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Full text of "The Boston cooking-school cook book"

The 
I Boston Cooking-School 



Cook Book 



Fannie Merritt Farmer 




berTTlTyN 
LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORNIA 



"J 



AGRICULTURE 



DigiUzed by the Internet Archive 

in 2006 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/cookingscholbostOOfarmrich 



THE 



BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL 

COOK BOOK 



BY 
FANNIE MERRITT FARMER 

AUTHOR OF "a new BOOK OF COOKERY," " CHAFING-DISH 

POSSIBILITIES," AND "FOOD AND COOKERY FOR 

THE SICK AND CONVALESCENT " 



REVISED EDITION 

WITH ADDITIONAL CHAPTERS ON THE COLD PACK METHOD 

OF CANNING, ON THE DRYING OF FRUITS AND 

VEGETABLES, AND ON FOOD VALUES 



WITH OVER 133 HALF-TONE ILLUSTBATIONS 



BOSTON 

LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY 

1918 



AGRICULTURE 



Copyright, 1896, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1914, 
By Fannie Merritt Farmer 

Copyright, 1918, 
By Mary W. Farmer 



F 



7/S' 



I s IS 

AGRIC. 
LIBRAI^Y 



TO 



MRS. WILLIAM B. SEWALL, 

APPBECIATION OP HER HELPFUL ENCOURAGEMENT AND 
UNTIRING EFFORTS IN PROMOTING THE WORK OP 
SCIENTIFIC COOKERY, WHICH MEANS THE 
ELEVATION OF THE HUMAN RACE, 

THIS BOOK IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 
By the Author. 



729 



Cookery means the knowledge of Medea and of Circe 
and of Helen and of the Queen of Sheba. It means the 
knowledge of all herbs and fruits and balms and spices ^ and 
all that is healing and sweet in the fields and groves and 
savory in meats. It means carefulness and inventiveness 
and willingness and readiness of appliances. It means the 
economy of your grandmothers and the science of the modern 
chemist ; it means much testing and no wasting; it means 
English thoroughness and French art aftd Arabian hospi- 
tality ; and, in fine, it means that you are to be perfectly and 
always ladies — loaf givers. — Ruskin. 



PREFACE 



"But for life the universe were nothing; and all 
that has life requires nourishment." 

With the progress of knowledge the needs of the 
human body have not been forgotten. During the last 
decade much time has been given by scientists to the 
study of foods and their dietetic value, and it is a 
subject which rightfully should demand much con- 
sideration from all. I certainly feel that the time is 
not far distant when a knowledge of the principles of 
diet will be an essential part of one's education. Then 
mankind will eat to live, will be able to do better 
mental and physical work, and disease will be less 
frequent. 

At the earnest solicitation of educators, pupils, and 
friends, I have been urged to prepare this book, and I 
trust it may be a help to many who need its aid. It 
is my wish that it may not only be looked upon as a 
compilation of tried and tested recipes, but that it may 
awaken an interest through its condensed scientific 
knowledge which will lead to deeper thought and 
broader study of what to eat. 

F. M. F. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Chapter Page 

I. Food 1 

II. Cookery 15 

III. Beverages 32 

IV. Bread and Bread Making 46 

V. Biscuits, Breakfast Cakes, and Shortcakes 70 

VI. Cereals 85 

VII. Eggs 94 

VIII. Soups 109 

IX. Soups without Stock 135 

X. Soup Garnisiiings and Force-meats . . . 145 

XI. Fish 151 

XII. Beef 191 

XIII. Lamb and Mutton 214 

XIV. Veal 226 

XV. Sweetbreads 232 

XVI. Pork 235 

XVII. Poultry and Game 240 

XVIII. Fish and Meat Sauces 265 

XIX. Vegetables 280 

XX. Potatoes 309 

XXI. Salads and Salad Dressings 322 

XXII. Entries 348 

XXIII. Hot Puddings . 8»0 

XXIYo Pudding Saucks « ^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Chapter 
XXV. 

XXVI. 



XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

xxxvn. 
XXX vni. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 
XLII. 



Page 

Cold Desserts 411 

Ices, Ice Creams, and other Frozen 

Desserts 433 

Pastry 460 

Pies 466 

Pastry Desserts 475 

Gingerbreads, Cookies, and Wafers . . 482 

Cake 497 

Cake Fillings and Frostings 524 

Fancy Cakes and Confections .... 533 

Sandwiches and Canapes 549 

Recipes for the Chafing-dish 556 

Fruits : Fresh and Cooked . . . . . . 567 

Jellies, Jams, and Marmalades .... 573 

The Canning of Fruits and Vegetables 

BY THE Open Kettle Method . . . 578 
The Drying of Fruits and Vegetables . 593 
Helpful Hints for the Young House- 
keeper 596 

Suitable Combinations for Serving . . 602 

Food Values 611 

Index 621 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Table laid for Formal Dinner Frontispiece 

Facing Page 

A Group of Kitchen Utensils 14 

Measuring Cups and Tea and Table Measuring Spoons 16 

The Whipping of Heavy and Thin Creanci .... 16 

Five o'clock Tea Service 34 

Chocolate Service 34 

Cofifee Percolators and Pot 36 

After Dinner Coffee Service 36 

Punch Service 44 

Claret Cup Service 44 

Double Loaves of Milk and Water Bread .... 46 

Boston Brown Bread 46 

Parker House Rolls ; Salad Rolls ; Clover Leaf Biscuit ; 

Sticks 68 

Sweet French Rolls 68 

Coffee Cakes (Brioche) 69 

Swedish Tea Ring ; Swedish Tea Braid 69 

Swedish Tea Ring II before baking 64 

Swedish Tea Ring II 64 

Raised Hominy Muffins 65 

Pop Overs 66 

Waffles 80 

Strawberry Shortcake ... 80 

ShuredEgg 81 

Eggs k la Commodore ol 

PJanlsed^ggs .,.,«.,* 104 



Zii rJBT OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Facing Page 

Plain Omelet 104 

Utensils and Materials for the starting of Brown Soup 

Stock 105 

134 
134 
135 
135 



Utensils for making Cream Soups .... 
Creata Soup and Crotltons ready for serving 
Croutons ; Imperial Sticks ; Mock Almonds . 

Souffled Crackers 

Broiled Mackerel garnished with Potato Balls, Cucumber 
Ribbons, Slices of Lemon cut in fancy shapes, and 

Parsley 160 

Hollenden Halibut 160 

Stuffed Haddock ready for baking 161 

Smelts prepared for cooking 161 

Planked Haddock .170 

Fillets of Fish a la Bement 170 

Oyster Cocktail I and II 171 

Clams Union League ... 186 

Oysters a la Ballard 186 

Lobster Cocktail 187 

Fruit Cocktail 187 

Cuts of Beef 194 

Cuts of Beef 195 

Planks for Planked Dishes 200 

Beefsteak a la Maribeau 200 

Side of Veal . 201 

Side of Lamb 201 

Kidney Lamb Chop ; Rib Chop ; French Chop . . . 218 

Crown of Lamb, prepared for roasting 218 

Saddle of Mutton as purchased 219 

Saddle of Mutton Roasted and Garnished .... 219 

Sweetbreads a la Napoli 234 

Braised Sweetbreads Eugenie 234 

Chicken Broiled and Garnished 235 

Breslin Potted Chicken in Casserole Dish .... 236 

Eoast Turkey garnished for serving 266 



LIST OF ILLTTSTHATIONS xiii 

T\ » X jw 1 -. Pacing Page 

Duck, stuffed and trussed for roasting 256 

Stuffed Egg Plant 057 

Puree of Spinach 057 

Stuffed Peppers gQo 

Macedoine of Vegetables k la Poulette 308 

O'Brion Potatoes oaq 

Potato Croquettes ready for frying 3]^g 

Potato Nests and Potatoes, Somerset Style .... 316 

Cucumber Salad 3^^^ 

Cucumber Baskets 31^^ 

Asparagus Salad, Individual Service 330 

Berkshire Salad in Boxes 330 

Egg Salad 33I 

Pear Salad 33^ 

Lobster Salad III 342 

Mexican Jelly . 342 

Oyster Crabs a la New burg, Individual Service . . . 343 

Sweetbread Ramequins 343 

Russian Cutlets 374 

Dresden Patties 374 

Devilled Crabs 375 

Pan Broiled Lamb Chops a la LucuUus 375 

Chaud-froid of Eggs 386 

Capon in Aspic 386 

Harvard Pudding served with Crushed Berries and 

Whipped Cream 387 

Snowballs garnished with Strawberries . . . . . 387 

Royal Diplomatic Pudding 422 

Toasted Marshmallows 422 

Charlotte Russe 423 

Orange Trifle garnished with Whipped Cream, Candied 

Orange Peel, and Blossoms 423 

Coup Sicilienne 442 

Coup a I'Ananas . 442 

Coffee Ice Cream served in half of Cantaloupe , . . 442 



xiv I^ST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Facing Page 

Yanilla Ice Cream served in half of Cantaloupe with 

Fruit Garnish 442 

Junket Ice Cream with Peaches 443 

Bombe Glacee 443 

Utensils and Materials for the making of Puff Paste . 460 

Calve Tarts 460 

English Meat Pie 461 

Patties garnished with Pastry Rings and Parsley . . 461 

Cheese Straws 474 

Cocoanut Tea Cakes 474 

Lemon Tartlets 475 

Fruit Baskets 475 

Rich Cookies 488 

Royal Fans 488 

Chocolate Cakes and Crescents 489 

Meringues 489 

Marguerites I 494 

English Rolled Wafers I-II 494 

Mocha Cakes and Small Eclairs 495 

Ice Cream Cake with Nut Caramel Frosting .... 495 
Cake frosted for St. Valentine's Day for the use of 

Mocha Frosting 532 

Ornamental Frosted Cake 532 

Dipped Walnuts 533 

Bonbons 533 

Cream Mints 548 

Candied Orange Peel 548 

Noisette Sandwiches 549 

Bread and Butter Folds 549 

Lobster Canape . 554 

Canape Martha 554 

Jelly Bag and other necessary utensils for jelly making 555 

Marmalades, Jams, and Jellies 555 

Utensils necessary for canning « 576 

Canned Fruits 676 



MST OF ILLtrBTBATIONS X7 

Facing Page 

Pickles ready for serving and Crock for keeping Pickles 577 

Red Peppers being prepared for canning . . , . . 577 

Table laid for Breakfast 592 

Luncheon Table laid for Fish Course 593 

Table laid for Formal Luncheon 596 

Centrepiece for Luncheon or Dinner Table .... 597 

Centrepiece for Thanksgiving Dinner Table .... 597 

Christmas Dinner Table 600 

Table laid for Reception . < . 601 



BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 
WAE-TIME EECIPES 



XVlll 



BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



The standard recipes in this book may be made to meet 
the present-day needs of conservation by using the following 
tables of substitutes : — 



1 cup barley flour 
1 cup rye flour 
1 cup oat flour 
1 cup ground rolled oats 
y& cup buckwheat flour 
3^ cup barley flour and 3^ cup rice flour 
Substitutes for 3^ cup barley flour and 3^ cup corn flour 

1 cup 1 cup flour made by sifting together four times 

wheat flour - 1 pound barley flour 

(except in 1 pound rye flour 

yeast bread) 1 pound rice flour 

1 pound potato flour 
14, cup barley flour and 3^ cup ground rolled oats 
]/2 cup ground rolled oats and )4 cup rice flour 
3^ cup mashed potato and 3^ cup corn flour, omit- 
ting ^ cup milk from the recipe 
14 cup potato flour (in sponge cakes) 

Corn flour or rice flour may be used for thickening white 
sauces and soups ; barley flour or rye flour for brown sauces 
and soups. 



Substitutes 

for 
1 cup sugar 



Substitutes 

. for 
1 cup butter 



}/2 cup sugar and 3^ cup corn syrup 

% cup maple sugar 

1 cup maple syrup, omitting 3^ cup Hquid 

1 cup golden syrup, omitting ^ cup liquid 
. 1 cup honey, omitting 3i cup hquid 
' 1 cup oleomargarine • 

1 cup nut margarine 

Ji cup cod fat 

^ cup chicken fat 

% cup clarified dripping 

Ji cup solid vegetable fat 
Examples : Crisco, Kream Krisp, and Vegetole 

% cup cotton seed oil 

^ cup peanut oil 
, % cup com oil 



WAR-TIME RECIPES XIX 



YEAST BREADS WITH 50% WHEAT FLOUR 

Liberty Bread 

1 cup scalded milk 1 yeast cake dissolved in 

1 tablespoon corn syrup 1^ cups lukewarm water 

2 tablespoons shortening 3 cups wheat flour 
M tablespoon salt 1 cup barley flour 
1 cup rolled oats 1 cup corn flour 

To scalded milk add corn syrup, shortening, salt, and 
rolled oats. When lukewarm add yeast cake dissolved in 
lukewarm water and wheat flour. Beat thoroughly, cover, 
and let rise until light. Add barley flour, and corn flour, 
knead, and let rise until double in bulk. Shape in two 
small loaves, put in greased pan, let rise again, and bake. 



Rice Bread 

}/2 cup rice 3^ yeast cake dissolved in 

2 teaspoons salt 2 tablespoons lukewarm water 

2 cups boiling water 1 cup wheat flour 

3^ tablespoon shortening Wheat flour to knead (about 

13^ teaspoons corn syrup 1}^ cups) 

}/2 cup scalded milk 

Add rice and one and one-half teaspoons salt to boiling 
water, let boil five minutes and cook over boiling water 
twenty minutes, or until soft. Add shortening, one-half 
teaspoon salt, and corn syrup to scalded milk, and when 
lukewarm add yeast cake dissolved in lukewarm water and 
one cup wheat flour. Beat thoroughly and let rise until 
light. Add cooked rice and flour to knead. Knead, let 
rise again, shape, place in greased pans, let rise, and bake 
fifty minutes in a moderate oven. 

Two cups left-over rice may be used instead of cooking 
rice especially for this bread. 



XX BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

"White Liberty Bread 

1 cup scalded milk 1 yeast cake dissolved in . 

1 tablespoon corn syrup J^ cup lukewarm water 

2 tablespoons shortening 3 cups wheat flour 
% tablespoon salt 1 cup cornstarch 

1 cup water 1 cup corn flour 

1 cup barley flour 

To scalded milk add corn syrup, shortening, salt, and one 
cup water, and when lukewarm add yeast cake dissolved in 
one-fourth cup lukewarm water, and wheat flour. Beat 
thoroughly, cover, and let rise until light; then add corn- 
starch, corn flour, and enough barley flour to knead. 
Knead, let rise till double in bulk, shape in two small 
loaves, let rise again, and bake. 

Barley Bread 

1 cup scalded milk 1 yeast cake dissolved in 

1 tablespoon corn syrup \i cup lukewarm water 

2 tablespoons shortening 3 cups wheat flour 
% tablespoon salt 2 cups barley flour 

1 cup water Barley flour to knead (about 1 

cup) 

To scalded milk add com syrup, shortening, salt, and one 
cup water, and when lukewarm add yeast cake dissolved in 
lukewarm water, and wheat flour. Beat thoroughly, and 
let rise until light; then add two cups barley flour and 
enough more to knead. Knead, let rise until double in 
bulk, shape in two small loaves, let rise again, and bake. 

Oatmeal Bread I 

1 cup rolled oats i^ yeast cake dissolved in 

3^ cup corn meal }/i cup lukewarm water 

13^ teaspoons salt 34 cup molasses 

1 tablespoon shortening 2 cups barley flour or rye flour 

2 cups boiling water Wheat flour to knead 



WAR-TIME RECIPES Xxi 

Mix rolled oats, corn meal, salt, shortening, and boiling 
water and let stand one hour. Add yeast cake dissolved in 
lukewarm water, molasses, barley or rye flour, and wheat 
flour to knead. Mix well, cover, and let rise until double 
in bulk. Beat thoroughly, turn into two greased pans, let 
rise, and bake in a hot oven fifty minutes. 

Oatmeal Bread II 

2 cups milk 2 teaspoons salt 

3 cups ground rolled oats 1 yeast cake dissolved in 

1 tablespoon corn syrup ]4, cup lukewarm water 

White flour to knead (about 2 cups) 

Scald milk and add rolled oats (ground through a food 
chopper), corn syrup, and salt, and let stand until lukewarm. 
Add yeast cake dissolved in lukewarm water, and white 
flour to knead. Knead thoroughly, let rise until double its 
bulk, knead again, shape, put in two greased bread pans, let 
rise again, and bake. ^ 

Hominy Bread 

3^ cup hominy 3^ yeast cake dissolved in 

2 teaspoons salt 2 tablespoons lukewarm water 
2 cups boiling water 1 cup wheat flour 

3^ tablespoon shortening Wheat flour to knead (about 

13^ teaspoons corn syrup 13^ cups) 

14 cup scalded milk 

Add hominy and one and one-half teaspoons salt to boil- 
ing water, stir until thick, and cook over boiling water 
twenty minutes, or until soft. Add shortening, one-half 
teaspoon salt, and corn syrup to scalded milk, and when 
lukewarm add yeast cake dissolved in lukewarm water and 
one cup wheat flour. Beat thoroughly and let rise until 
light. Add cooked hominy and flour to knead. Knead, let 
rise again, shape, place in greased pans, let rise, and bake 
fifty minutes in a moderate oven. 

One cup left-over hominy may be used instead of cooking 
hominy especially for this bread. 



XXli BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Potato Biscuit 

1 cup hot mashed potato 1 cup scalded milk 

y^ tablespoon shortening J^ yeast cake dissolved in 

)/2 tablespoon sugar 2 tablespoons lukewarm water 

Yi tablespoon salt 3^ cup rolled oats 

2 cups flour 

To hot mashed potato add shortening, sugar, salt, and 
scalded milk. When lukewarm add yeast cake dissolved in 
lukewarm water and one-half cup rolled oats measured after 
being put several times through food chopper, and sifted. 
Add flour, knead thoroughly, cover, and let rise. Beat 
thoroughly, put in greased muffin pans, let rise again, and 
bake in a hot oven. 



WAR-TIME RECIPES Xxiii 

QUICK WHEATLESS BREADS, MUFFINS, 
ETC. 

Peanut Butter Bread A 

% cup peanut butter 3^ cup rice flour 

3^ cup corn syrup 4 teaspoons baking powder 

1 cup barley flour 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup milk 

Add corn syrup to peanut butter and mix thoroughly. 
Mix and sift barley flour, rice flour, baking powder, and 
salt, and add to first mixture alternately with milk. Mix 
thoroughly and put in greased bread pan. Bake about 
fifty minutes in moderate oven. If peanut butter is not at 
hand, peanuts put through the nut-butter cutter of the food 
chopper may be used. Slice when cold. 

Quick Nut Bread 

1 cup barley flour 34 cup raisins, seeded and cut in 

14. cup corn flour pieces 

5 teaspoons baking powder 3^ cup nut meats, broken in 

13^ teaspoons salt pieces 

1 cup oat flour 1 cup milk 

1 egg 3^ cup molasses 
2 tablespoons melted shortening 

Mix and sift barley flour, corn flour, baking powder, and 
salt ; then add oat flour or ground rolled oats without sift- 
ing. Add raisins and nut meats, milk, molasses, melted 
shortening, and egg well beaten. Beat thoroughly, and put 
in greased baking pan. Let stand twenty minutes and bake 
in moderate oven one hour. The Qgg may be omitted but 
bread will not slice quite as well. The raisins or nuts or 
both may be omitted. If the three flours are not at hand, 
the two and one-half cups of flour called for may be made 
up of two kinds. 



XXIV BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Irish Bread 

IM cups barley flour 1}4 tablespoons shortening 

l^ teaspoon salt J^ cup raisins, seeded and cut in 

}4 tablespoon sugar pieces 

1 tablespoon baking powder J^ tablespoon caraway seeds 

^ cup milk 

Mix and sift flour, salt, sugar, and baking powder. Work 
in shortening with tips of fingers ; add raisins, caraway 
seeds, and milk. Mix thoroughly and bake in a greased 
iron frying pan. Serve hot or cold. 

Wheatless Boston Brown Bread 

1 cup oat flour 2 teaspoons soda 

1 cup barley flour 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup corn meal ^ cup molasses 

1 % cups water or 2 cups sour milk 

Put rolled oats through^ food chopper and use one cup 
oat flour thus made. Add barley flour and corn meal mixed 
and sifted with soda and salt ; then add molasses, and milk 
gradually. Mix thoroughly, fill greased baking powder tins 
two-thirds full, cover, put on trivet in kettle of boiling 
water, and steam three hours. Serve hot, cold, reheated, 
toasted, for cheese sandwiches, or make into milk toast. 
Dry brown bread crumbs may be added to ice cream. 

Steamed Bread 

1 cup barley flour 1 cup milk 

}4 cup rice flour 2 tablespoons syrup 

4 teaspoons baking powder 1 egg 

1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted shortening 

Mix and sift dry ingredients ; add gradually milk, syrup, 
egg well beaten, and shortening. Fill greased half-pound 
baking powder boxes two-thirds full, cover, and steam one 
and one-half hours. 

^ Other combinations of flour may be used, — namely, one 
cup ground oats and one-half cup corn flour ; one cup buck- 



WAR-TIME RECIPES XXV 

wheat flour and one-half cup rice flour; or one cup com 
flour and one-half cup barley flour. Steamed bread keeps 
moist longer than other kinds and may be cut in very thin 
slices for sandwiches. 

Oat Flour Muffins 

2 cups oat flour 1 cup milk 

4 teaspoons baking powder 1 egg 

1 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons molasses or com 

2 tablespoons melted shortening syrup 

Mix and sift dry ingredients ; add gradually milk, egg 
well beaten, molasses or corn syrup, and melted shortening. 
Bake in greased gem pans twenty-five minutes. If iron 
p3-ns are used they must be previously heated. 

Quick Oat Bread 

Bake Oat Flour Muffin mixture in greased bread pan 
instead of muffin pans. Slice when cold. 

Eggleas Oat Muffins 

2 cups rolled oats 13^ cups milk 

1 tablespoon sugar or syrup 1 tablespoon melted shortening 

1 teaspoon salt 5 teaspoons baking powder 

Grind rolled oats in food chopper. To one-half the oats 
add sugar, salt, milk, and shortening. Beat with egg beater 
until mixture is full of bubbles ; then add remaining oats 
and baking powder. Let stand three or four minutes in 
greased muffin pans and bake in hot oven twenty minutes. 

Buckwheat and Oatmeal Muffins 

1 cup milk 1 teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon fat 4 teaspoons baking powder 

2 tablespoons syrup H cup buckwheat flour 
2 eggs 1 cup ground rolled oats 

Add to milk melted fat, syrup, and eggs slightly beaten. 
Sift salt, baking powder, and flour, using a coarse sieve so 



XXVI BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

that no part of the flour is wasted. Combine mixtures, 
stirring lightly, without beating. Bake in greased mulfin 
pans twenty to thirty minutes in a hot oven. 

Barley Muffins 

1 cup sifted barley flour 1 teaspoon salt 
y^ cup rice flour 1 egg 

4 teaspoons baking powder 1 cup milk 

2 tablespoons sugar 1 tablespoon melted shortening 

Mix and sift dry ingredients ; then add ^^%^ well beaten, 
milk, and shortening. Beat thoroughly, bake in hot, well- 
oiled muffin pans about twenty-five minutes, or mixture may 
be steamed like Boston Brown Bread and sliced when cold. 

Bran Muffins 

1 cup barley flour 1 cup bran 

1 teaspoon salt 1 egg 

\i cup molasses 1 \i cups milk 

4 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons melted shortening 

Mix and sift twice barley flour, salt, and baking powder; 
then add bran, molasses, ^g'g well beaten and mixed with 
the milk, and shortening. Beat thoroughly. Bake in hot, 
well-greased iron muffin pans about twenty-five minutes. 

Cereal Muffins 

V/^ cups sifted barley flour \i cup hot or cold cooked cereal 

3 teaspoons baking powder ^ cup milk 

2 tablespoons corn syrup 1 egg 

1 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons melted shortening 

Mix and sift dry ingredients. Break cereal into pieces 
and mix with inilk until of a smooth consistency. Mix q%^ 
well beaten and corn syrup and stir into the dry ingredients, 
then add shortening. Bake in hot, well-greased muffin pans 
about twenty minutes. 



WAR-TIME RECIPES XXvii 

Com Flour Muffins 

2 cups com flour li^ cups milk 

5 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons corn syrup 

1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted shortening 

legg 

Mix and sift corn flour, baking powder, and salt; add 
milk, corn syrup, melted shortening, and egg. Beat thor- 
oughly and bake twenty-five minutes in greased muffin pans. 

Com Sticks 

1 cup corn meal 3^ tablespoon shortening 

1 teaspoon salt Boiling water 

1 teaspoon baking powder 

Put corn meal, salt, and shortening in mixing bowl. Add 
boiling water to moisten and mix thoroughly ; then add 
baking powder and mix again. Shape with a pastry bag 
and tube on greased baking pan in sticks four inches long 
and bake in a moderate oven. One-half cup milk may be 
added to this mixture when it may be cooked on hot greased 
griddle in small oval cakes. 

Hoover Com Bread 

2 cups yellow corn meal 2 cups milk 

2 tablespoons baking powder 1 tablespoon melted shortening 
1 teaspoon salt or cooking oil 

1 teaspoon corn syrup 

Mix and sift corn meal, baking powder, and salt ; then 
add milk slowly, shortening, and corn syrup. Bake in a 
greased shallow pan, split, toast, and spread with, butter. 

Eggless Com Bread 

1 cup corn meal 2 tablespoons baking powder 
% cup rye flour 1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons sugar 2 tablespoons melted shortening 

1 cup milk 



XXVUi BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Mix and sift corn meal, rye flour, sugar, baking powder, 
and salt ; then add shortening, and milk. Beat thoroughly, 
and bake in greased cake pan or muffin tins twenty minutes. 

Potato Com Meal Muffins 

1 cup milk 2 tablespoons sugar or corn syrup 

1 cup hot mashed potato 1 cup corn meal 

1 egg 1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons melted fat 4 teaspoons baking powder 

Mix milk and mashed potato, and add egg well beaten, 
fat, and sugar or corn syrup. Mix and sift com meal, salt, 
and baking powder, and add to first mixture. Beat thor- 
oughly and bake in hot oven in greased muffin tins. 

Baking Powder Biscuit 

2 cups barley or rye flour 2 tablespoons shortening 

5 teaspoons baking powder }4 cup milk 

1 teaspoon salt Water (about }4 cup) 

Mix dry ingredients and sift twice. Work in shortening 
with tips of fingers ; then add gradually the liquid, mixing 
with knife to a soft dough. It is impossible to determine 
the exact amount of liquid, owing to differences in flour. 
Toss on a floured board, pat, and roll lightly to one half inch 
in thickness. Shape with a biscuit cutter first dipped in 
flour. Place on greased pan and bake in hot oven twelve 
to fifteen minutes. 

Shortcake 

Follow recipe on page 83 or 84, using barley or rye flour 
or one of the combinations suggested on page xviii, instead 
of white flour. 

Com Flour Griddle Cakes 

1}4 cups com flour 1 teaspoon salt 

5i teaspoon soda 13^ cups sour milk 

legg 



WAR-TIME RECIPES XXIX 

Mix and sift dry ingredients, and add egg, well beaten, 
and milk. Beat well with a wire whisk, and drop by 
spoonfuls on hot griddle rubbed over with a piece of turnip 
instead of being greased. Cook on one side ; when puffed, 
full of bubbles, and cooked on edges, turn and cook other 
side. Serve with maple syrup. 



Buckwheat "Waffles 

2 cups buckwheat flour 2 tablespoons molasses 

4 teaspoons baking powder 1 tablespoon melted shortening 

J^ teaspoon salt 2 egg yolks 

2 cups milk 2 egg whites 

Mix and sift buckwheat flour, baking powder, and salt. 
Add milk, molasses, melted shortening, egg yolks, beaten 
until light, and egg whites, beaten until stiff. Heat and 
grease a waffle iron, put a tablespoon of mixture into each 
compartment near center of iron, cover, and cook, turning 
occasionally, until crisp and brown on both sides. Serve 
with syrup. 

WheatlesB Doughnuts 

1 egg 13^ cups rye flour 

1 egg yolk 4 teaspoons baking powder 

}4 cup sugar M teaspoon nutmeg 

14 cup corn syrup 1 teaspoon salt 

2}^ cups corn flour I cup milk 

Beat egg and egg yolk until light, and add sugar gradu- 
ally; then the corn syrup. Mix and sift dry ingredients 
and add alternately with milk to first mixture. Roll out, 
shape, fry in deep fat, and drain. 

Two and one-half cups rye flour and one and one-half 
cups corn flour or the combination of four flours explained 
on page xviii may be used in place of the flour suggested in 
the recipe. 



XXX BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



WHEATLESS DESSERTS 

Dutch Apple Cake 

14 cup butter substitute 1 cup barley flour 

3^ cup sugar % cup corn flour 

]4 cup corn syrup 4 teaspoons baking powder 

1 egg 1 cup milk 
H teaspoon salt 2 apples 

Cream butter substitute, and add sugar gradually while 
beating constantly; then add corn syrup, and Qg^ well 
beaten. Mix and sift salt, barley flour, corn flour, and 
baking powder, and add alternately with milk to first 
mixture. Turn half the mixture into a greased cake pan, 
put on layer of pared, cored, and sliced apples and cover 
with remaining mixture. Arrange on top a layer of rounds 
of apple, cut at right angles to the core. Sprinkle with 
one tablespoon sugar mixed with one-fourth teaspoon cin- 
namon and bake thirty-five, minutes. Cut in squares, re- 
move from pan and serve with Jelly Marshmallow Sauce. 

Jelly Marshmallow Sauce 

H cup apple jelly 1 large tablespoon marshmallow 

2 tablespoons top milk cream 

Melt jelly over hot water, remove from water, add marsh- 
mallow cream and beat until smooth. Dilute with milk if 
sauce is too sweet. 



Steamed Chocolate Pudding 

3 tablespoons shortening 1 egg 

}/z cup sugar 1 cup milk 

}4 cup corn syrup 2]^ cups barley flour 

2)4 squares unsweetened 4 teaspoons baking powder 

chocolate ^ teaspoon salt 



WAR-TIME RECIPES XXXl 

Cream shortening and add sugar and corn syrup gradu- 
ally ; then add chocolate melted, and egg well beaten. Mix 
and sift flour, baking powder, and salt, and add alternately 
with milk to first mixture. Turn into three greased one- 
pound baking-powder boxes, or into five half-pound greased 
baking-powder boxes. Cover and. put on trivet in kettle 
with boiling water coming half way up the sides of the tins. 
Cover kettle and let water boil one and one half hours, add- 
ing boiling water as it boils away. Serve with Yellow Sauce. 

Yellow Sauce 

2 eggs 3^ cup corn syrup 
^ cup powdered sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Beat yolks of eggs until thick and add corn syrup gradu- 
ally while beating constantly. Beat whites of eggs until 
stiff and add sugar gradually while beating constantly, and 
vanilla. Combine mixtures, carefully folding over and over. 
Serve as soon as possible. 

English Plum Pudding 

1 cup chopped suet 2 teaspoons baking powder 

1 cup scraped raw carrot 1 teaspoon soda 

1 cup peeled raw potato 1 34 teaspoons salt 

1 cup molasses 13^ teaspoons cinnamon 

3 tablespoons boiled cider 3^ teaspoon each clove, mace, 
1 cup barley flour and allspice 

% cup rye flour 1 cup raisins, seeded and cut in 

34 cup citron pieces 

}/2 cup nut meats, cut in pieces 

Put suet, scraped raw carrot, and peeled raw potato 
through the food chopper ; there should be one cup of each. 
Mix and put through the food chopper a.gain; then add 
molasses and boiled cider or melted jelly. Eeserve one 
third cup flour, mix and sift remaining dry ingredients and 
add to first mixture ; then add raisins, nut meats, and citron 
mixed with reserved flour. Put in greased baking-powder 
boxes and steam four hours. Serve with Fruit Sauce. 



XXXU BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Fruit Sauce 

1 cup fruit syrup 2 tablespoons oleomargarine 

1 tablespoon cornstarch Few grains salt 

2 tablespoons cold water Lemon juice 

1 egg 

Drain syrup from canned pineapple or other fruit and 
heat to boiling point. Add cornstarch mixed with cold 
water, stir, bring to the boiling point and boil five minutes. 
Add oleomargarine, salt, and lemon or orange juice, sherry 
or brandy to flavor. Beat egg yolk until light and add 
sauce slowly while beating constantly. Beat egg white 
until stiff, fold gently into sauce and serve at once. 



Quick Wheatless Pastry 

}/2 cup lard substitute }4 cup potato flour 

^ teaspoon salt 14 cup barley flour 

% cup rye flour J^ cup ice water 

Put shortening and water in a bowl and work with a 
wooden spoon until shortening is creamy. Add flours and 
salt mixed and sifted. Mix with a knife, toss on a floured 
board or cloth, pat and roll, and use same as other paste. 



Barley Pie Crust 

1 cup barley flour 
}4 teaspoon baking powder }4 cup shortening 

Ice water 

Mix and sift flour, baking powder, and salt. Cut in the 
shortening, using a case knife. Moisten mixture to a dough 
with ice water. Toss on a floured board, pat and roll out, 
then roll like a jelly roll. May be used at once. 



WAR-TIME RECIPES XXXiii 



WAFERS, COOKIES, AND CAKES 

Cereal "Wafers 

]4: cup rolled oats 1 tablespoon corn syrup 

]4, cup corn meal J^ teaspoon salt 

]/2 cup boiling water 1 tablespoon cooking oil 

}/2 cup barley flour 

Put rolled oats and corn meal in saucepan. Add boiling 
water, cook one minute, add corn syrup, salt, cooking oil, 
and barley flour. Toss on a floured cloth, knead thoroughly, 
pat and roll as thin as possible, shape with a small round 
cutter first dipped in flour. Place near together on a 
greased sheet and bake in a moderate oven. 

Scotch Oat Crackers 

2 cups rolled oats 13^ tablespoons fat 

3^ cup milk }/i teaspoon soda 

2 tablespoons sugar 1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons corn syrup M cup raisins or nut meats 

Put rolled oats through food chopper, and add milk, 
sugar, corn syrup, melted fat, soda, and salt. Mix well 
and add seeded raisins or nuts cut in pieces. Roll as thin 
as possible, cut in fancy shapes, and bake in moderate oven 
about twenty minutes. 

Ginger Snaps 

]4 cup molasses M teaspoon soda 

3^ cup shortening 13^ teaspoons ginger 

13^ cups barley flour % teaspoon salt 

Boil molasses one minute and add shortening. Sift to- 
gether flour, soda, ginger, and salt, and add to first mixture. 
Chill, roll on a floured board as thin as possible, using a 
small part of the dough at a time. Cut in shapes and bake 
in moderate oven. 



XXXIV BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Peanut Butter Cookies 

^ cup peanut butter % teaspoon soda 

}4 cup sugar % tablespoon hot water 

}4 cup corn syrup M cup barley flour 

1 egg M teaspoon salt 

^ teaspoon cinnamon 

Work peanut butter until creamy, and add sugar gradu- 
ally, while beating constantly; then add corn syrup, egg 
well beaten, soda dissolved in hot water, and barley flour 
sifted with salt and cinnamon. Chill, roll tSin, cut in 
fancy shapes, and bake in moderate oven. 

Rice riour Wafers 

}4: cup butter substitute 1 egg 

J^ cup sugar Grated rind 1 lemon 

Rice flour 

Cream butter substitute, and add sugar gradually while 
beating constantly, then add unbeaten egg, grated rind of 
lemon, and one-half cup rice flour. Add enough more rice 
flour to roll. Roll very thin, cut in fancy shapes, and bake 
in a moderate oven. 

Honey Drop Cakes 

14 cup shortening 1 cup barley flour 

}4 cup sugar }4 cup oat flour 

}/2 cup honey 2 teaspoons baking powder 

1 egg yolk 14 teaspoon salt 

}4 tablespoon lemon juice 1 egg white 

Cream shortening and add sugar gradually while beating 
constantly ; then add honey, egg yolk well beaten, and lemon 
juice. Mix and sift barley flour, oat flour, baking powder, 
and salt ; add to first mixture, mix thoroughly, and fold in 
the white of egg, beaten until stiff. Drop by teaspoonfulg 
on greased baking sheet and bake in moderate oven. 



WAR-TIME RECIPES XXXV 

Barley Gingerbread 

^ cup shortening i^ teaspoon soda 

3^ cup boiling water 3 teaspoons baking powder 

1 cup molasses 3^ teaspoon salt 

1 egg 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

2 cups barley flour 3^ teaspoon clove 

1 teaspoon ginger 

Melt sbortening in boiling water, and add molasses and 
egg. Mix and sift flour, soda, baking powder, salt and 
spices, and add to first mixture. Beat thoroughly and bake 
in greased gem tins twenty-five minutes, or in greased cake 
pan forty minutes. 

Potato Flour Cake 

2 eggs 1^ cup potato flour 

1 tablespoon cold water ^ teaspoon baking powder 

}4 cup sugar }4 teaspoon salt 

3^ teaspoon vanilla 

Add water to egg yolks and beat until light; then add 
sugar gradually, while beating constantly. Mix and sift 
dry ingredients, combine mixtures and add vanilla, then add 
whites of eggs beaten until stiff. Turn into a greased and 
floured cake pan and bake in a moderate oven twenty-five 
minutes. 

Potato Flour Sponge Cake 

Yolks 4 eggs Whites 4 eggs 

}/2 tablespoon water 3^ cup potato flour 

3^ cup sugar 1 teaspoon baking powder 

34 cup corn syrup 34 teaspoon salt 

}/2 teaspoon lemon extract 

Beat yolks of eggs and water until thick and lemon-colored 
and add sugar and corn syrup gradually, while beating con- 
stantly ; then add whites of eggs beaten until stiff. Mix 
and sift potato flour, baking powder and salt, and cut and 
fold into mixture. Add lemon extract, turn into greased 
iron frying-pan and bake in a moderate oven thirty minutes. 



XXXVl BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Orange Cake 

4 tablespoons butter substitute % cup barley flour 

]/i cup sugar % cup corn flour 

3 tablespoons corn syrup 23^ teaspoons baking powder 

1 egg }/2 cup milk 

Cream butter substitute, and add sugar gradually wbile 
beating constantly ; then add corn syrup and Qgg well beaten. 
Mix and sift barley flour, corn flour and baking powder, 
and add to first mixture alternately with. milk. Bake in a 
greased dripping pan. When cool split, spread under piece 
with Orange Marshmallow Filling (see p. xxxix) and cover 
with other piece. Spread top with Honey Frosting (see p. 
xxxix) flavored with one-fourth teaspoon orange extract. 

Palm Beach Cake 

2 egg yolks }/i cup rice flour 

1 egg white 13^ teaspoons baking powder 

14: cup sugar }/i teaspoon salt 

}/i cup corn syrup 34 cup milk 

3^ cup buckwheat flour 23^ tablespoons melted butter 

substitute 

Beat Qgg yolks and Qgg white until thick and add sugar 
gradually while beating constantly; then add corn syrup. 
Mix and sift buckwheat flour, rice flour, baking powder, and 
salt. Add alternately with milk to first mixture ; then add 
melted butter substitute. Beat thoroughly and bake in two 
greased square cake pans. Put together and cover with 
Palm Beach Frosting (see page xxxix), having frosting thick 
and rough on top. Decorate across each corner with a 
strip of candied pineapple. 

Wheatless "Walnut Cake 

3^ cup butter substitute 3^ teaspoon salt 

]/2 cup sugar 1 34 cups barley flour 

14. cup corn syrup 3^ cup rice flour 

Yolks 3 eggs 2% teaspoons baking powder 

l^ cup milk Whites 2 eggs 

% cup walnut meats, broken in pieces 



WAR-TIME RECIPES XXXVli 

Cream butter substitute and add sugar gradually, while 
beating constantly ; then add corn syrup, yolks of eggs well 
beaten, and milk. Mix and sift salt, barley flour, rice flour 
and baking powder, and add to first mixture; then add 
whites of eggs beaten until stiff. Fold in nut meats, turn 
into a greased cake pan, and bake forty-five minutes in a 
moderate oven. 

Bride's Cake 

3^ cup white oleomargarine 3 teaspoons baking powder 

% cup sugar 3^ teaspoon cream of tartar 

M cup white corn syrup l^ cup milk 

13^ cups flour 3^ teaspoon lemon extract 

1 cup rice flour Whites 6 eggs 

Cream oleomargarine and add sugar gradually while beat- 
ing constantly ; then add corn syrup. Mix and sift flour, 
rice flour, baking powder, and cream of tartar. Add alter- 
nately to first mixture with milk ; then add lemon extract 
and whites of eggs beaten stiff. Bake fifty minutes in a 
greased, round pan with a ring, thimble, and coin. Frost and 
decorate with Maple Marshmallow Frosting (see page xxxix). 



"White Fruit Cake 

3^ cup uncolored oleomargarine 3 tablespoons blanched shredded 
1 teaspoon lemon juice almonds 

]4 cup flour yi cup citron 

}/i cup potato flour 3^ teaspoon almond extract 

3/8 teaspoon soda Whites 3 eggs 

3^ cup candied cherries 34 cup sugar 
yi cup white corn syrup 

Cream oleomargarine, add lemon juice, and very gradu- 
ally, beating constantly, white flour, potato flour, and soda 
sifted together; then add candied cherries cut in small 
pieces, blanched shredded almonds, citron sliced and cut 
fine, and almond extract. Beat Q^^ whites until stiff, add 



XXXVlll BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

sugar slowly while beating constantly, and white corn syrup. 
Combine mixtures, put in greased and floured tins, and bake 
half an hour. 

Eggless, Butterless, Wheatless Fruit Cake 

1 cup buckwheat flour 3^ teaspoon cinnamon 

2 teaspoons baking powder 3^ cup sugar 

3^ teaspoon salt 3^ cup molasses 

3^ teaspoon aUspice }4 cup milk 

3^ teaspoon clove 3 tablespoons coffee infusion 

}4: teaspoon mace 3^ cup raisins, seeded and cut in 

yi teaspoon grated nutmeg pieces 

3^ cup oat flour 

Mix and sift buckwheat flour, baking powder, salt, and 
spices. Mix sugar, molasses, milk, and coffee. Combine 
mixtures, add raisins mixed with oat flour, beat thoroughly, 
pour in a well-greased and floured bread pan and bake in a 
moderate oven. 

Potato Chocolate Cake 

4 tablespoons butter substitute 2 eggs 

14 cup sugar 1 cup hot mashed potato 

}4 cup corn syrup 13^ cups barley flour 

2 squares melted unsweetened 3^ teaspoon salt 

chocolate 3 teaspoons baking powder 

Cream butter substitute and add. sugar gradually, while 
beating constantly ; then add corn syrup, melted chocolate, 
eggs well beaten, mashed potato, and barley flour sifted 
with salt and baking powder. Beat thoroughly, put in 
square greased cake tin, and bake in a moderate oven. 

Eclairs and Cream Puffs 

4 tablespoons butter substitute }4 cup rice flour 
3^ cup boiling water Few grains salt 

}i cup barley flour 2 eggs 

Put butter substitute and water in saucepan and when 
boiling point is reached, add all at once, barley flour, rice 



WAR-TIME RECIPES XXxix 

flour and salt sifted together, and stir vigorously. Remove 
from lire as soon as mixed, add one unbeaten egg and beat 
until smooth, then add the other egg and beat until smooth. 
Drop by spoonfuls on a buttered tin sheet, shaping long 
and narrow for eclairs and round for cream puffs. Bake 
thirty or thirty-five minutes in a moderate oven. 

Maple Marshmadlow Frosting 

% cup maple sugar 1 large tablespoon marshmallow 

}4 cup boiling water cream 

White 1 egg 

Put maple sugar and boiling water in saucepan, stirring 
occasionally until sugar is dissolved, then boil without 
stirring until syrup will thread when dropped from tip of 
spoon. Add marshmallow cream and pour gradually on 
beaten white of egg, beating constantly. Place over hot 
water and fold over and over for three minutes, remove 
from fire and continue folding until the right consistency 
to spread. 

Palm Beach Frosting 

To Maple Marshmallow Frosting add two tablespoons, 
each, candied pineapple, nut meats, and seeded raisins cut 
in small pieces. 

Honey Frosting 

3^ cup honey White 1 egg 

1 large tablespoon marsh- Few drops lemon extract 
mallow cream 

Boil honey until it forms a firm ball when tried in cold 
water. Add marshmallow cream, pour slowly over the 
beaten white of egg and beat until cold. Flavor with lemon 
extract and spread on cake. If a stiffer frosting is wanted, 
stir over hot water ^nd fold gently over and over for two 
minutes. 



XI BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Maple Marshmallow Filling I 

^ cup maple sugar 1 cup scalded milk 

2 tablespoons cornstarch 1 egg 

Few grains salt 1 tablespoon marshmallow cream 

Mix maple sugar, cornstarch and salt, and add scalded 
milk. Stir in double boiler until thickened, cover and cook 
fifteen minutes. Add egg slightly beaten and cook two 
minutes. Fold in marshmallow cream and use when cold. 

Maple Marshmallow Filling II 

}4 cup com syrup, maple flavor 1 cup milk scalded 

J^ cup sugar 1 egg yolk 

3^ -cup rice flour 1 large tablespoon marshmallow 

14 teaspoon vanilla cream 

Mix corn syrup, sugar and flour, and add to scalded milk. 
Cook twenty minutes in double boiler. Add to slightly 
beaten egg yolk, return to double boiler, cook one minute, 
cool, fold in marshmallow cream, and add vanilla. 

Chocolate Marshmallow Filling 

To Maple Marshmallow Filling II add one square of 
melted unsweetened chocolate just before removing from 
fire. 

Orange Marshmallow Filling 

}4: cup sugar }4 cup orange juice 

^ cup white corn syrup }4 tablespoon lemon juice 

1 14 tablespoons cornstarch Yolk 1 egg 

Grated rind K orange 1 large tablespoon marshmallow 

cream 

Mix sugar, corn syrup, cornstarch, grated orange rind, 
orange juice, lemon juice, and cook in double boiler ten 
minutes, stirring constantly. Add egg yolk slightly beaten, 
and cook one minute, stirring constantPy^. When cool, fold 
in marshmallow cream. 



THE BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL 
COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER I 
FOOD 

FOOD is anything which nourishes the body. From fifteen 
to twenty elements enter into the composition of the 
body, of which the following thirteen are considered : oxy- 
gen, &2}4 % ; carbon, 21y^ (fo ; hydrogen, 10 % ; nitrogen, 
3 % ; calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, chlorine, so- 
dium, magnesium, iron, and fluorine the remaining 3 %. 

Food is necessary for growth, repair, and energy ; there- 
fore the elements composing the body must be found in the 
food. The thirteen elements named are formed into chem- 
ical compounds by the vegetable and animal kingdoms to 
support the highest order of being, man. All food must 
undergo chemical change after being taken into the body, 
before it can be utilized by the body ; this is the office of the 
digestive system. 

Food is classilied as follows : — 

1. Proteins (nitrogenous or albuminous) 

2. Carbohydrates (sugar and starch) 

3. Fats and oils 

4. Mineral matter 

5. Water 

The chief office of proteins is to build and repair tissues. 
They furnish energy, but at greater cost than carbohydrates, 
fats, and oils. They contain nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, hy- 
drogen, and sulphur or phosphorus, and include all forms of 
animal foods (excepting fats and glycogen) and some vegeta- 
ble foods. Examples : milk, cheese, eggs, meat, fish, cere- 
als, peas, beans, and lentils. The principal constituent of 



Z BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

protein food is albumen. Albumen as found in food takes 
different names, but has the same chemical composition ; as, 
albumen in eggs, fibri7i in meat, casein in milk and cheese, 
vegetable casein or legumen in peas, beans, and lentils ; and 
gluten in wheat. To this same class belongs gelatin. 

The chief office of the carbohydrates is to furnish energy 
and maintain heat. They contain carbon, hydrogen, and 
oxygen, and include foods containing starch and sugar. 
Examples : vegetables, fruits, cereals, sugars, and gums. 

The chief office of fats and oils is to furnish energy and 
heat. Examples : butter, cream, fat of meat, fish, cereals, 
nuts, and the berry of the olive-tree. Fats and carbohydrates 
are stored as the adipose tissues of the body. 

The chief office of mineral matter is to furnish the neces- 
sary salts which are found in all animal and vegetable foods. 
Examples : sodium chloride (common salt) ; carbonates, sul- 
phates and phosphates of sodium, potassium, and magne- 
sium ; besides calcium phosphates and iron. 

Water constitutes about two-thirds the weight of the body, 
and is in all tissues and fluids ; therefore its abundant use is 
necessary. One of the greatest errors in diet is neglect to 
take enough water ; while it is found in all animal and vege- 
table food, the amount is insufficient. 

Vitamines, growth-promoting substances, are essential 
especially for children. They are found in milk, butter, 
Qgg yolks, green leaves, etc. 

COERECT PROPORTIONS OF FOOD 

Age, weight, sex, occupation, climate, and season must 
determine the diet of a person in normal condition. 

Liquid food (milk or milk in ^preparation with the various 
prepared foods on the market) should constitute the diet of 
a child for the first eighteen months. After the teeth appear, 
by which time ferments have been developed for the diges- 
tion of starchy foods, entire wheat bread, baked potatoes, 
cereals, meat broths, and occasionally boiled eggs may be 
given. If mothers would use Dr. Johnson's Educators in 
place of the various sweet crackers, children would be as 



OOKREOT PROPORTIONS OP POOD 8 

well pleased and better nourished; with a glass of milk 
they form a supper suited to the needs of little ones, and ex- 
perience has shown that children seldom tire of them. The 
diet should be gradually increased by the addition of cooked 
fruits, vegetables, and simple desserts ; the third or fourth 
year fish and meat may be introduced, if given sparingly. 
Always avoid salted meats, coarse vegetables (beets, carrots, 
and turnips), cheese, fried food, pastry, rich desserts, con- 
fections, condiments, tea, coffee, and iced water. For school 
children the diet should be varied and abundant, constantly 
bearing in mind that this is a period of great mental and 
physical growth. Where children have broken down, sup- 
posedly from over- work, the cause has often been traced to 
impoverished diet. It must not be forgotten that diges- 
tive processes go on so rapidly that the stomach is soon 
emptied. Thanks to the institutor of the school luncheon- 
counter ! 
The daily average ration of an adult requires 

4)^ oz. protein 18 oz. starch 

2 oz. fat 5 pints water 

About one-third of the water is taken in our food, the 
remainder as a beverage. To keep in health and do the 
best mental and physical work, authorities agree that a 
mixed diet is suited for temperate climates, although sound 
arguments appear from the vegetarian. Women, even though 
they do the same amount of work as men, as a rule require 
less food. Brain workers should take their protein in a form 
easily digested. In consideration of this fact, fish and eggs 
form desirable substitutes for meat. The working man needs 
quantity as well as quality, that the stomach may have some- 
thing to act upon. Corned beef, cabbage, brown-bread, 
and pastry, will not overtax his digestion. In old age the 
digestive organs lessen in activity, and the diet should be 
almost as simple as that of a child, increasing the amount 
of carbohydrates and decreasing the amount of proteins 
and fat. Many diseases which occur after middle life are 
due to eating and drinking such foods as were indulged in 
during vigorous manhood, i > . . 



BOSTON OOOKmo-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



WATEK (H2O) 

Water is a transparent, odorless, tasteless liquid. It is 
derived from five sources, — rains, rivers, surface-water or 
shallow wells, deep wells, and springs. Water is never 
found pure in nature ; it is nearly pure when gathered in 
an open fieM, after a heavy rainfall, or from springs. For 
town and city supply, surface-water is furnished by some 
adjacent pond or lake. Samples of such water are carefully 
and frequently analyzed, to make sure that it is not polluted 
with disease germs. 

The hardness of water depends upon the amount of salts 
of lime and magnesia which it contains. Soft water is free 
from objectionable salts, and is preferable for household 
purposes. Hard water may be softened by boiling, or by 
the addition of a small amount of bicarbonate of soda 
(NaHCOa). 

Water freezes at a temperature of 32° F., boils at 
212° F. ; when bubbles appear on the surface and burst, 
the boiling-point is reached. In high altitudes water boils 
at a lower temperature. From 32° to 65° F. water is termed 
cold; from 60° to 92° F., tepid; 92° to 100° F., warm; over 
that temperature, hot. Boiled water is freed from all organic 
impurities, and salts of lime are precipitated; it does not 
ferment, and is a valuable antiseptic. Hot water is more 
stimulating than cold, and is of use taken on an empty 
stomach, while at a temperature of from 60° to 95° F. it 
is used as an emetic; 90° F. being the most favorable 
temperature. 

Distilled water is chemically pure and is always used for 
medicinal purposes. It is flat and insipid to the taste, hav- 
ing been deprived of its atmospheric gases. 

There are many charged, carborated, and mineral spring 
waters bottled and put on the market ; many of these are 
used as agreeable table beverages. Examples : Soda Water, 
Apollinaris, Poland, Seltzer, and Viohy. Some contain min- 
erals of medicinal value. Examples : Lithia, saline, and 
sulphur waters. 



STiJKCE 



SALTS 



Of all salts found in the body, the most abundant and 

valuable is sodium chloride (NaCl), common salt; ii exists 
in all tissues, secretions, and fluids of the body, with the ex- 
ception of enamel of the teeth. The amount found in food 
is not always sufficient ; therefore salt is used as a condiment. 
It assists digestion, inasmuch as it furnishes chlorine for 
hydrochloric acid found in gastric juice. 

Common salt is obtained from evaporation of spring and 
sea water, also from mines. Our supply of salt obtained 
by evaporation comes chiefly from Michigan and New York ; 
mined salt from Louisiana and Kansas. 

Salt is a great preservative ; advantage is taken of this in 
salting meat and fish. 

Other salts — lime, phosphorus, magnesia, potash, sul- 
phur, and iron — are probably obtained in sufficient quantity 
from food we eat and water we drink. In young children, 
perfect formation of bones and teeth depends upon phos- 
phorus and lime taken into the system ; these are found in 
milk, green vegetables, fruit, cereals, meat, and fish. 

STARCH (CeHioOg) 

Starch is a white, glistening powder; it is largely distrib- 
uted throughout the vegetable kingdom, being found most 
abundantly in cereals and potatoes. Being a force-producer 
and heat-giver it forms one of the most important foods. 
Alone it cannot sustain life, but must be taken in combina- 
tion with foods which build and repair tissues. 

Test for Starch. A weak solution of iodine added to cold 
cooked starch gives an intense blue color. 

Starch is insoluble in cold water, and soluble to but a 
small extent in boiling water. Cold water separates starch* 
grains, boiling water causes them to swell and burst, thus 
forming a paste. 

St^ch subjected to dry heat is changed to dextririe 
(CgHjoOs), British gum. Dextrine subjected to heat plua an 



O BOSTON COOKING- SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

acid or a ferment is changed to dextrose (CgHuOe). Dextrose 
occurs in ripe fruit, honey, sweet wine, and as a manufactured 
product. When grain is allowed to germinate for malting 
purposes, starch is changed to dextrine and dextrose. In 
fermentation, dextrose is changed to alcohol (CgHgHO) and 
carbon dioxide (COg). Examples ; bread making, vinegar, 
and distilled liquors. 

Glycogen, animal starch, is found in many animal tis- 
sues and in some fungi. Examples: in liver of meat and 
oysters. 

Raw starch is not digestible ; consequently all foods con- 
taining starch should be subjected to boiling water or dry 
heat, and thoroughly cooked. Starch is manufactured from 
wheat, corn, and potatoes. Cornstarch is manufactured 
from Indian corn. Arrowroot, the purest form of starch, is 
obtained from two or three species of the Maranta plant, 
which grows in the West Indies and other tropical countries. 
Bermuda arrowroot is most highly esteemed. Tapioca is 
starch obtained from tuberous roots of the bitter cassava, 
native of South America. Sago is starch obtained from sago 
palms, native of India. 

SUGAR (Ci^Ha^On) 

Sugar is a crystalline substance, differing from starch by 
its sweet taste and solubility in cold water. As food, its 
uses are the same as starch ; all starch must be converted 
into sugar before it can be assimilated. 

The principal kinds of sugar are : cane sugar or sucrose, 
grape sugar or glucose (CeHigOg), milk sugar or lactose 
(CiaHsaOii), and fruit sugar or levulose (CgHigOg). 

Cane sugar is obtained from sugar cane, beets, and the . 
palm and sugar-maple trees. Sugar cane is a grass sup- 
posed to be native to Southern Asia, but now grown 
throughout the tropics, a large amount coming from Cuba 
and Louisiana ; it is the commonest of all, and in all 
cases the manufacture is essentially the same. The prod- 
ucts of manufacture are: molasses, syrup, brown sugar, 
loaf, cut, granulated, powdered, and confectioners* sugar. 
Brown sugar is cheapest, but is not so pure or sweet as whita 



GUM, PECTOSE, AND CELLULOSE 7 

grades ; powdered and confectioners' sugars are fine grades, 
pulverized, and, although seeming less sweet to the taste, are 
equally pure. Confectioners' sugar when applied to the tongue 
will dissolve at once ; powdered sugar is a little granular. 

Cane sugar when added to fruits, and allowed to cook far 
some time, changes to grape sugar, losing one-third of its 
sweetness ; therefore the reason for adding it when fruit is 
nearly cooked. Cane sugar is of great preservative value, 
hence its use in preserving fruits and milk; also, for the 
preparation of syrups. 

Three changes take place in the cooking of sugar ; first, 
barley sugar ; second, caramel ; third, carbon. 

Grape sugar is found in honey and all sweet fruits. It 
appears on the outside of dried fruits, such as raisins, dates, 
etc., and is only two-thirds as sweet as cane sugar. As a 
manufactured product it is obtained from the starch of corn. 

Milk sugar is obtained from the milk of mammalia, but 
unlike cane sugar does not ferment. 

Fruit sugar is obtained from sweet fruits, and is sold as 
diabetin, is sweeter than cane sugar, and is principally used 
by diabetic patients. 

OUM, PECTOSE, AND CELLULOSE 

These compounds found in food are closely allied to the 
carbohydrates, but are neither starchy, saccharine, nor oily. 
Gum exists in the juices of almost all plants, coming from 
the stems, branches, and fruits. Examples : gum arable, 
gum tragacanth, and mucilage. Pectose exists in the fleshy 
pulp of unripe fruit; during the process of ripening it 
changes to pectin ; by cooking, pectin is changed to pectosic 
acid, and by longer cooking to pectic acid. Pectosic acid is 
jelly-like when cold; pectic acid is jelly-like when hot or 
cold. Cellulose constitutes the cell-walls of vegetable life ; 
in very young vegetables it is possible that it can be acted 
upon by the digestive ferments ; in older vegetables it be- 
comes woody and completely indigestible."' The cellulose of 
fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is of great service in the 
elimination of waste matter, thus preventing constipation. 



BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



FATS AND OILS 

Fats and oils are found in both the animal and vegetable 
kingdom. Fats are solid ; oils are liquid ; they may be con- 
verted into a liquid state by application of heat ; they contain 
three substances, — stearin (solid), olein (liquid), palmit'm 
(semi-solid). Suet is an example where stearin is found in 
excess ; lard, where olien is in excess ; and butter, where pal- 
mitin is in excess. Margarin is a mixture of stearin and 
palmitin. The fatty acids are formed of stearin, olein, 
and palmitin, with glycerine as the base. Examples : stearic, 
palmitic, and oleic acid. Butyric acid is acid found in but- 
ter. These are not sour to the taste, but are called acids on 
account of their chemical composition. 

Among fats cream and butter are of first importance as 
foods, on account of their easy assimilation. Other exam- 
ples are : the fat of meats, bone-marrow, suet (the best found 
around the loin and kidneys of the beef creature), cocoanut 
butter, butterine, and oleomargarine. The principal animal 
oils are cod-liver oil and oil found in the yolk of egg ; princi- 
pal vegetable oils are olive, cottonseed, poppy, and cocoanut 
oils, peanut oil, and oils in various nuts. Butterine and 
oleomargarine, which must be labelled as such, if of good 
quality, are nutritious, inexpensive fats to be used in place 
of creamery butter. Among other fats used for cooking 
purposes, lard, crisco, and cottolene are the most popular. 

OUs are divided into two classes, essential amdj^a^ed. Es- 
sential oils are volatile and soluble in alcohol. Examples : 
clove, rose, nutmeg, and violet. Fixed oils are non-volatile 
and soluble in ether, oil, or turpentine. Examples : cotton- 
seed, peanut and corn oil. 

Fats may be heated to a high temperature, as considered 
in cookery they have no boiling-point. When appearing to 
boil, it is evident water has been added, and the temperature 
lowered to that of boiling water, 212° F. 



"MTT.T^ 



UILE 



COMPOSITION 



Protein, 3.5% Mineral matter, .75% 

Fat, 4% Water, 87.25% 

Lactose, 4.75% 

The value of milk as a food is obvious from the fact that 
it constitutes the natural food of all young mammalia during 
the period of their most rapid growth. Milk should consti- 
tute the principal protein food of children. It is rich in 
calcium (which is necessary for the' building of bones) and 
vitamines (growth-promoting substances). Adults as well 
as children should be furnished a liberal milk supply. A 
quart for each child and a pint for each adult, daily, is a 
desirable allowance. Hot milk is often given to produce 
sleep. 

When milk is allowed to stand for a few hours, the globules 
of fat, which have been held in suspension throughout the 
liquid, rise to the top in the form of cream; this is due to 
their lower specific gravity. 

The difference in quality of milk depends chiefly on the 
quantity of fat therein : casein, lactose, and mineral matter 
being nearly constant, water varying but little unless milk 
is adulterated. 

"Why Milk Sours. A germ found floating in the air at- 
tacks a portion of the lactose in the milk, converting it into 
lactic acid; this, in turn, acts upon the casein (protein) and 
precipitates it, producing what is known as curd and whey. 
Whey contains water, salts, and some sugar. 

Milk is preserved by sterilization, pasteurization, and evap- 
oration. Fresh condensed milk, a form of evaporized milk, 
is sometimes sold in bulk, and is preferred by many to serve 
with coif ee. Various brands of condensed milk and cream are 
on the market in tin cans, hermetically sealed. Examples : 
Nestle's Swiss Condensed Milk, Eagle Condensed Milk, Daisy 
Condensed Milk, Highland Evaporated Cream, Borden's Peer- 
less Evaporated Cream. Malted milk — evaporized milk in 



10 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

combination with extracts of malted barley and wheat — is 
used to a considerable extent ; it is sold in the form of powder. 

Thin, or strawberry, and thick cream may be obtained 
from almost all creameries. Devonshire, or clotted cream, 
is cream which has been removed from milk allowed to heat 
slowly to a temperature of about 150° F. 

In feeding infants with milk, sterilization or pasteurization 
is recommended only to avoid danger of infectious germs. 
By this process milk can be kept for many days, and 
transported if necessary. To prevent acidity of the stomach, 
add from one to two teaspoonfuls of lime water to each 
half-pint of milk. Lime water may be bought at any 
druggist's, or easily prepared at home. 

Lime "Water. Pour two quarts boiling water over an inch 
cube unslacked lime; stir thoroughly and stand over night; 
in the morning pour off the liquid that is clear, and bottle for 
use. Keep in a cool place. 

BUTTER 

COMPOSITION 

Fat, 83% Ash, 3% 

Water, 13% Protein, 1% 

U. S. Dept. Agriculture, 

Butter of commerce is made from cream of cow's milk. 
The quality depends upon the breed of cow, manner of, and 
care in, feeding. Milk from Jersey and Guernsey cows yields 
the largest amount of butter. 

Butter should be kept in a cool place and well covered^ 
otherwise it is liable to become rancid; this is due to the 
albuminous constituents of the milk, acting as a ferment, 
setting free the fatty acids. First-quality butter should 
be used; this does not include pat butter or fancy grades. 
Poor butter has not been as thoroughly worked during man- 
ufacture, consequently more casein remains ; therefore it is 
more apt to become rancid. Fresh butter spoils quickly; 
salt acts as a preservative. Butter which has become rancid 
by too long keeping may be greatly improved by melting, 



CHEESE 11 

heating, and quickly chilling with ice-water. The butter wilj 
rise to the top, and may be easily removed. 

Where butter cannot be afforded, there are several products 
on the market which have the same chemical composition as 
butter, and are equally wholesome. Examples: butterine 
and oleomargarine. 

Buttermilk is liquid remaining after butter ** has come." 
When taken fresh, it makes a wholesome beverage. 

COMPOSITION 

Protein, 31.23% Water, 30.17% 

Fat, 34.39% Mineral matter, 4.31% 

Cheese is the solid part of sweet milk obtained by heating 
milk and coagulating it by means of rennet or an acid. Ren- 
net is an infusion made from prepared inner membrane of 
the fourth stomach of the calf. The curd is salted and sub- 
jected to pressure. Cheese is made from skim milk, milk plus 
cream, or cream. Cheese is kept for a longer or shorter 
time, according to the kind, that fermentation or decompo- 
sition may take place. This is called ripening. Some cream 
cheeses are not allowed to ripen. Milk from Jersey and 
Guernsey cows yields the largest amount of cheese. 

Cheese is very valuable food ; being rich in protein, it 
may be used as a substitute for meat. A pound of cheese 
is equal in protein to two pounds of beef. Cheese in the raw 
state is diflScult of digestion. This is somewhat overcome 
by cooking and adding a small amount of bicarbonate of 
soda. A small piece of rich cheese is often eaten to assist 
digestion. 

The various brands of cheese take their names from the 
places where made. Many foreign ones are now well imi- 
tated in this country. The favorite kinds of skim-milk 
cheese are: Edam, Gruyere, and Parmesan. Parmesan is 
very hard and used principally for grating. The holes in 
Gruyere are due to aeration. 

The favorite kinds of milk cheese are : Gloucester, Che- 



12 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

shire, Cheddar, and Gorgonzola ; Milk and Cream cheese : 
Stilton and Double Gloucester; Cream cheese: Brie, Neuf- 
chatel, and Camembert. 

FRUITS 

The varieties of fruits consumed are numerous, and their 
uses important. They are chiefly valuable for their sugar, 
acids, and salts, and are cooling, refreshing, and stimulating. 
They act as a tonic, and assist in purifying the blood. Many 
contain a jelly-like substance, called pectin, and several con- 
tain starch, which during the ripening process is converted 
into glucose. Bananas, dates, figs, prunes, and grapes, 
owing to their large amount of sugar, are the most nutritious. 
Melons, oranges, lemons, and grapes contain the largest 
amount of water. Apples, lemons, and oranges are valuable 
for their potash salts, and oranges and lemons especially 
valuable for their citric acid. It is of importance to those 
who are obliged to exclude much sugar from their dietary, 
to know that plums, peaches, apricots, and raspberries have 
less sugar than other fruits ; apples, sweet cherries, grapes, 
and pears contain the largest amount. Apples are obtain- 
able nearly all the year, and on account of their variety, 
cheapness, and abundance, are termed queen of fruits. 

Thoroughly ripe fruits should be freely indulged in, and 
to many are more acceptable than desserts prepared in the 
kitchen. If possible, fruits should always appear on the 
breakfast-table. In cases where uncooked fruit cannot be 
freely eaten, many kinds may be cooked and prove valuable. 
Never eat unripe fruit, or that which is beginning to decay. 
Fruits should be wiped or rinsed before serving. - 

VEGETABLE ACIDS, AND WHERE FOUND 
The principal vegetable acids are : 

I. Acetic (HC2H3O2), found in wine and vinegar. 

II. Tartaric (H2C4H4O6), found in grapes, pineapples, 
and tamarinds. 

III. Malic, much like tartaric, found in apples, pears, 
peaches, apricots, gooseberries, and currants. 



CONDIMENTS IS 

IV. Citric (HsCcHbOt), found in lemons, oranges, limes, 
and citron. 

V. Oxalic (H2C2O4), found in rhubarb and sorrel. 

To these may be added tannic acid, obtained from gall 
nuts. Some fruits contain two or more acids. Malic and 
citric are found in strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, 
and cherries ; malic, citric, and oxalic in cranberries. 

CONDIMENTS 

Condiments are not classed among foods, but are known 
as food adjuncts. They are used to stimulate the appetite 
by adding flavor to food. Among the most important are 
salt, spices, and various flavorings. Salt, according to some 
authorities, is called a food, being necessary to life. 

Black pepper is ground peppercorns. Peppercorns are 
the dried berries of Pipor nigrum^ grown in the West Indies, 
Sumatra, and other eastern countries. 

"White pepper is made from the same berry, the outer husk 
being removed before grinding. It is less irritating than 
black pepper to the coating of the stomach. 

Cayenne pepper is the powdered pod of Capsicum grown 
on the eastern coast of Africa and in Zanzibar. 

Mustard is the ground seed of two species of the Brassica. 
Brassica alba yields white mustard seeds ; Brassica nigra^ 
black mustard seeds. Both species are grown in Europe and 
America. 

Ginger is the pulverized dried root of Zanzibar officinale^ 
grown in Jamaica, China, and India. Commercially speak' 
ing, there are three grades, — Jamaica, best and strongest ; 
Cochin, and African. 

Cinnamqn is the ground inner bark of Cinnamomum zey- 
lanicum^ principally grown in Ceylon. The cinnamon of 
commerce (cassia) is the powdered bark of different species 
of the same shrub, which is principally grown in China, and 
called Chinese cinnamon. It is cheaper than true cinnamon. 

Clove is the ground flower buds of Caryophyllus aromati- 
cus, native to the Moluccas or" Spice Islands, but now grown 
frincipally in Zanzibar, Pemba, and the West Indies. 



14 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Pimento (commonly called allspice) is the ground fruit of 
Eugenia pimenta^ grown in Jamaica and the West Indies. 

Nutmeg is the kernel of the fruit of the Myristica fra- 
grans, grown in Banda Islands. 

Mace. The fibrous network which envelops the nutmeg 
seed constitutes the mace of commerce. 

Vinegar is made from apple cider, malt, and wine, and is 
the product of fermentation. It is a great preservative ; 
hence its use in the making of pickles, sauces, and other 
condiments. The amount of acetic acid in vinegar varies 
from two to seven per cent. 

Capers are flower buds of Capparis spinosa^ grown in 
countries bordering the Mediterranean. They are preserved 
in vinegar, and bottled for exportation. 

Horse-radish is the root of CocMiaria armoracia, — a plant 
native to Europe, but now grown in our own country. It is 
generally grated, mixed with vinegar, and bottled. 

PLAVORING EXTRACTS 

Many flavoring extracts are on the market. Examples: 
almond, vanilla, lemon, orange, peach, and rose. These 
are made from the flower, fruit, or seed from which they are 
named. Strawberry, pineapple, and banana extracts are 
obtained from the fruits themselves or manufactured from 
chemicals. 




'-^ 



Measuring cups and teaspoons and tablespoons illustrating 

THE measuring OF DRY INGREDIENTS, BUTTER, AND LIQUIDS. 

Page 25. 




The Whipping of heavy and thin Cream. — Page 425. 



COOKERY ^5 



CHAPTER II 

COOKERY 

COOKERY is the art of preparing food for the nourish- 
ment of the body. 

Prehistoric man may have lived on uncooked foods, but 
there are no savage races to-day who do not practise cookery 
in some way, however crude. Progress in civilization has 
been accompanied by progress in cookery. 

Much time has been given in the last few years to the 
study of foods, their necessary proportions, and manner of 
cooking them. Educators have been shown by scientists 
that this knowledge should be disseminated; as a result, 
' ' Cookery " is found in the curriculum of public schools of 
many of our towns and cities. 

Food is cooked to develop new flavors, to make it more 
palatable and digestible, and to destroy micro-organisms. 
For cooking there are three essentials (besides the material 
to be cooked), — heat, air, and moisture. 

Heat is molecular motion, and is produced by combustion. 

Air is composed of oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, and 
surrounds everything. Combustion cannot take place with- 
out it, the oxygen of the air being the only supporter of 
combustion. 

Moisture, in the form of water, either found in the food 
or added to it. 

The combined effect of heat and moisture swells and 
bursts starch-grains; hardens albumen in eggs, fish, and 
meat; softens fibrous portions of meat, and cellulose of 
vegetables. 

Heat is generated for cookery by employing kerosene oil, 
wood, coal, charcoal, coke, gas, alcohol, or electricity. 



16 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Among fuels, kerosene oil is the cheapest ; gas gives the 
greatest amount of heat in the shortest time. Soft woody 
like pine, on account of its coarse fibre, burns quickly; 
therefore makes the best kindling. Hard woocU like oak 
arid ash, having the fibres closely packed, burns slowly, and 
is used in addition to pine wood for kindling coal. Where 
only wood is used as a fuel, it is principally hard wood. 

Charcoal for fuel is produced by the smothered combus- 
tion of wood. It gives an intense, even heat, therefore makes 
a good broiling fire. Its use for kindling is not infrequent. 

There are two kinds of coal: Anthracite, or hard coal. 
Examples : Hard and free-burning White Ash, Shamokin, 
and Franklin. Nut is any kind of hard coal obtained from 
screenings. Bituminous, or soft coal. Example : cannel 
coal. 

Coke is the solid product of carbonized coal, and bears 
the same relation to coal that charcoal bears to wood. 

Alcohol is employed as fuel when the chafing-dish is used. 

FIRE 

Fire for cookery is confined in a stove or range, so that 
heat may be utilized and regulated. Flame-heat is obtained 
from kerosene, gas, or alcohol, as used in oil-stoves, gas- 
stoves or gas-ranges, and chafing-dishes. 

A cooking-stove is a large iron box set on legs. It has a 
fire-box in the front, the sides of which are lined with fire- 
proof material similar to that of which bricks are made. 
The bottom is furnished with a movable iron grate. Under- 
neath the fire-box is a space which extends from the grate to 
a pan for receiving ashes. At the back of fire-box is a com- 
partment called the oven, accessible on each side of the stove 
by a door. Between the oven and the top of the stove is a 
space for the circulation of air. 

Stoves are connected with chimney-flues by means of a 
stovepipe, and have dampers to regulate the supply of air 
and heat, and as an outlet for smoke and gases. 

The damper below i:he fire-box is known as the front 
damper, by means of which the air supply ig regulated, thuA 



HOW TO BtriLD A FIRE 17 

The oven is heated by a circulation of hot air. This is 
accomplished by closing the oven-damper, which is situated 
near the oven. When this damper is left open, the hot air 
rushes up the chimney. The damper near the chimney is 
known as the chimney-damper. When open it gives a free 
outlet for the escape of smoke and gas. When partially 
closed, as is usually the case in most ranges, except when 
the fire is started, it serves as a saver of heat. There is 
also a check, which, when open, cools the fire and saves heat, 
but should always be closed except when used for this 
purpose. 

Stoves are but seldom used, portable ranges having taken 
their places. 

A portable range is a cooking-stove with one oven door ; 
it often has an under oven, of use for warming dishes and 
keeping food hot. 

A gas range is growing in popularity. Coal-range com- 
panies recognizing their value have put on the market com- 
bination ranges for the use of gas as well as coal. The gas 
companies, who furnish the fuel, send out demonstrators 
upon request who teach their use. 

An electric range is desirable where electricity is inexpen- 
sive or cost need not be considered. 

A fireless cooker has many devotees. It is especially 
adapted to use in conjunction with a gas range for foods 
that require long, slow cooking. 

HOW TO BUILD A FIRE 

Before starting to build a fire, free the grate from ashes. 
To do this, put on covers, close front and back dampers, 
and open oven-damper ; turn grate, and ashes will fall into 
the ash receiver. If these rules are not followed, ashes will 
fly over the room. Turn grate back into place, remove the 
covers over fire-box, and cover grate with pieces of paper 
(twisted in centre and left loose at the ends). Cover paper 
with small sticks, or pieces of pine wood, being sure that 
the wood reaches the ends of fire-box, and so arranged that 
it will admit air. Over pine wood arrange hard woodj 



18 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

then sprinkle with two shovelfuls of coal. Put on covers, 
open closed dampers, strike a match, — sufficient friction is 
formed to burn the phosphorus, this in turn lights the sul- 
phur, and the sulphur the wood, — then apply the lighted 
match under the grate, and you have a fire. 

Now blacken the stove. Begin at front of range, and 
work towards the back; as the iron heats, a good polish 
may be obtained. When the wood is thoroughly kindled, 
add more coal. A blue flame will soon appear, which is the 
gas (CO) in the coal burning to carbon dioxide (€02)5 when 
the blue flame changes to a white flame ; then the oven- 
damper should be closed. In a few moments the front 
damper may be nearly closed, leaving space to admit suffi- 
cient oxygen to feed the fire. It is sometimes forgotten that 
oxygen is necessary to keep a fire burning. As soon as the 
coal is well ignited, half close the chimney-damper, unless 
the draft be very poor. 

Never allow the fire-box to be more than three-fourths 
filled. When full, the draft is checked, a larger amount of 
fuel is consumed, and much heat is lost. This is a point 
that should be impressed on the mind of the cook. 

Ashes must be removed and sifted daily ; pick over and 
save good coals, — which are known as cinders, — throwing 
out useless pieces, known as clinkers. 

If a fire is used constantly during the day, replenish coal 
frequently, but in small quantities. If for any length of 
time the fire is not needed, open check, the dampers being 
closed ; when again wanted for use, close check, open front 
damper, and with a poker rake out ashes from under fire, 
and wait for fire to burn brightly before adding new coal. 

Coal when red hot has parted with most of its heat. 
Some refuse to believe this, and insist upon keeping dampers 
open until most of the heat has escaped into the chimney. 

To keep a fire over night, remove the ashes from under the 
fire, put on enough coal to fill the box, close the dampers, 
and lift the back covers enough to admit air. This is better 
than lifting the covers over the fire-box and prevents poison- 
ous gases entering the room. 



WAYS OF COOKING 19 



WAYS OF COOKING 



The principal ways of cooking are boiling, broiling, 
stewing, roasting, baking, frying, sauteing, braising, and 
fricasseeing. i 

Boiling is cooking in boiling water. Solid food so cooked 
is called boiled food, though literally this expression is in- 
correct. Examples : boiled eggs, potatoes, mutton, etc. 

Water boils at 212° F. (sea level), and simmers at 185° F. 
Slowly boiling water has the same temperature as rapidly 
boiling water, consequently is able to do the same work, — 
a fact often forgotten by the cook, who is too apt " to wood " 
the fire that water may boil vigorously. 

Watery vapor and steam pass off from* boiling water. 
Steam is invisible ; watery vapor is visible, and is often mis- 
called steam. Cooking utensils commonly used permit the 
escape of watery vapor and steam ; thereby much heat is lost 
if food is cooked in rapidly boiling water. 

Water is boiled for two purposes : first, cooking of itself 
to destroy organic impurities ; second, for cooking foods. 
Boiling water toughens and hardens albumen in eggs; 
toughens fibrin and dissolves tissues in meat ; bursts starch- 
grains and softens cellulose in cereals and vegetables. Milk 
should never be allowed to boil. At boiling temperature 
(214° F.) the casein is slightly hardened, and the fat is ren- 
dered more diflScult of digestion. Milk heated over boiling 
water, as in a double boiler, is called scalded milk, and 
reaches a temperature of 196° F. When foods are cooked 
over hot water the process is called steaming. 

Stewing is cooking in a small amount of hot water for a 
long time at low temperature ; it is the most economical way 
of cooking meats, as all nutriment is retained, and the 
ordinary way of cooking cheaper cuts. Thus fibre and con- 
nective tissues are softened, and the whole is made tender 
and palatable. 

Broiling is cooking over or in front of a clear fire. The 
food to be cooked is usually placed in a greased broiler or on 
a gridiron held near the coals, turned often at first to sear 



20 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

the outside, — thus preventing escape of inner juices, — 
afterwards turned occasionally. Tender meats and fish may 
be cooked in this way. The flavor obtained by broiling is 
particularly fine ; there is, however, a greater loss of weight 
in this than in any other way of cooking, as the food thus 
cooked is exposed to free circulation of air. When coal is 
not used, or a fire is not in condition for broiling, a plan for 
pan broiling has been adopted. This is done by placing food 
to be cooked in a hissing hot frying-pan, turning often as in 
broiling. 

Roasting is cooking before a clear fire, with a reflector to 
concentrate the heat. Heat is applied in the same way as 
for broiling, the difference being that the meat for roasting 
is placed on a spit and allowed to revolve, thicker pieces 
alway being employed. Tin-kitchens are now but seldom 
used. Meats cooked in a range oven, though really baked, 
are said to be roasted. Meats so cooked are pleasing to the 
sight and agreeable to the palate, although, according to 
Edward Atkinson, not so easily digested as when cooked at 
a lower temperature in the Aladdin oven. 

Baking is cooking in a range oven. 

Prying is cooking by means of immersion in deep fat 
raised to a temperature of 350° to 400° F. For frying pur- 
poses olive oil, lard, beef drippings, cottolene, coto suet, and 
cocoanut butter are used. A combination of two-thirds lard 
and one-third beef suet (tried out and clarified) is better than 
lard alone. Cottolene, coto suet, and cocoanut butter are 
economical, inasmuch as they may be heated to a high tem- 
perature without discoloring, therefore may be used for a 
larger number of fryings. Cod fat obtained from beef is 
often used by chefs for frying. 

Great care should be taken in frying that fat is of the 
right temperature; otherwise food so cooked will absorb 
fat. 

Nearly all foods which do not contain eggs are dipped 
in flour or crumbs, egg, and crumbs, before frying. The in- 
tense heat of fat hardens the albumen, thus forming a coating 
which prevents food from " soaking fat." 

When meat or fish is to be fried, it should be kept in a 



WAYS OP COOKING 21 

warm room for some time previous to cooking, and wiped 
as dry as possible. If cold, it decreases the temperature 
of the fat to such extent that a coating is not formed 
quickly enough to prevent fat from penetrating the food. 
The ebullition of fat is due to water found in food to be 
cooked. 

Great care must be taken that too much is not put into 
the fat at one time, not only because it lowers the tem- 
perature of the fat, but because it causes it to bubble and 
go over the sides of the kettle. It is not fat that boils, but 
water which fat has received from food. 

All fried food on removal from fat should be drained on 
brown paper. 

Rules for Testing Fat for Prying. 1. When the fat 
begins to smoke, drop in an inch cube of bread from soft 
part of loaf, and if in forty seconds it is golden brown, the 
fat is then of right temperature for frying any cooked 
mixture. 

2. Use same test for uncooked mixtures, allowing one 
minute for bread to brown. 

Many kinds of food may be fried in the same fat ; new 
fat should be used for batter and dough mixtures, potatoes, 
and fishballs ; after these, fish, meat, and croquettes. Fat 
should be fr^uently clarified. 

To Clarify Fat. Melt fat, add raw potato cut in quarter- 
inch slices, and allow fat to heat gradually ; when fat ceases 
to bubble and potatoes are well browned, strain through 
double cheesecloth, placed over wire strainer, into a pan. 
The potato absorbs any odors or gases, and collects to itself 
some of the sediment, remainder settling to bottom of 
kettle. 

When small amount of fat is to be clarified, add to cold 
fat boiling water, stir vigorously, and set aside to cool ; the 
fat will form a cake on top, which may be easily removed ; 
on bottom of the cake will be found sediment, which may be 
readily scraped off with a knife. 

Remnants of fat, either cooked or uncooked, should be 
saved and tried out, and when necessary clarified. 

Fat from beef, poultry, chicken, and pork, may be used 



22 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

for shortening or frying purposes; fat from mutton and 
smoked meats may be used for making hard and soft soap ; 
fat removed from soup stock, the water in which corned 
beef has been cooked, and drippings from roast beef, may 
be tried out, clarified, and used for shortening or frying 
purposes. 

To Try out Pat. Cut in small pieces and melt in top of 
a double boiler; in this way it will require less watching 
than if placed in kettle on the back of range. Leaf lard 
is tried out in the same way; in cutting the leaf, remove 
membrane. After straining lard, that which remains may 
be salted, pressed, and eaten as a relish, and is called 
scraps. 

Saut^ing is frying in a small quantity of fat. Food so 
cooked is much more difficult of digestion than when fried 
in deep fat ; it is impossible to cook in this way without the 
food absorbing fat. A frying-pan or griddle is used; the 
food is cooked on one side, then turned, and cooked on 
the other. 

Braising is stewing and baking (meat). Meat to be 
braised is frequently first sauted to prevent escape of much 
juice in the gravy. The meat is placed in a pan with a small 
quantity of stock or water, vegetables (carrot, turnip, celery, 
and union) cut in pieces, salt, pepper, and sweet terbs. The 
pan should have a tight-fitting cover. Meat so prepared 
should be cooked in an oven at low uniform temperature for 
a long time. This is an economical way of cooking, and the 
only way besides stewing or boiling of making a large piece 
of tough meat palatable and digestible. 

Pricasseeing is sauteing and serving with a sauce. Ten- 
der meat is fricasseed without previous cooking ; less tender 
meat requires cooking in hot water before fricasseeing'. 
Although veal is obtained from a young creature, it requires 
long cooking; it is usually sauted, and then cooked in a 
sauce at low temperature for a long time. 



WAYS OP PBBPABING FOOD FOB COOKING 23 

VARIOTTS WAYS OF PREPARING FOOD FOR 
COOKING 

Egging and Crumbing. Use for crumbing dried bread 
crumbs which have been rolled and sifted, or soft stale 
bread broken in pieces and forced through a colander. An 
ingenious machine on the market, *' The Bread Crumber," 
does this work. Egg used for crumbing should be broken 
into a shallow plate and beaten with a silver fork to blend 
yolk and white; dilute each egg with two tablespoons 
water. The crumbs should be taken on a board ; food to be 
fried should be first rolled in crumbs (care being taken that 
all parts are covered with crumbs), then dipped in egg 
mixture (equal care being taken to cover all parts), then 
rolled in crumbs, again ; after the last crumbing remove food 
to a place on the board where there are no crumbs, and 
shake off some of the outer ones which make coating too 
thick. A broad-bladed knife with short handle — the Teller 
knife — is the most convenient utensil for lifting food to be 
crumbed from egg mixture. Small scallops, oysters, and 
crabs are more easily crumbed by putting crumbs and fish 
in paper and shaking paper until the fish is covered with 
crumbs. The object of first crumbing is to dry the surface 
that egg may cling to it ; and where a thin coating is desired 
flour is often used in place of crumbs. 

Larding is introducing small pieces of fat salt pork or 
bacon through the surface of uncooked meat. The flavor 
of lean and dry meat is much improved by larding ; tender- 
loin of beef (fillet), grouse, partridge, pigeon, and liver are 
often prepared in this way. Pig pork being firm, is best 
for larding. Pork should be kept in a cold place that it may 
be well chilled. Remove rind and use the part of pork 
which lies between rind and vein. With sharp knife (which 
is sure to make a clean cut) remove slices a little less than 
one-fourth inch thick ; cut the slices into strips a little less 
than one-fourth inch wide ; these strips should be two and 
one-fourth inches long, and are called lardoons. Lardoons 
for small birds — quail, for example — should be cut smaller 



24 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

and not quite so long. To lard, insert one end of lardoon 
into larding-needle, hold needle firmly, and with pointed end 
take up a stitch one-third inch deep and three-fourths inch 
wide ; draw needle through, care being taken that lardoon is 
left in meat and its ends project to equal lengths. Arrange 
lardoons in parallel rows, one inch apart, stitches in the 
alternate rows being directly underneath each other. Lard 
the upper surface of cuts of meat with the grain, never 
across it. In birds, insert lardoons at right angles to breast- 
bone on either side. When large lardoons are forced 
through meat from surface to surface, the process is called 
daubing. Example: Beef a la mode. Thin slices of fat 
salt pork placed over meat may be substituted for larding, 
but flavor is not the same as when pork is drawn through 
flesh, and the dish is far less sightly. 

Boning is removing bones from meat or- fish, leaving the 
flesh nearly in its original shape. For boning, a small 
sharp knife with pointed blade is essential. Legs of mutton 
and veal and loins of beef may be ordered boned at market, 
no extra charge being made. 

Whoever wishes to learn how to bone should first be 
taught boning of a small bird ; when this is accomplished, 
larger birds, chickens, and turkeys may easily be done, 
the processes varying but little. In large birds tendons 
are drawn from legs, and the wings are left on and boned. 

How to Bone a Bird 

In buying birds for boning, select those which have been 
fresh killed, dry picked, and not drawn. Singe, remove 
pinfeathers, head, and feet, and cut off wings close to body 
in small birds. Lay bird on a board, breast down. 

Begin at neck and with sharp knife cut through the 
skin the entire length of body. Scrape the flesh from back- 
bone until end of one shoulder-blade is found ; scrape flesh 
from shoulder-blade and continue around wing-joint, cutting 
through tendinous portions which are encountered; then 
bone other side. Scrape skin from backbone the entire 
length of body, working across the ribs. Free wishbone 
and collar-bones, at same time removing- crop and windpipe ; 



HOW TO MEASURE 25 

continue down breastbone, particular care being taken not 
to break the skin as it lies very near bone, or to cut the 
delicate membranes which enclose entrails. Scrape flesh 
from second joints and drumsticks, laying it back and 
drawing off as a glove may be drawn from the hand. 
Withdraw carcass and put flesh back in its original shape. 
In large birds where wings are boned, scrape flesh to middle 
joint, where bone should be broken, leaving bone at tip end 
to assist in presers^ing shape. 

Ho-w to Measure 

Correct measurements are absolutely necessary to insure 
the best results. Good judgment, with experience, has 
taught some to measure by sight; but the majority need 
definite guides. 

Tin, granite-ware, and glass measuring-cups, divided in 
quarters or thirds, holding one half-pint, and tea and table 
spoons of regulation sizes, — which may be bought at any 
store where kitchen furnishings are sold, — and a case knife, 
are essentials for correct measurement. Mixing-spoons, 
which are little larger than tablespoons, should not be con- 
founded with the latter. 

Measuring Ingredients. Flour, meal, powdered and con- 
fectioners' sugar, and soda should be sifted before measur- 
ing. Mustard and baking-powder, from standing in boxes, 
settle, therefore should be stirred to lighten; salt frequently 
lumps, and these lumps should be broken. A cupful is meas- 
ured level. To measure a cupful, put in the ingredient by 
spoonfuls or from a scoop, round slightly, and level with 
a case knife, care being taken not to shake the cup. A 
tablespoonful is measured level. A teaspoonful is measured 
level. 

To measure tea or table spoonfuls, dip the spoon in the 
ingredient, fill, lift, and level with a knife, the sharp edge 
of knife being toward tip of spoon. Divide with knife 
lengthwise of spoon, for a half-spoonful; divide halves 
crosswise for quarters, and quarters crosswise for eighths. 
Less than one-eighth of a teaspoonful is considered a few 
graini. 



26 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Measuring Idqiiids. A cupful of liquid is all the cup will 
hold. 

A tea or table spoonful is all the spoon will hold. 

Measuring Butter, Lard, etc. To measure butter, lard, 
and other solid fats, pack solidly into cup or spoon, and 
level with a knife. 

When dr^ ingredients, liquids, and fats are called for 
in the same recipe, measure in the order given, thereby 
using but one cup. 

Ho-w to Combine Ingredients 

Next to measuring comes care in combining, — a fact 
not always recognized by the inexperienced. Three ways 
are considered, — stirring, beating, and cutting and folding. 

To stir, mix by using circular motion, widening the circles 
until all is blended. Stirring is the motion ordinarily em- 
ployed in all cookery, alone or in combination with beating. 

To beat, turn ingredient or ingredients over and over, 
continually bringing the under part to the surface, thus 
allowing the utensil used for beating to be constantly 
brought in contact with bottom of the dish and throughout 
the mixture. 

To cut and fold, introduce one ingredient into another 
ingredient or mixture by two motions : with a spoon, a 
repeated vertical downward motion, known as cutting ; and 
a turning over and over of mixture, allowing bowl of spoon 
each time to come in contact with bottom of dish, is 
called folding. These repeated motions are alternated until 
thorough blending is accomplished. 

By stirring, ingredients are mixed; by heating^ a large 
amount of air is inclosed ; by cutting aiid folding j air already 
introduced is prevented from escaping. 

"Ways of Preserving 

1. By Freezing. Foods which spoil readily are frozen 
for transportation, and must be kept packed in ice until 
used. Examples : Fish and poultry. 

2. By Refrigeration. Foods so preserved are kept in 
cold storage. The cooling is accomplished by means of 



TABLE OF MEASURES AND WEIGHTS 27 

ice, or by a machine where compressed gas is cooled and 
then permitted to expand. Examples : meat, milk, butter, 
eggs, etc. 

3. By Canning. Which is preserving in air-tight glass 
jars, or tin cans hermetically sealed. When fruit is canned, 
sugar is usually added. 

4. By Sugar. Examples : fruit-juices and condensed 
milk. 

5. By Exclusion of Air. Foods are preserved by ex- 
clusion of air in other ways than canning. Examples: 
grapes in bran, eggs in lime water, etc. 

6. By Drying. Drying consists in evaporation of nearly 
all moisture, and is generally combined with salting, except 
in vegetables and fruits. 

7. By Evaporation. There are examples where con- 
siderable moisture remains, though much is driven off. 
Example : beef extract. 

8. By Salting. There are two kinds of salting, — dry, 
and corning or salting in brine. Examples : salt codfish, 
beef, pork, tripe, etc. 

9. By Smoking. Some foods, after being salted, are 
hung in a closed room for several hours, where hickory 
wood is allowed to smother. Examples; ham, beef, and 
fish. 

10. By Pickling. Vinegar, to which salt is added, and 
sometimes sugar and spices, is scalded; and cucumbers, 
onions, and various kinds of fruit are allowed to remain 
in it. 

11. By Oil. Examples : sardines, anchovies, etc. 

12. By Antiseptics. The least wholesome way is by 
the use of antiseptics. Borax and salicylic acid, when 
employed, should be used sparingly. 

TABLE OF MEASURES AND WEIGHTS 

2 cups butter (packed solidly) . . • . • =1 pound 

4 " flour (pastry) =1 " 

2 " granulated augar —1 " 

2% " powdered " *= 1 " 

^% " confectioners' sugar ■■ 1 " 

2% " brown sugar .,...,«»«! ** 



28 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

2% " oatmeal =1 " 

4% " rolled oats = 1 « 

2% " granulated corn meal =1 " 

4}i « rye meal =1 « 

1% « rice =1 " 

43^ « Graham flour . = 1 <* 

3% " entire wheat flour =1 « 

43^ « coffee =1 " 

2 " finely chopped meat =1 " 

9 large eggs =1 pound 

1 square Baker's chocolate =1 ounce 

3^ cup almonds blanched and chopped . . == 1 " 
A few grains is less than one-eighth teaspoon. 

3 teaspoons =1 tablespoon 

16 tablespoons *....=! cup 

2 tablespoons butter =1 ounce 

4 tablespoons flour =1 ounce 

TIME-TABLES FOR COOKING 

Boiling 
Articles Time 

Hours Minutes 

CofEee 1 to 3 

Eggs, soft cooked 6 to 8 

" hard *' 35 to 45 

Mutton, leg 2 to 3 

Ham, weight 12 to 11 lbs 4 to 5 

Corned Beef or Tongue 3 to 4 

Turkey, weight 9 lbs 2 to 3 

Fowl, " 4 to 5 lbs 2 to 3 

Chicken, '* 3 lbs 1 to 1)^ 

Lobster 25 to 30 

Cod and Haddock, weight 3 to 5 lbs 20 to 30 

Halibut, thick piece, " 2 to 3 lbs 30 

Bluefish and Bass, " 4 to 5 lbs. 40 to 45 

Salmon, weight 2 to 3 lbs 30 to 35 

Small Fish 6 to 10 

Potatoes, white 20 to 30 

" sweet 15 to 25 

Asparagus 20 to 30 

Peas 20totJ0 

String Beans 1 to 2>^ 

Lima aad other Shell Beans . . r » . . 1 to 1>^ 



TIME-TABLES EOR COOKlKa 29 

Articles Time 

Hours Minutes 

Beets, young 45 

" old 3 to 4 

Cabbage 35 to 60 

Oyster Plant 45 to 60 

Turnips 30 to 45 

Onions 45 to 60 

Parsnips 30 to 45 

Spinach 25 to 30 

Green Corn 12 to 20 

Cauliflower 20 to 25 

Brussels Sprouts 15 to 20 

Tomatoes, stewed 15 to 20 

Rice 20 to 25 

Macaroni 20 to 30 

Broiling 

Steak, one inch thick 4to6 

" one and one-half inches thick 8 to 10 

Lamb or Mutton Chops 6 to 8 

" " *' in paper cases 10 

Quails or Squabs 8 

" " in paper cases 10 to 12 

Chickens 20 

Shad, Bluefish, and Whitefish . . 15 to 20 

Slices of Fish, Halibut, Salmon, and Swordfish . . . . 12 to 15 

Small, thin Fish 5to8 

Liver and Tripe . 4 to 5 

Baking 

Bread (white loaf) 45 to 60 

" (Graham loaf) 35 to 45 

" (sticks) 10 to 15 

Biscuits or Rolls (raised) 12 to 20 

*' (baking-powder) 12 to 15 

Gems 25 to 30 

Muffins (raised) 30 

" (baking-powder) 20 to 25 

Corn Cake (thin) 15 to 20 

" (thick) . 30 to 35 

Gingerbread 20 to 30 

Cookies 6 to 10 

Sponge Cake 45 to 60 



30 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Articles Time 

Hours Minutes 

Cake (layer) 20 to 30 

" (loaf) 40 to 60 

*' (pound) . . „ 11^ to 1)^ 

" (fruit) 11^ to 2 

" (wedding) 3 

or steam 2 hours and bake 1}^ 

Baked batter puddings 35 to 45 

Bread puddings 1 

Tapioca or Rice Pudding 1 

Rice Pudding (poor man's) 2 to 3 

Indian " 2 to 3 

Plum " 2 to 3 

Custard," 30 to 45 

" (baked in cups) 20 to 25 

Pies 30 to 50 

Tarts 15 to 20 

Patties 20 to 25 

Vol-au-vent 50 to 60 

Cheese Straws 8 to 10 

Scalloped Oysters 25 to 30 

Scalloped dishes of cooked mixtures 12 to 15 

Baked Beans 6 to 8 

Braised Beef 3>^ to 4)^ 

Beef, sirloin or rib, rare, weight 5 lbs 1 5 

" " " " " 10 " .... 1 30 

" «* '* well done, weight 5 lbs. . . 1 20 

" " " " " 10 "... 1 50 

Beef, rump, rare, weight 10 lbs 1 35 

*' '* well done, weight 10 lbs 1 55 

*• (fillet) 20 to 30 

Mutton (saddle) li^ to 1>^ 

Lamb (leg) . . 13^ to 1^ 

" (forequarter) 1 to 1>^ 

'* (chops) in paper cases 15 to 20 

Veal (leg) 3>^ to 4 

" (loin) 2 to 3 

Pork (chine or sparerib) ...... 3 to 3)^ 

Chicken, weight 3 to 4 lbs 1 to 1)^ 

Turkey, weight 9 lbs. 2 1^ to 3 

Goose, weight 9 lbs 2 

Duck (domestic) 1 to 1}^ 

** (wild) 20 to 30 



TIME-TABLES FOR COOKING 31 

Articles Time 

Hours Minutes 

Grouse 25 to 30 

Partridge 45 to 50 

Pigeons (potted) 2 

Fish (thick), weight 3 to 4 lbs 45 to 60 

*' (small) 20 to 30 

Frying 

MuflEins, Fritters, and Doughnuts , . 3 to 5 

Croquettes and Fishballs I 

Potatoes, raw 4 to 8 

Breaded Chops 5 to 8 

Fillets of Fish 4to6 

Smelts, Trout, and other small Fish 3 to 5 

Note. — Length of time for cooking fish and meat does not depend so much 
on the number of pounds to be cooked as the extent of surface exposed to the 
heat. 



TTSE OF RECIPES 

Dishes prepared from my recipes are intended for the 
most part to serve six persons. 



82 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER III 

BEVERAGES 

A BEVERAGE is any drink. Water is the beverage 
provided for man by Nature. Water is an essential 
to life. All beverages contain a large percentage of water, 
therefore their uses should be considered : — 

I. To quench thirst. 
II. To introduce water into the circulatory system. 

III. To regulate body temperature. 

IV. To assist in carrying off waste. 
V. To nourish. 

VI. To stimulate the nervous system and various organs. 
VII. For medicinal purposes 

Freshly boiled water should be used for making hot be"B^ 
erages ; freshly drawn water for making cold beverages. 

TEA 

Tea is used by more than one-half the human race; 
and, although the United States is not a tea-drinking 
country, one and one-half pounds are consumed per capita 
per annum. 

All tea is grown from one species of shrub, Thea^ the 
leaves of which constitute the tea of commerce. Climate, 
elevation, soil, cultivation, and care in picking and cur- 
ing all go to make up the differences. First-quality tea 
is made from young, whole leaves. Two kinds of tea are 
considered : — 

Black tea, made from leaves which have been allowed 
to ferment before curing. 

Green tea, made from unfermented leaves artificially 
colore^. 



SBA U 

The best black tea comes from India and Ceylon. Some 
familiar brands are Oolong, Formosa, English Breakfast, 
Orange Pekoe, and Flowery Pekoe. The last two named, 
often employed at the ''five o'clock tea," command high 
prices; they are made from the youngest leaves. Orange 
Pekoe is scented with orange leaves. The best green tea 
comes from Japan. Some familiar brands are Hyson, 
Japan, and Gunpowder. 

From analysis, it has been found that tea is rich in 
proteid, but taken as an infusion acts as a stimulant 
rather than as a nutrient. The nutriment is gained from 
sugar and milk served with it. The stimulating property of 
tea is due to the alkaloid, theine, together with an essential 
oil; it contains an astringent, tannin. Black tea contains 
less theine, essential oil, and tannin than green tea. The 
tannic acid, developed from the tannin by infusion, injures 
the coating of the stomach. 

Although tea is not a substitute for food, it appears so 
for a considerable period of time, as its stimulating effect 
is immediate. It is certain that less food is required where 
much tea is taken, for by its use there is less wear of the 
tissues, consequently need of repair. When taken to excess, 
it so acts on the nervous system as to produce sleeplessness 
or insomnia, and finally makes a complete wreck of its 
victim. Taken in moderation, it acts as a mild stimulant, 
and ingests a considerable amount of water into the system ; 
it heats the body in winter, and cools the body in summer. 
Children should never be allowed to drink tea, and it had 
better be avoided by the young, while it may be indulged in 
by the aged, as it proves a valuable stimulant as the func- 
tional activities of the stomach become weakened. 

Freshly boiled water should be used for making tea. 
Boiled, because below the boiling-point the stimulating prop- 
erty, theine, would not be extracted. Freshly boiled, because 
long cooking renders it flat and insipid to taste on account 
of escape of its atmospheric gases. Tea should always be 
infused, never boiled. Long steeping destroys the delicate 
flavor by developing a larger amount of tannic acid. 

3 



34 BOSTON COOKINGMSCHOOIi COOK BOOK 

How to Make Tea 
3 teaspoons tea 2 caps boiling water 

Scald an earthern or china teapot. 

Put in tea, and pour on boiling water. Let stand on 
back of range or in a warm place five minutes. Strain 
and serve immediately, with or without sugar and milk. 
Avoid second steeping of leaves with addition of a few 
fresh ones. If this is done, so large an amount of tannin is 
extracted that various ills are apt to follow. 

Five o'clock Tea 

When tea is made in dining or drawing room, a *' Five 
o'clock Tea-kettle" (Samovar), and tea-ball or teapot are 
used. 

Russian Tea 

Follow recipe for making tea. Russian Tea may be 
served hot or cold, but always without milk. A thin slice . 
of lemon, from which seeds have been removed, or a few 
drops of lemon- juice, is allowed for each cup. Sugar is 
added according to taste. In Russia a preserved straw- 
berry to each cup is considered an improvement. We 
imitate our Russian friends by garnishing with a candied 
cherry. 

De John's Tea 

Follow recipe for making tea and serve hot, allowing 
three whole cloves to each cup. Sugar is added according 
to taste. 

Iced Tea 
4 teaspoons tea 2 cups boiling water 

Follow recip? for making tea. Strain into glasses one- 
third full of cracked ice. Sweeten to taste, and allow one 
slice lemon to each glass tea. The flavor is much finer by 
chilling the infusion quickly. 

Wellesley Tea 

Make same as Iced Tea, having three crushed mint leaves 
in each glass into which the hot infusion is strained. 




Five O'Clock Tea Service. — Page 34. 





Chocolate Service. — Page 4I' 




Coffee Percolators and Pot. — Page 38. 




^ 



^A . 



After-Dinner Coffee Service. — Page 38. 



COFFEB 85 



COFFEE 



The coffee- tree is native to Abyssinia, but is now grown 
in all tropical countries. It belongs to the genus Goffea, 
of wbicli there are about twenty-two species. The seeds 
of berries of coffee-trees constitute the coffee of commerce. 
Each berry contains two seeds, with exception of maleberry, 
which is a single round seed. In their natural state they are 
almost tasteless ; therefore color, shape, and size determine 
value. Formerly, coffee was cured by exposure to the sun ; 
but on account of warm climate and sudden rainfalls, coffee 
was often injured. By the new method coffee is washed, 
and then dried by steam heat. 

In coffee plantations, trees are planted in parallel rows, 
from six to eight f6et apart, and are pruned so as never to 
exceed six feet in height. Banana-trees are often grown in 
coffee plantations, advantage being taken of their outspread- 
ing leaves, which protect coffee-trees from direct rays of the 
sun. Brazil produces about two-thirds the coffee used. 
Central America, Java, and Arabia are also coffee centres. 

Tea comes to us ready for use; coffee needs roasting. 
In process of roasting the seeds increase in size, but lose 
fifteen per cent in weight. Roasting is necessary to develop 
the delightful aroma and flavor. Java coffee is considered 
finest. Mocha commands a higher price, owing to certain 
acidity and sparkle, which alone is not desirable ; but when 
combined with Java, in proportion of two parts Java to one 
part Mocha, the coffee best suited to average taste is made. 
Some people prefer Maleberry Java; so especial care is 
taken to have maleberries separated, that they may be sold 
for higher price. Old Government Java has deservedly 
gained a good reputation, as it is carefully inspected, and its 
sale controlled by Dutch government. Strange as it may 
seem to the consumer, all coffee sold as Java does not come 
from the island of Java. Any coffee, wherever grown, hav- 
ing same characteristics and flavor, is sold as Java. The 
same is true of other kinds of coffee. 

The stimulating property of coffee is due to the alkaloid 
caffeine^ together with an essential oil. Like tea, it containa 



86 BOSTOH COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOE: 

an astringent. Coffee is more stimulating than tea, although, 
weight for weight, tea contains about twice as much theine 
as coffee contains caffeine. The smaller proportion of tea 
used accounts for the difference. A cup of coffee with 
breakfast, and a cup of tea with supper, serve as a mild 
stimulant for an adult, and form a valuable food adjunct, 
but should never be found in the dietary of a child or dys- 
peptic. Coffee taken in moderation quickens action of the 
heart, acts directly upon the nervous system, and assists 
gastric digestion. Fatigue of body and mind are much les- 
sened by moderate use of coffee ; severe exposure to cold can 
be better endured by the coffee drinker. In times of war, 
coffee has proved more valuable than alcoholic stimulants to 
keep up the enduring power of soldiers. Coffee acts as an 
antidote for opium and alcoholic poisoning. Tea and coffee 
are much more readily absorbed when taken on an empty 
stomach ; therefore this should be avoided except when used 
for medicinal purposes. Coffee must be taken in modera- 
tion ; its excessive use means palpitation of the heart, tremor, 
insomnia, and nervous prostration. 

Coffee is often adulterated with chiccory, beans, peas, and 
various cereals, which are colored, roasted, and ground. 
By many, a small amount of chiccory is considered an im- 
provement, owing to the bitter principle and volatile oil 
which it contains. Chiccory is void of caffeine. The addi- 
tion of chiccory may be detected by adding cold water to 
supposed coffee; if chiccory is present, the liquid will be 
quickly discolored, and chiccory will sink; pure coffee will 
float ^ 

Buying of Coffee. Coffee should be bought for family use 
in small quantities, freshly roasted and ground ; or, if one 
has a coffee-mill, it may be ground at home as needed. 
After being ground, unless kept air tight, it quickly deterio- 
rates. If not bought in air-tight cans, with tight-fitting 
cover, or glass jar, it should be emptied into canister as 
soon as brought from grocer's. 

Coffee may be served as filtered coffee, infusion of coffee, 
or deoootion of coffee. Commonly gpeakiog, boiled ooffee ia 



COFFEE 87 

preferred, and is more economical for the consumer. Coffee 
is ground fine, coarse, and medium; and the grinding de- 
pends on the way in which it is to be made. For filtered 
coffee have it finely ground ; for boiled, coarse or medium. 

Filtered Coffee 
(French or Percolated) 
1 cup coffee (finely ground) 6 cups boiling water 

Various kinds of coffee-pots are on the market for making 
filtered coffee. They all contain a strainer to hold coffee 
without allowing grounds to mix with infusion. Some have 
additional vessel to hold boiling water, upon which coffee-pot 
may rest. Place coffee in strainer, strainer in coffee-pot, and 
pot on the range. Add gradually boiling water, and allow 
it to filter. Cover between additions of water. If desired 
stronger, re-filter. Serve at once with cut sugar and cream. 

Put sugar and cream in cup before hot coffee. There will 
be perceptible difference if cream is added last. If cream is 
not obtainable, scalded milk may be substituted, or part 
milk and part cream may be used, if a diluted cup of coffee 
is desired. Coffee percolators are preferably used when 
coffee is made at table. 

Boiled Coffee 

1 cup coffee 1 cup cold water 

1 egg 6 cups boiling water 

Scald granite-ware coffee-pot. Wash egg, break, and beat 
slightly. Dilute with one-half the cold water, add crushed 
shell, and mix with coffee. Turn into coffee-pot, pour on 
boiling water, and stir thoroughly. Place on front of range, 
and boil three minutes. If not boiled, coffee is cloudy ; if 
boiled too long, ooo much tannic acid is developed. The 
spout of pot should be covered or stuffed with soft paper to 
prevent escape of fragrant aroma. Stir and pour some in a 
cup to be sure that spout is free from grounds. Return to 
coffee-pot and repeat. Add remaining cold water, which 
perfects clearing. Cold water being heavier than hot water 
sinks to the bottom, carrying grounds with it. Place on 



38 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

back of range for ten minutes, where coffee will not boil. 
Serve at once. If any is left over, drain from grounds, and 
reserve for making of jelly or other dessert. 

Egg-shells may be saved and used for clearing coffee. 
Three egg-shells are sufficient to effect clearing where one 
cup of ground coffee is used. The shell performs no office 
in clearing except for the albumen which clings to it. One- 
fourth cup cold water, salt fish-skin, washed, dried, and cut 
in inch pieces, is used for same purpose. 

Coffee made with an egg has a rich flavor which egg alone 
can give. Where strict economy is necessary, if great care 
is taken, egg may be omitted. Coffee so made should be 
served from range, as much motion causes it to become 
roiled. 

Tin is an undesirable material for a coffee-pot, as tannic 
acid acts on such metal and is apt to form a poisonous 
compound. 

When coffee and scalded milk are served in equal proper- , 
tions, it is called Cafe au lait. Coffee served with whipped 
cream is called Vienna Coffee. 

To Make a Small Pot of Coffee. Mix one cup ground 
coffee with one egg, slightly beaten, and crushed shell. To 
one-third of this amount add one-third cup cold water. 
Turn into a scalded coffee-pot, add one pint boiling water, 
and boil three minutes. Let stand on back of range ten 
minutes; serve. Keep remaining coffee and egg closely 
covered, in a cool place, to use two successive mornings. 

To Make Coffee for One. Allow two tablespoons ground 
coffee to one cup cold water. Add coffee to cold water, 
cover closely, and let stand over night. In the morning 
bring to a boiling-point. If carefully poured, a clear cup of 
coffee may be serv^ed. 

After-Dinner Coffee 

(Black Coffee, or Cafe Noir) 

For after-dinner coffee use twice the quantity of coffee, 
or half the amount of liquid, given in previous recipes. Fil- 
tered coffee is often preferred where milk or cream is not 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 39 

used, as is always the case with black coffee. Serve in after- 
dinuer coffee cups, with or without cut sugar. 

Coffee retards gastric digestion; but where the stomach 
has been overtaxed by a hearty meal, caf^ noir may prove 
beneficial, so great are its stimulating effects. 



KOLA 

The preparations on the market made from the kola-nut 
have much the same effect upon the system as coffee and 
chocolate, inasmuch as they contain caffeine and theobro- 
mine ; they are also valuable for their diastase and a milk- 
digesting ferment. 

COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

The cacao-tree {Theobroma cacao) is native to Mexico. 
Although successfully cultivated between the twentieth par- 
allels of latitude, its industry is chiefly confined to Mexico, 
South America, and the West Indies. Cocoa and chocolate 
are both prepared from seeds of the cocoa bean. The 
bean pod is from seven to ten inches long, and three to four 
and one-half inches in diameter. Each pod contains from 
twenty to forty seeds, imbedded in mucilaginous material. 
Cocoa beans are dried previous to importation. Like coffee, 
they need roasting to develop flavor. After roasting, outer 
covering of bean is removed; this covering makes what is 
known as cocoa shells, which have little nutritive value. 
The beans are broken and sold as cocoa nibs. 

The various preparations of cocoa on the market are made 
from the ground cocoa nibs, from which, by means of hy- 
draulic pressure, a large amount of fat is expressed, leaving 
a solid cake. This in turn is pulverized and mixed with 
sugar, and frequently a small amount of corn-starch or arrow- 
root. To some preparations cinnamon or vanilla is added- 
Broma contains both arrowroot and cinnamon. 

Chocolate is made from cocoa nibs, but contains a much 
larger proportion of fat than cocoa preparations. Bitter, 
sweet, or ftavored ohoooiate is always eold in cokeik 



40 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

The fat obtained from cocoa bean is cocoa butter, which 
gives cocoa its principal nutrient. 

Cocoa and chocolate differ from tea and coffee inasmuch 
as they contain nutriment as well as stimulant. Theobro- 
mine, the active principle, is almost identical with theine 
and caffeine in its composition and effects. 

Many people who abstain from the use of tea and coffee 
find cocoa indispensable. Not only is it valuable for its own 
nutriment, but for the large amount of milk added to it. 
Cocoa may be well placed in the dietary of a child after his 
third year, while chocolate should be avoided as a beverage, 
but may be given as a confection. Invalids and those of 
weak digestion can take cocoa where chocolate would prove 
too rich. 

Cocoa Shells 
1 cup cocoa shells 6 cups boiling water 

Boil shells and water three hours; as water boils away 
it will be necessary to add more. Strain, and serve with 
milk and sugar. By adding one-third cup cocoa nibs, a 
much more satisfactory drink is obtained. 

Cracked Cocoa 

}4 cup cracked cocoa 3 pints boiling water 

Boil cracked cocoa and water two hours. Strain, and 
serve with milk and sugar. If cocoa is pounded in a mortar 
and soaked over night in three pints water, it will require 
but one hour's boiling. 

Breakfast Cocoa 

ly^ tablespoons prepared cocoa 2 cups boiling water 

2 tablespoons sugar 2 cups milk 

Few grains salt 

Scald milk. Mix cocoa, sugar, and salt, dilute with one- 
tialf cup boiling water to make smooth paste, add remaining 
water, and boil five minutes; turn into scalded milk and 
beat two minutes, using egg-beater, when froth will form, 
preventing scum, which is so unsightly ; this is known as 
taUling, 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 41 

Reception Cocoa 

3 tablespoons cocoa A few grains salt 

}/^ cup sugar 4 cups milk 

^ cup boiling water 

Scald milk. Mix cocoa, sugar, and salt, adding enough 
boiling water to make a smooth paste ; add remaining water 
and boil five minutes ; pour into scalded milk. Beat two 
minutes, using egg-beater. 

Brandy Cocoa 

3 tablespoons cocoa 13^. cups boiling water 

yi cup sugar 4 cups milk 

3 teaspoons cooking brandy 

Prepare as Reception Cocoa, and add brandy before 
milling. 

Chocolate I 

\% squares unsweetened chocolate Few grains salt 
% cup sugar 1 cup boiling water 

3 cups milk 

Scald milk. Melt chocolate in small saucepan placed over 
hot water, add sugar, salt, and gradually boiling water; 
when smooth, place on range and boil five minutes ; add to 
scalded milk, mill, and serve in chocolate cups with whipped 
cream. One and one-half ounces vanilla chocolate may be 
substituted for unsweetened chocolate ; being sweetened, less 
sugar is required. 

Chocolate II 

Prepare same as Chocolate I., substituting one can evap- 
orated cream or condensed milk diluted with two cups boiling 
water in place of three cups milk. If sweetened condensed 
milk is used, omit sugar. 

Chocolate HI 

2 ozs. sweetened chocolate Few grains salt 

4 cups milk Whipped cream 

Scald milk, add chocolate, and stir until chocolate is 
melted. Bring to boiling-point, mill, and serve in chocolate 
cups with whipped cream sweetened and flavored. 



42 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

FRUIT BEVERAGES 

Lemonade 
1 cup sugar % cup lemon juice 1 pint water 

Make syrup by boiling sugar and water twelve minutes ; 
add fruit juice, cool, and dilute with ice-water to suit indi- 
vidual tastes. Lemon syrup may be bottled and kept on 
hand to use as needed. 

Pineapple Lemonade 

1 pint water 1 quart ice-water 

1 cup sugar 1 can grated pineapple 

Juice 3 lemons 

Make syrup by boiling water and sugar ten minutes ; add 
pineapple and lemon juice, cool, strain, and add ice- water. 

Orangeade 

Make syrup as for Lemonade. Sweeten orange juice with 
syrup, and dilute by pouring over crushed ice. 

Mint Julep 

1 quart water 1 cup orange juice 

2 cups sugar Juice 8 lemons 

1 pint claret wine 1)4 cups boiling water 

1 cup strawberry juice 12 sprigs fresh mint 

Make syrup by boiling quart of water and sugar twenty 
minutes. Separate mint in pieces, add to the boiling water, 
cover, and let stand in warm place five minutes, strain, and 
add to syrup; add fruit juices, and cool. Pour into punch- 
bowl, add claret, and chill with a large piece of ice ; dilute 
with water. Garnish with fresh mint leaves and whole 
strawberries. 

Claret Punch 

1 quart cold water Few shaviijgs lemon rind 
J4 cup raisins 1}^ cups orange juice 

2 cups sugar }{ cup lemon juice 
2 inch piece stick cinnamon 1 pint claret wine 

Put raisins in cold water, bring slowly to boiling-point, 
and boil twenty minutes ; strain, add sugar, cinnamon, 



FRUIT BEVERAGES 43 

lemon rind, and boil five minutes. Add fruit juice, cool, 
strain, pour in claret, and dilute with ice- water. 

Fruit Punch I 

1 quart cold water i^ cup lemon juice 

2 cups sugar 2 cups chopped pineapple 

1 cup orange juice 

Boil water, sugar, and pineapple twenty minutes ; add 
fruit juice, cool, strain, and dilute with ice-water. 

Fruit Punch II 

1 cup water 2 cups strawberry syrup 

2 cups sugar Juice 5 lemons 
1 cup tea infusion Juice 5 oranges 

1 quart Apollinaris 1 can gi'ated pineapple 

1 cup Maraschino cherries 

Make syrup by boiling water and sugar ten minutes ; add 
tea, strawberry syrup, lemon juice, orange juice, and pine- 
apple ; let stand thirty minutes., strain, and add ice- water to 
make one and one-half gallons of liquid. Add cherries and 
Apollinaris. Serve in punch-bowl, with large piece of ice. 
This quantity will serve fifty. 

Fruit Punch III 

1 cup sugar }^ cup lemon juice 

1 cup hot tea infusion 1 pint ginger ale 

^ cup orange juice 1 pint Apollinaris 

Few slices orange 

Pour tea over sugar, and as soon as sugar is dissolved 
add fruit juices. Strain into punch-bowl over a large piece 
of ice, and just before serving add ale, Apollinaris, and 
slices of orange. For tea infusion use two teaspoons tea and 
one and one-fourth cups boiling water. 

Fruit Punch IV 

9 oranges 1^ cups tea infusion 

6 lemons 1^4 cups sugar 

1 cup grated pineapple 1 cup hot water 

1 cup raspberry syrup 1 quart Apollinaris 

Mix juice of oranges and lemons with pineapple, raspberry 
syrup, and tea ; then add a syrup made by boiling sugar and 



44 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

water fifteen minutes. Turn in punch-bowl over a large 
piece of ice. Chill thoroughly, and just before serving add 
Apollinaris. 

Ginger Punch 

1 quart cold water % lb. Canton ginger 

1 cup sugar j^ cup orange juice 

% cup lemon juice 

Chop ginger, add to water and sugar, boil fifteen minutes ; 
add fruit juice, cool, strain, and dilute with crushed ice. 

Champagne Punch 

1 cup water 2 tablespoons Orange Cura9oa 

2 cups sugar Juice 2 lemons 

1 quart California champagne 2 cups tea infusion 
4 tablespoons brandy Ice 

2 tablespoons Medford rum 1 quart soda water 

Make a syrup by boiling water and sugar ten minutes. 
Mix champagne, brandy, rum, Curagoa, lemon juice, and tea 
infusion. Sweeten to taste with syrup and pour into punch- 
bowl over a large piece of ice. Just before serving add 
soda water. 

Club Punch 

1 cup water 1 quart Vichy 

2 cups sugar 3 sliced oranges 
1 quart Burgundy % can pineapple 
1 cup rum Juice 2 lemons 
% cup brandy 1 cup 'tea infusion 
y^ cup Benedictine Ice. 

Make a syrup by boiling water and sugar ten minutes. 
Mix remaining ingredients, except ice, sweeten to taste with 
syrup, and pour into punch-bowl over a large piece of ice. 

Unfermented Grape Juice 

10 lbs. grapes 1 cup water 

3 lbs. sugar 

Put grapes' and water in granite stew-pan. Heat until 
stones and pulp separate; then strain through jelly-bag, 
add sugar, heat "to boiling-point, and bottle. This will 



WW 



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Punch Service. — Page 



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Claret Cup Service. — Page 45. 




Double Loaves of Milk and Water Bread. — Page 54. 








Boston Brown Bread. — Page 57. 



FRUIT BEVERAGES 45 

make one gallon. When served, it should be diluted one- 
half with water. 

Claret Cup 

1 quart claret wine 2 tablespoons brandy 

1^ cup CuraQoa Sugar 

1 quart ApoUinaris Mint leaves 

3^ cup orange juice Cucumber rind 

12 strawberries 

Mix ingredients, except ApoUinaris, using enough sugar 
to sweeten to taste. Stand on ice to chill, and add chilled 
ApoUinaris just before serving. 

Sauterne Cup 

1 quart soda water 2 tablespoons Orange Cura9oa 

2 cups Sauterne wine % cup sugar (scant)* 
Rind % orange Mint leaves 

Rind % lenion Few slices orange 

12 strawberries 

Add Curagoa to rind of fruit and sugar; cover, and let 
stand two hours. Add Sauterne, strain, and stand on ice to 
chill. Add chilled soda water, mint leaves, slices of orange, 
and strawberries. The success of cups depends upon the 
addition of charged water just before serving. 

Cider Punch 

1 quart new or bottled cider Sugar 

\ cup lemon juice 1 quart ApoUinaris 

Ice 

Mix cider and lemon juice, and sweeten to taste. Strain 
into punch bowl over a large piece of ice. Just before serv- 
ing add ApoUinaris. 



46 BOSTON OOOKING-SCHOOI* COOK BOOK. 



CHAPTER IV 
BREAD AND BREAD MAKING 

BREAD is the most important article of food, and history 
tells of its use thousands of years before the Christian 
era. Many processes have been employed in making and 
baking ; and as a result, from the first flat cake has come 
the perfect loaf. The study of bread making is of no slight 
importance, and deserves more attention than it receives. 

Considering its great value, it seems unnecessary and 
wrong to find poor bread on the table; and would that 
our standard might be raised as high as that of our friends 
across the water! Who does not appreciate the loaf pro- 
duced by the French baker, who has worked months to 
learn the art of bread making? 

Bread is made from flour of wheat, or other cereals, by 
addition of water, salt, and a ferment. Wheat flour is best 
adapted for bread making, as it contains gluten in the right 
proportion to make the spongy loaf. But for its slight de- 
ficiency in fat, wheat bread is a perfect food ; hence arose 
the custom of spreading it with butter. It should be remem- 
bered, in speaking of wheat bread as perfect food, that it 
must be made of flour rich in gluten. Next to wheat flour 
ranks rye in importance for bread making ; but it is best 
used in combination with wheat, for alone it makes heavy, 
sticky, moist bread. Corn also needs to be used in com- 
bination with wheat for bread making, for if used alone the 
bread will be crumbly. 

The miller, in order to produce flour which will make the ' 
white loaf (so sightly to many), in the process of grinding 
wheat has been forced to remove the inner bran coats, so 
rich in mineral matter, and mu(ih of the gluten intimately 
connected with thenu 



BREAD AND BREAD MAKING 47 

To understand better the details of bread making, wheat, 
from which bread is principally made, should be considered. 

A grain of wheat consists of (1) an outer covering or 
husk, which is always removed before milling; (2) bran 
coats, which contain mineral matter ; (3) gluten, the proteid 
matter and fat; and (4) starch, the centre and largest part 
of the grain. Wheat is distinguished as white and soft, or 
red and hard. The former is known as winter wheat, having 
been sown in the fall, and living through the winter; the 
latter is known as spring wheat, having been sown in the 
spring. From winter wheat, pastry flour, sometimes called 
St. Louis, is made; from spring wheat, bread flour, also 
called Haxall. St. Louis flour takes its name from the old 
process of grinding ; Haxall, from the name of the inventor 
of the new process. All flours are now milled by the same 
process. For difference in composition of wheat flours, con- 
sult table in Chapter VI on Cereals. 

Wheat is milled for converting into flour by processes 
producing essentially the same results, all requiring cleans- 
ing, grinding, and bolting. Entire wheat flour has only the 
outer husk removed, the remainder of the kernel being finely 
ground. Graham flour, confounded with entire wheat, is 
too often found to be an inferior flour, mixed with coarse 
bran. 

Grinding is accomplished by one of four systems : (1) low 
milling ; (2) Hungarian system, or high milling ; (3) roller 
milling; and (4) by a machine known as distintegrator. 

In low milling process, grooved stones are employed toi 
grinding. The stones are enclosed in a metal case, and pro- 
vision is made within case for passage of air to prevent 
wheat from becoming overheated. The lower stone being 
permanently fixed, the upper stone being so balanced above 
it that grooves may exactly correspond, when upper stone 
rotates, sharp edges of grooves meet each other, and operate 
like a pair of scissors. By this process flour is made ready 
for bolting by one grinding. 

In high milling process, grooved stones are employed, but 
Are kept so far apart that at first the wheat is only bmised, 
fiDd a series ot grindings and siftings w neoessar^ Hiis 



48 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

process is applicable only to the hardest wheats, and is par- 
tially supplanted by roller-milling. 

In roller-milling, wheat is subjected to action of a pair of 
steel or chilled-iron horizontal rollers, having toothed sur- 
faces. They revolve in opposite directions, at different rates 
of speed, and have a cutting action. 

Porcelain rollers, with rough surfaces, are sometimes em- 
ployed. In this system, grinding is accomplished by cutting 
rather than crushing. 

"The disintegrato-r consists of a pair of circular metal 
disks, set face to face, studded with circles of projecting 
bars so arranged that circles of bars on one disk alternate 
with those of the other. The disks are mounted on the same 
centre, and so closely set to one another that projecting bars 
of one disk come quite close to plane surface of the other. 
They are inclosed within an external casing. The disks 
are caused to rotate in opposite directions with great rapid- 
ity, and the grain is almost instantaneously reduced to a 
powder." 

After grinding comes bolting, by which process the differ- 
ent grades of flour are obtained. The ground wheat is 
placed in octagonal cylinders (covered with silk or linen 
bolting-cloth of different degrees of fineness), which are 
allowed to rotate, thus forcing the wheat through. The 
flour from first siftings contains the largest percentage of 
gluten. 

Flour is branded under different names to suit manufac- 
turer or dealer. In consequence, the same wheat, milled by 
the same process, makes flour which is sold under different 
names. 

In buying flour, whether bread or pastry, select the best 
kept by your grocer. Some of the well-known brands of 
bread flour are King Arthur, Swansdown, Bridal Veil, 
Columbia, Washburn's Extra, and Pillsbury's Best ; of pastry, 
Best St. Louis. Bread flour should be used in all cases 
where yeast is called for, with few exceptions ; in other 
cases, pastry flour. The difference between bread and pas- 
try flour may be readily determined. Take bread flour in 
the hand, close hand tightly, then open, and flour will not 



BREAD AND BREAD MAKING 49 

keep in shape ; if allowed to pass through fingers it will feel 
slightly granular. Take pastry flour in the hand, close hand 
tightly, open, and flour will be in shape, having impression 
of the lines of the hand, and feeling soft and velvety to 
touch. Flour should always be sifted before measuring. 

Entire wheat flour differs from ordinary flour inasmuch 
as it contains all the gluten found in wheat, the outer husk 
of kernels only being removed, the remainder ground to 
different degrees of fineness and left unbolted. Such flours 
are now quite generally sold by all first class grocers. Included 
in this class is the Franklin Mills Company, the Pioneers, in 
making Fine Flour of the Entire Wheat. 

Gluten, the proteid of wheat, is a gray, tough, elastic sub- 
stance, insoluble in water. On account of its great power 
of expansion, it holds the gas developed in bread dough by 
fermentation, which otherwise would escape. 

Yeast 

Yeast is a microscopic plant of fungous growth, and is the 
lowest form of vegetable life. It consists of spores, or 
germs, found floating in air, and belongs to a family of 
which there are many species. These spores grow by bud- 
ding and division, and multiply very rapidly under favorable 
conditions, and produce fermentation. 

Fermentation is the process by which, under influence of 
air, warmth, moisture, and some ferment, sugar (or dex- 
trose, starch converted into sugar) is changed into alcohol 
(CaHgHO) and carbon dioxide (COg). The product of all 
fermentation is the same. Three kinds are considered, — 
alcoholic, acetic, and lactic. Where bread dough is allowed 
to ferment by addition of yeast, the fermentation is alcoholic ; 
where alcoholic fermentation continues too long, acetic fer- 
mentation sets in, which is a continuation of alcoholic. 
Lactic fermentation is fermentation which takes place when 
milk sours. 

Liquid, dry, or compressed yeast may be used for rais- 
ing bread. The compressed yeast cakes done up in tinfoil 
have long proved satisfactory, and are now almost uni- 
versally used, having replaced the home-made liquid yeast 



50 BOSTON COOKTNG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Never use a yeast cake unless perfectly fresh, which 
may be determined by its light color and absence of dark 
streaks. 

The yeast plant is killed at 212° F. ; life is suspended, but 
not entirely destroyed, 32° F. The temperature best suited 
for its growth is from 65° to 68° F. The most favorable 
conditions for the growth of yeast are a warm, moist, sweet, 
nitrogenous soil. These must be especially considered in 
bread making. 

Bread Making 

Fermented bread is made by mixing to a doughy flour, 
with a definite quantity of water, milk, or water and milk, 
salt, and a ferment. Sugar is usually added to hasten fer- 
mentation. Dough is then kneaded that the ingredients may 
be thoroughly incorporated, covered, and allowed to rise in 
a temperature of 68° F., until dough has doubled its bulk. 
This change has been caused by action of the ferment, which 
attacks some of the starch in flour, and changes it to sugar, 
and sugar in turn to alcohol and carbon dioxide, thus light- 
ening the whole mass. Dough is then kneaded a second 
time to break bubbles and distribute evenly the carbon 
dioxide. It is shaped in loaves, put in greased bread pans 
(they being half filled), covered, allowed to rise in tempera- 
ture same as for first rising, to double its bulk. If risen too 
long, it will be full of large holes ; if not risen long enough, 
it will be heavy and soggy. If pans containing loaves are 
put in too hot a place while rising, a heavy streak will be 
found near bottom of loaf. 

How to Shape Loaves and Biscuits. To shape bread 
dough in loaves, divide dough in parts, each part large 
enough for a loaf, knead until smooth, and if possible avoid 
seams in under part of loaf. If baked in brick pan, place 
two loaves in one pan, brushed between with a little melted 
butter. If baked in long shallow pan, when well kneaded, 
roll with both hands to lengthen, care being taken that it is 
smooth and of uniform thickness. Where long loaves are 
baked on sheets, shape and roll loosely in a towel sprinkled 
with com meal for last rising. 



BREAD AND BREAD MAKING 61 

To shape bread dough in biscuits, pull or cut off as many 
small pieces (having them of uniform size) as there are to be 
biscuits. Flour palms of hands slightly ; take up each piece 
and shape separately, lifting, with thumb and first two 
fingers of right hand, and placing in palm of left hand, con- 
stantly moving dough round and round, while folding to- 
wards the centre ; when smooth, turn it over and roll between 
palms of hands. Place in greased pans near together, 
brushed between with a little melted butter, which will cause 
biscuits to separate easily after baking. For finger rolls, 
shape biscuits and roll with one hand on part of board where 
there is no flour, until of desired length, care being taken to 
make smooth, of uniform size, and round at ends. 

Biscuits may be shaped in a great variety of ways, but 
they should always be small. Large biscuits, though equally 
good, never tempt one by their daintiness. 

Bread is often brushed over with milk or butter before 
baking, to make a darker crust. 

Where bread is allowed to rise over night, a small piece 
of yeast cake must be used ; one-fourth yeast cake to one 
pint liquid is sufficient, one-third yeast cake to one quart 
liquid. Bread mixed and baked during the day requires 
a larger quantity of yeast; one yeast cake, or sometimes 
even more, to one pint of liquid. Bread dough mixed with 
a large quantity of yeast should be watched during rising, 
and cut down as soon as mixture doubles its bulk. If proper 
care is taken, the bread will be found most satisfactory, 
having neither " yeasty " nor sour taste. 

Fermented bread was formerly raised by means of leaven. 

Baking of Bread 

Bread is baked : (1) To kill ferment, (2) to make soluble 
the starch, (3) to drive off alcohol and carbon dioxide, and 
(4) to form brown crust of pleasant flavor. Bread should 
be baked in a hot oven. If the oven be too hot the crust 
will brown quickly before the heat has reached the centre, 
and prevent further rising ; loaf should continue rising for 
first fifteen minutes of baking, when it should begin to brown. 



52 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

and continue browning for the next twenty minutes. The 
last fifteen minutes it should finish baking, when the heat 
may be reduced. When bread is done, it will not cling to 
sides of pan, and may be easily removed. Biscuits require 
more heat than loaf bread, should continue rising the first 
five minutes, and begin to brown in eight minutes. Experi- 
ence is the best guide for testing temperature of oven. Vari- 
ous oven thermometers have been made, but none have 
proved practical. Bread may be brushed over with melted 
butter, three minutes before removal from oven, if a more 
tender crust is desired. 

Care of Bread after Baking 

Remove loaves at once from pans, and place side down 
on a wire bread or cake cooler. If a crisp crust is desired, 
allow bread to cool without covering; if soft crust, cover 
with a towel during cooling. When cool, put in tin box or 
stone jar, and cover closely. 

Never keep bread wrapped in cloth, as the cloth will ab- 
sorb moisture and transmit an unpleasant taste to bread. 
Bread tins or jars should be washed and scalded twice a 
week in winter, and every other day in summer; otherwise 
bread is apt to mould. As there are so many ways of using 
small and stale pieces of bread, care should be taken that 
none is wasted. 

Unfermented bread is raised without a ferment, the car- 
bon dioxide being produced by the use of soda (alkaline salt) 
and an acid. Soda, employed in combination with cream 
of tartar, for raising mixtures, in proportion of one- third 
soda to two-thirds cream of tartar, was formerly used to a 
great extent, but has been generally superseded by baking 
powder. 

Soda bicarbonate (NaHCOs) is manufactured from sodium 
chloride (NaCl), common salt or cryolite. 

Baking powder is composed of soda and cream of tartar 
in definite, correct proportions, mixed with small quantity 
of dry material (flour or cornstarch) to keep action from 
taking place. If found to contain alum or ammonia, it is 



BREAD AND BREAD MAKING 63 

impure. In using baking powder, allow two teaspoons 
baking powder to each cup of flour, when eggs are not used ; 
to egg mixtures allow one and one-half teaspoons baking 
powder. When a recipe calls for soda and cream of tartar, 
in substituting baking powder use double amount of cream 
of tartar given. 

Soda and cream of tartar, or baking powder mixtures, are 
made light by liberation of gas in mixture ; the gas in soda 
is set free by the acid in cream of tartar ; in order to accom- 
plish this, moisture and heat are both required. As soon as 
moisture is added -to baking powder mixtures, the gas will 
begin to escape ; hence the necessity of baking as soon as 
possible. If baking powder only is used for raising, put 
mixture to be cooked in a hot oven. 

Cream of tartar (HKC^OgH^) is obtained from argols 
found adhering to bottom and sides of wine casks, which 
are ninety per cent cream of tartar. The argols are ground 
and dissolved in boiling water, coloring matter removed 
by filtering through animal charcoal, and by a process of 
recrystallization the cream of tartar of commerce is obtained. 

The acid found in molasses, sour milk, and lemon juice 
will liberate gas in soda, but the action is much quicker than 
when cream of tartar is used. 

Fermented and un fermented breads are raised to be made 
light and porous, that they may be easily acted upon by the 
digestive ferments. Some mixtures are made light by beat- 
ing sufficiently to enclose a large amount of air, and when 
baked in a hot oven air is forced to expand. 

Aerated bread is made light by carbon dioxide forced 
into dough under pressure. The carbon dioxide is generated 
from sulphuric acid and lime. Aerated bread is of close 
texture, and has a flavor peculiar to itself. It is a product 
of the baker's skill, but has found little favor except in few 
localities. 



54 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



"Water Bread 

2 cups boiling water 2>^ teaspoons salt 

1 tablespoon butter }^ yeast cake dissolved in 

1 tablespoon lard ^ cup lukewarm water 

2 tablespoons sugar 6 cups sifted flour 

Put butter, lard, sugar, and salt in bread raiser, or large 
bowl without a lip ; pour on boiling water ; when lukewarm, 
add dissolved yeast cake and five cups of flour; then stir 
until thoroughly mixed, using a knife or mixing-spoon. 
Add remaining flour, mix, and turn on a floured board, leav- 
ing a clean bowl ; knead until mixture is smooth, elastic to 
touch, and bubbles may be seen under the surface. Some 
practice is required to knead quickly, but the motion once 
acquired will never be forgotten. Return to bowl, cover 
with a clean cloth kept for the purpose, and board or tin 
cover; let rise over night in temperature of 65° F. In 
morning cut down : this is accomplished by cutting through 
and turning over dough several times with a case knife, and 
checks fermentation for a short time ; dough may be again 
raised, and recut down if it is not convenient to shape into 
loaves or biscuits after first cutting. When properly cared 
for, bread need never sour. Toss on board slightly floured, 
knead, shape into loaves or biscuits, place in greased pans, 
having pans nearly half full. Cover, let rise again to double 
its bulk, and bake in hot oven. (See Baking of Bread and 
Time-Table for Baking.) This recipe will make a double 
loaf of bread and pan of biscuit. Cottolene, crisco, or 
beef drippings may be used for shortening, one-third less 
being required. Bread shortened with butter has a good 
flavor, but is not as white as when lard is used. 

Milk and Water Bread 

1 cup scalded milk 1 yeast cake dissolved in 

1 cup boiling water ^ cup lukewarm water 

1 tablespoon lard 6 cups sifted flour, or one cup 
1 tablespoon butter white flour and enough en- 

2j^ teaspoons salt tire wheat flour to knead 

Prepare and bake as "Water Bread. When entire wheat 
flour is used add three tablespoons molasses. Bread may be 



BKBAD AND BREAD MAKING 55 

Mixed, raised, and baked in five hours, by using one yeast 
cake. Bread made in this way has proved most satisfac- 
tory. It is usually mixed in the morning, and the cook is 
able to watch the dough while rising and keep it at uni- 
form temperature. It is often desirable to place bowl con- 
taining dough in pan of water, keeping water at uniform 
temperature of from 95° to 100° F. Cooks who have not 
proved themselves satisfactory bread makers are successful 
when employing this method. 

Entire Wheat Bread 

2 cups scalded milk 2 teaspoons salt 

)^ cup sugar or 1 yeast cake dissolved in 

^ cup molasses }^ cup lukewarm water 

^% <^^ps coarse entire wheat flour 

Add sweetening and salt to milk; cool, and when luke- 
warm add dissolved yeast cake and flour ; beat well, cover, 
and let rise to double its bulk. Again beat, and turn into 
greased bread pans, having pans one-half full ; let rise, and 
bake. Entire Wheat Bread should not quite double its bulk 
during last rising. This mixture may be baked in gem pans. 

German Caraway Bread 

Follow recipe for Milk and Water Bread (see p. 54), 
using rye flour in place of entire wheat flour, and one table- 
spoon sugar for sweetening. After first rising while knead- 
ing add one-third tablespoon caraway seed. Skape, let rise 
again, and bake in a loaf. 

Entire "Wheat and "White Flour Bread 

Use same ingredients as for Entire Wheat Bread, with 
exception of flour. For flour use three and one-fourth cups 
entire wheat and two and three-fourths cups white flour. 
The dough should be slightly kneaded, and if handled 
quickly will not stick to board. Loaves and biscuits should 
be shaped with hands instead of pouring into pans, as id 
Eijtire Wheat Bre^4« 



56 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Graham Bread 

2 cups hot liquid >^ yeast cake dissolved in 

(water, or milk and water) 34 cup lukewarm water 

3^ cup molasses 3 cups flour 

2% teaspoons salt 3 cups Graham flour 

Prepare and bake as Entire Wheat Bread. The bran 
remaining in sieve after sifting Graham flour should be 
discarded. If used for muffins, use two and one-half cups 
liquid. 

Third Bread 

2 cups lukewarm water 1 cup rye flour 

1 yeast cake 1 cup granulated 
% tablespoon salt corn meal 
1^ cup molasses 3 cups flour 

Dissolve yeast cake in water, add remaining ingredients, 
and mix thoroughly. Let rise, shape, let rise again, and 
bake as Entire Wheat Bread. 

Rolled Oats Bread 

2 cups boiling water % yeast cake dissolved in 
}4 cup molasses % cup lukewarm water 
% tablepsoon salt 1 cup rolled oats 

1 tablespoon butter 5 cups flour 

Add boiling water to oats and let stand one hour; add 
molasses, salt, butter, dissolved yeast cake, and flour; let 
rise, beat thoroughly, turn into buttered bread pans, let rise 
again, and halve. To make shaping of biscuits easy, take up 
mixture by spoonfuls, drop into plate of flour, and have 
palms of hands well covered with flour before attempting to 
shape or drop from spoon into buttered muffin tins. 
Rye Biscuit 

1 cup boiling water \% teaspoons salt 

1 cup rye flakes 1 yeast cake dissolved in 

2 tablespoons butter 1 cup lukewarm water 
% cup molasses Flour 

Make same as Rolled Oats Bread. 



BREAD AND BREAD MAKING 67 

Rye Bread 

1 cup scalded milk 1% teaspoons salt 

1 cup boiling water i^ yeast cake dissolved in 

1 tablespoon lard i^ cup lukewarm water 

1 tablespoon butter 3 cups flour 

1^ cup brown sugar Kye meal 

To milk and water add lard, butter, sugar, and salt ; when 
lukewarm, add dissolved yeast caiie and flour, beat thor- 
oughly, cover, and let rise until light. Add rye meal until 
dough is stiff enough to knead ; knead thoroughly, let rise, 
shape in loaves, let rise again, and bake. 

Date Bread 

Use recipe for Health Food Muffins (see p. 67). After 
the first rising, while kneading, add two-thirds cup each of 
English walnut meats cut in small pieces, and dates stoned 
and cut in pieces. Shape in a loaf, let rise in pan, and bake 
fifty minutes in a moderate oven. This bread is well 
adapted for sandwiches. 

Boston Brown Bread 

1 cup rye meal % tablespoon soda 

1 cup granulated corn meal 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup Graham flour % cup molasses 

2 cups sour milk, or 1% cups sweet milk or water 

Mix and sift dry ingredients, add molasses and milk, stir 
until well mixed, turn into a well-buttered mould, and steam 
three and one-half hours. The cover should be buttered 
before being placed on mould, and then tied down with 
string ; otherwise the bread in rising might force off cover. 
Mould should never be filled more than two-thirds full. A 
melon-mould or one-pound baking-powder boxes make the 
most attractive-shaped loaves, but a five-pound lard pail 
answers the purpose. For steaming, place mould on a trivet 
in kettle containing boiling water, allowing water to come 
half-way up around mould, cover closely, and steam, adding, 
as needed, more boiling water. 



58 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

New Sngland Brown Bread 

1)^ cups stale bread Rye meal ^ 

3)^ cups cold water Granulated corn meal ^ ^, ^^ 

% cup molasses Graham flour j ^^^ 

1% teaspoons salt 3 teaspoons soda 

Soak bread In two cups of the water over night. In the 
morning rub through colander, add molasses, dry ingredients 
mixed and sifted, and remaining water. Stir until well 
mixed, fill buttered one-pound baking-powder boxes two- 
thirds full, cover, and steam two hours. 

Indian Bread 

\% cups Graham flour 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup Indian meal ^ cup molasses 

% tablespoon soda 1% cups milk 

Mix and steam same as Boston Brown Bread. 

Steamed Graham Bread 

3 cups Arlington meal 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup flour 1 cup molasses (scant) 
3>^ teaspoons soda 2% cups sour milk 

Mix same as Boston Brown Bread and steam four hours. 
This bread may often be eaten when bread containing corn 
meal could not be digested. 

Parker House Rolls 

2 cups scalded milk 2 teaspoons salt 

3 tablespoons butter 1 yeast cake dissolved in 
2 tablespoons sugar )^ cup lukewarm water 

Flour 

Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk ; when lukewarm, add 
dissolved yeast cake and three cups of flour. Beat thor- 
oughly, cover, and let rise until light; cut down, and add 
enough flour to knead (it will take about two and one-half 
cups). Let rise again, toss on slightly floured board, knead, 
pat, and roll out to one-third inch thickness. Shape with 
biscuit-cutter, first dipped in flour. Dip the handle of a 
^ase kuife in flour, and with it make a crease through the 
middle of each piece ; bnisk oyer one-half of each piece with 




Sweet French Rolls. — Page 60. 







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Parker House Rolls; Salad Rolls; Clover Leap 
Biscuit ; Sticks. — Page 59. 




Swedish Tea Ring ; Swedish Tea Braid. — Page 64. 




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Coffee Cakes (Brioche). — Pa^e ^^. 



BREAD AND BREAD MAKING 69 

melted butter, fold, and press edges together. Place in 
greased pan, one inch apart, cover, let rise, and bake in hot 
oven twelve to fifteen minutes. As rolls rise they will part 
slightly, and if hastened in rising are apt to lose their 
shape. 

Parker House Rolls may be shaped by cutting or tearing 
off small pieces of dough, and shaping round like a biscuit; 
place in rows on floured board, cover, and let rise fifteen 
minutes. With handle of large wooden spoon, or toy roll- 
ing-pin. roll through centre of each biscuit, brush edge of 
lower halves with melted butter, fold, press lightly, place in 
buttered pan one inch apart, cover, let rise, and bake. 

Salad or Dinner Rolls 

Use same ingredients as for Parker House Rolls, allowing 
one-fourth cup butter. Shape in small biscuits, place in 
rows on a floured board, cover with cloth and pan, and let 
rise until light and well puffed. Flour handle of wooden 
spoon and make a deep crease in middle of each biscuit, 
take up, and press edges together. Place closely in buttered 
pan, brushing with butter between biscuits, cover, let rise, 
and bake twelve to fifteen minutes in hot oven. From this 
same mixture crescents, braids, twists, bow-knots, clover 
leaves, and other fancy shapes may be made. 

sticks 

1 cup scalded milk , 1 yeast cake dissolved in 

% cup butter % cup lukewarm water 

\% tablespoons sugar White 1 egg 

y^ teaspoon salt 3^ cups flour 

Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk ; when lukewarm, add 
dissolved yeast cake, white of egg well beaten, and flour. 
Knead, let rise, shape, let rise again, and start baking in a 
hot oven, reducing heat, that sticks may be crisp and dry. 
To shape sticks, first shape as small biscuits, roll on board 
(where there is no flour) with hands until eight inches in 
length, keeping of uniform size and rounded ends, which 
may be done by bringing fingers close to, but not over, 
^nds of sticks. 



60 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Salad Sticks 

FoUoiv recipe for Sticks. Let rise, and add salt to 
dough, allowing two teaspoons to each cup of dough. 
Shape in small sticks, let rise again, sprinkle with salt, and 
bake in a slow oven. If preferred glazed, brush over with 
egg yolk slightly beaten and diluted with one-half table- 
spoon cold water. 

Swedish Rolls 

Use recipe for Salad Rolls. Roll to one-fourth inch 
thickness, spread with butter, and sprinkle with two table- 
spoons sugar mixed with one-third teaspoon cinnamon, 
one-third cup stoned raisins finely chopped, and two table- 
spoons chopped citron; roll up like jelly roll, and cat in 
three-fourths inch pieces. Place pieces in pan close to- 
gether, flat side down. Again let rise, and bake in a hot 
oven. When rolls are taken from oven, brush over with 
white of egg slightly beaten, diluted with one-half table- 
spoon water; return to oven to dry egg, and thus glaze 
top. 

Sweet French RoUb 

1 cup milk 1 teaspoon salt 

1 yeast cake dissolved in 1 egg 

^ cup lukewarm water Yolk one egg 

Flour }^ teaspoon mace 

}£ cup sugar ^ cup melted butter 

Scald milk ; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake and 
one and one-half cups flour; beat well, cover, and let rise 
until light. Add sugar, salt, eggs well beaten, mace, and 
butter, and enough more flour to knead ; knead, let rise again, 
shape, and bake same as Salad Rolls, or roll in a long strip 
to one-fourth inch in thickness, spread with butter, roll up 
like jelly roll, and cut in one-inch pieces. Place pieces in 
pan close together, flat side down. A few gratings from the 
rind of a lemon or one-half teaspoon lemon extract may be 
substituted in place of mace. 



BREAD AND BREAD MAKING 61 



Luncheon Rolls 

^ cup scalded milk 2 tablespoons melted butter 

2 tablespoons sugar 1 egg 

}^ teaspoon salt Few gratings from rind of 

3^ yeast cake dissolved in lemon 

2 tablespoons lukewarm water Flour 

Add sugar and salt to milk ; when lukewarm, add dis- 
solved yeast cake and three-fourths cup flour. Cover and 
let rise; then add butter, egg well beaten, grated rind of 
lemon, and one and one-fourth cups flour. Let rise again, 
roll to one-half inch thickness, shape with small biscuit-cutter, 
place in buttered pan close together, let rise again, and bake. 
These rolls may be ready to serve in three hours if one and 
one-half yeast cakes are used. 

French Rusks 

2 cups scalded milk Flour 

^ cup butter 1 Q^g 

^ cup sugar Yolks 2 eggs 

1 teajpoon salt Whites 2 eggs 

1 yeast cake dissolved in % teaspoon vanilla 

^ cup lukewarm water 

Add butter, sugar, and salt to scalded milk ; when luke- 
warm add dissolved yeast cake and three cups flour. Cover 
and let rise ; add egg and (tgg yolks well beaten, and enough 
flour to knead. Let rise again, and shape as Parker House 
Eolls. Before baking, make three parallel creases on top of 
each roll. When nearly done, brush over with whites of eggs 
beaten slightly, diluted with one tablespoon cold water and 
vanilla. Sprinkle with sugar. 

Rusks (Zwieback) 

% cup scalded milk % cup sugar 

% teaspoon salt ^4 cup melted butter 

2 yeast cakes 3 eggs 

Flour 

Add yeast cakes to milk when lukewarm ; then add salt 
and one cup flour, and let rise until very light. Add sugar, 
butter, eggs unbeaten, and flour enough to handle. 



62 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Shape as finger rolls, and place close together on a buttered 
sheet in parallel rows, two inches apart ; let rise again and 
bake twenty minutes. When cold, cut diagonally in one- 
half inch slices, and brown evenly in oven. 

German Coffee Bread 
1 cup scalded milk 1 egg 

% cup butter, or butter and }{ yeast cake dissolved in 

lard ^ cup lukewarm milk 

^ cup sugar ^ cup raisins stoned and 

^ teaspoon salt cut in pieces 

Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk ; when lukewarm, add 
dissolved yeast cake, egg well beaten, flour to make stiff 
batter, and raisins; cover, and let rise over night; in morn- 
ing spread in buttered dripping-pan one-half inch thick. 
Cover and let rise again. Before baking, brush over with 
beaten egg, and cover with following mixture : Melt three 
tablespoons butter, add one-third cup sugar and one tea- 
spoon cinnamon. When sugar is partially melted, add three 
tablespoons flour. 

Coffee Cakes (Brioche) 

1 cup scalded milk }£ cup sugar 

4 yolks of eggs 2 yeast cakes 

3 eggs 1^ teaspoon extract lemon oi 

^ cup butter 2 pounded cardamou seeds 

^9i cups flour 

French Confectioner 

Cool milk; when lukewarm, add yeast cakes, and when 
they are dissolved add remaining ingredients, and beat 
thoroughly with hand ten minutes ; let rise six hours. Keep 
in ice-box over night ; in morning turn on floured board, roll 
in long rectangular piece one-fourth inch thick ; spread with 
softened butter, fold from sides toward centre to make three 
layers. Cut off pieces three-fourths inch wide; cover and 
let rise. Take each piece separately in hands and twist from 
ends in opposite directions, coil and bring ends together at 
tup of cake. Let rise in pans and bake twenty minutes in a 
moderate oven; cool and brush over with confectioner*' 



BREAD AND BREAD MAKING 63 

sugar, moistened with boiling water to spread, and flavored 
with vanilla. 

Coflfee Rolls 

2 cups milk 1 egg 

1% yeast cakes ^ teaspoon cinnamon 

Butter \ 1 teaspoon salt 

Lard >• % cup each Melted butter 

Sugar ) Confectioners' sugar 

Flour Vanilla 

Scald milk, when Inkewarm add yeast cakes, and as 
soon as dissolved add three and one-half cups flour. Beat 
thoroughly, cover, and let rise ; then add butter, lard, sugar, 
egg unbeaten, cinnamon, salt, and flour enough to knead. 
Knead until well mixed, cover, and let rise. Turn mixture 
on a floured cloth. Roll into a long, rectangular piece one- 
fourth inch thick. Brush over with melted butter, fold from 
ends toward centre to make three layers and cut off pieces 
three-fourths inch wide. Cover and let rise. Take each 
piece separately in hands and twist from ends in opposite 
directions, then shape in a coil. Place in buttered pans, 
cover, again let rise, and bake in a moderate oven twenty 
minutes. Cool slightly, and brush over with confectioners' 
sugar moistened with boiling water and flavored with 
vanilla- 
Swedish Bread 

2)4 cups scalded milk % cup sugar 

1 yeast cake 1 egg, well beaten 

Flour ^ teaspoon salt 

% cup melted butt«r 1 teaspoon almond extract 

Add yeast cake to one-half cup milk which has been allowed 
to cool until lukewarm ; as soon as dissolved add one-half 
cup flour, beat thoroughly, cover, and let rise. When light, 
add remaining milk and four and one-half cups flour. Stir 
until thoroughly mixed, cover, and again let rise ; then add 
remaining ingredients and one and one-half cups flour. Toss 
on a floured cloth and knead, using one-half cup flour, cover, 
and again let rise. Shape as Swedish Tea Braid or Tea 
Ring I or II, and bake. 



64 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Swedish Tea Braid. Cut off three pieces of mixture of 
equal size and roll, using the hands, in pieces of uniform 
size ; then braid. Put on a buttered sheet, cover, let rise, 
brush over with yolk of one egg^ slightly beaten, and diluted 
with one-half tablespoon cold water, and sprinkle with finely 
chopped blanched almonds. Bake in a moderate oven. 

Swedish Tea Ring I. Shape as tea braid, form in shape 
of ring, and proceed as with tea braid, having almonds 
blanched and cut in slices crosswise. 

Swedish Tea Ring II. Take one-third Swedish Bread 
mixture and shape, using the hands, in a long roll. Put on 
an unfloured board and roll, using a rolling-pin, as thinly as 
possible. Mixture will adhere to board but may be easily 
lifted with a knife. Spread with melted butter, sprinkle 
with sugar and chopped blanched almonds or cinnamon. 
EoU like a jelly roll, cut a piece from each end and join ends 
to form ring. Place on a buttered sheet, and cut with 
scissors and shape (see illustration). Let rise, and proceed 
as with Tea Ring I. 

Dutch Apple Cake 

1 cup scalded milk 2X cups flour 

1^ cup butter Melted butter 

}{ cup sugar 5 sour apples 

^ teaspoon salt }£ cup sugar 

1 yeast cake i^ teaspoon cinnamon 

2 eggs 2 tablespoons currants 

Mix first four ingredients. When lukewarm add yeast 
cake, eggs unbeaten, and flour to make a soft dough. Cover, 
let rise, beat thoroughly, and again let rise. Spread in" a 
buttered dripping-pan as thinly as possible and brush over 
with melted butter. Pare, cut in eighths, and remove cores 
from apples. 

Press sharp edges of apples into the dough in parallel 
rows lengthwise of pan. Sprinkle with sugar mixed with cin- 
namon and sprinkle with curi'ants. Cover, let rise, and bake 
in a moderate oven thirty minutes. Cut in squares and 
serve hot or cold with whipped cream sweetened and flavored. 




Swedish Tea Ring II before baking. — Page 



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Swedish Tea Ring II. — Page 64. 




Raised Hominy Muffixs. — Page 66. 




Pop Overs. — Page 76. 



BBBAD AND BREAD MAKING 66 

Buns 

1 cup scalded milk }^ teaspoon salt 

Y^ cup butter ^ cup raisins stoned and 

y^ cup sugar cut in quarters 

1 yeast cake dissolved in 1 teaspoon extract lemon 

^ cup lukewarm water Flour 

Add one-half sugar and salt to milk ; when lukewarm, add 
dissolved yeast cake and one and one-half cups flour ; cover, 
and let rise until light ; add butter, remaining sugar, raisins, 
lemon, and flour to make a dough; let rise, shape like bis- 
cuits, let rise again, and bake. If wanted glazed, brush over 
with beaten egg before baking. 

Hot Cross Buns 

1 cup scalded milk ^ teaspoon cinnamon 
^ cup sugar 3 cups flour 

2 tablespoons butter 1 ^gg 

% teaspoon salt )^ cup raisins stoned and 

% yeast cake dissolved in quartered, or 

)^ cup lukewarm water ^ cup currants 

Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk ; when lukewarm, add 
dissolved yeast cake, flour, cinnamon, and Qg^ well beaten ; 
when thoroughly mixed, add raisins, cover, and let rise over 
night. In morning, shape in forms of large biscuits, place 
in pan one inch apart, let rise, brush over with beaten egg, 
and bake twenty minutes; cool, and with ornamental frost* 
ing make a cross on top of each bun. 

Raised Muffins 

1 cup scalded milk % teaspoon salt 

1 cup boiling water )^ yeast cake 

2 tablespoons butter 1 Qgg 

1^ cup sugar 4 cups flour 

Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk and water ; when luke- 
warm, add yeast cake, and when dissolved, ^g'g well beaten, 
and flour; beat thoroughly, cover, and let rise over night. 
In morning, fill buttered muffin rings two-thirds full ; let ris« 
until rings are full, and bake thirty minutes in hot oven. 



66 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Grilled Mufans 

Put buttered muflBn rings on a hot greased griddle. Fill 
one-half full with raised muflSn mixture, and cook slowly 
until well risen and browned underneath ; turn muffins and 
rings and brown the other side. This is a convenient waj?^ 
of cooking muffins when oven is not in condition for 
baking. 

Raised Hominy Muffins 

1 cup warm cooked hominy 1 teaspoon salt 

%£ cup butter 3^ yeast cake 

1 cup scalded milk )^ cup lukewarm water 

3 tablespoons sugar 3)^ cups flour 

Mix first five ingredients : when lukewarm add yeast cake, 
dissolved in lukewarm water and flour. Cover, and let rise 
over night. In the morning cut down, fill buttered gem pans 
two-thirds full, let rise, one hour, and bake in a moderate 
oven. Unless cooked hominy is rather stiJBf more flour will 
be needed. 

Raised Rice Muffins 

Make same as Raised Hominy Muffins, substituting one 
cup hot boiled rice in place of hominy, and adding the whites 
of two eggs beaten until stiff. 

Raised Oatmeal Muffins 

}i cup scalded milk ^ yeast cake dissolved in 

J^ cup sugar ^ cup lukewarm milk 

% teaspoon salt 1 cup cold cooked oatmeal 

2K cups flour 

Add sugar and salt to scalded milk ; when lukewarm, add 
dissolved yeast cake. Work oatmeal into flour with tips of 
fingers, and add to first mixture; beat thoroughly, cover, 
and let rise over night. In morning, fill buttered iron gem 
pans two- thirds full, let rise on back of range that pan may 
gradually heat and mixture rise to fill pan. Bake in mod- 
erate oven twenty-five to thirty minutes. 



BREAD AND BREAD MAKING 67 



Health Food Muffins 

1 cup warm wheat mush 1 tablespoon butter 

^ cup brown sugar ^ yeast cake 

% teaspoon salt ^ cup lukewarm water 

2)^ cups flour 

Mix first four ingredients, add yeast cake dissolved in 
lukewarm water, and flour ; then knead. Cover, and let rise 
over night. In the morning cut down, fill buttered gem pans 
two-thirds full, again let rise and bake in a moderate oven. 
This mixture, when baked in a loaf, makes a delicious bread. 

Squash Biscuits 

% cup squash (steamed and sifted) y^ yeast cake dissolved in 

^ cup sugar }^ cup lukewarm water 

% teaspoon salt ^ cup butter 

>^ cup scalded milk 2>^ cups flour 

Add squash, sugar, sait, and butter to milk; when luke- 
warm, add dissolved yeast cake and flour; cover, and let 
rise over night. In morning shape into biscuits, let rise, 
and bake. 

Imperial Muffins 

1 cup scalded milk \% cups flour 

y^ cup sugar 1 cup corn meal 

% teaspoon salt }4. cup butter 

y^ yeast cake dissolved in ^ cup lukewarm water 

Add sugar and salt to milk ; when lukewarm add dissolved 
yeast cake, and one and one-fourth cups flour. Cover, and 
let rise until light, then add corn meal, remaining flour, and 
butter. Let rise over night; in the morning fill buttered 
muffin lings two-thirds full ; let rise until rings are full and 
bake thirty minutes in hot oven. 

Dry Toast 

Cut stale bread in one-fourth inch slices. Crust may or 
may not be removed. Put slices on wire toaster, lock toaster 
and place over clear fire to dry, holding some distance from 
coals; turn and dry other side. Hold nearer to coals and 



68 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

color a golden brown on each side. Toast, if piled compactly 
and allowed to stand, will soon become moist. Toast may 
be buttered at table or before sending to table. 

Water Toast 
Dip slices of dry toast quickly in boiling salted water, 
allowing one-half teaspoon salt to one cup boiling water. 
Spread slices with butter, and serve at once. 

MUk Toast I 

1 pint scalded milk ]4, teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons butter 4 tablespoons cold water 
'2,% tablespoons bread flour 6 slices dry toast 

Add cold water gradually to flour to make a smooth, thin 
paste. Add to milk, stirring constantly until thickened, 
cover, and cook twenty minutes ; then add salt and butter 
in small pieces. Dip slices of toast separately in sauce; 
when soft, remove to serving dish. Pour remaining sauce 
over all 

Milk Toast II 

Use ingredients given in Milk Toast I, omitting cold 
water, and make as Thin White Sauce. Dip toast in sauce- 
Brown Bread Milk Toast 

Make same as Milk Toast, using slices of toasted brown 
bread in place of white bread. Brown bread is better 
toasted by first drying slices in oven. 

Cream Toast 
Substitute cream for milk, and omit butter in recipe for 
Milk Toast I or 11. 

Tomato Cream Toast 

\% cups stewed and strained tomato 8 tablespoons butter 

% cup scalded cream 3 tablespoons flour 

1^ teaspoon soda ^ teaspoon salt 
6 slices toast 

Put butter in saucepan; when melted and bubbling, add 
flour, mixed with salt, and stir in gradually tomato, to which 



BREAD AND BREAD MAKING 69 

soda has been added, then add cream. Dip slices of toast 
in sauce. Serve as soon as made. 

German Toast 

8 eggs 2 tablespoons sugar 

y^ teaspoon salt 1 cup milk 

6 slices stale bread 

Beat eggs slightly, add salt, sugar, and milk ; strain into 
a shallow dish. Soak bread in mixture until soft. Cook on 
a hot, well-greased griddle; brown on one side, turn and 
brown other side. Serve for breakfast or luncheon, or with 
a sauce for dessert. 

Brewis 

Break stale bits or slices of brown and white bread in 
small pieces, allowing one and one-half cups brown bread to 
one-half cup white bread. Butter a hot frying-pan, put in 
bread, and cover with equal parts milk and water. Cook 
until soft; add butter and salt to taste. 

Bread for Garnishing 

Dry toast is often used for garnishing, cut in various 
shapes. Always shape before toasting. Cubes of bread, 
toast points, and small oblong pieces are most common. 
Cubes of stale bread, from which centres are removed, are 
jfried in deep fat and called croustades; half-inch cubes, 
browned in butter, or fried in deep fat, are called crofttons. 

Usea for Stale Bread 

All pieces of bread should be saved and utilized. Large 
pieces are best for toast. Soft stale bread, from which 
crust is removed, when crumbed, is called stale breadcrumbs, 
or raspings, and is used for puddings, griddle-cakes, omelets, 
scalloped dishes, and dipping food to be fried. Remnants 
of bread, from which crusts have not been removed, are 
dried in oven, rolled, and sifted. These are called dry bread 
crumbs, and are useful for crumbing croquettes, cutlets, 
fishr meat; etc. 



70 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK. 



CHAPTER V 

BISCUITS, BREAKFAST CAKES, AND SHORTCAKES 
Batters, Sponges, and Doughs 

BATTER is a mixture of flour and some liquid (usually 
combined with other ingredients, as sugar, salt, eggs, 
etc.), of consistency to pour easily, or to drop from a spoon,. 
Batters are termed thin or thick, according to their 
consistency. 

Sponge is a batter to which yeast is added. 
Dough differs from batter inasmuch as it is stiff enough to 
be handled. 

Cream Scones 

2 cups flour % teaspoon salt 

4 teaspoons baking power 4 tablespoons butter 

2 teaspoons sugar 2 eggs 

y^ cup cream 

Mix and sift together flour, baking powder, sugar, and 
salt. Rub in butter with tips of fingers; add eggs well 
beaten, (reserving a small amount of unbeaten white) and 
cream. Toss on a floured board, pat, and roll to three-fourths 
inch in thickness. Cut in squares, brush with reserved white, 
sprinkle with sugar, and bake in a hot oven fifteen minutes. 

Baking Po-wder Biscuit I 

2 cups bread flour 1 tablespoon lard 

5 teaspoons baking powder 1 cup milk and water 

1 teaspoon salt in equal parts 

1 tablespoon butter 

Mix dry ingredients, and sift twice. 

Work in butter and lard with tips of fingers ; add gradu- 
ally the liquid, mixing with knife to a soft dough. It is 
impossible to determine the exact amount of liquid, owing 



BREAKFAST CAKES, ETC. 71 

to differences in flour. Toss on a floured board, pat and 
roll lightly to one-half inch in thickness. Shape with a bis- 
cuit-cutter. Place on buttered pan, and bake in hot oven 
twelve to fifteen minutes. If baked in too slow an oven, the 
gas will escape before it has done its work. 

Baking PoTvder Biscuit H 

2 cups bread flour 2 tablespoons butter 

5 teaspoons baking powder 1 cup milk 

% teaspoon salt 

Mix and bake as Baking Powder Biscuit I. 

Emergency Biscuit 

Use recipe for Baking Powder Biscuit I or II, with the 
addition of more milk, that mixture may be dropped from 
spoon without spreading. Drop by spoonfuls on a buttered 
pan, one-half inch apart. Brush over with milk^ and bake 
in hot oven eight minutes. 

Fruit Rolls (Pin "WTieel Biscuit) 

2 cups flour % cup milk 

5 teaspoons baking powder y^ cup stoned raisins 

y^ teaspoon salt (finely chopped) 

2 tablespoons sugar 2 tablespoons citron 

2 tablespoons butter (finely chopped) 

y^ teaspoon cinnamon 

Mix as Baking Powder Biscuit II. Roll to one-fourth inch 
thickness, brush oyer with melted butter, and sprinkle with 
fruit, sugar, and cinnamon. Roll like a jelly roll; cut off 
pieces three-fourths inch in thickness. Place on buttered 
tin, and bake in hot oven fifteen minutes. Currants may be 
used in place of raisins and citron. 

Twin Mountain Muffins 

^ cup butter 1 egg 

^ cup sugar 1 cup milk 

% teaspoon salt 2 cups bread flour 

5 teaspoons baking powder 

Cream the butter ; add sugar and ^^g well beaten ; sift 
baking powder with flour, and add to the flrst mixture, alter- 



72 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

nating with milk. Bake in buttered tin gem pans twenty- 
five minutes. 

One Egg Muffins I 

. 3>^ cups flour 1}4 cups milk 

6 teaspoons baking powder 3 tablespoons melted butter 

1 teaspoon salt 1 egg 

3 tablespoons sugar 

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add gradually milk, egg 
well beaten, and melted butter. Bake in buttered gem pans 
twenty-five minutes. If iron pans are used they must be 
previously heated. This recipe makes thirty muffins. Use 
half the proportions given and a small egg, if half the num- 
ber is requu'ed. 

One Egg Muffins II 

2 cups flour 2 tablespoons sugar 
4 teaspoons baking powder 1 cup milk 

^ teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons melted butter 

legg 

Mix and bake as One Egg Muffin I. 

Berry Muffins I (vrithout eggs) 

2 cups flour 2 tablespoon butter 

^ cup sugar 1 cup milk (scant) 

4 teaspoons baking powder 1 cup berries 

}^ teaspoon salt 

Mix and sift dry ingredients ; work in butter with tips of 
fingers ; add milk and berries. 

Berry Muffins II 

^ cup butter 4 teaspoons baking powder 

}^ cup sugar ^ teaspoon salt 

1 egg 1 cup milk 

2^ cups flour 1 cup berries 

Cream the butter; add gradually sugar and egg well 
beaten ; mix and sift flour, baking powder, and salt, reserv- 
ing one-fourth cup flour to be mixed with berries and added 
last ; the remainder alternately with' milk. 



BISCUITS, BREAKFAST CAKES, ETC. 73 



Queen of MufiBns 

^ cup butter % cup milk (scant) 

y^ cup sugar \% cups flour 

1 Q,^g 23^ teaspoons baking powder 

Mix and bake same as Twin Mountain Muffins. 
Rice Muffins 

2)^ cups flour 1 cup milk 

% cup hot cooked rice 1 egg 

5 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons melted batter 

2 tablespoons sugar % teaspoon salt 

Mix and sift flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder; add 
one-half milk, egg well beaten, the remainder of the milk 
mixed with rice, and beat thoroughly ; then add butter. 
Bake in buttered muffin rings placed in buttered pan or 
buttered gem pans. 

Oatmeal Muffins 

1 cup cooked oatmeal % teaspoon salt 
\y^ cups flour % cup °^ilt 

2 tablespoons sugar 1 Qgg 

4 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons melted butter 

Mix and bake as Rice Muffins. 

Graham Muffins I 

IJx^ cups Graham flour % cup molasses 

1 cup flour ^ teaspoon soda 

1 cup sour milk 1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons melted butter 

Mix and sift dry ingredients ; add milk to molasses, and 
combine mixtures ; then add butter. 

Graham Muffins II 
1 cup Graham or entire wheat 1 teaspoon salt 

flour 1 cup milk 

^ cup flour 1 Qgg 

^ cup sugar 3 tablespoons melted butter 

5 teaspoons baking powder 

Mix and sift dry ingredients; add milk gradually, egg 
well beaten, and melted butter ; bake in hot oven in buttered 
gem pans twenty-five minutes. 



74 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Rye Muffins I 
Make as Graham Muffins 11, substituting rye meal foi 
Graham flour. 

Rye Muffins II 

l^ cups rye meal )4 cup molasses 

1}^ cups flour 1}^ cups milk 

4 teaspoons baking powder 1 egg 

1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted butter 

Mix and bake as Graham Muffins II, adding molasse? 
with milk. 

Rye Gems 

1^ cups rye flour ^ cup molasses 

1}4 cups flour 1^ cups milk 

4 teaspoons baking powder 2 eggs 

1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted butter 

Mix and sift dry ingredients, add molasses, milk, eggs 
well beaten, and butter. Bake in hot oven in buttered gem 
pans twenty-five minutes. 

Corn Meal Gems 

}^ cup com meal 1 tablespoon melted butter 

1 cup flour )4 teaspoon salt 

3 teaspoons baking powder % cup milk 

1 tablespoon sugar 1 egg 

Mix and bake as Graham Muffins IL 

Hominy Gems 

^ cup hominy 1 cup com meal 

}£ teaspoon salt 8 tablespoons sugar 

J^ cup boiling water 3 tablespoons butter. 

1 cup scalded milk 2 eggs 

3 teaspoons baking powder 

Add hominy mixed with salt to boiling water and let stand 
until hominy absorbs water. Add scalded milk to corn me«l, 
then add sugar and butter. Combine mixtures, cool slightly, 
add yolks of eggs beaten until thick, and whites of eggs 
beaten until stiff. Sift in baking powder and beat thor- 
oughly. Bake in hot buttered gem pans. 



BISCUITS, BREAKFAST CAKES, ETC. 75 

Berkshire Muffins /j \ 

y^ cup corn meal ^ teaspoon salt 

y^ cup flour % cup scalded milk (scant) 

y^ cup cooked rice 1 Qgg 

2 tablespoons sugar 1 tablespoon melted butter 

3 teaspoons baking powder 

Tarn scalded milk on meal, let stand five minutes; add 
rice, and flour mixed and sifted with remaining dry ingre- 
dients. Add yolk of egg well beaten, butter, and white of 
Q^^ beaten stiff and dry. 

Golden CorcL. Cake.^ 

1 cup corn meal ^ teaspoon salt 

1 cup flour 1 cup milk 

3^ cup sugar 1 ^gg 

5 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons melted butter 

Mix and sift dry ingredients ; add milk, ^gg well beaten, 
and butter; bake in shallowed buttered pan in hot oven 
twenty minutes. 

Corn Cake (sweetened "with Molasses) 

1 cup corn meal y^ cup molasses 

^ cup flour ^ cup milk 

3>^ teaspoons baking powder 1 ^gg 

1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted butter 

Mix and bake as Golden Corn Cake, adding molasses to 
milk. . 

White Corn Cake 

^ cup butter 13^ cups white corn meal 

y^ cup sugar \y^ cups flour 

I3^cups milk 4 teaspoons baking powder 

Whites 3 eggs 1 teaspoon salt 

Cream the butter; add sugar gradually; add milk, alter- 
nating with dry ingredients, mixed and sifted. Beat thor- 
oughly ; add whites of eggs beaten stiff. Bake in buttered 
cake pan thirty minutes. 



7b' BOSTON COOKING -SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Rich Corn Cake 

1 cap corn meal ^ teaspoon salt 

1 cup white flour % cup milk 
4 teaspoons baking powder 2 eggs 

^ cup sugar i^ cup melted butter 

Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add milk, gradually, eggs 
well beaten, and butter. Bake in a buttered, shallow pan, 
in a hot oven. 

Susie's Spider Corn Cake 

1^ cups com meal 1 teaspoon salt 

2 cups sour milk 2 eggs 

1 teaspoon soda 2 tablespoons butter 

Mix soda, salt, and corn meal ; gradually add eggs well 
beaten and milk. Heat frying-pan, grease sides and bottom 
of pan with butter, turn in the mixture, place on middle grate 
in hot oven, and cook twenty minutes. 

"White Corn Meal Cake 

1 cup scalded milk y^, ^^P white corn meal 

1 teaspoon salt 

Add salt to corn meal, and pour on gradually milk. Turn 
into a buttered shallow pan to the depth of one-fourth inch. 
Bake in a moderate oven until crisp. Split and spread with 
butter. 

Pop-overs 

1 cup flour % cup milk 

^ teaspoon salt 2 eggs 

y teaspoon melted butter 

Mix salt and flour; add milk gradually, in order to 
obtain a smooth batter. Add ^%^^ beaten until light, and 
butter ; beat two minutes, — using egg-beater, — turn into 
hissing hot buttered iron gem pans, and bake thirty to 
thirty-five minutes in a hot oven. They may be baked 
in buttered earthen cups, when the bottom will have a 
glazed appearance. Small round iron gem pans are best 
for Pop-overs. 



BISCUITS, BREAKFAST CAKES, ETC. 77 

Graham Pop-overa 

^ cup entire wheat flour Jg cup milk 

^ cup flour 1 egg 

)^ teaspoon salt i^ teaspoon melted butter 

Prepare and bake as Pop-overs. 

Breakfast Puffs 
1 cup flour 1^ cup milk 

}4 cup water 

Mix milk and water ; add gradually to flour, and beat with 
egg-beater until very light. Bake same as Pop-overs. 

Fadges 
1 cup entire wheat flour 1 cup cold water 

Add water gradually to flour, and beat with egg-beater 
until very light. Bake same as Pop-overs. 

Zante Muffins 

)4 cup butter 2 cups corn meal 

% cup sugar 1 cup flour 

3 eggs 1 teaspoon salt 

1)4 cups milk 5 teaspoons baking powder 

^ cup currants • 

Cream the butter ; add sugar, gradually, eggs well beaten, 
and milk; then add dry ingredients mixed and sifted, and 
currants. Bake in buttered individual tins. 

Maryland Biscuit 

1 pint flour 1 teaspoon salt 

3^ cup lard Milk and water in eqaal quantities 

Southern Pupil 

Mix and sift flour and salt; work in lard with tips of fin- 
gers, and moisten to a stiff dough. Toss on slightly floured 
board, and beat with rolling-pin thirty minutes, continually 
folding over the dough. Roll one-third inch in thickness, 
shape with round cutter two inches in diameter, prick with 
fork, and place on a buttered tiu. Bake twenty minutes in 
hot oven. 



78 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



OHIDDLE-CAKES 

Sour Milk Griddle-cakes 
2^ cups flour 2 cups Sour milk 

% teaspoon salt 1>^ teaspoons soda 

Mix and sift flour, salt, and soda; add sour milk, and 
Q%% well beaten. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased hot grid- 
dle ; cook on one side. "When puffed, full of bubbles, and 
cooked on edges, turn, and cook other side. Serve with 
butter and maple syrup. 

Sweet Milk Griddle-cakes 

♦ 3 cups flour y^ cup sugar 

\y^ tablespoons baking powder 2 cups milk 

1 teaspoon salt 1 %%% 

2 tablespoons melted butter 

Mix and sift dry ingredients; beat ^g^,^ add milk, and 
pour slowly on first mixture. Beat thoroughly, and add 
butter. Cook same as Sour Milk Griddle-cakes. Begin 
cooking cakes at once or more baking powder will be 
required. 

Entire 'Wheat Griddle-cakes 
1^ cup entire wheat flour 3 tablespoons sugar 

1 cup flour 1 Qg'g 

3 teaspoons baking powder X]/^ cups milk 

% teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted butter 

Prepare and cook same as Sweet Milk Griddle-cakes. 

Com Griddle-cakes 

2 cups flour 3^ cup sugar 

% cup corn meal \%. cups boiling water 

1% tablespoons baking powder \% cups milk 

1)^ teaspoons salt 1 %%% 

2 tablespoons melted butter 

Add meal to boiling water, and boil five minutes; turn 
into bowl, add milk, and remaining dry ingredients mixed 
and sifted, then the egg well beaten, and butter. Cook same 
as other griddle-cakes. 



BISCUITS, BREAKFAST CAKES, ETC. 79 

Rice Griddle-cakes I 
2}4 cups flour 1^ cup sugar 

% cup cold cooked rice Ij^ cups milk 

' 1 tablespoon baking powder 1 egg 

}4 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons melted butter 

Mix and sift dry ingredients. Work in rice with tips of 
fingers ; add egg well beaten, milk, and butter. Cook same 
as other griddle-cakes. 

Rice Griddle-cakes II 

1 cup milk Yolks 2 eggs 

1 cup warm boiled rice Whites 2 eggs 

^ teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted butter 

% cup flour 

Pour milk over rice and salt, add yolks of eggs beaten 
until thick and lemon color, butter, flour, and fold in whites 
of eggs beaten until stiff and dry. 

Bread Griddle-cakes 

1% cups fine stale bread crumbs 2 eggs 

11^ cups scalded milk ^ cup flour 

2 tablespoons butter 3^ teaspoon salt 

4 teaspoons baking powder 

Add milk and butter to crumbs, and soak until crumba 
are soft; add eggs well beaten, then flour, salt, and baking 
powder mixed and sifted. Cook same as other griddle-cakes. 

BuckTvheat Cakes 

^ cup fine bread crumbs }^ yeast cake 

2 cups scalded milk % <^^? lukewarm water 

^ teaspoon salt \% cups buckwheat flour 

1 tablespoon molasses 

Pour milk over crumbs, and soak thirty minutes; add salt, 
yeast cake dissolved in lukewarm water, and buckwheat to 
make a batter thin enough to pour. Let rise over night ; in 
the morning, stir well, add molasses, one- fourth teaspoon soda 
dissolved in one-fourth cup lukewarm water, and cook same 
as griddle-cakes. Save enough batter to raise another mixing, 
instead of using yeast cake ; it will require one-half cup. 



80 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Waffles 
1^ cups flour 1 cup milk 

3 teaspoons baking powder Yolks 2 eggs 

>^ teaspoon salt Whites 2 eggs 

1 tablespoon melted butter 

Mix and sift dry ingredients ; add milk gradually, yolks 
of eggs well beaten, butter, and whites of eggs beaten stiff; 
cook on a greased hot waffle-iron. Serve with maple syrup. 

A waffle-iron should fit closely on range, be well heated 
on one side, turned, heated on other side, and thoroughly 
greased before iron is filled. In filling, put a tablespoonful 
of mixture in each compartment near centre of iron, cover, 
and mixture will spread to just fill iron. If sufficiently 
heated, it should be turned almost as soon as filled and cov- 
ered. In using a new iron, special care must be taken in 
greasing, or waffles will stick. 

Waffles with Boiled Cider 
Follow directions for making Waffles. Serve with 
Boiled Cider. Allow twice as much cider as sugar, and 
let boil until of a syrup consistency. 

Rice Waffles 

1^ cups flour 4 teaspoons baking powder 

% cup cold cooked rice ^ teaspoon salt 

1>^ cups milk 1 tablespoon melted butter 

2 tablespoons sugar 1 Qgg 

Mix and sift dry ingredients; work in rice with tips of 
fingers ; add milk, yolk of egg well beaten, butter, and white 
of egg beaten stiff. Cook same as Waffles. 

Virginia Waffles 
1}4 cups boiling water li^ tablespoons baking powder 

>^ cup white corn meal 1 3^ teaspoons salt 

13^ cups milk Yolks 2 eggs 

3 cups flour Whites 2 eggs 

3 tablespoons sugar 2 tablespoons melted butter 

Cook meal in boiling water twenty minutes ; add milk, dry 
ingredients mixed and sifted, yolks of eggs well beaten, but- 
ter, and whites of eggs beaten stiff. Cook same as Waflles. 




Waffles. — Page 80. 




Strawberry Shortcake. — Page 84. 



Shirred Egg. — Page 97. 




Eggs a la Commodore. — Page 97. 



BISCUITS, BREAKFAST CAKES, ETC. 81 

Raised Waffles 

1^ cups milk 1^ cup lukewarm water 

1 teaspoon salt 2 cups flour 

1 tablespoon butter Yolks 2 eggs 

1^ yeast cake Whites 2 eggs 

Scald milk ; add salt and butter, and when lukewarm, add 
yeast cake dissolved in water, and flour. Beat well ; let rise 
over night; add yolks of eggs well beaten, and whites of 
eggs beaten stiff. Cook same as Waffles. By using a whole 
yeast cake, the mixture will rise in one and one-half hours. 

9 Fried Drop Cakes 

1% cups flour 1^ cup sugar 

2}^ teaspoons baking powder }£ cup milk 

3^ teaspoon salt 1 egg 

1 teaspoon melted butter 

Beat egg until light ; add milk, dry ingredients mixed and 
sifted, and melted butter. Drop by spoonfuls in hot, new, 
deep fat ; fry until light brown and cooked through, which 
must at first be determined by piercing with a skewer, or 
breaking apart. Remove with a skimmer, and drain on 
brown paper. 

Rye Drop Cakes 

^ cup rye meal )4 teaspoon salt 

^ cup flour 2 tablespoons molasses 

2)4 teaspoons baking powder J^ cup milk 
legg 

Mix and sift dry ingredients ; add milk gradually, molas- 
ses, and egg well beaten. Cook same as Fried Drop Cakes. 

Raised Doughnuts 

1 cup milk }4 cup butter and lard mixed 

}^ yeast cake 1 cup light brown sugar 

1^ cup lukewarm water 2 eggs 

1 teaspoon salt }4 grated nutmeg 

Flour 

Scald and cool milk; when lukewarm, add the yeast cake dis-- 
solved in water, salt, and flour enough to make a stiff batter; 

6 



82 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

let rise over night. In morning add shortening melted, 
sugar, eggs well beaten, nutmeg, and enough flour to make 
a stiff dough ; let rise again, and if too soft to handle, add 
more flour. Toss on floured board, pat, and roll to three- 
fourths inch thickness. Shape with cutter, and work between 
hands until round. Place on floured board, let rise one 
hour, turn, and let rise again ; fry in deep fat, and drain on 
brown paper. Cool, and roll in powdered sugar. 

Doughnuts I 

1 cup sugar 4 teaspoons baking powder 

2}^ tablespoons butter 3^ teaspoon cinnamon 

3 eggs 3^ teaspoon grated nutmeg 
1 cup milk \}4 teaspoons salt 

Flour to roll 

Cream the butter, and add one-half sugar. Beat egg until 
light, add remaining sugar, and combine mixtures. Add 
three and one-haif cups flour, mixed and sifted with balding 
powder, salt, and spices ; then enough more flour to make 
dough stiff enough to roll. Toss one-third of mixture on 
floured board, knead slightly, pat, and roll out to one-fourth 
inch thickness. Shape with a doughnut cutter, fry in deep 
fat, take up on a skewer, and drain on brown paper. Add 
trimmings to one-half remaining mixture, roll, shape, and 
fry as before; repeat. Doughnuts should come quickly to 
top of fat, brown on one side, than be turned to brown on 
the other ; avoid turning more than once. The fat must be 
kept at a uniform temperature. If too cold, doughnuts will 
absorb fat; if too hot, doughnuts will brown before suflS- 
ciently risen. See rule for testing fat. 

Doughnuts II 

4 cups flour ^ teaspoon cinnamon 
\% teaspoons salt ^ tablespoon butter 
\% teaspoons soda 1 cup sugar 

\% teaspoons cream of tartar 1 cup sour milk 
3^ teaspoon grated nutmeg 1 eg^ 

Put flour in shallow pan ; add salt, soda, cream of tartar, 
and spices. Work in butter with tips of fingers ; add sugar, 
egg well beaten, and sour milk. Stir thoroughly, and tosf 



BISCUITS, BREAKFAST CAKES, ETC. 83 

on board thickly dredged with flour; knead slightly, using 
more flour if necessary. Pat and roll out to one-fourth inch 
thickness ; shape, fry, and drain. Sour-milk doughnuts may 
be turned as soon as they come to top of fat, and frequently 
afterwards. 

Doughnuts III 

2 cups sugar 2 teaspoons soda 

4 eggs 2 teaspoons salt 

1^ cups sour milk 2 teaspoons baking powder 

4 tablespoons melted butter 1 teaspoon grated nutmeg 

Flour 

Mix ingredients in order given ; shape, fry, and drain. 

Crullers 

^ cup butter 4 cups flour 

1 cup sugar ^ teaspoon grated nutmeg 

Yolks 2 eggs 3)^ teaspoons baking powder 

Whites 2 eggs 1 cup milk 

Powdered sugar and cinnamon 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, yolks of eggs well 
beaten, and whites of eggs beaten stiff. Mix flour, nutmeg, 
and baking powder ; add alternately with milk to first mix- 
ture; toss on floured board, roll thin, and cut in pieces three 
inches long by two inches wide ; make four one-inch parallel 
gashes crosswise at equal intervals. Take up by running 
finger in and out of gashes, and lower into deep fat. Fry 
same as Doughnuts I. 

Strawberry Short Cake I 

2 cups flour 2 teaspoons sugar 

4 teaspoons baking powder ^ cup milk 

3^ teaspoon salt ^ cup butter 

Mix dry ingredients, sift twice, work in butter with tips 
of fingers, and add milk gradually. Toss on floured board, 
divide in two parts. Pat, roll out, and bake twelve minutes 
in a hot oven in buttered Washington pie or round layer cake 
tins. Split, and spread with butter. Sweeten strawberries 
to taste, place on back of range until warmed, crush slightly, 
and put between and on top of Short Cakes ; cover top with 
Cream Sauce L 



84 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Straw^berry Short Cake II 

2 cups flour 1 tablespoon sugar 

4 teaspoons baking powder y^ cup butter 

% teaspoon salt ^ cup milk 

Mix same as Strawberry Short Cake I. Toss and roll on 
floured board. Put in round buttered tin, and shape with 
back of hand to fit pan. 

Rich Strawberry Short Cake 

2 cups flour Few grains nutmeg 

)^ cup sugar 1 egg 

4 teaspoons baking powder K ^^P butter 

% teaspoon salt i^ cup milk 

Mix dry ingredients and sift twice, work in shortening 
with tips of fing^ers, add egg well beaten, and milk. Bake 
same as Strawberry Short Cake II. Split cake and spread 
under layer with Cream Sauce II. Cover with strawberries 
which have been sprinkled with powdered sugar; again 
spread with sauce, and cover with upper layer. 

Fruit Short Cake 

^ cup butter ^ cup milk 

}^ cup sugar 1 cup flour 

1 egg 2 teaspoons baking powder 

^ teaspoon salt 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and Qgg well 
beaten. Mix and sift flour, baking powder, and salt, adding 
alternately with milk to first mixture. Beat thoroughly, and 
bake in a buttered round tin. Cool, spread thickly with 
sweetened fruit, and cover with Cream Sauce I or II. 
Fresh strawberries, peaches, apricots, raspberries, or canned 
quince or pineapple may be used. When canned goods are 
used, drain fruit from syrup and cut in pieces. Dilute 
cream for Cream Sauce with fruit syrup in place of milk. 

Any shortcake mixture may be made for individual ser- 
vice by shaping with a large biscuit cutter ; or mixture may 
be baked in a shallow cake pan, centre removed and filled 
with fruit, and pieces baked separately to introduce to 
represent handles. 



CEREALS 



85 



CHAPTER VI 
CEREALS 

CEREALS (cultivated grasses) rank first among vege- 
table foods; being of hardy growth and easy culti- 
vation, they are more widely diffused over the globe than 
any of the flowering plants. They include wheat, oats, 
rye, barley, maize (Indian corn), and rice ; some authori- 
ties place buckwheat among them. Wheat probably is the 
most largely consumed ; next to wheat, comes rice. 



TABLE SHOWING COMPOSITION 



Water 

7.2 

12.9 
11.6 
12.5 
12.1 
11.8 
10.8 
12.7 
12.4 
14.3 
10,8 
Department of Agriculture ^ Washington, D. C, 





Proteid 


Fat 


Starch 


Mineral 
matter 


Oatmeal .... 


. 15.6 


7.3 


68.0 


1.9 


Corn meal .... 


. 8.9 


2.2 


75.1 


0.9 


Wheat flour (spring) 


. 11.8 


1.1 


75.0 


0.5 


Wheat flour (winter) 


. 10.4 


1.0 


75.6 


0.5 


Entire wheat flour . 


14.2 


1.9 


70.6 


1.2 


Graham flour . . . 


13.7 


2.2 


70.3 


2.0 


Pearl barley . . . 


9.3 


1.0 


77.6 


1.3 


Rye meal .... 


7.1 


0.9 


78.5 


0.8 


Rice 


7.8 


0.4 


79.4 


0.4 


Buckwheat flour . . . 


6.1 


1.0 


77.2 


1.4 


Macaroni .... 


11.7 


1.6 


72.9 


3.0 



Macaroni, spaghetti, and vermicelli are made from wheaten 
flour, rich in gluten, moistened to a stiff dough with water, 
and forced through small apertures in an iron plate by 
means of a screw press. Various Italian pastes are made 
from the same mixture. Macaroni is manufactured to 
some extent in this country, but the be^w comes from Italy, 



86 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Lagana and Pejero, being the favorite brand. When maca- 
roni is colored, it is done by the use of saffron, not by eggs, 
as is generally supposed. The only egg macaroni is manu- 
factured in strips, and comes from Minneapolis. 

Macaroni is valuable food, as it is very cheap and nutri- 
tious ; but being deficient in fat, it should be combined with 
cream, butter, or cheese, to make a perfect food. 

From cereals many preparations are made, used alone, or 
in combination with other food products. From rice is made 
rice flour ; from oats, oatmeal, and oats steam-cooked and 
rolled. There are many species of corn, the principal 
varieties being white, yellow, and red. From corn is made 
corn meal, — both white and yellow, — cornstarch, hominy, 
maizena, cerealine, samp, and hulled corn ; from wheat, 
wheaten or white flour, and a variety of breakfast foods. 
Rye is used for flakes, meal, and flour ; barley, for flour and 
pearl barley. Buckwheat, throughout the United States, is 
used only when made into flour for buckwheat cakes. 

For family use, cereals should be bought in small quanti- 
ties, and kept in glass jars, tightly covered. Many cereal 
preparations are on the market for making breakfast mushes, 
put up in one and two pound packages, with directions for 
cooking. In nearly all cases, time allowed for cooking is 
not sufficient, unless dish containing cereal is brought in 
direct contact with fire, which is not the best way. Mushes 
should be cooked over hot water after the first five minutes ; 
if a double boiler is not procurable, improvise one. Boiling 
water and salt should always be added to cereals, allowing 
one teaspoon salt to each cup of cereal, — boiled to soften 
cellulose and swell starch grains, salted to give flavor. 
Indian meal and finely ground preparations should be mixed 
with cold water before adding boiling water, to prevent 
lumping. 

TABLE FOR COOKING CEREALS 

Kind Quantity Water Time 

Steam-cooked and > ^y gQ Q^inutes 

rolled oats ^ r^ ^ 



CEREALS 



87 



Kind Quantity 


Water 


Time 


Steam-cooked and ^ 
rolled rye and ^ 1 cup 
wheats ) 






1)^ cups 


20 minutes 






Rice (steamed) . . 1 cup 


2X-3M caps 
(according to 
age of rice) 


45-60 minutes 


Indian meal . . 1 cup 


3>^ cups 


3 hours 


Fine wheat break- ) ^ ^ 
fast foods > 


^K cups 


30 minutes 


Oatmeal (coarse) . 1 cup 


4 cups 


3 hours 


Hominy (fine) . 1 cup 


4 cups 


1 hour 



Oatmeal Mush -v^ith Apples 
Core apples, leaving large cavities ; pare, and cook until 
soft in syrup made by boiling sugar and water together, 
allowing one cup sugar to one and one-half cups water. 
Fill cavities with oatmeal mush ; serve with sugar and 
cream. The syrup should be saved and re-used. Berries, 
sliced bananas, or sliced peaches, are acceptably served with 
any breakfast cereal. 



Cereal with Fruit 



^ cup fine wheat breakfast food 
^ cup cold water 
2 cups boiling water 



1 teaspoon salt 
1^ lb. dates, stoned, and 
cut in pieces 



Mix cereal, salt, and cold water ; add boiling water to 
cereal placed on front of range. Boil five minutes, steam 
in double boiler thirty minutes ; stir in dates, and serve with 
cream. To serve for breakfast, or as a simple dessert. 



Fried Mushes 
Mush left over from breakfast may be packed in greased, 
one pound baking-powder box, and covered, which will pre- 
vent crust from forming. The next morning remove from 
box, slice thinly, dip in flour, and saute. Serve with maple 
syrup. 



88 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Fried Corn Meal Mush, or Pried Hominy- 
Pack corn meal or hominy mush in greased, one pound 
baking-powder boxes, or small bread pan, cool, and cover. 
Cut in thin slices, and saute ; cook slowly, if preferred crisp 
and dry. Where mushes are cooked to fry, use less water 
in steaming. 

Boiled Rice 

1 cup rice 2 quarts boiling water 

1 tablespoon salt 

French Chef 

Pick over rice ; add slowly to boiling, salted water, so as 
not to check boiling of water. Boil thirty minutes, or until 
soft, which may be determined by testing kernels. Old rice 
absorbs much more water than new rice, and takes longer 
for cooking. Drain in coarse strainer, and pour over one 
quart hot water ; return to kettle in which it was cooked ; 
cover, place on back of range, and let stand to dry off, when 
kernels are distinct. When stirring rice, always use a fork 
to avoid breaking kernels. Rice is more satisfactory when 
soaked over night in cold water to cover. 

Steamed Rice 

1 cup rice 2^ to 3)^ cups boiling water 

1 teaspoon salt (according to age of rice) 

Put salt and water in top of double boiler, place on 
range, and add gradually well-washed rice, stirring with 
a fork to prevent adhering to boiler. Boil five minutes, 
cover, place over under part double boiler, and steam forty- 
five minutes, or until kernels are soft ; uncover, that steam 
may escape. When rice is steamed for a simple dessert, 
use one-half quantity of water given in recipe, and steam 
until rice has absorbed water; then add scalded milk for 
remaining liquid. 

To wash rice. Put rice ^n strainer, place strainer over 
bowl nearly full of cold water ; rub rice between hands, lift 
strainer from bowl, and change water. Repeat process three 
or four times, until water is quite clear. 



CEREALS . 89 

Rice -with Cheese 
Steam one cup rice, allowing one tablespoon salt ; cover 
bottom of buttered pudding-dish with rice, dot over with 
three-fourths tablespoon butter, sprinkle with thin shavings 
mild cheese and a few grains cayenne ; repeat until rice and 
one-fourth pound cheese are used. Add milk to half the 
depth of contents of dish, cover with buttered cracker 
crumbs, and bake until cheese melts. 

Rice k la Riston 
Finely chop two thin slices bacon, add to one-half raw 
medium-sized cabbage, finely chopped; cover, and cook 
slowly thirty minutes. Add one- fourth cup rice, boiled, 
one-half teaspoon chopped parsley, and salt and pepper to 
taste. Moisten with one-half cup White Stock, and cook 
fifteen minutes. 

Turkish Pilaf I 

Wash and drain one-half cup rice, cook in one tablespoon 
butter until brown, add one cup boiling water, and steam 
until water is absorbed. Add one and three-fourths cups 
hot stewed tomatoes, cook until rice is soft, and season with 
salt and pepper. 

Turkish Pilaf II 

^ cup washed rice 1 cup Brown Stock, highly 

^ cup tomatoes, stewed and seasoned 

strained 3 tablespoons butter 

Add tomato to stock, and heat to boiling-point ; add rice, 
and steam until rice is soft ; stir in butter with a fork, and 
keep uncovered that steam may escape. Serve in place of a 
vegetable, or as border for curried or fricasseed meat. 

Turkish Pilaf IH 

^ cup rice ^ cup cold cooked chicken cut 

3 tablespoons butter in dice 

J4 cup canned tomatoes White Stock highly seasoned 
Salt and cayenne 

Cook rice in boiling salted water, drain, and pour over hot 
water to thoroughly rinse. Heat omelet pan, add butter. 



90 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

and as soon as butter is melted add rice. Cook three min- 
utes; then add tomatoes, chicken, and enough stock to 
moisten. Cook five minutes, and season highly with salt and 
cayenne. If not rich enough, add more butter. 

Russian Pilaf 

Follow recipe for Turkish Pilaf III, substituting cold 
cooked lamb in place of chicken, and add a chicken's liver 
sauted in butter, then separated into small pieces. 

Hissoto Creole 

8 tablespoons butter 2^ cups highly seasoned 

1 cup rice Brown Stock 

Canned pimentoes 

Melt butter in hot frying-pan, add rice, and stir constantly 
until rice is well browned. Add stock heated to boiling-pointy 
and cook in double boiler until soft. Turn on a serving dish, 
garnish with pimentoes cut in fancy shapes, and cover with 

Creole Sauce. Cook two tablespoons chopped onion, two 
tablespoons chopped green pepper, one tablespoon chopped 
red pepper, or canned pimentoes, and four tablespoons 
chopped fresh mushrooms, with three tablespoons butter, 
five minutes. Add two tablespoons flour, one cup tomatoes, 
one truflSe thinly sliced, one-fourth cup sherry wine, and 
salt to taste. 

. Boiled Macaroni 

^ cup macaroni broken in 2 quarts boiling water 

inch pieces 1 tablespoon salt 

]/^ cup cream 

Cook macaroni in boiling salted water twenty minutes oi 
until soft, drain in strainer, pour over it cold water to pre- 
vent pieces from adhering; add cream, reheat, and season 
with salt. 

Macaroni with White Sauce 

yi, cup macaroni broken in 2 quarts boiling water 

inch pieces 1 tablespoon salt 

\% cups White Sauce 

Cook as for Boiled Macaroni, and reheat in White Sauce. 
Wbite Sauco. Melt two tablespoons batter, add two tabW 



CEBBALS 91 

spoons flour with one-half teaspoon salt, and pour on slowly 
one and one-half cups scalded milk. 

Baked Macaroni 

Put Macaroni with White Sauce in buttered baking dish, 
cover with buttered crumbs, and bake until crumbs are 
brown. 

Baked Macaroni -with Cheese 

Put a layer of boiled macaroni in buttered baking dish, 
sprinkle with grated cheese ; repeat, pour over White Sauce, 
cover with buttered crumbs, and bake until crumbs are 
brown. 

Macaroni -with Tomato Sauce 

Reheat Boiled Macaroni in one and one-half cups of To- 
mato Sauce I, sprinkle with grated cheese, and serve ; or pre- 
pare as Baked Macaroni, using Tomato in place of White 
Sauce. 

Macaroni d I'ltalienne 

% cup macaroni 1% cups Tomato Sauce II 

2 quarts boiling salted water }4. cup giated cheese 

^ onion 2 tablespoons wine 

2 cloves % tablespoon butter 

Cook macaroni in boiling salted water, with butter and 
onion stuck with cloves ; drain, remove onion, reheat in To- 
mato Sauce, add cheese and wine. 

Macaroni, Italian Style 

1 cup macaroni 1% cups scalded inilk 

2 tablespoons butter % cup grated cheese 
2 tablespoons flour Salt and paprika 

1^ cup finely chopped cold boiled ham 

Break macaroni in one-inch pieces and cook in boiling 
salted water, drain, and reheat in sauce made of butter, 
flour, and milk, to which is added cheese. As soon as 
cheese is melted, season with salt and paprika, and turn 
on to a serving dish. Sprinkle with ham, and gwmiaii 
with parsley. 



^2 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Macaroni k la Milanaise 

Cook macaroni as for Macaroni ^ I'ltalienne, reheat in 
Tomato Sauce II, add six sliced mushrooms, two slices 
cooked smoked beef tongue cut in strips, and one-half cup 
grated cheese. 

Spaghetti 

Spaghetti may be cooked in any way in which macaroni is 
cooked, but is usually served with Tomato Sauce. 

It is cooked in long strips rather than broken in pieces ; 
to accomplish this, hold quantity to be cooked in the hand, 
and dip ends in boiling salted water ; as spaghetti softens it 
will bend, and may be coiled under water. 

Knofli 

Beat two eggs slightly and add one-fourth cup milk. Add 
gradually to one cup flour mixed and sifted with one tea- 
spoon salt. Place colander over a kettle of boiling water, 
turn in one-third mixture, and force through colander into 
water, using a potato masher. As soon as buttons come to 
top of water, remove with skimmer to hot vegetable dish, 
and sprinkle with salt and grated cheese ; repeat until mix- 
ture is used. Let stand in oven five minutes, then serve. 





Ravioli 


1}4 cups flour 


^ cup chopped cooked spinach 


Kegg 


legg 


Warm water 


Chicken stock 


^ cup cracker crumbs 


Salt 


}^ cup grated Parmesan cheese Pepper 



Sift flour on a board, make depression in centre, drop in 
one-half egg, and moisten with warm water to a stiff dough. 
Knead until smooth, cover, and let stand ten minutes ; then 
roll as thin as a sheet of paper, using a rolling-pin. Cut in 
strips as long as paste, and two and three-fourth inches wide, 
using a pastry jagger. Mix cracker crumbs, spinach, and 
egg; moisten with stock and season with salt and pepper. 
Put mixture by three-fourths teaspoon on lower half of strips 
of paste, two inches apart. Fold upper part of paste over 



CEREALS 93 

lower part. Press edges together and between mixture with 
tips of thumbs, then cut apart, using pastry jagger. Cook 
ten minutes in the liquor in which a fowl has been cooked, take 
up with skimmer, arrange a layer on hot serving dish, sprin- 
kle generously with grated Parmesan cheese, cover with To- 
mato Sauce ; repeat twice and serve at once. 
Tomato Sauce 

y^ cup butter Few grains pepper 

1 onion, finely chopped 1 small can condensed tomato 

^ teaspoon salt % lb. lean beef 

Cook first four ingredients eight minutes. Add tomato, 
1 pint of water, and beef cut in small pieces, and cook one and 
one-half hours. Remove meat before serving. Ravioli is a 
national Italian dish, and the cheese and condensed tomato 
may be best bought of an Italian grocer. 



94 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER Vn 
EGGS 

COMPOSITION 

Proteid, 14.9 % Mineral matter, 1% 

Fat, 10.6% Water, 73.5% 

EGGS, like milk, form a typical food, inasmuch as they 
contain all the elements, in the right proportion, neces- 
sary for the support of the body. Their highly concentrated, 
nutritive value renders it necessary to use them in combina- 
tion with other foods rich in starch (bread, potatoes, etc.). 
In order that the stomach may have enough to act upon, a 
certain amount of bulk must be furnished. 

A pound of eggs (nine) is equivalent in nutritive value to 
a pound of beef. From this it may be seen that eggs, at 
even twenty-five cents per dozen, should not be freely used 
by the strict economist. Eggs being rich in proteid serve as 
a valuable substitute for meat. In most families, their use 
in the making of cake, custard, puddings, etc., renders them 
almost indispensable. It is surprising how many intelligent 
women, who look well to the affairs of the kitchen, are satis- 
fied to use what are termed " cooking eggs " ; this shows 
poor judgment from an economical standpoint. Strictly 
fresh eggs should always be used if obtainable. An egg 
after the first twenty- four hours steadily deteriorates. If 
exposed to air, owing to the porous structure of the shell, 
there is an evaporation of water, air rushes in, and decom- 
position takes place. 

White of egg contains albumen in its purest form. Al- 
bumen coagulates at a temperature of from 134° to 160° F. 
Herein lies the importance of cooking eggs at a low tempera- 
ture, thus rendering them easy of digestion. Eggs cooked 



EGGS 95 

in boiling water are tough and horny, difficult of digestion, 
and should never be served. 

When eggs come from the market, they should be washed, 
and put away in a cold place. 

"Ways of Determining Freshness of Eggs. I. Hold in front 
of candle flame in dark room, and the centre should look 
clear. 

II. Place in basin of cold water, and they should sink. 

III. Place large end to the cheek, and a warmth should 
be felt. 

"Ways of Keeping Eggs. I. Pack in sawdust, small end 
down. 

II. Keep in lime water. 

III. From July to September a large number of eggs are 
packed, small ends down, in cases having compartments, 
one for each egg, and kept in cold storage. Eggs are often 
kept in cold storage six months, and then sold as cooking 
eggs. 

Boiled Eggs 

Have ready a saucepan containing boiling water. Care- 
fully put in with a spoon the number of eggs desired, cover- 
ing them with water. Remove saucepan to back of range, 
where water will not boil. Cook from six to eighfc minutes 
if liked ''soft-boiled," forty to forty-five if liked "hard- 
boiled." Eggs may be cooked by placing in cold water and 
allowing water to heat gradually until the boiling-point is 
reached, when they will be '^soft boiled." In using hard- 
boiled eggs for making other dishes, when taken from the 
hot water they should be plunged into cold water to prevent, 
if possible, discoloration of yolks. 

Eggs perfectly cooked should be placed and kept in water 
at a uniform temperature of 175° F. 

Dropped Eggs (Poached) 
Have ready a frying-pan two-thirds full of boiling salted 
water, allowing one-half tablespoon salt to one quart of 
water. Put two or three buttered muffin rings in the water. 
Break each egg separately into a saucer, and carefully slip 
into a muffin ring. The water should cover the eggs. When 



96 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

there is a film over the top, and the white is firm, carefully 
remove with a buttered skimmer to circular pieces of but- 
tered toast, and let each person season his own egg with 
butter, salt, and pepper. If cooked for an invalid, garnish 
with four toast-points and a bit of parsley. An egg-poacher 
may be used instead of muffin rings. 

Eggs k la Finnoise 
Dropped Eggs, served with Tomato Sauce I. 
Poached Eggs k la Heine 

Cover circular pieces of toasted bread with sliced fresh 
mushrooms sauted in butter and moistened with cream. 
Poach eggs and arrange on mushrooms. Pour over all 
white sauce to which grated Parmesan cheese has been 
added. Sprinkle with grated cheese and put in oven 
to brown. Garnish with canned pimentoes cut in fancy 
shapes. 

Eggs k la Suisse 

4 eggs Salt 

^ cup cream Pepper 

1 tablespoon butter Cayenne 
2 tablespoons grated cheese 

Heat a small omelet pan, put in butter, and when melted, 
add cream. Slip in the eggs one at a time, sprinkle with 
salt, pepper, and a few grains of cayenne. When whites 
are nearly firm, sprinkle with cheese. Finish cooking, and 
serve on buttered toast. Strain cream over the toast. 

Eggs Susette 

Wash and bake six large potatoes, cut slice from top of 
each, scoop out inside, and mash. To three cups mashed 
potato add six tablespoons finely chopped ham, two table- 
spoons finely chopped parsley, whites of two eggs well 
beaten, three tablespoons butter, four tablespoons cream, 
and salt and pepper. Line potato shells with mixture, place 
in each cavity a poached egg, cover with potato mixture, 
and bake until browned. Care must be taken to have eggs 
clelicatel^ parchecl. 



j&ees 97 

Baked or Shirred Eggs 

Butter an egg-shirrer. Cover bottom and sides with fine 
cracker crumbs. Break an egg into a cup, and carefully 
slip into shirrer. Cover with seasoned buttered crumbs, 
and bake in moderate oven until white is firm and crumbs 
brown. The shirrers should be placed on a tin plate, that 
they may be easily removed from the oven. 

Eggs may be baked in small tomatoes. Cut a slice from 
stem end of tomato, scoop out the pulp, slip in an egg, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, cover with buttered crumbs, 
and bake. 

Eggs k la Tripe 

Serve dropped eggs on Lobster Croquettes (see p> 558) 
shaped in flat round cakes one-half inch thick. Garnish 
with lobster claws and parsley. 

Eggs k la Benedict 

Split and toast English muffins. Saute circular pieces of 
cold boiled ham, place these over the halves of muffins, 
arrange on each a dropped egg, and pour around Hollan- 
daise Sauce II (see p. 274), diluted with cream to make of 
such consistency to pour easily. 

Eggs k la Lee 

Cover circular pieces of toasted bread with thin slices 
cold boiled ham. Arrange on each a dropped egg, and pour 
around 

Mushroom Purfee. Clean one-fourth pound mushrooms, 
break caps in pieces, and saute five minutes in one table- 
spoon butter. Add one cup chicken stock and simmer five 
minutes. Rub through a sieve and thicken with one table- 
spoon each butter and flour cooked together. Season with 
salt and pepper. 

Eggs k la Commodore 

Cut slices of bread in circular pieces and saute in butter. 
Remove a portion of centre, leaving a rim one-fourth inch 
wide. Spread cavity thus made with pate de foie gras 



98 BOSTON COOKING-SCflOOL COOK BOOK 

pur^e, place a poached egg in each and pour over a rich 
brown or Bechamel sauce to which is added a few drops 
vinegar. Garnish with chopped truffles. 

Eggs, "Waldorf Style 

Arrange poached eggs on circular pieces of buttered toast, 
surround with Brown Mushroom Sauce (see p. 268), and 
place a broiled mushroom cap on each egg. 

Poached Eggs with Sauce Bearnaise 

Poach six eggs, arrange in serving dish, cover eggs alter- 
nately with red and yellow sauce, and garnish with parsley. 

Sauce Bearnaise. Beat yolks three eggs slightly, add 
three tablespoons olive oil, two tablespoons hot water, three- 
fourths tablespoon tarragon vinegar, one- fourth teaspoon 
salt, and a few grains cayenne. Cook over boiling water 
until mixture thickens. Color one-half the sauce with Tomato 
Pur^e (tomatoes drained from their liquor, stewed, strained, 
and cooked until reduced to a thick pulp) . 

Scrambled Eggs 

5 eggs }^ teaspoon salt 

J^ cup milk ^ teaspoon pepper 

2 tablespoons butter 

Beat eggs slightly with silver fork ; add salt, pepper, and 
milk. Heat omelet pan, put in butter, and when melted, 
turn in the mixture. Cook until of creamy consistency, 
stirring and scraping from bottom of the pan. 

Scrambled Eggs -with Tomato Sauce 

6 eggs 4 tablespoons butter 

1^ cups tomatoes 1 slice onion 

2 teaspoons sugar i^ teaspoon salt 

}{ teaspoon pepper 

Simmer tomatoes and sugar five minutes ; fry butter and 
onion three minutes ; remove onion, and add tomatoes, 
seasonings, and eggs slightly beaten. Cook same as Scram- 
bled Eggs. Serve with entire wheat bread or brown bread 
toast. 



EGGS 99 

Scrambled Eggs with Anchovy Toast 

Spread thin slices of buttered toast with anchovy paste. 
Arrange on platter, and cover with scrambled eggs. 

Eggs k la Buckingham 
Make five slices milk toast, and arrange on platter. Use 
recipe for Scrambled Eggs, having the eggs slightly under- 
done. Pour eggs over toast, sprinkle with four tablespoons 
grated mild cheese. Put in oven to melt cheese, and finish 
cooking eggs. 

Eggs k la Turk 
Prepare Scrambled Eggs, and pour over six slices of 
toasted bread. Put one tablespoon Tomato Puree (see p. 98) 
on each piece, and in the centre of puree one-half tablespoon 
chickens' livers sauted in bacon fat. 

Eggs k la Livingstone 
4 eggs ^ teaspoon paprika 

}^ cup stewed and 2 tablespoons butter 

strained tomatoes Patd de foie gras 

^ teaspoon salt Finely chopped truffles 

Beat eggs slightly, and add tomatoes, salt, and paprika. 
Melt butter in an omelet pan, add seasoned eggs, and cook 
same as Scrambled Eggs. Spread slices of toasted bread 
with pate de foie gras. Pour over the eggs, and sprinkle 
with truffles. 

Scrambled Eggs, Country Style 
Heat omelet pan, put in two tablespoons butter, and 
when melted turn in four unbeaten eggs. Cook until 
white is partially set, then stir until cooking is completed, 
when whites will be thoroughly set. Season with salt and 
pepper. 

Buttered Eggs 
Heat omelet pan. Put in one tablespoon butter; when 
melted, slip in an egg, and cook until the white is firm. 
Turn it over once while cooking. Add more jjutter aa 
needed, using just enough to keep egg from sticking. 



100 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Buttered Eggs with Tomatoes 
Cut tomatoes in one-third inch slices. Sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, dredge with flour, and saute in butter. Serve a 
buttered egg on each slice of tomato. 

Flanked Eggs 

Finely chop cold cooked corned beef or corned tongue; 
ttere should be two-thirds cup. Add an equal quantity of 
fine bread crumbs, moisten with cream and season with salt 
and pepper. Spread mixture on plank, and make nests and 
border of duchess potatoes, using rose tube. Put a buttered 
or poached egg in each nest and put in oven to brown 
potato. Garnish with tomatoes cut in halves and broiled, 
and parsley. Eggs may be sprinkled with buttered cracker 
crumbs, just before sending to oven, if preferred. 

Pried Eggs 

Fried eggs are cooked as Buttered Eggs, without being 

turned. In this case the fat is taken by spoonfuls and 

poured over the eggs. Lard, crisco, pork, ham, or bacon fat 

are usually employed, — a considerable amount being used. 

Eggs k la Goldenrod 

3 " hard-boiled " eggs 3^ teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon butter i^ teaspoon pepper 

1 tablespoon flour 5 slices toast 

1 cup milk Parsley 

Make a thin white sauce with butter, flour, milk, and 
seasonings. Separate yolks from whites of eggs. Chop 
whites finely, and add them to the sauce. Cut four slices of 
toast in halves lengthwise. Arrange on platter, and pour 
over the sauce. Force the yolks through a potato ricer or 
strainer, sprinkling over the top. Garnish with parsley and 
remaining toast, cut in points. 

Eggs au Gratin 
Arrange Dropped Eggs on a shallow buttered dish. 
Sprinkle with grated Parmesan cheese. Pour over eggs one 
pint Yellow Bechamel Sauce. Cover with stale bread 



EGOS 101 

crumbs, and sprinkle with grated cheese. Brown in oven. 
Tomato or White Sauce may be used. 

Eggs in Batter 

1 egg 2 tablespoons fine stale 
1)4 tablespoons thick cream bread crumbs 

)^ teaspoon salt 

Mix cream, bread crumbs, and salt. Put one-half table- 
spoon of mixture in egg-shirrer. Slip in egg, and cover 
with remaining mixture. Bake six minutes in moderate 
oven. 

Curried Eggs I 

3 " hard-boiled *' eggs ^ teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons butter J^ teaspoon curry powder 

2 tablespoons flour i^^ teaspoon pepper 

1 cup hot milk 

Melt butter, add flour and seasonings, and gradually 
hot milk. Cut eggs in eighths lengthwise, and reheat in 
sauce. 

Curried Eggs II 

4 *' hard-boiled " eggs 1 teaspoon curry powder 

2 tablespoons butter i^ teaspoon salt 

}4 tablespoon finely chopped onion }^ teaspoon paprika 

2 tablespoons flour 13^ cups scalded milk 

}{ cup cooked rice 

Chop whites of eggs and add to sauce made of butter, 
flour, seasonings, and milk, then add rice ; heat to boiling- 
point, fill puff paste cases and sprinkle with yolks of eggs 
rubbed through a sieve. 

Scalloped Eggs 

3 " hard-boiled " eggs ^ cup chopped cold meat 

1 pint White Sauce I ^ cup buttered cracker crumbs 

Chop eggs finely. Sprinkle bottom of a buttered baking 
dish with crumbs, cover with one-half the eggs, eggs with 
sauce, and sauce with meat; repeat. Cover with remain- 
ing crumbs. Place in oven on centre grate, and bake until 
crumbs are brown. Ham is the best meat to use for this 
dish. Chicken, veal, or fish may be used. 



102 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Stuffed Eggs 

Cut four " hard-boiled " eggs in halves crosswise ; remove 
yolks, mash, and add two tablespoons grated cheese, one tea- 
spoon vinegar, one-fourth teaspoon mustard, and salt and 
cayenne to taste. Add enough melted butter to make mix- 
ture of the right consistency to shape. Make in balls size 
of original yolks, and refill whites. Arrange on a serving 
dish, pour around one cup White Sauce, cover, and reheat. 

Stuffed Eggs in a Nest 

Cut "hard-boiled" eggs in halves lengthwise. Remove 
yolks, and put whites aside in pairs. Mash yolks, and add 
half the amount of devilled ham and enough melted butter 
to make of consistency to shape. Make in balls size of 
original yolks, and refill whites. Form remainder of mixture 
into a nest. Arrange eggs in the nest, and pour over one 
cup White Sauce I. Sprinkle with buttered crumbs, and 
bake until crumbs are brown. 

Eggs k la Sidney 

Arrange " hard-boiled " eggs, cut in thirds lengthwise, on 
pieces of toasted bread. Pour over eggs Soubiee Sauce. 

Eggs Huntington 

4 " hard-boiled " eggs 3^ cup milk 

1 tablespoon butter i^ teaspoon salt 

1}£ tablespoons flour Few grains cayenne 

}^ cup white stock Grated cheese 

^ cup buttered cracker crumbs 

Make a sauce of the butter, flour, stock, and milk ; add 
eggs finely chopped and salt and cayenne. Fill buttered 
ramequin dishes with mixture, sprinkle with grated cheese, 
cover with cracker crumbs, and bake in a moderate oven 
until crumbs are brown. 

Egg Farci I 

Cut * ' hard-boiled " eggs in halves, crosswise. Remove 
yolks, and put whites aside in pairs. Mash yolks, and add. 



EGGS 103 

equal amount of cold cooked chicken or veal, finely chopped. 
Moisten with melted butter or Mayonnaise. Season to taste 
with salt, pepper, lemon juice, mustard, and cayenne. 
Shape and refill whites. 

Egg Farci H 

Clean and chop two chickens* livers, sprinkle with onion 
juice, and saute in butter. Add the yolks of four "hard- 
boiled " eggs rubbed through a sieve, one teaspoon chopped 
parsley, and salt, pepper, and Tabasco Sauce to taste. 
Refill whites of eggs with mixture, cover with grated cheese, 
and bake until cheese melts. Serve in toast rings and pour 
around Tomato Puree (see p. 98). 

Lucani^in Eggs 

5 "hard-boiled " eggs 1^ cups White Sauce I 

1 cup cooked macaroni Salt and paprika 
3^ cup grated cheese Onion juice 

Essence Anchovy % cup buttered crumbs 

Cut eggs in eighths lengthwise, add macaroni, white 
sauce, and seasonings. Arrange in buttered baking dish, 
cover with buttered crumbs, and bake until crumbs are 
brown. 

Egg Souffle 

2 tablespoons butter 1 cup cream 
2 tablespoons flour 4 eggs 

1 cup milk 1 teaspoon salt 

Few grains cayenne 

Cream the butter, add flour, and pour on gradually scalded 
milk and cream. Cook in double boiler five minutes, and 
add yolks of eggs, beaten until thick and lemon-colored. 
Remove from fire, add seasonings, and fold in whites 
of eggs beaten until stiff and dry. Turn into a buttered 
dish, or buttered individual moulds, set in pan of hot water, 
and bake in a slow oven until firm. Egg Souffle may be 
served with White Sauce I, highly seasoned with celery salt, 
paprika, and onion juice. 



104 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Egg Timbales 

1 tablespoon butter 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

1 tablespoon flour % teaspoon salt 

% cup milk y^ teaspoon pepper 

3 eggs Few grains celery salt 

Few grains cayenne 

Make a sauce of the butter, flour, and milk; add yolks 
beaten until thick and lemon- colored, then add seasonings. 
Beat whites of eggs until stiff and dry, and cut and fold into 
first mixture. Turn into buttered moulds, set in pan of hot 
water, and bake in a slow oven until firm. Serve with 
Tomato Cream Sauce (see page 271). 

Egg Croquettes 

6 eggs Salt 

2 tablespoons butter Pepper 

1 slice onion Yolks 3 eggs 

y^ cup flour Stale bread crumbs 

1 cup white stock Grated cheese 

Poach eggs and dry on a towel. Cook butter with onion 
three minutes. Add flour and, gradually, stock. Season 
with salt and pepper ; then add yolks of eggs slightly beaten. 
Cook one minute, and cool. Cover eggs with mixture, roll 
in bread crumbs and cheese, using equal parts, dip in egg, 
again roll in crumbs, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown 
paper. These may be served with a thin sauce, using equal 
parts of white stock and cream, and seasoning with grated 
cheese, salt, and paprika. 

Eggs k la Juliette 
Decorate egg-shaped individual moulds with truflfles, 
and cold boiled tongue cut in fancy shapes, and pistachio 
nuts blanched and split. Line mould with aspic jelly, 
drop in a poached egg yolk, cover with aspic jelly, let 
stand until firm, and turn on a thin oval slice of cold boiled 
tongue. 

Eggs k la Parisienne 
Butter small timbale moulds, sprinkle with finely chopped 
truffles, parsley, and cooked beets. Break eggs, and slip 




Planked Eggs. — Page 100. 




Plain Omelet. — Page 105. 





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EGGS 105 

one into each mould, sprinkle with salt and pepper, set in 
pan of hot water, and cook until egg is firm. Remove from 
moulds on octagon slices of toast, and pour around Tomato 
Sauce II (see p. 270). 

Eggs Mornay 

Break egg and slip into buttered egg-shirrers, allowing 
one or two eggs to each shirrer, according to size. Cover 
with White Sauce II (see p. 266), seasoned with one-third 
cup grated cheese, paprika, and yolks two eggs ; cover with 
grated cheese and bake until firm. 

Omelets 
For omelets select large eggs, allowing one egg for each 
person, and one tablespoon liquid for each egg. Keep an 
omelet pan especially for omelets, and see that it is kept 
clean and smooth. A frying-pan may be used in place of 
omelet pan. 

Plain Omelet 

4 eggs 4 tablespoons hot water 

3^ teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon butter 

Few grains pepper 1)4 cups Thin White Sauce 

Separate yolks from whites. To yolks add salt, pepper, 
and hot water and beat until thick and lemon-colored. Beat 
whites until stiff, cutting and folding them into first mix- 
ture until they have taken up mixture. Heat omelet pan, 
and butter sides and bottom. Turn in mixture, spread 
evenly, place on range where it will cook slowly, occa- 
sionally turning the pan that omelet may brown evenly. 
When well " puffed " and delicately browned underneath, 
place pan on centre grate of oven to finish cooking the top. 
The omelet is cooked if it is firm to the touch when pressed 
by the finger. If it clings to the finger like the beaten white 
of egg, it needs longer cooking. Fold, and turn on hot plat- 
ter, and pour around one and one-half cups Thin White 
Sauce. 

Milk is sometimes used in place of hot water, but hot 
water makes a more tender omelet. A few grains baking 
powder are used by some cooks to hold up an omelet. 



106 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

To Fold and Turn an Omelet 

Hold an omelet pan by handle with the left hand. With 
a case knife make two one-half inch incisions opposite each 
other at right angles to handle. Place knife under the part 
of omelet nearest handle, tip pan to nearly a vertical posi- 
tion ; by carefully coaxing the omelet with knife, it will 
fold and turp. without breaking. 

Omelet -with Meat or Vegetables 
Mix and cook Plain Omelet. Fold in remnants of finely 
chopped cooked chicken, veal, or ham. Remnants of fish 
may be flaked and added to White Sauce * or cooked peas, 
asparagus, or cauliflower may be added. 

Oyster Omelet 
Mix and cook Plain Omelet. Fold in one pint oysters, 
parboiled, drained from their liquor, and cut in halves. 
Turn on platter, and pour around Thin White Sauce. 

Orange Omelet 

3 eggs 1 teaspoon lemon juice 

2 tablespoons powdered sugar 2 oranges 

Few grains salt % tablespoon butter 

2)^ tablespoons orange juice 

Follow directions for Plain Omelet. Remove skin from 
oranges and cut in slices, lengthwise. Fold in one-third of 
the slices of orange, well sprinkled with powdered sugar ; put 
remaining slices around omelet, and sprinkle with sugar. 

Jelly Omelet 
Mix and cook Plain Omelet, omitting pepper and one-half 
the salt, and adding one tablespoon sugar. Spread before 
folding with jam, jelly, or marmalade. Fold, turn, and 
sprinkle with sugar. 

Bread Omelet 

4 eggs ^ teaspoon salt 

% cup milk % teaspoon pepper 

3^ cup stale bread crumbs 1 tablespoon butter 

Soak bread crumbs fifteen minutes in milk, add beaten 
yolks and seasonings, fold in whites. Cook and serve as 
plain Omelet. 



EGGS 107 

French Omelet 
4 eggs % teaspoon salt 

4 tablespoons milk ^ teaspoon pepper 

2 tablespoons butter 

Beat eggs slightly, just enough to blend yolks and whites, 
add the milk and seasonings. Put butter in hot omelet pan ; 
when melted, turn in the mixture; as it cooks, prick and 
pick up with a fork until the whole is of creamy consistency. 
Place on hotter part of range that it may brown quickly un- 
derneath. Fold, and turn on hot platter. 

Omelet vrith Crofttons 
1 cup bread cut in % inch cubes 4 tablespoons cream 
Butter )4. teaspoon salt 

5 eggs % teaspoon pepper 

Fry cubes of bread in butter until well browned and crisp. 
Beat eggs slightly, add cream, salt, pepper, and croutons. 
Put two tablespoons butter in hot omelet pan, and as soon 
as melted and slightly browned turn in mixture and cook 
same as French Omelet. 

£iggs -with Spinach ^ la Martin 
Cover the centre of a platter with finely chopped and sea- 
soned cooked spinach. Beat three eggs slightly, add three 
tablespoons hot water, one-third teaspoon salt, one table- 
spoon, each, red and green pepper cut in strips, and one 
tablespoon cooked ham cut in very small pieces. Heat 
omelet pan, put in one and one-half tablespoons olive oil, 
and as soon as heated pour in mixture. Cook same- as 
French Omelet and turn on to spinach. Garnish with 
parsley. 

Spanish Omelet 
Mix and cook a French Omelet. Serve with Tomato 
Sauce in the centre and around omelet. 

Tomato Sauce. Cook two tablespoons of butter with one 
tablespoon of finely chopped onion, until yellow. Add one 
and three-fourths cups tomatoes, and cook until moisture has 
nearly evaporated. Add one tablespoon sliced mushrooms, 
one tablespoon capers, one-fourth teaspoon salt, and a few 



108 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

grains cayenne. This is improved by a small piece of red or 
green pepper, finely chopped, cooked with butter and onion. 

Rich Omelet 
2% tablespoons flour 1 cup milk 

% teaspoon salt 3 eggs 

3 tablespoons butter 

Mrs. E. A. Dwinell 

Mix salt and flour, and add gradually milk. Beat eggs until 
thick and lemon-colored, then add to first mixture. Heat 
iron frying-pan and put in two-thirds of the butter; when 
butter is melted, pour in mixture. As it cooks, lift with a 
griddle-cake turner so that uncooked part may run under- 
neath ; add remaining butter as needed, and continue lifting 
the cooked part until it is firm throughout. Place on hotter 
part of range to brown ; roll, and turn on hot platter. 

Omelette Robespierre 
3 eggs 1 tablespoon powdered sugar 

3 tablespoons hot water % teaspoon salt 

}^ teaspoon vanilla 

Beat eggs slightly, and add remaining ingredients. Put 
one and one-half tablespoons butter in a hot omelet pan, 
turn in mixture and cook same as French Omelet. Fold, 
turn on a hot platter, sprinkle with powdered sugar, and 
score with a hot poker. 

Almond Omelet, Caramel Sauce 

3 eggs Few grains salt 

3 tablespoons caramel sauce % teaspoon vanilla 

Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon-colored, add 
caramel, salt, and vanilla, and cut and fold in whites of eggs 
beaten until stiff and dry. Put three-fourths tablespoon but- 
ter in a hot omelet pan, cover bottom of pan with shredded 
almonds, turn in mixture, and cook and fold same as Plain 
Omelet. Pour around 

Caramel Sauce. Pour one cup sugar in omelet pan, and 
stir constantly, over hot part of range, until melted to a light 
brown syrup. Add three-fourths cup hot water, and let 
simmer ten minutes. 



SOUPS 109 



CHAPTER VIII 
SOUPS 

IT cannot be denied that the French excel all nations in 
the excellence of their cuisine, and to their soups and 
sauces belong the greatest praise. It would be well to follow 
their example, and it is the duty of every housekeeper to 
learn the art of soup making. How may a hearty dinner be 
better begun than with a thin soup ? The hot liquid, taken 
into an empty stomach, is easily assimilated, acts as a stim- 
ulant rather than a nutrient (as is the popular opinion), and 
prepares the way for the meal which is to follow. The 
cream soups and purees are so nutritious that, with bread 
and butter, they furnish a satisfactory meal. 

Soups are divided into two great classes: soups with 
stock ; soups without stock. 

Soups with stock have, for their basis, beef, veal, mutton, 
fish, poultry, or game, separately or in combination. They 
are classified as i — 

Bouillon, made from lean beef, delicately seasoned, and 
usually cleared. Exception, — clam bouillon. 

Brown Soup Stock, made from beef (two-thirds lean meat, 
and remainder bone and fat) , highly seasoned with vegeta- 
bles, spices, and sweet herbs. 

White Soup Stock, made from chicken or veal, with deli- 
cate seasonings. 

Consommfe, usually made from two or three kinds of meat 
(beef, veal, and fowl being employed), highly seasoned with 
vegetables, spices, and sweet herbs. Always served clear. 

Lamb Stock, delicately seasoned, is served as mutton 
broth. 

Soups without stock are classified as : — 

Cream Soups, made of vegetables or fish, with milk, and a 
small amount of cream and seasonings. Always thickened. 

Purees, made from vegetables or fish, forced through 



110 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

a strainer, and retained in soup, milk, and seasonijigs. 
Generally thicker than cream soup. Sometimes White Stock 
is added. 

Bisques, generally made from shell-fish, milk, and sea- 
sonings, and served with fish dice ; made similarly to purees. 
They may be made of meat, game, or vegetables, with small 
dice of the same. 

Various names have been given to soups, according to 
their flavorings, chief ingredients, the people who use them, 
etc. To the Scotch belongs Scotch Broth ; to the French, 
Pot>au-feu ; to the Indo, Mulligatawny ; and to the Spanish, 
011a Podrida. 

SOUP MAKING 

The art of soup making is more easily mastered than at 
first appears. The young housekeeper is startled at the 
amazingly large number of ingredients the recipe calls for, 
and often is discouraged. One may, with but little expense, 
keep at hand what is essential for the making of a good 
soup. Winter vegetables — turnips, carrots, celery, and 
onions — may be bought in large or small quantities. The 
outer stalks of celery, often not suitable for serving, should 
be saved for soups. At seasons when celery is a luxury, 
the tips and roots should be saved and dried. Sweet herbs, 
including thyme, savory, and marjoram, are dried and put 
up in packages, retailing from five to ten cents. Bay leaves, 
which should be used sparingly, may be obtained at first- 
class grocers' or druggists' ; seeming never to lose strength, 
they may be kept indefinitely. Spices, including whole 
cloves, allspice berries, peppercorns, and stick cinnamon, 
should be kept on hand. These seasonings, with the addi- 
tion of salt, pepper, and parsley, are the essential flavorings 
for stock soups. Flour, cornstarch, arrowroot, fine tapioca, 
sago, pearl barley, rice, bread, or eggs are added to give 
consistency and nourishment. 

In small families, where there are few left-overs, fresh 
meat must be bought for the making of soup stock, as a 
good soup cannot be made from a small amount of poor 
materiaL On the other hand, large families need seldom 



SOUPS 111 

buy fresh meat, provided all left-overs are properly cared 
for. The soup kettle should receive small pieces of beef 
(roasted, broiled, or stewed), veal, carcasses of fowl or 
chicken, chop bones, bones left from lamb roast, and all 
trimmings and bones, which a careful housewife should see 
are sent from the market with her order. Avoid the use of 
smoked or corned meats, or large pieces of raw mutton or 
lamb surrounded by fat, on account of the strong flavor so 
disagreeable to many. A small piece of bacon or lean ham 
is sometimes cooked with vegetables for flavor. 

Beef ranks first as regards utility and economy in soup 
making. It should be cut from the fore or hind shin (which 
cuts contain marrow-bone), the middle cuts being most de- 
sirable. If the lower part of shin is used, the soup, although 
rich in gelatin, lacks flavor, unless a cheap piece of lean meat 
is used with it, which frequently is done. It must be remem- 
bered that meat, bone, and fat in the right proportions are 
all necessary; allow two-thirds lean meat, the remaining 
one-third bone and fat. From the meat the soluble juices, 
salts, extractives (which give color and flavor), and a small 
quantity of gelatin are extracted ; from the bone, gelatin 
(which gives the stock when cold a jelly-like consistency) 
and mineral matter. Gelatin is also obtained from cartilage, 
^kin, tendons, and ligaments. Some of the fat is absorbed ; 
€he remainder rises to the top and should be removed. 

Soup-stock making is rendered easier by use of proper 
utensils. Sharp meat knives, hardwood board, two puree 
strainers having meshes of different size, and a soup digester 
(a porcelain-lined iron pot, having tight-fitting cover, with 
valve in the top), or covered granite kettle, are essentials. 
An iron kettle, which formerly constituted one of the fur- 
nishings of a range, may be used if perfectly smooth. A 
saw, cleaver, and scales, although not necessary, are useful, 
and lighten labor. 

When meat comes from market, remove from paper and 
put in cool place. When ready to start stock, if scales are 
at hand, weigh meat and bone to see if correct proportions 
have been sent. Wipe meat with clean cheesecloth wrun|[ 
OQt of oold water. Cut leui meat in on^-inoJi cabM ; bj so 



112 BOSTON COOKTKG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

doing, a large amount of surface is exposed to the water, 
and juices are more easily drawn out. Heat frying-pan 
hissing hot ; remove marrow from marrow-bone, and use 
enough to brown one-third of the lean meat, stirring con- 
stantly, that all parts of surface may be seared, thus pre- 
venting escape of juices, — sacrificing a certain amount of 
goodness in the stock to give additional color and flavor, 
which is obtained by caramelization. Put fat, bone, and 
remaining lean meat in soup kettle ; cover with cold water, 
allowing one pint to each pound of meat, bone, and fat. 
Let stand one hour, that cold water may draw out juices 
from meat. Add browned meat, taking water from soup 
kettle to rinse out frying-pan, that none of the coloring may 
be lost. Heat gradually to boiling-point, and cook six or 
seven hours at low temperature. A scum will rise on the 
top, which contains coagulated albuminous juices ; these give 
to soup its chief nutritive value; many, however, prefer a 
clear soup, and have them removed. If allowed to remain, 
when straining, a large part will pass through strainer. 
Vegetables, spices, and salt should be added the last hour 
of cooking. Strain and cool quickly ; by so doing, stock is 
less apt to ferment. A knuckle of veal is often used for 
making white soup stock. Fowl should be used for stock in 
preference to chicken, as it is cheaper, and contains a larger 
amount of nutriment. A cake of fat forms on stock when 
cold, which excludes air, and should not be removed until 
stock is used. To remove fat, run a knife around edge of 
bowl and carefully remove the same. A small quantity will 
remain, which should be removed by passing a cloth wrung 
out of hot water around edge and over top of stock. This 
fat should be clarified and used for drippings. If time can- 
not be allowed for stock to cool before using, take off as 
much fat as possible with a spoon, and remove the remainder 
by passing tissue or any absorbent paper over the surface. 

How to Clear Soup Stock 

Whites of eggs slightly beaten, or raw, lean beef finely 
chopped, are employed fcr clearing soup stock. The al- 



SOUPS 113 

bumen found in each effects the clearing by drawing to itself 
some of the juices which have been extracted from the meat, 
and by action of heat have been coagulated. Some rise to 
the top and form a scum, others are precipitated. 

Remove fat from stock, and put quantity to be cleared in 
stew-pan, allowing white and shell of one egg to each quart 
of stock. Beat egg slightly, break shell in small pieces and 
add to stock. Place on front of range, and stir constantly 
until boiling-point is reached ; boil two minutes. Set back 
where it may simmer twenty minutes; remove scum, and 
strain through double thickness of cheesecloth placed over 
a' fine strainer. If stock to be cleared is not suflSciently sea- 
soned, additional seasoning must be added as soon as stock 
has lost its jelly-like consistency; not after clearing is 
effected. Many think the flavor obtained from a few shav- 
ings of lemon rind an agreeable addition. 

How to Bind Soups 

Cream soups and purees, if allowed to stand, separate, 
unless bound together. To bind a soup, melt butter, and 
when bubbling add an equal quantity of flour ; when well 
mixed add to soup, stirring constantly until boiling-point is 
reached. If recipe calls for more flour than butter, or soup 
is one that should be made in double boiler, add gradually a 
portion of hot mixture to butter and flour until of such con- 
sistency that it may be poured into the mixture remaining in 
double boiler. 

SOTTPS WITH MEAT STOCK 

Bro-wn Soup Stock 

6 lbs. shin of beef 1 sprig marjoram 

3 quarts cold water 2 sprigs parsley 

)4 teaspoon peppercorns Carrot ' 

6 cloves Turnip i^ cup each, 

)4 bay leaf Onion cut in dice 

3 sprigs thyme Celery 
1 tablespoon salt 

Wipe beef, and cut the lean meat in inch cubes. Brown 
one-third of meat in hot frying-pan in marrow from a mar- 
row-bone. Put remaining two-thirds with bone and fat in 

I 



114 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

soup kettle, add water, and let stand for thirty minutes. 
Place on back of range, add browned meat, and heat gradu- 
ally to boiling-point. As scum rises it should be removed. 
Cover, and cook slowly six hours, keeping below boiling-point 
during cooking. Add vegetables and seasonings, cook one 
and one-half hours, strain, and cool as quickly as possible. 

Bouillon 



5 lbs. lean beef from middle 


1 tablespoon salt 


of round 


Carrot 




2 lbs. marrow-bone 


Turnip 


% cup each, 


3 quarts cold water 


Onion 


cut in dice 


1 teaspoon peppercorns 


Celery ^ 





Wipe, and cut meat in inch cubes. Put two-thirds of meat 
in soup kettle, and soak in water thirty minutes. Brown 
remainder in hot frying-pan with marrow from marrow-bone. 
Put browned meat and bone in kettle. Heat to boiling- 
point; skim thoroughly, and cook at temperature below 
boiling-point five hours. Add seasonings and vegetables, 
cook one hour, strain, and cool. Eemove fat, and clear. 
Serve in bouillon cups. 

Tomato Bouillon with Oysters 

1 can tomatoes 6 cloves 

♦ 1% quarts bouillon % teaspoon celery seed 

1 tablespoon chopped onion % teaspoon peppercorns 

% bay leaf 1 pint oysters 

Mix all ingredients except oysters, and boil twenty minutes. 
Strain, cool, and clear. Add parboiled oysters, and serve 
in bouillon cups with small croiitons. 

Iced Bouillon 

Flavor bouillon with sherry or Madeira wine, and serve 
cold. 

Macaifoni Sonp 

1 quart Brown Soup Stock Salt 

^ cup macaroni, broken in Pepper 

half-inch pieces. 

Cook macaroni in boiling salted water until soft. Drain, 
Mid add to itock heated to boiling-point Season with salt 



80XTPS 116 

and pepper. Spaghetti or other Italian pastes may be sub- 
stituted for macaroni. 

Tomato Soup with Stock 



1 quart Brown Soup Stock 
1 can tomatoes 


1^ cup flour 
Onion 


% teaspoon peppercorns 
1 small bay leaf 
3 cloves 


Carrot 
Celery 
Raw ham 


% cup each 
cut in dice 


3 sprigs thyme 

4 tablespoons butter 


Salt 
Pepper 





Cook onion, carrot, celery, and ham in butter five minutes, 
add flour, peppercorns, bay leaf, cloves, and thyme, and 
cook three minutes ; then add tomatoes, cover, and cook 
slowly one hour. When cooked in oven it requires less 
watching. Rub through a strainer, add hot stock, and season 
with salt and pepper. 

Turkish Soup 

5 cups Brown Soup Stock 2 slices onion 

^ cup rice 10 peppercorns 

\% cups stewed and strained y^ teaspoon celery salt 

tomatoes 2 tablespoons butter 

Bit of bay leaf \% tablespoons flour 

Cook rice in Brown Stock until soft. Cook bay leaf, onion, 
peppercorns, and celery salt with tomatoes thirty minutes. 
Combine mixtures, rub through sieve, and bind with butter 
and flour cooked together. Season with salt and pepper if 
needed. 

Creole Soup 

1 quart Brown Soup Stock Salt , 

1 pint tomatoes Pepper 
3 tablespoons chopped green Cayenne 

peppers 2 tablespoons grated 

2 tablespoons chopped onion horseradish 
1^ cup butter 1 teaspoon vinegar 

y^ cup flour )/^ cup macaroni rings 

Cook pepper and onion in butter five minutes. Add flour, 
stock, and tomatoes, and simmer fifteen minutes. Straiiii 



p >■ cut in small pieces 



116 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

rub through sieve, and season highly with salt, pepper, and 
cayenne. Just before serving add horseradish, vinegar, and 
macaroni previously cooked and cut in rings. 

Julienne Soup 
To one quart clear Brown Soup Stock, add one-fourth cup 
each carrot and turnip, cut in thin strips one and one-half 
inches long, previously cooked in boiling salted water, and 
two tablespoons, each, cooked peas and string beans. Heat 
to boiling-point. 

Dinner Soup 

3)^ lbs. lean beef from round 2 tablespoons butter 

2 lbs. marrow-bone Carrot ? ^, ^,^^ ^^ , 

, , . m . r K cup, eacn 

2 qts. cold water Turnip ^ ^^ ^' 

1 can tomatoes 

1 teaspoon peppercorns 

1 tablespoon salt 1 sprig parsley 

1 tablespoon lean raw ham, )^ bay leaf 

finely chopped 

Wipe meat and cut in inch cubes. Put one-half in kettle 
with marrow-bone, water, and tomatoes. Brown remaining 
half in hot frying-pan with some marrow from bone, then 
turn into kettle. Heat slowly to boiling-point, and cook at 
temperature just below boiling-point five hours. 

Cook ham and vegetables with butter five minutes, then 
add to soup with peppercorns, salt, parsley, and bay leaf. 
Cook one and one-half hours, strain, cool quickly, remove 
fat, and clear. 

Bortchock Soup 

6 lbs. shin of beef 2 sprigs parsley 

3 qts. cold water 2 stalks celery 

1 cup carrot cubes 1 beet finely cut 

% cup sliced onion 1 tablespoon salt 

6 cloves 1 teaspoon peppercorns' 

1 allspice berry 2 tablespoons butter 

Prepare and cook beef same as for Bouillon. Cook 
vegetables in butter five minutes; then add to soup 
with remaining seasonings. Cook one and one-half hours, 
•train, cool quickly, remove fat, and clear. When ready 



sotrps 117 

to clear, add one cup finely chopped raw beet and one-fourth 
cup vinegar. Select red beets for this soup, and serve as 
soon as possible after clearing, otherwise it will lose its 
bright red color, which makes the dish especially appropriate 
for an American Beauty Dinner. 

Ox-tail Soup 

1 small ox-tail % teaspoon salt 

6 cups Browu Stock Few grains cayenne 

Carrot ? j^ cup each, cut in J^ cup Madeira wine 

Turnip S fancy shapes 1 teaspoon Worcestershire 

Onion > % ^^V each, cut in Sauce 

Celery { small pieces 1 teaspoon lemon juice 

Cut ox-tail in small pieces, wash, drain, sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, dredge with flour, and fry in butter ten minutes. 
Add to Brown Stock, and simmer one hour. Then add vege- 
tables, which have been parboiled twenty minutes ; simmer 
until vegetables are soft, add salt, cayenne, wine, Worcester- 
shire Sauce, and lemon juice. 

Scotch Soup 

8 lbs. mutton from fore-quarter % onion 

2 qts. cold water i^ cup flour 

y^ tablespoon salt P . 1 )^ cup, each, 

% teaspoon pepper r^^^^. \ cut in small 

2 slices turnip urnipj ^^^^ 

2 tablespoons pearl' barley 

Wipe meat, remove skin and fat, and cut meat in small 
pieces. Add water, heat gradually to boiling-point, skim, 
and cook slowly two hours. After cooking one hour, add 
salt, pepper, turnip, and onion. Strain, cool, remove fat, 
reheat, and thicken with flour diluted with enough cold 
water to pour easily. Cook carrot and turnip dice in boil- 
ing salted water until soft ; drain, and add to soup. Soak 
barley over night, in cold water, drain, and cook in boiling 
salted water until soft; drain, and add to soup. If bar- 
ley should be cooked in the soup, it would absorb the 
greater part of the stock. Barley may be omitted; in 
that case sprinkle with finely chopped parsley and serve 
with crotitoug. 



118 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

"White Soup Stock I 

3 lbs. knuckle of veal 1 large stalk celery 

1 lb. lean beef % teaspoon peppercoma 

3 quarts boiling water % bay leaf 

1 onion 2 sprigs thyme 
6 slices carrot 2 cloves 

French Chef 

Wipe veal, remove from bone, and cut in small pieces ; 
cut beef in pieces, put bone and meat in soup kettle, covei 
with cold water, and bring quickly to boiling-point; drain, 
throw away the water. Wash thoroughly bones and meat 
in cold water ; return to kettle, add vegetables, seasonings, 
and three quarts boiling \7ater. Boil three or four hours ; 
the stock should be reduced one half. 

White Soup Stock II 

4 lbs. knuckle of veal % teaspoon peppercorns 

2 quarts cold water 1 onion 

1 tablespoon salt 2 stalks celery 

Blade of mace 

Wipe meat, remove from bone, and cut in small pieces. 
Put meat, bone, water, and seasonings in kettle. Heat 
gradually to boiling-point, skimming frequently. Simmer 
four or five hours, and strain. If scum has been carefully 
removed, and soup is strained through double thickness of 
cheesecloth, stock will be quite clear. 

White Soup Stock III 
The water in which a fowl or chicken is cooked makes 
White Stock. 

Chicken Soup ^vith Wine 

3 lb. fowl 1 onion, sliced 

2 quarts cold water 2 stalks celery 
2 slices carrot Bit of bay leaf 

1 tablespoon salt 2 tablespoons Sauterne wine 

% teaspoon peppercorns 1 teaspoon beef extract 
1 cup cream Salt Pepper 

Wipe and cut up fowl. Cover with water, and add car- 
rot, salt, peppercornsy onion, celery, and bay leaf. Bring 



SOUPS ,119 

quickly to boiling-point, then let simmer until meat is tender. 

Remove meat and strain stock. Chill, remove fat, reheat, 

and add wine, beef extract, and cream. Season with salt 

and pepper. 

« 
French "WTiite Soup 

4 lb. fowl yi teaspoon peppercorns 

Knuckle of veal % tablespoon salt 

3 qts. cold water 1 tablespoon lean raw ham, 

1 onion, sliced finely chopped 

6 slices carrot 4 tablespoons butter 

y^ bay leaf 3 tablespoons flour 

1 sprig parsley 1 cup cream 

y^ teaspoon thyme Yolks 2 eggs 

Wipe, clean, and disjoint fowl. Wipe veal, remove from 
bone, and cut in small pieces. Put meat, bone, and water 
in kettle, heat slowly to boiling-point, skim, and cook slowly 
four hours. Cook vegetables and ham in one tablespoon 
butter five minutes, add to soup with peppercorns and salt, 
and cook one hour. Strain, cool, and remove fat. Reheat 
three cups stock, thicken with remaining butter and flour 
cooked together, and just before serving add cream and egg 
yolks. Garnish with one-half cup cooked green peas and 
Chicken Custard cut in dice. 

White Soup 

5 cups White Stock III 2 cups scalded milk 

1^ tablespoon salt 3 tablespoons butter 

yi teaspoon peppercorns 4 tablespoons flour 

1 slice onion Yolks 2 eggs 

1 stalk celery Salt and pepper 

Add seasonings to stock, and simmer thirty minutes: 
strain, and thicken with butter and flour cooked together; 
add scalded milk. Dilute eggs, slightly beaten, with hot 
soup, and add to remaining soup; strain, and seasoji with 
salt and pepper. Serve at once or soup will have a curdled 
appearance. 



190 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Chicken Soup 

6 cups White Stock III 2 stalks celery 

1 tablespoon lean raw ham, y^ bay leaf 

finely chopped 3€ teaspoon peppercorns 

6 slices carrot, cut in cubes 1 sliced onion 

3^ cup hot boiled rice 

Add seasonings to stock, heat gradually to boiling-point, 
and boil thirty minutes ;. strain, and add rice. 

Turkey Soup 

Break turkey carcass in pieces, removing all stuffing; 
put in kettle with any bits of meat that may have been left 
over. Cover with cold water, bring slowly to boiling-point, 
and simmer two hours. Strain, remove fat, and season 
with salt and pepper. One or two outer stalks of celery may 
be cooked with carcass to give additional flavor. 

Hygienic Soup 

6 cups White Stock III 2 tablespoons butter 

1^ cup oatmeal 2 tablespoons flour 

2 cups scalded milk Salt and pepper 

Heat stock to boiling-point, add oatmeal, and boil one 
hour ; rub through sieve, add milk, and thicken with butter 
and flour cooked together. Season with salt and pepper. 

Farina Soup 

4 cups White Stock III 1 cup cream 

^ cup farina Few gratings of nutmeg 

2 cups scalded milk Salt and pepper 

Heat stock to boiling-point, add farina, and boil fifteen 
minutes ; then add milk, cream, and seasonings. 

Spring Soup 

1 quart White Stock I or II 1 cup milk 

1 large onion thinly sliced 1 cup cream 

3 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons flour 
% cup stale baker's bread Salt and pepper 

Cook onion fifteen minutes in one tablespoon butter ; add 
to stoclf, with bread broken in pieces. Simmer one hour j 



S0tT1?S 121 

rub through sieve. Add milk, and bind with remaining but- 
ter and flour cooked together; add cream, and season. 

Duchess Soup 

4 cups White Stock III ^ cup butter 

2 slices carrot, cut in cubes ^ cup flour 

2 slices onion 1 teaspoon salt 

2 blades mace ^ teaspoon pepper 

}£ cup grated mild cheese 2 cups scalded milk 

Cook vegetables three minutes in one and one-half table- 
spoons butter, then add stock and mace; boil fifteen min- 
utes, strain, and add milk. Thicken with remaining butter 
and flour cooked together; add salt and pepper. Stir in 
cheese, and serve as soon as cheese is melted. 

Potage k la Heine 

4 cups White Stock III 3^ cup cracker crumbs 

^ teaspoon peppercorns Breast meat from a boiled 
1 stalk celery chicken 

1 slice onion 2 cups scalded milk 

)4 tablespoon salt }£ cup cold milk 

Yolks 3 " hard-boiled " eggs 3 tablespoons butter 
3 tablespoons flour 

Cook stock with seasonings twenty minutes. Rub yolks 
of eggs through sieve. Soak cracker crumbs in cold milk 
until soft ; add to eggs. Chop meat and rub through sieve ; 
add to egg and cracker mixture. Then pour milk on slowly, 
and add to strained stock ; boil three minutes. Bind with 
butter and flour cooked together. 

Royal Soup 

1 cup stale bread crumbs 1)4 cups scalded milk 

3^ cup milk S)4 cups White 
Yolks 3 " hard-boiled '* eggs Stock III 

Breast meat from a boiled chicken 2>^ tablespoons butter 

Salt and pepper 2)4 tablespoons flour 

Soak bread crumbs in milk, add yolks of eggs rubbed 
through a sieve and chicken meat also rubbed through a 
sieve. Add gradually milk, and chicken stock highly 
seasoned. Bind with butter and flour cooked together, 
imd season with salt and pepper. 



122 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

! 

St. Germain Soup 

3 cups White Stock I, II, or III Blade of mace 

1 can Marrowfat peas 2 teaspoons sugar 

1 cup cold water 1 teaspoon salt 

% onion % teaspoon pepper 

Bit of bay leaf 2 tablespoons butter 

Sprig of parsley 2 tablespoons cornstarch 

1 cup milk 

Draia and rinse peas, reserving one-third cup ; put re- 
maindt^r in cold water with seasonings, and simmer one-half 
hour ; rub through sieve and add stock. Bind with butter 
and cornstarch cooked together; boil five minutes. Add 
milk and reserved peas. 

Imperial Soup 

4 cups White Stock III % teaspoon peppercorns 

2 cups stale bread crumbs Bit of bay leaf 
2 stalks celery, broken in pieces Blade of mace 

2 slices carrot, cut in cubes 1 teaspoon salt 

1 small onion )^ breast boiled chicken 

3 tablespoons butter y^ cup blanched almonds 
Sprig of parsley 1 cup cream 

2 cloves % cup milk 

2 tablespoons flour 

Cook celery, carrot, and onion in one tablespoon butter 
five minutes; tie in cheesecloth with parsle5^ cloves, pepper- 
corns, bay leaf, and mace ; add to stock with salt and bread 
crumbs, simmer one hour, remove seasonings, and rub 
through a sieve. Chop chicken meat and rub through sieve ; 
pound almonds to a paste, add to chicken, then add cream. 
Combine mixtures, add milk, reheat, and bind with remain- 
ing butter and flour cooked together. 

Veal and Sago Soup 

2>^ lbs. lean veal 2 cups scalded milk 

3 quarts cold water Yolks 4 eggs 

}^ lb. pearl sago Salt and pepper 

Order meat from market, very finely chopped. Pick 
OT«r and ramove particles of fat Cover meat with watsr^ 



SOUPS 128 

bring slowly to boiling-point, and simmer two hours, skim- 
ming occasionally ; strain and reheat. Soak sago one-half 
hour in enough cold water to cover, stir into hot stock, boil 
thirty minutes, and add milk ; then poUr mixture slowly 
on yolks of eggs, slightly beaten. Season with salt and 
pepper. 

Asparagus Soup 

3 cups White Stock II or III i^ cup butter 

1 can asparagus )^ cup flour 

2 cups cold water 2 cups scalded milk 
1 slice onion Salt and pepper 

Drain and rinse asparagus, reserve tips, and add stalks to 
cold water ; boil five minutes, drain, add stock, and onion ; 
boil thirty minutes, rub through sieve, and bind with butter 
and flour cooked together. Add salt, pepper, milk, and 
tips. 

Cream of Celery Soup 

2 cups White Stock II or III 3 tablespoons flour 

3 cups celery, cut in inch pieces 2 cups milk 
2 cups boiling water 1 cup cream 

1 slice onion Salt 

2 tablespoons butter Pepper 

Parboil celery in water ten minutes; drain, add stock, 
cook until celery is soft, and rub through sieve. Scald 
onion in milk, remove onion, add milk to stock, bind, add 
cream, and season with salt and pepper. 

Spinach Soup 

4 cups White Stock II or III j^ cup butter 

2 quarts spinach }{ cup floor 

3 cups boiling water Salt 

2 cups milk Pepper 

Wash, pick over, and cook spinach thirty minutes in 
boiling water to which has been added one-foarth tea- 
spoon powdered sugar and one-eighth teaspoon of soda; 
drain, chop, and rub through sieve; add stock, heat to 
boiling-point, bind, add milk, And season with salt and 
pepper. 



124 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Cream of Lettuce Soup 

2% cups White Stock IT or III 1 tablespoon butter 

2 heads lettuce finely cut Yolk 1 egg 

2 tablespoons rice Few grains nutmeg 

3^ cup cream Salt 

J^ tablespoon onion, finely chopped Pepper 

Cook onion five minutes in butter, add lettuce, rice, and 
,«tock. Cook until rice is soft, then add cream, yolk of egg 
slightly beaten, nutmeg, salt, and pepper. Remove outer 
leaves from lettuce, using only tender part for soup. 

Mushroom Soup 

% lb. mushrooms 1 cup boiling water 

4 cups White Stock III 1 cup heavy cream 

^ cnp pearl sago Yolks 2 eggs 

Salt and pepper 

Clears and chop mushrooms, and add to stock. Cook 
twenty minutes and rub through a sieve. Cook sago in 
boiling water thirty minutes, add to stock, and as soon as 
boiling-point is reached, season with salt and pepper ; then 
«idd cream and yolks of eggs. 

Creeun of Mushroom Soup 

% lb. mushrooms i^ cup flour 

4 cups White Stock III 1 cup cream 

1 slice onion Salt 

^ cup butter Pepper 

2 tablespoons Sauterne 

Chop mushrooms, add to White Stock with onion, cook 
twenty minutes, and rub through a sieve. Reheat, bind 
with butter and flour cooked together, then add cream and 
salt and pepper to taste. Just before serving add wine. 

Cream of Watercress Soup 

2 cups White Stock I, II or III % cup milk 

2 bunches watercress Yolk 1 egg 

3 tablespoons butter Salt 

2 tablespoons flour Pepper 

Cut finely leaves of watercress ; cook five minutes in two 
tablespoons butter, add stock, and boil five minutes. Thickea 



sotrps 125 

with butter and flour cooked together, add salt and pepper. 
Just before serving, add milk and egg yolk, slightly beaten. 
Serve with slices of French bread, browned in oven. 

Cream of Cauliflower Soup 

4 cups hot White Stock II or III % bay leaf 

1 cauliflower i^ cup flour 

^ cup butter 2 cups milk 

1 slice onion Salt 

1 stalk celery, cut in inch pieces Pepper 

Soak cauliflower, head down, one hour in cold water to 
cover ; cook in boiling salted water twenty minutes. Reserve 
one-half flowerets, and rub remaining cauliflower through 
sieve. Cook onion, celery, and bay leaf in butter five min- 
utes. Remove bay leaf, then add flour, and stir into hot 
stock ; add cauliflower and milk. Season with salt and 
pepper; then strain, add flowerets, and reheat. 

Cucumber Soup 

3 large cucumbers 1 slice onion 

2 tablespoons butter 2 blades mace 

3 tablespoons flour y^ cup cream 
3 cups White Stock III Yolks 2 eggs 

1 cup milk Salt and pepper 

Peel cucumbers, slice, and remove seeds. Cook in butter 
ten minutes; then add flour and stock. Scald milk with 
onion and mace. Combine mixtures and rub through a 
sieve. Reheat to boiling-point and add cream and egg yolks. 
Season with salt and pepper. 

Almond Soup 

% cup almonds 3 stalks celery 

6 bitter almonds 3 tablespoons butter 

4 tablespoons cold water 3 tablespoons flour 

^ teaspoon salt 2 cups scalded milk 

3 cups White Stock III 1 cup cream 

1 small onion Salt and pepper 

Blanch, chop, and pound almonds in a mortar. Add 
gradually water and salt; then add stock, sliced onion, and 
celery, let simmer one hour, and rub through a sieve. Melt 



126 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

butter, add four, and pour on gradually the hot liquor ; then 
add milk, cream, and salt and pepper to taste. Serve with 
Mock Almonds (see p. 146), 

String Bean Soup 
4 cups White Stock I, II, or III y^ cup flour 

2 quarts string beans i^ cup butter 

2 cups scalded milk . Salt and pepper 

Cook beans until soft in boiling salted water to cover; 
drain, and rub through sieve. Add pulp to White Stock, 
then milk ; bind, and season with salt and pepper. Garnish 
with Fritter Beans. 

Soup k la Soubiae 

Thinly slice two Spanish onions, and cook ten minutes in 
one-fourth cup butter, stirring constantly. Add one quart 
White Stock III, cook slowly thirty minutes, and strain. 
Dilute three tablespoons flour with enough cold water to pour 
easily, add to soup, and bring to boiling-point. Then add 
one cup cream, and one tablespoon chopped green peppers, 
or one-fourth cup grated cheese. Season with salt and 
pepper. 

Chestnut Pur^e 

4 cups White Stock II or III 2 cups scalded milk 

2 cups French chestnuts, ^ cup butter 

boiled and mashed ^ cup flour 

1 slice onion ' Salt 

^ teaspoon celery salt Pepper 

Cook stock, chestnuts, onion, and celery salt ten minutes ; 
rub through sieve, add milk, and bind. Season with salt and 
pepper. 

Crab Soup 

6 hard-shelled crabs 2 tablespoons butter 

3 cups White Stock III 2 tablespoons flour 

% cup stale bread crumbs 1 cup cream 

1 slice onion Salt 

. 1 sprig parsley Cayenne 

Remove meat from crabs, and chop finely. Add stock, 
bread crumbs, onion, and parsley, and simmer twenty min- 
utes. Rub through a sieve, bind with butter and flour cooked 



SOUPS 127 

together, then add cream and seasonings. Serve with Pulled 

Bread. 

Philadelphia Pepper Pot 
Sliced onion "j }4. ^' honeycomb tripe. 

Chopped celery I % cup each cut in cubes 

Chopped green peppers J \)4 cups potato cubes 

4 tablespoons butter % teaspoon peppercorns, 
Z% tablespoons flour finely pounded 

5 cups hot White Stock III % tablespoon salt 

% cup heavy cream 

Cook vegetables in three tablespoons butter fifteen min- 
utes ; add flour, and stir until well mixed ; then add remain- 
ing ingredients except cream. Cover, and let cook one hour. 
Just before sewing, add cream and remaining butter. 

Mulligatawny Soup 

5 cups White Stock II ^i cup butter 

1 cup tomatoes % cup flour 

Onion, cut in slices 1 1 teaspoon curry 

Carrot, cut in cubes j- ^ cup each powder 

Celery, cut in cubes J Blade of mace 

1 pepper, finely chopped 2 cloves 

1 apple, sliced Sprig of parsley 

1 cup raw chicken, cut in dice Salt and pepper 

French Chef 

Cook vegetables and chicken in butter until brown ; add 
flour, curry powder, mace, cloves, parsley, stock, and tomato, 
and simmer one hour. Strain, reserve chicken, and rub 
vegetables through sieve. Add chicken to strained soup, 
season with salt and pepper, and serve with boiled rice. 

Mock Turtle Soup 

1 calf's head 2 cups brown stock 
6 cloves M cup butter 

^ teaspoon peppercorns % cup flour 

6 allspice berries 1 cup stewed and strained 

2 sprigs thyme tomatoes 
^ cup sliced onion Juice % lemon 
% cup carrot, cut in dice Madeira wine 

Clean and wash calf's head ; soak one hour in cold water 
to cover. Cook until tender in three quarts boiling salted 



128 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

water (to which seasoning and vegetables have been added). 
Remove head ; boil stock until reduced to one quart. Strain 
and cool. Melt and brown butter, add flour, and stir until 
well browned ; then pour on slowly brown stock. Add head- 
stock, tomato, one cup face-meat cut in dice, and lemon 
juice. Simmer five minutes ; add Royal custard cut in dice, 
and Egg Balls, or Force-meat Balls. Add Madeira wine, and 
salt and pepper to taste. 

Consomm^ 

8 lbs. beef, poorer part of round 2 tablespoons butter 

1 lb. marrow-boue 1 tablespoon salt 

3 lbs. knuckle of veal 1 teaspoon peppercorns 

1 quart chicken stock 4 cloves 

Carrot ] 3 sprigs thyme 

Turnip y % cup each, cut in dice 1 sprig marjoram 

Celery J 2 sprigs parsley 

^ cup sliced onion ^ bay leaf 
3 quarts cold water 

Cut beef in one and one-half inch cubes, and brown one- 
half in some of the marrow from marrow-bone ; put remain- 
ing half in kettle with cold water, add veal cut in pieces, 
browned meat, and bones. Let stand one-half hour. Heat 
slowly to boiling-point, and let simmer three hours, remov- 
ing scum as it forms on top of kettle. Add one quart 
liquor in which a fowl was cooked, and simmer two hours. 
Cook carrot, turnip, onion, and celery in butter five min- 
utes; then add to soup, with remaining seasonings. Cook 
one and one-half hours, strain, cool quickly, remove fat, 

and clear. 

Consomm6 k la Royal 

Consummd, served with Royal custard. 

Consomm^ an Parmesan 
Consumme, served with Parmesan Pate k Chou. 

Consomm^ Colbert 
To six cups Consomm^ add one-third cup each of cooked 
green peas, flageolets, carrots cut in small cubes, and celery 
cut in small pieces, Serve a poached eg^ in each plate Q^ 
«9ttp. 



SOUPS 129 

Consomm^ aux F&tes 
Consomme, served with noodles, macaroni, spaghetti, or 
any Italian pastes, first cooked in boiling salted water. 

Consomm^ d'Orleans 
Consomm6, served with red and white quenelles and 
French peas. 

Consomme with Vegetables 
Consomme, served with French string beans, and cooked 
carrots cut in fancy shapes with French vegetable cutters. 

Consomm^ Princess 
Consomme, served with green peas and cooked chicken 
meat cut in small dice. 

Claret Consomm6 
To one quart Consomme add one and one-half cups 
claret, which has been cooked with a three-inch piece stick 
cinnamon ten minutes and one tablespoon sugar. Color 
red. 

Bortchock Consomm^ 

MaRe same as Consomme, adding one-third cup chopped 
beets with vegetables ; then add one cup finely chopped 
beets when clearing. 

SOUPS WITH FISH STOCK 

Clam Bouillon 

Wash and scrub with a brush one-half peck clams, chang- 
ing the water several times. Put in kettle with three cups 
cold water, cover tightly, and steam until shellsi are well 
opened. Strain liquor, cool, and clear. 

Oyster Stew 

1 quart oysters % cup butter 

4 cups scalded milk % tablespoon salt 

)^ teaspoon pepper 

Clean oysters by placing in a colander and pouring over 
tbem three-fQurths cup cold water. Carefully pick over 

% 



130 BOSTON COOKINQ-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

oysters, reserve liquor, and heat it to boiling-point ; strain 
through double cheesecloth, add oysters, and cook until 
oysters are plump and edges begin to curl. Remove oysters 
with skimmer, and put in tureen with butter, salt, and 
pepper. Add oyster liquor strained a second time, and 
milk. Serve with oyster crackers. 

Scallop Stew 

Make same as Oyster Stew, using one quart scallops in 
place of oysters. 

Oyster Soup 

1 quart oysters Sprig of parsley 

4 cups milk Bit of bay leaf 

1 slice onion ^ cup butter 

2 stalks celery }^ cup flour 

2 blades mace Salt and pepper 

Clean and pick over oysters as for Oyster Stew ; reserve 
liquor, add oysters slightly chopped, heat slowly to boiling- 
point, and let simmer twenty minutes. Strain through 
cheesecloth, reheat liquor, and thicken with butter and flour 
cooked together. Scald milk with onion, celery, mace, pars- 
ley, and bay leaf; remove seasonings, and add to oyster 
liquor. Season with salt and pepper. 

French Oyster Soup 

1 quart oysters }^ cup butter 

4 cups milk }{ cup flour 

1 slice onion » Yolks 2 eggs 

2 blades mace Salt and pepper 

Make same as Oyster Soup, adding yolks of eggs, slightly 
beaten, just before serving. Garnish with Fish Quenelles. 

Oyster Soup, Amsterdam Style 

1 quart oysters >^ teaspoon salt 

Water Paprika 

3 tablespoons butter Celery salt 
d)4 tablespoons flour 1 cup cream 

Clean, pick over, chop, and parboil oysters ; drain, strain 
through cheesecloth, and add to liquor enough water to 
make one quart liquid. Brown butter, add flour, and pour 



SOUPS 181 

on gradually, while stirring constantly, oyster liquor. Let 
simmer one-half hour/ Season with salt, paprika, and celery 
salt, and just before serving add cream. 
Oyster Gumbo 

1 pint oysters >^ can okra 

4 cups Fish Stock % can tomatoes^ 

1^ cup butter Salt 

1 tablespoon chopped onion Pepper 

Clean, pick over, and parboil oysters; drain, and add 
oyster liquor to Fish Stock. Cook onion five minutes in 
one-half the butter ; add to stock. Then add okra, toma- 
toes heated and drained from some of their liquor, oysters, 
and remaining butter. Season with salt and pepper. 

Fish Stock is the liquor obtained by covering the head, 
tail, skin, bones, and small quantity of flesh adhering to 
bones of fish, with cold water, bringing slowly to boiling- 
point, simmering thirty minutes, and straining. 

Clam Soup with Poached Eggs 
1 quart clams 2 tablespoons flour 

4 cups milk 1}4 teaspoons salt 

1 slice onion j4 teaspoon pepper 

^ cup butter Few gratings nutmeg 

White 1 egg 

Clean and pick over clams, using three-fourths cup cold 
water; reserve liquor. Put aside soft part of clams ; finely 
chop hard part, add to liquor, bring gradually to boiling- 
point, strain through cheesecloth, and thicken with butter 
and flour cooked together. Scald milk with onion, remove 
onion, add milk, seasonings, and soft part of clams. Bring 
to boiling-point and pour over whites of eggs beaten stiff. 

Clam £uid Oyster Soup 

1 pint clams . Sprig of parsley 

1 pint oysters Bit of bay leaf 

4 cups milk % cup butter 

1 slice onion % cup flour 

2 blades mace Salt and pepper 

Clean and pick over oysters, using one-third cup cold 
water; reserve liquor, and add oysters slightly chopped. 



132 BOSTON cook:ing-scsool cook book 

Clean and pick over clams, reserve liquor, and add to 
hard part of clams, finely chopped ; put aside soft part of 
clams. Heat slowly to boiling-point clams and oysters 
with liquor from both, let simmer twenty minutes and strain 
through cheesecloth. Thicken with butter and flour cooked 
together and add soft part of clams. Scald milk with onion, 
mace, parsley, and bay leaf; remove seasonings, and add 
milk to stock. Season with salt and pepper. 

Cream of Clam Soup 
Make same as French Oyster Soup, using clams in place 
of oysters. 

Clam Consomme 
"Wash two quarts clams in shell. Put in kettle with one- 
fourth cup cold water, cover, and cook until shells open. 
Strain liquor through double thickness cheesecloth, add to 
four cups consomme, and clear. 

Clam and Chicken Frapp6 

"Wash and scrub with a brush two quarts clams, changing 
water several times. Put in kettle with one-half cup cold 
water, cover tightly, and steam until shells are well opened. 
Remove clams from shells and strain liquor through double 
thickness cheesecloth. To one and two-thirds cups clam 
liquor add two and one-half cups White Stock III, highly 
seasoned. Cool, and freeze to a mush. Serve in place of 
a soup in frappe glasses, and garnish with whipped cream. 

Clam and Tomato Bisque 
1 quart clams 2 cups cream 

^/4 c^ps cold water 1 cup stewed and strained 

^ cup butter tomatoes 

^ flour ^ teaspoon soda 

1^ onion Salt 

Cayenne 

Pour water over clams, then drain. To water add hard 
part of clams finely chopped. Heat slowly to boiling-point, 
cook twenty minutes, then strain. Cook butter with onion 
five minutes; remove onion, add flour and gradually clam 



SOUPS 188 

water. Add cream, soft part of clams, and as soon as 
boiling-point is reached, tomatoes to which soda has been 
added. Season with salt and cayenne, and serve at once. 

Oyster Bisque 

1 quart oysters Bit of bay leaf 

2 cups White Stock III 2 tablespoons butter 
\}4. cups stale bread crumbs 2 tablespoons flour 

1 slice onion 4 cups scalded milk 

2 stalks celery Salt 
Sprig of parsley Pepper 

Clean and pick over oysters, reserving liquor, setting 
aside soft portions, and chopping gills and tough muscles. 
Cook White Stock, bread crumbs, reserved liquor, chopped 
oyster, onion, celery, parsley, and bay leaf thirty minutes. 
Rub through a sieve, bring to boiling-point, and bind with 
butter and flour cooked together. Add milk, soft portion 
of oysters, and salt and pepper to taste. 

Cream of Scallop Soup 

1 quart scallops 1 tablespoon chopped onion 
4 cups milk 5 tablespoons butter 

2 cloves ^ cup flour 
Bit of bay leaf Salt 

}^ teaspoon peppercorns Pepper 

Clean scallops, reserve one-half cup and finely chop 
remainder. Add these to milk, with seasonings and two 
tablespoons butter, and cook slowly twenty minutes. Strain 
and thicken with remaining butter and flour cooked together. 
Parboil reserved scallops, and add to soup. Serve with 
small biscuits or oysterettes. 

Lobster Bisque 
2 lb. lobster >^ cup butter , 

2 cups cold water J^ cup flour ' 

4 cups milk 1% teaspoons salt 

Few grains of cayenne 

Remove meat from lobster shell. Add cold water to 
body bones and tough end of claws, cut in pieces ; bring 
slowly tQ boiling-point, and cook twenty minutea, Pnin, 



134 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

reserve liquor, and thicken with butter and flour cooked 
together. Scald milk with tail meat of lobster, finely 
chopped; strain, and add to liquor. Season with salt and 
cayenne ; then add tender claw meat, cut in dice, and 
body meat. When coral is found in lobster, wash, wipe, 
force through fine strainer, put in a mortar with butter, 
work until well blended, then add flour, and stir into soup. 
If a richer soup is desired, White Stock may be used in 
place of water. 







■ -3 


■' . ^-«-l) 



Utensils for makincj Ckeam Soups. — Page 136. 




Cream Soup and Croutons ready for serving. — Page 136. 




Croutons; Imperial Sticks; Mock Almonds. — Page 145. 




SouFFLED Crackers. — Page 1^5 . 



SOUPS WITHOUT STOCK 135 



CHAPTER IX 

SOUPS WITHOUT STOCK 

Black Bean Soup 

1 pint black beans % teaspoon pepper 

2 quarts cold water ^ teaspoon mustard 

1 small onion Few grains cayenne 

2 stalks celery, or 3 tablespoons butter 
^ teaspoon celery salt 1% tablespoons flour 
}4, tablespoon salt 2 " hard-boiled " eggs 

1 lemon 

Soak beans over night ; in the morning drain and add cold 
water. Slice onion, and cook five minutes with half the but- 
ter, adding to beans, with celery stalks broken in pieces. 
Simmer three or four hours, or until beans are soft; add 
more water as water boils away. Rub through a sieve, re- 
heat to the boiling-point, and add salt, pepper, mustard, and 
cayenne well mixed. Bind with remaining butter and flour 
cooked together. Cat eggs in thin slices, and lemon in thin 
slices, removing seeds. Put in tureen, and strain the soup 
over them. 

Baked Bean Soup 
3 cups cold baked beans 2 tablespoons butter 

3. pints water 2 tablespoons flour 

2 slices onion 1 tablespoon Chili sauce 

2 stalks celery Salt 

1% cups stewed and strained Pepper 
tomatoes 
Put beans, water, onion, and celery in saucepan; bring 
to boiling-point and simmer thirty minutes. Rub through 
a sieve, add tomato, and Chili sauce, season to taste with 
salt and pepper, and bind with the butter and flour cooked 
together. Serve with Crisp Crackers. 



186 BOSTON COOKIKG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Cream of Lima Bean Soup 

1 cup dried lima beans 1 cup cream or milk 

3 pints cold water 4 tablespoons butter 

2 slices onion 2 tablespoons flour 

4 slices carrot 1 teaspoon salt 
' % teaspoon pepper 

Soak beans over night ; in the morning drain and add cold 
water; cook until soft, and rub through a sieve. Cut vege- 
tables in small cubes, and cook five minutes in half the 
butter; remove vegetables, add flour, salt, and pepper, and 
stir into boiling soup. Add cream, reheat, strain, and add 
remaining butter in small pieces. 

Cream of Artichoke Soup 

6 artichokes Few grains cayenne 

4 cups boiling water Few gratings nutmeg 

2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons Sauterne wine 

.2 tablespoons flour 1 cup scalded cream 

\% teaspoons salt 1 Qgg 

2 cucumbers 

Cook artichokes in boiling water until soft, and rub through 
a sieve. Melt butter, add flour and seasonings, pour on hot 
liquor, and cook one minute. Add cream, wine, and egg 
slightly beaten. Pare cucumbers, cut in one-third inch cubes, 
saute in butter, and add to soup. Jerusalem artichokes are 
used for the making of this soup. 

Celery Boup I 

3 cups celery (cut in one-half 1 slice onion 

inch pieces) 3 tablespoons butter 

1 pint boiling water J^ cup flour 

2% cups milk Salt and pepper 

Wash and scrape celery before cutting in pieces, cook in 
boiling water until soft, and rub through a sieve. Scald milk 
with the onion, remove onion, and add milk to celery. Bind 
with butter and flour cooked together. Season with salt and 
pepper. Outer and old stalks of celery may be utilized 
for soups. Serve with crotitons, crisp crackers, or pulled 
bread. 



SOUPS "WITHOUT STOCK 137 

Celery Soup H 

S stalks celery 3 tablespoons butter 

3 cups milk 3 tablespoons flour 

1 slice onion Salt and pepper 

1 cup cream 

Break celery in one-inch pieces, and pound in a mortar 
Cook in double boiler with onion and milk twenty minutest 
and strain. Thicken with butter and flour cooked together. 
Season with salt and pepper, add cream, strain into tureen, 
and serve at once. 

Com Soup 
1 can corn 2 tablespoons butter 

1 pint boiling water 2 tablespoons flour 

1 pint milk 1 teaspoon salt 

1 slice onion Few grains pepper 

Chop the corn, add water, and simmer twenty minutes ; rub 
through a sieve. Scald milk with onion, remove onion, and 
add milk to corn. Bind with butter and flour cooked together. 
Add salt and pepper. Serve with popped corn. < 

Halibut Soup 
% cup cold boiled halibut 3 tablespoons butter 

1 pint milk \% tablespoons flour 

1 slice onion % teaspoon salt 

Blade of mace Few grains pepper 

Rub fish through a sieve. Scald milk with onion and mace. 
Remove seasonings, and add fish. Bind with half the butter 
and flour cooked together. Add salt, pepper, and the re- 
maining butter in small pieces. 

Pea Soup 

1 can Marrowfat peas 1 slice onion 

2 teaspoons sugar 2 tablespoons butter 
1 pint cold water 2 tablespoons flour 

1 pint milk 1 teaspoon salt 

% teaspoon pepper 

Drain peas from their liquor, add sugar and cold water, 
and simmer twenty minutes. Rub through a sieve, reheat, 
and thicken with butter and flour cooked together. Scald 
ifiUk with onion, rewQv^ Qoionj an^ ^d4 will? to pea mixture, 



138 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

season with salt and pepper. Peas too old to serve as a 
vegetable may be utilized for soups. 

Split Pea Soup 

1 cup dried split peas 3 tablespoons butter 

2}4 quarts cold water 2 tablespoons flour 

1 pint milk 1% teaspoons salt 

y^ onion % teaspoon pepper 

2-inch cube fat salt pork 

Pick over peas and soak several hours, drain, add cold 
water, pork, and onion. Simmer three or four hours, or 
until soft; rub through a sieve. Add butter and flour cooked 
together, salt, and pepper. Dilute with milk, adding more 
if necessary. The water in which a ham has been cooked 
may be used; in such case omit salt. 

Kornlet Soup 

1 can kornlet 1 tablespoon chopped onion 

1 pint cold water 4 tablespoons flour 

1 quart milk, scalded 1% teaspoons salt 

4 tablespoons butter Few grains pepper 

Cook kornlet in cold water twenty minutes ; rub through a 
sieve, and add milk. Fry butter and onion three minutes; 
remove onion, add flour, salt, and pepper, and stir into boil- 
ing soup. 

Potato Soup 

3 potatoes ' 1% teaspoons salt 

1 quart milk ^ teaspoon celery salt 

2 slices onion )^ teaspoon pepper 

3 tablespoons butter Few grains cayenne 

2 tablespoons flour 1 teaspoon chopped parsley 

Cook potatoes in boiling salted water; when soft, rub 
through a strainer. There should be two cups. Scald milk 
with onion, remove onion, and add milk slowly to potatoes. 
Melt half the butter, add dry ingredients, stir until well 
mixed, then stir into hot soup ; boil* one minute, strain, add 
remaining butter, and sprinkle with parsley. 

.Appledore Soup 
Make same as Potato Soup, and add, just t)ef ore serving, 
three tablespoons tomato catsup. 



SOUPS WITHOUT STOCK 139 

S^^iss Potato Soup 

4 small potatoes % onion 

1 large flat white turnip 4 tablespoons butter 

3 cups boiling water i^ cup flour 

1 quart scalded milk \% teaspoons salt 

% teaspoon pepper 

Wash, pare, and cut potatoes in halves. Wash, pare, 
and cut turnips in one-quarter inch slices. Parboil together 
ten minutes, drain, add onion cut in slices, and three cups 
boiling water. Cook until vegetables are soft; drain, re- 
serving the water to add to vegetables after rubbing them 
through a sieve. Add milk, reheat, and bind with butter 
and flour cooked together. Season with salt and pepper. 

Leek and Potato Soup 

1 bunch leeks ^% c^ps potatoes 

1 cup celery 2 tablespoons butter 

23^ tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons flour 

1 quart milk Salt and pepper 

Cayenne 

Cut leeks and celery in very thin slices crosswise and cook 
in two and one-half tablespoons butter, stirring constantly, 
ten minutes. Add milk, and cook in double boiler forty min- 
utes. Cut potatoes in slices and cut slices in small pieces ; 
then cook in boiling salted water ten minutes. Melt two 
tablespoons butter, add flour, milk with vegetables and 
potatoes. Cook until potatoes are soft, and season with salt, 
pepper, and cayenne. 

Vegetable Soup 
y^ cup carrot 1 quart water 

• K <5^P turnip 6 tablespoons butter 

% cup celery )^ tablespoon finely 

1)^ cups potato chopped parsley 

% onion Salt and pepper 

Wash and scrape a small carrot ; cut in quarters length- 
wise; cut quarters in thirds lengthwise; cut strips thus 
made in thin slices crosswise. Wash and pare half a turnip, 
and cut and slice same as carrot. Wash, pare, and cut po- 
tatoes in small pieces. Wash and scrape celery and cut in 
quarter-inch pieces. Prepare vegetables before measuring. 



140 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Cut onion in thin slices. Mix vegetables (except potatoes), 
and cook ten minutes, in four tablespoons butter, stirring 
constantly. Add potatoes, cover, and cook two minutes. 
Add water, and boil one hour or until vegetables are soft. 
Add remaining butter and parsley. Season with salt and 
pepper. 

Salmon Soup 
}^ can salmon 4 tablespoons flour 

1 quart scalded milk 1}^ teaspoons salt 

2 tablespoons butter Few grains pepper 

Drain oil from salmon, remove skin and bones, rub through 
a sieve. Add gradually the milk, season, and bind. 

Squash Soup 
X cup cooked squash 3 tablespoons flour 

1 quart milk 1 teaspoon salt 

1 slice onion Few grains pepper 

2 tablespoons butter ^ teaspoon celery salt 

Rub squash through a sieve before measuring. Scald milk 
with onion, remove onion, and add milk to squash ; season, 
and bind. 

Tomato Soup 
1 quart tomatoes, raw or canned 2 teaspoons sugar 
1 pint water 1 teaspoon salt 

12 peppercorns 3^ teaspoon soda 

Bit of bay leaf 2 tablespoons butter 

4 cloves 3 tablespoons flour 

1 slice onion 

Cook tomatoes, water, seasonings, and sugar twenty 
minutes ; strain, and add salt and soda. Brown butter and 
flour cooked together ; bind, and strain into tureen. . 

Cream of Tomato Soup 

^ can tomatoes 1 slice onion 

2 teaspoons sugar 4 tablespoons flour 

^ teaspoon soda 1 teaspoon salt 

1 quart milk ^ teaspoon pepper 

3^ cup butter 

Scald milk with onion, remove onion, and thicken milk 
with flour diluted with cold water until thin enough to pour, 
being careful that the mixture is free from lumps; cook 



SOUPS WITHOUT STOCK 141 

twenty minutes, stirring constantly at first. Cook tomatoes 
with sugar fifteen minutes, add soda, and rub through a 
sieve ; combine mixtures, and strain into tureen over butter, 
salt, and pepper. 

Mock Bisque Soup 

2 cups raw or canned tomatoos Bit of bay leaf 
2 teaspoons sugar % cup stale bread crumbs 

% teaspoon soda 4 cups milk 

3^ onion, stuck with 6 cloves }^ tablespoon salt 
Sprig of parsley % teaspoon pepper 

% cup butter 

Scald milk with bread crumbs, onion, parsley, and bay 
leaf. Remove seasonings and rub through a sieve. Cook 
tomatoes with sugar fifteen minutes ; add soda and rub 
through a sieve. Reheat bread and milk to boiling-point, 
add tomatoes, and pour at once into tureen over butter, salt, 
and pepper. Serve with croutons, crisp crackers, or souffled 
crackers. 

Tapioca Wine Soup 

% cup pearl tapioca % teaspoon salt 

1 cup cold water 3-inch piece stick cinnamon 

3 cups boiling water 1 pint claret wine 

3^ cup powdered sugar 

Soak tapioca in cold water two hours. Drain, add to boil- 
ing water with salt and cinnamon ; let boil three minutes, 
then cook in double boiler until tapioca is transparent. 
Cool, add wine and sugar. Serve very cold. 



CHOWDERS 

Corn Chowder 

1 can corn 1 sliced onion 

4 cups potatoes, cut in 4 cups scalded milk 

^-inch slices 8 common crackera 

l)^-inch cube fat salt pork 3 tablespoons butter 

Salt and pepper 

Cut pork in small pieces and try out ; add onion and cook 
five minuteS) stirring; often that onion may not burn ; strain 



142 BOSTON OOOKING-SCHOOI* C500K BOOK 

fat into a stewpan. Parboil potatoes five minutes in boiling 
water to cover; drain, and add potatoes to fat; then add 
two cups boiling water; cook until potatoes are soft, add 
corn and milk, then heat to boiling-point. Season with salt 
and pepper; add butter, and crackers split and soaked in 
enough cold milk to moisten. Remove crackers, turn chow- 
der into a tureen, and put crackers on top. 

Fish Chowder 

4 lb. cod or haddock 1 Jo-inch cube fat salt pork 

6 cups potatoes cut in )^-inch 1 tablespoon salt 

slices, or 3^ teaspoon pepper 

4 cups potatoes cut in 3 tablespoons butter 

^-inch cubes 4 cups scalded milk 

1 sliced onion 8 com mop crackers 

Order the fish skinned, but head and tail left on. Cut off 
head and tail and remove fish from backbone< Cut fish in 
two-inch pieces and set aside. Put head, tail, and backbone 
broken in pieces, in stewpan ; add two cups cold water and 
bring slowly to boiling-point; cook twenty minutes. Cut 
salt pork in small pieces and try out, add onion, and fry 
five minutes; strain fat into stewpan » Parboil potatoes five 
minutes in boiling water to cover ; drain and add potatoes 
to fat ; then add two caps boiling water and cook five min- 
utes". Add liquor drained from bones, then add the fish; 
cover, and simmer ten minutes. Add milk, salt, pepper, 
butter, and crackers split and soaked in enough cold milk to 
moisten, otherwise they will be soft on the outside, but dry 
on the inside. Pilot bread is sometimes used in place of 
common crackers. 

Connecticut Chcv^der 
4 lb. cod or haddock 2}4 cups stewed and 

4 cups potatoes cut in ^- strained tomatoes 

iuch cubes 3 tablespoons butter 

1 i^-inch cube fat salt pork % cup cracker crumbs 

1 sliced onion Salt and pepper 

Prepare same as Fish Chowder, using liquor drained from 
bones for cooking potatoes, instead of additional water. Use 
tomatoes in place of milk and add cracker crumbs just befort 
serving. 



SOUPS WITHOUT STOCK 143 



Clam Cho-w^der 
1 quart clams 1 tablespoon salt 

4 cups potatoes cut in )^ teaspoon pepper 

^^-inch cubes 4 tablespoons butter 

11^ inch cube fat salt pork 4 cups scalded milk 

1 sliced onion 8 common crackers 

Clean and pick over clams, using one cup cold water; 
drain, reserve liquor, heat to boiling-point, and strain. 
Chop finely hard part of clams; cut pork in small pieces 
and try out ; add onion, fry five minutes, and strain into a 
stewpan. Parboil potatoes five minutes in boiling water to 
cover; drain^ and put a layer in bottom of stewpan, add 
chopped clams, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and dredge 
generously with flour ; add remaining potatoes, again sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and add two and 
one-half cups boiling water. Cook ten minutes, add milk, 
soft part of clams, and butter ; boil three minutes, and add 
crackers split and soaked in enough cold milk to moisten. 
Reheat clam water to boiling-point, and thicken with one 
tablespoon butter and flour cooked together. Add to chow- 
der just before serving. 

The clam water has a tendency to cause the milk to sepa- 
rate, hence is added at the last. 

Rhode Island Chovvder 

1 quart clams 1 cup stewed and strained 

3 inch cube fat salt pork tomatoes 

1 sliced onion ^ teaspoon soda 
^ cup cold water 1 cup scalded milk 

4 cups potatoes cut in ^ inch 1 -sup scalded cream 

cubes 2 tablespoons butter 

2 cups boiling water 8 common crackers 

Salt and pepper 

Cook pork with onion and cold water ten miuutes; drain, 
and reserve liquor. Wash clams and reserve liquor. Par- 
boil potatoes five minutes, and drain. To potatoes add re- 
served liquors, hard part of clams finely chopped, and boil- 
ing water. When potatoes are nearly done, add tomatoes, 
soda, soft part of clams, milk, cream, and butter. Season 



144 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

With salt and pepper. Split crackers, soak in cold milk to 
moisten, and reheat in chowder. 

Lobster Cho-wder 

2 lb. lobster 4 cups milk 

3 tablespoons butter 1 slice onion 

2 common crackers, 1 cup cold water 

finely pounded Salt 

Paprika or cayenne 

Remove meat from lobster shell and cut in small dice. 
Cream two tablespoons butter, add liver of lobster (green 
part) and crackers ; scald milk with onion, remove onion, 
and add milk to mixture. Cook body bones ten minutea 
in cold water to cover, strain, and add to mixture with 
lobster dice. Season with salt and paprika. 

German Chowder 

3 lb. haddock 1 beaten egg 

1 quart cold water • 1 quart potatoes cut in 

2 slices carrot ^-inch cubes 

Bit of bay leaf 2-inch cube fat salt pork 

Sprig of parsley 1 sliced onion 

1 cracker, pounded 5 tablespoons flour 
Salt, pepper, cayenne 1 quart scalded milk 

2 tablespoons melted butter ^ cup butter 
Few drops onion juice 8 common crackers 

Clean, skin, and bone fish. Add to bones cold water and 
vegetables, and let simmer twenty minutes. Strain stock 
from bones. Chop fish meat ; there should be one and one- 
half cups. Add cracker, seasonings, melted butter and egg^ 
then shape in small balls. Try out pork, add onion, and 
cook five minutes. Strain, and add to fat, potatoes, balls, 
and fish stock, and cook until potatoes are soft. Thicken 
milk with butter and flour cooked together. Combine mix- 
tures, and season highly with salt, pepper, and cayennCr 
Add crackers, split and soaked in cold milk. 



SOUP GABNISHINGS AND FOBCE-MEATS 146 



CHAPTER X 
SOTTP GABNISHINGS AND FORCE-MEATS 

Crisp Crackers 

Split common crackers and spread thinly with butter, al- 
lowing one-fourth teaspoon butter to each half cracker ; put 
in pan and bake until delicately browned. 

Souffle d Crackers 
Split common crackers, and soak in ice water, to cover, 
eight minutes. Dot over with butter, and bake in a hot oven 
until puffed and browned, the time required being about 
forty-five minutes. 

Crackers Tvith Cheese 
Arrange zephyrettes or saltines in pan. Sprinkle with 
grated cheese and bake until cheese is melted. 

Croutons (Duchess Crusts) 

Cut stale bread in one-third inch slices and remove crusts. 
Spread thinly with butter. Cut slices in one-third inch cubes, 
put in pan and bake until delicately brown, or fry in deep 
fat. 

Cheese Sticks 

Cut bread sticks in halves lengthwise, spread thinly with 
butter, sprinkle with grated cheese seasoned with salt ancj 
cayenne, and bake until delicately browned. 

Imperial Sticks in Rings 
Cut stale bread in one-third inch slices, remove crusts, 
spread thinly with butter, and cut slices in one-third inch 
strips and rings ; put in pan and bake until delicately 
browned. Arrange three sticks in each ring. 



146 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Mock Almonds 

Cut stale bread in one-eighth inch slices, shape with a 
round cutter one and one-half inches in diameter, then shape 
in almond-shaped pieces. Brush over with melted butter, 
put in a pan, and bake until delicately browned. 

Pulled Bread 

Remove crusts from a long loaf of freshly baked water 
bread. Pull the bread apart until the pieces are the desired 
size and length, which is best accomplished by using two 
three-tined forks. Cook in a slow oven until delicately 
browned and thoroughly dried. A baker's French loaf may 
be used for pulled bread if home-made is not at hand. 

Egg Balls I 

Yolks 2 " hard-boiled " eggs Few grains cayenne 

}^ teaspoon salt )4 teaspoon melted butter 

Rub yolks through sieve, add seasonings, and moisten 
with raw egg yolk to make of consistency to handle. Shape 
in small balls, roll in flour, and saute in butter. Serve in 
Brown Soup Stock, Consomme, or Mock Turtle Soup. 

Egg Balls II 

1 " hard-boiled " egg Few grains cayenne 
^ teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon heavy cream 

)^ teaspoon finely chopped parsley 

Rub yolk through a sieve, add white finely chopped, and 
remaining ingredients. Add raw egg yolk to make mixture 
of right consistency to handle. Shape in small balls, and 
poach in boiling water or stock. 

Egg Custard 

Yolks 2 eggs Few grains salt 

2 tablespoons milk 

Beat eggs slightly, add milk and salt. Pour into small 
buttered cup, place in pan of hot water, and bake until firm ; 
cool, remove from cup, and cut in fancy shapes with French 
vegetftble cutters. 



SOUP GARNISHINGS AND FORCE-MEATS 147 

Harlequin Slices 
Yolks 3 eggs Whites 3 eggs 

2 tsfblespoons milk Few grains salt 

Few grains salt Chopped truffles 

Beat yolks of eggs slightly, add milk and salt. Pour into 
small buttered cup, place in pan of hot water and bake until 
firm. Beat whites of eggs slightly, add salt, and cook same 
as yolks. Cool, remove from cups, cut in slices, pack in a 
mould in alternate layers, and press with a weight. A few 
truffles may be sprinkled between slices if desired. Remove 
from mould and cut in slices. Serve in Consomme. 

Royal Custard 

Yolks 3 eggs % teaspoon salt 

1 egg Slight grating nutmeg 

% cup Consomm6 Few grains cayenne 

Beat eggs slightly, add Consomm^ and seasonings. Pour 
into a small buttered tin mould, place in pan of hot water, 
and bake until firm ; cool, remove from mould, and cut in 
fancy shapes. 

Chicken Custard 

Chop cooked breast meat of fowl and rub through sieve; 
there should be one-fourth cup. Add one-fourth cup White 
Stock and one egg slightly beaten. Season with salt, pepper, 
celery salt, paprika, slight grating nutmeg, and few drops 
essence anchovy. Turn mixture into buttered mould, bake 
in a pan of hot water until firm ; cool, remove from mould, 
and cut in small cubes. 

Noodles 
1 egg % teaspoon salt 

Flour 

Beat egg slightly, add salt, and flour enough to make 
very stiff dough ; knead, toss on slightly floured board, and 
roll thinly as possible, which may be as thin as paper. 
Cover with towel, and set aside for twenty minutes ; then 
cut in fancy shapes, using sharp knife or French vegetable 
cutter ; or the thin sheet may be rolled like jelly-roll, cut Id 



148 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

slices as thinly as possible, and pieces unrolled. Dr}^, and 
when needed cook twenty minutes in boiling salted water; 
drain, and add to soup. 

Noodles may be served as a vegetable. 

Fritter Beans 

1 egg ^ teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons milk }^ cup flour 

Beat egg until light, add milk, salt, and flour. Put through 
colander or pastry tube into deep fat, and fry until brown ; 
drain on brown paper. 

F^te d Chouz 

2}^ tablespoons milk }{ teaspoon salt 

}^ teaspoon lard 3^ cup flour 

}^ teaspoon butter 1 egg 

Heat butter, lard, and milk to boiling-point, add flour and 
salt, and stir vigorously. Remove from fire, add egg un- 
beaten, and stir until well mixed. Cool, and drop small 
pieces from tip of teaspoon into deep fat. Fry until brown 
and crisp, and drain on brown paper. 

Farmesan Fate k Choux 
To P^te k Choux mixture add two tablespoons grated 
Parmesan cheese. 

White Bait Garnish 
Roll trimmings of puff paste, and cut in pieces three- 
fourths inch long and one-eighth inch wide ; fry in deep fat 
until well browned, and drain on brown paper. Serve on 
folded napkin, and pass with soup. 

Pish Force-meat I 
^ cups fine stale bread crumbs 1 egg 

^ cup milk % cup raw fish 

Salt 

Cook bread and milk to a paste, add egg well beaten, and 
fish pounded and forced through a puree strainer. Season 
with salt. A meat chopper is of great assistance in making 
force-meats, as raw fish or meat may be easily forced through 



SOUP GARNISHINGS AND FORCE-MEAT 149 

it. Bass, halibut, or pickerel are the best fish to use for 
force-meat. Force-meat is often shaped into small balls. 

Fish Force-meat H 

% cup raw halibut Pepper 

White 1 Qgg Cayenne 

Salt y^ cup heavy cream 

Chop fish finely, or force through a meat chopper. Pound 
in mortar, adding gradually white of egg, and working until 
smooth. Add seasonings, rub through a sieve, and then add 
cream. 

Salmon Force-meat 

% cup milk 1 Qg^ 

% cup soft stale bread crumbs 2 tablespoons melted butter 

% cup cold flaked salmon % teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons cream Few grains pepper 

Cook milk and bread crumbs ten minutes, add salmon 
chopped and rubbed through a sieve ; then add cream, egg 
slightly beaten, melted butter, salt, and pepper. 

Oyster Force-meat 
To Fish Force-meat add one-fourth small onion, finely 
chopped, and fried five minutes in one-half tablespoon butter ; 
then add one-third cup soft part of oysters, parboiled and 
finely chopped, one-third cup mushrooms finely chopped, and 
one-third cup Thick White Sauce. Season with salt, cayenne, 
and one teaspoon finely chopped parsley. 

Clam Force-meat 

Follow recipe for Oyster Force-meat, using soft part of 
clams in place of oysters. 

Chicken Force-meat I 

% cup fine stale bread crumbs % cup breast raw chicken 

% cup milk Salt 

2 tablespoons butter Few grains cayenne 

White 1 Qgg Slight grating nutmeg 

Cook bread and milk to a paste, add butter, white of egg 
beaten stiff, and seasonings ; then add chicken pounded and 
forced through purde strainer. 



160 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Chicken Force-meat II 

^ breast raw chicken Pepper 

White 1 egg Slight grating nutmeg 

Salt Heavy cream 

Chop chicken finely, or force through a meat chopper. 
Pound in mortar, add gradually white of egg, and work 
until smooth; then add heavy cream slowly until of right 
consistency, which can only Ije determined by cooking a 
small ball in boiling salted water. Add seasonings, and rub 
through sieve. 

Quenelles 

Quenelles are made from any kind of force-meat, shaped 
in small balls or between tablespoons, making an oval, or by 
forcing mixture through pastry bag on buttered paper. 
They are cooked in boiling salted water or stock, and are 
served as garnish to soups or other dishes ; when served 
with sauce, they are an entree. 



FISH 151 



CHAPTER XI 
FISH 

THE meat of fish is the animal food next in importance; 
to that of birds and mammals. Fish meat, with but 
few exceptions, is less stimulating and nourishing than meat 
of other animals, but is usually easier of digestion. Salmon, 
mackerel, and eels are exceptions to these rules, and should 
not be eaten by those of -weak digestion. White fish, on 
account of their easy digestibility, are especially desirable 
for those of sedentary habits. Fish is not recommended for 
brain-workers on account of the large amount of phosphorus 
(an element abounding largely in nerve tissue) which it con- 
tains, but because of its easy digestibility. It is a conceded 
fact that many fish contain less of this element than meat. 

Fish meat is generally considered cheaper than meat of 
other animals. This is true when compared with the better 
cuts of meat, but not so when compared with cheaper cuts. 

To obtain from fish its greatest value and flavor, it should 
be eaten fresh, and in season. Turbot, which is improved 
by keeping, is the only exception to this rule. 

To Determine Freshness of Fish. Examine the flesh, and 
it should be firm; the eyes and gills, and they should be 
bright. 

Broiling and baking are best methods for cooking fish. 
White fish may often be fried, but oily rarely. Frozen fish 
are undesirable, but if used, should be thawed in cold water 
just before cooking. 

On account of its strong odor, fish should never be put in 
an ice-box with other food, unJess closely covered. A tin 
lard pail will bd found useful for this purpose. 



162 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

White and Oily Pish 

White fish have fat secreted in the liver. Examples : codj, 
haddock, trout, flounder, smelt, perch, etc. 

Oily fish have fat distributed throughout the flesh. Ex- 
amples : salmon, eels, mackerel, bluefish, swordfish, shad, 
herring, etc. 

Cod belongs to one of the most prolific fish families 
(Gadidoe), and is widely distributed throughout the northern 
and temperate seas of both hemispheres. On account of its 
abundance, cheapness, and ' easy procurability, it forms, 
from an economical standpoint, one of the most important 
fish foods. Cod have been caught weighing over a hundred 
pounds, but average market cod weigh from six to ten 
pounds ; a six-pound cod measures about twenty-three inches 
in length. Large cod are cut into steaks. The skin of cod 
is white, heavily mottled with gray, with a white line run- 
ning the entire length of fish on either side. Cod is caught 
in shallow or deep waters. Shallow-water cod (caught off 
rocks) is called rock cod ; deep-water cod is called off-shore 
cod. Rock cod are apt to be wormy. Cod obtained off 
George's Banks, Newfoundland, are called George's cod, 
and are commercially known as the best fish. Quantities of 
cod are preserved by drying and salting. Salted George's 
cod is the best brand on the market. Cod is in season 
throughout the year. 

Cod Liver Oil is obtained from cods' livers, and has great 
therapeutic value. Isinglass, made from swimming bladder 
of cod, nearly equals in quality that made from bladder of 
sturgeon. 

Haddock is more closely allied to cod than any other fish. 
It is smaller (its average weight being about four pounds), 
and differently mottled. The distinguishing mark of the 
haddock is a black line running the entire length of fish on 
either side. Haddock is found in the same water and in 
company with cod, but not so abundantly. Like cod, had- 
dock is cheap, and in season throughout the year. Haddock, 
when dried, smoked, and salted, is known as Finnan Haddie. 

Halibut i9 the largest of the flatfish family (Pleuronectidae), 



FISH 153 

specimens having been caught weighing from three to four 
hundred pounds. Small, or chicken, halibut is the kind 
usually found in market, and weighs from fifteen to twenty- 
five pounds. Halibut are distinctively cold-water fish, being 
caught in water at from 32° to 45° F. They are found in 
the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans, where they are 
nearly identical. The halibut has a compressed body, the 
skin on one side being white, on the other light, or dark gray, 
and both eyes are found on the dark side of head. Halibut 
is in season throughout the year. 

Turbot (called little halibut) is a species of the flatfish 
family, being smaller than halibut, and of more delicate 
flavor. Turbot are in season from January to March. 

Flounder is a small flatfish, which closely resembles the 
sole which is caught in English waters, and is often served 
under that name. 

Trout are generally fresh- water fish, varying much in size 
and skin-coloring. Lake trout, which are the largest, reach 
their greatest perfection in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and 
Superior, but are found in many lakes. Salmon trout is the 
name applied to trout caught in New York lakes. Brook 
trout, caught in brooks and small lakes, are superior eating. 
Trout are in season from April to August, but a few are 
found later. 

"Whitefish is the finest fish found in the Great Lakes. 

Smelts are small salt-water fish, and are usually caught in 
temperate waters at the mouths of rivers. New Brunswick 
and Maine send large quantities of smelts to market. 
Selected smelts are the largest in size, and command higher 
price. The Massachusetts Fish and Game Protective Law 
forbids their sale from March 15th to June 1st. Smelts are 
always sold by the pound. 

Bluefish belongs to the Pomatomidae family. It is widely 
distributed in temperate waters, taking different names in 
different localities. In New England and the Middle States 
it is generally called Bluefish, although in some parts called 
Snappers, or Snapping Mackerel. In the Southern States it 
is called Greenfish. It is in season in our markets from May 
to October; as it is frozen and kept in cold storage from 



154 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

SIX to nine months, it may be obtained throughout the year. 
The heavier the fish, the better its quality. Bluefish weigh 
from one to eight pounds, and are from fourteen to twenty- 
nine inches in length. 

Mackerel is one of the best-known food fishes, and is 
caught in North Atlantic waters. Its skin is lustrous dark 
blue above, with wavy blackish lines, and silvery below. It 
sometimes attains a length of eighteen inches, but is usually 
less. Mackerel weigh from three-fourths of a pound to two 
pounds, and are sold by the piece. They are in season from 
May 1st to September 1st. Mackerel, when first in market, 
contain less fat than later in the season, therefore are easier 
of digestion. The supply of mackerel varies greatly from 
year to year, and some years is very small. Spanish 
mackerel are found in waters farther south than common 
mackerel, and in our markets command higher price. 

Salmon live in both fresh and salt waters, always going, 
inland, usually to the head of rivers, during the spawning 
season. The young after a time seek salt water, but 
generally return to fresh water. Penobscot River Salmon 
are the best, and come from Maine and St. John, New 
Brunswick. The average weight of salmon is from fifteen 
to twenty-five pounds, and the fiesh is of pinkish orange 
color. Salmon are in season from May to September, but 
frozen salmon may be obtained the greater part of the year. 
In the Columbia River and its tributaries salmon are so abun- 
dant that extensive canneries are built along the banks. 

Shad, like salmon, are found in both salt and fresh water, 
always ascending rivers for spawning. Shad is caught on 
the Atlantic Coast of the United States, and its capture con- 
stitutes one of the most important fisheries. Shad have a 
silvery hue, which becomes bluish on the back ; they vary in 
length from eighteen to twenty-eight inches, and are always 
sold by the piece, price being irrespective of size. Jack shad 
are usually cheaper than roe shad. The roe of shad is highly 
esteemed. Shad are in season from January to June. First 
shad in market come from Florida, and retail from one and 
one-half to two dollars each. The finest come from New 
Brunswick, and ftppear in market about the first of May. 



SHELLFISH 155 

Caviare is the salted roe of the sturgeon. 
Herring are usually smoked, or smoked and salted, and, 
being very cheap, are a most economical food. 



SHELLFISH 

I. Bivalve Mollusks 

Oysters are mollusks, having two shells. The shells are 
on the right and left side of the oyster, and are called right 
and left valves. The one upon which the oyster rests grows 
faster, becomes deeper, and is known as the left valve. 
The valves are fastened by a ligament, which, on account of 
its elasticity, admits of opening and closing of the shells. 
The oyster contains a tough muscle, by which it is attached 
to the shell ; the body is made up largely of the liver (which 
contains glycogen^ animal starch), and is partially surrounded 
by fluted layers, which are the gillso Natural oyster beds 
(or banks) are found in shallow salt water having stony bot- 
tom, along the entire Atlantic Coast. The oyster industry 
of the world is chiefly in the United States and France, and 
on account of its increase many artificial beds have been 
prepared for oyster culture. Oysters are five years old be- 
fore suitable for eating. Blue Points, which are small, 
plump oysters, take their name from Blue Point, Long 
Island, from which place they originally came. Their popu- 
larity grew so rapidly that the supply became inadequate for 
the demand, and any small, plump oysters were soon sold 
for Bine Points. During the oyster season they form the 
first course of a dinner, served raw on the half-shell. In 
our markets, selected oysters (which are extremely large and 
used for broiling) Providence River, and Norfolk oysters are 
familiarly known, and, taken out of the shells, are sold by 
the quart. Farther south, they are sold by count. 

Oysters are obtainable all the year, but are in season from 
September to May. During the summer months they are 
flabby and of poor flavor, although when fresh they are per- 
fectly wholesome. Mussels, eaten in England and other 
parts of Europe, are similar to oysters, though of inferior 



166 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

quality. Oysters are nutritious and of easy digestibility, 
especially when eaten raw. 

To Open Oysters. Put a thin flat knife under the back 
end of the right valve, and push forward until it cuts the 
strong muscle which holds the shells together. As soon as 
this is done, the right valve may be raised and separated 
from the left. 

To Clean Oysters. Put oysters in a strainer placed over a 
bowl. Pour over oysters cold water, allowing one-half cup 
water to each quart oysters. Carefully pick over oysters, 
taking each one separately in the fingers, to remove any 
particles of shell which adhere to tough muscle. 

Clams, among bivalve mollusks, rank in value next to 
oysters. They are found just below the surface of sand and 
mud, above low-water mark, and are easily dug with shovel or 
rake. Clams have hard or soft shells. Soft-shell clams are 
dear to the New Englander. From New York to Florida 
are found hard-shelled clams (quahaugs). Small qualiaugs 
are called Little Neck Clams and take the place of Blue 
Points at dinner, when Blue Points are out of season. 

Scallops are bivalve mollusks, the best being found in 
Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay. The central 
muscle forms the edible portion, and is the only part sent to 
market. Scallops are in season from October first to April 
first. 

n. Crustaceans 

Lobsters belong to the highest order of Crustaceans, live 
exclusively in sea-water, generally near rocky coasts, and 
are caught in pots set on gravelly bottoms. The largest 
and best species are found in Atlantic waters from Maine 
to New Jersey, being most abundant on Maine and Massa- 
chusetts coasts. Lobsters have been found weighing from 
sixteen to twenty-five pounds, but such have been exter- 
minated from our coast The average weight is two 
pounds, and the length from ten to fifteen inches. Lob- 
sters are largest and most abundant from June to Septem- 
ber, but are obtainable all the year. When taken from 
tbe water, shells j^re of mottled dark green color, except 



SEELLFISS 157 

when found on sandy bottoms, when they are quite red. 
Lobsters are generally boiled, causing the shell to turn 
red. 

A lobster consists of body, tail, two large claws, and 
four pairs of small claws. On lower side of body, in front 
of large claws, are various small organs which surround 
the mouth, and a long and short pair of feelers. Under 
the tail are found several pairs of appendages. In the 
female lobster, also called hen lobster, is found, during 
the breeding season, the spawn, known as coral. Sex is 
determined by the pair of appendages in the tail which lie 
nearest the body ; in the female they are soft and pliable, 
in the male hard and stiff. At one time small lobsters 
were taken in such quantities that it was feared, if the 
practice was long continued, they would be exterminated. 
To protect the continuance of lobster fisheries, a law has 
been passed in many States prohibiting their sale unless 
at least ten inches long. 

Lobsters shed their shells at irregular intervals, when 
old ones are outgrown. The new ones begin to form and 
take on distinctive characteristics before the old ones are 
discarded. New shells after twenty-four hours' exposure 
to the water are quite hard. 

Lobsters, being coarse feeders (taking almost any animal 
substance attainable), are difficult of digestion, and with 
some create great gastric disturbance; notwithstanding, 
they are seldom found diseased. 

To Select a Lobster. Take in the hand, and if heavy in 
proportion to its size, the lobster is fresh. Straighten the 
tail, and if it springs into place the lobster was alive (as it 
should have been) when put into the pot for boiling. There 
is greater shrinkage in lobsters than in any other fish. 

To Open Lobsters. Take off large claws, small claws, 
and separate tail from body. Tail meat may sometimes 
be drawn out whole with a fork ; more often it is neces- 
sary to cut the thin shell portion (using scissors or a can- 
opener) in under part of the tail, then the tail meat may 
always be removed whole. Separate tail meat through 
oentre, and remove the small intestinal vein which ruja« 



168 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

its entire length ; although generally darker than the meat, 
it is sometimes found of the same color. Hold body shell 
firmly in left hand, and with nrst two fingers and thumb of 
right hand draw out the body, leaving in shell the stomach 
(known as the lady), which is not edible, and also some of 
the green part, the liver. The liver may be removed by 
shaking the shell. The sides of the body are covered with 
the lungs ; these are always discarded. Break body through 
the middle and separate body bones, picking out meat that 
lies between them, which is some of the sweetest and ten- 
derest to be found. Separate large claws at joints. If 
shells are thin, with a knife cut off a strip down the sharp 
edge, so that shell may be broken apart and meat removed 
whole. Where shell is thick, it must be broken with a 
mallet or hammer. Small claws are used for garnishing. 
The shell of body, tail, and lower part of large claws, if not 
broken, may be washed, -dried, and used for serving of 
lobster meat after it has been prepared. The portions of 
lobsters which are not edible are lungs, stomach (lady), and 
intestinal vein. 

Crabs among Crustaceans are next in importance to lob- 
sters, commercially speaking. The}^ are about two and one- 
half inches long by five inches wide, and are found along 
the Atlantic Coast from Massachusetts to Florida, and in the 
Gulf of Mexico. Crabs, like lobsters, change their shells. 
Soft-shell crabs are those which have recently shed their old 
shells, and the new shells have not had time to harden ; these 
are considered by many a great luxury. Oyster crabs (very 
small crabs found in shells with oysters) are a delicacy not 
often indulged in. Crabs are in season during the spring 
and summer. 

Shrimps are found largely in our Southern waters, the 
largest and best coming from Lake Pontchar train. They 
are about two inches long, covered with a thin shell, and are 
boiled and sent to market with heads removed. Their gray- 
ish color is changed to pink by boiling. Shrimps are in sea- 
son from May first to October first, and are generally used 
for salads. Canned shrimps are much used and favorably 
known. 



SHBLLPISH 159 

Reptiles. Frogs and terrapin belong to a lower order of 
animals than fish, — reptiles. They are both table delica- 
cies, and are eaten by the few. 

Only the hind legs of frogs are eaten, and have much the 
same flavor as chicken. 

Terrapin, although sold in our large cities, specially be- 
long to Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, where they 
are cooked and served at their best. They are shipped from 
the South, packed iu seaweed, and may be kept for some 
time in a dark place.. Terrapin are found in both fresh and 
salt water. The Diamond Back, salt-water terrapin, coming 
from Chesapeake Bay, are considered the best, and command 
a very high price. Terrapin closely resembling Diamond 
Back, coming from Texas and Florida, are principally sold 
in our markets. Terrapin are in season from November to 
April, but are best in January, February, and March. They 
should always be cooked alive. 



TO PREPARE FISH FOR COOKING 

To Clean a Fish. Fish are cleaned and dressed at mar- 
ket as ordered, but need additional cleaning before cooking. 
Remove scales which have not been taken off. This is done 
by drawing a knife over fish, beginning at tail and working 
towards head, occasionally wiping knife and scales from fish. 
Incline knife slightly towards you to prevent scales from 
flying. The largest number of scales will be found on the 
flank. Wipe thoroughly inside and out with cloth wrung out 
of cold water, removing any clotted blood which may be 
found adhering to backbone. 

Head and tail may or may not be removed, according to 
size of fish and manner of cooking. Small fish are generally 
served with head and tail left on. 

To Skin a Fish. With sharp knife remove fins along the 
back and cut off a narrow strip of skin the entire length of 
back. Loosen skin on one side from bony part of gills, and 
being once started, if fish is fresh, it may be readily drawn 
off; if flesh is soft do not work too quickly, as it will be 
badly torn. By allowing knife to closely follow skin this 



160 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

may be avoided. After removing skin from one side, turn 
fish and skin the other side. 

To Bone a Fish. Clean and skin before boning. Begin- 
ning at the tail, run a sharp knife under flesh close to back- 
bone, and with knife follow bone (making as clean a cut as 
possible) its entire length, thus accomplishing the removal of 
one-half the flesh ; turn, and remove flesh from other side. 
Pick out with fingers any small bones that may remain. 
Cod, haddock, halibut, and whitefish arc easily and fre- 
quently boned ; flounders and smelts occasionally. 

To Fillet Fish. Clean, skin, and bone. A piece of fish, 
large or small, freed from skin and bones, is known as a 
fillet. Halibut, cut in three-fourths inch slices, is more often 
cut in fillets than any kind of fish, and fillets are frequently 
rolled. When flounder is cut in fillets it is served under the 
name of fillet of sole. Sole found in English waters is much 
esteemed, and flounder is our nearest approach to it. 

WAYS OF COOKING FISH 

To Cook Fish in Boiling "Water. Small cod, haddock, or 

lusk are cooked whole in enough boiling water to cover, to 
which is added salt and lemon juice or vinegar. Salt gives 
flavor ; lemon juice or vinegar keeps the flesh white. A long 
fish-kettle containing a rack on which to place fish is useful 
but rather expensive. In place of fish-kettle, if the fish is 
not too large to be coiled in it, a frying-basket may be used 
placed in any kettle. 

Large fish are cut in thick pieces for boiling, containing 
the number of pounds required. Examples : salmon and 
halibut. 

Pieces cut from large fish for boiling should be cleaned 
and tied in a piece of cheesecloth to prevent scum being 
deposited on the fish. If skin is not removed before serv- 
ing, scald the dark skin and scrape to remove coloring ; this 
may be easily accomplished by holding fish on two forks, 
and lowering into boiling water the part covered with blaclj 
skin ; then remove and scrape. Time required for boiling 
fish depends pn exteut of surface exposed to water. Cqb- 




Boiled Mackerel, garnished with Potato Balls, Cucumber 
Ribbons, Slices of Lemon cut in fancy shapes, and Parsley. 
Page 161. 




Hollenden Halibut. — Page 167. 




Stuffed Haddock ready for baking. — Page 16 4. 




Smelts prepared for cooking. — Page 173. 



COMPOSITION OF YAEIOTTS FISH 161 

suit Time-Table for Boiling, which will serve as a guide. 
The fish is cooked when flesh leaves the bone, no matter 
how long the time. 

To Broil Fish. Cod, haddock, bluefish, and mackerel are 
split down the back and broiled whole, removing head and 
tail or not, as desired. Salmon, chicken halibut, and sword- 
fish are cut in inch slices for broiling. Smelts and other 
small fish are broiled whole, without splitting. Clean and 
wipe fish as dry as possible, sprinkle with salt and pepper, 
and place in well-greased wire broiler. Slices of fish should 
be turned often while broiling; whole fish should be first 
broiled on flesh side, then turned and broiled on skin side just 
long enough to make skin brown and crisp. 

To remove from broiler, loosen fish on one side, turn and 
loosen on other side ; otherwise flesh will cling to broiler. 
Slip from broiler to hot platter, or place platter over fish and 
invert platter and broiler together. 

To Bake Fish. Clean, and bake on a greased fish-sheet 
placed in a dripping-pan. If a fish-sheet is not at hand, 
place strips of cotton cloth under fish, by which it may be 
lifted from pan. 

To Fry Fish. Clean fish, and wipe as dry as possible. 
Sprinkle with salt, dip in flour or crumbs, egg, and crumbs, 
and fry in deep fat. 

To Saut^ Fish. Prepare as for frying, and cook in frying- 
pan with small amount of fat ; or, if preferred, dip in granu- 
lated corn meal. Cod steak and smelts are often cooked in 
this way. 

TABLE SHOWING COMPOSITION OF THE 
VARIOUS FISH USED FOR FOOD 

Mineral 
Articles Refuse Proteid Fat matter Water 



Bass, black . . . 


. 54.8 


9.3 


.8 


.5 


34.6 


Bluefish .... 


. 55.7 


• 8.3 


.5 


.5 


35. 


Butterfish . . . 


. 42.8 


10.2 


6.3 


.6 


40.1 


Cod, fresh . . . 


. 52.5 


8. 


.2 


.6 


38.7 


Cod, salt, boneless 


, 


22.2 


.3 


23.1 


64.4 


Cusk 


, 40.3 


10.1 


.X 


,5 


49. 



u 



162 



BOSTON COOKIKG-SOHOOL COOK BOOK 











Mineral 






Articles 


Refuse 


Proteid 


Fat 


matter 




Water 


Eels 


. 20.2 


14.6 


7.2 


.8 




57.2 


Flounder . . . 


. 61.5 


6.6 


.8 


.5 




32.1 


Haddock . . . 


. 51. 


8.2 


.2 


.6 




40. 


Halibut, sections . 


. 17.7 


15.1 


4.4 


.9 




61.9 


Herring .... 


. 42.6 


10.9 


3.9 


.9 




41.7 


Mackerel . . . 


. 44.6 


10. 


4.3 


.7 




40.4 


Mackerel, Spanish 


. 34.6 


13.7 


6.2 


1. 




44.5 


Perch, white . . 


. 62.5 


7.2 


1.5 


.4 




28.4 


Pickerel .... 


. 47.1 


9.8 


.2 


.7 




42.2 


Pompano . . . 


. 45.5 


10.2 


4.3 


.5 




39.5 


Red Snapper . . 


. 46.1 


10.6 


.6 


.7 




42. 


Salmon .... 


. 39.2 


12.4 


8.1 


.9 




39.4 


Shad 


. 60.1 
Carbo- 
hydrates 


9.2 


4.8 


.7 




35.2 


Shad, roe ... 


. 2.6 
Refuse 


20.9 


3.8 


1.5 




71.2 


Sheepshead . . . 


. 66. 


6.4 


.2 


.5 




26.9 


Smelts .... 


. 41.9 


10. 


1. 


1. 




46.1 


Trout .... 


. 48.1 


9.8 


1.1 


.6 




40.4 


Turbot ..... 


. 47.7 


6.8 


7.5 


.7 




37.3 


Whitefish . . . 


. 53.5 


10.3 


3. 


.7 




32.5 










Carbo- 












hydrates 




Lobsters .... 


. 61.7 


5.9 


.7 


.8 


.2 


30.7 


Clams, out of shell 


, 


10.6 


1.1 


2.3 


5.2 


80.8 


Oysters, solid . . 


, 


6.1 


1.4 


.9 


3.3 


88.3 


Crabs, soft shell . 


. 


15.8 


1.5 


2. 


.7 


80. 








W. 


0. Atwater^ Ph.D, 



Boiled Haddock 
Clean and boil as directed in Ways of Cooking Fish. Re- 
move to a hot platter, garnish with slices of " hard-boiled " 
eggs and parsley, and serve with Egg Sauce. A thick piece 
of halibut may be boiled and served in the same way. 

Boiled Salmon 
Clean and boil as directed in Ways of Cooking Fish. 
Place on a hot platter, remove skin, and garnish with slices 
of lemon and parsley. Serve with Egg Sauce I or II, or 
HoUandalse Sauce. 



BROILED STTTPFED FISH 163 

Steamed Halibut, Silesian Sauce 

Steam by cooking over boiling water a piece of halibut 
weighing two pounds, and serve with Silesian Sauce. 

1}/^ tablespoons vinegar Yolks 3 eggs 

% teaspoon powdered tarragon % cup Brown Stock 

3 peppercorns j( cup butter 

Bit of bay leaf 1 tablespoon flour 

Sprig of parsley i^ tablespoon capers 

}^ teaspoon finely chopped shallot }^ tablespoon parsley 
Salt and cayenne 

Cook first six ingredients until reduced one-half ; strain, 
add yolks of eggs well beaten, one-half, each, brown stock' 
and butter, and cook over hot water, stirring constantly until 
thickened. Then add, gradually, remaining butter mixed 
with flour and stock. As soon as mixture thickens, add 
capers, parsley finely chopped, and salt and cayenne. 

Broiled Scrod 
A young cod, split down the back, and backbone removed, 
except a small portion near the tail, is called a scrod. Scrod 
are usually broiled, spread with butter, and sprinkled with 
salt and pepper. Haddock is also so dressed. 

Broiled Chicken Halibut 

Clean and broil as directed in Ways of Cooking Fish. 
Spread with butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and garnish 
with slices of lemon cut in fancy shapes and sprinkled with 
paprika and parsley. 

Broiled S-wordfish 
Clean and broil fish, spread with butter, sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, and serve with Cucumber Sauce I, or Horseradish 
Sauce I. 

Broiled Shad R^je 
Wipe, sprinkle with salt and pepper, put on greased wire 
broiler, and broil five minutes on each side. Serve with 
Maitre d'H6tel Butter. Mackerel roe are delicious cooked 
in this way. 



164 fiOSTOK COOKiN^-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Broiled Fompano -with Fricassee of Clams 

Clean and broil fish as directed in Ways of Cooking Fish 
(see p. 160). When nearly cooked, slip from broiler onto a 
hot platter and brush over with melted butter. Surround 
with two borders of mashed potatoes, one-inch apart, forced 
through a pastry bag and tube. Arrange ten halves of clam- 
shells between potato borders, at equal distances ; fill spaces 
between shells with potato roses. Place in oven to finish 
cooking fish and to brown potatoes. Just before serving, fill 
clam-shells with 

Fricassee of Clams. Clean one pint clams, finely chop 
hard portions and reserve soft portions. Melt two table- 
spoons butter, add chopped clams, two tablespoons flour, 
and pour on gradually one-third cup cream. Strain sauce, add 
soft part of clams, cook one minute, season with salt and 
cayenne, and add yolk of one egg slightly beaten. 

Baked Haddock with Stuffing 
Clean a four-pound baddock, sprinkle with salt inside 
and out, stuff, and sew. Cut five diagonal gashes on each 
side of backbone and insert narrow strips of fat salt 
pork, having gashes on one side come between gashes 
on other side. Shape with skewers in form of letter S, 
and fasten skewers with small twine. Place on greased 
fish-sheet in a dripping-pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, 
brush over with melted butter, dredge with flour, and place 
around fish small pieces of fat salt pork. Bake one 
hour in hot oven, basting as soon as fat is tried out, and 
continue basting every ten minutes. Serve with Drawn 
Butter, Egg or HoUandaise Sauce. Garnish with lemon and 
parsley. 

Fish Stuffing I 

3^ cup cracker crumbs -= 4 crackers }^ teaspoon salt 
}£ cup stale bread crumbs )^ teaspoon pepper 

1^ cup melted butter Few drops onion juice 

1^ cup hot water 

Mix ingredients in order given. 



BAKED STUFFED FISH 165 

Pish Stuffing II 
1 cup cracker crumbs Few drops onion juice 

J£ cup melted butter Parsley ) ^ ^ ^^^^ 

K teaspoon salt Capers ^ finely chopped 

3^ teaspoon pepper Pickles J j rr 

Mix Ingredients in order given. This makes a dry, crumbly 
staflSng. 

Baked Bluefish 
Clean a four-pound bluefish^ stuff, sew, and bake ss 
Baked Halibut with StuflSng, omitting to cut gashes on 
sides, as the fish is rich enough without addition of pork. 
Baste often with one-third cup butter melted in two-thirds 
cup boiling water. Serve with Shrimp Sauce. 

Breslin Baked Bluefish 

Split and bone a bluefish, place on a well-buttered sheet, 
and cook twenty minutes in a hot oven. Cream one-fourth 
cup butter, add yolks two eggs, and when well mixed add 
two tablespoons, each, onion, capers, pickles, and parsley, 
finely chopped ; two tablespoons lemon juice, one tablespoon 
vinegar, one-half teaspoon salt, and one-third teaspoon pap- 
rika. Sprinkle fish with salt, spread with mixture, and con- 
tinue the baking until fish is done. Remove to serving-dish 
and garnish with potato balls, cucumber ribbons, lemon cut 
in fancy shapes, and parsley. 

Bluefish k I'ltalienne 

Clean a four-pound bluefish, sprinkle with salt and pep- 
per, and put on buttered fish-sheet in a dripping pan. Add 
three tablespoons white wine, three tablespoons mushroom 
liquor, one-half onion finely chopped, eight mushrooms finely 
chopped, and enough water to allow sufficient liquor in pan 
for basting. Bake forty-five minutes in hot oven, basting 
five times. Serve with Sauce k I'ltalienne. 

Baked Cod with Oyster Stuffing 
Clean a four-pound cod, sprinkle with salt and pepper, 
brush oyer with lemon juice, stuff, aud 8§Wt Gash, skewer, 



166 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

and bake as Baked Halibut with Stuffing. Serve with 
Oyster Sauce. 

Oyster Stuffing 

1 cup cracker crumbs 1% teaspoons lemon juice 
)^ cup melted butter % tablespoon finely chopped 
y^ teaspoon salt parsley 

^ teaspoon pepper 1 cup oysters 

Add seasonings and butter to cracker crumbs. Clean 
oysters, and remove tough muscles ; add soft parts to mix- 
ture, with two tablespoons oyster liquor to moisten. 

Baked Haddock "v^rith Oyster Stuffing 
Remove skin, head, and tail from a four-pound haddock. 
Bone, leaving in large bones near head, to keep fillets in 
shape of the original fish. Sprinkle with salt, and brush over 
with lemon juice. Lay one fillet on greased fish-sheet in a 
dripping-pan, cover thickly with oysters, cleaned and dipped 
in buttered cracker crumbs seasoned with salt and pepper. 
Cover oysters with other fillet, brush with egg slightly 
beaten, cover with buttered crumbs, and bake fifty min- 
utes in a moderate oven. Serve with Hollandaise Sauce I. 
Allow one pint oysters and one cup cracker crumbs. 

Baked Halibut with Tomato Sauce 

2 lbs. halibut ^ tablespoon sugar 

2 cups tomatoes 3 tablespoons butter 
1 cup water 3 tablespoons flour 

1 slice onion ^ teaspoon salt 

3 cloves % teaspoon pepper 

Cook twenty minutes tomatoes, water, onion, cloves, and 
sugar. Melt butter, add flour, and stir into hot mixture. 
Add salt and pepper, cook ten minutes, and strain. Clean 
fish, put in baking-pan, pour around half the sauce, and bake 
thirty-five minutes, basting often. Remove to hot platter, 
pour around remaining sauce, and garnish with parsley. 

Baked Halibut V7ith Lobster Sauce 
Clean a piece of halibut weighing three pounds. Out 
gashes in top, and insert a narrow strip of fat salt porl^ 



BAKED FISH 167 

in each gash. Place in dripping-pan on fish-sheet, sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, and dredge with flour. Cover bottom 
of pan with water, add sprig of parsley, slice of onion, two 
slices carrot cut in pieces, and bit of bay leaf. Bake one 
hour, basting with one-fourth cup butter and the liquor in 
pan. Serve with Lobster Sauce. 

Hollenden Halibut 

Arrange six thin slices fat salt pork two and one-half 
inches square in a dripping-pan. Cover with one small 
onion, thinly sliced, and add a bit of bay leaf. Wipe a two- 
pound piece of chicken halibut and place over pork and 
onion. Mask with three tablespoons butter creamed and 
mixed with three tablespoons flour. Cover with three-fourths 
cup buttered cracker crumbs and arrange thin strips of fat 
salt pork over crumbs. Cover with buttered paper and bake 
fifty minutes in a moderate oven;^ removing paper during the 
last fifteen minutes of the cooking to brown crumbs. Re- 
move to hot serving dish and garnish with slices of lemon 
cut in fancy shapes sprinkled with finely chopped parsley 
and paprika. Serve with White Sauce II, using fat in pan 
in place of butter. 

Baked Mackerel 

Split fish, clean, and remove head and tail. Put in 
buttered dripping-pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and 
dot over with butter (allowing one tablespoon to a medium- 
sized fish), and pour over two-thirds cup milk. Bake twenty- 
five minutes in hot oven. 

Planked Shad or "Whitefish 

Clean and split a three-pound shad. Put skin side down 
on a buttered oak plank one inch thick, and a little longer and 
wider than the fish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and brush 
over with melted butter. Bake twenty-five minutes in hot 
oven. Remove from oven, spread with butter, and garnish 
with parsley and lemon. The fish should be sent to the 
table on plank. Planked Shad is well cooked in a gas range 
having the flame over the fish. 

The Planked Whitefish of the Great Lakes has gained 
much favor. 



168 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Planked Shad with Creamed Roe 
Select a roe shad and prepare same as Planked Shad. 
Parboil roe in salted, acidulated water twenty minutes. 
Remove outside membrane, and mash. Melt three table- 
spoons butter, add one teaspoon finely chopped shallot, and 
cook five minutes ; add roe, sprinkle with one and one-half 
tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually one-third cup 
cream. Cook slowly five minutes, add two egg yolks and 
season highly with salt, pepper, and lemon juice. Remove 
shad from oven, spread thin part with roe mixture, cover 
with buttered crumbs, and return to oven to brown crumbs. 
Garnish with mashed potatoes forced through a pastry bag 
and tube, small tomatoes, slices of lemon and parsley. 

Flanked Haddock 
Skin and bone a haddock, leaving meat in two fillets. 
Remove to buttered plank, sprinkle with salt and pepper, 
brush over with melted butter and bake thirty minutes. 
Garnish with mashed potatoes, outlining the original shape 
of the fish, making as prominent as possible head, tail, 
and fins. Bake until potatoes are well browned, when 
fish should be thoroughly cooked. Finish garnishing with 
parsley and slices of lemon sprinkled with finel}^ chopped 
parsley. 

Baked Stuffed Smelts 

Clean and wipe as dry as possible twelve selected smelts. 
Stuff, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and brush over with 
lemon juice. Place in buttered shallow plate, cover with 
buttered paper, and bake five minutes in hot oven. Remove 
from oven, sprinkle with buttered crumbs, and bake until 
crumbs are brown. Serve with Sauce Bearnaise. 

Stuffing. Cook one tablespoon finely chopped onion with 
one tablespoon butter three minutes. Add one-fourth cup 
finely chopped mushrooms, one-fourth cup soft part of 
oysters (parboiled, drained, and chopped), one-half teaspoon 
chopped parsley, three tablespoons Thick White Sauce, and 
one-half cup Fish Force-meat. 



BAKED FISH 169 

"^ Smelts k la Langtry 

Split and bone eight selected smelts. Cut off tails, and 
from tail ends of fish turn meat over one inch onto flesh 
side. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and brush over with 
lemon juice. Garnish with Fish Force-meat forced through 
a pastry bag and tube, and fasten heads with skewers to 
keep in an upright position. Arrange in a buttered pan, 
and pour around white wine. Cover with buttered paper, 
and bake from fifteen to twenty minutes. Just before 
taking from oven, sprinkle with lobster coral forced through 
a strainer. Serve with Aurora Sauce. 

Aurora Sauce. Melt three tablespoons butter^ add three 
tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually one and one-half 
cups cream and one tablespoon meat extract. Season with 
salt and cayenne, and add lobster coral and one-half cup 
lobster dice. 

Baked Shad Roe with Tomato Sauce 

Cook shad roe fifteen minutes in boiling salted water to 
cover, with one-half tablespoon vinegar ; drain, cover with 
cold water, and let stand five minutes. Remove frOm cold 
water, and place on buttered pan with three-fourths cup 
Tomato Sauce I or II. Bake twenty minutes in hot oven, 
basting every five minutes. Remove to a platter, and pour 
around three-fourths cup Tomato Sauce. 

Baked Fillets of Bass or Halibut 

Cut bass or halibut into small fillets, sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, put into a shallow pan, cover with buttered 
paper, and bake twelve minutes in hot oven. Arrange on 
a rice border, garnish with parsley, and serve with Hollan- 
daise Sauce II. 

Fillets of Halibut vrith Brow^n Sauce 

Cut a slice of halibut weighing one and one-half pounds 
in eight short fillets, sprinkle with salt and pepper, put in 
greased pan, and bake five minutes ; drain, pour over one 
and one-half cups Brown Sauce I, cover with one-half cup 
buttered cracker crumbs, and bake. 



170 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Fillets of Haddock, White Wine Sauce 
Skin a three and one-half pound haddock, and cut in 
fillets. Arrange in buttered baking-pan, pour around fish 
three tablespoons melted butter, three-fourths cup white wine 
to which has been added one-half tablespoon lemon juice, 
and two slices onion. Cover and bake. Melt two table* 
spoons butter, add two tablespoons flour, and pour on liquor 
drained from fish ; then add one-half cup Fish Stock (made 
from head, tail, and bones of fish), two tablespoons heavy 
cream, yolks two eggs, salt, and pepper. Remove fillets to 
serving dish, pour over sauce strained through cheesecloth, 
and sprinkle with finely chopped parsley. 

Halibut k la Poulette 

A slice of halibut, weighing ^ teaspoon pepper 

1}^ lbs. 2 teaspoons lemon juice 

}^ cup melted butter Few drops onion juice 

^ teaspoon salt 

Clean fish and cut in eight fillets. Add seasonings to 
melted butter, and put dish containing butter in saucepan of 
hot water to keep butter melted. Take up each fillet sepa- 
rately with a fork, dip in butter, roll and fasten with a small 
wooden skewer. Put in a shallow pan, dredge with flour, 
and bake twelve minutes in hot oven. Remove skewers, 
arrange on platter for serving, pour around one and one-half 
cups Bechamel Sauce, and garnish with yolks of two hard- 
boiled eggs rubbed through a strainer, whites of hard-boiled 
cut in strips, lemon cut fan-shaped, and parsley. 



Moulded Fish, Normandy Sauce 

Remove skin and bones from a thick piece of halibut, 
finely chop fish, and force through a sieve (there should be 
one and one-third cups). Pound in mortar, adding gradu- 
ally whites two eggs. Add one and one-fourth cups heavy 
cream, and salt, pepper, and cayenne to taste. Turn into a 
buttered fish-mould, cover with buttered paper, set in pan of 
hot water, and bake until fish is firm. Turn on serving dish 
and surround with 




Planked Haddock. — Page 168. 




Fillets of Fish a la Bement. — Page 171. 




Oyster Cocktail I. — Page 180. 





Oyster Cocktail II. — Page 180. 



BAKED FISH 171 

Normandy Sauce. Cook skin and bones of fish with 
three slices carrot, one slice onion, sprig of parsley, bit of 
bay leaf, one-fourth teaspoon peppercorns, and two cups 
cold water, thirty minutes, and strain; there should be one 
cup. Melt two tablespoons butter, add three tablespoons 
flour, fish stock, and one-third cup heavy cream. Bring to 
boiling-point and add yolks two eggs. Season with salt, 
pepper, cayenne, and one tablespoon Sauterne. 

Halibut k la Martin 
Clean two slices chicken halibut and cut into eight fillets. 
Season with salt, brush over with lemon juice and roll. 
Arrange on a tin plate covered with cheesecloth, fold cheese- 
cloth over fillets, and cook in steamer fifteen minutes. Re- 
move to serving dish, garnish with small shrimps, and pour 
around sauce, following directions for Normandy Sauce, 
omitting Sauterne, and seasoning to taste with grated cheese 
and Madeira. 

Fillets of Fish k la Bement 

Prepare and cook fish same as for Hahbut k la Martin. 
Insert tip of small lobster claw in each fillet, and garnish 
with a thin slice of canned mushroom sprinkled with parsley 
and a thin circular slice of truflfle. Serve with 

Iiobster Sauce III. Remove meat from a one and one-half 
pound lobster and cut claw meat in cubes. Cover remaining 
meat and body bones with cold water. Add one-half small 
onion, sprig of parsley, bit of bay leaf, and one-fourth tea- 
spoon peppercorns, and cook until stock is reduced to one 
cup. Melt three tablespoons butter, add three tablespoons 
flour, and pour on gradually the stock; then add one-half 
cup heavy cream and yolks two eggs. Season with salt, 
lemon juice, and paprika ; then add lobster cubes. 

Halibut k la Rarebit 

Sprinkle two small slices halibut with salt, pepper, and 
lemon juice; then brush over with melted butter, place in 
dripping-pan on greased fish-sheet, and bake twelve minutes. 
Remove to hot platter for serving, and pour over it a Welsh 
Rarebit. 



172 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Sandwiches of Chicken Halibut 
Cut chicken halibut iu thin fillets. Put together in pairs, 
with Fish or Chicken Force-meat between, first dipping 
fillets in melted butter seasoned with salt and pepper and 
brushing over with lemon juice. Place in shallow pan with 
one-fourth cup white wine. Bake twenty minutes in hot 
oven. Arrange on hot platter for serving, sprinkle with 
finely chopped parsley, garnish with Tomato Jelly, and 
serve with HoUandaise Sauce. 

Sole k la Bercy 

Skin and bone two large flounders, and cut into eight 
fillets. Put into a buttered pan, sprinkle with salt, pepper, 
and lemon juice, and add one-fourth cup white wine. Cover 
and cook fifteen minutes. Remove to serving dish, pour 
over Bercy Sauce, and sprinkle with finely chopped parsley. 

Bercy Sauce. Fry one tablespoon finely chopped shallot 
in one tablespoon butter five minutes ; add two tablespoons 
flour, and pour on gradually the liquor left in pan with 
enough White Stock to make one cup. Add two table- 
spoons butter, and salt and cayenne to taste. 

Halibut au Lit 

Wipe two slices chicken halibut, each weighing three- 
fourths pound. Cut one piece in eight fillets, sprinkle with 
salt and lemon juice, roll and fasten with small wooden 
skewers. Cook over boiling water. Cut remaining slice in 
pieces about the size and shape of scallops. Dip in crumbs, 
egg, and crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Arrange a steamed 
fillet in centre of each fish-plate, place on top of each a 
cooked mushroom cap, and put fried fish at both right and 
left of fillet. Serve with Mushroom Sauce, and garnish 
with watercress and radishes cut in fancy shapes. 

Mushroom Sauce. Melt three tablespoons butter, add 
three tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually, while stir- 
ring constantly, one cup Fish Stock. When boiling-point 
is reached, add one-half cup cream, three mushroom caps, 
sliced, and one tablespoon Sauterne. Season with salt and 
pepper. The Fish Stock should be made from skin and bones 



FRIED FISH 173 

of halibut. The mushroom caps on fillets should be cooked 
in sauce until soft. 

Fried Cod Steaks 

Clean steaks, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and dip in 
granulated corn meal. Try out slices of fat salt pork in 
frying-pan, remove scraps, and saute steaks in fat. 

Fried Smelts 

Clean smelts, leaving on heads and tails. Sprinkle with 
salt and pepper, dip in flour, egg, and crumbs, and fry three 
to four minutes in deep fat. As soon as smelts are put into 
fat, remove fat to back of range so that they may not be- 
come too brown before cooked through. Arrange on hot 
platter, garnish with parsley, lemon, and fried gelatine. 
Serve with Sauce Tartare. 

Smelts are fried without being skewered, but often are 
skewered in variety of shapes. 

To fry gelatine. Take up a few shreds and drop in hot, 
deep fat; it will immediately swell and become white; it 
should at once be removed with a skimmer, then drained. 

Phosphated or granulated gelatine cannot be used for 
frying. 

Smelts k la Meniere 

Clean six selected smelts, and cut five diagonal gashes on 
each side. Season with salt, pepper, and lemon juice, cover, 
and let stand ten minutes. Roll in cream, dip in flour, and 
saute in butter. Add to butter in pan two tablespoons flour, 
one cup White Stock, one and one-third teaspoons Anchovy 
Essence, and a few drops lemon juice. Just before sauce is 
poured around smelts, add one and one-half tablespoons 
butter and one teaspoon finely chopped parsley. 

Fried Fillets of Halibut or Flounder 

Clean fish and cut in long or short fillets. If cut in long 
fillets, roll, and fasten with small wooden skewers. Sprinkle 
fillets with salt and pepper, dip in crumbs, egg^ and crumbs, 
fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Serve with 
Sauce Tartare. 



174 BOSTON GOOKING-SOHOOL COOK BOOK 

Fried Pish, Russian Style, Mushroom Sauce 
Cut two slices chicken halibut in fillets, sprinkle fillets 
with salt and pepper, pour over one-third cup white wine, 
cover, and let stand thirty minutes. Drain, dip each piece 
separately in heavy cream, then in flour, and fry in deep fat. 
Cook skin and bones removed from fish with five slices carrot, 
two slices onion, sprig parsley, bit of bay leaf, one-fourth 
teaspoon peppercorns, and two cups cold water until reduced 
to one cup liquid. Make sauce of two tablespoons butter, 
three tablespoons flour, the fish stock, and one-third cup 
heavy cream. Add yolks two eggs, salt, pepper, cayenne, 
and white wine to taste. 

Arrange fish on serving dish, cover with one-half pound 
mushroom caps cleaned, then sauted in butter, and pour 
over sauce. 

Fried Eels 
Clean eels, cut In two-inch pieces, and parboil eight min- 
utes. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in corn meal, and 
saute in pork fat. 

Fried Stuffed Smelts 
Smelts are stuffed as for Baked Stuffed Smelts, dipped in 
crumbs, egg, and crumbs, fried in deep fat, and served with 
Sauce Tar tare. 

Fried Shad Roe 
Parboil and cook shad roe as for Baked Shad Roe. Cut 
in pieces, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and brush over with 
lemon juice. Dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, fry in deep 
fat, and drain. 

Soft-shell Crabs. 

Clean crabs, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in crumbs, 
egg, and crumbs, fry in deep fat, and drain. Being light, 
they will rise to top of fat, and should be turned while frying. 
Soft-shell crabs are usually fried. Serve with Sauce Tartare. 

To Clean a Crab. Lift and fold back the tapering points 
which are found on each side of the back shell, and remove 
spongy substance that lies under them. Turn w:ab on itfi 



TBERAPIN 176 

back, and with a pointed knife remove the small piece at 
lower part of shell, which terminates in a point; this is 
called the apron. 

Frogs' Hind tegs 
Trim and clean. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in 
crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, then fry three minutes in 
deep fat, and drain. 

Terrapin 

To prepare terrapin for cooking, plunge into boiling water 
and boil five minutes. Lift out of water with skimmer, and 
remove skin from feet and tail by rubbing with a towel. 
Draw out head with a skewer, and rub off skin. 

To Cook Terrapin. Put in a kettle, cover with boiling 
salted water, add two slices each of carrot and onion, and a 
stalk of celery. Cook until meat is tender, which may be 
determined by pressing feet-meat between thumb and finger. 
The time required will be from thirty-five to forty minutes. 
Remove from water, cool, draw out nails from feet, cut 
under shell close to upper shell and remove. Empty upper 
shell and carefully remove and discard gall-bladder, sand- 
bags, and thick, heavy part of intestines. Any of the gall- 
bladder would give a bitter flavor to the dish. The liver, 
small intestines, and eggs are used with the meat. 
Terrapin k la Baltimore 
1 terrapin Cayenne 

^ cup White Stock 1^ tablespoons butter 

1}£ tablespoons wine Salt- and pepper 

Yolks 2 eggs 
To stock and wine add terrapin meat, with bones cut in 
pieces and entrails cut in smaller pieces ; then cook slowly 
until liquor is reduced one-half. Add liver separated in 
pieces, eggs, butter, salt, pepper, and cayenne. 

Terrapin k la Maryland 
Add to Terrapin k la Baltimore one tablespoon each butter 
and flour creamed together, one-half cup cream, yolks two 
eggs slightly beaten, and one teaspoon lemon juice; then add, 
just before serving, one tablespoon Sherry wine. Pour in a 
deep dish and garnish witiii toast or puff-paste points. 



176 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Washington Terrapin 

1 terrapin ^ cup chopped mushroomB 

IX tablespoons butter Salt 

11^ tablespoons flonr Few grains cayenne 

1 cup cream 2 eggs 

2 tablespoons Sherry wine 
Melt the butter, add flour, and pour on slowly the cream. 
Add terrapin meat with bones cut in pieces, entrails cut 
smaller, liver separated in pieces, eggs of terrapin, and 
mushrooms. Season with salt and cayenne. Just before 
serving, add eggs slightly beaten and two tablespoons Sherry 
wine. 

WAYS OF USING REMNANTS OF COOKED FISH 
Fish 4 la Crgme 

IH <^^PS ^o^^ flaked fish Sprig of parsley 

(cod, haddock, halibut, or ^ slice onion 

cusk) Salt and pepper 

1 cup White Sauce I J^ cup buttered cracker 

Bit of bay leaf crumbs 

Scald milk, for the making of White Sauce, with bay leaf, 
parsley, and onion. Cover the bottom of small buttered 
platter with one-half of the fish, sprinkle with salt and pep- 
per, and pour over one-half the sauce ; repeat. Cover with 
crumbs, aad bake in hot oven until crumbs are brown. 
Fish a la creme, baked in scallop shells, makes an attractive 
luncheon dish, or may be served for a fish course at 

dinner. 

Turban ot Pish 

2)^ cups cold flaked fish (cod, )^ cup butter 

haddock, halibut, or cusk) ^ cup flour 

IJ^ cups milk }4 teaspoon salt 

1 slice onion }4 teaspoon pepper 

Blade of mace Lemon juice 

Sprig of parsley Yolks 2 eggs 
^ cup buttered cracker crumbs 

Scald milk with onion, mace, and parsley ; remove season- 
ings. Melt butter, add flour, salt, pepper, and gradually the 
iiulk ; then add eggs, slightly beaten. Pat a layer of fiab on 



WAYS OF USING REMNANTS OF COOKED FISH 177 

buttered dish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and add a few 
drops of lemon juice. Cover with sauce, continuing until 
fish and sauce are used, shaping in pyramid form. Cover 
with crumbs, and bake in hot oven until crumbs are 
brown. 

Fish Hash 
Take equal parts of cold flaked fish and cold boiled pota- 
toes finely chopped. Season with salt and pepper. Try out 
fat salt pork, remove scraps, leaving enough fat in pan to 
moisten fish and potatoes. Put in fish and potatoes, stir 
until heated, then cook until well browned underneath; fold, 
and turn like an omelet. 

Fish Croquettes 

To one and one-half cups cold flaked halibut or salmon add 
one cup thick White Sance. Season with salt and pepper, and 
spread on a plate to cool. Shape, roll in crumbs, egg, and 
crumbs, and fry in deep fat ; drain, arrange on hot dish for 
serving, and garnish with parsley. If salmon is used, add 
lemon juice and finely chopped parsley. 

Fish and Egg Croquettes 

Make same as Fish Croquettes, using one cup fish and 
three ''hard-boiled " eggs finely chopped. 

Scalloped Cod 

Line a buttered baking-dish with cold flaked cod, sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, cover with a layer of oysters (first 
dipped in melted butter, seasoned with onion juice, lemon 
juice, and a few grains of cayenne, and then in cracker 
crumbs), add three tablespoons oyster liquor; repeat, and 
cover with buttered cracker crumbs. Bake twenty minutes 
in hot oven. Serve with Egg or Hollandaise Sauce I. 

Salmon Box 

Line a bread pan, slightly buttered, with warm steamed 
rice. Fill the centre with coid boiled salmon, flaked, and 
seasoned with salt, pepper, and a slight grating of nutmeg. 
Cover with rice and steam one hour. Turn on a hot plattei 
for serving, and pour around Egg Sauce II. 

IS 



178 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



WAYS OF COOKING SALT FISH 

Creamed Salt Codfish 

Pick salt codfish in pieces (there should be three-fourths 
cup), and soak in lukewarm water, the time depending upon 
hardness and saltness of the fish. Drain, and add one cup 
White Sauce I. Add one beaten egg just before sending to 
table. Garnish with slices of hard-boiled eggs. Creamed 
Codfish is better made with cream slightly thickened in place 
of White Sauce. 

Fish Balls 

1 cup salt codfish 1 egg 

2 heaping cups potatoes ^ tablespoon butter 

1^ teaspoon pepper 
Wash fish in cold water, and pick in very small pieces, 
or cut, using scissors. Wash, pare, and soak potatoes, cut- 
ting in pieces of uniform size before measuring. Cook fish 
and potatoes in boiling water to cover until potatoes are soft. 
Drain thoroughly through strainer, return to kettle in which 
they were cooked, mash thoroughly (being sure there are no 
lumps left in potato), add butter, egg well beaten, and pepper. 
Beat with a fork two minutes. Add salt if necessary. 
Take up by spoonfuls, put in frying-basket, and fry one 
minute in deep fat, allowing six fish balls for each frying ; 
drain on brown paper. Reheat the fat after each frying. 

Salted Codfish Hash 
Prepare as for Fish Balls, omitting egg. Try out fat salt 
pork, remove scraps, leaving enough fat in pan to moisten 
fish and potatoes. Put in fish and potatoes, stir until heated, 
then cook until well browned underneath ; fold, and turn like 
an omelet. 

Toasted Salt Fish 

Pick salt codfish in long thin strips. If very salt, it may 
need to be freshened by standing for a short time in luke- 
warm water. Place on a greased wire broiler, and broil 
until brown on one side ; turn, and brown the other. Re- 
move to platter, and spread with butter. 



WAYS OF COOKING SALT FISH 179 

Kippered Herrings 

Remove fish from can, and arrange on a platter that may 
be put in the oven ; sprinkle with pepper, brush over with 
lemon juice and melted butter, and pour over the liquor left 
in can. Heat thoroughly, and garnish with parsley and 
slices of lemon. 

Baked Finnan Haddie 
Put fish in dripping-pan, surround with milk and water in 
equal proportions, place on back of range, where it will heat 
slowly. Let stand twenty-five minutes; pour off liquid, 
spread with butter, and bake twenty-five minutes. 

Broiled Finnan Haddie 

Broil in a greased broiler until brown on both sides. 
Remove to a pan, and cover with hot water ; let stand ten 
minutes, drain, and place on a platter. Spread with butter, 
and sprinkle with pepper. 

Finnan Haddie k la Delmonico 

Cut fish in strips (there should be one cup), put in baking- 
pan, cover with cold water, place on back of range and 
allow water to heat to boiling-point; let stand on range, 
keeping water below boiling-point for twenty-five minutes, 
drain, and rinse thoroughly. Separate fish into flakes, add 
one-half cup heavy cream and four " hard-boiled " eggs thinly 
sliced. Season with cayenne, add one tablespoon butter, and 
sprinkle with finely chopped parsley. 

WAYS OF COOKING SHELLFISH 

Oysters on the Half Shell 

Serve oysters on deep halves of the shells, allowing six 
to each person. Arrange on plates of crushed ice, with one- 
fourth of a lemon in the centre of each plate. 

Raw Oysters 
Raw oysters are served on oyster plates, or in a block of 
ioe. Place block of ice on a folded napkin on platter, ana 



180 BOSTON COOIONG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

garnish the base with parsley and quarters of lemon, or 
ferns and lemon. 

To Block Ice for Oysters. Use a rectangular piece of 
clear ice, and with hot flatirons melt a cavity large enough 
to hold the oysters. Pour water from cavity as rapidly as it 
forms. 

Oyster Cocktail 1 

8 small raw oysters 2 drops Tabasco 

1 tablespoon tomato catsup Salt 

y^ tablespoon vinegar or lemon 1 teaspoon celery, finely 
juice chopped 

y^ teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce 

Mix ingredients, chill thoroughly, and serve in cocktail 
glasses, or cases made from green peppers placed on a bed 
of crushed ice. 

Oyster Cocktail n 
6 small raw oysters Lemon juice 

Tabasco Sauce Salt 

Grape fruit 

Cut grape fruit in halves crosswise, remove tough portions, 
and add oysters seasoned with Tabasco, lemon juice, and 
salt. 

Oyster Cocktail III 

Allow seven Blue Point oysters to each person, and season 
with three-fourth tablespoon lemon juice, one-half tablespoon 
tomato catsup, one-half teaspoon finely chopped shallot, three 
drops Tabasco sauce, few gratings horseradish root, and salt 
to taste. Chill thoroughly and serve in cocktail glasses. 
Sprinkle with finely chopped celery and garnish with small 
pieces of red and green pepper. 

Roasted Oysters 
Oysters for roasting should be bought in the shell. Wash 
thoroughly, scrubbing with a brush. Put in a dripping-pan, 
and cook in a hot oven until shells part. Open, sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, and eerve in the deep halves of the 
shells. 



WAYS OF COOKING SHELLFISH 181 

Oysters a la Ballard 

Arrange oysters on the half shell in a dripping-pan, and 
bake in a hot oven until edges curl. Allow six to each serve, 
pouring over the following sauce : 

Mix three-fourths tablespoon melted butter, three-fourths 
teaspoon each lemon juice and Sauterne, few drops Tabasco, 
one-fourth teaspoon finely chopped parsley, and salt and 
paprika to taste. Before putting ingredients in bowl, rub 
inside of bowl with a clove of garlic. 

Panned Oysters 

Clean one pint large oysters. Place in dripping-pan 
small oblong pieces of toast, put an oyster on each piece, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, and bake until oysters are 
plump. Serve with Lemon Butter. 

Lemon Butter. Cream three tablespoons butter, add one- 
half teaspoon salt, one tablespoon lemon juice, and a few 
grains cayenne. 

Fancy Roast 

Clean one pint oysters and drain from their liquor. Put 
in a stewpan and cook until oysters are plump and edge* 
begin to curl. Shake pan to prevent oysters from adhering 
to pan, or stir with a fork. Season with salt, pepper, and 
two tablespoons butter, and pour over four small slices of 
toast. Garnish with toast points and parsley. 

Oyster Fricassee 

1 pint oysters ^ teaspoon salt 
Milk or cream Few grains cayenne 

2 tablespoons butter 1 teaspoon finely chopped 
2 tablespoons flour parsley 

legg 

Clean oysters, heat oyster liquor to boiling-point, and 
strain through double thickness of cheese-cloth ; add oysters 
to liquor and cook until plump. Remove oysters with 
skimmer and add enough cream to liquor to make a cupful. 
Melt butter, add flour, and pour on gradually hot liquid; 
add salt, cayenne, parsley, oysters, and egg slightly beaten. 



182 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Creamed Oysters 

1 pint oysters 1}4 cups White Sauce II 

^Q teaspoon celery salt 

Clean, and cook oj^sters until plump and edges begin to 
curl ; drain, and add to White Sauce seasoned with celery 
salt. Serve on toast, in timbale cases, patt}' shells, or vol- 
au-vents. One-fourth cup sliced mushrooms are often 
added to Creamed Oysters. 

Oysters in Brown Sauce 

1 pint oysters }^ cup milk 

^ cup butter j^2 teaspoon salt 

)^ cup flour 1 teaspoon anchovy sauce 

1 cup oyster liquor ^ teaspoon pepper 

Parboil and drain oysters, reserve liquor, heat, strain, 
and set aside for sauce. Brown butter, add flour, and stir 
until well browned; then add oyster liquor, milk, season- 
ings, and oysters. For filling patty cases or vol-au- vents. 

Savory Oysters 

1 pint of oysters % cup Brown Stock 

4 tablespoons butter 1 teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce 

4 tablespoons flour Few drops onion juice 

1 cup oyster liquor Salt 

Pepper 

Clean oysters, parboil, and drain. Melt butter, add flour, 
and stir until w^ell browned. Pour on gradually, while stir- 
ring constantly, oyster liquor and stock. Add seasonings 
and oysters. Serve on toast, in timbale cases, patty shells, 
or vol-au-vents. 

Oysters a la Aster 

1 pint oysters \% teaspoons lemon juice 

2 tablespoons butter 1% teaspoons vinegar 

1 teaspoon finely chopped shallot 1 teaspoon Worcestershire 

1 tablespoon finely cut red pepper Sauce 

2 tablespoons flour % teaspoon beef extract 

Salt and paprika 

Wash and pick over oysters, parboil, drain, and to liquor 
add enough water to make one cup liquid; then strain 



WAYS OF COOKING SHELLFISH 183 

through cheese-cloth. Cook butter, shallot, and pepper 
three minutes, add flour, and pour on gradually, while stirring 
constantly, oyster liquor. Add seasonings and oysters. 
Remove oysters to small pieces of bread sauted in butter on 
one side. Pour sauce over oysters and garnish with thin 
slices of cucumber pickles. 

Broiled Oysters 

1 pint selected oysters 3^ cup melted butter 

% cup seasoned cracker crumbs 

Clean oysters and dry between towels. Lift with plated 
fork by the tough muscle and dip in butter, then in cracker 
crumbs which have been seasoned with salt and pepper. 
Place in a buttered wire broiler and broil over a clear fire 
until juices flow, turning while broiling. Serve with or with- 
out Maitre d'H6tel Butter. 

Oyster Toast 
Serve Broiled Oysters on small pieces of Milk Toast. 
Sprinkle with finely chopped celery. 

Oysters and Macaroni 

1 pint oysters Salt and pepper 

^ cup macaroni broken in Flour 

1 inch pieces % ^^P buttered crumbs 

3^ cup butter 

Cook macaroni in boiling salted water until soft; drain, 
and rinse with cold water. Put a layer in bottom of a but- 
tered pudding-dish^ cover with oysters, sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, dredge with flour, and dot over with one-half of 
the butter ; repeat, and cover with buttered crumbs. Bake 
twenty minutes in hot oven. 

Scalloped Oysters 

1 pint oysters 1 cup cracker crumbs 
4 tablespoons oyster liquor )^ cup melted butter 

2 tablespoons milk or cream Salt 
y^ cup stale bread crumbs Pepper 

Mix bread and cracker crumbs, and stir in butter. Put a 
thin layer in bottom of a buttered shallow baking-dish, cover 
with oysters, and sprinkle with salt and pepper; add oo^ 



184 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

half each oyster liquor and cream. Repeat, and cover top 
with remaining crumbs. Bake thirty minutes in hot oven. 
Never allow more than two layers of oysters for Scalloped 
Oysters ; if three layers are used, the middle layer will be 
underdone, while others are properly cooked. A sprinkling 
of mace or grated nutmeg to each layer is considered by many 
an improvement. Sherry wine may be used in place of cream. 
Sauted Oysters 
Clean one pint oysters, sprinkle on both sides with salt 
and pepper. Take up by the tough muscle with plated fork 
and dip in seasoned cracker crumbs. Put two tablespoons 
butter in hot frying-pan, add oysters, brown on one side, 
then turn and brown on the other. 

Oysters with Bacon 
Clean oysters, wrap a thin slice of bacon around each, and 
fasten with small wooden skewers. Put in a broiler, place 
broiler over dripping-pan, and bake in a hot oven until bacon 
is crisp and brown, turning broiler once during the cooking. 
Drain on brown paper. 

Fried Oysters 
Clean, and dry between towels, selected oysters. Season 
with salt and pepper, dip in flour, egg, and cracker or stale 
bread crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Drain on brown paper 
and serve on a folded napkin. Garnish with parsley and 
serve with or without Sauce Tyrolienne. 

Pried Oysters in Batter 
Clean, and dry between towels, selected oysters. Dip in 
batter, fry in deep fat, drain, and serve on a folded napkin ; 
garnish with lemon and parsley. Oysters may be parboiled, 
drained, and then fried. 

Batter 
2 eggs % teaspoon pepper 

1 teaspoon salt 1 cup bread flour 

% cup milk 

Beat eggs until light, add salt and pepper. Add milk 
slowly to flour, stir until smooth and well mixed. Combine 
mixtures* 



WAYS OF COOKING SHELLFISH 185 

Fried Oysters. Philadelphia Relish 

Follow directions for Fried Oysters. Serve with 
Philadelphia Relish. 

2 cups cabbage, finely shredded ^ teaspoon mustard seed 
2 green peppers, finely chopped y^ teaspoon salt 
1 teaspoon celery seed 2 tablespoons brown sugar 

3=^ cup vinegar 

Mix ingredients in order given. 

Little Neck Clams 

Little Neck Clams are served raw on the half shell, in 
same manner as raw oysters. 

Steamed Clams 

Clams for steaming should be bought in the shell and 
always be alive. Wash clams thoroughly, scrubbhig with a 
brush, changing the water several times. Put into a large 
kettle, allowing one-half cup hot water to four quarts clams; 
cover closely, and steam until shells partially open, care 
being taken that they are not overdone. Serve with indi- 
vidual dishes of melted butter. Some prefer a few drops of 
lemon juice or vinegar added to the butter. If a small quan- 
tity of boiling water is put into the dishes, the melted butter 
will float on top and remain hot much longer. 

Roasted Clams 

Roasted clams are served at Clam Bakes. Clams are 
washed in sea-water, placed on stones which have been pre- 
viously heated by burning wood on them, ashes removed, 
and stones sprinkled with thin layer of seaweed. Clams 
are piled on stones, covered with seaweed, and a piece of 
canvas thrown over them to retain the steam. 

Clams, Union League 
Fry one-half teaspoon finely chopped shallot in one 
and one-half tablespoons butter five minutes ; add eighteen 
clams and one-half cup white wine. Cook until the shells 
open. Remove clams from shells and reduce liquor to one- 
third cupful. Melt two tablespoons butter, add two table- 



186 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

spoons flour, and pour on gradually the clam liquor ; add 
one-fourth cup cream and the clams, season with salt and 
pepper. Refill clam-shells, sprinkle with chopped parsley, 
and serve on each a square piece of fried bacon. 

Clams a la Grand Union 

Clean and dry selected clams, dip in batter, fry in deep 
fat, and drain on brown paper. Serve on small slices of 
cream toast, seasoned with salt, celery salt, pepper, and 
cayenne. 

Batter. Mix and sift one cup bread flour, one-half tea- 
spoon salt, and a few grains cayenne. Add gradually two- 
thirds cup milk, and two eggs well beaten. 

Fried Scallops 

Clean one quart scallops, drain, and dry between towels. 
Season with salt and pepper, dip in egg and crumbs, and 
fry two minutes in deep fat ; then drain on brown paper. 

Plain Lobster 

Remove lobster meat from shell, arrange on platter, and 
garnish with small claws. If two lobsters are opened, stand 
tail shells (put together) in centre of platter, and arrange 
meat around them. 

Lobster Cocktail 
Allow one-fourth cup lobster meat, cut in pieces, for each 
cocktail, and season with two tablespoons, each, tomato cat- 
sup and Sherry wine, one tablespoon lemon juice, six drops 
Tabasco Sauce, one-eighth teaspoon finely chopped chives, 
and salt to taste. Chill thoroughly, and serve in cocktail 
glasses. 

Fried Lobster 

Remove lobster meat from shell. Use tail meat, divided in 
fourths, and large pieces of claw meat. Sprinkle with salt, 
pepper, and lemon juice ; dip in crumbs, egg, and again in 
crumbs ; fry in deep fat, drain, and serve with Sauce Tartare. 




Clams Union League. — Page 185. 



P"^'"^'" 'g " ' "'W- 




Oysters a la Ballabp, — Page 181. 




Lobster Cocktail. — Page ISfi. 





Fruit Cocktail. — Page 509. 



WAYS OF COOKING SHELLFISH 187 

Buttered Lobster 

2 lb. lobster Salt and pepper 

3 tablespoons butter Lemon juice 

Remove lobster meat from shell and chop slightly. Melt 
butter, add lobster, and when heated, season and serve 
garnished with lobster claws. 

Scalloped Lobster 

2 lb. lobster % teaspoon salt 

Ij/o cups White Sauce II Few grains cayenne 

2 teaspoons lemon juice 

Remove lobster meat from shell and cut in cubes. Heat 
in White Sauce and add seasonings. Refill lobster shells, 
cover with buttered crumbs, and bake until crumbs are 
brown. To prevent lobster shells from curling over lobster 
while baking, insert small wooden skewers of sufficient length 
to keep shell in its original shape. To assist in presei'ving 
color of shell, brush over with olive oil before putting into 
oven. Scalloped lobster may be baked in buttered scallop 
shells, or in a buttered baking dish. 

Devilled Lobster 

Scalloped lobster highly seasoned is served as Devilled 
Lobster. Use larger proportions of same seasonings, with 
the addition of mustard. 

Curried Lobster 
Prepare as Scalloped Lobster, adding to flour one-half 
teaspoon curry powder when making White Sauce. 

Lobster Farci 

1 cup chopped lobster meat Slight grating nutmeg 

Yolks 2 " hard-boiled " eggs X ^^P buttered crumbs 

% tablespoon chopped parsley Salt 

1 cup White Sauce I Pepper 

To lobster meat add yolks of eggs rubbed to a paste, 
parsley, sauce, and seasonings to taste. Fill lobster shells, 
cover with buttered crumbs, and bake until crumbs are 
browu. 



188 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Lobster and Oyster Filling 

{For Patties or Vol-au- Vent) 

1 pint oysters 3^ cup butter 

1)^ lb. lobster i^ cup flour 

\}4, cups cold water ^ cup cream 

1 stalk celery Worcestershire Sauce 

1 slice onion Lemon juice 

Salt Paprika 

Clean and parboil oysters ; drain, and add to liquor body 
bones and tough claw meat from lobster, water, celery, and 
onion. Cook slowly until stock is reduced to one cup, 
and strain. Make sauce of butter, flour, strained stock, 
and cream. Add oysters and lobster meat cut in strips; 
then add seasonings. One-half teaspoon beef extract is an 
improvement to this dish. 

Fricassee of Lobster and Mushrooms 

2 lb. lobster i^ cup flour 

3^ cup butter 1 % cups milk 

^ lb. mushrooms Salt 

Few drops onion juice Paprika 

2 tablespoons Sherry wine 

Remove lobster meat from shell and cut in strips. Cook 
butter with mushrooms broken in pieces and onion juice 
three minutes ; add flour, and pour on gradually milk. Add 
lobster meat, season with salt and paprika, and, as soon as 
lobster is heated, add wine. Remove to serving dish, and 
garnish with puff paste or toast points and parsley. 

Lobster and Oyster Ragout 

1^ cup butter Few grains cayenne 

1^ cup flour Few drops onion juice. 

% cup oyster liquor 1 pint oysters parboiled 

% cup cream % cup lobster dice 

% teaspoon salt 1% tablespoons Sauterne 

yl teaspoon pepper 1 tablespoon finely chopped parsley 

Make a sauce of first eight ingredients. Add oysters, 
lobster dice, wine, and parsley. 



WAYS OF COOKING SHELLFISH 189 

Stuffed Lobster k la B6chamel 

2 lb. lobster Few grains cayenne 
1/^ cups milk Slight grating nutmeg 
Bit of bay leaf 1 teaspoon chopped parsley 

3 tablespoons butter 1 teaspoon lemon juice 
3 tablespoons flour Yolks 2 eggs 

}£ teaspoon salt 3^ cup buttered crumbs 

Remove lobster meat from shell and cut in dice. Scald 
milk with bay leaf, remove bay leaf and make a white 
sauce of butter, flour, and milk ; add salt, cayenne, nutmeg, 
parsley, yolks of eggs slightly beaten, and lemon juice. 
Add lobster dice, refill shells, cover with buttered crumbs, 
and bake until crumbs are brown. One-half chicken stock 
and one-half cream may be used for sauce if a richer dish is 
desired. 

Broiled Live Lobster 

Live lobsters may be dressed for broiling at market, or 
may be done at home. Clean lobster and place in a buttered 
wire broiler. Broil eight minutes on flesh side, turn and 
broil six minutes on shell side. Serve with melted butter. 
Lobsters taste nearly the same when placed in dripping-pan 
and baked fifteen minutes in hot oven, and are much easier 
cooked. 

To Split a Live Lobster. Cross large claws and hold firmly 
with left hand. With sharp-pointed knife, held in right 
hand, begin at the mouth and make a deep incision, and, 
with a sharp cut, draw the knife quickly through body and 
entire length of tail. Open lobster, remove intestinal vein, 
liver, and stomach, and crack claw shells with a mallet. 

Baked Live Lobster. Devilled Sauce. 

Prepare lobster same as for Broiled Live Lobster and 
place in a dripping-pan. Cook liver of lobster with one 
tablespoon butter three minutes. Season highly with salt, 
cayenne, and Worcestershire Sauce. Spread over lobster, 
and bake in a hot oven fifteen minutes. Remove to platter 
and serve at once, allowing over one and one-half pound 
lobster to each person. 



190 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Live Lobster en Brochette 
Split a live lobster, remove meat from tail and large 
claws, cut in pieces, and arrange on skewers, alternating 
pieces with small slices of bacon. Fry in deep fat and 
drain. Cook liver of lobster with one tablespoon butter 
three minutes, season highly with mustard and cayenne, and 
serve with lobster. 

Lobster k l'Ain6rioaiue 

Split a live lobster and put in a large omelet pan, sprinkle 
with one-fourth onion finely chopped and a few grains of 
cayenne and cook five minutes. Add one-half cup Tomato 
Sauce II and cook three minutes ; then add two tablespoons 
Sherry wine, cover, and cook in oven seven minutes. To 
the liver add one tablespoon wine, two tablespoons Tomato 
Sauce, and one-half tablespoon melted butter ; heat in pan 
after lobster has been removed. As soon as sauce is heated, 
strain, and pour over lobster. 

Lobster k la Muisset 

Cut two one and one-half pound live lobsters in pieces for 
serving, remove intestinal vein and lady, and crack large 
claws. Cook one tablespoon finely chopped shallot and 
three tablespoons chopped carrot in two tablespoons butter 
ten minutes, stirring constantly that carrots may not burn. 
Add two sprigs thyme, one-half bay leaf, two red peppers 
from pepper sauce, one teaspoon salt, one and one-third 
cups Brown Stock, two-thirds cup stewed and strained 
tomatoes, and three tablespoons Sherry wine. Add lobster 
and cock fifteen minutes. Remove lobster to serving dish, 
thicken sauce with four tablespoons, each, butter and flour 
cooked together, and add one and one-half tablespoons 
brandy. Pour sauce around lobster, and sprinkle all with 
finely chopped chives. 



BEEF 191 



CHAPTER Xn 
BEEF 

MEAT is the name applied to the flesh of all animals 
used for food. Beef is the meat of steer, ox, or 
cow, and is the most nutritious and largely consumed of 
all animal foods. Meat is chiefly composed of the albumi- 
noids (fibrin, albumen, gelatin), fat, mineral matter, and 
water. 

Fibrin is that substance in blood which causes it to 
coagulate when shed. It consists of innumerable delicate 
fibrils which entangle the blood corpuscles, and form with 
them a mass called blood clot. Fibrin is insoluble in both 
cold and hot water. 

Albumen is a substance found in the blood and muscle. 
It is soluble in cold water, and is coagulated by hot water 
or heat. It begins to coagulate at 134° F. and becomes 
solid at 160° F. Here lies the necessity of cooking meat 
in hot water at a low temperature; of broiling meat at a 
high temperature, to quickly sear surface. 

Gelatin in its raw state is termed collagen. It is a 
transparent, tasteless substance, obtained by boiling with 
water, muscle, skin, cartilage, bone, tendon, ligament, or 
iuembrane of animals. By this process, collagen of con- 
nective tissues is dissolved and converted into gelatin. 
Gelatin is insoluble in cold water, soluble in hot water, 
but in boiling water is decomposed, and by much boiling 
will not solidify on cooUng. When subjected to cold water 
it swells, and is called hydrated gelatin. Myosin is the 
albuminoid of muscle, collagen of tendons, ossein of bones, 
and chondrin of cartilage and gristle. 

Gelatin, although highly nitrogenous, does not act in the 
system as other nitrogenous foods, as a large quantity passes 
out unchanged. 



192 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Fat is the white or yellowish oily solid substance forming 
the chief part of the adipose tissue. Fat is found in thick 
layers directly under the skin, in other parts of the body, in 
bone, and is intermingled throughout the flesh. Fat as 
food is a great heat-giver and force-producer. Suet is the 
name given to fat which lies about the loins and kidneys. 
Beef suet tried out and clarified is much used in cookery 
for shortening and frying. 

Mineral Matter. The largest amount of mineral matter 
is found in bone. It is principally calcium phosphate 
(phosphate of lime). Sodium chloride (common salt) is 
found in the blood and throughout the tissues. 

"Water abounds in all animals, constituting a large per- 
centage of their weight. 

The color of meat is due to the coloring matter (haemo- 
globin) which abounds in the red corpuscles of the blood. 

The distinctive flavor of meat is principally due to 
peptones and allied substances, and is intensified by the 
presence of sodium chloride and other salts. 

The beef creature is divided by splitting through the back- 
bone in two parts, each part being called a side of beef. 
Four hundred and fifty pounds is good market weight for 
a side of beef. 

The most expensive cuts come from that part of the 
creature where muscles are but little used, which makes the 
meat finer-grained and consequently more tender, taking 
less time for cooking. Many of the cheapest cuts, though 
equally nutritious, need long, slow cooking to render them 
tender enough to digest easily. Tough meat which has 
long and coarse fibres is often found to be very juicy, on 
account of the greater motion of that part of the creature, 
which causes the juices to flow freely. Koasting and broil- 
ing, which develop so fine a flavor, can only be applied to 
the more expensive cuts. The liver, kidneys, and heart 
are of firm, close texture, and difficult of digestion. Tripe, 
which is the first stomach of the ox, is easy of digestion, 
but on account of the large amount of fat which it contains, 
it is undesirable for those of weak digestion. 

The quality of beef depends on age of the creature and 



BEEF 



193 



manner of feeding. Tht best beef is obtained from a steer 
of four or five years. Good beef should be firm and of 
fine-grained texture, bright red in color, and well mottled 
and coated with fat. The fat should be firm and of a yel- 
lowish color. Suet should be dry, and crumble easily. Beef 
should not be eaten as soon as killed, but allowed to hang 
and ripen, — from two to three weeks in winter, and two 
weeks in summer. 

Meat should be removed from paper as soon as it comes 
from market, otherwise paper absorbs some of the juices. 

Meat should be kept in a cool place. In winter, beef may 
be bought in large quantities and cut as needed. If one 
chooses, a loin or rump may be bought and kept by the 
butcher, who sends cuts as ordered. 

Always wipe beef, before cooking, with a cheese-cloth 
wrung out of cold water, but never allow it to stand in a 
pan of cold water, as juices will be drawn out. 



DIVISION AND WAYS OF COOKING A SIDE OF BEEF 

HIND-QUARTER 



Divisions 
Flank (thick and boneless) . 

Aitchbone 



Round 



Rump . 



Loin 



The Tenderloin 



Ways of Cooking 
. o Stuffed, rolled and braised, 

or corned and boiled 
. . Cheap roast, beef stew, or 
braised 

Top Steaks, best cuts for beef 

tea 
Lower Part . . . Hamburg steaks, curry of 
beef, and cecils 

Vein Steaks 

Back Choicest large roasts and 

cross-cut steaks 
Middle .... Roasts 

Face Inferior roasts and stews 

''Tip Extra fine roasts 

Middle .... Sirloin and porterhouse 

steaks 
First Cut .... Steaks and roast 
Sold as a Fillet ^ Larded and roasted, or 



"l^or cut in Steaks J broiled 

Hind-shin Cheap stew or soup stock 

13 



194 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

FORE-QUARTER 
Divisions Ways of Cooking 

Five Prime Ribs Good roast 

Five Chuck Ribs Small steaks and stews 

Neck « Hamburg steaks 

Sticking-piece Mincemeat 

! Thick End ^ 
Second Cut I , . . Corned for boiling 
Thin End J 
Navel End 1 
Butt End or I . . Finest pieces for corning 
Fancy BrisketJ 
Fore-shin Soup stock and stews 

Other Parts of Beef Creature used for Food 

Brains Stewed, scalloped dishes, or croquettes 

Tongue Boiled or braised, fresh or corned 

Heart Stuffed and braised 

Liver Broiled or fried 

Kidneys Stewed or sauted 

Tail Soup 

Suet (kidney suet is the best) 

Tripe Lyonnaise, broiled, or fried in batter 

The Effect of Different Temperatures on the 
Cooking of Meat 

By putting meat in cold water and allowing water to heat 
gradually, a large amount of juice is extracted and meat is 
tasteless; and by long cooking the connective tissues aie 
softened and dissolved, which gives to the stock when cold a 
jelly-like consistency. This principle applies to soup-making. 

By putting meat in boiling water, allowing the water to 
boil for a few minutes, then lowering the temperature, 
juices in the outer surface are quickly coagulated, and the 
inner juices are prevented from escaping. This principle 
applies where nutriment and flavor is desired in meat. Ex- 
amples : boiled mutton, fowl. 

By putting in cold water, bringing quickly to the boiling- 
point, then lowering the temperature and cooking slowly 
until meat is tender, some of the goodness will be in the 
stock, but a large portion left in the meat. Examples : fowl, 
when cooked to use for made-over dishes, Scotcli Broth. 




Round of Beef. — Page 193. 




AiTCH Bone. 
Tenderloin of Beef. Cut from hind shin for Soup-making. 

Page 193. 



n 




Tip of Sirloin. Five Prime Ribs. 

PageWl. 



m 




Rump. Porter House Steak. 

First slice from cross cut of rump. 
Page 201. 



BEEF 



196 



TABLE SHOWING COMPOSITION OF MEATS 













Mineral 




Articles 


Refuse 


Proteid 


Fat 


matter 


Water 


Beef 












Fore-quarter . . 


19.8 


14.1 


16.1 


.7 


49.3 


Hind-quarter . . 


16.3 


15.3 


15.6 


.8 


52. 


Round .... 


8.5 


18.7 


8.8 


1. 


63. 


Rump . . 




18.5 


14.4 


19. 


.8 


47.3 


Loin . . 




12.6 


15.9 


17.3 


.9 


53.3 


Ribs . . , 




20.2 


13.6 


20.6 


.7 


44.9 


Chuck xibs 




13.3 


15. 


20.8 


.8 


50.1 


Tongue . 




15.1 


14.8 


15.3 


.9 


53.9 


Heart . 






16. 


20.4 


1. 


62.6 




Carbo- 












hydrates 










Kidney .... 


.4 


16.9 


4.8 


1.2 


76.7 


Liver .... 


1.8 


21.6 


5.4 


1.4 


69.8 


Mutton 




* 








Hind-quarter . . 


16.7 


13.5 


23.5 


.7 


45.6 


Fore-quarter . . 


21.1 


11.9 


25.7 


.7 


40.6 


Leg 


17.4 


15.1 


14.5 


.8 


52.2 


Loin 


14.2 


12.8 


31.9 


.6 


40.5 


Veal 












Fore-quarter . . 


24.5 


14.6 


6. 


.7 


54.2 


Hind-quarter . . 


20.7 


15.7 


6.6 


.8 


56.2 


Leg 


10.5 


18.5 


5. 


1. 


65. 


Sweetbreads . . 




15.4 


12.1 


1.6 


70.9 


Pork 












Loin of pork . . 


16. 


13.5 


27.5 


.7 


42.3 


Ham, smoked 


12.7 


14.1 


33.2 


4.1 


35.9 


Salt pork . . . 


8.1 


6.5 


66.8 


2.7 


15.9 


Bacon .... 


8.1 


9.6 


60.2 


4.3 


17.8 


Poultry 












Chicken . . . 


34.8 


14.8 


LI 


.8 


48.5 


Fowl .... 


30. 


13.4 


10.2 


.8 


45.6 


Turkey .... 


22.7 


15.7 


18.4 


.8 


42.4 


Goose .... 


22.2 


10.3 


33.8 


.6 


33.1 










W. 0. 


Atwater. 


Ph.D. 



Broiled Beefsteak 
The best cuts of beef for broiling are porterhouse, sirloin, 
cross-cut of rump steaks, aud second and third cuts from top 



196 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

of round. Porterhouse and sirloin cuts are the most expen- 
sive, on account of the great loss in bone and fat, although 
price per pound is about the same as for cross-cut of rump. 
Round steak is very juicy, but, having coarser fibre, is not 
as tender. Steaks should be cut at least an inch thick, and 
from that to two and one-half inches. The flank end of sir- 
loin steak should be removed before cooking. It may be put 
in soup kettle, or lean part may be chopped and utilized for 
meat cakes, fat tried out and clarified for shortening. 

To Broil Steak. Wipe with a cloth wrung out of cold 
water, and trim off superfluous fat. With some of the fat 
grease a wire broiler, place meat in broiler (having fat edge 
next to handle), and broil over a clear fire, turning every ten 
seconds for the first minute, that surface may be well seared, 
thus preventing escape of juices. After the first minute, turn 
occasionally until well cooked on both sides. Steak cut one 
and one-half inches thick will take ten minutes, if liked rare ; 
twelve to fifteen minutes, if well done. Remove to hot platter, 
spread with butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. 

Beefsteak with Maitre d'Hdtel Butter 
Serve Broiled Steak with Maitre d'Hdtel Butter. 

Porterhouse Steak w^ith Mushroom Sauce 
Serve broiled Porterhouse Steak with Mushroom Sauce. 

Porterhouse Steak with Tomato and Mushroom Sauce 

Serve broiled Porterhouse Steak with Tomato and Mush- 
room Sauce. 

Porterhouse Steak, Bordelaise Sauce 

Serve broiled porterhouse steak with 

Bordelaise Sauce. Cook one shallot, finely chopped, 
with one-fourth cup claret until claret is reduced to two 
tablespoons, and strain. Melt two tablespoons butter, 
add one slice onion, two slices carrot, sprig of parsley, bit 
of bay leaf, eight peppercorns, and one clove, and cook 
until brown. Add three and one-half tablespoons flour, 
and when well browned add gradually one cup "Brown Stock. 



BEEF 197 

Strain, let simmer eight minutes, add claret and one table- 
spoon butter. Season with salt and pepper. Remove mar- 
row from a marrow-bone and cut in one-third inch slices; 
then poach in boiling water. Arrange on and around steak, 
and pour around sauce. 

Beefsteak k la Henriette 

}^ cup butter ^ teaspoon salt 

Yolks 3 eggs 2 tablespoons tomato pur^e 

1 tablespoon cold water 1 tablespoon Worcestershire Sauce 
}£ tablespoon lemon juice )^ tablespoon finely chopped parsley 
Few grains cayenne 

Wash butter, and divide in three pieces. Put one piece 
in saucepan with yolks of eggs slightly beaten and mixed 
with water and lemon juice. Proceed same as in making 
Hollandaise Sauce I (see p. 274) ; then add tomato, parsley, 
and seasonings. Pour one-half sauce on a serving dish, lay 
a broiled porterhouse steak on sauce, and cover steak with, 
remaining sauce. Garnish with parsley. 

Beefsteak d la Victor Hugo 

Wipe a porterhouse steak, broil, and serve with 
Victor Hugo Sauce. Cook one-half teaspoon finely 
chopped shallot in one tablespoon tarragon vinegar five 
minutes. Wash one-third cup butter, and divide in thirds. 
Add one piece butter to mixture, with yolks two eggs, one 
teaspoon lemon juice, and one teaspoon meat extract. 
Cook over hot water, stirring constantly ; as soon as butter 
is melted, add second piece, and then third piece. When 
mixture thickens, add one-half tablespoon grated horse- 
radish. 

Steak k la Chiron 

Spread broiled rump steak with Hollandaise Sauce I (see 
p. 274) to which is added a few drops onion juice and one- 
half tablespoon finely chopped parsley. 

Beefsteak k la Mirabeau 
Garnish a broiled porterhouse or cross-cut of rump steak 
with anchovies, and stoned olives stuflfed with green butter 



198 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

and chopped parsley. Arrange around steak stuffed toma- 
toes, and fried potato balls served in shells made from noodle 
mixture. Pour around the following sauce : Melt two table- 
spoons butter, add two and one-half tablespoons browned 
flour, then add one cup Chicken Stock. Season with one 
tablespoon tomato catsup and salt and pepper. 

Noodle Shells. Make noodle mixture (see p. 147), roll as 
thinly as possible, cut *in pieces, and shape over buttered 
inverted scallop shells. Put in dripping-pan and bake in a 
slow oven. As mixture bakes it curls from edges, when cases 
should be slipped from shells and pressed firmly in insides of 
shells to finish cooking and leave an impression of shells. 
Potato balls served in these shells make an attractive garnish 
for broiled fish and meats. 

Beefsteak with Oyster Blanket 

Wipe a sirloin steak, cut one and one-half inches thick, 
broil five minutes, and remove to platter. Spread with 
butter and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Clean one pint 
oysters, cover steak with same, sprinkle oysters with salt 
and pepper and dot over with butter. Place on grate in hot 
oven, and cook until oysters are plump. 

Planked Beefsteak 

Wipe, remove superfluous fat, and pan broil seven minutes 
a porterhouse or cross-cut of the rump steak cut one and 
three- fourths inches thick. Butter a plank and arrange a 
border of Duchess Potatoes, using three times the recipe, close^ 
to edge, using a pastry bag and rose tube. Remove steak to 
plank, put in a hot oven, and bake until steak is cooked and 
potatoes are browned. Spread steak with butter, sprinkle 
with salt, pepper, and finely chopped parsley. Garnish top 
of steak with sauted mushroom caps, and put around steak 
at equal distances halves of small tomatoes sauted in butter, 
and on top of each tomato a circular slice of cucumber. 

Broiled Fillets of Beef 
Slices cut from the tenderloin are called sliced fillets of 
beef. Wipe sliced fillets, place in greased broiler, and broil 



BEEF 199 

four or five minutes over a clear fire. These may be served 
with Maitre d'Hotel Butter or Mushroom Sauce. 

Cutlets of Tenderloin -with Chestnut Pur§e 
Shape slices of tenderloin, one inch thick, in circular 
pieces. Broil five minutes. Spread with butter, sprinkle 
with salt and pepper. Arrange on platter around a mound 
of Chestnut Puree. 

Sauted Mignon Fillets of Beef with Sauce Figaro 

Wipe and saute small fillets in hot omelet pan. Arrange 
in a circle on platter with cock's-comb shaped crofitons be- 
tween, and pour sauce in the centre. Serve as a luncheon 
dish with Brussels Sprouts or String Beans. 

Sauted Mignon Fillets of Beef Tvith Sauce Trianon 
Wipe and saute small fillets in hot omelet pan. Arrange 
in a circle around a mound of fried potato balls sprinkled 
with parsley. Put Sauce Trianon on each fillet. 

Sauted Fillets of Beef k la Moelle 

Cut beef tenderloin in slices one inch thick, and trim into 
circular shapes. Season with salt and pepper, and broil 
six minutes in hot buttered frying-pan. Remove marrow 
from a marrow-bone, cut in one-third inch slices, poach in 
boiling water, and drain. Put a slice of marrow on each 
fillet. To liquor in pan add one tablespoon butter, two 
tablespoons flour, and one cup Brown Stock. Season 
with salt, pepper, and Madeira wine. Pour sauce around 
meat. 

Sautfed Fillets of Beef, Cherry Sauce 
Prepare and cook six fillets same as Sauted Fillets of 
Beef k la Moelle. Arrange on sei-ving dish, sprinkle with 
salt and pepper, spread with butter, and pour over. 

Cherry Sauce. Soak one-fourth cup glaced cherries fif- 
teen minutes in boiling water. Drain, cut in halves, cover 
with Sherry wine, and let stand three hours. 



200 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Sauted Fillets of Beef with Stuffed Mushroom Caps 
Prepare and cook six fillets same as Sauted Fillets of 
Beef k la Moelle omitting the marrow. Put a sauted stuffed 
mushroom cap on each, sprinkle with buttered crumbs, and 
bake until crumbs are browned. Remove to serving dish, 
pour around Espagnole Sauce, and garnish caps with strips 
of red and green pepper cut in fancy shapes. 

StufiBng for Mushroom Caps. Clean and finely chop six 
mushroom caps; add one tablespoon each of parsley and 
onion finely chopped, and one tablespoon butter. Moisten 
with Espagnole Sauce (See p. 200). 

Chateaubriand of Beef 

Trim off fat and skin from three pounds of beef cut from 
centre of fillet and flatten with a broad-bladed cleaver. 
Sprinkle with salt, brush over with olive oil, and broil over 
a clear fire twenty minutes. Remove to serving dish, garnish 
with red pepper cut in fancy shapes and parsley. Serve 
with 

Espagnole Sauce. To one and one-half cups rich brown 
sauce add two-thirds teaspoon meat extract, one tablespoon 
lemon juice, and one and one-half tablespoons finely chopped 
parsley. Just before serving add one tablespoon butter and 
salt and pepper to taste. 

Broiled Meat Cakes 

Chop finely lean raw beef, season with salt and pepper, 
shape in small flat cakes, and broil in a greased broiler or 
frying-pan. Spread with butter, or serve with Maitre 
d'Hotel Butter. In forming the cakes, handle as little as 
possible ; for if pressed too compactly, cakes will be found 
solid. 

Hamburg Steaks 

Chop finely one pound lean raw beef ; season highly with 
salt, pepper, and a few drops onion juice or one-half shallot 
finely chopped. Shape, cook, and serve as Meat Cakes. A 
few gratings of nutmeg and one egg slightly beaten may bo 
added. 



Planks for Planked Dishes. — Page 198. 



r ' *'*t«^^'«f"#^%' *pp*F ' \'WHiai 




Beefsteak a la Mirabeau. — Page 197, 




Side of Veal with Sweetbread Attached. 
Side of Lamb showing division into fore and hind quarter. 

Page 195. 



BEEF 201 

Cannelon of Beef 

2 lbs. lean beef, cut from round % teaspoon onion juice 

Grated rind % lemon 2 tablespoons melted butter 

1 tablespoon finely chopped Few gratings nutmeg 

parsley 1 teaspoon salt 

1 Q,gg 3€ teaspoon pepper 

Chop meat finely, and add remaining ingredients in order 
given. Shape in a roll six inches long, place on rack in 
dripping-pan, and arrange over top slices fat salt pork and 
bake thirty minutes. Baste every five minutes with one- 
fourth cup butter melted in one cup boiling water. Serve 
with Brown Mushroom Sauce I. 

Roast Beef 

The best cuts of beef for roasting are : tip or middle of 
sirloin, back of rump, or first three ribs. Tip of sirloin 
roast is desirable for a small family. Back of rump makes 
a superior roast for a large family, and is more economical 
than sirloin. It is especially desirable where a large quan- 
tity of dish gravy is liked, for in carving the meat juices fol- 
low the knife. Rib roasts contain more fat than either of 
the others, and are somewhat cheaper. 

To Roast Beef. Wipe, put on a rack in dripping-pan, 
Bkin side down, rub over with salt, and dredge meat and pan 
with flour. Place in hot oven, that the surface may be 
quickly seared, thus preventing escape of inner juices. 
After flour in pan is browned, reduce heat, and baste with 
fat which has tried out \ if meat is quite lean, it may be neces- 
sary to put trimmings of fat in pan. Baste every ten min- 
utes ; if this rule is followed, meat will be found more juicy. 
When meat is about half done, turn it over and dredge with 
flour, that skin side may be uppermost for final browning. 
For roasting, consult Time Table for Baking Meats, page 30. 

If there is danger of flour burning in pan, add a small 
quantity of water ; this, however, is not desirable, and seldom 
need be done if size of pan is adapted to size of roast. Beef 
to be well roasted should be started in hot oven and heat 
decreased, so that when carved the slices will be red through- 
out, with a crisp layer of golden brown fat on the top. 



202 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Beef roasted when temperature is so high that surface is 
hardened before heat can penetrate to the centre is most 
unsatisfactory. 

Sirloin or rib roasts may have the bones removed, and be 
rolled, skewered, and tied in shape. Chicago Butt is cut 
from the most tender part of back of rump. They are 
shipped from Chicago, our greatest beef centre, and if fresh 
and from a heavy creature, make excellent roasts at a small 
price. 

Roast Beef Gravy. Remove some of the fat from pan, 
leaving four tablespoons. Place on front of range, add 
four tablespoons flour, and stir until well browned. The 
flour, dredged and browned in pan, should give additional 
color to gravy. Add gradually one and one-half cups boil- 
ing water, cook five minutes, season with salt and pepper, 
and strain. If flour should burn in pan, gravy will be full 
of black particles. 

To Carve a Roast of Beef. Have roast placed on 
platter skin side up ; with a pointed, thin-bladed, sharp knife 
cut a sirloin or rib roast in thin slices at right angles to the 
ribs, and cut slices from ribs. If there is tenderloin, remove 
it from under the bone, and cut in thin slices across grain 
of meat. Carve back of rump in thin slices with the grain of 
meat; by so doing, some of the least tender muscle will be 
served with that which is tender. By cutting across grain 
of meat, the tenderest portion is sliced by itself, as is the 
less tender portion. 

Yorkshire Pudding 

1 cup milk 2 eggs 

1 cup flour ^ teaspoon salt 

Miss C. J. Wills 

Mix salt and flour, and add milk gradually to form a 
smooth paste ; then add eggs beaten until very light. Cover 
bottom of hot pan with some of beef fat tried out from 
roast, pour mixture in pan one-half inch deep. Bake twenty 
minutes in hot oven, basting after well risen, with some of 
the fat from pan in which meat is roasting. Cut in squares 
for serving. Bake, if preferred, in greased, hissing hot iron 
gem pans. 



BEEF 208 

Larded Fillet of Beef 

The tenderloin of beef which lies under the loin and rump 
is called fillet of beef. The fillet under the loin is known 
as the long fillet, and when removed no porterhouse steaks 
can be cut ; therefore it commands a higher price than the 
short fillet lying under rump. Two short fillets are often 
skewered together, and served in place of a long fillet. 

Wipe, remove fat, veins, and any tendonous portions; 
skewer in shape, and lard upper side with grain of meat, 
following directions for larding on page 23. Place on a rack 
in small pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with 
flour, and put in bottom of pan small pieces of pork. Bake 
twenty to thirty minutes in hot oven, basting three times. 
Take out skewer, remove meat to hot platter, and garnish 
with watercress. Serve with Mushroom, Figaro, or Horse- 
radish Sauce I. 

Fillet of Beef "writh Vegetables 

Wipe a three-pound fillet, trim, and remove fat. Put one- 
half pound butter in hot frying-pan and when melted add 
fillet, and turn frequently until the entire surface is seared 
and well browned; then turn occasionally until done, the 
time required being about thirty minutes. Remove to 
serving dish and garnish with one cup each cooked peas and 
carrots cut in fancy shapes, both well seasoned, one-half cup 
raisins seeded and cooked in boiling water until soft, and 
the caps from one-half pound fresh mushrooms sauted in 
butter five minutes. Serve with 

Brown Mushroom Sauce. Pour off one-fourth cup fat 
from frying-pan, add five tablespoons flour, and stir until 
well browned ; then add one cup Brown Soup Stock, one- 
third cup mushroom liquor, and the caps from one-half pound 
mushrooms cut in slices and sauted in butter three minutes. 
Season with salt and pepper, and just before sei*ving add 
gradually, while stirring constantly, the butter remaining in 
frying-pan. 

To obtain mushroom liquor, scrape stems of mushrooms, 
break in pieces, cover with cold water, and cook slowly until 
liquid is reduced to oue-third cckp. 



204 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Braised Beef 

3 lbs. beef from lower Carrot "\ 

part of round or face Turnip I }^ cup each, cut 

of rump Onion J in dice 

2 thin slices fat salt pork Celery J 

% teaspoon peppercorns Salt and pepper 

Try out pork and remove scraps. Wipe meat, spriDkle 
with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and brown entire 
surface in pork fat. When turning meat, avoid piercing 
with fork or skewer, which allows the inner juices to escape. 
Place on trivet in deep granite pan or in earthen pudding- 
dish, and surround with vegetables, peppercorns, and three 
cups boiling water; cover closely, and bake four hours in 
very slow oven, basting every half-hour, and turning after 
second hour. Throughout the cooking, the liquid should be 
kept below the boiling-point. Serve with Horseradish Sauce, 
or with sauce made from liquor in pan. 

Beef h. la Mode 
Insert twelve large lardoons in a four-pound piece of beef 
cut from the round. Make incisions for lardoons by running 
through the meat a large skewer. Season with salt and pep- 
per, dredge with flour, and brown the entire surface in pork fat. 
Put on a trivet in kettle, surround with one-third cup each 
carrot, turnip, celery, and onion cut in dice, sprig of parsley, 
bit of bay leaf, and water to half cover meat. Cover closely, 
and cook slowly four hours, keeping liquor below the boiling- 
point. Remove to hot platter. Strain liquor, thicken and 
season to serve as a gravy. When beef is similarly prepared 
(with exception of lardoons and vegetables), and cooked in 
smaller amount of water, it is called Smothered Beef, or Pot 
Roast. A bean-pot (covered with a piece of buttered paper, 
tied firmly down) is the best utensil to use for a Pot Roast. 

Pressed Beef Flank 
Wipe, remove superfluous fat, and roll a flank of beef. 
Put in a kettle, cover with boiling water, and add one 
tablespoon salt, one-half teaspoon peppercorns, a bit of bay 
leaf, and a bone or two which may be at hand. Cook 
slowly until meat is in shreds; thsre should be but little 



BEEF 206 

liquor in kettle when meat is done. Arrange meat in a deep 
pan, pour over liquor, cover, and press with a heavy weight. 
Serve cold, thinly sliced. 

Beef Stew -with Dumplings 

Aitchbone, weighing 5 lbs. y^ small onion, cut in thin 
4 cups potatoes, cut in )^ inch slices 

slices ^ cup flour 

Turnip \ % cup each, cut in Salt 

Carrot j" half-inch cubes Pepper 

Wipe meat, remove from bone, cut in one and one-hall 
inch cubes, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and dredge with 
flour. Cut some of the fat in small pieces and try out in 
frying-pan. Add meat and stir constantly, that the surface 
may be quickly seared; when well browned, put in kettle, 
and rinse frying-pan with boiling water, that none of the 
goodness may be lost. Add to meat remaining fat, and 
bone sawed in pieces ; cover with boiling water and boil five 
minutes, then cook at a lower temperature until meat is ten- 
der (time required being about three hours). Add carrot, 
turnip, and onion, with salt and pepper the last hour of 
cooking. Parboil potatoes five minutes, and add to stew 
fifteen minutes before taking from flre. Remove bones, 
large pieces of fat, and then skim. Thicken with one- 
fourth cup flour, diluted with enough cold water to pour 
easily. Pour in deep hot platter, and surround with dump- 
lings. Remnants of roast beef are usually made into a beef 
stew ; the meat having been once cooked, there is no neces- 
sity of browning it. If gravy is left, it should be added to 
the stew. 

Dumplings 
2 cups flour }{ teaspoon salt 

4 teaspoons baking powder 2 teaspoons butter 

% cup milk 

Mix atid sift dry ingredients. Work in butter with tips of 
fingers, and add milk gradually, using a knife for mixing. 
Toss on & floured board, pat, and roll out to one-half inch in 
thickness. Shape with biscuit-cutter, first dipped in flour. 
Place closely together in a buttered steamer, put over kettle of 
boiling water, cover closely, and steam twelve minutes A 



206 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

perforated tin pie-plate may be used in place of steamer. A 
little more milk may be used in the mixture, when it may be 
taken up by spoonfuls, dropped and cooked on top of stew. 
In this case some of the liquid must be removed, that dump- 
lings may rest on meat and potato, and not settle into 
liquid. 

Corned Beef 

Corned beef has but little nutritive value. It is used to 
give variety to our diet in summer, when fresh meats prove 
too stimulating. It is eaten by the workingman to give 
bulk to his food. The best pieces of corned beef are the 
rattle rand and fancy brisket. The fancy brisket com- 
mands a higher price and may be easily told from the rattle 
rand by the selvage on lower side and the absence of bones. 
The upper end of brisket (butt end) is thick and composed 
mostly of lean meat, the middle cut has more fat but is not 
well mixed, while the lower (navel end) has a large quantity 
of fat. The rattle rand contains a thick lean end; the 
second cut contains three distinct layers of meat and fat, 
and is considered the best cut by those who prefer meat 
well streaked with fat. The rattle rand has a thin end, 
which contains but one layer of lean meat and much fat, 
consequently is not a desirable piece. 

To Boil Corned Beef. Wipe the meat and tie securely in 
shape, if this has not been already done at market. Put 
in kettle, cover with cold water, and bring slowly to boiling- 
point. Boil five minutes, remove scum, and cook at a lower 
temperature until tender. Cool slightly in water in which it 
was cooked, remove to a dish, cover, and place on cover a 
weight, that meat may be well pressed. The lean meat and 
fat may be separated and put in alternate layers in a 
bread pan, then covered and pressed. 

Boiled Dinner 

A boiled dinner consists of warm nnpressed corned beef, 
served with cabbage, beets, turnips, carrots, and potatoes. 
After removing meat from water, skim off fat and cook 
vegetables (with exception of beets, which require a long 



BEEF 207 

time for cooking) in this water. Carrots require a longer 
time for cooking than cabbage or turnips. Carrots and 
turnips, if small, may be cooked whole ; if large, cut in 
pieces. Cabbage and beets are served in separate dishes, 
other vegetables on same dish with meat. 

Boiled Tongue 
A boiled corned tongue is cooked the same as Boiled 
Corned Beef. If very salt, it should be soaked in cold 
water several hours, or over night, before cooking. Take 
from water when slightly cooled and remove skin. 

Braised Tongue 
A fresh tongue is necessary for braising. Put tongue 
in kettle, cover with boiling water, and cook slowly two 
hours. Take tongue from water and remove skin and roots. 
Place in deep pan and surround with one-third cup each 
carrot, onion, and celery, cut in dice, and one sprig parsley ; 
then pour over four cups sauce. Cover closely, and bake 
two hours, turning after the first hour. Serve on platter 
and strain around the sauce. 

Sauce for Tongue. Brown one-fourth cup butter, add 
one-fourth cup flour and stir together until well browned. 
Add gradually four cups of water in which tongue was 
cooked. Season with salt and pepper and add one teaspoon 
Worcestershire Sauce. One and one-half cups stewed and 
strained tomatoes may be used in place of some of the 
water. 

Broiled Liver 

Cover with boiling water slices of liver cut one-half inch 
thick, let stand five minutes to draw out the blood ; drain, 
wipe, and remove the thin outside skin and veins. Sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, place in a greased wire broiler and 
broil five minutes, turning often. Remove to a hot platter, 
spread with butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. 

Liver and Bacon 
Prepare as for Broiled Liver, cut in pieces for serving, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and fry in 
bacon f al Sery« with bacon. 



208 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Bacon I 
Place strips of thinly cut bacon on board, and with a broad« 
bladed knife make strips as thin as possible. Put in hot 
frying-pan and cook until bacon is crisp and brown, occa- 
sionally pouring off fat from pan, turning frequently. Drain 
on brown paper. 

Bacon II 

Place thin slices of bacon (from which the rind has been 
removed) closely together in a fine wire broiler ; place broiler 
over dripping-pan and bake in a hot oven until bacon is crisp 
and brown, turning once. Drain on brown paper. Fat 
which has dripped into the pan should be poured out and 
used for frying liver, eggs, potatoes, etc. 

Braised Liver 

Skewer, tie in shape, and lard upper side of calf s liver. 
Place in deep pan, with trimmings from lardoons ; surround 
with one-fourth cup each, carrot, onion, and celery, cut in 
dice ; one-fourth teaspoon peppercorns, two cloves, bit of 
bay leaf, and two cups Brown Stock or water. Cover closely 
and bake slowly two hours, uncovering the last twenty 
minutes. Remove from pan, strain liquor, and use liquor 
for the making of a brown sauce with one and one-half 
tablespoons butter and two tablespoons flour. Pour sauce 
around liver for serving. 

Calfs Liver, Stuffed and Larded 

Make a deep cut nearly the entire length of liver, begin- 
ning at thick end, thus making a pouch for stuffing. Fill 
pouch. Skewer liver and lard upper side. Put Uver in bak- 
ing pan, pour around two cups Brown Sauce, made of one 
tablespoon each butter and flour, and two cups Brown Stock, 
salt, and pepper. Bake one and one-fourth hours, basting 
every twelve minutes with sauce in pan. Remove to serving 
dish, strain sauce around liver, and garnish with Glazed or 
French Fried Onions (see p. 296). 

Stuffing. Mix one-half pound chopped cooked cold ham, 
one-half cup stale bread crumbs, one-half small onion finely 
chopped, and one tablespoon finely chopped parsley. Moisten 



BEEF 209 

with Brown Sauce ; then add one beaten egg, and season with 
salt and pepper. 

Broiled Tripe 

Fresh honeycomb tripe is best for broiling. Wipe tripe as 
dry as possible, dip in fine cracker dust and olive oil or 
melted butter, draining off all fat that is possible, and again 
dip in cracker dust. Place in a greased broiler and broil 
five minutes, cooking smooth side of tripe the first three 
minutes. Place on a hot platter, honeycomb side up, spread 
with butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Broiled tripe 
is at its best when cooked over a charcoal fire. 

Tripe in Batter 

Wipe tripe and cut in pieces for serving. Sprinkle with 
salt and pepper, dip in batter, fry in a small quantity of hot 
fat, and drain. 

Tripe Batter. Mix one cup flour with one-fourth teaspoon 
salt ; add gradually one-half cup cold water, and when per- 
fectly smooth add one egg well beaten, one-half tablespoon 
vinegar, and one teaspoon olive oil or melted butter. 

Tripe Pried in Batter 

Cut pickled honeycomb tripe in pieces for serving ; wash, 
cover with boiling water, and simmer gently twenty minutes. 
Drain, and again cover, using equal parts cold water and 
milk. Heat to boiling-point, again drain, wipe as dry as 
possible, sprinkle with salt and pepper, brush over with 
melted butter, dip in batter, fry in deep fat, and drain on 
brown paper. Serve with ^slices of lemon and Chili Sauce. 

Batter. Mix and sift one cup flour, one and one-half 
teaspoons baking powder, one-fourth teaspoon salt, and a 
few grains pepper. Add one-third cup milk and one egg 
well beaten. 

Lyonnaise Tripe 

Cut honeycomb tripe in pieces two inches long by one-half 
inch wide, having three cupfuls. Put in a pan and place in 
oven that water may be drawn out. Cook one tablespoon 
finely chopped onion in two tablespoons butter until slightly 

14 



210 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

browned, add tripe drained from water, and cook five 
minutes. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and finely chopped 
parsley. 

Tripe k la Creole 
Cut, bake, and drain tripe as for Lyonnaise Tripe. Cook 
same quantity of butter and onion, add one-eighth green 
pepper finely chopped, one tablespoon flour, one-half cup 
stock, one-fourth cup drained tomatoes, and one fresh mush- 
room cut in slices ; then add tripe and cook five minutes. 
Season with salt and pepper. 

Tripe a la Provengale 
Add to Lyonnaise Tripe one tablespoon white wine. 
Cook until quite dry, add one-third cup Tomato Sauce, cook 
two minutes, season with salt and pepper, and serve. 

Calf's Head k la Terrapin 

Wash and clean a calf's head, and cook until tender in 
boiling water to cover. Cool, and cut meat from cheek in 
small cubes. To two cups meat dice add one cup sauce 
made of two tablespoons butter, two tablespoons flour, and 
one cup White Stock, seasoned with one-half teaspoon salt, 
one-eighth teaspoon pepper, and a few grains cayenne. Add 
one-half cup cream and yolks of two eggs slightly beaten ; 
cook two minutes and add two tablespoons Madeira wine. 

Calves' Tongues 

Cook tongues until tender in boiling water to cover, with 
six slices carrot, two stalks celery, one onion stuck with six 
cloves, one-half teaspoon peppercorns and one-half table- 
spoon salt; take from Water and remove skin and roots. 
Split and pour over equal parts brown stock and tomatoes 
boiled until thick. 

Calves' Tongues, Sauce Piquante 
Cook four tongues, until tender, in boiling water, to cover, 
with six slices carrot, two stalks celery, one onion stuck 
with eight cloves, one teaspoon, peppercorns, and one-half 
tablespoon salt. Take tongues from water, and remove 
•kin and roots. Cut in balyes lengthwise and reheat in 



BEEP 211 

Sance Piquante. Brown one-fourth cup butter, add six 
tablespoons flour, and stir until well browned ; then add 
two cups Brown Stock and cook three minutes. Season 
with two-thirds teaspoon salt, one-half teaspoon paprika, 
few grains of cayenne, one tablespoon vinegar, one-half 
tablespoon capers, and one cucumber pickle thinly sliced. 
Served garnished with cucumber pickles, and cold cooked 
beets cut in fancy shapes. 

Calf s Heart 

Wash a calf's heart, remove veins, arteries, and clotted 
blood. Stuff (using half quantity of Fish Stuffing I on 
page 164, seasoned highly with sage) and sew. Sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, roll in flour, and brown in hot fat. 
Place in small, deep baking-pan, half cover it with boiling 
water, cover closely, and bake slowly two hours, basting 
every fifteen minutes. It may be necessary to add more 
water. Remove heart from pan, and thicken the liquor with 
flour diluted with a small quantity of cold water. Season 
with salt and pepper, and pour around the heart before 
serving. 

Stufifed Hearts -with Vegetables 

Clean and wash calves* hearts, stuff, skewer into shape, 
lard, season with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and 
saute in pork fat, adding to fat one stalk celery, one table- 
spoon chopped onion, two sprigs parsley, four slices carrot 
cut in pieces, half the quantity of turnip, a bit of bay leaf, 
two cloves, and one-fourth teaspoon peppercorns. Turn 
hearts occasionally until well browned, then add one and 
one-half cups Brown Stock, cover, and cook slowly one and 
one-half hours. Serve with cooked carrots and turnips cut 
in strips or fancy shapes. ^ 

Braised Ox. Joints 
Cut ox tail at joints, parboil five minutes, wash thoroughly, 
dredge with flour, and sautd in butter (to which has been 
added a sliced onion) until well browned. Add one-fourth 
cup flour, two cups each brown stock, water, and canned 
tomatoes, one teaspoon salt, and one-fourth teaspoon pepper. 



212 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Turn into an earthen pudding-dish, cover, and cook slowly 
three and one-half hours. Remove ox tail, strain sauce, and 
return ox tail and sauce to oven to finish cooking. Add two- 
thirds cup each carrot and turnip (shaped with a vegetable 
cutter in pieces one-inch long, and about as large around as 
macaroni) parboiled in boiled salted water five minutes. As 
soon as vegetables are soft, add Sherry wine to taste, and 
more salt and pepper, if needed. The wine may be omitted. 



WAYS OF WARMING OVER BEEF 

Roast Beef with Gravy- 
Cut cold roast beef in thin slices, place on a warm platter, 
and pour over some of the gravy reheated to the boiling- 
point. If meat is allowed to stand in gravy on the range, it 
becomes hard and tough. 

Roast Beef, Mexican Sauce 

Reheat cold roast beef cut in thin slices, in 

Mexican Sauce. Cook one onion, finely chopped, in two 
tablespoons butter five minutes. Add one red pepper, one 
green pepper, and one clove of garlic, each finely chopped, 
and two tomatoes peeled and cut in pieces. Cook fifteen 
minutes, add one teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce, one- fourth 
teaspoon celery salt, and salt to taste. 

Cottage Pie 

Cover bottom of a small greased baking-dish with hot 
mashed potato, add a thick layer of roast beef, chopped or cut 
in small pieces (seasoned with salt, pepper, and a few drops 
onion juice) and moistened with some of the gravy ; cover 
with a thin layer of mashed potato, and bake in a hot oven 
long enough to heat through. 

Beefsteak Pie 

Cut remnants of cold broiled steak or roast beef in one- 
inch cubes. Cover with boiling water, add one-half onion, 
and cook slowly one hour. Remove onion, thicken gravy 
with flour diluted with cold water, and season with salt and 
pepper. Add potatoes cut in one-fourth inch slices, which 



WAYS OF WARMING OVER BEEF 213 

have been parboiled eight minutes in boiling salted water. 
Put in a buttered pudding-dish, cool, cover with baking- 
powder biscuit mixture or pie crust. Bake in a hot oven. 
If covered with pie crust, make several incisions in crust 
that gases may escape. 

Cecils with Tomato Sauce 

1 cup cold roast beef or rare Onion juice 

steak finely chopped Worcestershire Sauce 

Salt 2 tablespoons bread crumbs 

Pepper 1 tablespoon melted butter 

Yolk 1 egg slightly beaten 

Season beef with salt, pepper, onion juice, and Worces- 
tershire Sauce ; add remaining ingredients, shape after the 
form of small croquettes, pointed at ends. Roll in flour, 
egg, and crumbs, fry in deep fat, drain, and serve with To- 
mato Sauce. 

Corned Beef Hash 

Remove skin and gristle from cooked corned beef, then 
chop the meat. When meat is very fat, discard most of the 
fat. To chopped meat add an equal quantity of cold boiled 
chopped potatoes. Season with salt and pepper, put into a 
hot buttered frying-pan, moisten with milk or cream, stir 
until well mixed, spread evenly, then place on a part of the 
range where it may slowly brown underneath. Turn, and 
fold on a hot platter. Garnish with sprig of parsley in the 
middle. 

Corned Beef Hash with Beets 

When preparing Corned Beef hash, add one-half as much 
finely chopped cooked beets as potatoes. Cold roast beef or 
one-half roast beef and one-half corned beef may be used. 

Dried Beef w^ith Cream 

^ lb. smoked dried beef, thinly 1 cup scalded cream 

sliced 1}^ tablespoons flour 

Remove skin and separate meat in pieces, cover with hot 
water, let stand ten minutes, and drain. Dilute flour with 
enough cold water to pour easily, making a smooth paste ; 
add to cream, and cook in double boiler ten minutes. Add 
beef, and reheat. One cup White Sauce I may be used in 
place of cream, omitting the fnalU 



214 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER Xin 
LAMB AND MUTTON 

LAMB is the name given to the meat of lambs ; mutton, 
to the meat of sheep. Lamb, coming as it does from 
the young creature, is immature, and less nutritious than 
mutton. The flesh of mutton ranks with the flesh of beef in 
nutritive value and digestibility. The fat of mutton, on ac- 
count of its larger percentage of stearic acid, is more difficult 
of digestion than the fat of beef. 

Lamb may be eaten soon after the animal is killed and 
dressed ; mutton must hang to ripen. Good mutton comes 
from a sheep about three years old, and should hang from 
two to three weeks. The English South Down Mutton is cut 
from creatures even older than three years. Young lamb, 
when killed from six weeks to three months old, is called 
spring lamb, and appears in the market as early as the last 
of January, but is very scarce until March. Lamb one year 
old is called a yearling. Many object to the strong flavor of 
mutton ; this is greatly overcome by removing the pink skin 
and trimming off superfluous fat. 

Lamb and mutton are divided into two parts by cutting 
through entire length of backbone; then subdivided into 
fore and hind quarter, eight ribs being left on hind quarter, 
— while in beef but three ribs are left on hind-quarter. 
These eight ribs are cut into chops and are known as rib 
chops. The meat which lies between these ribs and the leg, 
cut into chops, is known as loin or kidney chops. 

Lamb and mutton chops cut from loin have a small piece 
of tenderloin on one side of bone, and correspond to porter- 
koose steaks in the beef creature. Eib ckops whick kave the 



LAMB AND MUTTON 215 

bone cut short and scraped clean, nearly to the lean meat, 
are called French chops. 

The leg is sold whole for boiling or roasting. The fore- 
quarter may be boned, stuffed, rolled, and roasted, but is 
more often used for broth, stew, or fricassee. 

For a saddle of mutton the loin is removed whole before 
splitting the creature. Some of the bones are removed and 
the flank ends are rolled, fastened with wooden skewers, 
and securely tied to keep skewers in place. 

Good quality mutton should be fine-grained and of bright 
pink color ; the fat white, hard, and flaky. If the outside 
skin comes off easily, mutton is sure to be good. Lamb 
chops may be easily distinguished from mutton chops by the 
red color of bone. As lamb grows older, blood recedes 
from bones ; therefore in mutton the bone is white. In leg 
of lamb the bone at joint is serrated, while in leg of mutton 
the bone at joint is smooth and rounded. Good mutton 
contains a larger proportion of fat than good beef. Poor 
mutton is often told by the relatively small proportion of 
fat and lean as compared to bone. 

Lamb is usually preferred well done; mutton is often 
cooked rare. 

Broiled Lamb or Mutton Chops 
Wipe chops, remove superfluous fat, and place in a broiler 
greased with some of mutton fat. In loin chops, flank may 
be rolled and fastened with a small wooden skewer. Follow 
directions for Broiling Beefsteak on page 196. 

Pan-broiled Chops 

Chops for pan broiling should have flank and most of fat 
removed. Wipe chops and put in hissifig hot frying-pan. 

Turn as soon as under surface is seared, and sear other 
side. Turn often, using knife and fork that the surface 
may not be pierced, as would be liable if fork alone were 
used. Cgok eight minutes if liked rare, ten to twelve minutes 
if liked well done. Let stand around edge of frying-pan to 
brown the outside fat. When half cooked, sprinkle with 
salt. Drain on brown paper, put on hot platter, and spread 
with butter or serve with Tomato or Soubise Sauce. 



216 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Breaded Mutton Chops 
Wipe and trim chops, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip 
in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, fry in deep fat from five to 
eight minutes, and drain. Serve with Tomato Sauce, or 
stack around a mound of mashed potatoes, fried potato 
balls, or green peas. Never fry but four at a time, and 
allow fat to reheat between fryings. After testing fat for 
temperature, put in chops and place kettle on back of range, 
that surface of chops may not be too brown while the inside 
is still underdone. 

Chops k la Signora 

Gash French Chops on outer edge, extending cut half- 
way through lean meat. Insert in each gash a slice of 
truffle, sprinkle with salt and pepper, wrap in calf's caul. 
Roll in flour, dip in egg, then in stale bread crumbs, and 
saute in butter eight minutes, turning often. Place in oven 
four minutes to finish cooking. Arrange on hot platter for 
serving, and place on top of each a fresh broiled mushroom 
or mushroom baked in cream. To fat in pan add a small 
quantity of boiling water and pour around chops. This is a 
delicious way of cooking chops for a dinner party. 

Lamb Chops a la Marseilles 

Pan broil, on one side, six French chops, cover cooked 
side with Mushroom Sauce, place in a buttered baking- 
dish, and bake in a hot oven eight minutes. Remove to 
serving dish, place a paper frill on each chop, and garnish 
with parsley. 

Mushroom Sauce. Brown one and one-half tablespoons 
butter, add three tablespoons flour, and stir until well 
browned; then add one-half cup highly seasoned Brown 
Stock. Add one-fourth cup chopped canned mushrooms, 
and season with salt and pepper. 

Chops k la Castillane 

Broil six lamb chops, arrange on slices of fried egg-plant, 
and pour around the following sauce : Brown three table- 



LAMB AND MUTTON 217 

spoons butter, add three and one-half tablespoons flour, and 
stir until well browned ; then add, gradually, one cup rich 
Brown Stock. Cook three tablespoons lean raw ham cut 
in small cubes in one-half tablespoon butter two minutes. 
Moisten with two tablespoons Sherry wine, and add to sauce 
with two tablespoons finely shredded green pepper. Season 
with salt and pepper. 

Chops en Papillote 

Finely chop the whites of three " hard-boiled '* eggs and 
force yolks through potato ricer, mix, and add to three 
common crackers, rolled and sifted ; then add three table- 
spoons melted butter, salt, pepper, and onion juice, to taste. 
Add enough cream to make of right consistency to spread. 
Cover chops thinly with mixture and wrap in buttered 
paper cases. Bake twenty-five minutes in hot oven. Re- 
move from cases, place on hot platter, and garnish with 
parsley. 

Mutton Cutlets k la Mainteuon 

Wipe six French Chops, cut one and one-half inches 
thick. Split meat in halves, cutting to bone. Cook two 
and one-half tablespoons butter and one tablespoon onion 
five minutes ; remove onion, add one-half cup chopped 
mushrooms, and cook five minutes ; then add two table- 
spoons flour, three tablespoons stock, one teaspoon finely 
chopped parsley, one-fourth teaspoon salt, and a few grains 
cayenne. Spread mixture between layers of chops, press 
together lightly, wrap in buttered paper cases, and broil ten 
minutes. Serve with Spanish Sauce. 

Boiled Leg of Mutton 

Wipe meat, place in a kettle, and cover with boiling 
water. Bring quickly to boiling-point, boil five minutes, 
and skim. Set on back of range and simmer until meat is 
tender. When half done, add one tablespoon salt. Serve 
with Caper Sauce, or add to two cups White Sauce (made 
of one-half milk and one-half Mutton Stock), two '* hard- 
boiled " eggs cut in slices. 



218 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Braised Leg of Mutton 

Order a leg of mutton boned. Wipe, stuff, sew, and 
place in deep pan. Cook five minutes in one-fourth cup 
butter, a slice each of onion, carrot, and turnip cut in dice, 
one-half bay leaf, and a sprig each of thyme and parsley. 
Add three cups hot water, one and one-half teaspoons salt, 
and twelve peppercorns ; pour over mutton. Cover closely, 
and cook slowly three hours, uncovering for the last half- 
hour. Remove from pan to hot platter. Brown three 
tablespoons butter, add four tablespoons flour, and stir 
until well browned ; then pour on slowly the strained liquor ; 
there should be one and three- fourths cups. 

Stuffing 
1 cup cracker crumbs )4 teaspoon pepper 

^ cup melted butter ^2 tablespoon Poultry 

^ teaspoon salt Seasoning 

^ cup boiliug water 

Roast Lamb 

A leg of lamb is usually sent from market wrapped in caul ; 
remove caul, wipe meat, sprinkle with salt and pepper, place 
on rack in dripping-pan, and dredge meat and bottom of 
pan with flour. Place in hot oven, and baste as soon as 
flour in pan is brown, and every fifteen minutes afterwards 
until meat is done, which will take about one and three- 
fourths hours. It may be necessary to put a small quantity 
of water in pan while meat is cooking. Leg of lamb may be 
boned and stuffed for roasting. See Stuffing, under Braised 
Mutton. 

Make gravy, following directions for Roast Beef Gravy 
on page 202, or serve with Currant Jelly Sauce. 

To Carve a Leg of Lamb. Cut in thin slices across grain 
of meat to the bone, beginning at top of the leg. 

Lamb Bretonne 

Serve hot thinly sliced roast Iamb with 
Beans Bretonne. Soak one and one-half cups pea beans 
over night in cold water to cover, drain, and parboil until 




Kidney Lamb Chop; Rib Chop; French Chop. — Page 




Crown of Lamb, prepared for Roasting. — Page 




Saddle op Mutton as Purchased. — Page 191. 







Roast Saddle of Mutton garnished with circular pieces of 
toast, small circular pieces of currant jelly, radishes cut 

TO REPRESENT FUCHSIAS, AND PARSLEY. — Page 219. 



LAMB AND MUTTON 219 

soft ; again drain, put in earthen-ware dish or bean pot, add 
tomato sauce, cover, and cook until beans have nearly 
absorbed sauce. 

Tomato Sauce. Mix one cup stewed and strained toma- 
toes, one cup white stock, six canned pimentoes rubbed 
through a sieve, one onion finely chopped, two cloves garlic 
finely chopped, one-fourth cup butter, and two teaspoons salt. 

Saddle of Mutton 

Mutton for a saddle should always be dressed at market. 
Wipe meat, sprinkle with salt and pepper, place on rack in 
dripping-pan, and dredge meat and bottom of pan with flour. 
Bake in hot oven one and one-fourth hours, basting every 
fifteen minutes. Serve with Currant Jelly Sauce. 

To Carve a Saddle of Mutton, cut thin slices parallel with 
backbone, then slip the knife under and separate slices from 
ribs. 

Saddle of Mutton, Currant Mint Sauce 

Follow directions for Saddle of Mutton, and serve with 
Currant Mint Sauce. Separate two-thirds tumbler of cur- 
rant jelly in pieces, but do not beat it. Add one and one- 
half tablespoons finely chopped mint leaves and shavings 
from the rind of one-fourth orange. 

Saddle of Lamb k rEstragnon 

Wipe meat, sprinkle with salt and pepper, place on rack 
in dripping-pan, and dredge meat and bottom of pan with 
flour. Bake in hot oven one and one-fourth hours, basting 
every fifteen minutes. Remove to hot serving dish and pour 
around 

Estragnon Sauce. Brown four tablespoons butter, add 
four tablespoons flour (which has been previously browned), 
and pour on gradually, while stirring constantly, two cups 
bouillon, and one-half cup stock which has infused with one 
tablespoon tarragon one hour. 

Crown of Lamb 

Select parts from two loins containing ribs, scrape flesh 
from bone between ribs, as far as lean meat, and trim off 



220 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

backbone. Shape each piece in a semicircle, having ribs 
outside, and sew pieces together to form a crown. Trim 
ends of bones evenly, care being taken that they are not left 
too long, and wrap each bone in a thin strip of fat salt pork 
or insert in cubes of fat salt pork to prevent bone from 
burning; then cover with buttered paper. Roast one and 
one-fourth hours. 

Remove pork from bones before serving, and fill centre 
with Puree of Chestnuts. 

Lamb en Casserole 

"Wipe two slices of lamb cut one and one-fourth inches 
thick from centre of leg. Put in hot frying-pan, and turn 
frequently until seared and browned on both sides. Brush 
over with melted butter, season with salt and pepper, and 
bake in casserole dish twenty minutes or until tender. Par- 
boil three-fourths cup carrot, cut in strips, fifteen minutes ; 
drain, and saute in one tablespoon bacon fat to which has 
been added one tablespoon finely chopped onion. Add to 
lamb, with one cup potato balls, two cups thin Brown Sauce, 
three tablespoons Sherry wine, and pepper to taste. Cook un- 
til potatoes are soft, then add twelve small onions cooked until 
soft, then drained and sauted in two tablespoons butter to which 
is added one tablespoon sugar. Onions need not be sauted 
unless they are desired glazed. Serve from casserole dish. 

Mutton Curry- 
Wipe and cut meat from fore-quarter of mutton in one-inch 
pieces ; there should be three cupfuls. Put in kettle, cover 
with cold water, and bring quickly to boiling-point ; drain in 
colander and pour over one quart cold water. Return meat 
to kettle, cover with one quart boiling water, add three 
onions cut in slices, one-half teaspoon peppercorns, and a 
sprig each of thyme and parsley. Simmer until meat is ten- 
der, remove meat, strain liquor, and thicken with one-fourth 
cup each of butter and flour cooked together; to the flour 
add one-half teaspoon curry powder, one-half teaspoon 
salt, and one-eighth teaspoon pepper. Add meat to gravy, 
reheat, and serve with border of steamed rice. 



LAMB AND MUTTON 221 

Fricassee of Lamb with Brown Gravy 
Order three pounds lamb from the fore-quarter, cut in 
pieces for serving. Wipe meat, put in kettle, cover with 
boiling water, and cook slowly until meat is tender. Remove 
from water, cool, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with 
flour, and saute in butter or mutton fat. Arrange on platter, 
and pour around one and one-half cups Brown Sauce made 
from liquor in which meat was cooked after removing all fat. 
It is better to cook meat the day before serving, as then fat 
may be more easily removed. 

Mutton Broth 

3 lbs. mutton (from the neck) Few grains pepper 

2 quarts cold water 3 tablespoons rice or 

1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons barley 

Wipe meat, remove skin and fat, and cut in small pieces. 
Put into kettle with bones, and cover with cold water. Heat 
gradually to boiling-point, skim, then season with salt and 
pepper. Cook slowly until meat is tender, strain, and re- 
move fat. Reheat to boiling-point, add rice or barley, and 
cook until rice or barley is tender. If barley is used, soak 
over night in cold water. Some of the meat may be served 
with the broth. 

Irish Stew with Dumplings 

Wipe and cut in piecas three pounds lamb from the fore- 
quarter. Put in kettle, cover with boiling water, and cook 
slowly two hours or until tender. After cooking one hour 
add one-half cup each carrot and turnip cut in one-half inch 
cubes, and one onion cut in slices. Fifteen minutes before 
serving add four cups potatoes cut in one-fourth inch slices, 
previously parboiled five minutes in boiling water. Thicken 
with one-fourth cup flour, diluted with enough cold water to 
form a thin smooth paste. Season with salt and pepper, 
serve with Dumplings. (See p. 205.) 

Scotch Broth 
Wipe three pounds mutton cut from fore-quarter. Cut 
lean meat in one-inch cubes, put in kettle, cover with three 



222 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

pints cold water, bring quickly to boiling-pointy skim, and 
add one-half cup barley which has been soaked in cold water 
over night ; simmer one and one-half hours, or until meat is 
tender. Put bones in a second kettle, cover with cold water, 
heat slowly to boiling-point, skim, and boil one and one-half 
hours. Strain water from bones and a*dd to meat. Fry five 
minutes in two tablespoons butter, one-fourth cup each of 
carrot, turnip, onion, and celery, cut in one-half inch dice, 
add to soup with salt and pepper to taste, and cook until 
vegetables are soft. Thicken with two tablespoons each of 
butter and flour cooked together. Add one-half tablespoon 
finely chopped parsley just before serving. Rice may be 
used in place of barley. 

Lambs' Kidneys I 

Soak, pare, and cut in slices six kidneys, and sprinkle 
with salt and pepper. Melt two tablespoons butter in hot 
frying-pan, put in kidneys, and cook five minutes; dredge 
thoroughly with flour, and add two-thirds cup boiling water 
or hot Brown Stock. Cook five minutes, add more salt and 
pepper if needed. Lemon juice, onion juice, or Madeira 
wine may be used for additional flavor. Kidneys must be 
cooked a short time, or for several hours ; they are tender 
after a few minutes* cooking, but soon toughen, and need 
hours of cooking to again make them tender. 

Lambs' Kidneys II 

Soak, pare, trim, and slice six kidneys. Sprinkle with 
salt and pepper, saute in butter, and remove to a hot dish. 
Cook one-half tablespoon finely chopped onion in two table- 
spoons butter until brown ; add three tablespoons flour, and 
pour on slowly one and one-half cups hot stock. Season 
with salt and pepper, strain, add kidneys, and one table- 
spoon Madeira wine. 

Ragout of Kidneys 
Soak lambs* kidneys one hour in lukewarm water. Drain, 
clean, cut in slices, season with salt and pepper, dredge 
with flour, and saute in butten Fry one sliced onion and 



LAMB AND MUTTON 223 

one-half shallot, finely chopped, in three tablespoons butter 
until yellow ; add three tablespoons flour and one and one- 
fourth cups Brown Stock. Cook five minutes, strain, and 
add one-half cup mushroom caps peeled and cut in quarters ; 
season with salt and pepper, add kidneys, and serve as soon 
as heated. White wine may be added if desired. 

Kidney Rolls 
Mix one-half cup stale bread crumbs, one-half small 
onion, finely chopped, and one-half tablespoon finely chopped 
parsley. Season with salt and pepper and moisten with 
beaten egg. Spread mixture on thin slices of bacon, fasten 
around pieces of lambs* kidney, using skewers. Bake in a 
hot oven twenty minutes. 

WAYS OF WARMING OVER MUTTON AND LAMB 

Minced Lamb on Toast 

Remove dry pieces of skin and gristle from remnants of 
cold roast lamb, then chop meat. Heat in well-buttered 
frying-pan, season with salt, pepper, and celery salt, and 
moisten with a little hot water or stock ; or, after seasoning, 
dredge well with flour, stir, and add enough stock to make 
thin gravy. Pour over small slices of buttered toast. 

Scalloped Lamb 
Remove skin and fat from thin slices of cold roast lamb, 
and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Cover bottom of a 
buttered baking-dish with buttered cracker crumbs; cover 
meat with boiled macaroni, and add another layer of meat 
and macaroni. Pour over Tomato Sauce, and cover with 
buttered cracker crumbs. Bake in hot oven until crumbs 
are brown. Cold boiled rice may be used in place of 
macaroni. 

Blanquette of Lamb 

Cut remnants of cooked lamb in cubes or strips. Reheat 
two cups meat in two cups sauce, — sauce made of one- 
fourth cup each of butter and flour, one cup White Stock, 
and one cup of milk which has been scalded with two blades 



224 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

of mace. Season with salt and pepper, and add one table- 
spoon Mushroom Catsup, or any other suitable table sauce. 
Garnish with large croutons, serve around green peas, or in 
a potato border, sprinkle with finely chopped parsley. 

Barbecued Lamb 
Cut cold roast lamb in thin slices and reheat in sauce 
made by melting two tablespoons butter, adding three- 
fourths tablespoon vinegar, one-fourth cup currant jelly, 
one-fourth teaspoon French mustard, and salt and cayenne 
to taste. 

Rechauffe of Lamb 

Brown two tablespoons butter, add two and one-half 
tablespoons flour, and stir until well browned ; then add 
one- fourth teaspoon, each, curry powder, mustard, and salt, 
and one-eighth teaspoon paprika. Add, gradually, one cup 
brown stock and two tablespoons sherry wine. Reheat cold 
roast lamb cut in thin slices in sauce. 

Salmi of Lamb 

Cut cold roast lamb in thin slices. . Cook five minutes two 
tablespoons butter with one-half tablespoon finely chopped 
onion. Add lamb, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and cover 
with one cup Brown Sauce, or one cup cold lamb gravy sea- 
soned with Worcestershire, Harvey, or Elizabeth Sauce. 
Cook until thoroughly heated. Arrange slices overlapping 
one another lengthwise of platter, pour around sauce, and 
garnish with toast points. A few sliced mushrooms or 
stoned olives improve this sauce. 

Casserole of Rice and Meat 
Line a mould, slightly greased, with steamed rice. Fill 
the centre with two cups cold, finely chopped, cooked mut- 
ton, highly seasoned with salt, pepper, cayenne, celery salt, 
onion juice and lemon juice; then add one-fourth cup 
cracker crumbs^ one egg slightly beaten, and enough hot 
stock or water to moisten. Cover meat with rice, cover 
rice with buttered paper to keep out moisture while steam- 
ing, and steam forty-five minutes. Serve on a platter sur- 



LAMB AND MUTTON 225 

rounded with Tomato Sauce. Veal may be used in place of 
mutton. 

Breast of Lamb 

Wipe a breast of lamb, put in kettle with bouquet of 
sweet herbs, a small onion stuck with six cloves, one-half 
tablespoon salt, one-half teaspoon peppercorns, and one- 
fourth cup each carrot and turnip cut in dice. Cover with 
boiling water, and simmer until bones will slip out easily. 
Take meat from water, remove bones, and press under weight. 
When cool, trim in shape, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, 
fry in deep fat, and drain. Serve with Spanish Sauce. 
Small pieces of cold lamb may be sprinkled with salt and 
pepper, dipped in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, and fried in 
deep fat. 



ib) 



226 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XIV 
VEAL 

VEAL is the meat obtained from a young calf killed 
when six to eight weeks old. Veal from a younger 
animal is very unwholesome, and is liable to provoke serious 
gastric disturbances. Veal contains a much smaller per- 
centage of fat than beef or mutton, is less nutritious, and 
(though from a young creature) more difficult of digestion. 
Like lamb, it is not improved by long hanging, but should 
be eaten soon after killing and dressing. It should always 
be remembered that the flesh of young animals does not keep 
fresh as long as that of older ones. Veal is divided in same 
manner as lamb, into fore and hind quarters. The fore- 
quarter is subdivided into breast, shoulder, and neck ; the 
hind-quarter into loin, leg, and knuckle. Cutlets, fillets 
(cushion), and fricandeau are cut from the thick part of 
leg. 

Good veal may be known by its pinkish-colored flesh and 
white fat ; when the flesh lacks color, it has been taken from 
a creature which was too young to kill for food, or, if of the 
right age, was bled before killing. Veal may be obtained 
throughout the year, but is in season during the spring. 
Veal should be thoroughly cooked ; being deficient in fat 
and having but little flavor, pork or butter should be added 
while cooking, and more seasoning is required than for 
other meats. 

Veal Cutlets 

Use slices of veal from leg cut one-half inch thick. Wipe, 
remove bone and skin, then cut in pieces for serving. The 
long, irregular- shaped pieces may be rolled, and fastened 
with small wooden skewers. Sprinkle with salt and pepper ; 



TEAL 227 

dip in flour, egg, and crumbs ; fry slowly, until well browned, 
in salt pork fat or butter ; then remove cutlets to stewpan 
and pour over one and one-half cups Brown Sauce. Place 
on back of range and cook slowly forty minutes, or until 
cutlets are tender. 

Veal may be cooked first in boiling water until tender, 
then crumbed and fried. The water in which veal was 
cooked may be used for sauce. Arrange on hot platter, 
strain sauce and pour around cutlets, and garnish with 
parsley. 

Brown Sauce. Brown three tablespoons butter, add three 
tablespoons flour, and stir until well browned. Add gradu- 
ally one and one-half cups stock or water, or half stock and 
half stewed and strained tomatoes. Season with salt, pep- 
per, lemon juice, and Worcestershire Sauce. The trimmings 
from veal (including skin and bones) may be covered with 
one and one-half cups cold water, allowed to heat slowly to 
boiling-point, then cooked, strained, and used for sauce. 

Veal Chops Bavarian 

Wipe six loin chops and put in a stewpan with one-half 
onion, eight slices carrot, two stalks celery, one-half tea- 
spoon peppercorns, four cloves, and two tablespoons butter. 
Cover with boiling water and cook until tender. Drain, 
season with salt and pepper, dip in flour, egg, and crumbs, 
fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Arrange chops 
on hot serving dish and surround with boiled flat maccaroni 
to which Soubise Sauce (see p. 267) is added. 

Fricassee of Veal 

Wipe two pounds sliced veal, cut from loin, and cover 
with boiling water ; add one small onion, two stalks celery, 
and six slices carrot. Cook slowly until meat is tender. 
Remove meat, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with 
flour, and saute in pork fat. Strain liquor (there should be 
two cups). Melt four tablespoons butter, add four table- 
spoons flour and strained liquor. Bring to boiling-point, 
season with salt and pepper, and pour around meat. Gar- 
nish with parsley. 



228 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Minuten Fleisch 

1}^ lbs. veal cut in Flour 

thin slices 13^ cups Brown Stock 

Salt and pepper Juice 1 lemon 

^ cup claret wine 2 sprigs parsley- 

Pound veal until one-fourth inch thick and cut in pieces 
for serving. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, put in baking- 
pan, pour over wine, and let stand thirty minutes. Drain, 
dip in flour, arrange in two buttered pans, and pour over 
remaining ingredients and wine which was drained from 
meat. Cover, and cook slowly until meat is tender. Re- 
move to serving dish and pour over sauce remaining in pan. 

Loin of Veal k la Jardiniere 

Wipe four pounds loin of veal, sprinkle with salt and pep- 
per, and dredge with flour. Put one-fourth cup butter in 
deep stewpan ; when melted, add veal and brown entire 
surface of meat, watching carefully and turning often, that 
it may not burn. Add one cup hot water, cover closely, and 
cook slowly two hours, or until meat is tender, adding more 
water as needed, using in all about three cups. Remove 
meat, thicken stock remaining in pan with flour diluted with 
enough cold water to pour easily. Surround the meat with 
two cups each boiled turnips and carrots, cut in half-inch 
cubes, and potatoes cut in balls. Serve gravy in a tureen. 

Braised Shoulder of Veal 
Bone, stuff, and sew in shape five pounds shoulder of veal ; 
then cook same as Braised Beef, adding with vegetables two 
sprigs thyme and one of marjoram. 

English Meat Fie 

Knuckle of veal Blade of mace 

1 slice onion 2 teaspoons salt 

1 slice carrot }^ lb. lean raw ham 

Bit of bay leaf 4 tablespoons flour 

Sprig of parsley 4 tablespoons butter 

12 peppercorns 2 doz. bearded oysters 

Remove meat from bones. Cover bones with cold water 
add vegetables and seasonings, and heat slowly to boiling 



VEAL 229 

point. Add meat, boil five minutes, and let simmer until 
meat is tender ; remove meat and reduce stock to two cups. 
Put ham in frying-pan, cover with lukewarm water, and let 
stand on back of range one hour. Brown butter, add flour, 
and when well browned add stock ; then add veal and ham 
each cut into cubes. Let simmer twenty minutes and add 
oysters. Put in serving dish and cover with top made of 
puff paste. It is much better to bake the paste separately 
and cover pie just before sending to table. 

Roast Veal 
The leg, cushion (thickest part of leg), and loin, are suit- 
able pieces for roasting. When leg is to be used, it should 
be boned at market. Wipe meat, sprinkle with salt and pep- 
per, stuff, and sew in shape. Place on rack in dripping-pan, 
dredge meat and bottom of pan with flour, and place around 
meat strips of fat salt pork. Bake three or four hours in 
moderate oven, basting every fifteen minutes with one-third 
cup butter melted in one-half cup boiling water, until used, 
then baste with fat in pan. Serve with brown gravy. 

Pricandeau of Veal 
Lard a cushion of veal and roast or braise. 

India Curry- 
Wipe a slice of veal one-half inch thick, weighing one and 
one-half pounds, and cook in frying-pan without butter, 
quickly searing one side, then the other. Place on a board 
and cut in one and one-half inch pieces. Fry two sliced 
onions in one-half cup butter until brown, remove onions, 
and add to the butter, meat, and one-half tablespoon curry 
powder, then cover with boiling water. Cook slowly until 
meat is tender. Thicken with flour diluted with enough 
cold water to pour easily; then add one teaspoon vinegar. 
Serve with a border of steamed rice. 

Veal Birds 

Wipe slices of veal from leg, cut as thinly as possible, 

then remove bone, skin, and fat. Pound until one-fourth 

inch thick and cut in pieces two and one-half inches long by 

pne and one-half inches wide, each piece making a bird. 



230 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Chop trimmings of meat, adding for every three birds ft 
piece of fat salt pork cut one inch square and one-fourth inch 
thick; pork also to be chopped. Add to trimmings and pork 
one-half their measure of fine cracker crumbs, and season 
highly with salt, pepper, cayenne, poultry seasoning, lemon 
juice, and onion juice. Moisten with beaten egg and hot 
water or stock. Spread each piece with thin layer of mix- 
ture and avoid having mixture come close to edge. Roll, 
and fasten with skewers. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, 
dredge with flour, and fry in hot butter until a golden brown. 
Put in stewpan, add cream to half cover meat, cook slowly 
twenty minutes or until tender. Serve on small pieces of 
toast, straining cream remaining in pan over birds and toast, 
and garnish with parsley. A Thin White Sauce in place of 
cream may be served around birds. 

Veal Loaf I 

Separate a knuckle of veal in pieces by sawing through 
bone. Wipe, put in kettle with one pound lean veal and one 
onion ; cover with boiling water, and cook slowly until veal 
is tender. Drain, chop meat finely, and season highly with 
salt and pepper. Garnish bottom of a mould with slices of 
*' hard-boiled " eggs and parsley. Put in layer of meat, layer 
of thinly sliced " hard-boiled " eggs, sprinkle with finely 
chopped parsley, and cover with remaining meat. Pour over 
liquor, which should be reduced to one cupful. Press and 
chill, turn on a dish, and garnish with parsley. 

Veal Loaf II 

Wipe three pounds lean veal, and remove skin and mem- 
brane. Chop finely or force through meat chopper, then add 
one-half pound fat salt pork (also finely chopped), six 
common crackers (rolled), four tablespoons cream, two 
tablespoons lemon juice, one tablespoon salt, one-half table- 
spoon pepper, and a few drops onion juice. Pack in a 
small bread-pan, smooth evenly on top, brush with white of 
egg, and bake slowly three hours, basting with one-fourth 
cup pork fat. Prick frequently while baking, that pork fat 
may be absorbed by meat. Cool, remove from pan, and cut 
in thin slices for serving. 



VEAL 231 

Broiled Veal Kidneys 
Order veal kidneys with the suet left on. Trim, split, 
and broil ten minutes. Arrange on pieces of toast and pour 
over melted butter seasoned with salt, cayenne, and lemon 
juice. 

Veal Kidneys k la Canfield 

Trim kidneys, cook in Brown Stock ten minutes, drain, and 
cut in slices. Arrange alternate slices of kidney and thinly 
sliced bacon on skewers with a fresh mushroom cap at 
either end of each skewer. Broil until bacon is crisp and 
arrange on pieces of toast. Pour over sauce made from 
stock in which kidneys were cooked, seasoned with salt, 
cayenne, and Madeira wine. 

WAYS OF WARMING OVER VEAL 
Minced Veal on Toast 

Prepare as Minced Lamb on Toast, using veal in place of 
lamb. 

Blanquette of Veal 

Reheat two cups cold roast veal, cut in small strips, in 
one and one-half cups White Sauce I. Serve in a potato 
border and sprinkle over all finely chopped parsley. 

Ragoiit of Veal 
Reheat two cups cold roast veal, cut in cubes, in one and 
one-half cups Brown Sauce seasoned with one teaspoon 
Worcestershire Sauce, few drops of onion juice, and a few 
grains of cayenne. 



232 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XV 
SWEETBREADS 

A SWEETBREAD is the thymus gland of lamb or calf, 
but in cookery, veal sweetbreads only are consid- 
ered. It is prenatally developed, of unknown function, and 
as soon as calf is taken from liquid food it gradually dis- 
appears. Pancreas, stomach sweetbread, is sold in some 
sections of the country, but in our markets this custom is 
not practised. Sweetbreads are a reputed table delicacy, 
and a valuable addition to the menu of the convalescent. 

A sweetbread consists of two parts, connected by tubing 
and membranes. The round, compact part is called the 
heart sweetbread, as its position is nearer the heart; the 
other part is called the throat sweetbread. When sweet- 
bread is found in market separated, avoid buying two of 
the throat sweetbreads, as the heart sweetbread is more 
desirable. 

Sweetbreads spoil very quickly. They should be re- 
moved from paper as soon as received from market, 
plunged into cold water and allowed to stand one hour, 
drained, and put into acidulated salted boiling water, 
then allowed to cook slowly twenty minutes ; again drained, 
and plunged into cold water, that they may be kept white 
and firm. Sweetbreads are always parboiled in this manner 
for subsequent cooking. 

Broiled Sweetbread 

Parboil a sweetbread, split cross-wise, sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, and broil five minutes. Serve with Lemon 
Butter. 



SWEETBREADS 233 

Creamed S"weetbread 
Parboil a sweetbread, and cut in one-half inch cubes, or 
separate in small pieces. Reheat in one cup White Sauce II. 
Creamed Sweetbread may be served on toast, or used as 
filling for patty cases or Swedish Timbales. 

Creamed Sweetbread and Chicken 
Reheat equal parts of cold cooked chicken, and sweetbread 
cut in dice, in White Sauce II. 

Sweetbread k la Poulette 
Reheat sweetbread, cut in cubes, in one cup Bechamel 
Sauce. 

Sweetbreads, Country Style 
Parboil sweetbreads, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and 
dredge with flour. Arrange in baking-dish, brush over with 
melted butter, allowing two tablespoon^ to each pair of 
sweetbreads, and cover with thin slices fat salt pork. Bake 
in a hot oven over twenty-five minutes, basting twice during 
the cooking, and remove pork during the last five minutes of 
the cooking. 

Larded Sweetbread 
Parboil a sweetbread, lard the upper side, and bake until 
well browned, basting with Meat Glaze. 

Sweetbreads k la Napoli 
Parboil a large' sweetbread and cut in eight pieces. Cook 
in hot frying-pan with a small quantity of butter, adding 
enough beef extract to give sweetbread a glazed appearance. 
Cut bread in slices, shape with a circular cutter three and 
one-half inches in diameter, and toast. Spread each piece 
with two tablespoons grated Parmesan cheese seasoned with 
salt and paprika and moistened with two tablespoons heavy 
cream. Arrange one piece of sweetbread on each piece of 
toast and season with salt and pepper. Put in individual 
glass-covered dishes, having two tablespoons cream in each 
dish. Cover each piece of sweetbread with sauted mushroom 
cap, put on glass covers, and bake in a moderate oven eight 
minutes. 



234 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Braised S"weetbreads Eugenie 

Parboil a sweetbread in Sherry wine twelve minutes. 
Drain, cool, cut in four pieces, and lard. Cook in frying- 
pan same as Sweetbreads d, la Napoli. Peel mushroom caps, 
cover with Sherry wine, let stand one hour, drain, and saute 
in butter. Arrange on circular pieces of toast, over each of 
which has been poured one teaspoon wine drained from 
mushroom caps, and season with salt and pepper. Pile five 
or six mushroom caps on each piece of sweetbread, add two 
tablespoons heavy cream, and bake in a moderate oven, eight 
minutes. Cook in individual glass-covered dishes. 

Sweetbread Cutlets with Asparagus Tips 
Parboil a sweetbread, split, and cut in pieces shaped like 
a small cutlet, or cut in circular pieces. Sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, and saute in 
batter. Arrange in a circle around Creamed Asparagus 
Tips. 

Sweetbread with Tomato Sauce 
Prepare as Sweetbread Cutlets with Asparagus Tips, 
saute in butter or fry in deep fat, and serv^e with Tomato 
Sauce. 

Sweetbread and Bacon 
Parboil a sweetbread, cut in small pieces, dip in flour, 
egg, and crumbs, and arrange alternately with pieces of 
bacon on small skewers, having four pieces sweetbread and 
three of bacon on each skewer. Fry in deep fat, and drain. 
Arrange in a circle around mound of green peas. 





Sweetbread a la Napoli. — Page SS3. 




Braised Sweetbreads Eugenie. — Page 




Breslix Potted Chicken in Casserole Dish. — Page 25i 




Broiled Chicken garnished with French Fried Potatoes, 

Slices of Broiled Tomatoes, Parsley, and Lettuce. 

Page 2^5. 



PORK 235 



CHAPTER XVI 
PORK 

PORK is the flesh and fat of pig or hog. Different 
parts of the creature, when dressed, take different 
names. 

The chine and spareribs, which correspond to the loin in 
lamb and veal, are used for roasts or steaks. Two ribs are 
left on the chine. The hind legs furnish hams. These are 
cured, salted, and smoked. Sugar-cured hams are considered 
the best. Pickle, to which is added light brown sugar, 
molasses, and saltpetre, is introduced close to bone; hams 
are allowed to hang one week, then smoked with hickory 
wood. Shoulders are usually corned, or salted and smoked, 
though sometimes cooked fresh. Pigs* feet are boiled until 
tender, split, and covered with vinegar made from white 
wine. Hocks ^ the part just above the feet, are corned, and 
much used by Germans. Heads are soused, and cooked 
by boiling. The flank, which lies just below the ribs, is 
salted and smoked, and furnishes bacon. The best pieces of 
fat salt pork come from the back, on either side of backbone. 

Fat, when separated from flesh and membrane, is tried 
out and called lard. Leaf -lard is the best, and is tried out 
from the leaf shaped pieces of solid fat which lie inside the 
flank. Sausages are trimmings of lean and fat meat, minced, 
highly seasoned, and forced into thin casings made of the 
prepared entrails. Little pigs (four weeks old) are some- 
times killed, dressed, and roasted whole. 

Pork contains the largest percentage of fat of any meat 
When eaten fresh it is the most difficult of digestion, aad 



236 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

although found in market through the entire jenr^ it should 
be but seldom served, and then only during the wmter months. 
By curing, salting, and smoking, pork is rendered more whole- 
some. Bacon, next to butter and cream, is the most easily 
assimilated of all fatty foods. 

Fork Chops 
Wipe chops, sprinkle with salt and pepper, place in a hot 
frying-pan, and cook slowly until tender, and well browned 
on each side. 

Pork Chops with Fried Apples 
Arrange Pork Chops on a platter, and surround with 
slices of apples, cut one-half inch thick, fried in the fat 
remaining in pan. 

Roast Fork 
Wipe pork, sprinkle with salt and pepper, place on a rack 
m a dripping-pan, and dredge meat and botton of pan with 
flour. Bake in a moderate oven three or four hours, basting 
every fifteen minutes with fat in pan. Make a gravy as for 
other roasts. 

Fork Tenderloins with Sweet Potatoes 
Wipe tenderloins, put in a dripping-pan, and brown quickly 

in a hot oven ; then sprinkle with salt and pepper, and bake 

forty-five minutes, basting every fifteen minutes. 

Sweet Potatoes. Pare six potatoes and parboil ten 

minutes, drain, put in pan with meat, and cook until soft, 

basting when basting meat. 

Breakfast Bacon 
See Liver and Bacon, page 207. 

Fried Salt Fork with Codfish 
Cut fat salt pork in one-fourth inch slices, cut gashes one- 
third inch apart in slices, nearly to rind. Try out in a hot 
frying-pan until brown and crisp, occasionally turning off 
fat from pan. Serve around strips of codfish which have 
been soaked in pan of lukewarm water and allowed to stand 
on back of range until soft. Serve with Drawn Butter Sauce, 
boiled potatoes, and beets. 



PORK 237 

Broiled Ham 
Soak thin slices of ham one hour in lukewarm water. 
Drain, wipe, and broil three minutes. 

Fried Ham and Eggs 
Wipe ham, remove one-half outside layer of fat, and place 
in frying-pan. Cover with tepid water and let stand on back 
of range thirty minutes ; drain, and dry on a towel. Heat 
pan, put in ham, brown quickly on one side, turn and brown 
other side; o^.' soak ham over night, dry, and cook in hot 
frying-pan. It' cooked too long, ham will become hard and 
dry. Serve with fried eggs cooked in the tried-out ham 
fat. 

Barbecued Ham 

Soak thin slices of ham one hour in lukewarm wa,ter; 
drain, wipe, and cook in a hot frying-pan until slightly 
browned. Remove to serving dish and add to fat in pan 
three tablespoons vinegar mixed with one and one-half tea- 
spoons mustard, one-half teaspoon sugar, and one-eighth 
teaspoon paprika. When thoroughly heated pour over ham 
and serve at once. 

Boiled Ham 
Soak several hours or over night in cold water to cover. 
Wash thoroughly, trim off hard skin near end of bone, put 
in a kettle, cover with cold water, heat to boiling-point, and 
cook slowly until tender. See Time Table for Cooking, 
page 28. Remove kettle from range and set aside, that ham 
may partially cool ; then take from water, remove outside 
skin, sprinkle with sugar and fine cracker crumbs, and stick 
with cloves one-half inch apart. Bake one hour in a slow 
oven. Serve cold, thinly sliced. 

Roast Ham with Champagne Sauce 

Place a whole baked ham in the oven fifteen minutes 
before serving time, that outside fat may be heated. Re- 
move to a hot platter, garnish bone end with a paper ruffle, 
and serve with Champagne Sauce. 



238 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Westphalian Ham 
These hams are imported from Germany, and need no 
additional cooking. Cut in very thin slices for serving. 

Broiled Pigs' Feet 

Wipe, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and broil six to 
eight minutes. Serve with Maitre d'Hotel Butter or Sauce 
Piquante. 

Fried Pigs' Feet 

Wipe, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in crumbs, egg, 
and crumbs, fry in deep fat, ai^d drain. 

Sausages 

Cut apart a string of sausages. Pierce each sausage 
several times with a carving fork. Put in frying-pan, cover 
with boiling water, and cook fifteen minutes ; drain, return 
to frying-pan, and fry until well browned. Serve with fried 
apples. Sausages are often broiled same as bacon and 
apples baked in pan under them. 

Boston Baked Beans 

Pick over one quart pea beans, cover with cold water, 
and soak over night. In morning, drain, cover with fresh 
water, heat slowly (keeping water below boiling-point), and 
cook until skins will burst, — which is best determined by 
taking a few beans on the tip of a spoon and blowing on 
them, when skins will burst if sufficiently cooked. Beans 
thus tested must, of course, be thrown away. Drain beans, 
throwing bean-water out of doors, not in sink. Scald rind of 
three-fourths pound fat salt pork, scrape, remove one-fourth 
inch slice and put in bottom of bean-pot. Cut through rind 
of remaining pork every one-half inch, making cuts one inch 
deep. Put beans in pot and bury pork in beans, leaving 
rind exposed. Mix one tablespoon salt, one tablespoon 
molasses, and three tablespoons sugar; add one cup boiling 
water, and pour over beans ; then add enough more boiling 
water to cover beans. Cover bean-pot, put in oven, and 
bake slowly six or eight hours, uncovering the last hour of 



POKK 239 

cooking, that rind may become brown and crisp. Add 
water as needed. Many feel sure that by adding with sea- 
sonings one-half tablespoon mustard, the beans are more 
easily digested. If pork mixed with lean is preferred, use 
less salt. 

The fine reputation which Boston Baked Beans have 
gained has been attributed to the earthen bean-pot with 
small top and bulging sides in which they are supposed to 
be cooked. Equally good beans have often been eaten 
where a five-pound lard pail was substituted for the broken 
bean-pot. 

Yellow-eyed beans are very good when baked. 



240 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XVII 
POULTRY AND GAME 

POULTRY includes all domestic birds suitable for food 
except pigeon and squab. Examples: chicken, fowl,' 
turkey, duck, goose, etc. Game includes such birds and 
animals suitable for food as are pursued and taken in field 
and forest. Examples : quail, partridge, wild duck, plover, 
deer, etc. 

The flesh of chicken, fowl, and turkey has much shorter 
fibre than that of ruminating animals, and is not inter- 
mingled with fat, — the fat always being found in layers 
directly under the skin, and surrounding the intestines. 
Chicken, fowl, and turkey are nutritious, and chicken is 
specially easy of digestion. The white meat found on breast 
and wing is more readily digested than the dark meat. The 
legs, on account of constant motion, are of a coarser fibre 
and darker color. 

Since incubators have been so much used for hatching 
chickens, small birds suitable for broiling may be always 
found in market. Chickens which appear in market during 
January weighing about one and one-half pounds are called 
spring chickens. 

Fowl is found in market throughout the year, but is at its 
best from March until June. 

Philadelphia, until recently, furnished our market with 
Philadelphia chickens and capons, but now Massachusetts 
furnishes equally good ones, which are found in market from 
December to June. They are very large, plump, and supe- 
rior eating. At an early age they are deprived of the organs 
of reproduction, penned, and specially fatted for killing. 



POULTRY AKD GAME 241 

They are recognized by the presence of head, tail, and wing 
feathers. 

Turkeys are found in market throughout the year, but are 
best during the winter months. Tame ducks and geese are 
very indigestible on account of the large quantity of fat 
they contain. Goose meat is thoroughly infiltrated with fat, 
containing sometimes forty to forty-five per cent. Pigeons, 
being old birds, need long, slow cooking to make them ten- 
der. Squabs (young pigeons) make a delicious tidbit for 
the convalescent, and are often the first meat allowed a 
patient by the physician. 

The flesh of game, with the exception of wild duck and 
wild geese, is tender, contains less fat than poultry, is of 
fine though strong flavor, and easy of digestion. Game 
meat is usually of dark color, partridge and quail being ex- 
ceptions, and is usually cooked rare. Venison, the flesh of 
deer, is short-fibred, dark-colored, highly savored, tender, 
and easy of digestion ; being highly savored, it often dis- 
agrees with those of weak digestion. 

Geese are in market throughout the year, Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island furnishing specially good ones. A goose 
twelve weeks old is known as a green goose. They may be 
found in market from May to September. Young geese 
which appear in market September first and continue through 
December are called goslings. They have been hatched 
during May and June, and then fatted for market. 

Young ducks, found in market about March first, are 
called ducklings. Canvasback Ducks have gained a fine 
reputation throughout the country, and are found in mar- 
ket from the last of November until March. Redhead 
Ducks are in season two weeks earlier, and are about as 
good eating as Canvasback Ducks, and much less in price. 
The distinctive flavor of both is due to the wild celery on 
which they feed. Many other kinds of ducks are found in 
market during the fall and winter. Examples: Widgeon, 
Mallard, Lake Erie Teal, Black Ducks, and Butterballs. 

Fresh quail are in market from October fifteenth to Janu- 
ary first, the law forbidding their being killed at any other 
time in the year. The same is true of partridge, but botl^ 



242 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

are frozen and kept in cold storage several months. Cali- 
fornia sends frozen quail in large numbers to Eastern mar- 
kets. Grouse {prairie chicken) are always obtainable, — 
fresh ones in the fall; later, those kept in cold storage. 
Plover may be bought from April until December. 

To Select Poultry and Game. A chicJcen is known by 
soft feet, smooth skin, and soft cartilage at end of breast- 
bone. An abundance of pinfeathers always indicates a 
young bird, while the presence of long hairs denotes age. In 
a fowl the feet have become hard and dry with coarse scales, 
and cartilage at end of breastbone has ossified. Cock turkeys 
are usually better eating than hen turkeys, unless hen turkey 
is young, small, and plump. A good turkey should be 
plump, have smooth dark legs, and cartilage at end of breast- 
bone soft and pliable. Good geese abound in pinfeathers. 
Small birds should be plump, have soft feet and pliable bills. 

To Dress and Clean Poultry. Remove hairs and down 
by holding the bird over a flame (from gas, alcohol, or burn- 
ing paper) and constantly changing position until all parts 
of surface have been exposed to flame ; this is known as 
singeing. Cut off the head and draw out pinfeathers, using 
a small pointed knife. Cut through the skin around the leg 
one and one-half inches below the leg joint, care being taken 
not to cut tendons ; place leg at this cut over edge of board, 
press downward to snap the bone, then take foot in right 
hand, holding bird firmly in left hand, and pull off foot, and 
with it the tendons. In old birds the tendons must be drawn 
separately, which is best accomplished by using a steel 
skewer. Make an incision through skin below breastbone, 
just large enough to admit the hand. With the hand remove 
entrails, gizzard, heart, and liver ; the last three named con- 
stitute what is known as giblets. The gall bladder, lying on 
the under surface of the right lobe of the liver, is removed 
with liver, and great care must be taken that it is not broken, 
as a small quantity of the bile which it contains would im- 
part a bitter flavor to the parts with which it came in contact. 
Enclosed by the ribs, on either side of backbone, may be 
found the lungs, of spongy consistency and red color. Care 
most be taken that every part of them is remoyed. Eddneys, 



POUIiTBY AND GAME 243 

lying in the hollow near end of backbone, must also be re- 
moved. By introducing first two fingers under skin close to 
neck, the windpipe may be easily found and withdrawn ; also 
the crop, which will he found adhering to skin close to breast. 
Draw down neck skin, and cut off neck close to body, leav- 
ing skin long enough to fasten under the back. Eemove oil 
bag, and wash bird by allowing cold water to run through it, 
not allowing bird to soak in cold water. Wipe inside and 
outside, looking carefully to see that everything has been 
withdrawn. If there is disagreeable odor, suggesting that 
fowl may have been kept too long, clean at once, wash inside 
and out with soda water, and sprinkle inside with charcoal 
and place some under wings. 

Poultry dressed at market seldom have tendons removed 
unless so ordered. It is always desirable to have them with- 
drawn, as they become hard and bony during cooking. It is 
the practice of market-men to cut a gash through the skin, 
to easier reach crop and windpipe. This gash must be sewed 
before stufl3ng, and causes the bird to look less attractive 
when cooked. 

To Cut up a Fowl. Singe, draw out pinfeathers, cut off 
head, remove tendons and oil bag. Cut through skin be- 
tween leg and body close to body, bend back leg (thus break- 
ing ligaments), cut through flesh, and separate at joint. 
Separate the upper part of leg, second joint, from lower part 
of leg, drumstick, as leg is separated from body. Remove 
wing by cutting through skin and flesh around upper wing 
joint which lies next to body, then disjoint from body. Cut 
off tip of wing and separate wing at middle joint. Remove 
leg and wing from other side. Separate breast from back 
by cutting through skin, beginning two inches below breast- 
bone and passing knife between terminus of small ribs on 
either side and extending cut to collar-bone. Before removing 
entrails, gizzard, heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, crop, and wind- 
pipe, observe their position, that the anatomy of the bird may 
be understood. The back is sometimes divided by cutting 
through the middle crosswise. The wishbone, with adjoin- 
ing meat, is frequently removed, and the breast meat may 
be separated in two parts by cutting through flesh close to 



244 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

breastbone with cleaver. Wipe pieces, excepting back, with 
cheese-cloth wrung out of cold water. Back piece needs thor- 
ough washing. 

To Clean Giblets. Remove thin membrane, arteries, veins, 
and clotted blood around heart. Separate gall bladder from 
liver, cutting off any of liver that may have a greenish tinge. 
Cut fat and membranes from gizzard. Make a gash through 
thickest part of gizzard, and cut as far as inner lining, bemg 
careful not to pierce it. Remove the inner sack and discard. 
Wash giblets and cook until tender, with neck and tips of 
wings, putting them in cold water and heating water quickly 
that some of the flavor may be drawn out into stock, which 
is to be used for making gravy. 

To Stuff Poultry. Put stuffing by spoonfuls in neck end, 
using enough to suflSciently fill the skin, that bird may look 
plump when served. Where cracker stuffing is used, allow- 
ance must be made for the swelling of crackers, otherwise 
skin may burst during cooking. Put remaining stuffing in 
body ; if the body is full, sew skin ; if not full, bring skin 
together with a skewer. 

To Truss Fowl. Draw thighs close to body and hold by 
inserting a steel skewer under middle joint running it 
through body, coming out under middle joint on other side. 
Cut piece three-fourths inch wide from neck skin, and with 
it fasten legs together at ends; or cross drumsticks, tie 
securely with a long string, and fasten to tail. Place wings 
close to body and hold them by inserting a second skewer 
through wing, body, and wing on opposite side. Draw neck 
skin under back and fasten with a small wooden skewer. 
Turn bird on its breast. Cross string attached to tail piece 
and draw it around each end of lower skewer ; again cross 
string and draw around each end of upper skewer ; fasten 
string in a knot and cut off ends. In birds that are not 
stuffed legs are often passed through incisions cut in body 
under bones near tail. 

To Dress Birds for Broiling. Singe, wipe, and with a 
sharp-pointed knife, beginning at back of neck, make a cut 
through backbone the entire length of bird. Lay open the 
bird and remove contents from inside. Cut out rib bones 



POULTRY AND GAME 245 

on either side of backbone, remove from breastbone, then 
cut through tendons at joints. 

To Fillet a Chicken. Remove skin from breast, and with 
a small sharp knife begin at end of collar-bone and cut 
through flesh, following close to wish and breast bones the 
entire length of meat. Raise flesh with fingers, and with 
knife free the piece of meat from bones which lie under it. 
Cut meat away from wing joint ; this solid piece of breast is 
meat known as 2^ fillet. This meat is easily separated in two 
parts. The upper, larger partis called the large fillet; the 
lower part the mignon fillet. The tough skin on the outside 
of large fillet should be removed, also the sinew from mignon 
fillet. To remove tough skin, place large fillet on a board, 
upper side down, make an incision through flesh at top of 
fillet, and cut entire length of fillet, holding knife as close to 
skin as possible. Trim edges, that fillet may look shapely. 

Broiled Chicken 

Dress for broiling, following directions on page 244. 
Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and place in a well-greased 
broiler. Broil twenty minutes over a clear fire, watching 
carefully and turning broiler so that all parts may be equally 
browned. The flesh side must be exposed to the fire the 
greater part of time, as the skin side will brown quickly. 
Remove to a hot platter, spread with soft butter, and 
sprinkle with salt and pepper. Chickens are so apt to burn 
while broiling that many prefer to partially cook in oven. 
Place chicken in dripping-pan, skin side down, sprinkle with 
salt and pepper, dot over with butter, and bake fifteen min- 
utes in hot oven; then broil to finish cooking. Guinea 
chickens are becoming popular cooked in this way. 

Boiled Fowl 
Dress, clean, and truss a four-pound fowl, tie in cheese- 
cloth, place on trivet in a kettle, half surround with boiling 
water, cover, and cook slowly until tender, turning occa- 
sionally. Add salt the last hour of cooking. Serve with 
Egg, Oyster, or Celery Sauce. It is not desirable to stuff 
a boiled fowl. 



246 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Boiled Capon vrith Cauliflower Sauce 

Prepare and cook a capon same as Boiled Fowl, and 
serve surrounded with Cauliflower Sauce and garnished with 
parsley. 

Chicken d la Providence 

Prepare and boil a chicken, following recipe for Boiled 
Fowl. The liquor should be reduced to two cups, and used 
for making sauce, with two tablespoons each butter and flour 
cooked together. Add to sauce one-half cup each of cooked 
carrot (cut in fancy shapes) and green peas, one teaspoon 
lemon juice, yolks two eggs, salt and pepper. Place chicken 
on hot platter, surround with sauce, and sprinkle chicken 
and sauce with one-half tablespoon finely chopped parsley. 

Stewed Chicken with Onions 

Dress, clean, and cut in pieces for serving, two chickens. 
Cook in a small quantity of water with eighteen tiny young 
onions. Remove chicken to serving-dish as soon as tender, 
and when onions are soft drain from stock and reduce stock 
to one and one-half cups. Make sauce of three tablespoons 
butter, four tablespoons flour, stock, and one-half cup heavy 
cream; then add yolks three eggs, salt, pepper, and lemon 
juice to taste. Pour sauce over chicken and onions. 

Chicken k la Stanley 
Melt one-fourth cup butter, add one large onion thinly 
sliced, and two broilers cut in pieces for serving; cover, 
and cook slowly ten minutes ; then add one cup Chicken 
Stock, and cook until meat is tender. Remove chickens, 
rub stock and onions through a sieve, and add one and one- 
half tablespoons each butter and flour cooked together. Add 
cream to make sauce of the right consistency. Season with 
salt and pepper. Arrange chicken on serving dish, pour 
around sauce, and garnish dish with bananas cut in diagonal 
slices dipped in flour and sauted in butter. 

Chili Con Carnl 
Clean, smge, and cut in pieces for serving, two joung 
chickens. Season with salt and pepper, and saut^ in butter. 



POULTKT AND GAHB 247 

Remove seeds and veins from eight red peppers, cover with 
boiling water, and cook until soft ; mash, and rub through a 
sieve. Add one teaspoon salt, one onion finely chopped, 
two cloves of garlic finely chopped, the chicken, and boiling 
water to cover. Cook until chicken is tender. Remove to 
serving dish, and thicken sauce with three tablespoons each 
butter and flour cooked together ; there should be one and 
one-half cups sauce. Canned pimentoes may be used in 
place of red peppers. 

Roast Chicken 

Dress, clean, stuflT, and truss a chicken. Place on its back 
on rack in a dripping-pan. rub entire surface with salt, and 
spread breast and legs with three tablespoons butter, rubbed 
until creamy and mixed with two tablespoons flour. Dredge 
bottom of pan with flour. Place in a hot oven, and when 
flour is well browned, reduce the heat, then bastCo Continue 
basting every ten minutes until chicken is cooked. For 
basting, use one-fourth cup butter, melted in two-thirds cup 
boiling water, and after this is gone, use fat in pan, and 
when necessary to prevent flour burning, add one cup boiling 
water. During . cooking, turn chicken frequently, that it 
may brown evenly. If a thick crust is desired, dredge bird 
with flour two or three times during cooking. If a glazed 
surface is preferred, spread bird with butter, omitting flour, 
and do not dredge during baking. When breast meat is 
tender, bird is suflSciently cooked. A four-pound chicken 
requires about one and one-half hours. 

Stuffing I 
1 cup cracker crumbs }{ cup boiling water 

^ cup butter Salt and Pepper 

Powdered sage, summer savory, or marjoram 

Melt butter in water, and pour over crackers, to which 
seasonings have been added. 

Stuffing n 
1 cup cracker crumbs Salt 

^ cup melted butter Pepper 

Sage or Poultry Seasoning 1 cup scalded milk 

Make same as StuflOlng L 



248 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Gravy- 
Pour off liquid in pan in which chicken has been roasted. 
From liquid skim off four tablespoons fat ; return fat to pan, 
and brown with four tablespoons flour ; add two cups stock 
in which giblets, neck, and tips of wings have been cooked. 
Cook five minutes, season with salt and pepper, then strain. 
The remaining fat may be used, in place of butter, for fry- 
ing potatoes, or for basting when roasting another chicken. 

For Giblet Gravy, add to the above, giblets (heart, liver, 
and gizzard) finely chopped. 

Braised Chicken 

Dress, clean, and truss a four-pound fowl. Try out two 
slices fat salt pork cut one-fourth inch thick ; remove scraps, 
and add to fat five slices carrot cut in small cubes, one- 
half sliced onion, two sprigs thyme, one sprig parsley, and 
one bay leaf, then cook ten minutes ; add two tablespoons 
butter, and fry fowl, turning often until surface is well 
browned. Place on trivet in a deep pan, pour over fat, and 
add two cups boiling water or Chicken Stock. Cover, and 
bake in slow oven until tender, basting often, and adding 
more water if needed. Serve with a sauce made from stock 
in pan, first straining and removing the fat. 

Chicken Fricassee 

Dress, clean, and cut up a fowl. Put in a kettle, cover 
with boiling water, and cook slowly until tender, adding 
salt to water when chicken is about half done. Remove 
from water, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with 
flour, and saute in butter or pork fat. Arrange chicken 
on pieces of dry toast placed on a hot platter, having wings 
and second joints opposite each other, breast in centre of 
platter, and drumsticks crossed just below second joints. 
Pour around White or Brown Sauce. Reduce stock to 
two cups, strain, and remove the fat. Melt three table- 
spoons butter, add four tablespoons flour, and pour on 
gradually one and one-half cups stock. Just before serv- 
ing, add one-half cup cream, and salt and pepper to taste ; 



POULTRY AKD GAME 249 

or make a sauce by browning butter and flour and adding 
two cups stock, then seasoning with salt and pepper. 

Fowls, which are always made tender by long cooking, 
are frequently utilized in this way. If chickens are era- 
ployed, they are sauted without previous boiling, and al- 
lowed to simmer fifteen to twenty minutes in the sauce. 

Fried Chicken 
Fried chicken is prepared and cooked same as Chicken 
Fricassee, with Brown Sauce, chicken always being used, 
never fowl. 

Fried Chicken (Southern Style) 

Clean, singe, and cut in pieces for serving, two young 
chickens. Plunge in cold water, drain but do not wipe. 
Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and coat thickly with flour, 
having as much flour adhere to chicken as possible. Try 
out one pound fat salt pork cut in pieces, and cook chicken 
slowly in fat until tender and well browned. Serve with 
White Sauce made of half milk and half cream. 

Maryland Chicken 

Dress, clean, and cut up two young chickens. Sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, dip in flour, egg, and soft crumbs, place 
in a well-greased dripping-pan, and bake thirty minutes in a 
hot oven, basting after first five minutes of cooking with 
one-third cup melted butter. Arrange on platter and pour 
over two cups Cream Sauce. 

Blanketed Chicken 

Split and clean two broilers. Place in dripping-pan and 
sprinkle with salt, pepper, two tablespoons green pepper 
finely chopped, and one tablespoon chives finely cut. Cover 
with strips of bacon thinly cut, and bake in a hot oven until 
chicken is tender. Remove to serving dish and pour around 
the following sauce : 

To three tablespoons fat, taken from dripping-pan, add 
four tablespoons flour and one and one-half cups thin cream, 
or half chicken stock and half cream may be used. Season 
with salt and pepper. 



250 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Chicken a la Merango 

Dress, clean, and cut up a chicken. Sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, dredge with flour, and saute in salt pork fat. 
Put in a stewpan, cover with sauce, and cook slowly until 
chicken is tender. Add one-half can mushroons cut in quar- 
ters, and cook five minutes. Arrange chicken on serving 
dish and pour around sauce ; garnish with parsley. 

Sauce 

^ cup butter 2 cups boiling water 

1 tablespoon finely chopped 14 ^^P stewed and strained 

onion tomato 

1 slice carrot, cut in cubes 1 teaspoon salt 

1 slice turnip, cut in cubes % teaspoon pepper 

^ cup flour .Few grains cayenne 

Cook butter five minutes with vegetables. Add flour, 
with salt, pepper, and cayenne, and cook until flour is well 
browned. Add gradually water and tomato ; cook five 
minutes, then strain. 

Baked Chicken 

Dress, clean, and cut up two chickens. Place in a drip- 
ping-pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, 
and dot over with one-fourth Cup butter. Bake thirty min- 
utes in a hot oven, basting every five minutes with one- 
fourth cup butter melted in one-fourth cup boiling water. 
Serve with gravy made by using fat in pan, one-fourth cup 
flour, one cup each Chicken Stock and cream, salt and pepper. 

Planked Chicken 
1^ cup butter 1 teaspoon finely chopped 

Red pepper 1 1^ tablespoon onion 

Green pepper I each, finely % clove garlic, finely 

Parsley J chopped chopped 

Duchess potatoes 1 teaspoon lemon juice 

8 mushroom caps 

Cream the butter, add pepper, parsley, onion, garlic, and 
lemon juice. Split a young chicken as for broiling, place in 
dripping-pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dot over with 



POULTBY AND GAME 251 

butter, and bake in a hot oven until nearly cooked. Butter 
plauk, arrange a border of Duchess Potatoes (see p. 312) 
close to edge of plank, and remove chicken to plank. Clean, 
peel, and saute mushroom caps, place on chicken, spread 
over prepared butter, and put in a very hot oven to brown 
potatoes and finish cooking chicken. Serve on the plank. 

Chicken Gumbo 

Dress, clean, and cut up a chicken. Sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, dredge with flour, and saute in pork fat. Fry 
one-half finely chopped onion in fat remaining in frying-pan. 
Add four cups sliced okra, sprig of parsley, and one-fourth 
red pepper finely chopped, and cook slowly fifteen minutes. 
Add to chicken, with one and one-half cups tomato, three 
cups boiling water, and one and one-half teaspoons salt. 
Cook slowly until chicken is tender, then add one cup boiled 
rice. 

Chicken Stew 

Dress, clean, and cut up a fowl. Put in a stewpan, cover 
with boiling water, and cook slowly until tender, adding 
one-half tablespoon salt and one-eighth teaspoon pepper 
when fowl is about half cooked. Thicken stock with one- 
third cup flour diluted with enough cold water to pour easily. 
Serve with Dumplings. If desired richer, butter may be 
added. 

Chicken Pie 

Dress, clean, and cut up two fowls or chickens. Put 
in a stewpan v.i<^ i one-half onion, sprig of parsley, and 
bit of bay leaf ; cover with boiling water, and cook slowly 
until tender. When chicken is half cooked, add one-half 
tablespoon salt and one -eighth teaspoon pepper. Remove 
chicken, strain stock, skim off fat, and then cook until 
reduced to four cups. Thicken stock with one-third cup 
flour diluted with enough cold water to pour easily. Place 
a small cup in centre of baking-dish, arrange around it 
pieces of chicken, removing some of the larger bones ; pour 
over gravy, and cool. Cover with pie-crust in which 
several incisions have been made, that there may be an out- 



252 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

let for escape of steam and gases. Wet edge of crust and 
put around a rim, having rim come close to edge. Bake in 
a moderate oven until crust is well risen and browned. 
Roll remnants of pastry and cut in diamond-shaped pieces, 
bake, and sei"ve with pie when reheated. If puff paste is 
used, it is best to bake top separately. 

Chicken Curry 

3 lb. chicken 1 tablespoon curry powder 

^ cup butter 2 teaspoons salt 

2 onions 1 teaspoon vinegar 

Clean, dress, and cut chicken in pieces for serving. Put 
butter in a hot frying-pan, add chicken, and cook ten min- 
utes; then add liver and gizzard and cook ten minutes 
longer. Cut onions in thin slices, and add to chicken with 
curry powder and salt. Add enough boiling water to cover, 
and simmer until chicken is tender. Remove chicken ; strain, 
and thicken liquor with flour diluted with enough cold water 
to pour easily. Pour gravy over chicken, and serve with a 
border of rice or Turkish Pilaf . 

Chicken en Casserole 

Cut two small, young chickens in pieces for serving. 
Season with salt and pepper, brush over with melted butter, 
and bake in a casserole dish twelve minutes. Parboil one- 
third cup carrots cut in strips five minutes, drain, and fry 
with one tablespoon finely chopped onion and four thin 
slices bacon cut in narrow strips. Add one and one-third 
cups Brown Sauce and two-thirds cup potato balls. Add to 
chicken, with three tablespoons Sherry wine, salt and pepper 
to taste. Cook in a moderate oven twenty minutes, or until 
chicken is tender. If small casserole dishes are used allow 
but one chicken to each dish. 

Breslin Potted Chicken 
Dress, clean, and truss two broilers. Put in a casserole dish, 
brush over with two and one-half tablespoons melted butter, 
put on cover, and bake twenty minutes ; then add one cup 
stock and cook until chicken is tender. Thicken stock with 
one tablespoon, each, butter and flour cooked together, and 



POULTRY AND GAME 253 

add one-half cup cooked potato balls, one-third cup ct nned 
string beans, cut in small pieces, one-third cup cooked 
carrot, cut in fancy shapes, and six sauted mushroom caps. 

Jellied Chicken 

Dress, clean, and cut up a four-pound fowl. Put in a 
stewpan with two slices onion, cover with boiling water, 
and cook slowly until meat falls from bones. When half 
cooked, ada one-half tablespoon salt. Remove chicken; 
reduce stock to three-fourths cup, strain, and skim off fat. 
r.ecorate bottom of a mould with parsley and slices of hard- 
^i.iled eggs. Pack in meat freed from skin and bone and 
sprinkled with sa!_ and pepper. Pour on stock and place 
mould under hea~>y weight. Keep in a cold place until firm. 
In summer it is necessary to add one ter^spoon dissolved 
granulated gelatine to stock. 

Chickens' Livers "with Madeira Sauce 

Clean and separate livers, sprinkle with salt and pepper, 
dredge with flour, and saute in butter. Brown two table- 
spoons butter, add two and one-half tablespoons flour, and 
when well browned add gradually one cup Brown Stock; 
then add two tablespoons Madeira wine, and reheat livers 
in sauce. 

Chickens' Livers "with Bacon 

Clean livers and cut each liver in six pieces. Wrap a 
thin slice of bacon around each piece and fasten with a 
small skewer. Put in a broiler, place over a dripping-pan, 
and bake in a hot oven until bacon is crisp, turning once 
during cooking. 

Saut§d Chickens' Livers 

Cut one slice bacon in small pieces and cook five minutes 
with two tablespoons butter. Remove bacon, add one 
finely chopped shallot, and fry two minutes; then add six 
chickens* liters cleaned and separated, and cook two min- 
utes. Add two tablespoons flour, one cup Brown Stock, 
©ue teaspoon lemon juice, and one-fourth cup sliced mush- 



^54 BOSTON COOS:iNG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

rooms. Cook two minutes, turn into a serving dish, and 
sprinkle with finely chopped parsley. 

Chickens' Livers with Curry 

Clean and separate livers. Dip in seasoned crumbs, egg, 
and crumbs, and saute in butter. Remove livers, and to 
fat in pan add two tablespoons butter, one-half tablespoon 
finely chopped onion, and cook five minutes. Add two table- 
spoons flour mixed with one-half teaspoon curry powder 
and one cup stock. Strain sauce over livers, and serve 
around livers Rice Timbales. 

Boiled Turkey- 
Prepare and cook same as Boiled Fowl. Serve with 
Oyster or Celery Sauce. 

Roast Turkey" 

Dress, clean, stuff, and truss a ten-pound turkey (see 
pages 242-244). Place on its side on rack in a dripping- 
pan, rub entire surface with salt, and spread breast, legs, 
and wings with one-third cup butter, rubbed until creamy 
and mixed with one-fourth cup flour. Dredge bottom of pan 
with flour. Place in a hot oven, and when flour on turkey 
begins to brown, reduce heat, and baste eyeiry fifteen minutes 
until turkey is cooked, which will require about three hours. 
For basting use one-half cup butter melted in one-half cup 
boiling water and after this is used baste with fat in pan. 
Pour water in pan during the cooking as needed to prevent 
flour from burning. During cooking turn turkey frequently, 
that it may brown evenly. If turkey is browning too fast, 
cover with buttered paper to prevent burning. Remove 
string and skewers before serving. Garnish with parsley, 
or celery tips, or curled celery and rings and discs of carrots 
strung on fine wire. 

For stufl3ng, use double the quantities given in recipes 
under Roast Chicken. If stuffing is to be served cold, 
add one beaten egg. Turkey is often roasted with Chestnut 
Stufling, Oyster Stuffing, or Turkey Stuffing (Swedish Style). 



POULTRY AND QAM& S56 

Chestnut StnflSng 

8 cups French chestaiuts }^ teaspoon pepper 

^ cup butter ^ cup cream 

1 teaspoon salt 1 cup cracker crumbs 

Shell and blanch chestnuts. Cook in boiling salted water 
until soft. Drain and mash, using a potato ricer. Add 
one-half the butter, salt, pepper, and cream. Melt remain- 
ing butter, mix with cracker crumbs, then combine mixtures. 

Oyster Stuffing 
8 cups stale bread crumbs Salt and pepper 

^ cup melted butter Few drops onion Juice 

1 pint oysters 

Mix ingredients in the order given, add oysters, cleaned 
and drained from their liquor. 

Turkey Stuffing (Swedish Style) 

2 cups stale bread crumbs ^ cup English walnut meats, 
% cup melted butter broken in pieces 

^ cup raisins, seeded and cut Salt and pepper 

in pieces Sage 

Mix ingredients in the order given. 

Gravy 
Pour off liquid in pan in which turkey has been roasted. 
From liquid skim off six tablespoons fat ; return fat to pan 
and brown with six tablespoons flour; pour on gradually 
three cups stock in which giblets, neck, and tips of wings 
have been cooked, or use liquor left in pan. Cook five 
minutes, season with salt and pepper; strain. For Giblet 
Gravy add to the above, giblets (heart, liver, and gizzard) 
finely chopped^ 

Chestnut Gravy 

To two cups thin Turkey Gravy add three-fourths cup 
cooked and mashed chesnuts. 

To Carve Turkey 

Bird shonld be placed on back, with legs at right of 
platter for carving. Introduce carving fork across breast^ 



256 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

bone, hold firmly in left hand, and with carving knife in 
right hand cut through skin between leg and body, close to 
body. With knife pull back leg and disjoint from body. 
Then cut off wing. Eemove leg and wing from other side. 
Separate second joints from drum-sticks and divide wings 
at joints. Carve breast meat in thin crosswise slices. 
Under back on either side of backbone may be found two 
small, oyster-shaped pieces of dark meat, which are dainty 
tidbits. Chicken and fowl are carved in the same way. 
For a small family carve but one side of a turkey, that re- 
mainder may be left in better condition for second serving. 

Roast Goose with Potato Stuffing 
Singe, remove pinfeathers, wash and scrub a goose in 
hot soapsuds ; then draw (which is removing inside con- 
tents). Wash in cold water and wipe. Stuff, truss, sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, and lay six thin strips fat salt pork 
over breast. Place on rack in dripping-pan, put in hot oven, 
and bake two hours. Baste every fifteen minutes with fat 
in pan. Remove pork last half-hour of cooking. Place on 
platter, cut string, and remove string and skewers. Garnish 
with watercress and bright red cranberries. Serve with 
Apple Sauce. 

Potato Stufifing 

2 cups hot mashed potato , % cup butter 

13^ cups soft stale bread crumbs 1 egg 

)^ cup finely chopped fat salt pork Ij^ teaspoons salt 

1 finely chopped onion 1 teaspoon sage 

Add to potato, bread crumbs, butter, egg, salt, and sage ; 
then add pork and onion. 

Goose Stufifing (Chestnut) 

% tablespoon finely chopped 1 cup chestnut puree 

shallot 3^ cup stale bread crumbs 

3 tablespoons butter %. tablespoon finely chopped 

3^ lb. sausage meat parsley 

12 canned mushrooms, finely 24 French chestnuts cooked 
chopped and left whole 

Salt and pepper 

Cook shallot with butter five minutes, add sausage meat, 
9aA cook two minutes, then add mushrooms, chestnut puree, 




Roast Turkey garxished for servixg. — Page 




Duck stuffed and trussed for roasting. — Page 



m'^z*:^T.''^^ mw*mmmT.i^Mimri?jKj awrzi:i^'i!^^-^^- 




Stuffed Egg Plant. — Page 293. 




PuRfiE OF Spinach. — Page 300. 



POULTRY AND GAME 257 

parsley, and salt and pepper. Heat to boiling-point, add 
bread crumbs and whole chestnuts. Cool mixture before 
stuffing goose. 

To Truss a Goose 

A goose, having short legs, is trussed differently from 
chicken, fowl, and turkey. After inserting skewers, wind 
string twice around one leg bone, then around other leg 
bone, having one inch space of string between legs. Draw 
legs with both ends of string close to back, cross string 
under back, then fasten around skewers and tie in a knot. 

Roast Wild Duck 

Dress and clean a wild duck and truss as goose. Place on 
rack in dripping-pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and 
cover breast with two very thin slices fat salt pork. Bake 
twenty to thirty minutes in a very hot oven, basting every 
five minutes with fat in pan ; cut string and remove string 
and skewers. Serve with Orange or Olive Sauce. Currant 
jelly should accompany a duck course. Domestic ducks 
should always be well cooked, requiring little more than twice 
the time allowed for wild ducks. 

Ducks are sometimes stuffed with apples, pared, cored, 
and cut in quarters, or three small onions may be put in body 
of duck to improve flavor. Neither apples nor onions are to 
be served. If a stuffing to be eaten is desired, cover pieces 
of dry bread with boiling water ; as soon as bread has 
absorbed water, press out the water ; season bread with salt, 
pepper, melted butter, finely chopped onion, or use 

Duck Stuffing (Peanut) 

% cup cracker crumbs 2 tablespoons butter 

% cup shelled peanuts, finely Few drops onion juice 

chopped Salt and pepper 

% cup heavy cream Cayenne 

Mix ingredients in the order given. 

Braised Duck 
Tough ducks are sometimes steamed one hour, and then 
braised in same manner as chicken. 

U 



268 BOSTOisr oooking-sohool cook book 

Broiled Quail 
Follow recipe for Broiling Chicken, allowing eight min- 
utes for cooking. Serve on pieces of toast, and garnish 
with parsley and thin slices of lemon. Currant jelly or Rice 
Croquettes with Jelly should accompany this course. 

Roast Quail 
Dress, clean, lard, and truss a quail. Bake same as 
Larded Grouse, allowing fifteen to twenty minutes for cook- 
ing. 

Larded Grouse 

Clean, remove pinions, and if it be tough the skin covering 
breast. Lard breast and insert two lardoons in each leg/ 
Truss, and place on trivet in small shallow pan; rub with 
salt, brush over with melted butter, dredge with flour, and 
surround with trimmings of fat salt pork. Bake twenty to 
twenty-five minutes in a hot oven, basting three times. 
Arrange on platter, remove string and skewers, pour around 
Bread Sauce, and sprinkle bird and sauce with coarse brown 
bread crumbs. Garnish with parsley. 

Breast of Grouse Saut^ Chasseur 
Remove breasts from pair of grouse, and saute in butter. 
When partially cooked, season with salt and pepper. Break 
carcasses in pieces, cover with cold water, add carrot, celery, 
onion, parsley, and bay leaf, and cook until stock is reduced 
to three-fourths cup. Arrange grouse on a serving dish, and 
pour around a sauce made of three tablespoons butter, four 
and one-half tablespoons flour, stock made from grouse, and 
three-fourths cup stewed and strained tomatoes. Season 
with salt, cayenne, and lemon juice, and add one teaspoon 
finely chopped parsley, and one-half cup canned mushrooms 
cut in slices. 

Broiled or Roasted Plover 
Plover is broiled or roasted same as quail. 

Potted Pigeons 
Clean, stuff, and truss six pigeons, place upright in a stew- 
pan, and ^d one quart boiling water in whiclj celery has 



r-OULTKY AND GAME 259 

been cooked. Cover, and cook slowly three hours or until 
tender ; or cook in oven in a covered earthen dish. Remove 
from water, cool slightly, sprinkle with salt and pepper, 
dredge with flour, and brown entire surface in pork fat. 
Make a sauce with one- fourth cup, each, butter and flour 
cooked together and stock remaining in pan ; there should be 
two cups. Place each bird on a slice of dry toast, and pour 
gravy over all. Garnish with parsley. 

Stuffing 

1 cup hot riced potatoes 1 tablespoon batter 

^ teaspoon salt )^ cup soft stale bread 
3^ teaspoon pepper crumbs soaked in some 

}/^ teaspoon marjoram of the celery water and 

or summer savory wrung in cheese-cloth 

Few drops union juice Yolk 1 egg 

Mix ingredients in order given. 

Broiled Venison Steak 

Follow recipe for Broiled Beefsteak. Serve with Maitre 
d*H6tel Butter. Venison should always be cooked rare. 

Venison Steaks, Sauted, Cumberland Sauce 

Cut venison steaks in circular pieces and use trimmings 
for the making of stock. Saute steaks in hot buttered frying- 
pan and serve with 

Cumberland Sauce. Soak two tablespoons citron, cut in 
julienne-shaped pieces, two tablespoons glaced cherries, and 
one tablespoon Sultana raisins, in Port wine for several 
hours. Drain and cook fruit five minutes in one-third cup 
Port wine. Add one-half tumbler currant jelly, and, as soon 
as jelly is dissolved, add one and one-third cups Brown Sauce, 
and two tablespoons shredded almonds. 

Venison Steak, Chestnut Sauce 

Wipe steak, sprinkle with salt and pepper, place on a 
greased broiler, and broil five minateeu Bemove to hot plat-< 
tear axul poor %y9<m 



BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Chestaiut Sauce. Fry one-half onion and six slices carrot, 
cut in small pieces, in two tablespoons butter, five minutes, 
add three tablespoons flour, and stir until well browned ; then 
add one and one-half cups Brown Stock, a sprig of parsley, a 
bit of bay leaf, eight peppercorns, and one teaspoon salt. 
Let simmer twenty minutes, strain, then add three table- 
spoons Madeira wine, one cup boiled French chestnuts, and 
one tablespoon butter. 

Venison Cutlets 

Clean and trim slices of venison cut from loin. Sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, brush over with melted butter or olive 
oil, and roll in soft stale bread crumbs. Place in a broiler 
and broil five minutes, or saute in butter. Serve • with Port 
Wine Sauce. 

Roast Leg of Venison 

Prepare and cook as Roast Lamb, allowing less time that 
it may be cooked rare. 

Saddle of Venison 

Clean and lard a saddle of venison. Cook same as Saddle 
of Mutton. Serve with Currant Jelly Sauce. 

Belgian Hare a la Maryland 

Follow directions for Chicken k la Maryland (see p. 249). 
Bake forty minutes, basting with bacon fat in place of 
butter. 

Belgian Hare, Sour Cream Sauce 

Clean and split a hare. Lard back and hind legs, and 
season with salt and pepper. Cook eight slices carrot cut in 
small pieces and one-half small onion in two tablespoons 
bacon fat five minutes. Add one cup Brown Stock, and 
pour around hare in pan. Bake forty- five minutes, basting 
often. Add one cup heavy cream and the juice of one lemon. 
Cook fifteen minutes longer, and baste every five minutes. 
Remove to serving dish, strain sauce, thicken, season with 
salt and pepper, and pour around hare. 



"WARMING OVER POULTRY AND GAME 261 

WAYS OF WARMING OVER POULTRY AND GAME 

Creamed Chicken 

2 cups cold cooked chicken, 2 cups White Sauce II 

cut in dice % teaspoon celery salt 

Heat chicken dice in sauce, to which celery salt has been 
added. 

Creamed Chicken with Mushrooms 
Add to Creamed Chicken one- fourth cup mushrooms cut 
in slices. 

Chicken with Potato Border 
Serve Creamed Chicken in Potato Border. 

Chicken in Baskets 
To three cups hot mashed potatoes add three tablespoons 
butter, one teaspoon salt, yolks of three eggs slightly beaten, 
and enough milk to moisten. Shape in form of small bas- 
kets, using a pastry-bag and tube. Brush over with white 
of egg slightly beaten, and brown in oven. Fill with 
Creamed Chicken. Form handles for baskets of parsley. 

Chicken and Oysters a la Metropole 

>^ cup butter 2 cups cold cooked chicken, 

^ cup flour cut in dice 

}^ teaspoon salt 1 pint oysters, cleaned and 

% teaspoon pepper drained 

2 cups cream y^ cup finely chopped celery 

Make a sauce of first five ingredients, add chicken dice and 
oysters ; cook until oysters are plump. Serve sprinkled with 
celery. 

Luncheon Chicken 
1)^ cups cold cooked chicken, 1 cup Chicken Stock 

cut in small dice Salt 

2 tablespoons butter Pepper 

1 slice carrot, cut in small cubes % cup buttered cracker 

1 slice onion crumbs 

2 tablespoons flour 4 eggs 

Cook butter five minutes with vegetables, add flour, and 
gradually the stock. Strain, add chicken dice, and season 



262 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

with salt and pepper. Turn on a slightly buttered platter 
and sprinkle with cracker crumbs. Make four nests, and in 
each nest slip an egg; cover eggs with crumbs, and bake 
in a moderate oven until whites of eggs are firm. 

Blanquette of Chicken 

2 cups cold cooked chicken, 1 tablespoon finely- 

cut in strips chopped parsley 

1 cup White Sauce II Yolks 2 eggs 

2 tablespoons milk 

Add chicken to sauce ; when well heated, add yolks of 
eggs slightly beaten, diluted with milk. Cook two minutes, 
then add parsley. 

Scalloped Chicken 
Butter a baking-dish. Arrange alternate layers of cold, 
cooked sliced chicken and boiled macaroni or rice. Pour 
over White, Brown, or Tomato Sauce, cover with buttered 
cracker crumbs, and bake in a hot oven until crumbs are 
brown. 

Mock Terrapin 
1% cups cold cooked chicken Whites 2 " hard-boiled " eggs, 
or veal, cut in dice chopped 

1 cup White Sauce I 3 tablespoons Sherry wine 
Yolks 2 " hard-boiled " eggs, . ^ teaspoon salt 

finely chopped Few grains cayenne 

Add to sauce, chicken, yolks and whites of eggs, salt, and 
cayenne ; cook two minutes, and add wine. 

Chicken Souffle 

2 cups scalded milk 2 cups cold cooked chicken, 
% cup butter finely chopped 

% cup flour Yolks 3 eggs, well beaten 

1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon finely-chopped 
3^ teaspoon pepper parsley 

% cup stale soft bread crumbs Whites 3 eggs, beaten stiff 

Make a sauce of first five ingredients, add bread crumbs, 
and cook two minutes ; remove from fire, add chicken, yolks 
of eggs, and parsley, then fold in whites of eggs. Turn in 
a buttered pudding-dish, and bake thirty- five minutes in a 



WARMING OVER POULTRY AND GAME 263 

Slow oven. Serve with White Mushroom Sauce. Veal may 
be used in place of chicken. 

Chicken Hollaudaise 

1% tablespoons butter y^ cup finely chopped celery 

1 teaspoon finely chopped onion i^ teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons coni-starch Few grains paprika 

1 cup chicken stock 1 cup cold cooked chicken, 

1 teaspoon lemon juice cut in small cubes 

Yolk 1 egg 

Cook butter and onion five minutes, add corn-starch and 
stock gradually. Add lemon juice, celery, salt, paprika, 
and chicken; when well heated, add yolk of Qg^ slightly 
beaten, and cook one minute. Serve with buttered Graham 
toast. 

Chicken Chartreuse 

Prepare and cook same as Casserole of Rice and Meat, 
using chicken in place of lamb or veal. Season chicken 
with salt, pepper, celery salt, onion juice, and one-half tea- 
spoon finely chopped parsley. 

Scalloped Turkey 

Make one cup of sauce, using two tablespoons butter, two 
tablespoons flour, one-fourth teaspoon salt, few grains of 
pepper, and one cup stock (obtained by cooking in water 
bones and skin of a roast turkey). Cut remnants of cold 
roast turkey in small pieces ; there should be one and one- 
half cups. Sprinkle bottom of buttered baking-dish with 
seasoned cracker crumbs, add turkey meat, pour over sauce, 
and sprinkle with buttered cracker crumbs. Bake in a hot 
oven until crumbs are brown. Turkey, chicken, or veal may 
be used separately or in combination. 

Minced Turkey 

To one cup cold roast turkey, cut in small dice, add one- 
third cup soft stale bread crumbs. Make one cup sauce, 
using two tablespoons butter, two tablespoons flour, and one 
cup stock (obtained by cooking bones and skin of a ro&s^ 



264 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

turkey). Season with salt, pepper, and onion juice. Heat 
turkey and bread crumbs in sauce. Serve on small pieces of 
toast, and garnish with poached eggs and toast points. 

Salmi of Duck 

Cut cold roast duck in pieces for serving. Reheat in 
Spanish Sauce. 

Spanish Sauce. Melt one-fourth cup butter, add one 
tablespoon finely chopped onion, a stalk of celery, two slices 
carrot cut in pieces, and two tablespoons finely chopped lean 
raw ham. Cook until butter is brown, then add one-fourth 
cup flour, and when well browned add two cups Consomme, 
bit of bay leaf, sprig of parsley, blade of mace, two cloves, 
one-half teaspoon salt, and one-eighth teaspoon pepper; cook 
five minutes. Strain, add duck, and when reheated add 
Sherry wine, stoned olives, and mushrooms cut in quarters. 
Arrange on dish for serving, and garnish with olives and 
mushrooms. Grouse may be used in place of duck. 



FISH AND MEAT SAUCES 265 



CHAPTER XVIII 
FISH AND MEAT SAUCES 

THE French chef keeps always on hand four sauces, — 
White, Brown, Bechamel, and Tomato, — and with 
these as a basis is able to make kinds innumerable. Butter 
and flour are usually cooked together for thickening sauces. 
When not browned, it is called roux ; when browned, hrown 
roux. The French mix butter and flour together, put in 
saucepan, place over fire, stir for five minutes ; set aside to 
cool, again place over fire, and add liquid, stirring constantly 
until thick and smooth. Butter and flour for brown sauces 
are cooked together much longer, and watched carefully lest 
butter should burn. The American cook makes sauce by 
stirring butter in saucepan until melted and bubbling, adds 
flour and continues stirring, then adds liquid, gradually stir- 
ring or beating until the boiling-point is reached. For Brown 
Sauce, butter should be stirred until well browned ; flour 
should be added and stirred with butter until both are 
browned before the addition of liquid. The secret in mak- 
ing a Brown Sauce is to have butter and flour well browned 
before adding liquid. 

It is well worth remembering that a sauce of average 
thickness is made by allowing two tablespoons each of butter 
and flour to one cup liquid, whether it be milk, stock, or ta 
mato. For Brown Sauce a slightly larger quantity of flour 
is necessary, as by browning flour its thickening property is 
lessened, its starch being changed to dextrine. When sauces 
are set away, put a few bits of butter ou top to prevent crust 
from forming. 



266 BOSTON COOKINGhSOHOOL COOK BOOK 

Thin "VThite Sauce 

2 tablespoons butter 1 cup scalded milk 

1}^ tablespoons flour }^ teaspoon salt 

Few grains pepper 

Put butter in saucepan, stir until melted and bubbling; 
add flour mixed with seasonings, and stir until thoroughly 
blended ; then pour on gradually while stirring constantly 
the milk, bring to the boiling-point and let boil two min- 
utes. If a wire whisk is used, all the milk may be added at 
once. 

Cream Sauce 

Make same as Thin White Sauce, using cream instead of 
milk. 

"White Sauce I 
2 tablespoons butter 1 cup milk 

2 tablespoons flour )^ teaspoon salt 

Few grains pepper 

Make same as Thin White Sauce. 

"White Sauce II 

2 tablespoons butter 1 cup milk 

3 tablespoons flour ^i teaspoon salt 

Few grains pepper 

Make same as Thin White Sauce. 

Thick "White Sauce (for Cutlets and Croquets) 

2% tablespoons butter 1 cup milk 

)^ cup corn-starch or ^ teaspoon salt 

% cup flour Few grains pepper 

Make same as Thin White Sauce. 
"Velout^ Sauce 
2 tablespoons butter 1 cup White Stock 

2 tablespoons flour ^ teaspoon salt 

Few grains pepper 

Make same as Thin White Sauce. 

Sauce Allemande 
To Velout^ Sauce add one teaspoon lemon juice and yolk 
one egg. 



FISH AND MEAT SAtJCES 267 

Soubise Sauce 

2 cups sliced onions % cup cream or milk 

1 cup Veloutd Sauce Salt and pepper 

Cover onions with boiling water, cook five minutes, drain, 
again cover with boiling water, and cook until soft ; drain, 
and rub through a sieve. Add to sauce with cream. Season 
with salt and pepper. Serve with mutton, pork chops, or 
" hard-boiled " eggs. 

Drav^n Butter Sauce 

^ cup butter Ij^ cups hot water 

8 tablespoons flour % teaspoon salt 

3^ teaspoon pepper 

Melt one-half the butter, add flour with seasonings, and 
pour on gradually hot water. Boil five minutes, and add 
remaining butter in small pieces. To be served with boiled 
or baked fish. 

Shrimp Sauce 

To Drawn Butter Sauce add one Q%'g yolk and one-half 
can shrimps cleaned and cut in pieces. 

Caper Sauce 

To Drawn Butter Sauce add one-half cup capers drained 
from their liquor. Serve with boiled mutton. 

Egg Sauce I 

To Drawn Butter Sauce add two " hard-boiled " eggs cut in 
one-fourth inch slices. 

Egg Sauce II 
To Drawn Butter Sauce add beaten yolks of two eggs 
and one teaspoon lemon juice. 

Bro^wrn Sauce I 

2 tablespoons butter 1 cup Brown Stock 
% slice onion ^ teaspoo^ salt 

3 tablespoons flour 3^ teaspoon pepper 

Cook onion in butter until slightly browned; remove 
onion and stir butter constantly until well browned ; add 
flour mixed with seasonings, and brown the butter and 
flour; then add stock gradually, bring to the boiling-point, 
and let boil two miuates. 



268 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

^ Brown Sauce II (Espagnole) 

^ cup butter Sprig of parsley 

1 slice carrot 6 peppercorns 

1 slice onion 5 tablespoons flour 

Bit of bay leaf 2 cups Brown Stock 

Sprig of thyme Salt and pepper 

Cook butter with carrot, onion, bay leaf, thyme, parsley, 
and peppercorns, until brown, stirring constantly, care being 
taken that butter is not allowed to burn ; add flour, and 
when well browned, add stock gradually. Bring to boiling- 
point, strain, and season with salt and pepper. 

Brown Mushroom Sauce I 

To one cup Brown Sauce add one-fourth can mushrooms, 
drained, rinsed, and cut in quarters or slices. 

Brown Mushroom Sauce II 

1 can mushrooms ^ cup flour 

3^ cup butter 2 cups Consomme or Brown 

)4, tablespoon lemon juice Stock 

Salt and pepper 

Drain and rinse mushrooms and chop finely one-half of 
same. Cook five minutes with butter and lemon juice ; 
drain; brown the butter, add flour, and when well-browned, 
add gradually Consomme. Cook fifteen minutes, skim, add 
remaining mushrooms cut in quarters or slices, and cook 
two minutes. Season with salt and pepper. Use fresh 
mushrooms in place of canned ones when possible. 

Sauce Piquante 

To one cup Brown Sauce add one tablespoon vinegar, 
one-half small shallot finely chopped, one tablespoon each 
chopped capers and pickle, and a few grains of cayenne. 

Olive Sauce 
Remove stones from ten olives, leaving meat in one piece. 
Cover with boiling water and cook five minutes. Drain 
olives, and add to two cups Brown Sauce I or IL 



FISH AND MEAT SAUCES 269 

Orange Sauce 

^ cup butter Few grains cayenne 

3^ cup flour Juice 2 oranges 

11^ cups Brown Stock 2 tablespoons Sherry wine 

y^ teaspoon salt Rind of 1 orange, cut in 

fancy shapes 

Brown the butter, add flour, with salt and cayenne, and 
stir until well browned. Add stock gradually, and just 
before serving, orange juice. Sherry, and pieces of rind. 

Sauce k I'ltalienne 

Onion 1 r. ^ 1 1 •> Sprig marjoram 

Carrot Y '^"^T""' ^"^^ 2 tablespoons butter 

Lean raw ham j ^"""^^ <A^o^^i^ 2^ tablespoons flour 
12 peppercorns 1 cup Brown Stock 

2 cloves 11^ cups white wine 

% tablespoon finely chopped parsley 

Cook first six ingredients with butter five minutes, add 
flour, and stir until well browned ; then add gradually stock 
and wine. Strain, reheat, and after pouring around fish 
sprinkle with parsley. 

Champagne Sauce 

Simmer two cups Espagnole Sauce until reduced to one 
and one-half cups. Add two tablespoons mushroom liquor, 
one-half cup champagne, and one tablespoon powdered 
sugar. 

Tomato Sauce I (without Stock) 
% can tomatoes or 3 tablespoons butter 

1^ cups fresh stewed tomatoes 3 tablespoons flour 

1 slice onion i^ teaspoon salt 

}4, teaspoon pepper 

Cook onion with tomatoes fifteen minutes, rub through 
a strainer, and add to butter and flour (to which seasonings 
have been added) cooked together. If tomatoes are very 
acid, add a few grains of soda. If tomatoes are to retain 
their red color it is necessary to brown butter and flour to- 
gether before adding the tomatoes. 



270 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Tomato Sauce II 
% can tomatoes y^ teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon sugar 4 tablespoons butter 

8 peppercorns 4 tablespoons flour 

Bit of bay leaf 1 cup Brown Stock 

Cook tomatoes twenty minutes with sugar, peppercorns, 
bay leaf, and salt ; rub through a strainer, and add stock. 
Brown the butter, add flour, and when well browned, grad- 
ually add hot liquid. 

Tomato Sauce III 

)^ cup butter Sprig of parsley 

1 slice carrot 1 cup stewed and strained 

1 slice onion tomatoes 

Bit of bay leaf 1 cup Brown Stock 

Sprig of thyme Salt and pepper 

1^ cup flour 

Brown the butter with carrot, onion, bay leaf, thyme, 
and parsley; remove seasonings, add flour, stir until well 
browned, then add tomatoes and stock. Bring to boiling- 
point, and strain. 

Tomato and Mushroom Sauce 

2 slices chopped bacon or 2 cloves 

small quantity uncooked ham % teaspoon peppercorns 

1 slice onion Few gratings nutmeg 
6 slices carrot 3 tablespoons flour 
Bit of bay leaf ^ can tomatoes 

2 sprigs thyme \% cups Brown Stock 
Sprig of parsley Salt and pepper 

% can mushrooms 

Cook bacon, onion, and carrot five minutes; add bay 
leaf, thyme, parsley, cloves, peppercorns, nutmeg, and 
tomatoes, and cook five minutes. Add flour diluted with 
enough cold water to pour; as it thickens, dilute with stock. 
Cover, and cook in oven one hour. Strain, add salt and 
pepper to taste, and one-half can mushrooms, drained from 
their liquor, rinsed, and cut in quarters; then cook two 
minutes. Use fresh mushrooms in place of canned on^ 
when possible. 



inSH AND MEAT SAUCES 2T1 



Tomato Cream Sauce 

j^ can tomatoes Bit of bay leaf 

Sprig of thyme 1 cup White Sauce I 

1 stalk celery % teaspoon salt 

1 slice onion Few grains cayenne 

)^ teaspoon soda 

Cook tomatoes twenty minutes with seasonings; rub 
through a strainer, add soda, then White Sauce. Serve 
with Baked Fish or Lobster Cutlets. 

Spanish Sauce 

2 tablespoons finely chopped )^ cup butter 

lean raw ham )^ cup flour 

2 tablespoons chopped celery \y^ cups Brown Stock 

2 tablespoons chopped carrot % cup stewed and strained 

1 tablespoon chopped onion tomatoes 

Salt and pepper 

Cook ham and vegetables with butter until butter is well 
browned; add flour, stock, and tomatoes; cook five minutes, 
then strain. Season with salt and pepper* 

Bechamel Sauce 

\% cups White Stock 6 peppercorns 

1 slice onion . ^ cup butter 

1 slice carrot ^ cup flour 

Bit of bay leaf 1 cup scalded milk 

Sprig of parsley )^ teaspoon salt 

% teaspoon pepper 

Cook stock twenty minutes with onion, carrot, bay leaf, 
parsley, and peppercorns, then strain ; there should be one 
cupful. Melt the butter, add flour, and gradually hot stock 
and milk. Season with salt and pepper. 

yeUo^v- Bechamel Sauce 

To two cups Bechamel Sauce add yolks of three eggs 
slightly beaten, first diluting eggs with small quantity of 
hot sauce, then adding gradually to remaining sauce. This 
prevents the sauce from having a curdled appearance. 



272 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Olive and Almond Sauce 

S tablespoons butter 1 teaspoou beef extract 

3 tablespoons flour 8 olives (stoned and cut 

1 cup White Stock in quai-ters) 

}4 cup cream }^ tablespoon lemon juice 

^ cup shredded almonds ^ teaspoon salt 

Few grains cayenne 

Melt butter, add flour, and pou^ on gradually White Stock. 
Just before serving add remaining ingredients. Serve with 
boiled or steamed fish. 

Oyster Sauce 

1 pint oysters 1 cup milk or Chicken Stock 

1^ cup butter Salt 

^ cup flour Pepper 

Oyster liquor 

Wash oysters, reserve liquor, heat, strain, add oysters, 
and cook until plump. Remove oysters, and make a sauce 
of butter, flour, oyster liquor, and milk. Add oysters, and 
season with salt and pepper. 

Cucumber Sauce I 

Grate two cucumbers, drain, and season with salt, pepper, 
and vinegar. Serve with Brx)iled Fish. 

Cucumber Sauce II 

Beat one-half cup heavy cream until stiff, and add one- 
fourth teaspoon salt, few grains pepper, and gradually two 
tablespoons vinegar; then add one cucumber, pared, chopped, 
and drained. 

Celery Sauce 

3 cups celery, cut in 2 cups Thin White 

thin slices Sauce 

Wash and scrape celery before cutting into pieces. Cook 
in boiling salted water until soft, drain, rub through a sieve, 
and add to sauce. Celery sauce is often made from the 
stock in which fowl or turkey has been boiled, or with one- 
half stock and one-half milk. 



nSH A^D MEAT SAUCES 273 

Suprdme Sauce 

^ cup butter ^ cup hot cream 

^ cup flour 1 tablespoon mushroom liquor 

1)4 cups hot Chicken Stock ^ teaspoon lemon juice 

Salt and pepper 

Make same as Thin White Sauce, and add seasonings. 

Maitre d'Hdtel Butter 

^ cup butter X tablespoon finely chopped 

)4 teaspoon zalt parsley 

j^ teaspoon pepper ^ tablespoon lemon juice 

Put butter in a bowl, and with small wooden spoon work 
until creamy. Add salt, pepper, and parsley, then lemon 
juice very slowly. 

Tartar Sauce 

1 tablespoon vinegar ^ teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon lemon juice 1 ta)3lespoon Worcestershire Sauce 

}{ cup butter 

The Boston Cook Book 

Mix vinegar, lemon juice, salt, and Worcestershire Sauce 
in a small bowl, and heat over hot water. Brown the butter 
in an omelet pan, and strain into first mixture. 

Lemon Butter 
^ cup butter 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

Cream the butter, and add slowly lemon juice. 

Anchovy Butter 
^ cup butter Anchovy sauce 

Cream the butter and add anchovy sauce to taste. 

Lobster Butter 

^ cup butter Lobster coral 

Clean, wipe, and force coral through a fine sieve. Put in 
a mortar with butter, and pound until well blended. This 
butter is used in Lobster Soup and Sauces to give color and 
richness. 



274 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Hollandaise Sauce I 

% cup butter >^ teaspoon salt 

Yolks 2 eggs Few grains cayenne 

1 tablespoon lemon juice y^ cup boiling water 

Put butter in a bowl, cover with cold water, and wash, 
using a spoon. Divide in three pieces ; put one piece in a 
saucepan with yolks of eggs and lemon juice, place saucepan 
in a larger one containing boiling water, and stir constantly 
with a wire whisk until butter is melted ; then add second 
piece of butter, and, as it thickens, third piece. Add water, 
cook one minute, and season with salt and cayenne. If 
mixture curdles, add two tablespoons heavy cream. 

Hollandaise Sauce H 

% cup butter Yolks 2 eggs 

% tablespoon vinegar or 3€ teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon lemon juice Few grains cayenne. 

French Chef 

Wash butter, divide in three pieces ; put one piece in a 
saucepan with vinegar or lemon juice and egg yolks ; place 
saucepan in a larger one containing boiling water, and stir 
constantly with a wire whisk. Add second piece of butter, 
and, as it thickens, third piece> Remove from fire, and add 
salt and cayenne. If left over fire a moment too long it 
will separate. If a richer sauce is desired, add one-half tea- 
spoon hot water and one-half tablespoon heavy cream. 

Anchovy Sauce 

Season Brown, Drawn Butter, or Hollandaise Sauce with 
anchovy sauce. 

Horseradish Hollandaise Sauce 

To Hollandaise Sauce II add one-fourth cup grated horse- 
radish root. 

Lobster Sauce I 

To Hollandaise Sauce I add one-third cup lobster meat cut 
in small dice. 



FISH AND MEAT SAUCES 276 

Lobster Sauce II 

1*^ lb. lobster % teaspoon salt 

1^ cup butter Few grains cayenne 

y^ cup flour y^ tablespoon lemon juice 

3 cups cold water 

Remove meat from lobster, and cut tender claw-meat in 
one-half inch dice. Chop remaining meat, add to body bones, 
and cover with water; cook until stock is reduced to two 
cups, strain, and add gradually to butter and flour cooked to- 
gether, then add salt, cayenne, lemon juice, and lobster dice. 

If the lobster contains coral, prepare Lobster Butter, add 
flour, and thicken sauce therewith. 

Sauce B^arnaiae 
To Hollandaise Sauce II add one teaspoon each of finely 
chopped parsley and fresh tarragon or one-half tablespoon 
tarragon vinegar. 

Served with mutton chops, steaks, broiled squabs, smelts, 
or boiled salmon. 

Sauce Trianon 

To Hollandaise Sauce II add gradually, while cookings 
one and one-half tablespoons Sherry wine. 

Sauce Figaro 

To Hollandaise Sauce II add two tablespoons tomato 
puree (tomatoes stewed, strained, and cooked until reduced 
to a thick pulp), one teaspoon finely chopped parsley, and a 
few grains cayenne. 

Horseradish Sauce I 
3 tablespoons grated horse- ^ teaspoon salt 

radish root Few grains cayenne 

1 tablespoon vinegar 4 tablespoons heavy cream 

Mix first four ingredients, and add cream beaten stiff. 

Horsexadish Sauce II 
3 tablespoons cracker crumbs . 3 tablespoons butter 
y^ cup grated horseradish root j^ teaspoon salt 

^ \% cups milk y^ teaspoon pepper 

Cook first three ingredients twenty minutes in double 
boiler. Add butter, salt, and pepper. 



276 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Bread Sauce 

2 cups milk % teaspoon salt 

y^ cup fine stale bread crumbs Few grains cayenne 

1 onion 3 tablespoons butter 

6 cloves 3^ cup coarse stale bread. 

crumbs 

Cook milk thirty minutes in double boiler, with fine bread 
crumbs and onion stuck with cloves. Remove onion, add 
salt, cayenne, and two tablespoons butter. Usually served 
poured around roast partridge or grouse, and sprinkled with 
coarse crumbs browned in remaining butter. 

Rice Sauce 

3 tablespoons rice 3 cloves 

2 cups milk ' 2 tablespoons butter 

3^ onion Salt and pepper 

Wash rice, add to milk, and cook in double boiler until 
soft. Rub through a fine strainer, return to double boiler, 
add onion stuck with cloves, and cook fifteen minutes'. 
Remove onion, add butter, salt, and pepper. 

Cauliflov^er Sauce 
^ cup butter Cooked flowerets from a small 

1^ cup flour cauliflower 

1 cup White Stock III Salt 
1 cup scalded milk Pepper 

Make same as Thin White Sauce and add flowerets. 

Mint Sauce 
1^ cup finely chopped mint leaves 1 tablespoon powdered 
]/^ cup vinegar sugar 

Add sugar to vinegar; when dissolved, pour over mint 
and let stand thirty minutes on back of range to infuse. If 
vinegar is very strong, dilute with water. 
Currant Jelly Sauce 

To one cup Brown Sauce, from which onion has been 
omitted, add one-fourth tumbler current jelly and one table- 
spoon Sherry wine ; or, add currant jelly to one cup gravy 
made to serve with roast lamb. Currant Jelly Sauce is 
suitable to serve with lamb. 



FISH AND MEAT SAUCES 277 

Port Wine Sauce 
To one cup Brown Sauce, from which onion has been 
omitted, add one-eighth tumbler current jelly, two table- 
spoons Port wine, and a few grains cayenne. 

Vinaigrette Sauce 

1 teaspoon salt 6 tablespoons olive oil 

^ teaspoon paprika 1 tablespoon chopped pickles 

Few grains pepper 1 tablespoon chopped green pepper 

1 tablespoon tarragon vinegar 1 teaspoon chopped parsley 

2 tablespoons cider vinegar 1 teaspoon chopped chives 

Mix ingredients in order given. 

Sauce Tartare 

% teaspoon mustard \%. tablespoons vinegar 

1 teaspoon powdered sugar Capers 

y^ teaspoon salt Pickles 

Few grains cayenne Olives 

Yolks 2 eggs Parsley 

% cup olive oil % shallot, finely chopped 

J^ teaspoon powdered tarragon or 1 tablespoon tarragon vinegar 

Mix mustard, sugar, salt, and cayenne ; add yolks of eggs, 
and stir until thoroughly mixed, setting bowl in pan of ice- 
water. Add oil, at first drop by drop, stirring with a 
wooden spoon or wire whisk. As mixture thickens, dilute 
with vinegar, when oil may be added more rapidly. Keep 
in cool place until ready to serve, then add remaining 
ingredients. 

Hot Sauce Tartare 



% tablespoon each 
finely chopped 



% tablespoon 

each, 
finely chopped 



% cup White Sauce I Capers ^ 

y^ cup Mayonnaise Pickles 

% shallot, finely chopped Olives 

% teaspoon vinegar Parsley 

To white sauce add remaining ingredients. Stir con- 
stantly until mixture is thoroughly heated, but do not let it 
come to the boiling-point. Served with boiled, steamed, or 
fried fish. 



278 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Hot Mayonnaise 

Yoiks 2 eggs >^ cup hot water 

2 tablespoons olive oil Salt 

1 tablespoon vinegar Few grains cayenne 

1 teaspoon finely chopped parsley 

Add oil slowly to egg yolks, then pour on gradually vine- 
gar and water. Cook over boiling water until mixture 
thickens, then add seasonings and parsley. 

Sauce Tyrolienne 

To three-fourths cup Mayonnaise add one-half tablespoon 
each finely chopped capers and parsley, one finely chopped 
gherkin, and one-half can tomatoes, stewed, strained, and 
cooked until reduced to two tablespoons. Serve with any 
kind of fried fish. 

Creole Sauce 

2 tablespoons chopped onion l^ cup sliced mushrooms 

4 tablespoons green pepper, finely 6 olives, stoned 

chopped \y^ cups Brown Sauce 

2 tablespoons butter Salt and pepper 

2 tomatoes Sherry wine 

Cook onion and pepper with butter five minutes ; add 
tomatoes, mushrooms, and olives, and cook two minutes, 
then add Brown Sauce. Bring to boiling-point, and add 
wine to taste. Serve with broiled beefsteak or fillet of beef. 
Boiled rice should accompany the beef, and be served on 
same platter. 

Russian Sauce 

3 tablespoons butter % teaspoon finely chopped chives 

2 tablespoons flour % teaspoon made mustard 

1 cup White Stock III 1 teaspoon grated horseradish 

^ teaspoon salt }^ cup cream 

Few grains pepper 1 teaspoon lemon juice 

Melt butter, add flour, and pour on gradually White 
Stock; then add salt, pepper, mustard, chives, and horse- 
radisk. Cook two minutes, strain, add cream and lemon 



FISH AND MBAT SAXJOBS 



279 



juice. Reheat before serving. Serve with Beef Tenderloins 
or Hamburg Steaks. 

Sauce Finiste 



3 tablespoons butter 
% teaspoon mustard 
Few grains cayenne 
1 teaspoon lemon juice 

Cook butter until well 
ingredients. 



\% teaspoons Worcestershire 

Sauce 
^ cup stewed and strained 

tomatoes 

browned, and add remaining 



280 



BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XIX 
VEGETABLES 



Table showing Composition of Vegetables 



Articles Proteid 

Artichokes 2.6 

Asparagus 1.8 

Beans, Lima, green . . 7.1 

** green string . . 2.2 

Beets 1.6 

Brussels sprouts . . . 4.7 

Cabbage 2.1 

Carrots 1.1 

Cauliflower 1.6 

Celery 1.4 

Corn, green, sweet . . 2.8 

Cucumbers 8 

Egg-plant 1.2 

Kohl-rabi 2. 

Lettuce 1.3 

Okra 2. 

Onions 4.4 

Parsnips 1.7 

Peas, green 4.4 

Potatoes, sweet . . . 1.8 

'* white ... 2.1 

Spinach 2.1 

Squash 1.6 

Tomatoes 8 

Turnips 1.4 





Carbo- 


Mineral 


Watet 


Fat 


hydrates 


matter 




.2 


16.7 


1. 


79.5 


.2 


3.3 


1. 


94. 


.7 


22. 


1.7 


68.5 


.4 


9.4 


.7 


87.3 


.1 


9.6 


1.1 


87.6 


1.1 


4.3 


1.7 


88.2 


.4 


5.8 


1.4 


90.3 


.4 


9.2 


1.1 


88.2 


.8 


6. 


.8 


90.8 


.1 


3. 


1.1 


94.4 


1.1 


14.1 


.7 


81.3 


.2 


2.5 


.5 


96. 


.3 


5.1 


.5 


92.9 


.1 


5.5 


1.3 


91.1 


.4 


3.3 


1. 


94. 


.4 


9.5 


.7 


87.4 


.8 


.5 


1.2 


93.5 


.6 


16.1 


1.7 


79.9 


.5 


16.1 


.9 


78.1 


.7 


27.1 


1.1 


69.3 


.1 


18. 


.9 


78.9 


.5 


3.1 


1.9 


92.4 


.6 


10.4 


.9 


86.5 


.4 


3.9 


.5 


94.4 


.2 


8.7 


.8 


88.9 



W. 0. Atwater, Ph.D. 



Vegetables include, commonly though not botanically 
speaking, all plants used for food except grains and fruits. 
With exception of beans, peas, and lentils, which contain a 



VEGETABLES 281 

large amount of proteid, they are chiefly valuable for their 
potash salts, and should form a part of each day's dietary. 
Many contain much cellulose, which gives needed bulk to 
the food. The legumes, peas, beans, and lentils may be 
used in place of flesh food. 

For the various vegetables different parts of the plant are 
used. Some are eaten in the natural state, others are 
cooked. 

Tubers White potatoes and Jerusalem artichokes 

„ r Beets, carrots, parsnips, radishes, sweet potatoes 

y salsify or oyster plant, and turnips 
Bulbs Garlic, onions, and shallots 
Stems Asparagus, celery, and chives 

rBrussels sprouts, beet greens, cabbages, dandelions, 

\ lettuce, sorrel, spinach, and watercress 
Flowers Cauliflower 
„ . J Beans, corn, cucumbers, okra, egg-plant, peas, lentils, 

\ squash, and tomatoes. 

Young, tender vegetables, — as lettuce, radishes, cucum- 
bers, water-cress, and tomatoes, — eaten uncooked, served 
separately or combined in salads, help to stimulate a flag- 
ging appetite, and when dressed with oil furnish considerable 
nutriment. 

Beans, and peas when old, should be employed in mak- 
ing purees and soups; by so doing, the outer covering of 
cellulose, so irritating to the stomach, is removed. 

Care of Vegetablea 

Summer vegetables should be cooked as soon after gather- 
ing as possible ; in case they must be kept, spread on 
bottom of cool, dry, well-ventilated cellar, or place in ice- 
box. Lettuce may be best kept by sprinkling with cold 
water and placing in a tin pail closely covered. Wilted 
vegetables may be freshened by allowing to stand in cold 
water. Vegetables which contain sugar lose some of their 
sweetness by standing ; corn and peas are more quickly 
affected than others. Winter vegetables should be kept in 
ft cold, dry place. BeetS; carrots, turnips, potatoes, etc.» 



282 BOSTON COOKING-SOHOOL COOK BOOK 

should be put in barrels or piled in bins, to exclude as much 
air as possible. Squash should be spread, and needs care- 
ful watching ; when dark spots appear, cook at once. 

In using canned goods, empty contents from can as soon 
as opened, lest the acid therein act on the tin to produce 
poisonous compounds, and let stand one hour, that it may 
become reoxygenated. Beans, peas, asparagus, etc., should 
be emptied into a strainer, drained, and cold water poured 
over them and allowed to run through. In using dried 
vegetables, soak in cold water several hours before cooking. 
A few years ago native vegetables were alone sold ; but 
now our markets are largely supplied from the Southern 
States and California, thus allowing us fresh vegetables 
throughout the year. 

Cooking of Vegetables 

A small scrubbing-brush, which may be bought for five 
cents, and two small pointed knives for preparing vegetables 
should be found in every kitchen. 

Vegetables should be washed in cold water, and cooked 
until soft in boiling salted water ; if cooked in an uncovered 
vessel, their color is better kept. For peas and beans add 
salt to water last half hour of cooking. Time for cooking 
the same vegetable varies according to freshness and age, 
therefore time-tables for cooking serve only as guides. 

Mushrooms and Truffles 

These are classed among vegetables. Mushrooms, which 
grow about us abundantly, may be easily gathered, and as 
they contain considerable nutriment, should often be found 
on the table. While there are hundreds of varieties, one by 
a little study may acquaint herself with a dozen or more of 
the most common ones which are valuable as food. Consult 
W. Hamilton Gibson, ''Our Edible Toadstools and Mush- 
rooms." Many might cause illness, but only a few varieties 
of the Amanita family are deadly poison. Mushrooms 
require heat and moisture, — a severe drought or very wet 
soil being unfavorable for their growth. Never gather 
moshrooms in the vicinity of decaying matter. Thej appear 



TEGETABLBS 28S 

the middle of May, and last until frost comes. Campestris 
is the variety always found in market; French canned arc 
of this family. Boleti are dried, canned, and sold as cepea. 

Truffles 

Truffles belong to the same family as mushrooms, and 
are grown underground. France is the most famous field 
for their production, from which country they are exported 
in tin cans, and are too expensive for ordinary use. 

Artichokes 
French artichokes, imported throughout the year, are the 
ones principally used. They retail from thirty to forty 
cents each, and are cheapest and best in November, Decem- 
ber, and January. Artichokes are appearing in market from 
California and are somewhat cheaper in price than the 
French Artichoke. Jerusalem artichokes are employed for 
pickling, and can be bought for fifteen cents per quart 

' Boiled Artichokes 

Cut off stem close to leaves, remove outside bottom 
leaves, trim artichoke, cut off one inch from top of leaves, 
and with a sharp knife remove choke ; then tie artichoke 
with a string to keep its shape. Soak one-half hour in 
cold water. Drain, and cook thirty to forty-five minutes 
in boiling, salted, acidulated waters Remove from water, 
place upside down to drain, then take off string. Serve 
with Bechamel or Hollandaise Sauce. Boiled Artichokes 
often constitute a course at dinner. Leaves are drawn 
out separately with fingers, dipped in sauce, and fleshy ends 
only eaten, although the bottom is edible. Artichokes may 
be cut in quarters, cooked, drained, and served with Sauce 
Bearnaise. When prepared in this way they are served with 
mutton. 

Fried Artichokes 

Sprinkle Boiled Artichokes cut in quarters with salt, 
pepper, and finely chopped parsley. Dip in Batter I, fry in 
deep fat, and drain. In preparing artichokes, trim off tops 
of leaves closer than when served as Boiled Artichokes. 



284 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Artichoke Bottoms 

Remove all leaves and the choke. Trim bottoms in 
shape, and cook until soft in boiling, salted, acidulated 
water. Serve with HoUandaise or Bechamel Sauce. 

Stuffed Artichokes 

Prepare and cook as Boiled Artichokes, having them 
slightly underdone. Fill with Chicken Force-meat I or 
II, and bake thirty minutes in a moderate oven, basting 
twice with Thin White Sauce. Remove to serving dish and 
pour around Thin White Sauce. 

Asparagus 

Hothouse asparagus is found in market during winter, 
but is not very satisfactory, and is sold for about one 
dollar per bunch. Oyster Bay (white asparagus) appears 
first of May, and commands a very high price. Large and 
small green stalk asparagus is in season from first of June 
to middle of July, and cheapest the middle of June. 

Boiled Asparagus 

Cut off lower parts of stalks as far down as they will 
snap, untie bunches, wash, remove scales, and retie. Cook 
in boiling salted water fifteen minutes or until soft, leaving 
tips out of water first ten minutes. Drain, remove string, 
and spread with soft butter, allowing one and one-half 
tablespoons butter to each bunch asparagus. Asparagus is 
often broken or cut in inch pieces for boiling, cooking tips a 
shorter time than stalks. 

Asparagus on Toast 
Serve Boiled Asparagus on Buttered or Milk Toast. 

Asparagus in White Sauce 
Boil asparagus cut in one-inch pieces, drain, and add 
lo White Sauce I, allowing one cup sauce to each bunch 
asparagus. Serve in Croustades of Bread for a vegetable 
course. 



VEGETABLES 285 

Asparagus ^ la Hollandaise 
Pour Hollandaise Sauce I over Boiled Asparagus. 

^ Asparagus in Crusts 

Remove centres from small rolls, fry shells in deep fat, 
drain, and fill with Asparagus in White Sauce. 

Beans 

String Beans that are obtainable in winter come from 
California; natives appear in market the last of June and 
continue until the last of September. There are two varie- 
ties, green (pole cranberry being best flavored) and yellow 
(butter bean). 

Shell Beans, including horticultural and sieva, are sold in 
the pod or shelled, five quarts in pod making one quart 
shelled. They are found in market during July and August. 
Common lima and improved lima shell beans are in season 
in August and September. Dried lima beans are procurable 
throughout the year. 

String Beans 

Remove strings, and snap or cut in one-inch pieces ; wash^ 
and cook in boiling water from one to three hours, adding 
salt last half-hour of cooking. Drain, season with butter 
and salt • 

Shell Beans 

Wash, and cook in boiling water from one to one and a 
half hours, adding salt last half- hour of cooking. Cook in 
suflSciently small quantity of water, that there may be 
none left to drain off when beans are cooked. Season 
with butter and salt. 

Cream of Lima Beans 

Soak one cup dried beans over night, drain, and cook 
in boiling salted water until soft ; drain, add three-fourths 
cup cream, and season with butter and salt. Reheat before 
lerying. 



286 BOSTON COOKINGhSOHOOL COOK BOOK 

Boiled Beets 

Wash, and cook whole in boiling water until soft; time 
required being from one to four hours. Old beets will never 
be tender, no matter how long they may be cooked. Drain, 
and put in cold water that skins may be easily removed. 
Serve cut in quarters or slices. 

Sugared Beets 

4 hot boiled beets \% tablespoons sugar 

3 tablespoons butter i^ teaspoon salt 

Cut beets in one-fourth inch slices, add butter, sugar, and 
salt ; reheat for serving. 

Pickled Beets 
Slice cold boiled beets and cover with vinegar. 

Beets, Sour Sauce 

Wash beets, and cook in boiling salted water until soft. 
Drain, and reserve one-half cup water in which beets were 
cooked. Plunge into cold water, rub off skins and cut into 
cubes. Reheat in . 

Sour Sauce. Melt two tablespoons butter, add two table- 
spoons flour, and pour on the beet water. Add one-fourth 
cup, each, vinegar and cream,' one teaspoon sugar, one-half 
teaspoon salt, and a few grains pepper. 

Harvard Beets 

Wash twelve small beets, cook in boiling water until soft, 
remove skins, and cut beets in thin slices, small cubes, or 
fancy shapes, using French vegetable cutter. Mix one-half 
cup sugar and one-half tablespoon corn-starch. Add one- 
half cup vinegar and let boil five minutes. Pour over beets, 
and let stand on back of range one-half hour. Just before 
serving add two tablespoons butter. 

Brussels Sprouts 

Brussels sprouts belong to the same family as cabbage, 
and the smdl heads grow from one to two inches apart, 



YEGBTABLBS 287 

on the axis of the entire stem, one root yielding about two 
quarts. They are imported, and also grow in this country, 
being cheapest and best in December and January. 

Brussels Sprouts in "White Sauce 

Pick over, remove wilted leaves, and soak in cold water 
fifteen minutes. Cook in boiling salted water twenty min- 
utes, or until easily pierced with a skewer. Drain, and to 
each pint add one cup White Sauce I. 

Scalloped Brussels Sprouts 

Pick over, remove wilted leaves, and soak in cold water 
one quart sprouts. Cook in boiling salted water until soft, 
then drain. Wash celery and cut in pieces ; there should be 
one and one-half cups. Melt three tablespoons butter, add 
celery, cook two minutes, add three tablespoons flour, and 
pour on gradually one and one-half cups scalded milk ; add 
sprouts and turn mixture into a baking-dish. Cover with 
buttered crumbs and bake in a hot oven until crumbs are 
brown. 

Cabbage 

There are four kinds of cabbage in the market, — drum- 
head, sugar-loaf, Savoy, and purple ; and some variety may 
be found throughout the year. The Savoy is best for boil- 
ing; drum-head and purple for Cole-Slaw. In buying, 
select heavy cabbages. 

Boiled Cabbage 

Take off outside leaves, cut in quarters, and remove 
tough stalk. Soak in cold water and cook in an uncovered 
vessel in boiling salted water, to which is added one-fourth 
teaspoon soda ; this prevents disagreeable odor during cook- 
ing. Cook from thirty minutes to one hour, drain, and serve ; 
or chop, and season with butter, salt, and pepper. 

Escalloped Cabbage 
Cut one-half boiled cabbage in pieces; put in buttered 
baking-dish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and add one 
cup Wliite Sauce I. Lift cabbage with fork, that it may be 



288 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

well mixed with sauce, cover with buttered crumbs, and 
bake until crumbs are brown. 

German Cabbage 
Slice red cabbage and soak in cold water. Put one quart 
in stewpan with two tablespoons butter, one-half teaspoon 
salt, one tablespoon finely chopped onion, few gratings of 
nutmeg, and few grains cayenne; cover, and cook until 
cabbage is tender. Add two tablespoons vinegar and one- 
half tablespoon sugar, and cook five minutes. 

Cole-Slaw 

Select a small, heavy cabbage, take off outside leaves, 
and cut in quarters; with a sharp knife slice very thinly. 
Soak in cold water until crisp, drain, dry between towels, 
and mix with Cream Salad Dressing. 

Hot Slaw- 
Slice cabbage as for Cole-Slaw, using one-half cabbage. 
Heat in a dressing made of yolks of two eggs slightly 
beaten, one-fourth cup cold water, one tablespoon butter, 
one-fourth cup hot vinegar, and one-half teaspoon salt, 
stirred over hot water until thickened. 

Carrots 

Carrots may always be found in market. New carrots 
appear last of April, and are sold in bunches ; these may be 
boiled and served, but carrots are chiefly used for flavoring 
soups, and for garnishing, on account of their bright color. 
To prepare carrots for cooking, wash and scrape, as best 
flavor and brightest color are near the skin. 

Carrots and Peas 
Wash, scrape, and cut young carrots in small cubes or 
fancy shapes; cook until soft in boiling salted water or 
stock. Drain, add an equal quantity of cooked green peas, 
and season with butter, salt, and pepper. 

Carrots, Poulette Sauce 
Wash, scrape, and cut carrots in strips, cubes, or fancy 
shapes, cover with boiling water, let stand five minutes 5 



TEGETABLES 289 

drain, and cook in boiling salted water, to which is added 
one-half tablespoon butter, until soft. Add to recipe for 
sauce given under Macedoine of Vegetables 4 la Poulette 
(see p. 308). 

Cauliflower 

Cauliflowers comprise the stalks and flowerets of a plant 
which belongs to the same family as Brussels sprouts and 
cabbage ; they may be obtained throughout the year, but are 
cheapest and best in September and October. In selecting 
cauliflowers, choose those with white heads and fresh green 
leaves ; if dark spots are on the heads, they are not fresh. 

Creamed Cauliflo'wer 

Remove leaves, cut off stalk, and soak thirty minutes (head 
down) in cold water to cover. Cook (head up) twenty min- 
utes or until soft in boiling salted water; arain, separate 
flowerets, and reheat in one and one-half cups White 
Sauce I. 

Cauliflower k la HoUandaise 

Prepare as for Creamed Cauliflower, using HoUandaise 
Sauce I instead of White Sauce. 

Cauliflower au Gratin 

Place a whole cooked cauliflower on a dish for serving, 
cover with buttered crumbs, and place on oven grate to brown 
crumbs ; remove from oven and pour one cup Thin White 
Sauce around cauliflower. 

Cauliflower k la Parmessm 

Prepare as Cauliflower au Gratin. Sprinkle with grated 
cheese before covering with crumbs. 

Cauliflower k la Huntington 

Prepare cauliflower as for boiled cauliflower, and steam 
until soft. Separate in pieces and pour over the following 
sauce : 

Mix one and one-half teaspoons mustard, one and one- 
foiir<^ teaspoons salt, one- teaspoon powdered sugar, and 



290 BOSTON OOOiaNGhSOHOOI. OOOK BOOK 

one-fourth teaspoon paprika. Add yolks three eggs slightly 
beaten, one-fourth cup olive oil, and one-half cup vinegar in 
which one-half teaspoon finely chopped shallot has infused 
five minutes. Cook over hot water until mixture thickens. 
Remove from range, and add one-half tablespoon curry pow- 
der, two tablespoons melted butter, and one teaspoon finely 
chopped parsley. 

Celery 

Celery may be obtained from last of July until April. It 
is best and cheapest in December. Celery stalks are green 
yrhile growing ; but the white celery seen in market has been 
bleached, with the exception of Kalamazoo variety, which 
grows white. To prepare celery for table, cut off roots and 
leaves, separate stalks, wash, scrape, and chill in ice-water. 
By adding a slice of lemon to ice-water celery is kept white 
and made crisp. If tops of stalks are gashed several times 
before putting in water, they will curl back and make celery 
look more attractive. 

Celery in White Sauce 

Wash, scrape, and cut celery stalks in one-inch pieces; 
cook twenty minutes or until soft in boiling salted water ; 
drain, and to two cups celery add one cup White Sauce I. 
This is a most satisfactory way of using the outer stalks of 
celery. 

Pried Celery, Tomato Sauce 

Wash and scrape celery, cut in three-inch pieces, dip in 
batter, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Serve 
with Tomato Sauce. 

Batter. Mix one-half cup bread flour, one-fourth tea- 
spoon salt, a few grains pepper, one-third cup milk, and one 
egg well beaten. 

• Chiccory or Endive 
Chiccory or endive may be obtained throughout the year, 
but during January, February, March, and April supply is 
Imported. It is used only for saUds. 



VEGETABLES 291 

Corn 

Corn may be found in market from first of June to first 
of October. Until native corn appears it is the most unsatis- 
factory vegetable. Native corn is obtainable the last of 
July, but is most abundant and cheapest in August. Among 
the best varieties are Crosby for early corn and Evergreen 
for late corn. 

Boiled Green Corn 

Remove husks and silky threads. Cook ten to twenty 
minutes in boiling water. Place on platter covered with 
napkin ; draw corners of napkin over corn ; or cut from cob 
and season with butter and salt. 

Succotash 
Cut hot boiled corn from cob, add equal quantity of hot 
boiled shelled beans; season with butter and salt; reheat 
before serving. 

Corn Oysters 

Grate raw corn from cobs. To one cup pulp add one well- 
beaten egg, one-fourth cup flour, and season highly with salt 
and pepper. Drop by spoonfuls and fry in deep fat, or cook 
on a hot, well-greased griddle. They should be made about 
the size of large oysters. 

Corn Fritters 
1 can corn 2 teaspoons salt 

1 cup flour 1^ teaspoon paprika 

1 teaspoon baking powder 2 eggs 

Chop corn, drain, and add dry Ingredients mixed and 
sifted, then add yolks of eggs beaten until thick, and fold 
in whites of eggs beaten stiff. Cook in a frying-pan in fresh 
hot lard. Drain on paper. 

Corn k la Southern 
To one can chopped corn add two eggs slightly beaten, 
one teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon pepper, one and one- 
half tablespoons melted butter, and one pint scalded milk ; 
turn into a buttered pudding-dish and bake in slow oven 
until finn. 



292 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Chestnuts 
French and Italian chestnuts are served in place of vege- 
tables. 

Chestnut Purfee 

Kemove shells from chestnuts, cook until soft in boiling 
salted water ; drain, mash, moisten with scalded milk, sea- 
son with salt and pepper, and beat until light. Chestnuts 
are often boiled, riced, and piled lightly in centre of dish, 
then surrounded by meat. 

Baked Chestnuts 

Remove shells from one pint chestnuts, put in a baking- 
dish, cover with Chicken Stock highly seasoned with salt and 
cayenne, and bake until soft, keeping covered until nearly 
done. There should be a small quantity of stock in pan to 
serve with chestnuts. 

Cucumbers 

Cucumbers may be obtained throughout the year, and are 
generally served raw. During the latter part of the summer 
they are gathered and pickled for subsequent use. Small 
pickled cucumbers are called gherkins. 

Sliced Cucumbers 

Remove thick slices from both ends and cut off a thick 
paring, as the cucumber contains a bitter principle, a large 
quantity of which lies near the skin and stem end. Cut 
in thin slices and keep in cold water until ready to serve. 
Drain, and cover with crushed ice for serving. 

Boiled Cucumbers 

Old cucumbers may be pared, cut in pieces, cooked until 
soft in boiling salted water, drained, mashed, and seasoned, 
with butter, salt, and pepper. 

Fried Cucumberd 

Pare cucumbers and cut lengthwise in one-third inch slices. 
Dry between towels, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in 
onniibt, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, and drain. 



YBGBTABLBS ' SSS 

Stuflfed Cucumbers 

Pare three cucumbers, cut in halves crosswise, remove 
seeds, and let stand in cold water thirty minutes. Drain, 
wipe, and fill with force-meat, using recipe for Chicken 
Force-meat I or II, substituting veal for chicken. Place 
upright on a trivet in a saucepan. Half surround with White 
Stock, cover, and cook forty minutes. Place on thin slices 
of dry toast, cut in circular shapes, and pour around one and 
one-half cups Be'chamel Sauce. Serve as a vegetable course 
or an entree. 

Fried Eggplant I 

Pare an egg-plant and cut in very thin slices. Sprinkle 
slices with salt and pile on a plate. Cover with a weight to 
express the juice, and let stand one and one-half hours. 
Dredge with flour and saute slowly in butter until crisp and 
brown. Eggplant is in season from September to February. 

Fried Eggplant II 

Pare an egg-plant, cut in one-fourth inch slices, and soak 
over night in cold salted water. Drain, let stand in cold 
water one-half hour, drain again, and dry between towels. 
Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in batter, or dip in flour, 
egg, and crumbs, and fry in deep fat. 

Stuffed Eggplant 

Cook eggplant fifteen minutes in boiling salted water to 
cover. Cut a slice from top, and with a spoon remove pulp, 
taking care not to work too closely to skin. Chop pulp, 
and add one cup soft stale bread crumbs. Melt two table- 
spoons butter, add one-half tablespoon finely chopped onion, 
and cook five minutes, or try out three slices of bacon, us- 
ing bacon fat in place of butter. Add to chopped pulp and 
bread, season with salt and pepper, and if necessary moisten 
with a little stock or water ; cook five minutes, cool slightly, 
and add one beaten egg. Refill eggplant, cover with but- 
tered bread crumbs, aod bake twenty-five minutes in a Hot 
«yen. 



2M * BOSTON COOKINGH30HOOL COOK BOOK 

Scalloped Eggplant 

Pare an eggplant and cut in two-thirds inch cubefl. 
Cook in a small quantity of boiling water until soft, then 
drain. Cook two tablespoons butter with one-half onion, 
finely chopped, until yellow, add three-fourths tablespoon 
finely chopped parsley and eggplant. Turn into a buttered 
baking-dish. Cover with buttered crumbs and bake until 
crumbs are brown. 

Greens 

Hothouse beet greens and dandelions appear in market 
the first of March, y nen they command a high price. Those 
grown out of doors are in season from middle of May to 
first of July. 

Boiled Beet Greens 

Wash thoroughly and scrape roots, cutting off ends. 
Drain, and cook one hour or until tender in a small quantity 
boiling salted water. Season with butter, salt, and pepper. 
Serve with vinegar. 

Dandelions 

Wash thoroughly, remove roots, drain, and cook one hour 
or until tender in boiling salted water. Allow two quarts 
water to one peck dandelions-. Season with butter, salt, 
and pepper. Serve with vinegar. 

Lettuce 

Lettuce is obtainable all the year, and is especially 
valuable during the winter and spring, when other green 
vegetables in market command a high price. Although 
containing but little nutriment, it is useful for the large 
quantity of water and potash salts that it contains, and 
assists in stimulating the appetite. Curly lettuce is of less 
value than Tennis Ball, but makes an effective garnish. 

Lettuce should be separated by removing leaves from 
stalk (discarding wilted outer leaves), washed, kept in cold 
water until crisp, drained, and so placed on a towel that 
water may drop from leaves. A bag made from white 
mosquito netting is useful for drying; lettuce. Wash lettuce 



VEGETABLES 295 

leaves, place in bag, and hang in lower part of ice-box to 
drain. Wire baskets are used for the same purpose. Ar- 
range lettuce for serving in nearly its original shape. 

Leeks on Toast 

Wash and trim leeks, cook in boiling salted water until 
soft, and drain. Arrange on pieces of buttered toast and 
pour over melted butter, seasoned with salt and pepper. 

Onions 

The onion belongs to the same family (Lily) as do shallot, 
garlic, leek, and chive. Onions are cooked and served as a 
vegetable. They are wholesome, and contain considerable 
nutriment, but are objectionable on acccount of the strong 
odor they impart to the breath, due to volatile substances 
absorbed by the blood, and by the blood carried to the 
lungs, where they are set free. The common garden onion 
is obtainable throughout the year, the new ones appearing 
in market about the first of June. In large centres Bermuda 
and Spanish onions are procurable from March 1st to June 
1st, and are of delicate flavor. 

Shallot, leek, garlic, and chive are principally used to 
give additional flavor to food. Shallot, garlic, and chive 
are used, to some extent, in making salads. 

Boiled Onions 

Put onions in cold water and remove skins while under 
water. Drain, put in a saucepan, and cover with boiling 
salted water; boil five minutes, drain, and again cover with 
boiling salted water. Cook one hour or until soft, but not 
broken. Drain, add a small quantity of milk, cook five 
minutes, and season with butter, salt, and pepper. 

Onions in Cream 

Prepare and cook as Boiled Onions, changing the water 
twice during boiling ; drain, and cover with Cream or Thin 
White Sauce. 

Scalloped Onions 

Cut Boiled Onions in quarters. Put in a buttered baking- 
dish, coyer with White Sauce I, sprinkle with buttered 



296 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

cracker crumbs, and place on centre grate in oven to brown 
crumbs. 

Glazed Onions 
Peel small silver skinned onions, and cook in boiling 
water fifteen minutes. Drain, dry on cheese-cloth, put in a 
buttered baking-dish, add highly seasoned brown stock to 
cover bottom of dish, sprinkle with sugar, and bake until 
soft, basting with stock in pan. 

Fried Onions 

Remove skins from four medium-sized onions. Cut in 
thin slices and put in a hot omelet pan with one and one-half 
tablespoons butter. Cook until brown, occasionally shaking 
pan that onions may not burn, or turn onions, using a fork. 
Sprinkle with salt one minute before taking from fire. 

French Fried Onions 

Peel onions, cut in one-fourth inch slices, and separate 
into rings. Dip in milk, drain, and dip in flour. Fry in 
deep fat, drain on brown paper, and sprinkle with salt. 

Stuffed Onions 
Remove skins from onions, and parboil ten minutes in 
boiling salted water to cover. Turn upside down to cool, 
and remove part of centres. Fill cavities with equal parts 
of finely chopped cooked chicken, stale soft bread crumbs, 
and finely chopped onion which was removed, seasoned with 
salt and pepper, and moistened with cream or melted butter. 
Place in buttered shallow baking-pan, sprinkle with buttered 
crumbs, and bake in a moderate oven until onions are soft. 

Creamed Oyster Plant (Salsify) 
Wash, scrape, and put at once into cold acidulated water 
to prevent discoloration. Cut in inch slices, cook in boiling 
salted water until soft, drain, and add to White Sauce I. 
Oyster plant is in season from October to March. 

Salsify Fritters 
Cook oyster plant as for Creamed Oyster Plant. Mash, 
season with butter, salt, and pepper. Shape in small flat 
Oftkoi» roll in floor, and saut^ in butter. 



TEGETABLBS 297 

Parsnips 

Parsnips are not so commonly served as other vegetables ; 
however, they often accompany a boiled dinner. They are 
raised mostly for feeding cattle. Unless young they con- 
tain a large amount of woody fibre, which extends through 
centre of roots and makes them undesirable as food. 

Parsnips with Drawn Butter Sauce 

"Wash and scrape parsnips, and cut in pieces two inches 
long and one-half inch wide and thick. Cook five minutes 
in boiling salted water, or until soft. Drain, and to two 
cups add one cup Drawn Butter Sauce. 

Parsnip Fritters 

Wash parsnips and cook forty- five minutes in boiling 
salted water. Drain, plunge into cold water, when skins 
will be found to slip off easily. Mash, season with butter, 
salt, and pepper, shape in small flat round cakes, roll in flour, 
and saute in butter. 

Peas 

Peas contain, next to beans, the largest percentage of 
proteid of any of the vegetables, and when young are easy 
of digestion. They appear in market as early as April, 
coming from Florida and California, and although high 
in price are hardly worth buying, having been picked so 
long. Native peas may be obtained the middle of June, 
and last until the first of September. The early June are 
small peas, contained in a small pod. McLean, the best 
peas, are small peas in large flat pods. Champion peas are 
large, and the pods are well filled, but they lack sweetness. 
Marrowfat peas are the largest in the market, and are 
usually sweet. 

Boiled Peas 

Remove peas from pods, cover with cold water, and let 
stand one-half hour. Skim off undeveloped peas which rise 
to top of water, and drain remaining peas. Cook until soft 
lA a small quantity of boiUn;g; water, adding salt the l(^st fif- 



298 BOSTON 0OOKINCH30HOOL COOK BOOK 

teen minntes of cooking. (Consult Time Table for Cooking, 
p. 28). There should be but little, if any, water to drain 
from peas when they are cooked. Season with butter, salt, 
and pepper. If peas have lost much of their natural sweet- 
ness, they are improved by the addition of a small amount 
of sugar. 

Creamed Peas 

Drain Boiled Peas, and to two cups peas add three-fourths 
cup White Sauce II. Canned peas are often drained, rinsed, 
and reheated in this way. 

Pea Timbales 

Drain and rinse one can peas, and rub through a sieve. 
To one cup pea pulp add two beaten eggs, two tablespoons 
melted butter, two-thirds teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon 
pepper, few grains cayenne, and few drops onion juice. 
Turn into buttered moulds, set in pan of hot water, cover 
with buttered paper, and bake until firm. Serve with one 
cup white sauce to which is added one-third cup canned peas 
drained and rinsed. 

Stuffed Peppers I 

6 green peppers % cup Brown Sauce 

1 onion, finely chopped 3 tablespoons bread crumbs 

2 tablespoons butter • Salt and pepper 

4 tablespoons chopped mushrooms Buttered bread crumbs 
4 tablespoons lean raw ham, finely chopped 

Cut a slice from stem end of each pepper, remove seeds, 
and parboil peppers, fifteen minutes. 

Cook onion in butter three minutes ; add mushrooms and 
ham, and cook one minute, then add Brown Sauce and bread 
crumbs. Cool mixture, sprinkle peppers with salt, fill with 
cooked mixture, cover with buttered bread crumbs and bake 
ten minutes. Serve on toast with Brown Sauce. 

Stuffed Peppers II 
Prepare peppers as for Stuffed Peppers I. Fill with equ&l 
parts of finely chopped cold cooked chicken or veal, and 
softened bread crumbs, seasoned with onion juice, salt, and 
pepper. 



VEGETABLES 299 

Pumpkins 

Pumpkins are boiled or steamed same as squash, but re- 
quire longer cooking. They are principally used for making 
pies. 

Radishes 

Radishes may be obtained throughout the year. There 
are round and long varieties, the small round ones being 
considered best. They are bought in bunches, six or seven 
constituting a bunch. Radishes are used merely for a relish, 
and are served uncooked. To prepare radishes for table, 
remove leaves, stems, and tip end of root, scrape roots, and 
serve on crushed ice. Round radishes look very attractive 
cut to imitate tulips, when they should not be scraped ; to 
accomplish this, begin at root end and make six incisions 
through skin running three-fourths length of radish. Pass 
knife under sections of skin, and cut down as far as incisions 
extend. Place in cold water, and sections of skin will fold 
back, giving radish a tulip-like appearance. 

Spinach 

Spinach is cheapest and best in early summer, but is ob- 
tainable throughout the year. It gives variety to winter diet, 
when most green vegetables are expensive and of inferior 
quality. 

Boiled Spinach 

Remove roots, carefully pick over (discarding wilted 
leaves), and wash in several waters to be sure that it is free 
from all sand. When young and tender put in a stewpan, 
allow to heat gradually, and boil twenty-five minutes, or 
until tender, in its own juices. Old spinach is better cooked 
in boiling salted water, allowing two quarts water to one 
peck spinach. Drain thoroughly, chop finely, reheat, and 
season with butter, salt, and pepper. Mound on a serving 
dish and garnish with slices of " hard-boiled " eggs and toast 
points. The green color of spinach is better retained by 
cooking in an uncovered vessel, in a large quantity of water 
to which has been added one-third teaspoon soda. 



300 BOSTOK COORING-SOHOOL COOK BOOK 

Spinach k la Bechamel 
Prepare one-half peck Boiled Spinach. Put three table- 
spoons butter in hot omelet pan ; when melted, add chopped 
spinach, cook three minutes. Sprinkle with two tablespoons 
flour, stir thoroughly, and add gradually three-fourths cup 
milk; cook five minutes. 

Pur^e of Spinach 

Wash and pick over one-half peck spinach. Cook in an 
uncovered vessel with a large quantity of boiling salted 
water to which is added one-third teaspoon soda and one- 
half teaspoon sugar. Drain, chop finely, and rub through a 
sieve. Reheat, add three tablespoons butter, one tablespoon 
flour, and one-half cup cream. Arrange on serving dish and 
garnish with yolk and white of " hard-boiled " egg and fried 
bread cut in fancy shapes. 

Spinach (French Style) 

Pick over and wash one peck spinach, and cook in boiling 
salted water twenty-five minutes. Drain, and finely chop. 
Reheat in hot pan with four tablespoons butter to which 
have been added three tablespoons flour and two-thirds cup 
Chicken Stock. Season with one teaspoon powdered sugar, 
salt, pepper, and a few gratings each of nutmeg and lemon 
rind. 

Squash 

Summer squash, which are in market during the summer 
months, should be young, tender, and thin skinned. The 
common varieties are the white round and yellow crook- 
neck. Some of the winter varieties appear in market as 
early as the middle of August ; among the most common 
are Marrow, Turban, and Hubbard. Turban and Hubbard 
are usually drier than Marrow. Marrow and Turban have 
a thin shell, which may be pared off before cooking. Hub- 
bard Squash has a very hard shell, which must be split in 
order to separate squash in pieces, and squash then cooked 
in the shell. In selecting winter squash, see that it is heavy 
in proportion to its size. 



TBGETABLBS 801 

Boiled Summer Squash 

Wash squash and cut in thick slices or quarters. Cook 

twenty minutes in boiling salted water, or until soft. Turn 

in a cheese-cloth placed over a colander, drain, and wring in 

cheese-cloth. Mash, and season with butter, salt, and pepper. 

Fried Summer Squash I 

Wash, and cut in one-half inch slices. Sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in 
hot fat, and drain. 

Fried Summer Squash II 

Follow recipe for Fried Eggplant I. 

Steamed Winter Squash 

Cut in pieces, remove seeds and stringy portion, and pare. 
Place in a strainer and cook thirty minutes, or until soft, 
over boiling water. Mash, and season with butter, salt, and 
pepper. If lacking in sweetness, add a small quantity of 
sugar. 

Boiled Winter Squash 

Prepare as for Steamed Winter Squash. Cook in boiling 
salted water, drain, mash, and season. Unless squash is 
very dry, it is much better steamed than boiled. 

Baked Winter Squash I 

Cut in pieces two inches square, remove seeds and stringy 
portion, place in a dripping-pan, sprinkle with salt and 
pepper, and allow for each square one-half teaspoon molas- 
ses and one-half teaspoon melted butter. Bake fifty min- 
utes, or until soft, in a moderate oven, keeping covered the 
first half -hour of cooking. Serve in the shell. 

Baked Winter Squash II 

Cut squash in halves, remove seeds and stringy portioa, 
place in a dripping-pan,, cover, and bake two hours, or untd 
soft, in a slow oven. Remove from shell, mash, and seaaoB 
with butter, salt, and pepper. 



302 BOSTON cookinchschooij cook book 

Tomatoes 

Tomatoes are obtainable throughout the year, but are 
cheapest and best in September. Hothouse tomatoes are 
in market during the winter, and command a very high 
price, sometimes retailing for one and one-half dollars a 
pound. 

Southern tomatoes appear as early as May 1st, and al- 
though of good color, lack flavor. Of the many varieties of 
tomatoes, Acme is among the best. 

Sliced Tomatoes 

Wipe, and cover with boiling water; let stand one minute, 
when they may be easily skinned. Chill thoroughly, and 
cut in one-third inch slices. 

Ste-w^ed Tomatoes 

Wipe, pare, cut in pieces, put in stewpan, and cook 
slowly twenty minutes, stirring occasionally. Season with 
butter, salt, and pepper. 

Scalloped Tomatoes 

Remove contents from one can tomatoes and drain toma- 
toes from some of their liquor. Season with salt, pepper, a 
few drops of onion juice, and sugar if preferred sweet. 
Cover the bottom of a buttered baking-dish with buttered 
bread crumbs, cover with tomatoes, and sprinkle top thickly 
with buttered crumbs. Bake in a hot oven until crumbs are 
brown. 

Broiled Tomatoes 

Wipe and cut in halves crosswise, cut off a thin slice from 
rounding part of each half. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, 
dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, place in a well- 
buttered broiler, and broil six to eight minutes. 

Tomatoes k la Cr6me 

Wipe, peel, and slice three tomatoes. Sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, dredge with flour, and saute in butter. Place 
OR a hot platter and pour over them one cup White Sauce I. 



VEGETABLES 303 



Devilled Tomatoes 



3 tomatoes 1 teaspoon mustard 
Salt and pepper X teaspoon salt 
Flour Few grains cayenne 
Butter for sautding Yolk 1 " hard-boiled " egg 

4 tablespoons butter 1 egg 

2 teaspoons powdered sugar 2 tablepoons vinegar 

Wipe, peel, and cut tomatoes in slices. Sprinkle with 
salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and saute in butter. 
Place on a hot platter and pour over the dressing made by 
creaming the butter, adding dry ingredients, yolk of egg 
rubbed to a paste, egg beaten slightly, and vinegar, then 
cooking over hot water, stirring constantly until it thickens. 

Baked Tomatoes I 
Wipe, and remove a thin slice from stem end of six 
smooth, medium-sized tomatoes. Take out seeds and pulp, 
and drain off most of the liquid. Add an equal quantity of 
bread crumbs, season with salt, pepper, and a few drops 
onion juice, and refill tomatoes with mixture. Place in a 
buttered pan, sprinkle with buttered crumbs, and bake 
twenty minutes in a hot oven. Two tablespoons, each, 
chopped green pepper and onion are an improvement 

Baked Tomatoes II 

Wipe six small, selected tomatoes and make two one- 
inch gashes on blossom end of each, having gashes cross 
each other at right angles. Place in granite-ware pan and 
bake until thoroughly heated. Serve with sauce for Devilled 
Tomatoes, adding, just before serving, one tablespoon heavy 
cream. 

Stuffed Tomatoes 

Wipe, and remove thin slices from stem end of six me- 
dium-sized tomatoes. Take out seeds and pulp, sprinkle 
inside of tomatoes with salt, invert, and let stand one-half 
hour. Cook five minutes two tablespoons butter with one- 
half tablespoon finely chopped onion. Add one-half cup 
finely chopped cold cooked chicken or veal, one-half cup stale 
soft bread crumbs, tomato pulp, and salt and pepper to taste. 
CkK»k five minutes, then add one egg slightly beaten, cook 



304 BOSTON COOKIKG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

one minute, and refill tomatoes with mixture. Place in but- 
tered pan, sprinkle with buttered cracker crumbs, and 
bake twenty minutes in a hot oven. 

Turnips 

Turnips are best during the fall and winter; towards 
spring they become corky, and are then suitable only for 
stews and flavoring. The Ruta-baga, a large yellow turnip, 
is one of the best varieties - the large white French turnip 
and the small flat Purple To]_ are also used. 

Mashed Turnip 

Wash and pare turnips, cut in slices or quarters, and cook 
in boiling salted water until soft. Drain, mash, and season 
with butter, salt, and pepper. 

Creamed Turnip 

Wash turnips, and cut in one-half inch cubes. Cook three 
cups cubes in boiling salted water twenty minutes, or until 
soft. Drain, and add one cup White Sauce I. 

Turnip Croquettes 

Wash, pare, and cut in quarters new French turnips. Steam 
until tender, mash, pressing out all water that is possible. 
This is best accomplished by wringing in cheese-cloth. Sea- 
son one and one-fourth cups with salt and pepper, then add 
yolks of two eggs slightly beaten. Cool, shape in small 
croquettes, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in 
deep fat, and drain. 

Starved Mushrooms 
Brush one-half pound mushrooms. Remove stems, scrape, 
and cut in pieces. Peel caps, and break in pieces. Melt 
three tablespoons of butter, add mushrooms, cook two min- 
utes ; sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and 
add one-half cup hot water or stock. Cook slowly five min- 
utes. 

Ste-wed Mushrooms in Cream 

Prepare mushrooms as for Stewed Mushrooms. Cook with 
three-fourths cup cream instead of using water or stock. 



VEGETABLES S05 

Add a slight grating of nutmeg, pour over small finger- 
shaped pieces of dry toast, and garnish with toast points 
and parsley. 

Broiled Mushrooms 

Wash mushrooms^ remove stems, and place caps in a but- 
tered broiler and broil five minutes, having cap side down 
first half of broiling. Serve on circular pieces of buttered 
dry toast. Put a small piece of butter in each cap, sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, and serve as soon as butter has melted. 
Care must be taken, in removing from broiler, to keep mush- 
rooms cap side up, to prevent loss of juices. 

Baked Mushrooms in Cream 

Wash twelve large mushrooms. Remove stems, and peel 
caps. Put in a shallow buttered pan, cap side up. Sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, and dot over with butter; add two- 
thirds cup cream. Bake ten minutes in a hot oven. Place 
on pieces of dry toast, and pour over them cream remaining 
in pan. 

Sauted Mushrooms 

Wash, remove stems, peel caps, and break in pieces; 
there should be one cup of mushrooms. Put two tablespoons 
butter in a hot omelet pan ; when melted, add mushrooms 
which have been dredged with flour, few drops onion juice, 
one-fourth teaspoon salt, a few grains pepper, and cook five 
minutes. Add one teaspoon finely chopped parsley and one- 
fourth cup boiling water. Cook two minutes, and serve on 
dry toast. 

Mushrooms k la Sabine 

Wash one-half pound mushrooms, remove stems, and peel 
caps. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and 
cook three minutes in a hot frying-pan, with two table- 
spoons butter. Add one and one-third cups Brown Sauce, 
and cook slowly five minutes. Sprinkle with three table- 
spoons grated cheese. As soon as cheese is melted, arrange 
mushrooms on pieces of toast, and pour over sauce. Garuisli 
with parsley. 



306 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Mushrooms k I'Algonquin 

Brush large selected mushrooms. Remove stems, peel 
caps, and saute caps in butter. Place in a small buttered 
shallow pan, cap side being up; place on each a large 
oyster, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and place on each a 
bit of butter. Cook in a hot oven until oysters are plump. 
Serve with Brown or Bechamel Sauce. 

Mushrooms Allamande 

Brush mushroom caps and saute in butter. Put together 
in pairs, cover with Allamande Sauce, dip in crumbs, egg, 
and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown 
paper. 

Allamande Sauce. Melt three tablespoons butter, add 
one-third cup flour, and pour on gradually one cup White 
Stock ; then add one egg yolk and season with salt, pepper, 
and lemon juice. 

Stuffed Mushrooms 

Brush twelve large mushrooms. Remove stems, chop 
finely, and peel caps. Melt three tablespoons butter, add 
one-half tablespoon finely chopped shallot and chopped 
stems, then cook ten minutes. Add one and one-half table- 
spoons flour, chicken stock to moisten, a slight grating of 
nutmeg, one-half teaspoon finely chopped parsley, and salt 
and pepper to taste. Cool mixture and fill caps, well round- 
ing over top. Cover with buttered cracker crumbs, and bake 
fifteen minutes in a hot oven. 

Mushrooms under Glass I 

Cover the bottom of an individual baking-dish with cir- 
cular pieces of toasted bread. Arrange mushroom caps on 
toast, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dot over with butter, 
and pour over a small quantity of hot cream. Cover, and 
bake twenty minutes. 

Individual dishes with bell-shaped glass covers may be 
bought at first-class kitchen furnishers. These dishes are 
sent to table with covers left on, that the fine flavor of the 
prepared viand may all be retained. 



VEOaTABLBB 807 

Mushrooms under Glass n 

2 tablespoons butter ^ teaspoon finely chopped parsley 

j^ tablespoon lemon juice Bread 
}^ teaspoon salt % cup heavy cream 

Few grains pepper Sherry wine 

Mushrooms 

Cream the butter, add lemon juice drop by drop, salt, 
pepper, and parsley. Cut bread in circular piece three- 
eighths inch thick, then toast. Put one-half of the sauce 
on the under side of toast; put toast on a small baking- 
dish, pile mushroom caps cleaned and pealed in conical 
shape on toast, and pour over cream. Cover with glass 
and bake about twenty-five minutes, adding more cream if 
necessary. Just before serving add one teaspoon Sherry 
wine. 

Vegetable Souffle 

1^ cup butter 1 cup cooked vegetables 

3^ cup flour rubbed through a sieve, — 

y^ cup cream carrots, turnips, or onions 

y^ cup water in which vege- Yolks 3 eggs 

tables were cooked Whites 3 eggs 

Salt and pepper 

Melt butter, add flour, and pour on gradually cream and 
water ; add vegetable, yolks of eggs beaten until thick and 
lemon colored, and fold in whites of eggs beaten until stiff., 
then add seasonings. Turn in a buttered baking-dish and 
bake in a slow oven. 

Curried Vegetables 

Cook one cup each potatoes and carrots, and one-half cup 
turnip, cut in fancy shapes, in boiling salted water until soft. 
Drain, add one-half cup canned peas, and pour over a sauce 
made by cooking two tablespoons butter with two slices 
onion five minutes, removing onion, adding two tablespoons 
flour, three-fourths teaspoon salt, one-half teaspoon curry 
powder, one-fourth teaspoon pepper, few grains celery salt, 
and pouring on gradually one cup scalded milk. Sprinkle 
with finely chopped parsley. 



808 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Macedoine of Vegetables k la Poulette 

Clean carrots and turnips and cut into strips or fancy 
shapes ; there should be one and one-fourth cups carrots and 
one-half cup turnips. Cook separately in boiling salted 
water until soft. Drain, and add one and one-fourth cups 
cooked peas. Reheat in a sauce made of three tablespoons 
butter, three tablespoons flour, one cup chicken stock, and 
one-half cup cream. Season to taste with pepper and salt, 
and just before serving add yolks two eggs and one-half 
tablespoon lemon juice. 




Macedoine of Vegetables a la Poulette. — Page 308. 



W 




Stuffed Peppers. — Page 2y8. 



POTATOES 309 



CHAPTER XX 
POTATOES 

COMPOSITION 

Water, 78. 9 % Proteid, 2.1% 

Starch, 18% Mineral matter, .9% 

Fat 1.% 

POTATOES stand pre-eniineDt among the vegetables 
used for food. They are tubers belonging to the 
Nightshade family ; their hardy growth renders them easy 
of cultivation in almost any soil or climate, and, resisting 
early frosts, they may be raised in a higher latitude than the 
cereals. 

They give needed bulk to food rather than nutriment, 
and, lacking in proteid, should be used in combination with 
meat, fish, or eggs. 

Potatoes contain an acrid juice, the greater part of which 
lies near the skin ; it passes into the water during boiling of 
potatoes, and escapes with the steam from a baked potato. 

Potatoes are best in the fall, and keep well through the 
winter. By spring the starch is partially changed to dex- 
trin, giving the potatoes a sweetness, and when cooked a 
waxiness. The same change takes place when potatoes are 
frozen. To prevent freezing, keep a pail of cold water 
standing near them. 

Potatoes keep best in a cool dry cellar, in barrels or piled 
in a bin. When sprouts appear they should be removed; 
receiving their nourishment from the starch, they deteriorate 
the potato. 

New potatoes may be compared to unripe fruit, the starch 
grains not having reached maturity ; therefore they should 
not be given to,children or invalids. 



810 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Sweet Potatoes 

Sweet potatoes, although analogous to white potatoes, are 
fleshy roots of the plant, belong to a different family (Con- 
volvulus), and contain a much larger percentage of sugar. 
Our own country produces large quantities of sweet potatoes, 
which may be grown as far north as New Jersey and South- 
ern Michigan. Kiln-dried sweet potatoes are the best, as 
they do not so quickly spoil. 

Baked Potatoes 

Select smooth, medium-sized potatoes. Wash, using a 
vegetable brush, and place in dripping-pan. Bake in hot 
oven forty minutes or until soft, remove from oven, and serve 
at once. If allowed to stand, unless the skin is ruptured for 
escape of steam, they become soggy. Properly baked pota- 
toes are more easily digested than potatoes cooked in any 
other way, as some of the starch is changed to dextrin by 
the intense heat. They are better cooked in boiling water 
than baked in a slow oven. 

Boiled Potatoes 

Select potatoes of uniform size. Wash, pare, and drop 
at once in cold water to prevent discoloration; soak one- 
half hour in the fall, and one to two hours in winter and 
spring. Cook in boiling salted water until soft, which is 
easily determined by piercing with a skewer. For seven 
potatoes allow one tablespoon salt, and boiling water to 
cover. Drain from water, and keep uncovered in warm 
place until serving time. Avoid sending to table in a cov- 
ered vegetable dish. In boiling large potatoes, it often 
happens that outside is soft, while centre is underdone. To 
finish cooking without potatoes breaking apart, add one pint 
cold water, which drives heat to centre, thus accomplishing 
the oooking. 

Hiced Potatoes 

Force hot boiled potatoes through a potato ricer or coAroe 
strainer. Serve lightly piled in a hot vegetable di&k 



POTATOES 811 

Mashed Potatoes 

To five riced potatoes add three tablespoons butter, one 
teaspoon salt, few grains pepper, and one-third cup hot 
milk ; beat with fork until creamy, reheat, and pile lightly 
in hot dish. 

Potato Omelet 

Prepare Mashed Potatoes, turn in hot omelet pan greased 
with one tablespoon butter, spread evenly, cook slowly until 
browned underneath, and fold as an omelet. 

Potato Border 

Place a buttered mould on platter, build around it a wall 
of hot Mashed Potatoes, using nine potatoes, three and one- 
half inches high by one inch deep, smooth, and crease with 
case knife. Remove mould, fill with creamed meat or fish, 
and reheat in oven before serving. 

Escalloped Potatoes 

Wash, pare, soak, and cut four potatoes in one-forth inch 
slices. Put a layer in buttered baking-dish, sprinkle with 
salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and dot over with one- 
half tablespoon butter ; repeat. Add hot milk until it may 
be seen through top layer, bake one and one-fourth hours or 
until potato is soft. 

Potatoes k la Hollandaise 

Wash, pare, soak, and cut potatoes in one-fourth inch 
slices, shape with French vegetable cutters ; or cut in one- 
half inch cubes. Cover three cups potato with White Stock, 
cook until soft, and drain. Cream one-third cup butter, 
add one tablespoon lemon juice, one-half teaspoon salt, and 
few grains of cayenne. Add to potatoes, cook three minutes, 
and add one-half tablespoon finely chopped parsley. 

Chambery Potatoes 

Wash, pare, and thinly slice potatoes, using vegetable 
slicer. Let stand one-half hour in cold water, then drain, 
and dry between towels. Arrange in layers in a well 
buttered iron frying-pan, having pan three-fourths full, 



812 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

seasoning each layer with salt and pepper, and brushing 
over with melted butter. Cook in a moderate oven until 
soft and well browned. 

Potatoes Baked in Half Shell 
Select six medium-sized potatoes and bake, following 
recipe for Baked Potatoes. Remove from oven, cut slice 
from top of each, and scoop out inside. Mash, add two 
tablespoons butter, salt, pepper, and three tablespoons hot 
milk ; then add whites two eggs well beaten. Refill skins, 
and bake five to eight minutes in very hot oven. Potatoes 
may be sprinkled with grated cheese before putting in oven. 

Duchess Potatoes 

To two cups hot riced potatoes add two tablespoons 
butter, one-half teaspoon salt, and yolks of three eggs 
slightly beaten. Shape, using pastry bag and tube, in. 
form of baskets, pyramids, crowns, leaves, roses, etc. 
Brush over with beaten egg diluted with one teaspoon 
water, and brown in a hot oven. 

Maitre d'Hdtel Potatoes 

Wash, pare, and shape potatoes in balls, using a French 
vegetable cutter, or cut potatoes in one-half inch cubes. 
There should be two cups. Soak fifteen minutes in cold 
water, and cook in boiling salted water to cover until soft. 
Drain, and add Maitre d'H6tel Butter. 

Maitre d'H6tel Butter 

Cream three tablespoons butter, add one teaspoon lemon 
juice, one-half teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon pepper, 
and one-half tablespoon finely chopped parsley. 

Franconia Potatoes 

Prepare as for Boiled Potatoes, and parboil ten minutes ; 
drain, and place in pan in which meat is roasting; bake 
until soft, basting with fat in pan when basting meat. Time 
required for baking about forty minutes. Sweet potatoes 
may be prepared in the same way. 



POTATOES 313 



Brabant Potatoes 

Prepare same as for Boiled Potatoes, using small potatoes, 
and trim egg-shaped; parboil ten minutes, drain, and place 
in baking-pan and bake until soft, basting three times with 
melted butter. 

Anna Potatoes 

Wash and pare medium-sized potatoes. Cut lengthwise 
in one-fourth inch slices, and fasten in fan shapes, with 
small wooden skewers, allowing five slices of potato to each 
skewer. Parboil ten minutes, drain, then place in a dripping- 
pan, and bake in a hot oven until soft, basting every three 
minutes with butter or some other fat. 

Persillade Potatoes 

Wash and pare small potatoes, and cut in shapes of large 
olives. Cook in boiling salted water until soft. Drain, and 
let stand to dry off. Turn into hot serving dish, pour over 
clarified butter, sprinkle generously with paprika, and send 
to table at once. 

Potato Balls 

Select large potatoes, wash, pare, and soak. Shape in 
balls with a French vegetable cutter. Cook in boiling 
salted water until soft ; drain, and to one pint potatoes add 
one cup Thin White Sauce. Turn into hot dish, and sprinkle 
with finely chopped parsley. 

Hongroise Potatoes 

Wash, pare, and cut potatoes in one-third inch cubes, 
— there should be three cups ; parboil three minutes, and 
drain. Add one-third cup butter, and cook on back of 
range until potatoes are soft and slightly browned. Melt 
two tablespoons butter, add a few drops onion juice, two 
tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually one cup hot milk. 
Season with salt and paprika, then add one egg yolk. 
Pour sauce over potatoes, and sprinkle with finely chopped 
parsley. 



814 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL OOOK BOOK 



FRIED POTATOES 

Shadow Potatoes (Saratoga Chips) 
Wash and pare potatoes. Slice thinly (using vegetable 
slicer) into a bowl of cold water. Let stand two hours, 
changing water twice. Drain, plunge in a kettle of boiling 
water, and boil one minute. Drain again, and cover with 
cold water. Take from water and dry between towels. 
Fry in deep fat until light brown, keeping in motion with a 
skimmer. Drain on brown paper and sprinkle with salt. 

Shredded Potatoes 

Wash, pare, and cut potatoes in one-eighth inch slices. 
Cut slices in one-eighth inch strips. Soak one hour in cold 
water. Take from water, dry between towels, and fry in 
deep fat. Drain on brown paper and sprinkle with salt. 
Serve around fried or baked fish. 

Lattice Potatoes 

Wash and pare potatoes. Slice, using a vegetable slicer 
which comes for this purpose, and let stand in a bowl of 
cold water two hours. Drain, and dry between towels. Fry 
in deep fat, drain on brown paper, and sprinkle with salt. 

Potato Nests 

Wash, pare, and cut potatoes in thin strips, using same 
slicer as for Lattice Potatoes. Soak in cold water fifteen 
minutes, drain, and dry between towels. Line a fine wire 
strainer of four-inch diameter, and having a wire handle, 
with potatoes, place a similar strainer, having a two and 
one-half inch diameter, in larger strainer, thus holding 
potatoes in nest shapes. Fry in deep fat, taking care that 
the fat does not reach too high a temperature at first. 
Keep the small strainer in place during frying with a long 
handled spoon. Carefully remove nests from strainers. 
Drain on brown paper, and sprinkle with salt. Fill with 
small fillets of fried fiah or fried smelts. 



FRIED POTATOB8 815 

French Fried Potatoes 

Wash and pare small potatoes, cut in eighths lengthwise, 
and soak one hour in cold water. Take from water, dry 
between towels, and fry in deep fat. Drain on brown paper 
and sprinkle with salt. 

Care must be taken that fat is not too hot, as potatoes 
must be cooked as well as browned. 

O'Brion Potatoea 

Fry three cups potato cubes or balls in deep fat, drain on 
brown paper, and sprinkle with salt. Cook one slice onion 
in one and one-half tablespoons butter three minutes, re- 
move onion, and add to butter three canned pimentoes cut 
in small pieces. When thoroughly heated add potatoes; 
stir until well mixed, turn into serving dish, and sprinkle 
with finely chopped parsley. 

Potato Marbles 

Wash and pare potatoes. Shape in balls, using a French 
vegetable cutter. Soak fifteen minutes in cold water ; take 
from water and dry between towels. Fry in deep fat, drain, 
and sprinkle with salt. 

Fried Potato Balls 

To one cup hot riced potatoes add one tablespoon butter, 
one-fourth teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon celery salt, 
and few grains cayenne. Cool slightly, and add one-half 
beaten egg and one-half teaspoon finely chopped parsley. 
Shape in small balls, roll in flour, fry in deep fat, and drain. 

Potatoes, Somerset Style 

To two cups hot riced potatoes add two tablespoons 
butter, one-half cup grated mild cheese, yolks three eggs, 
slightly beaten, one-half teaspoon salt, and a few grains 
cayenne. Shape in form of birds, dip in crumbs, egg, and 
crumbs, insert slices of raw potato cut to represent wings 
and tail, and cloves to represent eyes. Fry in deep fat and 
drain on brown paper. 



S16 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Potato Fritters 

2 cups hot riced potatoes Few gratings nutmeg 

2 tablespoons cream Few grains cayenne 

2 tablespoons wine 3 eggs 

1 teaspoon salt Yolks 2 eggs 

y^ cup flour 

Add cream, wine, and seasonings to potatoes ; then add 
eggs well beaten, having bowl containing mixture in pan of 
ice-water, and beat until cold. Add flour, and when well 
mixed, drop by spoonfuls in deep fat, fry until delicately 
browned, and drain on brown paper. 

Potato Curls 
Wash and pare large long potatoes. Shape with a potato 
curler, soak one hour in cold water, drain, dry between 
towels, fry in deep fat, drain, and sprinkle with salt. 

Potato Croquettes 

2 cups hot riced potatoes Few grains cayenne 

2 tablespoons butter Few drops onion juice 

% teaspoon salt Yolk 1 egg 

y% teaspoon pepper 1 teaspoon finely chopped 
3^ teaspoon celery salt parsley 

Mix ingredients in order given, and beat thoroughly. 
Shape, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry one min- 
ute in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Croquettes are 
shaped in a variety of forms. The most common way is to 
first form a smooth ball by rolling one rounding tablespoon 
of mixture between hands. Then roll on a board until of 
desired length, and flatten ends. 

French Potato Croquettes 

2 cups hot riced potatoes Y''olks 3 eggs 

2 tablespoons butter % teaspoon salt 

Few grains cayenne 

Mix ingredients in order given, and beat thoroughly. 
Shape in balls, then in rolls, pointed at ends. Roll in flour, 
mark in three places on top of each with knife-blade to 
represent a small French loaf. Fry in deep fat, and drain 
on brown paper. 




— 1 

1 



Potato Croquettes ready for Frying. — Page 316. 



I I 




m 

Potato Nests (Page 314). Potatoes, Somerset Style (Page 315). 




Cucumber Salad. — Page 




CucuMBEii Baskets. — - Page 328. 



SWEET POTATOES 317 

Potato Apples 
2 cups hot riced potatoes Few grains cayenne 
2 tablespoons butter Slight grating nutmeg 

y^ cup grated cheese 2 tablespoons thick cream 

% teaspoon salt Yolks 2 eggs 

Mix ingredients in order given, and beat thoroughly. 
Shape in form of small apples, roll in flour, egg, and crumbs, 
fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Insert a clove 
at both stem and blossom end of each apple. 

Potatoes en Surprise 

Make Potato Croquette mixture, omitting parsley. Shape 
in small nests and fill with Creamed Chicken, shrimp, or 
peas. Cover nests with Croquette mixture, then roll in form 
of croquettes. Dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again; try 
in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. 

SWEET POTATOES 
Baked Sweet Potatoes 
Prepare and bake same as white potatoes. 

Sweet Potatoes, Southern Style 

Bake six medium-sized sweet potatoes, remove from oven, 
cut in halves lengthwise, and scoop out inside. Mash, add 
two tablespoons butter, and cream to moisten. Season with 
salt and Sherry wine. Refill skins and bake five minutes in a 
hot oven. 

Boiled Sweet Potatoes 

Select potatoes of uniform size. Wash, pare, and cook 
twenty minutes in boiling salted water to cover. Many boil 
sweet potatoes with the skins on. 

Mashed Sweet Potatoes 

To two cups riced sweet potatoes add three tablespoons 
butter, one-half teaspoon salt, and hot milk to moisten. 
Beat until light, and pile on a vegetable dish. 



S18 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Sweet Potatoes, Georgian Style 
Season mashed boiled sweet potatoes with butter, salt, pep- 
per, and Sherry wine. Moisten with cream, and beat five 
minutes. Put in a buttered baking-dish, leaving a rough sur- 
face. Pour over a syrup made by boiling two tablespoons 
molasses and one teaspoon butter five minutes. . Bake in the 
oven until delicately browned. 

Glazed Sweet Potatoes 

Wash and pare six medium-sized potatoes. Cook in 
boiling salted water until soft. Drain, cut in halves length- 
wise, and put in a buttered pan. Make a syrup by boiling 
three minutes one-half cup sugar and four tablespoons water ; 
add one tablespoon butter. Brush potatoes with syrup and 
bake until brown, basting twice with remaining syrup. 

Sweet Potatoes au Gratin 

Cut five medium-sized cold boiled sweet potatoes in one- 
third inch slices. Put a layer in buttered baking-dish, sprin- 
kle with salt, pepper, and three tablespoons brown sugar, 
dot over with one tablespoon butter. Repeat, cover with 
buttered cracker crumbs, and bake until the crumbs are 
brown. 

Sweet Potatoes en Brochettte 

Wash and pare potatoes, and cut in one-third inch slices. 
Arrange on skewers in groups of three or four, parboil six 
minutes, and drain. Brush over with melted butter, sprinkle 
with brown sugar, and bake in a hot oven until well browned. 

Sw^eet Potato Balls 
To two cups hot riced sweet potatoes add three tablespoons 
butter, one-half teaspoon salt, few grains pepper, and one 
beaten egg. Shape in small balls, roll in flour, fry in deep 
fat, and drain. If potatoes are very dry, it will be necessary 
to add hot milk to moisten. 

Sw^eet Potato Croquettes 
Prepare mixture for Sweet Potato Balls. Shape in cro- 
quettes, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep 
fat, and drain. 



WAKMED-OVBB POTATOES 819 

WARMED-OVER POTATOES 

Potato Cakes 
Shape cold mashed potato in small cakes, and roll in flour. 
Butter hot omelet pan, put in cakes, brown one side, turn and 
brown other side, adding butter as needed to prevent burn- 
ing; or pack potato in small buttered pan as soon as it 
comes from table, and set aside until ready for use. Turn 
from pan, cut in pieces, roll in flour, and cook same as Potato 
Cakes. 

Creamed Potatoes 

Reheat two cups cold boiled potatoes, cut in dice, in one 
and one-half cups White Sauce I. 

Potatoes au Oratin 

Put Creamed Potatoes in buttered baking -dish, cover with 
buttered crumbs, and bake on centre grate until crumbs are 
brown. 

Delmonico< Potatoes 

To Potatoes au Gratin add one-third cup grated mild 
cheese, arranging potatoes and cheese in alternate layers 
before covering with crumbs. 

Potatoes k I'Antlers 

Cook potatoes with jackets on, drain, and let stand twenty- 
four hours. Peel, and cut in small cubes. Put into a sauce- 
pan with two tablespoons butter to each two cups potatoes. 
Sprinkle with salt, and generously with paprika. Add one 
cup cream, and cook slowly forty minutes. 

Hashed Brown Potatoes 

Try out fat salt pork cut in small cubes, remove scraps ; 
there should be about one-third cup of fat. Add two cups 
cold boiled potatoes finely chopped, one-eighth teaspoon 
pepper, and salt if needed. Mix potatoes thoroughly with 
fat; cook three minutes, stirring constantly; let stand to 
brown underneath. Fold as an omelet and turn on hot 
platter. 



820 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Sauted Potatoes 

Cut cold boiled potatoes in one-fourth inch slices, season 
with salt and pepper, put in a hot, Veil-greased frying-pan, 
brown on one side, turn and brown on other side. 

Chartreuse Potatoes 

Cut cold boiled potatoes in one-fourth inch slices, sprinkle 
with salt, pepper, and a few drops onion juice, put togethei 
in pairs, dip in Batter I, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown 
paper. 

Lyonnaise Potatoes I 

Cook five minutes three tablespoons butter with one small 
onion cut in thin slices ; add three cold boiled potatoes cut 
in one-fourth inch slices and sprinkled with salt and pepper; 
stir until well mixed with onion and butter ; let stand until 
potato is brown underneath, fold, and turn on a hot platter. 
This dish is much improved and potatoes brown better by 
addition of two tablespoons Brown Stock. Sprinkle with 
finely chopped parsley if desired. 

Lyonnaise Potatoes U 

Slice cold boiled potatoes to make two cups. Cook five 
minutes one and one-half tablespoons butter with one table- 
fepoon finely chopped onion. Melt two tablespoons butter, 
season with salt and pepper, add potatoes, and cook until 
potatoes have absorbed butter, occasionally shaking pan. 
Add butter and onion, and when well mixed, add cue-half 
tablespoon finely chopped parsley. 

French Chef 

Oak Hill Potatoes 

Cut four cold boiled potatoes and six " hard-boiled " eggs in 
one-fourth inch slices. Put layer of potatoes in buttered 
baking-dish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, cover with layer 
of eggs ; repeat, and pour over two cups Thin White Sauce. 
Cover with buttered cracker crumbs and bake until the 
crumbs sr^ brown. 



WARMED-OVER POTATOES 321, 



Curried Potatoes 



Cook one-fourth cup butter with one small onion, finely 
chopped, until yellow; add three cups cold boiled potato 
cubes, and cook until potatoes have absorbed butter, then 
add from one-half to three-fourths cup White Stock, one half 
tablespoon each curry powder and lemon juice, and salt and 
pepper to tasto. Cook until potatoes have absorbed stock. 



322 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XXI 

sAlads and salad dressings 

SALADS, which constitute a course in almost every dinner, 
but a few years since seldom appeared on the table. They 
are now made in an endless variety of ways, and are com- 
posed of meat, fish, vegetables (alone or in combination) or 
fruits, with the addition of a dressing. The salad plants, 
lettuce, watercress, chiccory, cucumbers, etc., contain but 
little nutriment, but are cooling, refreshing, and assist in 
stimulating the appetite. They are valuable for the water 
and potash salts they contain. The olive oil, which usually 
forms the largest part of the dressing, furnishes nutriment, 
and is of much value to the system. 

Salads madia of greens should always be served crisp and 
cold. The vegetables should be thoroughly washed, allowed 
to stand in cold or ice- water until crisp, then drained and 
spread on a towel and set aside in a cold place until serving 
time. See Lettuce, page 294. Dressing may be added at 
table or just before sending to table. If greens are allowed 
to stand in dressing they will soon wilt It should be re- 
membered that winter greens are raised under glass and 
should be treated as any other hothouse plant. Lettuce will 
be affected by a change of temperature and wilt just as 
quickly as delicate flowers. 

Canned or cold cooked left-over vegetables are well utilized 
in salads, but are best mixed with French Dressing and 
allowed to stand in a cold place one hour before serving. 
Where several vegetables are used in the same salad they 
should be marinated separately, and arranged for serving 
just before sending to table. 



SALAD DRESSINGS 323 

Meat for salads should be freed from skin and gristle, cut 
in small cubes, and allowed to stand mixed with French 
Dressing before combining with vegetables. Fish should be 
flaked or cut in cubes. 

Where salads are dressed at table, first sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, add oil, and lastly vinegar. If vinegai is added 
before oil, the greens will become wet, and oil will not cling, 
but settle to bottom of bowl. 

A caiapon. Remove a small piece from end of French 
loaf and rub over with a clove of garlic, first dipped in salt. 
Place in bottom of salad bowl before arranging salad. A 
chapon is often used in vegetable salads, and gives an 
agreeable additional flavor. 

To Marinate. The word marinate, as used in cookery, 
means to add salt, pepper, oil, and vinegar to a salad 
ingredient or mixture, then allow to let stand until well 
seasoned. 



SALAD DRESSINGS 

French Dressing 

% teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons vinegar 

y^ teaspoon pepper 4 tablespoons olive oil 

Put ingredients in small cream jar and shake. Some 
prefer the addition of a few drops onion juice. French 
Dressing is more easily prepared and largely used than any 
other dressing. One tablespoon, each, lemon juice and 
vinegar may be used. 

Parisian French Dressing 

}^ cup olive oil 2 tablespoons finely 
6 tablespoons vinegar chopped parsley 

yi teaspoon powdered sugar 4 red peppers 

1 tablespoon finely chopped 8 green peppers 

Bermuda onion 1 teaspoon salt 

Mix ingredients in the order given. Let stand one hoar, 
then stir vigorously for five minutes. This is especially fine 
with lettuce, romaine, chiccory, or endive. The red and 
green papers are the small ones found in pepper sauce. 



324 BOSTON COOKIKG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Clnb French Dressing 

y^ teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons Tarragon 

^ teaspoon pepper vinegar 

2 tablespoons brandy 2 tablespoons olive oil 

Mix ingredients and stir until well blended. 

Curry Dressing 

^ teaspoon salt )^ teaspoon pepper 

3^ teaspoon curry powder 6 tablespoons olive oil 

3 tablespoons vinegar 

Mix ingredients in order given and stir until well 
blended. 

Cream Dressing I 

3^ tablespoon salt 1 egg slightly beaten 

^ tablespoon mustard 2j^ tablespoons melted butter 

^ tablespoon sugar ^ cup cream 

}y^ cup vinegar 

Mix ingredients in order given, adding vinegar very sslowly. 
Cook over boiling water, stirring constantly until mixture 
thickens, strain and cool. 

Cream Dressing II 

1 teaspoon mustard Few grains cayenne 

1 teaspoon salt * 1 teaspoon butter 

2 teaspoons flour Yolk 1 egg 
\% teaspoons powdered sugar Y^ cup vinegar 

^ cup thick cream, sweet or sour 

Mix dry ingredients, add butter, q%%^ and vinegar slowly. 
Cook over boiling water, stirring constantly, until mixture 
thickens ; cool, and add to heavy cream, beaten until stiff. 

Boiled Dressing I 

^ tablespoon salt 1)^ tablespoons flour 

1 teaspoon mustard Yolks 2 eggs 

\% tablespoons sugar 1)^ tablespoons melted butter 

Few grains cayenne % cup milk 

^ cup vinegar 

Mix dry ingredients, add yolks of eggs slightly beaten, 
butter, milk, and vinegar very slowly. Cook over boiling 
water until mixture thickens j strain and cool. 



SAUU) DBESSnras 825 

Boiled Dressing II 
Tolks 4 eggs 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

% cup olive oil \'p4. teaspoons salt 

4 tablespoons rinegar 8 teaspoons' Tx>wdered sugar 

1 pint whipped cream 

Beat jolks of eggs slightly, add gradually one-half of fJoQ 
oil and lemon juice. Cook in double boiler until mixture 
thickens ; chill, and add gradually remaining oil, salt, and 
sugar. Just before serving add cream. 

German Dressing 

% cup thick cream >^ teaspoon salt 

3 tablespoons vinegar Few grains pepper 
Beat cream until stiff, using Dover Egg-beater. Add salt, 

pepper, and vinegar very slowly, continuing the beating. 

Chicken Salad Dressing 
}^ cup rich chicken stock 1 teaspoon salt 

% cup vinegar 3€ teaspoon pepper 

Yolks 6 eggs Few grains cayenne 

2 tablespoons mixed mustard 3^ cup thick cream 

)^ cup melted butter 

Reduce stock in which a fowl has been cooked to one-half 
cupful. Add viD.egar, yolks of eggs slightly beaten, mus- 
tard, salt, pepper, and cayenne. Cook over boiling water, 
stirring constantly until mixture thickens. Strain, add 
cream and melted butter, then cool. 

Oil Dressing I 

4 " hard-boiled " eggs )^ teaspoon mustard 
4 tablespoons oil ^ teaspoon salt 

4 tablespoons vinegar Few grains cayenne 

% tablespoon sugar White 1 egg 

Force yolks of "hard-boiled" eggs through a strainer, 
then work, using a silver or wooden spoon, until smooth. 
Add sugar, mustard, salt, and cayenne, and when well blended 
add gradually oil and vinegar, stirring and beating until 
thoroughly mixed j then cut and fold in white of egg beaten 
gmtil stilC 



826 BOSTON) COOKLNG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Oil Dressing II 

1)4 teaspoons mustard 2 tablespoons oil 

1 teaspoon salt 3^ cup vinegar diluted with 

2 teaspoons powdered sugar cold water to make one- 
Few grains cayenne half cup 

2 eggs, slightly beaten 

Mix dry ingredients, add egg and oil gradually, stirring 
constantly until thoroughly mixed ; then add diluted vin- 
egar. Cook over boiling water until mixture thickens ; strain 
and cool. 

Mayonnaise Dressing I 

1 teaspoon mustard Yolks 2 eggs 

1 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons lemon juice 

1 teaspoon powdered sugar 2 tablespoons vinegar 

Few grains cayenne 1}4 cups olive oil 

Mix dry ingredients, add egg yolks, and when well mixed 
add one-half teaspoon of vinegar. Add oil gradually, at 
first drop by drop, and stir constantly. As mixture thickens, 
thin with vinegar or lemon juice. Add oil, and vinegar or 
lemon juice alternately, until all is used, stirring or beating 
constantly. If oil is added too rapidly, dressing will have a 
curdled appearance. A smooth consistency may be restored 
by taking yolk of another egg and adding curdled mixture 
slowly to it. It is desirable to have bowl containing mix- 
ture placed in a larger bowl of crushed ice, to which a small 
quantity of water has been added. Olive oil fqv making 
Mayonnaise should always be thoroughly chilled. A silver 
fork, wire whisk, small wooden spoon, or egg-beater may 
be used as preferred. Mayonnaise should be stiflf enough 
to hold its shape. It soon liquefies when added to meat or 
vegetables ; therefore it should be added just before serving 
time. 

Mayonnaise Dressing II 

Use same ingredients as for Mayonnaise Dressing I, add- 
ing mashed yolk of a " hard-boiled " egg to dry ingredients. 

French Chef 



SALADS 827 

Cream Mayonnaise Dressing 
To Mayonnaise Dressing I or II add one-third cup thick 
cream, beaten until stiff. This recipe should be used only 
when dressing is to be eaten the day it is made. 

Green Mayonnaise 

Color Mayonnaise Dressing 1 with juices expressed from 
parsley and watercress, using one-half as much parsley as 
watercress. To obtain coloring, break greens in pieces, 
pound in a mortar until thoroughly macerated, then squeeze 
through cheese-cloth. Lobster coral,, rubbed through a fine 
sieve, added to Mayonnaise, makes Bed Mayonnaise. 

Potato Mayonnaise 

Very small baked potato 1 teaspoon powdered sugar 

1 teaspoon mustard 2 tablespoons vinegar 

1 teaspoon salt % cup olive oil 

Remove and mash the inside of potato. Add mustard, 
salt, and powdered sugar ; add one tablespoon vinegar, and 
rub mixture through a fine sieve. Add slowly oil and re- 
maining vinegar. By the taste one would hardly realize 
eggs were not used in the making. 

SALADS 

Dressed Lettuce 

Prepare lettuce as directed on page 294. Serve with 
French Dressing. 

Lettuce and Cucumber Salad 

Place a chapon in bottom of salad bowl. Wash, drain, 
and dry one head lettuce, arrange in bowl, and place be- 
tween leaves one cucumber cut in thin slices. Serve with 
French Dressing. 

Lettuce and Radish Salad 

Prepare and arrange as for Dressed LettucCo Place be- 
tween leaves six radishes which have been washed, scraped, 
and cut in thin slices. Garnish with round radishes cut 



328 BOSTON COOKING- SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

to represent tulips. See page 299. Serve with French 
Dressing. 

Lettuce and Tomato Salad 
Peel and chill three tomatoes. Cut in halves crosswise, 
arrange each half on a lettuce leaf. Garnish with Mayon- 
naise Dressing forced through a pastry bag and tube. If 
tomatoes are small, cut in quarters, and allow one tomato to 
each lettuce leaf. 

Dressed "Watercress 

Wash, remove roots, drain, and chill watercress. Arrange 
in salad dish, and serve with French Dressing. 

Cucumber Salad 
Remove thick slices from both ends of a cucumber, cut off 
a thick paring, and with a sharp pointed knife cut five par- 
allel grooves lengthwise of cucumber at equal distances ; 
then cut in thin parallel slices crosswise, keeping cucumber in 
its original shape. Arrange on lettuce leaves, and pour over 
Parisian French Dressing. Serve with fish course. 

■Watercress and Cucumber Salad 

Prepare watercress and add one cucumber, pared, chilled, 
and cut in one-half inch dice. Serve with French Dressing. 

Cucumber and Tomato Salad 
Arrange sliced tomatoes on a bed of lettuce leaves. Pile 
on each slice, cucumber cubes cut one-half inch square. 
Serve with French or Mayonnaise Dressing. 

Cucumber Cups with Lettuce 
Pare cucumbers, cut in quarters crosswise, remove centres 
from pieces, arrange on lettuce leaves, and fill cups with 
Sauce Tartare (see p. 277). 

Cucumber Baskets 

Select three long, regular shaped cucumbers; cut a piece 

from both the stem and blossom end of each ; then cut in 

halves crosswise. Cut two pieces from each section, leaving 

remaining piece in shape of basket with handle. Kemove 



SALADS 829 

pulp and seeds, in sufficiently large pieces to cut in cubes for 
refilling one-half the baskets, the remaining half being filled 
with pieces of tomatoes. Arrange baskets on lettuce leaves, 
alternating the fillings, and pour over French Dressing. 

Dressed Celery 

Wash, scrape, and cut stalks of celery in thin slices. Mix 
with Cream Dressing I. 

Celery and Cabbage Salad 

Remove outside leaves from a small solid white cabbage, 
and cut off stalk close to leaves. Cut out centre, and with a 
sharp knife shred finely. Let stand one hour in cold or ice 
water. Drain, wring in double cheese-cloth, to make as dry 
as possible. Mix with equal parts celery cut in small pieces. 
Moisten with Cream Dressing and refill cabbage. Arrange 
on a folded napkin and garnish with celery tips and parsley 
between folds of napkin and around top of cabbage. 

Asparagus Salad 
Drain and rinse stalks of canned asparagus. Cut rings 
from a bright red pepper one-third inch wide. Place three 
or four stalks in each ring. Arrange on lettuce leaves and 
serve with French Dressing, to which has been added one- 
half tablespoon tomato catsup. 

Corn Salad 
Drain one can com and season with mustard and onion 
juice. Marinate with French Dressing, let stand one hour, 
then drain. Arrange on a bed of lettuce or chiccory. 

String Bean Salad 
Marinate two cups cold string beans with French Dressing. 
Add one teaspoon finely cut chives. Pile in centre of salad 
dish and arrange around base thin slices of radishes over- 
lapping one another. Garnish top with radish cut to repre- 
sent a tulip. 

Potato Salad I 
Cut cold boiled potatoes in one-half inch cubes. Sprinkle 
four cupfuls with one-half tablespoon salt and one-fourth 



330 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

teaspoon pepper. Add four tablespoons oil and mix thor- 
oughly ; then add two tablespoons vinegar. A few drops of 
onion juice may be added, or one-half tablespoon chives 
finely cut. Arrange in a mound and garnish with whites and 
yolks of two ''hard-boiled" eggs, cold boiled red beets, 
and parsley. Chop whites and arrange on one-fourth of the 
mound; chop beets finely, mix with one tablespoon vinegar, 
and let stand fifteen minutes; then arrange on fourths of 
mounds next to whites. Arrange on remaining fourth of 
mound yolks chopped or forced through a potato ricer. 
Put small sprigs of parsley in lines dividing beets from eggs ; 
also garnish with parsley at base. 

Potato Salad II 
Mix two cups cold boiled riced potatoes and one cup pecan 
nut meats broken in pieces. Marinate with French Dressing, 
and arrange on a bed of watercress. 

Hot Potato Salad 
"Wash six medium- sized potatoes, and cook in boiling 
salted water until soft. Cool, remove skins, and cut in very 
thin slices. Cover bottom of baking-dish with potatoes, sea- 
son with salt and pepper, sprinkle with finely chopped celery, 
then with finely chopped parsley. Mix two tablespoons each 
tarragon and cider vinegar and four tablespoons olive oil, 
and add one slice lemon cut one-third inch thick. Bring to 
boiling-point, pour over potatoes, cover, and let stand in 
oven until thoroughly warmed. 

Potato and Celery Salad 
To two cups boiled potatoes cut in one-half inch cubes add 
one-half cup finely cut celery and a medium-sized apple, 
pared, cut in eighths, then eighths cut in thin slices. Mar- 
inate with French Dressing. Arrange in a mound and gar- 
nish with celery tip and sections of bright red apple. 

Bolivia Salad 

Cut cold boiled potatoes in one-half inch cubes; there 
should be one and one-half cups. Add three " hard-boiled '^ 
eggs finely chopped, one and one-half tablespoons finely 




Asparagus Salad, Individual Service. — Page 




l^ERKSHiRE Salad in Boxes. — Page 345. 




Egg Salad. — Page 




Pear Salad. — Page 340. 



SALADS 331 

chopped red peppers, and one-half tablespoon chopped chives. 
Pour over Cream Dressing I (see p. 324) and serve in nests 
of lettuce leaves. 

Lettuce Salad 

Wash one head romaine and cut in pieces, using scissors. 
Mix two cups cold riced potatoes, one-half pound white 
mushroom caps peeled and cut in eighths, and one pound 
Brazil nut meats (from which skins have been removed) cut 
in pieces. Moisten with French Dressing, made by allowing 
one-third tarragon vinegar to two- thirds olive oil. Arrange 
on salad dish, surround with romaine, and garnish with three 
peeled mushroom caps and six Brazil nut meats. 

Mac^doine Salad 

Marinate separately cold cooked cauliflower, peas, and car- 
rots cut in small cubes, and outer stalks of celery finely cut. 
Arrange peas and carrots in alternate piles in centre of a 
salad dish. Pile cauliflower on top. Arrange celery in four 
piles at equal distances. At top of each pile place a small 
gherkin cut lengthwise in very thin slices, beginning at 
blossom end and cutting nearly to stem end. Open slices 
to represent a fan. Place between piles of celery a slice of 
tomato. 

Almost any cold cooked vegetables on hand may be used 
for a Macedoine Salad, and if care is taken in arrangement, 
they make a very attractive dish. 

Russian Salad 

Mix one cup each cold cooked carrot cubes and potato 
cubes, one cup cold cooked peas, and one cup cold cooked 
beans, and marinate with French Dressing. Arrange on 
lettuce leaves In four sections, and cover each section 
with Mayonnaise Dressing. Garnish two sections with 
small pieces of smoked salmon, one section with finely 
chopped whites of ''hard boiled" eggs, and one section 
with yolks of " hard-boiled *' eggs forced through a strainer. 
Put small sprigB of parsley or ghrimps in linea diyiduig 
Bections. 



8S2 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Tomatoes Stuffed with Pineapple 

Peel medium-sized tomatoes. Remove thin slice from top 
of each, and take out seeds and some of pulp. Sprinkle 
inside with salt, invert, and let stand one-half hour. Fill 
tomatoes with fresh pineapple cut in small cubes or shredded, 
and nut meats, using two-thirds pineapple and one-third nut 
meats. Mix with Mayonnaise Dressing, garnish with May- 
onnaise, halves of nut meats, and slices cut from tops cut 
square. Serve on a bed of lettuce leaves. 

Stuffed Tomato Salad I 

Peel medium-sized tomatoes. Remove thin slice from top 
of each and take out seeds and some of pulp. Sprinkle 
Inside with salt, invert, and let stand one-half hour. Fill 
tomatoes with cucumbers cut in small cubes and mixed with 
Mayonnaise Dressing. Arrange on lettuce leaves, and gar- 
nish top of each with Mayonnaise Dressing forced through a 
pastry-bag and tube. 

Stuffed Tomato Salad II 

Prepare tomatoes same as for Tomatoes Stuffed with Pine- 
apple. Refill with finely cut celery and apple, using equal 
parts. Sei've with Mayonnaise, and garnish with shredded 
lettuce. 

Stuffed Tomato Salad (German Style) 

Prepare tomatoes same as Tomatoes Stuffed with Pineap- 
ple. Shred finely one-half a cabbage. Let stand two hours 
in salted water, allowing two tablespoons salt to one quart 
water. Cook slowly thirty minutes one-half cup each cold 
water and vinegar, with a bit of bay leaf, one-half teaspoon 
peppercorns, one-fourth teaspoon mustard seed, and six 
cloves. Strain, and pour over cabbage drained from salt 
water. Let stand two hours, again drain, and refill tomatoes. 

Tomato and Horseradish Salad 

Peel and chill tomatoes, cut in halves crosswise, arrange 
on lettuce leaves, and garnish with Horseradish Sauce L 



SALADS 333 

Hindoo Salad 

Arrange four slices tomato on a bed of shredded lettuce. 
On two of the slices pile shaved celery, on the opposite 
slices, finely cut watercress. G-arnish with small pieces of 
tomato shaped with circular cutter, and serve with French 
Dressing. 

Tomato Ciboulettes 

Kemove skins from four small tomatoes, and cut in halves 
crosswise. Cover with Mayonnaise, and sprinkle with finely 
chopped chives. Serve on lettuce leaves. 

Tomato and "Watercress Salad 

Peel and chill large tomatoes, cut in slices one-third inch 
thick, and slices in strips one-third inch wide. Arrange on a 
flat dish to represent lattice work, and fill in the spaces with 
watercress. Serve with French Dressing, 

Tomato and Cucumber Salad 

Arrange alternate slices of tomato and cucumber until six 
slices have been piled one on top of another. Place on let- 
tuce leaves, garnish with strips of red and green peppers. 
Serve with French and Mayonnaise Dressing. Kemove seeds 
from peppers and parboil two minutes before using. 

Salad Cbiffonade 
Cook two green peppers in boiling water to which one- 
fourth teaspoon soda has been added, one minute ; cool, and 
shred. Shred one head of romaine, remove pulp from one large 
grape fruit, and cut three small ripe tomatoes in quarters 
lengthwise. Arrange in salad dish and serve with French 
Dressing. 

"Wiersbick's Salad 

Peel small tomatoes of uniform size and scoop out a por- 
tion of centres. Arrange in nests of lettuce leaves and gar- 
nish top of each with a slice of cucumber, slice of truffle cut 
in fancy shape, and ring of green pepper. Serve with the 
following dressing : 

Mix three tablespoons Louit Fr^res mustard, one-fourth 
teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon paprika, one tablespoon 



334 BOSTON COOKIHG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

vinegar, and one-half teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce ? then 
add slowly, while stirring constantly, one-half cup olive oil. 

Tomato and Cheese Salad 

Peel six medium- sized tomatoes, chill, and scoop out a 
small quantity of pulp from the centre of each. Fill cavi- 
ties, using equal parts of Roquefort and Neufchatel cheese 
worked together and moistened with French Dressing. Ar- 
range on lettuce leaves and serve with French Dressing. 

Tomato Jelly Salad 

To one can stewed and strained tomatoes add one tea- 
spoon each of salt and powdered sugar, and two-thirds box 
gelatine which has soaked fifteen minutes in one-half cup 
cold water. Pour into small cups, and chill. Run a knife 
around inside of moulds, so that when taken out shapes 
may have a rough surface, suggesting a fresh tomato. Place 
on lettuce leaves and garnish top of each with Mayonnaise 
Dressing. 

Frozen Tomato Salad 

Open one quart can tomatoes, turn from can, and let stand 
one hour that they may be re-oxygenated. Add three table- 
spoons sugar, and season highly with salt and cayenne ; then 
rub through a sieve. Turn into one-half pound breakfast- 
cocoa boxes, cover tightly, pack in salt and ice, using equal 
parts, and let stand three hours. Remove from mould, ar- 
range on lettuce leaves, and serve with Mayonnaise Dressing. 

Salad k la Russe 

Peel six tomatoes, remove thin slices from top of each, 
and take out seeds and pulp. Sprinkle inside with salt, 
invert, and let stand one-half hour. Place seeds and pulp 
removed from tomatoes in a strainer to drain. Mix one- 
third cup cucumbers cut in dice, one-third cup cold cooked 
peas, one-fourth cup pickles finely chopped, one-third cup 
tomato pulp, and two tablespoons capers. Season with salt, 
pepper, and vinegar. Put in a cheese-cloth and squeeze; 
then add one-half cup cold cooked chicken cut in very smali 



SALADS 335 

dice. Mix with Mayonnaise Dressing, refill tomatoes, sprinkle 
with finely chopped parsley, and place each on a lettuce leaf. 

Spinach Salad 

Pick over, wash, and cook one-half peck spinach. Drain, 
and chop finely. Season with salt, pepper, and lemon juice, 
and add one tablespoon melted butter. Butter slightly small 
tin moulds and pack solidly with mixture. Chill, remove 
from moulds, and arrange on thin slices of cold boiled tongue 
cut in circular pieces. Glarnish base of each with a wreath 
of parsley, and serve on top of each Sauce Tartare. 

Moulded Russian Salad 

Reduce strong consomme so that when cold it will be jelly- 
like in consistency. Set individual moulds in pan of ice- 
water, pour in consomme one-fourth inch deep ; when firm, 
decorate bottom and sides of moulds with cold cooked car- 
rots, beets and potatoes cut in fancy shapes. Add consomme 
to cover vegetables, and as soon as firm fill moulds two- 
thirds full of any cooked vegetable that may be at hand. 
Add consomme by spoonfuls, allowing it to become firm be- 
tween the additions, and put in enough to cover vegetables. 
Chill thoroughly, remove from moulds, and arrange on lettuce 
leaves. Serve with Mayonnaise Dressing. 

Mexican Jelly 

Peel four large cucumbers and cut in thin slices. Put in 
saucepan with one cup cold water, bring to boiling-point, 
and cook slowly until soft ; then force through a puree 
strainer. Add two and one-half tablespoons granulated 
gelatine dissolved in three-fourths cup boiling water, few 
drops onion juice, one tablespoon vinegar, few grains cay- 
enne, and salt and pepper to taste. Color with leaf green, 
strain through cheese-cloth, and mould same as Fruit Char- 
treuse (see p. 423). After removing small mould fill space 
with Tomato Mayonnaise. Garnish sides of mould with thin 
slices of cucumber shaped with a small round fluted cutter, 
and on the centre of each slice place a circular piece of truffle. 
Garnish around base of mould with small tomatoes peeled, 
chilledj ftnd cut in halves crosswise. On each slice of tomato 



886 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

place a circular fluted slice of cucumber, and over all a cir- 
cular piece of truffle. Serve with 

Tomato Mayonnaise. Color mayonnaise red with tomato 
puree. 

Egg Salad I 

Cut six " hard-boiled " eggs in halves crosswise, keeping 
whites in pairs. Remove yolks, and mash or put through a 
potato ricer. Add slowly enough Oil Dressing II to moisten. 
Make into balls the size of original yolks and refill whiles. 
Arrange on a bed of lettuce, and pour Oil Dressing No. II 
around eggs. 

Egg Salad II 

Cut four *' hard-boiled" eggs in halves crosswise in such 
a way that tops of halves may be cut in small points. Re- 
move yolks, mash, and add an equal amount of finely chopped 
cooked chicken. Moisten with Oil Dressing I, shape in balls 
size of original yolks, and refill whites. Arrange on lettuce 
leaves, garnish with radishes cut in fancy shapes, and serve 
with Oil Dressing I. 

Lenten Salad 

Separate yolks and whites of four "hard-boiled" eggs. 
Chop whites finely, marinate with French Dressing, and 
arrange on lettuce leaves. Force yolks through a potato ricer 
and pile on the centre of whites. Serve with French Dressing, 

Crackers and Cheese 

Mash a cream cheese, season, and shape in balls, then 
flatten balls, and serve on butter-thin crackers. 

Note. Cream cheese is very acceptable served with 
zephyrettes or butter-thins and Bar le Due currants. 

Cottage Cheese I 

Heat one quart sour milk to 100** F., and turn into a 
strainer lined with cheese-cloth. Pour over one quart hot 
water, and as soon as water has drained through, pour over 
another quart; then repeat. Gather cheese-cloth around 
curd to form a bag and let hang until curd is free from 



SALADS SS7 

whey. Moisten with melted butter and heavy cream, and 
add salt to taste. Shape into small balls. 

Cottage Cheese II 
Heat one quart sweet milk to 100° F., and add one junket 
tablet reduced to a powder. Let stand in warm place until 
set. Beat with a fork to break curd, turn into a bag made 
of cheese-cloth, and let hang until whey has drained from 
curd ; then proceed as with Cottage Cheese I. 

' . Cheese Salad 

Arrange one head lettuce on salad dish, sprinkle with Edam 
cheese broken in small pieces, and pom^ over French Dressing. 

Neufchatel Salad I 
Cut cheese in dice, arrange on lettuce leaves, and garnish 
with radishes. Serve with French Dressing. 

Neufchatel Salad II 

Mash one Neufchatel cheese and moisten with milk or 
cream. Shape into forms the size of robins* eggs. Sprinkle 
with finely chopped parslej^, which has been dried. Arrange 
in nests of lettuce leaves, and garnish with radishes. Serve 
with French Dressing. 

Cheese and Olive Salad 

Mash a cream cheese, moisten with cream, and season 
with salt and cayenne. Add six olives finely chopped, let- 
tuce finely cut, and one-half a pimento cut in strips. Press 
in original shape of cheese and let stand two hours. Cut in 
slices, separate in pieces, and serve on lettuce leaves with 
Mayonnaise Dressing. 

Cheese and Currant Salad 

Mash a cream cheese and mix with finely chopped lettuce. 
Shape in balls, arrange on lettuce leaves, pour over French 
Dressing, and over all Bar le Due currants. 

East India Salad 

Work two ten cent cream cheeses until smooth. Moisten 
with milk and cream, using equal parts. Add one-half cup 



888 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

grated Young America cheese, one cup whipped cream, and 
three- fourths tablespoon granulated gelatine soaked in one 
tablespoon cold water and dissolved in one tablespoon boil- 
ing water. Season highly with salt and paprika, and turn into 
a border mould. Chill, remove from mould, arrange on lettuce 
leaves, fill centre with lettuce leaves, and serve with Curry 
Dressing (see p. 324). 

Nut Salad 

Mix one cup chopped English walnut meat and two cups 
shredded lettuce. Arrange on lettuce leaves and garnish 
with Mayonnaise Dressing. 

Nut and Celery Salad I 

Mix equal parts of English walnut or pecan nut meat cut 
in pieces, and celery cut in small pieces. Marinate with 
French Dressing. Serve with a border of shredded lettuce. 

Nut and Celery Salad II 

Mix one and one-half cups finely cut celery, one cup pecan 
nut meats broken in pieces, and one cup shredded cabbage. 
Moisten with Cream Dressing, and serve in a salad bowl 
made of a small white cabbage. 

Banana Salad 

Remove one section of skin from each of four bananas. 
Take out fruit, scrape, and cut fruit from one banana in thin 
slices, fruit from other three bananas in one-half inch cubes. 
Marinate cubes with French Dressing. Refill skins and 
garnish each with slices of banana. Stack around a mound 
of lettube leaves. 

Orange Salad 

Cut five thin-skinned sour oranges in very thin slices, and 
slices in quarters. Marinate with a dressing made by mixing 
one-third cup olive oil, one and one-half tablespoons each 
lemon juice and vinegar, one-third tea&poon salt, one-fourth 
teaspoon paprika, and a few grains mustard. Serve on a 
h@d ®f watercresii 



BALADB 

Orange Mint Salad 

Remove pulp from four large oranges, by cutting fruit in 
halves crosswise and using a spoon. Sprinkle with two 
tablespoons powdered sugar, and add two tablespoons finel}' 
chopped mint, and one tablespoon each lemon juice and 
Sherry wine. Chill thoroughly, serve in glasses, and garnish 
each with a sprig of mint. Should the oranges be very juicy,, 
pour off a portion of the juice before turning the mixture 
into glasses, 

French Fruit Salad 

2 oranges 12 English walnut meats 

3 bananas 1 head lettuce 
^ lb. Malaga grapes French Dressing 

Peel oranges, and remove pulp separately from each sec- 
tion. Peel bananas, and cut in one-fourth inch slices. Re- 
move skins and seeds from grapes. Break walnut meats in 
pieces. Mix prepared ingredients and arrange on lettuce 
leaves. Serve with French Dressing, 

Hungarian Salad 

Mix equal parts shredded fresh pineapple, bananas cut in 
pieces, and sections of tangerins, and marinate with French 
dressing. Fill banana skins with mixture, sprinkle gener- 
ously with paprika, and arrange on lettuce leaves. 

Waldorf Salad 

Mix equal quantities of finely cut apple and celery, and 
moisten with Mayonnaise Dressing. Garnish with curled 
celery and canned pimentoes cut in strips or fancy shapes. 
An attractive way of serving this salad is to remove tops 
from red or green apples, scoop out inside pulp, leaving just 
enough adhering to skin to keep apples in shape. Refill 
shells thus made with the salad, replace tops, and serve on 
lettuce leaves. 

Malaga Salad 

Remove skins and seeds from white grapes ; add an equal 
quantity of English walnut meats, blanched and broken ia 



840 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

pieces. Marinate with French Dressing. Serve on lettuce 
leaves and garnish with Maraschino cherries. 

Brazilian Salad 

Remove skin and seeds from white grapes and cut in 
halves lengthwise. Add an equal quantity of shredded 
fresh pineapple, apples pared, cored, and cut in small 
pieces, and celery cut in small pieces ; then add one-fourth 
the quantity of Brazil nuts broken in pieces. Mix thor- 
oughly, and season with lemon juice. Moisten with Cream 
Mayonnaise Dressing (see p. 327). 

De John's Salad 

Pare six Bartlett pears, care being taken not to remove 
stems. Cut in thin slices, and serve in original shapes on 
lettuce leaves. Serve with French Dressing. 

Fear Salad 

Wipe, pare, and cut pears in eighths lengthwise ; then re- 
move seeds. Arrange on lettuce leaves, pour over French 
dressing, and garnish with ribbons of red pepper. See 
Canned Red Peppers p. 581. 

Game Salad 

Drain the syrup from one can peaches. Arrange halves 
of fruit on lettuce leaves, and pour over all a dressing made 
by mixing two teaspoons sugar, one teaspoon celery salt, 
one-fourth teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon pepper, a few 
grains cayenne, five drops Tabasco, and adding gradually 
four tablespoons olive oil and two tablespoons fresh lime 
juice. Use fresh fruit when in season. 

Pepper and Grape Fruit Salad 

Cut slices from stem ends of six green peppers, and 
remove seeds. Refill with grape fruit pulp, finely cut celery, 
and English walnut meats broken in pieces, allowing twice 
as much grape fruit as celery, and two nut meats to each 
pepper. Arrange on chicory or lettuce leaves, and serve with 
Mayonnaise Dressing, 



SALADS Ml 

Grape Fruit and Celery Salad 
Cut mediuni'Sized grape fruits in fourths lengthwise. Re- 
move the pulp, and add to it an equal quantity of finely cut 
celery. Refill sections with mixture, mask with Mayonnaise 
Dressing, and garnish with celery tips or curled celery and 
canned pimentoes cut in strips. 

Monte Carlo Salad 

Remove pulp from four large grape fruits, and drain. 
Add an equal quantity of finely cut celery, and apple cut in 
small pieces. Moisten with Mayonnaise, pile on a shallow 
salad dish, arrange around a border of lettuce leaves, and 
mask with Mayonnaise. Outline, using green Mayonnaise, 
four oblongs to represent playing cards, and denote spots 
on cards by canned pimentoes or truffles ; pimentoes cut in 
shapes of hearts and diamonds, truffles cut in shapes of 
spades and clubs. Garnish with cold cooked carrot and 
turnip, shaped with a small round cutter to suggest gold and 
silver coin. 

Salmon Salad 

Flake remnants of cold boiled salmon. Mix with French 
Mayonnaise, or Cream Dressing. Arrange on iiests of let- 
tuce leaves. Garnish with the yolk of a " hard-boiled " egg 
forced through a potato ricer, and white of egg cut in strips. 

Shrimp Salad 

Remove shrimps from can, cover with cold or ice water, 
and let stand twenty minutes. Drain, dry between towels, 
remove intestinal veins, and break in pieces, reserving six 
of the finest. Moisten with Cream Dressing II, and arrange 
on nests of lettuce leaves. Put a spoonful of dressing on 
each, and garnish with a whole shrimp, capers, and an olive 
cut in quarters. 

Sardine Salad 

Remove skin and bones from sardines, and mix with an 
equal quantity of the mashed yolks of '* hard-boiled " eggs. 
Arrange in nests of lettuce leaves and serve with Mayonnaise 
Dressing. 



342 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Lobster Salad I 

Remove lobster meat from shell, cut in one-half inch cubes, 
and marinate with a French Dressing. Mix with a small 
quantity of Mayonnaise Dressing and arrange in nests of 
lettuce leaves. Put a spoonful of Mayonnaise on each, and 
sprinkle with lobster coral rubbed through a fine sieve. 
Garnish with small lobster claws around outside of dish. 
Cream Dressing I or II may be used in place of Mayonnaise 
Dressing. 

Lobster Salad II 

Prepare lobster as for Lobster Salad I. Add an equal 
quantity of celery cut in small pieces, kept one hour in cold 
or ice water, then drained and dried in a towel. Moisten 
with any cream or oil dressing. Arrange on a salad dish, 
pile slightly in centre, cover with dressing, sprinkle with 
lobster coral forced through a fine sieve, and garnish with a 
border of curled celery and watercress. 

To Curl Celery. Cut thick stalks of celery in two-inch 
pieces. With a sharp knife, beginning at outside of stalks, 
make five cuts parallel with each other, extending one-third 
the length of pieces. Make six cuts at right-angles to cuts 
already made. Put pieces in cold or ice water and let stand 
over night or for several hours, when they will curl back and 
celery will be found very crisp. Both ends of celery may be 
curled if one cares to l;ake the trouble. 

Lobster Salad III 

Remove large claws and split a lobster in two lengthwise 
by beginning the cut on inside of tail end and cutting through 
entire length of tail and body^ Open lobster, remove tail 
meat, liver, and coral, and set aside. Discard intestinal vein, 
stomach, and fat, and wipe inside thoroughly with cloth wrung 
out of cold water. Body meat and small claws are left on 
shell. Remove meat from upper parts of large claws and 
cat off (asing scissors or can opener) one-half the sheU from 
k>wer parts, taking out meat and leaving the parts in suitable 
oondition to refill Cut lobster meat m oue-balf inch cabm 




Mexican Jelly. — Page 335. 




Lobster Salad III. — Page 342. 




Oyster Crabs a la Newburg; Individual Service. — Page 357. 




Sweetbread Ramequins. — Page 371 



SALADS 343 

and mix with an equal quantity of finely cut celery. Season 
with salt, pepper, and vinegar, and moisten with Mayonnaise 
Dressing. EefiU tail, body, and under half of large claw 
shells. Mix liver and coral, rub through a sieve, add one 
tablespoon Mayonnaise Dressing and a few drops anchovy 
sauce, with enough metre Mayonnaise Dressing to cover 
lobster already in shell. Arrange on a bed of lettuce leaves. 

Fish Salad VTith Cucumbers 

Season one and one-half cups cold cooked flaked halibut, 
haddock, or cod, with salt, cayenne, and lemon juice. Cover, 
and let stand one hour. To Cream Dressing II (see p. 324) 
add one-third tablespoon granulated gelatine soaked in one 
and one-half tablespoons cold water. As soon as dressing 
begins to thicken, add one-half cup heavy cream beaten until 
stiff, then fold in the fish. Turn into individual moulds, chill, 
remove from moulds, arrange on lettuce leaves, garnish each 
with a thin slice of cucumber, and serve with 

Cucumber Sauce. Pare two cucumbers, chop, drain off 
most of liquor, and season with salt, pepper, and vinegar. 

Crab and Tomato Salad 

Remove meat from hard-shelled crabs; there should be 
one cup. Add two-thirds cup celery, cut in small pieces, and 
six small tomatoes peeled, chilled, and cut in quarters. 
Moisten with Mayonnaise. Serve on lettuce leaves, and 
garnish with Mayonnaise, curled celery, and small pieces of 
tomato. 

Scallop and Tomato Salad 

Clean one pint scallops, parboil, and drain. Add juice of 
one lemon, cover, and let stand one hour. Drain, dry be- 
tween towels, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in flour, egg, 
and stale bread crumbs, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown 
paper. Cool, cut in halves, marinate with dressing, and 
serve garnished with sliced tomatoes and watercress. 

Dressing. Mix one teaspoon finely chopped shallot, three- 
fourths teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon paprika, two 
tablespoons lemon Juice, and four tablespoons olive oil. 



844 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Salmon ^ la Martin, Ravigote Mayonnaise 

Drain one can salmon, rinse, dry, and separate in flakes. 
Moisten with Ravigote Mayonnaise, arrange on a bed of 
lettuce, mask with mayonnaise, and garnish with canned 
pimentoes cut in triangles, and truffles cut in fancy shapes. 

Ravigdte Mayonnaise. Mix two tablespoons cooked 
spinach, one tablespoon capers, one-half shallot finely chopped, 
three anchovies, one-third cup parsley, and one-half cup 
watercress. Pound in mortar until thoroughly macerated, 
then force through a very fine strainer. Add to one-half 
the recipe for Mayonnaise Dressing I (see p. 326). 

Oyster and Grape Fruit Salad 

Parboil one and one-half pints oysters, drain, cool, and 
remove tough muscles. Cut three grape fruits in halves 
crosswise, remove pulp, and drain. Mix oysters with pulp, 
and season with six tablespoons tomato catsup, four table- 
spoons grape fruit juice, one tablespoon Worcestershire 
Sauce, eight drops Tabasco sauce, and one-half teaspoon 
salt. Refill grape fruit skins with mixture, and garnish with 
curled celery. 

Chicken Salad I 

Cut cold boiled fowl or remnants of roast chicken in one- 
half inch cubes, and marinate with French Dressing, Add 
an equal quantity of celery, washed, scraped, cut in small 
pieces, chilled in cold or ice-water, drained, and dried in 
a towel. Just before serving moisten with Cream, Oil, or 
Mayonnaise Dressing. Mound on a salad dish, and garnish 
with yolks of "hard-boiled" eggs forced through a potato 
ricer, capers, and celery tips. 

Chicken Salad II 

Cut cold boiled fowl or remnants of roast chicken in one- 
half inch dice. To two cups add one and one-half cups 
celery cut in small pieces, and moisten with Cream Dressing 
II. Mound on a salad dish, cover with dressing, and garnish 
with capers, thin slices cut from small pickles, and curled 
celery. 



SALADS 345 

Individual Chicken Salads in Aspic 

Cover bottom of individual moulds set in ice-water with 
aspic jelly mixture. When jelly is firm decorate with yolks 
and whites of ^' hard-boiled " eggs cooked as for Harlequin 
Slices (see p. 147) and truffles cut in fancy shapes, or pista- 
chio nuts blanched and cut in halves. Cover decorations 
with aspic mixture, being careful not to disarrange the 
designs. Finely chop cold cooked fowl (preferably breast- 
meat), moisten with Mayonnaise to which is added a small 
quantity of dissolved granulated gelatine, shape in balls, 
put a ball in each mould, and add gradually aspic mixture 
to fill moulds. Chill thoroughly, remove to lettuce leaves, 
and arrange around a dish of Mayonnaise Dressing. 

Swiss Salad 

Mix one cup cold cooked chicken cut in cubes, one 
cucumber pared and cut in cubes, one cup chopped English 
walnut meats, and one cup French peas. Marinate with 
French Dressing, arrange on serving dish, and garnish with 
Mayonnaise Dressing. 

NHe Salad 

Cut cold boiled or roasted chicken in cubes (there should 
be one and one-half cups). Put one-half cup English walnut 
meats in pan, sprinkle sparingly with salt, and add three- 
fourths tablespoon butter. Cook in a slow oven until 
thoroughly heated, stirring occasionally; remove from oven 
and break in pieces. 

Mix chicken and nuts and marinate with French Dressing. 
Add three-fourths cup celery cut in small pieces. Arrange 
on a bed of lettuce, and mask with Kavigote Mayonnaise 
(see p. 344). 

Berkshire Salad in Boxes 

Marinate one cup cold boiled fowl cut into dice and one cup 
cooked French chestnuts broken in pieces with French Dress- 
ing. Add one finely chopped red pepper from which seeds 
have been removed, one cup celery cut into small pieces, 
and Mayonnaise to moisten. Trim crackers (four inches 



846 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

long by one inch wide, slightly salted) at ends, using a 
sharp knife ; arrange on plate in form of box, keep in place 
with red ribbon one-half inch wide, and fasten at one corner 
by tying ribbon in a bow. Garnish opposite corner with a 
sprig of holly berries. Line box with lettuce leaves, put in a 
spoonful of salad, and mask with Mayonnaise. Any colored 
ribbon may be used, and flowers substituted for berries. 

Chicken and Oyster Salad 

Clean, parboil, and drain one pint oysters. Remove 
tough muscles, and mix soft parts with an equal quantity of 
cold boiled fowl cut in one-half inch dice. Moisten with any 
salad dressing, and serve on a bed of lettuce leaves. 

Sweetbread and Cucumber Salad I 

Parboil a pair of sweetbreads twenty minutes; drain, 
cool, and cut in one-half inch cubes. Mix with an equal 
quantity of cucumber cut in one-half inch dice. Season 
with salt and pepper, and moisten with German Dressing. 
Arrange in nests of lettuce leaves or in cucumber cups, 
and garnish with watercress. To prepare cucumber cups, 
pare cucumbers, remove thick slices from each end, and cut 
in halves crosswise. Take out centres, put cups in cold 
water, and let stand until crisp ; drain, and dry for refilling. 
Small cucumbers may be pared, cut in halves lengthwise, 
centres removed, and cut pointed at ends to represent a 
boat. 

Sweetbread and Cucumber Salad II 

Parboil a sweetbread, adding to water a bit of bay leaf, 
a slice of onion, and a blade of mace. Cool, and cut in 
small cubes; there should be three-fourths cup. Add an 
equal quantity of cucumber cubes. Beat one-half cup thick 
cream until stiff; add one-fourth tablespoon granulated 
gelatine soaked in one-half tablespoon cold water and dis- 
solved in one and one-half tablespoons boiling water, then 
add one and one-half tablespoons vinegar. Add sweetbread 
and cucumber, season highly with salt and paprika, mould, 
and chilL Arrange on lettuce leaves, and serve with French 
Dressing. 



SALADS M? 

Sweetbread and Celery Salad 

Mix equal parts of parboiled sweetbreads cut in one-half 
inch cubes and celery finely cut. Moisten with Cream 
Dressing, and arrange on lettuce leaves. 

Harvard Salad 

Make lemon baskets, following directions for Orange 
Baskets (see p. 429). With a small wooden skewer make 
an incision in centre of each handle and insert a small sprig 
of parsley. Fill baskets with equal parts of cold cooked 
sweetbread and cucumber cut in small cubes, and one-fourth 
the quantity of finely cut celery, moistened with Cream 
Dressing II (see p. 324). Pare round red radishes as 
thinly as possible and finely chop parings. Smooth top of 
baskets and cover with dressing. Sprinkle top of one-half 
the baskets with chopped parings, the remaining half with 
nnely chopped parsley. Arrange red and green baskets 
alternately on serving dish, and garnish with • watercress' 



348 BOSTON COOEJNG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XXII 

ENTREES 

Batters and Fritters 

Batter I 

1 cnp bread flour Few grains pepper 

% teaspoon salt % cup milk 

2 eggs 

Mix flour, salt, and pepper. Add milk gradually, and 
eggs well- beaten. 

Batter II 

1 cup bread flour ^ cup water 

1 tablespoon sugar y^ tablespoon olive oil 

^ teaspoon salt White 1 ^gg 

Mix flour, sugar, and salt. Add water gradually, then 
olive oil and white of egg beaten until stiff. 

Batter III 

\y^ cups flour % teaspoon salt 

2 teaspoons baking powder % cup milk 

legg 
Mix and sift dry ingredients, add milk gradually, and 
egg well beaten. 

Batter IV 

1 cup fiour )4r teaspoon salt 

\% teaspoons baking powder )^ cup milk 

3 tat^^espoons powdered sugar 1 ^gg 

Mix and sift dry ingredients, add milk gradually, and egg 
well beaten. 



ENTBEES 849 



Batter V 

1 cup flour Yolks 2 eggs 

^ teaspoon salt Whites 2 eggs 

% cup milk or water 1 tablespoon melted butter 

or olive oil 

Mix salt and flour, add milk gradually, yolks of eggs 
beaten until thick, butter, and whites of eggs beaten until 
stiff. 

Apple Fritters I 

2 medium-sized sour apples Batter III 

Powdered sugar 

Pare, core, and cut apples in eighths, then cut eighths in 
slices, and stir into batter. Drop by spoonfuls and fry in 
deep fat (see Rules for Testing Fat, page 21). Drain on 
brown paper, and sprinkle with powdered sugar. Serve hot 
on a folded napkin. 

Apple Fritters II 
2 medium-sized sour apples Batter IV 

Prepare and cook as Apple Fritters L 

Apple Fritters III 

Sour apples Lemon juice 

Powdered sugar Batter II 

CoTie, pare, and cut apples in one-third inch slices. 
Sprinkle with powdered sugar and few drops lemon juice ; 
cover, and let stand one-half hour. Drain, dip pieces in 
batter, fry in deep fat, and drain. Arrange on a folded 
napkin in form of a circle, and serve with Sabyon or Hard 
iSauce. 

Banana Fritters I 

4 bananas % tablespoon lemon juice 

Powdered sugar 3 tablespoons Sherry wine 

}4 rule Batter V 

Remove skins from bananas. Scrape bananas, cut In 

iiaiyes lengthwise, and cut halves in two pieces crosswise. 



350 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Sprinkle with powdered sugar, lemon juice, and wine ; cover, 
and let stand thirty minutes ; drain, dip in batter, fry in 
deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Sprinkle with pow- 
dered sugar, and serve on a folded napkin. 

Banana Fritters II 

3 bananas }4. teaspoon salt 

1 cup bread flour 3^ cup milk 

2 teaspoons baking powder 1 egg 

1 tablespoon powdered sugar 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

Mix and sift dry ingredients. Beat egg until light, add 
milk, and combine mixtures ; then add lemon juice and 
banana fruit forced through a sieve. Drop by spoonfuls, 
fry in deep fat, and drain. Serve with Lemon Sauce. 

Orange Fritters 

Peel two oranges and separate into sections. Make an 
opening in each section just large enough to admit of pas- 
sage for seeds, which should be removed. Dip sections in 
Batter II, III, IV, or V, and fry and serve same as other 
fritters. 

Fruit Fritters 

Fresh peaches, apricots, or pears may be cut in pieces, 
dipped in batter, and fried same as other fritters. Canned 
fruits may be used, after draining from their syrup. 

Cauliflower Fritters 

Cold cooked cauliflower Batter V 

Salt and pepper 

Sprinkle pieces of cauliflower with salt and pepper and 
dip in Batter I or V. Fry in deep fat, and drain on brown 
paper. 

Fried Celery 

Celery cut in three-inch Salt and pepper 

pieces Batter I, III, or V 

Parboil celery until soft, drain, sprinkle with salt? and 
pepper, dip in batter, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown 
paper. Serve with Tois^to Sauce. 



ENTRIES S61 

Sardines Fried in Batter 
Drain fish and pour over boiling water to free from oU, 
then remove skins. Dip in Batter III, fry in deep fat, ao^ 
drain on brown paper. Serve with Hot Tartare Sauce. 

Tomato Fritters 

1 can tomatoes 1 teaspoon salt 

6 cloves Few grains cayenne 

1^ cup sugar ^ cup butter 

3 slices onion y^ cup corn-starch 

legg 

Cook first four ingredients twenty minutes, rub all through 
A sieve except seeds, and season with salt and pepper. Melt 
butter, and when bubbling, add corn-starch and tomato grad- 
ually : cook two minutes, then add egg slightly beaten. 
Pour into a buttered shallow tin, and cool. Turn on a 
board, cut in squares, diamonds, or strips. Roll in crumbs, 
egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, and drain. 

Cherry Fritters 

2 cups scalded milk |^ teaspoon salt 

^ cup corn-starch 3^ cup cold milk 

^ cup flour Yolks 3 eggs 

1^ cup sugar % cup Maraschino cherries, 

cut in halves 

Mix corn-starch, flour, sugar, and salt. Dilute with cold 
milk and add beaten yolks ; then add gradually to scalded 
milk and cook fifteen minutes in double boiler. Add cher* 
ries, pour into a buttered shallow tin, and cool. Turn on a 
board, cut in squares, dip in flour, egg, and crumbs, fry in 
deep fat, and drain. Serve with Maraschino Sauce. 

Maraschino Sauce 

J^ cup boiling water ^ cup Maraschino cherries, 

y^ cup sugar cut in halves 

2 tablespoons corn-starch % ^^P Maraschino syrup 

% tablespoon butter 

Mix sugar and corn-starch, add gradually to boiling water, 
stirring constantly. Boil five minutes, and add cherries, 
syrup, and butter. 



852 BOSTON COOKING -SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Farina Cakes ^vrith Jelly 

2 cups scalded milk ^ cup sugar 

y^ cup farina (scant) ^ teaspoon salt 

legg 

Mix farina, sugar, and salt, add to milk, and cook in donbl« 

boiler twenty minutes, stirring constantly until mixture haa 
thickened. Add egg slightly beaten, pour into a buttered 
shallow pan, and brush over with one egg slightly beaten 
and diluted with one tablespoon milk. Brown in a moderate 
oven. Cut in squares, and serve with a cube of jelly on each 
square. 

Gnocchi a la Romana 

^ cup butter % teaspoon salt 

^ cup flour 2 cups scalded milk 

^4 cup corn-starch Yolks 2 eggs 

% cup grated cheese 

Melt butter, and when bubbling, add flour, corn-starch, 
salt, and milk, gradually. Cook three minutes, stirring con- 
stantly. Add yolks of eggs slightly beaten, and one-half 
cup cheese. Pour into a buttered shallow pan, and cool. 
Turn on a board, cut in squares, diamonds, or strips. Place 
on a platter, sprinkle with remaining cheese, and brown in 
oven. 

Queen Fritters 

^ cup butter (scant) % cup flour 

^ cup boiling water 2 eggs 

Fruit preserve or marmalade 

Put butter in small saucepan and pour on water. As soon 
as water again reaches boiling-point, add flour all at once 
and stir until mixture leaves sides of saucepan, cleaving to 
spoon. Remove from fire and add eggs unbeaten, one at a 
time, beating mixture thoroughly between addition of eggs. 
Drop by spoonfuls and fry in deep fat until well puffed and 
browned. Drain, make an opening, and fill with preserve or 
marmalade. Sprinkle with powdered sugar and serve oo & 
folded napkin. 



ENTREES 358 

Chocolate Fritters "w^ith Vanilla Sauce 

Make Queen Fritters, fill with Chocolate Cream Filling, 
and serve with Vanilla Sauce ; filling to be cold and sauce 
warm. 

Coffee Fritters, Coffee Cream Sauce 

Cut "Stale bread in one-half inch slices, remove crusts, and 
cut slices in one-half inch strips. Mix three-fourths cup 
coffee infusion, two tablespoons sugar, one-fourth teaspoon 
salt, one egg slightly beaten, and one-fourth cup cream. 
Dip bread in mixture, crumbs, egg, and crumbs again. Fr;y 
in deep fat and drain. Serve with 

Coffee Cream Sauce. Beat yolks three eggs slightly, 
add four tablespoons sugar and one-eighth teaspoon salt, 
then add gradually one cup coffee infusion. Cook in double 
boiler until mixture thickens. Cool, and fold in one-third 
cup ^eavy cream beaten until stiff. 

Sponge Fritters 

2X cups flour }4 cup melted butter 

l^ cup sugar * 3€ teaspoon salt 

% cup scalded milk 2 eggs 

1^ yeast cake, dissolved in 2 Grated rind }4 lemon 

tablespoons lukewarm water Quince marmalade 
Currant jelly 

Make a sponge of one-half the flour, sugar, milk, and dis- 
solved yeast cake ; let rise to double its bulk. Add remain- 
ing ingredients and let rise again. Toss on a floured board, 
roll to one-fourth inch thickness, shape with a small biscuit 
cutter (first dipped in flour), cover, and let rise on board. 
Take each piece and hollow in centre to form a nest. In 
one-half the pieces put one-half teaspoon of currant jelly 
and quince marmalade mixed in the proportion of one part 
jelly to two parts marmalade. Brush with milk edges of 
filled pieces. Cover with unfilled pieces and press edges 
closely l^ogether with fingers first dipped in flour. If this is 
not carefully done fritters will separate during frying. Fry 
in deep fat, drain on brown paper, and sprinkle with pow- 
dered sugar. 



354 BOi$l^o£r CfOO]£m^i9C£LOOL. oooc booic 

Clean brains, and cook twenty minutes in boiling watery 
to which is added one-half teaspoon salt, one tablespoon 
lemon juice, three cloves, two slices onion, and one-half 
bay leaf. Kemove from range, and let stand in water until 
cold ; drain, dry between towels, and separate into pieces. 
Make a batter of one-half cup flour, one teaspoon baking 
powder, one-fourth teaspoon salt, a few grains pepper, one 
egg well beaten, aud one-fourth cup milk. Add brains, and 
drop mixture by spoonfuls into greased muffin rings, placed 
in a frying-pan in which there is a generous supply of hot 
lard. Cook on one side until well browned, turn, and cook 
other side. Arrange on serving dish and pour around 
Sauce Finiste (see p. 279). 

Clam Fritters 

1 pint clams lineups flour '♦ 

2 eggs 2 teaspoons baking powder 
1^ cup milk Salt 

Pepper 

Clean clams, drain from their liquor, and chop. Beat eggs 
until light, add milk and flour mixed aud sifted with baking 
powder, then add chopped clams, and season highly with salt 
and pepper. Drop by spoonfuls, and fry in deep fat. 
Drain on brown paper, and serve at once on a folded 
napkin. 

Croquettes 
Before making Croquettes, consult Rules for Testing Fat 
for Frying, page 21; Egging and Crumbing, page 22; 
Uses for Stale Bread, page 69 ; and Potato Croquettes, 
page 316. 

Banana Croquettes 

Remove skins from bananas, scrape, using a silver knife 
to remove the astringent principle which lies close to skin, 
and cut in halves crosswise ; then remove a slice from each 
end. Dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, 
and drain on brown paper. 



ENTREES 3^ 

Cheese Croquettes 

3 tablespoons butter 1 cup mild cheese, cut in 

^ cup flour very small cubes 

% cup milk y^ cup grated Gruyfere cheese 

Yolks 2 eggs Salt and pepper 

Few grains cayenne 

Make a thick white sauce, using butter, flour, and milk, 
add yolks of eggs without first beating, and stir until well 
mixed ; then add grated cheese. As soon as cheese melts, 
remove from fire, fold in cheese cubes, and season with salt, 
pepper, and cayenne. Spread in a shallow pan, and cool. 
Turn on a board, cut in small squares or strips, dip in 
crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, and drain 
on brown paper. Serve for a cheese course. 

Chestnut Croquettes 

1 cup mashed French chestnuts Yolks 2 eggs 

2 tablespoons thick cream 1 teaspoon sugar 

y^ teaspoon vanilla 

Mix ingredients in order given. Shape in balls, dip in 
crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, and drain. 

Chestnut Roulettes 

1 cup chestnut puree 2 tablespoons butter 

2 eggs 2 tablespoons heavy cream 
Few drops onion juice 3^ teaspoon salt 

Few grains paprika 

Mix ingredients in order given, cook two minutes, and 
cool. Shape a little larger than French chestnuts, dip in 
crumbs, egg, and crumbs again. Fr}^ in deep fat, and drain 
on brown paper. 

Lenten Croquettes 

Soak one-half cup lentils and one-fourth cup dried lima 
beans over night, in cold water to cover; drain, add three 
pints water, one-half small onion, one stalk celery, three 
slices carrot, and a sprig of parsley. Cook until lentils are 
soft, remove seasonings, drain, and rub through a sieve. 
To palp add oi^half eup stale bread crumbs, one egg &lighU;^ 



S56 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

beaten, and salt and pepper to taste. Melt one tablespoon 
butter, add one tablespoon flour, and pour on gradually one- 
third cup hot cream; combine mixtures, and cool. Shape, 
dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, and 
drain on brown paper. Serve with Tomato Sauce I, 

Rice Croquettes w^ith Jelly 

}£ cup rice 1 teaspoon salt 

1^ cup boiling water Yolks 2 eggs 

1 cup scalded milk 1 tablespoon butter 

Wash rice, add to water with salt, cover, and steam until 
rice has absorbed water. Then add milk, stir lightly with a 
fork, cover, and steam until rice is soft. Remove from fire, 
add egg yolks and butter ; spread on a shallow plate to cool. 
Shape in balls, roll in crumbs, then shape in form of nests. 
Dip in egg, again in crumbs, fry in deep fat, and drain. 
Put a cube of jelly in each croquette. Arrange on a folded 
napkin, and garnish with parsley, or serve around game. 

S"weet Rice Croquettes 

To rice croquette mixture add two tablespoons powdered 
sugar and grated rind one-half lemon. Shape in cylinder 
forms, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, 
and drain. 

Rice and Tomato Croquettes ' 



1^ cup rice 


2 cloves 


^ cup stock 


3=^ teaspoon peppercorns 


3^ can tomatoes 


1 teaspoon sugar 


1 slice onion 


legg 


1 slice carrot 


^ cup grated cheese 


1 sprig parsley 


1 tablespoon butter 


1 sprig thyme 


X teaspoon salt 



Few grains cayenne 

Wash rice, and steam in stock until rice has absorbed 
stock ; then add tomatoes which have been cooked twenty 
minutes with onion, carrot, parsley, thyme, cloves, pepper- 
corns, and sugar, and then rubbed through a strainer. 
Remove froia fire, add egg slightly beaten, cheese, butter, 



BNTRl^BS 857 

salt, and cayenne. Spread, on a plate to cool. Shape in 
form of cylinders, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry 
in deep fat, and drain. 

Oyster Crabs k la Newburg 

1 cup oyster crabs Salt 

1 cup mushroom caps Cayenne 

3^ cup Sherry wine Nutmeg 

^ cup butter ^ cup cream 

1 tablespoon flour Yolks two eggs 

1 tablespoon brandy 

Peel mushroom caps and break in pieces. Add oyster 
crabs and wine, cover, and let stand one hour. Melt butter, 
add first mixture, and cook eight minutes. Add flour, and 
cook two minutes. Season with salt, cayenne, and nutmeg; 
then add heavy cream. Just before serving add egg yolks, 
slightly beaten, and brandy. 

Oyster and Macaroni Croquettes 

J^ cup macaroni, broken in Few grains cayenne 

1^ inch pieces Few grains mace 

1 pint oysters )4 teaspoon lemon juice 

1 cup Thick White Sauce ^4 cup grated cheese. 

Cook macaroni in boiling salted water until soft, drain in 
a colander, and pour over macaroni two cups cold water. 
Clean and parboil oysters, remove tough muscles, and cut 
soft parts in pieces. Reserve one-half cup oyster liquor and 
use in making Thick White Sauce in place of all milk. 
Mix macaroni and oysters, add Thick White Sauce and season- 
ings. Spread on a plate to cool. Shape, dip in crumbs, egg, 
and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, and drain. 

Oysters k la Somerset 

1 pint selected oysters }^ cup oyster liquor 

1 tablespoon chopped onion 3^ cup Chicken Stock 

2 tablespoons chopped mush- Salt 

rooms Pepper 

3 tablespoons butter Cayenne 

4 tablespoons flour 

Parboil and drain oysters. 'Reserve liquor, strain, and 
set aside for sauce. Cook Qmon m^ mushroom in butter 



868 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

fire minutes, add flour, and pour on gradually oyster liquor 
and chicken stock. Season with salt, pepper, and cayenne. 
Remove tough muscles from oysters, and discard. Shape 
oysters, cover with sauce, and cool on a plate covered with 
stale bread crumbs. Dip in egg and stale bread crumbs, fry 
in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. 

Salmon Croquettes 

1^ cups cold flaked salmon Few grains cayenne 

1 cup Thick White Sauce 1 teaspoon lemon juice 

Salt 

Add sauce to salmon, then add seasonings. Spread on a 
plate to cool. Shape, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, 
fry in deep fat, and drain. 

Salmon Cutlets 

Mix equal parts of cold flaked salmon and hot mashed 
potatoes. Season with salt and pepper. Shape in form of 
cutlets, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep 
fat, and drain. Arrange in a circle, having cutlets overlap 
one another, on a folded napkin. Garnish with parsley. 

Lobster Croquettes 

2 cups chopped lobster meat Few grains cayenne 
% teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon lemon 

^ teaspoon mustard 1 cup Thick White Sauce 

Add seasonings to lobster, then add Thick White Sauce. 
Cool, shape, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in 
deep fat, and drain. Serve with Tomato Cream Sauce. 

Lobster Cutlets 

2 cups chopped lobster meat 1 teaspoon lemon juice 
% teaspoon salt Yolk 1 Qgg 

Few grains cayenne 1 teaspoon finely chopped 

Few gratings nutmeg parsley 

1 cup Thick White Sauce 

Mix ingredients in order given, and cool. Shape in form, 
of cutlets, crumb, and fry same as croquettes. Make a cut 
at small ^nd of eacL c^tl^ti and insert in eacfe the tip end of 



ENTK^S 359 

a small claw. Stack around a mound of parsley. Serve with 
Sauce Tartare. 

Beef and Rice Croquettes 
1 cup chopped beef '^ teaspoon pepper 

(cut from top of roiind) Few grains cayenne 

y^ cup rice Cabbage 

% teaspoon salt Tomato Sauce 

Mix beef and rice, and add salt, pepper, and cayenne. 
Cook cabbage leaves two minutes in boiling water to cover. 
In each leaf put two tablespoons mixture, and fold leaf to 
enclose mixture. Cook one hour in Tomato Sauce. 

Tomato Sauce. Brown four tablespoons butter, add five 
tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually one and one-half 
cups each Brown Stock and stewed and strained tomatoes. 
Add one slice onion, one slice carrot, a bit of bay leaf, a 
sprig of parsley, four cloves, three-fourths teaspoon salt, 
one-fourth teaspoon pepper, and a few grains cayenne. 
Cook ten minutes, and strain. 

Lamb Croquettes 

1 tablespoon finely chopped 1 cup cold cooked lamb, cut in 

onion small cubes 

2 tablespoons butter ^ cup boiled potato cubes 
}^ cup flour Salt and pepper 

1 cup stock 1 teaspoon finely chopped 

parsley 

Fry onion in butter five minutes, then remove onion. To 
butter add flour and stock, and cook two minutes. Add meat, 
potato, salt, and pepper. Simmer until meat and potato have 
absorbed sauce. Add parsley, and spread on a shallow dish 
to cool. Shape, dip in crumbs, q%^^ and crumbs again, fry 
in deep fat, and drain. Serve with Tomato Sauce. 

Veal Croquettes 

2 cups chopped cold cooked veal Few grains cayenne 
% teaspoon salt Few drops onion juice 
% teaspoon pepper Yolk 1 ^^^g 

1 cup thick sauce made of White Soup Stock 

Mix ingredients in order given. Cool, shape, crumb, and 
fry same as other croquettes. 



S60 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Chicken Croquettes I 

1^ cups chopped cold cooked 1 teaspoon lemon juice 

fowl Few drops onion juice 

^ teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon finely chopped 
1^ teaspoon celery salt parsley 

Few grains cayenne 1 cup Thick White Sauce 

Mix ingredients in order given. Cool, shape, crumb, and 
fry same as other croquettes. 

White meat of fowl absorbs more sauce than dark meat. 
This must be remembered if dark meat alone is used. Cro- 
quette mixtures should always be as soft as can be con- 
veniently handled, when croquettes will be soft and creamy 
inside. 

Chicken Croquettes II 

Clean and dress a four-pound fowl. Put into a kettle 
with six cups boiling water, seven slices carrot, two slices 
turnip, one small onion, one stalk celery, one bay leaf, and 
three sprigs thyme. Cook slowly until fowl is tender. Re- 
move fowl; strain liquor, cool, and skim off fat. Make a 
thick sauce, using one-fourth cup butter, one-half cup flour, 
one cup chicken stock, and one-third cup cream. Remove 
meat from chicken, chop, and moisten with sauce. Season 
with salt, cayenne, and slight grating of nutmeg ; then add 
one beaten egg, cool, shape, crumb, and fry same as other 
croquettes. Arrange around a mound of green peas, and 
serve with Cream Sauce or Wine Jelly. 

Chicken and Mushroom Croquettes 
Make as Chicken Croquettes I, using one and one-third 
oups chicken meat and two-thirds cup chopped mushrooms. 

Maryland Croquettes 

Season one cup chopped cold cooked fowl with salt, celery 
salt, cayenne, lemon juice, and onion juice; moisten with 
sauce, and cool. Parboil one pint selected oysters, drain, 
and cover each oyster with chicken mixture. Dip in crumbs, 
tjgg, and crumbs ; fry in deep fat, and drain. 

Sauce. Melt one and one-half tablespoons butter, add 
'tiuwe taWespoons flour, and gradually one-third cup oyster 



ENTREES 361 

liquor and two tablespoons cream. Season with salt and 
cayenne. 

Lincoln Croquettes 
Mix one cup each bread crumbs, walnut meats cut in 
pieces, and cold cooked chicken cut in cubes. Moisten with 
a sauce made by melting one and one-half tablespoons butter, 
adding one and one-half tablespoons flour, and pouring on 
gradually, while stirring constantly, one-half cup chicken 
stock. Season with salt, celery salt, paprika, nutmeg, and 
Sherry wine. Shape in balls, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, 
fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Serve with a 
sauce made of one-half chicken stock and one-half cream 
and flavored with Sherry wine. 

Cutlets of Sweetbreads k la Victoria 

2 pairs parboiled sweetbreads Slight grating nutmeg 

2 teaspoons lemon juice 1 teaspoon finely chopped 

1^ teaspoon salt parsley 

1^ teaspoon pepper 1 egg 

1 cup Thick White Sauce 

Chop the sweetbreads, of which there should be two 
cups ; if not enough, add chopped mushrooms to make two 
cups, then season. Add egg, slightly beaten, to sauce, and 
combine mixtures. Cool, shape, crumb, and fry. Make a 
cut in small end of each cutlet, and insert in each a piece of 
cold boiled macaroni one and one-half inches long. Serve 
with Allemande Sauce. 

Epigrams of Sweetbreads 
Parboil a sweetbread, drain, place in a small mould, 
cover, and press with a weight. Cut in one-half inch slices, 
and spread with the following mixture : Fry one-third tea- 
spoon finely chopped shallot in one and one-half tablespoons 
butter three minutes, add three tablespoons chopped mush- 
rooms, . and cook three minutes ; then add two and one- 
half tablespoons flour, one-half cup stock, two tablespoons 
cream, one tablespoon Sherry wine, one egg yolk, and salt 
and pepper to taste. Cool, dip in crumbs, eg§, and crumbs, 
fry in deep fat, and drain. 



862 BOSTON OOOKINQ-SOHOOL COOK BOOK 

Swedish Timbales 

% cup flour % cup milk 

% teaspoon salt 1 egg 

1 teaspoon sugar 1 tablespoon olive oil 

Mix dry ingredients, add milk gradually, and beaten egg ; 
then add olive oil. Shape, using a hot timbale iron, fry in 
deep fat until crisp and brown ; take from iron and invert 
on brown paper to drain. 

To Heat Timbale Iron. Heat fat until nearly hot enough 
to fry uncooked mixtures. Put iron into hot fat, having fat 
deep enough to more than cover it, and let stand until 
heated. The only way of knowing when iron is of right 
temperature is to take it from fat, shake what fat may drip 
from it, lower in batter to three-fourths its depth, raise from 
batter, then immerse in hot fat. If batter does not cling to 
iron, or drops from iron as soon as immersed in fat, it is 
either too hot or not sufficiently heated. 

To rorm Timbales. Turn timbale batter into a cup. 
Lower hot iron into cup, taking care that batter covers 
iron to only three-fourths its depth. When immersed in 
fat, mixture will rise to top of iron, and when crisp and 
brown may be easily slipped off. If too much batter is 
used, in cooking it will rise over top of iron, and in order 
to remove timbale it must be 'cut around with a sharp knife 
close to top of iron. If the cases are soft rather than crisp, 
batter is too thick and must be diluted with milk. 

Fill cases with Creamed Oysters, Chicken, Sweetbreads, 
or Chicken and Sweetbreads in combination with Mush- 
rooms. 

Bunuelos 

Use recipe for and fry same as Swedish Timbales, using a 
Bunuelos iron. Serve with cooked fruit and with or with- 
out whipped cream sweetened and flavored. 

Strawberry Baskets 

Fry Swedish Timbales, making cases one inch deep. Fill 
with selected strawberries, sprinkled with powdered sugar. 
Serve as a first course at a ladies' luncheon. 



ENTREES 363 

Rice Timbales 

Pack hot boiled rice in slightly buttered small tin moulds. 
Let stand in hot water ten minutes. Use as a garnish for 
curried meat, fricassee, or boiled fowl. 

Macaroni Timbales 

Line slightly buttered Dario moulds with boiled macaroni. 
Cut strips the length of height of mould,, and place closely 
together around inside of mould. Fill with Chicken, or 
Salmon Force-meat. Put in a pan, half surround with hot 
water, cover with buttered paper, and bake thirty minutes in 
a moderate oven. Serve with Lobster, Bechamel, or Hollan- 
daise Sauce L 

Spaghetti Timbales 

Line bottom and sides of slightly buttered Dario moulds 
with long strips of boiled spaghetti coiled around the inside. 
Fill and bake same as Macaroni Timbales. 

Pimento Timbales 

Line small timbale moulds with canned pimentoes. Fill 
with Chicken Timbale II mixture (see p. 366), and bake 
until firm. Remove from moulds, insert a sprig of parsley 
in top of each, and serve with 

Bro^v'n Mushroom Sauce 

3 tablespoons butter )^ lb. mushrooms 

Few drops onion juice 1 teaspoon beef extract 

3}^ tablespoons flour Salt 

1 cup cream Paprika 

Melt butter, add onion juice, and cook until slightly 
browned ; then add flour and continue the browning. Pour 
on, gradually, whUe stirring constantly, the cream. Clean 
mushrooms, peal caps, cut in slices lengthwise, and saute 
in butter five minutes. Break stems in pieces, cover with 
cold water, and cook slowly until liquor is reduced to one- 
third cup ; then strain. Dissolve beef extract in. mushroom 
liquor. Add to sauce, and season with salt and paprika. 
Just before serving, add sauted caps. 



364 BOSTON COOKIKG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Halibut Timbales I 

1 lb. halibut Few grains cayenne 

}{ cup thick cream 1)4 teaspoons lemon juice 

^ teaspoon salt Whites 3 eggs 

Cook halibut in boiling salted water, drain, and rub 
through a sieve. Season with salt, cayenne, and lemon 
juice; add cream beaten until stiff, then beaten whites of 
eggs. Turn into small, slightly buttered moulds, put in a 
pan, half surround with hot water, cover with buttered 
paper, and bake twenty minutes in a moderate oven. Re- 
move from moulds, arrange on a serving dish, pour around 
Bechamel Sauce or Lobster Sauce II, and garnish with 
parsley. 

Halibut Timbales II 

1 lb. halibut ^ teaspoon pepper 
^ cup milk Few grains cayenne 
Yolk 1 egg % teaspoon corn-starch 
\}^ teaspoons salt 3^ cup thick cream 

Force fish through a meat chopper, then rub through a 
sieve or finely chop. Add yolk of egg, seasonings, corn- 
starch, and cream beaten until stiff. Cook same as Halibut 
Timbales I and serve with Cream or Lobster Sauce. 

Lobster Thnbales I 
Sprinkle slightly buttered Dario or timbale moulds with lob- 
ster coral rubbed through a strainer. Line moulds with Fish 
Force-meat I, fill centres with Creamed Lobster, and cover 
with force-meat. Put in a pan, half surround with hot water, 
place over moulds buttered paper, and bake twenty minutes 
in a moderate oven. Serve with Lobster or Bechamel 
Sauce. 

Lobster Timbales II 

2 lb. live lobster 2 eggs 

^ cup stale bread crumbs Sherry wine 

1^ cup heavy cream Salt and pepper 

Split lobster, remove intestinal vein, liver, and stomach. 
Crack claw shells with mallet, then remove all meat, scrap- 
ing as close to shell as possible to obtain the color desked. 



KNTRiSBS 866 

Force meat through a sieve, add bread crumbs, cream, 
eggs slightly beaten, and salt, pepper, and Sherry wine to 
taste. Fill small timbale moulds two-thirds full, place in 
iron frying-pan, and pour in boiling water to two-thirds the 
depths of the moulds. Place over moulds buttered paper 
and cook on the range until firm, keeping water below the 
boiling-point. Remove from moulds and serve with Hot 
Mayonnaise (see p. 278). 

Lobster Cream I 

2 lb. lobster 2 teaspoons anchovy sauce 

% cup soft stale bread crumbs % teaspoon salt 

% cup milk Few grains cayenne 

3^ cup cream Whites 3 eggs 

Remove lobster meat from shell and chop finely. Cook 
bread and milk ten minutes. Add cream, seasonings, and 
whites of eggs beaten until stiff. Turn into one slightly 
buttered timbale mould and two slightly buttered Dario 
moulds. Bake as Lobster Timbales. Remove to serving 
dish, having larger mould in centre, smaller moulds one at 
either end. Pour around Lobster Sauce I, sprinkle with 
coral rubbed through a sieve, and garnish with pieces of 
lobster shell from tail, and parsley. 

Lobster Cream II 

1 cup chopped lobster meat Few drops onion juice 

1 tablespoon butter 2 tg'g yolks 



. 1 tablespoon flour y^ cup milk 

1 teaspoon salt V^ cup heavy cream 

% teaspoon paprika White one ^gg^ beaten stiff 



Cook lobster meat with butter five minutes. Add flour» 
seasonings, egg yolks, milk, cream beaten until stiff, and 
white of egg. Fill buttered timbale moulds three-fourths 
full, set in pan of hot water, cover with buttered paper, and 
bake until firm. Serve with Lobster Sauce. 



Chicken Timbales I 



Garnish slightly buttered Dario moulds with chopped truf- 
fles or slices of truffles cut in fancy shapes. Line with 
Chicken Force-meat I; fill centres with Creamed Chicken and 



BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Mushrooms, to which has been added a few chopped truffles. 
Cover with Force-meat, and bake same as Lobster Timbales 
Serve with Bechamel or Yellow Bechamel Sauce. 

Chicken Timbales II 

2 tablespoons butter %, tablespoon chopped 

^ cup stale bread crumbs parsley 

% cup milk 2 eggs 

1 cup chopped cooked chicken Salt 

Pepper 

Melt butter, add bread crumbs and milk, and cook five 
minutes, stirring constantly. Add chicken, parsley, and 
eggs slightly beaten. Season with salt and pepper. Turn 
into buttered individual moulds, having moulds two-thirds 
full set in pan of hot water, cover with buttered paper, and 
bake twenty minutes. Serve with Bechamel Sauce. 

Chicken Timbales III 

Soak one-half tablespoon granulated gelatine in one and 
one-half tablespoons cold water, and dissolve in three-fourths 
cup chicken stock. Add one cup chopped cooked chicken, 
and stir until the mixture begins to thicken, then add one 
cup cream beaten until thick. Add one tablespoon Sherry 
wine and a few grains cayenne. Mould, chill, and serve 
on lettuce leaves. 

Ham Timbales 

Make and bake same as Chicken Timbales II, using 
chopped cooked ham in place of chicken. Serve with Bech- 
amel Sauce. 

Sweetbread and Mushroom Timbales 

Cook two tablespoons butter with one sliced onion five 
minutes. Add one and one-half cups mushroom caps finely 
chopped, and one small parboiled sweetbread, finely chopped ; 
then add one cup White Sauce II, one-fourth cup stale bread 
crumbs, one red pepper chopped, one-half teaspoon salt, 
yolks two eggs, well beaten, and whites two eggs, beaten 
until stiff. Fill buttered timbale moulds, set in pan of hot 



^BNTREBS 367 

water, cover with buttered paper, and bake fifteen minutes. 
Remove to serving dish and pour around 

Mushroom Sauce. Clean five large mushroom caps, cut 
in halves crosswise, then in slices. Saute in three table- 
spoons butter five minutes; dredge with two tablespoons 
flour, add one-third cup cream and one cup chicken stock, 
and cook two minutes. Season with salt and paprika, and 
add one chopped truffle. 

Sweetbread Mousse 

Parboil a sweetbread ten minutes, chop, and rub through 
sieve ; there should be one-half cup. Mix with one-third cup 
breast meat of a raw chicken, and rub through sieve. Pound 
in mortar, add gradually white of one egg, and work until 
smooth, then add three- fourth ''j cup heavy cream. Line but- 
tered timbale moulds with mixture, fill centres, cover with 
mixture, place in a pan of hot water, cover with buttered 
paper and bake until firm. Remove to serving dish, and pour 
around sauce. 

Filling. Melt one tablespoon butter, add one tablespoon 
corn-starch, and pour on gradually one-fourth cup White Stock; 
then add one-third cup parboiled sweetbread cut in cubes, 
one tablespoon Sherry wine, and salt and pepper to taste. 

Sauce. Melt three tablespoons butter, add three table- 
spoons flour, and pour on one cup rich chicken stock and one- 
half cup heavy cream. Season with one tablespoon Sherry 
wine, one-fourth teaspoon beef extract, and salt and pepper 
to taste. 

Supreme of Chicken 

Breast and second joints of un- 4 eggs 

cooked chicken weighing 1)^ cups thick cream 

4 lbs. Salt and pepper 

Force chicken through a meat chopper, or chop very finely. 
Beat eggs separately, add one at a time, stirring until mix- 
ture is smooth. Add cream, and season with salt and pep- 
per. Turn into slightly buttered Dario moulds, and bake 
same as Lobster Timbales, allowing thirty minutes for bafc» 
mg. Servt with Supreme or Bechamel Sauce. 



868 BOSTON COOKIKG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Devilled Oysters 

1 pint oysters y^ tablespoon finely chopped 

y^ cup butter parsley 

^ cup flour % teaspoon salt 

% cup milk Few grains cayenne 

Yolk 1 Q^g 1 teaspoon lemon juice 

Buttered cracker crumbs 

Clean, drain, and slightly chop oysters. Make a sauce 
of butter, flour, and milk; add egg yolk, seasonings, and 
oysters. Arrange buttered scallop shells in a dripping-pan, 
half fill with mixture, cover with buttered crumbs, and bake 
twelve to fifteen minutes in a hot oven. Deep oyster shells 
may be used in place of scallop shells. 

Crab meat, Indienne 

2 tablespoons butter ^ tablespoon curry powder 
1 teaspoop finely chopped onion 1 cup chicken stock 

3 tablespoons fiour 1 cup crab meat 

Salt 

Cook butter with onion three minutes, add flouj* mixed 
with curry powder and chicken stock. When boiling-point is 
reached add crab meat and season with salt. 

Devilled Crabs 

1 cup chopped crab meat Yolks 2 eggs 

^ cup mushrooms, finely chopped 2 tablespoons Sherry wine 

2 tablespoons butter 1 teaspoon finely chopped 
2 tablespoons flour parsley 

% cup White Stock Salt and pepper 

Make a sauce of butter, floui, and stock; add yolks of 
eggs, seasonings (except parsley), crab meat, and mush- 
rooms. Cook three minutes, add parsley, and cool mixture. 
Wash and trim crab shells, fill rounding with mixture, 
sprinkle with stale bread crumbs mixed with a small quantity 
of melted butter. Crease on top with a case knife, having 
three lines parallel with each other across shell and three 
short lines branching from outside parallel lines. Bake until 
crumbs are brown. 



SNTBBBS 



Devilled Scallops 



369 



1 quart scallops 1 teaspoon salt 

}{ cup butter Few grains cayenne 

3^ teaspoon made mustard ^ cup buttered cracker 

crumbs 

Clean scallops, drain, and heat to the boiling-point ; drain 
again, and reserve liquor. Cream the butter, add mustard, 
salt, cayenne, two-thirds cup reserved liquor, and scallops 
chopped. Let stand one-half hour. Put in a baking-dish, 
cover with crumbs, and bake twenty minutes. 

Fried Oyster Crabs 
"Wash and drain crabs. Roll in flour, and shake in a sieve 
to remove superfluous flour. Fry in a basket in deep fat, 
having fat same temperature as for cooked mixtures. Drain, 
and place on a napkin, and garnish with parsley and slices 
of lemon. Serve with Sauce Tyrolienne. 

Bouch^es of Oyster Crabs 

Pick over oyster crabs, dip in flour, cold milk, and crumbs, 
fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Fill bouchee 
cases with crabs. 

Halibut Marguerites 

Line a buttered tablespoon with Fish Force-meat II. Fill 
with Creamed Lobster, cover with force-meat, and garnish 
with force-meat, forced through a pastry bag and tube, in 
the form of a marguerite, having the centre colored yellow. 
Slip from spoon into boiling water, and cook eight minutes. 
Serve with Bechamel or Lobster Sauce. 

Cromesquis k la Russe ' 

Melt two tablespoons butter, add two tablespoons flour, 
, and pour on gradually one-half cup milk ; then add one-half 
cup finnan haddie which has been parboiled, drained, and 
separated into small pieces. Season with cayenne, and 
spread on a plate to cooL Cut French pancakes in pieces 
two by four inches. On lower halves of pieces put one 
tablespoon mixturoc Brush edges with beaten egg, fold 

M 



870 BOSTON OOOElNChBGHOOL COOK BOOK 

over upper halves, press edges firmly together, dip in 
crumbs, egg, and crumbs, fry in deep fat, and drain. 
Serve garnished with parsley. 

French Pancakes. To one-fourth cup bread flour add 
one-third cup milk, one egg, and one-tourth teaspoon salt ; 
beat thoroughly. Heat an omelet pan, butter generously, 
cover bottom of pan with mixture, cook until browned on 
one side, turn, and cook on other side. 

Shad Roe with Celery 

Clean a shad roe, cook in boiling, salted, acidulated water 
twenty minutes, and drain. Plunge into cold water, drain, 
remove membrane, and separate roe into pieces. Melt three 
tablespoons butter, add roe, and cook ten minutes ; then 
add one tablespoon butter, one-half cup chopped celery, few 
drops each onion and lemon juice, and salt and pepper. 
Serve on pieces of toasted bread. 

Stuffed Clams 

Cover bottom of dripping-pan with rock salt. Arrange 
two quarts large-sized soft-shelled clams on salt, in such a 
manner that liquor will not run into pan as clam shells open. 
As soon as shells begin to open, remove clams from shells, 
and chop. Reserve liquor, strain, and use in making a 
thick sauce (follow directions for thick White Sauce for 
Croquettes, p. 266), making one-half rule, and using one- 
fourth cup each clam liquor and cream. Season highly with 
lemon juice and cayenne. Moisten clams with sauce, fill 
shells, sprinkle with grated cheese, cover with buttered soft 
stale bread crumbs, and bake in a hot oven until crumbs are 
brown. 

Crab Meat, Terrapin Style 

1 cup crab meat 2 tablespoons Sherry wine 

2 tablespoons butter }^ cup heavy cream 
^ small onion, thinly sliced Yolks 2 eggs 

Salt and cayenne 

Cook butter and onion until yellow ; remove onion, add 
orab meat and wine. Cook three minutes, add cream, yolka 
of tgff^ aali, and oajenne. 



WKTsmm 871 

Mock Grabs 

4 tablespoons butter 1}4 c^ps scalded milk 

3^ cup flour 1 can Komlet 

1}£ teaspoons salt 1 egg 

^ teaspoon mustard 3 teaspoons Worcestershire Sauoe 

^ teaspoon paprika 1 cup buttered cracker crumbs 

Melt butter, add flour mixed with dry seasonings, and 
pour on gradually the milk. Add Kornlet, egg slightly 
beaten, and Worcestershire Sauce. Pour into a buttered 
baldng-dish, cover with crumbs, and bake until crumbs are 
brown. 

Martin's Specialty 

}^ tablespoon onion (finely chopped) Stock 

2 tablespoons butter 1 egg yolk 

1 cup chopped cooked chicken or veal Salt and pepper 

1 cup soft bread crumbs Lettuce 

Cook onion in butter three minutes. Add meat and 
bread crumbs, moisten with stock, and add egg yolk and 
seasonings. Wrap in lettuce leaves, allowing two table- 
spoons mixture to each portion. Tie in cheese-cloth and 
steam. Remove to serving dish and pour around Tomato 
Sauce. 

Sweetbread Ramequlns 

Clean and parboil a sweetbread and cut in cubes. Melt 
two tablespoons butter, add three tablespoons flour, and 
pour on gradually one cup chicken stock. Reheat sweet- 
bread in sauce and add one-fourth cup heavy cream and 
one and one-half teaspoons beef extract Season with salt, 
paprika, and lemon juice. Fill ramequin dishes, cover 
with buttered crumbs, and bake until crumbs are brown. 

Sweetbread k la Mont Vert 

Parboil a pair of sweetbreads, and gash. Decorate in 
gashes with truflfles cut in thin slices, and slice in fancy 
shapes. Melt three tablespoons butter, add two slices 
onion, six slices carrot, and sweetbreads ; fry five minutes. 
Four off butter, and add one-fourth cup browd stock ftwd 



372 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

two tablespoons Sherry wine. Cook in oven twenty-five 
minutes, basting often until well glazed. Serve in nests 
of peas, and pour around Mushroom Sauce. 

Nests. Drain and rinse one can peas, and rub through 
a sieve. Add three tablespoons butter, and salt and pepper 
to taste. Heat to boiling-point, and shape in nests, using 
pastry bag and tube. 

Mushroom Sauce. Clean three large mushroom caps, 
cut in halves crosswise, then in slices. Saute in two table- 
spoons butter five minutes. Dredge with one tablespoon 
flour, and add one cup cream and liquor left in pan in which 
sweetbreads were cooked. Cook two minutes. 

Sweetbread in Peppers 

Parboil sweetbread, cool, and cut in small pieces; there 
should be one cup. Melt two tablespoons butter, add two 
tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually one-half cup chic- 
ken stock; then add two tablespoons heavy cream, and 
one-third cup mushroom caps broken in small pieces. Season 
with salt, paprika, and Worcestershire Sauce. Cut a slice 
from stem end of six peppers, remove seeds, and parboil 
peppers five minutes. Cool, fill, cover with buttered crumbs, 
and bake until crumbs are brown. Break stems of mush- 
rooms, cover with cold water, and cook slowly twenty minutes. 
Melt two tablespoons butter, add a few drops onion juice, 
two tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually the water 
drained from mushroom stems, and enough chicken stock to 
make one cup. Add one-fourth cup heavy cream, and season 
with salt and paprika. Pour sauce around peppers. When 
parboiling peppers add one-fourth teaspoon soda to water. 

Cutlets of Chicken 

Remove fillets from two chickens; for directions, see 
page 245. Make six parallel slanting incisions in each 
mignon fillet and insert in each a slice of truffle, having the 
part of truffle exposed cut in points on edge. Arrange small 
fillets on large fillets. Garnish with truffles cut in small 
shapes, and Chicken Force-meat forced through a pastry 
bag and tube. Place in a greased pan, add one- third cup 



ENTJRllBS 378 

White Stock, cover with buttered paper, and bake fifteen 
minutes in a hot oven. Serve with Supreme or Bechamel 
Sauce. 

Fillets of Game 

Eemove skin from breasts of three partridges. Cut off 
breasts, leaving wing joints attached. Separate large from 
mignon fillets. Make five parallel slanting incisions in each 
mignon fillet, and insert in each a slice of truffle, having 
part of truffle exposed cut in points on edge. Beginning 
at outer edge of large fillets make deep cuts, nearly sepa- 
rating fillets in two parts, and stuff with Chicken Force- 
meat I or II. Arrange small fillets on large fillets. Place 
in a greased baking-pan, brush over with butter, add one 
tablespoon Madeira wine and two tablespoons mushroom 
liquor. Cover with buttered paper, and bake twelve minutes 
in a hot >ven. Serve with Supreme Sauce. 

Chicken Cutlets 

Remove fillets from two chickens; for directions, see 
page 245. Dip each in thick cream, roll in flour, and saute 
in larci three minutes. Place in a pan, dot over with butter, 
and bake ten minutes. Serve with White Sauce I, to which 
is added one tablespoon meat extract. 

Russian Cutlets 

Cover bottom of cutlet moulds with Russian Pilaf and 
cover Pilaf with Chicken Force-meat II (see p. 150), dou- 
bling the recipe and omitting nutmeg. Set moulds in pan of 
hot water, cover with buttered paper, and bake in a moder- 
ate oven fifteen minutes. Remove from moulds to serving 
dish, surround with Brown Mushroom Sauce, and garnish 
with parsley. 

Russian Pilaf. Wash one-half cup rice. Mix one cup 
highly seasoned chicken stock with three-fourths cup gtewed 
and strained tomato, and heat to boiling-point Add rice, 
and steam until rice is soft. Add two tablespoons butter, 
stirring lightly with a fork that kernels may not be broken, 
Mid MMon wkk Mdt 



874 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Brown Mushroom Sauce 

8 tablespoons butter 1)^ cups brown stock 

1 slice carrot *^ lb. mushrooms 

1 slice onion 1 cup cold water 

1 tablespoon lean raw 1 teaspoon beef extract 

ham, finely chopped Salt 

6 tablespoons flour Pepper 

Cook butter with vegetables and ham until brown, add 
flour, and when well browned add stock, gradually, then 
strain. Clean mushroom stems, break in pieces, cover with 
water, and cook slowly until stock is reduced to one-third 
cup. Strain, and add to sauce with beef extract and season- 
ings. Just before serving add mushroom caps peeled, cut 
in slices lengthwise, and sauted in butter five minutes. 

Chicken d la McDonald 

1 cup cold cooked chicken, cut 3 tablespoons butter 

in strips 3 tablespoons flour 

8 cold boiled potatoes, cut 1% cups scalded milk 

in one-third inch sUces Salt 

1 truffle cut in strips Pepper 

Make a sauce of butter, flour, and milk. Add chicken, 
potatoes; and trufllc; and, as soon as heated, add seasoning. 

Chicken Mousse 

Make a chicken force-meat of one-half the breast of a raw 
chicken pounded and forced through a pur^e strainer, the 
white of one egg slightly beaten, one-half cup heavy cream, 
and salt, pepper, and cayenne to taste. Add three-fourths 
cup cooked white chicken meat rubbed through a sieve, the 
white of an egg slightly beaten, and one-half cup heavy cream 
beaten until stiff. Decorate a buttered mould with truffles, 
turn in mixture, set in pan of hot water, cover with buttered 
paper, and bake until firm. Remove to platter, and pour 
around Cream or B6chamel Sauce. 

Fillets of Chicken, Saaoe SuiurABie 

BemoTe fillets from three chickens, leaving wing joint and 
a piMt of heme attached to eadi fillet. Saserre mignoA 




Russian Cutlets. — Page 373. 



m'T-atm^rnv'^m ta imi mmmimmmi m itim ' 'g w nawwi _um,«aii i iii! ' iii'iini)!i» « 




Dresden Patties. — Page 380. 




Devilled Crabs. — Page 




Pan Broiled Lamb Chops a la Lucullus. — Page 376. 



fillets for the making of force-meat Make a pocket in each 

large fillet, and stuff with one-half tablespoon force-meat; 
close pockets, and fasten each with five pieces of truflle, 
shaped to represent nails and drawn through with a larding 
needle. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, put in small baking- 
pan, brush over with cold water, add one-half cup Madeira 
wine, cover with buttered paper, and bake in a hot oven ten 
minutes. Arrange cooked mushroom caps overlapping one 
another the entire length of platter, put a chop frill on bone 
of each fillet, and put three fillets on each side of mushrooms. 
Garnish with celery tips and pour around 

Sauce Suprime. Cook remaining chicken with one small 
sliced carrot, one onion, one stalk celery, two sprigs parsley, 
and a bit of bay leaf, with enough water to cover, one hour. 
Strain and cook stock until reduced to one cup. Melt two 
tablespoons butter, add two tablespoons flour, and pour on 
stock ; cook slowly fifteen minutes. Add three-fourths cup 
heavy cream and season with salt and pepper; then add 
twelve peeled white mushroom caps and cook five minutes. 
Remove caps to platter and add one-fourth cup heavy cream 
to sauce. 

Chicken Force-meat. Put mignon fillets through a meat 
chopper, add one-half the quantity of stale bread crumbs 
cooked with milk until moisture has nearly evaporated. 
Cool and put through puree strainer; then add one and 
one-half tablespoons melted butter, yolk one egg, two table- 
spoons cream, and salt and pepper to taste. 

Birds on Canapes 

Split five birds (quails or squabs), season with salt and 
pepper, and spread with four tablespoons butter, rubbed 
until creamy, and mixed with three tablespoons flour. Bake 
in a hot oven until well browned, basting every four minutes 
with two tablespoons butter, melted in one-fourth cup water. 
Chop six boiled chickens' livers, season with salt, pepper, 
and onion juice, moisten with melted butter, and add one 
teaspoon finely chopped parsley. Spread mixture on five 
pieces toasted bread, arrange a bird on each canap^, and 
gamifth with parsley. 



376 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Breast of Quail LucuUus 

Remove breasts with bone from six quail, lard, and bake 
in a hot oven twenty minutes, basting every five minutes with 
rich brown stock, that breasts may have a glazed appear- 
ance. Mould corn meal or hominy mush in cone shape; 
when firm remove from mould and sprinkle with finely 
chopped parsley. Arrange breasts on cone around base, 
and make six nests of mashed seasoned sweet potato 
around base of cone at equal distances, using a pastry bag 
and rose tube. Fill nests with creamed mushrooms and 
sweetbread. Garnish between nests with toasted bread 
points, the tips of which have been brushed with white of 
egg, then dipped in finely chopped parsley. Insert a stab 
frill in each nest and one in top of cone. 

Serve with one and one-half cups rich brown sauce sea- 
soned with tomato catsup and mashed sweet potato. A 
small amount of the sweet potato gives a suggestion of 
chestnuts. 

Pan Broiled Lamb Chops k la LucuUus 

Pan broil lamb chops and garnish same as Breast of Quail 
LucuUus. 

Chickens' Liverd en Brochette 

Cut each liver in four pieces. Alternate pieces of liver 
and pieces of thinly sliced bacon on skewers, allowing one 
liver and five pieces of bacon for each skewer. Balance 
skewers in upright positions on rack in dripping-pan. Bake 
in a hot oven until bacon is crisp. Serve garnished with 
watercress. 

Chestnuts en Casserole 

Remove shells from three cups chestnuts, put in a casse- 
role dish, and pour over three cups highly seasoned chicken 
stock. Cover, and cook in a slow oven three hours ; then 
thicken chicken stock with two tablespoons butter and one 
and one-half tablespoons flour cooked together. Send to 
table in casserole dish. 



ENTE^ES 877 

Cheese Fondue 

1 cup scalded milk 1 tablespoon butter 

1 cup soft stale bread crumbs % teaspoon salt 
y^ lb. mild cheese, cut in small Yolks 3 eggs 

pieces Whites 3 eggs ' 

Mix first five ingredients, add yolks of eggs beaten until 
lemon-colored. Cut and fold in whites of eggs beaten until 
stiff. Pour in a buttered baking-dish, and bake twenty 
minutes in a moderate oven. 

Cheese Soufil§ 

2 tablespoons butter Few grains cayenne 

3 tablespoons flour )^ cup grated Old English or 
% cup scalded milk Young America cheese 
% teaspoon salt Yolks 3 eggs 

Whites 3 eggs 

Melt butter, add flour, and when well-mixed add gradu- 
ally scalded milk. Then add salt, cayenne, and cheese. 
Remove from fire; add yolks of eggs beaten until lemon- 
colored. Cool mixture, and cut and fold in whites of eggs 
beaten until stiff and dry. Pour into a buttered baking- 
dish, and bake twenty minutes in a slow oven. Serve 
at once. 

Ramequins Sou&l^s 

Bake Cheese Souffle mixture in ramequin dishes. Serve 
for a course in a dinner. 

Cheese Balls 

\% cups grated mild cheese Few grains cayenne 

1 tablespoon flour Whites 3 eggs 

y^ teaspoon salt Cracker dust 

Mix cheese with flour and seasonings. Beat whites of 
eggs until stiff, and add to first mixture. Shape in small 
balls, roll in cracker dust, fry in deep fat, and drain on 
brown paper. Serve with salad course. 

Compote of Rice with Peaches 
Wash two-thirds cup rice, add one cup boiling water, 
(wd steam until rice has absorbed water ; then add one and 



378 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

one-third cups hot milk, one teaspoon salt, and one-fourth 
cup sugar. Cook until rice is soft. Turn into a slightly 
buttered round shallow mould. When shaped, remove from 
mould to serving dish, and arrange on top sections of cooked 
peaches drained from their syrup and dipped in macaroon 
dust. Garnish between sections with candied cherries and 
angelica cut in leaf-shapes. Angelica may be softened by 
dipping in hot water. Color peach syrup with fruit red, and 
pour around mould. 

Compote of Rice and Pears 

Cook and mould rice as for Compote of Rice with Peaches. 
Arrange on top quarters of cooked pears, and pour around 
pear syrup. 

Croustades of Bread 

Cut stale bread in two inch slices, and slices in diamonds, 
squares, or circles. Remove centres, leaving cases. Fry in 
deep fat or brush over with melted butter, and brown in 
oven. Fill with creamed vegetables, fish, or meat. 

Hice Croustades 
Wash one cup rice, and steam in White Stock. Cool, 
and mix with three-fourths cup Thick White Sauce, to which 
has been added beaten yolk of one egg, slight grating of 
nutmeg, one-half teaspoon salt, and one-eighth teaspoon 
pepper. Spread mixture in buttered pan two inches thick, 
cover with buttered paper, and place weight on top. Let 
stand until cold. Turn from pan, cut in rounds, remove 
centres, leaving cases ; dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, and 
fry in deep fat. Fill with creamed fish. 

Souffle au Rhum 

Yolks 2 eggs 1 tablespoon rum 

^ cup powdered sugar Whites 4 eggs 

Few grains salt 

Beat yolks of eggs until lemon-colored. Add sugar, salt, 
and rum. Cut and fold in whites of eggs beaten until stiff 
and dry. Butter a hot omelet pan, pour in one-half mixture, 
blown underneath, fold gradually, torn on a hot serving 



dish, and aprinkle with powdered sugar. Cook remaining 
mixture in same way. Souffle au Rhum should be slightly 
underdone inside. At gentlemen's dinners rum is sometimes 
poured around souffle and lighted when sent to table. 

Omelet SoufQ^ 

Yolks 2 eggs % teaspoon yanilla 

)^ cup powdered sugar Whites 4 eggs 

Few grains salt 

Prepare same as Souffle au Rhum. Mound three-fourths 
of mixture on a slightly buttered platter. Decorate mound 
with remaining mixture forced through a pastry bag and 
tube. Sprinkle with powdered sugar, and bake ten minutes 
in a moderate oven. 

Patties 

Patty shells are filled with Creamed Oysters, Oysters in 
Brown Sauce, Creamed Chicken, Creamed Chicken and 
Mushrooms, or Creamed Sweetbreads. They are arranged 
on a folded napkin, and are served for a course at dinner 
or luncheon. 

Bouch^es 

Small pastry shells filled with creamed meat arc called 
bouchees. 

Vol-au-vents 

Vol-au-vents are filled same as patty shells. 

Rissoles 

Roll puff paste to one-eighth inch thickness, and cut in 
rounds. Place one teaspoon finely chopped seasoned meat 
moistened with Thick White Sauce on each round. Brush 
each piece with cold water half-way round close to edge. 
Fold like a turnover, and press edges together. Dip in egg 
slightly beaten and diluted with one tablespoon water. Roll 
in gelatine, fry in deep fat, and drain. Granulated gelatine 
cannot be used. 

Filling for Rissoles. Mix one-half cup finely chopped 
cold cooked chicken with one-fourth cup finely chopped 



380 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

cooked ham. Moisten with Thick White Sauce, and season 
with salt and cayenne. 

Cigarettes d la Prince Henry 

Roll pufif paste very thin, and spread with Chicken Force- 
meat. Roll like a jelly roll, and cut in pieces four inches 
long and a little larger round than a cigarette. Brush over 
with egg, roll in crumbs, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown 
paper. Arrange log-cabin fashion on a folded doily, and 
serve while hot. 

Zigaras k la Russe 

Make and fry same as Cigarettes k la Prince Henry, using 
cheese mixture in place of Chicken Force-meat. Melt two 
tablespoons butter, add four tablespoons flour, and pour on 
gradually one-half cup milk, then add one tablespoon heavy 
cream, one egg yolk, and one-third cup grated cheese. Sea- 
son highly with salt and cayenne. Cool before spreading on 
paste. 

Dresden Patties 

Cut stale bread in two-inch slices, shape with a round 
cutter three inches in diameter, and remove centres, making 
cases. Dip cases in egg, slightly beaten, diluted with milk 
and seasoned with salt, allowing two tablespoons milk to 
each egg. When bread is thoroughly soaked, drain, and fry 
in deep fat. Fill with any mixture suitable for patty cases. 

Russian Patties 

1 pint oysters X tablespoon vinegar 

3 tablespoons butter ^ tablespoon lemon juice 

4)4 tablespoons flour | Yolks 2 eggs 
3^ cup chicken stock 1 tablespoon grated horseradish 

)^ cup cream 2 tablespoons capers 

Salt and pepper 

Parboil oysters, drain, and reserve liquor ; there should be 
one-half cup. Make sauce of butter, flour, stock, oyster 
liquor, and cream ; add yolks of eggs, seasonings, and salt 
and pepper to taste. Add oysters, and as soon as oysters 
we heatedj fill patty shells. 



ENTREES S81 

Cheese Souffle with Pastry 

2 eggs }{ cup grated Parmesan 

^ cup thick cream cheese 

^ cup Swiss cheese, cut Salt and pepper 

in small dice Few grains cayenne 

)4 cup grated American cheese Few gratings nutmeg 

Add eggs to cream and beat slightly, then add cheese and 
seasonings. Line the sides of ramequin dishes with strips 
of puff paste. Fill dishes with mixture until two-thirds full. 
Bake fifteen minutes in a hot oven. 

Lamb Rissoles k I'Indienne 

Roll puff paste one-eighth inch thick and shape, using cir- 
cular cutters of different sizes. On the centres of smaller 
pieces put one tablespoon prepared lamb mixture, wet edges, 
cover with large pieces, press edges firmly together, prick 
upper paste in several places, brush over with yolk of egg 
diluted with one teaspoon cold water, and bake in hot oven. 

Lamb Filling. Cook three tablespoons butter, with a few 
drops onion juice, until well browned, add one-fourth cup 
flour, and brown butter and flour, then add one cup lamb 
stock. Season highly with salt, paprika, and curry powder. 
To one-half the sauce, add twp-thirds cup cold roast lamb 
cut in one-third inch cubes. Add stock to remaining sauce, 
and pour around rissoles just before sending to table. 

Quail Pies 

6 quails Bit of bay leaf 

6 slices carrot }£ teaspoon peppercorn9 

Stalk of celery Flour 

2 slices onion Salt and pepper 

Sprig of parsley Sherry wine 

Remove breasts and legs from birds, season with salt and 
pepper, dredge with flour, and saute in butter. To but- 
ter in pan add vegetables and peppercorns, and cook five 
minutes. Separate backs of birds in pieces, cover with cold 
water, add vegetables, and cook slowly one hour. Drain 
stock from vegetables, and thicken with flour diluted with 
•Bougk ooUl water to pour easily. Season with salt, pepper. 



382 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

and wine. If not rich enough, add more butter. Allow one 
bird to each individual dish, sauce to make sufficiently moist, 
and cover with plain or pufif paste, in which make two inci- 
sions, through which the legs of the bird should extend. 

Aspic Jelly 

Carrot 1 „ , , , , % cup white or Madeira wine 

Onion l^ tablespoons each, ( ^^^ ^^j^^^^^ 

Celery J ^^* ^^ ^^^®^ 1 quart White Stock for 
2 sprigs parsley vegetables and white 

2 sprigs thyme meat, or 

1 sprig savory 1 quart Brown Stock for 

2 cloves dark meat 
% teaspoon peppercorns Juice 1 lemon 

1 bay leaf Whites 3 eggs 

Aspic jelly is always made with meat stock, and is princi- 
pally used in elaborate entrees where fish, chicken, game, or 
vegetables are to be served moulded in jelly. In making 
Aspic Jelly, use as much liquid as the pan which is to con- 
tain moulded dish will hold. 

Put Tegetables, seasonings, and wine in a saucepan; 
cook eight minutes, and strain, reserving liquid. Add gela- 
tine to stock, then add lemon juice and strained liquid. 
Season with salt and cayenne and whites of eggs slightly 
beaten. Add slowly to remaining mixture, stirring con- 
stantly until boiling-point is reached. Place on back of 
range and let stand thirty minutes. Strain through a 
double cheese-cloth placed over a fine wire strainer, or 
through a jelly bag. 

Tomatoes in Aspic 

Peel six small firm tomatoes, and remove pulp, having 
opening in tops as small as possible. Sprinkle insides with 
salt, invert, and let stand thirty minutes. Fill with vegeta- 
ble or chicken salad. Cover tops with Mayonnaise to which 
has been added a small quantity of dissolved gelatine, and 
garnish with capers and sliced pickles. Place a pan in ice- 
water, cover bottom with aspio jelly mixture, and let stand 



mtrmsKS 388 

until jelly is firm. Arrange tomatoes on jelly garnished side 
down. Add more aspic jelly mixture, let stand until firm, 
and so continue until all is used. Chill thoroughly, turn on 
a serving dish, and garnish around base with parsley. 

Stuffed Olives in Aspic 

Stone olives, using an olive stoner, and fill cavities thus 
made with green butter. Place small Dario moulds in pan of 
ice-water, and pour in aspic jelly mixture (see p. 382) one- 
fourth inch deep. When firm put an olive in each mould 
(keeping olives in place by means of small wooden skewers) 
and add aspic by spoonfuls until moulds are filled. Chill 
fhoroughly, remove to circular slices of liver sausage, garnish 
with green butter forced through a pastry bag and tube, yolks 
of " hard-boiled " eggs forced through a strainer, and red pep- 
pers cut in fancy shapes. 

Green Butter. Mix yolk one " hard-boiled " egg, two table- 
spoons butter, one sprig parsley, one sprig tarragon, one 
small shallot, one-half teaspoon anchovy paste, one teaspoon 
capers, and one teaspoon chopped gherkins, and pound in a 
mortar ; then rub through a very fine sieve. Season with 
salt and pepper, and add a few drops vinegar. 

Tongue in Aspic 

Cook a tongue according to directions on page 210. After 
removing skin and roots, run a skewer through tip of tongue 
and fleshy part, thus keeping tongue in shape. When cool, 
remove skewer. Put a round pan in ice-water, cover bottom 
with brown aspic, and when firm decorate with cooked car- 
rot, turnip, beet cut in fancy shapes, and parsley. Cover 
with aspic jelly mixture, adding it by spoonfuls so as not to 
disarrange vegetables. When this layer of mixture is firm, 
put in tongue, adding gradually remaining mixture as in To- 
matoes in Aspic. 

Birds in Aspic 

Clean, bone, stuff, and truss a bird, then steam over body 
l^x^et Qr roast. If roasted, do not dredge with flour. Fat 



884 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

a pan in ice-water, cover bottom with aspic jelly mixture, 
and when firm garnish with trftffles and egg custard thinly 
sliced and cut in fancy shapes. Tlie smaller the shapes 
the more elaborate may be the designs. When garnishing 
with small shapes, pieces are so difficult to handle that 
they should be taken on the pointed end of a larding-needle, 
and placed as desired on jelly. Add aspic mixture by 
spoonfuls, that designs may not be disturbed. When mix- 
ture is added, and firm to the depth of three-fourths inch, 
place in the bird, breast down.. If sides of mould are to 
be decorated, dip pieces in jelly and they will cling to pan. 
Add remaining mixture gradually as in Tomatoes in Aspic. 
Small birds, chicken, capon, or turkey, may be put in 
aspic. 

Egg Custard for Decorating 

Separate yolks from whites of two eggs. Beat yolks 
slightly, add two tablespoons milk and few grains salt. 
Strain into a buttered cup, put on a saucepan, surround 
with boiling water to one-half depth of cup, cover, put on 
back of range, and steam until custard is firm. Beat 
whites slightly, add few grains salt, and cook as yolks. 
Cool, turn from cups, cut in thin slices, then in desired 
shapes. 

Stuffing for Chicken in Aspic 

Chop finely breast and meat from second joints of an un- 
cooked chicken, or one pound of uncooked lean veal. Add 
one-half cup cracker crumbs, hot stock to moisten, salt, 
pepper, celery salt, cayenne, lemon juice, and one egg 
slightly beaten. In stuffing boned chicken, stuff body, legs, 
and wings, being careful that too' much stuffing is not used, 
as an allowance must be made for the swelling of cracker 
crumbs. 

Spring Mousse 

Chop three-fourths cup cold cooked chicken or veal, and 
pound in a mortar. Add gradually one-half cup heavy 
cream^ and force mixture through puree strainer. Add 



SNTBiSS 385 

one-half tablespoon granulated gelatine dissolved in three 
tablespoons White Stock. Add another one-half cup heavy 
cream and season with salt, cayenne, and horseradish 
powder. Pour jelly into small moulds one-third inch deep, 
using lemon Sauterne, or aspic. When firm, fill moulds 
with veal mixture and set aside te chill. Remove from 
moulds and serve on lettuce leaves. 

Chaud-froid of Eggs 

Cut six "hard-boiled" eggs in halves lengthwise and 
remove yolks. Mix one-third cup cold cooked chicken finely 
chopped, two tablespoons cold cooked ham finely chopped, 
two tablespoons chopped raw mushroom caps, one-half table- 
spoon chopped truffles, and yolks of four of the eggs rubbed 
through a sieve. Moisten with Spanish Sauce and refill 
whites .Tith mixture. Mask eggs with Spanish Sauce, gar- 
nish with truffles, cut in fancy shapes, and brush over with 
aspic. Arrange on serving dish ajid garnish with cress. 

Spanish Sauce. Cook one and one-half cups canned to- 
matoes fifteen minutes with one-fourth onion, sprig of pars- 
ley, bit of bay leaf, six cloves, one-third teaspoon salt, 
one-fourth teaspoon paprika, and a few grains cayenne; 
then rub through a sieve. Beat yolks three eggs slightly, 
and add, gradually, three tablespoons olive oil. Combine 
mixtures and cook over hot water, stirring constantly. Add 
one tablespoon granulated gelatine soaked in three-fourths 
tablespoon each tarragon vinegar and cold water. Strain, 
and cool. 

Jellied Vegetables 

Soak one tablespoon granulated gelatine in one-fourth cup 
cold water, and dissolve in one cup boiling water ; then add 
one-fourth cup, each, sugar and vinegar, two tablespoons 
lemon juice, and one teaspoon salt. Strain, cool, and when 
beginning to stiffen, add one cup celery cut in small pieces, 
one-half cup finely shredded cabbage, and one and one-half 
canned pimentoes cut in small pieces. Turn into a mould 
and chill. Remove from mould and arrange around jelly thin 
slices of cold cooked meat overlapping one another. Gamiflk 
Kith celery tipa. 

m 



886 BOSTON OOOKIKGHSOHOOL COOK BOOK 

Majonnaisoof Mackerel 

Clean two medium- sized mackerel, put in baking-dish with 
one-third cup each water, cider vinegar, and tarragon vine- 
gar, twelve cloves, one teaspoon each peppercorns and salt, 
and a bit of bay leaf. Cover with buttered paper and cook 
in a moderate oven. Arrange on serving dish, remove skin, 
cool, and mask with Mayonnaise thickened with gelatine. 
Let stand until thoroughly chilled, and garnish with sliced 
cucumbers, lemon baskets filled with Mayonnaise sprinkled 
with finely chopped parsley, and sprigs of parsley. 

Chaud-froid of Chicken 

2 tablespoons butter % teaspoon granulated gel- 

3 tablespoons flour atine dissolved in one 

1 cup White Stock tablespoon hot water 
Yolk one egg Aspic Jelly 

2 tablespoons cream Truffles 

1 tablespoon lemon juice 6 pieces cooked chicken, 

Salt and pepper shaped in form of cutlets 

Make a sauce of butter, flour, and stock; add egg yolk 
diluted with cream, lemon juice, salt and pepper; then add 
dissolved gelatine. Dip chicken in sauce which has been 
allowed to cool. When chicken has cooled, garnish upper 
side with truffles cut in shapes. Brush over with aspic jelly 
mixture, and chill. Arrange a bed of lettuce ; in centre pile 
cold cooked asparagus tips or celery cut in small pieces, 
marinated with French Dressing, and place chicken at base 
of salad. 

Moulded Salmon, Cucumber Sauce 

1 can salmon Folks 2 eggs 

}^ tablespoon salt 1% tablespoons melted butter 

1% tablespoons sugar % cup milk 

% tablespoon flour >^ cup vinegar 

1 teaspoon mustard % tablespoon granulated 
Few grains cayenne gelatine 

2 tablespoons cold water 

Remove salmon from can, rinse thoroughly with hot water, 
and separate in flakes. Mix dry ingredients, add egg yolks, 
butter, milk, and yinegar. Cook over boiling water, stirring 




Chaud-froid of Eggs. — Page 385. 




Capon in Aspic garnished with cooked yolks and whites of 

EGGS CUT IN FANCY SHAPES, PISTACHIO NUTS, AND TRUFFLES. 

Page 384. 




Harvard Pudding served with Crushed Berries and Whipped 
Cream. — Page 4OO. 




Snowballs garnished with Strawberries and served with 
Crushed Strawberries and Whipped Cream. — Page401. 



constantly until mixture thickens. Add gelatine soaked in 
cold water. Strain, and add to salmon. Fill- individual 
mould, chill, and serve with 

Cucumber Sauce II. Beat one-half cup heavy cream until 
stiff, add one-fourth teaspoon salt, a few grains pepper, and 
gradually two tablespoons vinegar ; then add one cucumber, 
pared, chopped, and drained through cheese cloth. 

Moulded Chicken, Sauterne Jelly 

Cover a four-pound fowl with two quarts cold water, and 
add four slices carrot, one onion stuck with eight cloves, two 
stalks celery, bit of bay leaf, one-half teaspoon peppercorns, 
and one tablespoon salt. Bring quickly to boiling-point, and 
let simmer until meat is tender. Remove meat from bones, 
and finely chop. Reduce stock to three-fourths cup, cool, 
and remove fat. Soak one tedspoon granulated gelatine in 
one teaspoon cold water, and dissolve in stock which has 
been reheated. Add to meat, and season with salt, pepper, 
celery salt, lemon juice, and onion juice. Pack solidly into 
a slightly buttered one-pound baking powder tin, and chill. 
Remove from tin, cut in thin slices, and arrange around 
Sauterne Jelly, beaten with a fork until light. 

When making Sauterne Jelly (see p. 420) to serve with 
meat, use but three tablespoons sugar. 

Lenoz Chicken 

1 tablespoon granulated gelatine 1)4 teaspoons sugar 
^ cup hot chicken stock 1 teaspoon mustard 
% cup heavy cream ^ teaspoon pepper 

^/4 ^^V^ ^^1^ cooked chicken, 2 tablespoons lemon juioe 

cut in dice 1 tablespoon vinegar 

}^ tablespoon granulated gelatine )4 ^^P ^^^ cream 

2 tablespoons cold water 1>^ tablespoons butter 
Yolks 2 eggs Whites 2 eggs 

1 teaspoon salt )4 ^^P heavy cre&m 

2 cups finely chopped celery 

Dissolve one tablespoon gelatine in chicken stock and 
■train. When mixture begins to thicken beat until frothy, 
Hid add tkrw-fowthft cop keavy orcam, b«at«i util itit, 



388 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

and chicken dice. Season with salt and pepper, turn into 
individual. moulds, and chill. Soak remaining gelatine in 
cold water, dissolve by standing over hot water, then strain. 
Beat yolks of eggs slightly and add salt, sugar, mustard, 
lemon juice, vinegar, and hot cream. Cook over hot water 
until mixture thickens, add butter and strained gelatine. 
Add mixture, gradually, to whites of eggs beaten stiff, and 
when cold, fold in heavy cream beaten untfl stiff, and celery. 
Remove chicken from mould, surround with sauce, and gar- 
nish with celery tips. 

Rum Cakes 

Shape Brioche dough in the form of large biscuits and put 
into buttered individual tin moulds, having moulds two-thirds 
full ; cover, and let rise to fill moulds. Bake twenty-five 
minutes in a moderate oven. Remove from moulds and dip 
in Rum Sauce. Arrange on a dish and pour remainitig sauce 
around cakes. 

Rum Sauce 
% cup sugar 1 cup bdiling water 

^ cup rum or wine 

Make a syrup by boiling sugar and water five minutes ; 
then add rum or wine. 

Fiates 

Shape Brioche dough in sticks similar to Bread Sticks. 
Place on a buttered sheet, cover, and let rise fifteen min- 
utes. Brush over with white of one egg slightly beaten and 
diluted with one-half tablespoon cold water. Sprinkle with 
powdered sugar and bake ten minutes. These are delicious 
served with coffee or ©hocolate. 

Baba Cakes 

To one and one-half cups Brioche dough add one-third 
cup each raisins seeded and cut in pieces, currants, and 
citron thinly sliced, previously soaked in Maraschino for 
one hour. Shape, let rise, and bake same as Rum Cakes. 
Dip in sauce made same as Rum Sauce, substituting Maras* 
chino in place of rum. 



inmtBiiS 389 

Baba Ca^s vrith Apricota 

IK cups flour % cup butter 

1 yeast cake dissolved in 4 eggs 

% cup lukewarm water % cup sugar 
^ teaspoon salt 

Make sponge of one-half cup flour and dissolved yeast 
cake ; cover and let rise. Mix remaining flour with butter, 
two eggs, sugar, and salt. Beat thoroughly, and add, while 
beating, remaining eggs, one at a time, then beat until mix- 
ture is perfectly smooth. As soon as sponge has doubled 
its bulk, combine mixtures, beat thoroughly, and half fill 
buttered individual tins. Let rise, and bake in a moderate 
oven. Remove from tins, cut a circular pieee from top of 
each, and scoop out a small quantity of the Inside. Fill 
centres thus made with Apricot Marmalade, replace circular 
pieces, and serve with Wine Sauce (see p. 409). 



190 BOSTON OOOKmCHSOfiOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XXm 
HOT PUDDINGS 

Rice Padding 

i enps milk % teaspoon salt 

% cup rice % cup sugar 

-U Grated rind }^ lemon 

Wash rice, mix ingredients, and pour into buttered 
pudding-dish ; bake three hours in very slow oven, stirring 
three times during first hour of baking to prevent rice from 
settling. 

Poor Man's Pudding 

4 cups milk 3^ teaspoon salt 

% cup rice % teaspoon cinnamon 

% cup molasses 1 tablespoon butter 

Wash rice, mix and bake same as Rice Pudding. At last 
stirring, add butter. 

Indian Pudding 

5 cups scalded milk % <^^P molasaes 
y^ cup Indian meal 1 teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon ginger 

Pour milk slowly on meal, cook in double boiler twenty 
minutes, add molasses, salt, and ginger ; pour into buttered 
pudding-dish and bake two hours in slow oven ; serve with 
cream. If baked too rapidly it will not whey. Ginger may 
be omitted. 

Cerealine Pudding 

4 cups scalded milk % ^^V molasses 

2 cups cerealine 1% teaspoons salt 

1)4 tablespoons butter 

Pour milk on cerealine, add remaining ingredients, pour 
into buttered pudding-dish, and bake one hour in slow oven. 
Serve with cream. 



HOT PTIDDINQS 891 

Newton Tapioca 

5 tablespoons pearl tapioca % cup molasses 

4 cups scalded milk 3 tablespoons butter 

4 tablespoons Indian meal 1% teaspoons salt 

1 cup milk 

Soak tapioca two hours in cold water to cover. Pour 
scalded milk over Indian meal and cook in double boiler 
ten minutes. Add tapioca drained from water, molasses, 
butter and salt ; turn into buttered pudding-dish, and pour 
over remaining milk, but do not stir. Bake one and one- 
fourth hours in a moderate oven. 

Apple Tapioca 

% cup pearl or }^ cup minute tapioca % teaspoon salt 
Cold water 7 sour apples 

2% cups boiling water }4 ^^V sugar 

Soak tapioca one hour in cold water to cover, drain, add 
boiling water and salt ; cook in double boiler until transpar- 
ent. Core and pare apples, arrange in buttered pudding- 
dish, fill cavities with sugar, pour over tapioca, and bake 
in moderate oven until apples are soft. Serve with sugar 
and cream or Cream Sauce I. Minute Tapioca requires no 
soaking. 

Tapioca Custard Pudding 

4 cups scalded milk % cup sugar 

% cup pearl or 3^ cup minute tapioca 1 teaspoon salt 

3 eggs 1 tablespoon butter 

Soak tapioca one hour in cold water to cover, drain, add 
to milk, and cook in double boiler thirty minutes ; beat eggs 
slightly, add sugar and salt, pour on gradually hot mixture, 
turn into buttered pudding-dish, add butter, bake thirty min- 
utes in slow oven. 

Peach Tapioca 

1 can peaches Boiling water 

^ cup powdered sugar ^ cup sugar 

1 cup tapioca ^ teaspoon salt 

Drain peaches, sprinkle with powdered sugar, and let stand 
one hour ; soak tapioca one hour in cold water to cover ; to 



892 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

peach syrup add enough boiling water to make three cups ; 
heat to boiling-point, add tapioca drained from cold water, 
sugar, and salt ; then cook in a double boiler until transpar- 
ent. Line a mould or pudding-dish with peaclies cut in quar- 
ters, fill with tapioca, and bake in moderate oven thirty 
minutes ; cool slightly, turn on a dish, and serve with Cream 
Sauce I. 

Corn Pudding 

2 cups popped corn, finely pounded % cup brown sugar 

3 cups milk 1 tablespoon butter 
3 eggs, slightly beaten ^ teaspoon salt 

. Scald milk, pour over corn, and let stand one hour. Add 
remaining ingredients, turn into a buttered dish, and bake in 
a slow oven until firm. Serve with cream, or maple syrup. 

Scalloped Apples 

1 small baker's stale loaf ^ cup sugar 

^ cup butter ^ teaspoon grated nutmeg 

1 quart sliced apples Grated rind and juice of % lemon 

Cut loaf in halves, remove soft part, and crumb by rubbing 
through a colander; melt butter and stir in lightly with 
fork; cover bottom of buttered pudding-dish with crumbs 
and spread over one-half the apples, sprinkle with one-half 
sugar, nutmeg, lemon juice, and rind mixed together; repeat 
cover with remaining crumbs, and bake forty minutes in mod- 
erate oven. Cover at first to prevent crumbs browning too 
rapidly. Serve with sugar and cream. 

Bread Pudding 

2 cups stale bread crumbs 2 eggs 

1 quart scalded milk % teas-poon salt 

y^ cup sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla or 

J^ cup melted butter y^ teaspoon spice 

Soak bread crumbs in milk, set aside until cool ; add sugar, 
butter, eggs slightly beaten, salt, and flavoring ; bake one 
hour in buttered pudding-dish in slow oven ; serve with 
Vanilla Sauce. In preparing bread crumbs for puddings 
avoid using outside crusts. With a coarse grater there need 
be but little waste. 



HOT PUDDINGS 893 

Cracker Custard Pudding 

Make same as Bread Pudding, using two-thirds cup 
cracker crumbs in place of bread crumbs ; after baking, cover 
with meringue made of whites two eggs, one-fourth cup 
powdered sugar, and one tablespoon lemon juice ; return to 
oven to cook meringue. 

Bread and Butter Pudding 

1 small baker's stale loaf y^ cup sugar 
Butter 1^ teaspoon salt 

3 eggs 1 quart milk 

Remove end crusts from bread, cut loaf in one-half inch 
slices, spread each slice generously with butter; arrange 
in buttered pudding-dish, buttered side down. Beat eggs 
slightly, add sugar, salt, and milk; strain, and pour over 
bread; let stand thirty minutes. Bake one hour in slow 
oven, covering the first half-hour of baking. The top of 
pudding should be well browned. Serve with Hard or 
Creamy Sauce. Three-fourths cup raisins, parboiled in 
boiling water to cover and seeded, may be sprinkled 
between layers of bread. 

Bread and Butter Apple Pudding 

Cover bottom of a shallow baking-dish with apple sauce. 
Cut stale bread in one-third inch slices," spread with softened 
butter, remove crusts, and cut in triangular-shaped pieces; 
then arrange closely together over apple. Sprinkle gener- 
ously with sugar, to which is added a few drops vanilla. 
Bake in a moderate oven and serve with cream. 

Chocolate Bread Pudding 

2 cups stale bread crumbs % cup sugar 

4 cups scalded milk 2 eggs 

2 squares unsweetened chocolate 3^ teaspoon salt 
1 teaspoon vanilla 

Soak bread in milk thirty minutes ; melt chocolate in sauce- 
pan placed over hot water, add one-half sugar and enough 
milk taken from bread and milk to make of consistency to 
pour; add to mixture with remaining sugar, salt, vanilla, 



894 BOSTON OOOSmG-SOHOOL OOOK BOOK 

and eggs slightly beaten; turn into buttered pudding-dish 
and bake one hour in a moderate oven. Serve with Hard or 
Cream Sauce I. 

Mock Indian Pudding 

^ small loaf baker's 3)^ cups milk 

entire-wheat bread y^ cup molasses 

Butter 

Remove crusts from bread and cut into five slices of uni- 
form thickness. Spread generously with butter, arrange in 
baking-dish, pour over three cups of milk and molasses. 
Bake from two to three hours in a very slow oven, stirring 
three times during the first hour of baking, then add remain- 
ing milk. Serve with cream or vanilla ice cream. 

Bangor Pudding 

\y^ cups cracker crumbs y^ cup molasses 

Boiling water 1 egg 

2 cups milk 1 cup raisins 

Moisten cracker crumbs with boiling water, and let stand 
until cool. Add milk, molasses, egg slightly beaten, and 
raisins seeded and cut in pieces. Turn into a buttered pud- 
ding mould, and steam eight hours. Let stand in mould to 
cool. Serve cold with Cream Sauce II. 

Steamed Lemon Pudding 

8 small slices stale bread 3 tablespoons sugar 

Lemon mixture 2 eggs 

1 cup milk Grated rind 1 lemon 

% teaspoon salt 

Spread bread with lemon mixture, and arrange in buttered 
pudding mould. Beat eggs slightly, add sugar, salt, and 
milk ; strain, add lemon rind, and pour mixture over bread. 
Cover, set in pan of hot water, and bake one hour. 

Lemon Mixture. Cook three tablespoons lemon juice, 
grated rind one lemon, and one-fourth cup butter two min- 
utes. Add one cup sugar and three eggs slightly beaten ; 
oook nxLtil mixture thickens^ oool, and udd one tablespoon 
bnmdj. 



HOT PUDDINGS ttM^ 

Cottage Padding 
^ cup butter 1 cup milk 

% cup sugar 2^ cups flour 

1 egg 4 teaspoons baking powder 

% teaspoon salt 

Cream the batter, add sugar gradually, and egg well 
beaten ; mix and sift flour, baking powder, and salt ; add 
alternately with milk to first mixture; turn into buttered 
cake-pan; bake thirty-five minutes. Serve with VaDilla 
or Hard Sauce. 

Strawberry Cottage Pudding 

]^ cup butter ^ cup milk 

1 cup sugar \^ cups flour 

1 etgg 3 teaspoons baking powder 

Mix same as Cottage Pudding, and bake twenty-five 
minutes in shallow pan; cut in squares and serve with 
strawberries (sprinkled with sugar and slightly mashed) 
and Cream Sauce I. Sliced peaches may be used in place 
of strawberries. 

Orange Pafifo 

% cup butter % cup milk 

1 cup sugar 1% cups flour 

2 eggs 3 teaspoons baking powder 

Mix same as Cottage Padding, and bake in buttered 
individual tins. Serve with Orange Sauce. 

Chocolate Pudding 

}^ cap batter 3 teaspoons baking powder 

1 cap sugar Whites 2 eggs 

Tolks 2 eggs 1% squares unsweetened chocolate 

% cup milk % teaspoon salt 

1^ cups flour }^ teaspoon Tanilla 

Cream the butter, and add one-half the sugar gradually. 
Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon-colored, and add, 
gradually, remaining sugar. Combine mixtures, and add 
milk alternately with flour mixed and sifted with baking 
powd«r and salt; then add whites of eggs beaten until ttift^ 
moltod ohoocdalc, and vaoillfi. Bake in an angel-oake pai^ 



896 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

remove from pan, cool, fill the centre with whipped cream, 
sweetened and flavored, and pour around. 

Chocolate Sauce. Boil one cup sugar, one-half cup 
water, and a few grains cream-of-tartar until of the con- 
sistency of a thin syrup. Melt one and one-half squares 
chocolate and pour on gradually the hot syrup. Cool slightly, 
and flavor with one-fourth teaspoon vanilla. 

Custard SoufEl^ 

3 tablespoons butter 1 cup scalded milk 

3^ cup flour 4 eggs 

1^ cup sugar % teaspoon salt 

Melt butter, add flour, and gradually hot milk. Bring to 
boiling-point and pour on to yolks of eggs beaten until thick 
and lemon-colored, and mixed with sugar and salt ; cool, and 
cut and fold in whites of eggs beaten stiff and dry. Turn 
into buttered pudding-dish, and bake from thirty to thirty-five 
minutes in slow oven ; take from oven and serve at once, — 
if not served immediately it is sure to fall; serve with 
Creamy or Foamy Sauce. 

Apricot Souffl6 

Drain and reserve syrup from one can apricots and cut 
fruit into quarters, then put closely together on bottom of a 
buttered baking-dish. Pour over Custard Souflfle mixture. 
Bake from thirty-five to forty minutes in a slow oven. 
Serve with apricot syrup and whipped cream sweetened 
and flavored with vanilla or vanilla ice cream. Canned 
peaches may be used in place of apricots. 

Lemon SouiH^ 

Yolks 4 eggs 1 cup sugar 

Grated rind and juice 1 lemon Whites 4 eggs 

Beat yolks untU thick and lemon-colored, add sugar 
gradually and continue beating, then add lemon rind and 
juice. Cut and fold in whites of eggs beaten until dry; 
turn into buttered pudding-dish, set in pan of hot water, and 
bake thirty-five to forty minutes. Serve with or without 
sauce. 



HOT PUDDINGS 397 



Chocolate Souffl^ 

2 tablespoons butter % ^^V sngar ' 

2 tablespoons flour 2 tablespoons hot water 

% cup milk 3 eggs 

1>^ squares unsweetened chocolate % teaspoon vanilla 

Melt the butter, add flour, and pour on gradually, while 
stirring constantly, milk ; cook until boiling-point is reached. 
Melt chocolate in a small saucepan placed over hot water, 
add sugar and water, and stir until smooth. Combine mix- 
tures, and add yolks of eggs well beaten ; cool. Fold in 
whites of eggs beaten stiff, and add vanilla. Turn into a 
buttered baking-dish, and bake in a moderate oven twenty- 
five minutes. Serve with Cream Sauce I. 

Mocha Souffle 

3 tablespoons butter i^ cup sugar 

3 tablespoons bread flour }/l teaspoon salt 

% cup boiled coffee (Mocha) 4 eggs 

)^ cup cream i^ teaspoon vanilla 

Make and bake same as Chocolate Souffle. Serve with 
Mocha Sauce. Mix yolks two eggs, one-fourth cup 
sugar, and a few grains salt ; then add gradually one-half 
cup Mocha coffee infusion. Cook in double boiler until mix- 
ture thickens, stirring constantly. Strain, cool, and fold in 
one cup whipped cream. 

Priiit Souffle 

^ cap fruit pulp, peach, Whites 3 eggs 

apricot, or quince Sugar 

Few grains salt 

Rub fruit through sieve ; if canned fruit is used, first drain 
from syrup. Heat, and sweeten if needed ; beat whites of 
eggs until stiff, add gradually hot fruit pulp, and salt, and 
continue beating ; turn into buttered and sugared individual 
moulds, having them three-fourths full ; set moulds in pan 
of hot water and bake in slow oven until firm, which may 
be determined by pressing with finger ; serve with Sabyou 
Sauce. 



398 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Spanish Souffl^ 
^ cup butter 2 tablespoons sugar 

% cup stale bread crumbs 3 eggs 

1 cup milk )^ teaspoon vanilla 

Melt butter, add crumbs, cook until slightly browned, stir- 
ring often ; add milk and sugar, cook twenty minutes in 
double boiler ; remove from fire, add unbeaten yolks of eggs, 
then cut and fold in whites of eggs beaten until stiff, and 
flavor. Bake same as Fruit Souffle. 

Chestnut Souffl^ 
^ cup sugar 1 cup chestnut purfe 

2 tablespoons flour % cup milk 

Whites 3 eggs 

Mix sugar and flour, add chestnuts and milk gradually; 
cook five minutes, stirring constantly; beat whites of eggs 
until stiff, and cut and fold into mixture. Bake same as 
Fruit Souffle ; serve with Cream Sauce. 

Chocolate Rice Meringue 

2 cups milk 1 square melted chocolate 

^ cup rice % teaspoon vanilla 

% teaspoon salt 3^ cup seeded raisins 

1 tablespoon butter ' Whites two eggs 

y^ cup sugar 3^ cup heavy cream 

Scald milk, add rice and salt, and cook until rice is soft. 
Add butter, sugar, chocolate, vanilla, and raisins. Cut and 
fold in the whites of eggs, beaten until stiff, and cream, 
beaten until stiff. Pour into a buttered baking-dish, and 
bake fifteen minutes. Cover with a meringue made of the 
whites of three eggs, six tablespoons powdered sugar, and 
one-half teaspoon vanilla ; then brown in a moderate oven. 

Steamed Apple Pudding 

2 cups flour 2 tablespoons butter 
4 teaspoons baking powder % cup milk 

% teaspoon salt 4 apples cut in eightiis 

Mix and sift dry ingredients ; work in butter with tips of 
fingers, add milk gradually, mixing with a knife; toss on 



HOT PUDDINGS 899 

floured board, pat and roll out, place apples on middle of 
dough, and sprinkle with one tablespoon sugar mixed with 
one-fourth teaspoon each of salt and nutmeg; bring dough 
around apples and carefully lift into buttered mould or five- 
pound lard pail ; or apples may be sprinkled over dough, and 
dough rolled like a jelly roll ; cover closely, and steam one 
hour and twenty minutes; serve with Vanilla or Cold Sauce. 
Twice the number of apples may be sprinkled with sugar 
and cooked until soft in granite kettle placed on top of 
range, covered with dough, rolled size to fit in kettle, then 
kettle covered tightly, and dough steamed fifteen minutes. 
When turned on dish for serving, apples will be on top. 

Steamed Blueberry Pudding 

Mix and sift dry ingredients and work in butter same as 
for Steamed Apple Pudding. Add one cup each of milk, 
and blueberries rolled m flour; turn into buttered mould 
and Bteam one and one-half hours. Serve with Creamy 
Sauce. 

Steamed Cranberry Pudding 

% cup butter Z% cups flour 

1 cup sugar 1)^ tablespoons baking powder 

3 eggs }4 cup milk 

1% cups cranberries 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and eggs well 
beaten. Mix and sift flour and baking powder and add 
alternately with milk to first mixture, stir in berries, turn into 
buttered mould, cover, and steam three hours. Seire with 
thin cream, sweetened and flavored with »utmeg. 

GUnger Pudding 

^ eup butter Z% teaspoons baking powder 

% cup sugar ^ teaspoon salt 

1 e^g 2 teaspoons ginger 

2)^ cups flour 1 cup milk 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and egg well 
beaten ; mix and sift dry ingredients ; add alternately with 
milk to first mixture. Turn into buttered mould, cover, imd 
itoMii two ho«» ; mit« with Yanilk &aaod. 



400 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Harvard Pudding 

3^ cup butter Z% teaspoons baking powder 

% cup sugar J^ teaspoon salt 

2% cups flour 1 Qgg 

1 cup milk 

Mix and sift dry ingredients and work in butter with tips 
of fingers; beat egg, add milk, and combine mixtures; turn 
into buttered mould, cover, and steam two hours ; serve with 
warm Apple Sauce and Hard Sauce. 

Apple Sauce. Pick over and wash dried apples, soak 
over night in cold water to cover ; cook until soft ; sweeten, 
and flavor with lemon juice. 

Steamed Chocolate Pudding 

3 tablespoons butter 2}^ cups flour 

% cup sugar 4)-^ teaspoons baking powder 

1 egg 2)4 squares unsweetened chocolate 

1 cup milk 1^ teaspoon salt 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and egg well 
beaten. Mix and sift flour with baking powder and salt, 
and add alternately with milk to first mixture, then add 
chocolate, melted. Turn into a buttered mould. Cover, 
and steam two hours. Serve with 

Cream Sauce 

J^ cup butter % teaspoon vanilla 

1 cup powdered sugar ^i cup heavy cream 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, vanilla, and cream 
beaten until stiff. 

Swiss Pudding 

% cup butter Grated rind one lemon 

% cup flour 5 eggs 

2 cups milk % cup powdered sugar 
Cream the butter, add flour gradually ; scald milk with 

lemon rind, add to first mixture, and cook five minutes in 
double boiler. Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon- 
colored, add sugar gradually, then add to cooked mixture; 
cool, and cut and fold in whites of eggs beaten stiff. Turn 



HOT PUDDINGS 401 

into buttered mould, cover, and steam one and one-fourth 
hours; while steaming, be sure water surrounds mould to 
half its depth, and never reaches a lower temperature than 
the boiling-point. 

Snowballs 

% cup butter 2i^ cups flour 

1 cup sugar . 3i^ teaspoons baking powder 

1^ cup milk Whites 4 eggs 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, milk, and flour 
mixed and sifted with baking powder; then add the whites 
of eggs beaten stiff. Steam thirty-five minutes in buttered 
cups; serve with preserved fruit, quince marmalade, or 
strawberry sauce. 

Graham Pudding 

J^ cup butter \% cups Graham flour 

% cup molasses % teaspoon soda 

% cup milk 1 teaspoon salt 

1 ^gg 1 cup raisins, seeded and cut 

in pieces 

Melt butter, add molasses, milk, egg well beaten, dry 
Ingredients mixed and sifted, and raisins; turn rnto but- 
tered mould, cover, and steam two and one-half hours. 
Serve with Wine Sauce. Dates or figs cut in small pieces 
may be used in place of raisins. 

St. James Pudding 

3 tablespoons butter Salt \ 

3^ cup molasses Clove I 

% cup milk Allspice j ^ teaspoon each 

1^ cups flour Nutmeg J 

% teaspoon soda %, lb. dates, stoned and cut 

in pieces 

Mix and steam same as Graham Pudding. Serve with 
Wine Sauce. A simple, delicious pudding without egg. 
Puddings may be steamed in buttered one-pound baking- 
powder boxes, providing they do not leak, and are attrac- 
iBTe in shape and easy to serve. 



402 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Suet Pudding 

1 cup finely chopped suet 1% teaspoons salt 

1 cup molasses Ginger 1 

1 cup milk • Clove l)^ teaspoon each 

3 cups flour Nutmeg J 

1 teaspoon soda 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add molasses and milk to 
suet; combine mixtures. Turn into buttered mould, cover, 
and steam three hours ; serve with Sterling Sauce. Raisins , 
and currants may be added. 

Thanksgiving Pudding I 

4 cups scalded milk y^ cup melted butter 
1 % cups rolled crackers % grated nutmeg 

1 cup sugar 1 teaspoon salt 

4 eggs 1}^ cups raisins 

Pour milk over crackers and let stand until cool; add 
sugar, eggs slightly beaten, nutmeg, salt, and butter; par- 
boil raisins until soft, by cooking in boiling water to cover ; 
seed, and add to mixture ; turn into buttered pudding-dish 
and bake slowly two and one-half hours, stirring after first 
half-hour to prevent raisins from settling ; serve with Brandy 
Sauce. 

Thanksgiving Pudding II 

% cup suet }4 teaspoon grated nutmeg 

% lb. figs, finely chopped % cup English walnut meats 

2% cups stale bread crumbs % cup raisins, seeded and cut 

^ cup milk in pieces 

1 cup brown sugar 2 tablespoons flour 

1 teaspoon salt 4 eggs 

^ teaspoon cinnamon 2 teaspoons baking powder 

Chop suet and work with the hand until creamy, then add 
figs. Soak bread crumbs in milk, add eggs well beaten, 
sugar, salt, and spices. Combine mixtures, add nut meats 
and raisins dredged with flour. Sprinkle over baking 
powder and beat thoroughly. Turn into a buttered mould, 
steam three hours, and serve with Yellow Sauce II (see 
p. 407), flavored with brandy. 



HOT PTTDDINOS 408 

Hanteris' Pudding 

1 cup finely chopped suet Clove "j 

1 cup molasses Mace 1 1^ teaspoon each 

1 cup milk Allspice J 

3 cups flour 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

1 teaspoon soda 1>^ cups raisins 

l}4 teaspoons salt 2 tablespoons flour 

Mix same as Suet Pudding. Stone, cut, and flour raisins, 
and add to mixture. Then steam. 

French Fruit Pudding 

1 cup finely chopped suet % teaspoon clore 

1 cup molasses % teaspoon salt 

1 cup sour milk 1^ cups raisins, seeded 

1% teaspoons soda ' and chopped 

1 teaspoon cinnamon % cup currants 

2^ cups flour 

Mrs. Carrie M. Dearborn 

Add molasses and sour milk to suet ; add two cups flour 
mixed and sifted with soda, salt, and spices ; add fruit 
mixed with remaining flour. Turn into buttered mould, 
cover, and steam four hours. Serve with Sterling Sauce. 

Fig Pudding I 
3 oz. beef suet J4 cup milk 

}4 lb. figs, finely chopped 2 eggs 

2% cups stale bread crumbs 1 cup sugar 

^ teaspoon salt 

Chop suet, and work with the hands until creamy, then 
add figs. Soak bread crumbs in milk, add eggs well beaten, 
sugar, and salt. Combine mixtures, turn into a buttered 
mould, steam three hours. Serve with Yellow Sauce I or II. 

Pig Pudding II 
^ lb. suet ^ lb. brown sugar 

}4 lb. figs (finely chopped) ^ lb. bread crumbs 

1 large sour apple (cored, i^ cup milk 

pared, and chopped) 2 eggs 

3 oz. flour 

Cream the suet, and add figs, apple, and sugar. Pour 
milk over bread crumbs, and add yolks of eggs, well beaten; 



404 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

combine mixtures, add flour and whites of eggs beaten until 
stiff. Turn into buttered pudding mould, and steam fou^ 
hours. Serve with Lemon Sauce III. 

English Plum Pudding I 

% lb. stale bread crumbs 2 oz. finely cut citron 

1 cup scalded milk % lb. suet 

>^ lb. sugar i^ cup wine and brandy mixed 

4 eggs y^ grated nutmeg 

3^ lb. raisins, seeded, cut ^ teaspoon cinnamon 

in pieces, and floured y^ teaspoon clove 

. ^ lb. currants i^ teaspoon mace 

3^ lb. finely chopped figs \% teaspoons salt 

Soak bread crumbs in milk, let stand until cool, add 
sugar, beaten yolks of eggs, raisins, currants, figs, and 
citron ; chop suet, and cream by using the hand ; combine 
mixtures, then add wine, brandy, nutmeg, cinnamon, clove, 
mace, and whites of eggs beaten stiff. Turn into buttered 
mould, cover, and steam six hours. 

English Plum Pudding II 

6 ozs. flour 1 cup molasses 

6 ozs. stale bread crumbs 3 ozs. candied orange peel, 

^ lb. raisins, seeded and ' finely cut 

cut in pieces 1 teaspoon grated nutmeg 

^ lb. currants 1 teaspoon mace 

^ lb. suet, finely chopped 6 eggs, well beaten 

10 ozs. sugar 2 teaspoons salt 

Mix ingredients in order given, turn into a thickly floured 
square of unbleached cotton cloth. Tie securely, leaving 
some space to allow the pudding to swell, and plunge into a 
kettle of boiling water. Cook five hours, allowing pudding 
to be immersed in water during the entire cooking. Serve 
with Hard and Liquid Sauce. 

Hard Sauce. Cream one-third cup butter; add grad- 
ually one cup brown sugar and two tablespoons brandy, 
drop by drop. Force through a pastry bag with rose tube, 
and garnish with green leaves and candied cherries. 

Liquid Sauce, Mix one-half cup sugar, oue-half tabl©^ 



HOT PUDDINGS 405 

Spoon corn-starch, and a few grains salt. Add gradually, 
while stirring constantly, one cup boiling water, and boil five 
minutes. Remove from fire, add one tablespoon lemon 
juice and two tablespoons brandy; then color with fruit 
red. 



406 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XXIV 
PUDDING SAUCES 

Lemon Sauce I 

^ cups sugar 2 teaspoons butter 

y^ cup water 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

Make a syrup by boiling sugar and water five minutes; 
remove from fire ; add butter and lemon juice. 

Lemon Sauce II 

% cup sugar 2 tablespoons butter 

1 cup boiling water 1>^ tablespoons lemon juice 

1 tablespoon corn-starch or Few gratings nutmeg 

\% tablespoons flour Few grains salt 

Mix sugar and corn-starch, add water gradually, stirring 
constantly ; boil five minutes, remove from fire, add butter, 
lemon juice, and nutmeg. 

Lemon Sauce III 

1^ cup butter y^ cup boiling water 

1 cup sugar 3 tablespoons lemon juice 

Yolks 3 eggs ' Few gratings lemon rind 

Cream butter, add sugar gradually, and yolks of eggs, 
slightly beaten ; then add water, and cook over boiling water 
until mixture thickens. Remove from range, add lemon 
juice and rind. Serve with Apple Pudding or Popovers. 

Vanilla Sauce 

Make same as Lemon Sauce II, using one teaspoon vanilla 
in place of lemon juice and nutmeg. 



PUDDING SAUCES 407 

Molaasea Sauce 
i cup molasses 2 tablespoons lemon juice or 

13^ tablespoons butter 1 tablespoon vinegar 

Boil molasses and butter five minutes ; remove from fire 
and add lemon juice. 

Cream Sauce I 

^ cup thick cream % cup powdered sugar 

)^ cup milk 3^ teaspoon vanilla 

Mix cream and milk, beat until stiff, using egg-beater ; 
add sugar and vanilla. 

Cream Sauce II 

1 egg }4 <5^P thick cream 

1 cup powdered sugar 1^ cup milk 

y^ teaspoon vanilla 

Beat white of egg until stiff ; add yolk of egg well beaten, 
and sugar gradually; dilute cream with milk, beat until 
stiff, combine mixtures, and flavor. 

Yellow Sauce I 

2 eggs 1 teaspoon vanilla or 

1 cup sugar }4 teaspoon vanilla and 

1 teaspoon brandy 

Beat eggs until very light, add sugar gradually and 
continue beating ; then flavor. 

Yellow Sauce II 
2 eggs 1 cup powdered sugar 

3 tablespoons wine 
Beat yolks of eggs until thick, add one-half the sugar grad- 
ually ; beat whites of eggs until stiff, add gradually remaining 
sugar ; combine mixtures, and add wine. 

Orange Sauce 

Whites 3 eggs Juice and rind 2 oranges 

1 cup powdered sugar Juice 1 lemon 

Beat whites until stiff, add sugar gradually, and continue 
beating ; add rind and fruit juices. 



408 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Strawberry Sauce 

% cup butter 1 cup powdered sugar 

% cup strawberries White 1 egg 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, egg beaten until 
stiff, and strawberries. Beat until fruit is mashed. 

Creamy Sauce I 

y^ cup butter 2 tablespoons milk 

^ cup powdered sugar 2 tablespoons wine 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and milk and wine 
drop by drop. If liquids are added too fast the sauce will 
have a curdled appearance. 

Creamy Sauce II 

Use same proportions as given in recipe I. If not care- 
ful in adding liquids, it will curdle ; but this will make no 
difference, as the sauce is to be warmed over hot water. By 
careful watching and constant stirring, the ingredients will 
be perfectly blended ; it should be creamy in consistency. 

Foamy Sauce I 

3^ cup butter 1 egg 

1 cup powdered sugar 2 tablespoons wine 

Cream the butter, add gradually sugar, egg well beaten, 
and wine ; beat while heating over hot water. 

Foamy Sauce II 

Whites 2 eggs % cup hot milk 

1 cup powdered sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Beat eggs until stiff, add sugar gradually, and continue 
beating; add milk and vanilla. 

Chocolate Sauce 

2 cups milk 2 tablespoons hot water 

1% tablespoons corn-starch 2 eggs 

2 squares unsweetened chocolate ^ cup powdered sugar 

4 tablespoons powdered sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Scald one and three-fourths cups milk, add corn-starch 
diluted with remaining milk, and cook eight minutes in 



PUDDING SAUCES 409 

double boiler; melt chocolate over hot water, add four 
tablespoons sugar and hot water, stir until smooth, then 
add to cooked mixture ; beat whites of eggs until stiff, add 
gradually powdered sugar and continue beating, then add 
unbeaten yolks, and stir into cooked mixture ; cook one 
minute, add vanilla, and cool before serving. 

Sabyon Sauce 

Grated rind and juice % lemon y^ cup sugar 

% cup white wine or 2 eggs 

^ cup Sherry 

Mix lemon, wine, sugar, and yolks of eggs ; stir vigorously 
over fire until it thickens, using a wire whisk ; pour on to 
whites of eggs beaten stiff. 

Hard Sauce 

y^ cup butter i^ teaspoon lemon extract 

1 cup powdered sugar % teaspoon vanilla 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and flavoring. 

Sterling Sauce 

% cup butter 1 teaspoon vanilla or 

1 cup brown sugar 2 tablespoons wine 

4 tablespoons cream or milk 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and milk and 
flavoring drop by drop to prevent separation. 

Wine Sauce 
% cup butter 3 tablespoons Sherry or 

1 cup powdered sugar Madeira wine 

Slight grating nutmeg 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and wine slowly ; 
pile on glass dish, and sprinkle with grated nutmeg. 

. Brandy Sauce 

^ cup butter Yolks 2 eggs 

1 cup powdered sugar Whites 2 eggs 

2 tablespoon brandy % cup milk or cream 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, then brandy very 
•lowly, well beaten yolks, and milk or cream. Cook over 



410 BOSTON cook;ing-school cook book 

hot water until it thickens as a custard, pour on to beaten 
whites. 

Caramel Brandy Sauce 

Make same as Brandy Sauce, substituting brown sugar in 
place of powdered sugar. 

Apricot Sauce 

% cup apricot pulp % cup heavy cream 

Sugar 

Drain canned apricots from their syrup, and rub through a 
sieve. Beat cream until stiff, add to apricot pulp, and 
sweeten to taste. Serve with German toast. 



GOLD DESSEBTS 411 



CHAPTER XXV 
COLD DESSERTS 

Irish Mobs Blanc-Mange 

^ cup Irish moss % teaspoon salt 

4 cups milk \% teaspoons vanilla 

Soak moss fifteen minutes in cold water to cover, drain, 
pick over, and add to milk; cook in double boiler thirty 
minutes ; the milk will seem but little thicker than when put 
on to cook, but it cooked longer blanc-mange will be too 
stiff. Add salt, strain, flavor, re-strain, and fill individual 
moulds previously dipped in cold water; chill, turn on glass 
dish, surround with thin slices of banana, and place a slice 
on each mould. Serve with sugar and cream. 

Chocolate Blanc-Mange 

Irish Moss Blanc-Mange flavored with chocolate. Melt 
one and one-half squares unsweetened chocolate, add one- 
fourth cup sugar and one-third cup boiling water, stir until 
perfectly smooth, adding to milk just before taking from fire. 
Serve with sugar and cream. 

Rebecca Pudding 

4 cups scalded milk y^ teaspoon salt 

)4, cup corn-starch % cup cold milk 

>^ cup sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Whites 3 eggs 

Mix corn-starch, sugar, and salt, dilute with cold milk, 
add to scalded milk, stirring constantly until mixture thick- 
ens, afterwards occasionally ; cook fifteen minutes. Add 
flavoring and whites of eggs beaten stiff, mix thoroughly, 
mould, chill, and serve with Yellow Sauce I or II. 



412 BOSTON COOKXNG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Moulded Snow 

Make same as Rebecca Pudding, and serve with Chocolate 
Sauce. 

Chocolate Cream 

2 cups scalded milk i^ cup cold milk 

5 tablespoons corn-starch 1}^ squares unsweetened chocolate 
% cup sugar 3 tablespoons hot water 

^ teaspoon salt Whites 3 eggs 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Mix corn-starch, sugar, and salt, dilute with cold milk, 
add to scalded milk, and cook over hot water ten minutes, 
stirring constantly until thickened ; melt chocolate, add hot 
water, stir until smooth, and add to cooked mixture ; add 
whites of eggs beaten stiff, and vanilla. Mould, chill, and 
serve with cream. 

Pineapple Pudding 

2^ cups scalded milk ^ cup sugar 

}^ cup cold milk ^ teaspoon salt 

y^ cup corn-starch % ^^^ grated pineapple 

Whites 3 eggs. 

Follow directions for Rebecca Pudding, and add pineapple 
just before moulding. Fill individual moulds, previously 
dipped in cold water. Serve with cream. 

Caramel Junket 

2 cups milk Few grains salt 

)^cup sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

3^ cup boiling water Whipped cream, sweetened 

1 junket tablet and flavored 

Chopped nut meats 

Heat milk until lukewarm. Caramelize sugar, add boiling 
•water, and cook until syrup is reduced to one-third cup. Cool, 
and add milk slowly to syrup. Reduce junket tablet to pow- 
der, using a small mallet, add to mixture, with salt and va- 
nilla. Turn into a glass dish, let stand in warm place until 
Bet, then chill. Cover with whipped cream and sprinkle with 
chopped nuts. 



COLD DESSERTS 418 

Boiled Custard 
2 cups scalded milk ^ cup sugar 

Yolks 3 eggs )^ teaspoon salt 

}4. teaspoon vanilla 

Beat eggs slightly, add sugar and salt ; stir constantly 
while adding gradually hot milk. Cook in double boiler, con- 
tinue stirring until mixture thickens and a coating is formed 
on the spoon^ strain immediately ; chill and flavor. If cooked 
too long the custard will curdle ; should this happen, by 
using an egg-beater it may be restored to a smooth con- 
sistency, but custard will not be as thick. Eggs should 
be beaten slightly for custard, that it may be of smooth, 
thick consistency. To prevent scum from forming, cover 
with a perforated tin. When eggs are scarce, use yolks two 
eggs and one-half tablespoon corn-starch. 

Tipsy Pudding 

Flavor Boiled Custard with Sherry wine, and pour over 
slices of stale sponge cake; cover with Cream Sauce I 
or II. 

Peach Custard 

Arrange alternate layers of stale cake and sections of 
canned peaches in glass dish and pour over Boiled Custard. 
Bananas may be used instead of peaches ; it is then called 
Banana Custard. 

Orange Custard 

Arrange slices of sweet oranges in glass dish, pour over 
them Boiled Custard ; chill, and cover with Meringue I. 

Apple Meringue 

Use Meringue I and pile lightly on baked apples, brown in 
oven, cool, and serve with Boiled Custard. Canned peaches, 
drained from their liquor, may be prepared in the same way. 

Apple Snow 

Whites 3 eggs ^ cup apple pulp 

Powdered sugar. 

Pare, quarter, and core four sour apples, steam until soft, 
and rub through sieve ; there should be three-fourths cup 



414 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL. COOK BOOK 

apple pulp. Beat on a platter whites of eggs until stiff 
(using wire whisk), add gradually apple sweetened to taste^ 
and continue beating. Pile lightly on glass dish, chill, and 
serve with Boiled Custard. 

Prune "Whip 

}4 lb. prunes }4 cup sugar 

Whites 5 eggs )4 tablespoon lemon juice 

Pick over and wash prunes, then soak several hours in 
cold water to cover ; cook in same water until soft ; remove 
stones and rub prunes through a strainer, add sugar, and 
cook five minutes ; the mixture should be of the consistency 
of marmalade. Beat whites of eggs until stiff, add prune 
mixture gradually when cold, and lemon juice. Pile lightly 
on buttered pudding-dish, bake twenty minutes in slow oven. 
Serve cold with Boiled Custard. 

Raspberry "Whip 

13^ cups raspberries 1 cup powdered sugar 

White 1 egg 

Put ingredients in bowl and beat with wire whisk until 
stiff enough to hold in shape ; about thirty minutes will be 
required for beating. Pile lightly on dish, chill, surround 
with lady fingers, and serve with Boiled Custard. 

Strav/ berry "Whip may be prepared in same way. 

Baked Custard 

4 cups scalded milk ^ cup sugar 

4 to 6 eggs ^ teaspoon salt 

Few gratings nutmeg 

Beat eggs slightly, add sugar and salt, pour on slowly 
scalded milk; strain in buttered mould, set in pan of hot 
water. Sprinkle with nutmeg, and bake in slow oven until 
firm, which may be readily determined by running a silver 
knife through custard; if knife comes out clean, custard is 
done. During baking, care must be taken that water sur- 
rounding mould does not reach boiling-point, or custard will 
whey. Always bear in mind that eggs and milk in com- 
bination must be cooked at a low temperaturcc For cup ctts- 



OOLD DBSSBBTS 415 

tards allow four eggs to four cups milk ; for large moulded 
custard, six eggs ; if less eggs are used custard is liable to 
crack when turned on a serving dish. 

Caramel Custard 

4 cups scalded milk }4 teaspoon salt 

5 eggs 1 teaspoon vanilla 

}4 cup sugar 

Put sugar in omelet pan, stir constantly over hot part of 
range until melted to a syrup of light brown color. Add 
gradually to milk, being careful that milk does not bubble 
up and go over, as is liable on account of high temperature 
of sugar. As soon as sugar is melted in milk, add mixture 
gradually to eggs slightly beaten; add salt and flavoring, 
then strain in buttered mould. Bake as custard. Chill, and 
serve with Caramel Sauce. 

Caramel Sauce 

)4 cup sugar }£ cup boiling water 

Miss Parloa 

Melt sugar as for Caramel Custard, add water, and boil 
ten minutes ; cool before serving. 

Coffee Custard 

2 cups milk 3^ cup sugar 

2 tablespoons ground coffee % teaspoon salt 

3 eggs )^ teaspoon vanilla 

Scald milk with coffee, and strain. Beat eggs slightly; 

add sugar, salt, vanilla, and milk. Strain into buttered 
individual moulds, set in pan of hot water, and bake until 
firm. 

Tapioca Cream 

^ cup pearl tapioca or 1)^ table- 2 eggs 

spoons minute tapioca 3^ cup sugar 

2 cups scalded milk i^ teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Pick over tapioca and soak one hour in cold water to 
cover, drain, add to milk, and cook in double boiler until 
kipiooa is traiispareiik Add half the sugar to milk and 



416 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

remainder to egg yolks slightly beaten, and salt. Combine 
by pouring hot mixture slowly on egg mixture, return to 
double boiler, and cook until it thickens. Remove from 
range and add whites of eggs beaten stiff. Chill and 
flavor. 

Norwegian Prune Pudding 

3^ lb. prunes = 22 prunes 1 inch piece stick cinnamon 

2 cups cold water 1}/^ cups boiling water 

1 cup sugar i^ cup corn-starch 

1 tablespoon lemon juice 

Pick over and wash prunes, then soak one hour in cold 
water, and boil until soft in same water. Obtain meat from 
stones and add to prunes and water; then add sugar, cinna- 
mon, boiling water, and simmer ten minutes. Dilute corn- 
starch with enough cold water to pour easily, add to prune 
mixture, and cook five minutes. Remove cinnamon, add lemon 
juice, mould, then chill, and serve with cream. 

Nut Prune Souffle 

Follow recipe for Norwegian Prune Pudding, then add 
whites two eggs beaten stiff and one-half cup walnut meata 
broken in pieces. 

Apples in Bloom 

Select eight red apples, cook in boiling water until soft, 
turning them often. Have water half surround apples. Re- 
move skins carefully, that the red color may remain, and 
arrange on serving dish. To the water add one cup sugar, 
grated rind one-half lemon, and juice one orange; simmer 
until reduced to one cup. Cool, and pour over apples. Serve 
with Cream Sauce I or II. 

Neapolitan Baskets 

Bake sponge cake in gem pans, cool, and remove centres. 
Fill with Cream Sauce I, flavoring half the sauce with choco- 
late. Melt chocolate, dilute with hot water, cool, and add 
Cream Sauce slowly to chocolate. Garnish with candied 
cherries and angelica and insert strips of angelica to repre- 
sent handles. 



OOLD DESSERTS 417 

"Wine Cream 
Arrange lady fingers or slices of sponge cake in a dish, 
pour over cream made as follows : Mix one-third cup sugar, 
grated rind and juice one-half lemon, one-fourth cup Sherry 
wine, and yolks of two eggs ; place over fire and stir vigor- 
ously with wire whisk until it thickens and is frothy, then 
pour over beaten whites of two eggs and continue beating. 

Orange Salad 
Arrange layers of sliced oranges, sprinkling each layer 
with powdered sugar and shredded cocoanut. Sliced oranges 
when served alone should not stand long after slicing, as 
they are apt to become bitter. 

Fruit Salad I 

Arrange alternate layers of shredded pineapple, sliced 
bananas, and sliced oranges, sprinkling each layer with 
powdered sugar. Chill before serving. 

To Shred Pineapple. Pare and cut out eyes, pick off 
small pieces with a silver fork, continuing until all soft part 
is removed. To Slice 07'anges. Remove skin and white 
covering, slice lengthwise that the tough centre may not be 
served ; seeds should be removed. 

Fruit Salad II 
Pare a pineapple and cut in one-quarter inch slices, remove 
hard centres, sprinkle with powdered sugar, set aside one 
hour in a cool place ; drain, spread on serving dish, arrange 
a circle of thin slices of banana on each piece, nearly to the 
edge, pile strawberries in centre, pour over syrup drained 
from pineapple, sprinkle with powdered sugar, and serve with 
or without Cream Sauce. 

Fruit Salad with Wine Dressing 
Arrange alternate layers of sliced fruit, using pineapples, 
bananas, oranges, and grapes ; pour over all Wine Dressing, 
and let stand one hour in a cold place. 

Wine Dressing 

Mix one-half cup sugar, one-third cup Sherry wine, and two 
toblespoone Madeira. 



418 BOSTON COOEING-SOHOOL OOOK BOOK 

Cream Wliips 

Sweeten thin cream, flavor with vanilla, brandy, or wine, 
then whip ; half fill frappe glasses with any preserve, pile 
on lightly the whip. 

Saut6d Feara with Chocolate Sauce 

Pare four Bartlett pears, cut in fourths lengthwise, and 
saute in butter until browned. Canned pears drained from 
their syrup may be used in place of fresh fruit. Arrange m 
serving dish and pour over 

Chocolate Sauce. Cook two ounces sweet chocolate, one 
tablespoon sugar, and one and one-fourth cups milk in 
double boiler five minutes ; then add one teaspoon arrow- 
root mixed with one-fourth cup cream and a few grains salt, 
and cook ten minutes. Melt one and one-half tablespoons 
butter, add one-fourth cup powdered sugar, and cook until 
well caramelized, stirring constantly. Add to first mixture, 
and flavor with one-half teaspoon vanilla. Chill thoroughly. 

Lemon Jelly 

% box gelatine or % cup cold water 

2 tablespoons gramulated 2)^ cups boiling water 

gelatine 1 cup sugar 

% cup leinon juice 

Soak gelatine twenty minutes in cold water, dissolve in 
boiling water, strain, and add to sugar and lemon juice. 
Turn into mould, and chill. 

Orange Jelly 

% box gelatine or \%, cups boiling water 

2 tablespoons granulated 1 cup sugar 

gelatine 1>^ cups orange juice 

% cup cold water 3 tablespoons lemon juice 
Make same as Lemon Jelly. 

To Remove Juice from Oranges. Cut fruit in halves 
crosswise, remove with spoon pulp and juice from sections, 
and strain through double cheese-cloth; or use a glass 
lemon ■queezor. 



GOLD DESSSSTS 419 

Kumquat Jelly 

\% cups kumquat juice 1% tablespoons Orange Cura^oa 

% cup sugar 1 tablespoon granulated gelatine 

^ cup Sauterne 2 tablespoons cold water 

Few grains salt 

Wipe three-fourths box kumquats, cut in slices, add cold 
water to cover, bring slowly to boiling-point, and cook slowly 
one-half hour ; then strain ; there should be one and one- 
half cups juice. Add sugar, wine, and curagoa. Soak gela- 
tine in cold water, and add to first mixture heated to boiling- 
point ; then add salt. Strain, turn into individual mould, 
and chill. Remove to serving dish, and garnish with halves 
of kumquats, cooked in syrup until soft, drained, and rolled 
in sugar. 

Coffee Jelly 

3^ box gelatine or % cup cold water 

2 tablespoons granulated 1 cup boiling water 

gelatine % cup sugar 

2 cups boiled coffee 

Make same as Lemon Jelly. Serve with sugar and cream. 

Cider Jelly 

% box gelatine or % cup cold water 

2 tablespoons granulated 1 cup boiling water 

gelatine 2 cups cider 
Sugar 

Make same as Lemon Jelly. 

Wine Jelly I 

% box gelatine or 1 cup sugar 

2 tablespoons granulated 1 cup Sherry or Madeira 

gelatine wine 

% cup cold water % cup orange juice 

1% cups boiling water 3 tablespoons lemon juice 

Soak gelatine twenty minutes in cold, water, dissolve in 
boiling water; add sugar, wine, orange juice, and lemon 
juice ; strain, mould, and chill. If a stronger jelly is desired, 
use additional wine in place of orange juice. 



420 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

•Wine Jelly II 

}^ box gelatine or 3^ cup Sherry wine 
2}4 tablespoons granulated 2 tablespoons brandy- 
gelatine Kirsch 
y^ cup cold water y^ cup orange juice 
1% cups boiling water 3 tablespoons lemon juice 
1 cup sugar Fruit red 

Soak gelatine twenty minutes in cold water, dissolve in 
hot water, add sugar, fruit juices. Sherry, brandy, and 
enough Kirsch to make one cup of strong liquor, then color 
with fruit red. Strain, mould, and chill. Serve with or 
without Cream Sauce I. 

Russian Jelly 

% box gelantine or 1 cup boiling water 

1 tablespoon granulated % cup sugar 

gelatine % cup Sauterne 

^ cup cold water )^ cup orange juice 

\% tablespoons lemon juice 

Make same as other jellies, cool slightly, and beat until 
frothy and firm enough to mould. Turn into mould and 
chill. 

Jelly in Glasses 

Use recipe for Wine or Russian Jelly. Fill Apollinaris 
glasses three-fourths full, reserving one-fourth of the mix- 
ture, which, after cooling, is to be beaten until frothy (using 
a Dover egg-beater) and placed on top of jelly in glasses 
which represents freshly drawn lager beer. This is a most 
attractive way of serving jelly to one who is ill. 

Sauterne Jelly 

Soak two tablespoons granulated gelatine in one-half cup 
cold water, and dissolve in one and one-half cups boiling 
water. Add one and one-half cups Sauterne, three table- 
spoons lemon juice, and one cup sugar. Color with leaf 
green, strain into a shallow pan, chill, and cut in inch 
cabM. 



COLD DESSERTS 421 



Jellied Prunes 

3^ lb. prunes % ^ox gelatine or 

2 cups cold water 1% tablespoons granulated 

Boiling water gelatine 

% cup cold water 1 cup sugar 

)^ cup lemon juice 

Pick over, wasb, and soak prunes for several hours in two 
cups cold water, and cook in same water until soft; remove 
prunes ; stone, and cut in quarters. To prune water add 
enough boiling water to make two cups. Soak gelatine 
in half-cup cold water, dissolve in hot liquid, add sugar, 
lemon juice, then strain, add prunes, mould, and chill. 
Stir twice while cooling to prevent prunes from settling. 
Serve with sugar and cream. 

Jellied Walnuts 

^ box gelatine or y^ cup boiling water 

1 tablespoon granulated ^ cup sugar 

gelatine % <^^P Sherry wine 

^ cup cold water % cup orange juice 

3 tablespoons lemon juice 

Make same as other jellies and cover bottom of shallow 
pan with one-half the mixture. When nearly firm, place 
over it, one inch apart, halves of English walnuts. Cover 
with remaining mixture. Chill, and cut in squares. Serve 
with whipped cream sweetened and flavored. 

Apricot and Wine Jelly 

% box gelatine or 1 cup boiling water 

2 tablespoons granulated 1 cup apricot juice 

gelatine 1 cup wine 

% cup cold water 1 cup sugar 

1 tablespoon lemon juice ^ 

Garnish individual moulds with halves of canned apricots, 
fill with mixture made same as for other jellies, and chill. 
Arrange on serving dish and garnish with whipped cream 
forced through a pastry bag and tube. 



422 BOSTON ooosxsrch-aoHooL cook book 

Snow Pudding I 

^ box gelatine or 1 cup boiling w»ter 

1 tablespoon granulated gelatine 1 cup sugar 

)^ cup cold water )^ cup lemon juiee 

Whites 3 eggs 

Soak gelatine in cold water, dissolve in boiling water, add 
sugar and lemon juice, strain, and set aside in cool place ; 
occasionally stir mixture, and when quite thick, beat with 
wire spoon or whisk until frothy ; add whites of eggs beaten 
stiff, and continue beating until stiff enough to hold its shape. 
Mould, or pile by spoonfuls on glass dish ; serve cold with 
Boiled Custard. A very attractive dish may be prepared by 
coloring half the mixture with fruit red. 

Snow Pudding II 

Beat whites of four eggs until stiff, add one-half tablespoon 
granulated gelatine dissolved in three tablespoons boiling 
water, beat until thoroughly mixed, add one-fourth cup pow- 
dered sugar, and flavor with one-half teaspoon lemon extract. 
Pile lightly on dish, serve with Boiled Custard. 

Amber Pudding 

Make as Snow Pudding I, using cider instead of boiling 
water, and one-fourth cup boiling water to dissolve gelatine, 
omitting lemon juice, and sweeten to taste. 

Toasted Marshmallows 

1 tablespoon granulated gelatine Whites 3 eggs 

1 cup boiling water \% teaspoons vanilla 

1 cup sugar Macaroons 

Dissolve gelatine in boiling water, add sugar, and as soon 
as dissolved set bowl containing mixture in pan of ice-water ; 
then add whites of eggs and vanilla and beat until mixture 
thickens. Turn into a shallow pan, first dipped in cold 
water, and let stand until thoroughly chilled. Remove from 
pan and cut in pieces the size and shape of marshmallows ; 
then roll in macaroons which have been dried and rolled. 
Serve with sugar and cream. 




Toasted Marshm allows. — Page Jt22. 




Royal Diplomatic Pudding. — Page 430. 




Charlotte Russe. — Page 1^27. 




Orange Trifle garnished wirn Whipped Cream, Candied 
Orange Peel, and Blossoms. — Page 427. 



GOLD DBSSBBTS 428 

Pudding k la Mac6doine 

Make fruit or wine jelly mixture. Place a mould in pan 
of ice-water, pour in mixture one-half inch deep ; when firm, 
decorate with slices of banana from which radiate thin strips 
of figs (seed side down), cover fruit, adding mixture by 
spoonfuls lest the fruit be disarranged. When firm, add 
more fruit and mixture ; repeat until all is used, each time 
allowing mixture to stiffen before fruit is added. In 
preparing this dish various fruits may be used : oranges, 
bananas, dates, figs, and English walnuts. Serve with 
Cream Sauce I. 

Fruit Chartreuse 

Make fruit or wine jelly mixture. Place a mould in pan of 
ice-water, pour in mixture one-half inch deep; when firm, 
decorate with candied cherries and angelica ; add by spoon- 
fuls more mixture to cover fruit ; when this is firm, place a 
smaller mould in centre on jelly, and fill with ice- water. 
Pour gradually remaining jelly mixture between moulds; 
when firm, invert to empty smaller mould of ice- water ; then 
pour in some tepid water; let stand a few seconds, when 
small mould may easily be removed. Fill space thus made 
with fresh sweetened fruit, using shredded pineapple, sliced 
bananas, and strawberries. 

Spanish Cream 

^ box gelatine or Yolk 3 eggs 

1 tablespoon granulated )4 ^^P sugar (scant) 

gelatine J^ teaspoon salt 

3 cups milk 1 teaspoon vanilla or 

Whites 3 eggs 3 tablespoons wine 

Scald milk with gelatine, add sugar, pour slowly on yolks 
of eggs slightly beaten. Return to double boiler and cook 
until thickened, stirring constantly ; remove from range, add 
salt, flavoring, and whites of eggs beaten stiff. Turn into 
individual moulds, first dipped in cold water, and chill ; serve 
with cream. More gelatine will be required if large moulds 
are osed. 



424 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Coffee Souffl§ 

1^ cups coffee infusion 3^ teaspoon salt 

% cup milk 3 eggs 

^ cup sugar y^ teaspoon vanilla 

1 tablespoon granulated gelatine 

Mix coffee infusion, milk, one-half of the sugar and gela« 
tine, and heat in double boiler. Add remaining sugar, salt, 
and yolks of eggs slightly beaten ; cook until mixture thick- 
ens, remove from range, add whites of eggs beaten until 
stiff and vanilla. Mould, chill, and serve with cream. 

Columbian Pudding 

Cover the bottom of a fancy mould with Wine Jelly. Line 
the upper part of mould with figs, cut in halves cross-wise, 
which have been soaked in jelly, having seed side next to 
mould. Fill centre with Spanish Cream; chill, and turn on 
a serving dish. Garnish with cubes of Wine Jelly. 

Macaroon Cream 

^ box gelatine or Yolks 3 eggs 

1 tablespoon granulated y^ cup sugar 

gelatine 3^ teaspoon salt 

1^ cup cold water % cup pounded macaroons 

2 cups scalded milk 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Whites 3 eggs 

Soak gelatine in cold water. Make custard of milk, yolks 
of eggs, sugar, and salt ; add gelatine, and strain into pan 
set in ice-water. Add macaroons and flavoring, stirring 
until it begins to thicken; then add whites of eggs beaten 
stiff, mould, chill, and serve garnished with macaroons. 

Cold Cabinet Pudding 

^ box gelatine or ^ cup sugar 

1 tablespoon granulated gelatine % teaspoon salt 
J^ cup cold water 1 teaspoon vanilla 

2 cups scalded milk 1 tablespoon brandy 
Yolks 3 eggs 5 lady fingers 

6 macaroons 

Soak gelatine in cold water and add to custard made of 
miUc, cggif sugar, lalt; strain, oool slightly, and flavor. 



COLD DESSERTS 426 

Place a mould in pan of ice-water, decorate with candied 
cherries and angelica, cover with mixture, added carefully 
by spoonfuls ; when firm, add layer of lady fingers (first 
soaked in custard), then layer of macaroons (also soaked 
in custard) ; repeat, care being taken that each layer is 
firm before another is added. Garnish, and serve with 
Cream Sauce I and candied cherries. 

Mont Blanc 
Remove shells from three cups French chestnuts, cook in 
small quantity of boiling water until soft, when there will be 
no water remaining. Mash, sweeten to taste with powdered 
sugar, and moisten with hot milk ; cook two minutes. Rub 
through strainer, cool, flavor with vanilla, Kirsch or Maras- 
chino. Pile in form of pyramid, cover with' Cream Sauce I, 
garnish base with Cream Sauce I forced through pastry bag 
and tube. 

French Chef 

Crdme aux Fruits 

^ box gelatine or Whites 2 eggs 

1 tablespoon granulated gelatin© % pli^* thick cream 

y^ cup cold water % cup milk 

^ cup scalded milk % cup cooked prunes, 

% cup sugar cut in pieces 

% cup chopped figs 

Soak gelatine in cold water, dissolve in scalded milk, and 
add sugar. Strain in pan set in ice-water, stir constantly, 
and when it begins to thicken add whites of eggs beaten 
stiff, cream (diluted with milk and beaten), prunes, and figs. 
Mould and chill. 

To "Whip Cream 

Thin and heavy cream are both used in making and gar- 
nishing desserts. 

Heavy cream is bought in half-pint, pint, and quart glass 
jars, and usually retails at sixty cents per quart; thin or 
strawberry cream comes in glass jars or may be bought in 
bulk, and usually retails for thirty cents per quart. Heavy 
is ver^ rich ; for which reason, when whipped withoat 



426 BOSTON COOKJNQ-SOHOOL COOK BOOK 

being diluted, it is employed as a garnish; even when so 
used, it is generally diluted with one-fourth to one-third its 
bulk in milk ; when used in combination with other ingredients 
for making desserts, it is diluted from one-half to two-thirds 
its bulk in milk. Thin cream is whipped without being 
diluted. Cream should be thoroughly chilled for whipping. 
Turn creanfi to be whipped into a bowl (care being taken not 
to select too large a bowl), and set in pan of crushed ice, 
to which water is added that cream may be quickly chilled ; 
without addition of water, cream will not be so thoroughly 
chilled. 

For whipping heavy cream undiluted, or diluted with one- 
third or less its bulk in milk, use Dover egg-beater ; un- 
diluted heavy cream if beaten a moment too long will come 
to butter. Heavy cream diluted, whipped, sweetened, and 
flavored, is often served with puddings, and called Cream 
Sauce. 

Thin cream is whipped by using a whip churn, as is heavy 
cream when diluted with one-half to two-thirds its bulk in 
milk. Place churn in bowl containing cream, hold down 
cover with left hand, with right hand work dasher with quick 
downward and slow upward motions; avoid raising dasher 
too high in cylinder, thus escaping spattering of cream. 
The first whip which appears should be stirred into cream, 
as air bubbles are too large and will break ; second whip 
should be removed by spoonfuls to a strainer, strainer 
to be placed in a pan, as some cream will drain through. 
The first cream which drains through may be turned into 
bowl to be rewhipped, and continue whipping as long as 
possible. 

There will be some cream left in bowl which does not 
come above perforations in whip churn, and cannot be 
whipped. Cream which remains may be scalded and used 
to dissolve gelatine when making desserts which require 
gelatine. Cream should treble its bulk in whipping. By 
following these directions one need have no difficulty, if 
cream is of right consistency ; always bearing in mind heavy 
cream must be whipped with an egg-beater ; thin cream must 
be whipped with a churn. 



COLD DESSERTS 427 

Charlotte Russe 
^ box gelatine or 3^ cup powdered sugar 

1 tablespoon granulated Whip from Z% cups thin 

gelatine cream 

y^ cup cold water \y^ teaspoons vanilla 

)^ cup scalded cream 6 lady fingers 

Soak gelatine in cold water, dissolve in scalded cream, 
strain into a bowl, and add sugar and vanilla. Set bowl in 
pan of ice-water and stir constantly until it begins to 
thicken, then fold in whip from cream, adding one-third 
at a time. Should gelatine mixture become too thick, melt 
over hot water, and again cool before adding whip. Trim 
ends and sides of lady fingers, place around inside of a 
mould, crust side out, one-half inch apart. Turn in mixture, 
and chill. Serve garnished with cubes of Wine Jelly. Char- 
lotte Russe is sometimes made in individual moulds ; these 
are often garnished on top with some of mixture forced through 
a pastry bag and tube. Individual moulds are frequently 
lined with thin slices of sponge cake cut to fit moulds. 

Orange Trifle 

■' % t>ox gelatine or 1 cup sugar 

2 tablespoons granulated 1 cup orange juice 

gelatine Grated rind 1 orange 

)^ cup cold water 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

% cup boiling water Whip from Sj^ cups cream 

Make same as Charlotte Russe, and mould; or make 
orange jelly, color with fruit red, and cover bottom of 
mould one-half inch deep; chill, and when firm fill with 
Orange Trifle mixture. Cool remaining jelly in shallow pan, 
cut in cubes, and garnish base of mould. 

Banana Cantaloupe 

% box gelatine or % cup sugar 

2 tablespoons granulated gelatine 4 bananas, mashed pulp 

% cup cold water 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

Whites 2 eggs Whip from Z% cups 

^ cup powdered sugar -cream 

^ cup scalded cream 12 lady fingers 

Soak gelatine in cold water, beat whites of eggs slightly, 
add powdered sugar, and gradually hot cream, oook oTer 



428 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

hot water until it thickens ; add soaked gelatine and remain* 
ing sugar, strain into a pan set in ice-water, add bananas 
, and lemon juice, stir until it begins to thicken, then fold in 
whip from cream. Line a melon mould with lady fingers 
trimmed to just fit sections of mould, turn in the mixture, 
spread evenly, and chill. 

Chocolate Charlotte 

^ box gelatine or 1}{ squares unsweetened chocolate 

1 tablespoon granulated 3 tablespoons hot water 

gelatine % cup powdered sugar 

^ cup cold water Whip from 3 cups cream 

3^ cup scalded cream 1 teaspoon vanilla 

6 lady fingers 

Melt chocolate by placing in a small saucepan set in a 
larger saucepan of boiling water, add half the sugar, dilute 
with boiling water, and add to gelatine mixture while hot. 
Proceed same as in recipe for Charlotte Kusse. 

Caramel Charlotte Russe 

^ box gelatine or }^ cup sugar, caramelized 

1 tablespoon granulated ^ cup powdered sugar 

gelatine 1)^ teaspoons vanilla 

^ cup cold water . Whip from d}^ cups cream 

^cup scalded cream 6 lady fingers 

Make same as Charlotte Russe, adding caramelized sugar 
to scalded cream before putting into gelatine mixture. 

Burnt Almond Charlotte 

^ box gelatine or ^ cup sugar, caramelized 

2 tablespoons granulated ^ cup blanched and finely 

gelatine chopped almonds 

}^ cup cold water 1 teaspoon ranilla 

^ cup scalded milk Whip from 33^ cups cream 

}^ cup sugar 6 lady fingers 

Make same as Caramel Charlotte Russe, adding nuts before 
folding in cream. 



OOLD DESSERTS 43$ 



Ginger Cream 

J^ box gelatine or Few grains salt 

1 tablespoon granulated 1 tablespoon win© 

gelatine }4 tablespoon brandy 

^ cup cold water 2 tablespoons ginger syrup 

1 cup milk ^ cup Canton ginger, cut in 
Yolks 2 eggs pieces 

3^ cup sugar Whip from 2^ cups cream 

Soak gelatine, and add to custard made of milk, eggs, 
sugar, and salt. Strain, chill in pan of ice-water, add fla- 
vorings, and when it begins to thicken fold in whip from 
cream. 

Orange Charlotte 

^ box gelatine or 1 cup sugar 

13^ tablespoons granulated 3 tablespoons lemon juice 

gelatine 1 cup orange juice and pulp 

1^ cup cold water Whites 3 eggs 

3^ cup boiling water Whip from 2 cups cream 

Soak gelatine in cold water, dissolve in boiling water, 
strain, and add^ sugar, lemon juice, orange juice, and pulp. 
Chill in pan of ice-water ; when quite thick, beat with wire 
spoon or whisk until frothy, then add whites of eggs beaten 
stiff, and fold in cream. Line a mould with sections ot 
oranges, turn in mixture, smooth evenly, and chill. 

Strawberry Sponge 

1^ box gelatine or 1 cup sugar 

\}{ tablespoons granulated 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

gelatine 1 cup strawberry juice 

I/3 cup cold water Whites 3 eggs 

3^ cup boiling water Whip from 3 cups cream 

Make same as Orange Charlotte. 



Orange Baskets 

Cut two pieces from each orange, leaving what remains in 
shape of basket with handle, remove pulp from baskets and 
pieces, and keep baskets in ice-water until ready to filL 



430 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

From orange juice make orange Jelly with which to fill 
baskets. Serve garnished with Cream Sauce. 

Orange Jelly in Ambush 

Cut oranges in halves lengthwise, remove pulp and juice. 
With juice make Orange Jelly to fill half the pieces. Fill 
remaining pieces with Charlotte Russe mixture. When both 
are firm, put together in pairs and tie together with narrow 
white ribbon. 

Bavarian Cream (Quick) 

% lemon, grated rind and 2 e^ga 

juice 1 teaspoon granulated 
% cup white wine gelatine 

% cup sugar 1 tablespoon cold water 

Mix lemon, wine, sugar, and yolks of eggs; stir vigor- 
ously over fire until mixture thickens, add gelatine soaked 
in water, then pour over whites of eggs beaten stiff. Set in 
pan of ice-water and beat until thick enough to hold its 
shape. Turn into a mould lined with lady fingers, and chill. 
Orange juice may be used in place of wine, and the cream 
served in orange baskets. 

Strawberry Bavarian Cream 

Line a mould with large, fresh strawberries cut in halves, 
fill with Charlotte Russe mixture. 

Pineapple Bavarian Cream 

% box gelatine or 1 can grated pineapple 

2 tablespoons granulated % cup sugar 

gelatine 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

X cup cold water Whip from 3 cups cream 

Soak gelatine in cold water. Heat pineapple, add sugar, 
lemon juice, and soaked gelatine ; chill in pan of ice-water, 
stirring constantly ; when it begins to thicken, fold in whip 
from cream, mould, and chill. 

Royal Diplomatic Pudding 

Place mould in pan of ice-water and pour in Wine Jelly II 
one-half inch deep. When firm, decorate with candied cher- 



COLD DESSERTS 431 

ries and angelica, proceed as for Fruit Chartreuse, filling the 
centre with Charlotte Russe mixture or Fruit Cream. 

Fruit Cream 

Peel four bananas, mash, and rub through a sieve; add 
pulp and juice of two oranges, one tablespoon lemon juice, 
one tablespoon Sherry wine, two-thirds cup powdered sugar, 
and one and one-fourth tablespoons granulated gelatine dis- 
solved in one-fourth cup boiling water. Cool in ice-water, 
stirring constantly, and fold in whip from two cups cream. 

Ivory Cream 

^ tablespoon granulated gelatine 4 tablespoons powdered 

1 tablespoon cold water sugar 

2 tablespoons boiling water 3 tablespoons Madeira 

3 cups cream wine 

Soak gelatine in cold water, dissolve in boiling water, and 
add sugar and wine. Strain into a bowl, set in pan of ice- 
water, and beat until mixture thickens slightly. Add to 
mixture whip from cream, and beat until mixture is thick 
enough to hold its shape. Mould and chill. Garnish with 
Sauterne Jelly. 

Pudding k I'Adrea 

2 cups thin cream Whites 4 eggs 

ly^ tablespoons granulated gelatine 3 tablespoons Sherry 

2 tablespoons cold water 1)^ tablespoons Sauterne 

^ cup sugar Sauterne jelly mixture 

Make one-half recipe for Sauterne Jelly (see p. 420), 
allowing one and one-half tablespoons granulated gelatine. 
Color one -half green and one-half red. Fill sections of a 
fancy mould alternately with green and red jelly. In the 
green jelly mould pistachio nuts cut in quarters ; in red 
jelly glaced cherries cut in quarters. 

Scald cream, add gelatine soaked in cold water, and sugar. 
When mixture begins to thicken add whites of eggs beaten 
until stiff. Set in pan of ice-water, and stir occasionally until 
mixture thickens ; then add flavoring and turn into mould. 
Chill thoroughly and remove from mould. 



432 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



French Easter Cream 

^ cup raisins 1 tablespoon granulated gelatine 

1^ cup brandy 2 tablespoons cold water 

2 cups cream Maraschino! 

^ cup sugar Slow gin y ^ cup each 

Yolks 3 eggs Brandy J 

3^ teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Seed raisins, add brandy, and cook in double boiler until 
raisins are soft. Make a custard of cream, sugar, egg yolks 
and salt. Remove from range, add gelatine soaked in cold 
water. Strain, cool slightly, add flavorings, stir until mixture 
thickens, then add raisins. Mould and chill. Remove from 
mould, and garnish with Sauterne Jelly (colored violet), cut 
in cul^s, and fresh violets. 

Marshmallow Pudding k la Stanley 

^ pound marshmallows ^ cup candied cherries 

1 \*up heavy cream )^ cup English walnut meats 

3^ ieaspoon vanilla 2 tablespoons powdered sugar 

Soak cherries in rum to cover one hour, then cut in pieces. 
Cut witlnut meats and marshmallows in small pieces. Whip 
cream, add sugar and vanilla, fold in remaining ingredients. 
Moul4 and chill. 



ICES, ICE CllEAMS, ETC, 433 



CHAPTER XXVI 
ICES, ICE CREAMS, AND OTHER FROZEN DESSERTS 

ICES and other frozen dishes comprise the most popular 
desserts. Hygienically speaking, they cannot be recom- 
mended for the final course of a dinner, as cold mixtures 
reduce the temperature of the stomach, thus retarding diges- 
tion until the normal temperature is again reached. But 
how cooling, refreshing, and nourishing, when properly taken, 
and of what inestimable value in the sick room ! 

Frozen dishes include : — 

Water Ice, — fruit juice sweetened, diluted with water, and 
frozen. 

Sherbet, — water ice to which is added a small quantity of 
dissolved gelatine or beaten whites of eggs. 

JPrapp^, — water ice frozen to consistency of mush ; in 
freezing, equal parts of salt and ice being used to make it 
granular. 

Punch, — water ice to which is added spirit and spice. 

Sorbet, — strictly speaking, frozen punch ; the name is 
often given to a water ice where several kinds of fruit are 
used. 

Philadelphia Ice Cream, — thin cream, sweetened, flavored, 
and frozen. 

Plain Ice Cream, — custard foundation, thin cream, and 
flavoring. 

Mousse, — heavy cream, beaten until stiff, sweetened, 
flavored, placed in a mould, packed in salt and ice (using 
two parts crushed ice to one part salt), and allowed to stand 
three hours ; or whip from thin cream may be used folded 
into mixture containing small quantity of gelatine. 

S8 



484 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Ho'v^ to Freeze Desserts 

The prejudice of thinking a frozen dessert difficult to pre- 
pare has long since been overcome. With ice cream freezer, 
burlap bag, wooden mallet or axe, small saucepan, sufficient 
ice and coarse rock salt, the process neither takes much time 
nor patience. Snow may be used instead of ice; if not 
readily acted on by salt, pour in one cup cold water. Crush 
ice finely by placing in bag and giving a few blows with 
mallet or broad side of axe ; if there are any coarse pieces, 
remove them. Place can containing mixture to be frozen in 
wooden tub, cover, and adjust top. Turn crank to make 
sure can fits in socket. Allow three level measures ice to 
one of salt, and repeat until ice and salt come to top of can, 
packing solidly, using handle of mallet to force it down. If 
only small quantity is to be frozen, the ice and salt need 
come only a little higher in the tub than mixture to be frozen. 
These are found the best proportions of ice and salt to 
insure smooth, fine-grained cream, sherbet, or water ice, 
while equal parts of salt and ice are used for freezing f rappe. 
If a larger proportion of salt is used, mixture will freeze in 
shorter time and be of granular consistency, which is desirable 
only for f rappe. 

The mixture increases in bulk during freezing, so the can 
should never be more than three-fourths filled; by over- 
crowding can, cream will be made coarse-grained. Turn the 
crank slowly and steadily to expose as large surface of mix- 
ture as possible to ice and salt. After frozen to a mush, the 
crank may be turned more rapidly, adding more ice and salt 
if needed ; never draw off salt water until mixture is frozen, 
unless there is possibility of its getting into the can, for salt 
water is what effects freezing ; until ice melts, no change 
will take place. After freezing is accomplished, draw off 
water, remove dasher, and with spoon pack solidly. Put 
cork in opening of cover, then put on cover. Ee-pack 
freezer, using four measures ice to one of salt. Place over 
top newspapers or piece of carpet ; when serving time comes, 
remove can, wipe carefully, and place in vessel of cool water; 
let stand one minute, remoye cover, and run ft knife around 



ICES, ICE CREAMS, ETC. 435 

edge of cream, invert can on serving dish, and frozen mix- 
ture will slip out. Should there be any difficulty, a cloth 
wrung out of hot water, passed over can, will aid in removing 
mixture. 

To Line a Mould 

Allow mould to stand in salt and ice until well chilled. 
Remove cover, put in mixture by spoonfuls, and spread with 
back of spoon or a case knife evenly three-quarters inch 
thick. 

To Mould Frozen Mixtures 

When frozen mixtures are to be bricked or moulded, avoid 
freezing too hard. Pack mixture solidly in moulds and cover 
with buttered paper, buttered side up. Have moulds so well 
filled that mixture is forced down sides of mould when cover 
is pressed down. Re-pack in salt and ice, using four parts 
ice to one part salt. If these directions are carefully fol- 
lowed, one may feel no fear that salt water will enter cream, 
even though moulds be immersed in salt water. 

Lemon Ice 
4 cups water 2 cups sugar 

% cup lemon juice 

Make a syrup by boiling water and sugar five minutes ; 
add lemon juice; cool, strain, and freeze. See directions 
for freezing, page 434. 

Cup St. Jacques 

Serve Lemon Ice in champagne glasses. Put three-fourths 
teaspoon Maraschino in each glass, and garnish with bananas 
cut in one-fourth inch slices, and slices cut in quarters, can- 
died cherries cut in halves, Malaga grapes from which skins 
and seeds have been removed, and angelica cut in strips. 

Orange Ice 

4 cups water )^ cup lemon juice 

2 cups sugar Grated rind of two 

2 cups orange juice oranges 

Make syrup as for Lemon Ice ; add fruit juice and grated 
rind ; cool, strain, and freeze. 



4S6 BOSTOK COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOS 

Maraschino Ice 

Prepare Orange Ice mixture, freeze to a mush, flavor with 
Maraschino, and finish freezing. Serve in frappe glasses. 

Feme gran ate Ice 
Same as Orange Ice, made from blood oranges. 

Raspberry Ice I 
4 cups water 2 cups raspberry juice 

1 % cups sugar 2 tablespoons lemon juice 

Make a syrup as for Lemon Ice, cool, add raspberries 
mashed, and squeezed through double cheese-cloth, and lemon 
juice ; strain and freeze. 

Raspberry Ice II 
1 quart raspberries 1 cup water 

1 cup sugar Lemon juice 

Sprinkle raspberries with sugar, cover, and let stand two 
hours. Mash, squeeze through cheese-cloth, add water and 
lemon juice to taste, then freeze. Raspberry ice prepared 
in this way retains the natural color of the fruit. 

Stra-wberry Ice I 
4 cups water 2 cups strawberry juice 

\% cups sugar 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

Prepare and freeze same as Raspberry Ice I. 

St^rawberry Ice II 

1 quart box strawberries 1 cup water 

1 cup sugar Lemon juice 
Make same as Raspberry Ice II. 

Currant Ice 

4 cups water \% cups sugar 

2 cups currant juice 

Prepare and freeze same as Raspberry Ice I. 

Raspberry and Currant Ice 

4 cups water % cup raspberry juice 

\% cups sugar \)^ cups currant juicQ 

Prepare and freeze same as Raspberry Ice L 



ICES, ICE CREAMS, ETC. 437 



Crime de Menthe Ice 

4 cups water % cup Creme de Menthe cordial 

1 cup sugar Green coloring 

Make a syrup as for Lemon Ice, add cordial and coloring ; 
strain and freeze. 

Icebergs 

Dissolve two cups sugar in three cups boiling water ; cool, 
add three-fourths cup lemon juice, color with leaf green, and 
freeze. Serve in champagne glasses. Put one teaspoon 
cr§me de menthe in each glass, and sprinkle with finely 
chopped nut meats, using almonds, filberts, pecans, and wal- 
nuts in equal proportions. These may be used after the 
roast and before the game. 

Canton Sherbet 
4 cups water ^ lb. Canton ginger 

1 cup sugar }4 cup orange juice 

^ cup lemon juice 

Cut ginger in small pieces, add water and sugar, boil 
fifteen minutes; add fruit juice, cool, strain, and freeze. 
To be used in place of punch at a course dinner. This 
quantity is enough to serve twelve persons. 

Milk Sherbet 

4 cups milk 1)^ cups sugar 

Juice 3 lemons 

Mix juice and sugar, stirring constantly while slowly add- 
ing milk ; if added too rapidly mixture will have a curdled 
appearance, which is unsightly, but will not affect the 
quality of sherbet; freeze and serve. 

Frozen Chocolate "with Whipped Cream 

2 squares unsweetened chocolate Few grains salt 

1 cup sugar 1 cup boiling water 

3 cups rich milk 

Scald milk. Melt chocolate in small saucepan placed 
over hot water, add one-half the sugar, salt, and gradually 



438 BOSTON COOKIKG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

boiling water. Boil five minutes, add to scalded milk with 
remaining sugar. Cool, freeze, and serve in glasses. Gar- 
nish with whipped cream sweetened and flavored with 
vanilla. 

Pineapple Prapp^ 
2 cups water 2 cups ice-water 

1 cup sugar 1 can grated pineapple or 

Juice 3 lemons 1 pineapple shredded 

Make a syrup by boiling water and sugar fifteen minutes ; 
add pineapple and lemon juice ; cool, strain, add ice-water, 
and freeze to a mush, using equal parts ice and salt. If 
fresh fruit is used, more sugar will be required. 

Pineapple Sorbet 
2 cups water 1% cups orange juice 

2 cups sugar )4 cup lemon juice 

1 can grated pineapple or 1 quart Appollinaris 

1 pineapple shredded 

Prepare and freeze same as Pineapple Frappe. 

Sicilian Sorbet 

1 can peaches 2 cups orange juice 

1 cup sugar 2 tablespoons lemon juice 

Press peaches through a sieve, add sugar and fruit juices. 
Freeze and serve. 

Italian Sorbet 
4 cups water 1}£ cups grape fruit juice 

2 cups sugar 3^ cup lemon juice 
1)4 cups orange juice ^ cup wine 

Prepare and freeze same as Pineapple Frappe. 

Apricot Sorbet 

1 can apricots % cup wine 

1 cup sugar }£ cup lemon juice 

1 pint cream 

Drain apricots, and add to syrup the pulp rubbed through 
a sieve. Add sugar, wine, and lemon juice. Freeze to a 
mush, then fold in the whip obtained from cream. Let stand 
one and one-half hours, and serve in glasses. 



IGBS, lOB CBEAMS, SXa 4t9 

Caf4 Frapp6 

White 1 egg % ^'^P ground coffee 

% cup cold water 4 cups boiling water 

1 cup sugar 

Beat white of ^gg slightly, add cold water, and mix with 
coffee ; turn into scalded coffee-pot, add boiling water, and 
let boil one minute ; place on back of range ten minutes ; 
strain, add sugar, cool, and freeze same as Pineapple 
Frappe. Serve in frappe glasses, with whipped cream, 
sweetened and flavored. 

Cranberry Prapp^ 

1 quart cranberries 2 cups sugar 

2 cups water Juice 2 lemons 

Cook cranberries and water eight minutes ; then force 
through a sieve. Add sugar and lemon juice, and freeze 
to a mush, using equal parts of ice and salt. 

Grape Frapp^ 
4 cups water 2 cups grape juice 

2 cups sugar % cup orange juice 

^ cup lemon juice 

Prepare and freeze same as Pineapple Frapp^. 

Pomona Prapp^ 
ly^ cups sugar 1 quart sweet cider 

4 cups water 2 cups orange juice 

^ cup lemon juice 

Make a syrup by boiling sugar and water twenty minutes. 
Add cider, orange juice, and lemon juice. Cool, strain, and 
freeze to a mush. 

Clam Prapp^ 
20 clams }4 cup cold water 

Wash clams thoroughly, changing water several times ; 
put in stewpan with cold water, cover closely, and steam 
until shells open. Strain the liquor, cool, and freeze to » 
mnsh. 



440 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Frozen Cranberries 

4 cups cranberries 2^^ cups sugar 

1}^ cups boiling water 

Pick over and wash cranberries, add water and sugar, 
and cook ten minutes, skimming during the cooking. Rub 
through a sieve, cool, and pour into one-pound baking- 
powder boxes. Pack in salt and ice, using equal parts, and 
let stand four hours. If there is not sufficient mixture to 
fill two boxes, add water to make up the desired quantity. 
Serve as a substitute for cranberry sauce or jelly. 

Frozen Apricots 

1 can apricots 1)^ cups sugar 

Water 

Drain apricots, and cut in small pieces. To the syrup 
add enough water to make four cups, and cook with sugar 
five minutes ; strain, add apricots, cool, and freeze. Peaches 
may be used instead of apricots. To make a richer dessert, 
add the whip from two cups cream when frozen to a mush, 
and continue freezing. 

Pineapple Cream 

2 cups water 1 can grated pineapple 

1 cup sugar ' 2 cups cream 

Make syrup by boiling sugar and water fifteen minutes ; 
strain, cool, add pineapple, and freeze to a mush. Fold 
in whip from cream; let stand thirty minutes before serving. 
Serve in frappe glasses and garnish with candied pineapple. 

Cardinal Punch 

4 cups water )4 cup lemon juice 

2 cups sugar ii cup brandy 
% cup orange juice >£ cup Cura^oa 

J^ cup tea infusion 

Make syrup as for Lemon Ice, add fruit juice and tea, 
freeze to a mush ; add strong liquors and continue freezing 
Serve in frapp^ glasses. 



ICES, ICE CREAMS, ETC. 4^11 

Puncli Hollahdaise 

4 cups water Rind one lemon 

1)^ cups sugar 1 can grated pineapple 

^ cup lemon juice ^ cup brandy 

2 tablespoons gin 

Cook sugar, water, and lemon rind fifteen minutes, add 
lemon juice and pineapple, cool, strain, freeze to a mush, add 
strong liquors, and continue freezing. Serve in frappe glasses 
on a plate covered with a doily. 

Victoria Punch 

S}^ cups water Grated rind two oranges 

2 cups sugar 1 cup angelica wine 

^ cup lemon juice 1 cup cider 

)^ cup orange juice l^ tablespoons gin 

Prepare same as Cardinal Punch ; strain before freezing, to 
remove orange rind. 

Lenox Punch 

2 cups water 1 cup orange juice 

^ cup sugar ^ cup lemon juice 

% tumbler currant jelly 2 bottles ginger ale 

Ice )^ cup brandy 

Make a syrup by boiling sugar and water fifteen minutes. 
Add jelly, and, as soon as dissolved, add a piece of ice to 
cool mixture ; then add fruit juices, ale, and brandy. Color 
red, freeze to a mush, serve in glasses, and insert in each 
glass a small sprig of holly with berries. 

German Punch 

2 cups water 1 cup sugar 

1^ cups tomatoes 3 tablespoons lemon 

3 apples, cored, pared, and juice 

chopped Piece ginger root 

3 tablespoons Maraschino 

Mix ingredients, except cordial, and cook thirty-five min- 
utes. Rub through a sieve, add Maraschino, and freeze to a 
mush. 



442 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Ziondon Sherbet 
2 cups sugar 3 tablespoons lemon juice 

2 cups water 1 cup fruit syrup 

y^ cup seeded and finely cut ^ grated nutmeg 
raisins ^ cup port wine 

^ cup orange juice Whites 3 eggs 

Make syrup by boiling water and sugar ten minutes ; pouf 
over raisins, cool, and add fruit syrup and nutmeg ; freeze 
to a mush, then add wine and whites of eggs beaten stiff, and 
continue freezing. Serve in glasses. Fruit syrup may be 
used which has been left from canned peaches, pears, or 
strawberries. 

Roman Punch 
4 cups water >^ cup orange Juice 

2 cups sugar )4 ^^P *®^ infusion 

^ cup lemon juice }^ cup rum 

Prepare and freeze same as Cardinal Punch. 

Coup Sioilienne 

1 shredded pineapple 2 tablespoons Maraschino 
3 oranges (pulp) 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

3 bananas sliced Few grains salt 

Powdered sugar 

Mix ingredients, sweeten to taste, and chill. Serve in 
champagne glasses having glasses two-thirds full. Cover 
fruit to fill glasses with Strawberry Ice II. and garnish with 
strawberries and angelica. 

Coup a I'Ananas 

Cut canned sliced pineapple in pieces, pour over pineapple 
syrup to which is added Orange Curaqoa, allowing one-half 
as much syrup as fruit, cover and let stand one hour. Fill 
champagne glasses one-third full, add vanilla ice cream to 
fill glasses, and garnish with candied cherries and candied 
pineapple cut in pieces. 

Vanilla Ice Cream I (Philadelphia) 

1 quart thin cream ^ cup sugar 

13^ tablespoons yanill* 

Mix ingredientoy and freeze. 




) 4i 




Coup Sicilienne. Coup a l' Ananas. — Page 




Coffee Ice Cream served in half of Cantaloupe. — Pa^e 445. 
Vanilla Ice Cream served in half of Cantaloupe with 
Fruit Garnish. — Page 




L _. 



BoAiBE Glaceb. ~ I 'age ^52. 




Junket Ice Cheam witu Peaches. — Fage 448. 



ICES, lOB CREAMS, ETC. 443 

Vanilla Ice Cream II 

2 cnps scalded milk 1 egg 

1 tablespoon flour }{ teaspoon salt 

1 cup sugar 1 quart thin cream 

2 tablespoons vanilla 

Mix flour, sugar, and salt, add egg slightly beaten, and 
milk gradually ; cook over hot water twenty minutes, stirring 
constantly at first ; should custard have curdled appearance, 
it will disappear in freezing. When cool, add cream and 
flavoring ; strain and freeze. 

Chocolate Sauce I 

(To be served with Vanilla Ice Cream) 
1)4 cups water 1 tablespoon arrowroot 

}4 cup sugar ^ cup cold water 

6 tablespoons grated chocolate Few grains salt 
}^ teaspoon vanilla 

Boil water and sugar five minutes. Mix chocolate with 
arrowroot to which water has been added. Combine mix- 
tures, add salt, and boil three minutes. Flavor with vanilla, 
and serve hot. 

Chocolate Sauce II 

1 square unsweetened chocolate 1 tablespoon butter 
1 cup sugar ^ cup boiling water 

^ teaspoon vanilla 

Melt chocolate ; add butter, and pour on gradually water. 
Bring to boiling-point, add sugar, and let boil five minutes, 
cool slightly, and add vanilla. 

Coffee Sauce 

(To be served with Vanilla Ice Cream) 
1)4 cups milk 3^ cup sugar 

^ cup ground coffee ^ tablespoon arrowroot 

Few grains salt 

Scald milk with coffee, and let stand twenty minutes. Mix 
remaining ingredients, and pour on gradually the hot infu- 
sion which has been strained. Cook five minutes, and serve 
hot, 



444 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Vanilla Ice Cream Croquettes 

Shape Vanilla Ice Cream in individual moulds, roll in 
macaroon dust made by pounding and sifting dry macaroons. 

Chocolate Ice Cream I 

1 quart thin cream !}{ squares unsweetened chocolate or 

1 cup sugar 3^ cup prepared cocoa 
Few grains salt 1 tablespoon vanilla 

Melt chocolate, and dilute with hot water to pour easily, 
add to cream; then add sugar, salt, and flavoring, and 
freeze. 

Chocolate Ice Cream II 

Use recipe for Vanilla Ice Cream II. Melt two squares 
Baker's chocolate, by placing in a small saucepan set in a 
larger saucepan of boiling water, and pour hot custard slowly 
on chocolate ; then cool before adding cream. 

Stra"wrberry Ice Cream I 

8 pints thin cream 2 cups sugar 

2 boxes berries Few grains salt 

Wash and hull berries, sprinkle with sugar, cover, and let 
stand two hours. Mash, and squeeze through cheese-cloth ; 
then add salt. Freeze cream to the consistency of a mush, 
add gradually fruit juice, and finish freezing. Rich Jersey 
milk may be substituted for cream. 

Strawberry Ice Cream II 

8 pints thin cream 1^ cups sugar 

2 boxes strawberries 2 cups milk 

1^ tablespoons arrowroot 

Wash and hull berries, sprinkle with sugar, let stand 
one hour, mash, and rub through strainer. Scald one 
and one-half cups milk; dilute arrowroot with remaining 
milk, add to hot milk, and cook ten minutes in double 
boiler; cool, add cream-, freeze to a mush, add fruit, and 
finish freezing. 



ICES, ICE CREAMS, ETC. 445 



Orange Ice Cream 

1 e-up heavy cream 2 cups orange juice 

1 cup thill cream Sugar 

Add cream slowly to orange juice, sweeten to taste, and 
freeze. Serve with canned strawberries or fresh fruit 
mashed and sweetened. 

Pineapple Ice Cream 

3 pints cream % cup sugar 

1 can grated pineapple 

Add pineapple to cream, let stand thirty minutes ; strain, 
add sugar, and freeze. 

Coffee Ice Cream 

1 quart cream 1^ cups sugar 

\%_ cups milk y^ teaspoon salt 

3^ cup Mocha coffee Yolks 4 eggs 

Scald milk with coffee, add one cup sugar ; mix egg yolks 
slightly beaten with one-fourth cup sugar, and salt; combine 
mixtures, cook over hot water until thickened, add one cup 
cream, and let stand on back of range twenty-five minutes ; 
cool, add remaining cream, and strain through double cheese- 
cloth ; freeze. Coffee Ice Cream may be served with Maras* 
chino cherries or in halves of cantaloupes. 

Caramel Ice Cream 

1 quart cream 1 ^gg 

2 cups milk 1 tablespoon flour 
IK ^^PS sugar % teaspoon salt 

\y^ tablespoons vanilla 

Prepare same as Vanilla Ice Cream II, using one-half 
sugar in custard ; remaining half caramelize, and add slowly 
to hot custard. See Caramelization of Sugar, page 586. 

Burnt Almond Ice Cream 

It is made same as Caramel Ice Cream, with the additioo 
of one cup finely chopped blanched almonds. 



446 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Brown Bread Ice Cream 

3 pints cream ^ cup sugar 

IX cups dried brown % teaspoon salt 

bread crumbs 

Soak crumbs in one quart cream, let stand fifteen minutes, 
rub through sieve, add sugar, salt, and remaining cream; 
then freeze. 

Bisque Ice Cream 

Make custard as for VanilUa Ice Cream II, add one quart 
cream, one tablespoon vanilla, and one cup hickory nut or 
English walnut meats finely chopped. 

Burnt Walnut Bisque 

2 cups scalded milk % cup chopped walnut meats 

Yolks 3 eggs 1 cup heavy cream 

1 cup sugar % tablespoon vanilla 

Few grains salt 

Make custard of milk, eggs, one-third of the sugar, and 
salt. Caramelize remaining sugar, add nut meats, and turn 
into a slightly buttered pan. Cool, pound, and pass through 
a puree strainer. Add to custard, cool, then add one cup 
heavy cream, beaten until stiff, and vanilla. Freeze and 
mould. 

Praline Ice Cream 

8 pints cream 1 cup Jordan almonds 

\% cups sugar ^ teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon vanilla 

Blanch almonds cut in pieces crosswise, and bake in a 
shallow pan until well browned, shaking pan frequently; 
then finely chop. Caramelize one-half of the sugar, and add 
slowly to two cups of the cream scalded. As soon as sugar 
is melted, add nuts, remaining sugar, and salt. Cool, add 
remaining cream, and freeze. A few grains salt is always an 
improyemeut to anj ioe cream mixture. 



I0B8, lOB CKEAM6, ETC. 447 



Macaroon Ice Cream 

1 quart cream . % cup sugar 

1 cup macaroons 1 tablespoon vanilla 

Dry, pound, and measure macaroons ; add to cream, sugar, 
and vanilla, then freeze. 

Banana Ice Cream 
1 quart cream 1)4 tablespoons lemon juice 

4 bananas 1 cup sugar 

A few grains salt 

Remove skins and scrape bananas, then force through 
a sieve ; add remaining ingredients ; then freeze. 

Ginger Ice Cream 

To recipe for Vanilla Ice Cream II, using one-half 
quantity vanilla, add one-half cup Canton ginger cut in 
small pieces, three tablespoons ginger syrup, and two table- 
spoons Sherry wine ; then freeze. 

Fistachio Ice Cream 

Prepare same as Vanilla Ice Cream II, using for flavoring 
one tablespoon vanilla and one teaspoon almond extract; 
color with Burnett's Leaf Green. 

Pistachio Bisque 

To Pistachio Ice Cream add one-half cup each of pounded 
macaroons, chopped almonds, and peanuts. Mould, and 
serve with or without Claret Sauce. 

Fig Ice Cream 

3 cups milk 1 lb. figs, finely chopped 

1 cup sugar 1)^ cups heavy cream 

Yolks 5 eggs Whites 5 eggs 

1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon vanilla 

2 tablespoons brandy 

Make custard of yolks of eggs, sugar, and milk ; strain, 
add figs, cool, and flavor. Add whites of eggs beaten until 
stiff and heavy cream beaten until stiff ; freeze and mould. 



448 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Junket Ice Cream "otrith Peaches 

4 cups lukewarm milk 1 tablespoon cold water 

1 cup heavy cream 1 tablespoon vanilla 

1)^ cups sugar 1 teaspoon almond extract 

3^ teaspoon salt Green Coloring 

iy2 Junket Tablets 1 can peaches 

Mix first four ingredients, and add junket tablets 
dissolved in cold water. Turn into a pudding-dish and 
let stand until set. Add flavoring and coloring. Freeze, 
mould, and serve garnished with halves of peaches, 
filling cavities with halves of blanched almonds. Turn 
peaches into a saucepan, add one- third cup sugar, and 
cook slowly until syrup is thick. Cool before garnishing 
ice cream. 

Violet Ice Cream 

1 quart cream }{ cup Yvette Cordial 

^ cup sugar 1 small bunch violets 

Few grains salt Violet coloring 

Mix first four ingredients. Remove stems from violets, 
and pound violets in a mortar until well macerated, then 
strain through cheese-cloth. Add extract to first mixture ; 
color, freeze, and mould. Serve garnished with fresh or 
eandied violets ; the light purple cultivated violets should be 
used and the result will be most gratifying. 

Neapolitan or Harlequin Ice Cream 
Two kinds of ice cream and an ice moulded in a brick. 

Baked Alaska 

Whites 6 eggs 2 quart brick of ice cream 

6 tablespoons powdered sugar Thin sheet sponge cake 

Make meringue of eggs and sugar as in Meringue I, 
cover a board with white paper, lay on sponge cake, turn 
ice cream on cake (which should extend one-half inch be- 
yond cream), cover with meringue, and spread smoothly. 
Place on oven grate and brown quickly in hot oven. The 
board, paper, cake, and meringue are poor conductors of 



ICES, ICE CREAMS, ETC, 449 

heat, and prevent the cream from melting. Slip from paper 
on ice cream platter. 

Pudding Glace 

2 cups milk ^ teaspoon salt 

% cup raisins 1 quart thin cream 

1 cup sugar % cup almonds 

1 egg % cup candied pineapple 

1 tablespoon flour % cup Canton ginger 

3 tablespoons wine 

Scald raisins in milk fifteen minutes, strain, make custard 
of milk, egg, sugar, flour, and salt ; strain, cool, add pine- 
apple, ginger cut in small pieces, nuts finely chopped, 
wine, and cream ; then freeze. The raisins should t^e rinsed 
and saved for a pudding. 

Frozen Pudding I 

2% cups milk 1 cup heavy cream 

1 cup sugar )^ cup rum 

% teaspoonful salt 1 cup candied fruit, cherries, pine- 

2 eggs apples, pears, and apricots 

Cut fruit in small pieces, and soak two or three hours 
in brandy to cover, which prevents fruit from freezing; 
make a custard of milk, sugar, salt, and eggs; strain, cool, 
add cream and rum, then freeze. Fill a brick mould with 
alternate layers of the cream and fruit; pack in salt and 
ice and let stand two hours. 

Frozen Pudding II 
1 quart cream 3^ cup rum 

% cup sugar 1 cup candied fruit 

8 lady fingers 

Cut fruit in pieces, and soak several hours in brandy to 
cover. Mix cream, sugar, and rum, then freeze. Line a 
two-quart melon mould with lady fingers, crust side down ; 
fill with alternate layers of the cream and fruit, cover, pack 
in salt and ice, and let stand two hours. Brandied peaches 
cut in pieces, with some of their syrup added, greatly 
improve the pudding. 

S9 



460 BOSTON OOOKING-SOHOOL COOK BOOK 

Frozen Tom and Jerry 

2 cups milk )^ teaspoon salt 

% cup sugar 2% cups cream 

Yolks 6 eggs 2 tablespoons rum 

1 tablespoon brandy 

Make a custard of first four ingredients ; strain, cool, add 
cream, and freeze to a mush. Add rum and brandy, and 
finish the freezing. 

University Pudding 

Prepare same as Frozen Tom and Jerry. Freeze to a mush, 
add one cup mixed fruit which has been soaked in brandy 
to cover for twelve hours, using glace cherries, Sultana 
raisins, sliced citron, and candied pineapple; then finish 
freezing. Serve in small beer jugs, and garnish with cream, 
whipped, sweetened, and flavored. 

Covington Cream 

% cup sugar i^ cup rum 

}4 cup Formosa tea infusion 1 quart cream 

Mix ingredients, and freeze to a mush. Serve in frapp^ 
glasses. 

Delmonico Ice Cream with Angel Food 

2 cups milk ^ teaspoon salt 

% cup sugar 2% cups thin cream 

Yolks 7 eggs 1 tablespoon vanilla 

1 teaspoon lemon 

Make custard of milk, sugar, eggs, and salt; cool, strain, 
and flavor ; whip cream, remove whip ; there should be two 
quarts; add to custard, and freeze. Serve plain or with 
Angel Food. 

Angel Food 

Whites 3 eggs 1 quart cream whip 

% cup powdered sugar 1% teaspoons vanilla 

Beat eggs until stiff, fold in sugar, cream whip, and 
flavoring; line a mould with Delmonico Ice Cream, fill with 
the mixture, cover, pack in salt and ice, and let stand ty^o 
honrfi. 



lOES, lOE CKEAMS, ETC. 451 

Manhattan Pudding 

\y^ cups orange juice 1 pint heavy cream 

1^ cup lemon juice }4 cup powdered sugar 

Sugar % tablespoon vanilla 

% cup chopped walnut meats 

Mix fruit juices and sweeten to taste. Turn mixture in 
brick moald. Whip cream, and add sugar, vanilla, and nut 
meats ; pour over the first mixture to overflow mould ; cover 
with buttered paper, fit on cover, pack in salt and ice, and 
let stand three hours. 

Sultana Roll with Claret Sauce 

Line one-pound baking-powder boxes with Pistachio Ice 
Cream ; sprinkle with Sultana raisins which have been soaked 
one hour in brandy ; fill centres with Vanilla Ice Cream or 
whipped cream, sweetened, and flavored with vanilla ; cover 
with Pistachio Ice Cream; pack in salt and ice, and let 
stand one and one-half hours. 

Claret Sauce 

1 cup sugar ^ cup water 

% cup claret 

Boil sugar and water eight minutes; cool slightly, and 
add claret. 

Angel Parfait * 
* . 1 cup sugar Whites 3 e%^ 

% cup water 1 pint heavy cream 

1 tablespoon vanilla 

Boil sugar and water until syrup will thread when dropped 
from tip of spoon. Pour slowly on the beaten whites of 
eggs, and continue the beating until mixture is cool. Add 
cream beaten until stiff, and vanilla ; then freeze. 

Caf^ Parfait 

1 cup milk % teaspoon salt 

^i cup Mocha cofEe* 1 cup sugar 

Yolks 3 eggs 3 cups thin cream 

Scald milk with coffee, and add one-half the sngar ; witlK 
out ■traiaingf use this mixture for makinf oufttard, with 



452 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

eggs, salt, and remainiDg sugar ; add one cup cream and let 

stand thirty minutes; cool, strain through double cheese- 
cloth, add remaining cream, and freeze. Line a mould, fill 
with Italian Meringue, cover, pack in salt and ice, using 
two parts crushed ice to one part rock salt, and let stand 
three hours. 

Italian Meringue 

% cup sugar Whites 3 eggs 

y^ cup water 1 cup thin cream 

1 tablespoon gelatine or %. tablespoon vanilla 
^ teaspoon granulated gelatine 

Make syrup by boiling sugar and water ; pour slowly on 
beaten whites of eggs, and ccntinue beating. Place in pan 
of ice-water, and beat until cold; dissolve gelatine in small 
quantity boiling water; strain into mixture; whip cream, 
fold in whip, and flavor. 

Bombe Glaci^e 

Line a mould with sherbet or water ice; fill with ice 
cream or thin Charlotte Russe mixture ; cover, pack in salt 
and ice, and let stand two hours. The mould may be lined 
with ice cream. Pomegranate or Raspberry Ice and Vanilla 
or Macaroon Ice Cream make a good combination. 

* IToisette Bomb 

Strawberry Ice I ^ cup hot caramel syrup 

% cup sugar Yolks 4 eggs 

% cup chopped blanched IX cups heavy cream 

filberts 3^ tablespoon vanilla 

Few grains salt 

Caramelize sugar, add nut meats, turn into a buttered 
pan, cool, then pound in mortar and put through a puree 
strainer. Beat egg yolks until thick, add gradually caramel 
syrup, and cook in double boiler until mixture thickens ; 
then beat until cold. Fold in cream beaten until stiff. Then 
add prepared nut meats, vanilla, and salt. Line melon 
mould with ice, turn in mixture, pack in salt and ice, and 
let stand three hours. 



ICES, ICE CREAMS, ETC. 45S 

Nesselrode Pudding 
8 caps milk }^ teaspoon salt 

\% cups sugar 1 pint thin cream • 

Yolks 5 eggs 3€ cup pineapple syrup ' 

\%. cops prepared French chestnuts 

Make custard of first four ingredients, strain, cool, add 
cream, pineapple syrup, and chestnuts; then freeze. To 
prepare chestnuts, shell, cook in boiling water until soft, 
and force through a strainer. Line a two-quart melon mould 
with part of mixture ; to remainder add one-half cup candied 
fruit cut in small pieces, one-quarter cup Sultana raisins, 
and eight chestnuts broken in pieces, first soaked several 
hours in Maraschino syrup. Fill mould, cover, pack in salt 
and ice, and let stand two hours. Serve with whipped 
cream, sweetened and flavored with Maraschino syrup. 

Pistachio Fruit Ice Cream 

3 cups milk 1)^ cups chestnut puree 

1)^ cups sugar 1 teaspoon almond extract 

Yolks 5 eggs 1 tablespoon vanilla 

% teaspoon salt ^ cup glace fruits 

1 pint heavy cream Maraschino 

Green coloring 
Make a custard of first four Ingredients, strain, cool ; add 
cream, chestnut puree, flavoring, and glace fruit cut in pieces 
and previously soaked in Maraschino three hours. Color 
with leaf green; freeze, mould, pack in salt and ice, and 
let stand two hours. Serve with 

Fruit Sauce. Drain syrup from a pint jar of canned 
strawberry, raspberry, or pineapple, heat to boiling-point, 
thicken slightly with arrowroot, and color with fruit red. 

Nougat Ice Cream 

3 cups milk Whites 5 eggs 

1 cup sugar y^ cup, each, pistachio, filbert, Eng- 

Yolks 5 eggs lish walnut, and iilmond meats 

1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon almond extract 

\y^ cups heavy cream 1 tablespoon vanilla 

Make a custard of first four ingredients, strain, and cool. 
Add i^i^avy cream beaten uutil stiff, whites of eggs beaten 



454 BOSTON COOKENQ-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

until stiff, nut meats finely chopped, and flavoring; then 
freeze. 

Orange Pekoe Ice Cream 
I 2 cups milk Yolks 4 eggs 

3 tablespoons Orange Pekoe tea )^ teaspoon salt 
1}4 cups sugar Grated rind 1 orange 

1 pint heavy cream 
Scald milk to which tea had been added, and let stand 
five minutes. Add sugar, and Qgg yoll^s slightly beaten, and 
cook until mixture thickens. Strain, add remaining ingre- 
dients, freeze, and mould. Serve garnished with Candied 
Orange Peel (p. 547). 

Orange Delicious 
2 cups sugar 1 cup cream 

1 cup water Yolks two eggs 

2 cups orange juice 1 cup heavy cream 

J^ cup shredded candied orange peel 

Boil sugar and water eight minutes, then add orange juice. 
Scald cream, add yolks of eggs, and cook over hot water 
until mixture thickens. Cool, add to first mixture with 
heavy cream beaten stiff. Freeze ; when nearly frozen, add 
orange peel. Line a melon mould with Orange Ice, fill with 
Orange Delicious, pack in salt and ice, and let stand one 
and one-half hours. 

' Strawberry Mousse 
1 quart thin cream }^ box gelatine (scant) or 

1 box strawberries 1}^ tablespoons granulated gelatine 

1 cup sugar 2 tablespoons cold water 

3 tablespoons hot water 

"Wash and hull berries, sprinkle with sugar, and let stand 
one hour; mash, and rub through a fine sieve; add gelatine 
soaked in cold and dissolved in boiling water. Set in pan 
of ice-water and stir until it begins to thicken ; then fold in 
whip from cream, put in mould, cover, pack in salt and ice, 
and let stand four hours. Raspberries may be used in place 
of strawberries. 

Coffee Mousse 
Make same as Strawberry Mousse, using one cup boiled 
coffee in place of fruit juice. 



lOES, ICE CKEAMS, ETO. 455 

Pineapple Mousse 

1 tablespoon granulated gelatine 2 tablespoons lemon juice 
^ cup cold water 1 cup sugar 

1 cup pineapple syrup 1 quart cream 

Heat one can pineapple, and drain. To one cup of the 
syrup, add gelatine soaked in cold water, lemon juice, and*" 
sugar. Strain and cool. As mixture thiickens, fold in the 
whip from cream. Mould, pack in salt and ice, and let 
stand four hours. 

Chocolate Mousse 

2 squares unsweetened chocolate 3 tablespoons boiling water 
% cup powdered sugar ^ cup sugar 

1 cup cream 1 teaspoon vanilla 

^ tablespoon granulated gelatine 1 quart cream 

Melt chocolate, add powdered sugar, and gradually one 
cup cream. Stir over fire until boiling-point is reached, then 
add gelatine dissolved in boiling water, sugar, and vanilla. 
Strain mixture into a bowl, set in a pan of ice-water, stir 
constantly until mixture thickens, then fold in the whip from 
remaining cream. Mould, pack in salt and ice, and let 
stand four hours. 

Maple Farfait 
4 eggs 1 cup hot maple syrup 

1 pint thick cream 

Beat eggs slightly, and pour on slowly maple syrup. Cook 
until mixture thickens, cool, and add cream beaten until stiff. 
Mould, pack in salt and ice, and let stand three hours. 

Mousse Marron 

1 quart vanilla ice cream 1 teaspoon granulated gelatine 

1^ cup sugar \% cups prepared French chestnuts 

yi cup water 1 pint cream 

Whites two eggs % tablespoon vanilla 

Cook sugar and water five minutes, pour on to beaten 
whites of eggs, dissolve gelatine in one and one-half table- 
spoons boiling water, and add to first mixture. Set in a pan 
of ice- water, and stir until cold ; add chestnuts, and fold in 
whip from cream and yanilU. Line a mould with ice cream, 



456 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

and fill with mixture ; cover, pack in salt and ice, and let 
stand three hours. 

Cardinal Mousse, "with Iced Maderia Sauce 

Line a mould with Pomegranate Ice ; fill with Italian 
Meringue made of three-fourths cup sugar, one-third cup 
hot water, whites two eggs, and one and one-half teaspoons 
granulated gelatine dissolved in two tablespoons boiling 
water. Beat until cold^ and fold in whip from two cups 
cream ; flavor with one teaspoon vanilla, cover, pack in salt 
and ice, and let stand three hours. 

Iced Madeira Sauce 

3>^ cup orange juice % cup sugar 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 1 cup boiling water 

% cup Madeira wine Whites 2 eggs 

Freeze fruit juice and wine ; boil sugar and water, pour on 
slowly to beaten whites of eggs, set in pan of salted ice-water, 
and stir until cold. Add to frozen mixture. 

Cocoanut Naples, Sauterne Sauce 
Shape vanilla ice cream in individual moulds, and roll in 
shredded cocoanut ; serve with 

Sauterne Sauce 

1 cup sugar 4 tablespoons Sauterne 

y^ cup water Green coloring 

Make same as Claret Sauce, and color with leaf green. 

Ice k la Margot 

Serve vanilla ice cream in champagne glasses. Cover ice 
cream with whipped cream, sweetened, flavored with pistachio, 
and tinted very light green. Garnish with pistachio nuts or 
Malaga grapes cut in halves. 

Coup auz Marrons 

Break marron glace in pieces, flavor with rum, cover, and 
let stand one hour. Put in champagne glasses, allowing one 
and one-half marrons to each glass, cover with vanilla ice 



ICES, ICE CREAMS, ETC. 457 

cream, and garnish with whipped cream, sweetened and 
flavored with vanilla, and candied rose leaves. 

Plombiere Glac^ 

Cover the bottom of small paper cases with vanilla ice 
cream, sprinkle ice cream with marron glace broken in .pieces, 
arrange lady fingers at equal distances, and allow them to 
extend one inch above cases. Pile whipped cream, sweetened 
and flavored, in the centre and garnish with marron glace 
and candied violets or glace cherries. 

Demi-glace aux Fraises 

Line a brick mould with Vanilla Ice Cream, put in layer of 
lady fingers, and fill the centre with preserved strawberries 
or large fresh fruit cut in halves ; cover with ice cream, pack 
in salt and ice, and let stand one hour. For ice cream, make 
custard of two and one-half cups milk, yolks four eggs, one 
cup sugar, and one-fourth teaspoon salt ; strain, cool, add 
one cup heavy cream and one tablespoon vanilla; then 
freeze. 

Mazarine 

Bake Brioche in a Charlotte Eusse mould or individual 
tins, cool, cut a slice from top of cake or cakes, and remove 
centre or centres, leaving a wall or walls one-half inch thick. 
Fill with rich Vanilla Ice Cream, invert on serving dish, 
and pour over 

Apricot Marmalade. Drain one can apricots and force 
the fruit through a strainer. Cook syrup until suflSciently 
reduced to add to fruit, and make of consistency of mar- 
malade. Add a few drops lemon juice and sugar if neces- 
sary. Decorate top with halves of apricots, glace cherries, 
and whipped cream. 

Flowering Ice Cream 

Line two and one-half inch flower-pots with paraffine paper. 
Fill with ice cream, cover cream with grated vanilla chocolate 
to represent earth, and insert a flower in each. 



458 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Concord Cream 
1 pint cream Lemon or fresh lime juice 

1)^ cups grape jnice y^ cup heavy cream 

y^ cup sugar Pistachio nuts, finely chopped 

Mix cream, grape juice, and sugar. Add lemon or lime 
juice to taste. Freeze, and serve in gldsses. Garnish with 
heavy cream beaten until stiff, sweetened, and flavored. 
Sprinkle cream with nuts. 

German Ice Cream 

Mix one and one- fourth cups sugar, one tablespoon flour, 
and one-fourth teaspoon salt. Add two eggs slightly beaten 
and two cups scalded milk. Cook over hot water until mix- 
ture thickens, then add two squares melted chocolate, and 
cool. Add three cups cream and one tablespoon vanilla. 
Strain and freeze. Just before serving add three cups 
zweiback dried and broken in small pieces. 

Frozen Grange SouS16 

\% cups orange juice 1)^ teaspoons granulated gelatine 

\y^ cups sugar 3 tablespoons boiling water 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 2% cups cream 

Yolks 5 eggs Candied orange peel 

Pistachio nuts 

Mix fruit juice, sugar, and yolks of eggs. Cook over 
boiling water until mixture thickens ; then add gelatine dis- 
solved in boiling water. Cool, freeze to a mush, add whip 
from cream, and continue freezing. Mould, and serve gar- 
nished with candied orange peel and pistachio nuts. 

Biscuit Tortoni in Boxes 

1 cup dried macaroons, % cup sugar 

finely crushed y^ cup sherry 

2 cups thin cream 1 pint heavy cream 

Soak macaroons in thin cream one hour, add sugar, wine, 
and freeze to a mush ; then add heavy cream beaten stiff. 
Mould, pack in salt and ice, and let stand two hours. 

Trim lady fingers, arrange on plate in form of box. 
Keep in place with ribbon oue-ha>lf inch wide^ and fasten at 



lOHS, ICE CREAMS, BTO. 459 

one corner by tying ribbon in a bow. Garnish opposite 
corner with flowers of same color as ribbon. Remove ice 
cream from brick, cut a slice three-fourths inch thick, and 
place it in box. 

Frozen Soufilfe Glace 

4 eggs 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

Grated rind 1 lemon % cup Madeira wine 

% cup sugar Few grains salt 

% cup heavy cream 

Beat yolks of eggs slightly ; add lemon juice, grated rind, 
wine, sugar, and salt; cook until mixture thickens, stirring 
constantly. Add whites of eggs beaten stiff, and when well 
mixed, set in a pan of ice-water to cool, stirring occasionally. 
Beat cream until stiff, and add. Fill small paper cases with 
mixture, cover with macaroon dust, and set in a tin mould 
with tight-fitting cover. Pack mould in salt and ice, and let 
stand two hours. 

Frozen Plum Pudding 

2 cups milk 1% cups cream 

1 cup sugar ^ cup candied fruit 

Yolks 6 eggs %. cnp almonds, blanched 

)/^ teaspoon salt and chopped 

^ cup sherry y^ cup Sultana raisins 

% cup pounded macaroons 

Make custard of milk, one-half the sugar, egg yolks, and 
salt. Caramelize the remaining sugar and add. Strain, 
cool, add remaining ingredients, freeze, and mould. If a 
baked ice cream is desired, use whites of eggs for meringue, 
Baked Alaska (see p. 448). 

Frozen Charlotte Glac^ 

Mould ice cream in brick form or one-half pound baking- 
powder boxes. Remove from mould or moulds, and surround 
with lady fingers, trimmed to come to top of cream. Cover 
top with whipped cream, sweetened and flavored, and pipe 
cream between lady fingers. Baking-powder boxes are used 
when indiyidoal Bexrio® ui dtteired, the cream being cut ia 
hftlvea crostswiee. 



460 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XXVII 
PASTRY 

PASTRY cannot be easily excluded from the menu of 
the New Englander. Who can dream of a Tha,nks- 
giving dinner without a pie! The last decade has done 
much to remove pies from the daily bill of fare, and in 
their place are found delicate puddings and seasonable 
fruits. 

If pastry is to be served, have it of the best, — light, flaky, 
and tender. 

To pastry belongs, 1st, Puff Paste ; 2d, Plain Paste. 

Puff paste, which to many seems so difficult of preparation, 
is rarely attempted by any except professionals. As a mat- 
ter of fact, one who has never handled a rolling-pin is less 
liable to fail, under the guidance of a good teacher, than an 
old cook, who finds it difficult to overcome the bad habit of 
using too much force in rolling. It is necessary to work 
rapidly and with a light touch. A cold room is of great 
advantage. 

For making pastry, pastry flour and the best shortenings, 
thoroughly chilled, are essential. Its lightness depends on 
the amount of air enclosed and expansion of that air in bak- 
ing. The flakiness depends upon kind and amount of 
shortening used. Lard makes more tender crust than but- 
ter, but lacks . flavor which butter gives. Puff paste is 
usually shortened with butter, though some chefs prefer 
beef suet. Eggs and ice were formerly used, but are not 
essentials. 

Butter should be washed if pastry is to be of the best, so 
as to remove salt and buttermilk, thus making it of a waxy 
consistency, easy to handle. 




Utensils and Materials for the Making of Puff Paste. 
PageNet. 




Calve Tarts. — Page 47 9. 







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Patties garnished with pastry rings and parsley. — Fage 4^i 




English Meat Pie. — Page 



PASTEY 461 

Rules for Washing Butter. Scald and chill an earthen 
bowl. Heat palms of hands in hot water, and chill in cold 
water. By following these directions, butter will not adhere 
to bowl nor hands. Wash butter in bowl by squeezing with 
hands until soft and waxy, placing bowl under a cold-water 
faucet and allowing water to run. A small amount of butter 
may be washed by using a wooden spoon in place of the 
hands. 

For rolling paste, use a smooth wooden board, and wooden 
rolling-pin with handles. 

Puff paste should be used for vol-au- vents, patties, ris- 
soles, bouchees, cheese straws, tarts, etc. It may be used 
for rims and upper crusts of pies, but never for lower crusts. 
Plain paste may be used where pastry is needed, except for 
vol-au-vents and patties. 

Puff Paste 

1 pound butter 1 pound pastry floar or 14 ozs. bread flour 
Cold water 

Wash the butter, pat and fold until no water flies. Re- 
serve two tablespoons of butter, and shape remainder into a 
circular piece one-half inch thick, and put on floured board. 
Work two tablespoons of butter into flour with the tips of 
fingers of the right hand. Moisten to a dough with cold 
water, turn on slightly floured board, and knead five minutes. 
Cover with towel, and let stand five minutes. 

Pat and roll one-fourth inch thick, keeping paste a little 
wider than long, and corners square. If this cannot be ac- 
complished with rolling-pin, draw into shape with fingers. 
Place butter on centre of lower half of paste. Cover butter 
by folding upper half of paste over it. Press edges firmly, 
to enclose as much air as possible. 

Fold right side of paste over enclosed butter, the left side 
under enclosed butter. Turn paste half-way round, cover, 
and let stand five minutes. Pat, and roll one-fourth inch 
thick, having paste longer than wide, lifting often to prevent 
paste from sticking, and dredging board slightly with flour 
when necessary. Fold from ends towards centre, making 
three layers. Cover, and let stand five minutes. Repeat 



462 BOSTON COOKING-SOHOOL COOK BOOK 

twice, turning paste half-way round each time before rolling. 
After fourth rolling, fold from ends to centre, and double, 
making four layers. Put in cold place to chill ; if outside 
temperature is not sufficiently cold, fold paste in a towel, put 
in a dripping-pan, and place between dripping pans of crushed 
ice. If paste is to be kept for several days, wrap in a nap- 
kin, put in tin pail and cover tightly, then put in cold place *, 
if in ice box, do not allow pail to come in direct contact with 
ice. 

To Bake Pufif Paste 

Baking of puff paste requires as much care and judgment 
as making. After shaping, chill thoroughly before baking. 
Puff paste requires hot oven, greatest heat coming from the 
bottom, that the paste may properly rise. While rising it is 
often necessary to decrease the heat by lifting covers or 
opening the check to stove. Turn frequently, that it may 
rise evenly. When it has risen its full height, slip a pan 
under the sheet on which paste is baking to prevent burning 
on the bottom. Puff paste should be baked on a tin sheet 
covered with a double thickness of brown paper, or dripping- 
pan may be used, lined with brown paper. The temperature 
for baking of patties should be about the same as for raised 
biscuit ; vol-au-vents require less heat, and are covered for 
first half -hour to prevent scorching on top. 

Patty SheUB 

Roll puff paste one-quarter inch thick, shape with a patty 
cutter, first dipped in flour ; remove centres from one-half 
the rounds with smaller cutter. Brush over with cold water 
the larger pieces near the edge, and fit on rings, pressing 
lightly. Place in towel between pans of crushed ice, and 
chill until paste is stiff; if cold weather, chill out of doors. 
Place on iron or tin sheet covered with brown paper, and 
bake twenty-five minutes in hot oven. The shells should rise 
their full height and begin to brown in twelve to fifteen min- 
utes ; continue browning, and finish baking in twenty-five 
minutes. Pieces cut from centre of rings of patties may be 
baked and used for patty coTers, or put together, rolled, and 



PAStKT 46S 

cut for unders. Trimmings from puff paste should be care- 
fully laid on top of each other, patted, and rolled out. 

Vol-au-vents 

Roll puff paste one-third inch thick, mark an oval on past* 
with cutter or mould, and cut out with sharp knife, first 
dipped in flour. Brush over near the edge with cold water, 
*put on a rim three-fourths inch wide, press lightly, chill, and 
bake. Vol-au-vents require for baking forty-five minutes to 
one hour. During the first half-hour they should be covered, 
watched carefully, and frequently turned. The paste cut 
from centre of rim should be rolled one-quarter inch thick, 
shaped same size as before rolling, chilled, baked, and used 
for cover to the Vol- au- vent. 

Quick Puff Paste 

1 cup bread flour Cold water 

1 tablespoon lard . % cup butter 

Work lard into flour, first using knife then tips of fingers. 
Moisten to a dough with C9ld water, pat, and roll out same 
as Puff Paste. Dot paste with small pieces of butter, using 
one-third the quantity. Dredge with flour, fold from ends 
toward centre, then double, making four layers. Pat, and 
roll out. Repeat until butter is used. Roll, shape, chill, and 
bake in a hot oven. 

Plain Paste 

1% cups flour 1^ cup butter 

^ cup lard % teaspoon salt 

Cold water 

Wash butter, pat, and form in circular piece. Add salt 
to flour, and work in lard with tips of fingers or case knife. 
Moisten to dough with cold water ; ice-water is not an essen- 
tial, but is desirable in summer. Toss on board dredged 
sparingly with flour, pat, and roll out ; fold in butter as for 
puff paste, pat, and roll out. Fold so as to make three lay- 
ers, turn half-way round, pat, and roll out; repeat. The 
pastry may be used at once ; if not, fold in cheese-cloth, put 
in ooTered tin, and keep in cold place, but never in direot 



464 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

contact with ice. Plain paste requires a moderate oven. 
This is superior paste- 
Chopped Paste 
2 cups flour y^ cup butter 

2 tablespoons lard % teaspoon salt 

Cold water 

Wash butter. Mix salt with flour, put in chopping tray,* 
add lard and butter, and chop until well mixed. Moisten to 
a dough with cold water. Toss on floured cloth (Magic 
Cover) , pat, and ioll out. Fold so as to make three layers, 
turn half-way round, pat, and roll out ; repeat. Should the 
butter be too hard, it will not mix readily with the flour, in 
which case the result will be a tough crust. Omit lard, and 
use all butter, if preferred. 

Quick Paste 

\% cups flour 1^ cup lard, crisco, or 

% teaspoon salt cottolene 

Cold water 

Mix salt with flour, cut in shortening with knife. Moisten 
to dough with cold water. Toss on floured board, pat, roll 
out, and roll up like a jelly roll. Use one-third cup of short- 
ening if a richer paste is desired. 

Paste with Lard 

\% cups flour )^ cup lard 

y^ teaspoon salt Cold water 

Mix salt with flour. Reserve one and one-fourth table- 
spoons lard, work in remainder to flour, using tips of fingers 
or a case knife. Moisten to a dough with water. Toss on 
a floured board, pat, and roll out. Spread with one table- 
spoon reserved lard, dredge with flour, roll up like a jeHy 
roll, pat, and roll out ; again roll up. Cut from the end of 
roll a piece large enough to line a pie plate. Pat and roll 
out, keeping the paste as circular in form as possible. With 
care and experience there need be no trimmings. Worked- 
over pastry is never as satisfactory. The remaining one- 
fourth tablespoon lard is used to dot over upper crust of pie 



PASTRY 465 

Just before sending to oven; this gives the pie a flaky 
appearance. Ice-water has a similar effect. If milk is 
brushed over the pie it has a glazed appearance. This 
quantity of paste will make one pie with two crusts and a 
few puffs, or two pies with one crust where the rim is built 
up and fluted. 

Entire "Wheat Paste 

1 cup fine Entire Wheat Flour 3 tablespoons lard 

% cup pastry flour ^ cup butter 

1 teaspoon salt Cold water 

Make same as Plain Paste. EoU to one-fourth inch in 
thickness, cut in finger-shaped pieces, bake, cool, brush over 
with slightly beaten white one egg diluted with one teaspoon 
cold water, and sprinkle with chopped nut meat seasoned 
with salt. Return to oven to slightly brown nut meats. 
Serve with salad course. 

Quality Paste 

2 cups flour % cup butter 

^ cup lard Ice water 

Put flour in bowl, add lard, and cut it in with knife. When 
finely chopped add water to make a very stiff dough, using 
as little as possible. Cut the butter into the dough leaving 
it in rather coarse pieces. Chill in icebox for several hours 
or over night. Place ball of paste on floured cloth, pat and 
roll out. Fold so as to make three layers, turn half way 
round, pat and roll out. Pat, roll and fold four times, shape 
and bake at once in hot oven. 



466 BOSTON OOOKINGHSCHOOL GOOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XXVin 
PIES 

PASTE for pies should be one-fourth inch thick and 
rolled a little larger than the plate to allow for shrink- 
ing. In dividing paste for pies, allow more for upper than 
under crusts. Always perforate upper crusts that steam 
may escape. Some make a design, others pierce with a 
large fork. 

Flat rims for pies should be cut in strips three-fourths 
inch wide. Under crusts should be brushed with cold water 
before putting on rims, and rims slightly fulled, otherwise 
they will shrink from edge of plate. The pastry-jagger, a 
simple device for cutting paste, makes rims with fluted 
edges. 

Pies requiring two crusts sometimes have a rim between 
the crusts. This is mostly confined to mince pieces, where 
there is little danger of juice escaping. Sometimes a rim 
is placed over upper crust. Where two pieces of paste 
are put together, the under piece should always be brushed 
with cold water, the upper piece placed over, and the two 
pressed lightly together ; otherwise they will separate during 
baking. 

When juicy fruit is used for filling pies, some of the 
juices are apt to escape during baking. As a precaution, 
bind with a strip of cotton cloth wrung out of cold water 
and cut one inch wide and long enough to encircle the 
plate. Squash, pumpkin, and custard pies are much less 
care during baking when bound. Where cooked fruits are 
used for filling, it is desirable to bake crusts separately. 
This is best accomplished by covering an inverted deep 
pie plate with paste and baking for under crust. Prick 
with a fork before baking. Slip from platt, And filL For 



MBS 467 

upper crusts, roll a piece of paste a little larger than the 
pie plate, prick, and bake on a tin sheet. 

For baking pies, eight-inch perforated tin plates are 
used. They may be bought shallow or deep. By the use 
of such plates the under crust is well cooked. Pastry 
should be thoroughly baked and well browned. Pies re- 
quire from thirty-five to forty-five minutes for baking. 
Never grease a pie plate ; good pastry greases its own tin. 
Slip pies, when slightly cooled, to earthen plates. 

Apple Fie I 

4 or 5 sour apples }^ teaspoon salt 

1^ cup sugar 1 teaspoon butter 

^ teaspoon grated nutmeg 1 teaspoon lemon juice 

Few gratings lemon rind 

Line pie plate with paste. Pare, core, and cut the apples 
into eighths, put row around plate one-half inch from edge, 
and work towards centre until plate is covered; then pile 
on remainder. Mix sugar, nutmeg, salt, lemon juice, and 
grated rind, and sprinkle over apples. Dot over with 
butter. Wet edges of under crust, cover with upper crust, 
and press edges together. 

Bake forty to forty-five minutes in moderate oven. A 
very good pie may be made without butter, lemon juice, and 
grated rind. Cinnamon may be substituted for nutmeg. 
Evaporated apples may be used in place of fresh fruit. If 
used, they should be soaked over night in cold water. 

Apple Fie II 

Use same ingredients as for Apple Pie I. Place in small 
earthen baking-dish and add hot water to prevent apples 
from burning. Cover closely, and bake three hours in very 
slow oven, when apples will be a dark red color. Brown 
sugar may be used instead of white sugar, a little more 
being required. Cool, and bake between two crusts. 

Blackberry Fie 

Pick over and wash one and one-half cups berries. Stew 
until soft with enough water to prevent burning. Add sugar 



46S BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

to taste, and one-eighth teaspoon salt. Line plate with 
paste, put on a rim, fill with berries (which have been 
cooled) ; arrange six strips pastry across the top, cut same 
width as rim ; put on an upper rim. Bake thirty minutes in 
moderate oven. 

Blueberry Pie 

2}^ cups berries % cup sugar 

Flour % teaspoon salt 

Line a deep plate with Plain Paste, fill with berries 
slightly dredged with flour; sprinkle with sugar and salt, 
cover, and bake forty-five to fifty minutes in a moderate 
oven. For sweetening, some prefer to use one-third molas- 
ses, the remaining two-thirds to be sugar. Six green grapes 
(from which seeds have been removed) cut in small pieces 
much improve the flavor, particularly where huckleberries 
are used in place of blueberries. 

Cranberry Pie 

1}4 cups cranberries % cup water 

% cup sugar 

Put ingredients in saucepan in order given, and cook ten 
minutes ; cool, and bake in one crust, with a rim, and strips 
across the top. 

Currant Pie 

1 cup currants ^ cup flour 

1 cup sugar 2 egg yolks 

2 tablespoons water 

Mix flour and sugar, add yolks of eggs slightly beaten 
and diluted with water. Wash currants, drain, remove 
stems, then measure ; add to first mixture and bake in one 
crust; cool, and cover with Meringue I. Cook in slow oven 
until delicately browned. 

Cream Pie 

Bake three crusts on separate pie plates. Put together 
witli Cream Filling and dust over with powdered sugar. If 



PIES 469 

allowed to stand after filling for any length of time, the 
pastry will soften. 

Custard Fie 

2 eggs , 3^ teaspoon salt 

3 tablespoons sugar 1}^ cups milk 

Few gratings nutmeg 

Beat eggs slightly, add sugar, salt, and milk. Line plate 
with paste, and build up a fluted rim. Strain in the mix- 
ture and sprinkle with few gratings nutmeg. Bake in quick 
oven at first to set rim, decrease the heat afterwards, as 
egg and milk in combination need to be cooked at low 
temperature. 

Date Pie 

2 cups milk 2 eggs 

% pound sugar dates i^ teaspoon salt 

Few gratings nutmeg 

Cook dates with milk twenty minutes in top of double 
boiler. Strain, and rub through sieve, then add eggs and 
salt. Bake same as Custard Pie. 

Lemon Fie I 

% cup chopped apple i^ cup rolled common crackers 

1 cup sugar 2 tablespoons lemon juice 

1 beaten egg Grated rind 1 lemon 

1 teaspoon melted butter 

Mix ingredients in order given and bake with two crusts. 

Lemon Fie II 

% cup sugar 2 egg yolks 

% cup boiling water 3 tablespoons lemon juice 

2 tablespoons corn-starch Grated rind 1 lemon 

2 tablespoons flour 1 teaspoon butter 

Mix corn-starch, flour, and sugar, add boiling water, stir- 
ring constantly. Cook two minutes, add butter, egg yolks, 
and rind and juice of lemon. Line plate with paste same as 
for Custard Pie. Turn in mixture which has been cooled, and 
bake until pastry is well browned. Cool slightly, and cover 
with Meringue I ; then return to oven and bake meringua 



470 BOSTON COOKINa-SOHOOL COOK BOOK 



Lemon Pie III 

Yolks 4 eggs 1^ cups milk 

6 tablespoons sugar Whites 4 eggs 

Few grains salt J^ cup powdered sugar 

1 lemon 

Beat yolks of eggs slightly, add sugar, salt, grated rind 
of lemon, and milk. Line plate with paste as for Custard 
Pie. Pour in mixture. Bake in moderate oven until set. 
Remove from oven, cool slightly, and cover with Meringue 
III (see p. 480) made of whites of eggs, powdered sugar, 
and lemon juice. 

Lemon Fie IV 

8 eggs ^ cup lemon juice 

% cup sugar Grated rind % lemon 

2 tablespoons water 

Beat eggs slightly, add sugar, lemon juice, grated rind, 
and water. Bake in one crust in a moderate oven. Cool 
slightly, cover with Meringue II, then return to oven and 
bake meringue. 

Lemon Pie V 

1 cup sugar 1 cup milk 

3 tablespoons flour 1 tablespoon melted 

3 tablespoons lemon juice butter 

Yolks 2 eggs Whites 2 eggs 

Few grains salt 

Mix sugar and flour, add lemon juice, egg yolks slightly 
beaten, milk, butter, whites of eggs beaten stiff, and salt. 
Bake in one crust, and cover with meringue or not, as 
desired. 

Mince Pies 

Mince pics should be always baked with two crusts. 
For Thanksgiving and Christmas pies, Puff Paste is often 
used for rims and upper crusts, but is never satisfactory 
when used for under crusts. 



FOBS 



471 



4 lbs. lean beef 

2 lbs. beef suet 
Baldwin apples 

3 quinces 

3 lbs. sugar 

2 cups molasses 
2 quarts cider 

4 lbs. raisins, seeded 

and cut in pieces 



Mino« Pie Meat I 

3 lbs. currants 

^ lb. finely cut citron 

1 quart cooking brandy 

1 tablespoon cinnamon and mace 

1 tablespoon powdered cloTe 

2 grated nutmegs 
1 teaspoon pepper 
Salt to taste 



Cover meat and suet with boiling water and cook until 
tender, cool in water in which they are cooked ; the suet 
will rise to top, forming a cake of fat, which may be easily 
removed. Finely chop meat, and add it to twice the 
amount of finely chopped apples. The apples should be 
quartered, cored, and pared, previous to chopping, or skins 
may be left on, which is not an objection if apples are finely 
chopped. Add quinces finely chopped, sugar, molasses, 
cider, raisins, currants, and citron ; also suet, and stock in 
which meat and suet were cooked, reduced to one and one- 
half cups. Heat gradually, stir occasionally, and cook 
slowly two hours; then add brandy and spices. 

Mince Pie Meat II 



6 cups chopped cooked beef 

^3^ cups chopped suet 

7}4 cups chopped apples 

3 cups cider 

)4 cup vinegar 

1 cup molasses 

5 cups sugar 

^ lb. citron, finely chopped 

2)4 cups whole raisins 

IJ^ cups raisins, finely chopped 

Salt 



Juice 2 lemons ' 
Juice 2 oranges 

1 tablespoon mace 
Cinnamon] 
Clove [ - tablespoons 

Allspice J «^^^ 

2 nutmegs grated 

2 tablespoons lemon extract 
1 teaspoon almond extract 
1)4 cups brandy 

3 cups liquor in which beef 

was cooked 

Mix ingredients in the order given, except brandy, and 
let simmer one and one-half hours ; then add brandy and 
shavings from the rind of the lemons and oranges. 



472 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

English Mince Meat 

5 lbs. raisins, seeded 5 lbs. currants 



5 lbs. suet 
5 lbs. apples 
4 lbs. citron 
IJ.^ lbs. blanched 
almonds 



5 lbs. light brown sugar 
finely y^ teaspoon mace 

chopped % teaspoon cinnamon 
2)^ cups brandy 



Cook raisins, suet, apples, citron, currants, and sugar 
slowly for one and one-half hours ; then add almonds^ spices, 
and brandy. 

Mince Meat (without Alcoholic Liquor) 
Mix together one cup chopped apple, one-half cup raisins 
seeded and chopped, one-half cup currants, one-fourth cup 
butter, one tablespoon molasses, one tablespoon boiled cider, 
one cup sugar, one teaspoon cinnamon, one-half teaspoon 
cloves, one-half nutmeg grated, one salt-spoon of mace, and 
one teaspoon salt. Add enough stock in which meat was 
cooked to moisten ; heat gradually to boiling-point, and 
simmer one hour; then add one cup chopped meat and two 
tablespoons Barberry Jelly. Cook fifteen minutes. 

Mock Mince Pie 

4 common crackers, rolled 1 cup raisins, seeded and 
\y^ cups sugar chopped 

1 cup molasses % ^^P butter 

y^ cup lemon juice or vinegar 2 eggs well beaten 
Spices 

Mix ingredients in order given, adding spices to taste. 
Bake between crusts. This quantity will make two pies. 

Mock Cherry Pie 
Mix one cup cranberries cut in halves, one-half cup 
raisins seeded and cut in pieces, three-fourths cup sugar, 
and one tablespoon flour. Dot over with one teaspoon 
butter. Bake between crusts. 

Peach Pie 
Remove skins from peaches. This may be done easily 
Sifter allowing peaches to stand in boiling water on© minute. 



PIES 473 

Cut in eighths, cook until soft with enough water to prevent 
burning; sweeten to taste. Cool, and fill crust previously 
baked. Cover with whipped cream, sweetened and flavored. 
Fresh strawberries, cut in halves, slightly mashed and 
sweetened, are attractively served in a pastry case. 

Prune Pie 

% lb. prunes 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

% cup sugar (scant) 1% teaspoons butter 

1 tablespoon flour 

"Wash prunes and soak in enough cold water to cover. 
Cook in same water until soft. Remove stones, cut prunes 
in quarters, and mix with sugar and lemon juice. Reduce 
liquor to one and one-half tablespoons. Line plate with 
paste, cover with prunes, pour over liquor, dot over with 
butter, and dredge with flour. Put on an upper crust and 
bake in a moderate oven. 

Rhubarb Pie 

\% cups rhubarb 1 ^^g 

% cup sugar 2 tablespoons flour 

Skin and cut stalks of rhubarb in half -inch pieces before 
measuring. Mix sugar, flour, and Qgg ; add to rhubarb and 
bake between crusts. Many prefer to scald rhubarb before 
using ; if so prepared, losing some of its acidity, less sugar 
is required. 

Squash Pie I 

13^ cups steamed and ^ teaspoon cinnamon, ginger, 

strained squash nutmeg, or 

'^ cup sugar }^ teaspoon lemon extract 

% teaspoon salt 1 egg 

% cup milk 

Mix sugar, salt, and spice or extract, add squash, egg 
slightly beaten, and milk gradually. Bake in one crust, fol- 
lowing directions for Custard Pie. If a richer pie is desired, 
use one cup squash, one-half cup each of milk and cream, 
and au additional egg yolk. 



474 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Squash Fie II 

1 cup squash, steamed 4 tablespoons brandy 

and strained Cinnamon }■, . t. 

- , -KT ^ I 1 teaspoon each 

1 cup heavy cream rJutmeg > 

1 cup sugar Ginger ? ,, . , 

3 eggs, slightly beaten Salt J ^ *«^^P^° ^^^ 

^ teaspoon mace 

Line a deep pie plate with puff paste. Brush over paste 
with white of egg slightly beaten, and sprinkle with stale 
bread crumbs ; fill, and bake in a moderate oven. Serve 
warm. 

Pumpkin Pie 

1)^ cups steamed and }4 teaspoon ginger 

strained pumpkin }4 teaspoon salt 

^ cup brown sugar 2 eggs 

1 teaspoon cinnamon 1)4 cups milk 
}^ cup cream 

Mix ingredients in order given and bake in one crust. 




Cheese Straws. — Page 475. 




CocoAiVUT Tea Cakes. — Page 1^77. 




Fruit Baskets. — Page 479 




Lemon Tartlets. — Page 479. 



PASTKY DESSERTS 475 



CHAPTER XXIX 

PASTRY DESSERTS 

Banbury Tarts 
1 cup raisins 1 egg 

1 cup sugar 1 cracker 

Juice and grated rind 1 lemon 

STONE and chop raisins, add sugar, egg slightly beaten, 
cracker finely rolled, and lemon juice and rind. Roll 
pastry one-eighth inch thick, and cut pieces three and one- 
half inches long by three inches wide. Put two teaspoons of 
mixture on each piece. Moisten edge with cold water half- 
way round, fold over, press edges together with three-tined 
fork, first dipped in flour. Bake twenty minutes in slow 
oven. 

Cheese Cakes 

1 cup sweet milk Juice and grated rind one lemon 

1 cup sour milk }^ cup almonds, blanched and 
1 cup sugar chopped 

Yolks 4 eggs ^ teaspoon salt 

Scald sweet and sour milk, strain through cheese cloth. 
To curd add sugar, yolks of eggs slightly beaten, lemon, and 
salt. Line patty pans with paste, fill with mixture, and 
sprinkle with chopped almonds. Bake until mixture is firm 
to the touch. 

Cheese Stravtrs 

Roll puff or plain paste one-fourth inch thick, sprinkle one- 
half with grated cheese to which has been added few grains 
of salt and cayenne. Fold, press edges firmly together, fold 
again, pat, and roll out one-fourth inch thick. Sprinkle with 
cheese and proceed as before ; repeat twice. Cut in strips five 



476 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

inches long and one-fourth inch wide. Bake eight minutes 
in hot oven. Parmesan cheese, or equal parts of Parmesan 
and Edam cheese, may be used. Cheese straws are piled log 
cabin fashion and served with cheese or salad course. 

Cond6s 

Whites 2 eggs 2 oz. almonds, blanched and 

^ eup powdered sugar finely chopped 

Beat whites of eggs until stiff, add sugar gradually, then 
almonds. Roll paste, and cut in strips three and one-half 
inches long by one and one-half inches wide. Spread 
with mixture ; avoid having it come close to edge. Dust 
with powdered sugar and bake fifteen minutes in moderate 
oven. 

Galattes 

Roll puff or plain paste one-eighth inch thick. Shape with 
an oblong cutter three and one-half inches long by one and 
three-fourths inches wide. Brush over with white of egg 
and sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar. Bake in a hot oven. 
A lady-finger cutter may be used with satisfaction, but is 
more difficult to procure. 

Cream Horns 

Roll puff paste in a long rectangular piece, one-eighth inch 
thick. Cut in strips three-fourths inch wide. Roll paste 
over wooden forms bought for the purpose, having edges 
overlap. Bake in hot oven until well puffed and slightly 
browned. Brush over with white of egg slightly beaten, 
diluted with one teaspoon water, then sprinkle with sugar. 
Return to oven and finish cooking, and remove from forms. 
When cold, oil with Cream Filling or whipped cream 
sweetened and flavored. 

Florentine Meringue 

Roll puff or plain paste one-eighth inch thick ; cut a piece 
ten inches long by seven inches wide ; place on a sheet, wet 
edges, and put on a half -inch rim. Prick with fork six 
times, and bake in hot oven. Cool, and spread with jam, 
cover with Meringue II, and almonds blanched and shredded ; 
gprinkle with powdered sugar and bake. 



PASTRY DESSERTS 4T7 

Cocoanut Tea Cakes 
Roll puff or plain paste to one-fourth inch in thickness. 
Shape with a lady-finger cutter and bake on a tin sheet in a 
hot oven. When nearly done remove from oven, cool 
slightly, brush over with beaten white of egg, sprinkle 
with shredded cocoanut, and return to oven to finish the 
cooking. 

Napoleons 

Bake three sheets of pastry, pricking before baking. Put 
between the sheets Cream Filling ; spread top with Con- 
fectioner's Frosting, sprinkle with pistachio nuts blanched 
and chopped, crease in pieces about two and one-half by four 
inches, and cut with sharp knife. 

Orange Sticks 

Cut puff or plain paste rolled one-eighth inch thick in strips 
five inches long by one inch wide, and bake in hot oven. Put 
together in pairs, with Orange Filling between. 

Lemon Sticks 

Lemon Sticks may be made in same manner as Orange 
Sticks, using Lemon Filling. 

Palm Leaves 

Roll remnants of puff paste one-eighth inch thick ; sprinkle 
one-half surface with powdered sugar, fold, press edges to- 
gether, pat and roll out, using sugar foj dredging board ; 
repeat three times. After the last rolling fold four times. 
The pastry should be in long strip one and one-half inches 
wide. From the end, cut pieces one inch wide ; place on 
baking-sheet, broad side down, one inch apart, and separate 
layers of pastry at one end to suggest a leaf. Bake eight 
minutes in hot oven ; these will spread while baking. 

Raspberry Pu£fs 

Roll plain paste one-eighth inch thick, and cut in pieces 
four by three and one-half inches. Put one-half tablespoon 
raspberry jam on centre of lower half of each piece, wet 



478 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

edges half-way around, fold, press edges firmly together, 
prick tops, place on sheet, and bake twenty minutes in 
hot oven. 

Tarts 

Roll pufif paste one-eighth inch thick. Shape with a 
fluted round cutter, first dipped in flour; with a smaller 
cutter remove centres from half the pieces, leaving rings 
one-half inch wide. Brush with cold water the larger pieces 
near the edge; fit on rings, pressing lightly. Chill thor- 
oughly, and bake fifteen minutes in hot oven. By brushing 
tops of rings with beaten yolk of egg diluted with one tea- 
spoonful water, they will have a glazed appearance. Cool, 
and fill with jam or jelly. 

Polish Tartlets 

Roll puff or plain paste one-eighth inch thick, and cut 
in two and one-half inch squares ; wet the corners, fold 
toward the centre, and press lightly ; bake on a sheet ; when 
cool, press down the centres and fill, using two-thirds 
quince marmalade and one-third currant jelly. 

Almond Tartlets 

Line patty pans with puff or plain paste, fill with the 
following mixture, and bake in a moderate oven until firm. 

Blanch and finely chop one-third pound Jordan almonds. 
Add two tablespoons cracker rolled and sifted, three eggs 
slightly beaten, one-third cup sugar, one-third teaspoon 
salt, two cups milk, and one-half teaspoon vanilla. 

Peach Crusts 
Roll puff or plain paste one-eighth inch thick, cut in 
two and one-half inch squares, and bake in hot oven. Cool, 
press down the centres, and arrange on each one-half a 
canned peach drained from syrup and heated in oven. 
Sprinkle with powdered sugar and put brandy in each 
cavity. Light just before sending to table. 

Malaga Boats 

Boll puff or plain paste one-eighth inch thick, lint Indi- 
Tidnal boat-shaped tins, prick, and half fill witk rioe or barid/ 



MEBINGUES 4T9 

to keep pastry in desired shape. Bake in a hot oven. Re- 
move from tins and cover bottom of boats with marmalade, 
and on marmalade arrange three or four malaga grapes 
cooked in syrup five minutes. For the syrup boil one-half 
cup, each, sugar and water, five minutes. 

Calve Tarts 

Boll pufP or plain paste one-eighth inch thick, and cut in 
rounds of correct size to cover inverted circular tins. Cover 
tins with paste, prick several times, and bake until delicately 
browned. Place one-half a canned peach in each case and 
fill each cavity with one-half a blanched Jordan almond. 

Fruit Baskets 

Bake plain paste over inverted patty pans. Roll paste 
one-eighth inch thick, and cut in strips one-fourth inch wide. 
Twist strips in pairs and bake over a one-fourth pound 
baking-powder box, thus making handles. Fill cases with 
sliced peaches sprinkled generously with sugar, insert han- 
dles, garnish with whipped cream and peach leaves. Straw- 
berries, raspberries, or other fruit may be used in place of 
peaches. 

Lemon Tartlets 
Bake plain paste over inverted patty pan. Fill with 
Lemon Pie II mixture, cover with Meringue II, and bake 
until meringue is delicately browned. 

MERINGUES 

For Pies, Puddings, and Desserts 

Eggs for meringues should be thoroughly chilled, and 
beaten with silver fork, wire spoon, or whisk. Where sev- 
eral eggs are needed, much time is saved by using a whisk. 
Meringues on pies, puddings, or desserts may be spread 
evenly, spread and piled in the centre, put on lightly by 
spoonfuls, or spread evenly with part of the mixture, the 
remainder being forced through a pastry bag and tube. 

Meringues I and III should be baked fifteen minutes in 
slow oven. Meringue II should be cooked eight minutes 



480 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

in moderate oven; if removed from oven before cooked, 
the eggs will liquefy and meringue settle; if cooked too 
long, meringue is tough. 

Meringue I 

Whites 2 eggs % tablespoon lemon juice or 

2 tablespoons powdered sugar )^ teaspoon vanilla 

Beat whites until stiff, add sugar gradually and continue 
beating, then add flavoring. 

Meringue II 

Whites 3 eggs i^ teaspoon lemon extract or 

1% tablespoons powdered sugar y^ teaspoon vanilla 

Beat whites until stiff, add four tablespoons sugar gradu- 
ally, and beat vigorously ; fold in remaining sugar, and add 
flavoring. Cook eight minutes in a slow oven. 
Meringue III 
Whites 4 eggs Jg cup powdered sugar 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 

Put whites of eggs and sugar in bowl, beat mixture until 
stiff enough to hold its shape, add lemon juice drop by drop, 
continuing the beating. It will take thirty minutes to beat 
mixture sufficiently stiff to hold its shape, but when baked 
it makes a most delicious meringue. 

Meringues Glacees, or Kisses 

Whites 4 eggs 13^ cups powdered sugar or 

y^ teaspoon vanilla 1 cup fine granulated 

Beat whites until stiff, add gradually two-thirds of sugar, 
and continue beating until mixture will hold its shape ; fold 
in remaining sugar, and add flavoring. Shape with a spoon 
or pastry bag and tube on wet board covered with letter 
paper. Bake thirty minutes in very slow oven, remove 
from paper, and put together in pairs, or if intending to fill 
with whipped cream or ice cream remove soft part with 
spoon and place meringues in oven to dry. 

Nut Meringues 
To Meringue Glacee mixture add chopped nut meat; 
almonds, English walnuts, or hickory nuts are preferrecj. 



MERINGUES 481 

Shape by dropping mixture from tip of spoon in small piles 
one-half inch apart, or by using pastry bag and tube. 
Sprinkle with nut meat, and bake. 

Meringues (Mushrooms) 

Shape Meringue Glacee mixture in rounds the size of 
mushroom caps, using pastry bag and tube ; sprinkle with 
grated chocolate. Shape stems like mushroom stems. Bake, 
remove from paper, and place caps on stems. 

Meringues Panach^es 

Fill Meringues Glacees with ice cream, or ice cream and 
water ice. Garnish with whipped cream forced through 
pastry bag and tube, and candied cherries. 

Creole Kisses 

% lb. Jordan almonds Whites 4 eggs 

}^ cup boiling water 1)^ cups powdered sugar 

y^ cup sugar i^ teaspoon vanilla 

^ teaspoon salt 

Blanch almonds, finely shred one-half of them, and dry 
slowly in oven. Put water and sugar in a saucepan, and as 
soon as boiling-point is reached, add remaining almonds, 
and cook until the syrup is of a golden brown color. Turn 
into a pan, cool, and finely pourud in mortar. Beat whites of 
eggs until stiff, add gradually sugar, then vanilla, almonds, 
and salt. Shape, sprinkle with shredded almonds, sift sugar 
over them, and bake in a slow oven twenty- five minutes. 



81 



482 BOSTON OOOKINa-SOHOOL OOOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XXX 
GINGERBREADS, COOKIES, AND WAFERS 

Hot Water Gingerbread 
1 cup molasses 1 teaspoon soda 

^ cup boiling water 1)^ teaspoons ginger 

23^ cups flour % teaspoon salt 

4 tablespoons melted butter 

Add water to molasses. Mix and sift dry ingredients, 
combine mixtures, add butter, and beat vigorously. Pour 
into a buttered shallow pan, and bake twenty-five minutes 
in a moderate oven. Chicken fat tried out and clarified 
furnishes an excellent shortening, and may be used in place 
of butter. 

Sour Milk Gingerbread 

1 cup molasses 1^ teaspoons soda 

1 cup sour milk 2 teaspoons ginger 

23^ cups flour ^ teaspoon salt 

3^ cup melted butter 

Mix soda with sour milk and add to molasses. Sift to- 
gether remaining dry ingredients, combine mixtures, add 
butter, and beat vigorously. Pour into a buttered shallow 
pan, and bake twenty-five minutes in a moderate oven. 

Soft Molasses Gingerbread 
1 cup molasses 1 Qgg 

y^ cup butter 2 cups flour 

1^ teaspoons soda 2 teaspoons ginger 

% cup sour milk % teaspoon salt 

Put butter and molasses in saucepan and cook until boil- 
ing point is reached. Remove from fire, add soda, and beat 
vigorously. Then add milk, egg well beaten, and remain- 
ing iugredieuts mixed and sifted. Bake fifteen minutes ia 



GINGERBREADS, COOKIES, ANt) WAFERS 483 

buttered small tin pans, having pans two-thirds filled with 
mixture. 

Cambridge Gingerbread 

3^ cup butter 1}^ teaspoons soda 

^ cup boiling water }{ teaspoon salt 

1 cup molasses 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

1 egg 1 teaspoon ginger 
2^ cups flour 1^ teaspoon clove 

Melt butter in water, add molasses, egg well beaten, and 
dry ingredients mixed and sifted. Bake in a buttered shal- 
low pan. 

Soft Sugar Gingerbread 

2 eggs 3 teaspoons baking powder 
1 cup sugar i^ teaspoon salt 

1^ cups flour 11^ teaspoons ginger 

^ cup thin cream 

Beat eggs until light, and add sugar gradually. Mix and 
sift dry ingredients, and add alternately with cream to first 
mixture. Turn into a buttered cake pan, and bake thirty 
minutes in a moderate oven. 

Gossamer Gingerbread 

}{ cup butter i^ cup milk 

1 cup sugar 1% cups flour 

1 egg 3 teaspoons baking powder 

1 teaspoon yellow ginger 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, then egg well 
beaten. Add milk, and dry ingredients mixed and sifted. 
Spread in a buttered dripping-pan as thinly as possible, using 
the back of mixing- spoon. Bake thirty minutes. Sprinkle 
with sugar, and cut in small squares or diamonds before 
removing from pan. 

Fairy Gingerbread 

^ cup butter ^ cup milk 

1 cup light brown sugar 1% cups bread flour 

2 teaspoons ginger 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and milk very 
slowly. Mix and sift flour and ginger, and combine mix- 



484 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

tures. Spread very thinly with a broad, long-bladed knife 
on a buttered, inverted dripping-pan. Bake in a moderate 
oven. Cut in squares before removing from pan. Watch 
carefully and turn pan frequently during baking, that all 
may be evenly cooked. If mixture around edge of pan is 
cooked before that in the centre, pan should be removed 
from oven, cooked part cut off, and remainder returned to 
oven to finish cooking. 

Hard Sugar Gingerbread 

% cup butter 5 cups flour . 

\% cups sugar X tablespoon baking powder 

^ cup milk \% teaspoons salt 

^ tablespoon ginger 

Cream the butter^ add sugar gradually, milk, and dry in- 
gredients mixed and sifted. Put some of mixture on an 
inverted dripping-pan and roll as thinly as possible to cover 
pan. Mark dough with a coarse grater. Sprinkle with 
sugar and bake in a moderate oven. Before removing from 
pan, cut in strips four and one-half inches long by one and 
one-half inches wide. 

Christmas English Gingerbread 

1 lb. flour 1 tablespoon ginger 

% lb. butter 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup sugar Molasses 

Mix flour, sugar, ginger, and salt. Work in butter, using 
tips of fingers, and add just enough molasses to hold ingre- 
dients together. Let stand over night to get thoroughly 
chilled. Roll very thin, shape, and bake in a moderate oven. 

Card Gingerbread 
y^ cup butter 1^ cups flour 

y^ cup brown sugar % tablespoon ginger 

1 ei^g ^ teaspoon salt 

}4, cup molasses % teaspoon soda 

^ teaspoon cinnamon 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, ^gg well beaten, 
molasses, and flour mixed and sifted with ginger, salt, soda, 



GINGERBREADS, COOKIES, AND WAFERS 485 

and cinnamon. Chill , roll in sheets to one-fourth inch in 
thickness, bake on a buttered sheet, and cut in squares. 

Walnut Molasses Bars 

y^ cup butter 3 cups flour 

^ cup lard y^ tablespoon ginger 

3>^ cup boiling water 3^ teaspoon grated uutmeg 

y^ cup brown sugar % teaspoon clove 

3^ cup molasses 1 teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon soda Chopped walnut meat 

Pour water over butter and lard, then add sugar, molasses 
mixed with soda, flour, salt, and spices. Chill thoroughly, 
roll one-fourth inch thick, cut in strips three and one-half 
inches long by one and one-half inches wide. Sprinkle with 
nut meat and bake ten minutes. 

Ginger Snaps 

1 cup molasses % teaspoon soda 

% cup shortening 1 tablespoon ginger 

33^ cups flour Ij^ teaspoons salt 

Heat molasses to boiling-point and pour over shortening. 
Add dry ingredients mixed and sifted. Chill thoroughly. 
Toss one-fourth of mixture on a floured board and roll as 
thinly as i)ossible ; shape with a small round cutter, first 
dipped in flour. Place near together on a buttered sheet 
and bake in a moderate oven. Gather up the trimmings 
and roll with another portion of dough. During rolling, the 
bowl containing mixture should be kept in a cool place, or 
it will be necessary to add more flour to dough, which makes 
cookies hard rather than crisp and short. 

Molasses Cookies 

1 cup molasses 1 tablespoon ginger 

% cup shortening, butter 1 tablespoon soda 

and lard mixed 2 tablespoons warm milk 

1% cups bread flour 1 teaspoon salt 

Heat molasses to boiling-point, add shortening, ginger, 
soda dissolved in warm milk, salt, and flour. Proceed as 
|or Ginger Snaps. 



486 BOSTOH COOKING-SOHOOL OOOJC BOOK 

Soft Molasses Cookies 

1 cup molasses % cup shortening, melted 

1^ teaspoons soda 2 teaspoons ginger 

1 cup sour milk 1 teaspoon salt 
Flour 

Add soda to molasses and beat thoroughly; add milk, 
shorteniDg, ginger, salt, and flour. Enough flour must be 
used to make mixture of right consistency to drop easily 
from spoon. Let stand several hours in a cold place to 
thoroughly chill. Toss one-half mixture at a time on 
slightly floured board and roll lightly to one-fourth inch 
thickness. Shape with a round cutter, first dipped in flour. 
Bake on a buttered sheet. 

Spice Cookies 

y^ cup molasses 2 cups flour 

)^ cup sugar % teaspoon soda 

\)^ tablespoons butter y^ teaspoon salt 

1)^ tablespoons lard % teaspoon clove 

1 tablespoon milk % teaspoon cinnamon 

^ teaspoon nutmeg 

Heat molasses to boiling-point. Add sugar, shortening, 
and milk. Mix and sift dry ingredients, and add to first 
mixture. Chill thoroughly, and proceed as with Ginger 
Snaps. 

Scotch "Wafers 

1 cup fine oatmeal 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup Rolled Oats % teaspoon soda 

2 cups flour y^ cup butter or lard 
^ cup sugar %_ cup hot water 

Mix first six ingredients. Melt shortening in water and 
add to first mixture. Toss on a floured board, pat, and roll 
as thinly as possible. Shape with a cutter, or with a sharp 
knife cut in strips. Bake on a buttered sheet in a slow 
oven. These are well adapted for children's luncheons, and 
are much enjoyed by the convalescent, taken with a glass of 
milk. 



ttlKGBBBREADS, COOKIES, AND WAFERS 487 



Oatmeal Cookies 

1 egg H cup fine oatmeal 

J^ cup sugar 2 cups flour 

}^ cup thin cream 2 teaspoons baking powder 

}£ cup milk 1 teaspoon salt 

Beat egg until light, add sugar, cream, and milk; then 
add oatmeal, flour, baking powder, and salt, mixed and 
sifted. Toss on a floured board, roll, cut in shape, and 
bake in a moderate oven. 

Scottish Fancies 

1 egg 1 cup rolled oats 

^ cup sugar )4 teaspoon salt 

^ tablespoon melted butter ^ teaspoon vanilla 

Beat egg until light, add gradually sugar, and then stir 
in remaining ingredients. Drop mixture by teaspoonfuls on 
a thoroughly greased inverted dripping-pan one inch apart. 
Spread into circular shape with a case knife first dipped in 
cold water. Bake in a moderate oven until delicately 
browned. To give variety use two-thirds cup rolled oats 
and fill cup with shredded cocoanut. 

Vanilla "Wafers 
y^ cup butter and lard in ^ cup milk 

equal proportions 2 cups flour 

1 cup sugar 2 teaspoons baking powder 

1 egg % teaspoon salt 

2 teaspoons vanilla 

Cream the butter, add sugar, egg well beaten, milk, and 
vanilla. Mix and sift dry ingredients and add to first mix- 
ture. Proceed as with Ginger Snaps. 

Cream Cookies 
y^ cup butter 2 teaspoons baking powder 

1 cnp sugar 1 teaspoon salt 

2 eggs 2 teaspoons yellow ginger 
% cup thin cream Flour to roll 

Kiz and bake same as Vanilla Wafers. 



48d BOSTOK COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Imperial Cookies , 

^ cup butter 2)^ cups flour 

1 cup sugar 2 teaspoons baking powder 

2 eggs % teaspoon lemon extract 
1 tablespoon milk % teaspoon grated nutnaeg 

Mix and bake same as Vanilla Wafers. 

Hermits 

y^ cup butter y^ cup raisins, stoned and cut 
% cup sugar in small pieces 

1 %gg y^ teaspoon cinnamon 

2 tablespoons milk ^ teaspoon clove 
1^ cups flour 34 teaspoon mace 

2 teaspoons baking powder y^ teaspoon nutmeg 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, then raisins, egg 
well beaten, and milk. Mix and sift dry ingredients and 
add to first mixture. Boll mixture a little thicker than for 
Vanilla "Wafers. 

Rich Cookies 

^ cup butter % cup flour 

^ cup sugar % teaspoon vanilla 

1 Qgg well beaten Raisins, nuts, or citron 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, egg, flour, and 
vanilla. Drop from tip of spoon in small portions on but- 
tered sheet two inches apart. Spread thinly with a knife 
first dipped in cold water. Put four Sultana raisins on each 
cookie, almonds blanched and cut in strips, or citron cut in 
9mall pieces. 

Jelly Jumbles 

y^ cup butter % cup sour milk 

1 cup sugar yi teaspoon salt 

1 ^gg Flour 

^ teaspoon soda Currant jelly 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, ^gg well beaten, 
soda mixed with milk, salt and flour to make a soft dough. 
Chill and shape, using a round cutter. On the centres of 
one-half the pieces put currant jelly. Make three small 
openings in remaining halves, using a thimble, and put pieces 




Rich Cookies. — Page 4S8. 




Royal Fans. — Page 4S9. 




Chocolate Cakes {Page 491) and Crescents {Page 534). 




Meringues. — Page 480. 



GINGERBREADS, COOKIES, AND WAFERS 489 

together. Press edges slightly, and bake in a rather hot 
oven, that jumbles may keep in good shape. 

Royal Fans 

Mix and sift two cups flour and one-half cup brown sugar. 
Wash three- fourths cup butter and work into first mixture, 
using tips of fingers. Roll to one-third inch in thickness, 
shape with a fluted round cutter five inches in diameter. 
Cut each piece in quarters and crease with the dull edge of a 
case knife to represent folds of a fan. Brush over with 
yolk of egg diluted with three-fourths teaspoon water. Bake 
in a slow oven. 

Boston Cookies 

1 cup butter % teaspoon salt 

\% cups sugar 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

3 eggs 1 cup chopped nut meat, 

1 teaspoon soda hickory or English walnut 
\% tablespoons hot water % ^^P currants 

3)^ cups flour y^ cup raisins, seeded and 

chopped 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and eggs well 
beaten. Add soda dissolved in hot water, and one-half the 
flour mixed and sifted with salt and cinnamon; then add 
nut meat, fruit, and remaining flour. Drop by spoonfuls 
one inch apart on a buttered sheet, and bake in a moderate 
oven. 

Cocoanut Cream Cookies 

2 eggs % cup shredded cocoanut 
1 cup sugar 3 cups flour 

1 cup thick cream 3 teaspoons baking powder 

1 teaspoon salt 

Beat eggs until light, add sugar gradually, cocoanut, 
cream, and flour mixed and sifted with baking powder and 
salt. Chill thoroughly, toss on a floured board, pat, and 
roll one-half inch thick. Sprinkle with cocoanut, roll one- 
fourth inch thick, and shape with a small round cutter, first 
dipped in flour. Bake on a buttered sheet in a moderate 
oven. 



490 BOSTON COOKINGhSCHOOL OOOK BOOK 

Peanut Cooklea 

2 tablespoons butter ^ teaspoon salt 

^ cup sugar ^ cup flour 

1 egg 2 teaspoons milk 

1 teaspoon baking powder ^ cup finely chopped peanuts 
}^ teaspoon lemon juice 

Cream the butter, add sugar, and egg well beaten. Mix 
and sift baking powder, salt, and flour ; add to first mixture ; 
then add milk, peanuts, and lemon juice. Drop from a tea- 
spoon on a buttered sheet one inch apart, and place one- 
half peanut on top of each. Bake twelve to fifteen minutes 
in a slow oven. This recipe will make twenty-four cookies. 
One pint peanuts when shelled should yield one-half cup. 

Almond Cookies 

)4 cup butter i^ tablespoon cinnamon 

1 egg Clove ) }4 tablespoon 

}{ cup almonds, blanched Nutmeg f each 

and finely chopped Grated rind ^ lemon 

^ cup sugar 2 tablespoons brandy 
2 cups flour 

Cream the butter, add egg well beaten, almonds, sugar, 
brandy, and spices mixed and sifted with flour. Roll mix- 
ture to one-fourth inch in thickness, shape with a round 
cutter first dipped in flour, and bake in a slow oven. 

Nut Cooklea 

Yolks 2 eggs Whites 2 eggs 

1 cup brown sugar 6 tablespoons flour 

1 cup chopped nut meats Few grains salt 

Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon-colored, add 
sugar gradually, nut meats^ whites of egg beaten until stiff, 
and flour mixed with salt. Drop from tip of spoon on 
buttered sheet, spread, and bake in a moderate oven. 

Seed Cakes 

Follow recipe, for Cocoanut Cream Cookies (see p. 489), 
using one and one-half tablespoons caraway seeds in place 
of coooanut. 



©INGEKBRKADS, COOKIES, AND WATEBS 491 

Chocolate Cooklas 

}^ cnp butter 2 ozs. unsweetened chocolate 

1 cup sugar 2% cups flour (scant) 

1 egg 2 teaspoons baking powder. 

^ teaspoon salt 3^ cup milk 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, Q^g well beaten, 
salt, and chocolate melted. Beat well, and add flour mixed 
and sifted with baking povv^der alternately with milk. Chill, 
roll very thin, then shape with a small cutter, flrst dipped in 
flour, and bake in a moderate oven. 

German Chocolate Cookies 
2 eggs Grated rind }4 lemon 

1 cup brown sugar \% cups almonds, blanched 

2 bars German chocolate and chopped 
^ teaspoon cinnamon 1 cup flour 

% teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon baking powder 

Beat Qgg^ until light, add sugar, gradually, and continue 
the beating; then add chocolate, grated, and remaining 
ingredients. Drop from tip of spoon on a buttered sheet, 
and bake in a moderate oven. 

• Chocolate Fruit Cookies 
^ cup butter 1 egg 

% cup sugar % cup nut me»i;s, finely chopped 

2 tablespoons grated chocolate % cup seeded raiains, finely 
1 tablespoon sugar chopped 

1 tablespoon boiling water 1 cup flour 

1 teaspoon baking powder 

Cream the butter, and add sugar, gradually. Melt choco- 
late, add remaining sugar and water, and cook one minute. 
Combine mixtures, and add remaining ingredients. Chili, 
ghape, and bake same as Chocolate Cookies. 

Chooolata Cak«c 

8 eggs 3 squares unsweetened chocolate 

yi cnp butter i cup stale bread erombs 

% enp sngkr S tablespoons flour 

Beat eggs until light. Cream the batter, add sugar, oom- 
Mb« ooixturee, then add chocolate malted, bread cnimbsi 



492 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

and flour. Spread mixture in a shallow buttered pan and 
bak« in a slow oven. Shape with a tiny biscuit-cutter and 
put together in pairs with White Mountain Cream (see p. 628) 
between and on top. 

Neuremburghs 

2 eggs ^ teaspoon clove 

% cup powdered sugar 1 tablespoon orange peel, finely 

^ cup flour cut 

y^ teaspoon salt Grated rind % lemon 

y^ teaspoon cinnamon ^ cup Jordan almonds 

Beat the whites of the eggs until stiff, and add sugar 
gradually, continuing the beating. Then add yolks of eggs 
well beaten, flour mixed and sifted with salt and spices, 
orange peel, and lemon rind. Blanch almonds, cut in small 
pieces crosswise, and bake in a slow oven until well browned. 
Fold into the mixture, and drop by spoonfuls on a sheet 
dredged with corn-starch and powdered sugar in equal pro- 
portions. Bake in a moderate oven. 

Sand Tarts 

% cup butter 2 teaspoons baking powder 

1 cup sugar White 1 Qg% 

1 egg Blanched almonds 

1^ cups flour 1 tablespoon sugar 

)^ teaspoon cinnamon 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and ^g% well 
beaten ; then add flour mixed and sifted with baking 
powder. Chill, toss one-half mixture on a floured board, 
and roll one-eighth inch thick. Shape with a doughnut 
cutter: Brush over with white of egg, and sprinkle with 
sugar mixed with cinnamon. Split almonds, and arrange 
three halves on each at equal distances. Place on a but- 
tered sheet, and bake eight minutes in a slow oven. 

Swedish Wafers; 

y^ cup butter 5 ozs. flour 

% cup sugar i^ teaspoon vanilla 

2 eggs Shredded almonds 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, eggs slightly 
lieateor Amir, and flavoring. Drop by spoonfuls on as 



GINGERBREADS, COOKIES, AND WAFERS 493 

inverted buttered dripping-pan. Spread very thinly, using 

a knife, in circular shapes about three inches in diameter. 

Sprinkle with almonds, and bake in a slow oven. Remove 

from pan, and shape at once over the handle of a wooden 

spoon. 

Marguerites I 

2 eggs ^ teaspoon baking powder 

1 cup brown sugar }^ teaspoon salt 

y^ cup flour 1 cup pecan nut meats, cut 

in small pieces 

Beat eggs slightly, and add remaining ingredients in the 
order given. Fill small buttered tins two-thirds full of 
mixture, and place pecan nut meat on each. Bake in a 
moderate oven fifteen minutes. 

Marguerites II 

1)^ cups sugar 2 tablespoons shredded cocoanut 

% cup water >^ teaspoon vanilla 

5 marshmallows 1 cup English walnut meats 

Whites 2 eggs Saltines 

Boil sugar and water until syrup will thread. Remove 
to back of range and add marshmallows cut in pi^es. 
Pour onto the whites of eggs beaten until stiff; then add 
cocoanut, vanilla, and nut meats. Spread saltines with 
mixture and bake until delicately browned. 

Kornettes 

^ cup finely chopped popped corn ^ teaspoon salt 

% tablespoon soft butter % teaspoon vanilla 

White 1 egg Blanched and chopped 
3^ cup sugar almonds 

Candied cherries 

Add butter to corn. Beat egg white until stiff, and add 
sugar gradually, continuing the beating. Combine mix- 
tures ; then add salt and vanilla. Drop mixture from tip of 
spoon on a well buttered sheet, one inch apart. Shape in 
circular form with case knife first dipped in cold water. 
Sprinkle with almonds and place a piece of candied cherry 
on the centre of each. Bake in a slow oven until delicately 
Wowaedi 



494 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Rolled Wafers 

^ cup butter ^ cup milk 

^ cup powdered sugar % cup bread flour 

y^ teaspoon vanilla 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and milk drop by 
drop; then add flour and flavoring. Spread very thinly 
with a broad, long-bladed knife on a buttered inverted drip- 
ping-pan. Crease in three-inch squares, and' bake in a slow 
oven until delicately browned. Place pan on back of range, 
cut squares apart with a sharp knife, and roll while warm in 
tubular or cornucopia shape. If squares become too brittle 
to roll, place in oven to soften. If rolled tubular shape, tie 
in bunches with narrow ribbon. These are very attractive, 
and may be served with sherbet, ice cream, or chocolate. If 
rolled cornucopia shape, they may be filled with whipped 
cream just before sending to table. Colored wafers may be 
made from this mixture by adding leaf green or fruit red. 
If colored green, flavor with one-fourth teaspoon almond and 
three-fourths teaspoon vanilla. If colored pink, flavor with 
rose. Colored wafers must be baked in a very slow oven 
and turned frequently, otherwise they will not be of the 
uniform color that is desired. 

Almond Wafers 

Before baking Rolled Wafers, sprinkle with almonds 
blanched and chopped. Other nut meats or shredded cocoa- 
nut may be used in place of almonds. 

English Rolled Wafers I (Brandy Wafers) 

y^ cup molasses 1 cup flour (scant) 

% cup butter % cup sugar 

1 tablespoon ginger 

Heat molasses to boiling-point, add butter, then slowly, 
stirring constantly, flour mixed and sifted with ginger and 
sugar. Drop small portions from tip of spoon on a buttered 
inverted dripping-pan two inches apart. Bake in a slow 
o^en, cool slightly, remove from pan, and roll over handle 
of wooden spoon. 




English Rolled Wafers I-II. — Page J^BJ^. 




Marguerites I. — Faqe 493. 




Mocha Cakes. — Page 518. 




Small Eclairs. — Page 519. 




Ice Ckeam Cak-Ii; {Page 517) with Xur Caramel Frosting. 

Page 530. 



GINGERBREADS, COOKIES, AND WAFERS 495 

English Rolled "Wafers II 

To English Rolled Wafers I, add one and one-half cups 
rolled oats. 

Nut Bars 

2 tablespoons brown % ^^P fiour 

sugar % teaspoon salt 

y^ cup butter 2 tablespoons English walnut 
^ cup boiling water meat, finely chopped 

y^ cup brown sugar Halves of walnuts or almonds 

Caramelize two tablespoons sugar, add butter and water, 
and boil two minutes. Remove from fire, add remaining 
sugar, flour mixed with salt, and walnut meat. Spread as 
Rolled Wafers, crease in two-inch squares, and decorate with 
nut meats. Bake in a slow oven, and remove from pan at 
once. 

Nut Macaroons 

White 1 ^gg 1 cup pecan nut meats 

1 cup brown sugar )^ teaspoon salt 

Beat white of egg until stiff and add gradually, while 
beating constantl}^, sugar. Fold in nut meats, finely chopped 
and sprinkled with salt. Drop from tip of spoon, one inch 
apart, on a buttered sheet, and bake in a moderate oven un- 
til delicately browned. 

Brownies 

1 cup sugar ^ teaspoon vanilla 

% cup melted butter % cup flour 

1 egg, unbeaten y^ cup walnut meats, cut in 

2 squares unsweetened choc- pieces 

olate, melted 

Mix ingredients in order given. Line a seven-inch square 
pan with parafline paper. Spread mixture evenly in pan 
and bake in a slow oven. As soon as taken from oven turn 
from pan, remove paper, and cut cake in strips, using a 
sharp knife. If these directions are not followed paper will 
cling to cake, and it will be impossible to cut it in shapely 
pieces. 



496 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Card Cakes 

){ cup "butter Jordan almonds 

1 cup powdered sugar 1 tablespoon breakfast cocoa 

2 eggs 2 tablespoons sugar 

1 cup flour 3€ teaspoon powdered cinnamon 

}^ teaspoon salt ^ teaspoon vanilla 

Shredded cocoanut 

Cream the butter, add sugar, eggs well beaten, flour, and 
salt. Spread mixture on bottom of a buttered inverted 
dripping-pan, decorate with almonds blanched and cut in 
strips, and bake in slow oven. Cut in desired shape, using 
heart, spade, and diamond shaped cutters before removing 
from pan. To give variety, divide mixture in halves. To 
one-half add sugar, cocoa, cinnamon, and vanilla, then spread 
on pan and sprinkle with shredded cocoanut. 



CAKiii 497 



CHAPTER XXXI 
CAKE 

THE mixing and baking of cake requires more care and 
judgment than any other branch of cookery ; notwith- 
standing, it seems the one most frequently attempted by the 
inexperienced. 

Two kinds of cake mixtures are considered : — 

I. Without butter. Example : Sponge Cakes. 

II. With butter. Examples : Cup and Pound Cakes. 

In cake making (1) the best ingredients are essential ; (2) 
great care must be taken in measuring and combining in- 
gredients ; (3) pans must be properly prepared ; (4) oven 
heat must be regulated, and cake watched during baking. 

Best tub butter, fine granulated sugar, fresh eggs, and 
pastry flour are essentials for good cake. Coarse granulated 
sugar, bought by so many, if used in cake making, gives a 
coarse texture and hard crust. Pastry flour contains more 
starch and less gluten than bread flour, therefore makes a 
lighter, more tender cake. If bread flour must be used, 
allow two tablespoons less for each cup than the recipe calls 
for. Flour differs greatly in thickening properties ; for 
this reason it is always well when using from a new bag to 
try a small cake, as the amount of flour given may not 
make the perfect loaf. In winter, cake may be made of less 
flour than in summer. 

Before attempting to mix cake, study How to Measure 
(p. 25) and How to Combine Ingredients (p. 26). 

Look at the fire, and replenish by sprinkling on a small 
quantity of coal if there is not sufficient heat to effect the 
baking. 



498 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

To Mix Sponge Cake. Separate yolks from whites of 
eggs. Beat yolks until thick and lemon-colored, using an 
egg-beater; add sugar gradually, and continue beating; 
then add flavoring. Beat whites until stiff and dry, — when 
they will fly from the beater, — and add to the first mixture. 
Mix and sift flour with salt, and cut and fold in at the last. 
If mixture is beaten after the addition of flour, much of the 
work already done of enclosing a large amount of air will 
be undone by breaking air bubbles. These rules apply to a 
mixture where baking powder is not employed. 

To Mix Butter Cakes. An earthen bowl should always 
be used for mixing cake, and a wooden cake-spoon with slits 
lightens the labor. Measure dry ingredients, and mix and 
sift baking powder and spices, if used, with flour. Count 
out number of eggs required, breaking each separately that 
there may be no loss should a stale egg chance to be found 
in the number, separating yolks from whites if rule so speci- 
fies. Measure butter, then liquid. Having everything in 
readiness, the mixing may be quickly accomplished. If but- 
ter is very hard, by allowing it to stand a short time in a 
warm room it is measured and creamed much easier. If 
time cannot be allowed for this to be done, warm bowl by 
pouring in some hot water, letting stand one minute, then 
emptying and wiping dry. Avoid overheating bowl, as but- 
ter will become oily rather than creamy. Put butter in bowl, 
and cream by working with a wooden spoon until soft and 
of a creamy consistency ; then add sugar gradually, and con- 
tinue beating. Add yolks of eggs or whole eggs beaten 
until light, liquid, and flour mixed and sifted with baking 
powder; or liquid and flour may be added alternately. 
When yolks and whites of eggs are beaten separately, whites 
are usually added at the last, as is the. case when whites of 
eggs alone are used. A cake can be made fine-grained only 
by long beating, although light and delicate with a small 
amount of beating. Never stir cake after the final beating, 
remembering that beating motion should always be the last 
used. Fruit, when added to cake, is usually floured to pre- 
yent itf settling to the bottom. This is not necesaary if it Ia 
add«d direetij aftor the lugar, which is detirablt in all dark 



OAKS 4^ 

eakes. If a light frait cake is made, fruit added in this waj 
discolors the loafo Citron is first cut in thin slices, then in 
strips, floured, and put in between layers of cake mixtures. 
Raisins are seeded and cut, rather than chopped. To seed 
raisins, wet tips of fingers in a cup of warm water. Then 
break skins with fingers or cut with a vegetable knife ; re- 
move seeds, and put in cup of water. This is better than 
covering raisins with warm water; if this be done, water 
clings to fruit, and when dredged with flour a pasty mass is 
formed on the outside. Washed currants, put up in pack- 
ages, are quite free from stems and foreign substances, and 
need only picking over and rolling in flour. Currants bought 
in bulk need thorough cleaning. First roll in flour, which 
helps to start dirt ; wash in cold water, drain, and spread to 
dry ; then roll again in flour before using. 

To Butter and Fill Pans. Grease pans with melted fat, 
applying the same with a butter brush. If butter is used, 
put in a small saucepan and place on back of range ; when 
melted, salt will settle to the bottom; butter is then called 
clarified. Just before putting in mixture, dredge pans thor- 
oughly with flour, invert, and shake pan to remove all super- 
fluous flour, leaving only a thin coating which adheres to 
butter. This gives to cake a smooth under surface, which is 
especially desirable if cake is to be frosted. Pans may be 
lined with paper. If this is done, paper should just cover 
bottom of pan and project over sides. Then ends of pan 
and paper are buttered. 

In filling pans, have the mixture come well to the corners 
and sides of pans, leaving a slight depression in the centre, 
and when baked the cake will be perfectly flat on top. Cake 
pans should be filled nearly two-thirds full if cake is expected 
to rise to top of pan. 

• To Bake Cake. The baking of cake is more critical than 
the mixing. Many a well-mixed cake has been spoiled m 
the baking. No oven thermometer has yet proved practical, 
and although many teachers of cookery have given oven 
tests, experience alone has proved the piost reliable teacher. 
In baking cake, divide the time required into quarters. Dur- 
ing the first quarter the mixture should begin to rise ; second 



500 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOIi COOK BOOK 

quarter, continue rising and begin to brown ; third quarter, 
continue browning ; fourth quarter, finish baking and shrink 
from pan. If oven is too hot, open check and raise back 
covers, or leave oven door ajar. It is sometimes necessary 
to cover cake with brown paper; there is, however, danger 
of cake adhering to paper. Cake should be often looked at 
during baking, and providing oven door is opened and closed 
carefully, there is no danger of this causing cake to fall. 
Cake should not be moved in oven until it has risen its full 
height ; after this it is usually desirable to move it that it 
may be evenly browned. Cake when done shrinks from the 
pan, and in most cases this is a sufficient test ; however, in 
pound cakes this rule does not apply. Pound and rich fruit 
cakes are tested by pressing surface with tip of finger. If 
cake feels firm to touch and follows finger back into place, 
it is safe to remove it from the oven. When baking cake 
arrange to have nothing else in the oven, and place loaf or 
loaves as near the centre of oven as possible. If placed close 
to fire box, one side of loaf is apt to become burned before 
sufficiently risen to turn. If cake is put in too slow an oven, 
it often rises over sides of pan and is of very coarse texture ; 
if put in too hot an oven, it browns on top before sufficiently 
risen, and in its attempt to rise breaks through the crust, 
thus making an unsightly loaf. Cake will also crack on top 
if too much flour has been used. The oven should be kept 
at as nearly uniform temperature as possible. Small and 
layer cakes require a hotter oven than loaf cakes. 

To Remove Cake From Pans. Remove cake from pans 
as soon as it comes from the oven, by inverting pan on a 
wire cake cooler, or on a board covered with a piece of old 
linen. If cake is inclined to stick, do not hurry it from pan, 
but loosen with knife around edges, and rest pan on its four 
sides successively; thus by its own weight cake may be 
helped out. 

To Frost Cake. Where cooked frostings are used, it 
makes but little difference whether they are spread on hot 
or cold cake. Where uncooked frostings are used, it is best 
to have the cake slightly warm, with the exception of Con- 
fectioners' Frosting, where boiling water is employed. 



CAKB 601 

Hot "Water Sponge Cake 

Yolks 2 eggs Whites two eggs 

1 cup sugar 1 cup flour 

^ cup hot water or milk 1% teaspoons baking powder 

^ teaspoon lemon extract ^ teaspoon salt 

Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon-colored, add 
one-half the sugar gradually, and continue beating ; then 
add water, remaining sugar, lemon extract, whites of eggs 
beaten until stiff, and flour mixed and sifted with bak- 
ing powder and salt. Bake twenty-five minutes in a 
moderate oven in a buttered and floured shallow pan. 

Cheap Sponge Cake 

Yolks 3 eggs 1% teaspoons baking powder 

1 cup sugar i^ teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon hot water Whites 3 eggs 

1 cup flour 2 teaspoons vinegar 

Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon-colored, add 
sugar gradually, and continue beating ; then add water, flour 
mixed and sifted with baking powder and salt, whites of 
eggs beaten until stiff, and vinegar. Bake thirty-five 
minutes in a moderate oven, in a buttered and floured cake 
pan. 

Cream Sponge Cake 

Yolks 4 eggs Flour 

1 cup sugar li^ teaspoons baking powder 

3 tablespoons cold water ^ teaspoon salt 

1% tablespoons corn -starch Whites 4 eggs 

1 teaspoon lemon extract 

Beat yolks of eggs and water until thick and lemon- 
colored, add sugar gradually, and beat two minutes. Put 
corn-starch in a cup and fill cup with flour. Mix and sift 
corn- starch and flour with baking powder and salt, and add 
to first mixture. When thoroughly mixed add whites of 
eggs beaten until stiff, and flavoring. Bake thirty minutes 
in a moderate oven. This is an excellent mixture to use for 
whipped cream pies or to bake in an angel cake pan. 



502 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Petit Four 

Follow recipe for Cream Sponge Cake. Bake in a shallow 
pan, cool, and shape, using a small round cutter. Split, and 
remove a small portion of cake from the centre of each 
piece. Fill cavities of one-half the pieces with whipped 
cream sweetened and flavored, cover with remaining pieces, 
and press firmly together. Nuts or glace fruits cut in pieces 
may be added to cream. Melt fondant, color, and flavor to 
uaste. Dip cakes in fondant, decorate tops with pistachio 
nuts, violets, or glace cherries, and place each in a paper 
case. 

Sponge Cake 

Tolks 6 eggs Grated rind one-half lemon 

1 cup sugar Whites 6 eggs 

1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 cup flour 

3^ teaspoon salt 

Beat yolks until thick and lemon-colored, add sugar 
gradually, and continue beating, using egg-beater. Add 
lemon juice, rind, and whites of eggs beaten until stiff and 
dry. When whites are partially mixed with yolks, remove 
beater, and carefully cut and fold in flour mixed and sifted 
with salt. Bake one hour in a slow oven, in an angel cake 
pan or deep narrow pan. 

Genuine sponge cake contains no rising properties, but is 
made light by the quantity of air beaten into both yolks and 
whites of eggs, and the expansion of that air in baking. It 
requires a slow oven. All so-called sponge cakes which have 
the addition of soda and cream of tartar or baking powder 
require same oven temperature as butter cakes. When 
failures are made in Sunshine and Angel Cake, they are 
usually traced to baking in too slow an oven, and removing 
from oven before thoroughly cooked. 

Sunshine Cake 
Whites 10 eggs 1 teaspoon lemon extract 

\% cups powdered sugar 1 cup flour 

Yolks 6 eggs 1 teaspoon cream of tartar 

Beat whites of eggs until stiff and dry, add sugar grad- 
ually, and continue beating ; then add yolks of eggs beaten 



GAK& 508 

nntfl thick and ^lemon-colored, and ertract. Cat and fold 
in flour mixed and sifted with cream of tartar. Bake fif t^ 
minutes in a moderate oven in an angel-cake pan. 

Mocha Cake 
To one half recipe for Sunshine Cake add one-half cup 
English walnut meats broken in pieces. Bake in a medium- 
sized angel-cake pan; cool, split, and fill with whipped 
cream sweetened and flavored with coffee essence. Cover 
top with Confectioners' Frosting, flavored with coffee essence. 

Angel Cake 

Whites 8 eggs ^ cup flour 

1 teaspoon cream of tartar ^ teaspoon salt 
1 cup sugar ^ teaspoon vanilla 

Beat whites of eggs until frothy ; add cream of tartar, and 
continue beating until eggs are stiff ; then add sugar grad- 
ually. Fold in floui^ixed with salt and sifted four times, 
and add vanilla. Bake forty-five to fifty minutes in an 
unbuttered angel-cake pan. After cake has risen and begins 
to brown, cover with a buttered paper. 

Moonshine Cake 

Whites 10 eggs Yolks 7 eggs 

^ teaspoon salt 1)4 cups sugar 

% teaspoon cream of tartar 1 teaspoon almond extract 

1 cup pastry flour 

Add salt to whites of eggs and beat until light. Sift in 
cream of tartar and beat until stiff. Beat yolks of eggs 
until thick and lemon colored and add two heaping table- 
spoons beaten whites. To remaining whites add gradually 
sugar measured after five siftings. Add almond extract 
and combine mixtures. Cut and fold in flour, measured 
after five siftings. Bake in angel-cake pan, first dipped in 
cold water, in a slow oven one hour. Have a pan of hot 
water in oven during the baking. Cover with 

Maraschino Frosting. Follow recipe for Ice Cream Frost- 
ing (see p. 528), adding to sugar one-half teaspoon cream of 
tartar, and flavor with maraschino. Sprinkle with almonds 
blanched, shredded, and baked until delicately browned* 



604 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Lady Fingers 

Whites 3 eggs % cup flour 

^ cup powdered sugar j^ teaspoon salt 

Yolks 2 eggs ^ teaspoon vanilla 

Beat whites of eggs until stiff and dry, add sugar grad- 
ually, and continue beating. Then add yolks of eggs beaten 
until thick and lemon-colored, and flavoring. Cut and fold 
in flour mixed and sifted with salt. Shape four and one-half 
inches loDg and one inch wide on a tin sheet covered with 
unbuttered paper, using a pastry bag and tube. Sprinkle 
with powdered sugar, and bake eight minutes in a moderate 
oven. Remove from paper with a knife. Lady Fingers are 
much used for lining moulds that are to be filled with 
whipped cream mixtures. They are often served with 
frozen desserts, and sometimes put together in pairs with a 
thin coating of whipped cream between, when they are 
attractive for children's parties. 

Sponge Drops 

Drop Lady Finger mixture from tip of spoon on unbut- 
tered paper. Sprinkle with powdered sugar, and bake eight 
minutes in a moderate oven. 

Almond Tart 

4 eggs % cup Jordan almonds, blanched 

1 cup powdered sugar and finely chopped 

y^ cup grated chocolate 1 teaspoon baking powder 
% cup cracker dust 

Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon-colored ; add 
sugar gradually, then fold in white of eggs beaten until stiff 
and dry. Add chocolate, almonds, baking powder, and 
cracker dust. Bake in a round pan. Cool, split, and put 
whipped cream, sweetened and flavored, between and on 
top. Garnish with angelica and candied cherries. This 
makes a most attractive dessert when baked in individual 
tins. As soon as cool, remove centres, and fill with whipped 
cream, forced through a pastry bag. 



CAKB 505 

JeUy RoU 

d eggs 1 teaspoon baking powder 

1 cup sugar >^ teaspoon salt 

% tablespoon milk 1 cup flour 

1 tablespoon melted butter 

Beat ^%g until light, add sugar gradually, milk, flour 
mixed and sifted with baking powder and salt, then butter. 
Line the bottom of a dripping-pan with paper ; butter paper 
and sides of pan. Cover bottom of pan with mixture, and 
spread evenly. Bake twelve minutes in a moderate oven. 
Take from oven ahd turn on a paper sprinkled with powdered 
sugar. Quickly remove paper, and cut off a thin strip from 
sides and ends of cake. Spread with jelly or jam which has 
been beaten to consistency to spread easily, and roll. After 
cake has been rolled, roll paper around cake that it may 
better keep in shape. The work must be done quickly, or 
cake will crack in rolling. 

Election Cake 

% cup butter 8 finely chopped figs 

1 cup bread dough ' 1% cups flour 

1 ^Zg % teaspoon soda 

1 cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

% cup sour milk i^ teaspoon clove 

% cup raisins seeded, and ^ teaspoon mace 

cut in pieces i^ teaspoon nutmeg 
1 teaspoon salt 

Work butter into dough, using the hand. Add egg well 
beaten, sugar, milk, fruit dredged with two tablespoons 
flour, and flour mixed and sifted with remaining ingredients. 
Put into a well-buttered bread pan, cover, and let rise one 
and one-fourth hours. Bake one hour in a slow oven. 
Cover with Boiled Milk Frosting. 

One Egg Cake 

yi cup of butter % cup milk 

% cup sugar 1 1^ cups flour 

1 ^%Z 2>^ teaspoons baking powder 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and ^gg well 
beaten. Mix and sift flour and baking powder, add alter- 



506 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

nately with milk to first mixture. Bake thirty minutes in 
a shallow pan. Spread with Chocolate Frosting. 

Chocolate Cake I 

y^ cup butter \)4 cups flour 

1 cup sugar 2^ teaspoons baking powder 

2 small eggs 2 ozs. chocolate, melted 
y^ cup milk % teaspoon vanilla 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and yolks of eggs 
well beaten, then whites of eggs beaten until stiff. Add 
milk, flour mixed and sifted with baking powder, and beat 
thoroughly. Then add chocolate and vanilla. Bake forty 
minutes in a shallow cake pan. 

Chocolate Cake H 

% cup butter ^ teaspoon soda 

\% cups sugar ^ teaspoon cream of tartar 

% cup milk Whites 5 eggs 

2^ cups flour 2 squares unsweetened chocolate, 

grated 

Cream the butter; add sugar gradually, milk, and flour 
mixed and sifted with soda and cream of tartar. Beat whites 
of eggs, and add to first mixture ; then add chocolate, and 
beat thoroughly. Bake forty- five minutes in a moderate 
oven. 

Chocolate Marshmallow Cake 

PoUow receipe for Chocolate Cake 11. As soon as cake 
is removed from pan, cover bottom with marshmallows 
pulled apart with tips of fingers, but not quite separated into 
halves. The exposed soft surface will quickly adhere to hot 
cake. Pour over Chocolate Fudge Frosting. 

Chocolate Nougat Cake 

^ cup butter 3 teaspoons baking powder 

1/^ cups powdered sugar % teaspoon vanilla 

1 Qg^ 2 squares chocolate, melted 

1 cup milk y^ cup powdered sugar 

2 cups bread flour % cup almonds, blanched 

and shredded 

Cream the butter, add gradually one and one-half cups 
gagar, and egg unbeaten ; when well mixed, add two-thirda 



OAKS 507 

milk, flour mixed and sifted with baking powder, and 
vanilla. To melted chocolate add one-third cup powdered 
sugar, place on range, add gradually remaining milk, and 
cook until smooth. Cool slightly, and add to cake mixture. 
Bake fifteen to twenty minutes in round layer cake pans. 
Put between layers and on top of cake White Mountain 
Cream sprinkled with almonds. 

Chocolate Dominoes 

% cup pecan nut meat % cup dates 

j^ cup English walnut meat Grated rind 1 orange 

y^ cup figs 1 tablespoon orange juice 

1 square chocolate, melted 

Mix nut meats, figs, and dates, and force through a 
meat chopper, or chop finely. Add remaining ingredients, 
toss on a board sprinkled with powdered sugar, and roll to 
one- third inch in thickness. Cut in domino shapes, spread 
thinly with melted unsweetened chocolate, and decorate 
with small pieces blanched almonds to imitate dominoes. 

Cream Pie I 

% cup butter % cup milk 

1 cup sugar \% cups flour 

2 eggs % teaspoon salt 

2)^ teaspoons baking powder 

Mix as One Egg Cake. Bake in round layer cake pans. 
Put Cream Filling between layers and sprinkle top with 
powdered sugar. 

Cream Pie II 

Make as Cream Pie I, using French Cream Filling in 
place of Cream Filling. 

Cocoanut Pie 

Mix and bake same as Cream Pie. Put Cocoanut Filling 
between layers and on top. 

"Washington Pie 

Mix and bake same as Cream Pie. Put raspberry jam or 
jelly between layers and sprinkle top with powdered sugar. 



608 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Chocolate Pie 

2 tablespoons butter % cup milk 

^ cup sugar 1)^ cups flour 

1 Qgg 2 teaspoons baking powder 

Mix and bake same as Cream Fie. Split layers, and 
spread between and on top of each a thin layer of Chocolate 
Frosting. 

Orange Cake 
^ cup butter i^ cup milk 

1 cup sugar 1^ cups flour 

2 eggs 21^ teaspoons baking powder 
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, eggs well beaten, 

and milk. Then add flour mixed and sifted with baking 
powder. Bake in a thin sheet in a dripping-pan. Cut in 
halves, spread one-half with Orange Filling. Put over 
other half, and cover with Orange Frosting. 

Quick Cake 

}{ cup soft butter 1^ cups flour 

13^ cups brown sugar 3 teaspoons baking powder 

2 eggs y^ teaspoon cinnamon 

)4 cup milk }4 teaspoon grated nutmeg 

}^ lb. dates, stoned and cut in pieces 

Put ingredients in a bowl and beat all together for three 
minutes, using a wooden cake spoon. Bake in a buttered 
and floured cake pan thirty-five to forty minutes. If direc- 
tions are followed this makes a most satisfactory cake ; 
but if ingredients are added separately it will not prove 
a success. 

Boston Favorite Cake 

% cup butter 1 cup milk 

2 cups sugar 3>^ cups flour 

4 eggs }£ teaspoon salt 

5 teaspoons baking powder 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, eggs beaten until 
light, then milk and flour mixed and sifted with baking 
powder. This recipe makes two loaves, or one-half the 
mixture may be baked in individual tins. 



CAKB 509 

Cream Cake 
2 eggs 23^ teaspoons baking powder 

1 cup sugar % teaspoon salt 

% cup thin cream % teaspoon cinnamon 

\% cups flour 3€ teaspoon mace 

y^ teaspoon ginger 

Put unbeaten eggs in a bowl, add sugar and cream, and 

beat vigorously. Mix and sift remaining ingredients, then 

add to first mixture. Bake thirty minutes in a shallow cake 

pan. 

Currant Cake 

% cup butter % cup milk 

1 cup sugar , 2 cups flour 

2 eggs 3 teaspoons baking powder 
Yolk 1 Qgg 1 cup currants mixed with 

1 tablespoon flour 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and eggs and Qg% 
yolk well beaten. Then add milk, flour mixed and sifted 
with baking powder, and currants. Bake forty minutes in 
buttered and floured cake pan. 

Citron Cake 

1^ lb. butter ^ % lb. flour 

% lb. sugar 1 tablespoon brandy 

3 eggs 1 cup citron, thinly sliced, 
^2. cup milk then cut in strips 

\% teaspoons baking powder 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, yolks of eggs 
well beaten, milk, and flour mixed and sifted with baking 
powder. Beat whites of eggs until stiff, and add to first 
mixture, then add brandy and citron. Bake in a moderate 
oven one hour. 

Velvet Cake 

% cup batter \% cups flour 

1/^ cups sugar >^ cup corn-starch 

Yolks 4 eggs 4 teaspoons baking powder 

% cup cold water Whites 4 eggs 



cup almonds, blanched, and shredded 



Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, yolks of eggs well 
beaten, and water. Mix and sift flour, corn-starch, and 



610 BOSTON COOKTNG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

baking powder, and add to first mixture ; then add whites 
of eggs beaten until stiff. After putting in pan, cover with 
almonds and sprinkle with powdered sugar. Bake forty 
minutes in a moderate oven. 

Walnut Cake 

% cup butter \% cups flour 

1 cup sugar 2^ teaspoons baking powder 

Yolks 3 eggs Whites 2 eggs 

y^ cup milk %^ cup walnut meat, broken 

% teaspoon salt in pieces 

Mix ingredients in order given. Bake forty-five minutes 
in a moderate oven. Cover with White Mountain Cream, 
crease in squares, and put one-half walnut on each square. 

Spanish. Cake 

% cup butter 1^ cups flour 

1 cup sugar 3 teaspoons baking powder 
Yolks 2 eggs 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

% cup milk Whites 2 eggs 

Mix ingredients in order given. Bake in shallow tins and 
spread between and on top Caramel Frosting. 

Cup Cakes 

% cup butter 1 cup milk 

2 cups sugar 33^ cups flour 

4 eggs 4 teaspoons baking powder 

X^ teaspoon mace 

Put butter and sugar in a bowl, and stir until well mixed ; 
add eggs well beaten, then milk, and flour mixed and sifted 
with baking powder and mace. Bake in individual tins. 
Cover with Chocolate Frosting. 

Cinnamon Cakes 

% cup butter % cup milk 

1 cup sugar 1)^ cups flour 

2 eggs 2)^ teaspoons baking powder 

1 tablespoon cinnamon 

Mix ingredients in the order given, and bake in individual 
buttered cake tins. 



CAKE 511 

Almond Cakes 

% cup butter 2 eggs 

% cup sugar 1% cups flour 

3^ cup milk 2 teaspoons baking powder 

1 cup Jordan almonds, blanched and cut in pieces 

Mix ingredients in order given, and bake in individual 
cake pans. 

Bro'wnies 

% cup butter 1 egg, well beaten 

)^ cup powdered sugar % cup bread flour 

3^ cup Porto Rico molasses 1 cup pecan meat, cut in pieces 

Mix ingredients in order given. Bake in small shallow 
fancy cake tins, garnishing top of each cake with one-half 
pecan. 

Chocolate Sponge 
% cup butter 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

}^ cup prepared powdered cocoa i^ teaspoon clove 

3 eggs % cup cold water 

1 cup sugar 1 cup flour 

3 teaspoons baking powder 

Cream the butter ; add cocoa, yolks of eggs well beaten, 
Bugar mixed with cinnamon and clove, and water. Beat the 
whites of eggs, and add to first mixture alternately with 
flour mixed and sifted with baking powder. Bake in small 
tins from fifteen to twenty minutes. 

Devil's Food Cake I 
3^ cup butter 5 teaspoons baking powder 

2 cups sugar y^ teaspoon salt 
Yolks 4 eggs Whites 4 eggs 

1 cup milk 4 squares chocolate 

2% cups flour 1^ teaspoon vanilla 

Cream the butter, and add gradually one-half the sugar. 
Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon-colored, and add 
gradually remaining sugar. Combine mixtures, and add 
alternately milk and flour mixed and sifted with baking 
powder and salt ; then add whites of eggs beaten stiff, 
chocolate melted, and vanilla. Bake forty-five to fifty min- 
utes in an angel cake pan. Cover with White Mountain 
Cream (see p. 628). 



612 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



Devil's Food Cake II 

4 squares unsweetened chocolate ^ cup sugar 
y^ cup sugar 3=€ ^^P sour milk 

% cup sweet milk 1 ^gg 

Yolk 1 Qgg \% cups flour 

^ cup butter % teaspoon soda 

% teaspoon vanilla 

Melt chocolate over hot water, add one-half cup sugar, 
and gradually sweet milk ; then add yolk of egg, and cook 
until mixture thickens. Set aside to cool. Cream the but- 
ter, add gradually one-half cup sugar, ^gg well beaten, sour 
milk, and flour mixed and sifted with soda. Combine mix- 
tures and add vanilla. Bake in shallow cake pans, and put 
between and on top boiled frosting. -sAdd to filling one- 
fourth cup raisins seeded and cut in piec^es, if desired* 

Chocolate Vienna Cake 

^ cup butter \% cups flour 

J^ cup sugar 3 teaspoons baking powder 

Yolks 5 eggs Whites 5 eggs 

4 squares Baker's chocolate Apricot or Orange Marmalade 

Mix ingredients in order given, and bake in small tins. 
Remove from tins, cool, take out a small portion of cake 
from the centre of each, and fill cavity with marmalade. 
Cover tops of cake with Marshm allow Frosting or Chocolate 
Frosting IV. 

Chocolate Fruit Cake 

y^ cup butter 3€ teaspoon salt 

1 cup sugar i^ cup candied cherries 

^ cup breakfast cocoa y^ cup raisins, seeded and 
Yolks 3 eggs cut in pieces 

% cup cold water \% tablespoons brandy 

13^ cups bread flour ^ cup walnut meats, cut 
3 teaspoons baking in pieces 

powder Whites 3 eggs 

1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Cover fruit with brandy and let stand several hours. Mix 
ingredients in order given, and bake in deep cake pan fifty 
minutes. Cover with White Mountain Cream, and as soou 



CAKE 518 

as frosting is set, spread as thinly as possible with melted 
chocolate. 

Ribbon Cake 

% cup butter % teaspoon cinnamon 

2 cups sugar )^ teaspoon mace 

Yolks 4 eggs ^ teaspoon nutmeg 

1 cup milk y^ cup raisins, seeded and 

33^ cups flour cut in pieces 

5 teaspoons baking powder % cup figs, finely chopped 

Whites 4 eggs 1 tablespoon molasses 

Mix first seven ingredients in order given. Bake two- 
thirds of the mixture in two layer-cake pans. To the remain- 
der add spices, fruit, and molasses, and bake in a layer-cake 
pan. Put layers together with jelly (apple usually being 
preferred, as it has less flavor), having the dark layer in the 
centre. 

Golden Spice Cake 

% cup butter 2^=^ cups flour 

% cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

1 Qgg }4. teaspoon soda 

Yolks 4 eggs % teaspoon clove 

% cup molasses ^ teaspoon grated nutmeg 

}^ cup milk Few grains cayenne 
Few gratings lemon rind 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, ^^g and yolks of 
eggs well beaten, molasses, milk, flour, mixed and sifted 
with spices, cayenne, and lemon rind. Bake in a moderate 
oven one hour, and cover with White Mountain Cream (see 
p. 528). 

Walnut Mocha Cake 

% cup butter 1^ cups flour 

1 cup sugar 1% teaspoons baking powder 

y^ cup coffee infusion Whites 3 eggs 

^ cup walnut meats, broken in pieces 

Follow directions for mixing butter cake mixtures. Cover 
with Confectioners' Frosting, using cream, and flavoring with 



5U 



BOSTON OOOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



^ cup butter 

1)^ cups brown sugar 

Yolks 2 eggs 

^ cup milk 

2)^ cups flour 

3j^ teaspoons baking powder 

1 teaspoon orange extract 

1 teaspoon vanilla 



Birthday Cake 

2 tablespoons Sherry 
^ cup raisins, seeded 

and cut in pieces 
^ cup walnut meats, 

cut in pieces 
^ cup currants 
2 tablespoons candied 

orange peel, finely cu* 



Whites 2 eggs 

Follow directions for making butter-cake mixtures. Bak<a 
in a buttered and floured angel cake pan in a slow oven one 
and one-quarter hours. Cover with Ornamental Frosting 
(see p. 532). 

Rich Coffee Oake 



1 cup butter 

2 cups sugar 
4 eggs 

2 tablespoons molasses 
1 cup cold boiled cofEee 
3^ cups flour 
6 teaspoons baking powder 
1 teaspoon cinnamon 



)4 teaspoon clove 

J4 teaspoon mace 

^ teaspoon allspice 

^ cup raisins, seeded and 

cut in pieces 
^ cup currants 
^ cup citron, thinly sliced 

and cut in strips 



2 tablespoons brandy 

Follow directions for making butter-cake mixtures. Bake 
in deep cake pans. 



Nut Spice Cake 



■ /4 c^P butter 
1 cup brown sugar 
;4 cup mdasses 
Yolks 4 eggs 
1 cup sour milk 
2}^ cups flour 
1 teaspoon soda 
1 teaspoon cinnamon 

Mix ingredients in t 
Iwo loaves. 



14 teaspoon clove 

^ nutmeg, grated 

1 cup raisins, seeded and cut 

in pieces 
)4 cup currants 
^ cup English walnut meats, 

cut m pieces 
1)4 teaspoons baking powder 

order given. This recipe makes 



OAE£ 515 



Dark Fruit Cako 

y^ cup butter 2 eggs 

^ cup brown sugar )^ cup milk 

^ cup raisins, seeded and 2 cups flour 

cut in pieces % teaspoon soda 

^ cup currants 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

y^ cup citron, thinly sliced %. teaspoon allspice 

and cut in strips %. teaspoon mace 

y^ cup molasses ^ teaspoon clove 
% teaspoon lemon extract 

Follow directions for mixing butter cake mixtures. Bake 
in deep cake pans one and one-quarter hours. 

Nut Cakes 

Meat from 1 lb. pecans ^ cup flour 

1 lb. powdered sugar Whites 6 eggs 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Pound nut meat and mix with sugar and flour. Beat 
•whites of eggs until stiff, add first mixture and vanilla. 
Drop from tip of tablespoon (allowing one spoonful for each 
cake) on a tin sheet covered with buttered paper. Bake 
twenty minutes in a moderate oven. 

Snow Cake 

y^ cup butter 2>^ teaspoons baking powder 

1 cup sugar Whites 2 eggs 

y^ cup milk K teaspoon vanilla or 

\% cups flour M teaspoon almond extract 

Follow recipe for mixing butter cakes. Bake forty-five 
minutes in a deep narrow pan. 

LUj Cak« 

y^ eup butter 2>j^ teaspoons baking powder 

1 eup sugar Whites 3 eggs 

y^ cup milk K teaspoon lemon extract 

\\ eups flour % teaspoon vanilla 

Follow r«eipo for mixing butter oakes. 



510 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Corn-starch Cake 

1 cup butter 4^ teaspoons baking powder 

2 cups sugar Whites 5 eggs 

1 cup milk % teaspoon vanilla or 

1 cup corn-starch % teaspoon almond extract 

2 cups flour 

Follow recipe for mixing butter cakes. This mixture 
makes two loaves. 

Prune Almond Cake 

Bake one-half Corn-starch Cake mixture in a dripping- 
pan. Cut in two crosswise, spread between layers Prune 
Almond Filling, and cover top with White Mountain Cream. 

Prune Almond Filling. To one-half the recipe for White 
Mountain Cream add eight soft prunes stoned and cut in 
pieces, and one- fourth cup almonds blanched and cut in 
pieces. 

Marshmallow Cake 

% cup butter 3 teaspoons baking powder 

1% cups sugar ^ teaspoon cream of tartar 

% cup milk Whites 5 eggs 

2 cups flour 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Follow recipe for mixing butter cakes. Bake in shallow 
pans, and put Marshmallow Cream between the layers and 
on the top. 

Fig Eclair 

^ cup butter (scant) \% cups flour 

1 cup sugar 3 teaspoons baking powder 

^ cup milk Whites 4 eggs 

% teaspoon vanilla 

Follow recipe for mixing butter cakes. Bake in shallow 
pans, put between layers Fig Filling, and sprinkle top with 
powdered sugar. 

Banana Cake 

Mix and bake Fig Eclair mixture; put between layers 
White Mountain Cream covered with thin slices of banana, 
and frost the top. This should be eaten the day it is made. 



CAKE 617 



Bride's Cake 

% cup butter % cup milk 3 teaspoons baking powder 

1>^ cups sugar 2% cups flour % teaspoon cream of tartar 
Whites six eggs % teaspoon almond extract 

Follow recipe for mixing butter cakes. Bake forty-five to 
fifty minutes in deep, narrow pans. Cover with white 
frosting. 

Ice Cream Cake 

% cup butter 1 cup milk 4 teaspoons baking powder 

2 cups sugar 3 cups flour Whites 4 eggs 

Vanilla 

Follow recipe for mixing butter cakes. Bake in layers, 
and put between layers and on top Ice Cream Frosting. 

Light Fruit Cake 

To Fig ^ficlair mixture add one-half cup raisins seeded 
and cut in pieces, two ounces citron thinly sliced and cut in 
strips, and one-third cup walnut meat cut in pieces. In 
making mixture, reserve one tablespoon flour to use for 
dredging fruit. 

"White Nut Cake 

^ cup butter }^ cup milk % teaspoon cream of tartar 

11^ cups sugar 1% cups flour 3 teaspoons baking powder 

Whites 8 eggs 1 cup walnut meat cut in pieces 

Follow recipe for mixing butter cakes. This mixture 
makes two loaves. 

Golden Cake 

^ cup butter Yolks 5 eggs % cup flour 

y^ cup sugar )^ cup milk \)^ teaspoons baking 

1 teaspoon orange extract powder 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and yolks of egga 
beaten until thick and lemon-colored, and extract. Mix and 
fiift flour acd baking powder, and add alternately with milk 
to first mixture. Omit orange extract, add one-half cup nut 
Bie&t cut in small pieces, and bake in individual tini. 



61$ BO0TOM OOOEQffGhflOHOOL OOOK BOOK 

Mocha Cakeii 

Bake ft sponge cake mixture in sheets. Shape in small 
rounds, and cut in three layers. Put layers together with a 
thin coating of frosting. Spread frosting around sides and 
roll in shredded cocoanut. Ornament top with frosting 
forced through a pastry bag and tube, using the rose tube. 
Begin at centre of top and coil frosting around until surface 
is covered. Garnish centre of top with a candied cherry. 

Frosting. Wash one-third cup butter, add one cup pow- 
dered sugar gradually, and beat until creamy. Then add one 
cup Cream Filling which has been cooled. Flavor with one- 
half teaspoon vanilla and one and one-half squares melted 
chocolate. 

This frosting is sometimes colored pink, yellow, green, or 
lavender, and flavored with rose, vanilla, or a combination 
of almond and vanilla. Large Mocha Cakes are baked in 
two round layer cake tins, each cake being cut in two layers. 
Layers are put together as small cakes. The top is spread 
smoothly with frosting, then ornamented with large pieces 
of candied fruits arranged in a design^ and frosting forced 
through pastry bag and tube. 

Cream Cakes 

% cup butter 4 eggs 

1 cup boiling water 1 cup floar 

Pour butter and water in saucepan and place on front of 
range. As soon as boiling-point is reached, add flour all at 
once, and stir vigorously. Remove from fire as soon as 
mixed, and add unbeaten eggs one at a time, beating, until 
thoroughly mixed, between the addition of eggs. Drop by 
spoonfuls on a buttered sheet, one and one-half inches apart, 
shaping with handle of spoon as nearly circular as possible, 
having mixture slightly piled in centre. Bake thirty minutes 
in a moderate oven. With a sharp knife make a cut in each 
large enough to admit of Cream Filling. This recipe makes 
eighteen small cream cakes. For flavoring cream filling use 
lemon extract. If cream cakes are removed from oven 
before being thoroughly cooked, they will fall.. If in doubt, 



OAKB 519 

take one from oven, aud if it does not fall, this is sufficient 
proof that others are cooked. 

French Cream Cakes 

Fill Cream Cakes with Cream Sauce I. 

French Stra-w^berry Cream Cakes 

Shape cream cake mixture oblong, making twelve cakes. 
Split, and fill with Strawberry Cream Filling. 

Eclairs 

Shape cream cake mixture four and one-half inches long 
by one inch wide, by forcing through a pastry bag and tube. 
Bake twenty-five minutes in a moderate oven. Split, and fill 
with vanilla, coffee, or chocolate cream filling. Frost with 
Confectioners' Frosting to which is added one-third Kjup 
melted Fondant, dipping top of eclairs in frosting while it is 
hot. 

Lemon Queens 

^ lb. butter Yolks 4 eggs 

% lb. sugar 5 ozs. flour 

Grated rind 1 lemon 3^ teaspoon salt 

% tablespoon lemon juice J=^ teaspoon soda (scant) 

Whites 4 eggs 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and continue 
beating. Then add grated rind, lemon juice, and yolks of 
eggs beaten until thick and lemon- colored. Mix and sift 
soda, salt, and flour ; add to first mixture and beat thor- 
oughly. Add whites of eggs beaten stiff. Bake from twenty 
to twenty-five minutes in small tins. 

Queen Cake 

% cup butter Whites 6 eggs 

2 cups flour (scant) 1^ cups powdered sugar 

^ teaspoon soda 1}^ teaspoons lemon juice 

Cream the butter, add flour gradually, mixed and sifted 
with soda, then add lemon juice. Beat whites of eggs. until 
stiff ; add sugar gradually, and combine the mixtures. Bake 
fifty minutes in a long shallow pan. Ck)Ver with Opera Cara- 
mel Frostioig. 



520 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Pound Cake 

1 lb. butter Whites 10 eggs 

1 lb. sugar 1 lb. flour 

Yolks 10 eggs % teaspoon mace 

2 tablespoons brandy 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and continue beat- 
mg; then add yolks of eggs beaten until thick and lemon- 
colored, whites of eggs beaten until stiff and dry, flour, 
mace, and brandy. Beat vigorously five minutes. Bake in 
a deep pan one and one-fourth hours in a slow oven ; or if to 
be used for fancy ornamented cakes, bake thirty to thirty- 
five minutes in a dripping-pan. 

New York Gingerbread 

1 cup butter (scant) 5 eggs 

1 j^ cups flour \% cups powdered sugar 

2 tablespoons yellow ginger 1 teaspoon baking powder 

Cream the butter, and add flour gradually, mixed and 
sifted with ginger. Beat the yolks of the eggs until thick 
and lemon-colored, and add sugar gradually. Combine mix- 
tures, add whites of eggs, beaten until stiff, and sift over 
baking powder. Beat thoroughly, turn into a buttered deep 
cake pan, and bake one hour in a moderate oven. 

Newport Pound Cake 

Make same as New York Gingerbread, omitting ginger, 
and substituting one teaspoon vanilla extract. 

Christmas Cakes 

Bake Newport Pound Cake in golden-rod pans, cut in 
fourths crosswise, spread with Ice Cream Frosting, and gar« 
nish with green leaves, made from ornamental frosting, and 
round red candies to imitate berries. 

Ginger ipound Cakes 

Cream one-half pound butter and add gradually one-half 
pound sugar, continuing the beating. Add three-fourths 
pound flour, mixed and sifted with two teaspoons baking 
powder alternately with four eggs beaten until thick and 



CAKE 621 

lemon-colored ; then add one-half pound Canton ginger cut in 
small pieces. Bake in small buttered and floured individual 
cake pans in a slow oven. Cover with White Mountain 
Cream (see p. 528). 

Molasses Found Cake 

% cup butter % teaspoon soda 

^ cup sugar 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

2 eggs )4 teaspoon allspice 

% cup milk J^ teaspoon clove 

% cup molasses ^ teaspoon mace 

2% cups flour 3^ cup raisins, seeded and 

cut in pieces 
% cup citron, thinly sliced and cut in strips 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, eggs well beaten, 
and milk and molasses. Mix and sift flour with soda and 
spices, and add to first mixture, then add fruit. Bake in 
small buttered tins from twenty-five to thirty minutes in 
a moderate oven. This recipe makes twenty-four little 

cakes. 

English Fruit Cake 

1 lb. butter 2 tablespoons milk 

1 lb. light brown sugar 3 lbs. currants 

9 eggs 2 lbs. raisins, seeded and 

1 lb. flour finely chopped 

2 teaspoons mace % 1^* almonds, blanched and 
2 teaspoons cinnamon shredded 

1 teaspoon soda 1 lb. citron, thinly sliced and 

cut in strips 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and beat thor- 
oughly. Separate yolks from whites of eggs ; beat yolks 
until thick and lemon-colored, whites until stiff and dry, and 
add to first mixture. Then add milk, fruit, nuts, and flour 
mixed and sifted with mace, cinnamon, and soda. Put in 
buttered deep pans, cover with buttered paper, steam three 
hours, and bake one and one half hours in a slow oven, 
or bake four hours in a very slow oven. Rich fruit cake 
is always more satisfactory when done if the cooking is 
Accomplished by steaming. 



62S BOSTON OOOKINGhSOHOOL COOK: BOOK 

Wedding Cake I 

1 lb. butter }4 teMpoon clore 

1 lb. sngar 8 lbs. raisins, seeded and 

12 eggs cut in pieces 

1 lb. flour 1 lb. currants 

2 teaspoons cinnamon 1 lb. citron, thinly sliced 
Nutmeg -\ ' and cut in strips 
Allspice Y^ e^^^^° 1 lb. figs, finely chopped 
Mace ) ^ cup brandy 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and beat thoroughly. 
Separate yolks from whites of eggs, beat yolks until thick 
and lemon-colored, whites until stiff and dry, and add to first 
mixture. Add flour (excepting one-third cup, which should 
be reserved to dredge fruit) mixed and sifted with spices, 
brandy, and lemon juice. Then add fruit, except citron, 
dredged with reserved flour. Dredge citron with flour and 
put in layers between cake mixture when putting in the pan. 
Bake same as English Fruit Cake. 

Wedding Cake II 

1 lb. butter 8 lbs. raisins, seeded and cut 

1 lb. brown sugar in pieces 

12 eggs 2 lbs. Sultana raisins 

1 cup molasses 1}4 lbs. citron, thinly sliced 

1 lb. flour and cut in strips 

4 teaspoons cinnamon 1 lb. currants 

4 teaspoons allspice % preserved lemon rind 

1)^2 teaspoons mace • }^ preserved orange rind 

1 nutmeg, grated 1 cup brandy 

^ teaspoon soda 4 squares chocolate, melted 
1 tablespoon hot water 

Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and beat thoroughly. 
Separate yolks from whites of eggs, and beat yolks until 
thick and lemon-colored. Add to first mixture, then add 
flour (excepting one-third cup, which should be reserved to 
dredge fruit), mixed and sifted with spices, fruit dredged 
with flour, lemon rind and orange rind finely chopped, brandy. 
ohooolate, and white* of egga beaten until stiff and dry. 



OAKS 528 

Just before putting into pans, add soda dissolved in hot 
water. Cover pans with buttered paper, and steam four 
hours. Finish cooking by leaving in a warm oven over 
night. 

Imperial Cake 

% lb. butter %_ lb. raisins, seeded and 

% lb. sugar cut in pieces 

Yolks 5 eggs % ^^P walnut meat, broken 

Whites 5 eggs in pieces 

Grated rind % lemon % ^- ^o^'' 

2 teaspoons lemon juice )^ teaspoon soda 

Mix same as Pound Cake, adding raisins dredged with 
flour, and nuts at the last. 



624 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XXXII 
CAKE FILLINGS AND FROSTINGS 

Cream Filling 

% cup sugar 2 eggs 

y^ cup flour 2 cups scalded milk 

% teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon vanilla or 

% teaspoon lemon extract 
Mix dry ingredients, add eggs slightly beaten, and pour 
on gradually scalded milk. Cook fifteen minutes in double 
boiler, stirring constantly until thickened, afterwards occa- 
sionally. Cool and flavor. 

Chocolate Cream Pilling 

Put one and one-fourth squares unsweetened chocolate 
in a saucepan and melt over hot water. Add to Cream 
Filling, using in making one cup sugar in place of seven- 
eighths cup. 

Coffee Cream Filling 

Scald milk with two tablespoons ground coffee, strain, 
and make same as Cream Filling. 

French Cream Filling 

% cup thick cream ^ cup powdered sugar 

3^ cup milk White one eg^ 

% teaspoon vanilla 

Dilute cream with milk and beat until stiff, using Dover 
egg-beater. Add sugar, white of egg beaten until stiff, and 
vanilla. 

Stra^^berry Filling 
1 cup thick cream White 1 egg 

y^ cup sugar }^ cup strawberries 

y^ teaspoon vanilla 

Beat cream until stiff, using Dover egg-beater, add sugar, 
white of egg beaten until stiff, strawberries mashed, and 
yamlla. 



CAKE FILLINGS AND FROSTINGS 626 

Lemon Filling 

1 cup sugar 3=^ cup lemon juice 

2% tablespoons flour 1 egg 

Grated rind 2 lemons 1 teaspoon butter 

Mix sugar and flour, add grated rind, lemon juice, and 
Qgg slightly beaten. Put butter in saucepan ; when melted, 
add mixture, and stir constantly until boiling-point is 
reached. Care must be taken that mixture does not ad- 
here to bottom of saucepan. Cool before spreading. 

Orange Filling 

% cup sugar i^ cup orange juice 

2)^ tablespoons flour 3^ tablespoon lemon juice 

Grated rind % orange 1 egg slightly beaten 

1 teaspoon butter 

Mix ingredients in order given. Cook ten minutes in 
double boiler, stirring constantly. Cool before spreading. 

Chocolate Filling 

2% squares unsweetened chocolate 3 tablespoons milk 
1 cup powdered sugar Yolk 1 egg 

% teaspoon vanilla 

Melt chocolate over hot water, add one-half the sugar, and 
milk ; add remaining sugar, and yolk of egg ; then cook in 
double boiler until it thickens, stirring constantly at first, 
that mixture may be perfectly smooth. Cool slightly, flavor, 
and spread. 

Nut or Fruit Filling 

To White Mountain Cream add chopped walnuts, almonds, 
figs, dates, or raisins, separately or in combination. 

Cocoanut Filling 
Whites 2 eggs Fresh grated cocoanut 

Powdered sugar 

Beat whites of eggs on a platter with a fork until stiff. 
Add enough powdered sugar to spread. Spread over cake, 
sprinkle thickly with cocoanut. Use for layer cake, having 
filling between and on top. 



62$ BOSTON 0OOKING-80HOOL COOK BOOK 



Lemon Cocoanut Cresun 

Juice and grated rind 1 lemon Yolks 2 eggs 

1 cup powdered sugar 1 cup shredded cocoanut 

Mix lemon juice and rind with sugar and yolks of eggs 
slightly beaten ; cook ten minutes in double boiler, stirring 
constantly; then add cocoanut. Cool, and use as a filling 
for Corn-starch Cake, or any cake made from the whites 
of eggs. 

Pig Filling 

% lb. figs, finely chopped 3^ cup boiling water 

y^ cup sugar 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

Mix ingredients in the order given and cook in double 
boiler until thick enough to spread. Spread while hot. 
Figs may be chopped quickly by forcing through a meat 
chopper, stirring occasionally. 

Marshmallovgr Paste 

^ cup sugar ^ lb. marshmallows 

)^ cup milk 2 tablespoons hot water 

% teaspoon vanilla 

Put sugar and milk in a saucepan, heat slowly to boiling- 
point without stirring, and boil six minutes. Break marsh- 
mallows in pieces and melt in double boiler, add hot water, 
and cook until mixture is smooth, then add hot syrup grad- 
ually, stirring constantly. Beat until cool enough to spread, 
then add vanilla. This may be used for both filling and 
frosting. 

Pistachio Paste 

To Marshmallow Paste add a few drops extract of almond, 
one-third cup pistachio nuts blanched and chopped, and 
leaf green to color. Use same as Marshmallow Paste. 

Prune Almond Pilling 

To White Mountain Cream (see p. 528) add one-half cup 
gelected prunes, stoned and cut in pieces, and one-third cup 
almonds blanched and chopped. 



CAKE FILLINGS AND FROSTINGS 52T 

Confectioners' Frosting 

2 tablespoons boiling water Confectioners' sugar 

or cream Flavoring 

To liquid add enough sifted sugar to make of right con- 
sistency to spread; then add flavoring. Fresh fruit juice 
may be used in place of boiling water. This is a most 
satisfactory frosting, and is both easily and quickly made. 

Orange Frosting 

Grated rind 1 orange 1 tablespoon orange juice 

1 teaspoon brandy Yolk 1 egg 

% teaspoon lemon juice Confectioners' sugar 

Add rind to brandy and fruit juices ; let stand fifteen 
minutes. Strain, and add gradually to yolk 'of egg slightly 
beaten. Stir in confectioners' sugar until of right con- 
sistency to spread. 

Gelatine Frosting 

2% tablespoons boiling water %^ cup confectioners' 

y^ teaspoon granulated gelatine sugar 



^ teaspoon vanilla 



Dissolve gelatine in boiling water. Add sugar and flavor- 
ing and beat until of right consistency to spread. Crease in 
squares when slightly hardened. 

Plain Frosting 

White 1 egg % teaspoon vanilla or 

2 teaspoons cold water % tablespoon lemon juice 

^ cup confectioners' sugar 

Beat white of egg until stiff ; add water and sugar. Beat 
thoroughly, then add flavoring. Use more sugar if needed. 
Spread with a broad- bladed knife. 

Chocolate Frosting I 

\% squares chocolate Yolk 1 egg 

% cup scalded cream % teaspoon melted butter 

Few grains salt Confectioners' sugar 

3^ teaspoon vanilla 

Melt chocolate over hot water, add cream gradually, salt, 
yolk of egg, and butter. Stir in confectioners' sugar until of 
hgkt oontiiteacj to spread; then add flayoriag. 



528 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Chocolate Frosting II 
1^ cups sugar 4 squares chocolate, melted 

^ cup hot water }4, teaspoon vanilla 

Boil sugar and water, without stirring, until syrup will 
thread when dropped from tip of spoon. Pour syrup grad- 
ually on melted chocolate, and continue beating until of right 
consistency to spread ; then add flavoring. 

Chocolate Frosting III 

2 squares chocolate 5 tablespoons hot water 

1 teaspoon butter Confectioners' sugar 

^ teaspoon vanilla 

Melt chocolate over boiling water, add butter and hot 
water. Cool, and add sugar to make of right consistency to 
spread. Flavor with vanilla. 

White Mountain Cream 

1 cup sugar • % teaspoon vanilla or 

y^ cup cold water ^ tablespoon lemon juice 

White 1 ^g'g 

Put sugar and water in saucepan, and stir to prevent 
sugar from adhering to saucepan ; heat gradually to boiling- 
point, and boil without stirring until syrup will thread when 
dropped from tip of spoon or tines of silver fork. Pour 
syrup gradually on beaten white of egg, beating mixture 
constantly, and continue beating until of right consistency 
to spread ; then add flavoring and pour over cake, spreading 
evenly with back of spoon. Crease as soon as firm. If not 
beaten long enough, frosting will run ; if beaten too long, it 
will not be smooth. Frosting beaten too long may be im- 
proved by adding a few drops of lemon juice or boiling 
water. This frosting is soft inside, and has a glossy surface. 
If frosting is to be ornamented with nuts or candied cherries, 
place them on frosting as soon as spread. 

Ice Cream Frosting 

\%, cups sugar Whites 2 eggs 

^ cup water y^ teaspoon vanilla 

Follow directions for White Mountain Cream. 



CAKE FILLINGS AND FEOSTINGS 629 

Boiled Frosting 

1 cup sugar }4, cup water Whites 2 eggs 

1 teaspoon vanilla, or y^ tablespoon lemon juice 

Make same as White Mountain Cream. This frosting, on 
account of the larger quantity of egg, does not stiffen so 
quickly as White Mountain Cream, therefore is more success* 
fully made by the inexperienced. 

Boiled Chocolate Frosting 

To White Mountain Cream or Boiled Frosting add one and 
one half squares melted chocolate as soon as syrup is added 
to whites of eggs. 

Brown Frosting 

Make same as Boiled Frosting, using brown sugar in place 
of white sugar. 

Maple Sugar Frosting 

1 lb. soft maple sugar % cup boiling water Whites 2 eggs 

Break sugar in small pieces, put in saucepan with boiling 
water, and stir occasionally until sugar is dissolved. Boil 
without stirring until syrup will thread when dropped from 
tip of spoon. Pour syrup gradually on beaten whites, beat- 
ing mixture constantly, and continue beating until of right 
consistency to spread. 

Cream Maple Sugar Frosting 

1 lb. soft maple sugar 1 cup cream 

Break sugar in small pieces, put in saucepan with cream, 
and stir occasionally until sugar is dissolved. Boil without 
stirring until a ball can be formed when mixture is tried in 
cold water. Beat until of right consistency to spread. 

Milk Frosting 

\% cups sugar 1 teaspoon butter 

>^ cup milk y^ teaspoon vanilla 

Put butter in saucepan ; when melted, add sugar amd 
milk. Stir, to be sure that sugar does not adhere to sauce- 

34 



630 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

pan, beat to boiling-point, and boil without stirring thir- 
teen minutes. Remove from fire, and beat until of right 
consistency to spread ; then add flavoring and pour over 
cake, spreading evenly with back of spoon. Crease as 
soon as firm. 

Caramel Frosting I 

Make same as Milk Frostmg, adding one and one-half 
squares melted chocolate as soon as boiling-point is reached, 
and flavoring with one-eighth teaspoon cinnamon. 

Caramel Frosting II 

13^ cups sugar % cup butter 

% cup grated maple sugar % cup cream 

Mix ingredients and boil thirteen minutes. Beat until of 
right consistency to spreiad. 

Nut Caramel Frosting 

1^ cups brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

y^ cup water 1^ cup English walnut 

1^ cup white sugar meats, broken in pieces 

Whites 2 eggs 

Boil sugar and water as for White Mountain Cream. Pour 
gradually, while beating constantly, on beaten whites of eggs, 
and continue the beating until mixture is nearly cool. Set 
pan containing mixture in pan of boiling water, and cook 
over range, stirring constantly, until mixture becomes gran- 
ular around edge of pan. Remove from pan of hot water 
and beat, using a spoon, until mixture will hold its shape. 
Add nuts and vanilla, pour on cake, and spread with back of 
spoon, leaving a rough surface. 

Opera Caramel Frosting 

1% cups brown sugar % cup thin cream 

% tablespoon butter 

Boil ingredients together in a smooth granite saucepan 
until a ball can be formed when mixture is tried in cold 
water. It takes about forty minutes for boiling. Beat 
until of right conBistency to spread. 



CAKE FILLINGS AND PROSTINGS 681 

Chocolate Fudge Frosting 

IJ^ tablespoons butter Few grains salt 

3.^ cup unsweetened powdered cocoa 3€ cup milk 

1^ cups confectioners' sugar }£ teaspoon vanilla 

Melt butter, add cocoa, sugar, salt, and milk. Heat to 
boiling-point, and boil about eight minutes. Remove from 
fire and beat until creamy. Add vanilla and pour over cake. 

Mocha Frosting 
^ cup butter 1 tablespoon breakfast cocoa 

1)4 cups confectioners' sugar Coffee infusion 

Cream butter, and add sugar gradually, continuing the 
beating ; then add cocoa and coffee infusion, drop by 
drop, until of right consistency to spread or force through 
a pastry bag and tube. 

Fondant Icing 

The mixture in which small cakes are dipped for icing is 
fondant, the recipe for which may be found in chapter on 
Confections. Cakes for dipping must first be glazed. 

To Glaze Cakes. Beat white of one egg slightly, and add 
one tablespoon powdered sugar. Apply with a brush to top 
and sides of cakes. After glazing, cakes should stand over 
night before dipping. 

To Dip Cakes. Melt fondant over hot water, and color 
and flavor as desired. Stir, to prevent crust from forming 
on top. Take cake to be dipped on a three-tined fork and 
lower in fondant three-fourths the depth of cake. Remove 
from fondant, invert, and slip from fork to a board. Deco- 
rate with ornamental frosting and nut meat, candied cherries, 
angelica, or candied violets. For small ornamented cakes, 
pound cake mixture is baked a little more than one inch 
thick in shallow pans, and when cool cut in squares, dia- 
monds, triangles, circles, crescents, etc. 

Marshmallow Frosting 

Melt one cup white fondant; add the white of one egg 
beaten until stiff, and stir over the fire two minutes. Re- 
move from range, and beat until of right consistency to 
spread. Flavor with one-f ourtb teaspoon water white vanilla. 



532 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

This is a most delicious frosting for chocolate cake, but will 
never spread perfectly smooth. 

Ornamental Frosting I 

2 cups sugar Whites 3 eggs 

1 cup water ^ teaspoon tartaric acid 

Boil sugar and water until syrup when dropped from tip 
of spoon forms a long thread. Pour syrup gradually on 
beaten whites of eggs, beating constantly; then add acid 
and continue beating. When stiff enough to spread, put a 
thin coating over cake. Beat remaining frosting until cold 
and stiff enough to keep in shape after being forced through 
a pastry tube. After first coating on cake has hardened, 
cover with a thicker layer, and crease for cutting. If frost- 
ing is too stiff to spread smoothly, thin with a few drops of 
water. With a pastry bag and variety of tubes, cake may 
be ornamented as desired. 

Ornamental Frosting II 

Whites 3 eggs 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

Confectioners' sugar, sifted 

Put eggs in a large bowl, add two tablespoons sugar, and 
beat three minutes, using a perforated wooden spoon. Re- 
peat until one and one-half cups sugar are used. Add 
lemon juice gradually, as mixture thickens. Continue add- 
ing sugar by spoonfuls, and beating until frosting is stiff 
enough to spread. This may be determined by taking up 
some of mixture on back of spoon, and with a case knife 
making a cut through mixture ; if knife makes a clean cut 
and frosting remains parted, it is of right consistency. 
Spread cake thinly with frosting ; when this has hardened, 
put on a thicker layer, having mixture somewhat stiffer than 
first coating, and then crease for cutting. To remaining 
frosting add enough more sugar, that frosting may keep in 
shape after being forced through a pastry bag and tube. 

With a pastry bag and variety of tubes, cake may be 
©rnamented as desi^-ed, 



fpip 




Cake Frosted for St. Valentine's Day for the use 
OF Mocha Frosting. — Page 531 




Ornamental Frosted Cake. — Page 532. 




Dipped Walnuts. — Page 5JS. 



V "^■ 




Bonbons. — Page 545. 



FANCY CAKES AND CONFECTIONS 533 



CHAPTER XXXIII 
FANCY CAKES AND CONFECTIONS 

ALMOND paste for making macaroons and small fancy 
cakes may be bought of dealers who keep confectioners' 
supplies, although sometimes a resident baker or confectioner 
will sell a small quantity. Almond paste is put up in five- 
pound tin pails, and retails for one and one-half dollars per 
pail. During the cold weather it will keep after being opened 
for a long time. 

Macaroons 

% lb. almond paste Whites 3 eggs 

% lb. powdered sugar 

"Work together almond paste and sugar on a smooth board 
or marble slab. Then add whites of eggs gradually, and 
work until mixture is perfectly smooth. Confectioners at 
first use the hand, afterwards a palette knife, which is not 
only of use for mixing but for keeping board clean. Shape, 
using a pastry bag and tube, on a tin sheet covered with 
buttered paper, one-half inch apart ; or drop mixture from 
tip of spoon in small piles. Macaroon mixture is stiff enough 
to hold its shape, but in baking spreads. Bake fifteen to 
twenty minutes in a slow oven. If liked soft, they should 
be slightly baked. After removing from oven, invert paper, 
and wet with a cloth wrung out of cold water, when macaroona 
will easily slip off. 

Almond Macaroons 

Sprinkle Macaroons, before baking, with almonds blanched 
«nd shredded, or chopped. 



6S4 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Crescents 

^ lb. almond paste Almonds, blanched and 

2 ozs. confectioners' sugar finely chopped 

White 1 small egg 

Mix same as Macaroons. Shape mixture, which is quite 
soft, in a long roll. Cut pieces from roll three-fourths inch 
long. Roll each separately in chopped nuts, at the same 
time shaping to form a crescent. Bake twenty minutes on a 
buttered tin sheet in a slow oven. Cool, and frost with Con- 
fectioners' Frosting, made thin enough to apply with a brush, 
and flavored with lemon juice until quite acid. Other nuts 
may be used in place of almonds. 

Cinnamon Bars 

10 ozs. almond paste White 1 egg 

5 ozs. confectioners' sugar y^ teaspoon cinnamon 

Mix same as Macaroons. Dredge a board with sugar, 
knead mixture slightly, and shape in a long roll. Pat, and 
roll one-fourth inch thick, using a rolling-pin. After roiling 
the piece should be four inches wide. Spread with frosting 
made of white of one egg and two-thirds cup confectioners* 
sugar beaten together until stiff enough to spread. Cut in 
strips four inches long by three-fourths inch wide. This must 
be quickly done, as a crust soon forms over frosting. To 
accomplish this, use two knives, one placed through mixture 
where dividing line is to be made, and the other used to 
make a clean sharp cut on both sides of first knife. Knives 
should be kept clean by wiping on a damp cloth. Remove 
strips as soon as cut, to a tin sheet, greased with lard and 
then floured. Bake twenty minutes on centre grate in a 

glow oven. 

Horseshoes 

Use Cinnamon Bar mixture. Cover with frosting colored 
with fruit red. Cut in strips six inches long by one-half 
inch wide. As soon as cut, shape quickly, at the same time 
carefully, in form of horseshoes. Bake same as Cinnamon 
Ban. When cool, make eight dots with chocolate frostiDg 
to represent nails« 



F4KCY OAKBS AND CONFECTIONS 585 

Cocoanut Cakes I 

% lb. fresh grated cocoanut 6 ozs. sugar and glucose, 

Whites \% eggs using one mixing-spoon 

glucose 

German Confectioner 

Cook cocoanut, sugar, and glucose in double boiler until 
mixture clings to spoon, add whites of eggs, stir vigorously, 
and cook until mixture feels sticky when tried between the 
fingers. Spread in a wet pan, cover with wet paper, and 
chill on ice. Shape in small balls, first dipping hands in cold 
water. Bake twenty minutes in a slow oven on a tin sheet 
greased with white wax. 

Cocoanut Cakes II 

1 lb. fresh grated cocoanut % lb. sugar 

Whites 2 eggs 

Cook, shape, and bake same as Cocoanut Cakes I. 

Stuffed Dates I 

Make a cut the entire length of dates and remove stones. 
Fill cavities with castanea nuts, English walnuts, or blanched 
almonds, and shape in original form. Roll in granulated 
sugar. Pile in rows on a small plate covered with a doily. 
If castanea nuts are used, with a sharp knife cut off the 
brown skin which lies next to shell. 

Stuffed Dates II 

Remove stones from dates and fill cavities with Neufchdtel 
cheese. 

Salted Almonds I 

Blanch one-fourth pound Jordan almonds and dry on a 
towel. Put one-third cup olive oil in a very small sauce- 
pan. When hot, put in one-fourth of the almonds and fry 
until delicately browned, stirring to keep almonds constantly 
in motion. Remove with a spoon or small skimmer, taking 
up as little oil as possible. Drain on brown paper and 
sprinkle with salt; repeat until all are fried. It may be 



636 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

necessary to remove some of the salt by wiping nuts with a 
napkin. 

Salted Almonds II 

Prepare almonds as for Salted Almonds I. Fry in one- 
third cup fat, using half lard and half clarified butter or all 
cocoanut butter. Draip, and sprinkle with salt. 

Salted Peanuts 

In buying peanuts for salting, get those which have not 
been roasted. Remove skins and fry same as Salted 
Almonds I or II. 

Salted Pecans 

Shelled pecans may be bought by the pound, which is 
much the best way when used for salting, as it is difficult to 
remove the nut meat without breaking. Fry same as salted 
Almonds I or II. Care must be taken that they do not re- 
main in fat too long; having a dark skin, color does not 
determine when they are sufficiently cooked. 

Parisian Sweets 

1 lb. figs 1 lb. English walnut meat 

1 lb. dates Confectioners' sugar 

Pick over and remove stems from figs and stones from 
dates. Mix fruit with walnut meat, and force through a 
meat-chopper. Work, using the hands, on a board dredged 
with confectioners' sugar, until well blended. Roll to one- 
fourth inch thickness, using confectioners' sugar for dredg- 
ing board and pin. Shape with a small round cutter, first 
dipped in sugar, or cut with a sharp knife in three-fourth 
inch squares. Roll each piece in confectioners' sugar, and 
shake to remove superfluous sugar. Pack in layers in a tin 
box, putting paper between each layer. These confections 
may be used at dinner in place of bonbons or ginger chips. 
A combination of nut meat (walnut, almond, and filbert) 
may be used in equal proportions. 



COl^ECTIONS 587 

Sugared Popped Corn 

2 quarts popped corn 2 cups brown sugar 

2 tablespoons butter % cup water 

Put butter in saucepan, and when melted add sugar and 
water. Bring to boiling-point, and let boil sixteen minutes. 
Pour over corn, and stir until every kernel is well coated 

with sugar. 

Corn Balls 

5 quarts popped corn % cup white corn syrup 

2 cups sugar 3^ teaspoon, each, salt and vinegar 

\% cups water 1 tablespoon vanilla 

Boil sugar, water and corn syrup without stirring until 
thermometer registers 260° F. ; then add remaining ingre- 
dients and let boil to 264° F. Have com in a large pan, 
and pour on gradually the syrup, using a spoon all of the 
time to turn corn that it may be evenly coated. Make 
into balls, and let stand in a cold place until brittle. 

Molasses Candy 

2 cups Porto Rico molasses 3 tablespoons butter 
% cup sugar 1 tablespoon vinegar 

An iron kettle with a rounding bottom (Scotch kettle) oi 
copper kettle is best for candy making. If one has no cop- 
per kettle, a granite kettle is best for sugar candies. 

Put butter in kettle, place over fire, and when melted, add 
molasses and sugar. Stir until sugar is dissolved. During 
the first of the boiling stirring is unnecessary, but when 
nearly cooked, it should be constantly stirred. Boil until, 
when tried in cold water, mixture will become brittle. Add 
vinegar just before taking from fire. Pour into a well but- 
tered pan. When cool enough to handle, pull until porous 
and light- colored, allowing candy to come in contact with 
tips of fingers and thumbs, not to be squeezed in the hand. 
Cut in small pieces, using large shears or a sharp knife, and 
then arrange on slightly buttered plates to cool. 
Velvet Molasses Candy 

1 cup molasses 3 tablespoons vinegar 

3 cups sugar )^ teaspoon cream of tartai 
1 oup boiling water % cap melted butter 

y^ teaapooQ Aodn 



538 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Put first four ingredients in kettle placed over front of 
range. As' soon as boiling-point is reached, add cream of 
tartar. Boil until, when tried in cold water, mixture will 
become brittle. Stir constantly during last part of cooking 
When nearly done, add butter and soda. Pour into a but- 
tered pan and pull same as Molasses Candy. While pulling, 
add one teaspoon vanilla, one-half teaspoon lemon extract, 
few drops oil of peppermint, or few drops oil of wintergreen. 

Buttercups 

2 cups molasses 2 tablespoons butter 

1 cup sugar ^ teaspoon cream of tartar 
y^ cup boiling water Fondant flavored with vanilla 

Boil ingredients (except fondant) until, when tried in cold 
water, a firm ball may be formed in the fingers, not stirring 
until the last few minutes of cooking. Pour on a buttered 
platter, and when cool enough to handle, pull until light- 
colored. Shape on a floured board, having strip wide enough 
to enclose a roll of fondant one inch in diameter. Place 
fondant on candy, bring edges of candy together, and press 
firmly over fondant. With both hands pull candy into a 
long strip. Cut in small pieces ; each piece will consist of 
fondant encircled with molasses candy. Care must be taken 
that candy is not cooked too long, as it should be soft rather 
than brittle. 

Vinegar Candy 

2 cups sugar % cup vinegar 

2 tablespoons butter 

Put butter into kettle ; when melted, add sugar and vinegar. 
Stir until sugar is dissolved, afterwards occasionally. Boil 
until, when tried in cold water, mixture will become brittle. 
Turn on a buttered platter to cool. Pull, and cut same a«» 
Molasses Candy. 

Ice Cream Candy 

3 cups sugar y^ cup boiling water 
y^ teaspoon cream of tartar y^ tablespoon vinegar 



CONFECTIONS 689 

Boil ingredients together without stirring, until, when tried 
in cold water, mixture will become brittle. Turn on a well 
buttered platter to cool. As edges cool, fold towards centre. 
As soon as it can be handled, pull until white and glossy. 
While pulling, flavor as desired, using vanilla, orange ex- 
tract, coffee extract, oil of sassafras, or melted chocolate. 
Cut in sticks or small pieces. 

Butter Scotch 

1 cup sugar 1 tablespoon vinegar 

^ cup molasses 2 tablespoons boiling water 

% cup butter 

Boil ingredients together until, when tried in cold water, 
mixture will become brittle. Turn into a well buttered pan ; 
when slightly cool, mark with a sharp-pointed knife in 
squares. This candy is much improved by cooking a small 
piece of vanilla bean with other ingredients. 

Butter Taffy 

2 cups light brown sugar 2 tablespoons water 
^ cup molasses % teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons vinegar }/^ cup butter 

2 teaspoons vanilla 

Boil first five ingredients until, when tried in cold water 
mixture will become brittle. When nearly done, add butter, 
and just before turning into pan, vanilla. Cool, and mark 
in squares. 

Horehound Candy 

%_ square inch pressed 2 cups boiling water 

horehound 3 cups sugar 

)^ teaspoon cream of tartar 

Pour boiling water over horehound which has been sep- 
arated in pieces ; let stand one minute, then strain through 
double cheese-cloth. Put into a granite kettle with remain- 
ing ingredients, and boil until, when tried in cold water, mix- 
ture will become brittle. Turn into a buttered pan, cool 
slightly, then mark in small squares. Small square package^ 
of horehound may be bought for five cents. 



640 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Chocolate Caramels 

2)^ tablespoons butter % cup milk 

2 cups molasses 3 squares unsweetened chocolate 

1 cup brown sugar 1 teasx^oon vanilla 

Put butter into kettle; when melted, add molasses, 
sugar, and milk. Stir until sugar is dissolved, and when 
boiling-point is reached, add chocolate, stirring constantly 
until chocolate is melted. Boil until, when tried in cold 
water, a firm ball may be formed in the fingers. Add 
vanilla just after taking from fire. Turn into a buttered 
pan, cool, and mark in small squares. 

Nut Chocolate Caramels 

To Chocolate Caramels add the meat from one pound 
English walnuts broken in pieces, or one-half pound almonds 
blanched and chopped. 

Rich Chocolate Caramels 

2 tablespoons butter 1 cup molasses 

% cup milk 4 squares chocolate 

y^ cup sugar 1 cup walnut meats, broken 

in pieces 
2 teaspoons vanilla 

Put butter in saucepan and when melted add milk, sugar 
and molasses. When boiling-point is reached add chocolate, 
and cook until brittle when tried in cold water, stirring 
occasionally to prevent mixture from adhering to pan. Re- 
move from fire, beat three minutes, add nut meats and 
vanilla, and turn into a buttered pan. When cold cut in 
squares and wrap in paraffine paper. 

Peanut Nougat 
1 lb. sugar 1 quart peanuts 

Shell, remove skins, and finely chop peanuts. Sprinkle 
with one-fourth teaspoon salt. Put sugar in a perfectly 
smooth granite saucepan, place on range, and stir con- 
stantly until melted to a syrup, taking care to keep sugar 
from sides of pan. Add »ut meat, pour at once into a 



CONFECTIOisrS 541 

warm buttered tin, and mark in small squares. If sugar 

is not removed from range as soon as melted, it will quickly 

caramelize. 

Nut Bar 

Cover the bottom of a buttered shallow pan with one 
and one-third cups nut meat (castaneas, English walnuts, 
or almonds) cut in quarters. Pour over one pound sugar, 
melted as for Peanut Nougat. Mark in bars. 

French Nougat 

% lb. confectioners* sugar ^ lb. almonds, blanched 

and finely chopped 
Confectioners' chocolate 

Put sugar in a saucepan, place on range, and stir con- 
stantly until melted ; add almonds, and pour en an oiled 
marble. Fold mixture as it spreads with a broad-bladed 
knife, keeping it constantly in motion. Divide in four 
parts, and as soon as cool enough to handle shape in long 
rolls about one-third inch in diameter, keeping rolls in 
motion until almost cold. Wlien cold, snap in pieces one 
and one- half inches long. This is done by holding roll 
at point to be snapped over the sharp edge of a broad- 
bladed knife and snapping. Melt confectioners' chocolate 
over hot water, beat with a fork until light and smooth, 
and when slightly cooled dip pieces in chocolate and with 
a two-tined fork or bonbon dipper remove from chocolate 
to oiled paper, drawing dipper through top of each the en- 
tire length, thus leaving a ridge. Chocolate best adapted 
for dipping bonbons and confections must be bought where 
confectioners' supplies are kept. 

Nougatine Drops 

Drop French Nougat mixture from the tip of a spoon 
on an oiled marble very soon after taking from fire. These 
drops have a rough surface. When cold, dip in melted 
conf eel loners' chocolate. 

"Wintergreen Wafers 

1 oz. gum tragacanth Confectioners' sugar 

1 oap oold water Oil (^ wintergreen 



542 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Soak gum tragacanth in water twenty-four hours and 
rub through a fine wh*e sieve ; add enough confectioners' 
sugar to knead. Flavor with a few drops of oil of winter- 
green. If liked pink, color . with fruit red. Roll until 
very thin on a board or marble dredged with sugar. 
Shape with a small round cutter or cut in three-fourths 
inch squares. Spread wafers, cover, and let stand until 
dry and brittle. This mixture may be flavored with oil 
of lemon, clove, sassafras, etc. , and colored as desired. 

Cocoanut Cream Candy 

1}^ cups sugar 2 teaspoons butter 

}£ cup milk }{ cup shredded cocoanut 

J^2 teaspoon vanilla 

Put butter into granite saucepan ; when melted, add sugar 
and milk, and stir until sugar is dissolved. Heat to boiling- 
point, and boil twelve minutes ; remove from fire, add cocoa- 
nut and vanilla, and beat until creamy and mixture begins 
to sugar slightly around edge of saucepan. Pour at once 
into a buttered pan, cool slightly, and mark in squares. 
One-half cup nut meat, broken in pieces, may be used in 
place of cocoanut. 

Chocolate Cream Candy 

2 cups sugar 1 tablespoon butter 

^ cup milk 2 squares unsweetened chocolate 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Put butter into granite saucepan ; when melted, add sugar 
and milk. Heat to boiling-point; then add chocolate, and 
stir constantly until chocolate is melted. Boil thirteen min- 
utes, remove from fire, add vanilla, and beat until creamy 
and mixture begins to sugar slightly around edge of sauce- 
pan. Pour at once into a buttered pan, cool slightly, and 
mark in squares. Omit vanilla, if desired, and add, while 
cooking, one-fourth teaspoon cinnamon. 

Maple Sugar Candy 

1 lb. soft maple sugar % cup boiling water 

^ cup thin cream ^ cup English walnut or pecan 

meat, cut in pieces 



CONFECTIONS 643 

Break sugar in pieces; put into a saucepan with cream 
and water. Bring to boiling- poiLt, and boil until a soft ball 
IS formed when tried in cold water. Remove from fire, beat 
until creamy, add nut meat, and pour into a buttered tin. 
Cool slightly, and mark in squares. 

Sultana Caramels 

2 cups sugar 2 squares chocolate 

% cup milk 1 teaspoon vanilla 

yi cup molasses % cup English walnut or hickory 

^ cup butter ' nut meat, cut in pieces 

2 tablespoons Sultana raisins 

Put butter into a saucepan ; when melted, add sugar, milk, 
and molasses. Heat to boiling-point, and boil seven minutes. 
Add chocolate, and stir until chocolate is melted ; then boil 
seven minutes longer. Remove from fire, beat until creamy, 
add nuts, raisins, and vanilla, and pour at once into a but- 
tered tin. Cool slightly, and mark in squares. The nut 
meats and raisins may be omitted. 

Pralines 

1% cups powdered sugar 2 cups hickory nut or peean 

1 cup maple syrup meat, cut in pieces 

% cup cream 

Boil first three ingredients until, when tried in cold water, 
a soft ball may be formed. Remove from fire, and beat 
until of a creamy consistency ; add nuts, and drop from tip 
of spoon in small piles on buttered paper, or mixture may 
be poured into a buttered tin and cut in squares, using 
a sharp knife. 

Creamed "Walnuts 

White 1 egg ^ teaspoon vanilla 

y^ tablespoon cold water 1 lb. confectioners' sugar 

English walnuts 

Put egg, water, and vanilla in a bowl, and beat until well 
blended. Add sugar gradually until stiff enough to knead. 
Shape in balls, flatten, and place halves of walnuts opposite 



544 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

each other on each piece. Sometimes all the sugar will not 
be required. 

Peppermints 

1}4, cups sugar j^ cup boiling water 

6 drops oil peppermint 

Put sugar and water into a granite saucepan and stir until 
sugar is dissolved. Boil ten minutes ; remove from fire, add 
peppermint, and beat until of right consistency. Drop from 
tip of spoon on slightly buttered paper. 

BOILED SUGAR FOR CONFECTIONS 

Eleven tests are considered for boiling sugar : — 

Small thread, 215° F. The feather, 232© 

Large thread, 217° Soft ball, 238o 

Pearl, 220'' Hardball, 248° 

Large pearl, 222° Small crack, 290° 

The blow, 230° Crack, 310° 

Caramel, 350° 

Fondant, the basis of all French candy, is made of sugar 
and water boiled together (with a small quantity of cream 
of tartar to prevent sugar from granulating) to soft ball, 238° 
F. The professional confectioner is able to decide when 
syrup has boiled to the right temperature by sound while 
boiling, and by testing in cold water; these tests at first 
seem somewhat diflScult to the amateur, but only a little 
experience is necessary to make fondant successfully. A 
sugar thermometer is often employed, and proves valuable, 
as by its use one need not exercise his judgment. 

"White Fondant 

2)^ lbs. sugar 1}4 cups hot water 

3^ teaspoon cream of tartar 

Put ingredients into a smooth granite stewpan. Stir, 
place on range, and heat gradually to boiling point. Boil 
without stirring until, when tried in cold water, a soft ball 
may be formed that will just keep in shape, which is 238° F. 
After a few mioutes' boiling, sugar will adhere to sides of 



CONFECTIONS 545 

kettle ; this should be washed off with the hand first 
dipped in cold water. Have a pan of cold water near at 
hand, dip hand in cold water, then quickly wash off a small 
part of the sugar with tips of fingers, and repeat until all 
sugar adhering to side of saucepan is removed. If this is 
quickly done, there is no danger of burning the fingers. 
Pour slowly on a slightly oiled marble slab. Let stand a few 
minutes to cool, but not long enough to become hard around 
the edge. Scrape fondant with chopping knife to one end of 
marble, and work with a wooden spatula until white and 
creamy. It will quickly change from this consistency, and 
begin to lump, when it sh:>uld be kneaded with the hands 
until perfectly smooth. 

Put into a bowl, cover with oiled paper to exclude air, 
that a crust may not form on top, and let stand twenty-four 
hours. A large oiled platter and wooden spoon may be used 
in place of marble slab and spatula. Always make fondant 
on a clear day, as a damp, heavy atmoj=>pD^re has an unfa- 
vorable effect on the boiling of sugar. 

Coffee Fondant 

21^ lbs. sugar i^ cup ground coffee 

1%, cups cold water 34 teaspoon cream of tartar 

Put water and coffee in saucepan, and heat to boiling- 
point. Strain through double cheese-cloth ; then add sugar 
and cream of tartar. Boil, and work same as White Fondant. 

Maple Fondant 

IJ^ lbs. maple sugar 1 cup hot water 

1^ lbs. sugar i^ teaspoon cream of tartar 

Break maple sugar in pieces and add to remaining ingrc 
dients. Boil, and work same as White Fondant. . 

Bonbons 

The centres of bonbons are made of fondant shaped in 
small balls. If White Fondant is used, flavor as desired, — 
vanilla being usually preferred. For cocoanut centres, work 
^9 much shredded coacoanut as possible into a small quantity 

36 



546 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

of fondant; for nut centres, surround pieces of nut meat with 
fondant, using just enough to cover. French candied cher- 
ries are often used in this way. Allow balls to stand over 
night, and dip the following day. 

To Dip Bonbons. Put fondant in saucepan, and melt 
over hot water; color and flavor as desired. In coloring 
fondant, dip a small wooden skewer in coloring paste, take 
up a small quantity, and dip skewer in fondant. If care is 
not taken, the color is apt to be too intense. During dipping, 
keep fondant over hot water that it may be kept of riglit 
consistency. For dipping, use a two-tined fork or confec- 
tioners' bonbon dipper. Drop centres in fondant one at a 
time, stir until covered, remove from fondant, put on oiled 
paper, and bring end of dipper over the .top of bonbon, thus 
leaving a tail-piece which shows that bonbons have been 
hand dipped. Stir fondant between dippings to prevent a 
crust from forming. 

Cream Mints 

Melt fondant over hot water, flavor with a few drops of 
oil of peppermint, wintergreen, clove, cinnamon, or orange, 
and color if desired. Drop from tip of spoon on oiled paper. 
Confectioners use rubber moulds for shaping cream mints ; 
but these are expensive for home use, unless one is to make 
mints in large quantities. 

Rose Cream Mints 

1)4 cups sugar White 1 egg 

2 tablespoons white corn syrup 4 drops oil wintergreen 

^ cup water Pink coloring 

Put sugar, corn syrup and water into a smooth granite 
saucepan, heat gradually to boiling-point, and boil without 
stirring until syrup will spin along thread (238° F.). Pour 
slowly on to the beaten white of egg, and beat until mixture 
will hold its shape. Add flavoring and coloring. Force on 
to an oiled paper, using a pastry bag and rose tube. The 
work must be done quickly. 



CONFECTIONS 64T 

Cream Nut Bars 

Melt fondant and flavor, stir in any kind of nut meat, cut 
in pieces. Turn in an oiled pan, cool, and cut in bars with 
a sharp knife. Maple Fondant is delicious with nuts. 

Dipped "Walnuts 

Melt fondant and flavor. Dip halves of walnuts as bon- 
bon centres are dipped. Halves of pecan or whole blanched 
almonds may be similarly dipped. 

Tutti-Frutti Candy 

Fill an oiled border-mould with three layers of melted 
fondant. Have bottom layer maple, well mixed with Eng- 
lish walnut meat; the second layer colored pink, flavored 
with rose, and mixed with candied cherries cut in quarters 
and figs finely chopped; the third layer white, flavored with 
vanilla, mixed with nuts, candied cherries cut in quarters, 
and candied pineapple cut in small pieces. Cover mould 
with oiled paper, and let stand over night. Remove from 
mould, and place on a plate covered with a lace paper 
napkin. Fill centre with Bonbons and Glace Nuts. 

Glac^ Nuts 
2 cups sugar 1 cup boiling water 

^ teaspoon cream of tartar 

Put ingredients in a smooth saucepan, stir, place on 
range, and heat to boiling-point. Boil without stirring until 
syrup begins to discolor, which is 310° F. Wash off sugar 
which adheres to sides of saucepan, as in making fondant. 
Kemove saucepan from fire, and place in larger pan of cold 
water to instantly stop boiling. Remove from cold water 
and place in a saucepan of hot water during dipping. Take 
nuts separately on a long pin, dip in syrup to cover, remove 
from syrup, and place on oiled paper. 

Glac6 Fruits 

For Glac^ Fruits, grapes, strawberries, sections of man- 
darins and oranges, and candied cherries are most conmionlj 



648 BOSTOK COOKIKG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

used. Take grapes separately from clusters, leaving a short 
stem on each grape. Dip in syrup made as for Glace Nuts, 
holding by stem with pincers. Remove to oiled paper. Glace 
fruits keep but a day, and should only be attempted in cold 
and clear weather. 

Candied Orange Peel 

Remove peel from four thin-skinned oranges in quarters. 
Cover with cold water, bring to boiling-point, and cook 
slowly until soft. Drain, remove white portion, using a 
spoon, and cut yellow portion in thin strips, using scissors. 
Boil one-half cup water and one cup sugar until syrup will 
thread when dropped from tip of spoon. Cook strips in 
syrup five minutes, drain, and coat with fine granulated sugar. 

Spun Sugar 

2 lbs. sugar 2 cups boiling water 

^ teaspoon cream of tartar 

Put ingredients in a smooth saucepan. Boil without stir- 
ring until syrup begins to discolor, which is 300° F. Wash 
off sugar which adheres to sides of saucepan, as in making 
fondant. Remove saucepan from fire, and place in a larger 
pan of cold water to instantly stop boiling. Remove from 
cold water, and place in saucepan of hot water. Place two 
broomstick-handles over backs of chairs, and spread paper 
on the floor under them. When syrup is slightly cooled, 
put dipper in syrup, remove from syrup, and shake quickly 
back and forth over broomhandles. Carefully take off spun 
sugar as soon as formed, and shape in nests, or pile lightly 
on a cold dish. Syrup may be colored if desired. Spun 
Sugar is served around bricks or moulds of frozen creams 
and ices. 

Dippers for spinning sugar are made of coarse wires; 
about twenty wires, ten inches long, are put in a bundle, and 
fastened with wire coiled round and round to form a handle. 




Cream Mints. — Page 546. 




Candied Orange Peel. — Page 547. 




Bread and Butter Folds. — Page 549. 



Noisette Sandwiches. — Page 562. 



SANDWICHES AND CANAPES 649 



CHAPTER XXXIV 
SANDWICHES ANJ> CANAPES 

IN preparing bread for sandwiches, cut slices as thinly as 
possible, and remove crusts. If butter is used, cream 
the butter, and spread bread before cutting from loaf. 
Spread half the slices with mixture to be used for filling, 
cover with remaining pieces, and cat in squares, oblongs, or 
triangles. If sandwiches are shaped with round or fancy 
cutters, bread should be shaped before spreading, that there 
may be no waste of butter. Sandwiches which are prepared 
several hours before serving-time may be kept fresh and 
moist by wrapping in a napkin wrung as dry as possible out 
of hot water, and keeping in a cool place. Paraffine paper 
is often used for the same purpose. Bread for sandwiches 
cuts better when a day old. Serve sandwiches piled on a 
plate covered with a doily. 

Rolled Bread 

Cut fresh bread, while still warm, in as thin slices as pos- 
sible, using a very sharp knife. Spread evenly with butter 
which has been creamed. Roll slices separately, and tie 
each with baby ribbon. 

Bread and Butter Folda 

Remove end slice from bread. Spread end of loaf spar- 
ingly and evenly with butter which has been creamed. Cut 
off as thin a slice as possible. Repeat until the number of 
slices required are prepared. Remove crusts, put together 
in pairs, and cut in squares, oblongs, or triangles. Use 
white, entire wheat, Graham, or brown bread. Three layer 
sandwiches are attractive when made Qt entire wheat bread 
between white slices. 



660 BOSTON COOKTNG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Lettuce Sandwiches 

Put fresh, crisp lettuce leaves, washed and thoroughly 
dried, between thin slices of buttered bread prepared as for 
Bread and Butter Folds, having a teaspoon of Mayonnaise 
on each leaf. 

Egg Sandwiches 

Chop finely the whites of ^'hard-boiled" eggs; force the 
yolks through a strainer or potato ricer. Mix yolks and 
whites, season with salt and pepper, and moisten with May- 
onnaise or Cream Salad Dressing. Spread mixture between 
thin slices of buttered bread prepared as for Bread and 
Butter Folds. 

Sardine Sandwiches 

Remove skin and bones from sardines, and mash to a 
paste. Add to an equal quantity of yolks of '^ hard-boiled '* 
eggs rubbed through a sieve. Season with salt, cayenne, 
and a few drops of lemon juice ; moisten with olive oil or 
melted butter. Spread mixture between thin slices of but- 
tered bread prepared as for Bread and Butter Folds. 

Sliced Ham Sandwiches 

Slice cold boiled ham as thinly as possible. Put between 
thin slices of buttered bread prepared as for Bread and 
Butter Folds. 

Chopped Ham Sandwiches 

Finely chop cold boiled ham, and moisten with Sauce 
Tartare. Spread between thin slices of buttered bread pre- 
pared as for Bread and Butter Folds. 

Anchovy Sandwiches 
Rub the yolks of " hard-boiled eggs " to a paste. Moisten 
with soft butter and season with anchovy sauce. Spread 
mixture between thin slices of buttered bread prepared as 
for Bread and Butter Folds. 

Chicken Sandwiches 

Chop cold boiled chicken, and moisten with Mayonnaise or 
Cream Salad Dressing ; or season with salt and pepper, and 



SANDWICHES AJSB CANAPiAs 651 

moisten with rich chicken stock. Prepare as other sand- 
wiches. 

Lobster Sandwiches 

Remove lobster meat from shell, and chop. Season with 
salt, cayenne, made mustard, and lemon juice; or moisten 
with any salad dressing. Spread mixture on a crisp lettuce 
leaf, and prepare as other sandwiches. 

Lobster Sandwiches k la Boulevard 

Mix an equal quantity of finely chopped lobster meat and 
the yolks of "hard-boiled" eggs forced through a sieve. 
Moisten with melted butter, and season with German mus- 
tard, beef extract diluted with a very small quantity of 
boiling water, and salt. Spread mixture between thin 
slices of buttered bread, remove crusts, and cut into fancy 
shapes. A small quantity of lobster meat is most success- 
fully utilized in this way. 

Oyster Sandwiches 

Arrange fried oysters on crisp lettuce leaves, allowing two 
oysters for each leaf, and one leaf for each sandwich. Pre- 
pare as other sandwiches. 

Nut and Cheese Sandwiches 

Mix equal parts of grated Gruyere cheese and chopped 
English walnut meat; then season with salt and cayenne. 
Prepare as other sandwiches. 

Cheese and Anchovy Sandwiches 

Cream two tablespoons butter, and add one-fourth cup 
g'^ated Young America Cheese and one teaspoon vinegar. 
Season with salt, paprika, mustard, and anchovy sauce. 
Spread mixture between thin slices of bread. 

"Windsor Sandwiches 

Cream one-third cup butter, and add one-half cup each of 
finely chopped cold boiled ham and cold boiled chicken. 
Season with salt and paprika. Spread mixture between 
thin slices of bread. 



552 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

/ Club Sandvrichea 

Arrange on slices of bread thin slices of cooked bacon ; 
cover with slices of cold roast chicken, and cover chicken 
with Mayonnaise Dressing. Cover with slices of bread. 

Ginger Sandwiches 

Cut preserved Canton ginger in very thin slices. Prepare 
as other sandwiches. 

Fruit Sandwiches 

Remove stems and finely chop figs ; add a small quantity 
of water, cook in double boiler until a paste is formed, then 
add a few drops of lemon juice. Cool mixture, and spread 
on thin slices of buttered bread ; sprinkle with finely chopped 
peanuts and cover with pieces of buttered bread. 

Brown Bread Sandwiches 

Brown Bread to be used for sandwiches is best steamed 
in one-pound baking-powder boxes. Spread and cut bread 
as for other sandwiches. Put between layers finely chopped 
peanuts seasoned with salt; or grated cheese mixed with 
chopped English walnut meat seasoned with salt. 

Noisette Sandwiches 

Use one-half recipe for Milk and Water Bread made with 
enth-e vrheat flour (see p. 54), and add two tablespoons 
molasses and one cup English walnut meats or pecan nut 
oroken in small pieces. Let stand twenty-four hours, slice 
as thinly as possible, spread sparingly and evenly with 
butter, and put between slices orange marmalade. Remove 
crusts, cut in fancy shapes, and garnish with nut meats. 

Colonial Sandwiches 

Make one-half the recipe for Milk and Water Bread (see 
p. 54), using entire-wheat flour, and adding one and one- 
half tablespoons molasses, and after the first rising adding, 
while kneading, one-half cup, each, candied orange peel 
finely cut and pecan nut meats broken in pieces. Put into 



SANDWICHES AND CANAPES 553 

buttered one-pound baking-powder tins until one-third full; 
let rise and bake. Cool, and make into sandwiches. 

German Sandwiches 

Use Zweiback (see p. 61). Spread slices, thinly cut, 
with jelly or marmalade, and sprinkle with finely cut English 
walnut meats. Cover with thinly cut slices and remove 
crusts. 

Russian Sandwiches 

Spread zephyrettes with thin slices of NeufchMel cheese, 
cover with finely chopped olives moistened with Mayonnaise 
Dressing. Place a zephyrette over each and press together. 

Jelly Sandwiches 

Spread zephyrettes with quince jelly and sprinkle with 
chopj^ed English walnut meat. Place a zephyrette over 
each and press together. 

Cheese "Wafers 

Sprinkle zephyrettes with grated cheese mixed with a few 
grains of cayenne. Put on a sheet and bake until the 
cheese melts. 

Canapes 

Canapes are made by cutting bread in slices one-fourth 
inch thick, and cutting slices in strips four inches long by 
one and one-half inches wide, or in circular pieces. Then 
bread is toasted, fried in deep fat, or buttered and browned 
in the oven, and covered with a seasoned mixture of eggs, 
cheese, fish, or meat, separately or in combination. Canapes 
are served hot or cold, and used in place of oysters at a 
dinner or luncheon. At a gentleman's dinner they are 
served with a glass of Sherry before entering the dining- 
room. 

Cheese Canap6s I 

Toast circular pieces of bread, sprinkle with a thick layer 
of grated cheese seasoned with salt and cayenne. Place on 
» tio sheet and bake uotU cheese is melted' Serve at guce. 



564 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Cheese Canapes II 

Spread circular pieces of toasted bread with French 
Mustard, then proceed as for Cheese Canapes I. 

Sardine Canapes 

Spread circular pieces of toasted bread with sardines 
(from which bones have been removed) rubbed to a paste, 
with a small quantity of creamed butter and seasoned with 
Worcestershire Sauce and a few grains cayenne. Place in 
the centre of each a stuffed olive, made by removing stone 
and filling cavity with sardine mixture. Around each 
arrange a border of the finely chopped whites of *' hard- 
boiled " eggs. 

Lobster Canapes 

Finely chop lobster meat and add an equal quantity of 
yolks of "hard-boiled " eggs forced through a sieve. Moisten 
with melted butter and heavy cream, using equal parts, and 
season highly with salt, cayenne, German mustard and beef 
extract. Spread on sauted circular slices of bread and gar- 
nish with rings cut from whites of " hard-boiled " eggs, yolks 
of '^ hard-boiled " eggs, and lobster coral forced through a 
sieve. 

Canapes Martha 

Beat yolk one egg, add one and one-half tablespoons 
cream, one-fourth teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon pap- 
rika, one-fourth teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce, and a few 
grains cayenne ; then add one-fourth pound cheese cut in 
small pieces, and cook until smooth, stirring constantly. 
Spread on sauted slices of bread, cut in fancy shapes, and 
cover with finely chopped lobster meat held together with a 
thick sauce made of Chicken Stock or cream, garnish with 
rings of whites of "hard-boiled" eggs, yolks of "hard- 
boiled" eggs, and lobster coral forced through a strainer, 
and rings of olives. 

Anchovy Canapes 

Spread circular pieces of toasted bread with Anchovy 
Butter. Chop separately yolks and whites of " hard-boiled " 




Lobster Canape. — Page 55^. 




Canape Martha. — Page 564, 



Jelly Bag and other necessary utensils for jelly making. 

Page 673. 




Marmalades, Jam, and Jellies, with paraffine to melt for 
covering, paper cut for covers, gummed labels, and 
LIBRARY PASTE. — Pages 57 J^ to 677. 



SANDWICHES AND CANAPES 555 

eggs. Cover canapes by quarters with egg, alternating 
yolks and whites. Divide yolks from whites with ancho- 
vies split in two lengthwise, and pipe around a border of 
Anchovy Butter, using a pastry bag and tube. 

Cheese and Olive Canapes 

Cut stale bread in one-fourth inch slices. Shape with 
a small oblong cutter with rounded corners. Cream butter, 
add an equal quantity of soft cheese, and work until smooth ; 
then season with salt. Spread on bread and garnish with a 
one-fourth inch border of finely chopped olives and a piece 
of red or green pepper cut in fancy shape, in centre of 
each. To be served in place of sandwiches on a plate 
covered with a doiley. 

Canapes Lorenzo 

Toast slices of bread cut in shape of horseshoes. Cream 
two tablespoons butter, and add one teaspoon white of egg. 
Spread slices of bread, rounding with Crab Mixture, cover 
with creamed butter, sprinkle with cheese, and brown in the 
oven. Serve on a napkin, ends towards centre of dish, and 
garnish with parsley. 

Crab Mixture. Finely chop crab meat, season with salt, 
cayenne, and a few drops of lemon juice, then moisten with 
Thick White Sauce. Lobster meat may be used in place 
of crab meat. 

Algonquin Canapes 

Fry one-half tablespoon finely chopped onion, three table- 
spoons butter, and one-third cup chopped mushroom caps 
five minutes. Add two tablespoons flour, and two-thirds 
cup cream. Cook until mixture thickens, then add one cup 
finnan haddie (soaked in lukewarm water to cover forty-five 
minutes, then separated into flakes), two tablespoons grated 
cheese, and yolks two eggs slightly beaten. Season with 
salt and cayenne and pile on circular pieces of toasted 
bread. Sprinkle with grated cheese, then with buttered, 
soft bread crumbs, and bake until crumbs are browned. 
Serve 2A once. 



556 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XXXV 
RECIPES FOR THE CHAFHTG-DISH 

THE chafing-dish, which, within the last few years, has 
gained so much favor, is by no means a utensil of 
modern invention. It finds its place on the breakfast 
table, wlien the eggs may be cooked to suit the most 
fastidious ; on the luncheon table, when a dainty hot dish 
may be prepared to serve in place of the so-oft-seen cold 
meat; but it is made of greatest use for the cooking of 
late suppers, and always seems to accompany hospitality 
and good cheer. 

It is appreciated and enjoyed by the housekeeper who 
does her own work, or has but one maid, as well as by the 
society girl who, by its use, first gains a taste for the art of 
cooking. The simple tin chafing-dishes may be bought for 
as small a sum as ninety cents, while the elaborate silver 
ones command as high a price as one hundred dollars. Very 
attractive dishes are made of granite ware, nickel, or copper. 
The latest patterns have the lamp with a screw adjustment 
to regulate the flame, and a metal tray on which to set dish, 
that it may be moved if necessary while hot, without danger 
of burnt fingers, and that it may not injure the polished 
table. 

A chafing-dish has two pans, the under one for holding 
hot water, the upper one with long handle for holding food 
to be cooked. A blazer differs from a chafing-dish, inas- 
much as it has no hot-water pan. 

Wood alcohol, which is much lower in price than high-proof 
dpiritS) is generally used in chafing-dishes. 



KECIPES FOR THE CHAFING-DISH 657 

List of dishes previously given that may be prepared on 
the Chafing-Dish : — 

German Toast Buttered Lobster 

Dropped Eggs Creamed Lobster 

Eggs k la Finnoise Broiled Meat Cakes 

Eggs k la Suisse Salmi of Lamb 

Scrambled Eggs Creamed Sweetbreads 

Scrambled Eggs with Sauted" Sweetbreads 

Tomato Sauce Chickens' Livers wiih 
Scrambled Eggs with Madeira Sauce 

Anchovy Toast Chickens' Livers with 
Buttered Eggs Curry 

Buttered Eggs with Sauted Chickens' Livers 

Tomatoes Creamed Chicken 

Curried Eggs Chicken and Oysters k la 
French Omelet Metropole 

Spanish Omelet Stewed Mushrooms 

Creamed Fish Sauted Mushrooms 

Halibut a la Rarebit Mushrooms k la Sabine 

Creamed Oysters Souffle au RhUm 

Scrambled Eggs with Sweetbreads 

4 eggs % c^P niilk 

% teaspoon salt 1 sweetbread, parboiled and 

% teaspoon pepper cut in dice 

2 tablespoons butter 

Beat eggs slightly, using a silver folk, add salt, pep- 
per, milk, and sweetbread. Put butter in hot chafing-dish; 
when melted, pour in the mixture. Cook until of creamy 
consistency, constantly stirring and scraping from bottom 
of the pan. 

Scrambled Eggs with Calfs Brains 

Follow recipe for Scrambled Eggs with Sweetbreads, using 
calf's brains in place of sweetbreads. 

To Prepare Calf's Brains. Soak one hour in cold water 
to cover. Remove membrane, and parboil twenty minutes 
in boiling, salted, acidulated water. Drain, put in cold 
water ; as soon as cold, drain again, and separate in small 
pieceSt 



658 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Cheese Omelet 

2 eggs % tablespoon salt 

1 tablespoon melted butter Few grains cayenne 

1 tablespoon grated cheese 

Beat eggs slightly, add one-half teaspoon melted butter, 
salt, cayenne, and cheese. Melt remaining butter, add 
mixture, and cook until firm, without stirring. Roll, and 
sprinkle with grated cheese. Serve with Graham bread 
sandwiches. 

Eggs au Beurre Noir 

Butter Pepper 

Salt 4 eggs 

1 teaspoon vinegar 

Put one tablespoon butter in a hot chafing-dish ; when 
melted, slip in carefully four eggs, one at a time. Sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, and cook until whites are firm. Re- 
move to a hot platter, care being taken not to break yolks. 
In same dish brown two tablespoons butter, add vinegar, 
and pour over eggs. 

Eggs k la Caracas 

2 ozs. smoked dried beef Few grains cinnamon 

1 cup tomatoes Few grains cayenne 

3^ cup grated cheese 2 tablespoons butter 

Few drops onion juice 3 eggs 

Pick over beef and chop finely, add tomatoes, cheese, 
onion juice, cinnamon, and cayenne. Melt butter, add 
mixture, and when heated, add eggs well beaten. Cook 
until eggs are of creamy consistency, stirring and scraping 
from bottom of pan. 

Union Grill 

Clean one pint of oysters and drain off all the liquor 
possible. Put oysters in chafing-dish, and as liquor flows 
from oysters, remove with a spoon, and so continue until 
oysters are plump. Sprinkle with salt and pepper^ and ad(A 
two tablespoons butter. Serve on zephyrettes. 



BECIPES FOK THE CHAFING-DISH 559 

Oysters k la D'Uxelles 

i pint oysters ^ teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons chopped mush- ^ teaspoon lemon juice 

rooms Few grains cayenne 

2 tablespoons butter 1 egg yolk 

2 tablespoons flour . 1 tablespoon Sherry wine 

Clean oysters, heat to boiling-point, and drain. Re- 
serve liquor and strain through double thickness of cheese- 
cloth; there should be three-fourths cup. Cook butter 
and mushrooms five minutes, add flour, and oyster liquor 
gradually ; then cook three minutes. Add seasonings, 
oysters, egg, and Sherry wine. Serve on zephyrettes or 
pieces of toasted bread. 

Oysters k la Thorndike 

1 pint oysters Few grains cayenne 

2 tablespoons batter Slight grating nutmeg 
1-^ teaspoon salt 3^ cup thin cream 

Yolks 2 eggs 

Clean and drain oysters. Melt butter, add oysters, and 
cook until oysters are plump. Then add seasonings, cream, 
and egg yolks slightly beaten. Cook until sauce is slightly 
thickened, stirring constantly. Serve on zephyrettes or 
pieces of toasted bread. 

Jack's Oyster Ragout 

Parboil fresh honeycomb tripe, and cut in three-fourths 
inch pieces ; there should be one cup. Add an equal 
quantity of small boiled onions, and twice the quantity of 
raw oysters which have been previously cleaned. Melt three 
tablespoons butter, add four tablespoons flour, and pour on 
gradually while stirring constantly one and one-half cups thin 
cream. Add tripe, onion, and oysters. When thoroughly 
heated add yolks two eggs slightly beaten, and season highly 
with salt, pepper, and paprika. Serve on pieces toasted 
bread. 



560 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Lobster k la Delmonico 

2 lb. lobster Few grains cayenne 

}^ cup butter Slight grating nutmeg 

^ tablespoons flour 1 cup thin cream 

' }£ teaspoon salt Yolks 2 eggs 

2 tablespoons Sherry wine 

Remove lobster meat from shell and cut in small cubes. 
Melt butter, add flour, seasonings, and cream gradually. 
Add lobster, and when heated, add egg yolks and wine. 

Lobster k la Ne-w^burg 

2 lb. lobster Slight grating nutmeg 
X cup butter 1 tablespoon Sherry 
}^ teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon brandy 
Few grains cayenne 3^ cup thin cream 

Yolks 2 eggs 

Remove lobster meat from shell and cut in slices. Melt 
butter, add lobster, and cook three minutes. Add season- 
ings and wine, cook one minute, then add cream and yolks 
of eggs slightly beaten. Stir until thickened. Serve with 
toast or Puff Paste Points. 

Clams k la Newburg 
1 pint clams 3 tablespoons Sherry or 

3 tablespoons butter Madeira wine 
^ teaspoon salt )'2 cup thin cream 
Few grains cayenne Yolks 3 eggs 

Clean clams, remove soft parts, and finely chop hard parts. 
Melt butter, add chopped clams, seasonings, and wine. Cook 
eight minutes, add soft part of clams, and cream. Cook two 
minutes, then add egg yolks slightly beaten, diluted with 
some of the hot sauce. 

Shrimps k la Newburg 

1 pint shrimps 1 teaspoon lemon juice 

3 tablespoons butter 1 teaspoon flour 

^ teaspoon salt 3^ cup cream 

Few grains cayenne Yolks 2 eggs 

2 tablespoons Sherry wine 

Clean shrimps and cook three minutes in two tablespoons 
batter. Add salt, cayenne, and lemon juice, and cook one 



BBCIPES FOR THE CHAFING-DISH 561 

minute. Remove shrimps, and put remaining butter in 
chafing-dish, add flour and cream : when thickened, add 
yolks of eggs slightly beaten, shrimps, and wine. Serve 
with toast or Puff Paste Points. 

Fish k la Frovengale 

^ cup butter Yolks 4 "hard-boiled '* eggs 

2)^ tablespoons flour 1 teaspoon Anchovy sauce 

2 cups milk 2 cups cold boiled flaked fish 

Make a sauce of butter, flour, and milk. Mash yolks 
of eggs and mix with Anchovy essence, add to sauce, 
then add fish. Serve as soon as heated. Serve on pieces 
of toasted Graham bread. 

Grilled Sardines 

Drain twelve sardines and cook in a chafing-dish until 
heated, turning frequently. Place on small oblong pieces 
of dry toast, and serve with Maitre d'Hotel or Lemon 
Butter. 

Sardines vrith Anchovy Sauce 

Drain twelve sardines and cook in a chafing-dish until 
heated, turning frequently. Remove from chafing-dish. 
Make one cup Brown Sauce with one and one-half table- 
spoons sardine oil, two tablespoons flour, and one cup 
Brown Stock. Season with anchovy sauce. Reheat sar- 
dines in sauce. Serve with Brown Bread Sandwiches, hav- 
ing a sUce of cucumber marinated with French Dressing 
between slices of bread. 

Creamed Sardines 

Drain from oil one small box sardines, remove backbones 
from fish, then mash. Melt one-fourth cup butter, add 
one-fourth cup soft stale bread crumbs, and one cup cream. 
When thoroughly heated add two " hard-boiled " eggs finely 
chopped, the sardines, salt, pepper, and paprika to taste. 
Serve on pieces of toasted bread. 



562 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

"Welsh Rarebit I 

1 tablespoon butter ^ teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon corn-starch ^ teaspoon mustard 

y^ cup thin cream Few grains cayenne 

y^ lb. soft mild cheese Toast or wafer crackers 
cut in small pieces 

Melt butter, add corn-starchj and stir until well mixed, 
then add cream gradually, while stirring constantly, and 
cook two minutes. Add cheese, and stir until cheese is 
meited. Season, and serve on zephyrettes or bread toasted 
on one side, rarebit being poured over untoasted side. 
Much of the success of a rarebit depends upon the quality 
of the cheese. A rarebit should be smooth and of a creamy 
consistency, never stringy. 

TVelsh Rarebit II 

1 tablespoon butter ^ teaspoon mustard 

y^ lb. soft mild cheese, Few grains cayenne 

cut in small pieces }i ^^ }4 ^^P ^^® o^ 
^ teaspoon salt lager beer 

legg 

Put butter in chafing-dish, and when melted, add cheese 
and seasonings ; as cheese melts, add ale gradually, while 
stirring constantly ; then egg slightly beaten. Serve same 
as Welsh Rarebit I. 

Oyster Rarebit 

1 cup oysters J4 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons butter Few grains cayenne 
^ lb. soft mild cheese, 2 eggs 

cut in small pieces 

Clean, parboil, and drain oysters, reserving liquor; then 
remove and discard tough muscle. Melt butter, add cheese 
and seasonings ; as cheese melts, add gradually oyster liquor, 
and eggs slightly beaten. As soon as mixture is smooth, 
add soft part of oysters. Serve on unsweetened wafer 
crackers or bread toasted on one side, rarebit being poured 
over untoasted side. 



EECIPES FOR THE CHAFING-DISH 663 



Tomato Rarebit 

2 tablespoons butter 3^ teaspoon soda 

2 tablespoons flour 2 cups finely cut cheese 

% cup thin cream 2 eggs, slightly beaten 

^ cup stewed and Salt 

strained tomatoes Mustard 
Cayenne 

Put butter in chafing-dish ; when melted, add flour. 
Pour on, gradually, cream, and as soon as mixture thick- 
ens add tomatoes mixed with soda ; then add cheese, eggs, 
and seasonings to taste. Serve, as soon as cheese has 
melted, on Graham Toast. 

English Monkey 
1 cup stale bread crumbs }4, cup soft mild cheese, 

1 cup milk . cut in small pieces 

1 tablespoon butter 1 egg 

% teaspoon salt 
Few grains cayenne 

Soak bread crumbs fifteen minutes in milk. . Melt butter, 
add cheese, and when cheese has melted, add soaked crumbs, 
egg slightly beaten, and seasonings. Cook three minutes, 
and pour over toasted crackers which have been spread 
sparingly with butter. 

Breaded Tongue "with Tomato Sauce 

Cut cold boiled corned tongue in slices one-third inch thick. 
Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in ^gg and crumbs, and 
saute in butter. Serve with Tomato Sauce I. 

Scotch "Woodcock 

4 " hard-boiled " eggs 1 cup milk 

3 tablespoons butter ^ i^ teaspoon salt 

1% tablespoons flour Few grains cayenne 

Anchovy sauce 

Make a thin white sauce of butter, flour, milk, and sea- 
sonings ; add eggs finely chopped, and season with anchovy 
sauce. Serve same as Welsh Rarp.bit I. 



664 BOSTON COOKING-SOHOOL OOOK BOOK 

Shredded Ham ^vith Currant Jelly Sauce 

y^ tablespoon butter Few grains cayenne 

y^ cup currant jelly )^ cup Sherry wine 

1 cup cold cooked ham, cut in small strips 

Put butter and currant jelly into the chafing-dish. As 
soon as melted, add cayenne, wine, and ham ; simmer five 
minutes. 

Venison CutLets "w^ith Apples 

Wipe, core, and cut four apples in one-fourth inch slices. 
Sprinkle with powdered sugar, and add one-third cup Port 
wine ; cover, and let stand thirty minutes. Drain, and saute 
in butter. Cut a slice of venison one-half inch thick in cut- 
lets. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and cook three or four 
minutes in a hot chafing-dish, using just enough butter to 
prevent sticking. Remove from dish ; then melt three table- 
spoons butter, add wine drained from apples, and twelve 
candied cherries cut in halves. Reheat cutlets in sauce, and 
serve with apples. 

Mutton with Currant Jelly Sauce 

2 tablespoons butter 1 cup Brown Stock 

2 tablespoons flour y^ cup currant jelly 

^ teaspoon salt \%_ tablespoons Sherry win© 

Few grains pepper 6 slices cold cooked mutton 

Brown the butter, add flour, seasonings, and stock, grad- 
ually ; then add jelly, and when melted, add mutton. When 
meat is heated, add wine. If mutton gravy is at hand, use 
instead of making a Brown Sauce. 

Minced Mutton 

2 cups chopped cooked mutton Salt 

Yolks 6 *' hard-boiled " eggs Cayenne 

^ teaspoon mixed mustard * 1 cup of cream 

^ cup wine 

Mash the yolks, and season with mustard, salt, and cay- 
enne. Add cream and mutton. When thoroughly heiited 
add wine. Serv^ ob toast 



EECIPES FOR THE OHAFING-DISH f^S 



Devilled Bones 

2 tablespoons butter Drumsticks, second joints, and 
1 tablespoon Chili Sauce wings of a cooked chicken 

1 tablespoon Worcestershire -Salt 

Sauce Pepper 

1 tablespoon Walnut Catsup Flour 

1 teaspoon made mustard Cup hot stock 

Few grains cayenne Finely chopped parsley 

Melt butter, and add Chili Sauce, Worcestershire Sauce, 
Walnut Catsup, mustard, and cayenne. Cut four small 
gashes in each piece of chicken. Sprinkle with salt and 
pepper, dredge with flour, and cook in the seasoned butter 
until well browned. Pour on stock, simmer five minutes, 
and sprinkle with chopped parsley. 

Devilled Almonds 

2 ozs. blanched and shredded 2 tablespoons chopped pickles 

almonds 1 tablespoon W^orcestershire 

Butter ' Sauce 

1 tablespoon Chutney ^ teaspoon salt 

Few grains cayenne 

Fry almonds until well browned, using enough butter to 
prevent almonds from burning. Mix remaining ingredients, 
pour over nuts, and serve as soon as thoroughly heated. 
Serve with oysters. 

Devilled Chestnuts 

Shell one cup chestnuts, cut in thin slices, and fry until 
well browned, using enough butter to prevent chestnuts from 
burning. Season with Tabasco Sauce or few grains paprika. 

Fruit Canapes 

Make German Toast in circular pieces, cover with stewed 
prunes, figs, or jam. Serve with Cream Sauce I. 

Peach Canapes 

Saute circular pieces of sponge cake in butter until deli- 
cately browned. Drain canned peaches, sprinkle with pow- 



566 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

dered sugar, few drops lemon jaice, and slight grating 
nutmeg. Melt one tablespoon butter, add peaches, and 
when heated, serve on cake. 

Fig Cups 

^ lb. washed figs 2 tablespoons sugar 

Chopped salted almonds 1 teaspoon lemon juice 

^ cup wine 

Stuff figs with almonds. Put sugar, lemon juice, and 
wine in chafing-dish ; when heated, add figs, cover, and cook 
until figs are tender, turning and basting often. Serve with 
Lady Fingers. 



FEUITS: FRESH, PKESER VED, AND CANNED 567 



CHAPTER XXXVI 
FRUITS: FRESH AND COOKED 

FRUITS are usually at their best when served ripe and 
in season; however, a few cannot be taken in their 
raw state, and still others are rendered more easy of diges- 
tion by cooking. The methods employed are stewing and 
baking. Fruit should be cooked in earthen or granite ware 
utensils, and silver or wooden spoons should be employed 
for stirring. It must be remembered that all fruits contain 
one or more acids, and when exposed to air and brought in 
contact with an iron or tin surface, a poisonous compound 
may be formed. 

HoTV to Prepare Strawberries for Serving 

1. Pick over strawberries, place in colander, pour over 
cold water, drain thoroughly, hull, and turn into dish. Serve 
with powdered sugar and cream. 

2. Pick over selected strawberries, place in colander, pour 
over cold water, and drain thoroughly. Press powdered 
sugar into cordial glasses. Remove from glasses on centres 
of fruit plates. Arrange twelve berries around each mound 
of sugar. Berries served in this way should not be 
hulled. 

How to Prepare Cantaloupes and Muskmelons for Serving 

Canteloupes and muskmelons should be very ripe and 
thoroughly chilled in ice box before being prepared for 
serving. Wipe melons, — if small, cut in halves lengthwise ; if 
larger, cut in sections, and remove seeds and stringy portion. 
If one-half is served as a portion, put in cavity one tablo- 
9poon crushed ice. Serve with salt or powdered eugar. 



5^ BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

How to Prepare Grapes for Serving 

Put bunches in colander and pour over cold water, drain, 
chill, and arrange on serving dish. Imperfect grapes, as 
well as those under-ripe or over-ripe, should be removed. 
Garnish with grape leaves, if at hand. 

Ways of Preparing Oranges for Serving 

1. Wipe orange and cut in halves crosswise. Place one- 
half on a fruit plate, having an o ange spoon or teaspoon on 
plate at right of fruit. 

2. Peel an orange and remove as much of the white por- 
tion as possible. Remove pulp by sections, which may be 
accomplished by using a sharp knife and cutting pulp from 
tough portion first on one side of section, then on the other. 
Should there be any white portion of skin remaining on pulp 
it should be cut off. Arrange sections on glass dish or fruit 
plate. If the orange is a seeded one, remove seeds. 

3. Remove peel from an orange in such a way that there 
remains a one-half inch band of peel equal distance from 
stem and blossom end. Cut band, separate sections, and 
arrange around a mould of sugar. 

How to Prepare Grape Fruit for Serving 

Wipe grape fruit and cut in halves crosswise. With a 
small, sharp-pointed knife make a cut separating pulp from 
skin around entire circumference ; then make cuts separating 
pulp from tough portion which divides fruit into sections. 
Remove tough portion in one piece, which may be accom- 
plished by one cutting with scissors at stem or blossom end 
close to skin. Sprinkle fruit pulp left in grape fruit skin 
generously with sugar. Let stand ten minutes, and serve 
very cold. Place on fruit plate and garnish with a candied 
cherry. 

Grape Fruit w^ith Sherry 

Prepare grape fruit for serving, add to each portion on* 
tablespoon Sherry wine, and let stand one hour in ice box or 
opld plftoe. 



FRUITS: FRESH, PRESERVED, AND CANNED 569 

Grape Fruit with Apricot Brandy 

Prepare grape fruit for serving and add to each portion 
one-half tablespoon apricot brandy. 

Grape Fruit -with Sloe Gin 

Prepare grape fruit for serving and add to each portion 
one-half tablespoon sloe gin. 

Fruit Cocktail 

Kemove pulp from grape fruit, and mix with shredded 
pineapple, bananas cut in slices and slices cut in quarters, 
and strawberries cut in halves, using half as much pine- 
apple and banana as grape fruit, and allowing four straw- 
berries to each serve. There should be two cups fruit. 
Pour over a dressing made of one-third cup Sherry wine, 
three tablespoons apricot brandy, one-half cup sugar, and a 
few grains salt. Chill thoroughly, serve in double cocktail 
glasses, and garnish with candied cherries and leaves. 

Baked Apples 

Wipe and core sour apples. Put in a baking-dish, and fill 
cavities with sugar and spice. Allow one-half cup sugar 
and one-fourth teaspoon cinnamon or nutmeg to eight apples. 
If nutmeg is used, a few drops lemon juice and few gratings 
from rind of lemon to each apple is an improvement. Cover 
bottom of dish with boiling water, and bake in a hot oven 
until soft, basting often with syrup in dish. Serve hot or 
cold with cream. Many prefer to pare apples before bak- 
ing. When this is done, core before paring, that fruit may 
keep in shape. In the fall, when apples are at their best, 
do not add spices to apples, as their flavor cannot be im- 
proved; but towards spring they become somewhat taste- 
less, and spice is an improvement. 

Baked Sweet Apples 

Wipe and core eight sweet apples. Put in a baking-dish, 
and fill cavities with sugar, allowing one-third cup, or 
•weeten with molasses. Add two-thirdi cap iMiling water. 



570 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Cover, and bake three hours in a slow oven, adding raore 
water if necessary. 

Apple Sauce 

Wipe, quarter, core, and pare eight sour apples. Make a 
syrup by boiling seven minutes one cup sugar and one cup 
water with thin shaving from rind of a lemon. Remove 
lemon, add enough apples to cover bottom of saucepan, 
watch carefully during cooking, and remove as soon as soft. 
Continue until all are cooked. Strain remaining syrup over 
apples. 

Spiced Apple Sauce 

Wipe, quarter, core, and pare eight sour apples. Put in 
a saucepan, sprinkle with one cup sugar, add eight cloves, 
and enough water to prevent apples from burning. Cook to 
a mush, stirring occasionally. 

Apple Ginger 

Wipe, quarter, core, pare, and chop sour apples; there 
should be two and one-half pounds. Put in a stewpan 
and add one and one-half pounds light brown sugar, juice 
and rind of one and one-half lemons, one-half ounce ginger 
root, a few grains salt, and enough water to prevent apples 
from burning. Cover, and cook slowly four hours, adding 
water as necessary. Apple Ginger may be kept for several 
weeks. 

Apple Porcupine 

Make a syrup by boiling eight minutes one and one-half 
cups sugar and one and one-half cups water. Wipe, core, 
and pare eight apples. Put apples in syrup as soon as pared, 
that they may not discolor. Cook until soft, occasionally 
skimming syrup during cooking. Apples cook better cov- 
ered with the syrup; therefore it is better to use a deep 
saucepan and have two cookings. Drain apples from syrup, 
cool, fill cavities with jelly, marmalade, or preserved fruit, 
and stick apples with almonds blanched and split in halves 
Idngthvrise. Serve with Cream Sauce I. 



FRUITS: FRESH, PRESERTED, AND CANNED 571 

Baked Bananas I 

Remove skins from six bananas and cut in halves length- 
wise. Put in a shallow granite pan or on an old platter. 
Mix two tablespoons melted butter, one-third cup sugar, 
and two tablespoons lemon juice. Baste bananas with one- 
half the mixture. Bake twenty minutes in a slow oven, 
basting during baking with remaining mixture. 

Baked Bananas II 

Arrange bananas in a shallow pan, cover, and bake until 
skins become very dark in color. Remove from skins, and 
serve hot sprinkled with sugar. 

Sauted Bananas 

Remove skins from bananas, cut in halves lengthwise, and 
again cut in halves crosswise. Dredge with flour, and saute 
in clarified butter. Drain, and sprinkle with powdered 
sugar. 

Baked Peaches 

Peel, cut in halves, and remove stones from six peaches. 
Place in a shallow granite pan. Fill each cavity with one 
teaspoon sugar, one-half teaspoon butter, few drops lemon 
juice, and a slight grating nutmeg. Cook twenty minutes, 
and serve on circular pieces of buttered dry toast. 

Baked Pears 

Wipe, quarter, and core pears. Put in a deep pudding- 
dish, sprinkle with sugar or add a small quantity of molas- 
ses, then add water to prevent pears from burning. Cover, 
and cook two or three hours in a very slow oven. Small 
pears may be baked whole. Seckel pears are delicious 
when baked. 

Baked Quinces 
Wipe, quarter, core, and pare eight quinces. Put in a 
baking dish, sprinkle with three-fourths cup sugar, add one 
and one-half cups water, cover, and cook until soft in a slow 
OTen. Quinces require a long time for cooking. 



572 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Cranberry Sauce 

Pick over and wash three cups cranberries. Put in a 
«3tewpan, add one and one-fourth cups sugar and one cup 
boiling water, and boil ten minutes. Care must be taken 
that they do not boil over. Skim and cool. 

Cranberry Jelly 

Pick over and wash four cups cranberries. Put in a stew- 
pan with two cups boiling water, and boil twenty minutes. 
Eub through a sieve, add two cups sugar, and cook five 
minutes. Turn into a mould or glasses. 

Stewed Prunes 

Wash and pick over prunes. Put in a saucepan, cover 
with cold water, and soak two hours ; then cook until soft 
in same water. When nearly cooked, add sugar or molasses 
to sweeten. Many prefer the addition of a small quantity of 
lemon juice. 

Rhubarb Sauce 

Peel and cut rhubarb in one-inch pieces. Put in a sauce- 
pan, sprinkle generously with sugar, and add enough water 
to prevent rhubarb from burning. Khubarb contains such a 
large percentage of water that but little additional water is 
needed. Cook until soft. If rhubarb is covered with boil- 
ing water, allowed to stand five minutes, then drained and 
cooked, less sugar will be required. Rhubarb is sometimes 
baked in an earthen pudding-dish. If baked slowly for a 
long time it has a rich red color. 



JELLIES, JAMS, AND MARMALADES 673 



CHAPTER XXXYII 
JELLIES, JAMS, AND MARMALADES 

JELLIES are made of cooked fruit juice and sugar, in 
nearly all cases the proportions being equal. Where 
failures occur, they may usually be traced to the use of too 
ripe fruit. 

To Prepare Glasses for Jelly. Wash glasses and put in a 
kettle of cold water; place on range, and heat water grad- 
ually to boiling-point. Remove glasses, and drain. Place 
glasses while filling on a cloth wrung out of hot water. 

To Cover Jelly Glasses. Cut letter paper in circular 
pieces just to fit in top of glasses. Dip in brandy, and 
cover jelly. Put on tin covers or circular pieces of paper 
cut larger than the glasses, and fastened securely over the 
edge with mucilage. Some prefer to cover jelly with melted 
paraffine than to adjust covers. 

To Make a Jelly Bag. Eold two opposite corners of a piece 

of cotton and wool flannel three-fourths yard long. Sew up 

in the form of a cornucopia, rounding at the end. Fell the 

seam to make more secure. Bind the top with tape, and 

furnish with two or three heavy loops by which it may be 

hung. 

Apple Jelly 

Wipe apples, remove stem and blossom ends, and cut in 
quarters. Put in a granite or porcelain-lined preserving ket- 
tle, and add cold water to come nearly to top of apples. 
Cover, and cook slowly until apples are soft ; mash, and 
drain through a coarse sieve. Avoid squeezing apples, which 
makes jelly cloudy. Then allow juice to drip through a 
double thickness of cheese-cloth or a jelly bag. Boil twenty 
minutes, and add an equal quantity of heated sugar j boil 



574 BOSTON COOKIKG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

five minutes, skim, and turn in glasses. Put in a sunny 
window, and let stand twenty-four hours. Cover, and keep 
in a cool, dry place. Porter apples make a delicious flavored 
jelly. If apples are pared, a much lighter jelly may be 
made. Gravenstein apples make a very spicy jelly. 

To Heat Sugar. Put in a granite dish, place in oven, 
leaving oven door ajar, and stir occasionally. 

Quince Jelly 

^Follow recipe for Apple Jelly, using quinces in place of 
apples, and removing seeds from fruit. Quince parings are 
often used for jelly, the better part of the fruit being used 
for canning. 

Crab Apple Jelly 

Follow recipe for Apple Jelly, leaving apples whole in- 
stead of cutting in quarters. 

Currant Jelly 

Currants are in the best condition for making jelly be- 
tween June twenty-eighth and July third, and should not 
be picked directly after a rain. Cherry currants make the 
best jelly. Equal proportions of red and white currants are 
considered desirable, and make a lighter colored jelly. 

Pick over currants, but do not remove stems ; wash and 
drain. Mash a few in the bottom of a preserving kettle, 
using a wooden potato masher; so continue until berries 
are used. Cook slowly until currants look white. Strain 
through a coarse strainer, then allow juice to drop through 
a double thickness of cheese-cloth or a jelly bag. Measure, 
bring to boiling-point, and boil five minutes ; add an equal 
measure of heated sugar, boil three minutes, skim, and pour 
into glasses. Place in a sunny window, and let stand 
twenty-four hours. Cover, and keep in a cool, dry place. 

Currant and Raspberry Jelly 
Follow recipe for Currant Jelly, using equal parts of cur- 
rants and raspberries. 



JELLIES, JAMS, AND MARMALADES 575 

Blackberry Jelly 

Follow recipe for Currant Jelly, using blackberries in 

place of currants. 

Raspberry Jelly 

Follow recipe for Currant Jelly, using raspberries in place 

of currants. Raspberry Jelly is the most critical to make, 

and should not be attempted if fruit is thoroughly ripe, or 

if it has been long picked. 

Barberry Jelly 
Barberry Jelly is firmer and of better color if made from 
fruit picked before the frost comes, while some of the ber- 
ries are still green. Make same as Currant Jelly, allowing 
one cup water to one peck barberries. 

Grape Jelly 

Grapes should be picked over, washed, and stems removed 
before putting into a preserving kettle. Heat to boiling- 
point, mash, and boil thirty minutes ; then proceed as for 
Currant Jelly. Wild grapes make the best jelly. 

Green Grape Jelly 

Grapes should be picked when just be'ginning to turn. 
Make same as Grape Jelly. 

Venison Jelly 
1 peck wild grapes Whole cloves \ }4 cup 

1 quart vinegar Stick cinnamon / each 

6 pounds sugar 

Put first four ingredients into a preserving kettle, heat 
slowly to the boiling-point, and cook until grapes are soft. 
Strain through a double thickness of cheese-cloth or a jelly 
bag, and boil liquid twenty minutes ; then add sugar heated, 
and boil five minutes. Turn into glasses. 

Damson Jelly 

Wipe and pick over damsons; then prick several times 
with a large pin. Make same as Currant Jelly, using three- 
fourths as much sugar as fruit juice, 



576 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

JAMS 

Easpberries and blackberries are the fruits most often 
employed for making jams, and require equal weight of 
sugar and fruit. 

Raspberry Jam 

Pick over raspberries. Mash a few in the bottom of a 
preserving kettle, using a wooden potato masher, and so 
continue until the fruit is used. Heat slowly to boiling- 
point, and add gradually an equal quantity of heated sugar. 
Cook slowly forty-five minutes. Put in a stone jar or 
tumblers. 

Blackberry Jam 

Follow recipe for Raspberry Jam, using blackberries in 
place of raspberries. 

MAEMALADES 

Marmalades are made of the pulp and juice of fruits with 
sugar. 

Grape Marmalade 

Pick over, wash, drain, and remove stems from grapes. 
Separate pulp from skins. Put pulp in preserving kettle. 
Heat to boiling-point, and cook slowly until seeds separate 
from pulp ; then rub through a hair sieve. Return to kettle 
^with skins, add an equal measure of sugar, and cook slowly 
thirty minutes, occasionally stirring to prevent burning. 
Put in a stone jar or tumblers. 

Quince Marmalade 

Wipe quinces, remove blossom ends, cut in quarters, re- 
move seeds ; then cut in small pieces. Put into a preserv- 
ing kettle, and add enough water to nearly cover. Cook 
slowly until soft. Rub through a hair sieve, and add three- 
fourths its measure of heated sugar. Cook slowly twenty 
minutes, stirring occasionally to prevent burning. Put in 
tumblers. 



'? 



r- 





Utensils necessary for canning. — Page 678. 




t-^ 




^: 




Cajn'Ned Fruits. — Page o7V. 




Red Peppers being prepared for canning. — Page 682. 



f 



■^ 




Pickles ready for serving {Page 590). Crock for keeping 

Pickles. 



JELLIES, JAMS, AND MARMALADES 577 

Orange Marmalade I 

Select sour, smooth-skinned oranges. Weigh oranges, 
and allow three-fourths their weight in cut sugar. Eemove 
peel from oranges in quarters. Cook peel until soft in 
enough boiling water to cover; drain, remove white part 
from peel by scraping it with a spoon. Cut thin yellow 
rind in strips, using a pair of scissors. This is more quickly 
accomplished by cutting through two or three pieces at a 
time. Divide oranges in sections, remove seeds and tough 
part of the skin. Put into a preserving kettle and heat to 
boiling-point, add sugar gradually, and cook slowly one 
hour; add rind, and cook one hour longer. Turn into 
glasses. 

Orange Marmalade II 

Slice nine oranges and six lemons crosswise with a sharp 
kniie as thinly as possible, remove seeds, and put in a pre- 
serving kettle with four quarts water. Cover, and let stand 
thirty-six hours ; then boil for two hours, add eight pounds 
sugar, and boil one hour longer. 

Orange and Rhubarb Marmalade 

Kemove peel in quarters from eight oranges and prepare 
as for Orange Marmalade. Divide oranges in sections, 
remove seeds and tough part of skin. Put into a preserving 
kettle, add five pounds rhubarb, skinned and cut in one-half 
inch pieces. Heat to boiling-point, and boil one-half hour ; 
then add four pounds cut sugar and cut rind. Cook slowly 
two hours. Turn into glasses. 

Quince Honey 

Pare and grate five large quinces. To one pint boiling 
water add five pounds sugar. Stir over fire until sugar is 
dissolved, add quince, and cook fifteen or twenty minutes. 
Turn into glasses. When cold it should be about the color 
and consistency of honey. 



578 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER XXXVIII 

THE CANNING OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 
BY THE OPEN KETTLE METHOD 

(Used principally for fruits) 

Directions 

FRUIT for canning should be fresh, firm, of good quality, 
and not over-ripe ; if over-ripe, some of the spores may 
survive the boiling, then fermentation will take place in a 
short time. 

For canning fruit, allow one-third its weight in sugar, 
and two and one-half to three cups water to each pound of 
sugar. Boil sugar and water ten minutes to make a thin 
syrup ; then cook a Small quantity of the fruit at a time in ' 
the syrup ; by so doing, fruit may be kept in perfect shape. 
Hard fruits, like pineapple and quince, are cooked in boil- 
ing water until nearly soft, then put in syrup to finish 
cooking. Sterilized jars are then filled with fruit, and 
enough syrup added to overflow jars. If there is not suffi- 
cient syrup, add boiling water, as jars must be filled to 
overflow. Introduce a spoon between fruit and jar, that air 
bubbles may rise to the top and break ; then quickly put on 
rubbers and screw on sterilized covers. Let stand until 
cold, again screw covers, being sure this time that jars are 
air-tight. While filling jars, place them on a cloth wrung 
out of hot water. 

To Sterilize Jars 

Wash jars and fill with cold water. Set in a kettle on a 
trivet, and surround with cold water. Heat gradually to 
boiling-point, remove from water, empty, and fill while hot. 
Put covers in hot water and let stand five minutes. Dip 



THE CANNING OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 579 

rubber bands in hot water, but do not allow tbem to stand. 
New rubbers should be used each season, and care must be 
taken that rims of covers are not bent, as jars cannot 
then be hermetically sealed. 

Canned Porter Apples 

Wipe, quarter, core, and pare Porter apples, then weigh. 

Make a syrup by boiling for ten minutes one-third their 

weight in sugar with water, allowing two and one-half cups 

to each pound of sugar. Cook apples in syrup until soft, 

doing a few at a time. Fill jars, following Directions for 

Canning. 

Canned Peaches 

Wipe peaches and put in boiling water, allowing them to 
stand just long enough to easily loosen skins. B/Cmove 
skins and cook fruit at once, that it may not discolor, fol- 
lowing Directions for Canning. Some prefer to pare 
peaches, sprinkle with sugar, and let stand overnight. In 
morning drain, add water to fruit syrup, bring to boiling- 
point, and then cook fruit. Peaches may be cut in halves, 
or smaller pieces if desired. 

Canned Pears 

Wipe and pare fruit. Cook whole with stems left on, or 
remove stems, cut in quarters, and core. Follow Directions 
for Canning. A small piece of ginger root or a few slicings 
of lemon rind may be cooked with syrup. Bartlett* pears 
are the best for canning. 

Canned Pineapples 

Eemove skin and eyes from pineapples ; then cut in half- 
inch slices, and slices in cubes, at the same time discarding 
the core. Follow Directions for Canning. Pineapples may 
be shredded and cooked in one-half their weight of sugar 
without water, and then put in jars. When put up in this 
way they are useful for the making of sherbets and fancy 
desserts. 



580 BOSTON COOKtNG-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Canned Quinces 

Wipe, quarter, core, and pare quinces. Follow Directions 
for Canning. Quinces may be cooked with an equal weight 
of sweet apples wiped, quartered, cored, and pared ; in this 
case use no extra sugar for apples. 

Canned Cherries 

Use large white or red cherries. Wash, remove stems, 
then follow Directions for Canning. 

Canned Huckleberries 

Pick over and wash berries, then put in a preserving ket- 
tle with a small quantity of water to prevent berries from 
burning. Cook until soft, stirring occasionally, and put in 
jars. No sugar is required, but a sprinkling of salt is an 
agreeable addition. 

Canned Rhubarb 

Pare rhubarb and cut in one-inch pieces. Pack in a jar, 
put under cold water faucet, and let water run twenty min- 
utes, then screw on cover. Ehubarb canned in this way has 
often been known to keep a year. 

Canned Tomatoes 

Wipe tomatoes, cover with boiling water, and let stand 
until skins may be easily removed. Cut in pieces and cook 
until thoroughly scalded ; skim often during cooking. Pill 
jars, following directions given. 

Damson Preserves 

Wipe damsons with a piece of cheese-cloth wrung out 
of cold water, and prick each fruit live or six times, using 
a large needle ; then weigh. Make a syrup by boiling three- 
fourths their weight in sugar with water, allowing one cup 
tq each pound of sugar. As soon as syrup reaches boiling- 
point, skim, and add plums, a few at a time, that fruit may 



THE CANKING OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 581 

better keep in shape during cooking. Cook until soft. It 
is well to use two kettles, that work may be more quickly- 
done, and syrup need not cook too long a time. Put into 
glass or stone jars. 

Strawberry Preserves 

Pick over, wash, drain, and hull strawberries ; then weigh. 
Fill glass jars with berries. Make a syrup same as for 
Damson Preserve, cooking the syrup fifteen minutes. Add 
syrup to overflow jars ; let stand fifteen minutes, when 
fruit will have shrunk, and more fruit must be added to 
fill jars. Screw on covers, put on a trivet in a kettle of 
cold water, heat water to boiling-point, and keep just below 
boiling-point one hour. 

Easpberries may be preserved in the same way. 

Pear Chips' 

8 lbs. pears M lb. Canton ginger 

4 lbs. sugar 4 lemons 

Wipe pears, remove stems, quarter, and core ; then cut 
in small pieces. Add sugar and ginger, and let stand over- 
night. In the morning add lemons cut in small pieces, re- 
jecting seeds, and cook slowly three hours. Put into a stone 
jar. 

Raspberry and Currant Preserve 

6 lbs. currants 6 lbs. sugar 

8 quarts raspberries 

Pick over, wash, and drain currants. Put into a preserv- 
ing kettle, adding a few at a time, and mash. Cook one 
hour, strain through double thickness of cheese-cloth. Re- 
turn to kettle, add sugar, heat to boiling-point, and cook 
slowly twenty minutes. Add one quart raspberries when 
syrup again reaches boiling-point, skim out raspberries, put 
in jar, and repeat until raspberries are used. Fill jars tO 
ovexiiowin^ mth syrup, aad screw on tops. 



582 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Brandied Peaches 
1 peck peaches Half their weight in sugar 

1 quart high-proof alcohol or brandy 

Eemove skins from peaches, and put alternate layers of 
peaches and sugar in a stone jar ; then add alcohol. Cover 
closely, having a heavy piece of cloth under cover of jar. 

Tutti-Fnitti 

Put one pint brandy into a stone jar, add the various 
fruits as they come into market ; to each quart of fruit add 
the same quantity of sugar, and stir the mixture each morn- 
ing until all the fruit has been added. Raspberries, straw- 
berries, apricots, peaches, cherries, and pineapples are the 
best to use. 

Canned Red Peppers 

Wash one peck red peppers, cut a slice from stem end of 
each, and remove seeds ; then cut in thin strips by working 
around and around the peppers, using scissors or a sharp 
vegetable knife. Cover with boiling water, let stand two 
minutes, drain, and plunge into ice-water. Let stand ten 
minutes, again drain, and pack solidly into pint glass jars. 
Boil one quart vinegar and two cups sugar fifteen minutes. 
Pour over peppers to overflow jars, cover, and keep in a 
cold place. 

Preserved Melon Rind 

Pare and cut in strips the rind of ripe melons. Soak in 
alum water to cover, allowing two teaspoons powdered alum 
to each quart of water. Heat gradually to boiling-point 
and cook slowly ten minutes. Drain, cover with ice-water, 
and let stand two hours ; again drain, and dry between 
towels. Weigh, allow one pound sugar to each pound of 
fruit, and one cup water to each pound of sugar. Boil sugar 
and water ten minutes. Add melon rind, and cook until 
tender. Eemove rind to a stone jar, and cover with syrup. 
Two lemons cut in slices may be cooked ten minutes in the 
syrup. 



THE CANNING OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 583 

Tomato Preserve 

1 lb. yellow pear tomatoes 2 ozs, preserved Canton ginger 

1 lb. sugar 2 lemons 

Wipe tomatoes, cover with boiling water, and let stand 
until skins may be easily removed. Add sugar, cover, and 
let stand overnight. In the morning pour off syrup and 
boil until quite thick ; skim, then add tomatoes, ginger, 
and lemons which have been sliced and the seeds removed. 
Cook until tomatoes have a clarified appearance. 

BY THE COLD PACK METHOD 

The Cold Pack Method is so named because the product 
is cool when packed into its container. Fruits and vege- 
tables canned by the Cold Pack Method are properly selected 
and prepared, then sterilized a required length of time in 
their containers. 

There are thirteen distinct steps in the process : 

1. Grade product. (By product is meant the article to 

be canned.) 

2. Prepare product. 

3. Wash product. 

4. Blanch vegetables and hard fruits by boiling, scald- 

ing, or steaming. Do not blanch berries or soft 
fruits. 

5. Plunge product in cold water. This is called the 

"cold dip." 

6. Pack in jars. 

7. To fruits add syrup ; to vegetables add hot water and 

salt. 

8. Adjust rubbers and covers. 

9. Partially tighten covers. 

10. Sterilize or "process" product required length of 

time. 

11. Remove jar from boiling water. 

12. Tighten cover of jar. 

13. Invert jar to cool. 



584 BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL COOK BOOK 

Explanation of Steps in the Cold Pack Process 

Grading. Fruit and vegetables should be fresh, free from 
decay, and as nearly uniform in shape and state of ripeness 
as is possible. Wilted fruits or vegetables cannot be guar- 
anteed to keep. Use imperfect fruit for jams. Can vege- 
tables as soon as picked and fruit the same day as picked. 

Preparation of Vegetables. Vegetables to be canned are 
prepared in the same way as when cooked for the table. 
When the can is opened, the contents will be ready to use. 

Washing. Vegetables are in danger of spoiling if dirt or 
foreign substances of any kind remain on them. They must 
be thoroughly cleaned by washing or wiping before being 
blanched. 

Blanching. Blanching is the term used to designate the 
process of short cooking before the product is put into its 
container. To blanch the fruit or vegetable place a quantity 
sufficient to fill one jar in a wire basket, plunge into a large 
kettle of boiling water, and leave the length of time required 
in the time-table for blanching. Use a square yard of 
cheese-cloth with opposite corners tied, if wire basket is not 
at hand. Minutes are counted from the time the water be- 
gins to boil after the product is put into it. Be sure that 
the water reaches all parts of the product. 

If the blanching kettle is filled with fruit, the water be- 
comes chilled and takes so long to come again to the boiling 
point that the fruit becomes soft before it is heated through, 
while the juices of the vegetables are drawn out in the 
water. Therefore, plunge only a small amount of fruit and 
vegetables at a time. 

In steaming, the product is heated by steam but is not 
immersed in water. 

In scalding, the product is plunged into the water. The 
minutes are counted from the time it is immersed without 
waiting for the water to come to the boiling-point. Scalding 
loosens the skins of fruit and vegetables that have to be 
peeled. 



THE CANNING OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 585 

Bl