 
'Governments, which is, that the public education of her youth fits 
and prepares them for the observance of her Laws^ and the exer- 
tion of those Virtues she recommends. For what makes men 
prouder than the empty knowledge of Words; what iQore selfish^ 
than the Freethinker's System of Morals; or duller, than the pro- 
fession of true Virtuosoship f Nor are her Institutions less admir- 
able in themselves, than in the fitness of these thejr several rela- 


Guard my prerogative, assert my throne : 
This nod confirms each privilege your own. 
The cap and switch be sacred to his Grace ; 585 
With staff and pumps the Marquis lead the race ; 
From stage to stage the licensed Earl may run, 
Pair'd with his fellow-charioteer, the Sun; 
The learned Baron butterflies design. 
Or draw to silk Arachne's subtile line ; 590 


tions, to promote t^e harmony of the whole. For she tells her 
Sons, and with great truth, that " all her commands are ea^, short, 
andjull/* For is any thing in nature more easy than the exertion 
of Pride; more short and simple than the principle of Selfishness; 
or more Jitll and ample than the sphere oiDulnessf ' Thus, Birth, 
Education, and wise Policy, all concurring to support the throne 
of our Goddess, great must he the strength thereof. Scribl. W, 

Ver. 684. each privilege your own,'] This speech of Dul- 
ness to her Sons at parting may possihly fall short of the reader's 
expectation ; who may imagine the Goddess might give them a 
charge of more consequence ; and, from such a theory as is before 
delivered, incite them to the practice of something more extra- 
ordinary, than to personate Running-Footmen, Jockeys, Stage- 
Coachmen, &c. 

But if it be well considered, that whatever inclination her sons 
might have to do mischief, they are generally rendered harmless 
by their inability ; and that it is the common effect of Dulness, 
even in her greatest efforts, to defeat her own design, the poet, 
I am persuaded, will be justified, and it will be allowed, that these 
worthy persons, in their several ranks, do as much as can be well 
expected from them. P. W. 

Ver. 689. The learned Baron] Evidently taken from Young's 
Universal Passion, Satire 1. 

" By this inspired (O ne'er to be forgot) 
Some lords have leam'd to spell, and some to knot." 


Ver. 690. Arachne's subtil line ;] This is one of the most in- 
genious employments assigned, and therefore recommended only 



The Judge to dance Iiis bf other Sergeant call ; 
The Senator at cricket urge the hall ; 
The Bishop stow (Pontific luxury !) 
A hundred souls of turkeys m a pie ; 
The sturdy Squire to Gallic masters stoops 595 
And drown his lands and manors m a soupe. 
Others import yet nobler arts from France, 
Teach Kings to fiddle, and make Senates dance. 
Perhaps more high some daring son may soar. 
Proud to my list to add one Monarch more ; 600 
And nobly conscious. Princes are but things 
Bom for First Ministers, as slaves for Kings, 
Tyrant supreme ! shall three Estates command. 


More she had spoke, but yawn'd — All Nature 
nods : 605 


What mortal can resist the yawn of Gods ? 



to Peers of learning. Of weaving gray silk stockings of the webs 
of spiders, see the Philosoph. Transact. P. W, 

Ver. 691. The Judge to dance his brother Sergeant call;'] Allud- 
ing perhaps to that ancient and solemn Dance, intitled, A Call of 
Sergeants. P. l^. 

Ver. 698. Teach Kings to Jiddle^'] An ancient amusement of 
Sovereign Princes, (viz.) Achilles, Alexander, Nero; though de- 
spised by Themistocles, who was a Republican — Make Senates 
dance, either after their Prince, or to Pontoise, or Siberia. P. W. 

Ver. 698. make Senates dance,"] Alludes to the frequent banish- 
ments of the parliaments of France, when they exerted a noble spirit 
of opposition to despotic power. In the Annual Registers of those 
times, are many spirited remarks on these banishments by a man 
of great genius. Warton, 

Ver. 601. Princes are but things] The making ministers of more 
real importance than princes, is admirably severe. Waridn. 

Ver. 606. What mortal can resist the yaxvn of Godb f] This 



Churches and Chapels instantly it reaeh'd ; 
(St James's firsts for leaden Gilbert preach'd) 


verse is truly Homerical ; as is the conclusion of the action, where 
the great Mother composes all, in the same manner as Minerva 

at the period of the Odyssey. It may indeed seem a vary sior 

gular Epitasis of a poem, to end as this does, with a great tawv ; 
but we must consider it as the yawn of a God^ and of powerful 
effects. Nor is it out of nature ; most long and grave counsels 
concluding in this very manner. Nor yet without authority, the 
incomparable Spencer having ended one of the most considerable 
of his works with a Roar; but then it is the Roar qfa lAonf the 
effects whereof (as here of the Yatm) are described as the catas- 
trophe of the poem. P. W* 

Ver. 607. Churches and Chapels^ 4'c.] The progress of this 
Yawn is judicious, natural, and worthy to be noted. First it 
seizeth the Churches and Chapels; then catcheth the Sdbools, 
where, though th^ boys be unwilling to sleep, the Masters are 
not ; next Westminster-hall, much more hard indeed to subdiie^ 
and not totally put to silence even by the Goddess ; thmi the Con- 
vocation, which though extremely desirous to speakf yet cannot. 
Even the House of Commons, justly called the Sense of the Na- 
tion, is lost (that is to say, suspended) during the Yawn (£ir be it 
from our author to suggest it could be lost any longer !) but it 
spreadeth at large over all the rest of the kingdom, to such a 
degree, that Palinurus himself (though as incapable of sleeping as 
Jupiter himself) yet noddeth for a moment : the effect of which, 
though ever so momentary, could not but cause some relaxation, 
for the time, in all public affairs. Scriblerus. P, W* 

Ver. 608. /or leaden Gilbert] Dr. Gilbert, archbishop of York. 
He had never given Pope any particular offence ; but he had at- 
tacked Dr. King of Oxford, whom Pope much respected. And 
this attack was made in a rude and rough manner. Warton. 

I have been informed by a * Prelate of the most distinguished 
learning, candour, and good sense, that there never was an ex- 
pression applied with such injustice, as " leaden" to Dr. Gilbert, 
who was in fact an eloquent and impressive preacher ; so much so, 

^ The Bishop of Salisbury. 


Then caught the Schools ; the HaU scarce kept 

a tv aKe • 
The Convocation gap'd^ hut could not speak : 610 
Lost was the Nation's Sense, nor could he found. 
While the long solemn Unison went round : 
Wide, and more wide, it spread o'er all the realm ; 
Ev'n PalinuSrus nodded at the helm : 


that the amiable Prelate I allude to, having heard an animated 
discourse delivered by Gilbert, committed some of the leading 
ideas, and the most striking expressions, to memory ; and after- 
wards preached the same sermon before Dr. Gilbert, and mentioned 
the circumstance ; who very good-naturedly said, " Then you are 
not ashamed of '' leaden Gilbert /" Botoles. 

Ver. 610. The Convocation gap'd, hut could not speak:'], Impl3ring 
a great desire so to do, as the learned Scholiast on the place 
rightly observes. Therefore beware, reader, lest thou take this 
Gape for a Yawn, which is attended with no desire, but to go to rest : . 
by no means the disposition of the Convocation ; whose melancholy 
case in short is this. She was, as is reported, infected with the 
general influence of the Goddess ; and while she was yawning 
carelessly at her ease, a wanton Courtier took her at advantage, 
and in the very nick, clapp'd a Gag into her mouth. Well therefore 
may we know her meaning by her gaping; and this distressM 
posture which our poet here describes, is just as she stands at this 
day, a sad example of the efiects of Dulness and Malice unchecked 
and despised. Bentl. W, 

Ver. 613. Wide, and more wide, it spread oW all the realm; 
Ev*n Palinurus nodded at the helm :] 
This very elegant allusion he owes to Young, Sat. vii. ver. 225. 
" What felt thy Walpole, pilot of the realm r 
Our Palinurus slept not at the helm : 
His eye ne'er clos'd, long since inur'd to wake, 
And out-watch ev'ry star for Brunswick's sake." 
The expression of the last line is taken from Milton, Penseroso, 

ver. 87. 

" Where I may oft out-watch the Bear." Wakefield, 


The vapour mild o'er each Committee crept; 616 
Unfinish'd treaties in each Office slept ; 
And chiefless armies doz'd out the campaign ; 
And navies yawn'd for orders on the main. 
O Muse ! relate (for you can tell alone ; 
Wits have short memories, and Dunces none) 620 


Ver. 615 — 618.] These verses were written many years ago, and 
may be found in the State Poems of that time. So that Scriblerus 
is mistaken, or whoever else have imagined this poem of a fresher 
date. P. W. 

Ver. 616. The vapour mild o*er each Committee crept; 
Unfinished treaties in each Office slept ; 
And chiefless armies doz'd out the campaign ; 
And navies yawned for orders on the main,"] 
These four verses are said to be taken from the State Poems ; but 
I am unable to point out their station there. They partly existed 
in the poem, probably that intended, of Hali&x on Orpheus and 
Signora Margarita : 

** And, when the tawny Tuscan rais'd her strain, 
Rook furls his sails, and dozes on the main : 
Treaties unfinish'd in the office sleep, 
And Shovel yawns for orders on the deep," 
Of the first of these verses our poet has made use in his Ode on 
St Cecilia's Day : 

" High on the stern the Thracian rais'd his strain.^' Wakefield, 
Ver. 619. Muse! relate"] Mr. Gray*s opinion of this fourth 
book was as follows : " The genii of operas and schools, with their 
attendants, the pleas of the virtuosos and florists, and the yawn 
of Dulness in the end, are as fine as any thing he has written. 
The metaphysician's part is to me the worst ; and here and there 
a few ill-expressed lines, and some hardly intelligible." War ton, 
Ver. 620. Wits have short memories^ This seemeth to be the 
reason why the poets, whenever they give us a Catalogue, con- 
stantly call for help on the Muses, who, as the daughters o^ Memory ^ 
are obliged not to forget any thing. So Homer, Iliad ii. 

El fjA *OXvfd,irhaiiii Mecratj A»o( aiyU^oio 

QvycdifiU /*»ii^a>»0 

VOL. IV. Z A.wd 


Relate^ who firsts who last resign'd to rest ; 
Whose heads she partly, whose cpmpletely hlest; 
What charms could Faction, what Ambition lull. 
The venal quiet, and entrance the dull ; 
Till drown'd was sense, and shame, and right, and 
wrong — 625 

O sing, and hush the nations with thy song ! 

In vain, in vain ! The all-composing hour 
Resistless falls ; the Muse obeys the Pow'r. 
She comes ! she comes ! the sable throne behold 
Of Night primeval, and of Chaos old ! 630 


And Virg. ^neid. vii. 

" Et meministis enim, DivaB, et memorare potestis ': 
Ad nos vix tenuis famae perlabitur aura." 
But our poet had yet another reason for putting this task upon 
the Muse, that, all besides being asleep, she only could relate what 
passed. Scriblerus. P. W, 

Ver. 624. The venal quiet, ^c] It were a problem worthy the 
solution of Aristarchus himself (and perhaps not of less importance 
than some of those so long disputed amongst Homer's Scholiasts, 
as, in which hand Venus was wounded, and what Jupiter whispered 
in the ear of Juno,) to inform us, which required the greatest effort 
of our Goddess's power, to entrance the dull, or to quiet the venal. 
For though the venal may be more unndy than the dull, yet, on 
the other hand, it demands a much greater expense of her virtue 
to entrance than barely to quiet, Scribl. fV. 

Ver. 629. She comes! she comes! ^c] Here the Muse, like 
Jove's Eagle, after a sudden stoop at ignoble game, soareth again 
to the skies. As prophecy hath ever been one of the chief pro^ 
vinces of poesy, our poet here foretels from what we feel, what 



Ver. G21. Relate, who first, who last resign d to rest; 

Whose heads she partly, whose completely blest ;] 
*' Quern telo primum, quem postremum, aspera Virgo, 
Dejicis ? aut quot humi morientia corpora fundlB T* Virg, fF.f 


Before her. Fancy's gilded clouds decay. 
And all its varying rainbows die away. 
Wit shoots in vain its momentary fires. 
The meteor drops, and in a flash expires. 
As one by one, at dread Medea's strain, 635 

The sick'ning stars fade off th' ethereal plain ; 
As Argus' eyes, by Hermes' wand opprest, 
Clos'd one by one to everlasting rest ; 
Thus, at her felt approach, and secret might. 
Art after Art goes out, and all is Night. 640 

See skulking Truth to her old cavern fled. 
Mountains of casuistry heap'd o'er her head ! 
Philosophy, that lean'd on Heav'n before. 
Shrinks to her second cause, and is no more. 


we are to fear ; and in the style of Apollo's prophets, hath used the 
future tense for the preterit ; since what he says shall be, is already 
to be seen, in the writings of some even of our most adored authors, 
in Divinity, Philosophy, Physics, Metaphysics, &c. who are too 
good indeed to be named in such company. P. W, 

Ver. 629. the sable throne behold] The sable thrones of Night 
and Chaos, here represented as advancing to extinguish the light of 
the Sciences, in the first place blot out the colours of Fancy and damp 
the fire of Wit, before they proceed to their greater work. W. 

Ver. 641. Truth to her old cavern fled,'] Alluding to the saying 
of Democritus, that Truth lay at the bottom of a deep well, from 
whence he had drawn her ; though Butler replied, archly enough. 
He first put her in, before he drew her out, W, 

Ver. 643. Philosophy, that leaned on Heav'n] Philosophy has 



Ver. 637. As Argus* eyes, t^cJ] 

" Et quamvis sopor est oculorum parte receptus. 

Parte tamen vigilat 

Vidit Cyllenius omnes 
Succubuisse ocidos," && Ovid. Met. ii. P.f 



Physic of Melaphysic begs defence^ 645 

And Metaphysic calls for aid on Sense ! 


at length brought things to that pass, as to have it esteemed un- 
philosophical to rest in the first came; as if its business were an 
endless indagation of cause after cause, without ever coming to 
the First. So that to avoid this unlearned disgrace, some of the 
propagators of our best philosophy have had recourse to the con- 
trivance here hinted at. , For this philosophy, which is founded on 
the principle of Gravitation^ first considered that property in matter 
as something extrinsical to it, and impressed by God upon it; 
which &irly and modestly coming up to the first Cause, was 
pushing natural inquiries as far as they should go. But this stop* 
ping, though at the extent of our ideas, and on the maxim of the 
great founder of this Philosophy, Bacon, who says. Circa ultimates 
rerum frustranea est inquisitio, was mistaken by foreign philosophers 
as recurring to the occult qualities of the Peripatetics ; whose sense 
is thus delivered by a great poet, whom, indeed, it more became 
than a philosopher : 

** Sed gravitas etiam crescat, dum corpora centro 

Accedunt propius. Videor mihi cernere terra 

Emergens quidquid caliginis ac tenebrarum 

Pellcn juvenis Doctor conjecerat olim 

In Physica studium.*^ Anti-Lucr. 

To avoid which imaginary discredit to the new theory, it was 
thought proper to seek for the cause of gravitation in a certain 
subtile matter or elastic fluid, which pervaded all body. By this, 
means, instead of really advancing in natural inquiries, we were 
brought back again, by this ingenioxis expedient, to an unsads- 
fiictory second cause : 

" Philosophy, that l^an'd on Heaven before, 

Shrinks to her second cause, and is no more." 
For it might still, by the same kind of objection, be asked, what 
was the cause of that elasticity f See this folly censured, ver. 476. 
and confuted in the words of an excellent philosopher : Baxter's 
Appendix to his Inquirj/ into the nature of the human soul, p. 194. IF. 
Ver. 646, 64G. Physic of Metaphysic, ^c.—^iff? Metaphysic 
calls, fyc] Certain ii^Titers, as Malbranche, Norris, and Berkdey, 
have thought it of importance, in order to secure the existence of 



See Mystery to Mathematics fly ! 

In vain ! they gaze^ turn giddy, rave, and die. 

Religion blushing veils her sacred fires. 

And unawares Morality expires. 650 


the soul^ to bring in question the reality of body; which they have 
attempted to do by a very refined metaphysical reasoning ; while 
others of the same party, in order to persuade us of the necessity 
of a Revelation which promises immortality, have been as anxious 
to prove tliat those qualities which are commonly supposed to be- 
long only to an immaterial Being, are but the result from certain 
dispositions of the particles of matter, and consequently that the 
soul is naturally mortal. Thus, between their diflPerent reasonings, 
these good men have left us neither Soul nor Body; nor the 
Sciences of Physics and Metaphysics the least support, by making 
them depend upon, and go a begging to, one another. W, 

Ver. 647. See Mystery to Mathematics fly /] A sort of men, 
who make human reason the adequate measure of all truth, hav- 
ing pretended that whatsoever is not fully comprehended by it, 
is contrary to it. Certain defenders of religion, who would not 
be outdone in a paradox, have gone as far in the opposite folly, 
and attempted to shew that the mysteries of religion may be ma- 
thematically demonstrated ; as the authors of Philosophic^ or As' 
tronomic Principles of Religion, natural and revealed; who have 
much prided themselves on reflecting a fantastic light upon reli- 
gion from the frigid subtilty of school moonshine. W.. 

Ver. 649. Religion blushing veils her sacred fires,'] Blushing as 
well at the memory of the past overflow of dulness, when the 
barbarous learning of so many ages was wholly employed in cor* 
rupting the simplicity, and defiling the purity of religion, as at 
the view of these her false supports in the present ; of which it 
would be endless to recount the particulars. However, amidst the 
extinction of all other lights, she is said only to withdraw hers; 
as hers alone in ita own nature is unextinguishable and eternal. 


Ver. 660. And unawares. Morality expires,] It appears firom 
hence that our poet was of very different sentiments from the 
author of the Characteristics, who has written a formal treatise 



Nor public flame^ nor private, dares to shine ; 
Nor human spark is left^ nor glimpse divine I 
Lo ! thy dread empire. Chaos ! is restor'd ; 
Light dies hefore thy uncreating word : 

K£ MARS8 • 

on Virtue, to prove it not only real but durable, without the sup- 
port of religion. The word unawares alludes to the confidence 
of those men, who suppose that morality would flourish best with- 
out it ; and consequently to the surprise such would be in (if any 
such there are) who indeed love virtue, and yet do aU they can to 
root out the religion of their country. W. 

Ver. 656. And universal darkness buries alW] The conclusion is 
evidently suggested by Shakespear's 

*< And darkness be the burier of the dead." 
So ends, according to Pope, all knowledge, virtue, art, elo- 
quence, public spirit, and private worth, 

" Nor human spark is left, nor glimpse divine,** 
I remember an obscure satire upon the foUies of France, in which 
are these curious lines, 

" Unhappy land, where Truth's kicked out qf doors. 
Where all the men are rogues, and women, whores T 
The author had the same ideas as Pope, but certainly not so 
much poetry. 

Can it be thought that this period was enhghtiened by Young, 
Thomson, Glover, &c. and many whose characters reflected equal 
lustre on rehgion, morals, and philosophy? But such is satire, 
when it is not guided by truth. Bowles, 

It is scarcely necessary to say that the opinions expressed by 
Mr. Bowles in the foregoing note, are founded on an entire mis- 
conception of the nature of the poem, and the intention of the 
poet, who never meant to apply, actually, the universal darkness to 
the times in which he lived, but hypotheticalfy, as what would be 
the result of the successftd efforts of the Goddess of Dulness. 
His object is not to depreciate, to lament over, and to degrade, 
but to forewarn, to stimulate, and to preserve ; and if in some 
passages, both in the poem and notes, he ridicules the idea of 
there being great geniuses in divinity, politics, &c., (a notion which 
every s^e is liable to entertain, and the rudest not the least); his 



Thy hand^ great Anarch ! lets the curtain fall; 655 
And universal darkness buries all. 


object is still to abate unjust pretensions, to correct^ and to amend. 
Is it to be supposed that Pope, surrounded as he was by numerous 
friends of the highest rank, talents, and patriotism, the names of 
whom he has immortalized in his works, would seriously have 

Nor public flame, nor private, dares to shine. 
Nor human spark is left, nor glimpse divine f 

A due attention to this subject might have superseded the so- 
lemn remark with which Mr. Bowles has terminated the notes 
on the DuNciAD. 



Wlfli(S^<S^ certain Haberdashers of Points 

and Particles, l)e(ng iiutttgateH bp t|)e fitpirit of 
Pride, aitD asisitttning to tl^tmsitVot& tbt name of 
Critics aitD Restorers, |)abe taften upon tbem to 
adulterate tbe common anb current mm of our 

Glorious Ancestors, Poets of this Realm, bp 

cUpptng, cointng, befacCng tbe (magesi, mims 
tbeir obm basie aUap, or o^erbiCsie fateifptng 
tbe same ; tobicb tbep pubUsibf utter, anb benH 
BS genuine : Cbe saib Sabetbosbers; babing no 
ri0bt tb^eto^ BS neit|)er b^rsi, tjtcutorsi, albmi' 

nifiitratorst, aststignst, or in any sort related tO 

siucb ^etsi, to all or anp of tbem ; Now We, 
babing carefUllp rebis^eb tbiss our Dundad,« be^^ 

* Read thus confidently, instead of " beginning with the word 
BookSf and ending with the word JiieSf^ as formerly it stood. 
Read also, " containing the entire sum of one thousand seven him" 
dred and fifhffour verses,*' instead of " one thousand and twelve 
lines ;" such being the initial and final words, and such the true 
and entire contents, of this poem. 

Thou art to know, reader ! that the first edition thereof, like 
that of Milton, was never seen by the author, though Hving and 
not blind. The editor himself confessed as much in his prefiice ; 
and no two poems weref ever published in so arbitrary a manner. 
The editor of this had as boldly suppressed whole passages, yea, 
the entire last book, as the editor of Paradise Lost added and 


SUmtnS tDitI) tt)e toOrHtl The Mighty Mother, 

anH etttitng Mtl^ tt)e Uiottis; buries all, contain^ 

in0 ^^ 0ntCt( £luni of One thousand seven hun- 
dred and fifty-four verses, iKClflt^ 0b0tp tDOtTl« 

fijQfure, poCnt, atiH comma of t^i& impressiton to 
be aut|)mttc : 9itib Tio t^tttUixt gtrCctlp enjoCn 
anH fOrblti anp pttaon or per£H)ns! )D|)atgoetoer» 
to erase, reberge, put between hooks, or bp an? 
otber means, tiirectl? or tioiirectlp, cbange or 
mangle anp of tbem* And toe iro |)ereb? ear< 
nestlp ejcbort all our brethren to fOlloto this 
our Example, tDbict) toe bearttlp toCsib our great 
preoeeesKors; bati beretofOre set, as a remebp 
aifli prebentton of all sucb abuses. Provided 
always, t|)at notbtng In tbis laeclaratlon sball 
be construed to Umtt tbe labiful anb utOioubteb 
tisbt of eberp subiett of tbts i^alm, to lubge, 
censure, or coitbemn. In tbe bibole or in part, 
an? $oem or $oet tobatsoeber. 

Given under our hand at London this third 
Day of January^ in the Year of our 
Lord one thousand seven hundred 
thirty and two. 

Declarat' cor' me, 
John Barber, Mayor. 

augmented. Milton himself gave but ten books, his editor 
twelve; this author gave four books, his editor only three. But 
we have happily done justice to both ; and presume we shdl Kve 
in this our last labour, as long as in any of our others. 

Benti.. P.f 





Prefixed to the Jive first imperfect Editions oj the 
DUNCIAD, in three books, printed at Dublin 
and London, in octavo and duodecimo, 1727. 

The Publisher* to the Reader. 

It will be found a true observation, though some- 
what surprising, that when any scandal is vented 
against a man of the highest distinction and cha- 
racter, either in the state or literature, the public 

♦ The Publisher] Who he was is uncertain ; but Edward Ward 
tells us, in his Preface to Durgen, " that most judges are of 
opinion this Preface is not of English extraction, but Hibernian," 
&c. He means it wa3 written by Dr. Swift, who, whether the 
publisher or not, may be said in a sort to be author of the poem. 
For when he, together with Mr. Pope (for reasons specified in the 
Preface to their Miscellanies) determined to own the most trifling 
pieces in which they had any hand, and to destroy all that remained 
in their power, the first sketch of this poem was snatched from 
the fire by Dr. Swift, who persuaded his friend to proceed in it, 
and to him it was therefore inscribed. P, 

But the occasion of printing it was as follows : 

There was published in those Miscellanies, a Treatise of the 
Bathos, or Art of sinking in Poetry, in which was a chapter, 
where the species of bad writers were ranged in classes, and initial 
letters of names prefixed, for the most part at random. But 
such was the number of poets eminent in that art, that some one 
or other took every letter to himself. All fell into so violent a 
fury, that for half a year, or more, the common newspapers (in 



in general afford it a most quiet reception ; and 
the large part accept it as favourably as if it were 
some kindness done to themselves ; whereas^ if a 
known scoundrel or blockhead but chance to be 
touched upon^ a whole legion is up in arms^ and 
it becomes the common cause of all scribblers, 
booksellers, and printers whatsoever. 

Not to search too deeply into the reason hereof, I 
will only observe as a fact, that every week for these 
two months past, the town has been persecuted with 
pamphlets,* advertisements, letters, and weekly 
essays, not only against the wit and writings, but 
against the character and person of Mr. Pope. 

most of which they had some property, as being hired writers) 
were filled with the most abusive falsehoods and scurrilities they 
could possibly devise ; a liberty no ways to be wondered at in 
those people, and in those papers, that, for many years, during 
the uncontrolled licence of the press, had aspersed almost all the 
great characters of the age ; and this with impunity, their own 
persons and names being utterly secret and obscure. This gave 
Mr. Pope the thought, that he had now some opportunity of 
doing good, by detecting and dragging into light these common 
enemies of mankind ; since to invalidate this universal slander, it 
sufficed to shew what contemptible men were the authors of it. 
He was not without hopes, that by manifesting the dulness of 
those who had only malice to recommend them, either the book- 
sellers would not find their account in emplo3ring them, or the 
men themselves, when discovered, want courage to proceed in so 
unlawful an occupation. This it was that gave birth to the Dun- 
ciad ; and he thought it a happiness, that by the late flood of 
slander on himself, he had acquired such a peculiar right over 
their names as was necessary to his design. P.f 

* pamphlets, advertisements, frc] See the list of those anonym- 
mous papers, with their dates and authors annexed. Appendix, 
No. U. • P. 


And that of all those men who have received plea^ 
sure from his works (which by modest computer 
tion may be"*^ about a hundred thousand in these 
kingdoms of England and Ireland ; not to men- 
tion Jersey, Guernsey, the Orcades, those in the 
new world, and foreigners who have translated 
him into their languages,) of all this number not 
a man hath stood up to say one word in his de- 

The only exception is the f author of the fol- 
lowing poem, who doubtless had either a better in- 
sight into the grounds of this clamour, or a better 
opinion of Mr. Pope's integrity, joined with a 
greater personal love for him, than any other of 
his numerous friends and admirers. 

Farther, that he was in his peculiar intimacy, 
appears from the knowledge he manifests of the 
most private authors of all the anonymous pieces 
against him, and from his having in this poem at- 

^ about a hundred thousand] It is surprising with what stupi- 
dity this Preface, which is ahnost a continued irony, was taken 
by those authors. All such passages as these were understood by 
Curl, Cook, Cibber, and others, to be serious. P. 

Hear the Laureate (Letter to Mr. Pope, p. 9.), " Though I 
grant the Dunciad a better poem of its kind than ever was writ ; 
yet when I read it with those vainglorious encumbrances of Notes 

and Remarks upon it, &c. it is amazing, that you, who have * 

writ with such masterly spirit upon the ruling Passion, should 
b^ so blind a slave to your own, as not to see how far a low ava- 
rice of praise f** &c. (taking it for granted that the notes of Scrib- 
lerus and others were the author's own.) P.f 

t the author of the following poeni^ ^c] A very plain irony, 
speaking of Mr. Pope himselfl F« 


tacked *no man living, who had not before printed, 
or published^ some scandal against this gentleman. 

How I came possessed of it^ is no concern to the 
reader ; but it would have been a wrong to him 
had I detained the publication^ since those names 
which are its chief ornaments die off daily so fast, 
as must render it too soon unintelligible. If it pro- 
voke the author to give us a more perfect edition, 
I have my end. 

Who he is I cannot say, and (which is a great 
pity) there is f certainly nothing in his style and 
manner of writing, which can distinguish or dis-, 
cover him. For, if it bears any resemblance to that 
of Mr. Pope, it is not improbable but it might be 
done on purpose, with a view to have it pass for 
his. But by the frequency of his allusions to Vir- 
gil, and a laboured, not to say affected, shortness in 
imitation of him, I should think him more an ad- 
mirer of the Roman poet than of the Grecian, and 
in that not of the same taste with his friend. 

I have been well informed, that this work waS/ 
the labour of full J six years of his life, and that he 

* The publisher in these words went a little too far : but it is 
certain whatever names the reader finds that are unknown to him, 
are of such ; and the exception is only of two or three, whose dul- 
ness, impudent scurrilities, or self-conceit, all mankind agreed to 
have justly entitled them to a place in the Dunciad. P. 

f there is certainly nothing in his style, ^c] This irony had 
small effect in concealing the author. The Dunciad, imperfect as 
it was, had not been published two days, but the whole Town 
gave it to Mr. Pope. P. 

X the labour of full six years, 4*^.] This also was honestly and 


wholly retired himself from all the avocations and 
pleasures of the world, to attend diligently to its 
correction and perfection ; and six years more he 
intended to bestow upon it, as it should seem by 
this verse of Statius, which was cited at the head 
of his manuscript, 

O mihi bissenos multum mgilata per annos, 
Duncia /* 

Hence also we learn the true title of the poem ; 
which with the same certainty as we call that of 
Homer the Iliad, of Virgil the iEneid, of Camoens 
the Lusiad,f we may pronounce, could have been, 
and can be no other than 


It is styled Heroic, as being doubly so ; not only 
with respect to its nature, which, according to the 

seriously believed by divers gentlemen of the Dunciad. J. Ralph, 
pref. to Sawney : " We are told it was the labour of six years, 
with the utmost assiduity and application. It is no great compli- 
ment to the author's sense, to have employed so large a part of 
his life," &c. So also Ward, pref. to Durgen : " The Dunciad, 
as the publisher very wisely confesses, cost the author six years 
retirement from all the pleasures of life ; though it is somewhat 
difficult to conceive, from either its bulk or beauty, that it could 
be so long in hatching, &c. But the length of time and closeness 
of application were mentioned to prepossess the reader with a good 
opinion of it." 

They just as well understood what Scriblerus said of the poem. 


* The prefacer to Curl's Key, p. 3. took this word to be really 
in Statius : " By a quibble on the word Duncia^ the Dunciad is 
formed." Mr. Ward also follows him in the same opinion. P. 

•f In the edition of 1729 was here inserted, " of Voltaire 

VOL. TV. 2 A 


best rules of the ancients^ and strictest ideas of the 
modems^ is critically such ; but also with regard 
to the heroical disposition and high courage of the 
writer, who dared to stir up such a formidable, ir- 
ritable, and implacable race of mortals. 

There may arise some obscurity in chronology 
from the Names in the poem, by the inevitable re- 
moval of some authors, and insertion of others in 
their niches. For whoever will consider the unity 
of the whole design, will be sensible, that thej^o^n 
was not made for these authors^ hut these authors 
for the poem. I should judge that they were clap- 
ped in as they rose, fresh and fresh, and changed 
from day to day; in like manner as when the 
old boughs wither, we thrust new ones into a 

I would not have the reader too much troubled 
or anxious if he cannot decypher them ; since when 
he shall have found them out, he will probably 
know no more of the persons than before. 

Yet we judged it better to preserve them as they 
are, than to change them for fictitious names ; by 
which the satire would only be multiplied, and ap- 
plied to many instead of one. Had the Hero, for 
instance, been called Codrus, how many would 
have affirmed him to have been Mr. T. Mr. E. Sir 
R. B. &c. but now all that unjust scandal is saved, 
by calling him by a name, which by good luck hap- 
pens to be that of a real person. 

the Henriady^ and in a note was added, " The French poem of 
Mons. Voltaire, entitled La Henriade^ had been published at Lon- 
don the year before ;" but this was afterwards omitted. 



A List of Books^ Papers, an^ Verses, in which 
Qt^r Authpr was abused, before the Publication 
of the DVNCI AD ; with the true Names of the 

Reflections critical and satirical, on a late Rhap- 
sody, called An Essay on Criticism. By Mr. Den- 
nis ; printed by B. Lintot, price 6d. 

A new Rehearsal, or Bays the younger ; con- 
taining an Examen of Mr. Rowe's Plays, and a 
word or two on Mr. Pope's Rape of the Lock. 
Anon. [By Charles Gil(Jon.] Printed for J. Ro- 
berts, 1714, price Is. 

Homerides, or a Letter to Mr. Pope, occasioned 
by his intended translation of Homer. By Sir Hiad 
Doggrel [Tho. Burpet and G. Ducket, JEsquires]. 
Printed for W. Wilkins, 17J5, price 9d. 

^sop at the Be^-r-garden ; a vision, in imitation 
of the Temple of Fame, by Mr. Preston. Sold by 
John Morphew, 1715, price 6d. 

The Catholic Poet, or Protestant Bamaby's Sor- 
ro)vful Lamentation ; a Ballad about Homer's Iliad. 
By Mrs. Centlivre, and others, 1715, price Id. 

An Epilogue to a Puppet-shew at Bath, con- 
cerning the said Iliad. By George Ducket, Esq. 
Printed by E. Curl. 



A complete Key to the What d'ye call it. Anon. 

CBy Griffin, a player, supervised by Mr. Th ^ 

Printed by J. Roberts, 1715. 

A true Character of Mr. P. and his Writings, in 
a letter to a friend. Anon. [^Dennis] Printed for 
S. Popping, 1716, price 3d. 

The Confederates, a Farce. By Joseph Gay. 
CJ. D. Breval] Printed for R. Burleigh, 1717, 
price Is. 

Remarks upon Mr. Pope's translation of Ho- 
mer; with two letters concerning the Windsor 
Forest, and the Temple of Fame. By Mr. Dennis, 
printed for E. Curl, 1717, price Is. 6d. 

Satires on the translators of Homer, Mr. P. and 
Mr. T. Anon. [[Bez. Morris^ 1717, price 6d. 

The Triumvirate ; or, a Letter from Palaemon 
to Celia at Bath. Anon. [[Leonard Welsted^ 1711, 
folio, price Is. 

The Battle of Poets ; an heroic poem. ByTho. 
Cooke, printed for J. Roberts, folio, 1725. 

Memoirs of Lilliput. Anon. [[Eliz. Haywood] 
octavo, printed in 1727. 

An Essay on Criticism, in prose. By the Author 
of the Critical History of England [J. Oldmixon)] 
octavo, printed 1728. 

Gulliveriana and Alexandriana ; with an ample 
preface and critique on Swift and Pope's Miscella- 
nies. By Jonathan Smedley, printed by J. Ro- 
berts, octavo, 1728. 

Characters of the Times ; or, an account of the 
writings, characters, &c. of several gentlemen 11- 


belled by S— and P — , in a late Miscellany^ octa- 
vo, 1728, 

Remarks on Mr. Pope's Rape of the Lock, in 
letters to a friend. By Mr. Dennis ; written in 
1724, though not printed till 1728, octavo. 

Verses, Letters, Essays, or Advertisements, 

in the Public Prints. 

British Journal, Nov. 25, 1727. A Letter on 
Swift and Pope's Miscellanies. [^Writ by M. Con- 

Daily Journal, March 18, 1728. A Letter by 
Philomauri. James Moore Smith. 

Id. March 29. A Letter about Thersites ; ac- 
cusing the Author of disaffection to the Govern- 
ment. By James Moore Smith. 

Mist's Weekly Journal, March 30. An Essay 
on the Arts of a Poet's sinking in reputation ; or, 
a Supplement to the Art of Sinking in Poetry. 
[TSupposed by Mr. Theobald.] 

Daily Journal, April 3. A Letter under the 
name of Philo-ditto. By James Moore Smith. 

Flying-Post, April 4. A Letter against Gulliver 
and Mr. P. QBy Mr. Oldmixon.;] 

Daily Journal, April 5. An Auction of Goods 
at Twickenham. By James Moore Smith. 

The Flying-Post, April 6. A Fragment of a 
Treatise upon Swift and Pope. By Mr. Old- 

3d& APPj^Kl)ix. 

The Senator, April 9. On the same. By fid- 
ward Roome. 

Daily Journal, April 8. AdvertiseiilSttt by 
James Moore Smith. 

Flying-Post, April 1 3. Vel*ses agaiiist Dir. S wift? 
and against Mr. P — 's Homer. By J. Oldmixon. 

Daily Journal, April 23. Letter about the trans- 
lation of the character of Thersites in Homer. By 
Thomas Cooke, &c. 

Mist's Weekly Journal, April 27. A Letter of 
Lewis Theobald. 

Daily Journal, May 11. A Letter jstgAiftst Mr. 
P. at large. Anon. [[John Dennis.] 

All these were afterwards reprinted in a 
pamphlet, entituled, A Collection of all the Verses^ 
Essays, Letters, and Advertisements occasioned 
by Mr. Pope and Swift's Miscellanies> ptefaced by 
Concanen, Anonymous, octavo, and priMed f&lf A* 
Moore, 1728, price Is. Others of an eldeif date, 
having lain as waste paper many years, Wefe, upon 
the publication of the Dunciad> brought out> ahd 
their authors betrayed by the ttierci^nary book-^ 
sellers (in hopes of some possibility Of vending a 

few) by advertising them in this manner-' " The 

Confederates, a farce. By Capt. Breval (for which 
he was put into the Dunciad). An Epilogue to 
Powel's Puppet-show. By Col. Ducket (for which 
he was put into the Dunciad). Essays, &c. By 
Sir Richard Blackmore. (N. B. It wfts for % pas- 
sage of this book that Sir Richard wal3 put into 
the Dunciad)." And so of others. 



An Essay an the Dunciad^ octavo, printed for 
J. Roberts. [[In this book, p. 9, it was formally 
declared, '' That the complaint of the aforesaid 
Libels and Advertisements was forged and untrue; 
that all mouths had been silent, except in Mr. 
Pope's praise ; and nothing against him published, 
but by Mr. Theobald.'*] 

Sawney, in blank verse, occasioned by the Dun- 
ciad ; with a critique on that poem. By J. Ralph, 
Ca person never mentioned in it at first, but in- 
serted after,] printed for J. Roberts, octavo. 

A complete Key to the Dunciad. By E. Curi. 
12bio. price 6d. 

A second and third edition of the same, with ad- 
ditions, 12mo. 

The Popiad. By E. Curl, extracted from J. 
Dennis, Sir Richard Blackmore, &c. 12mo. price 

The Cutliad. By the same E. Curl. 

The Female Dunciad. Collected by the same 
Mr. Curl, I2mo. price 6d. With the Metamor- 
phosis of P. into a Stinging-Nettle. By Mr. Fox- 
ton, 12mo. 

The Metamorphosis of Scriblerus into Snarlefrus. 
By J. Smedley, printed for A. Moore, folio, price 

The Dunciad dissected. By Curl and Mrs. 
Thomas, 12mo. 


An Essay on the Taste and Writings of the 
present times. Said to be writ by a gentleman of 
C. C. C. Oxon, printed for J. Roberts, octavo. 

The Arts of Logic and Rhetoric, partly taken 
from Bouhours, with new Reflections, &c. By 
John Oldmixon, octavo. 

Remarks on the Dunciad. By Mr. Dennis, de- 
dicated to Theobald ; octavo. 

A Supplement to the Profund. Anon. By Mat- 
thew Concanen, octavo. 

Mist's Weekly Journal, June 8. A long Letter, 
signed W. A. Writ by some or other of the Club 
of Theobald, Dennis, Moore, Concanen, Cooke, 
who for some time held constant weekly meetings 
for these kind of performances. 

Daily Journal, June 11. A Letter signed Philo- 
scriblerus, on the name of Pope — Letter to Mr. 
Theobald, in verse, signed B. M. [[Bezaleel Morris] 
against Mr. P — . Many other little epigrams 
about this time in the same papers, by James 
Moore, and others. 

Mist's Journal, June 22. A Letter by Lewis 

Flying Post, August 8. Letter on Pope and 

Daily Journal, August 8. Letter charging the 
author of the Dunciad with treason. 

Durgen : a plain satire on a pompous satirist. 
By Edward Ward, with a little of James Moore. 

Apollo's Maggot in his Cups. By E. Ward. 

GuUiveriana Secunda. Being a Collection of 


many of the Libels in the Newspapers^ like the 
former Volume, under the same title, by Smedley. 
Advertised in the Craftsman, Nov. 9, 1728, with 
tttls remarkable promise, that ^' any thing which 
any body should send as Mr. Pope's or Dr. Swift's, 
should be inserted and published as theirs." 

Pope Alexander's supremacy and infallibility 
examined, &c. By George Ducket, and John Den- 
nis, quarto. 

Dean Jonathan's Paraphrase on the 4th chapter 
of Genesis. Writ by E. Roome, folio, 1729. 

Labeo. A paper of verses by Leonard Welsted, 
which after came into One Epistle, and was pub- 
lished by James Moore, quarto, 1730. Another 
part of it came out in Welsted's own name, under 
the just title of Dulness and Scandal, folio> 1731. 

There have been since published, 

Verses on the Imitator of Horace. By a Lady, 
[[or between a Lady, a Lord, and a Court-Squire)]. 
Printed for J. Roberts, folio. 

An Epistle from a Nobleman to a Doctor of 
Divinity, from Hampton-Court [[Lord H— — y.]] 
Printed for J. Roberts also, folio. 

A Letter from Mr. Cibber to Mr. Pope. Printed 
for W. Lewis in Covent Garden, octavo. 

^62 APPfiKDU. 



To THE First Edition with Notes, in Quarto, 


It will be sufl&cient to say of this edition, that the 
reader has here a much more correct and cora^ 
plete copy of the Dunciad, than has hitherto ap- 
peiared. I caimot answer but some mistakes may 
hAVe slipped into it, but a vast number of others wifl 
be pirevented by the names being now not only iSfet 
at length, but justified by the authorities and rea- 
sons given. I make no doubt, the author's own 
motive to use real rather than feigned names, was 
his care to preserve the innocent from any false 
application ; whereas in the former editions, which 
had no more than the initial letters, he was made, 
by keys printed here, to hurt the inoffensive ; and 
(what was worse) to abuse his friends, by an im- 
pression at Dublin. 

The commentary which attends this poem was 
sent me from several hands, and consequently must 
be unequally written ; yet will have one advantage 
over most commentaries, that it is not made upon 
conjectures, or at a remote distance of time. And 
the reader cannot but derive one pleasure from 
the very obscurity of the persons it treats of, that 


it {mrtakes of the nature of a secret, which most 
people love to be let itito> though the meu Of the 
thhigs be ever so inconsiderable or trivial. 

Of the Persons it wisis judged proper to give 
sottie account ; for since it iB only in this monu- 
ment that they must expect to survive, (and here 
j^urvive they will, as long as the English tongue 
shall remain such as it was in the reigns of Queen 
Anne ^id King Georgb,) it seemed but humanity 
to bestow a word or two upon each, just to tell 
what he was, what he writ, when he lived, and 
when he died. 

If a word or two more are added upon the chief 
offenders, it is only as a paper pinned upon the 
breast, to mark the enormities for which they suf- 
fered ; lest the correction only should be remem- 
bered, and the crime forgotten. 

In some articles it was thought suflScient, barely 
to transcribe from Jacob, Curl, and other writers 
of their own rank, who were much better ac- 
quainted with them than any of the authors of this 
comment can pretend to be. Most of them had 
drawn each other's characters on certain occa- 
sions ; but the few here inserted are all that could 
be saved from the general destruction of such 

Of the part of Scriblerus I need say nothing ; 
his manner is well enough known, and approved 
by all but those who are too much concerned to 
be judges. 

The Imitations of the Ancients are added to 


gratify those who either never read, or may have 
forgotten them ; together with some of the paro- 
dies and allusions to the most excellent of the Mo- 
dems. If, from the frequency of the former, any 
man think the poem too much a Cento, our poet 
will but appear to have done the same thing in 
jest which Boileau did in earnest ; and upon which 
y ida, Fracastorius, and many of the most eminent 
Latin Poets, professedly valued themselves. 




Printed in the Journals, 1730. 

iVhbrbas, upon occasion of certain Pieces re- 
lating to the Gentlemen of the Dunciad^ some 
have heen willing to suggest, as if they looked 
upon them as an ahuse: we can do no less than 
own, it is our opinion, that to call these Gentle- 
men had authors is no sort of abuse, hut a great 
truth. We cannot alter this opinion without some 
reason; hut we promise to do it in respect to 
every person who thinks it an injury to he repre- 
sented as no Wity or Poety provided he procures a 
Certificate of his heing really such, from any three 
of his companions in the Dunciad, or from Mr. 
Dennis singly, who is esteemed equal to any three 
of the numher. 

386 APPSjiTW*, 



To the First Edition of the Fourth Book of 
the DUNCIAD, when printed separately in the 
Year 1742. 

We apprehend it can be deemed no injury to the 
author of the three first Books of the Dunciad, 
that we publish this Fourth. It was found merely 
by accident, in taking a survey of the Library of 
a late eminent Nobleman; but in so blotted a 
condition, and in so many detached pieces, as 
plainly shewed it to be not only incorrect, but un- 
finished. That the author of the three first Books 
had a design to extend and complete his poem in 
this manner, appears from the Dissertation pre- 
fixed to it, where it is said, that the design is more 
extensive^ and that we may expect other episodes to 
complete it; and from the declaration in the argu- 
ment to the third Book, that the accomplishment of 
the prophecies therein would be the theme hereafter 
of a greater Dunciad. But whether or no he be 
the author of this, we declare ourselves ignorant. 
If he be, we are no more to be blamed for the 
publication of it, than Tucca and Varius for that 
of the last six books of the ^neid, though perhaps 
inferior to the former. 


If any person be possessed of a more perfect 
copy of this work, or of any other fragments of it, 
and will communicate them to the Publisher, we 
shall make the next edition more complete ; in 
which we also promise to insert any Criticisms 
that shall be published (if at all to the purpose) 
with the Names of the Authors ; or any letter sent 
us (though not to the purpose) shall yet be printed 
under the title of Epistol(B Obscurorum Virorum ; 
which, together with some others of the same kind 
formerly laid by for that end, may make no un- 
pleasant addition to the future impressions of this 





I HAVE long had a design of giving some sort of 
Notes on the works of this poet. Before I had 
the happiness of his acquaintance^ I had written a 
commentary on his Essay on Marty and have since 
finished another on the Essay on Criticism. There 
was one already on the Dunciad, which had met 
with general approbation : but I still thought some 
additions were wanting, of a more serious kind, to 
the humourous notes of Scriblerus, and even to 
those written by Mr. Cleland, Dr. Arbuthnot, and 
others. I had lately the pleasure to pass some 
months with the author in the country, where I 
prevailed upon him to do what I had long desired, 
and favour me with his explanation of several pas- 
sages in his works. It happened, that just at that 
juncture was published a ridiculous book against 
him, full of personal reflections, which furnished 
him with a lucky opportunity of improving This 
Poem, by giving it the only thing it wanted, a 
fnore considerable Hero. He was always sensible 
of its defect in that particular, and owned he had 
let it pass with the Hero it had, purely for want 
of a better ; not entertaining the least expectation 


that such an one was reserved for this Post^ as has 
since obtained the Laurel; but^ since that had 
happened^ he could no longer deny this justice 
either to him or the Dunciad. 

And yet, I will venture to say, there was an- 
other motive which had still more weight with our 
author. This person was one, who from every 
folly (not to say vice) of which another would be 
ashamed, has constantly derived a vanity; and 
therefore was the man in the world who would 
least be hurt by it. 


VOL. IV. 2 B 





Nov. 19, 1729- 

The time of the election of a Poet Laureate being 
now at hand^ it may be proper to give some ac- 
count of the rites and ceremonies anciently used at 
that solemnity^ and only discontinued through the 

* It is not easy to conceive, why this piece, which was written 
by Pope, and inserted in the first complete edition of the Dunciad, 
in Four Books, in 1743, should have been transferred, in all the 
subsequent editions, to another volume of the works of the author, 
with the rest of the contents of which it has no immediate con- 
nexion ; whilst it is essential to the proper understanding of the 
character and dignity of the Poet Laureate^ whose office is here 
traced from the times of Leo X. when 

Rome in her capitol saw Quemo sit, 
Thron'd on seven hills, the antichrist of wit — 
to the days of George the Second. 

We may also be permitted to observe, that notwithstanding the 
difierence of age and country, this piece may still be of use, as a 
record of the duties, qualifications, and privileges of the Latareate, 
in order to prevent any person from being raised, in future, to 
that high station (as no person has yet been) who is not abun- 
dantly qualified for it—*' such a person as is truly jealous of the 
honour and dignity of poetry ; no joker or trifler, but a bard in 
good earnest ; nay, not amiss if a critic, and the better if a little 


I ' 


neglect and degeneracy of later times. These we 
have extracted from an historian of undoubted 
credit, a reverend bishop, the learned Paulus Jo- 
vius ; and are the same that were practised under 
the pontificate of Leo X, the great restorer of learn- 

As we now see an age and a court, that for the 
encouragement of poetry rivals, if not exceeds, 
that of this famous Pope, we cannot but wish a 
restoration of all its honours to poesy ; the rather, 
since there are so many parallel circumstances in 
the person who was then honoured with the laurel, 
and in him, who (in aU probability) is now to 
wear it. 

I shall translate my author exactly as I find it 
in the 82d chapter of his Elogia Vir. Doct. He 
begins with the character of the poet himself, who 
was the original and father of all Laureates, and 
called Camillo. He was a plain coimtrjrman of 
Apulia, whether a shepherd or thresher is not ma- 
terial. '' This man (says Jovius) excited by the 
fame of the great encouragement given to poets at 
court, and the high honour in which they were 
held, came to the city, bringing with him a strange 
kind of lyre in his hand, and at least some twenty 
thousand of verses. All the wits and critics of the 
court flocked about him, delighted to see a clown, 
with a ruddy, hale complexion, and in his own 
long hair, so top full of poetry ; and at the first 
sight of him all agreed he was born to be Po^t 



Laureate.* He had a most hearty welcome in an 
island of the river Tiber (an agreeable place^ not 
unlike our Richmond) where he wa» first mpde to 
eat and drink plentifully ^ and to repeat his verses 
to every body. Then they adorned him with a 
new and elegant garland^ composed of vine-leaves, 
laurel, and brassica (a sort of cabbage) so composed^ 
says my author^ emblematically^ ^t torn sales, quant 
lepide ejus temulentiay Brassiere remedio cohibenda, 
notaretur. He was then saluted by common con- 
sent with the title of arcM-poeta, or archrpoet, in 
the style of those days; in ours. Poet Laureate. 
This honour the poor man received with the most 
sensible demonstrations of joy, his eyes drunk with 
tears and gladness.f Next, the public acclamation 
was expressed in a canticle, which is transmitted 
to us, as follows : 

** Salve, brassicei virens corond, 
£t lauro, archipoeta, painpinoque ! 
Dignus principis auribus Leonis." 

'* All hail, arch-poet, without peer ! 
Vine, bay, or cabbage fit to wear. 
And worthy oi^e princess ear.^ 

From hence he was conducted in pomp to the 
Capitol of Rome, mounted on an elephant, through 
the shouts of the populace, where the ceremony 
The historian tells us farther, '' That at his in- 

* Apulus praepingui vultu alacer, et proline comatus, onuiino 
dignus festi laurelt videretur. 

t Manantibus prse gaudio Qculis. 


troduction to Leo, he not only poured forth verses 
innumerable^ like a torrent, but also sung them 
with open mouth. Nor was he only once intro* 
duced^ or on stated days (like our Laureates) but 
made a companion to his master ^ and entertained 
as one of the instruments of his most elegant plea^ 
sures. When the prince was at table, the poet had 
his place at the window. When the prince had 
half* eaten his meat, he gave with his own hands 
the rest to the poet. When the poet drank, it 
was out of the prince's own flagon, insomuch 
(says the historian) that through so great good eat- 
ing and drinking, he contracted a most terrible 
gout." Sorry I am to relate what follows, but that 
I cannot leave my reader's curiosity unsatisfied in 
the catastrophe of this extraordinary man. To 
use my author's words, which are remarkable, 
mortuo Leone, profligatisque poetisy Sfc, ''When 
Leo died, and poets were no more" (for I would 
not understand prq/ligatis literally, as if poets then 
were profligate) this unhappy Laureate was forth- 
with reduced to return to his country, where, op- 
pressed with old age and want, he miserably pe- 
rished in a common hospital. 

We jsee from this sad conclusion (which may be 
of example to the poets of our time) that it were 
happier to meet with no encouragement at aO, to 
remain at the plough, or other lawful occupation, 
than to be elevated above their condition, and 

* Semetis opsoniis. 


taken out of the common means of Ufe, without a 
surer support than the temporary, ox, at best, nu^- 
tal favours of the great. It was doubtless for this 
consideration, that when the Royal Boimty was 
lately extended to a rural genius^ care was taken 
to settle it upon him for life. And it hath been 
the practice of our Princes, never to remove from 
the station of Poet Laureate any man who hath 
once been chosen, though never so much greater 
Geniuses might arise in his time. A noble in- 
stance how much the charity of our monarchs 
hath exceeded their love of fame. 

To come now to the intent of this paper. We 
have here the whole ancient ceremonial of the 
Laureate. In the first place the crown is to be 
mixed with vine-leaves, as the vine is the plant of 
Bacchus, and full as essential to the honour, as the 
butt of sack to the salary. 

Secondly, the brassica must be made use of as a 
qualifier of the former. It seems the cabbage was 
anciently accounted a remedy for drunkenness ; a 
power the French now ascribe to the onion, and 
«tyle a soup made of it, Soupe dHvrogne. t 
would recommend a large mixture of the brassica 
if Mr. Dennis be chosen ; but if Mr. Tibbald, it is 
not so necessary, unless the cabbage be supposed 
to signify the same thing with respect to poets as 
to tailors, viz. stealing. I should judge it irot 
amiss to add another plant to this garland, to wit, 
ivy ; not only as it anciently belonged to poets in 


general, but as it is emblematical of the three 
vktues of a court poet in particular ; it is creeping, 
dirty, and dangling. 

In the next place, a canticle must be composed 
and sung in laud and praise of the new poet. If 
Mr. CiBBER be laureated, it is my opinion no man 
can ^ivrite this but himself; and no man, I am sure, 
can sing it so affectingly. But what this canticle 
should be, either in his or the other candidate's 
case, I shall not pretend to determine. 

Thirdly, there ought to be a public show, or en- 
try of the poet ; to settle the order or procession of 
which, Mr. Anstis and Mr. Dennis ought to l^ve 
a conference. I apprehend here two difficulties : 
one, of procuring an elephant; the other, of teach- 
ing the poet to ride him. Therefore I should ima- 
gine the next animal in size or dignity would do 
best ; either a mule or a large ass ; particularly if 
that n^ble one could be had, whose portraiture 
makes so great an ornament of the Dunciad, and 
which (unless I am misinformed) is yet in the park 

of a nobleman near this city : unless Mr. Cib- 

BBR be the man ; who may, with great propriety 
and beauty, ride on a dragon, if he goes by land ; 
or if he chuse the water, upon one of his own 
swans from desar in Egypt. 

We have spoken sufficiently of the ceremony ; 
let us now speak of the qualifications and privi- 
leges of the Laureate. First, we see he must be 
able to make verses extempore, and to pour forth 
innumerable, if required. In this I doubt Ms. 


TiBBALD. Secondly, he ought to sir^^ and intre-^ 
pidly, pattdo ore : here, I confess the excellency of 
Mr. CiBBER. Thirdly, he ought to carry a lyre 
ahout with him. If a large one be thought too 
cumbersome, a small one may be contrived to 
hang about the neck, like an order, and be very 
much a grace to the person. Fourthly, he ought 
to have a good stomach, to eat and drink whatever 
his betters think fit; and therefore it is in this 
high office as in many others, no puny constitution 
can discharge it. I do not^ think Gibber or Tib- 
bald here so happy : but rather a stanch, vigor- 
ous, seasoned, and dry old gentleman, whom I have 
in my eye. 

I could also wish at this jimcture, such a person 
as is truly jealous of the honour and dignity of 
poetry ; no joker, or trifler, but a bard in good 
earnest ; nay, not amiss if a critic, and the better 
if a little obstinate. For when we consider what 
great privileges have been lost from this office (as 
we see from the forecited authentic record of Jo- 
vius) namely, those of feeding from the prince's 
table, drinking out of his own fiagon, becoming 
even his domestic and companion; it requires a 
man warm and resolute, to be able to claim and 
obtain the restoring of these high honours. I have 
cause to fear the most of the candidates would be 
liable, either through the influence of ministers, or 
for rewards or favours, to give up the glorious 
rights of the Laureate. Yet I am not without 
hopes, there is one, from whom a serious and steady 


assertion of these privileges may be expected; and^ 
if there be such a one^ I must do him the justice 
to say, it is Mr. Dennis, the worthy president of 
our society. 







Mr. DRYDEN and Mb. POPE, 



His Politics, Religion, Morals. 

Mr. Dryden is a mere renegado from monarchy, 
poetry, and good sense.* A true republican son of 
monarchical Church.f A Republican Atheist.^ 
Dryden was from the beginning an aXXo?rpo<raXXoc, 
and I doubt not will continue so to the last.§ 

In the poem called Absalom and Achitophel axe 
notoriously traduced. The King, the Queen, the 
Lords, and Gentlemen; not only their honour- 

* Milboum on Dryden's Virgil, 8vo. 1698, p. 6. 
t Page 38. % Page 192. § Page 8. 







Mr. pope and MK.DRYDEN, 


Mr. POPE, 

His Politics, Religion, Morals. 

Mr. Pope is an open and mortal enemy to his 

country, and the commonwealth of learning.* Some 

call him a popish whig, which is directly incon- 

sistent.f Pope, as a papist, must be a tory and 

high flyer.;}; He is both a whig and tory.§ 

He hath made it his custom to cackle to more 

than one party in their own sentiments. || 


* Dennis Rem. on the Rape of the Lock, pref. p. xii. 
t Dunciad dissected. X ^t^^< to GuUiveriana. 

§ Dennis, Character of Mr. P. 
II Theobald, Letter in Mist's Journal, June 22, 1728. 


able persons exposed^ but the whole Nation and 
its Representatives notoriously libelled. It is 
scandalum magnatum, yes., of Majesty itself.* 

He looks upon God's gospel as a foolish fable^ 
like the Pope, to whom he is a pitiful purveyor.f 
His very Christianity may be questioned.]; He 
ought to expect more severity than other men, as 
he is most unmerciful in his reflections on others.§ 
With as good a right as his Holiness, he sets up 
for poetical infallibility. || 

Mr. DRYDEN only a Versifier. 

His whole libel is all bad matter, beautified (which 
is all that can be said of it) with good metre.^ Mr. 
Dryden's genius did not appear in any thing more 
than his versification, and whether he is to be en- 
nobled for that only, is a question.** 

Mr. DRYDEN'S Virgil. 

Tonson calls it Dryden's Virgil, to shew that this 
is not that Virgil so admired in the Augustean 
age ; Hbut a Virgil of another stamp, a silly, imper- 

• Whip and Key, 4to. printed for R. Janeway, 1682, Pre&ce. 
f Ibid. X Milboum, p. 9. § Ibid. p. 176. 

II Page 39. % Whip and Key, Pref. 

** Oldmixon, Essay on Criticism, p. 84. 


In his Miscellanies the persons abused are^ the 
KiNG^ the QuEEN^ his late Majesty^ both Houses 
of Parliament, the Privy-Council, the Bench of 
Bishops, the Established Church, the present Mi- 
nistry, &c. To make sense of some passages, 
they must be construed into Royal Scandal.* 

He is a Popish rhymester, bred up with a con- 
tempt of the Sacred Writings.f His religion allows 
him to destroy heretics, not only with his pen, but 
with fire and sword ; and such were all those un- 
happy wits whom he sacrificed to his accursed 
Popish principles.J It deserved vengeance to 
suggest, that Mr. Pope had less in&Uibility than 
his namesake at Rome.§ 

Mr. POPE only, a Versifier. 

The smooth numbers of the Dunciad are all that 
recommend it, nor has it any other merit. || It must 
be owned that he hath got a notable knack of 
rhjrming and writing smooth verse.^ 

Mr. POPE'S Homer. 

The Homer which Lintot prints, does not talk 
like Homer, but like Pope ; and he who translated 


• List at the end of a Collection of Verses, Letters, Advertise- 
ments, 8vo. Printed for A. Moore, 1728, and the Preface to it, p. 6. 
•f* Dennis's Rem. on Homer, p. 27. 
J Preface to Gulliveriana, p. 11. 

§ Dedication to the Collection of Verses, Letters, &c. p. 9. 
II Mist's Journal of Jmie 8, 1728. 
^ Character of Mr. P. and Dennis on Horn. 


tinent^ nonsensical writer.* None but a BaVius^ a 
Msevius^ or a Bathyllus, carped at Virgil; and 
none but such unthinking vermin admire his Traiis- 
lator.f It is true^ soft and easy lines might become 
Ovid's Epistles or Art of Love. But Virgil, who 
is all great and majestic, &c. requires strength of 
lines, weight of words, and closeness of expression; 
not an ambling Muse running on carpet-ground, 
and shod as lightly as a Newmarket racer,— He 
has numberless faults in his author's meaning, and 
in propriety of expression.;]; 

Mr. DRYDEN understood no Greek nor Latin. 

Mr. Dryden was once, I have heard, at We^t- 
minster-sphool. Dr. Busby would have whipped him 
for so childish a Paraphrase.^ The meanest pedant 
in England would whip a Lubber of twelve for 
construing so absurdly.|| The Translator is mad, 
ev^ line betrays his stupidity.^ The faults are 
innumerable, and convince me that Mr. Dryden did 
not, or would not imderstand his author.* * This 
shews how fit Mr. D. may be to translate Homer ! 
A mistake in a single letter might fall -on the 
printer well enough, but ny^wp for %^wp must be the 
error of the author ; nor had he art enough to 
correct it at the Mr. Dryden writes for 
the Court Ladies He writes for the Ladies, 

and not for use.;}^; 


♦ Milboum, p. 2. f Page 35. % Page 22, and 192. 

§ Milbourn, p. 72. || Page 203. % Page 78. 

** Page 206. ft Page 19. J J Page 144, 190. 


him/ one would swear, had a hili in Tipperary for 
his Parnassus, and a puddle in some Bog for his 
Hippocrene.* He has no admirers among those 
htat can distinguish, discern, and judge.f 

He hath a knack at smooth verse, but without 
either genius or good sense, or any tolerable know- 
ledge of English. The qualities which distinguish 
Homer are the beauties of his diction, and the 
harmony of his versification. But this little au- 
thor, who is so much in vogue, has neither sense 
in his thoughts, nor English in his expressions.:}; 

Mr. POPE understood no Greek. 

He hath undertaken to translate Homer from 
the Greek, of which he knows not one word, into 
English, of which he understands as little.§ I 
wonder how this Gentleman would look, should it 
be discovered that he has not translated ten verses 
together in any book of Homer with justice to 
the poet, and yet he dares reproach his fellow- 
writers with not understanding Greek. || He has 
stuck so little to his original as to have his know- 
ledge in Greek called in question.^ I should be 
glad to know which it is of aU Homer's excellen- 
ces which has so delighted the Ladies, and the 

Gentlemen who judge like Ladies.** 


* Dennis Rem. on Pope's Homer, p. 12. f I^id. p. 14. 

;{; Character of Mr. P. p. 17. and Remarks on Homer, p. 91. 

§ Dennis's Rem. on Homer, p. 12. 

II Daily Joum. April 23, 1728. 

If Suppl. to the Profund, Pref. 

** Oldmixon, Essay on Criticism^ p. 66. 


The Translator puts in a little burlesque now 
and then into Virgil^ for a ragout to his cheated 

Mr. DRYDEN tricked his Subscribers. 

I wonder that any man^ who could not but be 
conscious of his own unfitness for it^ should go 
to amuse the learned world with such an under- 
taking! A man ought to value his reputation 
more than money ; and not to hope that those who 
can read for themselves, will be imposed upon, 
merely by a partially and unseasonably celebrated 
name.f Poetis quidlihet audendi shall be Mr. 
Dryden's motto, though it should extend to pick- 
ing of pockets.;!; 

Names bestowed on Mr. DRYDEN. 

An Ape.3 a crafty Ape drest up in a gaudy 

gown Whips put into an Ape's paw to play 

pranks with — None but Apish and Papish brats 
will heed him.§ 

An Ass.3 A Camel will take upon him no more 
burden than is sufficient for his strength^ but there 
is another beast that crouches under all.|| 

A Frog.] Poet Squab endued with Poet Maro's 
spirit ! an ugly, croaking kind of vermin, which 
would swell to the bulk of an Ox.^ 

A Coward.)] 

* Page 67. f Page 192. J Page 126. 

§ Whip and Key, Pref. || Milb. p. 106. IF Page 11. 


But he has a notable talent at burlesque; his 
genius slides so naturally into it^ that he had bur- 
lesqued Homer without designing it.* 

Mr. POPE tricked his Subscribers. 

Xt is indeed somewhat bold^ and almost prodigi- 
ous^ for a single man to undertake such a work. 
But it is too late to dissuade by demonstrating the 
madness of the project. The Subscribers' expec- 
tations have been raised in proportion to what 
their pockets have been drained off Pope has 
been concerned in jobs^ and hired out his name 
to booksellers.;]; 

Names bestowed on Mr. POPE- 

An Ape.^ Let us take the initial letter of his 
Christian name^ and the initial and final letters of 
his surname, viz. APE, and they give you the 
same idea of an Ape as his face,§ &c. 

An Ass.^ It is my duty to pull off the Lion's 
skin from this little Ass.|| 

A Frog.^ a squab, short Gentleman — a little 

creature, that, like the Frog in the Fable, swells, 

and is angry that it is not allowed to be as big as 


A Coward.] 

♦ Dennis's Rem, p. 28. f Homerides, p. 1, &c. 

J British Journ. Nov. 25, 1727. 

§ Dennis, Daily Journal, May II, 1728. 

II Dennis, Rem. on Horn, Pref. V 

^ Dennis's Rem. on the Rape of the Lock, Pref. p. 9. 

VOL. IV. 2 C 



A Coward.]] A Clinias or a Damaetas, or a 
man of Mr. Dryden's own courage.* 

A Knave.^ Mr. Dryden has heard of Paulj the 
Ejiave of Jesus Christ. And^ if I mistake not^ 
I have read somewhere of John Dryden^ Servant 
to his Majesty .f 

A F00L.3 Had he not been such a self-conceited 
Fool. J — Some great Poets are positive !Kock* 

A Thing.;] So little a Thing as Mr. Dryden*]) 

• Page 176. t Page 67. t Whip and Key, Prrf. 

§ Milbourn, p. 34. || Ibid. p. 36. 


A Coward.] A lurking way-laying coward.* 

A Knave.]] He is one whom God and Nature 
have marked for want of common honesty .f 

A Fool.] Great Fools will be christened by the 
names of great Poets, and Pope will be called Ho- 


A Thing.] A little abject Thing.§ 

* Char, of Mr. P. p. 3. f ^^^' 

% Dennis, Rem. on Homer, p. 37. § Ibid. p. 8. 




[The first Number shews the Book, the second fAe Verse.] 


Attila, iii. 92. 
Alaric, iii. 91. 
Alma Mater, iii. 338. 
Annius, an antiquary, iv. 347. 
Arnall, William, ii. 315. 
Addison, ii. 124. 140. 
Atterbury, Dr. iv. 246. 


Blackmore, Sir Richard, i. 104. 

ii. 259. 302. 370. 
Banks, i. 146. 
Broome, ibid. 
Bond, ii. 126. 
Brown, iii. 28. 
Bladen, iv. 560. 
Budgel, Esq. ii. 397. 
Bentley, Richard, iv. 201. 
Bentley, Thomas, ii. 205. 

Boyer, Abel, ii. 413. 

Bland, a Gazetteer, i. 231. 

Breval, J. Durant, ii. 126. 238. 

Benlowes, iii. 21. 

Bavius, iii. 24. 

Burmannus, iv. 237. 

Benson, William, iii. 325. iv. 

Burgersdyck, iv. 198. 

Boeotians, iii. 50. 

Boyle, iiL 328. 

Bruin and Bears, i. 101. 

Bear and Fiddle, i. 224. 
Burnet, Thomas, iii. 179. 
Bacon, iii. 215. 
Barrow, Dr. iv. 245. 


Gibber, Colley, Hero of the 

Poem, passim. 
Cibber, sen. i. 31. 
Gibber, jun. iii. 139. 326. 
Gaxton, WiUiam, i. 149. 
Gurl, Edm. i. 40. u. 3. 58. 167, 

Cook, Thomas, ii. 138. 
Concanen, Matthew, ii. 138. 299. 
Centlivre, Susannah, ii. 411. - 
Caesar in Egypt, i. 251. 
Chi Ho-am-ti, emperor of 

China, iii. 75. 
Crouzaz, iv. 198. 
Codrus, ii. 144. 
Congreve, ii. 124. 
Chesterfield, Lord, iv. 43. 


De Foe, Daniel, i. 103. ii. 147. 
De Foe, Norton, ii. 238. 415. 
De Lyra, or Harpsfield, i. 153. 
Dennis, John, i. 106. ii. 239. 

iii. 173. 
Dunton, John, ii, 144. 



Durfey, iii. 146. 
Dutchmen, ii. 405. iii. 51. 
Doctors, at White's, i. 203. 
Douglas, iv. 394. 
Duckit, iii. 179. 


Eusden, Laurence, Poet Lau- 
reate, i. 104. 293. 
Evans, Dr. ii. 116. 


Fleckno, Richard, ii. 2. 
Faustus, Dr. iii. 233. 
Fleetwood, iv. 326. 
Free-masons, iv. 576. 
French Cooks, iv. 553. 


Gay, u. 127. iii. 330. 
GMon, Charles, i. 296. iii. 173. 
Goode, Bam. iii. 153. 
Goths, iii. 90. 
Gazetteers, L 215. ii. 314. 
Gregorians and Gormogons, iv. 

Garth, iL 140. 
Genseric, iii. 92. 
Gordon, Thomas, iv. 492. 
Gilbert, Dr. iv. 608. 


Holland, Philemon, i. 154. 
Heame, Thomas, iii. 185. 
Homeck, Philip, iiL 152. 
Haywood, Eliza, iL 157, &c. 
Howard, Edward, i. 297. 
Henley, John, the Orator, ii. 2. 

425. iii. 199, &c. 
HuD8, iii 99. 

Heywood, John, i. 98. 
Hays, iv. 560. 
Heideggre, i. 290. 
Handel, iv. 65. 


John, King, i. 252, 
James I. iv. 176. 
Jacob, Giles, iiL 149. 
Jansen, a gamester, iv. 326. 
Jones, Inigo, iii. 328. 
Johnston, iv. 112. 


Knight, Robert, iv. 561. 
Kuster, iv. 237. 
Kirkall, ii. 160. 


Lintot, Bernard, L 40. ii. 53. 
Law, William, ii. 413. 
Log, King, i. lin. ult. 
Locke, iii. 215. 


More, James, iL 50, &c. 
Morris, Besakel, ii. 126. iii. 

Mist, Nathaniel, i. 208. 
Milboum, Luke, ii. 349w 
Mahomet, iii. 97. 
Mears, Wilhan, ii. 125. iii. 

Motteux, Peter> ii. 412. 
Monks, iii. 52. 
Mandevil, ii. 414. 
Morgan, ibid. 
Montalto, iv. 105. 
Mummius, an aattquarf) iv. 




Milton, iii. 216. 
Murray, iv. 169. 


Newcastle, Duchess oi^ i. 141. 
Nonjuror, i. 253. 
Newton, iii. 216. 


Ogilby, John, i. 141, 328. 
Oldmixon, John, ii. 283. 
OzeU, John, i. 286. 
Ostrogoths, iii. 93. 
Omar, the Caliph, iii. 81. 
Owls, i. 271. 290. iii. 54. 

Athenian, iv. 362. 

Osborne, bookseller, ii. 167. 
Osborne, Mother, ii. 312. 


Prynn, William, i. 103. 
Philips, Ambrose, i. 105. iii. 

Paridd, iv. 341. 
Prior, u. 124. 138. 
Popple, iii. 151. 
Pope, iii. 332. 
Pulteney, iv. 170. 


Quarles, Francis, i. 140. 
Quemo, Camillo, ii. 15. 


Ralph, James, L 216. iii. 165. 
Roome, Edward, iii. 152. 
Ripley, Tho. iii. 327. 
Ridpath, George, i. 208. ii. 149. 
Roper, Abel, ii. 149. 

Rich, iii. 261. 


Settle, Elkanah, i. 90, 146. iii. 

Smedley, Jonathan, ii. 291, &c. 
Shadwell, Thomas, i. 240. iii. 

Scholiasts, iv. 231. 
Silenus, iv. 492. 
Sooterkins, i. 126. 
Swift, Dr. i. 19. ii. 116. 138. iii. 

Shaftesbury, Lord, iv. 488. 


Tate, Nahum, i. 105, 238. 
Thomas, Mrs. ii. 70. 
Theobald, or Tibbald, i. 138, 

Tutchin, John, ii. 148. 
Toland, John, ii. 399. iii. 212. 
Tindal, Dr. ii. 399, iii. 212. iv. 

Taylor, John, the Water-Poet, 

iii. 19. 
Tonson, Jacob, i. 57. ii. 68. 
Thorold, Sir George, i. 85. 
Talbot, iv. 168. 


Vandals, iii. 86. 
Visigoths, iii. 94. 


Walpole, Sir Robert, ii. 314. iv. 

Withers, George, i. 296. 
Wyokyn de Worde, i. 149. 

392 INDEX. 

Ward, Edward, i. 233. 296. iii. Wormius, iii. 188. 

34. 146. Wasse, iv. 237. 

Webster, ii. 258. Walker, Hat-bearer to Bendey, 

Whitfield, ibid. iv. 206, 273. 

Warner, Thomas, ii. 125. Wren, Christ, iii. 329. 

Wilkins, ibid. Wyndham, iv. 167. 
Welsted, Leonard, ii. 207. iii. 

169. Y. 

Woolston, Thomas, iii. 212. Young, Dr. ii. 116. 


J. M'Craery, TookfrCouit,