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Full text of "The complete cook. Plain and practical directions for cooking and housekeeping; with upwards of seven hundred receipts: consisting of directions for the choice of meat and poultry; preparations for cooking, making of broths and soups; boiling, roasting, baking, and frying of meats, fish, &c., seasonings, colourings, cooking vegetables; preparing salads, clarifying; making of pastry, puddings, gruels, gravies, garnishes, &c., and, with general directions for making wines. With additions and alteratons"

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Of the Fiunklin House. 




.^ J^c-,^^^*-^ ^f.-^- 

Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1843, by 


in the clerk's office of the district court of the United States in and for 
the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 









The following work has been written, not only with the view o* 
furnishing a complete Cookery Book, but also for the purpose of in 
structing, in a simple manner, inexperienced mistresses and servants, 
in the elementary principles of the culinary science ; not losing sight 
of endeavouring to inculcate the relative duties of the employer and 
the employed. Almost the only cookery book in our language, ia 
which reasons are given for the doctrine laid down, is " The Cook's 
Oracle,'' by the late Dr. Kitchiner. The Doctor's work, though ex- 
ceedingly valuable, is a book fitted more for the improvement of the 
initiated, than for the instruction of those who possess no knowledge 
of the subject. There are many other books of cookery to which 
exceptions might be taken, but we have no wish to enhance our own^ 
work by depreciating the labours of others. We have done our best 
to produce a book, which all who can read may understand, and by 
which all may be instructed. Dr. Kitchiner says, in his " Rudiments," 
and says truly, " I have taken much more pains than any of my pre- 
decessors to teach the young cook how to perform, in the best manner, 
the common business of her profession." In our " rudiments" we 
have endeavoured to teach that which a woman should know before 
Bhe can be called a " young cook," as well as that which a young 
cook has to learn. 

To conclude ; ours is a book intended for the use of persons who 
keep servants, and those who keep none. If we give expensive re- 
ceipts, we also show, that good, substantial dishes, and the most deli- 
cate, may be prepared at as little, or even less, expense than the 
ordinary, or common preparations of food. In our receipts, in particu- 
lar, we have written, necessarily written, many things which have 
been written before, but we feel assured that, taken as a whole, our 
work will not be found devoid of originality. 

For the art of baking, and all the little knick-knacks of fancy bread, 
such as biscuits, sweet cakes, &c., and for confectionary, we refer our 
readers to two little works, by the Editor of " The Cook," called 
"The Baker," and "The Confectioner,"* which form part of the series 
of "Industrial Guides." 

* " The Baker" and " Tho Confectioner" will shortly be published by Lo3 & 
Blaiichard, at 25 cents, in one volume. 

1* (3) 




It is said that " Good wine needs no bush," and according 
to the same rule a good book should require no apology, (as a 
preface generally appears to be). In this instance, as we are 
not the author, we intend to devote the small space allowed us, 
to the praise of this our adopted work ; for, of all the English 
books on this subject, none, according to our ideas, possess 
half the claims to public approval as this one does. The author, 
whoever he is, is certainly a proficient in his business ; and, 
although making no pretensions to a literary character, has 
laid down his rules and precepts in a clear and concise manner. 

Very few additions or alterations have been made in this 
work ; in fact none, excepting where circumstances rendered it 
necessary; it being considered best to send it forth to the Ame- 
rican world with all its beauties untouched ; at the same time 
we wish it to be understood that we do so, not because the 
subject is a barren one ; on the contrary, were we to condense 
all the necessary information we have on this science, we should 
swell our small book to the dignity of a three-volumed work ; 
but, by so doing, we should place it beyond the reach of that 
class to whom its precepts will prove most valuable. We hav 
therefore concluded, after due reflection, to leave such labours 
alone until we have more time and experience. 

The American stomach has too long suffered from the vile 
concoctions inflicted on it by untutored cooks, guided by sense- 
less and impracticable cook-books ; and it is to be hoped, that 

1** (5) 


as this subject is now becoming more important in these days 
of dyspepsia, indigestion, dec, a really good book will be well 
patronised, and not only read, but strictly followed ; and let it 
not be said hereafter that " the American kitchen is the worst 
in the world." 

As we have made but few alterations or improvements, we 
do not consider it at all necessary to offer to the public any 
apology for our seeming presumption in thus undertaking, at 
our age, to edit a work which we think requires little improve- 
ment, and consequently no great degree of talent on our part. 
Should we ever undertake anything original, we shall then act 
with more humility. All that we ask, in the present case, is 
the wide and extended use of the " Complete Cook." 



In this our little work, we more particularly address ourselves to 
Cook Maids in small families, where two maid servants only are kept, 
and where, consequently, all the business of the kitchen falls upon 
the cook, both as regards cleaning and cooking. In such families, it 
is true, the mistress in the house will take a part in the business of 
cooking upon herself; a most laudable custom, both as regards eco- 
nomy, and the real interests of the cook maid. To such mistresses, 
particularly the younger portion, it is hoped our little book will not 
be unacceptable. Cooking is neither a mean, nor a simple art. To 
make the best and the most of everything connected with the suste- 
nance of a family, requires not only industry and experience, but also 
considerable mental capacity, or, at any rate, an aptness to learn. 

One of the principal, if not the principal, requisite, in a cook, ia 
order — that faculty by which a person is enabled to keep all things in 
their proper places. Without order there can be no cleanliness, an- 
other indispensable requisite in a cook : to be always cleaning, is not 
to be clean. There are some foolish, fussy women, who, with all the 
disposition on earth to be clean, not having order, dirty one thing aa 
fast as they clean another. Nor is order an essential requisite, aa 
regards the cleanliness of a kitchen, and of kitchen utensils, only; in 
dressing food, without order there can be no good cooking. 

VVe have said, that the mistress will take a part in a small family 
in the business of cooking. We, perhaps, should have rather said, 
ought to take a part; for we are sorry to say, that there is too much 
reason to believe, that good housewifery is much neglected in the 
educating of young ladies now-a-days. If a mistress be really not 
acquainted with the general principles of cooking, she ought to do 
one of two things — either to make herself acquainted with them aa 
an humble learner, or to keep out of the kitchen altogether; for her 
ignorant interference with a good cook maid will do no good, but may 
do a great deal of harm. And while on this subject we must give a 
word of friendly advice to the unfortunate cook, who may happen to 
fall in with an ignorant, irritable mistress. Let her take care to 
refrain from going into a passion with her: if the. mistress scolds, let 
the maid be mild ; and above all, let her not scold again, or answer 
in an angry or insulting manner. This is a hard thing to do, we are 
aware, particularly where a servant feels herself injured ; but if she 
can do it, she will not only gain the victory over her mistress, but she 



will also feel a consciousness, a happy consciousness .-ying left- 
undone those things which she ought not to have don ^ and of having 
done those things which she ought to have done. But if the tempera 
and habits of the mistress and maid are incompatible to that good un- 
derstanding which ought always to subsist between the employer and 
the empJoyed, the best course for the servant t/v do is, to give notice 
and leave. Let not this, however, be done m anger : before giving 
Vv'arning, let her consult her pillow. 

It has been well observed, that it behoves every person to be ex- 
tremely careful whom she takes into her service; to be very minute 
in investigating the character she receives, and equally cautious and 
scrupulously just in giving one to others. Were this attended to, 
many bad people would be incapacitated for doing mischief, by abusing 
the trust reposed in them. It may be fairly asserted, that the robbery, 
or waste, which is but a milder epithet for the unfaithfulness of a 
servant, will be laid to the charge of that master or mistress, who 
knowing, or having well-founded suspicions, of such faults, is prevail- 
ed upon by false pity, or entreaty, to slide him, or her, into another 
place. There are, however, some who are unfortunately capricious, 
and often refuse to give a character, because they are displeased that 
a servant leaves their service \ but this is unpardonable, and an abso- 
lute robbery ; servants having no inheritance, and depending on their 
fair name for employment. To refuse countenance to the evil, and 
to encourage the good servant, are actions due to society at large ; 
and such as are honest, frugal and attentive to their duties, should be 
liberally rewarded, which would encourage merit, and inspire ser- 
vants with zeal to acquit themselves well. 

Servants should always recollect, that everything is provided lor 
them, without care and anxiety on their part. They run no risks, 
are subject to no losses, and under these circumstances, honesty, in- 
dustry, civility, and perseverance, are in the end sure to meet with 
their reward. Servants possessing these qualifications, by the bless- 
ing of God, must succeed. Servants should be kind and obliging to 
their fellow-servants; but if they are honest themselves, they will not 
connive at dishonesty in others. They who see crimes committed and 
do not discover them, are themselves legally and morally guilty. At 
the same time, however, well recollect, that tittle-tattling and tale- 
bearing, for the sake of getting in your mistress's good graces, at the 
expense of your fellow-servants, is, to the last degree, detestable. A 
sensible mistress will always discourage such practices. 

We have knov^^n servants imagine, that because their employers 
are kind to them, that because they do not command them to do this 
or that, but rather snlicit them, that, therefore, they cannot do with- 
out them, and instead of repaying their good-nature and humanity by 
gratitude and extra attention, give themselves airs, and become idle 
and neglectful. Such conduct cannot be too much condemned, and 
those servants, who practise it, may depend upon it, that, sooner or 
later, they Vv^ill have cause to repent. Let it be remembered, that vice 
ft veil as virtue has its reward, though of a very different character. 


We shall conclude this our friendly advice to young- cooks, by an 
extract from the ''Cook's Best Friend,'' by the late Dr. Kitchiner. 
Nothins^ can be done in perfection, which must be done in a hurry, 
(except catching of fleas), — '* Therefore," says the Doctor, " if you 
wish the dinner to be sent up to please your master and mistress, and 
do credit to yourself, be punctual ; take care, that as soon as the 
clock strikes the dinner bell rings. This shows the establishment is 
orderly, is extremely gratifying to the master and his guests, and is 
most praiseworthy in the attendants. But remember you cannot ob- 
tain this desirable reputation without good management in every 
respect; if you wish to ensure ease and independence in the latter 
part of your life, you must not be unwilling to pay the price for which 
only they can be obtained, and earn them by a diligent and faithful 
performance of the duties of your station in your young days, in which 
if you steadily persevere, you may depend upon ultimately receiving 
the reward your services deserve." 

All duties are reciprocal; and if you hope to receive favour, endea- 
vour to deserve it by showing yourself fond of obliging, and grateful 
when obliged. Such behaviour will win regard, and maintain it; 
enforce what is right, and excuse what is wrong. 

Quiet, steady perseverance, is the only spring which you can safely 
depend upon infallibly to promote your progress on the road to inde- 

If your employers do not immediately appear to be sensible of your 
endeavours to contribute your utmost to their comfort and interests, 
be not easily discouraged; persevere, and do all in your power to 


Endeavour to promote the comfort of every individual in the family; 
let it be manifest that you are desirous to do rather more than is re- 
quired of you, than less than your duty; they merit little who perform 
nothing more than what would be exacted. If you are desired to help 
in any business that may not strictly belong to your department, un- 
dertake it cheerfully, patiently, and conscientiously. 

The foregoing advice has been written with an honest desire to 
augment the comfort of those in the kitchen, who will soon find, that 
the ever-cheering reflection of having done their duly to the utmost 
of their ability, is in itself, with a Christian spirit, a never-failing 
source of comfort in all circumstances and situations, and that 

" Virtue is its own reward." 

Having thus briefly touched upon the relative duties of mistress 
and maid, we shall now proceed to make some general remarks (and 
though general, we think them most important) as respects the busi- 
ness of Cooking as an art, or, more properly speaking, as a science. 



It is an old, and somewhat vulgar sayingf, thoug-h very expressive, 
that '* God sends meat, and the devil cooks." This adage shows, that 
cooking has always been considered of some importance in this coun- 
try, even among the lowest classes of society. A great deal too little 
attention, however, is paid to the art of preparing food for the use of 
those who eat; and we think we may say, without much exaggera- 
tion, that in many families, even to this day, one-half of their moat ia 
wasted, and the other half spoilt. But the mere waste arising from 
this system of cooking, or rather want of system, is not the greatest 
evil, though this is an enormous one; the diseases that badly dressed 
food occasions to^he stomach are even a greater evil than the one to 
which we have first referred. A bad cook will turn that which waa 
intended by the Giver of all good for the nourishment of the body into 
a sort of poison. The functions of the stomach, when loaded with 
crude, undressed, or half-dressed meat, are unable to digest it. Hence 
the stomach is not only injured, but a train of diseases is engendered, 
sufficient to render one's life miserable. From the cause alluded to 
arises acidity, or sourness of the stomach, which gives rise again to 
heart-burns, hiccups, flatulencies, or wind ; which again creates paina 
in the stomach and head, and, indeed, in other parts of the body. 
Then again we have, from the same cause, the various descriptiona 
of nightmare, horrid dreams, and restless nights. Country people, 
in agricultural districts in particular, think themselves, when so 
afflicted, bewitched, or possessed by the devil, when, in fact, if pos- 
sessed at all, they are possessed by bad cookery and indigestible diet. 
Instead of resorting to charms, such persons ought to resort to a dose 
of opening medicine, and take care to eat food which is not spoilt by 
dressing. But the greatest of all ills by which we can be afflicted, 
ill-dressed, indigestible food will bring about — intellectual confusion — ■ 
perhaps madness — for be assured, that a deranged stomach is always, 
more or less, accompanied with a deranged head. 

In support of these opinions we might adduce many authorities of 
the highest reputation, but wo shall content ourselves with the fol- 
lowing : — " It cannot be doubted," says Dr. Choyne, " that the clear, 
ready, and pleasant exercise of the intellectual ftcultits, and their 
easy and undisturbed application to any subject, is never to be obtain- 
ed but by a free, regular performance of the natural functions, which 
the lightest (most digestible) food can only procure." Again, Dr. 
Cheyne says, " he that would have a clear head must have a clean 
stomach. It is sufficiently manifest how much uncomfortable feelinga 
of the bowels affect the nervous system, and how immediately and 
completely the general disorder is relieved by an alvine evacuation." 
Then we have the testimony of Abernethy, who says, "we cannot 
reasonably expect tranquillity of the nervous system, whilst there is 


disorder of the digestive organs. As we can imbibe no permanent 
source of strength but from the digestion of our food, it becomes im- 
portant on this account, that we should attend to its quantity, quality, 
and the periods of taking it, with a view to ensure its proper diges- 
tion." But what says Dr. Kitchiner, who was an able physician, and 
the most learned and scientific writer upon the culinary art 1 " The 
stomach," he asserts, "is the main-spring of our system; if it be not 
sufficiently wound up to warm and support the circulation, the whole 
business of life will, in proportion, be inefiectually performed — we can 
neither think with precision — walk with vigour— sit down with com- 
fort — nor sleep with tranquillity. There would be no difficulty in 
proving, that it influences (much more than people imagine) all our 

" One of the greatest, perhaps the greatest, moral writers of our 
age, Dr. Samuel Johnson, was a man," says Boswell, " of very nice 
discrimination in the science of cookery." He often remarked, " that 
some people have a foolish way of not minding, or pretending not to 
mind, what they eat ; for my part, I mind my belly very studiously and 
very carefully, and I look upon it, that he who does not mind his 
belly, will hardly mind any thing else." To this, Kitchiner adds, 
"the Doctor might have sa.\d, cannot mind any thing else." The 
energy of our brains is sadly dependent on the behaviour of our 
bowels. Those who say, 'tis no matter what we eat, or what we 
drink, may as well say, 'tis no matter whether we eat, r r whether we 

Again, as to the relative importance of cookery as a science. Mr. 
Sylvester, in his Domestic Economy^ says, that it is not difficult to 
foresee, that this department of philosophy must become the most 
popular of all others, because every class of human beings is inter- 
ested in its result." Again, the same writer says, " if science can 
really contribute to the happiness of mankind, it must be in this de- 
partment. The real comfort of the majority of men in this country is 
sought for at their own fire-sides : how desirable then it becomes to 
give every inducement to be at home, by directing all the means of 
philosophy to increase domestic happiness I" 

Dr. Waterhouse, in his Lectures, thus speaks of the stomach : — 
" The faculty the stomach has of communicating the impressions made 
by the various substances that are put into it is such, that it seems 
more like a nervous expansion from the brain than a mere receptacle 
for food." 

From allusions in the great Milton's writings, it is quite evident, 
that he appreciated the science of cookery highly. Speaking of phi- 
losophy, he says, 

" 'Tis a perpetual feast of nectar'd sweets, 
Where no crude surfeit reigns." 


" That which is not good is not delicious 
To a well-govern'd and wise appetite." 

But we have better evidence than these allusions, of Milton's at- 

18 T H E C O M P L E T E C O O K. 

tachment to nicely dressed dishes. In his brother's, the judge's 
testimony, in support of a nuncupative will, which it was alleged he 
made before his death in favour of his third and last wife, a passage 
occurs, to the effect, that, approving of his dinner on a certain occasion, 
he said, "this will do; get something nice for me to eat, for when I 
am gone it will be all your's." We quote from memory. The cele- 
brated Dr. Parr, the great Grecian and theologian, was much attached 
to good eating himself, and thought it very necessary, both for the 
liealth of the body and the mind. A few weeks before his death, for 
he was perfectly conscious that he had but a short time to live, he 
made arrangements for his funeral ; and, amongst other things, he 
prepared a bill of fare for his funeral dinner. The dishes were all 
cold. He expressed his regret to a clerical friend of ours, that he 
could not give them a hot dinner, "but that is impossible," he said, 
**for there is not convenience in the house to cook for so large a 
number. I am much afraid," he continued, " lest you parsons should 
get a hot dinner for yourselves, and leave the poor laymen to the cold 
meat; but I should be very angry if I could know it. I always liked 
to take care of my own stomach, and of other people's. If that ia 
wrong, nothing can be right." 

There are people who imagine, that it is beneath the dignity of a 
philosopher to trouble himself about eating; such a one vi'as that gay 
fribble of a marquis, who, finding Descartes enjoying himself over a 
good dinner, exclaimed, " Hey ! what, do you philosophers eat dain- 
ties?" "Do you think," replied Descartes, "that God made good 
things only for fools'?" 

There is a point with regard to the importance of good cookery, 
upon which we have not touched, though one of first-rate consequence, 
namely, temperance, from the neglect of which so many, and such 
deadly, evils arise. Let a man load his stomach with crude, indi- 
gestible food, that is, ill-dressed meats or other substances, and what 
is the consequence 1 he feels ill — in fact, he is ill — his mind does not 
possess its proper vigour and elasticity ; in one word, the whole man, 
mind and body, is disordered — unhinged. He seeks relief in spirits, 
and he obtains it, perhaps, temporarily. Hence is the beginning of 
dram drinking, and all its concomitant evils; which it would fill a 
volume to enumerate. The members of temperance societies, and 
the promoters of temperance in general, would do well to turn their 
attention to this point, and we think they will agree with us on the 
importance of diffusing the art of cookery — the art of preparing good 
and wholsome food — as widely as possible among the people. 

In this country we have the best of all descriptions of butcher's meat 
in the world, and, with a few exceptions, the worst cooks. If the 
poor, half-fed meats of France, were dressed as our cooks, for the most 
part, dress our well-fed excellent meats, they would be absolutely 
uneatable. In France, the cooks, both private and public, contrive to 
make most excellent and easily digestible food, out of substances that 
we should throw away, as perfectly incapable of being rendered fit to 
eat, or at least palatable. 


It hiiS been proved by Dr. Prout, that sugar, butler, or oil, and 
white of egg, or substances partaking- of their nature, form the chief 
alimentary food of man. The saccharine, or sugary principle, in its 
extended sensf, is mostly derived from vegetables. A proper know- 
ledge of these principles forms the basis, or foundation, of French 
cookery, or, indeed, every other good system of cookery. It does not 
follow, however, that it is necessary that a cook should understand 
these things philosophically, so as to be able to give a reason for them. 
It is sufficient for him or her to take for granted the maxims or rules 
that have been deduced from them, and act accordingly. 

In France, most substances intended for food are exposed, by means 
of oil or butter, or grease, in a frying-pan, to a heat of 600^^ Fahren- 
heit, that is, nearly three times hotter than boiling water. This ia 
done by frying, or by some other method similar to frying. They are 
then put into a macerating or stewing vessel, with a little water, and 
kept for several hours at a temperature, or heat, below the boiling 
point; that is to say, the liquid is never allowed to bubble up, nor yet 
scar<;ely to simmer. By these united processes, it has been clearly 
proved, that the most hard and tough substances, whether vegetable 
or animal, are, more or less, reduced to a state of pulp, fit for the 
action of the stomach, and consequently for easy digestion. 

In this country, the majority of cooks, particularly in small families, 
toss the meat into a large quantity of water, make the water boil as 
speedily as possible, and as fast as possible; and foolishly imagine, 
that it will be sooner and better done. But what is the consequence? 
The outside of the meat is rendered so tough, that it will not admit 
the heat to penetrate the inside, which remains undone, and the result 
is, that both the outside and inside meat are spoilt, or at least greatly 
damaged, both as respects flavour and wholesomeness. Here an 
anecdote occurs to us, which, though it has been before related, will 
serve to illustrate our subject. An Irishman was ordered by hia 
master to boil him an egg for his breakfast, and was particularly en- 
joined to boil it soft. After waiting for more than ten minutes, the 
master inquired after his egg^ which, however, was not forthcoming ; 
the servant was seeing about it. Another five minutes elapsed, when 
the impatient master was coolly told his egg was not done — "Yer 
honour told me to bile it soft, and sure I've biled it a qua rter of an houi , 
and it is as hard as ever." 

Our ignorant, and too often unteachable, cook maid, would laugh 
at the simplicity of the Irishman — not considering that the very means 
she uses to make meat tender and palatable, that is, fast boiling, are 
just as absurd as those taken by Paddy to boil an egg soft. 

There is no rule, they say, without an exception ; but, generally 
speaking, ill-dressed meats, or even solid food well-dressed, taken in 
large quantities, are indigestible. It is a mistake to imagine, that 
people \yho take violent exercise in the open air, are always free from 
indigestion, and those numerous diseases to which it gives rise. That 
they^re not so liable as those confined to a house, or a workshop ia 
true ; and there are some stomachs that appear to be able to digest 


any thing; but these are exceptions to the general rule — they do not 
aftect the truth of the rule itself. 


The first person, perhaps, with any pretensions to learning and 
philosophy, who studied the dressing of meat, for food, as a science, 
was a gentleman of the name of Thompson, who was afterwards 
created Count Romford, by one of the German princes. This excel- 
lent and ingenious individual lived in the last century. He demon- 
strated, by experiments, the principles which in our foregoing remarks 
we have merely asserted. We are about to give an abstract of some 
of his observations and experiments on this subject, which are so 
Bimply and clearly detailed, that they are perfectly intelligible to 
every common intellect, and we are sure will be read with interest 
and advantage, not only by cooks, but also by all classes of persons 
interested in the health and welfare of society at large. 

The process by which food is most commonly prepared for the table 
— BOILING — is so familiar to every one, and its efTeets are so uniform, 
and apparently so simple, that few have taken the trouble to inquire 
how, or in what manner, these effects are produced ; and whether any 
and what improvements in that branch of cookery are possible. So 
little has this matter been made an object of inquiry, that few, very 
few indeed, it is believed, among the millions of 'persons who for so 
many ages have been daily employed in this process, have ever given 
themselves the trouble to bestow one serious thought on the subject. 

The cook knows from experience, that if his joint of meat be kept 
a certain time immersed in boiling water it will be done, as it is called 
ir -he language of the kitchen; but if he be asked ivhat is done to it? 
or how, or by what agency, the change it has undergone has been 
effected ^ if he understands the question, it is ten to one but he will 
be embarrassed ; if he does not understand it, he will probably an- 
swer, without hesitation, that " the meat is made tender and eatable 
by being boiled.'''' Ask him if the boiling of the water be essentia' 
to the success of the process 1 he will answer, " without doubt* 
Push him a little farther, by asking him whether, were it possible U 
keep the water equally hot without boiling, the meat would not be 
cooked as soon and as well, as if the water were made to boil 1 Here 
it is probable that he will make the first step towards acquiring know 
ledge, by learning to doubt. 

When you have brought him to see the matter in its true light, ani 
to confess, that in this view ofit,the subject is new to him, you may 
venture to tell him (and to prove to him, if you happen to have a ther 
mometer at hand,) that water which just boils is as hot as it can pos 
sibly be made in an open vessel. That all the fuel which is used in 
making it boil with violence is wasted, without adding in the 
degree to the heat of the water, or expediting or shortening the pro- 
cesf^ofcookinga single instant: that it is by the heat — i\fi intensity — and 
the time of its duration, that the food is cooked ; and not by boiling 


or ebullition or bubbling up of the water, which has no part whatever 
in that operation. 

Should any doubts still remain with respect to the inefficacy and 
inutility of boiling, in culinary processes, where the same degree of 
heat may be had, and be kept up without it, let a piece of meat be 
cooked in a Papin's digester, which, as is well known, is a boiler 
whose cover (which is fastened down with screws) shuts with so 
much nicety that no steam can escape out of it. In such a closed 
vessel, boiling (which is nothing else but the escape of steam in bub- 
bles from the hot liquid) is absolutely impossible; yet, if the heat ap- 
plied to the digester be such as would cause an equal quantity of water 
in an open vessel to boil, the will not only be done, but it will 
be found to be dressed in a shorter time, and to be much tenderer, 
than if it had been boiled in an open boiler. By applying a still 
greater degree of heat to the digester, the meat may be so much 
done in a very few minutes as actually to fall to pieces, and even tha 
very bones may be made soft. 

Were it a question of mere idle curiosity, whether it be the boiling 
of water, or simply the degree of heat that exists in boiling water by 
which food is cooked, it would doubtless be folly to throw away time 
in its investigation ; but this is far from being the case, for boiling 
cannot be carried on without a very great expense of fuel ; but any 
boiling hot liquid (by using proper means for confining the heat) may 
be kept boiling hot for any length of time, without any expense of 
fuel at all. 

The waste of fuel in culinary processes, which arises from making 
liquids boil unnecessarily, or when nothing more would be necessary 
than to keep them boiling hot, is enormous ; there is not a doubt but 
that much more than half the fuel used in all the kitchens, public and 
private, io the whole world, is wasted precisely in this manner. 

But the evil does not stop here. This unscientific and slovenly 
manner of cooking renders the process much more laborious and trou- 
blesome than otherwise it would be ; and (what by many will be con- 
sidered of more importance than either the waste of fuel, or the 
increase of labour to tiiO cook) the food is rendered less savoury, and 
very probably less nourishing, and certainly less wholesome. 

It is natural to suppose that many of the fiiner and more volatile 
parts of food (those which are best calculated to act on the organs of 
taste) must be carried off with the steam, when the boiling is violent : 
but the fact does not rest on these reasonings : it is proved to a de- 
monstration, not only by the agreeable fragrance of the steam that 
rises from vessels in which meat is boiled, but also from the strong 
flavour and superior quality of soups which are prepared by a long 
process over a very slow, gentle fire. But the volatile parts of food 
are not only delightful to the organs of taste — the Editor has no doubt 
that they are also stimulating and refreshing to the stomach. 

In many countries where soups constitute the principal part of the 
food of the inhabitants, the process of cooking lasts from oi^e meal time 
to another, and is performed almost without either trouble or expense. 


As soon as the soup is served up, the ingredients for the next meal 
are put into the pot (which is never suffered to cool, and does not re- 
quire scouring;) and this pot, which is of cast iron, or of earthenware, 
being well closed with its thick wooden cover, is placed hy the side 
of the Jire, where its contents are kept simmering for many hours, 
but are seldom made to boil, and never but in the gentlest manner 

Were the pot put in a close fire-place (which might easily be con- 
structed, even with the rudest materials, with a few bricks or stone, 
or even with sods, like a camp-kitchen,) no arrangement for cooking 
could well be imagined more economical or more convenient. 

Soups prepared in this way are uncommonly savoury, and there is 
little doubt that the true reason why nourishing soups and broths are 
not more in use among the common people in most countries, is 
because they do not know how good they really are, nor how to 
prepare them \ in short because they are not acquainted with them. 
There is another important reason which the Editor must add — the 
common people for the most part cannot spare time from their labour 
to stay at home and attend to them. 

To form a just idea of the enormous waste of fuel that arises from 
making water boil and ei;«j?ora^e unnecessarily in culinary processes^ 
we have only to consider how much heat is expended in the forma 
lion of steam. Now it has been proved by the most decisive and un 
exceptionable experiments that have ever been made by experimental 
philosophers, that if it were possible that the heat which actually 
combines with water, in forming steam (and which gives it wings to 
fly up into the atmosphere,) could exist in the water, without changing 
it from a dense liquid to a rare elastic vapour, this water would ba 
neated by it to the temperature of red-hot iron. 

Many kinds of food are known to be most delicate and savoury when 
cooked in a degree of heat considerably below that of boiling water; 
and it is more than probable that there are others which would be im- 
proved by being exposed to a heat greater than that of boiling water. 

In many of the seaport tov^^ns of our New England States, it 
has been a custom, time immemorial, among people of fashion, to 
dine one day in the week (Saturday) on salt fish, and a long habit 
of preparing the same dish has, as might have been expected, led to 
very considerable improvements in the art of cooking it. We have 
often heard foreigners who have partaken of these dinners, declare 
that they never tasted salt fish dressed in such perfection. The se- 
cret of this cooking is to keep the fish a great many hours in water, 
which is just scalding hot, but which is never made actually to boil. 

The Count being desirous of finding out whether it was possible to 
roast meat with a much gentler heat than that usually employed, put 
a shoulder of mutton in a machine contrived for drying potatoes: tho 
result, which we give in the Count's own words, was as follows : 

"After trying the experiment for three hours, and finding it showed 
no signs of being done, it was concluded that the heat was not suffi- 
ciently intense, and, despairing of success, it was abandoned to tho 


"It beinjT late in the evening, and the cookmaids thinking-, per* 
haps, that the meat would be as safe in the drying machine as any 
where else, left it there all night; when they came in the morning 
to take it away, intending to cook it for their dinner, they were much 
surprised to find it already cooked^ and not merely eatable, but per- 
fectly done, and most singularly well tasted. This appeared to them 
the more miraculous, as the fire under the machine was quite gone 
out before they left the kitchen in the evening to go to bed, and as 
they had locked up the kitchen when they left it and taken the key. 

This wonderful shoulder of mutton was immediately brought in tri- 
umph, and though we were at no great loss to account for what had 
happened, yet it certainly was unexpected : and when the meat was 
tasted we were much surprised indeed to find it very different, both 
in taste and flavour, from any we had ever tasted. It was perfectly 
tender, but though it was so much done it did not appear to be in the 
least sodden or insipid ; on the contrary, it was uncommonly savoury 
and high-flavoured. It was neither boiled, nor roasted, nor baked. 
Its taste seemed to indicate the manner in which it had been pre- 
pared : that the gentle heat to w^hich it had for so long a time been 
exposed, had by degrees loosened the cohesion of its fibres, and con- 
cocted its juices, without driving off" their fine and more volatile parts, 
and without washing away or burning and rendering rancid its oils." 

Having given an abstract of Romford's opinions and experiments 
on boiling water as a medium for the preparation of meat for the food 
of man, we shall now take an opportunity of remarking, that the same 
rule will not apply to the cooking of the greater part of vegetables, 
which must be put into the water boiling hot, and which cannot be 
boiled too quickly. This does not apply, however, to potatoes, which 
cannot be' boiled too slowly. These things, however, will be treated 
of more particularly in the receipts, which we shall give for the 
cookingof different kinds of vegetables. 

Seasoning is a very important element in the art of cookery. Ex- 
perience is absolutely necessary to acquire this art, which to be pro- 
perly done, requires great judgment and delicacy of taste. All the 
recommendations of Dr. Kitchiner and others to season by weight and 
measure, as apothecffries serve out drugs, are in the nature of the 
thing impracticable. "What's one man's meat is another man's 
poison," is a homely proverb, but a true one. So in seasoning, what 
one person likes, another may dislike. The writers we have alluded 
to ridicule the idea of directing the cook to use a pinch of that, and a 
dust of the other. M. Ude justly observes, " that where the quantities 
are indefinite, it is impossible to adjust the exact proportions of spice, 
or other condiments, which it v^ill be necessary to add in order to 
give the proper flavour." If these remarks are correct, and who can 
doubt it, the general terms " handful, pinch, and dust," are the best 
that can be applied as directions upon such a subject. 

In the use of salt in cooking, considerable judgment is required. 
The best rule is to employ as little as possible. It is easy to make 
a dish too fresh, salt ; but if made too salt, it cannot be made fresh 


again. Sugar may be applied with advantage in various dishes, 
where it is not generally used in this country, and which will be 
enumerated hereafter, but great care must be taken, that in such pre- 
parations it should be employed to enrich, not to sweeten. The taste 
of sugar should not predominate, or even be recognised. We allude 
more particularly to soups and gravies, and in some cases in vegeta- 
bles, such as green peas for instance. Meat intended to be broiled, 
or fried, should be well peppered, but never salted ; salt renders it 
hard. The author of "Domestic Cookery" says, that "salt should 
not be put into the water in which vegetables are boiled." We dis- 
agree with this lady ; indeed, she disagrees with herself; for in 
another part of her book she directs salt to be put into the water in 
which potatoes are to be boiled ; and we are quite sure it is very 
necessary in boiling cabbage, savoys, and most other descriptions of 

It ought to be well understood, that pepper and all descriptions of 
spice require to be subjected to the action of heat to bring out their 
genuine flavour. Thus it will be seen, that though it is very prac- 
ticable to sweeten or salt things after they are dressed, it is not so aa 
respects flavouring them with spice. In the use of spices it is, how- 
ever, very important to take care that the aroma (commonly called 
smell), which they give forth, should not be allowed to evaporate or 
escape. Druggists and medical men always keep their essential oils, 
tinctures, volatile spirits and volatile gums, in ground stopper bottles, 
which are perfectly air-tight. This puts us in mind of a foolish cus- 
tom, which cannot be too much deprecated, of exposing in the open 
air aromatic herbs, such as marjoram, thyme, mint, and several 
otliers, which are known by the general term of sweet herbs, and 
which are extensively used in seasoning. These herbs ought always 
to bo kept as much as possible excluded from the air. This may be 
partially effected by tying the dried herbs in paper bags, but it is 
much better to reduce the leaves to a coarse powder, and confine it 
in well-corked bottles. 


In our foregoing remarks we have endeavoured to explain the 
leading principles upon which the art of cookery is founded — princi- 
ples with which the young cook should become thoroughly acquainted. 
We now proceed to lay down a series of rules or maxims, relative to 
the dressing of meat, and the general management of the kitchen. 
These rules should be well studied, and the most important of tiiem 
committed to memory. By doing this a cook will save a great deal 
of trouble and loss of time, and she will also, by her knowledge of the 
general principles of the art, be enabled to vary, and probably nn- 
prove the receipts, which she may have occasion to consult. In short, 
when she knows what must be always done, and what must nevei be 
done, she is, in a great measure, mistress of her art, inasmuch as iho 
details will be easily ac(iuirod by practice. 



1. Keep yourself clean and tidy ; let your hands, in particular, he 
always clean whenever it is practicable. After a dirty job always 
wash them. A cleanly cook must wash her hands many times in the 
course of the day, and will require three or four aprons appropriated 
to the work upon which she is employed. Your hair must never be 
blowsy, nor your cap dirty. 

2. Keep apart things that would injure each other, or destroy their 

3. Keep every cloth, saucepan and all other utensils to their pro- 
per use, and when done with, put them in their proper places. 

4. Keep every copper stewpan and saucepan bright without, and 
perfectly clean within, and take care that they are always well 
tinned. Keep all your dish-covers well dried, and polished ; and to 
effect tiiis, it will be necessary to wash them in scalding water as 
soon as removed from the table, and when these things are done let 
them be hung up in their proper places. 

5. The gridiron, frying-pan, spit, dripping-pan, &c., must be per- 
fectly cleaned of grease and dried before they are put in their proper 

6. Attention should be paid to things that do not meet the sight in 
the way that tins and copper vessels do. Let, for instance, the pud- 
ding cloth, the dish-cloth, and the dish-tub, be always kept perfectly 
clean. To these may be added, the sieve, the cullender, the jelly- 
bag, &,c., which ought always to be washed as soon after they are 
used as may be practicable. 

7. Scour your rolling-pin and paste-board as soon after using as 
possible, but without soap, or any gritty substance, such as sand or 
brick-dust; put them away perfectly dry. 

8. Scour your pickle and preserve jars after they are emptied ; 
dry them and put them away in a dry place. 

9. Wipe your bread and cheese-pan out daily with a dry cloth, and 
scald them once a week. Scald your salt-pan when out of use, and 
dry it thoroughly. Scour the lid well by which it is covered when 
in use. 

10. Mind and put all things in their proper places, and then you 
fi'ill easily find them when they are wanted* 

11. You must not poke things out of sight instead of cleaning 
Ihem, and such things as onions, garlick, &,c., must not be cut with 
the same knife as is used in cutting meat, bread, butter, &:.c. Milk 
must not be put in a vessel used for greasy purposes, nor must clear 
liquids, such as water, &c., be put into vessels, which have been 
used for milk, and not washed; in short, no vessel must be used for 
any purpose for which it is not appropriated. 

12. You must not suffer any kind of food to become cold in any 
metal vessel, not even in well-tinned iron saucepans, &c., for they 
will impart a more or less unpleasant flavour to it. Above all things 



you must not let liquid food, or indeed any other, remain in brass or 
copper vessels after it is cooked. The rust of copper or brass is 
absolutely poisonous, and this will be always produced by moisture 
and exposure to the air. The deaths of many persons have been 
occasioned by the cook not attending to this rule. 

13. You must not throw away the fat which, when cold, accumu- 
lates on the top of liquors in which fresh or salt meat has been boiled; 
in short, you ought not to waste fat of any description, or any thin^, 
else, that may be turned to account; such as marrow-bones, or any 
other clean bones from which food may be extracted in the way of 
Boup, broth, or stock, or in any other way : for if such food will not 
suit your table, it will suit the table of the poor. Remember, "Wil- 
ful waste makes woful want." 

14. A very essential requisite in a cook is punctuality: therefore 
rise early, and get your orders from your mistress as early as possible, 
and make your arrangements accordingly. What can be prepared 
before the business of roasting and boiling commences should always 
be prepared. 

15. Do not do your dirty work at a dresser set apart for cleanly 
preparations. Take care to have plenty of kitchen cloths, and mark 
them so as a duster may not be mistaken for a pudding-cloth, or a 
knife-cloth for a towel. 

16. Keep your spit, if you use one, always free from rust and dust, 
and your vertical jack clean. Never draw up your jack with a weight 
upon it. 

17. Never employ, even if permitted to do so, any knives, spoons, 
dishes, cups, or any other articles in the kitchen, which are used in 
the dining room. Spoons are sure to get scratched, and a knife used 
for preparing an onion, takes up its flavour, which two or three 
cleanings will not entirely take away. 

18. Take great care to prevent aL preparations which are delicate 
in their nature, such as custards, blancmange, dressed milks, &c., Sic, 
from burning to which they are very liable. The surest way to ef- 
fectually hinder this is to boil them as the carpenter heats his glue, 
that is, by having an outside vessel filled with water. 

19. You ought not to do any thing by halves. What you do, do well. 
If you clean, clean thoroughly, having nothing to do with the "slut's 
wipe," and the " lick and a promise." 

20. And last, though not leasts be teachable : be always desirous to 
learn — never be ashamed to ask for information, lest you should ap- 
pear to be ignorant ; for be assured, the most ignorant are too fre- 
quently the most self-opinionated and most conceited ; while those 
who are really well informed, think humbly of themselves, and regret 
that they know so little. 


Inferior joints of the best animals should always be preferred to the 
prime joints of the ill-fed or diseased beasts. Inferior joints of good 


meat such as stickins^s, legs and shins of beef, shoulders of muttoa 
and veal, may, if well dressed, be made as nourishing and palatable 
as the superior joints, and may be bought much cheaper ; but no cooking, 
however well executed, will ever make bad meat good. Ill-condi 
tioned beasts, too, are for the most part unhealthy. 

21. Beef. — Ox beef is considered, truly, the best.' Bull beef is 
coarse, tough, and has a strong, disagreeable smell and taste. Next 
to ox beef, that of a young heifer (if spayed the better) is preferred. 
Some persons, indeed, think it is the best. It is the most delicate 
and tender of all description of beef. Cow beef, particularly a young 
cow that has not had more than two or three calves, is very good. 
The grain is closer, and the fat whiter, than ox beef. Good beef has 
a fine, smooth, open grain, interlarded with thin streaks of delicate 
fat; and is of a deep healthy looking red colour. When the fat is of 
a dirty yellow colour, the meat is not good : it indicates its having 
been fed upon artificial food, such as oil cake. Grass-fed meat, or 
that fed upon hay and corn meal, is the best. When beef is old, a 
horny streak runs between the fat and lean ; the harder this is, the 
older the meat. The flesh is not good flavoured, and eats tough. 

22. Mutton. — Good mutton is firm in the grain ; of a bright red 
colour; the lean delicately interlarded with thin streaks of fat; the 
fat itself being of a brightish white, tinted with a delicate pink. The 
fat of rotten mutton, in which the sheep was afliicted with a liver 
disease, is always of a dead white, and the flesh is of a pale colour. 
Such mutton is both unwholesome and unsavoury. The best way to 
detect this kind of mutton, is to examine the liver before it is re- 
moved from the sheep. If the liver be without bladders, or other 
marks of disease, the mutton is sound. Ewe mutton is not so good aa 
wether mutton; the flesh is generally paler, and the texture finer. 
The best mutton is that which is fed upon the natural grasses. This 
is the reason why the Welsh and mountain Scotch muttons are so 
firm, short, and sweet. The sheep have liberty to choose their own 
food. Mutton fed on rape and turnips does not eat so well, nor near 
BO well, as the grass-fed. Ram mutton has a strong, and, in some 
seasons of the year, an exceedingly disagreeable flavour. It is said 
that wether mutton, to be eaten in perfection, should be five years 
old ; but it is scarcely ever kept to that age. In wether mutton there 
is a knob of fat on the part of the leg, where in the ewe you will find 
a part of the udder. 

23. Venison when young has the cleft of the haunch smooth and 
close, and the fat is clear, bright and thick. In old venison, the cleft 
is wide and tough. If, after running a long, narrow, sharp knife into 
the lean of venison, it comes out without smelling, the venison is 
sweet. Some persons like it a little gone, and others a good deal. 
This state of putrescency is called by gourmands haul gout, high 
tasted ; we should rather say at once, stinking. Venison requires 
more keeping than any other sort of meat to make it tender, unless it 
be dressed immediately it is killed, that is, before it is cold. 

24. Veal. — Tins meat, to be truly good, delicate, fine flavoured, and 


tender, ought not to be more than five or six weeks old, and, of 
course, fed exclusively upon the milk of the mother. Writers on 
cookery gravely tell us, that the whiteness of veal is partly caused 
by the calf licking chalk. This is .nonsense. The chalk is given to 
prevent calves from scouring, not to make their flesh white. However, 
whiteness is no proof of veal being good and juicy; it is caused by 
frequent bleeding. The flesh of the bull calf is said to be the firmest, 
but not so white. The fillet of the cow calf is sometimes preferred 
for the udder. The kidney of good veal is well covered with healthy 
looking fat, thick and firm. The bloody vein in the shoulder should 
look blue ; if it be of any other colour, the meat is stale. Fresh veal 
is dry and white. When it is spotty and clammy it is stale. The 
kidney is gone when the fat or suet upon it is not firm. The kidney 
goes first. 

25. Lamb that is fresh will have the veins bluish in the neck and 
fore-quarter. If there be a faint smell under the kidney it is not 
fresh. When the eyes are sunk in the head, it is a sure sign the lamb 
has been killed too long. Grass lamb, which is the only lamb that is 
in perfection, comes in in April, but it is better in May and June ; that 
is to say, when men with hard hands can afford to eat it, and when 
there are green peas to eat with it. House lamb, for those who can 
afford to pay for it, and like to eat it, may be obtained all the year 

26. Pork. — The quality of this kind of meat depends in a great 
measure upon its feeding. If grossly fed, it is bad, for the pig will 
eat any thing in the absence of delicate food. Dairy-fed pork we are 
told is the best: it is good, but we think not the best. To our taste, 
that is to be preferred in every respect which is fed not merely on 
dairy food, but upon good wholesome corn meal, whether of barley, 
oats, peas, or beans. Cookery writers tell us, that "if the rind is 
tough, and cannot easily be impressed by the finger, the meat is old ;" 
and they add, that a thin rind is a merit in all pork." These direc- 
tions are no guide whatever to the choice of pork : the rind may be 
made thin by dressing, but there are those, and no bad judges either, 
who prefer thick rinds. Moubray, on Poultry, &c., says^" the west- 
ern pigs from Berks, Oxford, and Bucks, possess a decided superiority 
over the eastern of Essex, Sussex, and Norfolk ; not to forget another 
qualification of the former, at which some readers may smile, a thick- 
ness of the skin, whence the crackling of the roasted pig is a fine 
gelatinous substance, which may be easily masticated, whilst the 
crackling of the thin-skinned breeds is roasted into good block tin, 
the reduction of which would almost require teeth of iron." So much 
for thin rinds. When pork is fresh, the flesh will be smooth and dry ; 
when stale, clammy. What is called measly pork is to be avoided 
as a poison. It may be known by the fat being full of kernels, and 
by the general unwholesomeness of its appearance. 

27. Bacon is good when the fat is almost transparent and of a de- 
licate transparent pink tinge. The lean should adhere to the bone, 
be of a good colour, and tender. Yellow streaks in bacon show it is 


becoming rusty ; when all is yellow, all is rusty and unfit to eat. 
Bacon and hams are frequently spoilt in the curing. Taste a little 
of the lean, and you will be able to judge whether it be too salt or 

28. Hams are the best part of the pig when properly cured, per- 
fectly sweet, and not too salt. To ascertain whether a ham is tainted, 
run a sharp knife under the bone, and if it comes out with a pleasant 
smell, and clean, the ham is good. 

Summary of Directions. — Choose meat that has a clear red liver, 
free from knots and bladders, with kidneys firm, close, and well sur- 
rounded with firm, hard fat ; the skirts which line the ribs should bo 
full and fat. Meat possessing these qualifications may be depended 
on as of the first quality ; but if the kidney or kernels of an animal 
have spots resembling measles, as is too frequently the case with 
pork, the meat is unwholesome. 

We have said thus much on the choice of meats, but persons who 
keep up what is called an establishment, will do best to trust to their 
butcher, porkman, fishmonger, and poulterer, and not to choose at all, 
excepting tradesmen, taking care to deal only with the most respect- 
able in the neighbourhood. 

OF FISH. ^^. 

Povltry of all kinds are preferred of a short thick maW?*broad and 
plump in the breast and thick in the rump and fat in the back. The 
epurs should be short as indicating youth, and the comb red as indi- 
cating health. The beak, bill, and claws, in a young bird will be 
tender, and the skin of the legs comparatively smooth ; the contrary 
are certain indications of an old bird. But the best test of a fowl, as 
respects its age, is to try the two bones which run by the side fef the 
belly to the vent ; if these are gristly and easily broken at th6^ end, 
the fowl is young. To judge of the age of geese or ducks, IJltle.or 
no dependence is to be placed upon the colour of the legs and bills — 
this varies according to complexion ; but if the bills and feet 
coarse red streaks, or a tinge of red in them, the bird is old. In yoi 
geese and ducks the above marks are not to be seen, and the wel 
will be smooth and thin. 

29. Rabbits, young and in good condition, will be fat about the 
kidneys, and by the side of the belly. The flesh should be white, 
and if young, the legs will break easily. 

30. Fowls are plentiful from August to January ; chickens come 
in about April, tame ducks in May, continue through the summer 
months, and go out in October. Young geese may be dressed in the 
latter end of May and through the summer, but a goose is not 
thoroughly ripe till after stubbling, that is, about Michaelmas. Tur- 
key poults are in season from May onwards, but turkeys are in high 
season about Christmas. 

31. Rabbits and Pigeons may be had the year round ; wild rab 


bits are best in the winter season ; young- pigeons may be had in 
February, and till September; wood-pigeons in December and 

32. Game. — Hares, partridges and pheasants from September 
through the winter: the game season closes with February. All 
kinds of water-fowl are most plentiful in keen, dry weather, especially 
V cold 'weather, after snow; also larks, wood-cocks, snipes, &,c. 

33. Eggs. — New eggs have always a rough fresh-looking shell, 
but this appearance may be effected by artificial means, and the 
purchaser be cheated with rotten ones, instead of getting fresh. A 
new-laid egg will sink in water, bad ones are more or less buoyant; 
but tiiis is a tedious way of testing eggs. Th6 best way is to form a 
6ort of tube with the left hand, holding with the right hand the figg, 
close and opposite to this tube, in the light. If the egg is good the 
meat will look clear, and partly transparent; if bad, it will look dark 
with black spots in it. 

34. Fish should be broad and thick of their kind, their eyes bright, 
gills red, and the scales close and shining: fish should feel firm to 
the touch and stiff. Stale fish have always a loose, limber feel, 
especially about the vent; their eyes are sunk and dim, the scales 
loose and flabby, and the whole has a dingy, disagreeable appearance. 
Lobsters and crabs are to be judged by their weight; if they feel 
light, they have wasted themselves by long keeping. 

35. Seasons of Fish. — There are some kinds of fish absolutely 
poisonous ^ten out of season; such are salmon, and skate. The 
following will give some idea of the seasons of fish, but they vary 
according to the weather. Cod comes in about October, and goes out 
about February; it is sometimes good for a short time about August. 
Salmon comes in in February, is in high season during May, June, 
and July, declines in August, and is quite out in September. Pickled 
Balmon is good from May till September. Herrings are in season as 
long as they are full of roe; when shotten, they are worthless. 
Sprats are best in frosty weather. Lobsters and crabs are plentiful 
in the spring and early part of the summer. Haddock, flounders, 
muscles, come in in September or October, and are out about April 
or^'May. Jacks or pikes, eels, perch, tench, carp, and other fresh 
water fish, become plentiful about April or May, according to the 
weather. Eels are never out of season, but in cold weather are 
hardly to be procured. Hallibut is in season from the beginning of 
May until the end of September. 


36. A great deal has to be done before the cook can commence the 
operation of cooking. She has to truss her fowls and prepare her 
fish, butcher's meat, and vegetables, with other things not necessary 
to mention here. Never wash butcher's meat except for the purpose 
of cleansing it of blood, which would otherwise disfigure it when 
dressed. Few joints require this operation ; heads, hearts and scrags 


alwaypi rcquiro to be well washed before they are cooked, but if they 
or any thing else are intended for roasting or frying, they should 
first be rendered perfectly dry, by rubbing with a coarse cloth, or 
otherwise. Salt rubbed in with warm water will speedily remove 
the blood and cleanse the meat. Hares must be always well washed 
with salt and water, or milk and water. 

37. Trussing is little required in butcher's meat ; but loins, boned 
and stuffed, such as those of beef, mutton and pork, must of course 
be trussed. This is done by spreading the stuffing and seasoning 
over them, then rolling them up as tightly as possible, tying up with 
a tape or string, and securing all by skewers. The long flap of the 
fillet of veal must be filled with stuffing, and then secured as above 

38. All kinds, of poultry should be killed the first thing in the 
morning, when their crops are empty. They should be plucked 
while they are warm ; be sure take out all the flues, and let the hair 
be singed ofl'with white paper. It is recommended to crop fowls and 
pigeons immediately you have them; but there is a difference of 
opinion as to the time of drawing them ; some say they should be 
drawn as soon as killed, or at least as soon as bought, which prevents 
the disagreeable flavour so often perceived in chickens; others say, 
and indeed the generality of cooks are of this opinion, that they should 
not be drawn till just before they are dressed, as it is apt to make 
them dry : we are of opinion that poultry should be drawn soon after 
Ihey are killed ; we do not believe that this makes them dry, though 
we are sure that to leave them undrawn will be apt to make them 

39. In drawing poultry, or removing the entrails, a very small slit 
may bo made under the vent with a penknife, at which slip in the 
fore-finger, and if there is any internal fat about the vent, draw it out, 
as it is in the way of taking out the entrails, and, if left in, would be 
very strong when roasted. Next get hold of the gizzard, which may 
be known by its being the hardest part of the interior; draw it out 
carefully; it will generally bring the whole of the intestines with it, 
but if tile liver should be left, again slip in the finger and take hold 
of the heart, which will bring out with it the liver, which you must 
not touch for fear of bursting the gall-bladder. The heart is generally 
left in by poulterers, but it is much better out, as it is apt to give a 
bloody appearance to the interior of the fowl. Trim round the vent 
with a pair of scissors. 

40. Be careful to take away the gall-bladder from the liver with- 
out breaking it, for if one drop of the gall escapes, the whole liver is 
spoilt. The gizzird consists of two parts, with a stomach or bag in 
the middle, containing gravel and undigested food ; one part of the 
skin by which the two parts of the gizzard are united is rather nar- 
rower than the other; slit this vvitii a knife, and turning the gizzard 
inside out, remove the stomach bag and trim round the gizzard, but 
avoid cutting the skin by which it is joined in the middle. 

41. In trussing poultrv, cut off the neck about two joints from its 


commcncemeot at Ihn shoulders, but be pure to leave half an inch, or 
more, of the skin longer than the part of the neck remaining-, for the 
purpose of wrapping over on being tied. 

42. The legs of fowls intended to be roasted should be taken off 
about one inch below the first joint ; the feet and legs of young 
chickens are generally left on, but they must be scalded in boiling 
water, and the claws and outside scaly skin taken off. Thrust the 
liver through a slit made in the skinny part of one pinion, and the 
gizzard tiirough the other; then turn the top of the pinion over the 
back, lay the legs close to the sides; with a wire skewer fix the 
middle joint of the pinion outside of the knee joint of the leg, and so 
through the body to the other knee and pinion ; with a short skewer 
fix the lower joint to the lower part of the body ; then the feet, or 
whatever part of them is left, may turn back over the belly. The 
skewer for this purpose must go through the sidesmen, fixing the 
stumps or feet between them. For a fowl that is to be boiled, a slit 
is made on each side of the belly, and the leg-stump tucked in. 

43. To remove the crop and windpipe of those whose heads are left 
on, open the skin a little just in front of the throat; then pull each 
separately gently, first from the beak or bill, then from the stomach. 
Fowls whose heads are taken off may have the crop removed by 
putting the finger down the throat. The windpipe is easily removed 
in the same way. 

[Trussed Fowl for roastin?.] 

44. Before dressing, a little flour should be dusted over fowls. 
Poulteren-, to make the bird look plinnp, often break the breast bone; 
thi*! is a bid practice — it lets the air into the fowl, and drys the meat; 
it often breaks the gall-bladder, and, of course, spoils the fowl, and it 
always renders the bone troublesome. The head of capon, we ought 
to observe, is often twisted under the wing in the same way as a 

45. Ducks have the feet always left on, but the wings must be 
taken off at the middle joint; in doing this, leave more skin than be- 
longs to the bone. The feet must be scalded, and the skin and clawa 
taken away ; they then must be turned over the back. \n placing the 
skewers, keep the thigh joints outside of the pinions, and run the 
skewer through the leg, then through the bit of skin that hangs below 
the pinion, then through the body, the other pinion, skin, and the 



other leg The short skewer must be inserted just above the joint, 
which is twisted to turn back the feet. Tie the skin round the throat;- 
put in the seasoning at the vent and turn the lump through a small 
slit in the apron. "^ 





[Trussed Duck for roasting.] 

46. Geese are trussed exactly in the same way as ducks, except 
the feet are cut off, and dressed with the giblets. The liver is some- 
times dressed separately, and considered by some persons a great 
delicacy. A pioce of greased white paper should be laid over the 
breast, and secured with a string, not skewers, before a goose is put 
down to roast. 

47. Turkeys are trussed the same way as fowls, but the sinews of 
the leg must be drawn out before trussing. The gizzard of a turkey 
intended to be roasted should be scored, and both gizzard and liver 
covered with the caul of veal or lamb; but buttered paper does a3 
well, and is more generally used: this is to prevent them becoming 
dry. The breast sliould be secured in the same way, with a piece of 
buttered paper. Nicely clean th? head, and twist it under the wing. 

48. Fiffeons should be cIeaT.ed with great care. For roasting, 
truss with the feet on ; tie the joints close down the rump, and turn the 
feet over the front (see engraving). Most people season them. For 


[Trussed Pigeon for roasting.] 

[Trussed Pheasam.J 

boiling or stewing, cut off the feet, and truss just as fowls for boiling. 
For broiling, lay tliem open by cutting them down the back, and lav 



ing them flat As pigeons have no gall, no extra care will be required 
with the liver. 

49. Pheasants, Partridges, and Guinea Fowls, are trussed with 
the head tucked under the wing, and the feet on, which are twisted 
and tied to the rump, and turned back over the breast. The liver 
may be used in the stuffing. 

50. Wild Ducks, and all other web-footed wild fowl, should have 
the feet left on, and be cleaned and trussed in the same manner a 
tame ducks. 

51. Woodcocks, Plovers, &,o., and all other birds that live by sue 
tion, are not drawn ; the feet are left on, the knees twisted rouwi 

[Trussed Woodcock.] 

each other, and raised over the breast, by which means each foot 
turns back and falls on the side of the rump. 

52. Hare, trussed for roasting, has the legs turned back without 
disjointing, so that the haunches are thrown up, much in the form 
that a cat is often seen sitting — the end bones of the fore and hind 
legs meet each other, and lie side by side. Two skewers should bo^ 
inserted, one where the end of the leg meets the fleshy part of the 
shoulder, and the other where the end of the shoulder meets tho 
fleshy part of the leg ; the head is fixed back with a skewer thrust 

[Trussed Hare.j 

into the mouth, through the head, and into the back between the 
shoulders. The belly should be slit no more than is necessary for 
taking out the paunch. To secure its keeping in place, a string w 


employed for bracing it; the string- is laid across the back, twisted 
round the end of both skewers, and brought back across the back and 
tied. In skinning hares and rabbits, particularly bares, the ears and 
tails should be preserved entire, as they improve the appearance of 
these dishes on the table, and are much esteemed. 

53. Rabbits for boiling are opened all the way down the belly ; 
joint the legs at the rump so as to admit of their turning along the 
sides ; turn''the shoulders back to meet them, so that the lower joints 
of each lie straight along, side by side; the head should be skewered 
down to the right shoulder. Rabbits for roasting are trussed liko 

^^ [Trussed Rabbit for boiling.] 

54. Fawns or Kids are generally trussed and dressed in the same 
way as hares. As the flesh is of a dry nature, they should be covered 
with a caul or buttered paper, which should be tied on, not skewered. 
Fawns will not keep above a day or two at the furthest. 

55. Sucking Pigs, the moment they are killed, should be put into 
cold water for a few minutes. Some persons then rub them over 
with powdered resin: others object to this on account of the flavour 
of the resin, which the pig will retain, if not well washed. Put the 
pig for half a minute into a pail or pan of boiling water, and take it 
out and pull off" the hair or bristles as quickly as possible. If any 
should remain, put it again into hot water; when quite free from hair, 
wash it thoroughly with warm water, and then rinse it several times 
in cold water, that no flavour of the resin may remain. The feet 
should be taken off at the first joint: then make a slit down the belly 
and remove the entrails ; once more wash the pig inside and out in 
cold water, and wrap it in a wet cloth till you are ready to dress it, 
which should be done as soon as possible. Fill the belly with season- 
ing, and sew it up; skewer back the legs, and the trussing is com- 
pleted. The feet, heart, liver, lights, and melt, are to be dressed 
separately, when well cleaned. This dish is called pig's pettitoes. 

56. Fish, in cleaning, should have every particle of the entrails 
very carefully removed. If the blood has settled down the back-bone, 
or elsewhere, it should be carefully taken away, and care should be 
taken not to break the gallbladder of the liver. Some fish must be 
slit in order to clean them ; others may have their entrails drawn out 
at the gills, which should be always done when it is practicable. 
Mackerel, perch, &c. are cleaned in this way. Flat fish may be so 



cleaned, but it is usual to make a slanting slit on one side, just below 
the gill, in order to put in the finger and remove the clotted blood 
from the back-bone. Fishes with scales should be scraped from the 
tail to the head, till all the scales are removed ; others, such as soles 
and eels, are skinned. The cook ought not to depend upon the clean- 
ing of fish by the fishmonger, but carefully examine them before 

57. Eels are remarkably tenacious of life, and appear to suffer 
after they are cut into several pieces. In order to take the sense of 
feeling entirely from this fish, it is only necessary, before it is skinned, 
to pierce the spinal marrow, just at the back- of the skull, right 
through, when all feeling in the eel will instantly cease, though it 
has the appearance of being alive. Then raise the skin, at the" part 
cut or pierced, draw it back over the mouth and head, secure the head 
with a strong fork to a table, or dresser, and draw back the whole 
skin. To prevent the eel from slipping through your hands, rub tbem 
with salt, and you will then draw off the skin easily. Eels, except 
very small ones, require to be slit all the way from the vent to the 
gills, and the inside of the back-bone should be rubbed with salt. The 
liver, roe or melt, are much esteemed, and should be therefore pre- 

58. Fish without Scales, <^c. — Cod, mackerel, whiting, and some 
other fish, being without scales, need nothing doing to them except 
drawing them and washing or wiping. Sprats, for broiling, should 
have a long bird-skewer run through their eyes, or a common knitting- 
needle. Neither sprats nor the silver-stringed herring, which is the 
best, should ever be drawn. They should be wiped dry and clean. 
Fish for frying, should not be washed if it be possible to avoid it. If 
they require washing, it should be done an hour or two before they 
are fried, and wrapped up in a coarse cloth till they are thorough- 
ly dry. 

59. Turhot, Plaice, Flounders, ^c, having been gutted and wiped, 
enould be sprinkled with salt, and hung up for several hours before 

60. Cod, having been drawn and washed, will eat firmer if it be 
sprinkled with salt some time before putting it into the fish-kettle, 
with cold v^rater, where it may remain an hour or two before boiling, 
or it may be hung up like plaice, &c. 

61. Oysters, if fresh from the sea, that is, uncleansed by the fish- 
monger, should, as soon as received, be laid in a pan or tub, with the 
flat shell upwards, and the whole fish covered with spring water; to 
which put a pint of salt to every two gallons of water. In a few 
hours the fish will have cleansed themselves, and become fit for use. 
If they are required to be kept longer, the water should be taken 
away at night, and renewed in the morning; but they are never 
bettor than after they have been in the water from six to ten hours. 
There are persons who recommend that they should always be kept 
nnder water, which they say should be renewed every twelve hours. 
Such persons forget that oysters, in their natural state, are not under 


water when the tide is out. Some writers recommend fresh water, 
but for what reason we know not, except to spoil the fish. Others 
order them to be sprinkled with flour, or oatmeal, for the purpose 
of making the fish white. We believe it has no such effect — 
much less will it feed them. Clear fresh springr water with a little 
sail, is the best ; in this they will soon scour themselves, and become 
delicately white. Oysters should be opened very carefully — be 
turned round on the shell — the lower shell preserves the liquor best, 
and then served immediately; but they are better when eaten and 
opened at table. Every moment the oyster is kept after it is opened^ 
injures it in quality and Jlavour. If served on the flat side of the 
shell, the liquor should be preserved and used for flavouring-. — N. B. 
Oysters when taken fresh from the clean sea, that is, from beds de- 
void of mud, require no cleansing; but, on the contrary, we are as- 
sured on good authority, are much better without it. The process of 
cleansing deprives the fish of its flavour to a certain extent, and very 
much weakens the delicious liquor in the shell. 

62. Vegetables, particularly green, in preparing for dressing, re- 
quire great attention in point of cleanliness. If vegetables for boiling 
can be gathered perfectly clean, immediately before being put in the 
pot, they preserve their colour much better without washing. But 
this will seldom be the case, particularly with those purchased of the 
greengrocer. When they are a little stale, which is almost always 
the case, if not gathered in your own garden, putting them in water 
for a few hours will refresh them. Salt and water should be used for 
the purpose of bringing out the slugs, or caterpillars, in which sum- 
mer cauliflowers and cabbage very often abound. Every drop of cold 
water, if possible, should be shaken out of them before boiling. Green 
peas, broad beans and French beans, ought not to be washed. Tur- 
nip greens, if quite clean and fresh, are better not washed ; but it 
otherwise they must be washed through several waters. 

63. Asparagus, Artichokes, Spinach^ ^c. — Scrape the stalks of 
asparagus clean, tie them up with tape, in bundles of twenty-five or 
thirty each ; cut off" the ends of the stalks to an equal length. If quite 
frf^^sh they need not be washed. Artichokes require thorough wash- 
ing, and should be soaked two hours or so in water before dressing. 
Spinach should be picked leaf by leaf; washed in three or four 
waters, and thoroughly drained. Celery should be well soaked. 

64. Potatoes and Jerusalem Artichokes should be well scrubbed 
with a birch broom, besom, or scrubbing brush, and washed very clea 
just before boiling; but they should never be the least wetted till they 
are about to be dressed. Some persons like them best boiled in the 
skins; they are best peeled before boiling when they are old or 

65. Carrots, Parsnips, Beetroots, and Turnips. — Carrots and 
parsnips should be well washed and scrubbed, but not scraped, as it is 
apt to injure the flavour. After boilintr, rub the skins with a coarse 
cloth. jFur soups, &c., they should be scraped. Beetroots should be 
washed and scrubbed very clean, but if the red sort be scraped, or cut 



with a knife, the colour will escape. When done, carefully rub with 
a rough cloth. Wash and peel turnips. 

Having given directions for the preparations for cooking, we now 
proceed to Cooking itself; and shall begin v^ith 


In our general directions we have given pretty full instructions on 
the art of making broths, stews, &c., which instructions are of them- 
selves sufficient to enable a young cook, possessed of diligence and 
common sense, to prepare the diticrent varieties of these dishes, with- 
out the assistance of particular receipts. We give, however, the fol- 

66. Clear Gravy Soups. — Cut half a pound of ham into slices, and 
lay them at the bottom of a large stew-pan, or stock pot, with two or 
three pounds of veal and the same weight of lean beef; break the 
bones and lay them on the meat; pare two turnips and skin two large 
onions; wash clean, and cut into pieces two large carrots, two iieads 
of celery; put in a large blade of mace, and three cloves; cover the 
stew-pan close, and set it over a clear fire; when the meat begins to 
Btick at the bottom of the stew-pan, turn it, and when there is a nice 
brown glaze at the bottom of the stew-pan cover the meat with hot 
water; put in half a pint when it is coming to a boil ; take off the 
ecum, and put in half a pint more of cold water; then skim it again, 
and continue to do so till no more scum rises: now set it on one side 
of the fire to boil gently for four hours; strain through a clean tamis 
(do not squeeze it, or the soup will be thick) into a clean stone pan ; 
let it remain till it is cold, then remove all the fat; when you bottle 
it, be careful not to disturb the settlings at the bottom of the pan. 
The broth should be of a fine amber colour, and very clear. If it is 
not quite as bright as you wish it, put it into a stew-pan ; break two 
whites and the shells of eggs, mix well together and put them into 
the soup, set it on a quick fire, and stir it with a whisk till it boils, 
then set it on one side till it settles; run it through a fine napkin; 
then it is ready. If you skim your broth carefully as directed above, 
it will be ck^ar enough; clarifying it impairs the flavour. — Ohserve. 
This is the basis of almost all gravy soups, which are called by the 
name of the vegetables that are put into them: carrots, turnips, 
onions, celery, and a few leaves of chervil, make what is called spring 
soup; to this a pint of green peas, or asparagus, or French beans cut 
into pieces, or a cabbage lettuce, is an improvement. With rice, 
Scotch barley, or vermicelli, maccaroni or celery, cut into lengths, it 
will be the soup usually called by those names. Or turnips scooped, 
round or young onions, will give you a clear turnip or onion soup. 
The roots and vegetables used must be boiled first, or they will im- 
pregnate the soup with too strong a flavour. Seasoning for those soups 
is the same, viz. salt, and a very little cayenne pepper. 

67. Ox Tail Soup. — Take three or tour ox tails; divide at the 
joints; well wash, and soak them. Put them on the fire; to each 


tail allow a quart of water; when they boil, take off all the scum. K 
four tails add four onions, and eight or ten corns of allspice and black 
pepper to each tail. Simmer it slowly till the meat on the bones is 
tender. Then take out the tails, scrape off ail the meat and cut it 
small; strain the soup through a sieve. To thicken it, take two 
ounces of butter, and as much flour as it will take up; mix it well 
with the whole, and let it simmer another half hour. If not perfectly 
smooth, it must be strained again ; then put in the meat, with a glass 
of wine, a table-spoonful of mushroom catsup, a little cayenne, and 
salt to taste ; simmer it again a few minutes. Or instead of thicken- 
ing the soup, the meat may be returned to the gravy and wanned 
again, with or without the addition of carrots and turnips. 

68. Hotch-jjotch. — Take lamb or mutton chop?, and stew them in 
good gravy, with the addition of almost every kind of vegetable. A 
summer hotcli-potch is composed of young onions, carrots, asparagus 
green peas, lettuce, turnips, spinach, and parsley ; a winter one is com- 
posed of full-grown turnips cut small, old carrots cut small or grated, 
celery and onions sliced, dried peas — the green or blue sort are the best 
colours for this purpose. I^he peas will take much longer boiling than 
either meat or green vegetables. Put them in the liquor boiling, and 
let them boil an hour before the addition of meat, and the other vege- 
tables. The proportion is four pounds of meat to a gallon of stock, 
and two quarts of vegetables. Boil the meat and vegetables between 
two and three hours, slow boiling, with the lid on. If you add green 
peas or asparagus tops among the vegetables, keep out nearly all of 
them till within half an hour of sending them to table ; then letthern 
Doil fast till tender. Season with salt and pepper, and serve all to- 
gether. Some people make it of brisket of beef, and add a bunch 
of sweet herbs. The beef will require stewing longer. A leg of 
beef, cut in pieces, and stewed six or seven hours, with carrots and 
the other ingredients, makes very good soup. A little small beer is 
in improvement to all brown soups. 

69. Fish Broth. — Thick-skinned fish, and those which have gluti- 
nous, jelly-like substances, are the best. The liquor which eels have 
been boiled in is good enough of itself, as they require but little water. 
The liquor in which turbot or cod has been boiled, bcjil again, with 
the addition of the bones. If purposely made, small eels, or grigs, 
or flat fish, as flounders, soles, plaice or dabs, or the finny parts of 
cod, will do for the purpose. A pound of fish to three pints of water ; 
add peppercorns, a large handful of parsley, and an onion ; and boil 
till reduced to half. A spoonful of catsup, or vinegar, is an improve- 
ment. This broth is very nourishing and easy of digestion; but for a 
sick person, leave out the catsup or vinegar. 

. 70. Cock-a-leeky Soup. — Take a small knuckle of veal, and a large 
fowl, or a scrag of mutton instead of veal. An old fowl will do. Add 
three or four large leeks, cut in pieces of half an inch long. Simmer 
in three quarts of good broth for an hour. Then add as many more 
leeks, and season with pepper and salt. Let it boil three-quarters 
of an hour iong.i^^, and serve all togetriur. The leeks which are put 


in first, is with the intention of thickening the soup ; and those which 
lire put in last, should retain their form and substance. 

71. Scotch Brose, or Crowdy. — Take half a pint of oatmeal ; put 
it before the fire, and frequently turn it till it is perfectly dry and of a 
light brown. Take a ladle-full of boiling water, in which fat meat 
has been boiled, and stir it briskly to the oatmeal, still adding more 
liquor till it is brought to the thickness desired, which is about that 
of a stiff batter; a little salt and pepper may be added, if the liquor 
with which it was made was not salt. Kalebroseis the same thing, 
but with the addition of greens, cut small, and boiled in the liquor. 

72. Pease Soup.--Vi\\. a quart of split peas to three quarts of 
boiling water, not more (Dr. Kitchiner says cold water,) with half a 
pound of bacon, not very fat, or roast beef bones, or four anchovies; 
or, instead of water, the liquor in which beef, mutton, pork or poultry, 
has been boiled ; it will be very much better, but taste the liquor, as it 
must not be too salt. Wash two heads of celery, cut small (half a 
drachm of celery seed, pounded fine, and put into the soup, a quarter 
of an hour before it is finished, will flavour three quarts,) two onions 
peeled, and a spri^ of savoury, or sweet marjoram, or lemon thyme. 
Let it simmer very gently, stirring it every quarter of an hour, to 
keep the peas from sticking to or burning at the bottom of the pot. 
Simmer till the peas are tender, which will be in about three hours. 
Some cooks now slice a head of celery and half an ounce of onions, 
and fry them in a little batter, and put them into the soup, till it is 
li;: -itly browned; then work the whole through a coarse hair sieve, 
and then through a fine sieve, or through a tamis, with the back of a 
wooden spoon ; then put it into a clean stew-pan, with a tea-spoonful 
of ground black pepper; let it boil again for ten minutes, and if any 
fat arises skim it off. Send up on a plate some toasted bread, cut into 
little pieces, an inch square; or cut a slice of bread (that has been 
baked two days) into dice, not more than half an inch square ; put 
half a pound of quite clean dripping, or lard, into an iron frying-pan; 
when it is hot fry the bread ; take care to turn the bread with a slice, 
that it may be of a delicate brown on both sides ; take it up with a 
fish-slice, and lay it on a sheet of paper to drain the fat ; be careful 
that this is done nicely. Send them up in one side dish, and dried 
and powdered mint, or savoury, in another. The most economical 
method of making pease soup, is to save the bones of a joint of roast 
beef, and put them into the liquor in which mutton, or beef, or pork, or 
poultry, has been boiled, and proceed as in the first receipt. A hock 
or shank bone of ham, a ham bone, the root of a tongue, or a red or 
pickled herring, are favourite additions with some people ; others send 
up rice or vermicelli with pease soup. Pease soup may be made sa- 
voury and agreeable to the palate, without any meat, by putting two 
ounces of fresh and nicely clarified beef, mutton, or pork dripping, 
with two ounces of oatmeal, and mix this well into a gallon of soup 
prepared with the peas and vegetables, according to the first receipt, 
or in water alone. 

73. Pease Soup and Pickled Pork. — Take two pounds of pickled 


pork, which will make very good broth for pease soup; ifthe pork is 
too salt, put it in water on the over-night. The pork should not be 
in salt more than two days. Put on the articles, mentioned in the 
first receipt, in three quarts of water ; boil these gently for two hours; 
then put in the pork, and boil gently for an hour and a half, or two 
hours, according to the thickness of the pork ; when done, wash the 
pork clean in some hot water ; send it up in a dish, or cut it into little 
pieces, and put them into the tureen, with the toasted bread, &c., or 
as in the first receipt. The meat being boiled no longer than to be 
done enough to eat, you can get excellent soup without the expense 
of any other meat. 

74. Plain Pease Soup. — To a quart of split peas, and two heads of 
celery, and a large onion, put three quarts of broth, or soft water; let 
them simmer gently over a slow fire for three hours. Stir them up 
every quarter of an hour, to prevent the peas sticking at the bottom 
of the pot, and burning. 

75. Spanish Soup. — Take about three pounds of beef, off the leg 
or shin, with or without the bone — if with the bone, well crack it — a 
pound of knuckle of ham, or gammon. More than cover them with 
water, and when it boils skim it, and add a tea-spoonful of pepper. 
The ham will probably make it sufficiently salt — if not, add a little. 
Let this simmer by the side of the fire until it is three parts done, 
which will take two hours and a half. And then well wash some 
cabbage plants, or small summer cabbage; cut these into small pieces, 
also onions cut small; a tea-cup full of rice, with a bit of eschalot; 
put these in the saucepan, and let it simmer a quarter of an hour or 
twenty minutes, until the rice is boiled enough. Then take it from 
the fire ; separate the meat, vegetables, and rice, from the soup, and 
eat the soup before the meat. Separate the meat from the bones, and 
mix it with the vegetables. If the plants are too strong, scald them 
before putting them in the saucepan. In the summer, a few young 
peas make a great improvement. Leeks are better than onions, a3 
you can have more in quantity of vegetables. The Spaniards use 
garlic. This will dine a family of seven or eight people. 

76. Chicken Broth. — Chicken bones, and the heads and feet, make 
a basin of good broth, provided the fowls have been boiled, and the 
liquor used instead of water. The heads and feet of four fowls may 
be boiled in a quart of water, with the addition of an onion and a blade 
of mace, a little pepper and salt. Chicken broth may be enriched 
by the additic>n of a knuckle bone of veal, a bit of beef, or three or 
four shank bones of mutton. 

77. Mutton Broth. — Scrags of mutton, or sheeps' heads, make a 
very good family dinner. Two or three scrags of mutton, or two 
sheeps' heads, may be put on in a two-gallon pot; when it boils, skim 
it well, then add six ounces of Scotch or pearl barley, or rice; let it 
boil an hour or more; then add eight or ten turnips, three or four car- 
rots, cut up, and four or five onions. Half an hour before serving, put 
in a few small suet dumplings, a little parsley, and a few marigold 
blossoms. This broth should boil two hours and a half, or three hours. 


The knuckle of a shoulder of mutton answers very well in this man- 
ner. Serve the meat on a separate disii, and the broth, dumplings, 
and vegetables, all together in a large tureen. 

78. Mutton Chop Broth. — Cut the chops from a neck or loin of 
mutton ; cut as much as is required into thin chops ; put them in a 
stew-pan, with an onion or two, a little salt, and cold water enough 
to cover them. Skim well when it boils, and let it stew slowly three- 
quarters of an hour, or an hour. Turnips may be boiled in this liquor, 
or boiled separately, and mashed. Serve the broth and meat to- 
gether. In broth intended for invalids, the vegetables and spice 
should be left out. 

79. Soup and Bouilli. — For the bouilli, roll five pounds of brisket 
of beef tight with a tape, put it into a slew-pan; four pounds of the 
leg of beef; about seven or eight quarts of water ; boil these up quick ; 
scum it ; add one large onion, six or seven cloves, some whole pep- 
per, two or three carrots, a turnip or two, a leek, two heads of celery ; 
stew them very gently, closely covered, for six or seven hours; about 
an hour before dinner, strain the soup through a piece of flannel (put 
the rough side upwards,) or a hair sieve ; have ready boiled carrots 
and turnips sliced, spinach, a little chervil, and sorrel, two heads of 
endive, one or tv/o of celery, cut in pieces. Put the soup into a tu- 
reen. The carrots and turnips in separate dishes; add a little salt 
and cayenne to the soup. Take the tape from the bouilli very care- 
fully, and serve in a dish. A leg or shin of beef, with a piece of fat 
beef, will answer the purpose. 

80. A Cheap Sonp. — Two pounds of lean beef, six onions, six po- 
tatoes (parboiled,) one carrot, one turnip, half a pint of split peas, four 
quarts of water, some whole pepper, a head of celery, a red herring; 
when boiled, rub through a coarse sieve, add spinach and celery 
boiled, dried mint, and fried bread. 

81. Veal Soup. — Cut the meat off in thin slices; put the meat in a 
large jug or jar; put to it a bunch of sweet herbs, half an ounce of 
almonds, blanched, and beat fine ; pour on it four quarts of boiling 
water; cover it close, and let it stand all night by the fire; the next 
day, put it into an earthen vessel; let it stew very slowly till it is re- 
duced to two quarts; take off the scum as it rises while boiling, and 
let it stand to settle; then pour it clear off, and put it into a clean 
saucepan ; mix with three ounces of either boiled rice or vermicelli. 

82. Calf's Head Soup. — Take a calPs head, wash it clean, stew 
it with a bunch of sweet herbs, an onion stuck with cloves, mace, 
pearl barley, and Jamaica pepper ; when it is very tender, put to it 
some stewed celery ; season it with pepper ; and serve it with tha 
head in the middle. 

83. Giblct Soup. — The most economical way is to take a pound or 
two of beef skirts, or of knuckle of veal; cut it into pieces two or 
three inches square; a set of goose giblets, or four sets of ducks', or 
the head, neck, and feet, of a turkey or two, or of six or eight fowls; 
all of these are good, either separate or together. Clean them well, 
split the heads, cut the gizzards across, crack the pinions and feet 


bones. Put all together into a stew-pan, with an ounce of butter, the 
red part of two or three carrots cut up, two or three onions sliced, and 
a clove or two of eschalots. Shake it over a clear slow fire a few 
minutes, to draw the gravy, then add water or broth enough to cover 
the whole ; let it simmer two hours or more, then season with salt 
and pf'pper, and a large spoonful of catsup, and serve all together. It 
may be thickened with rice or barley, which should be added as soon 
"IS it boils. — A more expensive way : Prepare the giblets a? above 
and set them on with good gravy, enough to cover them ; tie in a 
muslin bag an onion or two, a small bundle of sweet herbs, a few 
leaves of sweet basil, and twenty corns of allspice, the same of black 
pepper. Let it simmer till the giblets are tender, then take them out 
and cover up close while you thicken the gravy ; remove also the bag 
of spice and herbs. Make some force meat balls as follows: when 
the livers are done enough to chop fine, take them out or part of them, 
pound thnm fine with half their weight in butter^ and the yolks of 
three haid-bniled eggs; season with salt, cayenne, nutmeg, sage, and 
onions, scalded and chopped very fine, and also a leaf or two of sweet 
basil. Mix with half a tea-cup full of bread crumb?, wet with the 
yolk of an^ and make up into little balls with a little flour. Hav- 
ing removed iht giblets, thicken the soup with butter and flour, and 
when it boils add the balls; let them simmer a quarter of an hour, 
then add a glass tjf wine, a large table-spoonful of catsup, and the 
juice of half a Seville orange or lemon. Put in the giblets to warm 
through, and it is ready. 

84. Kitchiner^s cheap Soup. — Wash in cold water four ounces 
of Scotch barley, and put into five qjarts of water, with four ounceg 
of sliced onions; boil gently one hour, and pour it into a pan; then 
put into a saucepan from one to two ounces of fresh beef or mutton 
dripping. Dripping for this purpose should be taken out of the pan 
as fast as it drips from the meat; if suffered to remain in the pan it 
is apt to become rancid. If no dripping is at hand, melted suet will 
do, or two or three ounces of fat bacon minced fine. When melted 
in the saucepan, stir into it four ounces of oatmeal, and rub them 
together until they become a soft paste. Then add, by degrees, a 
spoonful at a time, the barley broth, stirring it well together till it 
boils. For seasoning, put in a tea-cup or basin a drachm of celery or 
cress seed, or half a drachm of each, and a quarter of a drachm of 
cayenne, finely powdered, or a drachm and a half of black pepper 
finely powdered, or half allspice; mix them smooth with a little of 
the soup; then stir it into the rest; simmer it gently another quarter 
of an hour, season with salt, and it is ready. The flavour may be 
varied by any variety of herbs, or thickening with garlic or eschalot 
instead of celery; a larger portion of onions, or carrots and turnips, 
or rice, or paste, instead of oatmeal or barley. 

85. Soup Maigre. — Divide two or three beads of celery, two large 
carrots, three or four moderate-sized turnips, some onions, two young 
jtettuces, a handful of spinach leaves, and a little sorrel. Cut the 
worst half of the vegetables in small pieces, and put them into the 


8tew-pan with three ounces of bnttpr; lot them fry till the vno-otahlesd 
are brown and the butter absorbed ; put a g^allon of boilino- wa'or info 
the pan; when it boils fast, skim it well, stir in a liLtie flour, and 
add some stale crust of bread ; put in two dozen of black peppery and 
the same of allf^pice, with two or three blades of mace; let it simnier 
for an hour and a half, then set it aside for a quarter of an hour, tiiea 
strain it off very gently, so as not to disturb the settlino-s at the Kot«^ 
torn of the stew-pan, which clean. When the soup has stood two? 
hours, pour it back again, avoiding' to disturb any sediment, if any* 
should escape from the first draining. Cut up the remainder of the.; 
vegetables and boil them in water live minutes, then drain them, and 
when the soup again boils, afy them to it, and let it simmer till they 
are tender, which will be about three-quarters of an hour; season,! 
with salt, cayenne, and a table-spoonful of catsup. If green peas aro:) 
in season, the liquor in which they have been boiled, added to the' 
soup, is a great improvement. 

86. Mock Turtle. — Have the head and broth ready for the soup 
the day befiire it is to be eaten; it will take eight hours to prepare it 
properly. Get the calf's head with the skin on, the fresher the better, 
take out the brains and wash the head several times in cold water, 
let it soak in spring water for an hour, then lay it in the stew-pan, 
cover it with cold water, and half a gallon over; as it becomes warm 
a great deal of scum will rise, which must be immediately removed ; 
let it boil gently for one hour, then take it up. When almost cold 
cut the head into pieces about an inch and a half long and an inch' 
and a quarter broad ; the tongue into mouthfuls, or rather make a 
side dish of the tongue and brains. When the hnad is taken out, put. 
in about five pounds of knuckle of veal, and as much beef; add to the^ 
stock all the trimmings and bones of the head; skim it well, then, 
cover it close, let it boil five hours; reserve two quarts of this to. 
make gravy sauce, then strain it oft and let it stand till the next 
morning; then take olTtho fat, put a large stew-pan on the fire, with 
half a pound of good fresh butter, twelve ounces of onions sliced, four 
ounces of green sage chopped ; let tliese fry one hour; rub in half a 
pound of flour by degrees, add your broth till it i.s the thickness of 
cream; season it with a quarter of an ounce of ground allspice and 
half an ounce of black popper, ground very fine, salt to your taste, 
add the rind of one lem./n peeled very thin ; let it simmer very gently 
for one hour and a half, then strain it through a hair sieve, do not rub 
your soup to get it through the sieve or it will make it grouty ; if it 
do not run through easily, knock a v.^ooden spoon atjainst the side of 
the sieve; put it into a clean stew-pan with the head, and season by 
adding, to each gallon of soup, half a pint of wine, Madeira, or claret 
if you wish it dark; two table-spoonfuls of lemon juice, the same of 
catsup, one of essence of anchovy, a tea-spoonful of" curry powder, or 
a quarter of a drachm of cayenne, the peel of a lemon pan-d very tliin. 
Let it simmer gently ti'l the meat is tender; this may take from half 
an hour to an hour; take care that it is not over-done; stir it fre- 
quently to prevent the meat sticking to the bottom of the stew-pan ; 


Krien the meat is quite done, take out the lemon peel, and the soup 
is ready. Serve with force meat stuffing-, or balls. 

87. Carrot Soup. — Wash and scrape six large carrots, peel off the 
red outside (which is the only part used for this soup), put it into a 
gallon stew-pan, with one head of celery, and an onion cut into thin 
pieces ; take two quarts of veal, beef, or mutton broth, put the broth 
to the roots, cover the stew-pan close, and set it on a slow stove for 
two hours and a half, when the carrots will be soft enough; put in a 
tea-cup full of bread crumbs, boil for two or three minutes, rub it 
through a tamis, or hair sieve, with a wooden spoon, add broth, and 
make it nearly as thick as pease soup; season it with a little salt, and 
send it up with some toasted bread, cut into pieces half an inch 
square. The celery and onions should be sliced and fried in butter, 
or nicely clarified dripping, and then put in the stew-pan and the 
broth added to it. Or thus : Put some beef bones with four quarts of 
liquor in which a leg of mutton or beef has been boiled, two large 
onions, a turnip, pepper and salt, into a stew-pan, and stew for three 
hours; have ready six large carrots scraped, and cut thin ; strain tha 
Boup on them, stew them till soft enough to pulp through a hair sieve, 
or a coarse cloth ; then boil the pulp with the soup, which is to be as 
thick as, pease soup. Make the soup the day before it is to be used; 
add cayenne. Pulp only the red part of the carrot, and not the yel- 
low. The soup is better made with a shin of beef. 

88. Curry or Mulligatawny Soup. — Cut four pounds of a breast 
of veal into pieces about two inches long and one inch broad ; put the 
trimmings into a stew-pan with two quarts of water, with twelve 
corns of black pepper, and the same of allspice; when it boils skim it 
clean, and let it boil an hour and a half; then strain it off; while it 
is boiling, fry of a nice brown in butter the bits of veal, and four 
onions; when they are done put the broth to them, put it on the fire; 
when it boils skim it clean, let it simmer half an hour, then mix two 
spoonfuls of curry, and the same of flour, with a little cold water, and 
a tea-sooonful of salt ; add these to the soup, and simmer it till the 
veal i» quite tender, and it is ready ; or bone a couple of fowls or rab- 
bits, and stew them the same as veal, and you may put in a bruised 
eschalot, and some mace and ginger, instead of black pepper and all- 
spice. The fowls and rabbits should be cut into joints, and fried of a 
nice brown in some batter. 

89. Eel Soup. — To make a tureen full, take two middling sized 
onions, cut them in half, and cross your knife over them two or three 
iimes; put two ounces of butler into a stew-pan ; when it is melted, 
put in the onions, stir them in the pan till they are of a light brown; 
cut into pieces three pounds of unskinned eels, put them into your 
stew-pan, and shake them over the fire for five minutes; then add 
three quarts of boiling water, and when they boil, take the scum off 
very clean, and then put in a quarter of an ounce of the green leaves 
(not dried) of winter savoury, the same of lemon-thyme, and twice 
the quantity of parsley, two drachms of allspice, the same of black 
pepper ; cover it close^ and let it boil gently for two hours, skim it 



clean and strain it off. To thicken it, put three ounces of butter into 
a clean stew-pan ; when it is melted stir in as much hour as wiil 
make it of a thick paste, then add the liquid by degrees, let it simmer 
for ten minutes, and pass it through a sieve, then put your soup on in 
a clean stew-pan, and have ready some little square pieces of fried 
fish of nice light brown — either eels, soles, plaice, or skate, win do, 
the fried fish should be added about ten minutes before the soup is 
served up. Force meat balls are sometimes added. Excellent fish- 
soup may be made of cod's head, or skate, or flounders, boiled in no 

;inore water than will cover them, and the liquor thicKened wim 

jpatmeal, &c. 

90. Gourd Soup should be made of full-grown gourds, but not 
those that have hard skins; slice three or four, and put them into a 
etew-pan with two or three onions and a good bit of butter, set thcra 
over a slow fire till quite tender, be careful not to let them burn; 
then add two ounces of crust of bread, and two quarts of good con- 
somme, season with salt and cayenne pepper ; boil ten minutes or a 
quarter of an hour, skim off all the fat, and pass it through a tamia 
when quite hot. Serve up with fried bread. 

91. Game Soup. — In the game season it is easy to make very good 
soup at a little expense, by taking all the meat off the breasts of any 
cold birds that have been lefl on the preceding day, and pound it in a 
mortar; beat to pieces the legs and bones, and boil in some broth for 
an hour ; boil six turnips, and mash them and strain them through a 
tamis cloth, with the meat that has been pounded in a mortar; strain 
your broth and put a little of it at a time into the tamis to help you 
to strain all of it through. Put your soup kettle near the fire, but do 
not let it boil. When ready to dish your dinner, have six yolks of 
eggs mixed with half a pint of cream, then strain it through a sieve; 
put your soup on the fire, and as it is coming to boil, put in the eggs^ 
and stir it well with a wooden spoon. Do not let it boil, or it will 

92. Turnip and Parsnip Soups are made the same as carrot soupi 

93. Celery Soup — Split six heads of celery into slips about two 
inches long; wash them well, lay them on a hair sieve to drain, and 
put them into three quarts of gravy soup in a gallon soup pot ; set it 
by the side of the fire to stew very gently till the celery is tender-— 
this will take about an hour; if any scum rises, take it off. Season 
it with a little salt. When celery cannot be procured, half a drachm 
of the seed pounded fine may be considered as the essence of celery, 
which may be had very cheap, and can be bought at any season ; put 
this in about a quarter of an hour before the soup is done, and a little 
sugar will give as much flavour to half a gallon of soup as two heads 
of celery — or add a little essence of celery. 

94. Lamb Stew.— Take a lamb's head and lights, and wash them ; 
remove all the bones and skin from the nose, put them in the pot with 
some beef stock made with three quarts of water and two oounds of 
shin of beef, strained ; boil very slowly for an hour, wash and strin/j 
two or three good handfuls of spinach, put it in twenty minutes before 


Berving-, add one or two onions and a little parsley a short time before 
it conres off the fire ; season with salt and pepper, and it is ready. 
Serve all together in a tureen. 

95. Hare, Rabbit , or Partridge Soup. — When hares and rabbits 
and other game are too tough to eat (in the ordinary way of cooking,) 
they will make very good soup. Cut off the legs and shoulders of a 
hare, divide the body crossways, and stew very gently in three quarts 
of water, with one carrot, about one ounce of onions, two blades of 
pounded mace, four cloves, twenty-four black peppers, and a bundle 
of sweet herbs; stew it till the hare is tender. Most cooks add to the 
above two slices of ham or bacon, and a bay leaf, but the hare makes 
sufficiently savoury soup without this addition. The time this will 
take depends upon the age and time it has been kept before it is 

.dressed ; as a general rule, about three hours. Make a dozen and a 
half of force meat balls, as big as nutmegs. When hare is tender, 
take the meat off the back and upper joints of the legs ; cut it into 
mouthfuls, and put on one side ; cut the rest of the meat off the legs, 
shoulders, &c., mince it and pound it in a mortar with an ounce of 
butter, and two or three table-spoonfuls of flour moistened with a little 
60up; rub this through a hair sieve, and put it into the soup to thicken 
it ; let it simmer for half an hour longer, skim it well, and put it 
through the tamis in the pan again; put the meat in, a glass of port 
or claret wine, with a table-spoonful of currant jelly to each quart of 
soup. Season it with salt ; put in the force meat balls, and when all 
is hot,<he soup is ready. 

96. Portable Soup. — The fresher the meat is from which this 
article is made the better. Shins or legs of beef answer very well, 
and you may add trimmings of fresh meat, poultry, or game, and the 
liquor in which a leg of mutton, or a knuckle of veal, has beenboiled. 
No salt, on any account, must be used. If you have a digester, it 
should be used for this article, in preference to a closely covered stew- 
pan, but the latter will do. Just cover the meat with cold liquor, and 
let an hour at least be occupied in coming to boil. Skim it, and 
throw in cold water tv/o or three times, for the purpose of throwing 
up the scum, which must be carefully removed. When thoroughly 
cleared of the scum, close the vessel, and let it boil for eight or ten 
hours. Strain through a hair sieve into an earthenware pan, and let 
the liquor cool. The meat will do for potting. Every particle of fat 
must be removed from the top, and the gravy put into a well-tinned 
copper stew-pan, taking care that the sediment is separated from it; 
put in two drachms of whole black pepper, and let it boil briskly with 
the lid off over a quick fire. The scum, if any, should of course be 
removed. When it becomes very thick, and is reduced to about a 
quart, put it into a smaller stew-pan, set it over a gentle fire, and let 
it simmer till reduced to the consistence of very thick syrup. It must 
now be watched every moment. Take out a few drops oh a cold 
epoon or plate; if it soon sets into a stiff jelly, it is done enough. If 
not, boil it a little longer till it does. Have ready some small pots 
with lids, such as are used for potting meat ; or it may be poured cut 


on a large flat dish, so as to be a quarter of an inch deep ; when cold, 
turn it out, and, with a paste cutter, divide into squares ofhalf an ounce 
or an ounce each. Or pour it into the round parts ofbasins or cups turned 
upside down. Put them in a warm room, and turn them frequently 
for eight or ten days, then they will be thoroughly dry and hardened 
like glue. Put them in a tin box, or a glass case, in a dry place, and 
they will keep for years. If ai any time the surface appears mouldy, 
wipe it off, or tlie taste will penetrate the mass. The chief use of 
this article is in country places, or at sea, where fresh meat cannot 
be obtained. A basin of broth, soup or gravy of any strength, may be 
had in five minutes, by dissolving one or more of these cakes in boil- 
ing water; any llavouring ingredients may be added at pleasure. See 

97. Green Turtle Soup. — This recipe has been collated from the 
best authorities, to which is added our own experience. The day be- 
fore you wish to serve up the soup it will be necessary to cut off' the 
head of your turtle, and place it in a positio'* to allow all the blood to 
be drained from it. The next morning open t.' e turtle, being careful to 
do so without breaking the gall. After cutting all around the upper 
and lower shell, drain the water off, divide the meat in small pieces, 
and wash clean and carefully. Then put the shells in a large pot of 
boiling water, where you let them remain until you find they separate 
from the. flesh readily; but no longer, as the softer parts must be 
tKHled again. Keep the liquor and stew the bones thoroughly ; after 
which it is to be used for moistening the broth. The flesh of. the in- 
terior parts, and the four legs and head, must be cooked in the follow- 
hig manner. Mask the bottom of a large stew-pan with slices of ham, 
over which lay two or three knuckles of veal, according to the size 
of the turtle; and over the veal place the inside flesh of the turtle, co. 
vering the whole with the other parts of the turtle. Add to it about 
a gallon of the liquor in which the bones were stewed, and place on 
the fire until thoroughly done, which you must ascertain by sticking 
your knife into the fleshy part of the meat; and if no blood issue 
from it, add another gallon of the liquor. Then throw in a bunch of 
the stalks of sweet marjoram, lemon thyme, bay leaves, savoury, com- 
mon thyme, and sweet basil ; also a l)andful of parsley and green 
onions, and a large onion stuck with cloves, and a few grains of pep- 
per. Let the whole stew until thoroughly done, say from three to 
four hours. The leaves of the herbs are to be used for making a sauce, ^ 
to be described hereafter. When the larger portions of the turtle are 
done, place them aside to be used when wanted. When the flesh is 
also thoroughly done, drain on a dish, and make a white thickening 
very thin, and add to it through a tamis some portion of the liquor 
of the bones, and place on the fire until it boils ; and, having arrived 
at the proper consistency, neither too thick nor too thin, set the stew- 
nan on the side of the stove, and skim off all the white scum and fat 
that arises to the surface. Then cut the softer parts — green fat and 
white meat- — into dice of about an inch square (without any waste,) 
and add to the sauce, which must be allowed to simmer gently unli 


eufficiently done, when it must be taken off, at the same time skini' 
ming it carefully. Then take the leaves of the sweet basil, sweet 
marjoram, lemon thyme, common thyme and winter savoury, together 
with a handful of parsley, some green onions, a large onion cut in 
four pieces, with a few leaves of mace ; put the whole in a stew-pan 
with a quarter of a pound of butter. Let this simmer on a slow fire 
until melted, and add a bottle of Madeira and a small lump of sugar, 
and boil gently for an hour. Then rub it through a tamis, and add 
to your sauce, which you must boil until no white scum arises; then 
with a skimmer drain out all the bits of turtle, and put them into a 
clean stew-pan, and pass the sauce through a tamis into the stew- 
pan containing the turtle, and proceed as follows. Take out the fleshy 
part of a leg of veal, say about one pound, scrape off all the meat 
without leavmg any of the fat or sinews in it, and soak in about the 
same quantity (one pound) of crumbs of bread, which, when well 
soaked, squeeze and put into a mortar with the veal, a small quantity 
of calfs udder, a little butter, the yolks of four eggs hard boiled, a lit- 
tle cayenne pepper, salt and spices, and pound the whole very fine. 
Then thicken the mixture with two whole eggs, and the yolk of a 
third ; and, to try its consistency, put it in boiling hot water ; if you 
find It too thin, add the yolk of another egg. When it is perfected* 
take one half of it, and add some chopped parsley. Cook it and roll 
into balls the size of the yolk of an egg ; poach them in boiling wa- 
ter with a little salt, Th? other half must be made also into balls, 
and place the whole on a sieve to drain. Before serving your soup, 
squeeze the juice of two or three lemons, with a little cayenne pep- 
per, and pour it into the soup. The fins maybe served as a side dish, 
with a little turtle sauce. When lemon juice is used, be careful that 
the lemons are good ; a musty lemon will spoil all the turtle, and 
too much will destroy its flavour. 

98. Irish Slew. — Take two pounds of potatoes; peel and slice, and 
parboil, and throw away the water; rather more than two pounds of 
mutton chops, either from the loin or neck ; part of the fat should be 
taken off; beef two pounds, six large onions sliced, a slice of ham, or 
lean bacon, a spoonful of pepper, and two of salt. This stew may be 
done in a stew-pan over the fire, or in a baker's oven, or in a close 
covered earthen pot. First put a layer of potatoes, then a layer of 
meat and onions, sprinkle the seasoning, then a layer of potatoes, and 
again the meat and onions and seasoning ; the top layer should be po- 
tatoes, and the vessel should be quite full. Then put in half a pin 
of good gravy, and a spoonful of mushroom catsup. Let the whol . 
stew for an hour and a half; be very careful it does not burn. 


These articles are all nearly allied to each other, differing princi» 

pally in degrees of strength. In extensive establishments, a large 

quantity of stock, both brown and white, is constantly kept. Stocks 

are distinguished by the names of first stock, or long broth, — in tho 


60 1 H E C O M r L E T E COOK. ' OA li 

French kitchen, " le ^rand bouillon'' — second stock, in French, **juM 
de hoeuf,'' — and jelly slock, in French, '* consommeJ" In preparing a 
regular dinner, they will all be found exceedingly useful. The ma- 
terials for the making of stocks will not cost much, if the cook does 
her duty. In such case, she will take great care of all the trimmings 
of meal, and the necks, heads, gizzards, feet, &c., of game and poul- 
try. Boiled and roast meat gravy not used ought to be carefully 
collected and kept. The author of " The Housekeeper'' s Guide,''* 
says, " We should recommend the cook when she sets away after the 
dinner the meat on clean dishes, to collect in one basin every drop of 
roast meat giavy ; in another, every drop of boiled meat gravy ; and 
in another, every little bit of trimming of dressed meat, and pour over 
It some hot liquor, in which meat has been boiled, or hot water. Next 
morning, when she prepares meat for dressing, let her collect all the 
little trimming bits, and boil them with the liquor and bits set by the 
day before. This may be done before the fire is wanted for other 
purposes. Thus she will always have gravy in store for every emer- 
gency. Then if she have white sauce to prepare, such as celery or 
oyster sauce, parsley and butler, or caper sauce, the cold boiled meat 
gravy (which she will most likely find a stiff" jelly) will form an ex- 
cellent basis for it, much more rich and relishing than water. If she 
wants good brown gravy for roast meat, or fried, the cold roast meat 
gravy will enrich and colour the stock or store gravy, with the addi- 
tion of any flavouring that may be required. Good managers, who 
attend to this every day, do not know what it is to be distressed for 
gravy, or running to the butcher's for gravy beef." The cook, we 
must add, should be careful to have her broth or stock clear, and 
devoid of fat, which, eaten by itself, that is, unincorporated with 
farinaceous or vegetable substances, is very indigestible, yielding 
little or no nourishment, but when so incorporated, fat becomes very 
nutritious and wholesome — more so indeed, according to some writers, 
than lean meat. 

99. First Stock, or Beef Broth, <SfC. — Wash a leg or shin of beef 
very clean ; let the butcher crack the bone in two or three places, 
and take out the marrow ; add meat trimmings, and heads, necks, 
gizzards, feet, &c., of game and poultry ; cover them with cold water ; 
■watch and stir up well, and the moment the simmering commences 
skim it very clear of all the scum. Then add some cold water, which 
will make the remaining scum rise, and skim it again. No fat should 
enter into the composition of brotli of this description, nor indeed of 
any other, unless incorporated with meal by way of thickening. 
Stock should be quite clear and limpid. When the surface of the 
broth is quite clear, put in carrots, turnips, celery, and onions, accord- 
ing to the quantity. Some persons direct one moderate sized carrot, 
a head of celery, two turnips, and two onions. But this is a very 
poor criterion as to the quantity which ought to be used of these 
vegetables, which differ so much in size. No taste of sweet herbsf, 
spice, &c., should be given to the stock. After the vegetables are 
added, cover it close, and set it by the sido of the fire, 'and let it sim- 


mer very g^ently, not wasting the broth, for four or five hours, or 
more, according to the weight of the meat. Strain through a sieve 
into a clean, dry stone pan, and put it in a cold place, for use. Thia 
is the basis for all sorts of soup ami sauce, whether brown or white. 
The meat may be used for immediate food, or for making potted beef 
— that is, if it be not overdone to rags. 

100. The following method has been adopted in the kitchen of tho 
reviser for several years past, and is inserted as being more concise 
than the English plan: — Put in a large boiler, of the capacity of six 
or seven gallons, two large skins of beef; a small piece of the rump 
of about five pounds ; five gallons of water, and two handsf^^ of salt ; 
place the pot on the fire, and before it commences to boil, and whilst 
boiling, skim it carefully and frequently, adding a little cold water to 
bring up the scum completely. When you find no more scum rising 
to the top, add three large carrots, three turnips, and three onions 
with six cloves stuck in them (that is, two cloves in each onion), and 
let it boil for four or five hours. Before using it, skim all the fat oflf 
the top, and strain it through a double sieve. If the beef is to be used, 
let it be taken out of the pot when cooked, and pour over it a little of 
the top of the broth, to keep it moist until it may be wanted, when 
you can serve it with such sauce as you may fancy. For a family it 
will be necessary to make the broth about once a week, but great 
care should be taken to keep a portion always on hand. 

101. Second Stock may be made from the meat left after straining 
the first stock off, by covering it with water, and by letting it go on 
boiling for four or five hours. This stock will produce good glaze, or 
portable soup (see 316). 

102. Glaze is a strong gravy boiled as quick as possible till it 
/hickens, as directed in braising (see 316). 

103. Beef Gravy, sometimes called second stock, or in French jus 
de boeuf, is thus made : — Take a slice of good lean ham, or lean bacon, 
four or five pounds of gravy beef, cut into eight or ten pieces, a car- 
rot, an onion with two cloves stuck in it, and a head of celery. Cover 
the bottom of a clean well-tinned stew-pan with these things, putting 
in the ham first, and then put a pint of stock, or water; cover close; 
set over a moderate fire till the water is so reduced as to just save 
the ingredients from burning, then turn it all about and let it brown 
slightly and equally all over. You must put in three quarts of boiling 
water just at the moment the meat has obtained its proper colour ; 
if it is suffered to burn, the gravy will have a bad taste, and if the 
water is put in too soon the gravy will want flavour. When it boils 
up, skim carefully and clean the sides of the stew-pan with a cloth. 
The gravy ought to be delicately clean and clear. Set it by the side 
of a fire, and stew gently for about four hours; strain through a tamis 
sieve, skim it careftilly, and put it in a cold place. If well managed, 
that is, not boiled too fust, it will yield two quarts of good gravy. 

104. Gravy for Roast Meat. — Take the trimmings off the joint 
you are about to cook, which will make half a pint of plain gravy. 
Colour by adding a few drops of burnt sugar. ' If you do not wish to 


make gravy in this way, about half an hour before the meat is done 
mix a salt-spoonful of salt with a full quarter of a pint of boiling 
water : drop this by degrees on the brown parts of the meat, set a 
dish under to catch it, and set it by ; the meat will soon brown again. 
When the gravy you have made is cold take the fat from the surface, 
and when the meat is done, warm up the gravy and put it in the dish. 
Or you may make good browning for roast meat by saving the browa 
bits of boiling or roast meat: cut them small, put them into a basin 
and cover them with boiling water, and put them away ; next put 
them into a saucepan and boil two or three minutes, then strain it 
through a sieve, and put by for use. When you want gravy for use 
put two table-spoonsful in a quarter of a pint of boiling water, with a 
little salt. If for roasted veal, put three table-spoonsful into half a 
pint of thin melted butter. The gravy which remains in the dish 
after the family has dined should be put by to enrich hashes or little 
made dishes. 

105. Gravy for Boiled Meat is nothing more than a tea-cup full 
of the liquor in which the meat has been boiled, carefully skimmed 
and free from fat. 

106. Gravy for Roast Veal. — Make in the same way as for any 
other roast meat, and make a tea-cup full of thick melted butter, or 
melt the butter in the gravy. The same gravy for target or loin of 

107. Rich brown Gravy for Poultry^ Ragout, or Game. — If your 
stock or store gravy is poor, to enrich it add one pound of meat to one 
pint of your store gravy ; cut the meat clear from the bones, chop it 
up as fine as mince meat, chop also one ounce of ham, or gammon, 
unless you have by you the gravy that has settled in the dish from a 
ham. Lay at the bottom of the stew-pan one ounce of butter, an 
onion sliced, and the chopped meat ; cover it close, and set it on a 
clear, slow fire ; move it about to prevent it sticking. When the 
gravy draws, and the meat is rather brown, add by degrees the 
liquor ; when it boils, pui in the bones of the meat, chickens' head 
and feet ; and when it boils again carefully skim it. Add a crust of 
bread toasted brown, a sprig of winter savoury, or lemon thyme and 
parsley, a dozen berries of allspice, a strip of lemon peel, and a dozen 
black peppercorns; cover it close and keep it boiling gently till it is 
reduced to half; when cold, take off all the fat and thicken it with 
the following thickening: Melt a piece of butter in a saucepan ; lake 
out all the buttermilk that may be at the top, then sprinkle flour into 
it, shaking it all the time : make it a thick paste, and stir this into 
your gravy boiling. 


These are a very numerous class of condiments, particularly in 
French cookery. Foreigners say that the English have only one sauce 
(melted butter) for vegetables, fish, flesh, and all other eatables requir- 
ing sauce — and they add, with some truth, that they seldom make 


it good. It certainly is a very general sauce, botn m England and 
the United States ; and, therefore, we shall begin our recipes with 

108. Melted Butter cannot be made good with mere flour and 
water. Dr. Kitchiner says, that he has tried every way of making 
this sauce, and gives it as his opinion that the following, if carefully 
observed, will be always found to give satisfaction : Cut two ounces 
of butter into little bits, put it into a clean stew-pan, with a large tea- 
spoonful of flour, arrow-root, or potatoe starch, and add two table- 
spoonsful of milk ; when thoroughly mixed, add six table-spoonsful of 
water, hold it over the fire, and shake it round the same way every 
minute, till it begins to simmer ; then let it boil up. This is a good 
recipe for melted butter where it is not intended to be used with acids 
or wine, which will have the effect of curdling the milk. Pure water 
is best when the melted butter is intended for fish and puddings, to 
which any mixture of wine is intended. Clear stock or gravy, instead 
of water, is preferable when it is intended to be eaten with roast meat, 
or for vegetables to be eaten with roast meat. The old-fashioned 
method of mixing is as good as the Doctor's. It is as follows : Break 
up the butter on a trencher, and work the flour into it thoroughly, 
then add it to the cold liquid in the saucepan ; or you may drop the 
flour, a quarter of an hour before it is set on the fire, on the top of 
the liquid, without stirring at all ; when the flour has all sunk to the 
bottom, shake it round till the flour is well incorporated with the 
liquid ; then add the butter, and melt over a clear brisk rire. Fresh, 
rich cream is sometimes used instead of milk, water, or grav3r. You 
should take care that your saucepan for melted butter be always well 
tinned, and ke-pt delicately clean. Some recommend a silver sauce- 
pan ; but this seems to us to be a stupid piece of extravagance. Dr. 
Kitchiner, however, who talks a great deal about economy, gravely 
tells us that a pint silver saucepan will not cost more than four or 
five pounds ! Melted butter is frequently spoilt in the making ; for 
ordinary purposes it should be of the thickness of good cream, but 
when intended to be mixed with flavouring, it should be of the thick- 
ness of light batter. If by any chance it become oiled, put a spoonful 
of cold water to it, and stir it with a spoon, or pour it back and for- 
wards till it is right again. By mixing such vegetables as parsley, 
chervil, and others, generally eaten with melted butter, and sending 
them to the table on a little plate, those who like their flavour may 
mix for themselves. In the same way, all descriptions of flavouring 
essences, such as catsup, anchovy, &c., &,c., may be mixed at table. 
This plan will be found to be a great saving in butter. 

109. Sauce for Fricassee of Fowls, Rabbits, while Meat, Fish, or 
Vegetables. — You have no occasion to buy meat for these sauces, as 
their flavour is but small. The liquor that has boiled fowls, veal, or 
rabbit, or a little broth that you may have by you, or the feet and 
necks of chickens, or raw or dressed veal, will do very well. Stew 
with a little water any of these, add to it an onion sliced, a bit of le- 
mon peel, a little pounded mace or nutmeg, some white peppercorns, 
and a bunch of sweet herbs, until the flavour is good ; then strain it, 


and add a little good cream, a piece of butter, and a little flour; salt 
to your taste. A squeeze of lemon may be added after the sauce is 
taken from the fire, shaking it well. Yolk of egg is frequently used 
in fricassee, but if you have cream it is better, as the egg is apt to 

110. Sauce for cold Fowl, or Partridge. — Boil two eggs hard, rub 
them down in a mortar with an anchovy, two dessert spoonfuls of oil, 
three of vinegar, an eschalot, cayenne (sometimes,) and a tea-sppon- 
ful of mustard. All should be pounded before the oil is added ; then 
strain it; eschalot vinegar instead of eschalots eats well; if so, omit 
one spoonful of the common vinegar: salt to your taste. 

111. A very rich Mushroom Sauce for Fowls or Rabbits. — Pick, 
rub and wash a pint of young mushrooms, and sprinkle with salt to 
take off the skin. Put them into a saucepan with a little salt, a 
blade of mace, a little nutmeg, a pint of cream, and apiece of butter 
rolled in flour: boil them up and stir till done, then pour it into the 
dish with the chickens ; garnish with lemon. If you cannot get fresh 
mushrooms, use pickled ones, done white, with a little mushroom pow- 
der with the cream. 

112. Sauce for boiled Carp, or Boiled Turkey. — Make some melted 
butter with a little water and a tea-spoonful of flour, and add a quarter 
of a pint of cream, half an anchovy not washed, chopped fine; set it 
over the fire, and as it boils up, add a large spoonful of Indian soy: 
if that does not give it a fine colour, put a little more; add a little 
salt, and half a lemon ; stir it well to prevent it curdling. 

113. Green Sauce for green Geese or Ducklings. — A glass of 
white wine, some scalded gooseberries, a pint of sorrel juice, some 
white sugar, and a bit of butter. Boil them up, and serve in a boat. 

114. Egg Sauce. — Boil the eggs hard, chop thera fine, then put 
them into melted butter. 

115. Onion Sauce. — Take the skins off ripe onions, remove the 
rooty fibres and the tops, let them lie in salt and water an hour, then 
put them into a saucepan of boiling water, and boil them till they are 
tender. You should allow them plenty of water. When tender, 
skin them, cut them exceedingly small, or rub them through a colan- 
der ; season them with pepper and salt, and mix with an equal quan- 
tity of thick melted butter. This sauce is usually eaten with shoulder 
or leg of mutton. If you wish it very mild, use the large silvery 
onions, and boil them in several waters. Onion sauce is also eaten 
with rabbits, boiled ducks, tripe, and sometimes with a scrag of mut- 
ton or veal. 

116. Apple Sauce. — Take four or five juicy apples, two table-spoon- 
fuls of cold water or cider; instead of putting the lid on, place the 
parings over the apples, and put them by a gentle fire. When they 
sir.k they are done; remove the saucepan from the fire, and beat up 
tne apples; take the parings from the top first, add a bit of butter, a 
tea-spoonful of fine powdered sugar, and a dust of nutmeg. 

117. Gooseberry Sauce. — Scald half a pint of green gooseberries; 
do them till they are tender, but not broken ; drain them on a sieve ; 


when the liquor is cold, take half a pint of it, and make a thick batter 
of it, stir in the gooseberries with a little grated ginger and lemon 
peel. This sauce is soaaetimes used for mackerel. 

118. Wow wow Sauce, for stewed beef or bouilli. Quarter and 
elice two or three pickled cucumbers or walnuts, or part of each, chop 
fine a handful of parsley, make some melted butter in half a pint of 
broth in which the beef is boiled, add a tea-spoonful of made mustard 
and a table-spoonful of vinegar, and the same of port wine and mush- 
room catsup: let it simmer till thick, then stir in the parsley and 
pickles to get warm ; pour the whole over the beef, or put in a sauce 
tureen. The flavour may be varied by a tea-spoonful or two of any 
kind of the vinegars. 

119. Curry Sauce is made by putting a little powdered curry into 
eome melted butter, or curry vinegar. 

120. Parsley and Butter. — Wash and pick leaf by leaf some pars- 
ley ; put a tea-spoonful of salt into half a pint of boiling water, boil 
tlie parsley about ten minutes; drain it on a sieve, mince it quite fine, 
and then bruise it to a pulp: put it into a sauce boat, and mix with it 
by degrees about half a pint of melted butter. Never pour parsley 
and butter over boiled things, but send up in a boat. 

121. Fennel and Butter for Mackerel is prepared in the same way 
as parsley and butter. 

122. Plum Pudding Sauce. — A glass of sherry, half a glass of 
brandy, cherry bounce or Cura^oa, or essence of punch, and two tea- 
gpoonfuls of pounded lump sugar (a very little grated lemon peel is 
sometimes added,) in a quarter of a pint of thick melted butter : grate 
nutmeg on the top. 

123. Anchovy Sauce. — Pound three anchovies in a mortar with a 
bit of butter ; rub it through a double hair sieve with the back of a 
wooden spoon, and stir it into about half a pint of melted butter, or stir 
in a table-spoonful of essence of anchovy. Many cooks add cayenne 
and lemon juice. 

124. Caper Sauce. — Take a table-spoonful of capers, and two tea- 
spoonfuls of vinegar; mince one-third of them very fine, and divide the 
others in half; put them in a quarter of a pint of melted butter, or 
good thickened gravy ; stir the same way as you do melted butter, or 
it will oil. Sometimes half a Seville orange or lemon or parsley, 
chervil, or tarragon, are added. 

125. 3Iock Caper Sauce. — Take French beans, gherkins, green 
peas, or nasturtiums, all pickled ; cut them into bits the size of capers ; 

f»ut them into half a pint of melted butter; add two tea-spoonfuls of 
emon juice or vinegar. 

126. Shrimp Sauce. — Shell a pint of shrimps, and stir into half a 
pint of melted butter ; a little cream makes a delicate addition. It is 
used with salmon, turbot, and soles. 

127. Oyster Sauce — Two dozen oysters will make half a pint of 
sauce, not more. Open the oysters, save all the liquor, perfectly free 
from bits of shell, scald the oysters in the liquor till they look plump, 
then take out the fish and add to the liquor two ounces of butter rolled 


in flour, and two table-spoonfuls of cream ; boil it up. Take off the 
beards or frino^y part of the oysters; if they are large, cut them in 
two; stir them in the butter, and set them by the fire for a minute or 
two, but do not let them boil, as it hardens them. 

128. Lobster Sauce. — Choose a hen lobster, pick out all the spawn 
and red coral that runs down the back, pound it to a paste with a 
lump of butter, pull the meat of the back and claws to pieces with 
two forks, stir the lobster into some boilins^ hot melted butter ; keep 
it on the fire till the lobster is warmed through, and well mixed. 
You may add, if liked, catsup, lemon juice, cayenne, anchovy ; but the 
simple flavour of the lobster is best. A little cream is an improve- 

129. Liver Sauce. — Scald the liver, clear away all the fibres and 
specky parts, pound it in a mortar, with a bit of butter, then boil it up 
with melted butter; season it with cayenne, and a squeeze of lemon 
juice. You may add catsup or anchovy. 

180. Bread Sauce is either made with gravy or milk. Stew the 
heads, necks, and feet of the poultry tor which it is intended, with an 
onion, a little allspice, and a few peppercorns; when reduced to half 
a pint, strain it and boil up again ; put in a small tea-cup full of bread 
crumbs, let it boil till quite stifl', hold it over the fire and shake it till 
it boils thoroughly, then put it on the hob till time to serve; stir in a 
bit of salt, one ounce of butter, and two table-spoonfuls of cream. 

1.'31. Sauce for Tripe, Calf's-licad, or Cow-heel. — Garlic vinegar 
according to taste, a table-spoonful of brown sugar, mustard and 
black pepper a tea-spoonful of each, stirred into oiled melted butter. 
(See 4G6.) 

132. Celery Sauce. — Take fresh celery; take off all the outside 
leaves, leave none but what are quite crisp, and which may be known 
by their breaking siiort without any strings, cut up in pieces about an 
inch long, take liquor that has boiled veal, chickens, or lamb, when 
fast boiling. 

138. Tarragon or Burnet makes rich pleasant sauce, chiefly usea 
for steaks; sent to table in a sauce tureen. 

V?A. Sorrel Sauce for Lamb or Veal, and Sweet-breads. — Two 
quarts of sorrel leaves will not make more than a sauce tureen of 
sauce; pick and wasli them clean, put them into a stew-pan with one 
ounce of butter, cover close and set over a slow fire for a quarter of 
an hour ; then rub them through a coarse hair sieve, season them with 
salt, pepper, nutmeg, and a small lump of sugar, squeeze in the juice 
of a lemon, and make the whole thoroughly hot. 

185. Poor Man's Sauce. — A handful of young parsley leaves, 
chopped fine, a dozen of young green onions, chopped fine, put to 
them salt and pepper, two table-spoonfuls of salad oil, and four of 
vinegar; a little scraped horse-radish, pickled French beans, or gher- 
kins, may be added. This sauce is taken with cold meats. 

136. Trufjle Sauce. — Truffles are only good while in season, that 
i.-', in a green state. Add two ounces of butter to eighteen truffleg 
sliced, simmer them together till they are tenuer ; then add as muck 


good gravy, brown or white, as to bring it to a proper thickness, sea- 
son it with salt, and squeeze in the juice of half a lemon. 

137. Sharp Sauce for Venison. — Best white wine vinegar half a 
pint, loaf sugar pounded a quarter of a pound ; eiramer it gently ; skim, 
and strain it through a tamis. 

139. Sweet Sauce for Venison. — Currant jelly, either black or red, 
n>8lted and served hot; others like it sent to table as jelly. 

139. Wine Sauce for Venison^ Hare, or Haunch of Mutton. — 
Take equal parts of rich mutton gravy, without any flavourings, and 
port wine. Simmer them together to half a pint, add a table-spoonful 
of currant jelly, let it just boil up. 

140. Sauce for a Pig, — Three quarters of a pint of good beef gravy, 
six or eight leaves of sage, chopped very fine, a blade of mace, a tea- 
cup full of bread crumbs, and eight white peppercorns; let them boil 
six or eight minutes, then stir into the sauce the brains, gravy, and 
whatever sticks about the dish on which you have split the pig, one 
ounce of butter rolled in flour, two table-spoonfuls of cream, and one or 
two of catsup, if liked; simmer a minute or two, and serve in a sauce 
tureen. • 

141. Turtle Sauce. — To a pint of rich beef gravy, thickened, put 
a wine glass of Madeira, six leaves of basil, the juice and peel of half 
a lemon, a few grains of cayenne or curry powder, an eschalot sliced, 
a table spoonful of essence of anchovy; simmer together five minutes, 
then strain, and add a dozen turtle force meat balls. This sauce ia 
used for calf s head, or hashed or stewed veal, or for any other rich 
dish in imitation of turtle. 

142. A Sauce for all sorts of Fish. — Haifa pint of port or claret, 
half a pint of rich gravy, a little nutmeg, three anchovies, two table- 
spoonfuls of catsup, and salt; simmer all together till the anchovies 
are done, then add three ounces of butter thickened with flour, arrow- 
root, or potatoe mucilage ; when it boils, add some scraped horse- 
radish, a dozen or two of oysters, a lobster cut in bits, a few smai. 
mushrooms, and half a pint of picked shrimps or crawfish. This 
sauce is intended to pour over the fish — boiled carp, tench, pike, 
whiting, boiled cod, and haddock. 

143. Pudding Sauce. — Half a glass of brandy, one glass of white 
wine, a little grated rind of lemon, half an ounce of grated loaf sugar, 
and a little powdered cinnamon, mixed with melted butter. It is a 
good way to keep a bottle of these ingredients to mix with melted 
butter when wanted. In a bottle containing one pint of brandy and 
two pints of sherry, steep the kernels of apricots, nectarines, and 
peaches, with an ounce of shaved lemon rind, half an ounce of mace, 
and a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar ; pour off clear to mix with but- 
ler. Two table-spoonfuls will flavour a boat of sauce; the mace and 
lemon peel may be steeped in half a pint of brandy, or a pint of sherry, 
for fourteen days; strain, and add a quarter of a pint of capillaire. 

144. Custard Sauce. — For rice or other plain puddings, or with 
fruit pics, stir a pint of sweet cream in a double saucepan till it boils; 
beat the yolks of two or three eggs, with a spoonful of cold cream, 



and an ounce of powdered sugar; pour the boiling- cream to tbero, and 
pour backwards and forwards two or three times to prevent cupjlirr^ ; 
then set the inner saucepan over the boiling water, and stir it con- 
tinually one way till it thickens. Serve in a china basin with grated 
nutmeg, or pounded cinnamon strewed over the top. 

145. Roe Sauce. — Boil the soft roes of mackerel, clear away all 
the skin, and bruise them with the back of a wooden spoon ; beat up 
the yolk of an egg with a little salt and pepper, a little fennel and 
parsley scalded and chopped fine, rub the wiiole together, and stir 
into melted butter. Some people prefer a spoonful of catsup, essence 
of anchovy, or walnut pickle. 


As this is the most common mode of preparing food for human 
sustenance, it is therefore the more necessary that its principles 
should be well understood ; for though the operations of boiling may 
appear to be very simple, yet a great deal of skill and judgment is 
j-equired to carry them into ejffect properly. We repeat, that the 
young cook ought to read attentively our observations upon this sub- 
ject, in the "Introductory Remarks." Instead of using the word 
boiling,, we ought rather to have said, the mode of preparing meats 
for food by means of hot water; for we are quite convinced, that all 
meats are more or less injured by being subjected to a boiling heat; 
that is, a heat of 212° of Fahrenheit. We have dressed salt cod fish 
in water never exceeding 145° of heat, and it was much more tender, 
and better flavoured, than when dressed in boiling water: we ought 
to add, that the fish is required to remain in this partially hot water 
four or five hours, in which time it becomes divested of the salt, and 
eats, comparatively speaking, quite fresh. 

146. Take care that your vessel is large enough for the water to 
cover the meat, and to surround it. Do not suffer the steam to escape; 
and to effect this, see that the lid of the vessel fits it as closely as 
possible; by this means the water may be kept at a proper heat, that 
is to say, nearly simmering, but not bubbling, whereby fuel will be 
saved, and the meat much better dressed. In short, one of the 
greatest errors that can be committed in boiling meat, is to suffer the 
water to boil violently. It has the effect of hardening the outside of 
the joints, or, in other words, making it tough, while the inside will 
be raw, or only partially done. 

147. Always prefer soft water to hard, whenever the former is to 
be procured. River, or clean rain water, should be used in preference 
to hard spring water; but your water must always be as pure and as 
bright as possible. 

148. In making up a fire for cooking, regard must be had as to 
whether it is intended for boiling or roasting, or for both. A moderate 
fire is best for boiling, but a brisk and somewhat fierce fire is required 
for roasting. If you are going to roast and boil at the same fire, you 
must take care that your boiling vessels are sufficiently far removed 


from it With a good kitchen range, or steam cooking apparatus, all 
this may be done without difficulty or trouble. 

149. All fresh meats are directed by the generality of culinary 
writers to be put into the pot, or saucepan, when the water is warm, 
not hot; but salt meat, for the most part, should be put in when the 
water is perfectly cold ; by this means the superfluous salt will be 
extracted from it The pot should not, with fresh meat, be allowed 
to boil, or rather to arrive at the boiling point, under forty or fifty 
minutes; more time should be taken with salt meat. The usual 
direction is, as above, to put fresh meat into warm water — but we 
are convinced, that the better plan is always to use cold. Meat, 
thoroughly cooked, will take twenty minutes boiling to each pound. 
Salt, a little more. 

150. When the scum rises, let it be carefully removed; and if the 
heat of the water is checked with a small portion of cold water, it 
will throw up an additional scum, which must, of course, be also care- 
fully taken away. The scum rises just as the water is beginning to 
boil. The nice clear appearance of the meat, when done, in a great 
measure depends upon attending to the above directions. 

151. When the liquor in your vessel once boils, after all the scum 
has been cleared away, let it continue to simmer till the meat is done. 
From fifteen to twenty minutes is generally directed to be allowed 
for each pound of meat, but twenty is better. Never stick your fork 
into meat, whether boiling or roasting, upon any account; the eflfect 
will be to let out the gravy. Bacon is an exception. 

152. Meats of any description, just killed, and still warm, whether 
to be roasted or boiled, will do as soon, and eat as tender, as meat 
which has hung the usual time ; but if once suffered to become cold 
after slaughtering, it will require more dressing, and after all will 
not eat so tenderly, unless hung a proper time. 

153. Meat which has been frozen must be immersed in cold water 
two or three hours, or till the frost is taken out of it, before it is 
dressed, or it will never be well done. In cold weather meat requires 
more dressing than in warm. 

154. Salt meat will require more boiling than fresh, and thick 
parts, whether salt or fresh, rather more than thin ones. 

155. In boiling bacon, if very salt, it is a good plan to take away a 
part or the whole of the water, when it is on the point of boiling, and 
filling up the pot with cold water. This process renders it more 
mild. Bacon or ham is done when the skin is easily removed, or the 
fork leaves it readily. 

156. Hams, beef; tongues, and even pork, which have been kept 
long in pickle, should be soaked before they are boiled — if hard, ia 
warm water. A ham weighing twenty pounds, or upwards, will take 
from five to six hours to dress it well (the water should not boil) ; 
and a large dry tongue should be boiled, or rather simmered, for four 
hours or more. The following is a good plan to dress a ham : Put a 
certain quantity of suet into the pan which is to be used for the cook- 
ing of the ham ; then put in the ham and cover it with paper, over 


which lay a cover of coarse paste, or the paper may be used withool 
the paste, or the paste without the paper; place the pan in the oven, 
where let it remain till the ham is done. The gravy coming from the 
meat will be a jelly, which, mixed with fresh slock or broth for gravies, 
&c. will greatly improve it. 

157. Meat boiled by steam requires no water unless soup is wanted. 
Meat boiled in the ordinary way should not be permitted to touch the 
bottom of the pot. This object may be effected by placing a fish-drain 
in the pot, or by putting a plate upside down in it, or laying some 
skewers across it a little way from the bottom. 

158. There is a method of boiling meat without allowing it to 
4ouch or come in contact with the water. This plan, which is little 

followed in America, has been strongly recommended. To effect this 
object, fowls filled with oysters may be boiled in a bladder, or in a 
close jar, by which means they are deliciously stewed, and the flavour 
and animal juices are all preserved. Meat of any description may 
be dressed in a similar manner, that is, by putting it into a close jar 
and immersed in water, which is kept boiling till the meat is done. 
The Scotch dress their haggis in this way, and the custom was fol- 
lowed by the ancient Romans. Similar modes of dressing meat are 
used by savages in different parts of the world. 

159. Any thing that is to be warmed and sent to the table a second 
time, should be put into a basin or jar, placed in hot water, which is 
not permitted to come to the boiling point. If allowed to boil, the 
meat will harden, or the sauce will be reduced and become thick; by 
avoiding these chances the flavour will be preserved, and the viands 
may be warmed up more than once without injury. The steam ap- 
paratus now employed in most kitchens, is admirably adapted to this 
purpose, since the heat can be regulated by the required temperature. 

160. The beads, brains, and so forth, of animals, every thing in 
fact, which in the cleaning process requires soaking, should be soaked 
in warm, not hot water, as the hot will fix the blood, and injure both 
the appearance and flavour of the viand. All cooks must be particu- 
lar in keeping their saucepans well skimmed ; nothing will more 
completely spoil a dish of any kirnl than the nef lect of this essential 
point. In order to take off the fat from the braise, or any other gravy, 
plunge the basin containing it into cold water; the fat will immedi- 
ately coagulate, and may be removed. 

161. It is much better to dress meat immediately after it is killed, 
that is, while it is warm, than to suffer it to get cold, and not let it 
hang a proper length of time. Indeed, there is no doubt that meat 
dressed while warm is as tender, or nearly as tender, as when it has 
been hung for some days. If, therefore, you cannot procure well- 
hung meat, and can get that which has been just killed, you ought to 
prefer the latter. 

162. Bacon, ham, and salt beef, may be done, if you want to use 
your fire for vegetables, half an hour before serving, as it will not sustain 
any injury by remaining that time in the hot liquor; but all other 
descriptions of meat would be injured by such a course of proceeding 

BOILINO. butcher's MEAT, &C. 61 

163. Potatoes must never be boiled with meat, or indeed with any 
thing else, for the meat is injured by the potatoes and the potatoes by 
the meat. 

164. Yon may boil turnips, carrots, parsnips, and pease pudding, 
with salt meat ; by so doing^ these vegetables will be improved, and 
the meat not injured ; but the liquor will not keep so long, though it 
will be rendered better for some kinds of soup. 

165. Green vegetables, such as savoys, &,c., should be always put 
into boiling water with a handful of salt, particularly if they are 
harsh and strong; they are generally kept boiling till they are done. 
In warm countries, in Italy, for instance, they first boil them in a 
large quantity of water for a considerable time; but as this will 
neither make them sweet nor tender, they are frequently taken out 
of the pot, and well washed in cold spring water ; they are then boiled 
again till they are sweet and tender. Old tough meat may be simi- 
larly treated with like effect. 

166. Old potatoes must never be put into warm or hot water. On 
the contrary, the water in^ which this useful vegetable is boiled should 
be perfectly cold when the potatoes are first put in. New potatoes 
are better put in boiling water. 


The general directions which we have given for boiling in the pre- 
ceding pages, if they have been well studied by the young cook, as 
we trust they have, render it useless for us to go into the question at 
any length ; we shall, therefore, content ourselves with a few special 
directions relative to the dressing of the different things designated 
at the head of this section. It will not be necessary to give a great 
multiplicity of receipts; for if the general principles of boiling are 
well understood, and we have spared neither time nor space to make 
them so, the cook will find no difficulty in preparing any particular 
dish without especial directions from us, or any other writer. The 
receipts which follow are selected according to the best of our judg- 
ment. We do not pretend to say that they are original ; upon such 
a subject it is impossible to be original, with the exception, perhaps, 
of a few instances. Dr. Kitchiner apologises in his "Cook's Oracle," 
for his " receipts differing a little from those in former cookery books." 
Very different is this open and candid proceeding from that of a 
voluminous writer of great pretensions, who claims the following 
mode of dressing rice, which is as old as the introduction of that 
article into this country, as original! "Tie some rice in a cloth, 
leaving plenty of room for it to swell ; boil it in water for an hour or 
two, and eat it with butter and sugar, or milk."' 
• 167. Boiled Beef. — Fresh boiled beef is called heefbouilli by some, 
but in the French kitchen the term means fresh beef dressed, without 
absolutely boiling, it being suffered only to simmer till it is done. 
Indeed, it may be laid down as a general rule, that whether you are 
dressing beef bouilli, or any other meat, it should never be suffered 


to go into a boiling gallop^ except for a minute or two, for th6 pur- 
pose of throwing- up the scum. After the scum is all cleared away, 
let it simmer till it is done. But you must be careful not to let your 
meat boil too quickly ; for this purpose it should be put over a mo- 
derate fire, and the water made gradually hot, or the meat will be 
hardened, and shrink up as if it were scorched ; but by keeping the 
meat a certain time heating, without boiling, the fibres of the meat 
dilate, and it not only yields the scum more freely, but the meat ia 
rendered more tender. The advantage of dressing fresh meat in the 
way practised by the French with regard to fresh beef is twofold. In 
the first place, meat dressed in this manner affords much more 
nourishment than it does cooked in the common way, is easy of diges- 
tion, and will yield soup of a most excellent quality. (See Soup and 
Bouilli, and 99.) 

168. Boiled Salt Beef. — A piece of beef of fifteen pounds will take 
three hours, or more, simmering after it has boiled, and it ought to be 
full forty minutes on the fire before it does boil ; skim carefully ; put 
a tea-cup full of the liquor, and garnish with sliced carrots. Vegeta- 
bles, carrots, turnips, kale, parsnips; sauce, melted butter. Pease 
pudding is sometimes boiled with salt beef, and the liquor, if not too 
salt, will make good pease soup. An aitch, or H bone of beef, a 
round, or ribs salted and rolled, and indeed all other beef, are boiled 
in the same way. Briskets and other inferior joints require, perhaps, 
more attention than superior ones; they should in fact rather be 
stewed than boiled, and in a small quantity of water, by which means, 
if good meat, they will be delicious eating. 

169. Mutton. — A leg will take from two to three hours boiling. 
Accompaniments — parsley and butter, caper sauce, eschalot, onion, 
turnips, carrots, spinach, &c., and to boiled mutton in general. 

170. JSeck of Mutton. — As the scrag end takes much longer to 
boil, some people cut it off and boil it half or three-quarters of an 
hour before the rest, as it is apt to be bloody, however well washed ; 
you had better skim it well. When it is time to put the best end in, 
add cold water to check the heat, allowing an hour and a half or 
three-quarters, after the second boiling up. Cut off some of the fat 
before dressing, or at least peel off the skin when taken up. For 
accompaniments, see 169. 

171. Shoulder^ boiled. — The whole is sometimes boiled, and some- 
times cut in half, taking the knuckle part, and leaving the oyster for 
roasting ; it will take not less than two hours slow boiling, though it 
may not weigh above five pounds. Boil it either plain or in broth. 
Accompaniments, 169. 

172. Breast, boiled, will require from two and a half, to three 
hours. Accompaniments, 169. 

173. Sheeps' Heads, plain boiled. — Boil them two hours ; before boi[ 
ing, take out the brains, wash them clean and free from all skin ; chop 
about a dozen sage leaves very small, tie them in a small bag, and let 
them boil half an hour, then beat them up with pepper and salt, and 

BOILING. — butchers' MEAT, & C . 6& 

half an ounce of butter ; pour it over the head, or serve in a boat or 
tureen ; skin the tongue before serving. Accompaniments, 169. 

174. Leg of Lamb, boiled. — From an hour and a quarter to an hour 
and a haltl Accompaniments — caper sauce, melted butter, turnips, 
spinach, carrots, &c. 

175. Neck, boiled. — One hour ; if very large, an hour and a quar- 

176. Lamb's Head and Pluck. — Parboil the lights and a small bit 
of the liver till it v^^ill chop fine, and boil the head in the same liquor; 
it will take nearly an hour to boil ; scald the brains, tied up in a small 
bag, with five or six sage leaves, chopped very fine ; they will take 
twenty minutes to do ; warm the mince in a little of the liquor, sea- 
soned with salt, pepper, and nutmeg ; thicken with flour, and half an 
ounce of butter, and stir in the brains. Take up the head ; skin the 
tongue; pour over the mince; sippets of toasted bread and slices of 
lemon. The liver, heart, and sweetbread, to be fried, and laid round 
the dish with slices of bacon; or served in a separate dish, which ia 
preferable, as the liver requires a little brown gravy. Vegetables, 
turnips, carrots, &.c. 

Browned. — After boiling, wash the head with the yolk of an egg ; 
sprinkle with bread crumbs and chopped parsley, and brown it in a 
dutch oven, the mince to be poured round it. Some people like the 
flavour of catsup in the mince ; others like a little sliced lemon peel, 
and a spoonful or two of cream. 

177. Boiled Veal. — A knuckle, whether of leg or shoulder, will 
take full two hours. A scrag of neck or breast, an hour and three- 
quarters to two hours. Sauce, melted butter, parsley and butter, 
celery, &,c. 

178. Calfs Head, boiled. — Let it be cut in half by the butcher, 
and all the inside bones removed ; take out the brains, wash the head 
well in several waters, with a little salt, to draw out the blood ; boil 
it slowly in plenty of water two hours or two hours and a quarter. 
Sauce. Well clean the brains, and boil them in a cloth half an hour, 
with about a dozen sage leaves chopped fine, or parsley, or part of 
each ; when done, beat them up in a small saucepan, with a little salt 
and pepper, one ounce of butter, and a little lemon juice ; have them 
ready quite hot to pour over the tongue, when skinned. Some peo- 
ple mix the brains with parsley and butter, and pour over the whole 
head. However it is dressed, it is usually garnished with sliced 

179. 7V/pe, when raw, will take four or five hours simmering. If 
previously well boiled, twenty minutes to three-quarters of an hour. 
It may be in milk, or milk and water, or equal parts of milk and its 
own liquor. Boil with the tripe eight or ten large onions. To keep 
the tripe warm, serve it in the liquor, and beat up the onions with 
pepper, salt, and butter ; or the tripe may be served without liquor, 
and the onion sauce poured over. If onions are not approved, serve 
parsley and butter, or caper sauce. Tripe may be cut in pieces the 
size of a hand, dipped in batter and fried, with rashers of bacon 


laid round the dish. — N. B. Mustard is always an accompaniment of 
tripe, and generally vinegar also. 

In some of the English towns, particularly at Birmingham, famous 
for tripe, the belly or paunch of the animal, after being well cleaned, 
(in doing which thoroughly great attention and care must be observed,) 
is sent to the oven in a deep earthenware pot, or jar, closely covered 
over the top, and baked, or rather stewed, in just a sufficient quantity 
of water, for four or five hours, or till it is well done. It is sold while 
yet hot, in the public-houses or tripe shops, at so much a " large or 
small CM<," with a proportionate quantity of "broth," that is, the liquor 
in which it has been stewed ; nothing else is eaten with it, except 
mustard and salt. In Birmingham it is usually eaten for supper, and 
of course by candle-light, and at no other meal ; a relation of ours, 
however, was so fond of it, that he used to have the dining-room 
darkened, and the candles lit, in order that he might partake of it for 
his dinner, under the same apparent circumstances as at supper. 
We have heard of whist devotees who could not play the game with 
any gusto by daylight, and who resorted to the same expedient to 
imitate night as our tripe gourmand. Tripe cooked in the Birming- 
ham fashion is delicious — far, very far, superior to that gotten in 
London ; this may be partly accounted for by the fact that all meat ia 
greatly deteriorated by being twice subjected to heat. 

180. Cow-heel in the hands of a skilful cook, will furnish several 
good meals; when boiled tender, cut it into handsome pieces, egg and 
bread-crumb them, and fry them a light brown ; lay them round a 
dish, and put in the middle of it sliced onions fried, or the accompani- 
ments ordered for tripe. 

181. Pi^'s Pettitoes consist of the feet and internal parts of a suck- 
ing pig. Set on with a quantity of water, or broth ; a button onion or 
two may be added, if approved — also, four or five leaves of sage chop- 
ped small. When the heart, liver, and lights, are tender, take them 
out and chop fine ; let the feet simmer the while ; they will take from 
half to three-quarters of an hour to do. Season the mince with salt, 
nutmeg, and a little pepper, half an ounce of butter, a table -spoonful 
or two of thick cream, and a tea-spoonful of arrow-root, flour, or pota- 
toe starch ; return it to the saucepan, in which the feet are ; let it 
boil up, shaking it one way. Split the feet, lay them round in the 
mince. Serve with toasted sippets. Garnish. . Mashed potatoes. 

182. Salt Pork requires long boiling, never less than twenty 
minutes to a pound, and a thick joint considerably more. A leg of ten 
pounds will take four hours simmering, a spring two hours, a porker's 
head the same. Be very careful that it does not stick to the pot. No 
sauce is required, except a quarter of a pint of the liquor in which it 
was boiled, to draw the gravy, and plenty of good fresh mustard. A 
chine is usually served quite dry. The vegetable accompanimenta 
are pease pudding, turnips, carrots, and parsnips. 

183. Pickled Pork, which is usually bought pickled, requires to be 
well washed before boiling, and must boil very slowly. It is seldom 
eaten alone, but as an accompaniment to fowls, or other white meat. 

MEAT, &C. 65 

' 184. Bacon, Ham, Tongues. — First, well wash and scrape clean. 
If very salt, it may soak in cold water a few hours ; allow plenty of 
water, fresh rain or river water is best ; put it in when the chill is 
off, and let it be a good while coming to the boil, then keep it very 
gently simmering. If time allows, throw away nearly or quite all the 
liquor of bacon as soon as it boils up, and renew it with fresh cold 
water ; reckon the time from the second boiling. A pound of streaky 
bacon will require three-quarters of an hour to boil ; a quarter of 
an hour for every additional pound. If good bacon it will swell in 
boiling, and when done the rind will pull off easily. Take it up on 
a common dish to remove the rind, and sprinkle it over with bread 
raspings, sifted through a flour dredge, or grater. A ham of twelve 
or Iburteen pounds will require four or five hours simmering, or four 
hours baking in a moderate oven. When done, remove the skin aa 
whole as possible, and preserve it to cover over the ham and keep it 
moist. If to be served hot, strew raspings as above ; but if intended for 
eating cold, omit the raspings. It will be much the more juicy for not 
cutting hot. Set it on a baking stand, or some other contrivance, to 
keep it from touching the dish ; this preserves it from swamping in 
the fat that drips from it, keeps the fat nice and white for use, and 
also makes the ham keep the longer from becoming mouldy, by the 
outside being perfectly dry. Whether hot or cold, garnish with 
parsley. A neat's tongue, according to its size, age, and freshness, 
will require from two hours and a half to four hours slow boiling. 
When done, it will stick tender, and the skin will peel off easily. A 
dried chine, or hog's cheek, may be allowed the same boiling as bacon, 
viz. four pounds an hour and a half, and a quarter of an hour for every 
additional pound. 

185. To poach Eggs. — The best vessel for this purpose is a frying 
pan ; but it must be kept for that purpose only, or the grease will ad- 
here to the water, and spoil the delicate appearance of the eggs. A 
wide-mouthed stew-pan will do as well. Both the vessel and water 
must be delicately clean. Break the eggs into separate cups ; when 
the water boils, gently slip in the eggs, and set the vessel on the hob 
for a minute or so, till the white has set, then set it over the fire ; let 
it once boil up, and the eggs are done. The white should retain its 
transparency, and the yellow appear brightly through it. Take up 
very carefully with a slice; trim ofl^any rough edges of white, and 
serve on buttered toast, a piece for each egg, a little larger than the 
egg itself; or on a fish drainer. Garnish with sliced bacon or ham, 
sausages, or spinach. 

186. Turkeys, Capons, Chickens, c^c, are all boiled exactly in the 
same manner, only allowing time according to their size. A chicken 
will take about twenty minutes — a fowl, forty — a fine five-toed fowl 
or a capon, about an hour — a small turkey, an hour and a half — a large 
one, two hours or more. Chickens or fowls should be killed at least 
one or two days before they are to be dressed.* Turkeys (espe- 

* If they are dressed immediately after they are killed, befare the fiesh ia cold^ lUI 
poultry eat equally tender. 
' 6* 


cially large ones) should not be dressed till they have been killed 
three or four days at least — in cold weather, six or eight — or they will 
neither look white nor eat tender. Turkeys and large fowls should 
have the strings or sinews of the thighs drawn out. Fowls for boiling 
should be chosen as white as possible : those which have black legs 
should be roasted. The best use of the liver is to make sauce. Poul- 
try must be well washed in warm water ; if very dirty from the singe- 
ing, &.C., rub them with a little white soap, but thoroughly rinse it off 
before you put them into the pot. Make a good and clear fire; set 
on a clean pot, with pure and clean water, enough to cover the turkey, 
&c. ; the slower it boils, the whiter and plumper it will be. Whea 
there rises any scum, remove it; the common method of some (who 
are more nice than wise) is to wrap them up in a cloth, to prevent 
the scum attaching to them ; which if it do by your neglecting to 
skim the pot, there is no getting it off afterwards, and the poulterer 
is blamed for the fault of the cook. If there be water enough, and it 
is attentively skimmed, the fowl will both look and eat much better 
this way than vi'hen it has been covered up in the cleanest cloth; and 
the colour and flavour of your poultry will be preserved in the most 
delicate perfection. 


187. Salmon to boil. — The water should be blood- warm : allow 
plenty to cover the fish, with a good handful of salt, and a quarter of 
a pint of vinegar; this makes the fish boil firm. Remove the scum 
as fast as it rises. Keep it at a very gentle boil from half an hour to 
an hour, according to the thickness of the fish. When the eyes start, 
and the fins draw out easily, it is done. Lay the fish-drainer across 
the kettle a minute or two before shifting the fish. Sauce, lobster, 
shrimp, anchovy, or parsley and butter. Melted butter is the uni- 
versal sauce for fish, whether boiled, fried, or baked. Whatever other 
eauce is served, plain melted butter must never be omitted: we shall 
therefore only refer to the number of other sauces suitable for parti- 
cular kinds of fish. Observe, also, potatoes, either boiled or mashed, 
are the only vegetables eaten with fish, excepting parsnips with salt 

188. Broiled Salmon. — This is a good method of dressing a small 
quantity of salmon for one or two persons. It may be cut in slices 
the whole round of the fish, each taking in two divisions of the bone ; 
or the fish may be split, and the bone removed, and the sides of the 
fish divided into cutlets of three or four inches each : the former 
method is preferable, if done neatly with a sharp knife. Rub it 
thoroughly dry with a clean rough cloth; then do each piece over 
with salad oil or butter. Have a nice clean gridiron over a very clear 
fire, and at some distance from it. When the bars are hot through 
wipe them, and rub with lard or suet to prevent sticking; lay on the 
salmon, and sprinkle with salt. When one side is brown, carefully 
turn and brown the other. They do equally well or better in a tin, 

PISH. 6? 

ot flat dish, in an oven, with a little bit of butter, or sweet oil; or 
tuey may be done in buttered paper on the gridiron. Sauce, lobster 
or shrimp. 

189. Baked Salmon. — If a small fish, turn the tail to the mouth, 
and skewer it; force meat may be put in the belly, or, if part of a 
large fish is to be baked, cut it in slices, egg it over, and dip it in the 
force meat. Stick bits of butter about the salmon (a few oysters laid 
round are an improvement). It will require occasional basting with 
the butter. When one side becomes brown, let it be carefully turned, 
and when the second side is brown, it is done. Take it up carefully, 
with all that lies about it in the baking dish. For sauce, melted 
butter, with two table-spoonsful of port wine, one of catsup, and the 
juice of a lemon, poured over the fish; or anchovy sauce in a boat. 

190. Pickled Salmon. — Do not scrape off the scales, but clean the 
fish carefully, and cut into pieces about eight inches long. Make a 
strong brine of salt and water; to two quarts, put two pounds of salt, 
and a quarter of a pint of vinegar; in all, make just enough to cover 
the fish ; boil it slowly, and barely as much as you would for eating 
hot. Drain off all the liquor; and, when cold, lay the pieces in a kit 
or small tub. Pack it as close as possible, and fill up with equal 
parts of best vinegar and the liquor in which the fish was boiled. Let 
it remain so a day or two, then again fill up. Serve with a garnish 
of fresh fennel. The same method of pickling will apply to sturgeon, 
mackerel, herrings, and sprats. The three latter are sometimes 
baked in vinegar, flavoured with allspice and bay leaves, and eat 
very well ; but will not keep more than a few days. 

191. Tiirbot, Halibut, and Brills boiled. — Score the skin across 
the thick part of the back, to prevent its breaking on the breast, 
which it would be liable to do when the fish swells in boiling. Put 
the fish in the kettle in cold water, with a large handful of salt; as 
it comes to boil, skim it well, and set it aside to simmer as slowly as 
possible for a quarter of an hour or twenty minutes. If it boil fast it 
will break. It may be garnished with fried smelts or gudgeons, laid 
all round like spokes of a wheel. Sauce, lobster or shrimp. 

192. Soles and Dutch Plaice may be boiled exactly in the same 
way as turbot, and with the same garnish and sauce, or with parsley, 
fennel, or chervil sauce. If you have not a turbot kettle, these flat 
fish boil very well in a large frying pan, provided it admits depth of 
water to cover them. 

193. Soles, fried.— Ea.v\ng cleaned, wipe them thoroughly dry, 
and keep them in a coarse cloth an hour or two before using. In 
case any moisture should remain, flour them all over, and again wipe 
it off! They may be fried either with or without bread crumbs or 
oatmeal. If bread crumbs are to be used, beat up an egg very finely; 
wash over the fish with a paste-brush ; then sprinkle over it bread 
crumbs or oatmeal, so that every part may be covered, and one part 
not be thicker than another. Lift up the fish by a fork stuck in the 
head, and shake off^any loose crumbs that may adhere. Have plenty 
of fat in your pan, over a brisk fire, and let it quite boil before you 


put the fish in. The fat may be salad oil, butter, lard or dripping. 
If sweet and clean, the least expensive answers as well as the best, 
but let there be enough to cover the fish. Give the fish a j^entle 
ehove with a slice, that it may not stick to the pan. In about four or 
five minutes one side will be brown ; turn it carefully, and do the 
other; which, being already warm, will not take so long-. The best 
way to turn a large sole, is to stick a fork in the head, and raise the 
tail with a slice, otherwise it is liable to be broken with its own 
weight. If the soles are very large, it is a good way to cut them 
across in four or five pieces, by which means the thick parts can havp 
more time allowed them, without overdoing the thin. The very same 
rules will apply to the frying of Dutch plaice, flounders, eels, jack 
perch, roach, and other fresh-water fish. Jack and eels to be cut in 
pieces three or four inches long. Sauce, anchovy, parsley and butter, 
or melted butter flavoured with mushroom catsup. Garnish, sprigs 
of parsley or lemon juice. 

194. Soles or Eels, steiced. — They may be first half fried, so as to 
give them a little brownness ; then carefully drain them from fat; 
season with pepper and salt, and set them on with as much good beef 
gravy as will cover them. Let them simmer very gently for a quarter 
of an hour or twenty minutes, according to their thickness, but be 
very careful thnt they be not overdone. Take up the fish very gently 
with a slice. Thicken the sauce with flour and butter; flavour with 
mushroom catsup and port wine; simmer a minute or two, then, 
strain it over the fish. Some people do not like the addition of wine, 
and instead thereof mix the thickening with a tea-cup full of good 
cream, seasoned with cayenne and nutmeg, and with or without the 
addition of a spoonful of catsup. 

195. Cod. — The head and shoulders, comprehending in weight two- 
thirds or three-quarters of the fish, is much better dressed separately; 
the tail being much thinner would be broken to pieces before the 
thicker parts are done. The best way of dressing the tail, is to fry it. 
For boiling cod, allow plenty of room and water, that the fi.-^h may be 
perfectly covered. Put it in blood-warm water, with a large handful 
of salt. Watch for its boiling, that it may be set a little aside. A 
small cod will require twenty minutes after it boils; a large one, hdlf 
an hour. When the fins pull easily, and the eyes start, the fish is 
done. Slip it very carefully on the fish plate, that it may not be 
broken. Take out the roe and liver, which are much esteemed ; 
they will serve to garnish the dish, together with horse-radish and 
slices of lemon, or fried smelts, or oysters. Sauce, oyster. The sound, 
a fat jelly-like substance, along the inside of the backbone, is the great 
delicacy of the fish. Cod is sometimes boiled in slices. Let them 
be soaked half an hour in salt water; then set on with cold spring 
water and salt, just enough to cover them. Let it boil up; then 
carefully skim and set aside for ten minutes. Serve with the same 
sauce as above. Slices of cod are much better fried as soles. Slices 
of crimped cod, for boiling, are put in boiling water, and when done 

, served on a napkin. , ,_ ^ ...:.. 

VI sn. - 69 

196. Ling is a large finih, somewhat resembling- cod, and may be 
dressed in the same way, but is very inferior in quality. 

197. Haddock is but a poor fish, make the best of it. It may be 
boiled, and served with e<rg sauce, but it is better stuffed, and baked 
or broiled, and served with good gravy, or melted butter, flavoured 
with anchovy or mushroom catpup. 

198. Whitings may be skinned or not. Fasten the tail to the 
mouth ; dip the eggs and bread crumbs, or oatmeal, and fry as soles ; 
or they may be cut in three or four pieces, and fried. They do not 
take long to fry ; not more than five minutes; but several minutes 
should be allowed to drain the fat from them, as the ./eauty of them 
is to be perfectly dry. Sauce, anchovy, or parsley and butter. 

199. Stiirgeo7i. — If for boiling take off the skin, which is very rich 
and oily; cut in slices; season with pepper and salt; broil over a 
cb'ar fire ; rub over each slice a bit of butter, and serve with no other 
iccompaniment than lemon; or the slices may be dipped in season- 
ing or force meat, twisted in buttered white paper, and so broiled. 
Por sauce, serve melted butter with catsup. Garnish with sliced 
emon, as the j'lice is generally used with the fish. 

200. Roast Sturgeon. — A piece of sturgeon may be tied securely 
«n a spit, and roasted. Keep it constantly basted with butter, and 
when nearly done dredge with bread crumbs. When the flakes begin 
to separate, it is done. It will take about half an hour before a brisk 
fire. Serve with gcwjd gravy, thickened with butter and flour, and 
enrichod with an anchovy, a glass of sherry wine, and the juice of 
half a Seville orange or lemon. 

201. Slewed Sturgeon. — Take Pnouirh gravy to cover the fish ; 
set it on with a table-spoonful of salt, a few corns of black oepper, a 
bunch of sweet herb-, an onion or two, scraped horse-radisn, and a 
glass of vinegar. Let this boil a few minutes ; then set it aside to 
become pretty cool; then add the fish; let it come gradually to boil; 
ar.d then stew gently till the fish begins to break. Take it off im- 
mediately ; keep the fish warm; strain the gravy, and thicken with 
a good piece of buttp'r ; add a glass of port or sherry wine, a grate of 
nutmeg, and a little lemon juice. Simmer till it thickens, and then 
pour over the fish. Sauce, anchovy. 

202. Mackerel, boiled. — Put them on with cold water and salt. 
When the kettle boils, set it aside, but watch it closely, and take up 
the moment the eyes begin to start, and the tail to split. Sauce, 
paisley and butter (fennel), or roe sauce, or gooseberry sauce. Gar- 
nish, fennel and slices of lemon. 

203. Broiled Mackerel. — Cut a slit in the back that they may be 
thoroughly done. Lay them on a clean gridiron (having greased thp 
bars), over a clear, but rather slow, fire. Sprinkle pepper and salt 
over them; when thoroughly done on both sides, take them upon a 
very hot dish without a fish plate. Rub a bit of butter over each fish, 
and put inside each a little fennel and parsley, scalded and chopped, 
seasoned with pepper and salt, and a bit of fresh butter. Fennel 
sauce, parsley and butter. 


204. Baked or Pickled Mackerel. — Take off the heads ; open the 
fish ; take out the roes, and clean them tborong-hly ; rub the inside 
with pepper, salt, and allspice, and replace the roes. Pack the fish 
close in a deep baking pan; cover with equal parts of cold vinegar 
and water, and two bay loaves. Tie over strong white paper doubled, 
or still thicker. Let them bake an hour in a slow oven. They may 
be eaten hot, but will keep ten days or a fortnight. Cold butter, and 
fresh young fennel (unboiled)^are eaten with them. Sprats or her- 
rings may be done in the same way. 

205. Skate and Thornback. — These fish (like cod) are frequently 
crimped, that i?, slashed in slices, by which means the meat contracts, 
and becomes more firm as the watery particles escape. Cut them in 
pieces, and boil in salt and water; serve with anchovy sauce; or 
they may be fried with egg and bread crumbs, as soles; or stewed as 

206. Smelts, Gudgeons, Sprats, or other small Fish, fried. — 
Clean and dry them thoroughly in a cloth, fry them plain, or beat an 
egg on a plate, dip them in it, and then in very fine bread crumbs, 
that have been rubbed through a sieve : the smaller the fi^^h, the finer 
should be the bread crumbs — biscuit powder is still better; fry them 
in plenty of clean lard or dripping; as soon as the lard boils and is 
still, put in the fish; when they are delicately browned, they are 
done; this will hardly take two minutes. Drain them on a hair sieve, 
placed before the fire, turning them till quite dry. 

207. Trout is sometimes fried, and served with cri?p parsley and 
plain melted butter. This answers best for small fish. They are 
sometimes broiled, which must be done over a slow fire, or they will 
break. While broiling, sprinkle salt and baste with butter; serve 
with an%ovy sauce, to wliich may bo added a few chopped capers 
and a little of the vinegar. The sauce is generally poured over 
the fish. 

208. Slewed Trout. — When the fish has been properly washed, 
lay it in a stew-pan, with half a pint of claret or port wine, and a 
quart of good gravy ; a large onion, a dozen berries of black pepper, 
the same of allspice, and a few cloves, or a bit of mace; cover the 
fish-kettle close, and let it stew gently for ten or twenty minutes, 
according to the thickness of the fish ; take the fish up, lay it on a 
hot dish, cover it up, and thicken the liquor it was stewed in with a 
little flour; season it with a little pepper, salt, essence of anchovy, 
mushroom catsup, and a little chili vinegar; when it has boiled ten 
minutes, strain it through a tamis, and pour it over the fish ; if thera 
is more sauce than the dish will hold, send the rest up in a boat. 

209. Red Mullets. — These delicate fish are sometinjes fried, and 
served with anchovy sauce; but more frequently either stowed or 

210. Eels, fried. — Skin and gut them, and wash them in cold 
water; cut them in pieces four inches long; season them with pep- 
per and salt; beat an cg^g well on a plate, dip them in the egg, and 
then in fine bread crumbj; firy them in fresh clean lard ; drain thero 

FISH. n'r • 71 

well from the fat; g-arnish with crisp parsley. Sauce, plain, and 
nieitcd buttor shrirpf^ned with lemon juice, or pa;sley and butter, 

211. Boiled Eels. — T\vi?t them round and round, and run a wire 
skewer through them. Do them slowly in a small quantity of salt 
and water, with a s^poonful of vineirar, and a handful of parsley. They 
may be put in cold water, and will take very few minutes after they 
boii. Sauce, parsley, or fennel, and butter. 

212. Pike or Jack. — For cither bakinir or boiling, it is upual to 
stutithem with pudding. To pecure it, bind it round with narrow 
tape. The fish may be dressed at full length, or turned with its tail 
in its mouth. For boiling, use hard water with salt, and a tea-cup 
full of vinegar ; put it in blood-warm, and when it boils set it aside 
that it may simmer slowly. It will take from ten minutes to half an 
hour, according to its size. Sauce, oyster. Garnish, slices of lem.on, 
laid alternately with horse-radish. If baked, being stuffed, put it in 
a deep dish, with a tea-cup full of gravy, and soine bits of butter stuck 
over it. Serve witli rich thickened gravy, and anchovy sauce. 

For frying, the fish is to be cut in pieces, and may be done with 
egg and bread crumbs, as soles. The usual sauce is melted butter 
and catsup, but anchovy or lobster sauce is sometimes used, 

213. Carp, fried. — The same as soles; make sauce of the roe, and 
anchovy sauce with lemon juice. 

^14. Carp, stewed. — -With the addition of preserving the biood, 
which is to be dropped into port or cluret wine, well stirring the whole 
time, carp may be stewed in tbe same manner as sturgeon, the wine 
and blood to be added with the thickening, and the whole poured over 
the fish. Sippet of bread toasted, sliced lemon and barberries. The 
earnc process for lampreys. 

215. Perch, boiled. — Put them on in as much cold spring water as 
will cover them, with a handtlil of salt. Let them boil up quickly; 
then set aside to simmer slowly for eight, ten, or fifteen minutes, ac- 
cording to their size. Sauce, parsley and butter, or fennel, or melted 
butter with catsup. 

216. Salt Fish. — It should be soaked a considerable time in soft 
water, changing the water two or three times. The length of time 
required will be according to the hardness or softness of the fish. One 
night will do for that which has been but a fortnight or three weeks 
in salt; but some require two or even three nights' soaking, and to 
be laid through the intermediate days on a stone floor. Set it on in 
cold or luke-warm water, and let it be a long time coming to boil. It 
fc^liould be kept at a slow simmer from half an hour to an hour and a 
half. When done enough, lay the tin fish-drainer across the kettle; 
remove any straggling bones and skin; pour through a quart of boil- 
ing watef to rinse it, and serve with plenty of egg sauce, red beet- 
root, parsnips, and mashed potatoes. Some of the parsnips and beet- 
roots should be served whd'ei, or in slices for garnish, together with 
horse-radish, and a di^ "also of equal parts of red beet-root and^jars- 
nips, mashed together, with pepper, butter, and cream. Salt fish is 
sometimes served with the vegetables. When boiled as above, it is 


broken in flakes, and stewed a few minutes in good gravy, flavoured 
with onions or eschalots, but not salted, and thickened with flour, but- 
ter, and cream ; then beat up with it either potatoes, or parsnips and 
beet-root, mashed with cream and butter. Sauce, egg. Salt fish, 
whether cod, ling, haddock, or salmon, is often cut in slices, soaked 
in beer, and broiled as red herrings for a breakfast relish. 

217. Terrapins. — This is a favourite dish for suppers and parties ; 
and, when well cooked, they are certainly very delicious. Many 
persons in Philadelphia have made themselves famous for cooking this 
article alone. Mrs. Rubicam, who during her lifetime always stood first 
in that way, prepared them as follows. Put the terrapins alive in a pot 
of boiling water, where they must remain until they are quite dead. 
You then divest them of their outer skin and toe-nails ; and, after 
washing them in warm water, boil them again until they become quite 
tender, adding a handful of salt to the water. Having satisfied your- 
self of their being perfectly tender, take oflr' the shells and clean the 
terrapins very carefully, removing the sand-bag and gall without 
breaking them. Then cut the meat and entrails into small pieces, 
and put into a saucepan, adding the juice which has been given out 
in cutting them up, but no water, and season with salt, cayenne, and 
black pepper, to your taste ; adding a quarter of a pound of good but- 
ter to each terrapin, and a handful of flour for thickening. After stir-_ 
ring a short time, add four or five table-spoonfulsof cream, and a half 
pint of good Madeira to every four terrapins, and serve hot in a deep 
dish. Our own cook has been in the habit of putting in a very little 
mace, a large table-spoonful of mustard, and ten drops of the gall ; 
and, just before serving, adding the yolks of four hard boiled eggs. 
During the stewing, particular attention must be paid to stirring the 
preparation frequently ; and it must be borne in mind, that terrapins 
cannot possibly be too hot. 

218. Oysters au gratin. — Take the best oysters you can find, and 
dry them on a napkin ; you then place them on a silver shell, made 
expressly for the purpose, or fine, large, deep oyster shells, if handier, 
which should be well cleaned, placing in them four or six oysters, 
according to their size ; season with salt, pepper, nutmeg, parsley, 
mushrooms hashed very fine, a small quantity of bread crumbs, with 
which the surface of the oysters must be covered, placing on top of 
all a small piece of the best butter. Then put them in a hot oven, 
and let them remain until they acquire a golden colour. Serve 
them hot. 

219. Oysters, stewed. — For this purpose the beard or fringe is 
generally taken off. If this is done, set on the beards with the liquor 
of the oysters, and a little white gravy, rich but unseasoned ; iiiaving 
boiled a few minutes, strain oflf the beards, put in the oysters, and 
thicken the gravy with flour and butter (an ounce of butter to half a 
pint of stew,) a little salt, pepper, and nutmeg, or mace, a spoonful of 
catsup, and three of cream; some prefer a little essence of anchovy to 
catsup, others the juice of a lemon, others a glass of white wine ; the 
flavour may be varied according to taste. Simmer till the stew is 


thick, and warmed through, but avoid letting: them boil. Lay toasted 
sippets at the bottom of the dish and round the edg-es. 

220. A more simple, and, as we think,a better method is to put, say two 
hundred oysters in a saucepan with nothing but their own juice ; place 
tlitm on a brisk tire, and let them remain, stirring them occasionally, 
until they begin to boil, then remove them, and pass the juice through 
a tin colander, leaving the oysters to drain. Then mix well together 
three-quarters of a pound of good butter, and a handful of flour. 
When this is done, strain the juice of the oysters through a sieve into 
the saucepan containing the butter and flour, and put it on the fire 
again, and add pepper and salt to your taste, stirring the whole fre- 
quently and briskly. When it begins to boil again, add the oysters, 
and the following articles, well beaten together, viz., the yolks of 
three eggs, two table-spoonfuls of milk, and the juice of half a lemon; 
whilst adding these, stir the whole briskly, and serve immediately. 

221. Oysters^ fried. — Large oysters are the best for this purpose. 
Simmer for a minute or two in their own liquor; drain perfectly dry; 
dip in yolks of eggs, and then in bread crumbs, seasoned with nutmeg, 
cayenne, and salt ; fry them of a light brown. They are chiefly used 
as garnish for fish, or for rump steaks; but if intended to-be eaten 
alone, make a little thick melted butter, moistened with the liquor of 
the oysters, and serve as sauce. 

222. Broiled Oysters. — The oysters should be the largest and finest 
you can get. Prepare your gridiron, which should b'- a double one 
made of wire, by rubbing with butter, and having placed your oysters 
6o that they will all receive the heat equally, set tl -.^m over a brisk 
fire, and broil both sides without burning them. Let them be served 
hot, with a small lump of fresh butter, pepper and salt, added to them. 
Some establishments serve them egged and breaded; either way, 
however, they are goo^. 


223. Mind that your spit is clean, and take care that it passes 
through the meat as little as possible. Before it is spitted, see that 
the meat is jointed properly, particularly necks and loins. When on 
the spit it must be evenly balanced, that its motion may be regular, 
and all parts equally done ; for this purpose, take care to be provided 
with balancing skewers and cookholds ; a cradle spit is the best. 

224. The bottle or vertical jacTv is an excellent instrument for 
roasting, better than spits for joints under forty pounds; but if you 
have neither of these things, as is often the case in small families, a 
woollen string tv^isted round a door key makes a good substitute. In 
this case a strong skewer should be passed through each end of the 
joint, in order that it may be conveniently turned bottom upwards, 
which will insure an equality of roasting and an equal distribution of 
the gravy. A Dutch oven is a convenient utensil for roasting small 
joints; but by far the best and most economical thing of the kind is, 
improperly, called the American oven, by which you may roast meat 
bctbrc a sjtfing-room fire, without any extra fuoi, and without the 

C? * . ■'■ ' - - ^> . ■»••■ 

74 T H E C O M r L E T E C O O K. 

slightest inconvenience to the persons occupying the apartment. 
This contrivance will save, in the course of a year, all the expense, 
and more, of its original cost, in bakings, with this additional consi- 
deration, that meat so dressed will be equal to roasted meat. Meat 
cooked in a common oven, to say nothing of the abstracting of the 
dripping by the generality of bakers, is greatly inferior, both in flavour 
and tenderness, to that dressed in the American oven, where the air 
is not confined. It is not, however, meat alone that may be dressed 
in the American oven. All sorts of cakes may be made in it, and 
indeed, all the operations of baking and roasting may be performed 
by it, on a limited scale, but sufficiently large tor a small family in 
contracted circumstances; in short, with the addition of the recent 
improvement, a sort of oval iron covering, we have baked bread before 
a parlour fire as perfectly as it could be produced by the regular pro- 
cess of baking; in one word, no family, whether in poor or middling 
circumstances, ought to be without the American oven, which may 
be had for a few shillings. 

225. The fire for roasting should be made up in time, but it is 
better not to be very hot at first. The fire should, in point of size, 
be suited, to the dinner to be dressed, and a few inches longer at each 
end than the article to be roasted, or the ends will not be done. 

226. Never put meat down to a fierce fire, or one thoroughly 
burnt up, if you can possibly avoid it; but if not, you must take care 
and place it a considerable distance from the grate ; indeed, meat 
should always be done slowly at first; it is impossible to roast a joint 
of very considerable size well under some hours. It is said that 
George III., who lived principally upon plain roasted and boiled joints, 
employed cooks who occupied four, five, or even six hours in roasting 
a single joint; but the result amply repaid the loss of labour and 
time; the meat was full of gravy, perfectly tender, and of a delicious 

227. In placing paper over the fat to preserve it, never use pins or 
skewers; they operate as so many taps, to carry off the gravy; be- 
sides, the paper frequently starts from the skewers, and is, conse- 
quently, liable to take fire, to the great injury of both the flavour and 
appearance of the meat. For these reasons, always fasten on your 
paper with tape, twine, or any other suitable string. 

228. The fire should be proportioned to the quantity of the meat 
intended to be roasted, as we have intimated above. For large joints 
make up a good strong fire, equal in every part of the grate, and well 
backed by cinders or small coals. Take care that the fire is bright 
and clear in the front. The larger the joint to be roasted, the farther 
tt must be kept from the fire till nearly done — mind that. When 
you have to roast a thin and tender thing, let your fire be little and 

229. When your fire is moderately good, your meat, unless very 
small, ought not to be put down nearer than from ten to fifteen inches 
off the grate; in some instances a greater distance would be prefer- 
able, but it is impossible to lay down any definite rule on this subject. 

2t30. Slow roasting, like slow boiling, is the best, and the more 


slow, in reason, the better. The time usually directed to be allowed 
for roasting m^at, where the fire is good, the meat screen sufficiently 
large, and the meat not frosted, is rather more than a quarter of an 
hour to a pound, but we take this to be too short a time; however, 
the cook must judge for herself; much will depend upon the tempera- 
ture of the atmosphere, fee, and more upon the degree of basting it 
has undergone. The more the meat is basted the less time it will 
take to do^ for the meat is rendered soft and mellow outside, and con- 
sequently, admits the lieat to act upon the inside. On the contrary, 
meat rendered hard on the outside by having too hot a fire, or neglect- 
ing to baste, the fire is prevented from operating upon the interior. 
When the meat is half done the fire should be well stirred for brown- 
ing, that is, it must be made to burn brightly and clearly. When 
the steam begins to rise, depend upon it the meat is thoroughly done, 
that is, well saturated with heat, and all that goes off from the meat 
in evaporation is an absolute waste of its most savoury and nourish- 
ing particles. 

231. A good cook will be particular to place her dripping pan so 
as to catch the dripping, but not the loose hot coals which may chance 
to fall from the fire. Your dripping pan should be large, not lesa 
than twenty-eight inches long and twenty inches broad, and should 
have a well covered well on the side from the fire, to collect the drip- 
ping; "this," says Dr. Kitchiner, " will preserve it in the most deli- 
cate state." 

232. Roasting and boiling, as being the most common operations 
in cooking, are generally considered the most easy ; this is a great 
error: roasting, m particular, requires unremitting attention toper- 
form it well, much more so than stewing, or the preparing many made 
dishes. A celebrated French author, in the Almanack des Gout' 
manils, says, that " the art of roasting victuals to the precise degree, 
is one of the mo.-t difficult things in this world, and ijou mayjind half 
a thousand good cooks sooner than one perfect roaster ; Jive minutes 
on the spiff more or less, decide the goodness of this mode of 


Before entering into any detail as to the best method of preparing 
the different dishes imder this head, we must recommend the young 
cook to again carefully read our preliminary observations on roasting. 
We may here too be allowed to er.ter our most decided protest against 
baking meat, generally speakin-g — whether in the common brick 
oven, or in the iron ovens attached to kitchen ranges, particularly in 
the latter, unless they have a draught of air through them, when they 
will dress, or rather roast meat very well. Meat cannot be subjected 
to the influence of fire without injury, unless it is open to the air, by 
which the exhalations are carried off, and the natural flavour of the 
meat is preserved. Under the idea of saving fuel, persons are induced 
to use stoves in their kitchen instead of ranges. They should con- 

76 . ;> T H E C O M P L E T E COOK. u 

sider, however, that baking" not only injures the meat, but absolutely 
Kpoils the dripping, which from roasted meat is much^^nore valuable 
than the extra cost of coals. For a small family, we recommend the 
bottle jack — and for large establishments, a kitchen range, a smoke 
jack, and the usual quantity of plating for stewing, or boiling-. In 
the following receipts we have generally indicated the time which a 
joint will take roasting, but a good cook will never wholly depend 
upon lime, either in roasting or boiling; she ought to exercise her 
own judgment, as to whether a thing is done or not When roast 
meat streams towards the fire, it is a sure sign that the meat is nearly 
done. On no account, whatever, should gravy be poured over any 
thing that is roasted. It makes the meat insipid, and washes oil the 
frothing, or dredging. 

233. Sirloin of Beef, roasted. — Sirloin or ribs, of about fifteen 
pounds, will require to be before a large sound fire about three and 
a half or four hours; take care to spit it evenly, that it may not be 
heavier on one side than the other; put a little clean drippinj? in the 
dripping pan (tie a piece of paper over it to preserve the fat), b-tste it 
well as soon as it is put down, and every quarter of an hour all the 
time it is roasting, till the last half hour; then take off the paper, and 
make some gravy for it; stir the fire and make it clear; to brown 
and froth it, sprinkle a little salt over it, baste it with butter, and 
dredge it with flour; let it go a few minutes longer, till the froth 
ri^"■ 3; take it up. Garnish it with a hillock of horse-radish, scraped 
at fine as possible with a very sharp knife. A Yorkshire pudding is 
an excellent accompaniment. The inside of the sirloin should never 
be cut hot, but reserved entire for the hosh, or a mock hare. 

234. Rump and Round. — Rump and rounds of beef are sometimes 
roasted ; they require thorough doing, and much basting to keep the 
outside from being dry. It should be before the fire from three hours, 
and upwards, nccording to size. Gravy and garrnsh as above. 

235. Mock Hare. — The inside lean of a sirloin of beef may be 
dresse^l so as to resemble hare, and is by many people greatly pre- 
ferred to it. Make a good stuffing. If possible, get the inside meat 
of the whole length of sirloin, or even of two, lay the stuffing on half 
the length, turn the other end over and sew up the two sides with a 
strong twine, that will easily draw out when done ; roast it nicely, 
taking care to baste it well, and serve with sauces and garnishes the 
same as hare; or, it may be partly roasted and then stewed, in rich 
thickened gravy with force meat balls, and sauce. 

236i Ribs of Beef , boned. — Take out the ribs, &c. and roll it ag- 
round as possible; bind with tape ; roast with or without veal stuffing, 
laid over before rolling. Thoroughly soak it, and brown it before a 
quick fire. Roast beef accompaniments, and, if liked, wow-womt 

237. Roasting Mutton. — A saddle of mutton of ten or twelve 
pounds will take from two hours and a half to three hours roasting. 
Mutton should be put before a brisk fire; a saddle of mutton requires 
to be protected from the heat by covering it with paper, which should 


be taken off about a quarter of an hour before it is done ; when of a 
paie-brown colour, baste it; flour it lightly to froth. The leg of 
mutton, the shoulder, the loin, the neck, the breast, and the haunch^ 
require the same treatment as the saddle, with the exception of 
papering, which, however, may be sometimes required. The haunch 
should be served with plain but rich mutton sauce, and with sweet 
sauce ; of course separately. 

238. Mutton, Venison fashion. — Hang till fit for dressing a good 
neck of mutton ; two days before dressing it, rub it well twice each 
day with powdered allspice, and black pepper ; roast it in paste, as 
ordered for the haunch of venison. 

239. Roasting Veal. — This meat r'^quires particular care to roast 
it a nice brown ; the fire should be the same as for beef; a sound 
large fire for a large joint, and a brisker for a smaller: soak tho- 
roughly, and then bring it nearer the fire to brown ; baste on first 
pulling down, and occasionally afterwards. When done and dished, 
pour over it melted butter, with or without a little brown gravy. 
Veal joints, not stuffed, may be served with force meat balls, or rolled 
into sausages as garnish to the dish ; or fried pork sausages. Bacon 
or ham, and greens, are generally eaten with veal. 

240. Fillet of Veal of from twelve to sixteen pounds will require 
from four or five hours at a good fire ; make some stuffing or force 
meat, and put it under the flap, that there may be some left to eat 
cold, or to season a hash ; brown it, and pour good melted butter over 
it ; garnish with thin slices of lemon and cakes or balls of stuffing. 
A loin is the best part of the calf, and will take about three hours 
roasting ; paper the kidney fat and back. A shoulder from three 
hours to three hours and a half; stuff it with the force meat ordered 
for the fillet of veal, or balls made of 271. Neck, best end, will take 
two hours; same accompaniments as the fillet. The scrag part is 
best in a pie or broth. Breast from an hour and a half to two hours. 
Let the caul remain till it is almost done, then take it off to brown it; 
baste, flour and froth it. 

241. Veal Sweetbread. — Trim a fine sweetbread (it cannot be too 
fresh), parboil it for five minutes, and throw it into a basin of cold 
water. Roast it plain, or beat up the yolk of an egg, and prepare 
some bread crumbs. When the sweetbread is cold, dry it thoroughly 
in a cloth; run a lark-spit or a skewer through it, and tie it on the 
ordinary spit; egg it with a paste-brush ; powder it well with bread 
crumbs, and roast it. For sauce, fried bread crumbs round it, and 
melted butter, with a little mushroom catsup, or serve them on but- 
tered toast, garnished with egg sauce, or with gravy. Instead of 
spitting them, you may put them into a tin dutch oven or fry them. 

242. Roasting Lamb. — To the usual accompaniments of roasted 
meat, Iamb requires green mint sauce or salad, or both. Some cooks, 
about five minutes before it is done, sprinkle it with a little fresh- 
gathered and finely minced parsley, or crisped parsley. Lamb and 
all 3^oung meats ought to be thoroughly done ; therefore, do not take 
eithe" lamb or veal oflT the spit till you see it drop white gravy. 



VVhfin green mint cannot be got, mint vinegar is an acsrptable sub- 
Btitute tor it, and crisp parsley, on a side plate, is an admirable 
accompaniment. Hind-quarter of eight pounds will take from an 
hour and three-quarters to two hours; baste, and froth it. A quarter 
of a porkling is sometimes skinned, cut, and dressed lamb Cushion, and 
sent up as a substitute for it. The leg and the loin of lamb, when 
little, should be roasted together, the former being lean, the latter fat, 
and the gravy is better preserved. Fore-quarter often pounds, about 
two hours, ft is a pretty general custom, when you lake off the 
shoulder from the ribs, to squeeze a Seville orange, or lemon, over 
them, and sprinkle them with a little pepper and salt ; this may be 
done by the cook before it comes to table. Some peo;>le are not 
remarkably expert at dividing these joints nicely. Leg of five 
pounds, from an hour to an hour and a half. Shoulder, with a quick 
fircj an hour. Ribs, almost an hour to an hour and a quarter; joint 
them nicely, crack the ribs across, and divide them from the brisket 
after it is roasted. Loi?i, an hour and a quarter. Neck, an hour. 
Breast three-quarters of an hour. 

243. Roasting Pork. — If this meat be not well done, thoroughly 
well done, it is disgusting to the sight and poisonous to the stomach. 
"In the gravy of pork, if there is the least tint of redness," says Dr. 
Kitchiner, " it is enough to appal the sharpest appetite. Other moots 
under-done are unpleasant, but pork is absolutely uneatable." A Leg 
of eight pounds will require about three hours; score the skin across 
in narrow stripes (some score it in diamonds) about a quarter of an 
inch apart; stuff the knuckle with sage and onion minced fine, and a 
little grated bread, seasoned with pepper, salt, and the yolk of an egg. 
See 252 and 270. Do not put it too near the fire ; rub a little sweet 
oil on the skin with a paste-brush, or a goose- feather ; this makes the 
crackling crisper and browner than basting it with dripping, and it 
will be a better colour than all the art of cookery can make it in any 
other way ; and this is the best way of preventing the skin from 
blistering, which is principally occasioned by its being put too near 
the fire. 

244. Leg of Pork roasted loithout the skin ; or Mock Goose. — 
Parboil a leg of pork, take off the skin, and then put it down to roast; 
baste it with butter, and make a savoury powder of finely minced of 
dried or powdered sage, ground black pepper, salt, and some bread 
crumbs rubbed together through a colander ; you may add to this a 
little very finely minced onion; sprinkle it with this when it is almost . 
roasted ; put a half pint of made gravy into the dish, and goose stuffing ' 
tinder the knuckle skin, or garnish the dish with balls of it, fried or 

245. Spare rib : when you put it down to roast, dust on some flour. . 
and baste it with a little butter ; dry a dozen sage leaves, rub thenr 
through a hair sieve, put them into the top of a pepper box, and about 
a quarter of an hour before the meat is done baste it with butter; 
the pulverised sage, or savoury powder, in, or sprinkle it with duck 
stuffing ; some people prefer it plain. 

fl o A s T I N a . 79 

246. Loin of Pork, of five pounds, must be kept at a good distance 
from the fire, on account of the crackling, and will take about two 
hours — if very fat, half an hour longer: stuff it with duck stuffing 
(252 and 270 ;) score the skin in stripes about a quarter of an inch 
apart, and rub it with salad oil. You may sprinkle over it some of 
the savoury powder recommended for the mock goose (244.) 

247. Sucking Pf^ should be about three weeks old, and it ought to 
be dressed as quickly as possible after it is killed; if not quite fresh, 
the crackling can never be made crisp. It requires constant attentior^ 
and great care in roasting. As the ends require more fire than the 
middle, an instrument called the pig-iron has been contrived to hang 
before the latter part. A common flat iron will answer the purpose, 
or the fire may be kept fiercest at the ends. A good stuffing m;iy be 
made as follows : — Take five or six ounces of the crumb of stale bread ; 
crumble and rub through a colander; mince very fine a handful of 
sage, and a large onion; mix with an egg, pepper, salt, and apiece of 
butter about the size of an egg ; fill the belly, and sew it up ; put it 
to the fire, and baste it with butter tied up in a rag, by applying it to 
the back of the pig. Kitchiner recommends bastinfr it with olive oil 
till it is done. It should never be left. It should be placed before a 
clear brisk fire, at some distance; and great care should be taken 
that the crackling should be nicely crisped, and delicately browned. 
It will require from an hour and a half to two hours, according to the 
size of the pig. When first put to the fire, it should be rubbed all 
over with fresh butter, or salad oil ; ten minutes after this, and when 
the skin looks dry, dredge it well with flour all over. Let this re« 
main on an hour, and then rub it off with a soft cloth. A sucking pig 
being very troublesome to roast, is frequently sent to the oven. A 
clever baker will do it so as to be almost equal to roasted ; he will re- 
quire a quarter of a pound af butter, and should be told to baste it well. 
(See 284.) Before you take the pig from the fire, cut off the head, 
and part that and the body down the middle; chop the brains very fine 
with some boiled sage leaves, and mix them with good veal or beef 
gravy, or what runs from the pig when you cut the head off. Send 
up a tureen full of gravy besides. Currant sauce is still a favourite 
with some of the old school. Lay your pig back to back in the dish, with 
one half of the head on each side, and the ears at each end, which you 
must take care to make nice and crisp, or you will get scolded, and 
deservedly. When you cut off the pettitoes, leave the skin long, round 
the end of the legs. 

248. Turkey, Turkey Poults, and other Poultry. — A fowl and a 
turkey require the same management at the fire, only the latter will 
take longer time. Let them be carefiilly picked, break the breast- 
bone (to make them look plump,) and thoroughly singe them with a 
sheet of clean writing paper. Prepare a nice brisk fire for them. 
Make stuffing according to 269; stuff them under the breast wliere 
the craw was taken out; and make some into balls, and boil or fry 
them, and lay them round the dish; they are handy to help, and you 
can reserve some of the inside stuffing to eat with the cold turkey, ar 


to enrich a hash. Score the gizzard ; dip it in the yolk of an err?, or 
melted butter, and sprinkle it with salt and a few grains of cayenne; 
put it under one pinion, and the liver under the other; cover the liver 
with buttered paper, to prevent it getting- hardened or buint. When 
you first put your turkey down to roast, dredge it with flour, then put 
about an ounce of butter into a basting ladle, and as it melts baste the 
bird. Keep it at a distance from the fire for the first half hour that it 
may warm gradually, then put it nearer, and when it is plumped up, 
and the steam draws towards the fire, it is nearly done enough ; then 
dredge it lightly with flour, and put a bit of butter into your bastinfif 
ladle, and as it melts baste the turkey with it; this will raise a finer 
froth than can be produced by using the fat out of the pan. A very 
large turkey will require about three hours to roast it thoroughly ; a 
middling sized one, of eight or ten pounds, about two hours ; a small 
one may be done in an hour and a half. Turkey poults are of various 
eizes, and will take about an hour and a half Fried pork sausages 
are a very savoury accompaniment to either roasted or boiled turkey. 
Sausage meat is sometimes used as a stuffing, instead of the ordinary 
force meat. If you wish a tcrkey, especially a very large one, to be 
tender, never dress it till at least four or five days (in cold weather, 
eight or ten) after it has been killed, unless it be dressed immediately 
after killing, before the flesh is cold ; be very careful not to let it 
freeze. Hen turkeys are preferable to cocks for whiteness and 
tenderness, and the small tender ones, with black legs, are most 
esteemed. Send up with them oyster, egg, and plenty of gravy 

249. Capons or Fowls must be killed a couple of days in moderate, 
and more in cold, weather, before they are dressed, unless dressed 
immediately they are killed, or they will eat tough : a good criterion 
of the ripeness of poultry for the spit, is the ease with which you can 
pull out the feathers; when a fowl is plucked, leave a few to help you 
to ascertain this. They are managed exactly in the same manner, 
and sent up with the same sauces, as a turkey, only they require pro- 
portionably less time at the fire-^a full-grown five-toed fowl about an 
hour and a quarter; a moderate sized one, an hour; a chicken, from 
thirty to forty minutes. Have also pork sausages fried, as they are in 
general a favourite accompaniment, or turkey stuffing; see Force 
meats, 278 ; put in plenty of it, so as to plump out the fowl, which 
must be tied closely (both at the neck and rump,) to keep in the stuflf^ 
ing; some cooks put the liver of the fowl into this force meat, and 
others mince it and pound it, and rub up with flour and melted butter. 
When the bird is stuffed and trussed, score the gizzard nicely; dip it 
into melted butter ; let it drain, and then season it with cayenne and 
salt ; put it under one pinion, and the liver under the other; to. pre- 
vent their getting hardened or scorched, cover them with double pa- 
per buttered. Take care that your roasted poultry be well browned;, 
it is as indispensable that roasted poultry should have a rich brown] 
complexion, as that boiled poultry should have a delicate white one. 


For sauces, see 111 ; or liver and parsley, and those ordered in the 
last receipt. 

250. Goose. — When a goose is well picked, singed and cleaned, 
make the stuffing with about two ounces of onion, and half as much 
green sage ; chop them very fine, adding four ounces of stale bread 
crumbs, a bit of butter about as big as a walnut, and a very little pep- 
per and salt (to this some cooks add half the liver, parboiling it first,) 
the yolk of an egg or two, and, incorporating the whole together, stuff 
the goose ; do not quite fill it, but leave a little room for the stuffing 
to swell. From an hour and a half to an hour and three-quarters will 
roast a fine full-grown goose. Send up gravy and apple sauce with it. 
Geese are called green till they are about four months old. 

251. Canvass Back Ducks, or Red Neck Ducks. — Let your duck 
be young and fat, if possible; having picked it well, draw it and singe 
carefully, without washing it, so as to preserve the blood, and conse- 
quently, all its flavour. You then truss it, leaving its head on for the 
purpose of distinguishing it from common game, and place it on the 
spit before a brisk fire, for at least fifteen minutes. Then serve it 
hot, in its own gravy, which is formed by the blood, &c., on a large 
chafing dish. The best birds are found on the Potomac river; they 
have the head purple, and the breast silver colour, and it is consideroi 
superior in quality and flavour to any other species of wild duck. 
The season is only during the cold weather. 

252. Duck. — Mind your duck is well cleaned, and wiped out with 
a clean cloth ; for the styTmg, take an ounce of onion and half an 
ounce of green sage; chjp them very fine, and mix them with two 
ounces of bread crumbs, a bit of butter about as big as a walnut, a 
very little black pepper and salt, and the yolk of an egg to bind it; 
mix these thoroughly together, and put into the duck. From half to 
three-quarters of an hour will be enough to roast it, according to the 
size ; contrive to have the feet delicately crisp, as some people are 
very fond of them; — to do this nicely, you must have a sharp fire. 
Gravy sauce, and sage and onion sauce. To hash or stew ducks, the 
same as goose. If you think the raw onion will make too strong an 
impression upon the palate, parboil it. To insure ducks being ten- 
der, in moderate weather kill them a few days before you dress them. 

253. Haunch of Venison. — To preserve the fat, make a paste of 
flour and water, as much as will cover the haunch; wipe it with a 
dry cloth in every part ; rub a large sheet of paper all over with but- 
ter, and cover the venison with it ; then roll out the paste about three- 
quarters of an inch thick. Lay this all over the fat side, cover it with 
three or four sheets of strong white paper, and tie it securely on with 
packthread ; have a strong close fire, and baste your venison as soon 
as you lay it down to roast (to prevent the paper and string from burn- 
ing;) it must be well basted all the time. A buck haunch which ge- 
nerally weighs from twenty to twenty-five pounds, will take about four 
hours and a half roasting in warm, and longer in cold, weather. A 
naunch of from twelve to eighteen pounds will be done in about three 
nours, or three hours and a half. A quarter of an hour before it ia 
done, the string must be cut, and the paste carefully taken off; now 


baste it with butter, dredge it ]ic,^htly with flour, and when the froth 
rises, and it has got a very light-brown colour, it is done. Garnish 
the knuckle bone with a ruffle of cut writing paper, and send it up 
with good strong (but unseasoned) gravy in one boat, and currant jelly 
sauce in the other, or currant jelly in a side plate (not melted.) See 
for Sauces, 187, 138, 139. Buck venison is in greatest perfection 
from Midsummer to Michaelmas, and doe from November to January. 
Neck and Shoulder of venison are to be treated the same way as the 
haunch, but they will not take so much time, nor do they need the 
paste covering. 

254. A Faicn should be dressed as soon after it is killed as pos- 
sible; when very young, it is dressed the same as a hare; but they 
are better eating when the size of the house lamb, or when they are 
large enough to be roasted in quarters. The hind-quarter is consid- 
ered the best. Fawns require a very quick fire. They are so deli- 
cate that they must be constantly basted, or be covered with sheets 
of fat bacon ; when nearly done, remove the bacon, baste it with 
butter, and froth it. Serve with venison sauce. 

255. A Kid is very good eating when a suckling, and when the 
dam is in fine condition. Roast, and serve it like a fawn or hare. 

256. Hare when young is easy of digestion, and very nourishing— 
when old, the contrary, unless rendered so by keeping and dressing. 
"When you receive a hare, take out the liver — if it be sweet, parboil 
it, and keep it for stuffing. Wipe the hare quite dry; rub the inside 
with pepper, and hang it in a cool place till it is fit to be dressed, that 
is to say, till it comes to the point of putrefaction, but not putrefied. 
Then paunch and skin, wash and lay it in a large pan of cold water 
four or five hours, changing the water two or three times; lay it in 
a clean cloth; dry it well, and truss. To make the stuffing, see 272. 
Let it be stiff"; put it in the belly, and sew it up tightly. The skin 
must be cut to let the blood out of tiie neck. Some persons baste it 
with skimmed milk, but we decidedly prefer dripping; it ought to be 
constantly basted till it is nearly done; then put a little bit of butter 
into your basting ladle; flour and froth nicely. Serve with good 
gravy and currant jelly. Cold roast hare, chopped to pieces, and 
stewed in water for a couple of hours, will make excellent soup. 

257. Rabbit. — Put it down to a sharp clear fire ; dredge it lightly 
and carefully with flour; take care to have it frothy and of a fine 
light brown; boil the liver with parsley while the rabbit is roasting; 
when tender, chon them together; put half the mixture into melted 
butter, use the other half for garnish, divided into little hillocks. Cut 
off" the head, divide it, and lay half on each side the dish. A fine 
well-grown and well-hung warren rabbit, dressed as a hare, will eat 
very much like it. 

258. A Pheasant should have a smart fire, but not a fierce one ; 
baste it, butter and froth it, and prepare sauce for it. Some persons, 
the pheasant being a dry bird, put a piece of beef or rump steak into 
the inside before roastipg. It is said that a pheasant should be sus- 
pended by one of the long tail feathers till it falls. It is then ripe 



and ready for the spit, and not before. If a fowl be well kept, and 
dressed as a pheasant, and with a pheasant, few persons will discover 
the pheasant from the fowl. 

259. Guinea Fowls, Partridges, Pea Fowls, Blackcock, Grouse^ 
and Moorgamcy are dressed in the same way as pheasants. Par- 
tridges are sent up with rice sauc", or bread sauce, and good gravy. 
Blackcock, nioorgame, and grouse, are sent up with currant jelly and 
fried bread crumbs. 

260. Wild Ducks, Widgeon, and Teal, are dressed before a clear 
fire, and on a hot spit. Wild ducks will require fifteen or twenty 
minutes to do them in the fashionable way, but to do them well will 
require a few minutes longer. Widgeon and teal, being smaller 
birds, of course will require less time. 

261. Woodcocks and Snipes are never drawn; they should be tied 
on a small bird spit, and put to roast at a clear fire ; a slice of bread 
is put under each bird, to catch the trail, that is the excrements of the 
intestines; they are considered delightful eating; baste with butter, 
and froth with flour; lay the toa?t on a hot dish, and the birds on the 
toast; pour some good gravy into the dish, and send some up in a 
boat. They are generally roasted from twenty to thirty niinutes — 
but some epicures say, that a woodcock should be just introduced to 
tiie cook, for her to show it the fire, and then send it up to table. Gar- 
nish with slices of lemon. Snipes are dressed in the same way, but 
require less time. 

262. Pigeons, when stuffed, require some green parsley to be 
chopped very fine with the liver and a bit of butter, seasoned with a 
little pepper and salt; or they may be stuffed with the same as a fillet 
of veal. Fill the belly of each bird with either of these compositions. 
They will roast in about twenty or thirty minutes. Serve with 
parsley and butter, with a dish under them, with some in a boat. 
Garnish with crisp parsfey, fried bread crumbs, br^ead sauce, or gravy. 

263. Small Birds. — The most delicate of these are larks, which 
are in high season in November and December. When cleaned and 
prepared for roasting, brush tiiem with tiie yolk of an egg, and roll 
in bread crumbs; spit them on a lark-spit, and tie that on a larger 
Bpit; ten or fifteen minutes at a quick fire will do them ; baste them 
with fresh butter, and sprinkle them with bread crumbs till they are 
quite covered, while roasting. Sauce, grated bread fried in butter, 
which set to drain before the fire that it may harden ; serve the 
crumbs under the larks when you dish them, and garnish them with 
slices of lemon. Wheatears are dressed in the same way. 

264. Reed Birds. — Having carefully picked your birds, v/hich 
should be very fat, draw them Vvith the greatest care possible so as 
not to rob them of any fat, and truss them on a skewer, which you 
fasten to the spit, and cook them before a brisk fire ; a very few 
minutes is requisite. In serving them, place them on buttered toast, 
and pour a small portion of gravy over them. Let them be hot. 
This is generally considered the best manner of serving reed birds, 
although many persons prefer them breaded and fried, or barbacued. 

84 T II E C O M P L E T E C O O K . 

"When they are very fat it is unnecepsary to draw Ihcm. The season 
for this delicious bird is from the middle of September to the first or 
eecond week in October. 


The art of making seasoning's, or stuffings, principally consists in 
Eo proportioning the flavours as that none may predominate, or be 
tasted more than another. In stuffing, care must be taken to leave 
room for swelling ; if not, it is apt to be hard and heavy. 

265. Seasoning for Roast Pork, Ducks, or Geese. — Two-thirds 
onion, one-third green sage, chopped fine, bread crumbs equal in 
weight to the sage and onions; season with a little pepper and salt, 
and incorporate it well with the yolk of an egg or two, and a bit of 
butter. Some omit the bread crumbs, and some again do not like the 
onions, while others add to them a clove of garlic. 

266. Seasoning for a Sucking Fig. — A large teacup full of 
grated bread, two ounces of butter, season with nutmeg, salt, and 
pepper; scald two small onions, chop fine, and about thirty leaves of 
young sage, and egg beat fine, and mix altogether, and sew it in the 
belly of the pig. 

267. Seasoning for a Goose. — Scald the liver, chop fine, crumb 
twice its weight in bread, chop fine four small onions, or an equal 
weight of chives, half the weight of green sage, half an ounce of 
butter, the yolk of an egg, and a table spoonful of potato starch ; 
season highly with salt and pepper; mix well. 

268. Chesniit Seasoning for Goose. — Fry or boil chesnuts till the 
outer skin comes off" very easily, and the inside will pound or grate ; 
rexluce them to powder, scald the liver of the goose, and an onion or 
two, the juice of a lemon, season with pepper, cayenne, salt; mix 
well toofether. 


269. Stiiffing for Veal, Roast Turkey, Fowl, t^^c. — Mince a 
quarter of a pound of beef marrow (beef suet will do,) the same 
weight of bread crumbs, two drachms of parsley leaves, a drachm 
and a half of sweet marjoram (or lemon thyme,) and the same of 
grated lemon peel, an onion, chopped very fine, a little salt and 
pepper, pound thoroughly together, with the yolk and white of two 
Gggs, and secure it in the veal with a skewer, or sew it in with a 
needle and thread. Make some of it into balls or sausages; flour 
and fry or boil them, and send them up as a garnish, or in a side dish, 
with roast poultry, veal, or cutlets, &c. This is sufficient quantity 
for a turkey poult; a very large turkey will require twice as much; 
an ounce of dressed ham may be added to the above, or use equal 
parts of the above stuffing and pork sausage meat. 

270. Goose or Duck slvfing. — Chop vt^ry fine about one ounce of 
green sago leaves, two ounces of onion also chopped fine (both un« 


boiled,) a bit of butter about the size of a walnut, four ounces 
bread crumbs, a little salt and pepper, the yolk and white of an egg: 
Bome add to this a little apple. 

271. Force meat balls for turtle, mock turtle, or made dishes :— 
Pound some veal in a marble mortar, rub it through a sieve with aa 
much of the udder as you have of veal, and about the third of the 
quantity of butter ; put some bread crumbs in a stew-pan, moisten 
with milk, add a little chopped eschalot, and a little parsley; rub 
them well together in a mortar till they form a smooth paste ; put it 
through a sieve, and when cold, pound and mix all together, with the 
yolk of three eggs boiled hard; season it with curry powder, or 
cayenne pepper and salt; add the yolks of two unboiled eggs, rub it 
well together, and make small balls; a few minutes before your soup 
is ready, put them in. 

272. Sticffing for Hare. — Three ounces of fine bread crumbs, two 
ounces of beef suet, chopped fine, eschalot half a drachm, one drachm 
of parsley, a drachm of lemon thymo, marjoram, winter savoury, a 
drachm of grated lemon peel, and the same of pepper and salt; mix 
these with the white and yolk of an egg ; de not make it thin, for if 
it is not stiff enough, it will be good for nothing ; put it in the hare 
and sew it up. If the liver is quite sound, parboil it, mince it very 
fine, and put to the stuffing. 

273. Veal Force meat — Of undressed veal take two ounces, scrape 
it quite fine, and free from skin and sinews, the same quantity of 
beef or veal suet, and the same of bread crumbs; chop fine one 
drachm of lemon peel, two drachms of parsley, the same quantity 
of sweet herbs, and half a drachm of mace or allspice beaten to a 
fine powder ; pound all together in a mortar, break into it the yolk 
and white of an egg^ rub it all well together, and season with pepper 
and salt. This may be made more savoury by adding cold pickled 
tongue, eschalot, anchovy, cayenne, or curry powder. 

274. Stuffing for Pike^ Carp, or Haddock. — A dozen oysters 
bearded and chopped, two yolks of eggs, a small onion, or two cloves 
of eschalot and a few sprigs of parsley chopped fine, season with 
cayenne, mace, allspice, pepper, and salt ; add their weight of bread 
crumbs,, or biscuit powder, then put two ounces of butter into a stew- 
pan, and simmer them till they have sucked up the butter ; as they 
begin to bind, sprinkle over them more bread crumbs or biscuit 
powder, till the whole forms into a ball, with which stuff the fish. 
Some people like the addition of ham or tongue scraped, and suet or 
marrow instead of butter. 

Another way. Beef suet, or marrow and fat bacon, and fresh 
butter, two ounces of each ; pound them with the meat of a lobster, 
ten or twelve oysters, one or two anchovies; season with thyme, 
parsley, knotted marjoram, savoury, chopped fine and scalded ; add 
salt, cayenne, and nutmeg, a few drops of essence of eschalot ; add 
the yolk of an egg, and bread crumbs. This pudding will be suffi* 
ciently done in the belly of the fish, if you do not add the eschaipt in 


275. Stuffing for Heart and many other pur^wses. — Tako half a 
pound of grated bread ; chop fine a quarter of a pound of beef cfT 
lamb suet, or beef marrow; season with salt, pepper, and nutmeg; a 
handful of parsley leaves, thyme about a quarter as much, six spriga 
of marjoram and vervain, winter savoury or knotted marjoram, and 
the juice of a quarter of a lernon. Mix well with two eggs well 
beaten. You may add a dozen of oysters, chopped, and the liquor, 
or two ounces of dressed ham, chopped. This stuffing may be used 
for a turkey, with an equal quantity of sausage meat parboiled ; rub 
them well together, and keep out half a pound, to which add an egg, 
to make up into balls and fry, and lay round the dish as a garnish. 
Turkey is sometimes stuffed with chesnnts (see 267) ; take basil and 
parsley instead of onions, and add a quarter of a pound of dressed 
ham grated, and a little nutmeg. 

276. A very rich stuffing for Veal, Poultry, and Game. — Take 
two pounds of beef suet, one pound of bread crumbs, a tea spoonful 
of thyme, the same quantity of marjoram, a tea-cup full of chopped 
parsley, chopped eschalot a table spoonful, half a lemon grated, half 
a nutmeg, half an ounce each of salt and pepper, and five eggs, well 

277. Veal Cake. — Boil six eggs hard, cut the yolks in two, butter 
a mould ; lay some of the pieces of egg at the bottom, sprinkle salt, 
pepper, and chopped parsley; then lay thin slices of veal and ham; 
sprinkle again with the seasoning, and then eggs, and so on till the 
dish is filled. Then add gravy, till it covers the top of the meat; 
spread one ounce of butter over the top, tie it over with paper, and 
bake one hour ; then press it close together with a spoon, and let it 
stand till cold. Another way is to pound the meat instead of slices, 
iwo-thirds of lean veal and one-third of fat ham. When the cake ia 
wanted, set the mould in boiling virater for a minute or two, and the 
cake will turn out. 

278. Force meal for Veal or Foivls. — Take equal parts of cold 
veal, beef suet, ham or gammon, a few parsley leaves, a small onion, 
the rind of lemon a little; chop all together very fine; season with 
pepper, salt, cayenne, mace, or nutmeg; pound the whole in a mortar, 
with an equal quantity of bread crumbs, and add two eggs to bind it. 
This is a good three meat for patties. 

279. Light force meat balls. — Cold veal or chicken a quarter of a 
pound, chopped, half a pound of suet, chopped, crumbs of bread a tea- 
cup full. Season with sweet herbs, and spice and eschalots, and three 
or four eggs beat separately ; mix these articles with all the yolks and 
as much of the whites as is necessary to bring it to a moist paste, roll 
them in small balls, and fry them in butter, or lard, for«, garnish to 
roast turkey, fov;}, &-c. 

280. Egg balls. — Boil four eggs for ten minutes and put them into 
cold water; when th(^ are cold beat the yolks in a mortar with the 
yolk of a raw egg, some chopped parsley, a tea-spoonful of flour, a 
pinch or two of salt, and a little black pepper, or cayenne; rub them 
well together, roll them into small balls, and boil them two minutes. 

Baking j£ EAT, &c. 87 

281. Brain balls. — Take a calf's brains, or two or three lambs', 
scald them for ten minutes, quite free from every bit of vein and 
skin, beat up vi'ith seasoning the same as egg balls, adding a tea 
spoonful of chopped sage ; rub a tea-cup full of bread crumbs, three 
tea spoonfuls of flour, and a raw egg with them. Make them up into 
balls, rub each ball with bread, fry them with butter or lard; serve 
as a garnish to calf's head, or as a separate side dish. 

282. Curry balls. — Take bread crumbs, the yolk of an egg boiled 
hard, and a bit of fresh butler; beat together in a mortar, and season 
with curry powder ; make them into small balls, and boil or fry 


283. As baking is the only means by which the poor inhabitants 
of towns for the most part can enjoy a joint of meat at home,* we 
shall say a word or two upon the subject, particularly with regard to 
those joints which, when they are carefully baked, most resemble 
roasted ones. Legs and loins of pork, legs of mutton, fillets of veal, 
&c., may be baked with advantage, if the meat be good and tolerably 
fat. Besides the joints here enumerated, there are many others which 
may be baked, providing the meat is not poor or lean. The follow- 
ing are observations on baking meat by a well-experienced baker ; 
they are particularly deserving the attention of a careful house- 

284. "A pig when sent to the baker prepared for baking should 
have its ears and tail covered with buttered paper, properly fastened 
on, and a bit of butter tied up in linen to baste the back with, other- 
wise it will be apt to blister. With a proper share of attention from 
the baker, this way is thought to be equal to a roasted one. 

285. "A goose prepared as for roasting, taking care to have it on 
a stand, and when half done, to turn the other side upwards. A duck 
should be treated in the same way. 

286. "After a buttock of beef has been in salt about a week, well 
wash it, and put it in a brown earthen pan with a pint of water, cover 
the pan quite over and tightly with two or three thicknesses of cap 
or foolscap paper (never use brown paper — it contains tar, Slc). 
Bake for four or five hours in a moderate heated oven. A ham pro- 
'perly soaked may be baked in the same way. 

287. "Bakers are in the habit of baking small cod fish, haddock, 
and mackerel, with a dust of flour and some bits of butter put on 
them. Eels, when large and stuffed. Herrings and sprats in a 
brown pan, with a little vinegar and a little spice, and tied over with 
paper. A hare, prepared the same as for roasting, with a few pieces 
of butter and a little drop of milk put into the dish, and basted several 
times, will be found nearly equal to roasting; or cut it up, season it 
properly, put it into a jar or pan, and cover it over, and bake it in a 

* We hope, however, in a few years, to see the American oven supersede the ca»« 
torn of dressing meat iii the public bake-house. 


moderate oven for about three hours. In the same manner legs and 
shins of beef, ox cheeks, &c., prepared with a seasoning of onions, 
turnips, &c., may be baked: they will take about four hours; let 
them stand till cold to skim off the fat ; then warm up altogether, or 
part, as you may want it. 

288. '* The time that each of the above articles should take, depends 
much upon the state of the oven ; they should be sent to the baker in 
time, and he must be very neglectful if they are not ready dl the time 
they are ordered." 

289. We may be here allowed to remark, that the process of dress- 
ing meat in an oven in a covered pan is more analogous to stewing 
than it is to baking. It is, however, an excellent mode of cooking. 
The great objection to baking meat in an open pan, and among many 
other different descriptions of dishes, is the bad flavour which is apt 
to be imparted to it. There is, too, another objection to baked meat, 
which arises from the exclusion of the external air, or for want of a 
draught. The exhalations from the meat in baking, &.C., not being 
carried off) they have a tendency to sodden it. 

290. Dr. Kitchiner, no mean authority, deprecates thp machines 
which the economical grate-makers call roasters, being in fact, as he 
asserts, "in plain English — ovens." The Doctor intimates, that these 
things are all very well for saving fuel, but affirms that the rational 
epicure, who has been accustomed to enjoy beef well roasted, will 
Boon discover the difference. Notwithstanding this high authority, 
we have no hesitation in stating, that meat cooked in the roaster 
attached to Flavell's cooking apparatus, is as good as meat roasted 
before the fire. But we ought to observe, that Mr. Flavell's roaster 
has a current of air passing through it when so employed, but when 
used as an oven the current of air is prevented by the introduction of 
a damper. We can state from the experience of some years, that the 
apparatus alluded to is a most excellent contrivance for cooking 

291. " Nothing can be more preposterous," says Mr. Sylvester, in 
his ' Philosophy of Domestic Economy,' " and inappropriate, than the 
prevailing construction and management of a gentleman's kitchen. 
Before the discovery of the stew hearths, all the culinary processes 
were carried on with one immense open grate, burning as much fuel 
in one day as might do the same work for ten. The cook and the 
furniture of the kitchen get a proportion of this heat, the articles to 
be dressed another portion, but by far the greatest quantity goes up 
the chimney. 

292. "The introduction of the stew hearth has in some degree 
reduced the magnitude of these grates ; but they are yet disgraceful 
to science and common sense. In the present state (1819) of culinary 
improvement, a kitchen may be fitted up with apparatus, requiring 
much less labour and attention, with much less consumption of fuel ; 
rendering the food more wholesome and agreeable, and also prevent- 
ing that offensive smell which has made it so often necessary to 
detach the kitchen from the rest of the house." 



293. The stew hearth is a most useful addition to the ordinary 
kitchen grate, but small families of limited means are seldom possessed 
of one. A stew hearth, indeed, or a substitute for one, which may be 
easily obtained, is indispensable in French, and indeed in good Eng- 
lish cookery. 


294. Frying, as is properly observed by Dr. Kitchiner, is often a 
convenient mode of cookery; it may be performed by a fire which 
will not do for roasting or boiling, and by the introduction of the pan 
between the meat and the fire, things get more equally dressed. 

295. Be very particular that your frying pan is perfectly clean be- 
fore using it. Never use any oil, butter, lard, or drippings, which 
are not perfectly free from salt, and pf^-.fectly sweet and fresh. Aa 
frying is, in fact, boiling in oil fat, it is of the first importance that 
your fat should be clean, or it will spoil the look as well as the 
flavour, and salt will prevent the meat from browning. 

296. Good oil is, perhaps, the best to fry in, but sweet fresh lard, 
or clarified mutton or beef suet, will answer every purpose, nearly, 
if not quite as well as the best oil or butter, and, what is of greater 
importance, at a much less expense. Nice clean dripping is almost 
as good as any thing. After you have done frying preserve your fat, 
which, if not burnt, will do for three or four fryings; but fat in which 
fish has been fried will do for nothing else. 

297. If your fat is not of a proper heat, your frying cannot be well 
done ; this is, in short, the great secret in frying, which the young 
cook ought and must acquire. The frying pan must be always set 
over a sharp and clear fire, or otherwise the fat is too long before it 
becomes ready. When the fat has done hissing, or bubbling, that is, 
when it is still, you may be pretty sure that it is hot enough. It is a 
good way to try the heat of your fat, by throwing a little bit of bread 
into the pan ; if it fries crisp, the fat is of the right heat — if it burns 
the bread, it is too hot. 

298. When your things are well done, take care and drain all the 
fat from them most thoroughly, particularly those that have been 
fried in bread crumbs, &c. ; if you do not, your cookery will be marred. 
Fried fish ought to be quite dry. This depends in a great measure 
upon the fat in which they are dressed being of a proper heat. If the 
fish are well done, and are well drained of the fat, they will become 
quite dry and crisp in a few minutes after they have been taken out 
of the pan. If this, however, should not be the case, and the fish on 
the contrary should be damp and wet, lay them on a soft cloth before 
the fire, turning them occasionally till they are dry. They will 
sometimes take ten or fifteen minutes drying. 

299. In preparing bread crumbs in a considerable quantity, in order 
to save unbroken the crust, and preserving it fit tor the table, cut 
your loaf into three equal parts, that is, cut off" the bottom and top 
crusts, and use the middle part or the crumb for your frying. The 


bread should be at least two days old. A |rood and cheap substitute 
for bread is oatmeal, which will cost, comparatively speaking, 

It is scarcely necessary to refer the cook to our general remarks 
upon the above operation. Frying is preferred by many persons to 
broiling; and our own opinion is, that steaks, chops, &c., may be 
dressed with much more certainty and regularity by the former, than 
by the latter, method. But plenty ofoil, butter, or sweet grease, must 
always be used, or the frying will be imperfect. 

300. Steaks. — Cut them rather thinner than for broiling; put some 
butter, or, what is much cheaper and quite as good, some clarified 
dripping or suet, into an iron frying-pan, and when it is quite hot put 
in the steaks, and keep turning them until they are done enough. 
The sauce for steaks, chops, cutlets, &c,, is made as follows: — Take 
the chops, steaks or cutlets, out of the frying pan ; for a pound of meat, 
keep a table-spoonful of the fat in the pan, or put in an ounce of but- 
ter ; put to it as much flour as will make it a paste; rub it well toge- 
ther over the fire till they are a little brown; then add as much boil- 
ing water as will reduce it to the thickness of good cream, and a ta- 
ble-spoonful of mushroom or walnut catsup, or pickle, or browning; 
let it boil together a few minutes, and pour it through a sieve to the 
steaks, &c. To the above is sometimes added a sliced onion, or a 
minced eschalot, with a table-spoonful of port wine, or a little escha- 
lot wine. Garnish with scraped horse-radish, or pickled walnut, gher- 
kins, &c. • Some beef-eaters like chopped eschalots in one saucer, and 
horse-radish grated in vinegar in another. Broiled mushrooms are fa- 
vourite relishes to beef-steaks. 

301. Beef-steaks and Onions. — The steaks are fried as directed 
above; the common method is to fry the onions cut small, but the best 
plan perhaps is to use onions prepared as directed in 115. 

302. Sausages. — Sausages are not good unless they are quite 
fresh. Put a bit of butter or dripping into a frying-pan, before it gets 
hot put in the sausages, shake the pan, and keep turning them (be 
careful not to break or prick them in so doing); fry them over a very 
slow fire till they are nicely browned on all sides; when they are 
done, lay them on a hair sieve, place them before the fire for a couple 
of minutes to drain the fat from them. The secret of frying satisages 
is, to let them get hot very gradually — then they will not burst, if 
they are not stale. You may froth them by rubbing them with cold 
fresh butter, and lightly dredge them with flour, and put them in a 
cheese-toaster for a minute. The common practice to prevent their 
bursting is to prick them with a fork ; but this lets out the gravy. 

303. Veal Cutlets should be about half an inch thick ; trim and flat- 
ten; fry in plenty of fresh butter, or good dripping; when the fire is 
very fierce, you must turn them often — but when not so, do them 
brown on one side before you turn them. Make gravy of the trim- 
mings, &c. ; you may add some browning, mushroom or walnut cat- 
sup, or lemon, pickle, &c. Or you may dress them as follows: Cut 
the veal into pieces about as big as a crown piece; beat them with a 


cleaver, dip in egg-, beat up with a littler salt, and then in fine bread 
crumbs ; fry them a light brown in boiling lard ; serve under them 
gome good gravy or mushroom sauce, which may be made in five mi- 
nutes. Garnish with slices of ham, or rashers of bacon, or pork sau- 
Fages. Many persons prefer frying veal cutlets with ham or bacon 
rashers, which will afford sufficient fat to fry them, but will be done 
much sooner; remove the rashers, and keep them warm. When the 
veal is done, take it out, pour off any fat that may remain, and put into 
the pan a large tea-cup full or more of gravy or broth, and a piece of 
butter rolled in flour. When it boils, add herbs and crumbs of bread, 
pour over the veal, and lay the rashers round the edge of the dish. 
Garnish, sliced lemon. 

1304. Sweetbreads should always be got fresh and parboiled imme- 
diately. When cold cut them in pieces about three-quarters of an 
inch thick, dip them in the yolk of an eg^^^ then in fine bread crumbs 
(some add spice, lemon peel, and sweet herbs;) put some clean drip- 
ping into a frying-pan ; when it boils put in the sweetbreads, and fry 
them a fiue brown. For garnish, crisp parsley ; and for sauce, mush- 
room catsup and melted butter, or anchovy sauce, or bacon, or ham. 
This is called full dressing. They are dressed plain as follows : Par- 
boil and slice them as before, dry them on a clean cloth, flour them, 
and fry them a delicate broXvn ; take care to drain the fat well from 
tliem, and garnish them with slices of lemon and sprigs of chervil, 
pars' ey, or crisp parsley. For sauce, mushroom catsup, or. force meat 
balls made as 278. 

305. Lamb or Mutton Chops are dressed in the same way as veal 
Ciitlots, and garnished with crisp parsley, and slices of lemon. If they 
are bread-crumbed, and covered with buttered writing paper, and then 
broiled, they are called '■' Maintenon cutlets.'''' 

306. Pork Chops. — Take care that they are trimmed very neatly ; 
they should be about half an inch thick; put a frying-pan on the fire, 
with a bit of butter; as soon as it is hot, put in your chops, turning 
them often till brown all over, and done ; take one upon a plate and 
try it ; if done, season it with a little finely minced onion, powdered 
sage, and pi->pper and salt. Sauce, sage and onions, or Robert sauce. 

307. Fried E^gs. — Well-cleansed dripping, or lard, or fresh but- 
ter, is the best fat for frying eggs. Be sure the frying-pan is quite 
clean; when the fiit is hot, break two or three esfgs into it; do not 
turn them, but, while they are frying, keep pouring some of the fat 
over them with a spoon ; when the yolk just begins to look white, 
which it will in about a couple of minutes, they are done enouo"h ; the 
white must not lose its traui^parency, but the yolk be seen blushing 
through it. If they are done nicely, they will look as white and de-- 
licate as if they had been poached; take them up with a tin slice, 
drain the fat from them, trim neatly, and send them up with toasted 
bacon round them. For Frying Fish, see section Fish, p. 66, par. 
193, (^c. 




308. Let your grridiron be quite clean, particularly between tlie 
bars, and keep it brin-ht on the top. . Before usinsf it, you should be 
careful to make the bars thoroughly hot, or otherwise that part of the 
moat which is covered by the bars will not be equally done with the 
other parts of the steak or chop. 

309. Chops, steaks, or slices for broiling-, should be from half to 
three quarters of an inch in thickness; if too thick, they will be done 
outside before the inside — and if too thin, they will be dry and 
gravy less. 

810. In broilingf, a brisk and clear fire is indispensable, and to 
obtain this you should prepare your fire in time, so that it may burn 
clear. It is a good plan to lay over a pretty strong fire a layer of 
cinders, or coke; some use charcoal, but cinders or coke are equally 
good. If your fire is not bright you cannot give the nice brown ap- 
pearance to the meat, which is not only pleasing to the eye, but is 
relishing to the taste. 

311. The bars of the best gridirons are made concave, terminating 
in a trough to catch the gravy, and keep the fat from falling into the 
fire and making a smoke, wijich will spoil both the appearance and 
taste of the broil. Before using the gridiron the bars should be 
rubbed with clean mutton suet. The cook should watch the moment 
when the broil is done. Send it to the table immediately on a hot 
dish, from whence it sliould be transferred to the mouth all hot! — 
smoking hot! ! ! The upright gridiron, whicli is made of strong wire 
and may be now boiisiht in the streets for a few pence, is, as Dr. 
Kitchiner avers, the best, as it can be used at any fire, without fi^ar 
of smoke, and ilie trough under it preserves all the gravy. The 
Dutch oven, or bonnet, may be substituted for the gridiron, when the 
fire is not clear. 

312. Steaks and Chops. — Meat to be broiled should be hung till it 
is tender; the inside of a sirloin of beefj cut in!o steaks, is greatly 
preferred by most people. But steaks are generally cut frotn the 
rump (ihe middle is tlie Lest), about six inches long, four inches wide, 
a»id half an inch thick. Do not beat liiem, it makes them dry arid 
tasteless.. Steaks should be done quickly; for this purpose, lake care 
to have a very clear brisk fire, throw a little salt on it, make the 
gridiron hot, and set it slanting to prevent the fat from dropping into 
the fire, and making a smoke. It requires more practice and care 
than is generally supposed to do steaks to a nicety; and for want of 
these little attentions, this very common dish, which every body \a 
supposed capable of dressing, seldom comes to table in perfection. 
Some like it under, some thoroughly, done. It is usual to put a 
table-spoonful of catsup, or a little minced eschalot, into a disji before 
the fire, while you are broiling; turn the steak with a pair of steak- 
tongs; it will be done in about ten or fifteen minutes; rub a bit (f 
butter over it, and send it up garnished with pickles and finely scrapei' 
horse-radish. Serve with the usual sauces. 


313. Kidneys. — Cut them through the lonof way, score them, 
sprinkle a little pepper and salt on them, and run a wire skevvor 
through them to keep them from curlinjr on the oridiron, so that they 
may be evenly broiled. Broil them over a very clear fire, turning 
them often till tliey are done; they will take about ten or twelve 
minutes, if the fire is brisk: or, fry them in butter, and make gravy 
from them in the pan (after you have taken out the kidneys), by put- 
ting in a tea spoonful of flour; na soon as it looks brown, put in as 
much water as will make gravy; chey will take five minutes more 
to fry than to broil. Serve with the usual sauce. Some cooks chop 
a f^)W parsley leaves very fine, and mix them with a bit of fresh 
butter and a little pepper and salt, and put a little of this mixture on 
each kidney. 

314. A Fowl or Rnbhit. — Pick and truss it the sapie as for boil- 
ing, cut it open down the back, wipe the inside clec^ with a cloth, 
Bea:^on it with a little pepper and salt, have a clear fire and set the 
gridiron at a good distance over it, lay the chickon on with the inside 
towards the fire (you may es!:^ it and strevv some grated bread over 
it), and broil it till it is a fine brown ; take care the fleshy side is not 
burnt. Lay it on a hot dish, pickled mushrooms or mushroom sauce 
thrown over it, or parsley and butter, or melted butter flavoured with 
mushroom catsup. Garnish with slices of lemon, and the liver and 
gizzard, slit and notched, seasoned with pepper and salt, and broiled 
nicely brown. 

315. Pigeons. — Clean them well, and pepper and salt them ; broil 
them over a clear slow fire ; turn them often, and put a little butter 
on thern; when they are done, pour over them either stewed or 
pickled mushrooms, or catsup and melted butter. Garnish with fried 
bread crumbs, or sippets. Or, when the pigeons are trussed for broil- 
ing, flat them with a cleaver, taking care not to break the skin of the 
backs or breast; season them with popper and salt, a little bit of but- 
ter, and a tea spoonful of water, and tie them close at both ends; so, 
when they are brought to table, they bring ihcir sauce with them 
Ego- and dredge thnm well with grated bread (mixed with spice and 
sweet nerbs), lay them on the gridiron, and turn them frequently; if 
your nre is not very clear, lay them on a sheet of paper well but 

red, to keep thern from getting smoked. They are much better 
broiled whole. 


316. A braiser, or braising pan, is a sort of oblong camp kettle, 
with a bordered lid, on which, and secured by the border, is put small 
burning coal, charcoal, or wood ashes. The lid should fit the pan as 
close as possible. 

•317. Braising. To braise your meat, put the meat into the braiser 
(a good stew-pan will answer the purpose, but not so well) ; then 
cover the meat with thick slices of lat bacon ; lay round it six or eight 


onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, some celery, and if it be to brown, 
some thick slices of carrots; meat trimmino-?, or fresh meat bones, ai 
pint and a half of water, or the same quantity of stock, which wills 
make it richer than water will; over the meat lay a sheet of white 
paper, season and put the pan, with the lid well fastened down and 
tight, over a moderately hot stove, rather slow. It will require two 
or three hours, according to its size or quality. The meat and gravy; 
are then put into a colander to drain, but be sure to keep it quite hot,, 
ekim the gravy very carefully, and boil it as quick as you can till iti 
thickens ; then glaze the meat — and if it has been larded, put it into 
the oven for a few minutes. 

318. Glazing consists in covering meat with a preparation called 
glaze, which is strong gravy boiled as quick as possible till it thickens, 
as directed in Raising. The glaze is put on with a brush kept for 
the purpose. Hams, tongues, and stewed beef, may be thus glazed, 
if thought proper. 

319. Blanching is performed by putting the article in cold Vv^ater 
over the fire, and when it boils up, take it out and plunge it into cold 
water, and let it remain till quite cold. This will make it white and 
plump. Tongues, palates, &c., are said to be blanched, when after 
long boiling the skin can be easily peeled off. 

320. Larding and Forcing. Possess yourself of larding pin? of 
different sizes; cut slices of bacon into bits of proper lensfth, quite 
smooth ; pierce the skin and a very little of the meat withthe larding 
pin, leaving the bacon in ; the two ends should be of equal length 
outwards. Lard in rows the size you think proper. Forcing is 
nothing more than stuffinu fowls, &.o., with force meat, which is 
generally put in between the skin and the flesh. 

321. Boning. To bone any bird, the cook should begin first to 
take out the breast-bone ; she will then have sufficient spnce to 
remove the back with a sharp small knife, and then she must take 
out the leg bones. The skin must be preserved whole, and the meat 
of the leg be pushed inwards. 


Having laid down, as we trust, clearly and fully, under the pre- 
ceding heads, all that is necessary to be known, generally speaking, 
with regard to ordinary dishes, we shall now proceed to treat of those 
preparations which are employed in the compounding of made dishes. 
together with those articles which the prudent, care-taking cook wil. 
always keep by her as stores, ready to be used when wanted. Bv 
• made dishes' we mean not only those commonly so called, but also 
those in the dressing of which other articles are sometimes, or al- 
ways, used by way of stuffing, seasoning, &.c. — such, for instance, as» 
geese, ducks, and roast pork. This done, we shall then give direo 


tions for the choice of meat, fish, and poultry, recipes for cooking 
them, and the best mode of carving- them, under separate heads. 
Recipes for cooking all other dishes, will also, of course, bo given. 


322. The greater part of the preparations for colouring are very 
unwholesome, or, in other words, very indigestible. They are em- 
ployed to give the appearance of richness, but they are worse than 
useless, bemg used for the silly purpose of pleasing the eye only, 
generally at the expense of the stomach and taste. Most of the pre- 
parations for colouring are a medley of burnt butler, spices, catsup, 
wine, flour, and other things not necessary to mention. A French 
writer says, the generality of cooks calcine bones till they are as 
black as a coal, and throw them hissing hot into the stew-pan, to give 
a brown colour to their broths and These ingredients, under 
the appearance of a nourishing gravy, envelop our food with stimulat- 
ing acid and corrosive poison. Such things as essence of anchovy are 
frequently adulterated with colouring matters containing red lead! 
The following recipes for colouring are pretty harmless, and, except 
for the purpose of pleasing the eye, as useless as they are innocent. 

Some persons, instead of colouring or browning their soups after 
they are made, brown the meat of which they are intended to be 
made, by putting it into a stew-pan with a little butter, salt, and pep- 
per, bu-t without vi^ater ; then covering it close, placing it over a clear 
fire, all the time shaking it to keep it from sticking to the pan, till 
the meat becomes of a light brown, when the liquor of which the soup 
or gravy is to be made is added. 

The best colouring is, perhaps, the following: Haifa pound of 
powdered lump sugar and a table-spoonful of water, put into a clean 
saucepan, or frying-pan, and set over a slow fire and stirred with a 
wooden spoon till it is of a fine brown colour, and begins to smoke ; 
then add an ounce of salt, and dilute by degrees with water, till it is 
of the thickness of soy ; boil, take off the scum, and put it into well- 
corked bottles ; or you may, provided you do not wish to keep the 
above by you, colour your gravies or soups by pounding a tea-spoonful 
of lump suorar, and putting it into an iron spoon, which hold over a 
quick fire till the mixture becomes of a dark-brown colour; mix with 
the soup or gravy while it is hot. Some persons use butter in the 
first mixture instead of water. 

Toasted bread, quite hard and of a deep brown, not burnt, may be 
put into the boiling gravy, without stirring, ard then carefully strain 
off the gravy without any crumbs of bread in it. You may also 
colour with flour browned on a flat-iron over ttie fire, /arious flavour 
ing articles serve also the purpose of colouring. 



323. Flour, or somo other farinaceous article, is, or ought to be, the 
basis of all thickening-s; starch of potatoes, or indeed any oLher pure 
starch, is a good substitute for flour. We do not recommend pre- 
parations of Carraghan moss, ivory dust, or eg-f^s ; they are trouble- 
some, and not at all necessary. A table-spoonful of potatoe or any 
other starch, such as arrow-root, mixed in two table-spoonsful of cold 
water, and stirred into soup, sauce, or gravy, &c. and aftervv'ards sim- 
mered, just before serving, will thicken a pint. Flour will also 
answer the same purpose. In large establishments, the following' 
thickening is generally kept r^ady prepared ; the French call it rouoc ; 
it is thus made: Put some fresh butter, if clarified the better, (or 
Bome use the skimmings of the pots, clean and not impregnated with 
Vegetables,) into a stew-pan over a clear slow fire; when it is melted, 
add fine flour sufficient to make it the thickness of paste; stir welli 
together when over the fire, for ten or fifteen minutes, till it is quite i 
smooth and of a fine "yellow-boy" colour. Do all this gradually audi 
patiently, or you will spoil your thickening by getting it burnt, of 
giving to it a burnt flavour, which will spoil your gravy, &c. Pour- 
it into an earthen pan for use, it will keep for a fortnight; and if,, 
when cold, it is thick enough to be cut with a knife, a large spoonful! 
will be enough to thicken a quart of gravy, &c. Most made dishes,, 
such as sauces, soups, and ragouts, are thus thickened. The broth i 
or soup, &c., to which the thickening is put, must be adde^ by 
degrees, so as to incorporate them well together. To cleanse or: 
finish a sauce, put into a pint two table-spoonsful of broth, or warm: 
water^ and put it by the side of the fire to raise any fat, &c., which i 
must be carefully removed as it comes to the top. 

We would strongly recommend mistresses of families, particularly 
those residing in the country, where potatoes are cheap, to keep a 
good stock of potatoe starch always by them. If kept dry and from 
•.he air, it will keep almost for any length of time. Damaged po- 
tatoes will yield starch or mucilage, if raw. It may be made from 
the old potatoes, when by germination in the spring they have be- 
come unfit for the table, or from the refuse of a newly gathered crop 
in the autumn. The starch will be found extremely useful, not only 
in a thickening, but also for mixing with wheat flour in making; 
bread, &c. Starch may be made, and is made, from various vege-- 
table substances, and used as a substitute for corn flour. The follow- 
ing is the mode of making potatoe starch ; arrow-root starch and alii 
other starches are made by a similar process: 

The potatoes must be carefully washed and peeled, and every 
speck removed ; provide yourself with a number of deep dishes, ac-- 
cording to the quantity of starch you wish to make; for every pound i 
of potatoes to be prepared in each dish, put a quart of clear water;; 
grate them into the water on a bread grater; stir it up well, and them 
pour it through a hair sieve, and leave it ten minutes to settle, orr 
till the water is quite clear; then pour off" the water, and put to it a. 


quart of fresh water: stir it up, then let it settle, and repeat this till 
the water is quite clear. You will at last find a fine white powder 
at the bottom of the vessel ; lay this on a piece of paper in a hair 
sieve to dry, either in the sun or before the fire ; when thoroughly 
dry, it is ready for use. It is perfectly tasteless, and may he used to 
thicken melted butter, instead of flour. A great deal of the arrow- 
root sold in the shops is neither more nor less than potatoe starch. 
Though we strongly recommend it as effectual and economical for 
the above purpose, for an invalid it is very inferior in strength and 
nutricious qualities to the Indian arrrow-rool starch. 

324. White Thickening. — Put half a pound of good butter into a 
sauce-pan, and melt over a slow fire, then drain tiie butter and take 
out the buttermilk, then add to the butter enough flour to make a 
thin paste, and place it on the fire for fifteen minutes, taking care not 
to let it colour. Pour it into a pan and let it stand until wanted. 


325. Judiciously prepared flavourings are of the first importance 
in the higher branches of cookery, and indeed, they are indispensably 
necessary in all descriptions of made dishes. The principal agentd 
employed for flavouring are mushrooms, onions, anchovy, lemon juice 
and peel, vinegar, wine, especially claret, sweet herbs, and savoury 
spices, A good housewife will always take care to have a stock of 
tiie principal flavourings by her ready for use, as occasion may re- 
quire. They are easily prepared for keeping, and the making of 
essences and flavoured vinegars, &c., from the herbs, is a very agree- 
able efnployment, and one highly becoming a good wife and mistress 
of a family. We by no means wish to undervalue elegant accom- 
plishments in ladies, but accomplishments after all are but ornaments, 
whereas good housewifery is an essential ; so thought our ancestors 
two hundred years ago, and so continue to think all those who set a 
proper value on the comforts of domestic life. Markham, in his 
English Housewife, 1637, says, " to speak then of the knowledge 
wlTich belongs to our British housewife, I hold the most principal to 
be a perfect skill in cookery. She that is utterly ignorant therein, 
may not, by the lawes of strict justice, challenge the freedom of mar- 
riage, because, indeed, she can performe but half her vow ; she may 
love and obey, but she cannot cherish and keepe her husband." 
Having said enough, we trust, to induce young ladies, particularly in 
the above quotation, to take our advice into their consideration, we 
shall proceed to make a few observations on taste, as intimately con- 
nected with this part of our subject. 

A correct taste is a qualification which every cook ought to possess, 
but few persons naturally do possess it, and therefore, the palate re- 
quires to be cultivated as much in the culinary art, as the eye in the 
art of drawing. But tastes differ in different persons, and therefore, 
the cook, in providing a dinner, ought, if possible, to consult the tastes 
of the parties who are to eat it, rather than her own. This subject, 


however, if pursued, will run us out to a much greater extent than 
our limits will allow, and, after all, we should not be able to lay down 
any definite rules of taste. There is one direction which we shall 
give, and v.'hich a cook will find it worth her while to attend to, 
namely, ichenever she Jinds the palate become dull by repeatedly 
tasting, one of the best ways of refreshing it is to masticate an apple j 
Of to wash her mouth loell with milk. 


326. To prepare sweet Herbs for keeping. — It is highly desirable, 
according to the taste and style of living of the family, that prepara- 
tions of sweet herbs, either in powder, dried bunches (the powder is 
best,) or in the form of essences and tinctures, be always kept at 
hand, ready for use. The following is the best way of preparing 
them: — Gather your herbs, including thyme of the various sorts, 
marjoram and savoury, sage, mint, and balm, hyssop and pennyroyal, 
when they are come to full grov»'tli, just before they begin to flower; 
when they must be gathered perfectly free from damp, dust, dirt, and 
insects. Cut oft' the roots, and tie the herbs in small bundles. Dry 
as quick as possible, either in the sun, in a dutch oven before the fire, 
or in a dry room with a thorough draught. When quite dry, pick off 
the leaves, and rub them till they are reduced to a fine pov/der, when 
bottle close for use. Seeds of parsley, fennel, and celery, should be 
kept for the purpose of flavouring, when the green herb cannot be 

327. Savoury Soup Powder is compounded of parsley, winter sa- 
voury, sweet marjoram, and lemon thyme, of each two ounces; sweet 
basil, one ounce; verbinia leave.? and knotted marjoram, of each half 
an ounce ; celery seed and bay leaves (some leave out the bay leaves,) 
of each two drachms. Dry in a Dutch oven, thoroughly, but not to 
scorch ; then rub the leaves to a fine powder. The seeds will be best 
ground, but pounding will do ; sift all through a hair sieve, and bottle 
for use. This is an excellent compound. 

328. Curry Powder may be made almost, if not altogether, as good 
as the Indian, by taking three ounces of coriander seeds; turmeric 
two or three ounces; black pepper, mustard, and ginger, one ounce 
of each ; allspice and lesser cardamons, half an ounce each, and cumin 
seed, a quarter of an ounce. Put the inyredients in a cool oven for 
the nisrht; thoroughly pound and mix together, and close bottle for 
use. Do not use cayenne in a curry powder. 

329. Povjderfor Ragouts. — A good powder for flavouring ragouts 
is compounded of salt, one ounce; mustard, lemon peel, and black 
pepper, ground, of each half an ounce; allspice and ginger, groinid, 
nutmeg, grated, and cayenne pepper, of each a quarter of an ounce. 
Dry in a Dutch oven before a gentle fire; pound in a mortar, and sift 
through a hair sieve. 

330. Powder for Brown made dishes. — Black pepper and .Jamaica, 
ground, of each half an ounce; nutmeg, grated, half an ounce; cinna- 


mon, in powder, a quarter of an ounce ; cloves, one drachnn ; dry ; finely 
powder and bottle. 

331. Powder for White made dishes. — White pepper half an 
ounce; nutmeg- a quarter of an ounce ; mace one drachm; dried le- 
mon peel, grated, one drachm. 

332. Preserved Orange and Lemon Peels. — Shave the thin skin, 
without a particle of \viiite,ofFyour superfluous Seville orange and lemon 
peel ; put in a mortar, with a small lump of dried sugar to each peel ; 
beat them well till the rind and sugar be blended together in a kind 
of marmalade ; let the mixture he pressed close in a bottle, with a 
tea-spoonful of brandy at top, and secure from the air with a cork or 
bladder. This will be found a better flavouring, and more handy than 
grating dry rinds. 

333. Essences, or Tinctures of Herbs, Szc. — Combine their essen- 
tial oils with good tasteless spirits (which is better than brandy, and 
much cheaper) in the proportion of one drachm of essential oil to two 
ounces of spirits; or fill a wide-mouthed bottle with the leaves, seeds, 
roots, or peel, perfectly dry, then pour over them spirits of wine, vine- 
gar, or wine; keep the mixture steeping in a warm place, not hot, 
for twelve or fourteen days, when strain and bottle close for use. Bot- 
tles with glass stoppers are best. These essences are very handy, and 
are to be hud all the year round. 

334. Essence of Anchovies. — Purchase the best anchovies, that 
have been in pickle about a year. Pound twelve of them in a mortar 
to a pulp, then put them into a well-tinned saucepan, by the side of 
the fire, with two table-spoonfuls of best vinegar sherry, or brandy, or 
mushroom catsup; stir it very often till the fish are melted, then add 
fifteen grains in weight of the best cayenne pepper ; stir it well, then 
rub it through a hair sieve with a wooden spoon ; bottle and cork 
very tight with the best cork. When the bottle is opened, cork it 
well again with a new cork, as the least air spoils it. That which re- 
mains in the sieve makes a pleasant relish for breakfast or lunch, with 
bread and butter. If a large quantity is made, press it down in small 
jars. Cover it with clarified butter, and keep it in a cool place. 

335. Anchovy Poioder. — Pound the anchovies in a mortar, rub them 
through a sieve, make them into a paste with the finest flour, dried, 
roll it into thin cakes; dry them before a slow fire; when quite crisp, 
pound or grate them to a fine powder, and put into a well-stopped 
bottle. It will keep good for years, and is a savoury relish sprinkled 
on bread and butter. 

336. Oyster Powder. — Open the oysters carefully, so as not to cut 
them, except in dividing the gristle from the shells ; put them into a 
mortar ; add about two drachms of salt to a dozen oysters, pound them 
and rub them through the back of a hair sieve, and put them into a 
mortar again, with as much flour, thoroughly dried, as will make 
them into a paste ; roll it out several times, and lastly, flour it and 
roll it out the thickness of half a crown, and divide it into pieces 
about an inch square; lay them in a dutch oven before the fire, take 
care they do not burn, turn them every half hour, and when they 


begin to dry, crumble them ; they will take about four hours to dry ; 
then pound them fine, sift them, and put them into bottles ; seal them 

'S'S7. Spirit of mixed Herbs. — Take winter savoury, lemon thyme, 
sweet basil, and lemon rind, celery seed one drachm, steep them in a 
pint of spirits of wine. Then drain and bottle the liquor. The herbs, 
after draining-, will keep two or three weeks, and may be used lor fla- 

3;38. Tincture of Lemon or Seville Orange Peel. — Half fill a wide- I 
mouthed bottle with good spirits; shave the thin rind ofl^ the lemon, 
and put it into the bottle until it is full : it may be either strained off 
into bottles, or suffered to remain on the rind. 

S'i9. Spirits of mixed Spice. — Black pepper one ounce, allspice 
half an ounce, boih finely powdered ; nutmeg quarter of an ounce, 
grated ; infuse in a pint of spirits of wine, strain, and bottle. 


There is little to be added to our general remarks on this subject, ^ 
under the heads of Stewing, Hashing, Thickening, Flavouring, &c. 
Made dishes are almost innumerable. They are, however, nothing 
more than meat, poultry, or fish, stewed very gently till they are ten- 
der, with a thickening sauce of some kind or other poured over them. 
Their difl^erence consists in their flavour, which may be so modified 
by an ingenious cook as to moke them almost endless. Let our pre- 
liminary remarks on these subjects be well studied. We subjoin a 
few receipts. 

340. Calf's Head, — Take the half of one, with the skin on ; put it 
into a large stew-pan, with as much water as will cover it, a knuckle 
of ham, and the usual accompaniments of onions, herbs, &c., and let 
it simmer till the flesh may be separated from the bone with a spoon ; 
do so, and Vv'hile still hot cut it into as large a sized square as a piece 
wri' ao. it of; the trimming and half the liquor put by in a tureen ; 
t' the :^ maining half add a gill of white wine, and reduce the whole 
of that, by quick boiling, till it is again half consumed, when it should 
be poured over the large square piece, in an earthen vessel, sur- 
rounded with mushrooms, white buttoned onion, small pieces of 
pickled pork, half an inch in breadth, and one and a half in length, and 
the tongue in slices, and simmered till the whole is fit to seive up; 
bome brown force meat balls are a pretty addition. After this comes 
from table, the remains should be cut up in small pieces, and mixed up 
with the trimmings and liquor, which (with a little more wine,) pro- 
perly thickened, will make a very good mock turtle soup for a future 

341. Hashed Meat. — Cut the meat into slices about the thickness 
of two shillings, trim oflTall the sinews, skin, and gristle, put nothing 
in but what is to be eaten, lay them on a plate ready ; prepare your 
eauce to warm in it, put in the meat, and let it simmer gently till it 



18 thorouglily warm ; do not let it boil, as that will make the meat 
touo^h and hard. 

342. Hxished Beef or Mutton. — One tea-spoonful of Harvey sauce, 
one of Tomata sauce, the same quantity of any other sauce ; pepper, 
Bait, cayenne, half a wine glass of port wine, and a couple of capsi- 
cums cut fine ; mix with the remains of the gravy of the preceding 
day, of beef or mutton ; if necessary to thicken, add one shake of the 
flour dredger. This is a good hash. 

343. Sandwiches are an elegant and convenient luncheon, if nicely 
prepared ; the bread should be neatly cut with a sharp knife ; what- 
ever is used must be carefully trimmed from every bit of skin, gristle, 
&c., and nothing must be introduced but what you are absolutely cer- 
tain v;ill be acceptable to the mouth. 

344. A good Scotch Haggis. — Make the haggis-bag perfectly 
clean ; parboil the draught, boil the liver very well, so as it will grate, 
dry the meat before the fire, mince the draught and a pretty large 
piece of beef very small; grate about half of the liver, mince plenty 
of suet and some onions small ; mix all these materials very well to- 
gether, with a handful or two of the dried meal ; spread them on the 
table, and season them properly with salt and mixed spices; take any 
of the scraps of beef that are left from mincing, and some of the wa- 
ter that boiled the draught, and make about a quart of good stock of 
it; then put all the haggis meat into the bag, and that broth in it; 
then sew up the bag, but be sure to put out all the wind before you 
Bew it quite close. If you think the bag is thin, you may put it in 
a cloth. If it is a large haggis, it will take at least two hours boiling. 

345. Mr. Phillips''s Irish Stew. — Take five thick mutton chops, or 
two pounds oft' the neck or loin ; two pounds of potatoes, peel them, 
and cut them in halves ; six onions, or half a pound of onions, peel 
and slice them also. First, put a layer of potatoes at the bottom of 
your stew-pan, then a couple of chops and some of the onions; then 
again potatoes, and so on, till the pan is quite full ; a small spoonful 
of white pepper, and about one and a half of salt, and three gills of 
broth or gravy, and two tea-spoonfuls of mushroom catsup ; cover all 
very close in, so as to prevent the steam from getting out, and let 
them stew for an hour and a half on a very slow fire. A small slice 
of ham is a great addition to this dish. Great care should be taken 
not to let it burn. 

346. Mutton Chops delicately stewed^ and good Mutton Broth. — 
Put the chops into a stew-pan with cold water enough to cover them, 
and an onion ; when it is coming to the boil, skim it, cover the pan 
close, and set it over a very slow fire till the chops are tender ; if 
they have been kept a proper time, they will take about three-quarters 
of an hour very gentle simmering. Send up turnips with them — they 
may be boiled with the chops; skim well, and then send all up in a 
deep dish, with the broth they were stewed in. 

347. Minced CoUops. — Take beef, and chop and mince it very 
small, to which add some salt and pepper ; put this, in its rav/ state, 
into small jars, and pour on the top some clarified butter. When in- 


tended for use, put the clarified butter into a frying-pan, and slice 
some onions into the pan, and fry them. Add a little water to it, and 
then put in the minced meat. Stew it well, and in a few minutes it 
will be fit to serve up. 

348. Brisket of Beef , steioed. — This is prepared in exactly the 
same way as "soup and bouilli." 

349. Harricot of Beef. — A stewed brisket cut in slices, and sent up 
with the same sauce of roots, &c., as we have directed for harricot of 
mutton, is a most excellent dish, of very mo<lerate expense. 

350. Salt Beef baked. — Let a buttock of beef, which has been in 
salt about a week, be well washed and put into an earthen pan, v.'ith 
a pint of water ; cover the pan tiijht with two or three sheets of 
foolscap paper ; let it bake four or five hours in a moderately heated 

351. Beef baked like red deer, to he eaten cold. — Cut buttock of 
beef longways, beat it well with a rolling- pin, and broil it ; when it is 
cold, lard it, and macerate it in wine vinegar, salt, pepper, cloves, 
mace, and two or three bay leaves, for two or three days ; then bake 
it in rye paste, let it stand till it is cold, and fill it up with butter; let 
it stand for a fortnight before it is eaten. 

352. 8hin or Leg of Beef stewed. — Have the bone sawed in three 
or four pieces, and the marrow either taken out, or stopped with paste. 
Cover with cold water, and having skimmed it clean, add onions, car- 
rot, celery, sweet herbs, and spice. Let the whole stew very gently 
three hours and a half or four hours. Meanwhile, cut up the red part 
of two or three carrots, two or three turnips, peel two dozen button 
onions, boil them, and drain them dry; as the onions and turnips 
should retain their shape, and the carrots require longer to boil, they 
ought to be put in a quarter of an hour earlier. Do not let them be 
over-done. When the meat is quite tender, take it out with a slice, 
and strain the soup. Thicken the soup with a small tea-cup full of 
flour, mixed either with a little butter, or the fat of the soup. Stir 
this well in till it boils, and is perfectly smooth ; if not, it must be 
strained through a tamis, and carefully skimmed, and then returned 
to warm the vegetables. The meat may be served whole, or scraped 
from the bones, and cut in pieces. Season the soup with pepper, salt, 
and a wine glass each of port wine and mushroom catsup, and pour 
over the meat ; or, if necessary, put the meat in a stew-pan to warm. 
Serve all together. Curry may be added, if approved — also, force 
meat balls. 

353. Hare. — Instead of roasting a hare, stew it; if young, plain — 
if an old one, lard it. The shoulders and legs should be taken ofl^, and 
the back cut in three pieces; these, with a bay leaf, half a dozen es- 
chalots, one onion pierced with four cloves, should be laid with as 
much good vinegar as will cover them, for twenty-four hours in a deep 
dish, in the meantime, the head, the neck, ribs-, liver, heart, &c., should 
be browned in frothed butter, well seasoned ; add half a pound of lean 
bacon, cut in small pieces, a large bunch of herbs, a carrot, and a fevv 
allspice. Simmer these in a quart of water till it is reduced to about 


half the quantity, when it should be strained, and those parts of the 
hare which have been infused in the vinegar, should (with the whole 
contents of the dish) be added to it, and stewed till quite done. Those 
who Jiiie onions may brown half a dozen, stew them in part of the 
gravy, and dish them round the hare. Every ragout should be dressed 
the day before it is wanted, that any fat which has escaped the skim- 
ming spoon may with ease be taken off when cold. 

354. Jugged Hare. — Wash it very nicely, cut it up in pieces proper 
to help at table, and put them into a jugging pot, or into a stone jar, 
just sufficiently large to hold it well ; put in some sweet herbs, a roll 
or two of rind of a lemon, and a fine large onion with five cloves stuck 
in it ; and if you wish to preserve the flavour of the hare, a quarter of a 
pint of water ; if you are for a ragout, a quarter of a pint of claret- or 
port wine, and the juice of a lemon. Tie the jar down closely with a 
bladder, so that no steam can escape; put a little hay in the bottom of 
the saucepan, in which place the jar; let the water boil for about 
three hours, according to the age and size of the hare (take care it is 
not over-done, which is the general fault in all made dishes,) keep- 
ing it boiling all the time, and fill up the pot as it boils away. When 
quite tender, strain off gravy from fat, thicken it with flour, and give 
it a boil up ; lay the hare in a soup dish, and pour the gravy to it. 
You may make a pudding the same as for roast hare, and boil it in a 
cloth, and when you dish your hare, cut it in slices, or make force 
meat balls of it for garnish. For sauce, currant jelly. Or a much 
easier and quicker way of proceeding is the following : Prepare the 
hare as for jugging; put it into a stew-pan with a few sweet herbs, 
half a dozen cloves, the same of allspice and black pepper, two large 
onions, and a roll of lemon peel ; cover it with water ; when it boils, 
skim it clean, and let it simmer gently till tender (about two hours ;) 
then take it up with a slice, set it by a fire to keep hot while you 
thicken the gravy; take three ounces of butter and some flour, rub 
together, put in the gravy, stir it well, and let it boil about ten mi- 
nutes; strain it through a sieve over the hare, and it is ready. 

355. Slewed Rump Steaks. — The steaks must be a little thicker 
-han for broiling ; let them all be the same thickness, or some will be 
done too little, and others too much. Put an ounce of butter into a 
Btew-pan, with two onions; when the butter is melted, lay in the 
rump steaks, let them stand over a slow fire for five minutes, then 
turn them, and let the other side of them fry five minutes longer. Have 
ready boiled a pint of button onions; they will take from half an hour 
to an hour; put the liquor they were boiled in to the steaks; if there 
is not enough of it to cover them, add broth or boiling water to make 
up enough for that purpose, with a dozen corns of black pepper, and 
a little salt, and let them simmer very gently for about an hour and 
a half, and then strain off as much of the liquor (about a pint and a 
half,) as you think will make the sauce. Put two ounces of butter in 
a stew-pan ; when it is melted, stir in as much flour as will make it 
into a stiff paste; some add thereto a table-spoonful of claret or port 
wine, the same of mushroom catsup, half a tea-spoonful of salt, and 


a quarter of a tea-spoonful of ground black pepper; add the liquor by 
(letrrees, let it boil up for fifteen minute?!, Bkiai it, aiid strain it; serve 
up the steaks with tlie onions round the dish, and pour the gravy 
over it. 

350. Broiled Rump Steaks with Onion Gravy. — Peel and slice 
two larore onions, put them into a quart stovv-pun, with two table- 
spoonfuls of v»?ater ; cover the stew-pan close, set it on a siow fire till 
the water has boiled away, and the onions have got a little browned, 
then add half a pint of good broth, and boil the onions till they are 
tender; strain tiie broth from them, and chop them very fine, and sea- 
son with nmshroom catsup, pepj)er, and so it; put the onion into it, 
and let it boil gently for five minutc^s, pour it into the dish, and lay 
it over a broiled rump stenk. U instead of broth you use i{(X):l beef 
gravy, it will be superlative. Stewed cucumber is another agree- 
able accompaniment to rump steaks. 

357. Bubble and Squeak. — For tijis, as for a hash, select those parts 
of the joint that Jiave been least done; it is generally nmde with 
slices of cold boiled salted beef, sprinkled with a little pepper, and 
just lightly browned with a bit of butler, in a frying-pan; if it is 
fried too much, it will be hard. Boil a cabbage, squeeze it quite dry, 
and chop it small; take the beef out of the frying-pan, and lay the 
cabbage in it; sprinkle a little pepper and salt over it; keep the pan 
moving over tlie fire for a few minutes, lay the cabbage in the middle 
of the dkh, and the meat round it. 

358. Hashed or minced Veal. — To make a hash, cut the meat into 
into slices : to prepare minced veal, mince it as fine as possible (do 
not chop it); put it into a stew-pan with a few spoonfuls of veal or 
mutton broih, or make some with tiie bones and trimmings, as ordered 
for veal cutlets, a little lemon peel minced fine, a spoonful of milk or 
cream ; thicken with butter and flour, and season it with salt, a table- 
spoonful of lemon pickle or basil wine, or a pinch of cuiry powder. 
If you have no cream, beat up the yolks of a couple of eggs with a 
little milk ; line the dish with sippets of lightly toasted bread. 

359. To make an excellent Ragout of cold Veal. — Either a neck, 
loin, or fillet of veal will furnish this excellent nigout with a very 
litile expense or trouble. Cut the veal into handsome cutlets; put a 
piece of butter, or clean dripping, into a frying-pan; as soon as it is 
hot, flour and fry the veal of a light brown; take it out, and if you 
have no gravy ready, put a pint of boiling water into the frying-pan, 
give it a boil up for a minute, and strain it in a ba.^ln while you make 
Bomo thickening in tlie following manner: Put about an ounce of 
butter into a stew-pnn ; as soon as it melts, mix it with as much flour 
as will dry it up; stir it over the fire for a few minutes, and gradually 
add to it the gravy you made in the frying-pan; let them simmer 
together for ten minutes; season it with pepper, salt, a little mace, 
and a wine-glassful of mushroom catsup or wine; strain it through a 
{amis to the meat, and stew very gently till the meat is thoroughly 
warmed. If you have any ready boiled bacon, cut it in slices, anc 
put it to warm with the meat. , 


36G' Veal Olives.— Cat half a dozen slices off a fillet of veal, half 
an inch thick, and as long and square as you can; flat them with a 
chopper, and rub them over with an egg that has been beat on a plate; 
cut some fat bacon as thin as possible, the same size as the veal ; lay 
it on the veal, and rub it with a little of the egg ; make a little veal 
force meat, and spread it very thin over the bacon ; roll up the olives 
tight; rub them with an egg, and then roll them in fine bread crumbs; 
put them on a lark-spit, and roast them at a brisk fire ; they will tako 
three-quarters of an hour. Rump steaks are sometimes dressed this 
way. Mushroom sauce, brown or beef gravy. 

361. Knuckle of Veal to ragout. — Cut the knuckle of veal into 
slices of about half an inch thick ; pepper, salt, and flour them ; fry 
them a light brown ; put the trimmings in a stew-pan, with the bone, 
broke in several places; an onion shred, a head of celery, a bunch of 
Bweet herbs, and two blades of bruised mace ; pour in warm water 
enough to cover them about an inch ; cover the pot close, and let it 
6tew very gently for a couple of hours ; strain it, and then thicken it 
with flour and butter; put in a spoonful of catsup, a glass of wine, 
and juice of half a lemon; give it a boil up, and strain into a clean 
stew-pan ; put in the meat, make it hot, and serve up. If celery is 
not to be had, use a carrot instead, or flavour it with celery seed. 

362. Scotch Collops. — The veal must be cut the same as for cut- 
lets, in pieces about as big as a crown piece ; flour them well, and 
fry them of a light brown, in fresh butter ; lay them in a stew-pan ; 
dredge them over with flour, and then put in as much boiling water 
as will cover the vea , pour this in by degrees, shaking the stew-pan, 
and set it on the fire ; when it comes to a boil, take off the scum, put 
in an onion, a blade of mace, and let it simmer very gently for three- 
quarters of an hour ; lay them on a dish, and pour the gravy through 
a sieve over them. Lemon juice and peel, wine, catsup, are some- 
times added. Add curry powder, and you have curry collops. 

363. Slices of Ham or Bacon. — Ham or bacon may be fried, or 
broiled on a gridiron over a clear fire, or toasted with a fork ; take 
care to slice it of the same thickness in every part. If you wish it 
curled, cut it in slices about two inches long (if longer, the outside 
will be done too much before the inside is done enough) ; roll it up, 
and put a little vi^ooden skewer through it; put it in a cheese-toaster, 
or dutch oven, for eight or ten minutes, turning it as it gets crisp. 
This is considered the handsomest way of dressing bacon ; but we 
like it best uncurled, because it is crisper and more equally done. 
Slices of ham or bacon should not be more than half a quarter of an 
inch thick, and will eat much more mellow if soaked in hot water for 
a quarter of an hour, and then dried in a cloth before they are broiled. 
If you have any cold bacon, yoif may make a very nice dish of it, by 
cutting it into slices of about a quarter of an inch thick.; grate some 
crusts of bread, as directed for ham, and powder them well with it 
on both sides; lay the rashers in a cheese-toaster — they will be brown 
on one side in about three minutes — turn them, and do the other. 
These are delicious accompaniamejots to poached or fried eggs. The 


bacon having been boiled first, is tender and mellow. They are an 
excellent garnish round veal cutlets, or sweetbread, or calf's head 
hash, or green peas, or beans, &c. 

364. A Devil. — The gizzard and rump, or legs, &c., of a dressed 
turkey, capon, or goose, or mutton or veal kidney, scored, peppered, 
salted, and broiled, sent up for a relish, being made very hot, has ob- 
tained the name of a "Devil." 

865. Marrow Bones. — Saw the bones even, so that they will stand 
Bteady; put a piece of paste into the ends; set them upright in a 
saucepan, and boil till they are done enough ; a beef marrow bone 
will require from an hour and a half to two hours; serve fresh toasted 
bread with them. 

366. Ragout of Duck, or any other kind of Poultry or Game. — 
Partly roast, then divide into joints, or pieces of a suitable size for 
helping at table. Set it on in a stew-pan, with a pint and a half 
of broth, or, if you have no broth, water, with any little trimmings 
of meat to enrich it; a large onion stuck with cloves, a dozen berries 
each of allspice and black pepper, and the rind of half a lemon shavea 
thin. When it boils skim it very clean, and then let it simmer gently, 
with the lid close, for an hour and a half. Then strain off the liquor, 
and takeout the limbs, which keep hot in a basin or deep dish. Rinse 
the stew-pan, or use a clean one, in which put two ounces of butter, 
and as much flour or other thickening as will bring it to a stiff paste . 
add to it the gravy by degrees. Let it boil up, then add a glass of 
port wine, a little lemon juice, and a tea-spoonful of salt; simmer a 
few minutes. Put the meat in a deep dish, strain the gravy over, and 
garnish with sippets of toasted bread. The flavour may be varied at 
pleasure, by adding catsup, curry powder, or any of the flavouring 
tinctures, or vinegar. 


By the phrase "artificial preparations of meat," wo allude to thosff 
things which, before dressing, have to undergo the processes of salt- 
ing, drying, smoking, pickling, &c. Before these n)eats can be 
cooked they must be prepared, and we, therefore, think it right (if 
for nothing else but the sake of order), to deviate from the line of pro 
ceeding of our predecessors, and to give directions for such prepara- 
tions previous to the recipes for cooking them. It is impossible, fo. 
instance, to dress salt meat before it is salted. 


367. There are many methods recommended for carrying this 
operation into effect. The following in our opinion are the best :— 
Before salting, particularly in the summer, all the kernels, pipes, and 
veins, should be taken out of the meat, or all your salting will be in 
vain. The meat will not keep. The salt should be rubbed thorougblf 


tnd equally into every part of the meat, and great care should be 
taken to fill the holes with salt, where the kernels have been taken 
out, and where the butcher's skewers have been stuck. It is also 
necessary, directly meat conies into the house for saltina, to wipe 
away any slime or blood that may appear. In very hot weather meat 
will not hang a single day without being liable to fly-blows; if once 
tainted, it will not take the salt. In winter it is best to let it hang 
for two or three days, but take care that it does npt get frost-bitten. 
The salt should be heated in very cold weather before it is applied to 
the meat. 

368. It is a good plan to slightly sprinkle meat with salt a day or 
two before finally salting; this will draw out the blood. But the first 
brine should be thrown away, as it is apt to injure butcher's meat, 
and always has a tendency to make bacon rusty. The meat shouid 
be wiped thoroughly clean after the preparatory salting. 

369. Different quantities of salt fire recommended ; a pound of salt 
is sufficient for a middling sized joint; for a round of beef of twenty- 
five pounds, a pound and a half should be rubbed in all at once, though 
others rub in a little at a time for two or three days ; but at any rate 
it requires to be turned and rubbed every day with the brine. The 
less salt used the better, providing vou use enough to preserve the 
meat. Too much salt extracts the juices of the meat and makes it 
tough. Coarse sugar or treacle and bay salt are used by some in the 
following proportions : Two ounces of bay salt, two ounces of sugar, 
add three-quarters of a pound of common salt. A little saltpetre 
rubbed in will make the meat red, but is apt to harden it. 

370. Meat should not be kept in salt any longer than is necessary 
to thoroughly cure it. In the course of four or five days it will be 
ready for dressing ; but if intended to be eaten cold, two or three daya 
more will make it keep longer and improve its flavour. Some people 
let meat lie in salt for a fortnight, and perhaps this is necessary for 
large hams and thick pieces of beef, but much depends upon the 
quantity of brine. If this be sufUcient to cover the one-half of the 
meat, every time it is turned, less time will be required. 

371. Hasty salting is sometimes necessary. When this is the 
case, rub half the quantity of salt to be used into the meat, which 
put in a warm place till the time of dressing. Before putting it into 
the pot, flour a coarse cloth and pack the meat in it; put it into the 
water when boiling. After it has boiled half of the usual time, that 
is, when it is half done, take it up, rub in the remainder of the salt 
and again pack it in a floured clotli : it should boil a little longer 
than when salted in the usual manner. Some persona simply boil it 
in very salt water, but the above plan is the best. 

372. Flavoured salt meal may be made by pounding some sweet 
herbs, onions, &c., with salt, and it may be rendered still more relish- 
ing by the addition of a little zest, or savoury spice. 

373. Pickling meat is effected as follows : there are other plans, 
but we prefer the method given in the Encyclopaedia Britannica : — 
Six pounds of salt, one pound of sugar, and four ounces of saltpetre, 


boiled in four gallons of water, skimmed and allowed to cool, forms a 
very strong pickle, which will preserve any meat completely im 
merged in it. To effect this complete immersion, which is essential, 
either a flat stone or heavy board must be laid on the meat. The 
same pickle may be used repeatedly, provided it be boiled up occa- 
sionally with additional salt to restore its strength, diminished by the 
combination of part of the salt with the meat, and by the detection of 
the pickle by the juices of the meat extracted. By boiling, the albu- 
men (which would cause the pickle to spoil) is coagulated, and rises 
in the form of scum, which must be carefully removed. Albumen is 
so called because it resembles in appearance the white of an egST, and 
of whose nature it also partakes. It is a constituent in all meat. 
Pickled meat gains in weight; salted in the common way, that is, not 
immersed or covered with brine, it loses about one and a half in six* 

374. Jerked beef is made by cutting it into thin pieces, or slices, and 
dipping tiiem into sea or salt water, and then drying them quickly in 
the sun. In the West Indies, where they can scarcely cure meat in 
the ordinary way on account of the excessive heat, they adopt the 
above method of preserving beef. 

375. Curing bacon is effected by various methods: some use com- 
mon salt only, which answers the purpose very well, but others con- 
sider a mixture of salt and sugar or molasses to be preferable. The 
proportions are, common salt, bay salt, and coarse sugar, or molasses, 
two pounds each, saltpetre six ounces. The quantity used must de- 
pend upon the size of the hog to be cured. The blood should be tho- 
roughly drawn out of the meat by common salt before finally dressed 
for curing, and the dirty brine thrown away. Finely powder and dry 
the salt, and let it be well rubbed in ; the heavier the hand employed, 
the sooner the bacon will be cured. The flitches must be always 
kept with the rind downwards. The top flitch must be put every day 
for a month at the bottom — thus changiiig them all round. Some use 
bay salt only, others rub in a little saltpetre, for the purpose of red*- 
dening the lean of the bacon (see Drying, No. 381.) 

376. Hams. — The modes of curing hams are various in different 
parts of the country, and by different people. We give the follow- 
ing : For three hams about twenty pounds each, take common salt and 
coarse sugar two pounds each, bay salt and saltpetre six ounces each, 
black pepper four ounces, juniper berries two ounces; mix together, 
and grind or pound, and dry before the fire ; rub this mixture, while 
warm, into the hams, and then add as much common salt as will en- 
tirely cover them. In two or three days pour over the hams a pound 
of molasses; baste them with the pickle every day for a month, put- 
ting each day the top ham to the bottom ; drain and smoke (see Dry- 
ing and Smoking;) or, take two quarts of water, two pounds of salt, 
four ounces of saltpetre, one pound of bay salt, two pounds of mo- 
lasses ; boil all together, and when cold pour the mixture over the 
ham, but do not rub them. To give a smoky flavour, some persons 
recommend a pint of tar water to be poured into the brine ! Thia 


pickle is sufficient for two moderately sized hams , they will require 
to be about three weeks in pickle, when they must be drained, and 
sewed up separately in coarse hessens wrappers, and hung to dry 
in a kitchen of moderate temperature, or laid upon a bacon rack. 

377. Yorkshire hams are completely covered with the following 
pickle, in quantities according to the meat to be cured : Common salt, 
a peck ; bay salt, five pounds ; saltpetre and sal prunel, of each two 
ounces, all pounded together. Having thoroughly cleansed your 
hands, rub thoroughly in this mixture, and lay the rest over them ; 
after lying three days, take out the meat and boil the pickle in two 
gallons of water; put in as much common salt as will make the 
pickle bear an egg; skim and strain: when cold, pour it over the 
meat, and let it lie a fortnight. Yorkshire hams are not smoked. 

378. Tongues, chines, chops, <^c. — The pickle first given in 376 
will answer tor tongues, &c. A neat's tongue will take a fortnight to 
pickle, a calf's or hog's tongue eight or ten days, a small chine ten 
days, or not more than a fortnight ; a large one, nearly three weeks. 

379. Mutton hams, — The following is a good pickle for mutton hams 
and tongues of all kinds. Take equal parts of common salt, bay salt, 
and coarse sugar ; to every pound of this mixture add of saltpetre and 
sal prunel one ounce each, and of black pepper, albpice, juniper ber- 
ries, and coriander seed, half an ounce each ; bruise or grind altoge- 
ther, and dry before the fire; apply this mixture hot. 

380. Hung or Dutch beef. — Hang a fine tender round of beef, or 
the silver part only, for three or four days, or as long as the weather 
will allow ; then rub it well with the coarsest sugar (about a pound 
will do,) two or three times a day, for three or four days. The sugar 
having thoroughly penetrated the meat, wipe it dry, and apply the 
following mixture: Four ounces each of common salt and bay salt, 
two ounces each of saltpetre and sal prunel, one ounce each of black 
pepper and allspice. Rub them well in every day for a fortnight ; then 
roll up the beef tight, and bind or sew it in a coarse cloth, and smoke 
it. (See 381, &c.) Boil a part as it may be wanted, press it with a 
heavy weight till cold, when it may be grated for sandwiches. It 
will keep a long time. 


381. Drying may be eflfected by simply draining your salted or 
pickled meat, and hanging it within the warmth of a fire in a dry 
kitchen, but smoked dried meat is preferred by most persons, and cer 
tainly deserves the preference. The fuel employed for this purpose 
must be wood ; sawdust (not deal or fir sawdust) is generally era- 
ployed. Care must be taken not to melt or scorch the meat ; if dried 
in a common kitchen chimney, it must be hung high enough. The 
fire must be kept in a smothering state, which may be easily done 
with sawdust, and in a place set apart for smoking ; it is or ought to 
be kept burning slowly night and day. The best way is to send your 
meat to persons who make a business of smoking — (not tobacco.) Do 



not dry your meat in a bakehouse, or strew it with bran when drained 
for drying ; both will render the meat liable to be infested with those 
voracious little wretches called weevils. Drying meat by a malthouse 
kiln generally causes it to rust. After smokingr, the wrappers should 
be removed and replaced with clean ones. It is not a bad plan to 
whitewash hams two or three times, when they are required to keep 
a long time. 

382. Dried or kippered salmon is prepared by cleaning (without 
washing,) and scaling the fish ; split and remove the bone ; pickle for 
two or three days with equal parts of salt and sugar, and a little black 
pepper and saltpetre; keep it well pressed down; when cured, 
stretch each fish with a piece of stick, and dry it either with smoke 
or otherwise. 

383. Herrings^ <^c. must be wiped clean ; salted as above ; in 
twenty-four hours take them out of the salt, run a stick through the 
eyes, and hang them in rows over an old cask half filled with dry saw- 
dust, in the midst of which thrust a red-hot iron. 

384. Haddock, cod, and ling, <^*c. are usually split down the mid- 
dle for salting let them lie two or three days in equal parts of salt and 
sugar ; then stretch on sticks, and dry in the sun or artificially. 


385. Mr. Lockett, according to Dr. Wilkinson, in the Philosophical 
Magazine, 1821, was the first person who applied pyroligneous acid 
in the curing of meat. Mr. S. ascertained, that if a ham had the re- 
duced quantity of salt usually employed lor smoke-dried hams, and 
was then exposed, putrefaction soon took place where pyroligneous 
acid was not used ; even one-half of this reduced portion of salt is 
sufficient when it is used, being applied cold, and the ham is then 
effectually cured without any loss of weight, and retaining more ani- 
mal juices. In fact, pyroligneous acid, or acid of burnt wood, commu- 
nicates the same quality to the meat as the process of smoking. 

386. In using this acid for curing hams, mix about two tablo 
spoonfuls in the pickle for a ham of ten or twelve pounds, and when 
taken out of the pickle, previous to being hung up, paint the ham 
over with the acid by means of a brush ; a little more acid is re- 
quired for neats' tongues. Dried salmons brushed twice with the 
acid, will be more efiectualiy cured than by smoking them for two 

387. This acid will preserve meat for many weeks without salt. 
Mr. Lockett kept some beef-steaks perfectly sweet above six weeks. 
He covered the bottom of the plate with the acid, and turned the 
steaks every day. 

388. Hams and beef cured in this way, require no previous soak- 
ing in water to being boiled, and when boiled, they swell in size and 
are extremely succulent; the flavour is increased, and the meat ren- 
dered more nutritious. Two table-spoonfuls of acid added to the 
pickle for Westphalia ham is required, and when the ham is removed 


from the pickle, it must be well washed in cold spring water and 
dried, and then some of the acid applied over it by means of a brush, 
and this repeated two or three times at about a week's interval. 

389. To cure herrings, cod, haddock, and other fish, with pyrolig- 
neous acid, salt them a little for a day or two — not more — less may 
do; then dry them well with a coarse cloth, then dip them into the 
acid, and dry in the air; v^hen dry, repeat the process a few times, 
suspending them like the manufacturer of candles. The red colour 
in dried salmons and herrings is generally attributed to nitre (salt- 
petre;) very frequently tobacco dissolved in a fluid not very agreeable 
(urine) is employed for the purpose of reddening, in Holland. Pyro- 
ligneous acid will not answer for pickling, being too strong when 
diluted with water it loses its virtue. The vinegar of the shops may 
be advantageously improved by the addition of this acid. 


390. All kinds of meat should be hung till they are tender, but not 
till they are putrescent ; or, at any rate, not a moment longer than 
when you can perceive a slight degree of putrescency in them. Some 
things, such as venison, hares, &c., require to be hung longer than 
others, and some persons require meat to be high, or partly putrescent, 
before it is dressed, and these we fear must have their palates pleased 
whatever may be the consequence to their stomachs. Dr. Kitchiner 
says, "Although we strongly recommend that animal food should be 
hung up in the open air, till its fibres liave lost some degree of their 
toughness, yet let us be clearly understood also to warn you, that if 
kept till it loses its natural sweetness, it is as detrimental to health as 
it is disagreeable to the smell and taste." Meat should be hung in a 
draught of air, and in the shade, particularly in the summer months ; 
and it should be dried twice a day to keep it from being rendered 
musty by the damp. The time meat should be hung to be tender 
depends upon the dampness or dryness of the air, and the degree of 
heat. In damp warm weather it is exceedingly liable to become 
putrescent; in cold dry weather, not. 

391. If you find that your meat will not keep till it is wanted, it is 
a good plan to slightly roast it, or boil it, which will enable you to 
keep it a day, or even two or three days longer; but we repeat it 
must be very slightly roasted or boiled, or it will eat like meat done 
a second time. 

392. Boerhave says,, that the best method of keeping flesh in sum- 
mer, is to steep it in Rhenish wine, with a little sea salt, by which 
means it. may bo preserved a whole season. 

393. According to Dr. Franklin, as quoted by Dr. Kitchiner, game 
or poultry killed by electricity becomes tender in the twinkling of an 
eye; and if it be dressed, will be delicately tender. We have no 
doubt, indeed it is an established fact, that if they are killed by the 
operation of cold lead, the twisting of the neck, or any other of the 
ordinary modes of destroying animal life, the same result will take 


pkce, provided they are dressed before they are cold, that is, before 
the sinews and muscles have become set; once set, they must be 
suffered to relax by keeping, before the animal, whether ^ame or 
poultry, or any other creature, is fit for dressing. Take a fowl, kill 
it, put it into an oven, or amongst hot ashes, while it is still warm 
with life, without picking off the feathers or taking out the entrails, 
and it will be delicately tender eating, and perfectly sweet. The 
feathers will be burnt away, and the entrails are taken out in the 
shape of a ball ; the gypsies understand this mode of cooking. A 
military friend of ours partook of part of a calf roasted alive in the 
burning of the buildings of a farm-yard, in an enemy's country; he 
was not particularly hungry, but he says he never ate meat more deli- 
cious and tender. We mention these things merely to illustrate a 
principle, not as an example to be followed. In this country it is im- 
practicable to dress butcher's meat while still warm with life; in hot 
countries it is nearly always done. 

394. For keeping meat from becoming putrescent, recipes, of 
which the following is the substance, were published some years ago, 
and sold at the enormous price of seven shillings and sixpence : Take 
a quart of the best vinegar, two ounces of lump sugar, two ounces of 
Bait ; boil these ingredients together for a few minutes, and when 
cold, anoint with a brush the meat to be preserved. For fish, the 
mixture is directed to he applied inside; for poultry, inside and out. 
Of course both fish and poultry are to be cleansed. 

395. Pyroligneous acid, either with or without the sugar and salt, 
would be much more effectual ; besides, it possesses, to a certain ex- 
tent, the property of not only preventing putrescency, but of curing 
it when commenced. 


On perusing our work previous to going to press, we do not think 
that we have dealt sufficiently on the use of vinegar in dressing food. 
Of pyroligneous acid in the preservation and curing of meats, we 
have treated pretty largely. In all stews, and most made dishes, 
the flavour is much improved, and we think the food rendered more 
digestible, by the moderate use of vinegar: we recommend, how- 
ever, none but the best vinegar, which ought to be applied to the 
meat previous to its being put in the slew-pan. We will give fo? 
example the following receipt for 

396. Brazilian Slew. — Take shin or leg of beef; cut it mto slices 
or pieces of two or three ounces each ; dip it in good vinegar, and, 
with or without onions, or any other flavouring or vegetable sub- 
stances, put it in a stew-pan, and without water ; let it stand on a 
etew-hearth, or by a slow fire, for two three, or four hours, when it 
will be thoroughly done, will have yielded plenty of gravy, and be as 
** tender as a chicken." Great care must be taken that the heat is 
sufficiently moderate. This is the usual mode of dressing all descrip- 
tions of meat in the Brazils. We have recommended leg or shin of 


beef, because it in fact makes the richest and most nutritious stew, 
and may be had at a low price ; but any other meat or fish may be so 
dressed. The only objection to it is, that it is too rich ; but this may 
be remedied by eating less of it, and a greater quantity of potatoes or 
other vegetables. A pound and a half of leg of beef, without bone, 
so dressed, and plenty of potatoes, will dine four people luxuriously. 

397. Alamode Beef of the shops, which, when well dressed, ia 
very delicious, is made by thickening the gravy of beef that has been 
very slowly stewed as above with vinegar, and flavoure/^ with bay 
leaves, allspice, «Sz.c., according to taste. The following process will 
be found a good one: cut your beef, mouse buttock, or sticking pieces, 
or legs (legs are the best), &c., into pieces of two or three ounces 
each; put into a deep stew-pan some beef dripping, to keep the meat 
from sticking to the bottom ; mince onions, which mix with the beef, 
previously dipped in vinegar, and put the mixture into a deep stew- 
pan. When quite hot, flour the meat with a dredger, and continue 
to do so till you have stirred in enough to thicken it; then cover it 
with boiling water, which should be put in by degrees, stirring it 
together with a wooden spoon. Flavour with black pepper, allspice, 
bay leaves, champignons, truflies, mushrooms, &.c., according to taste ; 
but allspice, black pepper, and salt, will answer every useful purpose. 
Let it stew as slowly as possible for four or five hours. We can 
testify from experience that oar Brazilian stew and beef alamode are 
cheap and delicious dishes. 


This branch of cookery, though apparently very simple, requires 
the utmost attention, and no little judgment. 

398. You should always boil vegetables in soft water, if you can 
procure it ; if not, put a tea-spoonful or more of carbonate of soda in it 
to render it so. 

399. Take care to wash and cleanse all vegetables from dust and 
other impurities, before putting them into the pot or pan ; they should 
be thoroughly cleansed ; for which purpose it will be necessary to 
open the leaves of greens, or otherwise you may send to the table 
some fine, fat, overfed caterpillars, and thus spoil the whole dish. 

400. Upon the whole, it is best to boil vegetables in a saucepan by 
themselves. The quicker they boil, the greener they will be. When 
they sink, they are generally done enough, if the water has been kept 
constantly boiling. When done, take them up immediately^ and tho- 
roughly drain. If vegetables are a minute too long over the fire, they 
Jose all their beauty and flavour. If not thoroughly boiled tender, they 
are tremendously indigestible ; and much more troublesome during 
their residence in the stomach, than underdone meats. 

401. Vegetables are in greatest perfection, when in greatest plenty, 
and they are only in greatest plenty when in full season. All vege- 
tables are best when they are so cheap as to enable the artisan to eat 
them. Very early peas, or very early potatoes — that is, peas or po- 


tatoes raised by artificial means — may be vabjed as great rarities, but 
for nothing else. We may assert the same thing of nearly all other 
vegetables. Sea kale and early rhubarb are, perhaps, exceptions. 
All vegetables should be ripe ; that is, ripe as vegetables ; otherwise, 
like fruits, they are bad tasted and unwholesome. To eat peas or 
potatoes in perfection, you must eat them not much before Mid- 

402. With regard to the quality of vegetables, the middle size are 
to be preferred to the very large. Green vegetables, such as savoys, 
cabbages, cauliflowers, &,c., should be eaten fresh, before the life \s 
out of them. When once dead, they are good for nothing but the 
dunghill. This description of vegetables will live a long time after 
they are cut, but the fresher they are the better. Any one may easily 
see if they have been kept too long. There are two ways of sending 
peas to market : the one is, by packing them in sacks, where they fre- 
quently become heated, and, of course, in a great measure spoilt. The 
other is, by sending them in sieves, which is by far the best way, but, 
being somewhat more expensive, sieve peas fetch a higher price than 
sack peas. 

403. Greens, roots, salads, &c. &c., when they have lost their fresh- 
ness by long keeping, may be refreshed a little by putting them in 
cold spring water for an hour or two before they are dressed ; but this 
process will not make them equal to those which are gathered just be- 
fore they are boiled. 

404. The following remarks, by a writer in the Edin. Encyclo. on 
this subject, are very just, and well worth the perusal : — " Most vege- 
tables, being more or less succulent, require their full proportion of 
fluids for retaining that state of crispness and plumpness which they 
have when growing. On being cut or gathered, the exhalation from 
their surface continues, while, from the open vessels of the cut sur^ 
face, there is often great exudation or evaporation, and thus their na* 
tural moisture is diminished, the tender leaves become flaccid, and 
the thicker masses, or roots, lose their plumpness. This is not only 
less pleasant to the eye, but is a real injury to the nutritious powers 
of the vegetable ; for in this flaccid and shrivelled state its fibres are 
less divided in chewing, and the water which exists in vegetable sub- 
stances in the form of their respective natural juices, is directly 
nutritious. The first care, therefore, in the preservation of succulent 
vegetables is, to prevent them from losing their natural moisture." 

405. To preserve colour, or give colour, in cookery, many good 
dishes are spoilt. This is a great folly. Taste, nourishment, and 
digestibility, ought to be th^ only considerations in the dres&ing of 

406. When vegetables are quite fresh gathered, they requirr much 
less boiling than those that have been kept. According to Xitch- 
iner, fresh vegetables are done in one-third less time than stal^ 

407. Strong-scented vegetables, we need scarcely say, ougb* to be 
kept apart. If onions, leeks?, and celery, are laid amongst suc^ r^«r.- 
cate things as cauliflowers, they will spoil in a very short time 


408 Succulent vegetables, such as cabbages, and all sorts of greens, 
are best preserved in a cool, damp, and shady place. Potatoes, tur- 
nips, carrots, and similar roots, intended to be stored up, should never, 
on any account, be cleaned from the earth adhering to them, till 
they are to be dressed. Never buy washed potatoes, &.c. from your 
shopkeeper; have them with the soil about them, and wash them 
just before they are boiled. 

409. As the action of frost destroys the life of vegetables, and 
causes them speedily to rot, and as the air also injures them, all roota 
should be protected by laying them in heaps, burying them in sand or 
eartli, and covering them with straw or mats. There are, however, 
some sorts of winter greens, such as savoys, &c., which are made 
much better and more tender by frost. 


410. Cauliflowers. — Take off the outer leaves; round such as are 
young, leave just one leaf; put them with some salt into boiling wa- 
ter; boil according to size, from fifteen to twenty minutes; try the 
Btalk with a fork ; when the stalk feels tender, and the fork is easily 
withdrawn, the flower is done ; take up instantly, with a wire ladle. 
Both brocoli and cauliflower, unless boiled till they are tender, are 
neither pleasant to the taste, nor wholesome to the body ; but over- 
boiling will break and spoil them. Sauce, melted butter. 

411. Brocoli. — Choose close firm heads, nearly of a size. Put 
them into boiling water with salt; allow them plenty of room in boil- 
ing, or they will break ; and boil them fast, or they will lose their co- 
lour. They will take from ten minutes to half an hour, according to 
the size of the heads. When the stalks are tender, which you can 
know by putting a fork up the middle of the stalk, they are done. 
Take them up with a wire ladle, that the water may run off without 
bruising the heads. Serve on a buttered toast. Sauce, melted 

412. Cabbage.— LsiYge full-grown cabbage and savoys will take 
half an hour or more in boiling. Strip all the outside leaves till you 
come to the white quick grown ones; then shave the stocks of the 
leaves that are left on, and score the stalk a little way up. Drain 
them carefully when boiled, and serve them on a drainer. 

413. Young Coleioorts and Sprouts — Do not be too saving in 
trimming sprouts, as harsh or bad leaves will spoil a whole dish. 
They will take from ten minutes to a quarter of an hour in boiling. 
Be careful in draining, so as not to spoil the shape of the heads. 

Cold cabbage may be fried and served with fried beef. It will re- 
quire a little bit of butter, a little good gravy, and a little pepper and 
salt. Shake it about well, and let it remain no longer in the pan 
than is necessary to make it hot through. 

414. Red Cabbage. — Thi^ is sometimes stewed, for eating with 
bouilli beef. Take a small red firm cabbage ; wash, pick, and cut it 


in slices half an inch thick; then pick it to pi+}ces leaf by leaf. Make 
half a pint of melted butter, in 5 saucepan large enough to contain 
the whole. Shake the cabbage from the water that hangs about it, 
and put it to the melted butter, with a tea-cup full of good gravy, an 
onion, sliced, and pepper, salt, and cayenne. Let it stew half an hour 
or more, keeping the saucepan close shut.. When quite tender, add 
a glass (jf vinegar; let it just boil up; then serve. 

415. Spinach. — Pick leaf by leaf, wash it in three waters, put a 
little salt in the boiling water, boil it very quickly, and keep it under 
the water; seven or eight minutes will be sufficient to boil it; strain 
it on the back of a sieve, and press it as dry as possible between two 
plates ; spread it on a dish, and score it crossways, in squares of an 
inch and a half, or two inches. Spinach is often served with poached 
eggs and buttered toast, or slices of fried bread. It is sometimes 
etev^ed in the following manner: — When it has boiled five minutes, 
strain and press it, and put it in a small stew-pan, the bottom just 
covered with rich boiling gravy; add a bit of butter, a little pepper, 
ealt and nutmeg, and two table-spoonsful of cream; stew it five 

416. Vegetable Marroio or Gourd. — Gather the fruit when the 
size of an egg ; put it into boiling water, v/ith a little salt ; boil it 
until it is tender, which will be in about half an hour; cut it in siicea 
half an inch thick; lay it on buttered toast; sprinkle it with pepper 
and salt; pour melted butter over it. If the fruit has seeds in it, the 
seedy part must be scooped out, but they are not so good in this state. 
The fruit may be cut in slices raw, and fried in butter, and served 
with melted butter and vinegar. 

417. Turnips. — Put them into boiling water, with a little salt; 
when tender, take them up and drain the water from them ; they 
will take from half an hour to an hour boiling. If for mashing, boil 
them a little longer. If they are lumpy or Stringy, rub them through 
a colander, then put them into the saucepan, with an ounce of butler, 
a. spoonful of cream, a little pepper and salt ; stir them well till the 
butter is melted, and the whole well mixed. 

418. Green Peas. — Peas do not require much wmter to boil them 
in. Before you put the peas into the boiling water, throw in a lump 
of sugar aruj a little salt; boil a few tops of mint with them. If they 
are young and fresh, they will not take more than ten minutes to a 
quarter of an hour; if not very young, they will require from twenty 
minutes to half an hour. Chop up the mint to garnish ; stir a lump 
of butter with them in the dish, and a little pepper and salt. 

419. To stew Peas. — Young peas are best for this purpose ; but 
stewing is the best way of preparing old ones. To a quart of peas 
allow a quart of gravy ; put them in when the gravy boils, with three 
lumps of sugar, and a little pepper and salt ; stew till the peas are 
quite tender, then thicken with a piece of butter rolled in flour. They 
may be stewed without gravy ; thus, tp a quart of peas allow a let- - 
tuce, two or three tops of mint, and an onion, cut up and washed ; the 
water that hangs round the lettuce will be sufficient; add pepper. 


salt, and f^uo-nr, as aliove ; stew vo.ry ^rpntly for two hours ; then beat 
up an ffjfo-, nnd stir in with an ounce of butter. 

420. Carrolfi. — Wa?h them well be(bro you put them into the pot. 
Thoy are best boiled with meat which they do not injure. If they 
are youn^ they will boil in twenty minutes or half an hour; large 
old ones will take two hours to boil them tender; do not quarter car- 
rots to boil — it renders them tasteless. If they are young-, leave on a 
little of the top, and rub them with a coarse cloth; old ones are best 
rubbed after thoy are boiled; the skin comes from them more easily. 
Never scrape carrots — if they are rough, brush them. Sauce, melted 

421. Windsor Beans. — Young beans are best when the eyes are 
of a green colour; when the eyes are dark, they are old and eat 
strong; young beans will boil from twenty minutes to half an hour. 
Put them into plenty of boiling water, and a spoonful of salt; if yon 
boil them after they become tender, the skins v,/ill shrivel; boil a 
large bunch of parsley with them ; ciiop some for parsley and butter. 
Stir a lump of butter with them, and put a little parsley in the dish 
for garnish. 

422. French or Kidney Beans. — The smooth or dv,7arf beans come 
in earliest, but the scarlet runners are considered the best ; choose 
them young and nearlyof a size, top and tail them, slit them down 
the middle and cut across. If they are old, take the skin from each 
side; put them in boiling water with some salt; boil them fast from 
ten minutes to a quarter of an hour; stir with them a lump of butter. 
Sauce, melted butter. 

423. Harricot Beans are the seeds of French beans, full grown ; 
they are sometimes called colly beans. Stew them in gravy, thickened 
with flour and cream, or they may be fried in butter ; stir in a lump 
of butler when in the dish, a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg, then put 
in some gravy. 

424. Jerusalem Artichokes, — Scrub them clean, and put them into 
tiie pot with cold water; throw in a handful of salt, do not let them 
be covered with water, and leave oft the lid; they take about the 
same time boiling as potatoes. When they are tender they are done; 
drain them and peel them. Keep them as hot as possible; they may 
be kt'pt hot by putting them in a'dish over another di^h in which is 
i)ot water. Sauce, melted btitter and vinegar, or good thick gravy. 

425. Aspara.frus. — Scrape the stalks clean; tie them in bundles 
with bass, put them in boiling water with a little salt in it ; a tin. 
saucepan is best. If they are fresh, they will be done in ten or 
/.v(.'lve minutes; if they are not fresh, they will take a little longer. 
Take up the niomf^nt they are tender, otherwise the heads will be 
broken, the flavour spoilt, and the colour spoilt; take them up very 
carefully with a slice, cut the bass, just dip some toasted bread in the 
liquor in which the asparagus has been boiled, put it on a drainer 
with a little melted butter, and the heads of the asparagus should be 
.aid inwards round the dish; or they may be laid on a buttered toast.- 

426. Artichokes. — Soak in cold water; put them into plenty of 




boilinnf water, throw in a handful of palt. They rcniiiro an hour nnj 
a half or two hours in hoiling. Try them by pulling a leaf; if it draw 
out easily, they are done; drain them on a sieve, or serve on a 
vegetable drainer. Sauce, melted butter and vineg"ar. 

427. Red Beet-root. — Boil them whole, put them in boiling water; 
they require from an hour and a half to three hours in boiling. If 
for garnish, leave them whole till wanted for use, then scrape and cut 
up inlo slices. If for salads, scrape and cut in slices hot, and pour 
cold vinegar over them. 

For stewing, boil them an hour or more, then skin and slice them ; 
season them with pepper and salt, and stew till tender, with young 
onions, in good gravy: when nearly done, stir in a bit of butter rollod 
in flour and cream : this is a pleasant and nourishing dish. They 
may be baked dry in the same manner as potatoes, and eaten with 
cold butter, salt, and pepper. 

428. White Beet-root. — This useful and wholesome plant affords 
two very pleasing varieties. The leaves stripped from thnir large 
fibrous stalks resemble spinach. Put in boiling water and boil them 
very fast; they take but a few minutes; drain, and press them very 
dry. Sauce, melted butter. The stalks tie in bundles, dress as 
asparagus. Sauce, melted butter and vinegar. 

429. Herbs to fry to eat with liver, or with rashers and eggs. — 
Clean and drain four handfuls of young spinach, and two of young 
lettuce leaves, two handfuls of parsley and one of young oniong 
chopped small ; set them over the fire in a stew-pan ; put one ounce 
of butter and some pepper and salt ; close the pan up and shake it 
well, and when it boils, set it on the hob or stove to simmer slowly 
till the herbs are tender. Serve them on a dish with the liver, or 
rashers and eg^^ ; lay them on the herb.^. 

430. K(de^ Sea and Scotch. — This last kale is a favourite sort of 
greens for winter and spring; the heads should not be gathered before 
November. These will take a quarter of an hour or twenty minutes 
fast boiling; put them into boiling water. The sprouts, which in 
spring are very abundant, will boil in a few minutes. Sauce, melted 

Sea Kale is boiled tied up in bunches, like asparao-us. It is eaten 
with rich gravy, or thick melted butter, and may be served on toasted 

431. Celery makes an excellent addition to salads; it also gives an 
agreeable flavour to soups and sauce, and is sometimes stewed as an 
accompaniment to boiled or stewed meat. Wash six or eight heads, 
and take off the outer leaves ; cut the heads up in bits three or four 
inches long. Stew them till tender in half a pint of veal broth, or 
white gravy; then add two spoonsful of cream and an ounce of butter 
rolled in flour, season with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, and simmer the 
whole together. The leaves will do to flavour soup that is to be 

'. 432. Mushrooms. — The large flap mushrooms are excellent broiled. 
Have a very clear fire; make the bars of the gridiron very clean, and 


rub them with rmiUon suet to prevent them from sticking- ; a few 
minutes will broil them. When they stearn but, sprinkle them with 
pepper and salt; have ready a very hot dish, and when thoy are taken 
up, lay a bit or two of butter under and over each. To stew theni, 
put them in a small saucepan with pepper and salt, a bit of butter and 
a spoonful or two of ^ravy of roast meat or cream ; shake them about, 
and when they boil they are done. 

483. Morels resemble mushrooms in their growth and many other 
respects, and are usually dressed in the same manner. It is not 
possible, however, to make catsup from them, which shows that they 
do not possess the same qualities as mushrooms. For a stew or ragout 
of morels, take off their stalks; split them, if large, into two or three 
pieces ; wash them and put them into a basin of warm water, and 
cleanse them from the sand, &c. ; then blanch, drain and put them 
into a stew-pan, with a piece of butter and some lemon juice. 
Moisten, after a few turns in the stew-pan, with either brown or 
white sauce. There are various other modes of dressing- them, but 
as morels are not much eaten in this country, the above may suffice. 
Morels are of a higher and finer flavour in Eastern countries tlian 

434. Truffles. — These are a very curious description of vegetables; 
they grow under ground, no part of the plants ever being seen on the 
surface. It is like the mushroom kind, a species of fungus, and is 
propagated by seed which is nurtured by the decaying of the old 
plant. They are found about ten inches below the surface of the 
earth, dogs being trained to discover them by their scent. The truffle 
lias a very rich, tart, and high flavour when fresh and in season, but 
loses it when dried, or out of season. They are not very common in 
America, but they are found in great quantities in France and Italy, 
A writer in Rees'sCyclopa)dia informs us, that " truffles are generally 
in seed about August, when they are of a fine high flavour and agree- 
able smell; continue good till the beginning of winter, and sometimes 
as late as March ; but those gathered between March and July are 
Sinn II, white, and of a poor flavour. The same authority, in the same 
article, intimates that truffles are tenderest and best in spring, though 
easiest found in autunm ; the wot swelling them and the thunder and 
lightning disposing them to throw out their scents: hence by the 
ancients they were called thund*er-roots. Hogs are fond of them ; 
hence the common people call them swine-bread." It is now, the 
editor may observe, a well-established fact, that truffles are not good 
after March, or before August. They require a great deal of wash- 
ing and brushing, in several waters, before they can be applied to culi- 
nary purposes. When fresh and fine they are very rich, and are a 
very delicious addition to some dishes. They may be, and frequently 
are, stewed like mushrooms, and prepared in other ways, and eaten 
by themselves. 

435. Cucumbers may be stewed in the same way as celery, with 
the addition of some sliced onions; or the cucumbers and onions Inay 


be fii'rit flouivd and fried in butter; then add the gravy, and stew til) 
tender; sknn oft' the iat. 

436. Parsnips. — Ch;an and dress just the same as carruts, they 
require boihn^ from one hour to two, accordini^ to their size and 
freshness; they should be drained well, and set on the hob in a dry 
saucepan to steam ; they are sometimes mashed with butter, pepper, 
salt, and cream, or milk, the same as turnips; they are eaten alone, 
or with salt beef or salt pork. {Sauce, melted butter and vhiegar. 


437. In our directions for dressing vegetables, we speak lastly of 
potatoes — not because the cooking of this e very-day food is of the 
least importance, but because, on the contrary, it is of the greatest. 
There are few persons, simple as the process may appear to be, who 
can cook potatoes well with certainty. Potatoes from the same 
ground, and of the same kind, dressed by the same cook, may come 
to table one day palatable and nutritious, and the next tiie very re- 
verse of these qualities. How does this happen % The cook acts 
upon no principle. By accident the potatoes may be boiled well, and 
by accident they may be boiled bad : in one word, the boiling of 
potatoes is, with the generality of cooks, all chance work. A friend 
of ours, Mr. John Barker, the attorney, no mean judge in such mat- 
ters, always averred, that a woman who could boil potatoes and melt 
butler well^ was a good cook ; he never requires any other proof of 
the capabilities of a cook. The fact is, those who thoroughly under- 
stand the elements of any art or science, find little or no difficulty in 
what are called the higher branches. It is for this reason that we 
have, in our little work, dwelt so much upon elementary principles, 
in preference to filling it up with long receipts, which every body 
may obtain, but which do not teach any principle of the art of cookery. 
Dr. Kitchiner observes, that " the vegetable kingdom affords no food 
more wholesome, more easily procured, easily prepared, and less ex- 
pensive, than the potatoe." This is perfectly true, and yet how few 
are there that can boil potatoes properly ! In Ireland, as every body 
knows, potatoes constitute almost entirely the food of the great mass 
of the people ; in Ireland, therefore, necessity must have taught the 
people the best mode of cooking them. Their process is this: the 
potatoes, unpeeled, that is with their jackets on, after being washed, 
are put into a cast-iron pot of cold water, which is placed on the fire. 
When the water boils, a small quantity of cold water is put into the 
pot to check the boiling; this is once or twice repeated. When the 
potatoes are done, or nearly done, the water is poured away from the 
potatoes, which are again subjected to the fire to let the steam evapo- 
rate, and make the potatoes mealy. They are then served up in the 
usual way, (we are speaking of the tables of the middling class(!s,) 
and each person takes as many potatoes as he chooses; he peels thenj, 
depositing the skins by the side of hi.'^ plate. In the course of the 


dinner the potatoes on the table will become cold, when a fresh supply 
is ordered, and when furnished, the host calls out to his guest, "a hot 
putaloe, Sir." Before the dinner is finished, you will have two or 
three supplies of hot potatoes, and the last, though all from the same 
pot, are to our taste better than the first. They are all the time kept 
«n the fire; the action of the heat completely evaporates the moisture 
from the potatoes, aud those at the bottom of the iron pot become par- 
tially roasted. Such is the Irish mode of dressing potatoes, and if we 
could reconcile ourselves to the " bother''^ of peeling them, and to the 
disagreeable appearance of a table-cloth nearly covered with potatoe 
skins, there is no doubt that we should consider the Irish way of 
dressing and serving potatoes the best. The generality of modern 
cookery books recommend the dressing of potatoes with their skfns 
on, like the Irish, but direct that they should be peeled before sent to 
the table; this mode spoils the potatoes by cooling them; when so 
dressed, they should be eaten hot. We recommend that potatoes, ex- 
cepting when young, for the table, should be always pared, carefully 
pared, before they are boiled : that they should be put into cold water 
with salt, and boiled quickly, till they are nearly done ; that then the 
water should be poured off, and the potatoes again subjected to the 
fire, covered with a close lid, till they are quite done, when the lid 
ought to be removed, and the moisture evaporated. They may be 
then mashed, or served whole. The cook should take care to have 
potatoes pretty much of an equal size, or, if this be not practicable, 
she should divide the large ones. We ought, however, to add, with 
regard to peeling potatoes, that most people very fond of this root 
insist upon it, that you do not get the true flavour if you do not dress 
it wiih the skin on. Let it be always remembered, that- potatoes differ 
very much in quality, and that no cook can dress a bad potatoe into a 
good one. 

This brings us to the choice of potatoes. We can lay down no 
rule, notwithstanding what former writers have said, for the choice 
of potatoes. As it is with pudding, so it is with potatoes — the proof 
is in the eating. The dealers in nuts say, " Crack and try before you 
buy," and we say as regards potatoes. Boil and try before you buy; 
tiie expenditure of one half-penny will enable you to do this. Dr. 
Kitchiner says, that "reddish coloured potatoes are belter than the 
white, but the yellowish ones are the best." The colour of a potatoe 
is no criterion of its goodness or badness; there are good of all 
colours, and there are bad of all colours. You should never buy 
washed potatoes ; they should never be washed till they are to be 
used, and as little as possible exposed to the open air. When frost- 
bitten, they are good for nothing as regards culinary purposes. There 
are various directions given by writers for dressing potatoes, some of 
which we subjoin. Kitchiner says, that "most boiled things are 
spoiled by having too little water; but potatoes are often spoiled by 
too much." It is sufficient to just cover them with water. Potatoes 
may be boiled well according to either of the subjoined methods; but 
after trying all, we prefer our own, 
10 '^ 


438. PoluLoes to boil. —To boil, ch(X)se them ail of a size, that tlioy 
may be all done together; put them on with cold water, and a spoon- 
ful of salt, in a eaucepan larger than they require, without the lid, , 
and with not quite water enough to cover them. When they boil, , 
put in a little cold water; do this twice or three times as they come to 
boil. V/hen a fork will easily go into them, strain off, and put the 
saucepan on the hob for two minutes, for the steam to evaporate. If 
done too soon, fold a coarse cloth and cover them up immediately, to 
keep tliem hot and mealy ; but tliey are best served immediately they 
are done. 

Another Method. The best method in the opinion of some, is to 
wash the potatoes quite clean and put them in the saucepan with a 
large table-spoonful of salt, and cover them with water ; but when 
they boil up, pour three parts of the water away, put the lid on the 
saucepan, and set them where they will boil, but not very fast. Ob- 
serve if the skins are cracked; if not, carefully crack tliera with a 
fork to let the watery matter contained in the potatoe out; this you 
cannot do until they are nearly done. When they are boiled sutfi- 
ciently, drain all the water away; take off the lid, and hold them 
over the lire for a minute, giving them a gentle shake. They are 
best served immediately, while they are dry and hot. This method 
is good in a small family, but where there are a great many to dine 
it would be best to pare them, and take out all the eyes with the point 
of your knife; wash them, put them in the saucepan witli a large 
table-spoonful of salt, cover them with water, and when they boil, pour 
three parts of the water off, close the saucepan, and let them boil 
gently ; when done, dry them over the fire. As potatoes should be 
always served hot, by this method you lose no time in taking off" the 

489. Potatoes to steam. — Let the potatoes be washed, and put into 
the steamer, when the water boils in the saucepan beneath ; they 
will take about three-quarters of an hour to steam, and should be 
taken up as soon as done, or they become watery. 

440. T'o roast. — Wash and dry potatoes all of a size ; put them in 
a dutch oven, or cheese toaster, or in the oven by the side of the lire; 
take care that the heat is not too great, or they will burn before they 
are baked through. They may be parboiled lirst; in that case they 
will take less time in biking. 

441. Potatoes mashed. — When the potatoes are thoroughly boiled 
or steamed, drain them dry, pick out every speck, and while hot rub 
them through a colander into a clean saucepan, in which warm them, 
stirring in half an ounce or an ounce of butter, and a table-spoonful 
of milk, with a little pepper and salt; do not make them too wet; 
then put them into tiie scallop shells, or padding shells buttered, the 
tops washed over with the yolk of an egg, and browned in an oven 
by the side of the lire ; but best in a dutch oven. Some people con- 
sider a mixture of boiled onions an improvement. 

442. Potatoes roasted under meat. — Parboil large potatoes; peel 
them, and put them m nu earthen di^h, or daiall tin pan, under meat 

that is roastinw. They will partake of the basting, sniting, und flour- 
ing-, that are put on the meat; when one side is brown, turn and 
brown the other. They may be baked in the same manner in an oven. 
44;i Potatoes fried or broiled. — Cut cold potatoes into slices a 
quarter of an inch thick, and fry them brown in a clean drippino-pan. 
Some people like them shaved in little thin piece?, sprinkled with salt 
and pepper, and stirred about in the frying-pan till hot through. They 
are very good fried whole ; first dip them in egg and roll them in 
bread crumbs; they are likevv'ise very good broiled on a gridiron, after 
being partially boiled. Cold potatoes, which are generally thrown 
away, are very good when broiled. 

444. Fotatoe Bulls. — Mix maslied potatoes with a beaten egg, roll 
them in balls and fry them, either with or without crumbs. 

445. Potutoe Snow. — Wash very clean some potatoes of a white 
mealy sort ; set them on in cold water, and boil them according to 
the first direction; when done, strain the water from them, crack the 
skins, put thenj by the fire until they are quite dry and fall to pieces; 
then rub them through a wire sieve on the dish they are to be served 
on, and do not disturb ihern. 


446. Among the principal salad herbs we may reckon lettuce, of 
which the v/hite cos in summer, and in winter the brown Dutch cos 
and brown cos, are the best; endive, of which the curled leaf is pre- 
ferred; corn-salad and water-cress, both of which are preferred when 
the leaves have a brovvnii-h cast; mustard and cress, or small salad- 
ing, of which a succession may bo kept up through the spring months ; 
celery, young, crisp, and well blanched. All or any of these may be 
united in the composition of a salad. Cucumbers, eitlier sliced by 
themselves, or mixed with other articles. Radishes give a lively 
appearance, by way of garnish, to a salad, but are not themselves 
improved by dressing. Red-beet also is much in request for winter 
salads, especially mijs,ed with endive. Young onions or escalions are 
liked by many people, but much disliked by others; therefore they 
should not be mixed in the bowl, but sent up on a small dish by them- 
selves. Sorrel gives a pleasing acid taste; and pimpernel, or burnet, 
gives a flavour resembling that of cucumber. Dandelion, if well 
grown and well blanched with a tile or slate (in the same manner as 
endive), is equally good and wholesome. 

Let the mgredients of the salad be well picked, and washed and 
dried ; but do not add the dressing till just before eating, as it is apt 
to make the salad flabby. The most simple way of dressijig a salad 
is, perhaps, the best ; certainly the most wholesome ; merely salt, oil, 
and vinegar, to taste ; one table-spoonful of the best olive oil to three 
of vinegar, is a good proponion. For those who do not like oil, or 
when it is nut at hand, the following may be used as a substitute; 
TJm^ gravy that has dropped from roasted meat, good svveet thicK 
cream, a bit of (VcJi butler rubbed up with fine moist t.ui;ai, >r just 


melted, without either flour or water; great care must be taken in 
thus melting' the butter, or it will be apt to oil or curdle; it must be 
shaken one way only, and kept near the fire no lono-or than is neces- 
Biiry to dissolve the lumps — on no account suffered to boil. Eggs 
boiled for salads require ten or twelve minutes boiling, and should 
immediately be plunged into cold water. 

\n the more complicated preparation of a salad, great care must be 
taken that every additional ingredient is thoroughly well blended be- 
fore proceeding to add another. 

Prepare the dressings in the bowl, and add the herbs ; after stirring 
them in, take care that all the various colours are displayed. The 
coral of a lobster or a crab makes a beautiful variety with a lettuce, 
onion, radish, beet, and white of egg. The following are the ordinary 
proportions, but various tastes will suggest variety : The yolks of two 
eggs rubbed very smooth with a very rich cream ; if perfectly rubbed ■ 
and quite cold, they will form a smooth paste without straining; a 
tea-spoonful each of thick mustard, salt, and powdered loaf-sugar, or 
a little cayenne instead of mustard, less than half of the mustard ; 
when these are well rubbed in, add two table-spoonfuls of oil (or 
whichever of its substitutes is adopted), and then four spoonfuls of the 
best white wine vinegar; then lay the herbs lightly on. 

Cv.cumhers are only to be pared and sliced, with slices of onion, 
which correct their crudity, and render them less unwholesome; the 
pickle for them consists of pepper, salt, oil, and vinegar. 


Vinegar is employed in extracting flavours as well as spirits and 
wine. But such extracts are principally used with salads, or as 
relishes to cold meats, and in a few instances to flavour sauces and 
Boups ; but, in English cookery, flavours extracted by sherry wine are 
preferred for soup. 

447. Vinegar for Salads. — Take three ounces each of tarragon, 
chives, eschalots, savoury, a handful of the tops of balm and mint, all 
oj'y and pounded ; put these into a wide-mouthed bottle, with a gallon 
oV the best vinegar, cork it close and set it in the sun, and in a fort- 
niglit strain it off', and press the herbs to get out all the juice; let it 
stand a day to settle, and then strain it through a filtering bag. 

448. Basil Vinegar or Wine. — Sweet basil is in perfection about 
the middle of August; gather the fresh green leaves, quite free from 
stalk, and before it flowers ; fill a wide-mouthed bottle with them, fill 
it with vinegar or wine, and steep them ten days ; if you want a very 
strong essence, strain the liquor, put it on some fresh leaves, and let 
them steep fourteen days more; strain it and bottle, cork it close; it 
is a very agreeable addition to cold meat, soups, sauces, and to the 
mixture generally made for salads. A table-spoonful, when the soup ' 
is ready, impregnates a tureen-full with the basil and acid flavours at 
a very little expense, when fresh basil and lemons arc very dear. 



The flavour of other sweet or savoury herbs may be preserved in the 
same manuer, by infusing- them in wme or vinegar. 

449. Burnet Vinegar is made exactly in the same way as the 
above, and imparts t[ie flavour of cucumbers so exactly, when steeped 
in vinegar, that the nicest pajato could not distinfruissh it from the 
fruit itself. This is a nice relish to cold meat, salads, &c. Burnet is 
best in season from Midsummer to Michaelmas. 

450. Cress or Celei-y Vinegar. — Pour over a quart of the best 
vineo^ar to an ounce of celery or cress seeds, when dried and pounded ; 
let them steep ten days, shake it every day, then sirain and bottle in 
ijmall bottles. 

451. Ilorse-radish Vinegar. — Pour a quart of best vineg-ar on 
three ounces of fcraped horse-radish, one drachm of cayenne, and an 
ounce of shred eschalot; let it stand a week. This is very cheap, 
and you have an excellent relish for cold beef, salads, &c. Horse- 
radish is in perfection in November. 

452. Garlic, Onion, or Eschalot Vinegar. — Put and chop two 
ounces of the root, pour over them a quart of the best vinegar, in a 
Dottle, shake it well every day for ten days; then pour oft" the clear 
hquor into half-pint bottles.- A few drops of the garlic will flavour a 
pint of gravy, as it is very powerful. 

453. Tarragon Vinegar. — Fill a wide-mouthed bottle with fresh 
gathered tarragon leaves. They should be gathered on a dry day, 
just before it flowers, between Midsummer and Michaelmas. Pick 
the leaves ofi' the stalks, and dry them a little before the fire; cover 
them with the best vinegar, and let them steep fourteen days; then 
strain them through a flannel jelly-bag till it is fine, then pour it into 
half-pint bottles, cork them tight, and keep them in a dry place. 

454. Elder Flower Vinegar is prepared in the same manner aa 
above, and other herbs also. 

455. Green Mint Vinegar is made exactly the same way, and tho 
same proportions, as basil vinegar. In housed lamb season, green mint 
is sometimes not to be got, it is then a welcome substitute. 

456. Camp Vinegar. — Take four table-spoonfuls of soy, a quarter 
of an ounce of cayenne pepper, six anchovies, bruised and chopped, 
walnut pickle a quarter of a pint, a clove of garlic shred fine; steep 
the whole for a month in a quart of the best vinegar, shake it four or 
five times a v/eek, strain it through a tamis, and put it in half-pint 
bottles, close corked and sealed, or dipped in bottle cement. 

457. Capsicum, Cayenne, or Chili Vinegar. — Pound fifty fresh 
red chiiies, or capsicums, or a quarter of an ounce of cayenne pepper; 
steep in a pint of the best vinegar foj: a fortnight. 


These rank high, and deservedly so, amongst the lists of flavour- 
ngs, particularly mushroom catsup, with the directions for the making 
af which wo have been at considerable pains. You cannot be certain 
jf having it good, unless you make it yourself, for no article is 


more adulterated and diluted than this most delicious and useful i 

458. WaJmit Catsup. — Take three half sieves of walnut shells, 
put them into a tub, mix them up well wilh common salt, about a 
pound and a half. Let them s-tand six days, frequently beating and , 
washing them; by this time the shells become soft and pulpy; thcat 
bv bankinir them up on one side of the tub, raising- the tub on the i 
bame side, the liquor will run clear off to the other; then take that 
liquor out.' The mashing and banking- maybe repeated as long- ag i 
any liquor runs. The quantity will be about three quarts. Simmer- 
it in an iron pot as loner as any scum rises; then add two ounces of 
allspice, two ounces of ginger, bruised, one ounce of long pepper, onei 
ounce of cloves, with the above articles; let it boil slowly i'ov half aai 
hour; whon bottled, take care that an equal quantity of spice goes* 
into each bottle; let the bottles bo quite filled up, cork them tight,, 
and seal then; over. Put them into a cool and dry place, for one year- 
before they are used. 

459. Oyster Catsup. — Take fine large fresh oysters, open them, 
carefully, and wash them in their own liquor, to take any particle of 
shell that may remain, strain the liquor aftor. Pound the oysters in a 
mortar, add the liquor, and to every pint put a pint of sherry, boil it 
up and skim, then add two anchovies, pounded, an ounce of common 
salt, two drachms of pounded mace, and one of cayenne. Let it boil; 
up, skim it, and rub it through a sieve. Bcjttle it when cold, and seal! 
it. What remains in the sieve will do i'ov oyster sauce. 

460. Cockle and Muscle Catsup. — The same way as oyster catsup. 

461. Mushroom Catsup. — The juice of mushrooms approaches the 
nature and flavour of gravy meat more than other vegetable juices. . 
Dr. Kitchiner sets a high value, and not without reason, upon goodi 
mushroom catsup, " a couple of quarts of which," he says, " will save: 
some score pounds of meat, besides a vast deal of time and trouble.'*' 
The best method of extracting the essence of mushrooms, is thatt 
which leaves behind the least quantity of water. In all essences, it! 
is quality, not quantity, to which we ought to look. An excess of 
aqueous fluid in essences renders them less capable of keeping; while 
in flavouring sauces, &.c. a small quantity is sufllcient, so that by this- 
means you do not interfere with the thickness or consistency of the 
thing flavoured. Mushrooms, that is, field mushrooms, begin to come: 
in about September. There are several varieties of these fungi, and I 
they differ very much, both in their wholesomeness and flavour. The; 
best and finest flavoured mushrooms are those whicli grow spontane-- 
ously upon rich, dry, old pasture land. The following is the mode of," 
making good mushroom catsup, o'r, as Dr. Kitchiner calls it, " double? 
catsup," ' 

Take mushrooms of the right sort, fresh gathered and full grown, 
but not maggoty or putrescent ; put a layer of these at the bottom of 
a deep earthen pan, and sprinkle them with salt; then put another 
layer of mushrooms, sprinkle more salt on them, and so on alternately, 
mushroom.- and salt. Let them remain two or three hours, by which . 


lime the salt will have penetrated the mushrooms, nnd have mada 
thetn easy to break ; then pound them in a mortar, or break them well 
with your hands; then let them remain in this state for two days, not 
more, mashing- them well once or twice a day ; then pour them into a 
stone jar, and to each quart add an ounce and a half of whole black 
pepper, and half an ounce of allspice ; stop the jar very close, and set 
it in a saucepan or stew-pan of boiling water, and keep it boiling- for 
two hours at least. Take out the jar, and pour the juice clear from 
the settlings, through a hair sieve into a clean stew-pan. Let it boil 
very gently for half an hour ; but to make good or double catsup, it 
should boil gently till the mushroom juice is reduced to half the quan- 
tity, or, in other words, till the more aqueous part is evaporated ; then 
skim it well, and pour it into a clean dry jar or jug-; cover it close, 
and let it stand in a cool place till next day, then pour it off as gently 
as possible (so as not to disturb the settlings at the bottom of the jug,) 
through a tamis, or thick flannel bag, till it is perfectly clear; add a 
table-spoonful of good unflavoured spirits (brandy is dear and not a 
whit better than common spirits of wine of equal strength) to each 
pint of catsup, and let it stand as before. A fresh sediment will be 
deposited, from which the catsup is to be poured off gently, and bot- 
tled in half pints, washed with spirit. Small bottles are best, as they 
are sooner used, and the catsup, if uncorked often, is apt to spoil. The 
cork of each bottle ought to be sealed or dipped in bottle cement. 
Keep it in a dry cool place; it will soon spoil if kept damp. If any 
pellicle or skin should appear upon it when in the bottle, boil it up 
again with a few peppercorns. It is a question with us, whether it 
would not be best to dispense with the spice altogether, and give an 
addition of spirits. When a number of articles are added to the cat- 
sup, such as different spices, garlic, eschalot, anchovy, &c. &,c., the 
fiavour of the mushroom is overpowered, and it ceases to be, properly 
speaking, mushroom catsup. 

462. Mushroom Catsup witJwut Sjrlce is made thus : — Sprinkle a 
little salt over your mushrooms. Three hours after, mash them; next 
day, strain off the liquor, and boil it till it is reduced to half. It will 
not keep long, but an artificial mushroom bed will supply sufricient 
for this, the very best of mushroom catsup, all the year round. 

463. Mushroom Powder may be made of the refuse of the mush- 
rooms, after they have been squeezed, by drying them well in a dutch 
oven, or otherwise, and then reducing them to powder. If the mush- 
rooms themselves are dried and pounded, the powder will be much 
stronger. Tincture or essence of mushrooms, we apprehend, might 
be niade, by steeping dried mushrooms in spirits. 


464. Clarified Butler. — Put the butter in a clean saucepan over a 
very clear, slow fire, and when it is melted, carefully skim off the but- 
ter-milk, which will swim on the top; let it stand for a minute or two 
for the imouritjes to sink to the bottom, then pour the clear butter 


through a sieve into a basin, leaving the sediment at thelxittom of the ' 

465. Burnt Butter. — Pat two ounces of fresh butter into a fryino-- 
pan ; when it becomes a dark brown coiour, add a table-spoDufnl and 
a half of good vinegar and a little salt and pepper. Thii is used lor 
sauce to boiled iish or poached eggs. 

466. Oiled Butter. — Put two ounces of fresh butter into a sauce- 
pan, melt it gradually till it comes to an oil, and pour it off quietly 
from the dregs. This will supply the place of olive oil. 

467. To clarify Dripping. — Be careful that no cinders or ashes 
fall into thedrippmg-pan, and empty the well before the meat is salted 
or floured, as the dripping will be more valuable. The NoLtiiiglinin 
ware are the best vessels for Ue<jping dripping in ; where much drip- 
ping is made, however, keep one general receiving pot ; do not put \n 
seasoned dripping, or dripping of game and poultry; this should be 
kept by itself; it answers very well to baste similar articles again, or 
it makes very good common crust for meat pies, or f(ir frying; it is 
not tit ibr delicate pastry. Tiie cook will tind at the bottom of the re- 
ceiving pot, after it has stood a few days, some gravy which may be 
useful to make gravy, and if not removed will spoil the colour of the 
dripping ; then put the dripping into a saucepan over a clear slow fire, 
at a good distance ; when it is nearly boiling skim it well, then let it 
boil, and immediately put it aside; when cool, and a little settled, 
pour it steadily through a sieve into the pan ; this is very nice drip- 
ping tor pastry. What remains may be put into the receptacle of 
seasoned dripping, or kept by itself, and will do tor basting meat. 

In this manner the fat that settles on the top of stews and boils and 
soups may be clarified and turned to use. Remove the fat before you 
add the vegetables or seasoning. Nothing makes a lighter piecrust 
than this sort of fat. It should be used soon, as the moisture hanging 
about it will turn it sour. 

468. To clarify Suet and Fat. — Take away whatever fat or suet 
that is not likely to be used oft' a loin of mutton, loin of veal, or sirloin 
©f beef. An inch thickness of fat may be taken from a loin or neck 
of mutton, and a good deal of fat from the kidney ; then shave it into 
very thin slices, or chop it upas suet; pick out all veins and skin, 
then put it into a stone jir or saucepan, and set it in a slow oven, or 
over a stove till it is melted; then strain it through a hair sieve into 
jars or pots; when quite cold, tie over the jirs. Be careful not to put 
this or dripping into a warm place. 

469. Hog's Lard. — The inside fat or leaf of a pig should bo beaten 
with a lard-beater, or rolling-pin ; then put it into a jar or earthen 
pot, in a large kettle of boiling water, till it is melted ; add a little 
salt and a little rosemary — the last may be left out if not preferred. 
When melted, pour it into jars or bladders, nicely cleaned. The bits 
of skins that are left are called crittens, and chopped up with apples 
or currants to make fritters, or a pie. Lard is frequently melted in a 
brass kettle over a slow fire. It is better to surround it with water. 

470. Clarified Sugar is merely brought to a syrup in the followinij 

ip. PICKLES. 129 

manner: — Break up the sug-ar in larg'e jumps, and allow a pint of 
water to every two pounds of sugar: but whatever quantity is em- 
ployed, keep out a quarter of a pint cold. Put tlie sugar and water 
in the preserving pan, with the white of one egs well beaten, to every 
two pounds of sugar. When the sugar is dissolved, set it on the fire, 
and when it boils fast, throw in tlie quarter of a pint of cold water; 
this is intended to throw up ihe scum. When it boils again, take the 
vessel from the fire and let it stand to settle; then remove all scum, 
and place it in a hair sieve; what runs through may be returned to 
the rest: give it another boil, and again settle and skim. It should 
not be stirred after the sugar is dissolved and syrup begins to warm. 
In this manner sugar is clarified for jelly which is to be put in glasses. 


Like Dr. Kitchiner, we are not fond of pickles. They are, indeed, 
for the most part, mere vehicles for taking up vinegar and spice — and 
very unwholesome, indigestible vehicles tbcy are. By pounding them, 
as they do in India, they are rendered less indigestible. Those who 
are fond of relishes, and who are wise enough not to gratify their 
tastes at tiie expense of their stomachs, will find the various flavoured 
vinegars, mixed to each individuars liking, an excellent substitute for 
pickles. . 

471. There are three methods of pickling; the most simple is, 
merely to put the articles into cold vinegar. The strongest pickling 
vinegar of white wine should always be used for pickles; and for 
such as are wanted for white pickles, use distilled vinegar, which is 
as white as water. This method we recommend for all such vege- 
tables as, being hot themselves, do not require the addition of spice, 
and such as do not require to be softened by heat, such as capsicums, 
chili, nasturtiiHus, button onions, radish-pods, horse-radish, garlic, and 
eschalots. Half fill the jars with best vinegar, fill them up with the 
vegetables, and tie down immediately with bladder and leather. One 
ridvantage of this plan is, that those who grow nasturtiums, radish- 
pwls, and so forth, in their own gardens, may gather them from day 
to day when they are exactly of the proper growth. They are very 
much better if pickled quite fresh, and all of a size, which can 
t^carcely be obtained if they be pickled all at one time. The onions 
should be dropped in the vinegar as fast as peeled ; this secures their 
colour. The iiorse-radish should be scraped a little outside, and cut 
up in rounds half an inch deep. Barbaries for garnish ; gather fine 
full l)nnches before they are quite ripe; pick away all bits of stalk 
nnd leaf and injured berries, and drop them in cold vinegar ; they 
may be kept in salt and water, changing the brine whenever it begins 
lo ferment : but the vinegar is best. 

472. The second method of pickling is that of heating vinegar and 
spice, and pouring them hot over the vegetables to be pickled, which 
are previously prepared by sprinkling with salt, or immersing in brine. 
It is better not to boil the vinegar, by which process its strength is 


evaporated. Put the vinegar and spice into a jar, bun^ it down ; 
tightly, tie a bladder over, and let it stand on the hob, or on a trivet v 
by the side of the fire, for three or four days, well shaken three or four ' 
times a day; this method may be applied to gherkins, French beans,, 
cabbage, brocoli, cauliflowers, onions, and so forth. 

473. The third method of pickling is when the vegetables are in ftr 
greater or less degree done over the fire. Walnuts, artichokes, arti-- 
choke bottoms, and beet-roots, are done thus, and sometimes onions i 
and cauliflowers. 

474. Gherkins or young Cucumbers should be the size of a finger; ; 
if smaller they have not attained their flavour, if much larger they 
are apt to be seedy; put them in unglazed stone jars; cover thenii 
with brine, composed of a quarter of a pound of salt dissolved in ai 
quart of boiling water, and left to become cold; cover down the jnrsi 
and put them on the hearth before the fire for two or three days, till; 
they become yellow; then pour off the brine, drain the cucumbers,, 
scald and dry the jars, return the cucumbers and cover them witfii 
vinegar: set them again before the fire and let them remain until' 
they become green, which will be in eight or ten days; then pour ofl' 
the vinegar, and put to them a pickle of fresh vinegar (prepared for 
gherkins, French beans, and so forth, as directed.) To each quart,, 
black pepper two ounces, ginger one ounce, salt one ounce, cayennoi 
half a drachm, mustard-seed one ounce. 

The vinegar in which the cucumbers were greened should be bot- 
tled: it will make good sauce for cold meat or salads. Cucumbers* 
are often steeped in vinegar on purpose to give it a flavour. 

475. French Beans. — The best sort for this purpose are white- 
runners. They are very large long beans, but should be gathered I 
quite young, before they are half grown; they may be done in thai 
same way as gherkins, but will not require so long a time, and thai 
first vinegar is not so nice as that from cucumbers. 

476. Onions. — Onions should be chosen about the size of marbles,, 
the silver-skinned sort are the best. Prepare a brine and put themi 
into it hot; let them remain one or two days, then drain them, and,, 
when quite dry, put them into clean dry jars, and cover them with \ 
hot pickle, in every quart of which has been steeped one ounce each 
of horse-radish sliced, black pepper, allspice, and salt, with or with- 
out mustard-seed. In all pickles the vinegar should always be two > 
inches or more above the vegetables, as it is sure to shrink, and if the ^ 
vegetables are not thoroughly immersed in pickle they will not keep. . 

477. Red Cabbage. — Choose fine firm cabbages: the largest areiy 
not the best; trim off' the outside leaves; quarter the cabbage, take- 
out the large stalk, slice the quarters into a colander, find sprinkle a 
little salt between the layers; put but a little salt, too much will 
spoil the colour; let it remain in the colander till next day, shake it 
well that all the brine may run off"; put it in jars, cover it with a hot 
pickle composed of black pepper and allspice, of each an ounce; 
ginger pounded, horse-radish sliced, and salt, of each half an ouncd 


to every quart of vineg-ar (steeped as above directpd) ; two capsicums 
may be added to a quart, or one drachm of cayenne, 

478. Garlic and Eschalots. — Gurlic and eschalots may be pickled 
in !ho same way as onions. 

479. Melons, Mangoes, and long Cucumbers, may all be done in 
the same manner. Melons should not be much nior^^ than half g^rovvn; 
cucumbers full grown, but not overgrown. Cut otf'tlie top, but leave 
it han<,nn(r by a bit of rind, which is to serve as a himre to a box-lid ; 
with a marrow-spoon scoop out all the seeds, and fill the fruit with 
equal parts of mustard-seed, ground pepper, and ginger, or flour of 
mustard instead of the seeds, and two or three cloves of garlic. The 
lid which encloses the spice may be sewed down or tied, by running 
a while thread tiirough the cucumber, and through the lid, and then, 
tying it together, cut off the ends. The pickle may be prepared with 
the spices directed for cucumbers, or with the following, which bears 
a nearer resemblance to India. To each quart of vinegar put salt, 
flour of mustard, curry powder, bruised gmger, turmeric, half an 
ounce of each, cayenne pepper one drachm, all rubbed together with 
a large glassful of salad oil ; eschalots two ounces, and garlic half 
an ounce, sliced; steep the spice in the vinegar as before directed, 
and put the vegetables into it hot. 

4S0. Brocoli or CauliJIowers. — Choose such as are firm, yet of 
their full size; cut away all the leaves, and pare the stalk; pull away 
the flowers by bunches, steep in brine two days, then drain them; 
wipe them dry and put them into hot picUle; or merely infuse for 
three days three ounces of curry powder in every quart of vinegar. 

481. Walnuts. — Be particular in obtaining them exactly at the 
proper season ; if they go beyond the middle of July, there is danger 
of their becoming hard and woody. Steep them a week in brine. If 
they are wanted to be soon ready for use, prick them with a pin, or 
run a larding pin several times through them; but if they are not 
vi'anted in haste, this method had better be let alone. Put them into 
a kf'ttle of brine, and give them a gentle simmer, then drain them on 
a sieve and lay them on fish drainers in an airy place, until they be- 
come black, which may be two days; then add hot pickle of vinegar 
in which has been steeped, in the proportion of a quart, black pepper 
one ounce, ginger, eschalots, salt, and mustard-seed, one ounce each. 
Most pickle vinegar, when the vegetables are used, may be turned to 
use, walnut pickle in particular; boil it up, allowing to each quart 
four or six anchovies chopped small, and a large table-spoonful of 
eschalots, also chopped. Let it stand a few days, till it is quite clear, 
then pour oft' and bottle. It is an excellent store sauce for hashes, 
fish, and various other purposes. 

482. Beet-roots. — Boil or bake gently until they are nearly done* 
according to the size of the roots they will require from an hou 
and a half to two hours; drain them, and when they begin to cool 
peel and cut in slices half an inch thick, then put them into a pickle 
comp(3sed of black pepper and allspice, of each one ounce, ginger 
pounded, horse-radish sliced, and salt, of each half an ounce to wery 


quart of vinegar, steeped. Two capsicums may be added to a quart, 
or one drachm of cayenne. 

483. CauliJImoers or Brocoli. — Choose firm full-ofrown cauliflowers 
and brocoli, cut away all the leaves and pare the stalk, and instead of 
sleeping in cold brine, set them over the fire in cold brine, and let it 
heat gradually. Just before it comes to boil, take them up in a wire 
ladle, and spread them on a cloth before the fire; when quite dry, put 
them into glass or jars, and add cold pickle, according to the second 
method of making pickle (472). 

484. Artichokes. — Gather young artichokes as soon as formed ; 
throw them into boiling brine, and let them boil two minutes ; drain 
them; when cold and dry put them in jars, and cover with vineofar, 
prepared as method the third, but the only spices employed should be 
ginger, mace and nutmeg. 

485. Artichoke Bottoms. — Get full-grown artichokes and boil them, 
but not so much as for eating, but just until the leaves can be pulled ; 
remove them and the choke ; in taking off the stalk, be careful not to 
break it off so as to bring away any of the bottom ; it would be better 
to pare them with a silver knife, and leave half an inch of tender stalk 
coming to a point; when cold, add vinegar and spice, the same as for 

486. Mushrooms. — Choose small white mushrooms ; they should 
be but one night's growth. Cut ofTthe roots, and rub the mushrooms 
clean with a bit of flannel and salt; put them in a jar, allowing to 
every quart of mushrooms one ounce each of salt and ginger, half an 
ounce of whole pepper, eight blades of mace, a bay leaf, a strip of le- 
mon rind, and a wine-glassful of sherry ; cover the jar close, and let it 
stand on the hob or on a stove, so as to be thoroughly heated, and on 
the point of boiling; so let it remain a day or two, till the liquor is ab- 
sorbed by the mushrooms and spices; then cover them with hot vine- 
gar, close them again, and stand till it just comes to a boil ; then take 
them away from the fire. When they are quite cold divide the mush- 
rooms and spice into wide-mouthed bottles, fill them up with the vine- 
gar, and tie them over. In a week's time, if the vinegar has shrunk 
so as not entirely to cover the mushrooms, add cold vinegar. At the 
top of each bottle put a tea-spoonful of salad or almond oil ; cork close, 
and dip in bottle resin. 

487. Samphire. — On the sea-coast this is merely preserved in wa- 
ter, or equal parts of sea-water and vinegar; but as it is sometimes 
pent fresh as a present to inland parts, the best way of managing it 
under such circumstances, is to steep it two days in brine, then drain 
and put it in a stone jar covered with vinegar, and having a lid, over 
which put thick paste of flour and water, and set it in a very cool oven 
all night, or in a warmer oven till it nearly, but not quite boils. Then 
let it stand on a warm hob for half an hour, and let it become quite cold 
before the paste is removed ; then add cold vinegar, if any more is re- 
quired, and secure as other pickles. 

488. India?!. Fickle. — The vefietables to be employed for this fa- 
vourite pickle, are small hard knots of white cabbage sliced, cauli- 

. il O O PICKLES. ^ '*^ 133 

flowers or brocoli in flakes, long- carrots not larger than a finder, or 
laroe ciirrots sliced (the former are far preferable,) gherkins, Frenclj 
beans, small bottom onions, white turnip radi.<hes half grown, radish- 
pods, eschalots, young hard apples, green peaches when the trees arc 
thinned before the stones begin to form, vegetable marrow not larger 
than a hen's eg^, small green melons, celery, shoots of green elder, 
horse-radish, na^iturtiums, capsicums, and garlic. As all these vege- 
tables do not come in season together, the best method of doing this 
is to prepare a large jar of pickle at sucli time of the year as most of 
the things may be obtained, and add the others as they come in sea- 
son. Thus the pickle will be nearly a year in making, and ought to 
btand another year before nsing, when, if properly managed, it will 
be excellent, but will keep and continue to improve for years. For 
preparing the several vegetables, the same directions may be observed 
»s for pickling them separately, only take this general rule — that, if 
possible, boiling is to be avoided, and soaking in brine to be preferred ; 
be very particular that every ingredient is perfectly dry before put- 
ting into the jar, and that the jar is very closely tied down every time 
that it is opened for the addition of fresh vegetables. Neither mush- 
rooms, walnuts, nor red cabbage, are to be admitted. 

For the pickle- To a gallon of the best wine vinegar add salt 
three ounces, flour of mustard half a pound, turmeric two ounces, 
white ginger sliced three ounces, cloves one ounce, mace, black pep- 
per, long pepper, white pepper, half an ounce each, cayenne two 
drachms, eschalots peeled four ounces, garlic peeled two ounces; 
steep the spice in vinegar on the hob or trivet for two or three days. 
The mustard and turmeric must be rubbed smooth with a little cold 
vinegar, and stirred into the rest when as 'near boiling as possible. 
Such vegetables as are ready may be put in ; when cayenne, nastur 
liums, or any other vegetables mentioned in the first method of pick- 
ling, come in season, put them in the pickle as they are ; any in the 
second method, a small quantity of hot vinegar witiiout spice ; when 
cold pour it off, and put the vegetables into the general jar. If the 
vegetables are greened in vinegar, as French beans and gherkins, 
this will not be so necessary, but will be an improvement to all. 
Onions had better not be wet at all ; but if it be desired not to have the 
full flavour, both onions, eschalots, and garlic, may be sprinkled with 
salt in a colander, to draw off all the strong juice ; let them lie two or 
three hours. 

The elder apples, peaches, and so forth, to be greened as gherkins. 
See method the second (472.) 

The root--, radishes, carrots, celery, are only soaked in brine and 
dried. Haifa pint of salad oil, or of mustard oil, is sometimes added. 
It should be rubbed with the flour of mustard and turmeric. It is not 
essential to Indian pickle to have every variety of vegetable here men- 
tioned ; but ull these are admissible, and the greater variety the more 



We are no friends to pastry, particularly what is called the rich 
flaky pastry. It is decidedly iiidi^restible, and consequently unvvhoie- 
sofne. A crisp, short paste, however, we consider nutritious; the but- 
ler, lard, &LC. being thoroughly incorporated with the flour iti the pro- 
cess of making it. Oleaginous substance?, such as lard, become not 
only perfectly innocuous, when well mixed with farina, and well 
baked or boiled, but very nourishing and wholesome; and this we 
take to be the best way of preparing such things for human food. 

In making pastry, the cook, as indeed she ought to be on all occa- 
sions, should be particularly clean and neat. Her utensils should be 
kept in " apple-pie order," and when they are done with, they should 
be carefully cleaned and put in their places. Her paste-board and 
rolling-pin, let it be remembered, shoijld, after using, be well scoured 
with hot water alone. She should not use soap, sand, or stone dust 
of any kind. A marble slab is preferable to a board for rolling paste. 
Both are generally made too small to be convenient. Three feet long 
by two feet wide is a good size. In making a paste, a good cook will 
have no waste of any kind, and particularly she will not make more 
at one time than she wants, under the idea that she can keep it in 
flour till the next time of making ; for it is ten to one but that the old 
paste will spoil the new. No Hour except the very best can be used 
for fine descriptions of pa.stry, and in damp weather it should be dried 
before the fire, but not scorched. Clarified dripping, good lanl, mar- 
row, salt butter well washed, may be used for ordinary pastry ; indeed, 
if they are pure and sweet they will form good pastry, with good flour 
and good management. In wealthy families, however, where economy 
is not an object, and every thing tor the table is required to be of the 
first quality, the safest plan is to use the best fresh butter. The fat 
that settles on stews, and on the broth in which meat has been boiled, 
may be used tor pastry, that is, provided it is tasteless. Suet is some- 
limea used for meat pies, but though it makes a light crust, when hot, 
it does not eat well when cold. 

A most wholesome crust is made without butter or any other oily 
matter.- For this pufpose take half a quartern of dough, work in an 
egg, and cover your pie. This will be sutficient for a large one. A 
great deal more butter,, or fat of some kind or other, was formerly 
directed to be used in making pastry than at present. For ordinary 
purposes, half the weiglit of lard, or butter, is sufficient, but in the 
richest crusts the quantity should never exceed the weight of flour. 
Eggs may be added to enrich the crust; use no more water or other 
liquid in making paste than is absolutely necessary, or, in other words?, 
take care not to "put out the miller's eye," that is, to make the paste 
loo moist. The great thing is to incorporate the flour well with the 
fat, which you cannot do if you allow too njuch water or milk in the 
first instance. 

The under or side crust, which should be th'n, should not be made 
so rich as the top crust, as otherwise it will make the gravy or syrup 

PASTRY. 135 

gfRHKy. All diphes in which pies are to bo baked should be buttered 
or greased round the edaes to prevent the crust from sticking, and if 
there be an under crust, all over the in.side : — the same must be 
done with tins or saucers. 

There is a number of other little things to bo attended to in mak- 
ing pastry, which we will enumerate in as few words as wo can. 
Fruit pics or large tarts should have a hole made in the middle of the 
crust, and it is a good plan in a family pie to place a small tea-cup in 
the middle of the pie; this will form a receptacle for the syrup, and 
prevent its bniling over. For the same reason meat pies should have 
holes round their edges, but they do not require a tea-cup. The 
thickness of the crust must be regulated by the judgment of the cook 
with reference to the nature of the pie, and the circumstances of the 
party by whom it is to be eaten. Top crusts vary in thickness from 
half an inch to an inch or more. Of course a meat pie will require a 
longer time to bake than a fruit one, and some descriptions of fruit 
again longer than others. The edges of pies are sometimes crimped 
or jagged, and some persons further ornament them with leaves, or 
stars cut out of paste, and laid on the top of the crust. Pigeon and 
game pies, &.c. are general iy washed over with finely beaten yolk of 
eggs, simply to give them a nice appearance, but they are just as 
nice without it. We ought to add, that where the paste is wanted 
to adhere, as in the upper and under crusts of a pie, it is a good plan 
to touch the parts with tlie white of an egg; a little water will do, 
but not so well. 

489. Flaky and Short Crusls. — In making a Jlaky crust a part of 
the flit should be worked witii the hand to a cream, and then the 
whole of the flour well rubbed into it before any water or milk is 
added. The remaining fat must bo stuck on the paste and be rolled 
out. For crisp crust, by far the most wholesome, the whole of the 
fat should be rubbed in and thoroughly incorporated with the flour. 
Water or milk must be added when this is done, and the dough, or 
rather paste, made up. The pie-board and rolling-pin should be well 
dusted with flour, and the dough sliould be well beaten with the pin 
to thoroughly mix it, and render it light. Mind, in rolling out paste 
do not drive the pin backwards and forwards, but always keep rolling 
from you. In making flaky crusts the paste must be rolled out thin, 
and the fat or butter laid all over it; then roll it up and beat it till it 
putfs up in little bladders: it should be then finally rolled out, and 
put in the oven as quickly as possible. 

490. Raised Crust. — Put two pounds and a half of flour on the 
paste-board, and put on the fire in a saucepan three-quarters of a pint 
of water, and half a pound of gooti lard; when the water boils, make 
a hole in the middle of the flour, pour in the water and lard by degrees, 
gently mix it with a spoon, and when it is well mixed, then knead it 
with your hands till it becomes stifi'; dredge a little flour to prevent 
it sticking to the board, or you cannot make it smooth ; then set it 
aside for an hour, and keep it cool : do not roll it with your rol'ing- 
pin, bat roll it with your hands, about the thickness of a quart pot; 


cut it into six pieces, leaving a little for the covers ; put the left hand, 
clenched, in the middle of one of the pieces, and with the other on 
the outside work it up ao^ainst the back of the left to a round or oval 
shape. It is now ready for the meat, which must be cut into small 
pieces with some fat, and pressed into the pie; then cover it with the 
paste previously rolled out to a proper thickness, and of the size of 
the pie; put this lid on the pie and press it toofelher with your thumb 
and lingL-r, cut it all round with a pair of scissors, and bake for an 
hour and a half. Our good old country housewives pride themselves 
very much upon beino- able to raise a largo and high pork pie. This 
crust vvill answer for many meat and other pies baked in dishes 
or tins. 

491. Puff Paste. — This paste is nearly the same as what we have 
called (439) flaky crust, and, of course, made upon the same princi- 
ples. If f^giTB are desired, allow three yolks to a pound of butter or 
lard. Rub a fourth part of the fat to a cream, then mix the eggs 
with it, and afterwards the flour. A very little water will suffice to 
vyet it. Beat it with the pin to make it flaky; roll it out thin three 
times, puttinfT in a portion of the fat each time, and roll it from you: 
after each rolling, beat it well. 

492. Sweet Paste. — This is suitable to fruit tarts generally, apples 
perhaps excepted, for which we recommend a puflT paste. To three- 
quarters of a pound of butter put a pound and a half of flour, three or 
four ounces of sifted loaf-sugar, the yolks of two eggs, and half a pint 
of new milk. Bake it in a moderate oven; if required to be iced, 
see 500. 

493. Crust for Savoury Pies. — To two pounds of flour, one and a 
half of butter, or lard, and the yolks of three eggs; rub part of the 
fat to a cream with the eggs, then rub in the flour; v^'et with cold 
water, and roll out with the remainder of the butter. This crust is 
suitable f)r pigeon, rabbit, hare, and other savoury pies. 

494. A rich Short Crust. — Rub to a cream a quarter of a pound 
of butter ; add one pound of well-dried and very fine flour, and two 
ounces or more of pounded loaf-sugar; rub together till they are tho- 
roughly incorporated ; then add the yolks of two good-sized eggs, and 
as much boiling hot cream as will bring it to a proper consistence. 
Bike \i\ a moderate oven. . 

495. Biscuit Paste. — Take six yolks of eggs, a quarter of a pound 
of loaf-sugar, a pound of flour, and a tea-cup full of milk. Rub these 
ingredients into a stiff pnste. This paste is only fit for light preserved 

■fruits that require scarcely any baking. It is sometimes cut out in 
rounds, a bit of jam or jelly placed on each, and baked in tins. 

49G. Crust for Venison Pasty. — Raised crust (490) will do, but if 
a richer be required, increase the quantity of butter, and add eggs. 
Let the top crust be substantial, and line the sides of the dish, but not 
the bottom. 

497. Stringing Paste m jst be made more tenacious than I he other 
descriptions. A quarter of a pound of flour to one ounce of butter, 


•with a very little water, will make paste which may be drawn out in 
fine striny.--^ and laid across the tartlets. 

498. Foiatoe Paste. — Boil your potatoes; rub through a colander, 
and while quite hot add butter and an egg". Use plenty of Hour on 
the pie-hoard and rolling-pin; cover your pie, and put it into the oven 
while quite warm. 

499. Rice Paste. — Simmer the rice in water or milk till quite soft 
and pulpy; drain it well oft; stir in yolks of eggs, one to a quarter 
of a pound of rice, and a little butter, if you like. Roll out the paste 
with a dust of flour. Cover your pie and bake without suffering to 
cool. Tills paste will do for either savoury or sweet pies. 

500. Icing Pastry. — When nearly baked enough, take the pastry 
out of the oven and sift fine powdered sugar over it. Replace it in 
the oven and hold over it, till the sugar is melted, a hot salamander 
or shovel. The above method is preferred for pastry to be eaten hot: 
for cold, beat up the white of two eggs well, wash over the tops of 
the pies with a brush, and sift over this a good coating of sugar; 
cause it to adhere to the egg and pie crust; trundle over it a clean 
brush dipped in water till the sugar is all moistened. Bake again for 
about ten minutes. 


501. Perigord Pie. — Make a force meat chiefly of truffles, a small 
quantity of basil, thyme, parsley, knotted marjoram, the liver of any 
kind of game (if of woodcocks, that and the entrails, except the little 
bag), a small quantity of fat bacon, a few crumbs, the flesh of wild or 
tame fowls, pepper, and salt. Lard the breasts of pheasants, par- 
tridges, woodcocks, moor-game, or whatever game you have, with 
bacon of different sizes; cut the legs and wings from the backs, and 
divide the backs ; season them all with white pepper, a little Jamaica 
pepper, mace, and salt ; make a thick raised crust to receive the 
above articles; it is thought better than a dish, but either will do. 
Line it closely with slices of fine fat bacon, then cover it with stuflT- 
ing, and put the different parts of the game lightly on it, with whole 
green truffles, and pieces of stuffing among and over it, observing not 
to crowd the articles, so as to cause them to be underbaked. Over 
the whole lay slices of fat bacon, and then a cover of thick common 
crust. Bake it slowly, according to the size of the pie, which will 
require a long time. 

Some are made with a pheasant in the middle whole, and the other 
game cut up and put round it. 

502. Sole Pie. — Split the soles from the bone, and cut the fins 
close ; season with a mixture of salt, pepper, a little nutmeg, and 
pounded mace, and put them in layers with oysters. They eat ex- 
cellently. A pair of middling sized ones will do, and half a hundred 
of oyt^ters; put in the dish the oyster liquor, two or three spoonfuls 
of broth, and some butter. When the pie is baked, pour in a cupfttl. 
of thick cream boiled up with a tea-spoonful of flour. 


503. Eel Pie. — Cut the eels in lengths of two or throe inches, 
after skinning thorn ; season with pepper and salt, and place in the 
diirh with some bits of butter and a little water, and cover it with 
pd.stp. Middle-sized eels do best. 

504. Oyster Fie. — Open the oysters and strain the liquor from 
thesn ; parboil them after taking oif the beards. Parboil sweetbreads, 
cut them in slices, lay them and the oysters in layers, season them 
v*ry lightly witli salt, popper, and mace, then put half a tea-cup full 
of liquor, and the same of gravy. Bake in a slow oven, and before 
you serve, put a tea-cup full of cream, a little more of oyster liquor, 
and a cup of white gravy, all warmed, but not boiled. 

505. Pilchard Pie. — Clean and skin the white part of large leeks; 
scald in milk and water, and put them in layers into a di.-.h, and, be- 
tween the byers, two or three salted pilchards which have been 
soaked for two or three hours the day before. Cover the whole with 
a good plain crust. When the pie is taken out of the oven, lift up 
the side crust with a knife and empty out all the liquor; then pour 
in half a pint of scalded cream. 

506. A remarkably Jine Fish Pie. — Boil two pounds of small eels; 
having cut the fins quite close, pick the flesh off and throw the bones i 
into the liquor with a little mace, pepper, salt, and a slice of onion, , 
and boil till rich, and strain it; make force meat of the flesh, an i 
anchovy, parsley, lemon peel, salt, pepper, and crumbs, and four; 
ounces of. butter warmed, and lay it at the bottom of the dish. Take ' 
the flesh of soles, small cod, or dressed turbot, and lay it on the force 
meat, having rubbed it with salt and pepper; pour the gravy over*, 
and bake. Ob.-erve to take off the skins and fins, if cod or soles. 

507. Becf-sleak Pie. — Take beef-steaks tliat have been well hung, 
beat them gently with a circular steak-beater, season them with > 
pepper, salt, and a little eschalot minced very fine. Roll each steak: 
with a good piece of fat, and fill your dish. Put some crust on thei 
edge an inch below it, and a cup of water or broth in the dish. Cover" 
with rather a thick crust, and set in a moderate oven. 

508. Becf-sleak and Oyster Pie. — l^repare tlie steaks as above,, 
without rolling, and put layers of them and of oysters. Stew that 
liquor and beards of the latter, with a bit of lemon peel, mace, and a:i 
sprig of parsley. When the pie is baked, boil with above three"* 
spoonfuls, and an ounce of butter rolled with flour. Strain it, and*! 
put it into the dish. • 

509. Veal, Chicken and Parsley Pie. — Cut some slices from the^ 
neck or leg of veal ; if from the leg, about the knuckle; season thenif 
with salt, scald some parsley that is picked from the stems and press i 
it dry ; cut it a little and lay it at the bottom of the dish, then put the 
meat, and so on, in layers. Fill the dish witli milk, but not so higii 
as the crust: cover it with crust, and when baked, pour out a little of 
the milk, and put in half a pint of good scalded cream. Chickens 
may be cut up and cooked in the same way. 

510. Veal Olive Pie. — Make the olives in the following manner; 
Cut long thin slices of veal, beat tiiem, lay on them thin slices of fat 


bacon, and over them a layer offeree meat, seasoned high with shred 
eschalot and cayenne. Roll them tight, about the size of two fingers, 
but not more than two or three inches long; fasten them round with 
a small skewer, rub egg over them. Put them round and round the 
dit«h, making the m.iddle highest; fill it up almost with water, and 
cover it. Add gravy, cream, flour, and mushroom powder, when 

511. Veal Pie. — Take some of the middle or scrag of a small neck; 
season it with pepper and salt, and either put to it, or not, a few slices 
of lean bacon or ham. if it is wanted of a high relish, add mace, 
cayenne, and nutmeg, to the salt and pepper, and also force meat and 
eggs, and if you choose add truffles, morels, mushrooms, sweetbreads 
cut into small bits, and cocks'-combs blanched, if liked. Have a rich 
gravy to pour in after baking ; it will be very good without any of the 
latter additions. 

512. A rich Veal Pie. — Cut steaks from the neck or breast of veal ; 
season them with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, and a very little clove in 
powder. Slice two sweatbreads, and season them in the same man- 
ner. Lay a puff paste on the edge of the dish; then put the meat, 
yolks of hard eggi*, the sweetbreads, and some oysters, up to the top 
of the dish. Lay over the whole some very thin slices of ham, and 
fill up the dish with water; cover, and when it is taken out of the 
oven pour in at the top, through a funnel, some veal gravy and rich 
cream, warmed together. Lay a paper over the crust, that it may 
not be too brown. 

513. Calfs Head Pie. — Stew a knuckle of veal till fit for eating, 
with two onions, a few isinglass shavings, a bunch of sweet herbs, a 
blade of mace, and a few peppercorns, in three pints of water. Keep 
the broth for the pie. Take off a bit of the meat for the balls, and 
let the other be eaten ; butter, simmer the bones in the broth till it is 
very good. Half boil the head, and cut it into square bits; put a 
layer of ham at the bottom of the dish, then some head, first fat, then 
lean, with balls and hard eggs cut in half, and so on till the dish is 
full ; and take care not to place the pieces close, or the pie will be too 
solid, and there will be no space for the jelly. The meat must be 
first pretty well seasoned with salt, pepper, and a scrape or two of 
nutmeg. Put a little water and a little gravy into the dish, and cover 
it with a tolerably thick crust; bake it in a slow oven, and when done, 
pour in as much gravy as it will hold, and do not cut it till perfectly 
cold, in doing which observe to use a very sharp knife, and first cut 
out a large piece, going down to the bottom of the dish, and when cut 
thus, thinner slices can be cut. The different colours and the jelly 
have a beautiful marble appearance. A small pie may be made to 
eat hot, which, with high seasoning, oysters, mushrooms, truffle.-^, and 
morels, has a very good appearance. The cold pie will keep many 
days; slices make a pretty side dish. Instead of isinglass, use a 
calf's foot or a cow-heel, if the jelly is not likely to be stiff enough. 
The pickled tongues of calves' heads may be cut instead of, or in ad- 
dition to, ham. 


514. Excellent Pork Pies to cat cold— Cut the trimininfrs ofF n 
hog when cut uj5, and if you have not sufficient, tako the meat otf f- 
Bweet-bonf?. Beat it well with your rollinor-pin ; season with salt ana 
keep the lean and fat separate. Raise common crust either in a 
round or oval form ; put a layer of lean and then a layer of fat, or 
mix your fat and lean, and so on till you have filled the pie to the 
top; lay on the lid, cut the edge smoothly round, and pinch it close. 
Bake in a slow oven, as the meat is very solid. Do not put any 
water or bone into pork pies. The outside pieces will be hard unleas 
they are cut sn)all and pressed close. See raised crust, 490. 

515. Lamb Pie. — Make it of the breast, neck, or loin ; it should 
not be seasoned much with salt and pepper; the bone taken out, but 
not the gristles ; a small quantity of jelly gravy should be put in hot; 
put two spoonfuls of water before bakincr. This pie should not he 
cut until cold. House lamb is one of the most delicate things that 
can be eaten. Grass lamb makes an excellent pie, and may either 
be boned or not, but not to bone it is perhaps the bpst. Season with 
only pepper and salt; put two spoonfuls of water before baking, and 
as much gravy when taken out of the oven. Meat pies being fat, it 
is best to pour out the liquor on one side, take the fat off, and put it 
in again and a litiie more to it (by means of a funnel), at the top. 

516. Mutton Pie. — Take steaks from the loin "or neck of mutton 
that has been kept some time hanging ; beat them and cut off soma 
of the fat; add pepper, salt, and a small onion; put a litiie water at 
the bottom of the dish, and paste on the edge, put in the steaks, and 
cover it over with rather a thick crust. If you make raised smal) 
pics, break the bones in two; season and cover them over, pinch the 
edges. When baked, pour into each a little gravy made of mutton, 
seasoned with pepper, salt, and a small hit of onion. 

.517. Chicken Pie. — Take two young fowls, cut them up and season 
them with salt, a little mace, nutmeg, and white pepper very finely 
powdered ; add a small bit of cayenne. Put the chickens, force meat 
balls, slices of ham or gammon, and hard eggs, in turn by layers. If 
they are to be made into raised pies, add no water; if in a dish, put 
a little at the bottom. Make gravy of the scrag or a knuckle of veal, 
with some shank bones of mutton, seasoned with mace, white pepper, 
an onion, a small bunch of sweet herbs, and a little salt. Add morels, 
truffles, mushrooms, and so forth, if eaten hot; but not, if eaten cold. 
Should you make this pie in a dish, put as much gravy as it will hold; 
but if in a raised crust the gravy must be strained, and then put w 
cold, as jelly. Make the jelly clear by boiling with it the whites of 
two eggs well beaten; take away the meat previous to adding the 
whites; strain it through a muslin sieve. 

Young Rabbits are prepared in the same way ; their legs should 
be cut short, and the breast-bones must not be put in ; they will help 
to make the gravy. 

519. G-iblet Pie. — Nicely clean goose or duck giblets; stew them 
in a little water with a bunch of sweet herbs, black pepper, onion, a 
little salt, till nearly done; let them stand till cold. If you have not 


enough to fill the dish, put a veal or beef-steak, or two or three mut- 
ton chops, at the bottom. Put the liquor that you have stewed your 
giblets in into the dish ; put in the giblets, and when baked, pour into 
it a tea-cup full of cream. 

520. Green Goose Pie. — Pluck and singe two young green geese 
of a good size ; bone them and wash ; season them well with allspice, 
mace, pepper, and salt. Put one inside the other and press them as 
close as you can, drawing the legs inwards. Butter them well, and 
bake either with or without crust. If made a pie of, the cover must 
fit the dish close, to keep the steam in. It will keep many days. 
Gravy-jelly may be put in when served. 

521. Staffordshire Goose Pies. — Bone, wash, and season the birds 
with allspice, mace, pepper, and salt. Put rather a small turkey in- 
side a goose, duck, fowl, and then less birds, tongue or force meat. 
Force meat may fill up the spaces between the crust and fowls, and 
be omitted within. Ornament the crust, and put a knob or flower at 
the top by which to lift it, as it must not be cut, but kept to cover the 
pie. A less expensive and smaller pie may be made by omitting the 
goose and turkey. All pies made of white meats or fowls are im- 
proved by a layer of fine sausage meat. 

522. Hare Pie to cut cold — Cut up the hare ; season it; and bake 
it with force meat and egg^ in a raised crust or dish. When served, 
cut off the lid, and cover it with jelly-gravy. 

523. Partridge Pie. — Pick and singe four partridges ; cut off the 
legs at the knees ; season them with chopped parsley, thyme, mush- 
room?, pepper, and salt. Put a slice of ham and a veal cutlet at the bot- 
tom of the dish ; put the partridges in, and half a pint of good broth. 
Put puff paste on the edge of the dish ; cover it ; brush it over with 
eggs ; and bake an hour. 

524. A French Pie. — Lay a puff paste on the edge of a dish ; put 
into it either chickens jointed, veal in slices, or rabbits, with force 
meat balls, sweetbreads cut in pieces, a few truffles, and artichoke 

525. Pigeon Pie. — Rub the pigeons with salt and pepper, inside 
and out ; put a bit of butter inside, and, if approved, some parsley chop- 
ped fine, with the livers, salt, and pepper. Lay a beef-steak at the 
bottom of the dish, and place the birds on it. Between every two a 
hard egg. Lay a bit of ham on each pigeon ; put a cup of water at 
the bottom of the dish. When ham is cut for pies or gravy, take the 
under part rather tiian the prime. Season the gizzards and two joints 
of the wings, and place them in the middle of the pie ; and over them, 
in a hole made in the crust, three feet, nicely cleaned, to show what 
pie it is. 

526. Squab Pie. — Cut apples, and lay them in rows, with mutton 
chops, a little sugar, and an onion ; cut fine, and put among them. 

527. Duck Pie. — Bone a fowl and a full-grown duck ; wash them, 
season with a small quantity of mace and allspice, in the finest pow- 
der, with salt and pepper. Put the fowl within the duck. Put a 
calf's tongue, pickled red, boiled very tender, and skinned, into the 



fowl; press the whole closo. The skins of the legs should be drawn 
inwards, that the body of the fowl may be quite smooth. The apaco 
between the sides of the crust and fowl may be filled with a fine forco 
meat, if approved. 

Bake it in a slow oven, either in a raised crust or dish, with a thick 
crust ornamented. 

528. Rabbit Pie. — Cut up two young rabbits ; take a pound of fat 
pork, that has been in pickle a week ; cut it into small bits; season it 
with salt and pepper, and put into a dish. Parboil the livers and 
brains, and beat them in a mortar with a quarter of a pound of fat 
bacon or ham ; add mace, salt, pepper and sweet herbs, chopped fine. 
Make this into small balls, and distribute in the dish, with artichoke 
bottoms, cut in dice. Grate half a small nutmeg over, and add half a 
pint of port, and the same quantity of water. Cover with a tolerably 
thick crust, and bake it an hour in a quick oven. 

529. Vegetable Pie. — Cut young- carrots, artichoke bottoms, let- 
tuces, mushrooms, turnips, broad beans, scalded and blanciied, onions, 
celery, parsley, and add peas. Or use any of them you may chance 
to have. Make them into a stew, with some good veal gravy ; sea- 
son with salt and {>epper. Bake a crust over a dish, with some paste 
over the edge, and a cup turned bottom upwards, to prevent its sink- 
ing when baked. Pour the stew into the dish, and lay the crust over 
it. Winter vegetables may be used in the same way. A cup of cream 
is a great improvement, 

530. An Herb Pie. — Take one handful of spinach, two handfulsof 
parsley, from the stems, some mustard and cress, two lettuces, a few 
leaves of borage, and white beat leaves. Wash and boil them a little, 
and then drain out all the water; cut them small; mix, and lay in a 
dish ; sprinkle with some salt ; mix a batter with two eggs well beaten, 
a pint of cream, and half a pint of milk, as much flour as will bring it 
to. a paste not very thick, and pour it on the herbs; cover with a good 
crust, and bake. 

531. To prepare Venison for Pasty. — Take the bones out; season 
and beat the meat ; lay it in a stone jar in large pieces ; pour upon it 
some plain drawn beef gravy, rather weak. Put the bones on the 
top ; then set the jar in a saucepan over the fire ; simmer between 
three and four hours. Put it in a cold place until next day. Then 
remove the cake of fat. Lay the meat in handsome pieces on a dish. 
Put some of the gravy in, and keep the remainder for the time of 
serving. Venison thus prepared will require less time in baking, and 
a thinner crust. 

532. Venison Pasty. — A boned and skinned shoulder makes a good 
j)asty. It must be beaten and seasoned. Add the fat of a loin of 
mutton, well hung, as the shoulder is lean. Steep twenty-four hours 
in equal parts of vinegar and port. Rub the shoulder well with sugar 
for two or three days, as it is sinewy. Wipe it clean from the sugar 
and wine when it is used. Either in the shoulder or side the meat 
must be cut in pieces, and laid with fat between, that it may be pro- 
portioned to each person, without breaking up the pasty to find it. 

PASTRY. 14.'1 

Dust some salt and peppor at the bottom of the dish, put a bit of but 
ter ; then the meat, nicely paci<ed, so as not to be hollow. Bake be-j 
tween three and four hours in a slow oven. Take some fine old mutton, , 
and boil with the bones of the venison to make gravy : season it with 
salt, pepper, and a little mace; put half a pint of this gravy, cold, into 
the dish ; butter the venison; line the sides of the dish with a thick^ 
paste ; lay a thick crust over the top. Put the remainder of the , 
gravy, hot (when it is baked,) into it, with a funnel, through the hole 
at the top. 

533. To make a Pasty of Beef or Mutton, to eat as well as Veni- 
son. — Bone a sirloin, or a small rump of beef, or a fat loin of mutton, 
after hanging several days; beat it well with a rolling-pin; then rub 
ten pounds of meat with four ounces of sugar ; then pour over it a 
glass of vinegar, and a glass of port wine. Let it lie five days and 
then wash and wipe the meat very dry, and season it very hign with 
salt, Jamaica pepper, nutmeg, &c. To ten pounds of meat, one pound, 
or nearly, of butter ; spread it over the meat. Lay it in the dish. Put 
a crust round the edges, rather thick, and cover. It must be baked ia 
a slow oven. Put the bones in a pan in the oven, with no more wa^ 
ter than will cover them, and one glass of port wine, a little salt and 
pepper, in order that you may have a little rich gravy to add to the 
pasty when baked. Put it in the pie, through a funnel, at the top of 
the pasty. Sugar gives shortness and better flavour to meat thaa 
salt (too great a quantity of salt hardens it,) and is quite as good a 
preservative, except from flies. 

534. Apple Pie. — Wipe the outside of some apples, pare, and core 
them ; boil the parings and cores in a little water till it tastes well ; 
strain, and put a bit of bruised lemon, a little sugar and cinnamon, 
and simmer again. Put a paste round the edge of the dish ; place the 
apples in it; when one layer is made, sprinkle half the sugar, shred 
lemon peel, and squeeze some juice, or a glass of cider. Put in the 
liquor that you have boiled. Cover with paste. Add butter when cut, 
it' hot. To flavour the pie you may add quince, marmalade, orange 
paste, or cloves, to flavour. 

535. Cherry Pie should have a mixture of currants or raspberries, 
or both. 

530. Currant Pie. — With or without raspberries. 

537. Mince Pies. — Of scraped beef or tongue, free froiri skin and 
string, two pounds, four pounds of beef suet chopped fine, two pounds 
of jar raisins stoned and chopped, six pounds of currants nicely 
cleaned, perfectly dry, of chopped apples three pounds, the peel and 
juice of two lemons, a pint of sweet wine, a quarter of a pint of brandy, 
a nutmeg, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, the same of mace, the same 
of pimento, in fine powders. Press the whole into a deep pan when 
well mixed, and keep it covered in a cool place. Have orange, and 
lemon peel, and citron, ready, and put some of each in the pies when 
made. Half, or a quarter of the quantity may be made, unless for a 
very large family. 

638. Tarte de Moie. — Put a light paste into a dish, then layers of 


all kinds of sweetmeats, biscuits, marrow, and butter. Add a mode- 
rately rich custard, not verj' sweet, and seasoned with orange liower 
water; give it a scald, and pour over the whole. It will take half 
an hour to bake. Turn it out. It is good hot or cold. 

539. Rhubarb Tart. — Take the skin otf the rhubarb, and cut tho 
stalks in lengths of four or five inches. Make a syrup for a quart 
basin. Take a pound of common lump sugar; boil it in nearly half a 
pint of water to a thin syrup; skim it, and put in the rhubarb, and as 
it simmers shake the pan over the fire. It will turn yellow at first, 
but keep it very gently simmering till it greens, and then take it off. 
When cold, put in a tart dish, with as much syrup as will make it 
very moist. Put a light crust -over, and when that is done, the tart 
will be sufficiently baked. Quarter the crust, and fill the dish with 
custard or cream. 

540. To prepare Cranberries for Tarts. — Simmer them in moist 
sugar, without breaking, twenty minutes; and let them become cold 
before used ; a pint will require nearly three ounces of sugar. Tlie 
Russian and American sorts are larger and better flavoured than tho.-e 
of England. The juice, when pressed from the baked fruit and 
sweetened, makes a fine drink in fevers. Stewed with sugar, they 
eat exceedingly nice with bread. 

541. Lemon Tart. — Take the rind of four lemons, pared rather 
thick, boil it in water till tender, and beat fine. Add to it four ounces 
of lump sugar, four ounces of blanched almonds cut thin, the juice of 
the lemon, and a little grated peel. Simmer to a syrup; when cold 
turn it into a shallow tin, lined with a thin rich puff paste, and lay 
bars of the same over. As soon as the paste is baked, take it out. 

542. Orange Tartlets or Puffs. — Line patty-pans ; when baked, 
put in orange marmalade made with apple jelly. 

543. Fried Patties. — Mince a bit of cold veal and six oysters with 
a few crumbs of bread, nutmeg, pepper, salt, and a small bit of lemon 
peel; add the liquor of the oysters; warm all in the tosser, but do 
not boil it; let it get cold. Make a good puft' paste, roll thin, and 
cut it in round or square bits ; put the meat between two of them, 
pinch the edge to keep in the gravy, and fry them of a fine brown. 
This is a very good thing — and baked, is a fashionable dish. Wash 
all patties over with egg before baking. 

544. Oyster Patties.— Fai a fine puff paste into small patty-pans; 
put a bit of bread in each, and cover with paste ; bake them; and in 
the mean time make ready the oysters. Take off the beards of the 
oysters ; cut the other parts in small bits, put them in a small tosser, 
with a grate of nutmeg, a little white peppnr and salt, a bit of lemon 
chopped very fine, a little cream, and a little of the oyster liquor; 
take the bread out of the patties, and fill them, after simmering them 
a few minutes. Observe to put a bit of bread into all the patties, to 
keep them hollow while baking. 

545. Beef Patties. — Cut very fine some underdone beef with a 
little fat, season with pepper, salt, and a little onion or eschalot 
Make plain paste, thin, in an oval shape; fill it with minco, pinch 


tJie edges, and fry them of a fine brown. The paste should be made 
with a small quantity of butter, egg, and milk. 

546. A good Mince for Patties. — Two ounces of ham, four of 
chicken or veal, one egg boiled hard, a blade of mace, salt, and pep- 
per, three cloves in powder. Just before you serve, warm it with 
four spoonfuls of rich gravy, four spoonfuls of cream, and an ounce 
of butter: fill as usual. 

547. Apple Puffs. — Pare and core the fruit, and either stew them 
in a stone jar, or bake them. When cold, mix the pulp of the apple 
with sugar and lemon peel shred fine, taking as little of the apple 
juice as you can. Bake them in a thin paste, in a quick oven ; a 
quarter of an hour will do them, if small. Orange or quince mar- 
malade is a great improvement; cinnamon pounded, or orange flower 
water, in change. 

548. Lemon Puffs. — Beat and sift a pound and a quarter of double 
refined sugar, grate the rind of two large lemons and mix it with the 
sugar; then beat the whites of three new-laid eggs a long time, add 
them to the sugar and peel, and beat them for an hour. Make it up 
in any shape you please, and bake them on ^aper ; put on tin plates, 
in a moderate oven. Do not remove the paper till cold. Oiling the 
paper will make it come off" with ease. 

549. Excellent light Puffs. — Mix two spoonfuls of flour, half a 
spoonful of brandy, one egg, a little grated lemon peel, a little loaf- 
sugar, some nutmeg; then fry, but not brown; beat it in a mortar 
with five eggs; put a quantity of lard in a frying-pan, and when quite 
hot, drop a dessert spoonful of batter at a time ; turn as they brown, 
Serve them immediately with sweet sauce. 

550. Cheese Puffs. — Strain cheese curd from the whey, and beat 
half a pint of it fine in a mortar, with three eggs, a spoonful and a 
half of flour, only one white of the eggs, a quarter of a nutmeg, orange 
flower water, and sugar to make it sweet. Put a little of this paste 
in very small round cakes on a tin plate. A quarter of an hour will 
bake them, if the oven is hot. Serve with pudding sauce. 


The first thing to be learnt, with regard to making puddings, is 
the composition of the batter. Without good batter, you cannot have 
good pudding ; and without good eggs, flour, and milk, you cannot 
have either. For all kinds of puddings and pastry, it is of great im- 
portance that your flour should be of the very best quality. Your 
milk too should be good. The goodness or badness o/ milk depends 
much on the kind of food upon which the cow is fed ; hnl cows fed 
upon the same food do not yield milk of the same quality. A cow 
that gives a large quantity of milk does not always produ^ a propor- 
tionate quantity of cream, and of course poor milk will not make so 
good a pudding as rich. Flour is not the better for being fresh 
ground, as Dr. Kitchiner intimates, but on the contrary. It should, 
however, be perfectly sweet. The goodness of well-manufactured 


flour depends upon the quality of the wheat from which it is made. 
Without good wheat you can have no good flour. In one word, to 
ensure a good pudding, your eggs must be new laid, your butter 
rich and fresh, your flour of the first quality, and all your ingredients 
of the same character. In the making of a pudding — a. good pudding 
—the cook must observe the utmost cleanliness, both as respects her- 
self and the utensils which she uses. The eggs directed to be used 
in the following receipts are full-sized hen eggs ; if pullet eggs are 
used, two will be required for one hen egg. There is no substitute, 
that we know of, for eggs in pudding making. We have heard male 
said female old women talk about using, as substitutes for eggs, snow 
and small beer. Dr. Kitchiner says, truly, " that they will no more 
answer this purpose than as substitutes for sugar or brandy." Batter 
puddings in all their varieties are composed of milk, eggs, and flour. 
As has been properly observed, " the proportions may vary, and other 
articles may be added, by which the name is changed, but the great 
matter is to know how to mix eggs, flour, and milk, and then yoa 
may easily adopt any variety that is directed." In using eggs, you 
should always break them, one by one, into separate cups, or at any 
rate take care not to spoil all your eggs by the admission of one that 
is bad into the mass. Let the eggs be well beaten, and then add the 
flour, with a pinch of salt, and a little nutmeg, and mix the eggs and 
flour thoroughly before any milk is added ; then by degrees put in as 
much milk as will bring the batter to the consistency you wish. It 
ought, indeed it must be, well stirred immediately before being put 
into the basin or dish. 

The vessel in which a batter pudding is to be dressed must be well 
buttered. Dripping, or lard, will answer as well for a baked pud- 
ding. The cloth tied over the basin must be buttered, or dipped in 
boiling water, wrung out, and dredged with flour, but buttering 
is best. 

The pudding will break in boiling, if the batter do not exactly fill 
the vessel. In baking, the pudding is sure to swell considerably, and 
therefore the batter should not fill the vessel by about an inch. Be- 
fore putting the pudding into the pot, take care that the water boils 
rapidly, and afterwards make the water boil as soon as possible, which 
must be kept up till the pudding is done. Just after putting the pud- 
ding into the pot, it should be shook two or three times to prevent it 

The length of time that a pudding requires to be boiled depends 
upon its size, and, in some degree, upon the material of which it is 
made. The less flour, the shorter time is required for boiling. A 
one-egg pudding, not exceeding three parts of half a pint in quantity, 
in a tea-cup, will require about twenty or twenty-five minutes boiling; 
or with three eggs about half an hour; and so on in proportion. But 
the best way of ascertaining when a pudding is done, is to run your 
fork into the middle of it, and if the fork comes out cZear, the pudding 
is done. 

551. To make Pudding Paste. — Beat one egg, mix it with half & 


pound of suet, well chopped, add one pound of flour ; well mix , then 
add as much cold water as is requisite to bring it to a stiff' paste ; 
flour the pie-board and rolling-pin, and beat the paste till it puffs up; 
roll it out to the size desired, and put in the fruit. If boiled in a 
basin, it should be well buttered, and the cloth well^ floured before 
tying it over. This paste is used for all kind of fresh fruit. A very 
small quantity of sugar should be put in with the fruit to draw the 
juice, but not much, or it will become so juicy as to by.rst the crust. 
A fruit pudding is lighter boiled in a cloth, but it should be well 
secured to prevent the juice from escaping. An hour and a half will 
boil a pudding of this size, if boiled in a cloth ; if in a basin, allow 
another quarter of an hour or twenty minutes. The same paste will 
do for a roll pudding and meat puddings. 

552. Flum Pudding. — To make a rich plum pudding take a pound 
of marrow, or suet, well chopped, a pound of fine flour tlried, eight or 
ten eggs beaten well ; half a nutmeg grated; as much mace, cinnamon, 
and gmger, all powdered very fine ;" a pinch of salt ; mix these well 
together, and beat up into a batter; then add one pound of currants, one 
pound of raisins, stoned and chopped a little; the currants should be 
rubbed in a cloth, and well picked, or well wash and dry them ; two 
ounces of candied citron peel, or part lemon, and orange, cut small ; and 
two ounces of sweet almonds, blanched and cut up in bits; two ounces 
of loaf-sugar grated ; then add these to the batter, and put in a wine- 
glass of brandy ; well mix them together. It may be boiled in a but- 
tered basin or mould ; if the batter should be too stiff, put a glass of 
white wine in it. It will take four or five hours boiling. Strew over 
it powdered loaf-sugar; garnish with sliced lemon. Sauce, contain- 
ing half a glass of best brandy, a glass of white wine, a little rind of 
lemon grated, and a little powdered cinnamon, half an ounce of grated 
loaf-sugar, mixed with an equal quantity of very thick melted butter. 
It is a good plan to make and keep by you a little of this sauce, and 
then it is ready at any time. In a bottle containing a pint of sherry, 
and half a pint of best brandy, add two ounces of loaf-sugar, a quarter 
of an ounce of mace, half an ounce of shaved lemon rind, with kernels 
of apricots, peaches, and nectarines, and steep in a little white wine; 
when steeped, pour it off clear, and put to the wine and brandy ; and 
add half a quarter of a pint of capillaire. Two table-spoonfuls of this 
sauce will flavour a boat-full of thick melted butter. 

553. A plain family Plum Pudding. — Beat up three eggs, six 
ounces of suet chopped, a pound of flour, a third part of a pound of 
raisins, and the same weight of currants; one ounce of candied orange 
or lemon peel, cut small, half a tea-spoonful of ground allspice, a little 
salt, two ounces of brown sugar: make a stiff batter with water, and 
mix the fruit and spice well in. If boiled in a basin, allow three hours 
and a hah"; if in a cloth, three hours. 

554. A common Plum or Currant Pudding is nothing more than 
a suet pudding, with the addition of plums, or currants, and allspice, 

555. Very light Plum Pudding. — Mix grated bread, suet, and 
stoned raisins, four ounces each, with two well-beaten eggs three or 


four spoonfuls of milk, and a little salt: boil four hours. Sauc^, a 
spoonful of brandy, sugar, and nutme<r, in melted butter. 

556. National Plum Pudding. — Mix suet, jar raisins, and cur- 
rants, one pound each, four ounces of crumbs of bread, two table- 
spoonfuls of suu^ar, one table-spoonful of grated lemon peel, half a 
nutmeg, a small blade of mace, a tea-spoonful of ginger, and six well- 
beaten eggs. Boil it five hours. — IS. B. If you want to keep plum 
puddings good for a long time, say some months, hang them in a cold 
place in the^loth in which they were boiled. When wanted to ba 
used, take them out of the cloth, cover them with a clean one, and 
warm them through with hot water; they will then be fit for the 

557. Potatoe Pudding. — Boil mealy potatoes in their skins, accord- 
ing to the rule laid down, skin and mash them with a little milk, pep- 
per, and salt: this will make a good pudding to bake under roast meat. 
With the addition of a bit of butter, an egg, milk, pepper, and salt, 
it makes an excellent batter for a meat pudding baked. Grease a 
baking dish ; put a layer of potatoes, then a layer of meat cut in bits, 
and seasoned with pepper, salt, a little allspice, either with or with- 
out chopped onions; a little gravy of roast meat is a great improve- 
ment: then put another layer of potatoes, then meat, and cover with 
potatoes. Put a buttered paper over the top to prevent it from being 
burnt, and bake it an hour or an hour and a half. 

558. Cottage Potatoe Pudding. — Two pounds of mashed potatoes 
rubbed through a colander, two or three eggs well beaten, two ounces 
of moist sugar, three-quarters of a pint of milk, a little nutmeg and 
salt, three ounces of raisins, or currants. It is very good without the 
fruit, and will take three-quarters of an hour to bake. Omitting the 
milk and adding three ounces of butter, it makes a very nice cake. 

559. For a rich sweet Potatoe Pudding. — Rub a pound of potatoe 
meal through a colander; add half a pint of cream, nutmeg, cinna- 
mon, and from two to four ounces of loaf-sugar, from two to four 
ounces of fresh butter or marrow, from three to six eggs, two ounces 
of sweet almonds, blanched and cut, one ounce of candied citron, cut 
small, a few dried currants, a spoonful of ratafia or brandy : put a 
crust round the edge of the dish and entirely line the dish : if baked, 
put in the batter, bake, and when it is brown, it is done. Only 
substituting potatoe for flour, a very good family plum pudding may 
be made, but it should be baked. 

560. Carrot Pudding.— Gr Bite a raw red carrot; mix with double 
the weight of bread crumbs, or Naples biscuit, or part of each; to a 
oound and a half put half a pint of new milk or cream. 

561. A Black-cap Pudding.— Ruh three table-spoonfuls of flour 
^'mooth by degrees into a pint of milk, strain it, and simmer it over 
the fire until it thickens; stir in tvvp ounces of butter ; when cold, 
add the yolks of four eggs well beaten and strained, and half a pound 
of currants rubbed and picked ; put the latter into a cloth well but- 
tered, tie it tight, and plunge it into boiling water ; keep it in motion 
for five minutes, that it may be well mixed. 


562. Sago Pudding. — Boil a pint and a half of new milk with 
four spoonfuls of sago nicely washed and picked, lemon peel, cinna 
mon, nutmeg; sweeten to taste, then mix four eggs; put a paste 
round the dish, and bake slowly, 

563. A very good Pudding. — Mix one pound and a half of suet, 
cut small, and free from skin, with two pounds of flour, a pound of 
currants picked and rubbed in a coarse cloth, six eggs well beaten, a 
table-spoonful of infusion of saffi-on, a glass of brandy, a little grated 
ginger, a pinch of salt, and a pint of milk ; put it into a basin that 
will' just hold it, tie a floured cloth tight over it, and put it into a pot 
of boiling water. Boil it four hours. 

564. Bread and Butler Pudding. — Slice bread, and butter it, and 
lay it in a dish with currants between each layer, and sliced citron, 
orange, or lemon peel ; pour over an unboiled custard of milk, two or 
three eggs beaten, a little grated nutmeg, a little ratafia ; two hours 
at least before it is baked, to soak the bread. 

565. Almond Pudding. — Beat half a pound of sweet and a few 
bitter almonds with a spoonful of water, then mix four eggs, four 
ounces of butter, two spoonfuls of cream put warm to the butter, one 
spoonful of brandy, a little nutmeg and sugar to taste. Butter some 
cups, half fill, and bake the puddings. Serve with pudding sauce. — 
Or, beat fine, four ounces of almonds, four or five bitter almonds, with 
a little wine, yolks of six eggs beaten, peel of two lemons grated, six 
ounces of melted butter, nearly a quart of cream, and juice of one 
lemon. When well mixed, bake it half an hour, with paste round 
the dish. 

566. Kitchiner^s Pudding. — Beat up three eggs, strain them 
through a sieve, and gradually add to them a quartet of a pint of new 
milk; stir them well together; rub together in a mortar two ounces 
of moist sugar, and as much nutmeg as will lie on a sixpence ; stir 
these to the eggs and milk, then add four ounces of flour, and beat it 
to a smooth batter (the only way of doing this is, by adding a little 
of the milk, &c., and mixing that to a smooth paste, then gradually 
thinning it). Stir to it by degrees seven ounces of suet chopped fine, 
and three ounces of bread crumbs ; mix the whole half an hour or 
more before boiling; well butter a mould or basin, tie over a pudding 
cloth very tight, and boil it three hours. Half a pound of muscatel 
raisins, cut in half, and a little grated lemon peel, will make the above 
a good plum pudding: or without the plums, by adding half a pint 
more milk, it bakes well under meat as a Yorkshire pudding; or it 
may be baked in saucers or tin patty-pans, and served with wine 
sauce. An hour Vv'ill bake it the size of a saucer. — Or, simmer for 
ten minutes half a pint of milk with a roll of lemon peel, and two 
blades of mace,; strain it into a basin, and put it away to cool; beat 
three eggs with three ounces of loaf-sugar, the third part of a nut- 
meg, and three ounces of flour ; mix well with the eggs, add the 
milk by degrees; then three ounces of butter broken in bits, three 
ounces of bread crumbs, three ounces of currants rubbed and picked, 
three ounces of raisins stoned and chopped ; mix all well together 


butter ft mould, tie a cloth tightly over and boil it two hours and a 
half. Serve with melted butter, two table-spoonfuls of brandy, and a 
little loaf-sugar. 

567. A Dutch Rice Pudding-. — Soak four ounces of rice in warm 
water half an hour, then drain the water from it, and throw the rice 
into a stew-pan, with half a pint of millc, half a stick of cinnamon, 
and simmer till tender; when cold, put four whole eggs, well beaten, 
two ounces of butter melted in a tea-cup full of cream (or milk where 
cream is scarce or dear), and put three ounces of sugar, a quarter of 
a nutmeg, and a good piece of lemon peel. Put a light puff paste in 
a mould or dish, or grated tops and bottoms, and bake in a quick 

568. Rice Puddings. — It will be well to make a few observations 
on rice before we enter upon rice puddings. Large long corn which 
is quite white and clear is the best ; though this may cost a little 
more money, it will be f)und the cheapest. Bad rii^e has a dingy red 
and .yellow appearance, and is dusty ; in this state it is almost sure 
to turn the milk with which it is used. The best rice takes less 
sugar to sweeten it, and the flavour of it is much superior to the 
inferior sort. Good rice will soon become tender and swell, and 
when this is the case it is done. Inferior rice may be used for broths 
or stews, as thickeners, but it is not so wholesome as the best. Rice 
should be kept in a vessel closely shut, and in a dry place. It does 
not keep well after grinding; it is almost sure to become sour. It 
should be ground as it is wanted. 

569. A Rice Pudding. — Take two parts of a pound of rice, put it 
in a cloth or bag that would hold three times the quantity; put it into 
boiling water, and let it boil an hour. Take it up, and beat two eggs 
and add to it; mix and beat with the rice a little sugar, nutmeg, and 
one ounce of suet, or butter, with or without currants ; flour a cloth 
and tie it tight in it, and let it boil half an hour. Sauce, boiled milk 
with a little sugar and nutmeg, or wine sauce. 

570. A baked Rice Pudding. — The above may be used, enriched 
by slices of bread and butter laid at the top, with a little sugar and 
nutmeg strewed over. — Or, scald the rice in a small quantity of 
water; when all the water is ab^^o-rbed by the rice, add a quart of new 
milk, and let it boil up, with a stick of cinnamon for flavour;* beat 
three or four eggs with fine moist sugar, stir to them gradually the 
boiling milk and rice ; add one ounce of beef suet or butter ; when it 
is in the pan, or dish, which should be buttered before putting in, 
grate nutmeg over the top; put it in the oven as soon as made, and 
bake an hour. 

571. Ground Rice Pudding. — Put on the fire a quart of new 
milk ; put into it five or six young laurel leaves, a stick of cinnamon, 
a pinch of salt; when it boils, stir into it a quarter of a pound of ground 
rice, which has been previously wetted with a little cold water; stir 

♦Laurel Ir^aves are iiBually directed ; but they are decidedly poisonojis, and wt 
•trongly disapprove of tlie use of them. 


till it boils and thickens. As if is apt to burn, a double saucepan is 
the best for this purpose. Take the flavourings out, and stir into it 
throe or four eggs, well beaten, with an ounce of sugar, and a little 
grated nutmeg : throe-quarters of an hour will bake it. This pudding 
(if desired) can be very much enriched by adding one or two more 
eggs, two ounces of fresh butter or marrow, a tea-cup full of cream, 
and a large spoonful of brandy, ratafia, or noyeau. 

572. Rice Snow Balls. — Pick and wash half a pound of the best 
rice, boil it in water for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour, drain it 
quite dry; there should be more water than the rice will take up: 
after it is well drained through a sieve, divide it into six parcels; 
take apples as for dumplings, surround each with rice; tie them in a 
clotli separately, and rather loosely; boil one hour. Sauce, sugar 
and butter, or wine sauce. 

573. Plain Rice Pudding. — If you wish to boil it, take half a 
pound of ground rice, put it into a bag that would hold three times as 
much, put it into the saucepan containing boiling w^ter ; let it boil 
an hour and a quarter. For baking, take a third part of a pound of 
rice, put it into a deep dish with tv^o quarts of skim milk; it will take 
an hour and a half baking. Sauce, cold butter, and sugar and nut- 
meg, or preserved fruit. 

574. Rice Bignels. — In a pint of new milk simmer three ounce? 
of rice till it becomes a stiff paste; add half a tea-cup full of thick 
cream, the grated rind of half a lemon, two ounces of loaf-sugar, and 
a little powdered cinnamon, mace, and nutmeg, and two eggs well 
beaten; grate a small tea-cup full of bread crumbs; when the rice is 
cold, cut it into bits and roll it into small balls, dip each in the egg, 
roll in the bread crumbs, and fry them quickly. Sauce, wine sauce. 

575. Vermicelli, Sago, Tapioca, and Russian Seed Puddings. — 
These are all inade in the same way as rice puddings. Arrow-root 
pudding is made as ground rice pudding. It is generally baked in a 
dish lined with paste, and turned out. 

576. Yeast Dumplings. — Procure half a quarter of dough from the 
baker's. Keep it covered over by the fire till it is wanted. Should 
it be wished to make the dough at home, set half a quarter, or rather 
less, of the best flour, with a wine glass full of fresh yeast, stirred 
into half a tea-cup full of milk, just warm. Let it rise, in a warm 
place, for about an hour. Then make your dumplings, and boil. Each 
dumpling should be about the size of an egg. Put them in a large 
eaucepan of boiling water, or in a steamer, which is much better; 
they should boil or steam twenty minutes. Stick in a fork; if done, 
the fork will come out clean. Take them up, and they should be 
eaten directly, as they become hard in their own steam. Tear them 
apart with your fork ; if cut with your knife it will make them close. 
French baker's dough is always very light, and is much better for 
dumplings. Sauce, cold butter and sugar, or wine sauce. 

577. Suet Pudding. — Shred a pound of suet; mix with a pound 
and a quarter of flour, two eggs beaten separately, a little salt, and 
as little miik as will make it. Boil it four hours. It eats well the 


next day, cut in slices and broiled. The outward fat of loins and 
necks of mutton, finely shred or chopped, makes a more delicate pud- 
ding- than suet; and both are far better for the purpose than butter, 
which causes the pudding to be heavy or close. 

578. Hunter's Pudding. — Mix a pound of suet, a pound of flour, a 
Dound of currants, a pound of raisins, stoned and a little cut, the rind 
of half a lemon, shred as fine as possible, six Jamaica peppers, m fine 
powder, four eggs, a glass of brandy, a little salt, and as little milk 
as will make it of a proper consistence; boil it in a flannel cloth, or a 
melon mould, eight or nine hours. Sweet sauce. Add sometimes a 
spoonful of peach water, for change of flavour. This pudding will keep, 
after it is boiled, six months, if tied up in the same cloth, and hung 
up, folded in a sheet of cap paper, to preserve it from dust, being first 
cold. When used, it must first be boiled a full hour. 

579. Marlborough Padding. — Cover the dish with a thin puflf 
paste ; then take candied citron, oranoe, and lemon peel, each one 
ounce; slice these sweetmeats very thin, and lay them all over the 
bottom of the dish; dissolve six ounces of butter, without water, and 
six ounces of powdered sugar, and the yolks of four eggs, well beaten ; 
stir them over the fire until the mixture boils, then pour it on the 
sv/eetmeats, and bake the pudding three-quarters of an hour in a mo- 
derate oven. 

580. Custard Pudding. — Boil a quart of milk until it is reduced 
to. a pint; take from it a few spoonfuls, and let it cool, mixing with 
it, very perfectly, one spoonful of flour, which add to the boiling milk, 
and stir until it is quite cool. Beat four yolks and two whites of 
eggs, strain them, and stir them into the milk, two ounces of sifted 
sugar, two or three spoonfuls of wine, and a little grated nutmeg. 
Put it into a basin, .tie a cloth over it, and boil it half an hour ; untie 
tfe^ cloth, cool the basin a little, lay a dish upon the top of it, and turn 
it out. 

581. Custard. — Boil half a pint of new milk, with a piece of lemon 
peel, and two peach leaves, and eight lumps of white sugar. Should 
cream be used instead of milk, there will be no occasion to skim it; 
boat the yolks and whites of three eggs, strain the milk through 
coarse mushn, or a hair sieve; then mix the eggs and milk very 
gradually together, simmer it gently on the fire, and stir it till it 

582. Almond Custard. — Boil in a pint of milk or cream two or 
three bitter almonds, and cinnamon, and a piece of lemon peel, pared 
thin, with eight or ten lumps of sugar; let it simmer to extract the 
flavour, then strain it, and stir it till cool. Beat the yolks of vsix G(r(Ts^ 
mix them with the milk, and stir the whole over a slow fire, until o** 
a proper thickness, adding one ounce of sweet almonds, beaten fine 
in rose water. 

583. Rice Custard. — Take a cup of whole Carolina rice, and seven 
cups of milk; boil it, by placing the pan in water, which must never 
be allowed to go off the boil until it thickens ; then sweeten it, and 
add an ounce of sweet almonds pounded. 


584. Baked Vermicelli Pudding,— ^Simmer four ounces of vermi- 
celli in a pint of new milk ten minutes; then put into it half a pint 
of cream, a tea-spoonful of pounded cinnamon, four ounces of butter 
warm, the same of white sugar, and yolks of four eggs, well beaten. 
Bake it in a dish without a lining. 

585. Marrow Pudding. — Four ounces of marrow, four of biscuits, 
or French biscuits, three of jar raisins, stoned, candied orange peel, 
sugar and nutmeg to the taste. Place these articles in layers in a 
dish surrounded by paste ; then beat up four eggs, leave out the whites 
of two, in half a pint of cream, or good milk, and pour it over the 
other ingredients. It will take an hour and a half to bake. 

586. The Conservative Pudding. — Take four sponge biscuits, a 
quarter of a pound of ratafia and macaroone cakes, mixed, the yolka 
of eight eggs, a glass of brandy, half a pint of cream, well beaten 
together, the cakes being soaked in the brandy and cream. Butter a 
quart mould, place dried cherries or stoned raisins in a pattern over 
it, pour in the mixture, and place the mould in a stew-pan, surrounded 
by water, and let it simmer an hour and a half over charcoal. 

587. Economical Pudding. — In families where there are loose 
pieces of bread, they can be made into a pudding instead of throwing 
them on one side. Boil as much milk as the size of your dish will 
require, put in a bit of lemon peel, and two or three of young laurel 
leaves ; cut up the bread crust too in thin slices. When the milk 
boils, take out the flavourings, put in the bread, cover it up, and set 
it by the fire to swell ; then beat it up fine, and stir to it two or three 
eggs well beaten, with a little moist sugar and ground allspice, a bit 
of butter or suet, chopped fine, or a bit of good beef dripping. A few 
currants or not ; currants are apt to turn the milk wheyey. Three- 
quarters of an hour will bake it. It is a very wholesome pudding for 

588. A delicate Bread Pudding. — Take fine bread, grated fine, 
and rich new iniik. When the milk boils, put in the bread crumbs; 
for every table-spoonful of bread, allow one eggy well beaten; 
sweeten it with loaf-sugar to your taste, and grate in a little nutmeg. 
Put it into a buttered basin, and boil it from twenty minutes to fifty, 
according to the size of the pudding. If baked, rather less time will 
do it. It only roqnirns to be a light brown. 

569. Barley Pudding. — Take a quarter of a pound of Scotch or 
pearl barley. Wash, and simmer it in a small quantity of water ; 
pour off the water, and add milk and flavourings as for rice puddings. 
Beat up with sugar and nutmeg, and mix to the milk and barley in 
the same way. It may be more or less rich of eggs; and with or 
without the addition of butter, cream, or marrow. Put it into a but- 
tered deep dish, leaving room for six or eight ounces of currants, and 
an ounce of candied peel, cut up fine, with a few apples cut in small 
pieces. An hour will bake it. 

590. Hard Dumplings. — Mix flour and water, with a bit of salt, to 
the consistency of dough. Make it into dumplings, and boil them half 
an hour. Serve them with butter and salt. Skimmer cakes are made 


in the same way, and flatted to the thickness of half an inch, and 
boiled on the skimmer, which should be previously buttered ; when 
done, it will slip off tlie skimmer. They are eaten with sugar and 

591. Newmarket Pudding. — A pint of new milk, half a lemon 
rind, a little cinnamon, and a bay leaf; simmer a few minutes, sweeten 
with loaf-sugar, and strain by degrees to five well-beaten eggs (leav- 
ing out two whites;) pour this over thin slices of bread and butter 
strewed with currants. Bake half an hour. 

592. A light Pudding — Take a pint of new milk, eight eg^s, and 
half a pint of cream, to two spoonfuls of flour. Beat the yolks, and 
whites of the eggs separately ; beat up the batter without the whites, 
but, just before putting it in the pot, or oven, slir in the whites, with 
one ounce of fine loaf-sugar, a little powdered cinnatnon, or nutmeg, 
and half a glass of brandy or ratafia. Butter the basin or mould which 
it will exactly fill. Put it into the water fast boiling, and keep it 
shaking about several minutes, lest the eggs should settle on one side. 
Half an hour will boil it. When turned out, grate over the top fine 
sugar and nutmeg, with melted butter, or wine sauce, round it; or 
stick bits of raspberry jam, or red currant jelly, at top. If baked, it 
will not require more than twenty minutes. A rich puff' paste, put 
round the edge of any baked pudding, greatly improves the appear- 

593. A Yorkshire Pudding. — Beat up four eggs, and mix with 
them, by degrees, four spoonfuls of flour ; beat it to a smooth paste, 
and add a pint of new milk and a pinch of salt. Put it into a shallow 
square tin, under roast meat. It should not be put down until the 
meat is warmed through, and begins to drip; or till the fire is become 
clear and fierce, so that the batter shall soon boil. The tin should be 
very hot when the pudding is put in, to keep the floury part from 

594. A nice Suet Pudding. — Take two or three eggs, well beaten, 
with half a pound of suet, chopped fine, a pound of flour, a pinch of 
salt, and some grated ginger and nutmeg. Beat tiiese up very smooth 
with cold water to rather a thick batter. A few currants may be 
added. Two hours will boil it. White wine sauce. 

595. Mother Eve's Pudding. — Take equal weights of suet, plumf, 
currants, sugar, apples chopped up, bread crumbs, and flour, with an 
egg to an ounce of the ingredient, candied peel, spice, and salt. Boil 
six hours. 

596. Newcastle Pudding. — Butter half a melon mould, or quart 
basin, and stick all round with dried cherries, or fine raisins, fill up 
with bread and butter — and steam it half an hour. 

597. Hastij Pudding. — Boil a quart of new milk, cinnamon or bay 
leaves. While boiling, shake in from a flour dredger two table- 
spoonfuls of flour, andlitir it until it thickens. Then pour it into a 
deep dish, stir in an ounce of butter, the same of moist sugar, and 
grate nutmeg over the top. 

598. Arrow-root Pudding.^— Arrow-root pudding is made in the 


same way as hasty pudding", with the exception of shaking the arrow- 
root in, which should be stirred into a liltle cold milk, and then stirred 
into the boiling milk. 

599. A Friar's Omelet — Boil a dozen apples, as for sauce ; stir in 
a quarter of a pound of butter, and the same of white sugar; when 
cold, add four eggs, well beaten; put it into a baking dish thickly 
strewed over with crumbs of bread, so as to stick to the bottom and 
sides; then put in the apple-mixture ; strew crumbs of bread over the 
top ; when baked, turn it out, and grate loaf-sugar over it. 

600. A Swiss Pudding. — Put layers of crumbs of bread and sliced 
apples, with sugar between, until the dish be as full as it will hold ; 
let the crumbs be the uppermost layer ; then pour milk over it, and 

601. Oxford Puddings. — Take a quarter of a pound of grated bis- 
cuit, the same quantity of currants, the same of suet, finely chopped, a 
spoonful of sugar, and a little nutmeg; mix them well together. 
Take the yolks of three eggs, and make up the puddings into balls. 
Fry them a light colour in fresh butter, and serve with white wine 

602. Mujin or Cabinet Pudding. — Cut three or four muffins in 
two, pour over them boiling milk sufficient to cover them, cover them 
up until they are tender. Make a rich custard with eight eggs (only 
four whites,) a pint of cream, a quarter of a pound of loaf-sugar, an 
ounce of almonds, blanched and cut, lemon peel and nutmeg grated, 
and a glass of ratafia or brandy. Butter a tin morfld for boiling — for 
baking, a disli. Put a layer of dried cherries, greengages, apricots, 
or French plums; cover with custard, add more fruit, then custard, 
until the mould or dish is quite full. Boil an hour and a half, and 
serve with wine sauce. It should not float in the water, but stand in 
a stew-pan, and only water enough to reach half way up the mould. 
If for baking, it will not take so long. Lay a pufF paste round the 
edges of the dish. 

Stale muffins are very good boiled in milk and eaten with wine 

603. French and Italian Puddings. — These puddings are com- 
posed of sliced French rolls, eggs, and cream. Five or six eggs to a 
pint of cream, and as much roll as will thicken it; sweeten it with 
loaf-sugar ; a pound of suet, chopped fine, may be added or omitted. 
Line the dish with pufi' paste ; lay at the bottom six or eight apples, 
cut up, a pound of raisins stoned, a few dates sliced, or a few French 
plums, some candied orange peel, sugar, ami spice. Pour the pud- 
ding over this, grate nutmeg at top, and bake of a fine pale brown. 

604. A Cheese Pudding. — Half a pound of cheese grated, butter 
two ounces, four eggs, a little cayenne and nutmeg. Butter a dish, 
and bake twenty minutes. 

605. A very rich Pudding of prime ripe FruiL — This is made 
sometimes by pressing the fruit through a sieve, if apricots, green- 
gages or peaches ; sweet juicy apples, or rich mellow pears, may be 
grated; or the fruit may be scalded a few minutes in white wine; 


then the skins and stones removed, and beaten in a mortar. W^-ei. 
cold mix with rich custard, cream, eggs, and bread cruinbti, or Na- 
ples biscuit, with loaf-sugar to taste; the iiernels blanched, and a glass 
of brandy or Madeira wine. Then bake in a dish edged with pufF 
paste, and call it according to the fruit employed — apricot pudding, 
peach pudding, and so forth. If the cook is ordered to make such a 
pudding, it is tit she should know how to do it; but it is a great pity 
to spoil good things by such incongruous mixtures; the batter alone 
would make a much better pudding; and the fruit and wine might be 
saved for -dessert. For these rich delicate puddings, the tinctures are 
preferable to the spice in substance. 

606. Ckesnut Pudding. — Roast chesnuts, or boil them a quarter 
of an hour; blanch, peel, and grate, or pound in a mortar, with a little 
white wine. 'To a dozen chesnuts, add six eggs, well beaten, a pint 
and a half of cream, and a quarter of a pound of butter ; mix it well 
together; sweeten to taste; add a little salt and nutmeg; simmer 
over the fire till it thickens, stirring it well. Then bake it in a dish, 
edged and lined with puff paste. 

607. Rusk Pudding is exactly the same thing as bread and butter 
pudding, except that the butter is spread on rusks instead of bread. 
The richness may be varied at pleasure. Let it steep two hours or 
more before putting in the oven. 

608. Portugal Pudding. — Rub up four table-spoonfals of ground 
rice, or semilina, with three ounces of butter, and stir in it a pint of 
cream ; stir it till it boils and is quite thick. Then stir in two whole 
eggs, and the yolks of three more, well beaten, with a quarter of a 
pound of loaf-sugar, a little salt and nutmeg. Butter a dish, and bake 
it an hour. When it is done, have ready another dish of the same 
eize, or a very little deeper; on the bottom of this spread a layer of 
raspberry jam, then the puddings and then a layer of apricot jam. 
This pudding is very delicate without the mixture of fruit, with wino 
or lemon sauce instead. 

609. Tansey Pudding. — Make a rich batter with Naple-biscuits, 
eggs, cream, and a little sugar ; chop up a very few tansey leaves, 
and a few of spinach; enough to give the whole a green colour. Set 
it in a double saucepan, over boiling water, till it becomes quite thick ; 
then pour it into a buttered basin or mould ; tie it up securely ; and 
let it boil three-quarters of an hour. L(^t it stand a few minutes after 
taken up; then turn out, and serve with wine sauce. 

610. To make Curd for Cheesecakes, and other 'purposes. — Milk 
is turned to curds and whey by means of rennet, which is the stonuicli 
of a calf, taken out as soon as it is killed, well cleansed from its con 
tents, then scoured inside and out with salt, and when thoroughly 
salted stretched on a stick to dry. A bit of this is to be soaked in 
boiling water for several hours, and the liquor put in milk warm from 
the cow, or made that warn)th. Use alone can prescribe the exact 
quantity. Never use more than enough to turn it, as it hardens the 
curd. The gizzard skin of fov»'ls and turkeys may be prepared iu 


the same way, and answer the same purpose ; or the curd for cheese- 
cakes may be bought of the regular dairy people. 

611. Cheesecakes. — The basis of cheesecakes is professedly the 
curd of milk as turned for cheese; but many are made entirely with- 
out it. The following recipe is much approved : Take the curd of 
eight quarts of new milk; rub the curd in a coarse cloth till quite free 
from whey ; then work into it three-quarters of a pound of butter, 
three biscuits, and an equal quantity of bread crumbs, a little salt, 
and such spices as you choose, finely powdered. Beat ten eggs (half 
the whites) with three-quarters of a pound of fine loaf-sugar, a wine- 
glass full of brandy or ratafia, and a pint of rich cream. Having well 
mixed all these ingredients, rub them with the hand through a coarse 
hair sieve ; then add a pound of currants, rubbed in a coarse cloth, 
and picked, and an ounce of candied citron, cut as small as possible. 
Line tin patty-pans with rich puff paste, put in the mixture, and either 
entirely cover with paste, or put on only bars or leaves. They will 
take about twenty minutes to bake in rather a quick oven. By sub- 
stituting half a pound of sweet almonds for currants, and half an 
ounce of bitter, blanched, and beaten to a paste, almond cheesecakes 
may be made ; or lemon orange cheesecakes, by substituting for the 
currants two or three candied lemons or oranges, pounded in a 

612. Polaloe Cheesecakes.— half a pound of mashed potatoes, 
rubbed through a colander, or a quarter of a pound of mucilage, or 
potatoe starch; mix with a quarter of a pound of butter, a tea-cup 
full of cream, a quarter of a pound of loaf-sugar, and two eggs, finely 
beaten, a quarter of a pound of candied peel, either chopped fine or 
beaten in a mortar, and a little nutmeg or cinnamon ; well mix these 
ingredients. Put in patty-pans, or saucers, lined with paste. Do not 
more than half fill, as the substance will swell. Sift over fine sugar, 
and bake in a quick oven a quarter of an hour. Four or six ounces 
of currants may be substituted for part or all of the candied peel, or 
the grated rind and juice of a lemon or Seville orange may be added; 
also a little brandy cr ratafia : but do not make the mixture too moist. 

613. A plain Cheesecake. — Turn three quarts of milk to curds ; 
break it, and drain the whey ; when dry, break it in a pan, with two 
ounces of butter, till perfectly smooth ; put to it a pint and a half of 
thin cream, or good milk, and add sugar, cinnamon, nutmeg, and three 
ounces ol' currants. 

614. Bread Cheesecakes. — Pour a pint of boiling cream on « penny 
loaf; let it stand two hours ; mix half a pound of butter, warm, with 
eight eggs, and a grated nutmeg ; beat the whole in a mortar ; then 
add half a pound of currants rubbed and picked, two ounces of sugar, 
a spoonful of wine, and the same of brandy. 

615. Common Pancakes. — Make a light batter of eggs, flour, and 
milk ; fry in a small pan, in hot dripping or lard ; a little salt, nut- 
meg, and ginger, may be added. Sugar and lemon should be served 
10 eat with them. — Or, when eggs are scarce, make tlie batter with 



small beer, ginger, and so forth ; or water, with flour, and a very little 
milk, will serve, but not nearly so well as eggs and all milk. 

616. Pancakes of Rice. — Boil half a pound of rice to a jelly, in a 
small quantity of water; when cold, mix it with a pint of cream, 
eight eggs, a bit of salt and nutmeg ; stir in eight ounces of butter, 
just warmed, and add as much flour as will make the batter thick 
enough. Fry in as little lard or dripping as possible. 

617. Cream Pancakes. — Mix the yolks of two eggs, well beaten, 
with a pint of cream, two ounces of sifted sugar, a little nutmeg, cin- 
namon, and mace. Rub the pan with a bit of butter, and fry the pan- 
cakes thin. 

618. Fritters. — Make them of any of the batters directed for pan- 
cakes, by dropping a small quantity into the pan ; or make the plainer 
sort, and put pared apples, sliced and cored, into the batter, and fry 
some of it in each slice. Currants, or sliced lemon as thin as paper, 
make an agreeable change. Fritters for company should be served 
on a folded napkin in the dish. Any sort of sweetmeat, or ripe fruit, 
may be made into fritters. 

6.19. Oyster Fritters. — Make a batter of flour, milk, and eggs; 
season a very little with nutmeg. Beard the oysters, and put as many 
as you think proper in each fritter. 

620. Potatoe Fritters. — Boil two large potatoes, scrape them fine, 
beat four yolks and three whites of eggs, and add to the above one 
large spoonful of cream, another of sweet wine, a squeeze of lemon, 
and a little nutmeg. Beat this batter well half an hour. It will be 
extremely light. Put a good quantity of fine lard into a stew-pan, 
and drop a spoonful at a time of the batter into it. Fry them ; and 
serve as a sauce, a glass of white wine, the juice of a lemon, one 
dessert-spoonful of peach-leaf or almond water, and some white sugar, 
warmed together ; not to be served in the dish. 


621. Bread. — Put a quartern of flour into a large basin, or small 
pan, with two tea-spoonfuls of salt; make a hole in the middle, then 
put in a basin four table-?poonfuls of good yeast, stir in a pint of milk 
•ukewarm; put it in the hole of the flour, stir just to make it of a thin 
natter, and then strew a little flour over the top ; then set it on one 
side of the fire, cover it over with a cloth, let it stand till the next 
morninsf; add half a pint more of warm milk, and make it into dough, 
knead it for ten minutes, then set it in a warm place by the fire for 
one hour and a half, then knead it again, and it is ready for either 
loaves or bricks. 

622. Sally Lunn Tea Cake. — Take a quarter of a pint of thick 
small-beer yeast, and one pint of warm milk, and put into a pan with 
flour sufficient to make it of a thick batter ; let it stand by the fire till 
it has risen as high as it will, about two hours. Two ounces of 
lump sugar, dissolved in a pint of new milk, a quarter of a pound of 
Dutter rubbed in the flour very fine ; then make your dough ; let it 


Stand half an hour, then make your cakes and put them on tins; 
when they have stood to rise, put them in a quick oven. When egga 
are plentiful you may put four eggs instead of milk — they will make 
it much lighter. 

French rolls are made much in the same \vay ; instead of using all 
milk put half water, and use only butter and a little salt. 

623. A Plum Cake. — A quartern of dough, half a pound of moist 
sugar, half a pound of butter, a tea-cup full of cream and two eggs, a 
pound of currants (add raisins if you please) a tea-spoonful of allspice, 
two ounces of candied orange peel cut small, and an ounce of carra- 
way seeds. Roll the dough out several times, and spread over the 
several ingredients; flour the pan well, and set it on one side the fin; 
to rise ; bake an hour and a half. A richer cake may be made by 
adding more sweetmeats, butter, eggs, and almonds, and so forth. 
The dough made as bread ; when risen, melt the butter in warm 
milk and put to it with the other ingredients, and put to rise. 

624. A plain Pound Cake. — One pound each of butter, loaf-sugar, 
and flour, and nine eggs; work the butter to a cream, pound the su- 
gar, and add then the eggs ; beat all together twenty minutes, then 
lightly add the flour; mix, put in a tin or hoop lined with buttered 
paper. Bake an hour in a moderate oven.* 

KINS, &c. 

Maize or Indian corn has never been extensively used in Great 
Britain, and the editor has every reason to believe that this has arisen 
from the almost total ignorance of the English people as to the mode 
of preparing it for human food. It is, perhaps, the most productive 
crop that can be grown, and its nutritious qualities, when properly 
prepared, are equal to its productiveness. We are satisfied that ft 
may be grown in that country, or, at any rate, in the south and east- 
ern parts of it, with great advantage ; indeed, the experiment has 
been tried, and with decided success. The late Mr. Cobbett grew an 
average crop of the dwarf kind on Barn Elms farm, Surrey, for three 
or four years, as tJie editor can testify from his own personal inspec- 
tion, and he himself has succeeded in rearing the large sort to perfec- 
tion, the cobs or ears, when quite ripe, averaging eight or nine 
inches ; this, however, was effected upon a small scale, and in a gar- 
den. *t 

625. Indian Cake, or Bannock. — This, as prepared in our own 
country, is cheap and very nice food. Take one quart of Indian meal, 
dressed or sifted, two table-spoonfuls of treacle or molasses, two tea- 
epoonfuls of saU, a bit of "shortening" (butter or lard) half as big as 
a hen's egg, stirred together; make it pretty moist with scalding 
water, put it into a well-greased pan, smooth over the surface with a 

* Full directions for these and all other similar preparation« are given in " The 
Baker," liv the sani-j i.:ditor. 


6ix)on, and bake it brown on both sides before a quick fire. A little 
stewed pumpkin, scalded with the meal, improves the cake. Bannock 
split and dipped in butter, makes very nice toast. 

626. Green Indian Corn. — This is a most delicious vegetable. 
"When used as a vegetable the cobs, or ears, are plucked about the 
time that the corn has arrived at a milky state, or just before it as- 
sumes a solid substance. A part of the leaves or filaments by which 
the cob, or ear, is surrounded, is taken away, and the cobs boiled from 
twenty to forty minutes, " according to its age." When it is done, it 
is served with cold or melted butter, and eaten (after being stripped 
of its remaining leaves) by taking the two ends of the cob in the 
hands, and biting off the corn. The editor can bear testimony to its 
delicious quality from having grown it in his own garden and par- 
taken of it. 

627. Indian Corn, or Maize Pudding, baked. — Scald a quart of 
milk (skimmed milk will do,) and stir in seven table-spoonfuls of sifted 
Indian meal, a tea-spoonful of salt, a tea-cup full of molasses or trea- 
cle, or coarse moist sugar, and a table-spoonful of powdered ginger or 
sifted cinnamon ; bake three or four hours. If whey is wanted, pour 
in a little cold milk after it is all mixed. 

628. Boiled Maize Pudding. — Stir Indian meal and warm milk 
together " pretty stiff;" a little salt and two or three " great spoon- 
fuls" of molasses added ; also a spoonful of ginger, or any other spice 
that may be preferred. Boil it in a tight-covered pan, or in a very 
thick cloth ; if the water gets in, it will ruin it. Leave plenty of room, 
for Indian meal swells very much. The milk with which it is mixed 
should be merely warmed; if it be scalding hot, the pudding will 
break to pieces. Some chop suet very fine, and warm in the milk; 
others warm thin slices of apple to be stirred into the pudding. Water 
will answer instead of milk. 

629. Pumpkin and Squash Pie. — The usual' way of dressing 
pumpkins in England in a pie is to cut them into slices, mixed with 
apples, and bake them with a top crust like ordinary pies. A quite 
different process is pursued in America, and the editor can testify to 
the immense superiority of the Yankee method. In England, the 
pumpkin is grown for show rather than for use; nevertheless, when 
properly dressed, it is a very delicious vegetable, and a universal 
favourite with our New England neighbours. 

The following is the American method of making a pumpkin pie: 
Take out the seeds, and pare the pumpkin or squash; but in taking 
mi the seeds do not scrape the inside of the pumpkin ; the part nearest 
whe seed is the sweetest ; then stew the pumpkin, and strain it through 
a sieve or colander. To a quart of milk for a family pie, three eggs 
are sufiicient. Stir in the stewed pumpkin with your milk and 
beaten-up eggs till it is as thick as you can stir round rapidly and 
easily. If the pie is wanted richer make it thinner, and add another 
egg or two ; but even one egg to a quart of milk makes " very decent 
pies." Sweeten with molasses or sugar ; add two tea-spoonfuls of 
salt, two tablc-spoonl'ula of sifted cinnamon, and one of powdered 


ginger ; but allspice may be used, or any other spice that may be pre- 
ferred. The peel of a lemon grated in gives it a pleasant flavour. 
The more eggs, says our American authority, the better the pie. 
Some put one egg to a gill of milk. Bake about an hour in deep 
plates, or shallow dishes, without an upper crust, in a warm oven. 

There is another method of making this pie, which, we know from 
experience, produces an excellent dish: Take out the seeds, and grate 
the pumpkin till you come to the outside skin. Sweeten the pulp; 
add a little ground allspice, lemon peel, and lemon juice; in short, 
flavour it to your taste. Bake without an upper crust. 

030. Carrot Pies.— These pies are made like pumpkin pies. The 
carrots should be boiled very tender, skinned, and sifted. 

631. American Custard Puddings^ sufficiently good for common 
use, may be made by taking five eggs beaten up and mixed with a 
quart of milk, sweetened with sugar and spiced with cinnamon, all- 
spice, or nutmeg. It is well to boil your milk first, and Jet it get 
cold before using it. " Boiling milk enriches it so much, that boiled 
skim milk is about as good as new." (We ddubt this assertion ; at 
any rate, it can only be improved by the evaporation of the water.) 
Bake fifteen or twenty minutes. 

032. American Plum Pudding. — Pound six hard fine biscuits 
(crackers), soak them for some hours in milk sufficient to cover the 
mass; add three pints of milk, beat up six eggs, and mix; flavour 
with lemon brandy, and a whole nutmeg grated ; add three-quarters 
of a pound of stoned raisins, rubbed in flour. Bake not quite two 

633. Rennet Pudding or Custard. — A pudding may be made ot 
this description in five minutes. Take a wine-glass full of wine, in 
which a small portion of calf's rennet has been kept soaking ; put it 
into a quart of cold new milk, and a sort of custard will be the result. 
This sweetened with loaf-sugar and spiced with nutmeg is very good. 
It should be eaten immediately, for in a few hours it begins to 

634. American Apple Puddings. — Take your apples, and bore out 
the core without cutting them in two. Fill up the holes with washed 
rice. Tie up each apple very tight, and separately in the corners of 
a pudding bag. Boil an hour, or an hour and a half. 

635. Bird's Nest Pudding. — If you wish to make what is called a 
bird's nest pudding, prepare your custard ; take eight or ten pleasant 
apples, prepare them and take out the core, but leave them whole; 
set them in a pudding-dish, pour your" custard over them, and bake 
about thirty minutes. 

636. American Souse. — Take pigs' feet, ears, &c. well cleaned, 
and boil or rather simmer them for four or five hours, until they are 
too tender to be taken out with a fork. When taken from the boiling 
water it should be put into cold water. After it is packed down tight, 
boil the jelly-like liquor in which it was cooked with an equal quantity 
of vinegar; yalt as you think til, and cloves, allspice, and cinnamon, 


at the rate of a quarter of a pound to a hundred weight, must be mixed 
with it when scalding hot. 

037. American dry Bread. — As far as possible, have bits of bread 
eaten up before they become hard. Spread those that are not eaten, 
and let them dry, to be pounded for puddings, or soaked for brewis. 
Brewis is made of crusts and dry pieces of bread, soaked a good 
while in hot milk, mashed up, and salted, and buttered like toast. 

638. Another sort of Breicis. — The author of Domestic Cookery 
observes, that a very good meal may be bestowed on poor people in a 
thing called- breivis, which is thus made: Cut a very thick upper 
crust of bread, and put it into the pot where salt beef is boiling, and 
nearly ready ; it will attach some of the fat, and when swelled out, 
will be no unpalatable dish to those who rarely taste meat. 

639. Salt Fish. — The New England mode of dressing salt fish is 
an excellent one, and ought to be generally adopted. Keep the fish 
many hours (at least seven or eight) in scalding hot water, which 
must never be suffered to boil. 

640. To preserve Cheese. — Cover the cheese carefully with paper, 
fastened on with paste, so as totally to exclude the air. In this way 
cheese may be kept for years. 

641. American Mince Meat. — Take the good bits of vegetables, 
and the cold meat left after dinner. Mash your vegetables fine, and 
chop your meat very fine. Warm it with what remains of gravy, or 
roast meat dripping. Two or three apples, sliced and fried to mix 
with it, are considered an improvement. Some like a little sifted 
sage sprinkled in it. After it is warmed, lay it upon a large slice of 
toasted bread. Potatoes should not be used in the preparation of 
American mince meat 


642. Common Flummery is merely water gruel flavoured, and 
eaten cold. Soak in cold water a pint of very fine white oatmeal ; 
when it has steeped a day and a night, pour off the water quite clear. 
Then put upon the oatmeal three pints of fresh water, and let that 
stand also a day aiid a night ; then strain it through a hair sieve, and 
boil it till it is as thick as hasty pudding, stirring it all the time; 
sweeten it with loaf-sugar, and put a spoonful of ratafia or noyeau, or 
a few drops of essence of lemon. Pour it into saucers or shallow 
dishes. It is eaten with sugar and cream, or wine, or cider. 

643. Rice Flummery is ground rice thickened with milk, the same 
as for good rice pudding. In a pint of new milk, simmer three ounces 
of ground rice till it is become a very thick paste, sweeten it with 
loaf-sugar, flavour with ratafia or peach water, put it in a bason or a 
mould; when it is cold,* turn it out. Sauce; half a pint of new 
milk, a glass of white wine, a large tea-cup full of cream, the juice 
of a small lemon, sweetened with loaf-sugar. Or you may pour 
roimd it cream or custard. 

644. French Flummery. — Take two ounces of isinglass to a quart 

GRUELS, CREAMS, (Sc C . lC}ti 

of cream; simmer them a quarter of an hour; sweeten with loaf 
sugar; flavour wilii rose water; strain it into a mould; when cold, 
turn it out, and put round it baked or dried pears. 

645. Dutch Flummery is composed of isinglass boiled in water, 
enriched with lemon, eggs, and wine. Take two ounces of isinglass, 
boil it half an hour in a pint and a half of water, and grate off with 
loaf-sugar the yellow rind of two lemons ; sweeten with loaf-sugar, 
a pint of white wine, and the juice of three lemons. Beat up seven 
eggs, and strain the above to them, stirring all the time. Put it into 
the saucepan a minute or two to scald — by no means let it boil. Then 
pour it into a basin, and stir it till nearly cold, and then let it stand a 
few minutes to settle, and put it into a tin mould previously dipped in 
cold water. 

646. Blancmange. — Tf for a sick person, boil an ounce of the best 
isinglass, with a stick of cinnamon, in half a pint of water. The 
isinglass will become a very thick jelly in half an hour's boiling. 
Then mix to it a pint of new milk, and sugar to taste. Let it boil 
up once, and strain through a tamis, or swan-skin jelly-bag, into a 
bason. Pour it into a mould, or custard cups, when nearly cold; 
pour it very steadily, and keep back any sediment. When turned 
out, raise it all round the edges with a silver knife ; turn the mould 
on a dish, shake it once or twice. If properly prepared, it will turn 
outeia beautiful white jelly, like marble; garnish with flowers or with 
sweetmeats, or sliced lemon. 

647. A richer Blancmange. — Simmer an ounce or little more of fine 
isinglass in a pint and a half of new milk; add the rind of half a 
lemon, shred very fine a blade or two of mace, a stick of cinnamon, 
and sweeten vi'ith tvv^o ounces and a half of loaf-sugar. Blanch and 
pound, with a spoonful of rose water, half an ounce of sweet almonds, 
and eight or ten bitter; put to the milk, and mix. When the isin- 
glass is quite dissolved, strain through a linen flannel, to half a pint 
of rich cream, and stir together well. When it has stood an hour, 
pour it off into another bason, leaving the sediments at the bottom, 
and when nearly cold, pour it into moulds, jelly glasses, or custard 
cups. Two table-spoonfuls of noyeau will answer the purpose of the 
almonds. And the isinglass may be dissolved in a pint of water and 
half a pint of milk. 

618. Arrow-root Blancmange. — Put two tea-cups full of arrow- 
root to a quart of milk. Flavour it with an ounce of sweet almonds, 
and fifteen or sixteen bitter, blanched and pounded ; or with noyeau. 
Moisten the arrow-root with a little cold milk, and pour to it the boil- 
ing milk, stirring all the time. Then put it in the saucepan, and boil 
it a minute or two, still stirring. Dip the moulds in cold water. Turn 
it out when cold. 

649. Italian Cream. — Rub on a lump of sugar the rind of a lemon, 
and scrape it off with a knife into a deep dish or china bowl ; add two 
ounces and a half of sitlted sugar, a gill of brandy, the juice of a 
lemon, and a pint of double cream ; then beat it up well with a whisk; 
boil an ounce of isinglass in a gill of water till quite dissolved; strain 


it to the oilier ingredients ; beat some time, and fill llie mould ; and 
when cold and set well, turn it out on a dish. The above may be 
flavoured with any kind of liquor; strawberry, raspberry, or any kind 
of fruit; coloured with prepared cochineal, and named to correspond 
with the flavour given. 

650. Clouted or Clotted Cream. — The milk which is put into the 

Ean one morning stands till the next; then- set the pan on a hot 
earth, half full of water; put this over a stove from ton to twenty 
minutes, according to the quantity of the milk; it will be done 
enough when bladders rise on its surface; this denotes that it is 
nearly boiling, which it must by no means do, but must be instantly 
removed from the fire, and placed in a cool place till the next morn- 
ing, when the cream is thrown up, and is ready for the tai)ie, or for 
butter, into which it may be converted by stirring it with the hand, 
but not very readily. This is sometimes called Devonshire cream, 
and it is imagined by those who do not know better, to be much richer 
than the common cream. The artificial process employed in raising 
this cream causes the milk to yield a greater quantity, but the quality 
and flavour are inferior to cream raised naturally, and so is the butter 
made from it. 

051. Cream for Fruit Pies. — There are many ways of preparing 
cream. For fruit pies, simmer a pint of new milk, rind of Seville 
orange or lemon, cinnamon, either, or all, as you may choose. Whisk 
up the yolks of three eggs, with half a spoonful of flour, and one or 
two of cream; gradually add the boiling milk, set it over the fire, 
and whisk till it is of the consistence of a thick cream. When it is 
removed tVoni the fire, and rather cool, add a table spoonful of rose or 
orange, water, or a tea-spoonful of syrup of clove gilly flowers. 
When quite cold, take off the top of the pie and pour in the cream ; 
return tl»o cover, either whole or cut in quarters. If eggs are dear, 
one whole egg will whisk up with a spoonful of rice flour or arrow- 
root, and will answer for thickening. Richer cream may be prepared 
with an equal quantity of cream and milk, flavoured with almond, 
lemon, sack, ratafin, or brandy, and called by tho name of the article 
by v.'hich it is fl-ivoured principally. Bt; careful not to let your creams 
boil, or th<'y will curdle. Creams may be prepared with fresh or pre- 

* served fruits. Luscious fruits are improved by the addition of lemon 

052. Birch's Receipt for Mock Cream. — Mix half a spoonful of 
flour with a pint of new milk; let it simmer five minutes to take oflf 
the rawness- of the flour; then beat up the yolk of one egg, stir it 
into the milk while boiling, and run it throuifh a fine sieve. A lea- 
Sjwonful of arrow-root would do better than flour. 

653. Trifle. — Mix in a large bowl a quarter of a pound of sifted 
sugar, a bit of lemon peel grated fine, and the juice of a whole 
lemon, half a gill of Lisbon or sweet wine, the same of brandy, and 
a pint and a half of good cream. Whisk the whole well, and take 
*oft' the froth as it rises with a skimmer, and put it on a sieve; con- 
tinu«j to whisk it till you have enough of the whip; set it in a cold 


place to drain three or four hours. Then put in a dish six or eight 
Bponge biscuits, two ounces of almonds, blanched and t^plit, a quarter 
of a pound of ratafia, some grated nutmeg and lemon peel, currant 
jelly and raspberry jam, half a pint of sweet wine, and a little 
brandy ; when the cakes have absorbed the liquor, pour over about a 
pint of custard, made rather thicker than for apple pie; and, when 
wanted, lay on plenty of the whip, and throw over a few nonpariei 

654. Whip Sijllahub. — Make a whip as in the last receipt ; mix 
with a pint of cream half a pint (jf sweet vviue, the juice of a lemon 
a glass of brandy, six ounces of sifted loaf-sugar, grated nutmeg; 
nearly fill the custard cups with the mixture, and pnton with a spoon 
some of the whip. 

655. Gooseberry or Apple Fool. — Stew green gooseberries or 
apples, peeled or cored ; add to them a little moist sugar, enough to 
draw the juice, to two quarts of fruit a quarter of a pound of sugar. 
When quite tender, pulp through a coarse sieve; add what more 
sugar is necessary to yonr taste, and a quart of new milk warm from 
the cow ; if not from the cow, warm it by the fire ; a tea-cup full of 
cream; mix with it an egg, or two yolks, well beaten. Let it thicken 
in the milk; be careful it does not boil. When cold, mix the fruit, 
and stir all togcth ;r till well united. A little grated ginger is an im- 
provement, nutmeg and lemon rind also, and half a glass of brandy. 

655. Calves' Fe^t Jelly. — Take our calves' feet, not from the tripe 
shop, which have been boiled till almost all the gelatine is extracted, 
but buy them at the butcher's. Slit them in two, take away the fat 
fiom between the clavv's, v^ash them well in lukewarm water, put 
them in a large saucepan or stew-pan, cover them with water; when 
the liquor boils, skim it well, and let them boil gently six or seven 
hours, that it may be reduced to about two quarts. Then strain it 
through a sieve, and put it by till next day. Then take off all the 
oily part which is at the top, with pieces of kitchen paper applied to 
it; by so doing you may reniove every particle of the oily substance, 
without wasting any of the jelly. Put the jelly in the stew-pan to 
inelt; add a pound of lump sugar to it, the juice of lemons, the peel 
of two, six whites and shells beat well together, and a bottle of Sherry 
or Madeira; whihk the whole together until it is on the boil; then put 
it by the side of the stove, and let it simmer a quarter of an hour. 
Then strain it through a jelly-bag; what is strained first must be put 
into the bag, and repeated until it is quite. bright and clear. Then 
put the jelly in moulds till it is cold and firm. Put it in a cold place. 
If you wish to have it very stiff, add half an ounce of isinglass, wiaen 
the wine is put in. It may be flavoured by the juice of various fruits 
and spices, &c., and coloured with cochineal, saffron, spinach juice, red 
beet-root juice or claret. It is sometimes made with cherry brandy, 
noyeau rouge, or essence of punch, instead of wine. Ten shank mut- 
ton bones, which may be bought for a trifle, will give as much jelly as 
{, calPs foot. 

656. Whey. — Boil a pint of milk, put to it a glass or two of white 


wine; put it on the fire till it boils again; then pour it on one sido 
till it has settled. Pour off the clear whey, and sweeten as you like. 
Cider is often used instead of wine, or half the quantity. When there 
is no fire in the sick room, it may be put hot into a bottle, and laid 
between the bed and mattrass. It will keep warm several hours. 

657. Arrouj-root. — A dessert spoonful will thicken half a pint. It 
may be made with milk, and flavoured at pleasure, and according to 
circumstances, if for the sick. The method of mixing is, to moisten 
the arrow-root with a very little liquid, and stir it into a smooth paste ; 
then pour the rest of the milk to it in a boiling state, stirring it one 
way all the time, and a minute or two afterwards. If it is not thick, 
return it to the saucepan, but that wastes it. If you pour it carefully, 
it will be thick by mixing the milk, and quite smooth. 

658. Gruel is made of Scotch oatmeal, or cracked groats, or com- 
mon oatmeal. The Embden, or cracked groats, or Scotch oatmeal, 
is preferable to the common, both for flavour and nutriment, but can- 
not be made so quickly. A block-tin saucepan, or a brass skillet, is 
the best for preserving the colour of the gruel ; and a hair sieve ta- 
strain. Set on the groats in cold water, half a pint to three quarts of 
water. Let it boil three quarters of an hour. In that time it will be 
reduced to two quarts. Then strain it. The groats may be boiled up 
again, and will make another quart of gruei, but they must bo boiled 
longer than at first. Scotch oatmeal may be made a mess at a time. 
To a pint of water two ounces of oatmeal ; mix it with a little ctild ! 
water, and stir it into the rest while boiling. This may be strained i 
or not. Let it boil ten minutes. 

659. Robinson s prepared Groats are prepared in the same way, , 
but do not require so much boiling ; a large spoonful of this will make ! 
a pint of gruel. A bit of butter and salt are generally stirred in gruel ; : 
or sugar and nutmeg, according to taste. 

660. Rice Gruel. — This is principally used for bowel complaints,, 
but is not so good as arrow-root. A table-spoonful of ground rice vvilll 
thicken a pint of milk or water. Mix it in the same manner as oat-- 
meal gruel; boil in a bit of dried orange or lemon peel, and a bit of 
cinnamon. Let it boil about ten minutes, sweeten with loaf-sugar, 
and add two glasses of port, or one of brandy, as may be required. 

661. Barley Gruel. — This also is used to give to a person in a state 
of great debility. Either Scotch or pearl barley may be used ; it re- 
quires a great deal of washing. If time allows, it should be boiled ini 
a small quantity of cold water; when it boils up, pour off; add fresh \ 
boiling water for the gruel. To a quart of water put two ounces of 
barley ; boil till reduced one half, then strain it off. Put to it half aa 
much port wine, and sugar to taste; simmer it together two or throe 
minutes. Rewarm it from time to time as wanted. The barley will 
do to put in broth. 

662. Thick Mil/c, or Flour Caudle, is used for the same purpose, 
A large table- spoonful of flour will thicken a pint. It may be fla- 
voured with cinnamon, or dried orange or lemon peel. Great care 


must be taken that it does not burn. A double saucepan is best for 
tlie purpone, or a brass kettle. Half water may be used. 

663. Barley Water. — Scotch or pearl barley may be used. Wash, 
or boil up, as tor barley gruel ; to a quart of water, barley two ounces. 
Simmer till of an -agreeable thickness, and strain. Boil the barley 
up again, and it will make a pint more. This is a very cooling drink. 
It also is a pleasant thing to take medicine in. Lemon juice and peel, 
raisins, figs, liquorice root, sugar, honey, and gum arabic, with these 
additions it is often used either lor complaints of the chest, confined 
bowels, or stranguary ; or powdered nitre a drachm to a quart, ig 
often found good for fever. (Merely for a drink, put sugar and lemon 
peel.) Rub up the nitre with honey or sugar, mix it with a little 
barley water, and then pour it on the whole quantity in a boiling state. 
Stir it well together. 

665. Beef Tea. — Take a pound of flesliy beef, cut in slices (without 
the least bit of fat;) boil it up in a quart of water, and skim it well ; 
then put it on one side to simmer twenty minutes. Season if approved, 
but generally only salt. 

666. Shank Jelly. — Soak twelve shanks of mutton some hours. 
Brush and scour them well. Put them in a saucepan, put three quarts 
of water to them, add a bunch of sweet herbs, thirty or forty black 
peppers, twenty Jamaica, three blades of mace, an onion, and a crust 
of bread. toasted brown, and put them on a hot hearth, closely covered. 
Let them simmer five hours very gently; then strain it off, and put it 
in a cool place. It may have the addition of a pound of beef, if ap- 
proved, for flavour. This is a very good thing for people who are 

667. Tapioca Jelly. — Choose the largest sort. Pour cold water 
on, and wash it two or three times ; then soak it in fresh water five 
or six hours, and simmer it until it becomes quite clear. Add wine, 
lemon juice, and sugar. Boil the peel of the lemon in it. It thickens 
very much. 

667. Posset. — This is more potent than whey, and in which the 
curd is not separated. Either ale or wine will turn it. Put on the 
fire, in a kettle, a quart of new milk, with a stick of cinnamon; cut a 
slice of bread ; as the milk boils, lay it at the top, and let it boil a mi- 
nute or two ; then put it aside to soften. Put a pint of very strong 
ale, with sugar and nutmeg, or white wine. Boil up the milk again, 
take the bread out with a slice, and lay on the ale or wine ; then very 
gently pour over the boiling milk, and let it stand until the head rises 
like that of a syllabub. Then serve. A richer posset may be made 
by substituting Naples biscuits for bread. A brandy posset is a quar 
of rich custard poured over a glass and a half of brandy. 

668. Orgeat. — Boil a quart of new milk with a slick of cinnamon. 
Put to it two ounces of loaf-sugar, and let it cool. Blaiich and beat 
to a paste, with a little rose water, three ounces of sweet almonds, 
and two dozen bitter. Stir them to^ the milk; boil it up again, and 
continue stirring till cold. Then add half a glass of brandy. 

669. Orange Marmalade. — Seville oranges are in perfection about 



tlie end of March and bp,^inninpr of April, at wJiich time marmalade 
ehould be made. Allow two pounds of sugar to each pound of Seville 
oranges; grate the oranges lightly, and slice them down with a very 
sharp knife, as thin as possible, and straight through. Notiiing must 
be kept out but the seeds. Clarify the sugar, put the fruit in, and 
boil it slowly for at least an hour, until the chips are perfectly tender 
and clear, and it will jelly ; a little of the grate may be put in, if 
approved ; the rest is good seasoning for puddings. 

670. Fruit Jelly. — Put the fruit, carefully picked, into a stone jar; 
cover close; set it in a kettle of cold water, which reaches not more 
than three parts the height of the jar. Let it boil half an hour (more 
or less, according to the nature of the fruit; black currants are much 
longer running to juice than either red currants or raspberries). 
Strain through a jelly-bag or lawn strainer; or the juice may be 
strained more quickly, by setting on the fruit in a preserving pan, and 
carefully stirring round the sides as it begins to heat, that it may not 
burn ; strain through a jelly-bag or lawn strainer. To every pint of 
juice allow a pound of loaf-sugar. Set on the juice over a clear fire; 
when it boils, put in the sugar. When it has boiled some time, and 
the scum thickens and gathers together, skim it on to a sieve, and 
continue to do so while the scum rises; what runs from it may be 
returned to the rest. When it has boiled forty minutes, try a few 
drops, by putting on a plate in a cool place. If this become stiff 
almost immediately, the jelly is done enough. If not, it must be 
boiled till it will. The jelly may then be strained through a hair 
sieve, but if it have been properly skimmed this is not necessary, and 
it is a great waste. The best way is to pour it into a spouted jug that 
will contain the whole, and then into small jelly pots or glasses. Be 
very careful not to pour aside, or smear the edges, as an accident of 
this sort, however carefully wiped away, renders the jelly apt to turn 
mouldy. White currant jelly should be strained through a muslin or 
lawn sieve. 


671. Jams. — In making jam of very ripe juicy fruit, a portion of 
jelly may be taken from it which will improve the jam, taking care 
to have sufficient syrup to jelly round the fruit. Each quart of fruit 
and two pounds of sugar will admit the removal of half a pint of jelly 
without injury. 

Strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, and currants: put an 
equal weight of loat-sugar and fruit; put the fruit in a preserving 
pan ; bruise it a little and put it on the stove; stir it carefully to keep 
it from sticking to the bottom and sides of the pan. Let it boil before 
adding the sugar, and if there is plenty of juice from the fruit, so that 
there is no danger of it burning, let it boil a quarter of an hour before 
adding the sugar; it must boil half an hour afterwards. Skim on to 
a sieve, and add that which runs through to it. Try the stiffness of 
the jelly by putting a little on a plate and setting it in a cool place ; 


if it becomes stiff when quite cold, it has boiled sufnciently; if not 
stitf, boil it until it is. 

'i'ije scarlet or mulberry strawberries are the best for preserving; 
they must be quite ripe and dry : to three pints of strawberries allow 
halfapintof red currant jelly. For gooseberry jam, take the small 
dark hairy sort named Crystal, or a large bright hairy sort called the 
Warrington. Smooth gooseberries do not do well in preserving. 

Lisbon sugar answers very well when the jam is wanted for im- 
mediate use, and in large families where it is much used. Put six 
pounds of Lisbon sugar to seven of fruit. Gooseberries and black 
currants sliould be boiled an hour; if not stiff in that time, boil it 

672. Cherries. — To preserve cherries without boiling, take fine 
ripe Morello cherries; cut the stalks an inch from the fruit, end put 
tliem into wide-mouthed bottles; when full, put powdered loaf-sugar 
over the top, and pour in a little brandy. Cork and cement, or tie 
over with leather and bladder. They will keep all the winter 
through, and do very well for desserts. 

673. To bottle Damsons or Gooseberries. — Damsons should have 
attained their dark colour, but not be ripe. Be careful not to bruise 
Ihem. Fill wide-mouthed bottles: shake thegn down so that you may 
get as many in as possible. To each bottle put a wine glass of good 
home-made wine, either ginger or raisin ; no other sort is good. Tie 
them over with bladders, and put them to stand in a large pot with 
cold water to reach the necks of the bottles; put a fire under the pot, 
and let the water boil ; when the bladders begin to rise and puff, prick 
them with a pin. As soon as the water boils remove the fire, and let 
the bottles remain there until they are quite cold. Next day remove 
the bladders, and put over the top a thick layer of powdered loaf- 
sugar and a spoonful of brandy; then cork them tight, and seal or 
cement them. 

674. Gooseberries. — The same rules do for gooseberries, but they 
should be full grown, and gathered when green. 

675. Currants. — Currants full grown, but not turned, may be pre- 
served in the same way; cut the stalks of!' with scissors. 

676. To keep Codlins several months. — Gather codlins at Midsum- 
mer of a middling size; put them into an earthen pan, pour boiling 
water over, and cover the pan with cabbage leaves; keep them by 
the (ire fill they would peel, but do not peel them; then pour the 
water off till both are quite cold. Place the codlins in a stone jar 
with a smallish mouth, and pour on them the water that scalded them. 
Cover the pot with bladder, and tie very close, and then cover it with 
coarse paper again. It is best to keep them in small pots, such aa 
will be used at once when opened. 

677. To preserve Apricots in jelly. — Pare the ft-uit very thin and 
stone it; weigh an equal quantity of sugar in fine powder and strew 
over it. Next day boil very gently till they are clear; move them 
into a bowl, and pour the liquor over. The following day pour the 
liquor to a quart of codlin liquor made by boiling and straining, and a 



pound of fine sugar; let it boil quickly till it will jelly ; put the fruit 
into it, and give one boil ; skim well and put into small pots. 

678. A very nice preserve of Apr i cols, — Choose the finest apricots 
when quite ripe; pare them as thin as possible, and weigh them ; lay 
them in halves on dishes, with the hollow parts upwards; have an 
equal weight of good loaf-sugar finely pounded, and strew it over 
them; break the stones, and blanch the kernels; when the fruit has 
lain twelve hours, put it with the sugar and juice, also the kernels, 
into a preserving pan ; lot it simmer very gently till clear, then take 
out the pieces of apricots singly ; put them into small pots, and pour 
the syrup and kernels over tliem. The scum must be taken oW as it 
rises. Cover with brandy paper. 

.Greengages and egg- plums may be preserved in the same way. 

679. Dried Apricots. — Proceed as above, but instead of pouring 
the syrup over them after the last boil, drain them close, strew over 
sifted sugar to cover them, and dry them on a wire sieve on a stove, 
or in a slow oven ; they must be turned several times, but ought not 
to be cold till quite dry. 

680. Apricots or Peaches in brandy. — Wipe and v/eigh the fruit, 
and take a quarter of the weight of fine powdered sugar; put the fruit 
into an ice-pot that sjiuts very close, throw the suoar over it, and 
then cover the fruit with brandy. Between the top and cover of the 
pot, put a piece of double cap-paper. Set the pot into a saucepan of 
water till the brandy be as liot as you can possibly bear to put your 
finger in, but it must not boil. Put the fruit into a jar, and pour the 
brandy on it. When cold, put a bladder over, and tie it down tight. 

6S1. Apricot Jam. — Divide fine apricots that have become yellow, 
but are noi over ripe; lay the hollow part uppermost on china dishes, 
and strew over twelve ounces of sifted sugar to every pound of fruit ; 
Jet it lie until it becomes moist, then boil it twenty minutes, stirring 
it well. Blanch the kernels, and boil with the jam. 
. 682. To preserve Ginger. — If your ginger can be had green, it is 
best. Pare it nicRly witii a sharp knife, and throw it into cold water 
as you pare it, to preserve the whiteness. If fresh ginger cannot be 
procured, have the finest large white races of Jamaica ginger. Boil 
it several times in water till tender, then pare and proceed as above; 
set on the ginger in cold water and boil it. Pour off the liquor, and 
put cold water; then boil it up again. Do this a tiiird time, till the 
ginger is tender, then throw it into cold water; when quite cold, 
.drain the ginger and put into a china bowl. Clarify sugar for pre- 
serving it, in the proportion of eight pounds of sugar to seven of gin- 
g-er. Let the sui^ar become cold, then pour over the ginger enough 
to cover it. Let it stand two days, then strain the syrup from the 
ginger and boil it with the remainder of the sugar; let them boil 
together twenty minutes or half an hour. When cold, again pour it 
over the ginger, and let it stand three or four days; by this time the 
ginger will have finely swollen. Then strain the syrup, boil it up, 
and pour it hot over the ginger. If the ginger is well swollen, and 
the syrup quite rich, nothing more is necessary ; but if not, boil it 


affair, at the interval of three or four days. Wide-mouthed bottles 
are best for keepins" it. Divide the syrup to each; cork and seal, or 
dip in bottle cement. 

6S3. Cherries in brandy. — Weiijh the finest Morellos, havin^f cut 
off half the stalk; prick thorn with a now needle, and drop them into 
ajar or wide-mouthed bottle. Pound three-quarters of the weisfht of 
suffar or white candy ; strew, fill up with brandy, and tie a bladder 
over them. 

684. Danuon Cheese. — It is sometimes made with the whole skins 
and pulp of the fruit, sometimes with the pulp only. In cither case 
the fruit is first to be baked or boiled in a stone jar till it is tender, 
and the stones will separate. If the skins are to be used, merely take 
out the stones with a spoon, then measure it into the preserving- pan. 
If the skins are objected to, rub it throuo'h a very coarse sieve, that 
so they may be retained with the stones. Havin*? measured the fruit, 
Get it over a clear brisk fire, and let it boil quick till the liquid has 
evaporated and the fruit becomes quite dry ; then add loaf-sufjar 
powdered, in the proportion of half a pound to a quart of fruit, and let 
it go on boiling- till the jam candies to the sides of the pan. The 
stones should be cracked, and the kernels skinned and boiled in the 
jam ; this gives it a very pretty appearance, but some people object 
to it It should be put out in shallow vessels, such as potting jars, 
saucers, and so fbrtii, and tirrned out when brought to table. 


In preparing meat for the table, and in laying out the table, refer- 
ence ought to be had to the carving department — a very onerous one 
to all, and to many a very disagreeable one. The carving knife of 
course ought to bo sharp, and if to be used by a lady, in particular, 
light and handy ; dexterity and address in the manner of using it 
boing more required than strength, either in the knife or the carver. 
When a lady presides, a seat sufficiently high for her to have a com- 
plete command over the joints should be provided, and the dish should 
he sufficiently deep and capacious, so as not to endanger the splash- 
ing of the gravy. It should also be placed as near to the carver as 
possible, leaving room for his or her plate. A knife with a long 
blade is required for a large flashy joint; for ham or bacon a middling 
sized, sharp-pointed one is preferable, and for poultry or game a short 
knife and sharp-pointed is best. Some like this knife a little curved. 
We do not presume to give any directions as respects the serving of 
the guests; no one it is presumed would take the head of the table 
not acquainted with the common rules of politeness, which principally 
consist in endeavouring to please everybody. 

685. Fish. — As fish is the first thing to be carved, or served, we 
shall first speak of it. In helping fish, take care not to break the flakes, 
which in cod and fine fresh salmon, and some other sorts, are large. 
A fish trowel is necessary, not to say indispensable, in serving many 
kinds of fish, particularly the larger sort. 


686. Turbol, <^'c. — The trowel is to be carried flatways from the 
middle of the fish, and the carver should bring- out as mucii meat as 
will lie upon it. The thick part is the best, and of course most es- 
teemed. When one side is cleared, the bones ought to be taken 
away — which done, serve the under part. The meat on the fins is 
cronsidered by some a great delicacy. Halibuts, plaice, and other 
larofe fish, are served in a similar way. 

687. A Cod's Head and Shoulders, perhaps, require more atten 
tiou in serving- than any other. It is, too, considered a handsome 
dish. In carving, introduce the trowel along the back, and take otFa 
piece quite down to the bone, taking care not to break the flakes. Put 
in a spoon and take out the sound, a jelly-like substance, which lies 
inside the back-bone. A part of this should be served with every 
slice of fish. The bones and glutinous parts of a cod's head are much 
liked by most people, and are very nourishing. 

688. Salmon — Cut slices along the back-bone, and also along the 
flank. The flank or thin part is the best and richest, and is preferred 
by all accomplished gourmands. Tiie back is the most solid and thick. 
The tail of salmon is not so fine as the other parts. The head is 
seldom used. The liver, melt, and roe, are generally served, but 
seldom eaten. 

689. Soles are easily carved. You have only to cut through the 
middle part of the fish, bone and all, and subdivide and serve accord- 
ing to the size offish. The thick parts are best; the roes when well 
done are very nice. 

690. Mackerel. — The trowel should be carried under the meat, 
horizontally over the back-bone, so as to raise one side of the meat 
from the bone. Remove the bone, and serve the other side of the fish. 
When fresh, well cleaned, and well done, the upper end is considered 
the best. The roes are much liked. 

691. Eels, IVhiting Jack, c^c, when intended to be fried, are pre- 
viously cut in pieces of a suitable size for serving. When they are 
boiled, cut through them in the same way as soles. Large jacks will 
admit of slices being taken off with a trowel without the bones. Small 
fish are served whole. 

692. Ailch Bone of Beef. — Cut a slice an inch thick all through. 
Put this by, and serve in slices from the remainder. Some persons, 
however, like outside, and others take off" a thinner slice before serv- 
ing, for the sake of economy. The rich, delicious, soft fat, which re- 
sembles marrow, lies at the back of the bone : the firm fat is cut in 
liorizontal slices at the edge of the meat. Some prefer one and some 
the other. The skewer used to keep the meat together when boiling, 
should be taken out before coming to the table, and, if necessary, be 
replaced by a silver one. 

693. A Round, w Buttock, aiid thick Flank of Beef, are carved 
in horizontal slices, that is, in slices from the top. Pare and neatly 
cut all round. Some prefer the silver side. 

694. A Brishet of Beef is cut lengthways, right down to the bone. 


The soft mellow fat is found underneath'. The upper part is firm, but 
gristly ; if well done, they are equally good to our taste. 

695. Sirloin of Beef, the glory of the dinner-table, may be com- 
menced carving, either by beginning at the end, and cutting slice? 
along the bones, or across the middle ; but this latter mode wi 
draiu the gravy from the remainder. The inside is very juicy and 
tender, but the outside is frequently preferred. The inside fat is rich 
and marrowy, and is considered loo much so by many. The inside 
of a sirloin is frequently dressed (in various ways) separately. 

696. Fillet of Veal is the corresponding part to the round in an ox, 
and is cut in the same way. If the outside brown be not desired, 
serve tlie next slice. Cut deep into the stuffing, and help a thin slice, 
as likewise of fat. A fillet of veal should be cut very smooth and 

697. Breast of Veal answers to the brisket of an ox. It should be 
cracked lengthways, across the middle of the bones, to divide the 
thick gristly part from the ribs. There is a great difference in these 
parts ; and as some prefer the one, and some the other, the best way 
is to ask to which the preference is to be given. The burr, or sweet- 
meat, is much liked, and a part should be served with each slice. 

698. Necks and Loins of all sorts of meat, if properly jointed by 
the butcher, require only to be cut through ; but when the joints are 
too thick for one, cut a slice between each, that is, cut one slice with- 
out bone, and another with. Some prefer one, and some the other. 

699. Calfs Head affords a great variety of excellent meat, differ- 
ing in texture and flavour, and therefore requires a judicious and 
ekiltul carver properly to divide it. Cut slices longways under the 
eye, taking care that the knife goes close to the bone. The throat 
sweetbread, or kernel, lies in the fleshy part, at the neck end, which 
you should help a slice of with the other part. The eyes are con- 
eidered great delicacies by some. They should be taken out with 
the point of your knife, and each cut into two. A piece of the palate 
(which lies under the head), a slice of the tongue, with a portion o^ 
the brains, should be given to each guest. On drawing out the jav/- 
bone, some delicious lean will be found. The heads of oxen, sheep, 
lambs, &c., are cut in the same way as those of calves. 

700. A Leg of Mutton, ^c. — Begin to cut in the midway, between 
the knuckle and farther end. The slices should be thin and deep. If 
the outside is not fat enough, cut some from the fat on the broad end, 
in slices. Many prefer the knuckle, or venison bit, to the middle 
part; the latter is the most juicy — the former, in good, well-done 
mutton, is gelatinous and delicately tender. There is some good meat 
on the back of the \eg, or aitch bone ; this should be cut lengthways. 
It is, however, seldom carved when hot. To cut out the cramp bone, 
take hold of the shank in your left hand, and steadily cut down to the 
thigh bone ; then pass the knife under the cramp bone, hege of 
Jamb and pork are cut in the same way. 

701. A Saddle, or Collar of Mutton, sometimes called the chine, 
snould be cut lengthways, in long slices, beginning close to the back- 


bone, and thus leavinor the ribs bare. The fat is taken from the outer 
ends. The inside ot' the loin is very tender, and in the opinion of 
Bome gourmands is preferred to the upper part. It is best, perhaps, 
to cut the inside lengthways. 

702. Shoulder of Mutton. — To carve this joint (which when pro- 
perly dressed is very fine eating) economically for a very small family, 
the best way is to cut away the underneath part when hot, and if any 
more is required, to lake it from the knuckle. This plan leaves all 
the gravy in the upper part, which is very nice when cold. The 
usual way, however, of carving a shoulder of mutton, is to cut slices 
deep to the bone, in the hollow part. The prime part of the fat lies 
on the Outer edge, and is to be cut in thin slices. Some good delicate 
slices of lean may be taken from each side of the ridge of the blade- 
bone. No slices can be cut across the edge of the blade-bone, 

' 703. Haunch of Venison or Mutton. — Cut down to the bone in 
circular slices at the narrow end, to let out the gravy. You may 
then turn the broad end of the haunch towards you; insert the knife 
in the middle of the cut, and cut thin deep slices lengthways to the 
broad end of the haunch. The fat of venison is much esteemed ; 
those who help should take care properly to apportion both the fat 
and gravy. 

704. Fore-quarter of Lamb. — Separate the shoulder from the 
scovel, or breast and ribs, by passing the knife under it (the shoulder). 
The shoulder of grass lamb, which is generally pretty large, should ' 
have a little lemon or Seville orange juice, squeezed over it, and be 
sprinkled with a little pepper and salt, and then placed upon another 
dish. If the lamb be small, it is usual to replace the shoulder. The 
breast and ribs should be cracked across by the butcher, and be 
divided. Help either from that, the ribs, or shoulder, according to 

705. Ham. — The most economical way of cutting a ham, which is 
seldom or never eaten at one meal, is to begin to cut at the knuckle 
end, and proceed onwards. The usual way, however, is to begin at 
the middle, and cut in long slices through the thick fat. By this 
means you come at once to the prime, but you let out the gravy. 
Another plan is to cut a small hole on the top of the ham, and withi 
a very sharp knife enlarge the hole, by cutting thin circular slices. , 
In this latter way you preserve the gravy, and of course keep the ' 
meat moist to be eaten when cold. 

706. Tongue. — This much-esteemed relish, which often supplies 
the place of ham, should be cut in thin slices across, beginning at the 
thick middle part. Serve slices of fat and kernel from the root. 

707. A Sucking Pig is generally slit down the middle in the 
kitchen, and the cook garnishes the dish with the jaws and ears. 
Separate a shoulder from the carcase on one side, and then do the 
same thing with the leg. Divide the ribs, which are frequently con- 
sidered the most choice part, into two or three helpings, presenting 
an ear or jaw with them as far as they will go, and plenty of stance. 
Some persons prefer the leg, because not so rich and luscious as tho 


ribs. The neck end between the shoulders is also sometimes pre- 
ferred. The joints may be divided into two each, or pieces may be 
cut from them. 

708. A Fowl — The legs of a boiled fowl are always bent inwards, 
and tucked into the belly, but before it is put upon the table, the 
skewers by which they are secured oug-ht to be removed. The fowl 
should be laid on the carver's plate, and the joints as they are cut off 
placed on the dish. In taking off the wing, the joint only must be 
divided with the knife, for, by lifting up the pinion of the wing with 
the fork, and then drawing it towards the legs, the muscles will se- 
parale in a much better form than you can effect by cutting with a 
knife. Next place the knife between the leg and body, and cut to 
the bone ; turn the leg back with the fork, and the joint will give way, 
if the fowl be young and well done. The merrythought is taken 
out when the legs and wings are all removed ; the neck-bones are 
taken off by putting in the knife, and pressing it under the long broad 
part of the bone, then lift the neck-bone up and break it off from the 
part that sticks to the breast. The breast itself has now to be 
divided from the carcase, by cutting through the tender ribs close 
to the breast, quite down to the tail; then lay the back upwards, 
put your knife into the bone half-v;ay from the neck to the rump, 
and on raising the lower end it will readily separate. The last 
tning to be done is to turn the rump from you, and neatly to take off 
the two sidesmen. Each part should be neatly arranged on the dish, 
but it is almost impossible to give effectual written descriptions for 
carving fowls; the best plan is to observe carefully a good carver, and 
th^n, by a little practice, you will become perfect. The breast and 
the wings are considered the best parts. 

709. A Pheasant. — Take out the skewers; fix your fork in the 
centre of the breast, slice it down; remove the leg by cutting in the 
sideway direction, then take off the wing, taking care to miss the neck- 
bone. When the legs and wings are all taken off, cut off slices of 
the breast. The merrythought is separated by passing the knife 
under it towards the neck; the other parts are cut as before directed 
in a fowl. The breast, wings, and merrythought, are the favourites, 
particularly the former, but the leg has a higher flavour. 

710. Partridges and Pigeons. — Partridges are carved like fowls, 
but the breast and wings are not often divided, the bird being small. 
The wing is the prime bit, particularly the tip; the other choice parts 
are the breast and merrythought. Pigeons may be cut in two, either 
from one end to the other of the bird, or across. 

711. Goose or Duck. — Cut off the apron of the goose and pour into 
the body a large spoonful of gravy, which should be mixed with the 
stuffing. Some persons put, instead of the gravy, a glass of port wine, 
in which a large tea-spoonful of mustard has been previously stirred. 
Cut as many slices from the breast as possible, and serve with a por- 
tion of the apron to each plate. When the breast is all served, and 
not till then, cutoff the joints; but observe, the joints of water-fowl 
are wider spread and go farther back than those of land-fowl. 

i7^ THE C O M r li E T E COOK. • (I 

712. A Turkey should not be divided till the breast is disposed of;* 
but if it be thought proper to divide, the same process must be fol-.t 
lowed as directed in a fowl. The followiniif is the bast mode of serving) 
this delicious bird : Begin cuttinf^- close to the breasl-bone, scooping 
round so as to leave the mere pinions. Each slice should carry with 
it a portion of the pudding, or force meat, with which the craw is 

713. Hare. — Put the point of the knife under the shoulder, and cut^ 
all the way down to the rump, on the side of the back-bone. By doingv 
the same on the other side, the hare will be divided into three parts., 
The back should be cut into four parts : the shoulder must be taken, 
off in a circular line. The pieces as they are cut should be neatly 
placed on the dish ; in helping, some pudding and gravy should be 
given to each person. The above mode of carving is only applicable 
to a young hare; when the hare is old, it is not practicable to divide 
it down, but put the knife between the leg and back, and give it a lit- 
tle turn inwards at the joints, which you must endeavour to hit, and 
then cut, and with the fork turn it completely back. When both legs 
are taken off', you will find a fine colJop on each side of the back, 
which back you may divide into as many pieces as are necessary. 
Take off the shoulders, which some persons are very i'ond of, and 
which are called the sportsman's pieces; but the legs and back 
are considered the prime. When all the guests are served, it is usual 
to take oft' the head, and by putting the knife between the upper and 
lower jaw, you may divide them; then lay the upper flat upon your 
plate, put the point of the knife into the centre, and cut the head into 
two; you will thus get at the brains, which may be served with the 
ears and tail to those who like them. Some persons direct tlie carver 
to serve with slices, as much as possible, off the sides of the back-bone, 
from the shoulder to the rump. 

714. Rabbits are generally cut up in the same way as hares. The 
back and legs are considered the best parts. The back should be cut 
into two pieces. 


Parsley is the most universal garnish to all kinds of cold meat, 
poultry, fish, butter, cheese, and so forth. Horse-radish is the garnish 
for roast beef, and for fish in general ; for the latter, slices of lemon 
are sometimes laid alternately with heaps of horse-radish. 

Slices of lemon for boiled fowl, turkey, and fish, and for roast veal 
and calPs head. 

Carrot in slices for boiled beef, hot or cold. 

Barberries fresh or preserved for game. 

Red beet-root sliced for cold meat, boiled beef, and salt fish. 

Fried smelts as garnish for turbot. 

Fried sausages or force meat balls round roast turkey, capon, or 

Lobster coral and parsley round boiled fish. .,^ i: ...,;.. i^u.- 


Fennel for mackerel and salmon, either fresh or pickled. 

Currant jelly for game, also for custard or bread pudding:. 

Seville orange in slices for wild ducks, widgeons, teal and so forth. 

Mint, either with or without parsley, for roast lamb, either hot or 

Pickled gherkins, capers, or onions, for some kMids of boiled meat 
and etews. 


A prudent housekeeper, in providing for a family, or for company, 
will endeavour to secure variety, and avoid extravagance, taking care 
not to have two dishes alike, or nearly alike, such as ducks and pork, 
veal and fowls; and avoiding, when several sorts are required, to have 
such things as cannot be eaten cold, or cannot be warmed or re-cooked. 
There is a great waste occasioned if these principles are overlooked 
in providing for a party. When a table is to be set out, it is usual 
to place nearly the whole provisions at once ; but if comfort is the 
object, it is better to have each dish and its accompanying sauces and 
vegetables sent in separately, hot from the kitchen. 

For plain family dinners, soup or pudding is placed at the head of 
the table, and meat at the lower end ; vegetables on each side of the 
middle, and sauce boats in the middle. Boiled meat at the top; roast 
meat at bottom; soup in the middle; then the vegetables and sauce 
boats at cross corners of the middle dish. Poultry or mutton at bot- 
tom ; boiled poultry at top; roast poultry, or game, at bottom ; vege- 
tables and sauces so disposed as to give the appearance of the whole 
table being covered without being crowded. 

When there are several courses, the first consists of soups, stews, 
boiled fish, fricassees; poultry with ham, bacon, tongue, or chine; 
and roast or boiled meat. 

For second courses, birds and gnme of all sorts, fish fried, pickled, 
or potted ; pigeon pies, patties, brawn, omelets, oysters stewed or 
scolloped, and lobsters or crabs. Tarts, cheesecakes, and sweet dishes 
of all kinds, are sometimes placed v;ith the second course, but more 
froqunntly form separate courses by themselves. 

The dessert is usually served in another room, which is a great ac- 
commodation both to the servants, who can prepare it at leisure, and 
to the guests in quitting the smell of a hot dinner. A d'oyley, a 
finger glass, two wine glasses, a china dessert plate, and silver knife 
and fork, and spoon, to each person. Every variety of fruit, fresh and 
preserved, is admissible ; and biscuits, and pound-cake, with an 
epergne or stand of jellies in the middle. Varieties of wine are 
generally placed at each end. 

The modern practice of dining late has added importance to the 
luncheon, and almost annihilated the supper meal. The following 
Rre suitable for either: soups, sandwiches of ham, tongue, dried 
fiausage, or beef; anchovy, toast or husks; potted beef, lobster, or 
cheese; dried salnion, lobsters, crayfish or oysters, poached eggs; 


patties; pigeon pies; sansacrps; toast with marrow (served on a 
water plate), cheesecakes; pulis, mashed or scolloped potatoes, brocoli ; 
asparagus, sea-kale with toast, creams, jellies, preserved or dried 
fruits, salad, radishes, &,c. If a more substantial supper is required, 
it may consist of fish, poultry, game; slices of cold meat, pies of 
chickens, pigeons, or game ; lamb or mutton chops, cold poultry, 
broiled with high seasoning, or fricasseed; rations or toasted cheese. 


715. The best method of making these wines is to boil the ingre- 
dients, and ferment with yeast. Boiling makes the wine more soft 
and mellow. Some, however, mix the juice, or juice and fruit, with 
sugar and water unboiled, and leave the ingredients to ferment spon- 
taneously. Your fruit should always be prime, and gathered dry, and 
picked clean from stalks, &c. The lees of wine are valuable for dis- 
tillation, or making vinegar. When wine is put in the cask the fer- 
mentation will be renewed. Clear away the yeast as it rises, and fill 
up with wine, for which purpose a small quantity should be reserved. 
If brandy is to be added, it must be when the fermentation has nearly 
subsided, that is, when no more yeast is thrown up at the bung-hole, 
and when the hissing noise within is not very perceptible: then mix a 
quart of brandy with a pound of honey ; pour into the cask, and paste 
stiff brown paper over the bung-hole. Allow no hole for a vent peg, 
lest it should once be forgotten, and the whole cask of wine be spoiled. 
If the wine wants vent, it will be sure to burst the paper; if not, the 
paper will sufficiently exclude all air. Once a week or so, it must 
be looked to; if the paper is burst renew it, and continue to do so till 
it remains clear and dry. A great difference of opinion prevails as to 
racking the wine," or suffering it to remain on the lees. Those whc 
adopt the former plan do it at the end of six months; draw off the 
wine perfectly clear, and put it into a fresh cask, in which it is to re- 
main six months, and then be bottled. If this plan is adopted, it may 
be better, instead of putting the brandy and honey in the first cask, 
to put it in that in which the wine is to be racked; but on the whole 
it is, perhaps, preferable to leave the wine a year in the first cask, 
and then bottle it at once. All domestic wines improve more in the 
cask than in the bottle. Have very nice clear and dry bottles; do 
not fill them too high. Good soft corks, made supple by soaking in a 
little of the wine ; press them in, but do not knock. Keep the bottles 
lying in saw-dust. This plan will apply equally well to raspberries, 
cherries, mulberries, and all kinds of ripe summer fruits. 

716. Ginger Wine. — To make eighteen gallons of v;ine — twenty 
gallons of water, fifty pounds of loaf-sugar, two and a half pounds of 
bruised ginger, hops a quarter of a pound, the shaved rinds of eighteen 
lemons or Seville oranges ; let these boil together for two hours, care- 
fully skimming. Pour it, without straining, on to seven pounds of 
raisins: when cool put in the juice of the lemons or oranges; rmse 
the pulp in a pint or two of the wine, and strain it to the rest. JFer 

MADE WINES, &C. 179 

in«nl it with yeast; mix a quarter of a pint of solid yeast with a pint 
or two of the wine, and with that work the rest; next day tun it, 
raisin?, hops, ginger and all together, and fill it up for a fortnight 
either with wine or with good new beer; then dissolve three ounces 
of isinglass in a little of the wine, and return it to the rest to fine it: 
a few days afterwards bung it close. This wine will be in full per- 
fection in six months. It may be bottled, but is apt to fly; and if 
made exactly by the above directions, and drawn from the cask, it 
will sparkle like champaign. 

717. 3Jead, Melheglin, or Honey Wine. — Boil honey in water for 
an hour : the proportion is from three to four ix>unds to each gallon : 
half an ounce of iiops will both refine and preserve it, but is not com- 
monly added : skim carefully, draining the skimmings through a hair 
sieve, and return what runs through. When a proper coolness, stir 
in yeast; a tea-cup full of solid yeast will serve for nine gallons. Tun 
it, and let it work over, filling it up till the fermentation subsides. 
Paste over brown paper, and watch it (see No. 725). Rich mead 
will keep seven years, and afford a brisk, nourishing, and pleasant 
drin-k. Some people like to add the thinly shaved rind of a lemon to 
each gallon while boiling, and put the fruit, free from pith, into the 
tub. Others flavour it with spices and Si^eet herbs, and mix it with 
new beer or sweet wort : it is then called Welsh Braggart. 

718. Parsnip Wine. — To make a kilderkin: Set on double the 
quantity of water, and for every gallon of water allow four pounds of 
parsnips cleaned and sliced. When the water boils, put in the par- 
snips, and boil till they are perfectly tender ; drain through a sieve or 
colander without pressing; immediately return it to the copper with 
fifty-six pounds of loaf-sugar ; it will soon boil, being already hot, and 
what drips from the sieve may be added afterwards ; six ounces of 
hops, and boil it two hours. Ferment with yeast ; let it stand four 
days to work in a warm place ; then tun and paste paper over. It is 
most likely it will work up and burst the paper, which must be re- 
newed. It may be cleared with isinglass, but will not require any 

719. Malt Wi7ie, or English Sherry. — For an eighteen-gallon 
cask allow fifty-six pounds of good moist sugar, and sixteen gallons 
of water; boil them together two hours, carefully skimming. When 
the scum is all removed, and the liquor looks clear, add a quarter of a 
pound of hops, which should boil a quarter of an hour or twenty 
minutes. When the liquor is quite cool add to it five gallons of 
strong beer in the height of working: cover up, and let it work forty- 
eight hours; then skim and tun. If none remains for filling up, use 
new beer for that purpose. This method may be adopted with all 
boiled wines, and will be found to improve their strength, and promote 
their keeping. In a fortnight or three weeks, when the head begins 
to sink, add raisins (free from stalks) ten pounds, sugar-candy and 
bitter almonds of each half a pound, and a pint of the best brandy : 
brown paper as in former articles. It may be bottled in one year 

180 THE C O M P I. E T E COOK. 

lut if left three years in the wood, and then bottled, it will be found 
equal in strength and flavour to foreign wine. 

720. Orange or Lemon Wine, boiled. — (For quantity of fruit, see 
No. 726.) To make eighteen gallons, twenty gallons of water, fifty- 
six pounds of loaf-sugar, the whites and shells of a dozen eggs, a 
quarter of a pound of hops ; boil together the sugar, water, and eggs ; 
when it has boiled an hour, and become quite clear, add the hops and 
the thinly shaved rinds of two or three dozen of the fruit — more or 
less, according as the bitter flavour is desired. Let it boil, in all, two 
hours: meanwhile, remove all the peel and white pith of the fruit, 
and squeeze the juice. Pour a gallon or two of the hot liquor on the 
pulp; stir it well about, and, when cool, strain to the rest, and add 
the juice. (N. B. Some people strain off the hops, rind, and eggs; 
others prefer their remaining: it is by no means important which 
mode is adopted.) Work it with yeast, as the foregoing article, and 
refine with isinglass dissolved in a quart of brandy. This wine should 
be one year in wood, and one in bottles, when it will be found ex- 

721. Grape Wine. — The larger the proportion of juice, and the 
less of water, the nearer it will approach to the strength and richness 
of foreign wine. There ought not to be less than one-third of pure 
juice. Squeeze the grapes in a hair sieve, bruising them with the 
hand rather than any heavier press, as it is better not to crush the 
stones. Soak the pulp in water until a sufficient quantity is obtained 
to fill up the cask. As loaf-sugar is to be used for this wine, and it is 
not easily dissolved in cold liquid, the best plan is to pour over the 
BUgar (three pounds in every gallon required) as much boiling water 
as will dissolve it, and stir till it is dissolved. When cold put it in 
the cask with the juice, fill up from water in which the pulp has been 
steeped. To each gallon of wine put half an ounce of bitter almonds, 
not blanched, but cut small. The fermentation will not be very great. 
When it subsides, proceed with the brandy and papering as 726. 

722. Raisin Wine. — There are various modes of preparing this 
wine, which is, perhaps, when well made, the best of our domestic 
wines. The following receipts are considered good : — For raisin 
wine, without sugar, put to every gallon of soft water eight pounds 
of fresh Smyrna or Malaga raisins : let them steep a month, stirring 
every day; then drain the liquor and put it into the cask, filling up as 
it works over : this it will do for two months. When the hissing has 
in a great measure subsided, add brandy and honey, and paper as the 
former articles. This wine should remain three years untouched ; it 
may then be drunk from the cask, or bottled, and will be found excel- 
lent. Raisin wine is sometimes made in large quantities, by merely 
putting the raisins in the cask, and filling it up with water: the pro- 
portion as above: carefully pick out all stalks. In six months rack 
the wine into fresh casks, and put to each the proportion of brandy 
and honey. In cider countries, and plentiful apple years, a most ex- 
cellent raisin wine is made by employing cidqr instead of water, and 

MADE WINES, &C. 181 

Steeping in it the raisins. Proceed in every respect as in the last 

723. Raisin Wine with Sugar. — To every gallon of soft water 
four pounds of fresh raisins; put them in a large tub; stir frequently, 
and keep it covered with a sack or blanket. In about a fortnight the 
fermentation will begin to subside : this may be known by the raisins 
remaining still. Then press the fruit and strain the liquor. Have 
ready a wine cask, perfectly dry and warm, allowing for each gallon 
one pound or one pound and a half Lisbon sugar; put this into the 
cask with the strained liquor: when half full, stir well the sugar and 
liquor, and put in half a pint of thick yeast; then fill up with the 
liquor, and continue to do so while the fermentation lasts, which will 
be a month or more. Proceed with brandy, &c., as in the foregoing 

724. Raisin Wine, in imitation of Frontignac. — For every gallon 
of wine required, allow two pounds of raisins; boil them one hour in 
water ; strain the boiling liquor on loaf-sugar, two pounds for every 
gallon; stir it well together: when cool put it in the cask with a 
moderate quantity of yeast (as last article). When the fermentation 
subsides, suspend in the cask a muslin bag containing' elder flowers, 
in the proportion of a quart to three gallons of wine. When per- 
fectly clear, draw off the wine into bottles. 

725. Currant or Gooseberry Wine without boiling. — Suppose the 
cask to be filled is a kilderkin, to make it rich you should have fifty 
quarts of fruit, bruise it, and add to it half that quantity of water. Stir 
it well together, and let it stand twelve hours ; then strain it through a 
coarse canvass bag or hair sieve to fifty-six pounds of good Lisbon su- 
gar, and stir it well. Put the pulp of the fruit into a gallon more wa- 
ter ; stir it about, and let it stand twelve hours. Then strain to the 
above, again stirring it; cover the tub with a sack. In a day or two 
the wine will begin to ferment. When the whole surface is covered 
with a thick yeasty froth, begin to skim it on to a sieve. What runs 
through may be returned to the wine. Do this from time to time for 
several days, till no more yeast forms. Then put it into the cask. 

72G. Orange or Lemon Wine without boiling. — For an eighteen- 
gallon cask, half a chest of Seville oranges; they are most juicy in 
March. Shave the rinds of a dozen or two (more or less according as 
the bitter flavour is desired, or otherwise.) Pour over this a quart or 
two of boiling water : cover up, and let it stand twelve hours, then 
strain to the rest. Put into the cask fifty-six pounds of good Lisbon 
sugar. Clear off' all the peel and white pith from the oranges, and 
squeeze through a hair sieve. Put the juice into the cask to the 
sugar. Wash the sieve and pulp with cold water, and let the pulp 
soak in the water twenty-four hours. Strain, and add to the last, con- 
tinually stirring it ; add more water to the pulp, let it soak, then strain 
and add. Continue to do so till the cask is full, often stirring it with 
a stick until all the sugar is dissolved. Then leave it to ferment. 
The fermentation will not be nearly so great as that of currant wine, 
but the hissing noise will be heard for some weeks; when this sub- 


sides, add honey and brandy, and paste over with brown paper. This 
wine should remain in the cask a year before bottlin<T. 

727. Cowslip or Clary Wine. — The best method of making these 
wines is to put in the pips dry, when the fermentation of the wine 
has subsided. This method is preferred for two reasons ; first, 
it may be performed at any time of the year when lemons are cheap- 
est, and when other wine is making; secondly, all waste of the pips 
is avoided ; being light they are sure to work over if put in the cask 
while the wine is in a state of fermentation. For a kilderkin boil fifty- 
six pounds of good moist sugar, with twenty gallons of water, and a 
quarter of a pound of hops ; shave thin the rinds of three dozen le- 
mons or Seville oranges, or part of each; they may be put in the boil 
the last quarter of an hour, or the boiling liquor poured over them ; 
squeeze the juice to be added when cool, and rinse the pulp in the 
hot liquor. Work with yeast as in the foregoing articles. In two 
days tun the liquor, and keep it filled up either with wine or new 
beer, as long as it works over; then paste brown paper, and leave it 
for four, six, or eight months. The quantity of flowers is one quart to 
each gallon of wine. Let them be gathered on a fine dry day, and 
carefully picked from every bit of stalk and green. Spread them 
thinly on trays, sheets, or papers, and turn them often. When tho- 
roughly dry, put them in paper bags until the wine is ready to receive 
them. Put them in at the bung-hole ; stir them down two or three 
times a day, till all the cowslips have sunk; at the same time add 
isinglass. Then paste over again with paper. In six months the 
wine will be fit to bottle, but will be improved by keeping longer in 
the cask; the pips shrink into a very small compass in drying; the 
quantity allowed is of fresh-gathered flowers. Observe also, that 
wine well boiled, and refined with hops and isinglass, is just as good 
used from the cask, as if bottled, which is a great saving of time and 
hazard. Wine made on the above principles has been often praised 
by connoisseurs, and supposed to have been bottled at least a year, 
which, in fact, had not been bottled half a day. 

728. Birch Wine. — The liquor of the birch tree is to bo obtained 
in the month of March, when the sap begins to ascend. One foot 
from the ground bore a hole in each tree, large enough to admit a 
faucet, and set a vessel under; the liquor will run for two or three 
days without injuring the tree. Having obtained a sufficient quan- 
tity, stop the holes with pegs. To each gallon of liquor add a (juart 
of honey, or two and a half pounds of sugar; boil together an hour, 
stirring it well ; a few cloves may be added fur flavour, or the rind of 
a lemon or two; and, by all means, two ounces of hops to nine gal- 
lons of wine. Work it with yeast; tun, and proceed as in former re- 
cipes: refine with isinglass. Two months after making, it may be 
drawn off and bottled ; and in two months more will be fit for use, but 
will improve by keeping. 

729. Elder Wine. — The quantity of fruit required is one gallon of 
ripe elder-berries, and one quart of damsons or sloes, for every two 
gallons of wine to be produced; boil them in water till the damsons 

MADE WINES, &C. 183 

burst, frequently breaking tliem with a flat stick ; then strain and re- 
turn the liquor to the copper. The quantity of liquor required for 
eighteen gallons of wine, will be twenty gallons: whatever, there- 
fore, the first liquor proves short of this, add water to the pulp; rub it 
about and strain to tliQ rest: boil two hours with fifty-six pounds of 
coarse moist sugar; a pound and a half of ginger bruised, a pound of 
allspice, and two ounces of cinnamon, loosely tied in a muslin bag, 
and four or six ounces of hops. When quite cool work on the fore- 
going plan, tun in two days, drop in the spice and suspend the bag by 
a string not long enough to let it touch the bottom of the cask : fill it up 
for a fortnight, then paste over stiff brown paper: it will be fit to 
tap in two months; will keep for years, but does not improve by age 
like many other wines ; it is never better than in the first year of its 

730. Damson or Black Cherry Wine — may be made in the same 
manner, excepting the addition of spice, and that the sugar should be 
finer. If kept in an open vessel four days, these wines will ferment 
of themselves ; but it is better to forward the process by the use of a 
little yeast, as i#fbrmer recipes: they will be fit for use in about eight 
months. As there is a flatness belonging to both these wines if bot- 
tled, a tea-spoonful of rice, a lump or two of sugar, or four or five rai- 
sins, will tend to enliven it. 

731. Cherry Brandy. — For this purpose use either morello cherries 
or small black cherries; pick them from the stalks; fill the bottles 
nearly up to the necks, then fill up with brandy (some people use 
whiskey, gin, or spirit distilled from the lees of wine.) In three 
weeks or a month strain ofl:' the spirit; to each quart add one pound 
of loaf-sugar clarified, and flavour with tincture of cinnamon or 

732. Raspberry Brandy. — Scald the fruit in a stone jar set in a 
kettle of water, or on a hot hearth. When the juice will run freely, 
strain it without pressing: to every quart of juice allow one pound of 
loaf-sugar; boil it up and skim ; when quite clear pour out; and when 
cold, add an equal quantity of brandy. Shake them well together and 

733. Sherbet. — In a quart of water boil six or eight sticks of rhu- 
barb ten minutes: strain the boiling liquor on the thin shaved rind 
of a lemon. Two ounces of clarified sugar, with a wine-glassful 
of brandy, stir to the above, and let it stand five or six hours before 

734. Raspberry Vinegar may be made either by boiling down the 
juice with an equal weight of sugar, the same as for jelly, and then 
mixing it with an equal quantity of distilled vinegar, to be bottled 
with a glass of brandy in each bottle ; or in a china bowl or stone jar 
(free from metallic glaze) steep a quart of fresh-gathered raspber-^ 
ries in two quarts of the best white wine vinegar. Next day strain 
the liquor on an equal quantity of fresh fruit, and the next day do the 
same. After the third steeping of fruit, dip a jelly bag in plain vine- 
gar to prevent waste, and strain the flavoured vinegar thr',ngh it into 


a stone jar. Allow to each pint of vinegar a pound of loaf-sugar pow- 
dered. Stir in the sugar with a silver spoon, and, when dissolved, 
cover up the jar and set it in a kettle of water. Keep it at boiling 
heat one hour; remove the scum. When cold, add to each pint a 
glass of brandy, and bottle it. This is a pleasant and useful drink in 
hot weather, or in sickness : one pint of the vinegar to eight of cold 

735. Lemonade. — For a quart of water six lemons, and two ounces 
of loaf-sugar. Shave half the lemons, or rub the sugar over them. 
Squeeze the juice of the lemons to the sugar, and pour the water 
boiling hot. Well mix the whole, and run it through a jelly-bag pre- 
viously wrung out of scalding water. Lemonade may be obtained, 
when the fruit is not in season, by using the syrup of lemons; (sim- 
mer each pint of juice with three-quarters of a pound of loaf-sugar; 
strain and bottle:) or the citric acid — two drachms of citric acid, 
twenty drops of essence of lemon, a pint of clarified syrup or capil- 
laire. This may be reduced at pleasure with boiling water. 

736. Pop, or Ginger Beer. — The principal difference between 
ginger pop and ginger beer, is, that the former is bottrcd immediately, 
the other is first put in a barrel for a few days. It is also usual to 
boil the ingredients for ginger beer, which is not done for pop. Both 
are to be bottled in stone bottles, and the corks tied or wired down. 
If properly done, the corks and strings will serve many times in 
succession ; the moment the string is untied the cork will fly out 
uninjured. The bottles as soon as empty should be soaked a few 
hours in cold water, shaken about and turned down, and scalded 
immediately before using. The corks also must be scalded. On 
one pound of coarse loaf or fine moist sugar, two ounces of cream 
of tartar, and one ounce of bruised ginger, pour a gallon of boiling 
water: stir it well and cover up to cool, as the flavour of the 
ginger is apt to evaporate. It is a good way to do thus for the 
last thj;ig at night; then it is just fit to set working the first thing 
in the morning. Two large table-spoonfuls of yeast, stir to it a 
t^a-cup full of the liquor; let it stand a few minutes in a warmish 
ijlao'O, then pour it to the rest; stir it well, and cover up for eight 
lioifrs. Be particular as to time. If done earlier, the bottles are 
apt to fly — if later, the beer soon becomes vapid. Skim, strain, bot- 
tle, cork, and tie down. The cork should not touch tlie beer. It 
will be fit for use next day. Lemon rind and juice may be added, but 
are not necessary. 

'^ 737. Ginger Beer. — The proportions of this may vary. Loaf-su- 
gar is preferable to moist; some say a pound to a gallon, others a 
pound and a half; some allow but half an ounce of ginger (sliced or 
bruised) to a gallon, others an ounce; a lemon to a gallon is the usual 
proportion, to which some add a quarter of an ounce or half an ounce 
of cream of tartar; the white of an egg to each gallon is useful for clari- 
fying, but not absolutely necessary. Some people put a quarter of a pint 
of brandy to four gallons of beer by way of keeping it : half an ounce 
of hops boiled in it would answer the same purpose. Boil the sugar, 

MADE WINES, &C. 185 

water, and whites of eggs well beaten; skim carefully. Then add 
the ginger, and shaved rind of lemons; let it boil half an hour; clear 
the lemons of the white pith and put them in the wine. When cool, 
stir in the yeast (two table-spoonfuls to a gallon,) put it in the bar- 
rel without straining, and bung close. In a fortnight draw off anJ 
bottle. It will be ready for use in another fortnight, and will keep 
longer than ginger pop. If cream of tartar is used, pour ths boiling 
liquor over it, but do not boil it. 


Tliejigures at the beginning of the lines refer to the numbers of the para' 
graphs ; those at the end, to the pages. 

Advice to Cooks (Dr. Kitchi- 
ner's) 15. 

American mode of cooking In- 
dian corn, pumpkins,&c.,159. 
625 . . Indian cake, or bannock, 

334 Ancliovy, essence of, 99. 

335 . . powder of, 99. 
153 . . sauce, 55. 

677 Apricots, to preserve in jelly, 


678 . . a very nice preserve for, 


679 .. dried, 170. 

680 . . or peaches in brandy, 170. 

681 . . jam, 170. 
657 Arrow-root, 166. 
4^26 Artichokes, 117. 

424 .. Jerusalem, 117. 
Artificial preparation of meat, 

fish, &c., for dressing, salt- 
ing, drying, &,c., 106. 

425 Asparagus, 117. 

84 Bacon, to boil, 65. 

621 Baking, bread, 158. 

622 . . Sally Lunn tea cake, 458. 

623 . . plum cake, 159. 

624 . . a plain pound cake, 159. 
Baking meat, &c., 87. 

5J83 . . general remarks on, 87. 

284 Baking a pig, 87 

285 .. a goose, 87. 

286 . . buttcck of beef, 87. 

287 .. fish, 87. 

288 . . time for, 88. 

289 . . objection to, 88. 

290 . . Kitchiner (Dr.) on, 88. 
663 Barley Water, 167. 

448 Basil vinegar, or wine, 124. 

421 Beans, Windsor, 117 

422 . . French, 117. 

423 . . harricot, 117. 

397 Beef alamode, 113. 

167 .. boiled, 61. 

168 . . boiled salt, 62. 
342 • • hashed, 101. 

349 . . harricot of, 102. 

350 . . salt, baked, 102. 

351 . . baked like red deer, to bo 

eaten cold, 102. 

233 . . sirloin of, roasted, 76. 

234 . . rump and round, roasted, 

236 . . ribs of, roasted, 76. 
665 . . tea, 167. 
736 Beer, ginger, 184. 

427 Beer-root, red, 118. 

428 . . white, 118. 

259 Blackcock, roasted, 83. 
319 Blanchuig, 94. 

646 Blancmange, 163. 

647 .. a richer, 163. 

648 . . arrow-root, 1 b3. 

628 Boiled maize pudding, 160. 
Boiling, 20. 
. . general directions for, 58. 

146 . . vessels for, 58. 

147 . . water for, 53. 

148 . . fire for, 58. 

149 . . directions for putting in the 

pot, 59. 

150 . . to scum, 59. 

151 . . how long to do, 59. 

152 . . meats just killed, 59. 

153 . . frozen meat, 59. 

154 . . salt meat, 59. 

155 . . bacon, 59. 

156 . . liam, beef, tongues, pork, 


157 . . by steam, 60. 

158 . . without coming in contact 

with Avater, 60. 

159 . . warming up, 60. 

160 . . soaking before, 60. 

1 161 . . meat just killed, 60. 




162 Boiling : what meats may re- 
main in the hot liquor, 60. 

1G3 .. potatoes not to be boiled with 
meat, 61. 

164 . . what vegetables may be, 61. 

165 .. vegetables, 61. 

166 . . old potc!.toes, 61. 

. . butcher's meat, poultry, and 
general remarks on, 61. 

321 Boning, 94. 
281 Brain balls, 87. 

316 Braising, glazing, blanching, 

larding, and boning, general 
remarks on, 93. 

317 Braising, 93. 

732 Brandy, cherry, 183. 
731 . . raspberry, 183. 
638 Brewis, American, 162. 
191 Brill, to boil, 267. 

411 Brocoli,115. 

356 Broiled rump steaks with onion 

gravy, 104. 
Broiling, 92. 

308 . . gridiron for, 92. 

309 . . thickness of chops for, 92. 

310 . . fire for, 92. 

311 . . when done, 92. 

. . general remarks on, 75, 92. 

312 . . steaks, 92. 

312 .. chops, 92. 

313 .. kidneys, 93. 

314 .. fowl, 93. 

314 .. rabbit, 93. 

315 . . pigeons, 93. 

Broth or stock, and gravies, 
99 Broth, beef or stock, 50. 
69 .. fish, 39. 

76 . . chicken, 41. 

77 .. mutton, 41. 

78 . . mutton chop, 42. 

322 Browning, 95. 

357 Bubble and squeak, 104. 
108 Butter, melted, 53. 

464 .. clarified, 127. 

465 . . burnt, 128. 

466 . . oiled, 128. 

Cabbage, 115. 

412 .. cold, 115. 
414 .. red, 115. 

178 Cairs head, boiled, 63. 

340 Calf's head, to hash, 100. 
249 Capons, to roast, 80. 
186 . . to boil, 65. 

213 Carp, fried, 71. 

214 . . stewed, 71. 
420 Carrots, 117. 

Carving, directions for, 171. 
686 . . fisli, 171. 

686 . . turbot. Sec, 172. 

687 . . cod's head and shoulders, 


688 . . salmon, 172. 

689 . . soles, 172. 

690 Carving mackerel, 172. 

691 .. eels, whiting, jrick,&c., 172. 

692 . . aitch-bone of beef, 172. 

693 . . round, and flank of beef, 


694 .. brisket of beef, 172. 

695 . . sirloin of beef, 173. 

696 .. fillet of veal, 173. 

697 .. breast of veal, 173. 

698 . . necks and loins, 173. 

699 . . calf's head, 173. 

700 .. leg of mutton, 173. 

701 .. saddle of nmtton, 173. 

702 .. shoulder of mutton, 174. 

703 . . haunch of venison, 174. 

704 .. fore-quarter of lamb, 174. 

705 . . ham, 174. 

706 . . tongue, 174. 

707 . . sucking pig, 174. 

708 . . fowl, 175. 

709 .. a pheasant, 175. 

710 . . partridges and pigeons, 175 

711 . . goose or duck, 175. 

712 .. turkey, 176. 

713 . . hare, 176. 

714 . . rabbits, 176. 
Catsups, 125. 

458 . . walnut, 126. 
4.59 .. oyster, 126. 

460 . . cockle and mur;cle, 126. 

461 . . mushroom, 126. 

462 . . mushroom, without spioe, 


463 . . mushroom powder, 127. 
410 Cauliflowers, 115. 

431 Celery, 118. 

640 Cheese, to preserve, 162. 

684 . . damson, 171. 

611 Cheesecakes, 157. 









Cheesecakes, to make curd for, 
156. . 

. . potatoe, 157. 

. . a plain, 157. 

. . bread, 157. 

. . Cherries, 169. 

. . in brandy, 171. 

Chickens to boil, 65. 

Choice and purchasing ot* 
butcher's meat, 26. 

. . general remarks on, 26 — 

.. beef, 27. 

. . mutton, 27. 

. . venison, 27. 

.. veal, 28. 

.. lamb, 28. 

. . pork, 28. 

. . bacon. 28. 

. . hams, 29. 

. . summary of directions, 29. 

Choice of poultry, eggs, and 
fish, and seasons offish, 29 

. . poultry of all kinds, 29. 

.. rabbits, 29. 

.. fowls, 29. 

. . rabbits and pigeons, 30. 

. . game, 30. 

. . eggs, 30. 

. . fish, 30. 
. seasons of fish, 30. 

Clarifying, 127. 

Cod to broil, 68. 

Codlins, to keep for several 
montlis, 169. 

Coleworts, young, 115. 

Collops, minced, 101. 

Colouring, 95. 

Colourings, thickenings, fla- 
vourings, seasonings, stocks, 
gravies, sauces, stuffings, 
force meats, and clarifying, 
remarks on, 94. 

Cookery, general remark-s on, 

. . importance of good, as re- 
gards health, &c., 16. 

. . Johnson (Dr.), his observa- 
tions on, 17. 

.. Sylvester (Mr.) on, 17. 

. . Waterhouse (Dr.) on, 17. 
. Milton's writings on, 17. 

Cookery, Parr (Dr.) on, 18. 

. . Prout (Dr) on, 19. 

. . Philosophical, — Count 

Romford, 20. 
Cooking, preparations for, 29. 
180 Cow-heel, 64. 

649 Cream, Italian, 163. 

650 . . clouted or clotted, 164. 

651 . . for fruit pies, 164. 

652 . . Birch's receipt for mock, 


489 Crusts, flaky, short. 135. 

490 . . raised, 135. 

493 for savoury pies, 136. 

494 . . a rich short, 136. 
Cucumbers, 124. 

435 . . stewed, 119. 

Curing, &c.,with pyroligneoua 
acid, 110. 

385 . . general remarks on, 110. 

386 hams for, 110. 

. . salmon for, 110. 

387 . . time it will keep, 110. 

388 . . hams and beef require no 

previous soaking, 110. 

389 .. herrings, cod, haddock, 111. 
375 . . bacon, 108. 

675 Currants, 169. 

581 Custard, 152. 

582 . . almond, 152. 

583 .. rice, 152. 

673 Damsons or gooseberries, to 

bottle, 169. 
364 Devil, 106. 

382 Dried or kippered salmon, 110. 

383 . . herrings, 110. 

384 . . haddock, cod, ling, «fec., 

467 Dripping, to clarify, 128. 
Drying, smoking, &.C., 109. 
. . general remarks on, 109 
252 Duck, to roast, 81. 

. . canvas back or red-neck 
576 Dumplings, yeast, 151 . 
590 . . hard, 153. 
192 Dutch plaice, to Boil, 67. 

Duties, relative, of mistress and 
maid, 13. 

194 Eels, stewed, 68. 



210 Eels, fried, 70, 

211 .. boiled, 71. 
280 Egg balls, 86. 

. . plums, to preserve, 170. 
185 . . Eggs, to poach, 75. 

253 Fawns to roast, 82. 
216 Fish, salt, to boil, 71. 

56 . . cleaning, 35. 

57 . . eels, 36. 

58 .. witliout scales, 37, 

59 . . turbot, plaice, flounders, 37. 

60 . . cod, 37. 

61 . . oysters, 37. 

639 Fish, salt, American mode of 

dressing, 162. 
372 Flavoured salt meat, to make, 

325 Flavourings, 97. 

. . essences, powders, &c., 98. 

642 Flummery, common, 162. 

643 . . rice, 162. 

644 .. French, 162. 

645 .. Dutch, 163. 

278 Force meat, for vea' or fowls, 


279 . . light, 86. 
320 Forcing, 94. 

278 Fowls, to roast, 86. 
363 Fried slices of ham or bacon, 

618 Fritters, 158. 

619 . . oyster, 158. 

620 . . potatoc, 158. 
Frying, 89. 

294 . . Kitchiner (Dr.) on, 89. 

295 . . what to use for, 89. 

296 . . dripping for, 89. 

297 . . the great secret in, 90. 

298 . . to know when done, 90. 

299 . . bread crumbs for, 90. 
Frying, general remarks on, 

75, 89. 

300 . . steaks, 90. 

301 .. beef steaks and onions, 90. 

302 . . sausages, 90. 

303 . . veal cutlets, 90. 

304 . . swee* breads, 91. 

305 .. lamb chops, 91. 

305 • . mutton chops, 91. 

306 . . pork chops, 91. 

307 . eggs, 91. 

61 . . oysters, 36. 
216 . . salt fish, to boil, 71. 
Fuel, waste of, 21. 

Garnishes, 176. 
682 Ginger, to preserve, 170. 

102 Glaze, 51. 
318 Glazing, 94. 

250 Goose, to roast, 81. 

244 . . mock, 78. 

674 Gooseberries, 169. 

655 Gooseberry, or apple fool, 165. 

103 Gravy beef, 51. 

104 . . for roast meat, 51. 

105 . . for boiled meat, 52. 

106 . . for roast veal, 52. 

107 . . rich brown for poultry, ra 

gout, or game, 52. 
97 Green turtle soup, 48. 

Greengages, to preserve, 170. 

659 Groats, Robinson's prepared, 

259 Grouse, to roast, 83. 

Gruels, creams, syllabubs, jel. 

lies, &c., &,c., 62. 
658 Gruel, 166. 

660 . . rice, 166. 

661 . . barley, 166. 
206 Gudgeons, 70. 

259 Guinea fowl, to roast, 83. 
197 Haddock, to boil, 69. 
344 Haggis, a good Scotch, 101 
191 Halibut, to boil, 67. 

376 Hams, curing, 108. 

377 . . Yorkshire, 109. 

379 . . mutton, 109. 
184 . . to boil, 65. 
235 Hare, mock, 76. 
256 . . to roast, 82. 

353 . . stewed, 102. 

354 . . jugged, 103. 

341 Hashed meat, remarks on, 100 
326 Herbs, sweet, to prepare foi 

keeping, 98. 
337 . . spirit of, mixed, 100. 
333 . . essence, or tinctures of, 99. 
429 .. to fry, 118. 
68 Hotch-potch, 39. 

380 Hung or Dutch beef, 109. 

625 Indian cake, or bannock, 159 



626 Indian corn, green, 160. 

627 . . corn pudding, IGO. 

671 Jams, 168. 

635 Jelly, calves' feet, 165. 

666 . . shank, 167. 

667 . . tapioca, 167. 
670 .. fruit, 168. 
374 Jerked beef, 108. 

430 Kale, sea and Scotch, 118. 
Keeping fresh meat. 111. 

390 . . general remarks on. 111. 

391 . . slightly roasted for, 111. 

392 . . best method for. 111. 

393 . . Franklin (Dr.) on, 111. 
393 .. to kill fowl for. 111. 
394,395 recipes for, 112. 

255 Kid, to roast, 82. 

Kitchen, rules and maxims of, 

. . what must always be done, 
and what must never be 
done, 25. 
290 .. grates, 88. 

174 Lamb, a leg, boijed, 63. 

1 75 . . neck of, boiled, 63. 
242 . . roasting, 77. 

176 Lamb's head and pluck, 63. 
. . browned, 63. 

469 Lard, hog's, to clarify, 128. 
320 Larding, 94. 
735 Lemonade, 184. 
196 Ling, to boil, 69. 

202 Mackerel, boiled, 69. 

203 . . broiled, 69. 

204 . . baked, or pickled, 70. 
Made dishes, remarks on, 100. 

365 Marrow bones, 106. 

641 Mince meat, American, 162. 

259 Moor game, to roast, 83. 

433 Morels, 119. 

209 Mullets, red, 70. 

432 Mushrooms, 118. 

169 Mutton, a leg, boiled, 62. 

170 . . neck of boiled, 62. 

171 . . shoulder, boiled, 62. 

172 .. breast, boiled, 62. 

237 . . roasted, 76. 

238 . . venison fashion, 77. 

342 Mutton, hashed, 101. 

.346 .. chops delicately stewed,l 01 

346 . . broth, good, 101. 

599 Omelet, friar's, 155. 

338 Orange or lemon peel tincture 

of, 100. 
332 .. preserved, 99. 
669 . . marmalade, 167. 
668 Orgeat, 167. 
219 Oysters, stewed, 72. 

221 . . fried, 73. 
218 . . au gratin, 72. 

222 . . broiled, 73. 

615 Pancakes, common, 157. 

616 .. rice, 158. 

617 .. cream, 158. 

120 Parsley and butter, 55. 

436 Parsnips, 120. 

259 Partridges, to roast, 83. 

491 Paste, puff, 136. 

492 . . sweet, 136. 

495 . . biscuit, 136. 

497 .. stringing, 136. 

498 . . potatoe, 137. 

499 . . rice, 137. 

Pastry, general observations 
on, 134. 

500 . . icing, 137. 

496 Pastry, crust for venison, 136. 
531 . . to prepare venison for, 142. 
533 . . of beef or mutton, to eat aa 

well as venison, 143. 

543 Patties, fried, 144. 

544 . . oyster, 144. • 

545 .. beef, 144. 

546 . . a good mince for, 145. 
259 Pea fowl, to roast, 83. 

418 Peas, green, 116. 

419 .. to stew, 116. 
215 Perch, to boil, 71. 
258 Pheasant, to roast, 82. 

Pickles, general remarks on,19. 

471 Pickling, first method of, 129. 

472 . . second method of, 129. 

473 . . third method of, 130. 

474 . . gherkins, 130. 

475 .. French beans, 130. 

476 . . onions, 130. 

477 . . red cabbage, 130. 

478 . . garlic and eschalots, 131. 



479 Pickling, melons, mangoes, and 

long cucumbers, 131. 

480 . . brocoli or cauliflowers, 131. 

481 .. walnuts, 131. 

482 . . beet-roots, 131. 

483 . . cauliflowers and brocoli, 

,484 .. artichokes, 132. 
485 . . artichoke bottoms, 132. 
48fi . . mushrooms, 132. 

487 . . samphire, 132. 

488 . . Indian, 132. 
373 Pickling meat, 1 07. 
378 .. tongues, 109. 
378 . . chines, 109. 
378 . . chops, 109. 

501 Pic, perigord, 137. 

502 .. sole, 137. 

503 . . eel, 138. 

504 . . oyster, 138. 

505 . . pilchard, 138. 

506 . . a remarkable fine fish, 138. 

507 . . beef-steak, 138. 

508 . . beef-steak and oyster, 138. 

509 . . veal, chicken, and parsley, 


510 . . veal olive, 138. 

511 .. veal, 139. 

512 . . a rich veal, 139. 

513 . . calPs head, 139. 

514 . . excellent pork to eat cold, 


515 . . lamb, 140. 

516 Pie, mutton, 140. 

517 .. chicken, 140. 

. . young rabbits, 140, 

519 . . giblet, 140. 

520 . . green goose, 1 40. 

521 . . Staflbrdshire goose, 141, 

522 . . hare to eat cold, 141. 

523 .. partridge, 141. 

524 .. a French, 141. 

525 . . pigeon, 141. 

526 . . squab, 141. 

527 . . duck, 141. 

528 .. rabbit, 142. 

529 . . vegetable, 142. 

530 . . an herb, 142. 

534 . . apple, 143. 

535 . . cherry, 143. 

536 .. currant, 143. 

537 . . mince, 143. 




629 Pie, pumpkin, 160. 

630 .. carrot, 161. 

Pies, tarts, and puffs, 137. 

247 Pig, sucking, roasted, 79. 
181 Pig's Pettitoes, boiled, 64. 

262 Pigeons, to roast, 83. ' 

212 Pike, 71. 
736 Pop, 184. 

243 Pork, roasting, 78. 

244 . , leg of, roasted without the 
skin, 78. 

spare rib of, 78. 

loin of, roasted, 79. 

salt, boiled, 64. 
183 .. pickled, boiled, 64. 
667 Posset, 167. 

437 Potatoes, 120. 

438 . . to boil, 122. 
. to steam, 122. 
. to roast, 122. 
. mashed, 122. 
. roasted under meat, 129. 

443 . . fried or broiled, 123. 

444 . . balls, 123. 

445 . . snow, 123. 

248 Poultry to roast, 79. 

38 . . time of killing, 31. 

39 . . drawing, 31. 

41-42 Poultry, trussing, 31. 

45 . . ducks, 33. 

46 . . geese, 33. 
turkeys, 33. 
pigeons, 33. 
pheasants, partridges, and 

guinea fowls, 34. 
wild ducks, 34. 
woodcocks, plovers, &c., 34. 
hare, 34. 
rabbits, 35. 
fawns or kids, 35. 
sucking pigs, 35. 

327 Powder, savoury soup, 98. 

328 . . curry, 98. 
for ragouts, 98. 
for white-made dishes, 99. 
for brown-made dishes, 98. 
anchovy, 99. 

336 .. oyster, 99. 
461 . . mushroom, 126. 

Preserves, 168. 

Puddings, cheesecakes, &c.^ 







Pudding-, to make paste, 146. 

. . plum, 147. 

. . a plain family plum, 147. 

. . a common plum, 147. 

. . a very light plum, 147. 

. . national plum, 148. 

. . potatoe, 148. 

. . cottag'e potatoe, 148. 

. . rich sweet potatoe, 148. 

. . carrot, 148. 

. . black cap, 148. 

. . sag-o, 149. 

. . a very good, 149. 

. . bread and butter, 149 

. . almond, 149. 

. . Kitchiner'3, 149. 

. . Dutch rice, 150. 

. . rice, 150. 

. . another rice, 150 

. . baked rice, 150. 

. . ground rice, 150. 

. . rice snow balls, 151. 

. . plain rice, 151. 

. . vermicelli, 151. 

. . tapioca, 151. 

. . sago, 151. 

. . Russian seed, 151. 

. . suet, 151. 

. . Hunter's, 152. 

. . Marlborough, 152. 

. . custard, 152. 

. . baked vermicelli, 153. 

. . marrow, 153. 

. . conservative, 153. 

. . economical, 153. 

. . delicate bread, 153. 

. . barley, 153. 

. . Newmarket, 154. 

. . a light, 154. 

. . Yorkshire, 154. 

. . a nice suet, 154. 

. . mother Eve's, 154. 

. . Newcastle, 154. 

. . hasty, 154. 

. arrow-root, 1 54. 
■ . a Swiss, 155. 
. . Oxford, 155. 

. muffin, or cabinet, 155 

. French and Italian, 155. 

. a cheese, 155. 

. a very rich, 155. 

. chesnut, 156. 


Pudding, rusk, 156. 

. . Portugal, 156. 

. . tansey, 156. 

. . boiled maze, 160. 

. . American custard, 161 

. . American plum, 161. 

. . rennet, 161. 

. . American apple, 161. 

.. bird's nest, 161. 

. . American souse, 161. 

. . American dry bread, 162. 

Puffs, apple, 145. 

. . lemon, 145. 

• . excellent light, 145. 

. . cheese, 145. 

257 Rabbit, to roast, 82. 
366 Ragout of duck, or any other 
kind of poultry or game, 106. 
264 Reed birds, 83. 
574 Rice bignets, 151. 
Roasting, 73. 

223 . . spitting before, 73. 

224 . . best kind of spits for, 73. 

225 . . fire for, 74. 

226 . . time for, 74. 

227 .. to preserve the fat v^rhite, 


228 . . how to make a fire for, 74. 

229 . . distance from fire for, 74. 

230 . . slow, 75. 

231 . . dripping-pan for, 75. 

232 . , attention to, 75. 

. . general remarks on, 75. 

Salads, 123. 
446 . . general remarks on, 123. 

187 Salmon to boil, 66. 

188 . . broiled, 66. 

189 .. baked, 67. 

190 . . pickled, 67. 
Salting, 106. 

367 . . general remarks on, 106. 
363 . . meat, 107. 

369 . . quantities for, 107. 

370 . . time for, 107. 

371 . . hasty, 107. 
343 Sandwiches, 101. 

Sauces, 52. 
109 . . for fricassee of fowls, rab. 
bits, white meat, fish, or ve- 
getables, 53. 



110 Sauces, for cold fowl or par- 

tridge, 54. 

111 . . very rich mushroom for fowls 

or rabbits, 54. 

112 . . for boiled carp, or boiled 

turkey, 64. 

113 . . green, for green geese, or 

ducklings, 54. 

114 . . egg, 54. 

115 . . onion, 54. 

116 . . apple, 54. 

117 . . gooseberry, 54. 

118 . . wow-wow, 55. 

119 . . curry, 55. 

120 . . parsley and butter, 55. 

121 . . fennel and butter for mack- 

erel, 55. 

122 . . plum pudding, 55. 

123 . . anchovy, 55. 

124 . . caper, 55. 

125 . . mock caper, 55. 

126 . . shrimp, 55. 

127 . . oyster, 55. 

128 .. lobster, 56. 

129 . . liver, 56. 

130 .. bread, 56. 

131 . . for tripe, calf's head, or 

cow heel, 56. 

132 . . celery, 56. 

133 . . tarragon, or burnet, 56. 

134 . . sorrel, for lamb or veal, and 

sweetbreads, 56. 
J 35 . . poor man's, 56 

136 .. truffle, 56. 

137 . . sharp for venison, 57. 

138 . . sweet for venison, 57. 

139 . . wine for venison, hare, or 

hamich of mutton, 57. 

140 . . for a pig, 57. 

141 .. turtle, 57. 

142 .. for all sorts of fish, 57. 

143 . . pudding, 57. 

144 . . custard, 57. 

145 . . roe, 58. 
71 Scotch brose, 40. 

362 . . collops, 105. 

Seasonings, general observa- 
tions on, 84. 

265 . . roast pork, ducks, or geese, 


266 . . sucking pig, 84. 

267 . goose, 84. 

268 Seasonings, chesnut for goose, 

Setting out a table, 177. 

Sheep's heads, boiled, 62. 
733 Sherbet, 183. 

205 Skate, to boil, 70. ' 
263 Small birds, to roast, 83. 

206 Smelts, to fry, 70. 
261 Snipes, to roast, 83. 

192 Soles, to boil, 67. 

193 . . fried, 67. 

194 . . stewed, 68. 
Soups, broths, &c., 38. 

66 Soup, clear gravy, 38. 

67 . . ox tail, 38. 

70 . . cock-a-leeky, 39. 

72 . . pease, 40. 

73 . . pease and pickled pork, 40 

74 . . plain pease, 41, 

75 . . Spanish, 41. 

79 .. and bouilH, 42. 

80 . . a cheap, 42. 

81 .. veal, 42. 

82 .. calf's head, 42. 

83 .. giblet,42. 

84 . . Kitchiner's cheap, 43. 

85 . . maigre, 43. 

86 . . mock turtle, 44. 

87 . . carrot, 45. 

88 . . mulligatawny, or curry, 45. 

89 . . eel, 45. 

90 . . gourd, 46. 

91 . . game, 46. 

92 . . turnip and parsley, 46. 

93 .. celery, 46. 

95 . . hare, rabbit, or partridge, 


96 . . portable, 47. 

339 Spice, spirit of, mixed, 100. 
415 Spinach, 116. 
206 Sprats, to fry, 70. 
413 Sprouts, young, 115. 
629 Squash pie, 160. 

291 Stew, hearth, 88. 

292 . . hearth, usefulness of, 89. 

94 .. lamb, 46. 
98 .. Irish, 49. 

345 .. Mr. Phillips's Irish, 101 

348 .. brisket of beef, 102. 

352 Stowed shin or leg of beefj 

355 . , rump steaks, 103. 



99 Stock, first, or beef broth, 50. 

269 Stuffing and force meat, 84. 

. . for veal, roast turkey, fowl, 
&c., 84. 

270 . . goose or duck, 84. 

271 . for turtle, 85. 

272 hare, 85. 

273 .. veal, 85. 

274 . . pike, carp, or haddock, 85. 

275 . . heart, 86. 

276 . . poultry and game, 86. 

277 . . veal cake, 86. 

199 Sturgeon to boil, 69. 

200 . . to roast, 69. 

201 . . stewed, 69. 

468 Suet and fat, to clarify, 128. 
470 Sugar, clarified, 128. 
241 Sweetbread, veal, 77. 
654 Syllabub, whip, 165. 

538 Tarte de moie, 143. 

539 Tart, rhubarb, 144. 

540 . . to prepare cranberries for, 


541 . . lemon, 144. 

542 Tartlets or puff's, orange, 144. 
260 Teal, to roast, 83. 

217 Terrapins, 72. 

323 Thickenings, 96. 

662 Thick milk, or flour caudle, 

205 Thornback, to boil, 70. 
184 Tongues, to boil, 65. 
653 Trifle, 164. 
179 Tripe, 63. 

207 Trout, to broil, 70. 

208 . . stewed, 70. 
434 Truffles, 119. 

37 Trussing, 31. 
191 Turbot, to boil, 67. 
186 Turkey, to boil, 65. 
248 . . to roast, 79. 
248 . . poults, to roast, 79. 
417 Turnips, 116. 

97 Turtle soup, green, 48. 

177 Veal, boiled, 63. 

239 . . roasting, 77. 

240 . . fillet of, roasting, 77. 

358 . . hashed or minced, 104. 

359 . . to make an excellent ragout 
of cold. 104. 

360 Veal, olives, 105. g 

361 . . knuckle of, to ragout, 105 
Vegetables, 37. 

62 . . preparing for dressing, 37. 

63 . . asparagus, artichokes, spi 

nach, 37. 

64 . . potatoes and Jerusalem ar- 

tichokes, 37. 

65 . . carrots, parsnips, beetroots 

and turnips, 37. 
. . cooking, 113. 
398 — 499 . . general observations 

on cooking, 113, 114, 115. 
416 Vegetable marrow, 116. 
253 Venison, haunch of, to roast 
Vinegars, flavoured, 124. 

447 . . for salads, 124. 

448 . . basil, 124. 

449 . . burnet, 125. 

450 . . cress or celery, 125. 

451 . . horse-radish, 125. 

452 . . garlic, onion, or eschalot, 


453 . . tarragon, 125. 

454 . . elder flower, 125. 

455 . . green mint, 125. 

456 . . camp, 125. 

457 . . capsicum, cayenne, or ohili, 

734 . . raspberry, 183. 

656 Whey, 165. 
324 White thickening, 97. 
198 Whitings, to fry, 69. 
260 Widgeon, to roast, 83. 
260 Wild ducks, to roast, 83. 

Wines, general directions for 
making, 178. 

716 . . ginger, 178. 

717 .. mead, 179. 
717 . . metheglin, 179. 

717 . . honey, 179. 

718 . . parsnip, 179. 

719 . . malt, or English sherry, 179 

720 . . orange, boiled, 180. 

720 . . lemon, boiled, 180. 

721 . . grape, 180. 

722 . . raisin, 180. 

723 . . raisin with sugar, 181. 

724 . . raisin, in imitation of Fron 

tignac, 181. 



725 Wines, gooseberry, without 
boiling, 181. 

725 . . currant, without boihng, 


726 . . orange, without boiling, 

726 . leitlon, without boiling, 181. 

727 Wines, cowslip, or clary, 182 

728 . . birch, 182. 

729 . . elder, 182. 

730 . . damson, or black cherry, 

261 Woodcocks to roast, 83.