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Full text of "The menu book; 4th ed. of Practical gastronomy, a menu compiler and register of dishes .."

ALBERT R. MANN 
LIBRARY 



New York State Colleges 

OF 

Agriculture and Home Economics 




Cornell University 



Cornell University Library 
TX 728.S478 
The menu book; 4th ed. of PracW^^^^^ 




82 156 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003582156 



Lemco 

and the Chafing Dish 



Absolutely essential to success in 
Chafing-Dish Cookery, is Lemco. 
All culinary authorities are agreed 
on ,tbis. 

Prime beef stock always ready, 
pure and fresh, Lemco enables 
dainty little dishes to be readily 
prepared, which, without it, would 
be iinpossible or troublesome. 
No added flavour to Lemco, it 
is just pure concentrated beef 
essence which cannot be told 
from fresh beef stock in savoury, 
curry, or ragout. 




"tm 



i!S.Sm!-\- 



Cl)e menu Book 

FOURTH EDITION OF 

PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY 



A MENU COMPILER 

AND REGISTER 

OF DISHES 

JCopyrigUei IS91) 



BY 

C: HERMAN SENN, G.C.A., 

Inspaotop and Consulting Chef, National Training School of 

Cookery, 1892-1908. 

AUTHOR OF "RECHKRCHK COOKERV," "THE NEW CENTURY 

COOKERV BOOK," "RECHERCHE SIDE DISHES/* "THE PRACTICAL 

COOKERY MANUAL," ETC., ETC. 




LONDON, S.W. : 

THE FOOD &■ COOKERY PUBLISHING AGENCY, 

WESTMINSTER. 

mdcdviii. 



PREFACE. 



The ever-growing necessity for variety in our menus 
'mgels us to glean new ideas and fresh help from every 
•^ssible source. 

Vhe object, therefore, of this culinary handbook is in 
the'Bj-st place to assist caterers, restaurateurs, managers, 
maltres d'h6tel, chefs, stewards, head waiters, and house- 
keepers to plan and compile menus of every kind of meal 
with greater ease, and to enable them to have at their 
disposal a k -ge and constant variety of seasonable and 
suitable dishes. 

Every course, from hors-d'oeuvre to dessert, has been 
exhaustively treated ; and the work • is compiled so as 
to give at a glance an almost infinite variety of every 
possible kind of dish that can be introduced into a menu. 

In most cases the - requisite mode of cooking, the 
garniture and style of dressing or dishing up, is briefly 
described. The book should not, however, be confused 
with a book of recipes, for its raison d'Ure is to enable 
1;libse who can cook or superintend cooking to draft 
menus with greater ease, and to give each dish its proper 
French name. 

The adoption of French names in menus has become 
fashionable because most of the typical French dishes 
have become fully naturalised in the kitchens and on 
the tables of this country. It therefore becomes the 
duty of all persons interested in culinary matters to 
know how to describe them in correct French. 

The author can hardly expect that this book will 
bring about a revolution in the customs of gastroilomy, 
but he does hope that its use wUl be the meians of intro- 
ducing greater variety into the daily menus, and, if 
possible, economy in the preparation of dishes. ' Hence 
its mission should, if for no other purpose, prove practical 
and useful to such who .avoid ordinary cookery books 
and fight shy of scientific culinary treatises. If such 
an aim is achieved the author's efforts will be amply 
rewarded. 

The present, enlarged] edition contaiiis a special chapter 
on the Art of Menu Compilation, as well as over 2,000 
additional dishes. 

C. HERMAN SENN. . 



Insist upon 



/<- 



the Best Cocoa. 

( 

VAN 
HOUTEN'S 



is the 

BEST 
GOES FARTHEST. 



tffe 




PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. 



Part i. 






THE MENU. 






PAGE 


The Origin' of Menus . . ; . 


9 


Modern Megus 


lO 


-The Art of Compiling Menus 


12 


Selection of, and naming the Dishes 


14 


When Food is in Season 


16 


Names of Food in English and French 


19 


'Spelling and Pronunciation of Principal Words usee 




in French Menus 


21 


Luncheon and Dfejfiuner Menus 




. 26 


Dinner — Le Diner " . . 




30 


■Specimen Dinner Menus for various 


Seasons 


31 


Royal Menus 




41 


Table d'Hote Menus 




46 


'Private Dinner Menus 




48 


Supper, and Supper Menus . . 




52 


Ball Supper Menus 




55 


Menu with Quotations 




57 


Part ii. ' 




HORS=D'(EUVRE. 




Plain Hors d'CEuvre (Side Dished) 


58 


Hors d'CEuvre Garni 


60 


Part in. 




SOUPS— POTAQES. 




Broths — Bouillons 


68 


Clear Soups — Consommes 


69 


Creams — Crimes "^ . . .... 


80 




. . 


83 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. 



Part iv. 




" ' 


THE FI5H COURSE-LES POISSONS. 


■'■f>.':ri "•;» 


PAGE 


Fish Dishes — Plats de Poissoa 




92 


Cod— Cabillaud 




.. 95 


Herring — Hareng 




.. 98 


Lobster — Homard 




.. 98 


Oysters — Hultres 




; . . . 100 


Mackerel — Maquereau 




. . lOI 


Whiting — ^Merlam 




. . 102 


Red Mullet — Rougets 




. . 104 


Salmon — Saumon 




... 105 


Soles — Soles 




.. 109 


Turbot— Turbot 




.. 119 


Part v. 




SAUCES. 




Alphabetical Order of Sauces 


121 


Part vi. 




QARNITURES. 




Gamishings^for Fish, Meat, and Poultry 


. .. 138 


Part vi 




THE ENTREE COURSE. 




Special Light Entrees and new Vegetable 


Entrees 145 


Light Entries and Hot Side Dishes . 




147 


Timbales and Darioles . . 




.. i^; 


Meat Entrees 




.. 156 


Entr6es of Beef 




.. 158 


Entrees of Veal (du Veau) 




.. 166 


Entries of Lamb (d'Agneau) . . 




.. 176 


Entrfees of Mutton (de Mouton) 




• • ir9 


Entries of Pork (de Pore) 




.. 187 


Entrees of Poultry (de Volaille) 




. . 190 


Entrees of Game (de Gibier) . . 




.. 2 ID 


Cold Entrees (Entries froides) 




. . 222 



Part viii. 

REMOVES— RELEVES. 

Beef — Boeuf 

Pork and Ham — Pore and Jambon . . 

Veal — Veau 

Tui'key — Dinde, Poularde, etc. 



229 

233 
-34 
23s 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. 



Part ix. 
THE VEQETABLE COURSE. 





PAGE 


Artichokes — Artichauts 


• .237 


Asparagus^-Asperges . . 


. 238 


Egg Plants— Aubergines 


. 240 


Carrots — Carottes 


. 241 


Celery— Celeri 


. 24i 


Mushrooms — ChamDiffiions 


• 243 

• 244 


Cabbages — Choux 


Cauliflower — Choux-fleur 


• 245 


Cucumber — Concombre 


. 246 


Endive and Spinach — Epinard 


• 247 


Broad, Haricot, and French Beans . . 


. 248 


Lettuces, Lentils, and Turnips 


. 249 


Green Peas and Onions 


. 250 


Potatoes — Pommes de Terre . . 


• 251 


Salsify and Tomatoes . . , . . . , ... 


■ 257 


-Jerusalem Artichokes and Truffles 


• 259 


' Part x. 




ROAST— ROTI, 





Poultry — Volaille 

Game— Gibier (Wild Poultry) 

iPour-Footed Game 

Part xi. 
SALADS— SALADES. 

Salads — Salades 

Entremets, Notes on 



Part xii. 
THE SWEET COURSE. 



260 
261 
263 



263 
269 



Apricots — Abricots 


. . 270 


Pine Apples— Ananas 


. . 271 


Bananas — Bananes 


. . 272 


Creams and Bavaroises 


. . 272 


Fritters— Beignets, etc. 


■ ■ 274 


Borders — Bordures 


.. 275 


Cherries — Cerises ' . . 


. . 276 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. 



THE SWEET COVRS'E.— continued. 



Charlottes 






PAGE 

. . 276 


Fruit Compotes 






278 


Strawberries — Praises . 






279 


Croutes of Fruit, etc. . 






280 


Jellies — Gelees . . 






280 


Melon — Oranges 






282 


Peaches— P6ches 






283 


Pears — Poires . . 






284 


Apples — Pommes 






285 


Puddings — Poudings . 






286 


Special Sweet Entremets 




^91 


Souffles and Omelettes . . 




292 


Fancy Cakes and Pastry^Gdteaux . 


294 


Ices — Glacis 






298 



Part xiii. 
THE SAVOURY COURSE. 

Fish Savouries . . 

Meat Savouries 

Vegetable Savouries 

Farinaceous and Cheese Savouries 

Special Af ter-Dinner Savouries 

Dessert and Coffee . . 



Part xiv. 
EQQS AND OMELETS. 

Egg Dishes and Omelets 



3H 



PART I. 

THE MENU. 

♦ 

THE ORIGIN OF MENUS. 

Menu is a French word, denoting minute details as 
applied to kitchen bill, bill of fare, table card, or pro- 
gramme of a meal, its object being^to present a list of 
dishes and courses, eatables, and beverages. ' 

Although the kitchen bill of fare is probably as old as 
the art of cooking, our forefathers in past ages had- no 
use or need for menus ; they contented themselves with 
merely looking at the dishes to judge the nature of the 
viands as they were brought to table. 

Ancient Rome, and all her glories, according to history, 
had enormous feasts and expensive banquets. Untold 
wealth was lavished on foods and drinks, and its 
culinary triumphs were incomparable to our modern 
gastronomic feasts, yet no mention is made of a menu 
or bill of fare being in use in those days. 

The use of menus was first heard of as being adopted - 
for table use in 1541, when, at a banquet given by the 
Duke Henry- of Brunswick, his Grace was seen to have 
a sheet of paper by the side of his plate, to which he 
occasionally referred. One of the duke's guests asked 
what the paper was for, and on its being explained that 
it was a sort of programme of what they were going to 
eat, and by looking through it he could reserve his appe- 
tite for those dishes he liked best, the idea was so much 
admired that it soon became generally known and 
adopted. The old-fashioned bills of fare were usually 
written on large cards gaudily ornamented with gastro- 
nomic symbols, etc. ; they were, however, of such a size 
that only one copy could be conveniently placed at each 
end of the table. 

Another version is that Count Hugo de Montfort, at 
a dinner given in the year- 1498, was noticed to have a 
piece of written parchment near his plate, which he 
frequently consulted, and when asked what it was he 



10 THE MENU BOOK. 

explained that he had ordered the head cook to write 
on it the various dishes that were being sent from the 
kitchen. 

The size of these parchments and paper lists gradually 
diminished, and, as they became smaller, larger numbers 
were placed at the table, until the present form of menu 
was generally introduced, when each guest is provided 
with a written or printed menu card. 

Modern Menus. 

Modern menus, as a rule, are much more prettily got 
up than those of olden times. In the matter of material 
for menus, white paper is mostly used, but more expensive 
material is also employed. I have seen some made of 
silk, papier-mache ; some in the form of shells, books, 
almanacks, cigars, cigarettes, matchboxes, newspapers, 
maps, post-cards, bank-notes, blank covers, envelopes, 
etc. Menus in the shape of envelopes are particularly 
pretty, and now very much in favour. One takes the 
form of a small, deUcately-coloured envelope of thin 
cardboard, decorated with gold ; the flap is engraved 
with a motto, crest, name of host or hostess, some flowers, 
or a knife and fork crossed, and a sprig of herbs; the 
post-mark is " Bon App6tit." On the address side is 
a stamp in gold, with some gastronomic design, and a 
post-mark bearing the name of the place where the meal 
is given, with the respective date and name of the diner. 
The enclosure is, of course, the menu itself. 

Hand-painted menus on paper, parchment, and satin 
are in great favour in all society circles. Some of the 
newest have a miniature of the host or hostess painted 
in the centre, and are occasionally the work of noted 
artists. 

In England, America, and France much art and 
luxury have been lavished on menu cards. Parchment 
of the Middle Ages competes with Japanese rice-paper. 
Some menus, with their seals and ribbons, are like a 
charter of nobility, whilst others are in the form of 
beautiful miniature fans. 

For some time there has been a reaction against extra- 
vagant luxury, which is being replaced by a simpUcitj- 
not less excessive. Sometimes the names of the dishes 
are written by hand on thick paper, without any orna- 
mentation. As usual, the best kind are between these 



MODERN. MENUS. ii 

excesses of ostentation and severity. Menus of out-of- 
the-way and awkward shapes are at all times to be 
avoided, because they encumber the table, and are 
difficult to consult. 



Skint dA Afffi^ A- J^ 'vniC<MUAici£: 






&3fijdjslOUi ^jCA^MimMaaji . 



SX^sicAo j^iaAUfieVCea . 



A TYPICAL FRENCH DINNER MENU. 

Without microscopical print, they should be suffi- 
ciently small to be readable without much difficulty, 
and not add to the embarrassment caused by a succession 
of glasses and other articles on the table. The menu 
card is a simple accessory, and should be treated as such. 
This rule ought to be taken into consideration when 
ordering the menu cards. 



12 THE MENU BOOK. 

The Art of Compiling Menus. 

To be able to compose or construct a menu is an art 
learnt only by experience ; it is by no means as easy 
as some people imagine. 

But few of the guests partaking of an elaborately 
prepared banquet have any idea of the amount of skill 
that is devoted to the composition of the menu, selecting 
choice provisions, and planning the dishes so that all 
have the desired harmonising effect which bring about 
the gastronomic success of the banquet. It is, of course, 
comparatively easy to make out a menu for a luncheon 
or a small dinner consisting merely of soup, fish, joint, 
vegetable, and a sweet— for such presents no difficulty 
to the average cook or housekeeper. 

But when it comes to arranging a first-class and well- 
planned dinner of recherche character, it is quite a 
different matter, for then every course, from the hors- 
d'ceuvre to the entremets, present more or less difficulties, 
especially tg. J^ose inexperienced in the art of menu 
composition. There are many hard-and-fast rules in the 
gasfi-onomic laws which must be observed if one is to 
attain success, for a badly-composed menu is likely to 
spoil the best dinner. That great gastronomic and 
culinary artist, Brillat-Savarin, truly said : " Menu nial 
fait, diner perdu." 

To be able to plan or compile a recherche luncheon, 
dinner or supper, is regarded as a high accomplishment, 
for, as already stated, much of the success of a. repast 
depends upon its menu. 

The arrangement of an elaborate dinner is an art in 
itself, and consists in selecting the various courses so 
that the dishes harmonise with each other ; the chief 
requirements being that : — 

1. Each dish shall be different in composition and 
inode of cooking. 

2. The composition of the individual dishes must be 
excellent ; while they should be well cooked, tastefully 
dressed, and yet distinct in character. 

3. The harmonising effect is obtained by so arranging 
the dishes that each one is distinct from the other, bearing 
no relation in appearance to the preceding or following 
dishes. 

4. A judicious selection of the raw materials, having 



THE ART OF COMPILING MENUS. 13 

regard to the season of the year, must be made in all 
cases, else the menu of a meal may easily be marred. 




IS99 fiiesicr nua 
superior dry 



1888 ChGlcau Rloiiioil 
Roisdiilil SiMol 



b'i^mn 




Caolar frals 
Consomme am qusnellcs kuMa 

Cruile au bleu 
See. bordeaux rouge 

Foie d'ole sauii 

la j/iirSe'Soubisc' 

CImbale Gourjoin 

Conard rouennis 

Solade romaine 

Compole 

SooffiS rculs a I'flncnas 

Welsh Rarebit 

Frails 

(Bocca 



3 0(%i!)re I'l 







MBND OF A BECHEECHfi PRIVATE DINNER. 



14 THE MENU BOOK. 

5. The various meats and other more important 
materials forming one course must not be repeated in 
the same menu from one course to another. 

6. The various kinds of sauces employed in the pre- 
parations, and serving as accompaniments to the dishes, 
must each be distinctly different in colour, taste, and 
flavour. 

It is well to remember that tne true estimate of the 
value of a menu as a literary composition is not always 
obtained by observing the attention given to it by the 
guest at a dinner table, for at such a time the average 
diner is engaged in concentrating his whole mind on a 
rapid analysis of the good things present and to come. 
It is often later, in some leisured moment, that the menu 
is read with a critical eye, and if found the least worthy 
from a literary point of view, is treasured as an interesting 
souvenir of a memorable occasion. 

Menus are planned for every meal, breakfast, luncheon, 
dinner, and supper, but of all these the dinner menu is 
of the greatest importance, and the most difficult. 

For special occasions, such as ball suppers, dinner or 
luncheon parties, etc., the menu is usually prepared a 
day or more in advance, so that the needful provisions 
may be purchased and other necessary arrangements 
made, thus allowing ample leisure to get everything 
ready in good time, and avoiding much confusion when 
the moment for cooking and serving arrives. 

The menu, it is hardly necessary to say, must in all 
cases be strictly followed. 

Selection of Dishes. 

In compiling a menu it is necessary to study the variety 
of dishes, and their selection, for each dish should vary- 
both in colour and taste from those served before or after. 
The character of dishes must be retained throughout ; 
sauces (except sauces served with fish) should correspond 
in taste and colour with the viands with which they 
are intended to be served. If two soups appear on a 
menu, one ought to be clear and the other thick ; should 
the thick soup be a pur6e of vegetables, the clear 
soup must contain no vegetable roots as garnishing. 

When two or more fish are to be served, the first, as 
a rule, is boiled, and generally a large fish, such as turbot, 
salmon, cod, etc. ; the next one would be a small fish. 



NAMING THE DISHES. 15 

either fried or broiled. Whitebait are often served as a 
third dish. 

The entrfees should always be so classified that light 
dishes, such as rissoles, bouchees, croquettes, quenelles, 
kromeskis, etc., are served first, 

If there are two removes, poultry is served before the 
butcher's meat. 

The cardinal point is to have all dressed removes 
served before the plain roasted ones. 

What is called the second service on a menu includes 
the roast, the savoury, and the sweet entremets, the 
dessert, and cheese. When two or more sweets are 
served, the first one should be hot and the other cold. 

If fancy savouries are given, they come in after the 
sweets, for they are intended to prepare the palate for 
the choice wines which usually follow a good dinner. 

Naming the Dishes. 

In preparing a bill of fare for a large dinner, it is advis- 
a)3le to avoid such dishes as are difficult to dress when 
done in a great number, for they will cause complication 
and needless confusion in the kitchen, and often lead to 
disorganised service. It is also most unwise to use 
new names of dishes which are not known, or which 
may be known under a different title, for they will only 
puzzle the diner, who might not know the standard 
names of old dishes. Avoid also the use of pompous 
names of dishes, especially when inexpensive in character, 
for they often lead to confusion and disappointment. 
The names of high-standing personalities, towns, 
countries, etc., are applied in connection with many 
dishes ; the French cuisine especially has the names 
given to dishes in honour of men who gained their 
celebrity either by their talent as diplomats, states- 
men, soldiers, artists, or such as have distinguished 
themselves by their gastronomic or epicurean merits. 
Hence we have such names in connection with certp,in 
dishes as LucuUus, Savarin, Louis XV., Soubise, 
Richelieu, Cardme, Maintenon, Cond6, Colbert, .Villeroy, 
Talleyrand, Nesselrode, Demidoff, Marie-LOuise, Montglas. 
Victoria, etc. 

These names, as well as very many others registered, in 
this book, are associated with various culinary preparations, 
and are recognised by cooks of all nations. 



1 6 THE MENU BOOK. 

There are, unfortunately, some cooks in the habit of 
altering the genuine names of dishes, to which they 
apply some other high-sounding names, in order to 
make themselves famous, but they only succeed in 
making themselves look ridiculous in the eyes of a 
real gourmet, who is not likely to be thus deceived. 
If, however, the composition of a certain dish is due 
to the talent and initiative of a cook, then the case 
is different, and he or she will have a perfect right 
to name such a dish according to his fancy. 

The foregoing remarks show that the composition of 
a menu may mar or make the success of a dinner. 
Defectively composed menus can often compromise the 
reputation of a good chef. Although the menu may be 
of little use to some people, it is indispensable to con- 
noisseurs who understand the language of the kitchen, 
for they will be able to judge the kind of dinner on 
analysing the menu, and by so doing be able to give 
their verdict as to the capacity of the chef, according to 
the arrangement of the dishes and the combination of 
the viands. 

WHEN FOOD IS IN SEASON. 

Arr.\nged i^ Alphabeticai, Order. 

The following is a table showing the period when the 
principal foods are in prime condition and best obtainable 
m the markets. 

When marketing it is well to remember that the food 
most seasonable is usually that which is most plentiful, 
most wholesome, and as a rule the most reasonable in 
price. It is well to remember that a number of the 
articles named can be had at almost any time of the 
year, though not, strictly speaking, in season. 

Apples . . . . . . September to May 

Apricots . . . . . . August to September 

Artichokes (Globe) . . Januarj' to April 

Artichokes (Jerusalem) . . October to February 

Asparagus (Giant). . .. February to July 

Asparagus (Sprue) . . January to July 

Barberries . . . . . . September to November 

Barbel . . . . . . August to February 

Bass . . . . . . May to September 

Blackberries . . . . September to October 

Black Cock . . . . October to December 

Broad Beans . . . . July to August 

Broccoli Sprouts . . . . October to March 



WHEN FOOD IS IN SEASON. 



17 



Brussels Sprouts. 

bullaces 

Capsicums . . 

Carp 

Carrots (New) 

Cauliflowers 

Celeriac 

Celery 

Cherries 

Cherries (Montreal) 

Chestnuts . . 

Chickens, Spring , 

Cygnets (Norfolk) 

Cobnuts 

Codfish 

Cranberries 

Crawfish 

Crayfish 

Cucumb|;rs . . 

Currants, English 

(red, white, and blaclc 
Currants, French 
Damsons 
-Dawsons 
Ducks, Wild 
Ducklings . . 
Eels 
Endive 
Fieldfare . . 
Figs, Green 
Filberts 
Flageolets . . 
Flounders . , 
Foie-Gras . . 
Fowl, Wild 
French Beans 
Geese 

Geese, Wild 
Gooseberries, Green 
Gooseberries, Ripe 
Goslings 
Grapes, Almeira 
Grapes, French 
Greengages 
Grouse 
Halibut 
Hares 

Hares, Grey 
Herrings, Fresh 
Indian Corn 
John Dories 
Kale 



September to February 
September to November 
Septenlber to October 
July to February 
May to June 
March to November 
October to March 
September to February 
June to September 
May to August ■ 
November to January 
April to June 
May to July ■ 
September to February • 
September to February ' 
November to January 
May to July •■ 
July to February • 
May -to September 
June to September 

May to July - 
September to October 
September to October ' 
August to March 
March to September 
September to May 
November to March 
November to February ■ 
August to September 
August to October 
May to August >, 
August to April ■ 
October. to April' 
August to March • 
July to October 
September to February 
September to March- 
April to May 
June to July 
March to September 
October to April 
September to October 
July to September 
August to December * 
May to January 
August to March 
October to December - 
July to February 
August to December 
July to April " 
December to March • 



i8 



THE MENU BOOK. 



Lamb 

Landrails . . 
Larks 

Lettuces, English 
Lettuces, French 
Leverets 
Lobsters 
Mackerel 
Maize 
Medlars 
Melons (Hothouse) 
Melons, Rock 
Melons, Spanish Water- 
Mulberries 

Mullet, Grey and Red 
Mushrooms 
Mussels 
Nectarines . . 
Oranges 

Oranges, Seville . . 
Ortolans . . 
Oysters 
Parsnips 
Partridges . . 
Partridges, Foreign 
Peaches 
Pears 

Pears, Californian 
Peas, English, Green 
Perch 

Pheasants . . 
Pigeons, BorIjeaux 
Pike 

Pines, St. Michael's 
Pintail 
Plaice 

Plovers' Eggs 
Plovers, Golden and Grey 
Plums, English 
Plums, French 
Pomegranates 
Pork . . 

Potatoes, New Kidney 
Ptarmigans . . 
Prairie Hens 
Prawns 
Pumpkins . . 
Quails 
Quinces 
Raspberries 
Red Cabbage 
Reeves 



January to July 
October to February 
August to February 
April to September 
December to March ■ 
August to March ^ 
July to September 
April to December 
August to December - 
September to October 
August to September ■ 
August to September 
October to March 
August to September - 
July to October 
March to October 
August to March •. 
August to October ■ 
November to June s 
February to March > 
June to August » 
September to April 
September to April 
September to Februarj' 
February to June ' 
August to October 
August to December 
November to April ^ 
August to September 
July to February 
October to February 
August to April 
July to February 
October to April 
September to March ■ 
May to January • 
April to May - 
August to March - 
August to September 
July to August 
October to November 
September to April 
March to May 
December to May • 
February to April • 
April to August 
September to October 
June to August 
October to November 
June to September 
September to Jauuarj' 
August to September - 



NAMES OF FOOD IN ENGLISH &■ FRENCH. 19 



Rhubarb, Forced 
Rhubarb, Natural 
Ruffs 
Shrimps 
Salmon 
Salsify 
Savoys^ 

Scarlet Runners. 
Scallops 
Skate 
Snipe 
Spinach 
Sprats 

Strawberries 
Sturgeon, Royal . 
Tangerine Oranges 
Teal 
Tench 
Tomatoes 
Trout 
Turkeys 
.Vegetable Marrow 
Venison 
Walnuts 
Whitebait 
Whiting 
Widgeons 
Woodcocks 



December to May ■ 
April to July 
August to Septernber ' 
April to September 
February to October 
Defcember to March 
October to March ' 
July to October ■ 
October to April ■ 
October to May ■ 
August to March • 
March to December 
November to April-- 
June to September 
September to March • 
November to February 
September to March - 
July to February 
March to December 
February to September 
September to February 
August to October * 
May to October 
September to December 
February to August 
May to January 
August to March 
August to March 



NAMES OP FOOD IN ENQUSH AND FRENCH, 



English. 
Anchovy 
Artichoke 
Asparagus 
Bacon 
Beans 
Beef 
Beetroot 
Brains 
Broccoli 
Brussels 

sprouts 
Butter 
Cabbage 
Calf's head 
Caper 
Capon 
Cardoon 
Carrbt 
Cauliflowei 
Caviare 
Celery 



French. 
A nchois 
Artichaut 
Asperges 
Lard 
Fives, haricots 



Bett^rave 

Cervelles 

Brocoli 

Chou de Brux- 

elles 
Beurre 
Chou 

Tete de Veau 
Cdpre 
Chapon 
Cardan 
Carotte 
Chpufleur 
Caviar 
Celeri 



English. 


French 


Cheese 


Frontage 


Chicken 


Poulet 


Chic-chicken 


Poussin 


Cod 


Cabillaud 


Cod (salt) 


Morue 


Cos lettuce 


Romaine 


Coffee 


Cafe 


Cress 


Cresson 


Cucumber 


Concombre 


Cutlet 


Cotelette 


Duck 


Canard 


Duckling 


Caneton 


Eel 


Anguille 


Egg 


CEuf 


Egg-plant 


A uiergine 


Endive 


Chicorie 


Fillet 


Filet 


Fish ■ 


Poisson 


Game 


Gibier 


Garlic 


Ail 


Gherkin 


Cornichon 



THE MENU BOOK. 



Goose 


Die 


Poultry 


Volaille 


Goose-liver 


Foie-Cras 


Pullet 


Poularde 


Gosling 


Oison 


Pumpkin 


Potiron 


Grey mullet 


■ Mulet 


Rabbit 


Lapin 


Gudgeon 


Goujon 


Radish 


Radis 


Guinea-fowl Pintade 


Red mullet 


Rouget 


Haddock 


Merluche 


Rib 


Cote 


Halibut 


Fletan ' 


Roe 


Laitance 


Ham 


Jambon 


Saddle 


Selle 


Hare 


Lievre 


Sago 


Sagou 


Herring 


Hareng 


Salmon 


Saumon 


Horseradish 


Raifort 


Salt 


Sel 


Kale 


Chou-frise 


Sausage 


Saucisse 


Kidney 


Rdgnon 


Seakale 


Chou de mer 


Lamb 


Agneau 


Semolina 


Semoule 


Lark 


Mauvietie 


Sirloin 


A loyeau 


Leek 


Poireau 


Skate 


Raie 


Lettuce 


Laitue 


Smelt 


Eperlan 


Liver 


Foie 


Snail 


Escargot 


Lobster 


Homard 


Snipe 


Becassine 


Mackerel 


Maquereau 


Soft roes 


Laitances 


Meat 


Viande 


Sorrel 


Oseille 


Milk 


Lait 


Spinach 


Epinard 


Mushroom 


Champignon 


Sturgeon 


Esturgeon 


Mussels 


Monies .j 


Sucking Pig 


Cochon de lait 


Mustard 


Moutarde 


Sugar 


Sucre 


Mutton 


Mouton 


Sweetbread 


Ris de veau 


Onion 


Oignon 


Teal 


Sarcelle 


Ox-tail 


Queue deBoeuj 


' Tongue 


Langue 


Oyster 


Huitre 


Trout 


Truite 


Parsley 


Persil 


Truffles 


Truffes 


Parsnip 


Panais 


Turkey 


Dinde 


Partridge 


Perdrix 


Turnip 


Navet 


Peas 


Pais 


Turtle - 


Tortue 


Pheasant 


Faisan 


Veal 


Veau 


Pigeon 


Pigeon 


Vegetable 


Courge d la 


Plaice 


Plie 


marrow 


moelle 


Plover 


Phwier 


Vegetables 


Legumes 


Plum 


Prune 


Venison 


Venaison 


Pork-chop 


Cotelette di 


Whitebait 


Blanchaille 




pore 


Whiting 


Mertans 


Potato 


Pomme de 


Widgeon 


Sarcelle 




ierre 


Woodcock 


Btcasse 




Fruit. 




Almond 


A mande 


Currant liaison de 


Angelica 


A ngelique 




Corinl/ie 


Apple 


Pomme 


Damson Prune de damas 


Apricot 


Abricot 


Date Datte 


Banana 


Banane 


Fig Figue 


Cherry 


Cerise 


Gooseberry GroseiUe 


Chestnut 


Marron 


Grape Raisin 


Cranberry 


Airelh 


Greengage Reine-Claudf 



SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 

Plum Prune 

Prune Pruneau 

Quince Coing 

Raisin Raisin sec 

Raspberries Framboises 

Rliubarb Rhubarbe 

Strawberry Praise 

Tomato Tomat 

Pineapple Ananas Walnuts Noix 



Lemon 


Citron 


Medlar 


Nifle 


Melon 


Melon 


Mulberry- 


Mure 


Nut 


Noix 


Orange 


Orange 


Peach 


Peche 


Pear 


Poir 



SPELLINQ AND PRONUNCIATION OF 
PRINCIPAL WORDS USED IN FRENCH MENUS. 

Tlie custom of writing menus for lunclieons, dinners 
or suppers is one of long standing, not only in this country, 
but in all parts of the civilised world, although there are 
many people who regard it with a certain amount of 
prejudice. Those who go abroad or frequent first-class 
hotels, clubs, and restaurants, are familiarised with the 
langue de cuisine ; but the occasional diner is frequently 
at a loss to understand not only the terms and phrases 
used in the compilation of the menu, but also their 
correct pronunciation. It is a recognised fact that we 
owe much of the advancement and development of 
cookery to the French, who excel in the culinary art ; 
and with the introduction of Special dishes and processes 
of food preparation, we have also to a certain extent 
become acquainted with many of the ordinary culinary 
terms used in the French fawgwoge, which, as far as menus 
are concerned, has -become the fashion, notwithstanding 
the inconvenience which the average Englishman feels 
in consequence, tt is, however, a matter of difficulty to 
give the correct rendering of the phonetic pronunciation 
of French words, on account of there being in English no 
equivalents in many instances for the sounds in French. 

The accents must receive especial attention in writing 
or reading menus, as the meaning of a word may be 
completely changed by its use or omission. At the 
same time, it must be observed that there is, in general, 
no especial stress of voice on any one syllable in French, 
even when an accent is placed over a letter in that 
syllable. The accent determines the sound or pronun- 
ciation of the letter alone. 

The following suggestions and explanations having 
reference to the various courses comprising a luncheon 
or dinner menu may prove helpful, not only in the 
compilation of the latter, but also as an aid to the correct 
interpretation and pronunciation * of the phraseology 
generally in vogue. 

* It ,is, however, impossible to give exact equivalents to the French «, 
the e in many instances, the ot, and the om. Our phonetic rendering is 
approximate only. - 



22 THE MENU BOOK. 

The following are a few examples of the names of 
dishes and words used in French menus, with their 
approximate pronunciations : — 

Aigre (ehgr), souy, acid or piquant. 

Aigrefin (eh-gre-fan), haddock. 

k la diable (ah lah dee-abl), devilled. 

k la (AH lah), in the style of ; after the manner of. 

Alose (ah-lose), shad. 

Aloyau (al-oy-yo), sirloin of beef. 

Alouette (al-ou-et), lark. 

Ananas (an-a"n-ah), pineapple. 

Anguille (an-geeye), eel. 

Aspic (ahs-pke'k), savoury jelly. 

au bleu (o bluh), stewed in wine or in vinegar and water, 
with herbs. 

au gratin (o grah-tan), scalloped. 

au kari (o karee), curried. 

au maigre (o mehgr), dish in which no meat is used. 

au naturel (o nah-tu-rehl), uncooked or boUed in water. 

Baba (bahbah), spongy yeast cake like savarin, but con- 
taining currants, or soaked in rum syrup. 

Bfearnaise (ber-nehz), rich white herb sauce with egg-yolk 
liaison. 

Becasse (beh-kas), woodcock. 

Bechamel (beh-shah-mel), French rich white sauce — the 
premier foundation sauce. 

Beignets (bayn-yeh), fritters. 

Beurre-noir (berr-nooahr), butter cooked to a brown colour. 

Bisque (beesq), thick soup, made from shell fish. 

Blanchailles (blan-shy), whitebait. 

Bouch6es (boo-shay), small puff paste patties filled with 
minced meat, fish, etc. 

Bouilli (boo-ee), fresh boiled beef. 

Brais6 (breh-zeh), a combination of roasting and stewing. 

Broche (broh-sh), roasted before a fire on the spit. 

Brunoise (bruh-nuwahs), a class of French thick soups. 
, Cabillaud (cab-ee-yo), codfish. 

Cafe (kah-feh), coffee. 

Caille (kiey), quail. 

Canard (can-ar), duck. 

Caneton (can-ehton), duckling. 

Celeri (seh-le-ree), celery. 

Cerises (ser-ease), cherries. 

Canape (kah-nah-peh), fried or toasted pieces of bread. 

Cepes (sehp), a species of large mushroom. 

Cervelle de veau (serve-el-de-vo), calf's brains. 

Champignons (cham-i>een-yon), mushrooms. 

Chartreuse (shar-trerrz), a liqueur, also a mould of 
savoury meat and vegetable or sweet. 

Chaudfroid (shoh-frwa), a name for dishes which are 
prepared hot, coated with sauce, dressed, and served cold, 
usually garnished with aspic and truffles, etc. 



SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 23 

Chevreuil (shev-retjye), roebuck, roe-deer. 

Chicor6e au jus (she-co-reh-oh ju), endive stewed in stock. 

Choux (shoo), cabbages. 

Civet de.Lidvre (see-vay de Lee-ehvre), jugged hare. 

Colbert (kholbehr), a French clear soup and certain other 
dishes, named after Jean Baptiste Colbert, a clever states- 
man in the reign of Louis XIV. of France, 1619-1683. 

Compote (kom-poht), stewed fruit or game. 

Consoinm6 (kon-some-meh), clear gravy soup, clarified 
double stock. 

Coquilles (coquee), light fish or meat entrees served in 
shells. 

CrSme Crevette (crayme crev-et), shrimp soup. 

Crfepes (CREHPE),- pancakes. 

Croquette (kroh-ket), Savoury minced shapes rolled in 
breadcrumbs and fried. 

Croutons (kroo-ton), sippets of fried bread. 

Dejeuner (deh-jerr-neh), 7«»cA or luncheon. 

Dinde (dand), hen turkey. 

Dindon (dandon), young turkey or turkey poult. 

Ecrevisse (eh-crev-esse), crayfish. 

Entree (on-treh), a course of dressed dishes, or side dish 
for the first course. 

Entremets (entreumeh), name of a course of dishes com- 
prising sweets and savouries, 

Epaule d'agneau (eh-pole dan-yo), shoulder of lamb. 

Eperlan (ehper-lan), smelt. 

Epinard (ehpin-ar), spinach. 

Faisan (fay-san), pheasant. 

Farce (farce), stuffing or forcemeat. 

Feves (fayve), broad beans. 

Filet de bceuf (fee-leh de-beuf), fillet of beef. 

Foie de veau (fwa de-vo), calf's liver. 

Fondue (fon-du), cheese melted with butter and served hot. 

Fraises (frayze), strawberries. 

FriciTssee (free-kah-seh), a white stew of fish or poultry. 

Frites (freet), fried. 

Gateaux (gahto), cakes. 

Gelee (jeh-leh), jelly.' 

Gigot de Mouton (gee-go de mooton), leg of mutton. 

Glace (glahs), ice. 

Glace (glah-seh), iced or glazed. 

Goujon (goojon), gudgeon.. 

Grive (grebve), thrush. 

Gras Double (graa doobl), tripe. 

Hachis~(HAH-SHEE), hash or mince. ^ 

Haricot (hah-ree-koh), haricot beans or meat stewf4 with 

vegetables. 
Haricots (arry-co), beans. 
Homard (ome-ar), lobster. 



54 THE MENU BOOK. 

Hors-d'a3Uvre (or-derrvr), small relishes with which 

luncheon or dinner begins — appetisers. 
Hultre (WEETRE), oyster. 
Jambon aux epiuards (jambon oes ay-peen-ar), ham 

with spinach. 
Julienne (juh-lee-en), finely shredded vegetables used for 

clear soup, etc. 
Jus (juh), gravy ; liquid unthickened seasoning for roast 

meat, etc. 
Kromeskies (kroh-mes-kees), chopped meat fried in batter. 
Langouste (lan-gooste), crawfish or rock lobster. 
Lapereaux (lap-er-roh), rabbits. 
Laitue (leh-tu), lettuce, served plain or braised. 
Lapin sautfe (la-pan-so-teh), stewed rabbit. 
Maquereau (mac-er-ro), mackerel. 
Mauviettes (mauvi-yet), larks. 
Mayonnaise (my-yo-nehz), the principal salad sauce, 

composed of yolk of egg, oil, and vinegar. 
Menu (MEH-NEU), bill of fare or list of dishes. 
Meringue (meh-rang-g), light-baked egg crust made with 

frosted white of egg and sugar. 
Merlan (iwARE-LAij), whiting. 
Merluche (mare-luche), smoked haddock. 
Morue (more-u), salt cod. 
Navet (nav-ay), turnips. 
Noix (nwa), walnuts. 
Noisettes (nwa-set), nuts. 

Nougat (noo-gah), edible paste of sugar and almonds. 
Oie (wa), goose. 
Oseille (o-zay), sorrel. 
Pate (pah-t), paste of meat, fish or fruit. 
Pat6 (PAH-TEH), pie, patty. 
Peche (PEYSH), peach. 
Petits four (puh-tee foor), small pastry of the sponge cake 

variety, decorated with sugar, etc. 
Petits pois (PUH-TEE PWA), peas. 
Perdreaux (pear-drow), partridges. 
Pidce de resistance (pee-es de reh-zees-tons). tite 

principal dish of the meal. 
Pintade (pan-tahd), guinea fowl. 
Poire (pwar), pear. 
Pommes (pohm), apples. 
Pommes Pailles (pohm p:e), potato straws. 
Pommes de Terre (pohm de tare), potatoes 
Pommes Nouvelles (pohm noovel), new potatoes 
Pommes Rissolees (pohm ree-sole-ay), olivc-shaiieJ 

potatoes browned in butter. '^ 

Potage a I'oseiUe (potaaj ah lo-say), acream soub 

with sorrel as garmsh. '^ 

Potage Parmentier (potaaj par-mon-tyay). potato cream 

soup, so-called because Parmentier introduced potatoes 

into France. '^ 



, SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 35 

Potage petite marmite (potaaj pee-tee mar-meat), Beef 

broth vegetables, served in small earthen pots with garnish. 
Potage a la Reine (potaaj ah la ren), Chicken puree 

with cream, garnished with small fried bread croHtons. 
Potage St. Germain (san-jer-man), green pea soup with 

cream. 
Potage k la Soubise (soo-beese), puree of omons. 
Potage au tomates (oh-to-mat), tomato puree (filtered 

soup), 
Poularde au riz (poo-lard o ree), boiled chicken with 

rice. 
Poule au pot (pool o po), a fowl boiled and served with 

bourgeois sauce. 
Poulet saute (pool-ay so-teh), joints of chicken saute, 

with mushrooms, etc. 
Pruneaux au riz (prune-o o ree), prunes with rice. 
Prunes (preun), prunes. 
Pur6e (puh-reh), pulp of vegetables or fruit. 

Quartier de pre sale (pray-sal-eh), fore-quarter of South- 
down mutton. 

Quenelles (quh-nel), pounded meat, poultry or fish mixed 
with panade and poached in- stock. 

Ragout (rah-goo), brown stew of meat or poultry. 

Raie (reh), skate. 

Raisin (ra^san), grapes: 

Rechauffe (reh-shoh-feh), cold meat warmed up. 

Ris-de-veau a la jardiniere (ree-de-vo), sweetbreads gar- 
nished with vegetables. 

Rissoles (ree-sohl), half-moon shapes of fried minced 
pastry containing meat, fish, poultry or game. 

Rognons (rohn-yon), kidneys. 

Rouget (roo-jeh), red mullet. 

Salmis (sahl-mee), a rich brown stew of game. 
Saute (soh-teh), tossed in butter ; cooked rapidly. 
Souffle (sou-fLeh), pu-ffed ; applied to very light culinary 

preparations. 
Soupe au choux (soop o shoo), cabbage soup with cream 

liaison (thickened with cream). 
Soupe au lait (soop o leh), milk soup thickened with 

potato puree. 
Soupe a i'oignon (soop ah lun-yon), onion soup. 

Terrine (teh-eeen), earthen dish ; term applied to dishes 

served in such a vessel. 
Tete de veau (teht de vo), calf's head. 
Timbale- (tam-bal), thimble-shaped moulds applied to 

crusted hash, purees, etc., baked or steamed. 
Thon (ton), tunny-fish. 
Tomates (to-mat), tomatoes. 
Truite (trwbete), trout. 
Vol-au-vent (vohl-o-vohn), case of pastry in which 

stewed meat or fruit t? served. 



26 THE MENU BOOK. 

LUNCHEON AND LUNCH MENUS. 

Menus des Dejeuners "a la Fourchette. 

The French have two kinds of dejeuners : one is called 
" d la Tasse," being a plain breakfast, and the other 
" d la fourchette," which is equivalent to an English 
luncheon. 

The word " lunch," or " luncheon," is said to be derived 
from the Welsh llwne, which is a derivation of lump. 
In bygone days lunch or luncheon meant simply a lump 
of bread and cheese taken between meals, " a frugal 
bit " ; but now the lunch, more especially among the 
upper classes, has become a fashionable meal, and one 
quite as important as the dinner of former times. Few 
meals offer better opportunities for combining smart 
little dishes at comparatively small expense than the 
lunch or luncheon. There are plenty of dainty dishes which 
can be prepared with little trouble, suitable as luncheon 
dishes, that can with advantage be brought within the 
scope of high-class cookery. The menus given below 
show what kinds of dishes are suitable for such repasts. 

SPECIMEN MENUS FOR SET LUNCHEONS. 

I. 

French. English. 

Souffle aux HuJtres Oyster Souffle 

Cdtelettes de Venaison Venison Cutlets with 

aux Marrons Chestnut Puree 

Pommes Soufflees Puff Potatoes 

G&teau au Chocolat Chocolate Cake 

Compote de Figues Stewed Figs 

Fromage. Cheese. 

II. 

Bouillon en tasse Beef Broth in cups 

Artichauts k la Chanzy Artichokes with Poached 

Entrecote k la Bfearnaise . . -^off-s 

Okras aux Tomates Sirloin Steak, Bearnaise- 

Bordure Japonaise a la nh^„. ,.^,V"i- 

P f, Okras with Tomatoes 

TJ-u r, Japanese Border in Jelly 

PaiUes au Parmesan cheese Straws 

Dessert. Dessert. 



LUNCHEON AND LUNCH MENUS. . 27 




Dejeuner dinatoire du 30 Septembre 1903. 

Oglio. 

Pains a la Careme. 

Cotelettes d'agneau a la provengale. 

Salade a la Helgoland. 

Canards de France k I'andalouse. 

Gel^e de fruits au vin de Champagne. 

Failles de fromage 

Fruits. 

Dessert. 



LUNCHEON MENn OF H.A.M. THE -EMPEROR OF AUSTRIA. 



28 



THE MENU BOOK. 



Dejeuner de Chasse. 

French. 

Filets de Soles a la 

Mayonnaise 

Mousse de Homard 

frappfe 

Boeuf braise i la Gelee 

Langue a I'Ecarlate 

Filets de Caneton k la 

Loraine 

Cailles Po616es k la 

Parisienne 

Faisan en Robe de 

Chambre 

Salade A la Japonaise 

Bordure de Riz aux 

Prunes 

Gdteaux a I'Africaine 

Batons Gougfire 

Fromage 

Dessert. 



Hunt Luncheon. 

English. 

Fillets of Soles in 

Mayonnaise 

Iced Lobster Souffle 

Braised Beef with Savoury 

Jelly 

Dressed Ox-tongue 

Fillets of Duckling with 

Goose-liver Farce 

Braised Stuped Quails 

Roast Pheasant in Paste 

Crust 

Japanese Salad 

Border of Rice with Stewed 

Prunes 

African Cakes 

Savoury Cheese Fingers 

Cheese 

Dessert. 



MENUS DES DEJEUNERS. 

I. 

Truites k la McuniSre Trout, Meuniere style 

CEufs moUets aux Scrambled Eggs with 

fepinards Spinach 

Langouste Sauce Tartare Lobster with Tartare Sauce 
Lasagnes au Parmesan Cheese Pastry 

Beignets de Pommes. Apple-Fritters. 

II. 
jambou d'York a la Gelee York Ham with Savoury 



Veau saute aux 

Champignons 

Cdtelettes de pre-sale, 

vert-pr6 

Pur6e de Pommes au 

gratin 

Omelette aux Confitures. 

CEufs a la Meyerbeer 
Poulet en CasseroUe 

Parmentier 

CarrS d'Agneau r6ti 

Salade de Laitue 

Tartelettes de Reine- 

ClauJe. 



Jelly 

Stewed Veal with 

Mushrooms 

Mutton Cutlets with Green 

Pea Sauce 

Scalloped Potatoes 

Jam Omelet. 



III. 



Eggs Meyerbeer style 
Chicken in pot with 
Potatoes 
Roast Neck of Lamb 

Lettuce Salad 
Greengage Tartlets. 



LUNCHEON AND LUNCH MENUS. 



29 



SPECIAL DEJEUNER OR LUNCHEON MENUS. 



Dejeuner du 30 mars. 

Consomm6 en tasses 
Cotelettes de ris de veau 

k la Villeroy 

Tournedos, pommes frites 

Poulardes a la gelee 

salade" parisienne 

Haricots verts a I'anglaise 

Ananas glace 

Failles au Fromage 

Dessert. {March) 



Dejeuner du 15 Mai. 

Consomme double aux 

CEufs poches 

Tournedos ^ la Rossin 

Poussins de Paris grilles 

Sauce Diable 

Pommes pailles 

Salade verte 

Omelette en Surprise 

{May) 



De'jeuner du 16 Juillet. 

Consomme frappe en Tasses 

OEufs brouilles aux Truffes 

Dame de Saumon a la Tartare 

Escalopes de Volaille a la Reine 

Petits Pois au beurre 
Cotelettes d'Agneau k la Russe 

Soiurenirs de Praises. {July) 



DEJEUNER OR LUNCHEON MENUS. 



Hors-d'oeuvre 

GEufs brouilles, au Jambon 

Boeuf braise aux Nouilles 

Sauce piquante 

Pdtfe de lidvre 

Pouding aux figues 

Fromage 

Cafe noir. 



Saucisson de Foie-gras 

Omelette aux Crevettes 

Chateaubriand k la Moelle 

Pommes de terre a la 

maltre d' hotel 
Chaudfroid de Faisan 
Souffte 4 1' Ananas. 



Ecrevisses au Natiirel 

Filets de Soles aux 

Aubergines 

Cotelettes de Pore, Sauce 

Robert 

Pommes Mirettes 

Terrine de Becasse a la 

Perigoutdine 

Salade de Chicoree 

Souffle a la Creole. 

{December) 

Crevettes, beurre frais 
CEufs poches, aux epinards 
Escalopes de veau, milanaise 
Pommes pailles 
Timbale de poirea 



30 THE MENU BOOK. 

DINNER— LE DINER. 

The word " dinner " {diner, f.)is supposed to be a corrup- 
tion of dix heures, indicating the hour at which in the days 
of Norman rule this meal was taken. In a book published 
in 1 5 12, entitled the Household Book, it is stated that 
the family rose at six, breakfasted at seven, dined at ten, 
supped at four, and closed the gates at nine p.m. 

Dinner with all classes forms the principal meal of the 
day. The working and middle classes take it at mid-day, 
whilst the better classes and fashionable society partake 
of it between 6 p.m. and 8 p.m. The aristocracy have 
always dined later in the day than the other classes. 

The number of courses of a dinner depends on the 
circumstances of the host and hostess, but the courses 
have increased with time and fashion, whilst the number 
of dishes served have decreased ; that is to say, instead 
of serving two soups, two or three fish, and as many 
entries, not more than one, or at the most two, are now 
placed on modern menus. 

One must not overlook the fact that the greater the 
variety of dishes introduced in a menu, the greater must 
be the waste. 

The present tendency is for shorter meads — that is, 
fewer dishes than formerly ; but the maxim is, " Let there 
be choice of excellent quality, well-cooked, and daintily 
served." 

The gastronomic world of this country owes a debt of 
gratitude to H.M. King Edward as regards dinners, for 
he has expressed a wish that aX the houses where he 
dines dinners should be quickly served, and never last 
more than an hour. Hence short dinners have now 
become the rule as well as the fashion. 

This has a great significance, for the all-important 
fact that the dishes selected for a recherche dinner shall 
gain in quality what they lose in quantity. 

A short resume of the various courses that constitute 
a " full-course dinner " is given, under the respective 
headings, in order to explain the correct service, suit- 
ability, and character of the various dishes belonging 
to each cours«. 



DINNER~LE DINER. 



31 



SPECIMEN DINNER MENUS 

A SIMPLE MENU. 

French. English. 

Soup : 

Ox-tail 

Fish : 

Fillets of Cod 

{Normandy style) 

Entree : 

Mutton Cutlets 

(Milanese style) 

Roast : 

Roast Turkey stu'ffed with 

Chestnuts 

Salad 

Sweet : 

Viennese Pudding. 



Queue de Bceuf 

Poisson : 

Filets de Cabillaud k la 

Normande 

Entree : 

C6telettes de Mouton k la 

Milanaise 

Rati : 
Dinde rdtie aux Marrons 

Salade 



Pouding El la Viennoise. 



Season — January or February. 

Note. — It will be observed that no vegetables are given 
in' the above bill of fare. One or -two vegetables should 
always be served ; these are selected according to taste 
and season. The following, in addition to potatoes, is 
a list of vegetables procurable in January : artichokes 
(Globe and Jerusalem), brussels sprouts, celery, greens, 
savoys, salsify, parsnips, turnips, Spanish onions. 



TWELVE MONTHLY MENUS IN FRENCH. 



A January Menu. 

Consornme ChifEonade 

Puree a la Reine 

Filets de Raie au gratin 

Salmi de Perdreaux 
Artichauts k la Barigoule 

Filet de Boeuf braise 

Pommes de terre Duchesse 

Sarcelle rotie 

Salade d' Oranges 

Charlotte a la St. Jose 

Huttres en caisses k la 

Diable 

Dessert 

Cafe turque. 



II. 
A February Menu. 

Hors-d'CEuvre Russe 

Petites Marmites 

Filet de Saumon bouilli. 

Sauce Verte 
Poulardes k la Supreme 
Selle d'Agneau rotie a,ux 

Epinards ' 

Jambon de Prague 

Sauce Cumberland 

Canard Roti 

Salade de Saison 

Pommes Julienne 

Peches k la Melba 

Friandises 

Sardines Diables 

Dessert. 



32 



THE MENU BOOK. 



III. 
A March Menu. 

Potage de Tomates a 

I'Americaine 

Darne de Cabillaud grille, 

Sauce Tartare 

Filets de Boeuf pique a la 

Brillat-Savarin 

Pat6 de Cailles 

Mac^doiue de Legumes i la 

Poulette 

Caneton R6ti 

Pommes de terre Anna 

Salade de laitues 

Bombe Glacee Richelieu 

Compote de Mirabelles 

patisseries assorties 

Dessert. 



A May Menu. 

Consomme a la Victoria 

Truites k la Chambord 

Blanchailles 

Quenelles de Volaille a la 

Nantaise 

Filets de Mouton aux 

Concombres farcies 

Canetons d'Aylesbury 

Salade m^lang^e 

Artichauts au buerre fondu 

Pouding aux Cerises 
Parfait au Moka praline 

Ddmes d'honneur 
Cafe Liqueurs. 

vn. 

A July Menu. 

Consommi a la Colbert 

St. Pidrre 4 la Talleyrand 

Blanchailles ^ I'lndienne 

Chaudfroid de Quenelles 

de Veau 

Poulet t la Milanaise 

Cailles bardees k la Broche 

Salade d'ete 

Bananas farcies aux fraises 

Creme renver.sfee 

Fruits et Dessert 

Caf6 i la Tuique. 



IV. 
An April Menu. 

Potage Julienne (maigre) 

Eperlans frits 4 la 

Brochette 

Vol-au-vent de Guochis 

Dame de Saumon braise 

Croutes aux Champignons 

Salade de Cardons 

Abricots t la Conde 

Pouding Diplomate au 

Marasquin 

Tomates i I'Americaine 

Hultres a la Diable 

Dessert 

Caf6 noir. 

VI 
A June Menu. 

Hors-d'CEuvres varies 

Bisque d'Ecrevisses 

Petites Tirabales de 

Filets de Sole 

Ris d'Agneau braises en 

caisses 

Jambon braise au 

Champagne 

Haricots verts sautees 

Poularde k I'Ecossaise 

Pommes Soufflees 

Pouding a la Prussieune_ 

Corbeilles de Glacfe fantaisie 

Petites croutes a la Norfolk 

Dessert 
Cafe Liqueurs 

VIII. 
An Aug:ust Menu. 

Croute au pot 
Filets de Merlans i. la 

Momay 
Quenelles de Volaille 

a la Turque 

Filets de Boeuf ^ la 

Bordelaise 

Pommes de terre i la Bignon 

Aubergines au gratin 

Reine-Claudes a 

rimpera trice 

Canapes de Banaues 

Fruits et Dessert. 



DINNER— LE DINER. 



33 




FACSIMILE OF FRENCH MAYORAL DINNER MENU CARD, 
REPRESENTING THE ORDER OF LA LEGION D'HONNEUR. 



34 



THE MENU BOOK. 



IX. 

A September Menu. 

Olives d'Espagne sur 

Canapes 

Radis, Salami 

Pur6e de Gibier 

Samon k la HoUandaise 

Rouelles de Veau 

Choux de Bruxelles au lard 

Gigot de Mouton braisfe 

a la Bretonne 

Cailles ilrla Broche 

Salade 

Pommes Failles 

Souffle au Riz 

Glace ii 1' Ananas 

Gaufrettes Suisses 

Laitance de Cabillaud fum6, 



X. 

An October Menu. 

Consomme a la Chasseur 

Barbue bouillie. sauce 

huitres 

Filets de Sole a la 

Tyrolienne 

Carre de Mouton braisS 

aux Navets 

Souffles de Perdreaux a la 

Reine 

Sorbet a I'Imperiale 

Dindon roti au cresson 

Salade de C^leri 

Savarin au Rhum 

Compote de Poires 

Fromage de Brie 

Dessert. 



•^••1^- 



XI. 



XII. 



A November Menu. 

Hors-d'CEuvre Russe 

Consomme Demi-Tortue 

Filets de Barbue a la 

Salamandre 

Ris de Veau 4 la Regence 

Filets de Boeuf &, la Rossini 

Poularde de Bresse rdtie 

Salade Japonaise 

Parfait de C^Uri 

Pouding k la Saxon 

Glace Montreuil 

Canapes de filets de Harengs 

Dessert. 



A December Menu. 

Consomm^ ^ la Moelle 
Potage crSme de riz 
Turbot, sauce HoUandaise 
Boeuf garni k la Vichy 
Chou-fleurs 
Sauce Mousseuse 
Timbale de Foie-gras 
Faisan de BohSme 
Salade Imperiale 
Bombe Nesselrode 
Patisseries 
Paillettes au Parmesan 
Fruits et Dessert. 



•^{■■m 



DINNER— LE DINER. 



35 



SPECIMEN DINNER MENU. 
Hors-d'CEuvre varies 

Potage : 
Consomme Brunoise 

Poissons : 
Saumon a la Cardinal Blanchailles a I'lndienne 

Entrees : 
Poussins ^ la Souvaroff Tournedos k la Choron 

Releve : 
Gigot d'Agneau r6ti Asperges, Sauce Mousseline. 



Granite au Kirsch 



CaiUes a la Broche 



Rdti . 



Salade Polonaise 



Entremets : 
Charlotte Fougdres Glace Carmen 

Canapes St. Jaques Dessert. 



SPECIMEN MENUS FOR VARIOUS SEASONS. 



Menu du Diner. 

Le 1$ Mars. 

Hors-d'CEuvre : 
Anchois sur Canapes 
Pofage : 
Consomme Fleury 
Poisson : 
Fillets d'Anguille i la 
Juive, Sauce Tartare 
Entree : 
Tournedos i la Bearuaise 
Pommes Parisienue 
Rati : 
Canard roti 
Salade a la Franjaise 
Entremets : 
Concombres farcies 
etoufi6e 



Riz 4 rimpera trice 
Tourte a la Rhnbarbe 

Bonne Bouche : 

Hultres k la Diable 

en caisses. 



Bill of Pare. 

March i$th. 

Side Dish : 
Anchovy fillets on toast 

Soup ; 

Clear - Soup (Rice and 

Vegetable garnish) 

Fish : 

Fried Fillets of Eel 

(Jewish fashion), Tartare 

Sauce 

Made Dish : 

Tournedos (Bcarnaise style) 

Parisian Potatoes 

Roast : 

Roast Duck 

French Salad 

Vegetable : 

Stuped Cucumber (baked) 

Swee.ts : 

Rice Mould (Empress style) 

Rhubarb Tart 

Savoury : 

Devilled Oysters in Cases. 



36 



THE MENU BOOK. 



MENUS MAIQRES 
Dejeuners — 

Anchois sur canap6s 

CEufs a, la Reine MargotsJ 

Homard — Sauce Gribiche 

Haricots beurre nouveaux 

Poires t la Jeanne Granier 

Dessert. 

Escargots a la Bourguig- 

nonne 

OEufs el la Vaucourt 

Raie au buerre noire 

Spagheti k la Milanaise 

Croutes aux fruits 

Dessert. 



LENTEN MENUS. 
Luncheons. 

Hors-d'CEuvre 

Cabillaud grille 

Sauce bearnaise 

CEufs moUets aux epinards 

Sarcelles k I'oranges amSres 

Riz k la Conde 

Dessert. 

Favorits de Caviar 

CEufs frits aux epinards 

Sole a la Portugaise 

Champignons sous la cloche 

G3,teau mousseline k 

I'orange 

Dessert. 



A Lenten Dinner. 

Escargots en Chablis 

Consomm^ Fermifire 

Saumou, Sauce Genoise 

Blanchailles au Paprika 

Petites Bouch6es aux Cfepes 

Bordure de Homard a la Norvdgienne 

Cotelettes de Semoule k la Jardiniere 

Salade de Celeri 

Ponding a I'Ambassadrice 

Bombe de P6che en Surprise 

Nouilles au Gratin. 



MENUS MAIQRES. 
Diner Careme — A Lenten Dinner. 



French : 

Purfee de Choufleur, 

maigre 

Blanchailles au Naturel 

Souchet de Carrelets 
Mousses d'Homard a la 

Cardinal 
Cotelettes de Turbot k 

rindienne 

Darne de Saumon k la 

Sufidoise 

Chou de Mer k la 

HoUandaise 

Chartreuse aux Oranges 

Caf6 frappfi k la Neige 

j^clairs de Sardines. 



English 

Cauliflower Soup 

Whttebail 

FlouiiJcrs in Souchet 

Lobster Mousses, Cardinal 

Sauci 

Turbot Cutlets {Indian 

style) 

Cold Salmon (Swedish style) 

Seakale with Dutch Sauce 

Orange Jelly (Chattnuse 

style) 
Iced Coffee with Whipped 
Cream 
Sardine Eclairs. 



SPECIMEN MENUS. 



37 



SPECIMEN MENUS IN FRENCH AND 

ENGLISH, 

Season— May-June. 

Menu. Bill of Fare. 



Consomme Brunoise 

Filets de Soles a la 

Regence 

Cotelettes d'Agneau a la 

Clamart 

Petits Pois i la 

Mayonnaise 

Cdte de Boeuf roti a 

I'Anglaise 

Creme d'Asperges k 

I'Argenteuil 

Canard farcies, 6touliee- 

Salade d' Orange 

Pommes Nouvelles 

Mousse frappee, Prince 

Puckler 

G5,teaux Pithiviei's 

Fromage 
Fruits et Dessert. 



Clear Vegetable Soup 

(Brunoise style) 
Fillets of Sole {Regent 

style) 
Lnmb Cutlets {Clamart 

style) 
Green Peas with Salad 

Dressing 
Roast Beef with Yorkshire 
pudding and Horseradish 

Sauce 
Asparagus in Savoury 

Jelly 

Braised Duck, Stuffed 

Orange Salad 

New Potatoes 

Iced Chocolate Mousse 

with Chestnut Puree 

Pithiviers Cakes 

Cheese 

Fruit and Dessert. 



•^1-ls 



Season— June-July. 



Potage : 
Creme k I'Oseille 

Poissons : 

Sole au Gratin 

Petites Bouchees de 

Crevettes 

Entree : 

Cotelettes de Veau aux 

puree de Pois vert 

Rdti : 

Poulet r6ti 

Salade de Laitue 

Pommes Souffles 

Entremets : 
. Omelettes sucree 
Bavaroise aux Peclies. 



Soup : 
Cream of Sorrel 

Fish : 
Sole au Gratin {baked) 
Small Puff Paste Patties of 
Prawns 

Entree :^ 

Veal Cutlets with Puree 

of Green Peas 

Roast : 

Roast Chicken 
Lettuce Salad 
Puff Potatoes 

Sweets : 
Sweet Omelet 
, Peach Cream. 



338 



THE MENU BOOK. 



Season— November-December. 



French. 

Hors-d' ceuvre : 
Varies. 

Potages : 

Consomm^ k la Royale 

Potage i la Mulligatawny 

Poissons : 
Sole au vin blanc 
Eperlans frite, Sauce 

R^moulade 

Entrees : 

Petites Bouch6es de 

Faisan El la Moderne 

Terrine de Lapereaux 

Relevi : 

Gigot de Mouton, Galois, 

Legumes 

Rdti : 

Sarcelles r6ti 

Pommes Julienne, Salade 

Entremets : 

Pouding Souffle aux 

Pommes 

Crdme glac^e de Prunes 

de Damas 

Savoureux : 
Petites Croustades au 
Parmesan. 



English. 
Assorted Appetisers : 
Selection of Side Dishes 

Soups : 

Clear Soup with Royal 

Custard 

Thick Mulligatawny 

Fish: 
Soles with White Wine 

Sa%ice 
Fried Smelts, Remoulade 
Sauce, Tomato Flavour 

Made Dishes 

Small Pheasant Patties 

Terrine of Rabbit or Hare 

Remove : 

Roast Leg of Welsh 

Mutton 

Vegetables 

Roast: 

Roast Teal 

Straw Potatoes and Salad 

Sweets : 

Apple Souffle Pudding 

Damson Cream Ice 

Savoury : 

Parmesan Cheese, Cream 

in Crusts. 



FRENCH FAMILY 

French. I, 

Potage S6vign6 
Filets 'de Turbot i. la 

Vatel 
Poulets de Grains en 

Cocotte 
Flageolet? au Beurre 
Cailles de Vigne sur 

Canapfes 

Salade de Chicorfie 

Glace, Vanille et Fraise 

Tartelettes aux Araandes 



DINNER MENUS. 
English. 
Sevigni Soup 
Fillets of Turbot {Vatel 

style) 

Spring Chicken {Cocotte 

style) 

Flageolets tossed in Butter 

Quails on Toast 

Chicoree Salad 

Vanilla and Strawberry Ice 

Almond Tartlets 



SPECIMEN MENUS. 



39 



FRENCH FAMILY DINNER MENUS. 



French. 

Potage k la Reine 
Truite Saumonee, sauce 

Genoise 

Ris de Veau aux Petits 

Pois 

Perdreau roti 

Salade de C6!6ri en 

branches 
Fonds d'Artichauts 

a ritalienne 

Compote de Fruits 

au Kirsch 

Biscuit Manque. 



II. 



English. 



White Chicken Puree 

Boiled Salmon Trout, 

Genoise Sauce 

Sweetbread with Green Peas 

Roast Partridge 

Celery Salad 

Artichoke Bottoms in 

Brown Sauce 

Stewed Fruit with Kirsch 

Syrup 

French Biscuits. 



Hors-d'CEuvre 

ConsommS Grisonne 

Filet de Sole a I'Horly 

Cotes d'Agneau aux 

Points d'Asperges 

Caneton de Rouen poele 

Petits Pois Paysanne 

Pommes Noisettes 

Salade Fran9aise 

Tartelettes de Fraises 

Souffle au Parmesan. 



Appetisers. 
Clear Beef Broth with 

Batter Garnish 

Fillets of Soles, Fried, 

with Tomato Sauce 

Lamb Cutlets with 

Asparagus Points 

Rouen Duckling braised iif 

the pot 

Green Peas 

(Farmer's style) 

, Potatoes Browned in Butter 

French Salad 

Strawberry Tartlets 

Parmesan Souffle. 



IV. 



Consomme au Tapioca 

Cabillaud, Sauce aux 

Cypres 

Poulet saute aux 

Champignons 
Gigot d'Agneau 

a I'Anglaise 

Salade de Laitue 

Haricots Verts a la 

Poulette 
Tarte aux Cerises, 



Tapioca Clear Soup 
Boiled Cod, Caper Sauce 

Stewed - Chicken with 

Mushrooms 

Roast Leg of Lamb 

Lettuce Salad 

French Beans (Poulette 

style) 

Cherry Tart, 



40 



THE MENU BOOK. 



PETITS DINERS.-SMALL DINNERS. 



Petite Marmite a la 

Fraiifaise 

Vol-au-vent A. la Toulouse 

Perdreau sur Canape 

Cfeleri au Jus 
Croutes aux Peches. 



Consomme k la Royale 

Paupiettes de Soles 

Cuissot de Chevreuil 

k la Poivrade 

Asperges, Sauce MousseUne 

Sorbet au Rhum 

Chapon Truffee 

Salade de Laitue £i, la 

Mayonnaise 

P3.le de Grouse 

Pommes au riz Meringuees. 



A Recherche Diner. 

CrSme a la Marquise 

Croustades aux Huttres 

Turban de filets de Soles a 

r Ambassadrice 

Filet de BcEuf Braise 

Ris de veau k la 

Cardinal 
Pctits pois a la 

Fran9aise 

Sorbet au Kirsch 

Faisan barde au Cresson 

Pommes Julienne 

SoufHes d'Epinards 

Glace Dame blanche 

Gclteaux Madelaines. 



Potage fausse Tortue 

Filets de Turbot d la 

Normande 

Cuissot de veau k 

TAUemande 

Truffes au Champagne 

Souvenirs de Foie-gras 

Dinde rotie 

Salade a la Fran9aise 

Artichauts, Sauce Chasseur 

Glace Plombidre. 



Hors-d'CEuvre. 

Consomme ttlestine 

Bisque de Homard 

Turbotin braise a la RuSse 

Vol au Vent de Ris de Veau 

Toumedos Catalane 

Pommes Rissolees 

Canetou d'Aylesbury Roti 

Salade 

Petits Pois au Beurre 

Biscuit Glac6 

Friandises 

Dessert. 



Consomme au Riz 
Paupiettes de Merlans 

Entrecote grilles 
Haricots vertu sautfes 

Faisan roti 

Pommes frites, Salade 

Rouding Nesselrode, 



ROYAL MENUS. 



4,1 




ROYAL MENUS. 



Dinner of H.M. 
King Edward VII. 

Consomms k I'lmp^riale, or? 

CrSme de Pois Printaiiifere 

Coquilles. d'Huitres au 

Gratin 
Filets de Truites a la 

Chambord 

~ Cailles a la Diane 

Selle de Pre-Sal6 a la 

Nifoise 

Chaudfroid de Poulets A. la 

Renaissance 

Sarcelles Roties a I'Orange, 

Sauce Porto 

Salade k la Rachel 

Asperges d'Argenteuil, 

Sauce Mousseuse 

Souffles de Fruits a la 

Leopold 

Patisseries Parisienne 

Barquattes de Caviar a la 

Russe 
Glaces 4 la Venitienne 
Paniers de Friandises. 
(March) 



Dinner of H.M. the 
King of Italy. 

Consomme Julienne 

Truites au Beurre 

Tournedos k la Semmering 

Chaud-froid de Poulardes 

Selle de .Chevfeuil 

Compote, Salade 

Asperges, Sauce Mousseline 

Souffle a la Desio 

Glace MeI6e 

Fromage 

Fruits 

Dessert 

Cafe Noir. 

{August) 



Luncheon of H.M. 
King Edward VII. 

Hors-d'CEuvre 
CEufs Brouilles Pointes 

d' Asperges 

Filet de Barbue Mornay 

Cotes d'Agneau aux 

Petits Pois 

Chaud Froid de VolaiUes 

Pommes Bonne-Femme 

Salade Romaine 

Dessert 

Benedictine, (May) 



Dinner of H.M. the 
King of Spain. 

Consomme de Volaille Glace 

CrSme, d'Epinards 

Saumon d'Ecosse, Sauce 

Laguipi^re 

Aiguillette de Boeuf 

Fondante 

Pommes Casa Campo 

Poularde Bagatelle 

Bouchee des Rois 

Aubergines a I'Orientale 

Biscuit Glace a la 

Napolitaine 

Patisserie Feuilletee 

Cheese Wafers. 

(June) 




v/indsor ©aatle 



Se*tMHU% Am. -i>At.iM 



3.0 Jvirt iJ«S 



REDUCED FACSIMILE OF ONE OP HIS MAJESTY KING EDWAPD VII. S 
DINHER MENUS. 




Dinner Menu ot H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales. 

(Marlborough House.) 

Consomme a la Main tenon 

Saumon, Sauce HoUandaise 

Poussins k la Gauloisc. 

Canetons de Rouen 4 la 

Beauvilliers 

Selles de Mouton de Galles 

Jambons de Prague 

B6cassines 

Asperges Vertes 

Pdches du Cap k la 

Montebello 

Souffles au Parmesan, 

{March is(, igoQ.) 



Translation ol Menu— H.M. 
Kine of Spain. 

Consommfe de Torme 

Potage k la Maintenon 

Petits p&l6s de riz 4 la 

Pifemontaise 

Quenelles de Caneions piqu6es 

k la Senn 

C6telettes d'Agneau froides 

&. la Princesse 

Pi6ce de Boeuf brais6e 

k TEspagnole 

Petiis pois au beurre 

Haricots verts sautfes 

Poulardes du Mans rdties 

Salade k I'Ambassadrice 

Asperges, Sauce HoIUndaise 

Gateaux Mousseline k la Cibdard 

Glaci k la P6dro 

TarteleitesTA la Gisors 

(rS* tfarcH, 1908,) 




f6 </€ QMai^ Je f9CS. 



tie ^ei/a d /a (2/enn 
Oai^Ma^ ae colaeio ^amMt, d £i G/Aincf^a 
faca a <a &^Sanota 



'yeti64 «fcl 



ecmt tnM«Mta a ta ^emt^ 
^/CcKieu> at dema y /iu/aa 



FACSIMILE OF A GALA DANQnET MEND GIVEN BV H.M. THE 
KING OF SPAIN, AT THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID. 



44 



THE MENU BOOK. 



Luncheon of M.M. 
the King of Norway. 

CEufs poches & la Princesse 

Saumon du Rhin grill6, 

sauce Vertc 

Ris de Veau A. la Rothschild 

Filet de Bceuf piqu6 a la 

Regence, sauce Porto 

Savarins aux Fruits frapp6s 

Biscottes SI 1' Alexandra. 



Dejeuner of H.M. 
the King of Siam. 

Tortue des Indes 

Ilomards k la Delmonico 

au riz 

Sclle de Mouton, 

tomates farcis, haricots 

verts, et pommes soufflees 

Poulets k la Mascotte 

Salade modemc 

Pfiches d. la Melba 

Fromage 

Fruits 

Mocca. 

(August) 



Dinner of H.M. 
the King of Denmark. 

Potage Louis Philippe 

Rissoles & la Pompadour 

Cabillaud 

Selle d'Agneau a la 

Flamande 

Poulets k la Vicomtesse 

Homards en Bellevue 

Faisans R6tis 

Compote, Salade 

Fonds d'Artichauts k 

I'Espagnole 

Glace Dessert. 

(September) 



Dinner of H.M. 
the King of Sweden. 

Consomme aux Profiteroles 

Bouchees Cardinal 

CEufs a la Wladimir 

Coeur de Filet a la Massenet 

Pommes Noisettes 

Chaudfroid de Poulet a la 

Gelee 

Salade Marocaine 

Asperges en Branches 

Sauce Mousseline 

Petits Pois de Crdme 

Caramel * 

Glace Panachee 

Patisserie. 

(April) 
* The King's favourite dish. 



Dinner of H.M. 
the King of Portugal. 

Consomme k la Chasseur 
Filets de Soles a I'Horley 

Sauce Remoulade 
Poularde en Casserole k la 

Edouard VII. 

Chaudfroid de Cotelettes 

de Prfesale a la Belle Alliance 

Cailles farjies en caisses 

a la LucuUus 
Chartreuse de fruits a la 

Diploma te 

Petits Fours k la Frangaise 

Fruits et Dessert 

Caf6 Noir. 

(May) 



ROYAL* MENUS. 



45 



\\l 







/cfyj 



&^- 






f/^e^*^M** A«^;»ii 






FACSIMILE- OF A DINiNER MENU OF H.M. IHB 
EMPEROR or GERMANY. 



46 



THE MENU BOOK. 



TABLE D'HOTE MENUS. 



Hors-d'CEuvre 

Cr(5me J6rusalem 

Filets cle Sole Meunifire 

CEufs poches Portugaise 

Noisette d'Agneau Bergfire 

Poulet grille. Sauce Tartare 

Pommes Grenobloise 

Petits pois au Sucre 

Crfinie St. Claire glac6e 

Fromage. 

3s. 6d. per head. (March ) 



Hors-d'Oiuvre 

Consomme Viveur 

Filets de Barbue a 

I'Anglaise 

Caille Froide Richelieu 

Contrefilet de Boeuf a 

la Broche 

Pommes Nouvelles 

Petits Pois aux Laitues. 

Poussin Grand M6re 

Salade de Saison 

Glace Plombidre 

Dessert. 

55. per head. (April) 



Hors-d'CEuvre 

Veloutfe de Tomates 

Ox Tail Soup 

Suprfime de Turbotia Boitel 

Pommes Nouvelles i 

I'Anglaise 

Selle d'Agneau k la Richelieu 

Ris de Veau braise 

aux epinards 

Pcularde de Mans rdtie 

au Cresson 

Salade de Saison 

Asperges d'Argenteuil, 

Sauce Mousseline 

Parfait Praline 

Friandises 

Compotier de Fruits. 

ys. 6d. per head. (June) 



Hors-d'CEuvre 4 la Russe 
Consommii Princesse 

Fausse Bisque 
Timbales de Filets de 

Sole Grimaldi 
Poussin au.x petits pois 

k la Fran9aise 

Selle de Mouton 4 la 

Broche 

Tomates Champignons 

Pommes persillfees 

Cailles de Vigne roties 

au Cresson 

Salade de cceurs de 

Romaine 

Asperges, Sauce Mousseliue 

Fraises au Royal Port 

Ananas glac6 dans son 

fruit 

Dessert. 

6s. per head. (May) 



Caviar d'Astrakaa 

Tortue Claire 

SuprSme de Turbot, Duglerc 

Poussin t la Paysaune 

Langue de Renne fumee 

Cailles de Vigne bardees 

Salade Chips 

Asperges Vertes 

Roses Glacces Friandises 

Fondu au Chester 

Dessert Cafe Noir. 

los. 6d. per head. (June) 



Consomme Mousseline 

Filets de Sole Americaine 

Coles d'Agneau 

Marechale 

Points d'Asperges a la Creme 

Cailles Cocottes aux Trufles 

CcEurs de Laitues 

Parfait de Foie-gras 

Suprfimes de Volaille 

Jeannette 

Terrine de Canard 

Roueuuaise 

Macfedoine de Fruits glac6 

Mille Feuilles 

Corbeilles de Fruits 

Caf6 Turque. 

1 25. 6(1. per head. (Feb. ) 



MISCELLANEOUS MENUS. 



47 



^^ej^adiijcj-^l^t^c^'l^icl 






''//?. 



BJ7J 

/tnt'dote. /"or Cout 

"^CLAM CoCJfTA/LS 

GreenTurtle 



IpBSTERjkuTE -^ ^ 



Cucumbers a laJ^DrJ'chhmm 

Jure Cure for Ptomaine Ji ' 

Filet °/BEEFjsrd>niir.fl^ 

Potatoes a J»wE Ano'^ -=^9^ 

ms^RiNCH 



rtturn 






Wyom/S3/Ai^ Club. 



^'P'/fOASTPzoVER 

•^i^ ^ neod no chauffeur 

\ SalADE CHIFFOnADt 



^ALfKDE ChiFFONADE 



'St HONORS 

COFFEE JtrtdM'it^ a-VH 



NESSELPODE PUDDING 



AN AMERICAN MOTOR CLUB DINNER MENU. 



England and Norway. 

Menu of a Dejeuner composed in honour of the King and 
Queen of Norway's visit to England : 

Menu. 
E-Escalopes de Turbot k la Nansen-K 
N-Navarin de Poulet i la Marengo-0 
G-Goulash Viennoise a la Xavier-R 
L-Langouste en salade, Stroganov-V 
A-Alumettes de Cel^ri k la Grfique-E 
N-Neigeau Champagne k la Dantzig-G 
D-Darioles de PSches k la Royale-K 



48 



THE MENU BOOK. 



PRIVATE DINNER MENUS. 



Hors-d'CEiivre ; 

Salade d'Anchois 

Cel6ri Rave k la Tartare 

Olives de Lucca 

Potages •: 

Consomme Riche 

Fausse Tortue Liee 

Pois'ion: 
Turbot i I'lmperiale 
Merlans a la Colbert 

Entrees : 

Mousse au Jambon 

Poularde de la Bresse, 

Chevalidre 

Releve : 

Selle de Mouton t la 

Paysanne 

Rdti : 

Faisan de BohSme sur 

Croustade 

Pommes Failles 

Salade de Saison 

Legume : 

Choufleur k la Polonaise 

Entremets : 

Charlotte de Pommes 

Gdteau St. Honorfe 

Bombe Petit Due 

Dessert Petits Fours 

Caf6. 
i2s. 6d. per head. {Feb.) 



Mignardises 

Hors-d'CEuvre 

Potage 

Crfime de Volaille 

Valenciennes 

Barbue k la Parisienne 

Selle de pre-sale 

Bouquetidre 

Salmis de bfecasses 

Poulardes truffees 

Terrine Voisin 

Salade gauloise 

Cardons a la nioelle 

Nelusko glace 

Gaufrettes — Petits fours 

Desserts 

Oafs Liqueur. 

IDS. 6d. per head. {Jan.) 



Huitres Royales 

Sole a la Palace 

Poulet k la Stanley 

Caille de Vigne Rotie 

Salade Coeur de I^itue 

Asperges NouveUes 

Sauce HoUandaise 

Dessert. {March) 



Crevettes Roses glacees 

Crfime k la Dubarry 

Poupiettes de Soles 

Demi-denil 

Ris de Veau Trianon 

Rouennais k 1' Imperial 

Quartier d'Agneau roti 

Salade Quatre Saiaons 

Panachfi k la Maltre d'lldtel 

Bombe Fran9iUon. 



Consomme Montmorency 

Saumon de 

Sauce Genevoise 

Pommes NouveUes 

Mignonnettes d'Agneau aux 

Petits Pois 

Risotto Milanaise 

Poularde k la Vendome 

Salade Nipoise 

Asperges en Branches 

Sauce Mousseline 

Mousseline aux Fraises 

Fruits et Dessert. 

{April) 



PRIVATE DINNER MENUS. 



49 



Menu : 

Consomme Piincesse 

Dame de Saumon 

Sauce Genevoise 

Crfepinettes de pigeons aux 

Pointes d'Asperges 

Jarabon de Prague 

Sauce Espagnole 

Gigot de Pri-Sale i la 

Godard 

Poulardes du Mans a la 

P^rigord 

Salads Lyonaise 

Petits Pois Nouveaux 

Crfime Glacee aux Praises 

GS-teau Moderne Paillettes 

Dessert. {Spring) 



Menu ; 

CrSme Velout6 Duchesse 

Truites du Rhin 

Sauce Chambord 

Filet de Boeuf i. la Richelieu 

Supreme de Volaille a la 

LucuUus 

Aspic de Foie-gras en 

Belle- vue 

Faisaus Flanques de Cailles 

Salade de Saison 

Asperges de Paris 

Sauce Mousseline 

Bombe Prince Piickler 

GS,tf!au Trois Frdres 

Dessert 

Cafe Moka. 



BILL OF FARE OF A TYPiCAL ENGLISH DINNER. 



Soup : 
Clear Gravy and Tomato 

Fish : 

Boiled Turbot, Dutch Sauce 

Whitebait (plain and devilled) 

Entries : 

Chicken Cutlets Stewed Cucumbers 

Braised Sweetbread, larded Mashed Potatoes 

Remove : 
Sirloin of Beef Horseradish Sauce 
Yorkshire Pudding Seakale and Potatoes 

Roast : 
Larded Guinea Fowl Lettuce Salad 

Sweets : 
Brown Bread Pudding Apricot Creams 

Savoury : 
Oysters on Horseback. {September) 

D 



50 THE MENU BOOK. 

A FRENCH CHRISTMAS DINNER. 

Diner de Noel. 

Consomme Chambellan 

Supreme de Soles Mornaj' 

Filet de Boeuf k la Rossini 

Poularde Soufflee a la Princesse 

Pave a la Lucullus 

Sorbet k la Cyrano 

Asperges en Branches 

Sauce Mascotte 

Faibans rotis en VoUiere sur Croustade 

Salade a la Marianne 

Glace D&me blanche 

Gdteau Trois FrSres 

Temple Historique 

Fruits 

Desserts. 

SPECIMEN MENUS FOR CHRISTMAS DINNERS. 

I. 

Chicken Soup 

Fried Soles Anchovy Sauce 

Jugged Hare Red Currant Jelly 

Roast Sirloin of Beef Horseradish Sauce 

Yorkshire Pudding Vegetables 

Plum Pudding Brandy Sauce 

Vanilla Custard Mince Pies. 

II. 

Oxtail Soup 

Boiled Turbot Shrimp Sauce 

Mutton Cutlets with Braised Celery 

Roast Turkey stuffed with Chestnuts 

Cauliflower and Potatoes 

Plum Pudding 

Apple Tart and Custard 

Chocolate Cream Ice. 

III. 

Mock Turtle Soup 

Fried Whiting Lemon Sauce 

FJUets of Beef with Tomatoes 

Veal and Ham Pie 

Roast Goose, stuffed Apple Sauce 

Clipped Potatoes Braised Celery 

Plum Pudding Mince Pics 

Vanilla Cream Ice. 



PRIVATE DINNER MENUS. 



51 



DINER A LA RUSSE. 



14-20 guests at 

Hors d'CEuvre : 

Caviare glace 

Salade d'Anchois 

Folates : 

Tortue Claire Puree 

Poissons : 

Saumon Bouilli 

Sauce de Homard' 

Filets de Soles k I'Orly 

Sauce Tartare 

Entrees : 

Supremes de Volaille aux 

Truffes 

Tournedos de Boeuf a la 

Bfeamaise 



15s. per head. 

Releve : 

Quartier d'Agneau r6ti 

Asperges, Sauce Hollandaise 

Rdts : 

Canetons de Rouen 

Cailles bardces 

Petits Pois Nouveaux 

Entremets : 

CEufs de Pluviers en 

Croustade 

Creme aux Framboises 

Suedoise d'Abricots 

Gateau k la Mascotte 

Bonne Bouche 

Glaces 



Sorbet au Champagne. Petites Coquilles d'Ecrevisse. 



A MENU IN THREE LANQUAQES. 



English. 
Clear Soup, Italian Style 

Pumpkin Soup. 
Grilled Soles, St. Germain 

style 

Chicken Fillets, Ambassador 

style 

Braised Leg of Mutton 

Champagne Sherbet 

Rouen Ducklings 

Orange Sauce 

Mixed Salad 

Green Peas, Farmer's 

style 

Peaches, Cardinal style 

Cheese Cakes. 



French 
Consomme 4 I'ltalienne 

Potage au Potiron 

Filets de Soles, Grilles k la 

Saint Germain 

Supreme de Volaille 

Ambassadrice 

Gigot de pre-sale a la 

Saint Hubert 

Sorbet au Champagne 

Canneton de Roueu k la 

Bigarrade 

Salade Melee 

Petits Pois Paj'sanne 

PSches Cardinal 

Ramequins. 



German. , 

Italienische Kraftbriihe 

Kurbis-Suppe 

Gerost. Seezungenschnitten nach St. Gerraancr-Art 

Gefliigelbrustchen nach Dotschafterin-Art 

Hammelschlegel nach Sankt Hubertus 

Scherbet mit Schaumwein 

Rouenaiser Ente mit Pommeranzen 

Gemischter Salat 

Erbsen auf Bauern-Art 

Pfirsiche auf Kardinals-Art 

Kase-Tortchen. 



52 THE MENU BOOK. 

SUPPER AND SUPPER MENUS. 
Souper et Menus de Soupers. 

This is the term for the last meal of the day, and one 
which has a wide and varied meaning. During the 
Middle Ages supper used to be served as early as 5 p.m., 
when it was customarj' to serve soup ; from this the name 
supper is supposed to have originated. History tells us 
that soups, or supper dishes, originally consisted of liquid 
food both savoury and sweet, such as frumenty, porridge, 
and various kinds of spoon meat, which were eaten with 
pieces of bread called sops, soppets or sippets. 

Where late dinner is served, as is usually the case at 
the present time, supper is rarely eateUr 

So-called ball suppers and theatre suppers are fashion- 
able both here and abroad. There is no set rule as to 
the kind of dishes served for supper, but when partaken 
of as an every-day meal supper may consist of dishes hot 
or cold, with or without soups, vegetables or even sweets. 

Cheese and salad when in season are usually included, 
but this is not to be regarded as a hard-and-fast rule 
Light cakes and fancy gateaux, tea or coffee, are some- 
times included in a supper menu, which shows that many 
regard this meal as but a light repast. 

The foUomng menus are selected as specimens for 
so-termed set suppers : 

SPECIMEN MENUS FOR SUPPERS. 

Menus de Soupers. 

French. I. English. 

Darne de Saumon k la Salmon Stoak, Rcmoulade 

R6moulade style 

Roulade de Veau en Veal Roll, coated, with 

Chaudfroid Chaudfroid Sauce 

Jambon k la Gelee Yorli Hum with Aspic Jelly 

Salade Salad 

Risotto ci ritalienne Italian Risotto 

Souffl6 a la Mexienne Cold Chocolate Souffli 

Denises aux Amandes FrosteJ Almond Sandwiches 

Fruits et Dessert. Fruit and Dessert. 
II. 

Ecrevisses en Aspic Prawns in Savoury Jelly 

Darioles de Crfime de Volaille Chicken Creams 

Boeuf 4 la Presse Pressed Beef 

Pates de Veau et Jambon Veal and Ham Patties 
Salad de Haricots Panaches Haricot Bean Salad 

CrSme k la Romaine Roman Cream 

Compote de Poires Strwed Pears 

Fromage de Camcmbert Cauiemhert Cheese 

C6Ieri. Celery. 



SUPPER MENUS. 



53 




il^euu iu ^oupev. 



8 MAI, l£CS. 



Saumon k I'Essence 
Cotelettes d'Agneau a la 
Printani^re 
Chaudfroidde Cailles 
k la Sefton 
QEufs de Pluviers 
a la Russe 




Gelees Har!equin^. 

Chartreuses Cdloniales 

Paniers-aux Raisins 

Huttres en Surprise' 



L,™™«=J>essert 



FACSIMILE OF A PRIVATE SDPPER MENO. 



54 



THE MENU BOOK. 



MENU DE SOUPER. 

III. 
Denises Suedoise 
Filets de Boeuf li'la Madrid 
Salade de Cel^ri a la 

Rachel 

Foie-gras a la. Dumas 

Pate de Volaillc et Jambon 

Bordure de Creme de 

Homard 



SUPPER MENU. 

Swedish Sandwiches 

Fillets of Beef, Madrid style 

Celery and Truffle Salad 

Foie-gras CroHtes 

Chicken and Ham Fie 

Border of Lobster Cream 



Petites Crimes k la Princesse ^'"'^^ ^''^'""^ (Princess style) 
Fromage de Roquefort Roquefort Cheese 

Biscuits de Fromage. Cheese Biscuits. 



S5|"|S 



SOUPER DE BAL. 

Huitres au Nature! 
Plats Chauds : 

Homard k la Gauloise 

Mauviettes en Casserole 

Ris de Veau en Caisses k la 

Chasseur 

Plats Froids : 

Filets de Soles en Aspic 

Zephires de Foie-Gras a la 

St. Martin 

Carr6 de Mouton k la 

Boh6mienne 

Dindonneau farci k la 

Moderne 

Jambon de York a la Gelee 

Faisan roti 

Pate de Pigeon el la 

Franyaise 

Salade de Saison 

Denises a la Princesse 

Entremets : 

Gel6e au Champagne 

Crfime aux Amandes 

Charlottes Mignonnes 

Corbeilles de Nougat k la 

Chantilly 

patisserie 

Dessert. 



BALL SUPPER. 

Natives 
Hot Dishes : 

Lobster served in Shells 

Larks stewed in Casserole 

Sweetbread iv cases with 

Mushroom Puree 

Cold Dishes : 

Fillets of Soles in Savoury 

Jelly 
Zephyrs of Foie-gras (Goose 

Liver) 

Neck of Mutton (Bohemian 

style) 

Young Turkey, stuffed 

York Ham with Aspic Jelly 

Roast Pheasant 

Pigeon Pie, French fashion 

Salad 

Princess Sandwiches 

Sweets : 

Champagne Jelly 

Almond Cream 

Little Russian Charlottes 

Nougat Baskets with 

Whipped Cream 

French Pastry 

Dessert. ^^ 



SUPPER MENUS. 



55 



SPECIAL SUPPER PARTY MENU. 



French. 

Consomme de Volaille 

Mayonnaise de Homard 

Chaudfroid Mauviettes 

LucuUus 

Mousse de Jambon 

Parisienne 

Filet BcEuf pique 

Bouquetidre 

Galantine Volaille truffee 

Poulet Surrey a la Gelee 

Jambon de York 

Salade Henriette 

Crdme de Fraise 

G&teaux Duchessc 

Petits Fours 

Dessert. 



English. 

Clear Chickeri Broth 

Lobster Mayonnaise 

Chaudfroid of Larks 

with Truffles 

Ham Mousse (Parisian style) 

Fillet of Beef, larded and 

braised, with Vegetables 
Chicken Galantine, truffled 
Surrey Fowls with Aspic 

York Ham 

Cauliflower, Bean, and 

Truffle Salad 

Strawberry Cream 

Duchess Cake 

Fancy Pastry 

Dessert. 



•^I-I^* 



SOUPER DU BAL. 

Salade.de Homard 

Filets de Sole k la New York 

Medallions de Pigeon a la 

Monaco 

Chartreuse de Faisan 

Souffle de Volaille 

Macedoine - 

Cailles en Aspie 

Rdtis. 

De Dindon, Grouse 

Pate de Gibier 
Galantine a la Reine 

Jambon d'York 

Langue de Boeuf glacee 

Gelees aux Vins et Liqueurs 

Meringues a la Suisse 

Crdmes varides 

Salade de Fruits au 

Marasquin 

Triffle a I'Anglaise 

Dessert Bon-bons 

Consomme au Depart. 



MENU DU SOUPER. 

Petites Tables 

Tortue Claire — Citrons 

Cotelettes d'Agneau aux 

Petits Pois 

Poulets rotis au Cresson 

Cailles sur Canapes 

Froid 

Consomme de Volaille 

Paupiettes de Truites 

Venitienne 

Salade de Homards 

Petites Cotelettes a 

I'Ecarlate 

Poulardes Poelees 

Macedoines de Fruits 

Rafratchis 

Petits Gateaux Assortis 

[Consommd au depart. 

(t4 Juillet) 



56 THE MENU BOOK. 




BALL SUPPER MENU OF H.M. THE KINQ, GIVEN 
AT BUCKINQHAM PALACE, JULY loth, 1908: 

Consommfe Riche 

Filets de Truites k la Britania 

Cendrillons de Soles a la Bagration 

Medallions de Volaille en Belle-vue 

Cotelettes d'Agneau k I'Ambassadrice 

Chaufi'oix de Cailles a la Moscovite 

Poulets et Langue a 1' Aspic 

Jambon de Prague k la Montpensier 

Sandwiches varies 

Petits Pains a la Fran9aise 

Macedoine de Fruits au Grand Mariner 

Gelees PrintaniSres au Champagne 

Crimes Rubanees a la Parisienne 

Gradins de Patisserie 

Pieces Montees sur Socles 

Petites Glaces Bouqueti^res 

Paniers de Mignardises 

Limonade et Orangeade 

Dessert. 



DANCE SUPPER MENU. 

Consommd Chaud a la Royale 

Cotelettes d'Agneau 

au Beurre Noisette 

Petits Pois Clamart 

Poulets rotis 

Froid 

M^daillons Alexandra 

Eclairs de Homard 

Galantine de Volaille trufi6e 

Sandwiches varies 

Salade Indienne 

Macedoine de Fruits au Champagne ' 

Glace a la Vanille Glace aux Praises 

Corbeilles de Friandises 

Dessert. 



\ SPECIMEN menu: 57 

A SPECIMEN MENU WITH QUOTATIONS. 



Hors-d'CEuvre varies. 
" Dishes alike deliglitful aod appetising." — Leigh Hunt. 
POTAGE. 

Tortile Claire. Bisque d'ecrevisses. 

Consomme de Volaille Royale a la Printaniere. 

" Soup of tlie evening, beautiful soup." — Alice in Wonderland. 

POISSONS. 

Dames de Saumon Bouilli, Sauce Mousseline. 

Pommes de terre nouvelles. Concombres. 

Filets de Sole I'Orly. 

" There's no meat Uke them ; 

I could wish my be3t friend at such a feast." — Timcn of Athens, i. 2. 

Releve. 

Filet de Bceuf pique d, la Renaissance. 

* What say you to a piece of beef and mustard." — Taming of the Shrew, iv. 5 

Entrees Chauds. 
Supreme de Volaille a la Victoria. 

Ris de veau A la Perigueux. 

" The daintiest that they taste." — 3 Henry IV, 

Entrees Froides. 

Foie-gras en belle vue. Aspic de Homard. 

"To please all kinds of appetite?." — Massinger. 

Ponche A la Romaine, cigarettes Turques. 

" You cannot judge the hquor from the lees." — Tennyson. 

ROTK. 

Aloyau de Bceuf A I'Anglaise. 

Quartier d'Agneau, Sauce Menthe. 

" Look to the baked meats, good Angelica ; 

Spare not for cost." — Romeo and Juliet. 

Vor.AILLE, 

Cailles de Vigne sur Canapes. 
, Canetons A la Rouennaise. 

Pommes pailles. Petits pais nouveaux. 

Asperges en branches. Sauce Hollandaise. 
" A table richly spread in regal modes, 
With dishes piled, and meats of noblest sort and savour." — Milion. 

Entremets. 

Pouding souffle d la Vanille. 

Gelee aux fruits. Vacherin A la Chantilly. 

Gateaux A la Napolitaine. 

"A surfeit of the sweetest things." — Midsummer Night's Dream. 

Glace en surprise. 

" A piece of ice," — Taming of the Shrew. 

Savoureux. 

Petits souffles au fromage. Pailles A, la Yarmouth. 

' "To make the matter savoury." — Hamlet. 

Dessert. 
" Partook a choice repast." — Massinger. 
Cafe noir et cognac. 
" Cofiee, which makes the politician wise, 
And see through all things with his half-shut eyes." — Pope. 



58 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

PART II. 

HORS-D'CEUVRE— APPETISERS. 

The hors-d'oeuvre course, which forms the so-called 
prelude to a complete dinner, has of late become very 
popular. 

A very large variety of 'little dishes, both plain and 
dressed, can be served under this heading. These dishes 
to the thoughtful cook present one of the best opportunities 
for showing his or her skill and originality in combination 
and garnish. Such dishes must, however, be strictly 
confined to such colour and such material as will harmonise 
with the other dishes on the menu. 

, Usually one or two plain and one dressed hors-d'oeuvre 
are served at a dinner, this being a matter of taste left 
to the maitre d'hotel or to the chef. 

Whatever the hors-d'oeuvre may consist of, let it be 
remembered that these little side dishes are intended to 
stimulate and not satisfy the appetite, i.e., they must be 
tempting and smart in appearance, and the portions must 
be very small, so as not to impair the enjoyment of the 
remainder of the meal. 

These dishes are frequently placed on the table before 
the guests enter the dining-room ; and, when dressed in 
a pretty and dainty manner, they add greatly to the 
effective decoration of a table. 

CLASSIFICATION OF HORS-D'(EUVRE. 

Plain Side Dishes. 

Note. — These, as well as certain of the dressed hors- 
d'oeuvres, are generally served under the name of 
hors-doeuvre varies. 

French. English. 

Anchois a I'huile Anchovies in oil 

Anchois aux cypres Anchovies with capers 

Anguilles fumdes Smoked eel 

Anguilles marinees Pickled or soused eel 

Betterave marin^e Pickled beetroot 

Boeuf fume Smoked beef 

Carrelots fum^s Smoked flounders 



HORS-D'CEUVRE— APPETISERS. 



59 



French. 

Caviar glace 
Caviar riisse 
CeUri &n salade 
Celeri en salade 
Clames Americains 
Cornichons 

Cornichons a la moutarde 
Cresson alenois 
Crevettes 
Crevettes dressees 
Ecrevisse garnie 
Ecrevisges 
Escargots farcis 
Filets de harengs • 
Greuouilles marinees 
Harengs marines 
Harengs a la remoulade 
Huitres au naturel 
Jambon d'Espagne 
Jambon fum6 
Jambon de Strasbourg 
Jambon Westphalie 
Lamproies k I'huile 
Langouste 

Langue de Boeuf fumee 
Langue de Renne fumee 
Lax fume a I'huile 
Maquereau marine 
Maquereaux k I'huile 
Melesses f umees 
Melon brod6 
Melon cantaloup 
Melon glace 
CEufs, de mouettes 
CEufs de pluviers 
CEufs de vanneaux 
Olives d'Espagne 
Olives farcies 
Olives LucuUus 
pate de foie-gras 
Petite artichauts crus 
Poitrine d'oie fumee 
Radis au beurre 
Radis rose et'blanc 
Royans k I'huile 
Salami 
Sand panachee 

Sandwich aux anchois 
Sandwich au caviar 
Sandwich de foie-gras 



English. 

Iced caviare 
Russian caviare 
Celery dressed in mayonnaise 
Celery-falad 
American clams 
French gherkins 
Gherkins in mustard sauce 
Garden cress 
Prawns 

Dressed prawns 
Dressed crawfish 
Crayfish 
Stuffed snails 
Fillets of herrings 
Pickled frogs' legs 
Pickled herrings [sauce 

Pickled herrings in mustard 
Oysters on shells 
Spanish ham 
Smoked ham 

Strasburg cured and smoked ham 
Westphalian ham ^ 
Lampreys in oil 
Spiny lobster 
Smoked ox-tongue 
Smoked reindeer tongue 
, Smoked salmon preserved in oil 
Soused mackerel fillets 
Mackerel in oil 
Smoked sprats ' 
Pickled melon 
French rock melon (iced) 
Iced melon 
Mew eggs (gull eggs) 
Plovers' eggs 

Lapwing eggs (puvet eggs) 
Spanish olives 
Stuffed olives 
French olives 
Goose-liver pie in terrines 
Small young green artichokes 
Smoked breast of goose 
Small radishes with butter 
Radishes, pink and white 
Royans in oil 
Smoked Milan sausage 
Mixed sandwich with different 
, kinds of meat, etc. 
A nchovy sandwich 
Caviare sandwich 
Goose-liver sandwich 



6o 



PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 



French. 

Sandwich au fromage 
Sandwichi de homard 
Sandwich au jambon 
Sandwich aux sardines 
Sardines sans ar§tes 
Sardines au citron 
Sardines fumees 
Sardines k I'huile 
Sardines russe 
Sardines a la tomate 
Saucisson Wane 
Saucisson de Bologne 
Saucisson de Brunswick 
Saucisson de foie-gras 
Saucisson de foie de Stras- 
bourg 
Saucisson de jambon 
Saucisson de Lyon 
Saucisson de Milan 
Saucisson de Mordadelle 
Saucisson noir 
Saucisson de perigueux 
Saumon fume 
Then k I'huile 
Then marine 
Thon en salade 
Tomates crues 
Tomates farcie 
Tomate en salade 
Tomate A la tartare 



English. 

Cheese sandwich 

Lobster sandwich 

Ham sandwich 

Sardine sandwich 

Boneless sardines [sauce 

Sardines preserved in lemon 

Smoked sardines 

Sardines in oil 

Russian sardines (pickled) 

Sardines in tomato sauce 

White sausage {smoked) 

Bologna sausage 

Brunswick sausage 

Goose-liver sausage 

Strasburg liver sausage 

Ham sausage 

Lyons sausage 

Salami sausage 

Mordadella or Italian sausage 

Black sausage {smoked) 

Liver and tritffle sausage 

Smoked salmon {thinly sliced) 

Tunny fish in oil 

Pickled tunny fish 

Tunny fish salad 

Small fresh tomatoes, sliced 

Stuffed tomatoes 

Tomato salad 

Tomatoes filled with tartare sauce 



Note.— AU side dishes of this description should 
be served on small glass or china dishes, and small 
pats of butter ought to be handed round at the same 
time. 

Smoked provisions, such as salmon, ham, and sausage, 
suitable for hors-d'oeuvre, cut into very thin slices, are 
usually served in hors-d'oeuvre dishes. 



Hors d'muvre garni — Dressed Hors-d'CEuvre. 

App^tlssants Maconnais. — Small bread croutons hollowed 
out and filled with pur6e of mussels, anchovies, e^g- 
yolks, etc. ; decorated with savoury butter. 

— & la Su6doIse. — Half-moon shaped slice of brown bread 
spread over with anchovy and sardine paste, lined 
with slice of lax ' or smoked salmon, garnished 
with hard-boiled white of egg, gherkins, and stufied 
olives. 

Anchols sur Canapis. — Anchovy canapfees. 



HORS-D'CEUVRE— APPETISERS. 6i 

Anchois et queues d'Eerevisses au Capisantis. — Anchovies 
and crayfish tails dressed in shells. 

— en Salade. — Anchovy salad dressed with oil and 

vinegar ; garnished with capers and hard-boiled eggs. 

— en Surprise. — Small choux paste rolls/ fdled with 

a puree of hard-boiled yolk of egg, anchovy paste, 
capers, and herbs ; glazed and garnished with curled 
anchovy fillets. 

Artichauts d I'Grique. — Very small blanched artichokes, 
marinaded in oil, vinegar, coriander seed, fennel, and 
other herbs ; served with its liquor. 

Ballotlnes de Homard i la R£f orme. — Ballotines of lobster, 
reform style. 

Barquettes de concombre, Danoise. — Small boat-shapes of 
cucumber filled with a puree of smoked salmon, 
.herring fillets, and hard-boiled eggs ; garnished with 
grated horseradish and pimiento strips. 

— & la Suedoise. — Small boat shapes of savoury choux 

paste, baked and filled with caviare, masked with 
pink chaudfroid sauce, and garnished with gherkins, 
fillets, and lobster spawn or coral. 

— au pois verts, Clanet. — Boat shaped thin tartlet 

paste crust, baked and filled with green pea pur^e, 
mixed with mayonnaise aspic, a little chutnej' in 
centre of each ; surface garnished with sliced radishes, 
and masked with aspic. 

Batons de Caviar, Russe.^Thin water biscuits, oblong, or 
triscuits cut to finger shape, spread with caviare, 
iced, and coated with whipped cream, and decorated 
with green herb butter. 

BtBUf fum6 k la Hambourgeoise. — Smoked beef, Hamburg 

style. 

— ^ hachie k, 1' Aspic. — Finely shredded- beef with savoury 
jelly. 

Bonnes-Bouches k la Cardinal. — Lobster and anchovy 
bonnes-bouches. 

— de Caviar Russe. — Small, artichoke bottoms, sur- 

mounted by a ring of cooked sole fillet, and filled 
with artichoke caviare ; served iced. 

— de Crevettes k I'Avondale. — Bouche-shaped cups of 

pastry, filled with shrimps or prawn tails ; garnished 
with tomato aspic. 

— de Foie-gras. — Goose-liver patties. 

— de Sardines. — Fancifully cut shapes of brown bread 

filled with, sardine paste ; decorated with hard-boiled 
egg and savoury butter. 



62 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Bonnes-Bouches de Sardines i la Royale. — Sardine patties, 
royal style. 

Brisolettes de Caviar. — Very small stuffing rolls, cut in 
halves and filled with caviare, surface masked with 
aspic, and garnished with anchovy fillets, parsley, etc. 

— 4 la Moscovite. — Caviare dressed in paste crusts, 

Moscow style. 
* Canap6s Alberta. — Oval or finger-shaped crofites spread 
with anchovy paste, lined with lax,- decorated with 
chopped beetroot, green herb butter, anchovy butter, 
and aspic. 

— ^ I'Arlequln. — Oblong or crescent shapes of toasted 

and buttered bread, with strips of tongue, smoked 
salmon, gherkins, and truffles, arranged in harlequin 
style. 

— & la Coquelin. — Croutons of fried bread, spread over 

with a paste composed of cooked ham, chicken, butter, 
and grated cheese ; garnished with gherkins, beetroot, 
and capers. 

— & la Dlaua. — Layers of chopped ham, truffles, and hard- 

Ijoiled egg-yolks placed alternately on croiitons of 
bread ; decorated with chopped aspic. 

— 4 la Darvelle. — Oval-shaped pieces of toasted or fried 

bread, spread with anchovy paste, and finished with 
layers of ham and caviare ; decorated with hard- 
boiled eggs and aspic. 

— de Pole-gras i la Russe. — Rounds of toasted bread 

spread with foie-gras puree, a dice of hard-boiled 
egg placed on top ; garnished with anchovy fillets 
and caviare. 

— Frivolltis Bohemlenne. — This name is applied to any 

variety of light and daintily dressed hors d'oeuvres, 
mostly of fancy character. 

— & la Geneve. — Oblong croutons of fried bread, spread 

with a paste composed of anchovy, sardine, and nam ; 
garnished with hard-boiled egg-yolk and white, and 
parsley. 

— de Harengs i, la Russe. — Fingers of fried bread 

spread with anchovy butter mixed witii herring roes ; 
fillets of kippered herrings are placed on each ; 
garnished with gherkins. 

— de Homard & la Reine. — Lobster canapees, queen style. 

— ' de Sardines d la FranQalse. — Small fried bread 
croutons masked with sardine paste or butter, layers 
of sardines, chopped parsley, and coated with 
remoulade sauce. 

* Canapfe. — This word is applied to boih Hors-d'ceuvre aud Savouries, 
which are made of toasted or fried bread, previously cut into suitable sizes 
and shape slices. 



HORS-D'(EUVRE~APPETISERS. 63 

Canapfis de Saumon tumS.— Smoked salmon on toast. 

— d la Selon. — Buttered water biscuits covered with 

slices of hard-boiled egg dipped in lemon juice and 
chopped parsley, caviare in centre, and garnished 
with prawns. 

— ^ la Turque. — Finger-shaped pieces of fried bread, 

spread with savoury ham mixture, decorated with 
three distinct coloured butters, anchovy, herb, and 
yolk of egg. 

— !l la Turbigo. — Halves of very small bread rolls (stuffing 

rolls), filled with crayfish tails, celery, truffle, and egg 
white ; dressed with tomato and r6moulade sauce. 

— d la Windsor. — Puree of cooked chicken fillets, ham, 

tongue, butter, Cheshire cheese, mustard, and cayenne, 
spread on canapees of fried bread ; garnished with 
gherkins and hard-boiled egg whites. 

Carolines. — Name applied to small finger shapes or ball 
shapes of unsweetened choux paste baked, centre 
scooped out and filled with cold savoury fish, foie- 
gras or other dainty puree ; usually masked with 
chaudfroid sauce. 

Cassolettes de Betterave. — -Small cases made of cooked 
beetroot, pickled, and filled with a salpicon of egg, 
anchovies, capers, gherkins, etc. 

— d, I'Epicurienne. — Little pastry cases filled with seasoned 

lax, tongue, olives, and gherkins, all cut into fine shreds. 

Caviar & TAllemande. — Small cooked kidney potatoes, 
filled with caviare, with curled anchovy fillet on top, 
and covered with chopped hard-boiled egg. 

— en Belle-vue. — Halves of lemon prettily edged, 

centre filled with caviare ; dressed on bread socle in 
pyramidal form ; garnished with parsley. 

— de Biliiga, glac6.— Shallow ice cup shape of plain water 

ice and watercresses to form dish, which is filled with 
fresh iced Biluga or best Russian caviare ; - served 
with lemon, and thinly cut toast or wafer biscuits. 

— aux BUnlS.^This is a special Russian dish, the 

caviare being served on a glass dish set in a block of 
ice ; garnished with quarters of lemon and parsley. 
Blinis is served at the same time. It is a kind of 
light yeast batter; without sugar, made into small 
thin pancakes, and sent to table hot with a boat of 
sour cream. 

— sur Canapfi d la Rimoulade. — Caviare canapees, 

remoulade style. 

— d la Capuclne. — Small oval or boat-shaped bread 

crusts, filled with caviare and chopped prawns, 
seasoned with mayonnaise ; garnished with hard- 
boiled egg and cress. 



64 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Caviar i, la Duchesse. — Small unsweetened choux paste 
shapes baked, and filled with caviare, seasoned with 
mayonnaise, or plain and iced ; coated with aspic jelly. 

— aux Ecrevisses. — Small fried bread cups, filled with 

caviare and prawns ; garnished with olives and 
gherkins. 

— en Mayonnaise. — Fresh Russian caviare, pounded, 

with breadcrumbs, soaked in cream, and seasoned 
with mayonnaise. 

— en Salade.— A neatly dressed salad of caviare, and 

small dice of tomato and hard-boiled egg. 

Ciian4relles on Salade. — Chahtrelles are a species of mush- 
room grown in Switzerland. When cooked they are 
dressed with plain salad dressing, seasoning and 
served as hors-d'ceuvre. 

Concombres a la Danoise. — Cassolette shapes of cucumber 
pickled, and filled with a salpicon of smoked salmon, 
hard-boiled egg, with salad anchovy, seasoned with 
mayonnaise. 

Crabe garnie. — Dressed crab. The meat of crab, seasoned 
with salad or cream dressing, refilled into the shell, 
and garnished neatly. 

Crofites d 'Ecrevisses h la Tartare. — Croutes of crayfish or 
prawn tails, dressed with tartare sauce. 

CroQtons ^ I'EspagnoIe. — Large Spanish olives, stuffed 
v/itli tartare sauce, placed on round croutons, with 
anchovy fillets twisted round olives ; decorated with 
lobster coral, egg-j'olk, and parsley. 

Darloles de Caviar. — Caviare darioles, dressed in small 
tartlet pastry crust, seasoned. 

— de Fole-gras. — Goose liver darioles. 

— de Hoinr.rd i la Tomate. — Lobster darioles with 

tomatoes. 

— d'Huitres t la Carlton. — Oj'ster darioles, Carlton style. 

— de Tomate 4 la Creme. — Tomato darioles with cream. 

D611catesse Husse. — Name given to a collection of selected 
small hors-d'oeuvre dishes of the Russian type. 

Denises d la Turque. — Dainty little sandwiches filled with 
prawns, tomato puree, hard-boiled egg, and anchovy, 
and decorated with paprika butter. 

— d la Princesse. —Dainty little sandwiches filled with 

chicken puree, walnuts, and cream mixture ; 
garnished with small cress. 
Duehosse d la Russe. — Small ball shapes of baked uu- 
sv/eetened choux paste, filled with a delicate chicken 
puree, sauced, with mayonnaise, and coated with 
chaudfroid sauce. 



HORS-D'CEUVRE— APPETISERS. 65 

Eclairs Karoly. — Baked choux paste eclairs (unsweetened), 

filled with savoury game pur6e, and coated with 

brown chaudfroid sauce. 
Escargots aux flnes herbes. — Snails, with fine herb butter. 
Frivolitis Boh^mienne. — This name is applied to any five 

or more varieties of cold hors-d'oeuvre dishes, without 

any specific rule. 
Homard i, la CarSnie. — Lobster dressed Careme style. 

Hors-d'(Euvre Su^doise. — Cold roast veal or chicken, 
herring fillets (smoked), cold potatoes, and beetroot, 
all cut up into small fillets or dice, seasoned with 
French dressing and decorated with chopped hard- 
boiled egg, etc. 

Jambon sur Canapes. — Ham on fried bread croutons. 

Laltance de CablUaud fum£ sur Canapes. — Smoked or 
pickled tunny 'fish on toast. 

Langue de Bosuf sur Canapes. — Ox-tongue, finely shredded 
or in purfee form, on toasted or fried bread slices. 

Lax fum6 aux Concombres. — Salad made of thin slices of 
smoked salmon and thin slices of cucumber, neatly 
dressed on small glass dishes. 

Nids a la Chartres.^Little nest-shaped bread croutes 
filled with foie-gras puree, decorated with truffle and 
hard-boiled white and yolk of egg. 

(Eufs farcis h la Russe. — Stuffed eggs, Russian style. 

— il la Su^doise. — Small-hard-boiled eggs cut in halves, 

filled with green herb butter and egg-yolk ; prettily 
decorated and served on glass dishes. 
Olives. — Both French and Spanish olives are used as 
hors-d'ceuvre, but for dressed hors-d'ceuvre the latter 
are best suited on account of their size. 

— ^ I'Alsacienne. — Large Spanish olives stuffed with 

foie-gras and ham puree ; dressed on croutons. 

— & rAnchoiS. — Spanish olives stuffed with anchovy 

crea.m, and curled round with anchovy fillets, dished 
on bed of small salad. 

— ik la Madias. — Spanish olives stuffed with anchovy 

and chutney puree, dressed on croutons. 

— it la Reine. — Large Spanish olives, farced with a puree 

of anchovy, gherkins, and hard-boiled egg ; dressed 
on croutons. 

— 4 la Tartare. — Stoned Spanish olives filled with 

tartare sauce, stiffened with aspic, and glazed with 
savoury jelly. 
Palmiers d'Ecrevisses. — Small oval-shaped paste crusts 
filled with picked shrimps "and mayonnaise dressing 
(cream), finished with chopped parsley and lobster 
coral. 



66 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY 

pate d'Ecrevisses sur Canapes. — Potted crayfish spread on 

small fingers of toasted bread. 
Petites Bouch^es 2I la Caroline. — Very small rice cassolettes, 

filled with chopped hard-boiled white of egg and 

truffles, seasoned with mayonnaise. 

— de Jambon i, la Crime. — Small puff-paste patties filled 

with minced ham and cream. 

Petites Caisses i la Casanova. — Small china or paper 
ramakin cases, filled with celery and truffle shreds, 
seasoned with tartare sauce, an oyster, slice of egg 
on top, and decorated with green herb butter. 

Polreaux i, la Russe. — The inner part (heart) of leek cut 
into cube shapes, blanched, and marinaded, farced 
with caviare, seasoned with mayonnaise and grated 
horseradish. 

Rosettes aux Anchols. — Small heart-shaped slices of fried 
bread spread with anchovy butter and garnished 
with anchovy fillets, with small mushroom head in 
centre, arranged in Rosette form, and decorated with 
green herb butter and chopped hard-boiled egg. 

— de Caviar. — Small heart-shaped slices of brown 

bread toasted, spread with caviare, decorated with 
lobster butter, and dished up in rosette form. 

Roulettes k la Creole. — Thinly cut slices of brown bread, 
spread with game or chicken pur6e, mixed with 
pounded capers and anchovy paste rolled up, buttered, 
and sprinkled alternately with chopped parsley and 
lobster coral. 

Salades as Hors-d'ceuvre. — Cucumber, celery, celeriac, 
melon, beetroot, tomatoes, hard-boiled eggs, cauli- 
flower (cooked), artichokes (raw and cooked), cold 
potatoes, French beans, etc., cut up small in shreds 
or dice, dressed with mayonnaise or oil and vinegar, 
are served as hors-d'oeuvre. These salads, however, 
must not be confused with salads served with roasts. 

Salade Bagration. — Finely shredded lettuce hearts, tunny 
fish, and lobster cut in dice, also pickled beetroot, 
seasoned with mayonnaise and garnished with stoned 
olives and anchovy fillets. 

— Russe. — Russian vegetable salad made of cooked 

vegetables, set in aspic, with caviare in centre. 

— Suidoise. — Cooked lean veal, fillets of salt herrings 

or kippers ; cooked potatoes and beetroot, all cut in 
dice ; seasoned with oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper ; 
garnished with haid-boUed egg-yolks. 
Sardines sur Canapes. — Sardine canap6es (boned and 
skinned, and dressed on fried or toasted bread). 

Souvenirs, Viennolse. — Small chicken quenelles, poached 
and set in aspic, with vegetable mac6doine garnish. 



HORS-D'(EUVWE— APPETISERS. 67 

Tartelettes de Saumoa, Ecossaise.— Little tartlet crusts of 
pastry filled with shreds .of cooked salmon and 
mayonnaise aspic ; garnished with slices of hard-boiled 
egg and truffle. 

Tartines ^ la Baroda. — Very small sandwiches, lined with 
chicken and rice puree, flavoured with curry ; masked 
with white chaudfroid sauce, and decorated with set 
aspic. 

— i la Cardinal.-^Faijcifully cut sandwiches made of 

brown bread and savoury lobster puree ; decorated 
with truffle, hard-boiled egg, gherkin, and parsley. 

— • de Caviar en chaudfroid. — Round fried bread 
croutons, slit open and filled with caviare, coated 
alternately with brown and white chaudfroid sauces, 
dressed round a, small salad. 

— LueuUus.— Finger-shaped puff pastry, seasoned with 

cheese, and layer of anchovy paste In centre ; gar- 
nished with olives and anchovy butter. 

Thon marine sur Canapes. — Pickled tunny fish on toast. 

Tomates Monigasque. — Small ripe tomatoes marinaded 
and filled with chopped tunny fish, hard-boiled egg, 
and fine herbs, seasoned with mayonnaise or French 
dressing. 

— en quartiers. — Peeled tomatoes, hollowed out in centre 

and filled -with fish farce or vegetable macedoine, 
seasoned with mayonnaise, aspic, iced and cut in 
quarters before dishing up. 

Tranches de Caviar, Remoulade. — Layers of bread covered 
with caviare, decorated with savoury butter, and cut 
into neat slices. 

Zakousky. — This is the name given for hors-d'oeuvre 
dishes in Russia. They consist of various kinds of 
daintily dressed caviare, pickled or smoked fish, etc. 
Certain Russian liqueurs are usually served with 
Zakousky, which form a great feature in the Russian 
cuisine. 

Note. — A large number of these dishes are suited alike 
as after-dinner savouries as well for hors-d'oeuvre, 
especially those made from shell fish, smoked fish, eggs, 
meat, and certain savoury vegetable mixtures. 

For typical after-dinner savouries please refer to 
Part XIII. at end of book. 



68 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMV. 

PART III, 

POTAQES— SOUPS. 

Next to hors-d'ceuvre, Soup forms the best introduction 
to a meal ; it is, as far as the dinner is concerned, an 
indispensable course, and therefore important. Soups arc 
divided into four groups : Broths, Consommes, clear soups 
with garnish ; purees of meat, poultry or game ; bisques 
and fish soups ; and creams, or filtered soups made from 
vegetables and farinaceous products. Sometimes the 
choice of two or three varieties of soups are given at one 
meal, in which case the clear soup, or consomme, must be 
placed on the menu before the thick soups. Tlie present 
fashion is in favour of one soup only, either clear or 
thick. For a full-course dinner, or one of many courses, 
a clear or light thick soup, cream or bisque, gives more 
satisfaction than a heavy soup, because it conduces better 
to the appreciation of the succeeding dishes. Heavy or 
thick soups are generally considered more seasonable in 
winter than in summer. 

There are certain more or less flexible rules observed 
in serving consomme : cheese straws, or grisini, fingers, 
toasted bread and grated parmesan cheese are generally 
handed round with it. Sherry is served with turtle soup ; 
fried bread croutons with purees ; and celery salt with 
vegetable and cream soups. With mulligatawny, both 
thick and clear, a small dish of plain boiled rice is handed 
round, unless included in the soup as garnish. 



BOUILLONS— BROTHS. 

(Unclarlfled Soups.) 

Bouillon Alsacienne. — Beef and ham broth, garnished 
with dice shapes of potatoes, julienne of leeks and 
cabbage, and sippets of bread. 

^ Ancienne. — Beef broth with small pieces of beef and 
vegetables as garnish, small croutons of bread served 
with cheese (gratine). 

— de Boeuf. — Beef broth (not clarified). 

— Bonne Femme. — Beef broth with usual garnish 

and dice shapes of cooked potatoes. 



POTAGES—SOUPS.^ 69 

Bouillon Bouillabaisse. — Fish broths with slight saffron 
flavour, garnished with mussels, crayfisli or lobster, 
and other fish. 

— Ecossalse. — Mutton broth with small pieces of lean 

mutton and vegetables, and pearl barley as garnish. 

— Henri IV. — Beef and chicken broth, garnished with 

pieces of fowl, cooked rice and soup vegetables. 

— Hotchepot. — Beef broth, garnished with small pieces of 

ox-tail and ox-palate cooked in the broth, and the 
usual garnish of vegetables. 

— Marmite or Petite Marmite is a simply-made, but rich, 

broth of beef and fowl or mutton cooked in an 
earthenware pot (marmite), and as a rule served in 
large or small (portion size) fire-proof earthenware 
soup pots. 

— de Mouton. — Mutton broth. 

— aux CEufs. — Beef broth with beaten egg, usually 

served in cups. 

— Parisienne. — Beef broth, enriched with chicken boiled 

in it, garnished with usual soup vegetables — cab- 
bage, etc. , and pieces of beef ; baked bread crusts 
handed separately. 

— en tasses. — Beef broth, served in cups. 

— de Veau. — Veal broth. 

— de Volaille. — Chicken broth. 

— de Volaille & I'Orge. — Chicken broth thickened with 

pearl barley. 



CONSOMMES— CLEAR SOUPS. 

Consommi tt I'Atricalne. — A rich clear chicken soup, 
flavoured with curry and garnished with rice and 
small shreds of artichoke bottom. 

— Agnelotti. — Clear soup with small Italian raviolis filled 

with lamb farce, and poached. 

— Ajoblanco. — Clear soup, slightly flavoured with garlic, 

garnished with finely shredded sweet almonds. 

— Albion (Maigre). — Fish consomme, a clarified fish stock, 

thickened with tapioca, garnished with shreds of 
lobster and truffle.' 

— Alexandra. — Chicken consomme, thickened with 

tapioca, garnished with small chicken quenelles, 
finely shredded lettuce, and chicken fillets. 

— Ambassadrlce. — Chicken consomme, garnished with 

three different kinds of royal custard cut into round 
cubes — i.e., tomato, truffle, and greeii pea purees, 
also shreds of mushrooms and chicken fillets. 



70 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Consommi A I'Anclenne. — Chicken consomme, garnished 
with small chicken quenelles and fried bread 
croutons coated with cheese. 

— Andalouse. — Clarified chicken stock with tapioca 

(I quart to | oz. tapioca). Garnitures : small rounds 
of tomato, cucumber cubes, and small chicken 
forcemeat quenelles. 

— Aurora. — Clear soup, flavoured and coloured with 

tomato, thickened with tapioca, and garnished with 
finely cut chicken fillets. 

— Bairgneuse. — Clear soup with small forced lettuce balls. 

— Bagration (Maigre). — A richly flavoured clear soup, 

garnished 'with small fish quenelles, vegetable, and 
prawns. 

— Bavi6re (Bavarian). — A clear soup with very small 

semolina dumplings. 

— Belle-Fermldre. — Rich clarified chicken stock, garnished 

with lozenge shapes of cabbage, French beans, and 
nouillo paste (poached). 

— Benjamin Lepols. — Kich chicken consommfe, garnished 

with green peas, small cubes of truffle, and royal 
custard containing chicken puree. 

— Bohimlenne. — Clear soup with cubes of royal custard 

and foie-gras, also small profiteroUes. 

— Bouqnetldre. — Clear soup, garnished with spring vege- 

tables daintily cut. 

— Bourbon. — Chicken consomme, garnished with chicken 

farce quenelles, fleur-de-lys shaped slices of truffle, 
and pearl barley. 

— Bretonne. — Clear soup with finely shredded leek, 

celery, and mushrooms, also chopped chervil. 

— Brisse. — Clear soup with a garnish of three varieties 

of vegetable purle, custard, or plain boiled rice. 

— Brunolse (Brunoise Soup). — A clear gravy soup with 

finely minced carrots, turnips, leeks, and onions. 

— Brunoise au Riz. — The same as above, witli the addi- 

tion of some plainly boiled rice. 

— Cabure. — Clear soup with small round slices of cabbage 

and lettuce, also rounds of toasted bread coated with 
cheese. 

— Capucine. — Clear soup with finely shredded spinach 

and small profiteroUes filled with chicken pur^e. 

— Cardinal. — Consommfe, flavoured with tomato, gar- 

nished with small lobster quenelles. 

— CarSme. — Chicken and veal stock, clarified, and gar- 

nished with slices of cooked carrot, lettuce, turnip, 
leek, asparagus points, and thin rounds of bread 
crusts. 



POT AGES— SOUPS. n 

Consommfi 4 la Carmen.— Clear soup, flavoured and 
coloured with tomatoes, garnished with fine strips 
of pimiento, chervil, and plain rice. 

— Caroline. — Straw-coloured rich consomm6, garnished 

with Carolina rice, royal custard, and chicken fillets, 
both cut very small. 

— Cil^stine (Celestine Soup). — A clear §ravy soup with 

thin pancakes cut into julienne strips. 

— Cbaneellidre. — Chicken consomme, garnished with rings 

of royal custard, flageolets, and fine strips of truffles, 
champignons, and beetroot. 

— ChantUly. — Rich consomme, garnished with strips of 

hard white of egg, chicken fillets, and rice. 

— Chasseur. — ^A clear, game-flavoured soup, garnished 

with small game quenelles. 

— CbSteleine. — Clear soup with slight tarragon flavour, 

garnished with royal custard, mixed with artichoke 
puree, green peas, and French beans. 

— Chiflonnade (Chifionade Gravy Soup). — A clear soup, 

garnished with finely shredded spring onion heads, 
green peas, and lettuce leaves stamped out round, 
seasoned with green mint and tarragon leaves. 

— Chpron 4 la Richelieu. — Clarified game stock, garnished 

with julienne strips of cooked game, pea shapes of 
young carrots, and Brazil tapioca. 

— Choux (arcis, aux. — Clear soup garnished with stuffed 

Brussels sprouts. 

— Christlania. — Chicken consomme, garnished with pro- 

fiteroUes, filled with chestnut purfee. 

— Cbristophe Colombe. — Clear chicken broth with two 

coloured diamond or ring shapes of poached royal 
custard. 

— Clair. — Clear soup (plain, without any kind of garniture). 

— Claremont. — Clear soup with royal custard and fried 

onion rings as garnish. 

— Clodilde. — Clear soup with very small button onions 

fried in butter and cooked in stock. 

— Coek-a-Leekie (Cock-a-Leekie Soup). — Clear chicken 

broth, with leeks cut into julienne strips, pearl barley, 
and small dice of cooked chicken. Prunes are some- 
times added as a garnish. 

— Colbert. — A clear soup with small poached eggs and 

green peas. 

— Colombine. — Chicken consomme, garnished with jar- 

diniere of carrots, turnips, and green peas, also fine 
trips of pigeon iiUets, and poached pigeon eggs. 

— Comtesse. — Clear soup with finely shredded lettuce, 

chicken quenelles, chervil leaves, and royal custard 
shapes. 



72 PRACTICAL CASTRONOM 

Consomm^ A, la Cond4.— A clear game soup, garnished 
with quenelles of haricot bean puree and julienne 
strips of partridge fillets. 

— Crtcy. — Clear soup with very fine strips of red carrot 

and pink royal custard. 

— CroQte au Pot. — A clear beef soup, garnished with 

stock-pot vegetables and very thinly cut pieces of 
toasted bread. 

— Cussy.— Clarified game, thickened with small game 

farce quenelles, chestnut, and strips of truffles. 

— Cyrano. — Clear soup, flavoured with duck (fumet), gar- 

nished with small duck farce quenelles. 

— Dame-blanche. — Rich consomme, garnished with fine 

shreds of chicken fillets, white of egg, and chervil 
leaves. 

— Dant6. — Clarified beef stock in which two or three 

roast pigeons have been cooked. Garniture : small 
darioles of chicken farce in two colours, i.e., white 
and yellow, the latter coloured with saffron, also 
truffles and ox-tongue. 

— Daumont. — Clarified beef stock with fine tapioca, and 

a garnish of champignons and cooked ox-palate cut 
into julienne strips. 

— Dauphlne. — Clear soup with vegetable macedoine, 

small cubes of royal custard, and profiteroUes. 

— Demidoff. — Clear soup, thickened with tapioca, gar- 

nished with small chicken quenelles, strips of truffles 
and carrots. 

— DisUgnac. — A clear soup with dice of royal custard. The 

eggs for this are mixed with milk and stock, 
finely chopped parsley, celery, and truffles before 
poaching. 

— Diablotin. — Clarified beef stock with tiny baked bread 

crusts, seasoned with cheese and cayenne. 

— Diane. — Game-flavoured consomme, enriched with 

XerJs wine, with small game quenelles. 

— Dietrich. — Clarified veal stock with garniture of 

nouilles, carrots, turnips, and French beans, cut in 
fine shreds. 

— Diploraate. — A rich clear soup with poached egg-yolks 

and small olive shapes of cucumber and turnip, also 
very small button onions. 

— Dorla. — Clear soup, garnished with pea-shaped cucum- 

ber and profiteroUes. 

— du Barry. — Clear chicken and veal stock, with cubes of 

royal custard and finely shredded Jordan almonds. 

— Dubelloy. — Clear chicken broth with royal custard, 

green peas, and rice as garnish. 



Missing Page 



74 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Consommi d la Grisonne. — Clear soup, garnished with 
batter passed through a coarse colander into the soup 
when boiling. , 

— Henri IV. — Chicken consomm6 or broth with suitably 

cut soup vegetable and small chicken fillets, rice, 
and chervil leaves. 
— • Hombourg.— Clear soup with small calf's liver quen- 
elles, round slices of beef marrow with pronounced 
paprika flavour. 

— Hongroise. — Clear chicken soup with tomato flavour, 

strips of tomatoes tossed in butter, and paprika 
seasoning. 

— Imp^rlale. — Clear chicken soup, garnished with whole 

poached yolks of eggs and shreds of ham and truffles. 

— Indlenne. — Clear mulligatawny soup, served with 

cooked rice. 

— Intante. — Chicken consomme, garnished with small 

bread croutons coated with liver pur6e or farce. 

— Irma. — Rich clear soup with small chicken quenelles 

each filled with green peas prior to poaching. 

— Italienne (Italian). — Clear soup with small pieces of 

macaroni, cubes of spinach, and tomato custard 
(royal). 

— Jardlnldre. — Clear soup, garnished with carrots, turnips, 

and celery scooped out in olive shapes. 

— JolnvUIe. — Chicken consomme with pea shapes of 

carrot, royal custard, two kinds, one mixed with 
chicken pur6e, and one with green pea purfee. 

— Jubil^. — Chicken consomm6 with julienne strips of 

celery, truffle, and tomato. 

— Judlc. — Clear soup with finely shredded lettuce, chive, 

and chervil. 

— Julienne. — Clear soup with carrots, turnips, onions, 

leeks, cabbage, and lettuces, cut into very thin 
strips, called julienne, about an inch long. 

— Juliette. — Clarified chicken stock, with a garnish con- 

sisting of very small cream quenelles, green pea 
puree a la Royal cut in cubes, tiny rounds of 
truffle, and lozenge shapes of hard-boiled white 
of egg. 

— Kapriva (Russian). — Consomme with small fried eggs, 

sorrel, and slices of smoked sausage, served with 
sour cream. 

— Kiselefl (Russian). — Chicken consomme with julienne 

strips of celeriac and leek, strips of ham, and chicken 
fillet. 

— Kolodnlk (Polish). — Iced chicken consomm6, garnished 

with hard white of egg and cucumber cut in fine 
strips, also crayfish tails. 



Consomm§ &Ia Lafltte.^-Chicken consomme flavoured with 
sherry or marsala, garnished with financiere. 

— Laltues. — Clear soup with finely shredded lettuce 

(tossed in butter). 

— Leopold. — Clear soup with semolina, shredded lettuce, 
■ and sorrel. 

— Lllienne. — Clear soup, flavoured with tarragon and 

chervil, and garnished with a julienne of slightly 
baked almonds, truffles, and mushrooms. 

— Lorette. — Clear soup with finely cut strips of celeriac, 

potato, pimiento, and truffle. 

— Macaroni. — Clear soup, garnished with cooked macaroni 

cut into short pieces. 

— Madrid. — Tomato-flavoured clear soup, garnished with 

thin slices of skinned and cooked tomatoes. 

— Magenta. — Rich clear soup, flavoured and coloured 

with ripe tomatoes, and mac^doine of vegetables as 
garnish. 
-^ Maigre. — -Clear fish soup (Lenten soup) made with 
fish stock and vegetables. 

— Maintenon. — Clear soup with strips of tomato and 

leeks, served with small toasted cheese croAtons. 

— Maneelle. — Clarified beef and veal stock, garnished 

with dice shapes of roasted chestnuts and julienne 
strips of cooked game or poultry. 

— Merc6dds.— Rich clear soup with star shapes of cocks' 

combs and cucumber, flavoured with Xirte wine. 

— Messallne. — Clarified chicken broth with tomato 

essence, garnished with cock's kernels, Carolina rice, 
and Spanish pimientos cut in julienne. 

— Metternlch. — Clarified beef stock, flavoured with 

chicken, garnished with cooked tomatoes cut into 
dice, and chicken fillets. 

— MIgnon (Maigre). — -Fish consomme with crayfish tails, 

strips of trufiBe and fish quenelles. 

— Mikado. — A curry-flavoured clear chicken soup, garn- 

ished with finely-shredded chicken fillets and cooked 
rice. 

— Milanaise.-^-Clear soup, garnished with cooked rice, 

dice of ox-tongue, and shreds of ripe tomatoes. 

— Mlrianne. — Clarified chicken stock with the following 

garnish : plainly cooked rice tossed in lobster butter, 
to which is added oysters cut in dice, chopped trufiies 
and pistachios, the whole moistened with white • 
sauce and cheese as for salpicon ; filled in very small 
shell-shaped thin paste crusts, which are handed 
round with the consomme. 

— Mock Turtle. — Clear soup with strips of calf's head 

(turtle flavour). 



76 PRACTICAL GASTRONOM 

ConsommS i la Moelle de Boeuf (Beef Marrow).— Cleax 
soup with small marrow-fat quenelles. 

— Monaco. — Clear soup with stuffed fried bread quen- 

elles. 

— Monte Carlo. — Clear soup with small chicken quenelles 

and profiterolles, shredded lettuce, and chervil. 

— Monte Christo. — Chicken consomme with brunoise of- 

vegetables and profiteroUes. 

— Nansen. — Iced consomme, served with small caviare 

croutons. 

— Nantaise. — Clear soup with pearl barley, garnished with 

chicken fillets and green peas. 

— Napoleon. — Clarified chicken stock, garnished with 

small foie-gras Talmouse (triangular-shaped nouille 
paste stuffed with foie-gras puree), and poached in 
stock. 

— Napolitaine. — A game-flavoured clear soup with 

macaroni, shreds of celery and ham as garnish. 

— Nationale. — Beef consomme with croute au pot gar- 

nish. 

— Nelson. — ^Turtle-flavoured clear soup with tliree varieties 

of chicken quenelles (red, white, and green). 

— Nimours. — Clear soup, garnished with diamond shapes 

of custard made with carrot puree, bechamel sauce, 
and egg-yolks. 

— Nesselrode. — Clear soup with small chestnut quenelles. 

— NifOise. — Chicken consomme, garnished with tomato 

strips, dice of potatoes, and flageolets. 

— Nids d'Hirondelles. — Clear soup, garnished with Chinese 

bird's nest (salenganes), previously poached. 

— Normande., — Clarified chicken stock, garnished with 

green peas and soup vegetables. 

— NoulUes. — A clear soup with nouilles (a kind of macaroni 

paste, only flat instead of round). 

— Nouveau Rigne. — Rich chicken consomme, witii a 

special kind of chicken quenelle, made by having 
cubes of richly flavoured aspic and gold- leaf intro- 
duced prior to being cooked, these quenelles being 
put into the soup just at the moment of serving. 

— (Eufs fll6s. — Clear soup with beaten egg run through 

a colander whilst the soup is boiling. 

— Olga. — Clarified chicken broth with julienne strips of 

chicken breast, ox-tongue, and truffles, also green 
peas 

— OUa-Podrida (Spanish). — Clear soup or broth made 

from various kinds of meat — ox-tail, pig's-tail, and 
mutton breasts, garnished with sausage, ham, and 
vegetable, all cut in slices. 



-■^^■^'~^simj!r-jsn^ 



Missing Page 



78 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY 

Consomm§ a la PrinlanWre (Spring Soup);— A clear gravy 
soup, garnished with finely-cut spring vegetables. 

— Prlntanldre aux Quenelles.— Clear soup with poached 

chicken forcemeat quenelles and macedoine of spring 
vegetables. 

— Proflterolles.— Clear soup with very small cheese paste 

fritter. 

— Pyr^nalse.- Clarified mutton stock with brunoise 

vegetables, tomato strips, and nouilles or Italian 
paste as garnish. 

— Quenelles {rites.- Clear soup, garnished with very 

small choux paste quenelles, fried. 

— Quenelles de VolaUle (Chicken Quenelle Gravy Soup).— 

A clear soup with small, chicken forcemeat dumplings. 

— Queues de Boeuf. — Clear ox-tail soup. 

— Rabelais. — Game-flavoured consomme, garnished with 

small game quenelles and julienne strips of truffle and 
celery. 

— Rachel. — A richly flavoured clear soup with small 

chicken quenelles, dice of tongue, and truffles. 

— Ramboule. — Clear chicken soup, garnished with 

stamped-out rounds of poached chicken quenelle 
meat and young green peas. 

— Raphael. — Chicken consomme with very small dice 

shapes of celeriac (tossed in butter). 
— • Ravioli. — A clear soup made with chicken and veal 
stock, with little round nouille paste shapes stuffed 
with forcemeat (poached). 

— R§jane. — Chicken consomme, flavoured with chervil, 

garnished with dice of carrot and egg strips (oeufs 
fil6s). 

— Renaissance. — Clear soup with sliced white mushrooms, 

green peas, rice, and small cheese croutons (separate). 

— Riche. — Chicken consommfe with small chicken quen- 

elles forced with truffle. 

— Richelieu (Carfime maigre). — Fish consomm6 (tomato- 

flavoured), garnished with small lobster quenelles. 

— Rlz. — Clear soup, garnished with plain boiled rice. 

— des Rois. — A rich chicken stock, clarified, garnished 

with julienne strips of quail fillets, truffles, and 
asparagus points. Parmesan croutons handed sepa- 
rately. 

— Rossini. — Consomm^ double, garnished with very 

large macaroni, boiled, drained, and forced with 
joie-gras cream, poached and cut into small, short 
pieces. 

— Rothschild. — Game consommS, garnished with finely 

cut pheasant fillets, chestnuts, and strips of truffles, 



ConsommS a la Royale. — Clear soup with poached egg 
custard, called royal, cut into cube, dice, round, 
diamond, or other fancy shapes. 

— Russe (Russian). — Clear soup with finely-cut slices of 

carrots, beetroot, celery, and leeks, flavoured with 
beetroot juice. 

— Sagou (Sago Soup). — Clear soup with sago. 

— Salvator. — Clear soup with dice shaped ripe tomatoes 

and chervil leaves. 

— Santos-Dumont. — Consomme of chicken lie with 

Brazilian tapioca, garnished with carrots cut in 
small olive shapes, French beans cut in julienne 
shapes, and turnips scooped out in pea shapes. 

— Sarah Bernhardt. — Rich chicken consomme, garnished 

with small chicken quenelles, crayfish tails, fine 
tapioca, and tiny bits of blanched beef marrow. 

— Saxonne. — Clear soup with tapioca, small pink chicken 

quenelles, dice of beef marrow, and green peas. 

— Semoule. — Clear soup with finely-grained semolina 

cooked in the consomme. 

— S£vlgn6, — A clear soup with small chicken quenelles. 

— Solterino. — Clear soup with carrots, turnips, and 

potatoes, cut out with a small round vegetable scoop, 
termed, in French d la cuillere. 

— Souveraine. — Chicken consomme, garnished with dice- 

shaped vegetables and small chicken quenelles. 

— St. Georges. — Clear / soup made from hare stock, 

flavoured with claret, garnished with hare quenelles, 
champignons, and truffles. 

— St. Saens. — Chicken consomme, garnished with fine 

pearl barley and small dice of black-skinned potatoes, 
known as pommes de terre negresse. 

— Stschy (Russian). — Clear soup made from duck and 

beef, flavoured with beetroot juice, and garnished 
with small fried button onions. 

— Talma. — A rich clear soup, garnished with almond- 

flavoured custard cut into cubes or diamonds, and 
rice. 

— Tapioca (Tapioca Soup). — A clear soup with tapioca. 

— Tchy de Soldat (Russian). — A clear soup made with 

duck and veal stock, garnished with vegetables cut 
into small strips, and dice shapes of duck fillets. 

— Tlvoli. — Clear soup with coarse-grained semolina and 

small ravioles. 

— Tortue. — Clear real turtle soup. 

— Tortue Fausse. — Clear mock turtle soup. 

— Tosca. — Clear soup, garnished with fried profiteroUes, 

pea-shaped carrots, and truffle. 



8o PRACTICAL GASTBONOl. 

Consomm£ h la Toscane. — Clear soup, garnished with sliced 
tomato, fried aubergine, and macaroni. 

— Vrianon. — Clear soup with dice shape of cucumber and 

chicken fillets, and strips of tomato and chervil. 

— Vatel. — Clear soup with small chicken quenelles (red), 

truffle filling, also finely cut tarragon and chervil. 

— Veneur. — A rich, clear soup, garnished with finely 

shredded lettuce hearts, celery, and truffles. 

— Vermicelles. — Clear soup with vermicelli. 

— Victor Emanuel. — Clear soup with short pieces of 

spaghetti (macaroni), strips of tomatoes, and royal 
custard ; served with grated cheese. 

— Victoria. — Chicken consomme, garnished with julienne, 

strips of truffle, chicken fillets, and royal custard. 

— Vlennolse. — Clear soup with profiteroUes stuffed with 

cheese, cream, and paprika. 

— Vltellus. — Clear chicken-flavoured soup, thickened with 

pearl barley, and garnished with lozenge strips of 
nouille paste. 

— Vivian. — Cold chicken consomme, garnished with small 

dice-shaped cooked cucumber, tomato, and lettuce 
leaves, also cubes of royal custard made with aspic 
and cream, and cut out when set. 

— Voiaiiie. — Clear chicken soup. 

— Volaille frapp4. — Iced clear chicken soup. 

— Windsor. — Turtle-flavoured clear soup, with finely cut 

strips of calf's foot and veal quenelles. 

— Xavier. — A vegetable-flavoured clear soup, with a kind 

of cheese-flavoured batter quenelles run through a 
colander into the soup. 



CREMES, PUREES— POTAGES LIES. 
(Creams, Purees, and other Thick Soups.) 

Bortsch Polonaise. — A rich beef soup of broth-like con- 
sistency, flavoured with duck essence, beetroot juice, 
and sour cream, dice of duck fillet as garnish. 

Bisque do Crevettes (Shrimp Soup, puik).— .4 cream-like 
puree of fish stock and shrimps or prawns. 

— Ecrevlsses (d') (pink).— Crayfish puree or cream soup. 

— Homard (de) & la Mariniere (Lobster Bisque). — Lobster 

,cream soup with small fish quenelles as garnish. 

— Homard (de) i la Parlsienne. — Lobster cream soup. 

— aux Huttres (Oyster Pur6e). — A light, cream-like 

oyster soup, served with croutons. 



POTAGES— SOUPS. 8i 

Bisque Langoustes (de) (Crawfish, pink).— A cream-lilce 
puree of sea crawfisli or large lobsters. 

— P6toncles (dD). — Scallop cream or pur6e soup (white). 
CrSme h rAfrlcaine. — Cream of rice soup, flavoured with 

curry, with small dice shapes of artichoke bottoms 
and aubergine. 

— Ambassadrice. — Green pea cream, blended with sorrel 

and lettuce puree, chervil and green peas as garnish. 

— Andalouse (Maigre).— Cream of rice soup (fish or 

vegetable stock), with addition of very little tomato 
puree. 

— Artichauts ( d'). — Green artichoke soup (cream or puree). 

— Asperges (d') & la PrlntanlSre.— Asparagus cream, with 

jardiniere, vegetables as garnish. 

— Avolne (d'). — Oatmeal soup with cream (white). 

— Cambaoeres (Spanish). — A blend of lobster bisque, 

chicken puree, and pigeon puree — one third of each — 
finished with cream and garnished with crayfish tails. 

— C£l£ri (de). — Celery puree or cream soup. 

— Champ^noise. — Cream of potato soup, blended with 

puree of celery and leek, chopped chervil, and 
croutons. 

— Chatelaine. — Green pea and onion pur6e, blended 

together with cream and herbs. 

— Chlcor^e (de) au Velout£. — Puree of chicoree or endive, 

enriched with cream and egg-yolks. 

— Clementine. — Light chicken cream, with three-coloured 

royal stamped out in small cubes. 

— Concombre (de) & la Relne. — Cucumber cream with dice 

of royal custard. 

— Dame-Blanche. — White chicken pur6e with cream, 

flavoured with sweet almonds, garnished with barley 
and royal custard. 

— Orge (d'). — Pearl barley soup with cream (white). 

— Rlz (de). — Filtered rice cream soup (white). 

— • Valeneienne. — White cream of rice soup, with a liaison 

of sago cooked in consomme. 
— ^ Volaille (de) Chevalidre. — -Light white chicken cream, 

with truffles and tongue julienne as_garnish. 

— Volaille (de) aux Ecrevlsses (white). — Light chicken 

cream with crayfish tails as garnish. 

— Volaille (de) a la Fran(;aise (fawn). — A light brown 

chicken puree enriched with cream. 
Potage Albion. — rBrown giblet soup with pea-shaped 
cucumber and carrots as garnish. 

— des Ambassadeurs. — A light cream soup, made with 

chicken stock, rice and peas pur6e, and finely 
shredded sorrel, 



82 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Potage Amiricalne (American). — Tomato soup, blended 
with a -little lobster puree (bisque), and thickened 
with rice or tapioca. , 

— Andalouse. — Light white soup (vear stock foundation) 

mixed with tomato puree, and nouilles as garniture. 

— Anguilles t rAllemande.' — German eel soup (white). 

— Ardenals. — Game (pheasant) pur6e, blended with red 

lentil puree and cream. 

— Argentenil (Asparagus). — Filtered rice and cream soup 

with asparagus points. 

— d'Asperges t la Princesse (Asparagus Soup, Princesse 

Style, white). — Asparagus puree, garnished with 
asparagus points and rice. 

— d'Asperges aux Quenelles. — Asparagus puree with 

small chicken quenelles. 

— Aubergine. — Egg plant or vegetable marrow soup 

(white). 
— • Bagration.— A light cream made of veal stock, gar- 
nished with small chicken quenelles. 

— Balmoral. — Pur6e of mutton, flavoured with turtle 

seasoning and finely cut calf's foot. 

— Bavlere (Bavarian). — Lentil puree with slices of 

smoked sausage. 

— Bicasses. — Woodcock or snipe pur6e soup (brown). 

— Bercy. — Puree of young turnips with cream liaison. 

— B16 vert aux ceuls. — Green corn soup with eggs and 

cream liaison. 

— Boeul (de). — A thick, brown soup made of beef. 

— Bonne Femme (Good Woman). — Sorrel cream soup 

with small chicken forcemeat quenelles. 

— BouiUe-i-Balsse. — A rich fish soup, with small fillets 

of fish, onions, and tomato strips as garnish. 

— Bourgeolse. — Chicken cream with addition of finely 

shredded turnips and celery. 

— Bretonne. — A puree of white haricot beans, blended 

with tomato pulp (fried t)read crofttons). 

— Cailles. — Quail soup (brown), pur^e or cream. 

— Canard i I'Anglalse (de).— A thick soup made from 

duck giblets (brown). 

— Capri. — A thick game soup, garnished with minced 

quail fillets and cocks' combs. 

— Carmen. — Light cream of rice soup, blended with 

tomato puree, with fine strips of pimiento, tomato, 
and rice. 

— Carottes. — Pur6e of carrots (pink). 

— Castelaine. — A thick brown soup made with beef. 
rr- C616rl i. I9 Crdme, — Pur6e of celery with cream, 



POTAGES— SOUPS. 83 

PQtage Champignons (de).— Mushroom soup (light brown). 

— Chantilly. — Lentil pur^e with cream liaison, served with 

small croutons. 

— Chartreuse. — A white cauliflower pur^e with tapioca 

and cream. 
— ■ Chasseur (Hunters Soup, brown). — A game pur6e with 
minced mushrooms and small dice of cooked game. 

— Choux de Bruxelles (pale green). — Brussels sprouts 

soup. 

— Choux-FIeuTs. — Pur6e of cauliflowers with croutons. 

— Choux-FIeurs k la Creme. — Cauliflower soup enriched 

with cream. 

— Clamart. — Green pea pur6e with cream liaison, and 

fresh whole peas as garniture. 

— Compldgne. — White haricot bean puree with sorrel and 

chervil. 

— Comtesse. — Asparagus and pea puree and cream 

liaison, with green asparagus tops. 

— Pur§e de Concombre. — Cucumber soup. 

— Cond£ (red). — A thick soup made with fried croutons, 

haricot beans, and cream liaison. 
-^ Crficy. — Puree of young carrots (red part only) thick- 
ened with rice or barley. 

— Cressoni^re. — Potato pur6e and watercress pur6e, 

blended with cream and egg-yolks. 

— Cussy. — Game pur6e with small partridge quenelles, 

round of truffle, and game shreds. 
— ■ Czarine. — Game pur^e, blended with chestnut cream. 
— • Danolse. — Chicken purfee with pea shapes of spring 

vegetables. 

— Dartoise. — Puree of white haricot beans with finely 

cut vegetables (brunoise). 

— Dauphine. — Pea puree, blended with tomato pulp and 

fine strips of lean ham. 
— • Demldoff, — A light brown chicken puree, garnished 
with julienne strips of mushrooms, truffles, and 
carrots, also small braised button onions. 

— Diane.— Game (partridge) puree with small game 

quenelles and strips of truffles. 

— Dieppoise. — V/hite fish soup with mussels and cream 

liaison (fried croutons). 

— Doyen. — A blend of green pea purfee and chicken cream 

soup, with small chicken quenelles and green peas as 
garnish. 

— Dubarry. — Cream of cauliflower soup, with small 

cauliflower-buds as garnish. 

— Duchesse. — A light chicken cream, garnished with rice 

and savoury custard (royal). 



84 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Potage Duchesse. — A light puree of fowl with minced 
chicken or game fillets, and truffles as garnish. 

— Dumonteuil. — A bisque of crawfish blended with 

tomato puree egg-yolk liaison and cream), garnished 
with small fish quenelles. 
— ■ Ecossalse (Hotch Potch). — National Scotch soup, con- 
sisting of mutton broth, finely-cut carrots, turnips," 
leeks, parsley, cauliflowers, and peas. 

— Egyptlenne. — Puree of lentils, with finely shredded 

ham and fried croutons. 

— Ena. — Chicken cream soup with cucumber strips, 

also sorrel and chervil (pluche), and croutons. 

— Eplnards. — Spinach pur^e, soup (green). 

— Espagnole (Spanish Soup). — A brown beef or mutton 

blended soup with onion puree. 

— Esturgeon. — Sturgeon soup (white). 

— Excelsior. — Asparagus pur6e with barley cream liaison, 

and whole Nizam pearl barley as garnish. 

— Falsan. — Pheasant soup (light brown). 

— Faisan t la Diana. — A light puree of pheasant, flavoured 

with claret and cream, garnished with small game 
quenelles. 

— Faisan. — Pur6e of pheasant, with sherry flavour and 

cream liaison. 

— Faubonne. — Puree of French lentils and haricot beans, 

enriched with cream, garnished with green peas and 
fried bread croutons. 

— Fausse Tortue (Mock Turtle Soup, thick). — A brown 

thick soup made from calf's head, flavoured with 
sherry or Marsala wine, garnished with small pieces 
of calf's head. 

— Favorite. — White chicken pur6e diluted with consomme 

with Brunoise — i.e., finely minced carrots, turnips, 
and leeks, as garnish. 

— Fermlire (Farmhouse Soup). — Potato soup with minced 

carrots and turnips. 

— Flamande (Flemish). — Pur^e of Brussels sprouts, 

celery, and potato, with cream liaison (croutons). 

— Florentine.— Spinach puree with cream liaison and 

croutons. 

— Fonds d'Artlchauts (de). — Artichoke bottom soup 

(white). 

— Freneuse. — Pur^e of young turnips with cream liaison. 

pea-shaped turnip and carrot as garnish. 

— Garbure. — White vegetable pur6e with small cheese 

coated croutons. 

— Gascogne. — Potato pur^e with grated parmesan cheese, 

cream and egg liaison, and small ravioles or profite- 
roUes. 



POTAGES— SOUPS. 8$ 

Pptage Gellnotte. — Grouse soup (brown). 

^- Gentiihomme (Gentleman's Soup, brown). — Puree of 

rabbit, pork, and ham, garnished with mioced 

sausages and mushrooms. 

— Geiitilhomme. — Puree of game with sherry or marsala 

flavour, and croutons. 

— Georges Sand. — White fish cream soup with shredded 

lettuce and crayfish tails. 

— Georgette. — Tomato and carrot puree, blended together 

with pearl barley as garnish. 

— Gibiei (de). — ^Filtered game soup (brown). 

— Gibier ^ I'Anglaise. — English game giblet soup. 

— Gibier a la Cond6. — Venison soup with lentils. 

— Gounod. — A light green peas puree made with rich 

chicken stock, garnished with julienne of chicken 
fillets. 

— Grenouilies (de). — Filtered frog soup (white). 

— Gr^que (Greek). — Puree of peas and mutton broth 

(blended), garnished with julienne strips of vegetables. 

— Gulyas (Hungarian). — Puree of beef and green peas 

(onion flavour), potato dice, and paprika seasoning. 

— Haricot Blanc. — White haricot bean puree. 
— ■ Huitres (aux). — Oyster soup (white). 

• — Imperiale. — A white soup composed of cream of rice 
and tapioca, garnished with shreds of truffle. 

— Indlenne. — Mulligatawny soup, with addition of 

cocoanut milk and rice. 

— Iriandaise. — A kind of thick mutton broth. 

— Istrlenne. — Puree of chestnuts and tomatoes, flavoured 

with juice of pomegranates, and finished with a 
liaison of egg-yolks and cream (Austrian origin). 

— Italienne. — A light mutton or lamb puree, garnished 

with macaroni, slice of fowl, and macedoine. 
-^ Jackson. — Potato soup enriched with cream and egg 
liaison. 

— Japonnaise. — Puree of crosnes, with cream liaison and 

Japanese pearl barley. 

— Jeanette. — Puree of safsifits, enriched with cream and 

egg yolk liaison, garnished with rice and small chicken 
quenelles. 

— Judic. — Tomato puree with cream and mushroom 

essence, finely shredded mushrooms arid ham as 
garnish. 
• — Krupnick (Polish). — Cream of pearl barley with 
chicken puree, garnished with small dice vegetables 
and chicken fillets. 

— Laitues (de). — Lettuce soup (green), cream or puree. 



86 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Potage Lapln^A roseille. — Rabbit puree, soup with sorrel. 

— Lavallidre. — Wliite chicken cream soup with celery and 

profiteroUes. 

— Lentilles. — ientil soup (cream or puree). 

— LentlUes h la Brunolse (Lentil Soup, Brunoise style). — 

Filtered lentil soup with finely cut vegetables. 

— LiSvre i, I'Anglalse. — English hare soup (brown). 

^- Macaroni au Lalt. — Macaroni soup with milk (white). 

— MacMahon. — A curry-flavoured cream-like soup, gar- 

nished with pieces of calf's brain and cubes or slices 
of cooked cucumber. 

— Madeleine. — Rich consomm6 stock blended with 

haricot bean and tomato puree, with leek and carrot 
strips as garnish. 

— Malakoff (Russian). — Puree of potatoes, blended with 

spinach and tomato pulp. 

— Marichale. — Bread soup with cream and small lobster 

quenelles. 

— Marquise. — Chicken cream soup, with braised lettuce 

and peas as garnish. 

— Marie-Louise. — Pearl barley soup with cream and small 

chicken quenelles. 

— Marie-Stuart. — White chicken cream with foie-gras 

cubes, carrot, and green peas as garnish. 

— Marlgny. — Puree of green peas, blended with sorrel 

and lettuce (chiffonade) and chervil. 

— Marrons. — Puree of chestnuts. 

— Marrons i, la Chasseur (fawn). — Chestnut puree, 

enriched with cream and garnished with dice of 
cooked game. 

— Martha. — Chicken cream soup, blended with onion 

puree (soubise) and rice. 

— Mathild^e. — Cucumber puree, enriched with cream, and 

peas or olive shapes of cucumber as garnish. 

— Mauviettes St. Hubert. — This is a pale brown cream 

soup, made with veal stock, roux, and braised larks, 
garnished with fillets of larks cut into strips. 

— Midicis. — Sorrel puree, blended with green pea and 

carrot purees. 

— Mero6des.— Jerusalem artichoke puree, enriched with 

cream and egg-yolks, garnished with dice of artichoke 
bottoms and chicken fillets. 

— Monaco. — Bfechamel cream soup with egg yolk liaisofi, 

and sippets of toasted bread. 

— Montglas. — A thick soup made of capon, with minced 

truffles and mushrooms. 

— Montmorency. — Chicken cream soup with grated 

parmesan. braised lettuce, and vermicelli as garnish. 



fUTAGHH— SOUPS. 87 

Potsge Montpensler.— Cream of rice soup, blended with 
.• cauliflower puree (fried croutons). 

— Morilles, — Puree of morilles (a species of mushroom), 

with cream and morilles cut in fine strips. 

— Mozart.— Puree of French beans blended with game 

puree and cream (croutons). 

— Mufle de Boeuf. — Ox-cheek puree soup (brown). 

— Mulligatawny. — Thick mulligatawny soup, curry 

flavour, and rice. 

— Murillo (Maigre). — Tomato puree, enriched with fish 

essence and cream, garnished with small fish 
quenelles. 

— Nelousko. — A white chicken cream soup with small 

veal or chicken quenelles. 

— N6mours. — Potato puree, blended with rich consomme 

and liaison of cream and egg-yolks (croutons). 

— Nemrod. — Puree of game with profiterolles forced with 

game puree. 

— Nimoise (Maigre). — White fish cream soup, blended 

with tomato puree. 

— Nissarde (Maigre). — Vegetable marrow or pumpkin 

soup, thickened with tapioca and cream liaison. 

— Nivernaise. — A puree of vegetables, potatoes, turnips, 

leeks, and sprouts, enriched with cream and garnished 
with jardinidre. 

— Normande (Maigre). — Puree of leeks, celery, and 

potatoes, garnished with celery shreds and chervil. 

— Oignons (aux). — Onion soup, white or brown. 

— Okra. — Puree of tomalio aiid gambos, cream liaison. 

— Orleans. — A chicken puree with tapioca as liaison. 

— Orleans Maigre. — A soup made with white bread and 

milk, finished with cream. 

— Osellle. — Puree of sorrel (light green). 

— Ostendaise. — White fish soup with oysters, cream 

liaison, and quarters of oysters as garnish. 

— Pain-bis ^ la Russe. — Russian brown bread soup with 

poached eggs. 

— Palestine. — Puree of Jerusalem artichokes with small 

bread croutons. 

— Parmentler (Parmentier Soup, cream). — A cream-like 

potato soup with croutons of fried bread. 

— Patti. — Artichoke puree with cream liaison, and rice 

as garnish. 

— Pauvre Hoinme (Poor Man). — A kind of brown meal 

soup, the flour being roasted with butter or dripping 
to a chestnut brown colour. " 

— Pavilion. — Purees of peas and stachys, blended with 

mixed vegetable (brunoise) as garnish. 



88 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Potage Perdreaux. — Partridge soup with croutons. 

— Perdreaux h la Grand Due (brown).— Partridge puree, 

thickened with oatmeal, garnished with small mush- 
room quenelles. 

— Pieds de Veau. — Calf's feet soup (white). 

— Pierre le Grand. — White barley cream (veal stock 

foundation), with puree of pigeon and dice of pigeon 
fillets as garnish. 

— Pigeons Sauvages (brown). — Wild pigeon soup. 

— Pluche (pink).— Potato soup with finely minced carrots 

and herbs. 

— de Pluvlers (brown). — Plover soup. 

— Poireaux. — Puree of leeks with crofitons. 

— Poireaux k la Creme. — Leek soup enriched with 

cream. 

— Pur6e de Pois. — Filtered pea soup (made from dried 

peas), served with croutons. 

— Pols Vert. — Green pea soup. 

— Polonaise (Polish Soup, light brown). — A puree of beef 

and pork, with sauerkraut as garnish. 

— Pommes de Terre. — Potato soup (white) with croutons. 

— Pompadour. — Pur6e of lentils, thickened with tapioca 

and cream liaison, 

— Portugaise. — Purees of tomato and onion, flavoured 

with garlic, garnished with rice. 

— Potiron. — French pumpkin soup. 

— Prince de Galles (Prince of Wales Soup, brown). — A 

thick mock turtle with small veal quenelles. 

— Princesse. — Chicken cream soup, with pearl barley and 

asparagus tops as garnish. 

— Quebec (Maigre). — White haricot bean puree, enriched 

with cream, garnished with finely cut vegetables. 

— Queues de Boeuf (Ox-tail). — Thick ox-tail soup with 

jardinifere or macedoine vegetable garnish (brown). 

— Queues de Veau h. I'lndienne (Indian Calf's Tail Soup). 

— A thick calf's tail soup, flavoured with curry and 
garnished with rice. 

— Rachel. — White veal purde, enriched with cream, 

garnished with strips of fried bacon, calf's head, 
and slices of truffle. 

— Raphael. — Chicken puree, garnished with dice shapes 

of celeriac and rice. 

— Rigence (Regent). — A light puree of fowls, garnished 

with macfedoine of vegetables. 

— Reine (Queen). — A cream-like chickea soup, gcirnished 

with small chicken quenelles and rice. 

— Beiue Margot. — Chicken cream soup with rice. 



POTAGES— SOUPS. 89 

Palfage Reine Wilhelmine. — Chicken puree, thickened 
, ' with rice, cream and egg-yolk liaison, with asparagus 
points and julienne strips of cooked carrots and 
truffles as garnish. 

— Ris de Veau & la Reine. — Sweetbread soup, queen 

style. 

— Risotto. — Rice puree, mixed with tomato pulp diluted 

with rich consomme. 

— Riz aux Choux. — Light cream of rice soup with 

julienne cut white cabbage, blanched and cooked 
in stock. 
• — Romaine (Roman). — A white thick soup with small 
rice quenelles. 

— Romio. — A rich Parmentier puree (potato) mixed with 

half its volume of onion puree (Soubise), finished with 
a liaison of cream and egg-yolks ; garniture ; chervil 
leaves, poached white of egg, and dice of ham. 

— Rouennaise. — Puree of duck with lentil puree and 

cream (croutons). 

— Russe (Russian). — Lobster bisque, blended with tomato 

puree, with small lobster quenelles as garnish. 

— Sagou au Lait. — Sago soup with milk (white). 

— Sant6 (Health).— Sorrel soup, with cabbage, lettuce, 

and herbs. , 

— Savoyarde. — Celery and potato purees, blended with 

cream, and cheese-coated crofltons as garnish. 

— Semoule. — Semolina soup with cream (white). 

— Sivigni, — Light chicken pur^e with cream, and royal 

made with egg and chicken cream as garnish. 

— S6vlgn6 (Royale). — A light chicken cream, with aspar- 

agus points, royal custard, dice of chicken fillets, and 
truffles as garnish. 

— Souveraine. — Chicken cream soup, enriched with 

pistachio pounded kernels and butter liaison. 

— St. Cloud. — Puree of French beans and broad beans, 

with finely chopped lettuce. 

— St. Germain. — Pea puree enriched with cream (crofi tons). 

— St. Hubert. — Puree of game (hare or other game), 

with small game quenelles or dice cut fillets of 
game. 

— St. Martha. — A blend of green pea, leek, and lettuce 

purees, with cream liaison. 

— St. Martin. — Potato puree with sorrel and watercress 

purees added, cream liaison (croutons). 

— SuUane.^White chicken puree with pistachios and 

truffles as garniture. 

— Suzette. — Puree of cucumber and peas, blended, 

garnished with poached yolks of eggs. 



90 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Potage Sylvestra. — Chicken consomme, blended with 
velout6 cream and egg-yolks, garnished with 
asparagus points and small chicken quenelles 
stuffed v/ith spinach. 

— Tapioca au Lait. — Tapioca soup with milk. 

— Terapene (River Turtle Soup). — A kind of thick turtle 

soup made with terrapin turtle. 

— Tomates (aux). — Thick tomato soup. 

— Tomate Maigre (red). — Tomato soup made from vege- 

table or fish stock. 

— Tomate k la St. Louis. — Tomato puree thickened with 

tapioca, garnished with small chicken quenelles. 

— Toplnambours. — Palestine or artichoke soup (white). 

— Tortus lifie. — Thick real turtle soup (brown). 

— Tortue Fausse. — Mock turtle soup (brown). 

— Trazondre. — Salsify puree, enriched with cream (crou- 

tons). 

— Trufles (aux). — A light puree of fresh truffles, made with 

veal stock, egg, and cream liaison, and consomme. 

— • Tschl de Soldat (A Russian Soup). — A rich beef broth, 
slightly thickened with brown roux, and flavoured 
with sour cream ; served with small fried choux paste 
balls and shredded ham. 

— Turqne (Turkish). — Tomato' puree with rice. 

— Tyrolienne (Tyrolian Soup). — Barley cream soup with 

onions and carrots. 

— Tzarina. — Pur6e of grouse and celery cream, with 

celery strips as garnish. 

— Val§ry. — Puree of partridge with small quenelles.") 

— Veau (Veal Soup, white). — A thick soup made of veal. 

— Valour (au) (Velvet). — Chicken cream soup thickened 

with rice and tapioca. 

— Veloutd au Riz. — Rice soup made with rich veal or 

chicken stock, enriched with cream. 

— V6nitienne. — Bechamel cream soup with spinach 

puree (croutons). 

— Vermicelle au Lait. — Vermicelli soup with milk (white). 

— Vl«hy. — Pur6e of red carrots with cream liaison. 

— Victor Hugo. — Purfee of Jerusalem artichokes with 

tapioca and cream liaison. 

— Victoria. — A puree of potatoes, with sprigs of cauli- 

flowers as garnish. 

— Vin de Bourgogne (au). — A brown beef soup, flavoured 

with Burgundy wine. 

— Virginia. — Puree of broad beans with cream liaison 

(croutons). 



i - THE FISH COURSE. pi 

fot^ge Voisln. — Chicken and veal puree with cream 
/' liaison, and spring vegetables as garnish. 

— Waldstein. — A rich puree of pheasant, mixed with an 

equal quantity of consomme, flavoured with white 
Burgundy, seasoned with paprika, etc., garnished 
with chopped truffles and Piquoli kernels. 

— Wellington. — Chicken cream soup, blended with celery 

puree, and rice as garnish. 

— Windsor (brown). — A thick soup made with calf's feet, 

mutton or beef, and rice. 

— Xavler. — Cream of rice soup, blended with chicken 

puree, garnished with royal custard and chicken 
fillets cut in dice. 

Soupe i la Blere. — French beer soup, (brown). 

— aux Chrises. — Cherry soup, made with sour cooking 

cherries, and a liaison of potato flour flavoured with 
cinnamon. JBread crovttes as garnish. 

— au Lait. — Milk soup (Lenten soup). 

— d, rOlgnon. — French onion soup (brown). 



PART IV. 

THE FISH COURSE. 

LES POISSONS. 

Fish is served in two ways, viz., plainly cooked and 
dressed as an entree. Many people prefer fish cooked 
in the simplest way, accompanied by a good sauce ; and 
the English epicure finds far greater enjoyment in fish 
cooked in the simplest manner than the French epicure 
in the elaborately cooked and dressed fish entree. Fish 
is cooked in various ways — boiled, steamed, baked, fried, 
stewed, and grilled. Almost every kind of fish gains in 
importance' if served with a well-made sauce. 

When two fish are served at a dinner, the boiled or 
whole — i.e., solid — fish should be served before the fried, 
stewed or braised. 

Plain boiled potatoes or so-called fish potatoes, which 
are of marble shapes, sprinkled with chopped parsley, 
should be handed round with all solid fish cooked au 
naturel, whilst boiled or grilled salmon should in all 
cases be accompanied by a dish of sliced cucumber, 
plainly dressed. 



92 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

PLATS DE POISSON-FISH DISHES. 

Aigrefin—Uaddoch. 

Algrefin dtouSi. — Fresh haddock steamed in the oven. 

— grilH. — Grilled or broiled fresh haddock. 

— ^ la Maltre d 'Hotel. — Boiled or steamed haddock with 

parsley sauce, or grilled with parsley butter. 
Filets d'Algrefins Irits, Sauce Tartare. — Fried fillets of 
fresh haddock, tartare sauce. 



Able sautS h la Dlable. — Devilled bleak tossed in butter. 
Alose au gratin. — Baked shad, gratin style. 

Anguille — Eel, 
Anguille h, I'Anglaise. — Stewed eel, English style. 

— en Aspic (Eel in Savoury Jelly). — Cooked and boned 

eel and slices of hard-boiled egg set in aspic jelly. 

— & la Beaucaire. — Boned eels stuffed with whiting farce, 

mixed with chopped mushrooms, dressed in spiral 
form in baking dish or casserole, and braised with 
white sauce, small onions, and mushrooms. 

— 4 la broche. — Grilled eel with parsley butter. 

— en caisses. — Braised eel in paper cases. 

— ik la Durand. — Boned eels, stuffed with whiting farce, 

curled up and trussed, braised with butter and vege- 
table mirepoix. 

— & I'EspagnoIe.— Eel fried in oil, then stewed in fish 

stock and wine, flavoured with garlic, saffron, and 
peppercorns ; garnished with blanched coarsely 
shredded baked almonds. 

— i la Florimond. — Marinaded eels, wrapped in oiled 

paper and baked in oven, served with parsley butter, 
and echalote sauce. 

— glacie. — Rolled fillets of eel, broiled, and glazed with 

a rich brown sauce and meat glaze. 

— i ritalienne (Eel Stewed, Italian style). — Stewed eel 

with small rice timbales. 

— 4 la Maconnalse. — Eel stewed in Burgundy wine sauce, 

with crayfish tails and oysters. 

— en Matelote. — Brown eel stew, flavoured with claret, 

button onions, and mushrooms. 

— 4 la M6nagire. — Split eel, grilled, spread over with 

maitre d'hotel butter and mustard. 

— A la Meunidre. — Boned eel, cut in portion pieces, dipped 

in flour aud fried in butter, : .:rved \vith Noisette 
butter, lemon juice, aud chopped parsley. 



THE FISH COURSE. 93 

^ Aihguille ii rOrly. — Fillets of eel, egged and crumbed or 
' dipped in frying batter, and fried in deep fat, served 

with tomato sauce. 

— 4 la Pompadour. — Boiled eel, coated with white sauce, 

egged and crumbed, and fried ; egged sauce or 
choron sauce, and small potato balls. 

— & la Poulette. — Fricasseed eel in parsley sauce. 

— d la Proven^ale. — Fried eel, onion sauce. 

— & la Romaine. — Small piece of eel stewed with butter 

sauce, green peas, and finely cut lettuces, served in 
casserole. 

— !l la Rouennaise. — Boned eel, cut in portions, stewed 

in matelotte sauce, garnished with oysters, soft roes, 
champignons, and fried smelts. 

— ^ la Taitare (Eel, Tartare style). — Parboiled eel, 

cut in pieces, drained, dipped in batter and fried, 
dished up in circles, with tartare sauce in centre. 

— ^ la Vinitienne. — Rolled eel fillets, cooked, (j.e.,p9ached) 

in court-bouillon and glazed in oven, garnished with 

dice-cut champignons, and fish roe ; sauce Venitienne. 
Blanquette d'AnguUle. — Stewed eel in white sauce. 
Friture d'Anguille. — Skinned and boned pieces of eel, 

seasoned, egged, crumbed, and fried, served with 

piquant sauce. 

Barbue — Srill, 

Barbue brals^e k I'Amlral. — ^Brill braised with chablis and 
white stock, garnished with fried oysters and mussels, 
pommes Parisienne, and thin slices of truffle and 
lemon ; served with cardinal sauce. 

— bouilUe. — Boiled brill. 

— au gratln.— Baked brill, gratin style. 
BarbiUon. — Young brill. 

Filets de Barbue frite.— Fried fillets of brill. 

— 4 la Boulonnaise. — Fillets of brill, poached in oven, with 

white wine sauce, mixed with chopped parsley, 
garnished with oysters, mussels, and soft roes. 

— i la Donter. — Fillets of brill, poached in oven, drained 

on rice foundation, and sauced over with shrimp 
sauce ; breaded and browned in oven. 

— ^ la Grand Due. — Fillets of brill, dipped in velout6 

sauce, eggs and breadcrumbs, served with veloute 
sauce, to which is added horseradish, tomato pulp, 
and cream ; garnished with mussels and oysters. 

— i la Madeleine. — Fillets of brill covered on one side 

with whiting forcemeat mixed with herbs, placed in 
paupiette rings and saut6ed, and. white stock and 
mirepoix ; then dipped in egg and breadcrumbs and 
fried ; served with marseillaise sauce. 



94 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Fiiefs de Barbiie k la Russe.— Fillets of brill poached 
richly flavoured fish essence (reduced fish stock) 
sauced over with a mushroom sauce, and glazed 
under the salamander. 

BlanchaiUes^ Whitebait, 

BlanchalUes .^ la DIable.— Whitebait devilled, seasoned 
with salt and cayenne. 

— a I'Indienne — Fried whitebait, seasoned with salt and 

curry powder. 

— a la Madras.— Same as "Indienne." 

— au natnrel.— Whitebait fried crisp in deep fat. 

Bouille-a-Baisse (French Fish Stew).— Fish stew made 
from various kinds of fish and lobster, flavoured with 
garhc, savoury herbs, and white wine, 

Court-Bouillon (au).— A French savoury fish stew pre- 
pared from various kinds of fish, tomatoes, etc. 

Jirochet — Pi/ce. 

Brochet 4 TAnclenne.— Stewed pike, served with white 
sauce, garnished with truffles, gherkins, mushrooms 
and capers. 

— 4 la Castelalne (Pike, Castelaine style).— Braised pike 

stufied with sliced truffles, tongue, and bacon- 
served with white sauce, and garnished with lobster 
croquettes, truffles, and oysters. - 

— a la Cavour (Pike, Cavour style).-BroUed pike, gar- 

nished with nouiUes, grated horseradish, and carrSts • 
served with rich velout6 sauce. 

— frit.— Fried pike garnished with lemon and parsley. 

— farcl ef grating,- Stuffed pike, baked, gratin style 

— grills.— Grilled or broiled pike. 

— 4 la RSmoulade (Pike. Remoulade style).— Grilled pike 

erved with a remoulade sauce ^ 

^""'fxrH"^®"*"!"". '?'•>"! ^ '* Colbert-Fillets of pike 
larded, cooked m the oven, with brown wine sauce 

— piqu6 i la Lyonnaise.— Fillets of pike stewed in white 

ZTJ^'"''^- f°^ P^jshed with small marble-shaped 
potatoes cooked m fish stock. ^ 

''^^^fr!?!! «?, Bfo«het.~Round or oval-shaped fillets 
Lnd but'J^r '^h"®'"',^"^ P°^'=^^'l '" couS-bouiUon 
fish s^uce " ^ • ^""^ ^"^^^ ^"'^ ^™^» 

—a la R6gence.--Small oval fillets spread with butter an,] 
shces of truffles, wrapped in oUed paper and cooked 
m oven with white wine and butter fgarartu re 
Regence and sauce. giin'ture 



THE FISH COURSE. 95 

Cabillaud — Cod, 

Cabillaud i, I'Andalouse. — Slices of cod cooked in white 
wine sauce and tomato purfee ; garnished with 
noisetti potatoes. 

— a I'Anglaise. — Boiled cod with melted butter sauce. 

— bouilli. — Boiled cod. 

— bouilli aux Capres. — Boiled cod with caper sauce. 
— • en coquilles. — Codfish baked and served in shells. 

— aux Crevettes. — Boiled cod and shrimp sauce. 

— ^ la Di^ppoise. — Slices of cod dipped in milk and flour, 

fried, drained, and served with white matelotte sauce. 

— 4 la Flamande. — Cod slices, baked in white sauce, 

flavoured with white Bordeaux wine and chopped 
herbs. 

— ■ frit, sauce Anchols. — Fried cod and anchovy sauce. 

— au gratln. — Baked cod, gratin style. 

— grill6 k la Colbert (Grilled Cod, Colbert style).— Slices 

of cod dipped in dissolved butter and flour, grilled, 
and served with maStre d'hotel butter. 

— sauce aux Huitres. — Boiled cod, oyster sauce. 

— • d rindlenne. — Fried or grilled cod with curry sauce. 

— -4 la Maitaise. — Cod stewed in veloute sauce, white 
wine, stock, shallots, and bouquet garni ; sauce 
flavoured with anchovy paste, chopped parsley, and 
capers. 

— i la Nantaise. — Slices of cod, spread over with lobster 

pur6e or farced, baked, and served with fish supreme 
sauce. 
— • i! la Portugaise (Cod, Portuguese style). — Slices of cod 
fried ; served with a sauce composed of tomato sauce, 
essence of anchovy and mussels. 

— recr^pl, bouilH.^Crimped cod, boiled. 

— d . la Reine. — Poached cod slices with fish supreme 

sauce and fish quenelles. 

Darne de Cabillaud k la Sefton. — Boiled cod coated with 
cream chaudfroid sauce, coloured with spinach 
pur6e. Garnish : salad, chopped cucumber, and 
diamond shapes of aspic. 

Kedgeree de Cabillaud. — Finely flaked cooked cod, re-heated 
with butter, jrice, and hard-boiled egg (shredded), 
moistened with bfechamel sauce ; served hot as 
breakfast dish. 

Mousseline de Cabillaud. — Steamed codflsh souffle served 
with cardinal sauce. 



96 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

, t 

Carpe—Carp. 

Carpe t I'Alsacienne. — Boned carp stuffed with white fish 

farce, and cooked in wine-flavoured fish stock. 

Served with choucrouts and potato cubes (boiled). 

Light white butter sauce. 
— ^ 4 la Juive. — Filleted carp, fried in oil, served on fish 

farce basis, with chopped parsley and suitable sauce. 

— il la Royale. — Skinned and boned carp, poached in fish 

stock with Chablis and aromatic herbs, dressed crown 
shape, with slices of truffles. Garnished in centre 
with mushroom heads and fish roe. Sauced over 
with Sauce Normande. 

— au bleu. — Boiled carp. 

— tarcle. — Stuffed carp, baked. 

— frlte. — Fried carp. 

— gratin^e. — Baked carp, gratin style. 

Carrelet — Flounder. 

Carrelet frit, Sauce Persil. — Fried flounder, parsley sauce. 
Souchet de Carrelet (Souchet of Flounder). — Boiled 

flounder with finely-cut strips of carrots and turnips, 

and chopped parsley. 



Belgnets de Clames.— Clam fritters. 
Coquilles de Crevettes.— Coquilles of shrimps. 

— aux Huitres. — Coquilles of oyster. 

— de Moules. — Scalloped mussels. 

— de Poissons (Coquilles of Fish). — Stewed fish served in 

shells. Scalloped fish. 

— aux Queues d'Ecrevlsses. — Coquilles of crayfish tails. 
Crabe larcle, — Dressed and stuffed crab. 

Ecrevisses — Crayfish. 

(May also be prepared as Lobster.) 
Ecrevisses i la Bordelaise. — Crayfish tails or prawns 
cooked in rich mirepoix, served with fish veloute 
sauce and lobster butter. With chopped parsley — in 
casserole. 

— 4 la Cardinal. — Crayfish tails dressed with Normande 

sauce and truffle slices in buttered gratin dish, with 
potato border, and browned in oven. 

— 4 la Magenta — Prepared the same as "Bordelaise." 

with addition of sliced tomatoes, sa\'oury herbs, and 
white wine sauce, served in casserole. 
Belgnets d'Ecrevisses.— Crayfish fritters. 



Belgnets d'Esoargots. — Snail fritters. 
Escargots 4 I'Anglalse. — Stewed snails. 



THE FISH COURSE. 97 

Eperlans — Smelts. 

Eperlans k I'Anglalse. — Split smelts, boned, egged, and 
crumbed, and fried in butter ; served with lemon. 

— & la Baron Brisse.— Split and boned smelts, grilled, 

spread with parsley butter, garnished with Noisette 
potatoes. 

— en Broehettes. — Fried smelts on skewers. 

— & la Cilistlne. — Boned smelts stuffed with forcemeat, 

placed on pancake and forcemeat sandwiches cut in 
triangles or other shapes, sauteed ; garnished with 
prawns, and served with remoulade sauce. 

— au Citron. — Smelts dipped in panurette, and fried ; 

garnished with fried parsley and lemon. Served 
with plate of brown bread and butter. 

— ^ la Diable. — Fried smelts devilled. 

— frits. — Fried smelts. 

— gratlnSs. — Baked smelts. 

— ^ la Julve. — Boned smelts, dipped in frying batter and 

fried ; served with tartare sauce. 

— farcis d, la Pouraine. — Smelts stuffed with forcemeat, 

mushrooms, and parsley, covered with melted butter, 
and baked ; dished up, covered with bechamel sauce, 
and browned under salamander. 

Souffle d 'Eperlans. — SoufHfe consisting of fillets of smelts, 
whiting, bechamel sauce, cream, and white of egg. 

Timbale d'Eperlans k la St. Mandd. — Mould lined with 
smelt fillets and filled with smelt-flavoured fish 
mousse. Steamed aad served with caviare sauce. 

Esturgeon — Sturgeon. 

Esturgeon & I'Anchois. — Boiled sturgeon with anchovy 
sauce. I 

— brals6. — Braised sturgeon. 

— k la Cardinal (Sturgeon, Cardinal style). — Boiled 

sturgeon, garnished with quenelles of whiting and 
crajrfish, and served with cardinal sauce. 

Darne d 'Esturgeon k la Milanaise (Sturgeon Steak, 
Milanese style). — Middle piece or steak of sturgeon 
stewed ; garnished with eel-pout livers and crayfish 
tails. 

PapiUotes d'Estnrgeon. — Stewed sturgeon in paper cases. 



Belgnets de Grenouilles. — Frogs' legs fritters. 

Goujon (Gudgeons). — A kind of small fish like whitebait, 

dipped in flour, and fried in deep fat. 
Grenouilles frites. — Fried frogs. 

G 



98 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Grondins farci 6toufl6. — Baked gurnet, stuffed ; dished on 
fried bread croutons ; served with sauce matelot, 
mixed with anchovy essence and fish liquor. 

— i la Talleyrand. — Baked fillets of gurnet, served with 

a sauce consisting of butter, flour, fish liquor, fish 
stock, cream, and yolks of two eggs beaten up with 
lemon juice. 

Jn^tan — Halibut , 

(May also be prepared as Flounder, Brill or Turbot.) 
Fl§tan au gratin. — Baked halibut. 

— griI16e, sauce crevettes. — Grilled halibut, shrimp sauce. 

Hareng — Herring. 

Hareng frals grille. — Grilled fresh herring. 
— ;au beurre. — Broiled herring in butter. 

— i la Diable. — Grilled herrings, coated with mustard and 

fried breadcrumbs, and served with ravigote sauce. 

— Farcis. — Boned herrings, stuffed with herb farce, 

wrapped in oiled paper and baked in oven. Served 
with white wine sauce. 

— a la Maitre d'Hotel. — Grilled herring with parsley 

butter. 

— 4 la Moutarde. — Grilled herring with mustard sauce. 

— ^ la Nantaise. — Herrings with soft roes, rolled in flour 

and crumbed, then fried in butter, served with 
mayonnaise flavoured with cooked roes and mustard. 

— & la Portidre. — Herrings with incisions filled with 

mustard and parsley, then fried in butter. Served 
with brown butter, flavoured with vinegar. 

Homard — Lobster. 

Homard & rAm6ricaine (Lobster, American style). — 
Lobster stewed in the shell with tomato sauce, red 
wine, and savoury herb seasoning. 

— en Aspie. — Lobster and hard-boUed egg set in moulds 

with savoury or aspic jelly. 

— i la Bechamel (Baked Lobster, Bechamel style). — 

Shells of lobster filled with minced lobster meat, 
bechamel sauce, and seasoning, and baked. 

— & la Bordelaise. — Lobster steiyed in tomato sauce, 

blended with white wine and chopped herbs ; served 
in timbales. 

— 4 la Cardinal. — Minced lobster, mixed with Nantua 

sauce, and filled in shells, breaded, and browned in 
oven. . 

— sautfi i, la Dumas. — Lobster meat tossed in butter and 

finished in brown sauce, flavoured with white wine, 
paprika, and lemon juice. 



THE FISH COURSE. 99 

itdfomard larcl. — Stuffed lobster baked. 

— k la Gloucester (Lobster, Gloucester style). — Stewed 

lobster, with a sauce composed of pulverised lobster 
shell, butter, egg yolks, and meat extract. 

— au gratin. — Baked lobster, gratin style. 

— it la Hongrolse (Hungarian). — Scalloped lobster in 

shells, moistened with white sauce, paprika seasoning, 
and cream, browned in oven. 

— h rindienne. — Curried lobster in border of rice. 

— 4 la Newbury. — Lobster, sliced, poached in Madeira, 

with sherry, chopped parsley, etc., and finished in 
cream and egg-yoUc liaison. 

— i la Suidolse (Lobster, Swedish fashion). — Border of 

lobster meat and forcemeat, poached in a fancy 
border mould, and sauced over with anchovy 
sauce. 

— d la Tourville. — Slices of lobster meat tossed in butter, 

and cooked with " risotto," dressed in shells and 
sauced with fish veloute. 

— ^ la Turque (Turkish). — Sliced lobster meat, cooked in 

mirepoix, flavoured with brandy and saffron ; dish 
garnished with small curried rice timbales. 

— 4 la Vanderbilt. — Minced lobster meat with chopped 

truffles and mushrooms, blended with Nantua sauce," 

filled into shells, and browned in oven. 
Bordure de Hoiuard ik I'lndlenne. — Border of savoury 

lobster mixture, centre filled with rice, decorated 

with hard-boiled egg and truffle. 
Buissons de Homard (Bush of Lobsters). — Lobster dressed 

in a pyramidal form. 
Coquilles de Homard t, la Gauloise. — Poached coquiUe 

shapes of lobster forcemeat, with lobster scallop in 

centre of each, served with cardinal sauce. 

— de Homard (Scalloped Lobster). — Stewed lobster 

served in shells. 
CStelettes de Homard (Lobster Cutlets). — Mixture of 
lobster, shallots. Bechamel sauce, mushrooms, and 
egg made into cutlet shapes, egged, crumbed, fried, 
and served with tomato or other sauce. 

— de Homard :l 1' Aspic. — Slices of lobster meat set in 

aspic, cutlet shapes. 

— 4 la Tomate. — Lobster cutlets with tomato sauce. 
Mayonnaise de Homard. — Pieces of lobster and salad 

masked with mayonnaise sauce, decorated with 
pieces of claws, hard-boiled egg, strips of fillet of 
anchovy, capers, beetroot, coral, stoned olives, and 
gherkins. 
Mousse de Homard {rapp£e. — Iced lobster souffle, top 
decorated with lobster coral and paprika. 



100 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Petites Dormes de Homard i la Crime. — Lobster an, 
tomato aspic set in square fluted moulds, dressed pn 
squares of pastry. ■ 

Souffli de Homard, sauce aurora. — Steamed soufiHe, con-- 
sisting of lobster, eggs, and bechamel sauce, served 
with aurora sauce. 

Huitres— Oysters. 

(See also chapter on Oyster Savouries.) 
Huttres ^ I'Americalne. — Oysters, poached in fish liquor, 
served in own shells or coquilles, sauced over with 
tomato sauce, flavoured with lobster puree. 

— en coquilles. — Scalloped oysters. 

— !l la Duxelles. — Oyster stew baked in shells. 

— i la Du Barry. — Small baked potatoes stuffed with 

oysters ; supreme sauce. 

— & la Favorite. — Scalloped oysters, served in shells, with 

dice of truffle on each, sauced with bechamel and 
grated parmesan cheese, then browned in oven. 

— frites. — Fried oysters. 

— grill^es. — Grilled or broiled oysters. 

— i la Poulette. — Fricasseed oysters, rich white sauce, 

and chopped parsley. 

— i la Salamandre. — Oysters on shells with supreme 

sauce and cayenne ; sprinkled with breadcrumbs, 
grated parmesan, and butter ; browned under 
salamander. 

Belgnets d'Huttres. — Oyster fritters. 

Cbaudfroid d 'huitres k la Montpeller Oysters set in aspic 

in border of rice, masked with white or red chaud- 
froid sauce, centre filled with seasoned green salad. 

Cromeskies aux huitres. — Small cork shapes or rolls, 
composed of minced oysters, oyster liquor, cream, 
lemon juice, egg-yolks, etc., then wrapped in bacon, 
dipped in batter, and fried in deep fat ; garnished 
with fried parsley. 

Fricassee d 'huitres. — Oysters stewed in white sauce, 
also sliced mushrooms, if liked. 

Quenelles aux huitres. — Small chicken or veal quenelles, 
with one or two oysters in centre of each, poached 
in fish stock, served coated with white sauce. 

— frltes aux huitres.— Fried oyster quenelles, served with 

piquant or white wine sauce. 
Petlts Pat6s aux huitres.— Puff pastry patties filled with 
a delicately-prepared oyster stew or ragout. 

Lamprole saut^e & la Fran; alse. — Stewed lamprey, French 
style. 

— en Iricass6e. — Fricasseed lamprey. 



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THE FISH COURSE. 105 

Aougets aux fines herbes. — Stewed red mullets with fine 
herb sauce. 

— au gratin. — Baked red mullets, gratin style. 

— grilles, sauee ravigote. — Grilled mullets and ravigote 

sauce. 

— ^ ritalienne. — Broiled red mullets, served with Italian 

sauce. 

— ^ la Janin. — Red mullets, boned and stuffed, cooked 

in oven, same as in papilottes ; served with Genfivoise 
sauce. 

— ^ la Juive. — Fillets of red mullets soaked in oil mari- 

nade, and fried garnished with parsley ; served with 
tartare or tomato sauce. 

— ^ la Marseillaise. — Red mullet broiled in butter, then 

finished in tomato and onion stew ; suitably flavoured 
and served like " Bouillabaise." 

— & la Nantalse. — Grilled red mullet, served with demi- 

glace sauce, flavoured with shallots, wine, and puree 
of fish roes ; garnished with slices of lemon. 

— ^ la Ni(jolse. — Grilled red mullet, garnished with 

tomatoes tossed in butter, anchovy fillets, olives, 
and capers. 

— en papillotes (Red Mullets in Paper Cases). — Fish 

wrapped separately in oiled paper, with the ends 
twisted, and thus baked or broiled, dished up, and 
served with brown fine herb sauce. 

— & la Polonaise. — Baked mullets with rich butter and 

cream sauce, breaded, and browned. 

— i la Portugaise. — Baked mullet, with chopped savoury 

herbs, sliced tomatoes, and claret sauce. 

— i la ProvenQale. — Baked iilullets with chopped parsley 

and onion ; served with tomato sauce (garlic-flavoured) 
and cucumber puree. 

— d la Trouville. — Boned mullet, poached in white wine 

and fish stock, then dished and sauced with Colbert 
sauce, and baked. 

— & la V6nltienne. — Baked red mullets with brown sauce ; 

garnished with Spanish olives, stuffed with fish 
forcemeat and mushroom heads. 

— ^ la Villeroi. — Marinaded red mullet, dipped in Villeroi 

sauce, egged and crumbed, and fried in deep fat. 

Saint Pi'erre — John Dory. 

Cooked and served like Brill, Flounder or Plaice. 

Saumon — Salmon. 

Saumon & I'Amiral. — Boiled salmon, garnished with 
lobster or cra)^sh and fried oysters, and served with 
Gen§voise sauce. 



io6 PRACTICAL GASTRONOME. 

Saumon & la Balmoral. — Thick slices of salmon, poached 
in fish stock, garnished with fish quenelles, crayfish, 
truffles, and small potato balls ; served with cham- 
bord sauce. 

— a la champ^ry. — Thick slices of salmon, baked in butter 

and white wine, served with brown caper sauce and 
olive-shaped potatoes. 

— i la Danoise (Danish). — Boiled salmon, served with 

hoUandaise sauce, blended with anchovy essence. 

— k la Di^ppoise. — Boiled or baked slices of salmon with 

mussel sauce, garnished with potato balls. 

— ^ la Godard. — Braised salmon with a. collection of 

cooked vegetable mac^doine dressed round the dish. 

— 4 la HoUandaise. — Boiled salmon with Dutch sauce, 

garnished with olive-shaped boiled potatoes. 

— & la Marianne. — Baked slices of salmon, dressed on 

spinach puree or with spinach timbales, mariniere 
sauce, with addition of mussels. 

— d la Matelote. — Sauteed slices of salmon with 

espagnole sauce, poached fish quenelles, slices of 
mushrooms, and truffles ; garnished with braised 
button onions, truffles, etc. 

— en tranches t la Meurlce.^ — Slices of salmon braised and 

served with a rich brown sauce, flavoured with 
savoury herbs. 

— ^ la Monte-Carlo. — Centre piece of salmon, boiled, 

sauced with Nantua sauce, and garnished with 
asparagus tips, French beans, and carrots ; also 
small carrolette of potato or rice. 

— & la Montmorency. — Head piece or middle cut of 

salmon baked, dished up, upper skin removed ; 
sauced over with matelote sauce ; garnished with 
. stoned and stuffed Spanish olives. 

— ii la Michat Faeha. — Boiled salmon with date sauce. 

— en papillotes. — Heart-shaped slices of salmon wrapped 

in grease-proof paper, and thus boiled or baked ; 
served with a rich brown herb sauce. 

— & la Parislenne. — Slices of salmon, cut rather thick, 

braised in mirepoix and claret ; dished up and gar- 
nished with groups of champignons, little fish 
croquettes, crayfish tails, and poached oysters ; sauce 
genoise is served with it. 

— i la PiSmontalse. — Fried fillets of salmon ; garnished 

with small timbales of savoury rice ; tomato 
sauce. 

— ik la Richelieu. — Centre piece of salmon, boiled or 

baked, coated with lobster mousse sauce, and gar- 
nished with fried soft roes, oysters, and crayfish or 
prawns. 



THE FISH COURSE. toy 

Saumon t ia Sichemont. — Grilled pickled salmon with 
tomato sauce. 

— i la Rothschild. — Centre piece of salmon, farced with 

truflle stufifing, and baked ; garnished with champig- 
nons, oysters, and truffles ; served with Nantua sauce. 

— a la P6rigueux. — Broiled salmon or salmon trout 

stuffed with truffles and served with truffle sauce. 

— ^ la Valoiss. — Grilled salmon steak, with lobster 

butter, served with valois sauce, and garnished with 
small rounds of baked potatoes and fried oysters. 

— i la Victoria. — Broiled salmon with stewed oysters, 

crayfish quenelles, Madeira sauce. 

— bouilli, sauce HoUandaise. — Boiled salmon with Hol- 

iandaise or Dutch sauce. 

— grills au beurre d'anchois. — Grilled salmon with 

anchovy butter. 

— grille au persU. — Grilled salmon with parsley butter. 

— griU6 aux fines herbes. — Grilled salmon with fine herb 

butter. 
Cdtelettes de Saumon i, la Danolse. — Salmon cutlets spread 
on each side with anchovy paste and fried ; served 
with Danish sauce. 

— 4 la Richelieu. — Salmon cutlets, poached in marinade, 

masked with cold fish farce (flavoured with tomatoes 
and anchovy), and with tomato aspic, dressed crown 
shape with cucumber and pimiento salad in centre. 

Darloles de Saumon k la Moscovlenne (cold). — Darioles, 
shapes of salmon, ornamented with truffles, oysters, 
chopped aspic, and cucumber. 

Darne de Saumon> i la Chambord. — Boiled middle cut of 
salmon, skinned, dished up, garnished with fish 
quenelles, heads of mushrooms, cooked oysters, 
slices of truffles and crayfish tails, sauced with a rich 
brown fish sauce. 

— k rArcliiduc— Boiled middle cut of salmon, skinned, 

dished up, sauced over with a rich brown fish sauce, 
and garnished with fried oysters and small puff- 
pastry lobster patties. 

— aux fines herbes. — Grilled salmon steak with parsley 

butter. 

— 4 la National. — Broiled piece of salmon and white 

sauce ; garnished with groups of stewed potato and 
cucumber balls. 

— 4 la Ravigote (cold). — Boiled centre piece of salmon, 

masked and decorated with cold ravigote sauce and 
fresh butter, centre of salmon filled with salad or 
vegetable macedoine, and sides garnished with hard- 
boiled egg, green peas, and chopped aspic ; served 
with tartare sauce. 



io8 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY 

Darne de Saumon A, la Vert-Pr6 (cold). — Cold salmon,V;oated 
with green chaudfroid sauce, garnished with di^ssed 
salad, sliced cucumber, and diamond shapes of asp^c. 

Escalopes de Saumon & I'lndlenne. — Fried salmon cutlets>- 
served with curry sauce, mixed with chopped picca- 
lilli, also plain rice as accompaniment. 

— i la Nantaise. — CoUops of salmon, seasoned and 

broiled in butter ; dished up alternately with slices 
of lobster ; dressed with stewed oysters and lobster 
sauce. 
Filets de Saumon 4 la Duehesse. — Braised fillets of salmon 
arranged in the centre of a mashed potato border, 
masked with rich brown sauce, and garnished with 
mushroom heads and slices of tomatoes. 

— aux huitres. — Rolled fillets of salmon with stewed 

oysters braised and served with a rich brown sauce. 

— sautes ^ la P^rlgueux. — Braised fillets of salmon, with 

truffle sauce. 

— & la Rfigence. — Rolled fillet of salmon, stuffed, and 

served with regent sauce. 

Grenadins de Saumon & la Vinitlenne. — Fillets of salmon, 
larded, seasoned, and braised, dressed in a circle 
alternately with heart-shaped bread croiitons, sauced 
with a well-buttered parsley sauce blended with 
tomato. 

Hflre de Saumon aux truffes. — Braised headpiece of 
salmon, with truffle sauce.. 

— jk la Cambac^res. — Braised head-piece of salmon, 

garnished with truffles, mushrooms, and stoned 
olives, sauced with a rich brown fish sauce seasoned 
with cayenne and lemon juice. 

— d la Mod^rne. — Boiled and baked head-piece of salmon, 

sauced over with brown fish sauce ; garnished with 
small groups of cork-shaped pieces of fish sausage, 
sliced truffles, mushroom heads, and stoned and 
blanched olives ; top of fish garnished with slices of 
lemon, truffles, and parsley. 

Mousseline de Saumon 4 la Cardinal. — Timbale or dariole 
of light salmon forcemeat (souffle), served with 
cardinal sauce. 

Pat6 de Saumon k I'Homard. — Raised salmon pie with 
layers of lobster meat. 

Pauplettos de Saumon i. la Relne. — Quenelles of fish, rolled 
in salmon fillets, and poached in chablis and fish 
stock ; dressed in fi,sh farce border, and garnished 
with braised olive shapes of cucumber ; hot ravigote 
sauce. 

Souffles de Saumon d I'lndlenne.— Cold souffle of curried 
salmon, decorated with anchovy butter or anchovy 
cream. 



Hit. jri^iH cuuiiim. 109 

Queue de Saumon aux huttres.— Braised tail-piece of 

salmon with stewed oysters. 
Tranchettes de Saumon en Belle Vue (cold). — Small 

sandwich-shaped moulds of salmon set in aspic and 

mayonnaise cream. 

Soles — Soles. 

Sole frlte k I'Anglaise. — Fried sole with anchovy sauce or 

melted butter. 
Soles d la Bedford. — Grilled soles garnished with croustades 

half filled with mushroom and truffle, and other half 

with spinach; sauce, mornay. 

— & la Bfircy. — Skinned soles, cooked in oven, with 

butter, shallots, white wine, mushroom liquor, and 
chopped parsley ; coated with bercy sauce. 

— d la Bignon. — Steamed sole, with white wine sauce, 

blended witR* tomato puree a la Portugaise. 

— d la Banne Femme. — Poached on mirepoix of fresh 

mushrooms, shallots, parsley, white wine, and fish 
stock ; fish veloute sauce. 

— d la Bosanlaque. — Steamed sole, seasoned with paprika 

and white wine ; garnished with julienne of carrots, 
celery, and mushrooms cooked in fish stock ; sauce, 
au vin blanc. 

— bouillie. — Boiled sole. 

— d la Gastillene. — Baked sole, with normande sauce, 

garnished with champignons, lobster dice, and glazed 
potato balls. 

— ik la Colbert.— Fried sole with centre bone removed, 

stufled with fine herb or parsley butter. 

— 4 la Cond6. — Baked sole, with sliced tomato and white 

wine sauce. 

— d la Daumont. — Soles with centre bone removed, and 

filled with whiting farce, cooked in white wine and fish 
stock ; sauce, nantua 

— d I'EspagnoIe. — Fried soles, garnished with sliced 

tomatoes sauteed in oil, and fried onion rings. 

— frlte. — Fried sole, garnished with fried parsley and 

cut lemon. 

— & la Gastronome. — Stuffed fried sole with shrimp sauce. 

— au gratin. — Baked sole, with brown sauce and mush- 

rooms, breaded and browned in oven. 

— gratinfe. — Baked sole, gratin style. 

— grill^e k la Maltre d'Hdtel.— Grilled sole with parsley 

butter. 

— d la Hambourgeoise. — Steamed sole, garnished with 

julienne strips of carrot and celery root cooked in 
stock, sauced over with sauce vin blanc. 



no PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. " 

Soles ik la Normande. — ^Poached soles in white wine, etc., 
garnished with oysters, mussels, and button mush- 
rooms, sauced over with normande sauce, served with 
buttered and browned slices of French rolls. , 

— au Parmesan. — Soles cooked in mushroom liquor, etc. 

sauced over with bechamel, flavoured with parmesan 
cheese ; browned under salamander, and served in 
same dish. / 

7— au vin blanc. — Braised sole with white wine sauce. 

Filets de Soles k TAmirlcalne. — Fillets of soles cooked 
with white wine in gratin dish ; sauced over with 
rich tomato sauce and lobster butter ; breaded aud 
browned in oven. 

— 4 I'Ambassade. — Filleted sole, cooked in fish stock and 

white wine in oven, coated with Momay sauce, with 
tomato pur6e added. 

— t I'Andalouse. — Rolled fillets of sole, farced with 

lobster puree, -poached, and finished with brown 
butter ; served with tomato sauce, with addition of 
cream or bechamel. 

— en Aspic (Cold). — -Folded fillets of sole poached, when 

cold dressed in aspic border shape, centre filled with 
seasoned salad. *■ 

— aux aubergines. — Baked fillets of soles dressed with 

nut browp buttery garnished with fried olive shapes 
of aubergine (egg-plant). 

— ^ la Belle H616ne. — Rolled fillets of sole, poached in 

white wine and mushroom liquor, dressed on nouille 
paste foundation, coated with bechamel sauce, 
breaded, and browned in oven. 

— Belles de Nutt. — Fillets of soles forced with fish farce 

and prawns ; poached" in white wine ; garnished with 
mushroom heads, potato cubes, and fomatbes ; 
sauce, normande. 

— i la BlanehalUe Sole fillets cut into fine strips, to 

^resemble whitebait, dipped in milk amd flour, Snd fried 

in deep fat. 

— !l la Boitel. — Fillets of soles folded and poached in 

white wine and mushroom liquor ; dressed on dish 
and sauced over with white mushroom sauce ; 
baked. 

— sk la Bovin. — Poached fillets of soles with rich cream 

sauce flavoured with fish essence ; garnished with 
potato balls and chopped parsley. 

— i la Catalalne. — Poached fillets of soles dressed on 

border of Jerusalem artichokes, centre filled with 
cdpes tossed in butter ; sauced over with well- 
reduced rich b6chamel sauce. 



THE FISH COURSE. in 

Filets de Soles d la Cancale. — Fillets of soles poached in fish 
liquor and oyster liquor ; dressed and garnished with 
poached oysters and mushrooms ; sauced over with 
maitre d'hdtel sauce 

— i la Cardinal. — Curled up or folded fillets of soles, 

poached in fish stock, coated with red sauce com- 
posed of tomato, lobster sauces, and anchovy essence ; 
' garnished with prawns or crayfish. 

— & la CarSme. — Braised fillets of spies, coated with rich 

white fish sauce, and garnished with lobster slices, 
soft roes, and fried oysters." 
/ - 4 -la Chasseur Royal. — Steamed fillets of soles dressed 
on a white fish border, decorated with tnifHes and 
gariiished with oysters, mushrooms, and truffles ; 
royal chasseur sauce. 
a la Cherbourg. — Rolled fillets of soles braisgji in white 
wine, dished'up and garnished with oysters, crayfish, 
and mussels; sauced over with cardinal sauce. 
en fers 4 Chevai (cold).— Stuffed rolled fillets of^sole 
^"^ set in horseshoe-shaped moulds, with mayonnaise or 
> aspic cream, decorated with truffles. 

— & la Chevaliire. — Rolled fillets of soles stuffed with fish 

farce mixed with chopped truffles ; poached in white 
wine ; sauced over with crayfish or bisque sauce, with 
finely chopped truffles on top. 

— & la Czarina.— Baked fillets of soles dressed on potato 

puree, scraped horseradish on each fillet ; served 
with a rich brown fish sauce, flavoured with tomato 
and meat glaze. 

— k la Dauphine. — Sole fillets spread over with a mixture 

of forcemeat, chopped shallots, parsley, and mush- 
rooms, folded and braised ; egged, crumbed, and 
fried ; served with lobster sauce. 

— & la Diable. — Rolled fillets of soles, crumbed and fried, 

served in paper cases, with devilled sauce poured 
over. 

— a la Diocl6tien. — Fillets of soles spread with fish farce, 

folded or rolled, and cooked in butter and Marsala 
wine ; garnished with small braised lettuces and small 
fish quenelles ; rich espagnole sauce, flavoured with 
fish liquor and chopped truffles. 

— ik la Dor6e. — Fillets of sole, dipped in flour and cream 

or milk, and fried in deep fat ; served with tomato- 

flavoureld bearnaise sauce. 

— & la Dugl£r6. — Fillets of sole, marinaded in gratin dish 

with cfushed tomatoes, onions, and parsley, savoury 

herbs, white wine, and lemon juice; seasoned and 

. cooked in dish. Pour ofif liquid, mix with flour and 

butter liaison, work up with fresh butter, and serve 

/ over the fish. 



112 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Filets de Soles & la Dumas. — Fillets of soles braised with 
butter, sauced over with white wine sauce mixed with 
tomato pur6e and chopped savoury herbs. 

— k I'Ellzabeth. — Rolled fillets of sole, farced with lobster 

pur6e, baked, and placed on small artichoke bottoms, 
sauced with bfechamel, coated with cheese, and 
browned before serving. 

— 4 la Ficampolse. — Poached fillets of sole, garnished 

with mussels, and served with shrimp sauce. 

— i la Florentine. — Fillets of soles dressed on and 

coated with a light spinach puree, enriched with 
cream, and flavoured with grated cheese ; baked 
in oven. 

— jk la Grand Due. — Fillets of soles poached in mushroom 

liquor, etc. ; dressed with alternate slices of truffles 
and prawn tails, masked with mornay sauce, sprinkled 
with cheese, etc., and browned ; garnished with 
asparagus points. 

— ^ la St. Georges. — Comet shapes of rolled fillets 

of sole, poached, and filled with salpicon of 
shrimps, lobster, and cream sauce ; placed in halves 
of baked potatoes, coated with t«rcy sauce, and 
browned in oven. 

— i la St. Germain. — Rolled and crumbed fillets of soles 

fried in butter, dressed on slices of lemon, with stiff 
beamaise sauce forced on top of each ; garnished with 
olive-shaped fried potatoes. 

— k rindienne. — Fried fillets of soles stuffed with lobster 

pur6e ; garnished with shreds of piccalilli, gherkins, 
and mushrooms, curry or madeira sauce ; served 
with boiled rice. 

— Jl la JoInviUe. — Rolled fillets of soles, dressed with 

truffles, prawns, cra^vfish, smelts, and small fish 
quenelles. 

— 4 la Leopold. — Baked fillets of sole, sauced over with 

truffle sauce, blended with shrimp puree. 

— ^ la Louis XV. — Lobster shells filled with fillets of sole, 

covered with lobster puree and white sauce, garnished 
with truffle slices. 

— Louisa- Anna. — Fillets of soles, folded, and poached in 

white wine, dressed on bread croiitons, sauced over 
with rich tomato puree, with slice of truffle in 
centre. 

— k\a, Marcelle. — Fillets of soles spread over with cham- 

pignon pur6e, folded and poached ; dressed on dish 
in border form, sauced over with pferigueux sauce, 
pommes de terre Anna (potatoes) in ceiitie. 



THE FISH COURSE. 113 

Filets de Soles Jl la Marie-Louise. — Fillets of soles, folded, 
poached in white wine and mushroom liquor ; dressed 
in centre of oblong dish, with a fancy border of 
potato puree ; baked in oven ; sauced over with 
supreme sauce, with border , of green mousseline 
sauce, julienne strips of truffles sprinkled over the 
fillets ; served hot. 

— it la Mar^chale. — Stewed fillets of soles in reduced 

white sauce, egged, crumbed, and fried in butter ; 
bechamel sauce served separate. 

— 4 la Mayonnaise. — Fillets of soles set in border mould 

with mayonnaise aspic, centre filled with dressed 
salad. 

— & la Menagire. — Poached in red-wine flavoured stock, 

and served with bordelaise sauce. 

— tXa, Menni^re. — Sole fillets dipped in flour and cooked 

in butter, flavoured with lemon juice, and brown 
butter (beurre noisette) and herbs poured over. 

— ^ la Messallne. — Fillets of soles poached in champagne, 

dressed, and sauced over with tomato sauce, flavoured 
with Italian pimientos ; garnished with artichoke 
bottoms. 

— i la Minute. — Similar to " Sole a la Menniere." 

— ^ la Mirabeau. — Poached sole fillets, sauced over with 

tarragon-flavoured anchovy sauce, and garnished 
with anchovy fillets. 

— d la Montgolfier. — Cooked in white wine sauce, and 

garnished with slices of lobster and mushroom heads, 
truffles, and fleurons. 

— k\^ Montpensier, — Fillets of sole rolled round crayfish, 

and poached ; dressed on a fish farce border, centre 
filled with ragout of lobster, truffles, and mushrooms ; 
sauce cardinal, and fleurons as garnish, 

— 4 la Montreuil. — Fillets of soles cooked in white wine, 

dressed in a circle, with fried potato balls in centre ; 
fillets sauced over with veloute sauce, enriched with 
fish essence. 

— & la Mornay. — Baked fillets of soles, dressed on dish 

with rich white sauce and grated cheese ; browned 
under salamander. 

— ^ la Nantua. — Fillets of soles poached in white wine, 

dressed on rice or semolina border, and sauced over 
with allemande sauce flavoured with crayfish butter, 
centre filled with prawn or crayfish tails, heated up 
in allemande sauce. 

— ^ la NiQoise. — Dipped in oil and grilled ; garnished 

with sliced tomatoes, olives, and capers. 

— & la Normande. — Sole fillets poached, with ijormande 

sauce, garnished with mussels and oysters, truffles, 
and small fried smelts. 



114 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Filets de Soles i la Norveglenne (cold).— Rolls or rings of 
fillets of sole, poached ; when cold, jellied, and filled 
with lobster puree, placed in halves of tomatoes and 
suitably garnished ; served with salade norge. 

— i 1 'Orlentale.— Dome shape mould, lined with fillets of 

sole, decorated with' truflie slices, etc. ; interior filled 
with white fish farce, steamed, garnished with fleurons, 
prawns, and truffles ; white wine sauce. 

— i rOrl^ans. — Poached sole fillets or whole Bole, sauced 

over with three sauces — bfechamel, green herb, and 
pink shrimp or lobster. 

— & I 'Orly.— Fried fillets of soles with tomato sauce and 

fried parsley.' 

— i la Pagani. — A dish similar to sole au vin blanc, 

finished with a rich veloute ; garnished with mussels, 
champignons, and grated cheese, browned. 

— i la Plimontaise. — Fillets of soles with tomato sauce ; 

garnished with polenta croutons and slices of truffles. 

— & la Polignac. — Sole fillets, with white wine sauce, 

finely shredded champignons, and tarragon leaves. 

— ^ la Pompadour.— Sole fillets with white wine sauce, 

dice shapes of tomatoes and truffles. 

— ^ la Rachel. — Sole fillets with shrimp or prawn sauce, 

garnished with truffle slices. 

— en Ramequin. — Rings of pastry filled with layer of 

white sauce, fillets of soles, soubise pur6e and grated 
cheese, etc., baked in sharp oven. 

— 4 la R6gence (cold). — Stuffed rolled fillets of sole, 

masked in aspic, dished up in fprm of border, each 
fillet being decorated with truffles and cream, salad 
in centre. 

— & la Rouennalse. — Farced fillets of soles, folded, and 

poached ; served with momay sauce, and garnished 
with mussels. 

— 4 la Royale. — Rolled fillets of sofes, stuffed with 

minced truffles and champignons and bechamel sauce ; 
steamed in oven ; served with hot mousseline or 
hoUandaise sauce. 

— 4 la Salisbury. — Lobster shells filled with sole and 

lobster forcemeat and veloute sauce, with folded 
fillets of soles on top of each ; steamed in oven ; 
dressed on rice border ; garnished with button 
mushrooms. 

— & la S^zet. — Fillets of soles stewed in bechamel and 

tomato sauce, flavoured with anchovy butter ; gar- 
nished with small lobster croquettes, truffles, anchovy 
fillets, and mushroom heads. 

— en ScuHli. — Fillets of soles set in dish, covered with 

mornay sauce and beaten egg-whites, and baked. 



THE FISH COURSE. 115 

Filets de Soles k la Su^tone. — Fillets of soles, folded, and 
poached In the oven with butter and white wine ; 
sauced over with normande sauce, flavoured with 
pounded pistachio Icernels ; garnished with small 
shells of prawns or shrimps, and pistachios. 

— & la Sully. — Fillets of soles egged and crumbed, slightly- 

fried in butter,' dressed with mushroom head on each 
fillet, sauced over with bSarnaise, and around with 
anchovy sauce. 

— i la TrouvlUe. — Folded fillets, seasoned, broiled in 

saute pan with white wine and mushroom liquor, 
dressed with mushrooms, oysters, fresh breadcrumbs, 
and white sauce ; surface brdwned in oven. 

— d la Valfery. — Rolled fillets of sole with white wine 

sauce, and champignons as garnish, breaded, and 
browned in oven. 

— 4 la Vendome. — Poached rolled fillets of sole, dressed 

on spaghetti border, and sauced over with nautua 
sauce. 

— i la V£nitienne. — Folded fillets of soles poached in 

white wine, butter, and parsley ; dressed in circle, 
centre garnished with mushroom heads, sauced with 
hoUandaise sauce. 

— a la Victoria. — Folded fillets of soles cooked with 

a little white wine, dressed on border of mashed 
potatoes, previously browned in oven ; sauced over 
with white wine sauce ; garnished with chopped 
truffle and tongue and small fleurons of puff paste. 

— ^ la Xavier. — Baked fillets of soles tied in knots, 

dressed on a border of whiting forcemeat, covered 
with hot Xavier sauce ; liquid meat glaze sprinkled 
over surface. 

— en Zephires (cold). — Cold fillets of sole set in aspic 

cream in small zephyr moulds. 
Chaudfroid de Filets de Soles t la Capuelne (cold). — Stuffed 

and rolled fillets of sole dressed on pink rice. border, 

decorated with prawns, truffles, etc. ; seasoned salad 

in centre. 
Coquilles de Filets de Soles t la Favorite. — Cockle-shell 

moulds filled with cooked fillets of sole and lobster 

meat, coated with mayonnaise, decorated with 

truffle and hard-boiled white of egg. 
Escalopes de Soles k la Vernon (Scallops of Soles, Vernon 

style). — Braised fillets of soles dressed on rice ; 

garnished with stewed oysters and mussels ; rich 

white sauce 
Hdtelets de Sole d la Villeroi. — Rolled sole fillets stuffed 

with forcemeat, placed on silver skewers, seasoned, 

crumbed, and baked in the saute pan ; served with 

a richly buttered tomato sauce. 



n6 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Pauplettes de Sole A r Alexandra.— Fillets of soles spread 
with lobster farce and rolled into paupiettes ; poached 
in sauterne and fish stock ; garnished with truffles, 
anchovy butter, and new potatoes tossed in butter ; 
sauce, cardinal. 

— & la Bismarck. — Fillets of soles soaked in marinade, 

spread with fish farce and chopped truffles, and rolled 
up ; poached in white wine ; dressed on a border of 
potato puree, sauced over with sauce marguery, 
sprinkled with grated parmesan, and browned in 
sharp oven. 

— ik TEmpereur. — Braised fillets of soles, rolled and 

stufEed with tnrbot farce, dressed in cassolettes, 
sauced over with bechamel cream sauce, flavoured 
with paprika, anchovy essence ; tops sprinkled with 
finely chopped truffle and horseradish. 

— ^ la St. Michel. — Rolled fillets of soles stuffed with foie- 

gras farce and poached, dressed on a border of green 
peas, with ragout of prawns in centre ; sauce suprlme. 

— & la NiQOlse. — Baked rolled fillets of soles, stuffed with 

fish farce, herbs, and anchovy paste ; sauced over 
with a rich tomato pur^e containing parmesan 
cheese ; garnished with small gherkins, sprinkled with 
grated cheese, and browned in oven. 

— de Filets de Soles h la Richelieu. — Baked rolled 

fillets of soles stuffed with whiting forcemeat, dressed 
on croutes spread with fish farce, with mushroom head 
on each ; sauced over with cardinal sauce, enriched 
with egg-yolk ; a star of truffle placed on centre of 
each fiUet. 
Soles en souchet (Souchet of Soles). — Boiled soles with 
finely cut strips of carrot and turnips and chopped 
parsley. 

— ^ la Vatel. — Baked soles, boned and stuffed, with 

whiting forcemeat, cooked in white wine and mush- 
room liquor ; masked over with white wine sauce ; 
garnished with truffles, gherkins, cocks' combs, and 
mushrooms. 

— i la Vllleroise. — Soles cooked in cyder and mushroom 

liquor, garnished with cubes of plain boiled potatoes. 

Stoudines de Polssons ^ la Russe (cold). — Fillets of soles 
and small fillets of salmon poached and dressed 
alternately in crown shape, masked with aspic, and 
served with iced horseradish sauce. 

Turban de Filets de Soles a la Montpeller (cold).— Cold 
fillets of soles set in turban or border mould, with 
green herb chaudfroid sauce, aspic, etc. ; gainished 
with white of egg and truffle ; centre filled with 
dressed salad, etc. 



' THE FISH COURSE. 117 

Timbale de Filets de Soles i, la Savoy. — Poached fillets of 
soles, fiuished in rich white wine sauce, mixed with 
truffle, macaroni, and crayfish, served in pastry crust 
made of pdte A foncer. 



Sterlet h la Russe. — Broiled sterlet with braised button 
onions, small ball-shaped fried potatoes, and anchovy 
sauce. 

— au bleu. — Boiled sterlet. 



Tanche au bleu. — Boiled tench. 

— grlUde au beurre d'Anchois. — Grilled tench with 

anchovy butter. 

— it la Maitre d'Hdtel.— Broiled tench with parsley butter. 

Truite—Trout. 
Truite saurnonee — Salmon Trout. 
Truite de Hiviire — River Trout. 

Truite au bleu. — Trout boiled in water and white wine 
flavoured with herbs. 

— au beurre d'Anehols. — Broiled trout with anchovy 

butter. 

— t la Cambacer^s. — Baked trout, garnished with 

slices of truffles, heads of mushrooms, stuffed olives 
and fleurons ; brown genoise fish sauce. 

— au Chablis. — Braised river trout (mirepoix and chablis), 

garnished with olive-sha,ped potatoes, plain boiled, 
and parsley ; sauce noisette. (See Sauces.) 

— 4 la Chambord. — Baked trout with claret sauce, and 

chambord garnishing. 

— ^ la Chrlstiania. — Boned trout stuffed with fish farce 

and hard-boiled egg slices, rolled up, cooked in stock 
and milk ; skinned when cold, and masked with aspic 
jelly and mayonnaise ; garnished with caviare 
canapees, etc. 

— & la Divonnalse. — Braised river trout, breaded, sauced 

over with sauce genoise ; garnished with braised 
button onions and mushroom heads 

— tarcle. — Stuffed trout, baked or au gratin, marinifire 

sauce. 

— frlte. — Fried trout. 

— d la Gavarnie. — Small river trout, spread over with 

parsley butter (maitre de hotel), then wrapped in 
oiled paper and baked in oven. Garnished with 
potatoes. 



ii8 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. : . 

Trulte d la Helvetia. — Fillets of trout rolled round farce 
cubes orquenellei and poached, sauced with bechamel 
enriched with lobster butter. Star of trufiSe on top 
of each fillet. 

— ^ la Hoteliere. — Baked trout in butter, with duxelle 

puree, and maitre d'hotel butter, and lemon 
garnish. 

— & la Maitre d'HStel. — Broiled trout with parsley butter. 

— ^ la Malvolsle (cold). — Boiled trout masked with 

aspic mayonnaise ; garnished with cucumber balls ; 
served with mayonnaise flavoured with cucumber 
pur6e. 

— & la Mantone. — Boned trout stuffed with truffle farce, 

braised on herb and mushroom mirepoix, and served 
with sauce Italienne. 

— Maritime (cold). — Soused or pickled trout, masked with 

half-set savoury jelly, (aspit). 

— & la Meuniere. — Braised' trout served with brown 

butter (buerre noisette), breadcrumbs, and chopped 
parsley. 

— & la Moutgolfler. — River trout, boned and stuffed with 

whiting farce mixed with chopped truffles, poached in 
oven (fumet de poisson), dressed with garnish of 
lobster cut in dice, and mushroom heads ; sauce au 
vin blanc (white wine saUce). 

— & la Hansen (cold). — Cold trout masked with finely 

cut vegetable, brunoise, and aspic, dressed on a shape 
of aspic ; garnished with small tomato-flavoured tim- 
bales and cucumber ; served with frozen horseradish 
sauce and semi-set aspic mixed with brunoise. 

— aux petlts pois. — Broiled trout with green peas. 

— & la Royal. — Braised trout, with white wine sauce, 

garnished with small fish quenelles, champignons, 
truffles, and glazed croutons. 

— saumon6e boullUe. — Boiled salmon trout. 

— saumon^e t la Norvigienne (cold). — Boiled salmon 

trout dressed on rice socle, masked with mayonnaise 
and aspic ; garnished with tarragon and chervil leaves, 
cucumber rind and slices, and chilli ; served with 
cold horseradish sauce. 

— saumon6e k la Rothschild (cold). — Baked stuffed 

salmon trout masked cold with madfere sauce (chaud- 
froid), decorated with trufSe's, blocks of set aspic, 
cucumber, lemon, and parsley. 

— d la Vaucluse. — Same as " Meunidre," using Provence oil 

in place of butter. 

— ^ la Vinaigrette (cold). — Cold boiled trout, served with 

vinegar and oil dressing, chopped gherkins, capers, 
and parsley. 



THE FISH COURSE. 119 

FUets de Trulte au Vin blane. — Broiled fillets of trout, 
with white wine sauce. 

— £t la Mayonnaise (cold). — Cold fillets of trout, in border 

of aspic and mayonnaise, centre filled with dressed 
salad. 

— frites i la Milanaise. — Fillets of trout marinaded in 

oil, etc., then rolled in breadcrumbs and grated 
cheese, then in egg and chopped parsley, and fried 
in oil ; served with Italian sauce. 

— ^ la Mirabeau. — Braised fillets of trout with mirabeau 

sauce. 

— au vin rouge. — Fillets of trout poached in court- 

bouillon, and sauced with bordelaise (red wine sauce). 

— tla Tomate. — Fried fillets of trOut with tomato sauce. 
Mousseline de Trulte i la Tosca. — Quenelles of trout 

(niousseline farce) poached, garnished with slice of 
lobster and truffle ; sauce mornay. 
Tron(!ons de truite h la Grfique. — Slices of large trout, or 
salmon- trout, cooked in " court-bouillon," skimmed, 
and masked with fish aspic, centre of each filled with 
cold fish farce (cooked) ; garnished with hard-boiled 
egg slices, truffles, and small salad. 

Turbot — Turbot. 

Turbotin— Foung Turbot. 

Turbot a rAmlral.— Slices of turbot poached in fish stock 
with sauteme, garnished with groups of oysters, 
mussels, mushrooms, and truffles, also crayfish 
bouchees ; sauce normande. 

— boulUi. — Boiled turbot. 

— & la Cambac6res. — Braised turbot with velbut6 sauce, 

garnished with celery strips, crayfish croquettes, and 
mussels. 

— ^ la Daumont. — Same as " i. I'Amiral," but garnished 

with fish quenelles, fried fish roe, prawns, and mush- 
rooms, also fish potatoes ; sauce nantua. 

— sauce aux Crevettes. — Boiled turbot with shrimp sauce. 

— sauce Homard. — Boiled turbot with lobster sauce. 

— & la Hongroise. — Boiled slices of turbot, dished, and 

sauced over with paprika or Hongroise sauce, and 
browned in oven, garnished with Parisian potatoes. 

— sauce aux Huttres. — Boiled turbot with oyster sauce. 

— ik la ProveUQale. — Small whole turbot (or thick slices) 

cooked in veloute sauce, white wine, white stock, 
chopped shallots, and bouquet garni ; dished up with 
a rich white herb sauce, flavoured with anchovy 
essence, chopped parsley, and capers. 

— sauce aux oeufs. — Boiled turbot with egg sauce. 

— sauce aux Anchols. — Boiled turbot and anchovy saupe. 



120 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Turbot A, la Reyni4re. — Stewed turbot, flaked, and served 
in shells, coated with shrimp sauce. 

— bouilli ti la Victoria. — Boiled turbot, garnished with ball- 

shaped lobster croquettes, prawns, and parsley; 
served with Victoria sauce. 

— i la Vatel.— Boned turbot, stuffed with lobster farce, 

grilled or braised, and served with white wine sauce 
and crayfish garnish. 
Escalopes de Turbot i la Daupblne. — Fillets or escallops of 
turbot, poached, and covered with fisti farce, baked, 
and dressed in centre of decorated border of potato 
pur6e, sauced over with prawn or crayfish sauce, and 
garnished with small fish quenelles. 

Filets de Turbot frits. — Fried fillets of turbot. 

— i la Boltel. — Turbot fillet with white wine sauce, 

and champignons, browned in oven. 

— ^ la CarSme. — Slices of turbot, garnished with slices of 

trufiies, mushrooms, halves of oysters, dressed on 
border of whiting forcemeat, with garniture and 
picked prawns in centre ; sauced over with rich 
cardinal sauce. 

— 4 la Cussy. — Fillets of turbot, poached in white wine, 

mushroom liquor, etc. ; garnished with mushrooms, 
cocks' kernels, and quenelles, covered with allemande 
and tomato sauces (blended) ; decorated with slices 
of lemon and fleurons. 
■ — ft la Duchesse. — Fillets of turbot, poached, and ranged 
on potato border (Duchesse), sauced over with 
cream sauce, and garnished with truffles. 

— ft la Florentine. — Saut^ed fillets of turbot, covered with 

layer of spinach puree and bechamel sauce, mixed 
with grated cheese, then sprinkled with breadcrumbs, 
grated cheese, and oiled butter, and baked. 

— ft la Maltre d'H6tel.— Broiled fillets of turbot with 

parsley butter. 

— ft la Salamandre. — Poached fillets of turbot, dished up 

in row on buttered dish, covered with veloute or rich 
bechamel sauce, sprinkled with grated cheese, etc., 
and browned under salamander. 

— au vln blanc— Poached or broiled fillets of turbot, 

with white wme sauce. 

Fleurettes de Turbot ft la HoUandalse (cold).— Small flat 
dariole shapes of cooked turbot set with mayonnaise 
cream, dressed on bed of salad or little blocks of aspic. 

SuprSme de Turbot ft la Royale.— Fillets of turbot, poached 
in white wine, etc., dressed on gratiu dish, covered 
with rich white fish sauce, sprinkled with grated 
Swiss cheese and butter, and browned in the oven. 



SAUCES. 121 

Timbales de Turbot & la Russe. — Small timbale shapes of 
cooked flakes of turbot, garnished with prawns, 
parsley, etc., dressed round a rice shape. 

Turbotin k la Lusslnoise.— Small young turbot filleted and 
steeped in marinade, then cooked in an onion mire- 
poix ; upon this a light layer of fish farce is placed, 
and then finished in the oven ; sauce aux champignons 
is poured over the top before serving ; served in 
casserole. 



Croquettes de Polsson. — Cutlet shapes of mixture com- 
posed of cold fish, bdchamel sauce, anchovy essence, 
6gg-yolk, dipped in egg and breadcrumbs or panu- 
rette, and fried in deep fat. 

Entrees de Polsson froid Cold dressed fish entries ; 

suitable also as luncheon, buffet, cold collation, and 
ball supper dishes. 

Pat§ de Poisson & rAm^rieaine (American Fish Pie). — 
Pie crust filled with layers of mashed potatoes, 
cooked turbot, cod or haddock, flaked ; white sauce 
and grated cheese ,■' surface egged and sprinkled over 
with grated cheese, and baked in oven. 

— a la Marini^re. — French raised pie filled with twisted 
fillets of sole, pieces of eel, mushroom heads, prawn 
tails, button onions, anchovy sauce flavoured with 
claret, and baked. 

Timbales de Poisson A, la Marigny. — Small dariole moulds 
lined with fish farce, centre filled with prawn tails, 
herring roes, and trufile, made up as salpicon ; sauce 
hollandaise with crayfish butter ; served hot. 

Vol-au-Vent h la Chambord. — Round or oval puff paste 
crust (vol-au-vent) filled with crayfish tails, truffles, 
mushrooms, small fish quenelles, bearded oysters, 
and genoise sauce. 



PART V. 

SAUCES. 



The importance of sauce in cookery is so well known that 
I need not offer any excuse for including the definitions 
of all the standard sauces and the most popular of other 
liquid seasonings in this book. 

In almost every instance some kind of sauce is named 
along with, or as an ingredient in, the preparation of dishes. 
Again, the blending of two or more sauces is frequently 
recommended, so that we have given the names of these. 



122 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

together with a condensed description of the kinds most 
frequently required. It is needless to add that the blend- 
ing of a sauce, its flavour and colovir, has much to do with 
the success of any dish with which it is served, whilst the 
harmonising effect, or the want of it, may make or spoil 
a, dish listed on a menu. 

Sauce Albert. — AUemande sauce with finely chopped 
shallots reduced in tarragon vinegar, grated horse- 
radish, cream, yolks of eggs, and chopped parsley. 

— Albut^ra. — Rich white sauce (supreme) enriched with 

meat extract or glaze. 

— AUemande (German). — A white sauce made from veal 

stock, thickened with white roux, cream, and yolks of 
eggs, flavoured with nutmeg and lemon juice. 

— Am^rlcalne (American). — Tomato sauce blended with 

lobster butter (whisked in). 

— Amiral (Admiral). — A white sauce, with chopped 

capers, parsley, lemon rind and juice, and anchovy 
paste to flavour.- 

— Anchols (Anchovy). — A fish sauce made with flour, 

butter, fish stock, milk, and anchovy essence. 

— Andalouse (cold). — Mayonnaise, blended with tomato 

pulp and mixed with finely cut red sweet peppers. 

— Aromate (Aromatic). — White sauce, blended richly 

with aromatic herb puree. 

— AuTore (Aurora). — Bechamel sauce, cream, red pepper, 

tarragon, and shallot, flavoured with lobster butter to 
give it a reddish tint. 

— Avignonnaise. — Bechamel sauce, yolks of eggs, grated 

parmesan cheese, and chopped parsley, flavoured with 
shallots and garlic. 

— Ayola. — A mayonnaise flavoured with crushed garlic 

and lemon juice. 

— Ayoii, Aioii (cold). — Mayonnaise made with hard- 

boiled egg-yolks, flavoured with garlic, lemon juice, 
and cayenne. 

— B&rtaide Anglalse. — English melted butter sauce 

flavoured with lemon juice. 

— Bartarde (cold). — Bearnaise, flavoured with fish essence 

(stock), enriched with tomato pur6e and anchovy 
butter. 

— Bavaroise. — HoUaudaise (Dutch) sauce, enriched with 

whipped cream and crayfish butter. 

— B6arnalse. — Consists of fresh butter, yolks of eggs, 

chopped shallots or onion, tatragon, parsley, a pinch 
of cayenne, and lemon juice. 



SA UCES. 123 

Sauce B^arnaise Brune. — Same as " Beamaise," with the 
addition of meat glaze to give it a brown colour. 

— B^arnaise-Tomate. — Same as "Beamaise," adding 

tomato puree in place of meat glaze. 

— Beauharnals. — Beamaise sauce, enriched with tarragon 

pur6e. 

— B6chamelt(Foundation^Sauce). — ^Made with milk or 

milkj, aiid stock, flour, and butter (white roux), 
flavoured with pepper, nutmeg, and bay-leaf. 

— Beefsteak. — A light brown sauce made of chopped 

onion, parsley, meat glaze, and butter, flavoured with 
sherry and lemon juice. 

— B^rcy. — Thin demi-glace with chopped shallots reduced 

in white wine, enriched with fresh butter, chopped 
parsley, and lemon juice. 

— Beurre (au). — Melted butter sauce. 

— Beurre Crimeuse. — Creamed butter sauce ; beaten egg- 

yolks and butter stirred into boiling stock. 

— Beurre Nolr (Black Butter). — A thin brown sauce made 

with nut-brown butter, flavoured with tarragon 
vinegar and anchovy essence. 

— Beurre Noisette (au), — Same as " Beurre Noir," with 

butter only slightly brown. 

— Bigarade. — Demi-glace sauce with shreds of orange 

rind, flavoured with orange juice and red-currant 
jelly. 

— Blanche. — White sauce made with white roux, half 

stock and milk, finished with butter and lemon juice. 

— Blanquette. — AUemande (white) sauce, enriched with 

an extra quantity of cream. 

— Boh^mienne (Bohemian). — ^A white sauce made with 

fresh breadcrumbs, white stock, butter, and grated 
horseradish, seasoned with pepper and salt. 

— Bonne Femme. — A white sauce made with finely 

chopped onion and shallots, blended in butter and 
cooked m fish stock, thickened with egg-yolks and 
whipped cream, seasoned and flavoured with lemon 
juice. 

— Bonnefoy. — A light bordelaise sauce, into which 

fresh butter, chopped parsley, and beef marrow are 
incorporated. 

— Bordelaise (Bordelaise). — A brown sauce, with reduc- 

tions of red wine, chopped parsley, tarragon, and 
shalots. 

— Bouillabaisse.— Tomato sauce, enriched with fish essence, 

flavoured with garlic, and finished with fresh butter. 

— Bourguignonne (Burgundy). — Espagnole sauce, finely 

jninced onions reduced in Burgundy wine, flavoured 
with thyme, bay-leaf, cloves, and mace. 



124 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Bread Sauce. — Milk, flavoured with onion and clove, 
and thickened with fresh breadcrumbs. 

Sauce Bressolse. — Reduced espagnol, flavoured with shallots 
and orange juice, enriched with puree of chicken liver. 

— Bretonne (Britanny), — Veloutfe sauce with finely-cut 

wisps of celery, leek, and truffles. 

— Broglle. — Espagnole, blended with ham, reduced v/ith 

sherry and mushroom liquor, enriched with fresh 
butter. 

— Bulgare. — Cold tomato sauce, blended with finely- 

shredded cooked celery. 

— Byron. — Demi-glace sauce, with a reduction of claret 

and chopped Jiuffles. 

— Cambridge (cold). — Mayonnaise, mixed with parsley 

puree, capers, and anchovy paste, flavoured with 
mustard. 

— Canop6re.^-A hot fish sauce made with fish, court- 

bouillon, and blond roux, enriched with crayfish 
butter. 

— Canotlere. — White fish sauce with white wine flavour, 

enriched with fresh butter, seasoned with cayenne. 

— CSpres (Caper). — A white sauce with capers. 

— C&pres Brune (Brown Caper Sauce). — ^A brown sauce 

with capers, seasoned with black pepper and nutmeg. 

— Cap£tienne. — White wine sauce with tomato puree, 

made B6arnaise style. 

— Cardinal. — White fish sauce mixed with lobster coral 

or spawn, flavoured with essence of anchovies and 
tarragon vinegar. 

— Carlet. — A white cream-like sauce made with fish 

stock, white wine, butter, flour, and egg-yolks, 
seasoned with salt, pepper, nutmeg, and sugar. 

— Casteiaine (Castillane). — Demi-glace, with pimiento 

(Spanish pepper) and finely-chopped ham, flavoured 
with lemon juice. 

— Cavalier. — Thin brown sauce, blended with tomato 

puree, flavoured with tarragon vinegar and French 
mustard, mixed with finely chopped chutney, 
gherkins, and capers. 

— Cazanova. — A cold fish or salad sauce, composed of 

mayonnaise, finely-shredded truffles, and whites 
of hard-boiled eggs, flavoured with garlic. 

— C616rle (Celery). — A white sauce, with cooked chopped 

celery ; served with boiled poultry. 

— Champagne. — Thin brown sauce, reduced with cham- 

pagne and ham essence. 

— Champignons (Mushrooms). — Velout6 and mushroom 

liquor, or demi-glace and sliced mushrooms. 



SAUCES. 125 

Sauce ChantlUy. — Well reduced bechamel blended with 
whipped cream. 

— Cbantilly (cold). — Mayonnaise sauce with whipped 

cream, flavoured with grated horseradish. 

— Chasseur (Huntsman). — Espagnole sauce, with chopped 

shallots, mushrooms, and parsley, flavoured with 
pepper, lemon juice, and game essence. 

— Chateaubriand. — Rich brown sauce made with meat 

glaze, espagnole sauce, fresh butter, white wine, lemon 
juice, and chopped parsley, flavoured with cayenne 
pepper and red currant jelly. 

— Chaudfrold. — Masking or coating sauce, made of well- 

reduced white, fawn, cream, green, red, or brown 
sauce, blended with sufficient dissolved gelatine or 
aspic to set when cold. 

— Chevreuil (Venison). — A brown sauce, reduced with 

claret, port wine, and thinly sliced gherkins, seasoned 
with red pepper. 

— Chicory. — Veloute sauce, blended with green herb 

butter (fines herbes), 

— Chivry. — Veloute sauce with infusion of chablis tarra- 

gon, chervil, parsley, and chives, finished with green 
herb butter. 

— Choron. Bearnaise sauce, blended with tomato puree. 

— Citron au (Lemon). — HoUandaise sauce with finely- 

grated lemon rind added. 

— Colbert.— Thin brown fish sauce, enriched with butter 

and glaze, finely chopped herbs, and lemon juice. , 

— Comtesse. — White wine sauce, enriched with fish 

essence and truffle puree. 

— Concombre (Cucumber). — B6chamel or white cream 

sauce, blended with cucumber puree. 

— Cordolier. — Maddre sauce, enriched with truffle and 

foie-gras puree. 

— Cornichon (Gherkin). — A brown sharp sauce, like 

poivrade, with finely chopped gherkins. 

— Crapaudine. — Espagnole, reduced with veal stock, 

vinegar, shallots, and bouquet garni, enriched with 
fi-esh butter. 

— Creme (Cream). — Bechamel sauce enriched with fresh 

cream. 

— Creole. — Tomato sauce, blended with finely chopped 

shallots reduced in white wine, mixed with thin strips 
of pimiento. 

— Crevettes. (Shrimp). — Pink fish sauce with picked 

shrimps. 



126 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Sauce Cumberland. — Thin brown sauce, witji meat glazed 
orange juice, red-currant jelly, lemon juice, and port 
wine, fine shreds of orange rind, seasoned with mus- 
tard, paprika, and ginger. 

— Curry (Currie). — A pale brown or fawn coloured sauce 

made with veloutfe gravy, finely chopped onion 
fried in butter, and curry powder, well reduced and 
tamined. 

— Cussy.— Espagnole sauce, blended with fumet of 

pigeon, reduced with Sherry. 

— Czarlne.^Demi-glace sauce with chopped gherkins, 

capers, and bleached raisins. 

— Danolse (Danish). — White wine sauce flavoured with 

grated cheese, anchovy cream, and lobster butter. 

— Daumont. — Fish sauce made like HoUandaise, using 

oyster liqueur, egg-yolks, lemon juice, with sliced 
oysters, mushrooms, and truffles. 

— Demi-Deull. — VeIout6 sauce, mixed with finely chopped 

truffles. 

— Demidoff. — MadSre sauce with sliced truffles. 

— Deml-glace (Half-glaze). — Espagnole reduced with 

veal stock or gravy of light consistency. 

— Diable (Devilled).— Chopped shallots blended in butter 

and reduced in vinegar, diluted with demi-glace and 
red wine, reduced and highly seasoned with Worcester 
sauce, cayenne, etc. 

— Diane. — Poivrade sauce, enriched with cream. 

— Digestive. — Soubise sauce, blended with apple and 

tomato pur6e, and flavoured with curry paste and 
French mustard. 

— Diplomato. — B6chamel sauce blended with lobster 

butter and anchovy essence. 

— Duchesse. — B6chamel, enriched with fresh butter, 

with finely chopped ox-tongue and mushrooms. 

— Ducl6r6 or DugI6r6.— Tomato sauce blended with 

bechamel and tish essence, finished with fresh butter 
and chopped parsley. 

— Duxelle — Brown sauce enriched with tomato puree and 

meat glaze, chopped mushrooms, truffles, ham, blended 
shallots and parsley, fliavoured with lemon juice. 

— Echalote (Shallot).— Thin brown gravy sauce, with 

finely chopped shallots and parsley blended in butter, 
flavoured with shallot vinegar or finely chopped 
shallots mixed with vinegar, and lemon juice and 
seasoning ; served with oysters. 

— Ecossalse (Scotch) — Bfechamel sauce mixed with finely 

chopped hard-boiled white and yolk of egg. 



SAUCES. 127 

Sauce Ecrevisses (Crayfish). — White cream sauce mixed 
with crayfish butter. 

• — Epicurlenne. — (Cold). — ^Mayonnaise cream mixed with 
cucumber pur^e, aspic, chopped gherkins and chutney, 
served cold. 

— Epicurienne (Hot).— White sauce acidulated with 

vinegar, reduced with cayenne pods and catchup. 

— Espagnole (Foundation Sauce). — A brown sauce made 

with brown roux, mirepoix of vegetables, and ham or 
bacon, tomatoes, mushrooms, meat stock, wine, and 
seasoning. 

— Estragon (Tarragon). — Demi-glace reduced with white 

wine and tarragon vinegar, with finely chopped 
blanched tarragon leaves. 

— Etretat. — AUemande sauce or veloute flavoured with 

white fish essence and veiry little tomato puree. 

— Filix. — Brown sauce, flavoured with lemon j uice and 

crayfish essence, finished with butter. 

— FenouU (Fennel). — A white sauce, with finely chopped 

fennel, flavoured with lemon juice; served with boiled 
fish. 

— Fermldre (Farmhouse). — Brown sauce, with finely 

chopped ham, and onion puree, served with game. 

■ — Financidre. — Brown mad^re sauce reduced with 
chicken essence, trufiie, and mushroom liquor. 

— Fines Herbes. — A white or brown sauce, with finely 

chopped herbs (parsley, tarragon, and chervil) ; 
chopped shallots blended in butter are sometimes 
added. 

— Flamande (Flemish). — A white sauce, with egg-yolks, 

flavoured with mustard. 

— Fleurette. — Rich white cream sauce enriched with 

chicken essence, 

— Foyot. — BSarnaise sauce, enriched with meat glaze. 

— Franpaise (French). — Bearnaise sauce with tomato 

pur6e and fish essence flavour. 

— Francois. — Tomato sauce reduced with white wine, 

with chopped mushrooms finished with butter. 

— Garibaldi. — A brown sauce, flavoured with crushed 

garlic, capers, curry, anchovy paste, and mustard ; 
served with fish or meat. 

— Gastronome. — Brown sauce, espagnole or demi-glace, 

reduced with champagne, seasoned with cayenne. 

— G6n6TaIe. — A brown savoury sauce flavoured with 

lemon juice, tarragon vinegar, orange peel finely 
chopped, garlic, and sherry. 

— Genivoise (Geneva), — ^Madfere sauce reduced with fish 

essence, flavoured with garlic and anchovy essence. 



128 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Sauce G^noise (Genoese). — Demi-glace or espagnoie- 
reduced with fish stock and red wine, flavoured with 
anchovy essence, parsley, and mushrooms. 

— G^noise (cold). — Mayonnaise sauce, blended with 

bechamel, flavoured with pounded pignolis or 
almonds, also green herb pur6e. 

— Gibler (Game). — A brown sauce flavoured with essence 

of game. 

— Gloucester (cold). — ^Mayonnaise cream mixed with 

chopped tarragon, flavoured with mustard and chilU 
vinegar ; served with fish or meat salads. 

— Godard. — Espagnoie or demi-glace, reduced with chablis, 

mixed with chopped ham and champignons. 

— Gooseberry (groseille verte). — Gooseberry puree,blended 

with syrup, with or without cream, served with grilled 
mackerel or roast goose. 

— Gourmet. — A brown fish sauce mixed with lobster 

butter, chopped prawns, and truffles. 

— Grand Venear. — Espagnoie reduced with blood of game, 

hare, etc., highly spiced with pepper, 

— Granville. — White wine sauce mixed with chopped 

mushrooms, shrimps, and truffles. 

— Gratln. — White wine sauce, blended with demi-glace, 

mixed with dropped champignons (Duxelle). 

— Gribiche. — Mayonnaise mixed with mustard and finely 

chopped herbs, and hard white of egg. 

— Hachie, — Espagnoie and tomato sauce with shallot and 

vinegar reduction. 

— Hachls. — Brown sauce, with chopped mushrooms, 

capers, and gherkins. 

— H&VTOise. — White wine sauce reduced with liquor of 

mussels. 

— Hessoise. — Cold horseradish sauce made with sour 

cream, grated horseradish, and fresh breadcrumbs, 
seasoned with sugar and salt ; served with roast beef 
or steaks. 

— HoUandalse (Dutch). — A rich fish sauce prepared 

with butter, yolks of eggs, tarragon vinegar, lemon 
juice, and mignonette pepper. 

— HoIIandaise Verte. — HoUandaise sauce mixed with 

parsley leaves, blanched and pounded. 

— Holstein. — Bechamel sauce reduced with fish stock and 

white wine, thickened with egg-yolks, and flavoured 
with nutmeg. 

— Homard (Lobster). — Bechamel, with chopped lobster 

meat, finished with lobster butter. 

— Hongroise (Hungarian). — Veloutfe or allemande sauce 

mixed with sour cream, and highly seasoned with 
paprika. 



SAUCES. 129 

Sauce Horly. — A supreme (rich white) sauce blended with 
tomato puree, meat extract or glaze, and butter. 

— Horseradish (Raifort). — Cold cream sauce with grated 

horseradish, mustard, and vinegar, or hot white 
sauce blended with grated horseradish and mustard. 

— Huitres (Oyster). — B6chamel, with oysters,' bearded and 

cut in four, egg-yolks and lemon juice. 

— Hflre de Sangller (Boar's Head). — A cold sauce pre- 

pared with bitter orange juice and finely chopped rind, 
sugar, red-currant jelly, port wine, and prepared 
mustard, seasoned with black pepper. A useful 
stock sauce. 

— Hussarde. — Espagnole sauce and veal stock reduced, 

mixed with onion and tomato purees, flavoured with 
grated horseradish. 

— Impfratlice. — ^AUemande or veloute sauce enriched 

with chicken and truffle essence, finished with 
cream. 

— Indienne (Indian). — A brown sauce flavoured with curry 

powder or paste. 
— • Itallenne (Italian). — Espagnole sauce blended with 
tomato puree, chopped mushrooms, white wine, and 
chopped shaltots fried in oil ; seasoned with pepper, 
lemon juice, and nutmeg. 

— Ivoire. — Rich white sauce with chicken essence and 

cream finish. 

— Jambon (Ham). — A brown sauce, with finely shredded 

ham, chopped chives, shallots, and parsley, flavoured 
with lemon juice and paprika or krone pepper. 

— Joinville. — A white fish sauce enriched with yolks of 

eggs, fresh butter, and lobster coral ; flavoured with 
lemon juice, and cayenne pepper. 

— Juliette. — Supreme sauce with tarragon and chervil 

flavour. 
Jus ^ I'Estragon. — Gravy sauce with tarragon flavour. 
Jus TomatS-^Gravy sauce with tomato flavour. 
Sauce Kari, — Indian curry sauce. White or brown sauce 

with curry flavour. 
— • Laguipiere. — Melted butter sauce with fish essence 

and lemon juice. > 

— Lavalliere. — Demi-glace sauce with game fumet (es- 

sence), blended with sour cream, mixed with finely 
shredded truffles and (mushrooms. 

— Livonienne. — Dissolved meat glaze, blended with sour 

cream and fennel puree, finished with butter. 

— Llvournaise. — A cold sauce prejpared with anchovy 

fillets, yolks of eggs, sweet oil, vinegar, chopped 
Darslev. nenner. anH rm+mpcr 



r^o PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Sauce Lyonnalse (Lyons sauce). — A kind of tomato sauce 
with minced Spanish onions (previously fried in 
butter), flavoured with meat glaze and lemon juice ; 
also made with bechamel foundation. 

— Madere (Madeira).— ^A brown sauce composed of demi- 

glace sauce, and tomato puree, Madeira wine. 

— Maillet. — Madere sauce mixed witli hard egg-yolks, 

sieved and blended shallots, cayenne seasoning. 

— Malntenon. — White onion puree thickened with egg- 

yolks and veloute sauce. 

— Maitre d 'Hotel (Hotel-keeper). — A white sauce with 

butter, cream, and chopped parsley. 

— Malaga (Port Wine). — A brown sauce prepared with 

meat glaze, port wine, and lemon juice, flavoured 
with shallots and cayenne. 

— Maltaise. — ^Veloute sauce with chopped parsley, shallots. 

and mushrooms, diluted with sherry wine, flavoured 
with lemon j nice and finely shredded orange peel. 

— Marchand de Vin (Wine merchant). — Demi-glace, 

reduced with fried shallots, cUiret, and meat 
glaze. 

— Itlarichale. — Allemande or veloute sauce mixed with 

champignon pur6e. 

— Marguiry. — White fish sauce, blended with oyster 

puree, and finished with cream. 

— Marigny, — Demi-glace sauce with tomato purfee and 

mushroom liquor, wliite wine reduction. 

— Marinldre. — White wine sauce, with finely chopped 

herbs, shallots, and fish essence. 

— Marseillaise. — HoUandaise sauce blended with tomato 

' puree 

— Matelote (blanche.) — A white fish sauce, with mush- 

room juice, white wine, and button mushrooms, 
flavoured with savoury herbs. 

— Matelote (brune). — A red wine sauce reduced with fish 

essence, mushroom liquor, and anchovy essence. 

— Matlgnon, — Ham essence reduced witli Madere sauce 

blended with port wine, and mixed with peeled 
muscate grapes, paprika seasoning. 

— Maximiltan.— Tartare sauce, with tomato pulp and 

finely chopped tarragon leaves to flavour. 

— Mayonnaise. — A cold sauce composed of yolks of 

eggs, salt, pepper, salad oil, and vinegar ; a little cold 
bechamel sauce or cream is sometimes added as 
foundation. 

— Mayonnaise collie.— Mayonnaise sauce, fortified with 

liquified gelatine or aspic, used for coating or masking. 



SAUCES. 131 

Sauce Midicis. — Beamaise, flavoured with tomato puree 
and very little red wine. 

— Mel&a.^Chopped shallots cooked in chabUs, reduced 

in tomato sauce, and thickened with egg-yolks, 
finished like hollandaise. 

— Menthe (Mint). — Consists of vinegar, chopped green 

mint leaves, and moist sugar to flavour. 

— Mlrabeau.— Veloute sauce with pounded garlic, chopped 

parsley, lemon juice, and a liaison of butter and meat 
extract. 

— Miroton. — Demi-glace, blended with finely minced, 

blanched, and fried onions, tomato sauce, vinegar 
and mustard to flavour. 

— Moelle (Beef Marrow). — Espagnole sauce flavoured 

with fried shallot, mixed with blanched beef marrow 
cut in thin slices, chopped parsley, vinegar and 
cayenne to taste. 

— Morley. — Velout6 sauce, enriched with mushroom 

essence and cream. 

— Mornay. — Bechamel, enriched with egg-yolks and 

grated cheese. 

— Mosfovlte. — Poivrade or pepper sauce mixed with 

sour cream, flavoured with juniper berries. 

— Moules (Mussels). — Hollandaise sauce, with cooked 

mussels. 

— Mousseline. — A very light, froth-like sauce, holland- 

aise whisked with double cream. Other moussehne 
sauces are made with tomato or spinach foundations. 

— Mousseuse. — Hollandaise sauce, enriched with whipped 

cream. 

— Moutarde (Mustard). — Melted butter or bechamel 

sauce, mixed with prepared mustard. 

— Nantua. — Bechamel, reduced with fish essence, finished 

with crayfish butter and cream. 

— Napolitaine. — A brown sauce, with finely minced ham, 

claret, currant jelly, and grated horseradish, flavoured 
with shallots, hay-leaf, thyme, and cloves. 

— Nipoise. — Demi-glace, blended with concentrated 

Italian tomato pur6e. 

— Niveraaise. — Allemande or veloute with finely shredded 

carrots. 

— Noisette. — Hollandaise sauce, mixed with baked, 

pounded, and sieved hazel-nuts, finished with 
double cream. 

— Nonparellle. — Hollandaise sauce enriched with cray- 

fish or lobster butter, mixed with chopped lobster 
meat, mushrooms, hard-boiled whites of eggs, and 
truffles. 



132 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Sauce Norah. — Poivrade or pepper sauce with red-currant 
jelly, Worcester sauce, meat glaze, and lemon -juice. 

— Normande. — A white fish sauce, thickened with egg- 

yolks, fresh butter and cream, flavoured with lemon 
juice and essence of fish. 
■ — Norv^gienne (Norwegian). — A cold sauce prepared with 
hard-boiled egg-yolks (passed through a sieve), yolks 
of fresh eggs, salt, pepper^ prepared mustard, oil, and 
vinegar, mixed with finely chopped herbs. 

— (Eufs (Egg). — A white sauce or hoUandaise sauce with 

hard-boiled eggs finely chopped. 

— Oignon (Onion). — A white sauce, with minced and 

blanched onions, seasoned with nutmeg, salt, and 
pepper ; served with rabbit or mutton. Brown 
onion sauce is made by frying the onions first, mixed 
with espagnole. 

— Olives. — A brown sauce, with stoned or turned olives, 

flavoured with lemon juice ; served with ducks, 
fowls, and beef. 

— Orange. — Reduced gravy sauce, mixed with orange 

juice and finely shredded orange rind ; served with 
roast duck or game. 

— Orleans. — Fish veloutfe sauce, reduced with white wine, 

finished with crayfish butter. 

— Orly. — Espagnole sauce, reduced with mushroom 

liquor and tomato pur6e. 

— Osellle (Sorrel). — Gravy or demi-glace sauce, with finely 

chopped blanched sorrel leaves ; served with fish, veal 
or fowls, etc. 

— Ours (Bear). — Poivrade sauce reduced with braize 

liquor, finished with butter. 
^ Oxford. — A cold game sauce, same as Cumberland, 
with addition of finely grated orange-rind. 

— Oyster. — White sauce with quartered oysters. 

— Pain (Bread). — Milk thickened with fresh bread- 

crumbs, cooked with a small onion stuck with a clove ; 
finished with a little butter, and seasoned with salt 
and pepper ; served with roast poultry and some 
game. 

— Paloise. — B^arnaise or HoUandaise sauce with an 

infusion of green mint. 

— Paprika. — Veloute or allemande sauce highly seasoned 

with paprika and red Hungarian pepper. 

— Parlsienne. — A rich brown sauce, witli chopped shallots, 

parsley, lemon juice, and meat glaze, worked up a 
little with fresh butter ; served with entrecotes, 
steaks or fillets of beef. 

— Paul Bort.— White wine sauce, blended with tomato 

pur6e and Bearnaise sauce. 



SAUCES. 133 

Sauce Pauvre Homme (Poor Man). — A brown sauce, 
blended with tomato ketchup, vmegar, and anchovy 
sauce ; suitable as a fish sauce. 

— P6rlgueux (Perigord). — MadSre sauce with finely 

chopped truffles, enriched with meat glaze. 

— Persil (Parsley). — Melted butter or bechamel sauce, 

with finely chopped parsley. 

— Persillade. — A kind of vinaigrette sauce, prepared with 

mustard, sweet oil, vinegar, salt, pepper, lemon juice, 
and chopped savoury herbs ; served cold with fish, 
vegetables or salad. 

— Piccadilly. — Demi-glace sauce, blended with anchovy 

butter, shallot flavour, and English mustard. 

— Pi^montaise. — Velout6 sauce, enriched with veal essence, 

anchovy butter, and chopped truffles. 

— Pignol. — Poivrade sauce, enriched with cream and 

chopped pignolis. 

— Piment. — ^Demi-glace sauce blended with tomato puree, 

highly seasoned with chopped pimentos and cayenne. 

— Piquante (Sharp). — A sharp brown sauce with chopped 

gherkins, capers, and shallots, seasoned with plenty 
of pepper and essence of anchovy. 

— Poivrade (Pepper). — A brown pepper sauce, flavoured 

with lean bacon or ham, celery, onions, thyme, and 
bay-leaf, reduced with vinegar, anchovy essence, and 
black pepper. 

— Polignac. — White wine sauce, enriched with cream and 

fresh mushrooms cut into fine shreds. 
— ■ Polonaise (Polish). — Veloute sauce with sour cream, 
grated horseradish, chopped fennel, and lemon juice; 
served with cutlets or steaks. 

— Pomme (Apple). — Apple pulp, slightly sweetened, en- 

riched with whipped cream ; served hot with roast 
pork, goose or duck. 

— Pompadour. — Allemande or veloute sauce with shallots 

(fried), cream, egg-yolks, chopped mushrooms, and 
parsley. 

— Porto. — Demi-glace sauce reduced with port-wine, and 

fried onion flavour. 

— Portugalse. — Tomato sauce diluted with well reduced 

veal gravy, flavoured with onion and garlic, blanched 
and fried. 

— Poulette (Veloute). — A white sauce, flavoured with 

aromatic herbs, thickened with egg-yolks and fresh 
butter, finished with chopped parsley and lemon juice. 

— Prince do Galles (Prince of Wales). — A cold sauce pre- 

pared with hard-boiled and raw egg-yolks, salad oil, 
tarragon vinegar, mixed with finely chopped herbs and 
French mustard ; served with grilled or fried fish 
or meat, 



134 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Sauce Prlncesse. — Well reduced aUemande or bechamel with 
chicken essence and mushroom liquor, sliced mush- 
rooms and double cream. 

— Prlneiire. — White fish sauce, enriched with cray- 

fish butter, finely shredded crayfish tails, and 
truffles. 

— PrintanlSre. — Veloute sauce, enriched with fresh butter 

and green vegetable pur6e or cubes. 

— Provenfale. — Demi-glace with tomato pulp, finely 

chopped and fried onions, sUced mushrooms, and 
chopped parsley and olives, flavoured with lemon juice 
and garlic. 

— Raifort (chaude) (Horseradish, hot). — Bechamel sauce, 

mixed with grated horseradish and a little cream. 

— Raifort (frolde) (Horseradish, cold). — Sour cream, 

mixed with freshly grated horseradish and a little 
vinegar, seasoned with sugar and salt. 

— Ravlgote (chaude).— A white sauce, flavoured with 

savoury herbs, reduced with wine \'inegar, finished 
with fine herbs, butter, and cream (hot). 

— Ravlgote (froide). — Mayonnaise sauce, mixed with 

chopped parsley, chives, chervil, tarragon, and shallots, 
tinted with a little spinach greening (cold). 

— Rfiforme.— Poivrade sauce, diluted with port wine, red- 

currant jelly, and Worcester sauce. 

— Rigence. — Demi-glace or gravy sauce, reduced with 

white wine and truffle essence, flavoured with finely 
minced and blended onions. 

— R6gente. — Rich white sauce with truffle and mushroom 

essence incorporated. 

— Reine-Marie (Queen Mary). — A brown sauce, made 

with rich meat gravy, port wine, chopped shallots, 
parsley, and pounded anchovies ; served with all 
kinds of roast meats or boiled fish. 

— R6moulade. — A mayonnaise sauce with chopped 

parsley, fennel, tarragon leaves, shallots, and pre- 
pared mustard. 

— Rieardo. — A brown sauce, prepared from the carcase 

of game, with finely minced fried onions, toasted 
bread, sherry, thickened with a little meat glaze ; 
servefi with dishes of game, etc. 

— Rlche. — HoUandaise, enriched with lobster butter or 

spawn, with dice shapes of truffles and crayfish tails. 

— Richelieu. — A brown game sauce, reduced with 

Madeira wine and meat extract. 

— Robert (Robert). — A brown sauce with finely chopped 

onionsf fried in butter, chilli vinegar, prepared 
mustard, and a little anchovy essence. 



SAUCES. 135 

Sauce Romaine (Roman). — Demi-glace or espagnole sauce, 
mixed with currants, sultanas, Italian pine-seeds 
ipignoli), diluted and reduced with white wine 
vinegar, and strained. 

— Roosevelt. — Tomato sauce blended with apple puree, 

flavoured with' lemon rind grated. 

— Rouennaise. — MadSre sauce, blended with raw duck- 

liver puree. 

— Rubens. — Fish veloute sauce, blended with mushroom 

liquor, enriched with anchovy butter and hard egg- 
yolks. 

— Russe (Russian).^ — AUemande or bechamel with grated 

horseradish, finely chopped ham, shallots, reduced 
with vinegar and white wine, seasoned with sour 
cream, sugar, pepper, and salt ; served hot. 

— Russe (Iroide). — Cold remoulade sauce blended with 

grated horseradish and caviare. 

— Salmis. — A brown game sauce, reduced with white 

wine, meat glaze, and tomato pulp, flavoured with 
savoury herbs. 

— Saxonne. — Melted butter sauce with fish essence, 

shallot flavour, blended with grated lemon rind 
and mustard. 

— Slcilienne (Sicilian). — Espagnole sauce, reduced with 

Marsala wine ; sliced onions fried in butter are mixed 
with the sauce just before serving ; served with 
beefsteaks, roast fillets of beef, etc. 

— Smitane. — Onion puree, reduced with white wine and 

bechamel, enriched with sour cream. 

— SoIt6rino. — Demi-glace sauce with shallot reduced in 

Madeira wine, blended with tomato puree. 

— Soubise. — A white, sauce with onion puree, seasoned 

with nutmeg, pepper, sugar, and salt, enriched with 
cream and butter. 

— Souchet. — Fish licjuor, reduced with finely-shredded 

carrots, onion, and celery, also chopped parsley. 

— Soyer. — A white fish sauce, flavoured with savoury 

herbs, shallots, and lemon juice, thickened with 
egg-yolks and cream. 

— St. Malo. — White wine sauce with shallot flavour, 

enriched with anchovy butter and mustard. 

— St. Menehould. — Bechamel sauce, enriched with veal 

essence, mixed with chopped parsley and cham- 
pignons. 
-^ St. Vincent ^cold). — R6moulade sauce, flavoured with 
well-reduced white wine (chablis). 

— Stragotte. — A rich game sauce, reduced with tomato 

pulp and Madeira wine, flavoured with vegetable 
mirepoix, shallots, cloves, and mace, and strained ; 
generally served with Italian dishes, 



136 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Sauce Su^doise (Swedish). — A white sauce, highly flavoured, 
with grated horseradish and chilli vinegar ; served hot. 

— Su^doise (cold). — Mayonnaise sauce, blended with 

French mustard and grated horseradish. 

— Sultane. — Demi-glace sauce, enriched with game es- 

sence (fumet) and port-wine, mixed with small 
sultanas. 

— SuprSme.^ — A rich white sauce, made with chicken 

stock and white roux, enriched with egg-yolks, cream, 
and fresh butter ; a garniture of sliced truffles and 
mushrooms is sometimes added. 

— Tartare. — Mayonnaise mixed with French mustard, 

finely chopped chives, spring onions, tarragon and 
chervil leaves, gherkins, capers, and parsley ; served 
cold. 

— Texienne (Texas). — A mild curry sauce with a little 

saffron, chopped parsley, lemon juice, finished with 
fresh butter. 

— Tomate (Tomato). — Fresh tomatoes, cooked with mire- 

poix, white wine, and veal stock, thickened with 
white roux, seasoned and strained ; or puree of 
tomatoes, mixed with a little brown sauce and meat 
glaze, flavoured with aromatic herbs and shallots, 
seasoned with salt and sugar. 

— Tortue (Turtle). — A brown sauce, made from turtle 

stock, with finely chopped shallots, flavoured with 
anchovy essence, lemon juice, sherry, and finely 
chopped lemon rind ; seasoned with salt and cayenne 
pepper ; strained. 

— Toulouse. — AUemande or veloute sauce, flavoured with 

truffle and mushroom essence. 

— Tournedos. — Rich beef stock, reduced with white wine 

and tomato puree, mixed with blended shallots, 
capers, and chopped champignons. 

— Trianon (cold). — Mayonnaise sauce, blended with 

tomato pulp and soubise pur6e, tarragon flavodr, 
mixed with finely cut gherkin and pimiento strips. 

— TyroHenne (cold). — Mayonnaise sauce, blended with 

tomato puree. 

— Tyrollenne (hot).— HoUandaise sauce, blended with 

tomato purfie. 

— Unlverselle (Universal). — A highly spiced cold sauce, 

for cold meats, etc. , prepared with mushroom ketchup, 
port wine, shallot vinegar, ground spice, mace, 
cayenne pepper, and anchovy essence. 

— Valolse. — Finely chopped shallots, reduced in white 

wine, mixed with meat extract, egg-yolks, chopped 
parsley, cream, and butter ; whisked in bain-marie ; 
treated as ^earnaise, 



SAUCES. 137 

Sauce Velout6 (Foundation Sauce).— A rich white sauce, 
prepared with chicken or veal stock, flavoured witli 
savoury herbs, vegetable mirepoix, and white roux. 
When finished it should be as smooth as velvet : 
hence its name veloute (velvet-like). 

— Vfinltienne (Venetian). — A white fish sauce, thickened 

with egg-yolks and butter or cream, mixed with 
chopped parsley, flavoured with lemon juice, and 
garnished with small button mushrooms. 
— - Verjus. — Espagnole sauce with mashed, unripe green 
grapes, cooked in stock, reduced with sherry and 
finished with fresh butter ; served with roast duck 
or pork. 

— Vernet. — Bechamel sauce with finely chopped herbs, 

tarragon, and chervil, also shredded gherkin, 
truffle, and champignons. 

— V§ron. — B^arnaise sauce, blended with veloute and 

anchovy essence. 

— Verte. — Green herb sauce (same as " Verte-pr6 " ). 

— Verte-pr6 (Green Herb). — Composed of puree of cooked 

spinach, blanched parsley, chives, and tarragon, , 
worked up with whipped cream or butter, and mixed 
with ravigote sauce. 

— Victoria. — Supreme sauce, enriched with lobster butter 

and champignon essence. 

— Viennoise. — Poivrade (pepper sauce), blended with 

lemon and orange juice, reduced and finished with 
cream. 

— Villageolse. — AUemande or veloute sauce, enriched with 

meat glaze or chicken essence. 

— Villeroi.— Veloute or b6chamel, with finely chopped 

cooked ham and tongue, enriched with egg-yolks and 
fresh butter. 

— Vinaigrette. — Composed of salad oil, vinegar, chopped 

shallots, parsley, chervil, and gherkins, seasoned with 
pepper and salt ; served cold with calf's head, seakale, 
asparagus, etc. 

— Vln-blauc. — Bechamel or veloute, flavpured with 

white wine, lemon juice, and fish essence. 

— Vincent. — Mayonnaise mixed with green herb puree 

(tarragon, chervil, chives, and parsley). 

— Vin-rouge (claret sauce). — Red wine, reduced in 

mirepoix, thickened with espagnole sauce, flavoured 
with anchovy essence. 

— York, d' (Yorkshire). — Demi-glace sauce, fine shreds of 

orange rind, red currant jelly, port wine, orange 
juice, and a little ground cinnamon ; served with 
Spiled ham, roast or pickled pork. 



138 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Sauce Yorkshire. — Orange shreds, reduced in port wine' 
and orange juice, thickened with espagnole, seasoned 
with cinnamon and cayenne. 

— '■ Zingara. — Espagnole or demi-glace or game sauce, 
blended with tomato puree, mixed witji finely 
shredded truffle and smoked ox-tongue. 

— Zouave. — Demi-glace with tomato sauce,- blended, 
reduced with chilli vinegar, flavoured with garlic, 
tarragon, and mustard. 



PART VI. 

GARNITURES. 

Principal Garnitures chiefly suitable for Removes 
(Relevds), certain Fish Entries, as well as Joints of Meat 
and Poultry. 

Oarnitures — Garnishings. 

Garniture d r Alexandra (for Poultry). — Artichoke bottoms 
cut into quarters and sliced truffles ; supreme sauce. 

— d I'Alsacienne (for Meat). — ^Braised spring cabbage, 

fondante potatoes ; demi-glace sauce. 

— 4 I'Amiral (for Fish). — Mussels, shrimps, and crayfish ; 

matelotte sauce. 

— d KAndalouse (for Meat or Poultry). — Braised iDutton 

onions, stuffed tomatoes, and risol6e potatoes ; rich 
gravy. 

— & l'ArI6sienne (for Meat or Poultry). — Aubergines, 

tomatoes, and onion rings ; tomato and demi-glace 
sauce, blended. 

— k l'Ath6nlenne (for Meat or Poultry). — Stufied auber- 

gines ; Madeira sauce. 

— d la Banquiire (for Entries). — Larks, stufifed with 

truffle, and small quenelles ; perigueux or truffle sauce. 

— i la Bayard (for Poultry), — .Truffles, mushroom heads, 

slices of foie-gras, and artichoke bottoms ; Madeira 
sauce. 

— d la Beatrice (for Meat or Poultry). — Morrels, or c&pes, 

young carrots, quarters of artichoke bottoms, new 
kidney potatoes. 

— a la Belle- H«l§ne (for Fillets of Beef, etc.).— Small 

croquettes of asparagus points and sliced truffles ; rich 
gravy or demi-glace. 

— & la Bohdmienne (for Meat). — Stoned olives, mush- 

rooms, button onions, and small kidney potatoes ; 
poivrade sauce, 



GARNITURES. 139 

Garniture A, la Bontoux (for Meat or Poultry). — Macaroni 
croquettes ; Madeira sauce. 

— ^ la Boulangdre (for Meat). — Kidney potatoes balced 

with fried onions ; demi-glace sauce. 

— a la Bouqueti^re (for Meat or Poultry). — Artichoke 

bottoms grilled, asparagus tips, with groups of 
green peas, French beans, young carrots, turnips, 
and cauliflower buds ; demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Bourgeoise (for Meat). — Young carrots, turnips, 

button onions, kidney potatoes ; demi-glace sauce. 

— 4 la Bourguignonne (for Meat or Poultry).^Braised 

and glazed button onions, mushroom heads, and 
rolled lean bacon, grilled brown ; Burgundy wine sauce. 

— & la Bretonne (for Meat).— Haricot beans, whole or as 

puree, with fine herbs ; demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Brillat Savarin (for Meat or Poultry). — Duchesse 

potato croustades, filled with tomato puree, sliced 
trufHes, and sliced artichoke bottoms 
^ ^ la Bristol (for Meat). — Savoury rice croquettes, or 
risotto timbales, flageolets, and Parisian potatoes ; 
demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Bruxelloise (for boiled or braised Meat). — ^Brussels 

sprouts, and braised chicory or endive, olive-shaped 
boiled potatoes ; gravy. 

— d la CambacSres (for Meat or Poultry). — Truffles, mush- 

rooms, and turned olives ; Madeira sauce 

— & la Cameranl (for Meat). — Braised sauerkraut (chou- 

croute) and rolled bacon, grilled ; Madeira sauce, with 
chopped trufiles. 

— i, la, Cancale or Cancalaise (for Fish). ^Oysters and 

shrimps, or prawns ; Normande sauce. 

— ^ la Canova (for Meat or Poultry). — Slices of foie-gras 

(escalopes), cocks' kernels, and truffles ; demi-glace. 

— d la Cardinal (for Fish). — Shrimps, prawns, or lobster 

dice ; Cardinal sauce. 

— d la Chambord (for Fish). — Mushroom or champignon 

heads, quenelles, slices of truffle, crayfish tails, soft 
roe, and glazed croutons ; sauce Genevoise. 

— d la Chatelaine (for Meat or Poultry). — Braised lettuce, 

artichoke bottoms filled with chestnut puree and 
soubise puree, chateau potatoes ; demi-glace sauce. 

— & la Chlpolata (for Meat or Poultry). — Braised chestnuts, 

mushroom heads, small button onions, small smoked 
sausages, and sliced truffles ; demi-glace sauce. 

— 4 la Chlvry (for Fish). — Small oyster bouchees or 

patties, mussels tossed in white sauce, and small 
potato croquettes ; chivry sauce, 
- — d la Choisy (for Beef Fillets). — Braised cabbage lettuce 
and chateau potatoes ; demi-glace saiice. 



140 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Garniture k la Clamart (for Meat or Poultry). — Artichoke- 
bottoms filled with puree of green peas ; rich gravy. 

— ^ la Clermont (for Meat). — Small stuffed onions, and 

slices of fried artichokes ; demi-glace sauce. 

— i la Cumberland (for Pork or Gam6). — Small tartlet 

crusts filled with apple pttree ; venison sauce, with 
port-wine flavour. 

— a la Dartols (for Meat or Poultry). — Duchesse potato 

croustades filled with green peas ; madSre sauce. 

— k la Dauphlne (for Poultry or Meat). — Dauphine 

potatoes, placed in nests made of straw potatoes ; 
demi-glace or gravy. 

— & la Dieppoise (for Fish). — Mussels, mushrooms, cray- 

fish or shrimps ; fish-flavoured veloute sauce.- 

— ^ la Don Juan (for Poultry). — Puff paste cases or 

bouchees, filled with salpicon of chicken fillets, 
truffles, and mushrooms ; demi-glace sauce or gravy. 

— i la Dorla (for Fish). — Olive shapes of cucumber, 

braised, and tossed in sour cream, also thin rounds 
of lemon ; cream sauce. 

— 4 la Doria (for Meat or Poultry). — Braised cubes of 

cucumber and noisette potatoes ; rich gravy or 
demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Dubarry (for Meat). — Breaded and baked cauli- 

flower (au gratin) ; white or brown sauce. 

— ^ la Duchesse (for Meat). — With Duchesse potatoes ; 

maddre or demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Favorite (for Meat or Poultry). — Braised lettuce, 

artichoke bottoms, small potato timbales and 
mushroom heads ; rich gravy. 

— d la Fermiere (for Meat). — Young carrots braised, 

braised lettuce, and olive-shaped potatoes ; rich gravy. 

— ^ la Flamande (for Meat). — Braised cabbage, young 

carrots, turnips, marble or egg-shaped potatoes, and 
small pork sausages ; demi-glace sauce. 

— 4 la Florentine (for Fish or Meat). — Spinach timbales 

or savoury semolina ; pastry cassolettes or croquettes ; 
veloutfe or demi-glace sauce. 
— - Jk la Florian (for Lamb). — ^Braised cabbage lettuce, 
olive-shaped baked and'glazed potatoes, glazed button 
onions and fondante potatoes ; demi-glace sauce. 

— il la Fran^alse (for Meat). — Croustades of rice or 

potato filled with vegetable macedoine, with groups 
of asparagus points, cauliflower, lettuce ; rich gravy 
or madSre sauce. 

— ik la Gastronome (for Meat or Poultry). — C6pes tossed 

in butter, slices of truffles and fleurons ; rich gravy 
or madSre sauce. 



GARNITURES. 141 

'Garniture i la Gaulolse (for Poultry). — Truffles, mush- 
rooms, cocks' kernels, and slices of ham ; demi-glace 
with tomato sauce. 

— !l la GrSque (for Poultry). — Savoury rice as basis or as 

timbales ; tomato sauce. 

— ^ la Godard (for Meat or Poultry). — Slices of sweetbread, 

small chicken quenelles, cocks' combs, mushroom 
heads, and sliced truffle ; madere sauce or demi-glace. 

— i la Henri IV. — Artichoke bottoms and noisette 

potatoes ; bearnaise sauce. 

— ^ la Hongroise (for Meat). — Small cooked cauliflowers, 

breaded and baked (au gratin), and fondante pota- 
toes ; veal gravy or cream sauce with paprika 
flavour. 

— k I'Imperiaie (for Meat or Poultry). — Mushroom heads, 

cocks' combs and kidneys, trufilies, quenelles ; veloute 
sauce. 

— k I'Indienne (for Fish or Poultry). — Savoury rice, with 

curry flavour ; curry sauce. 

— !k I'ltalienne (for Meat). — Artichoke bottoms and 

macaroni croquettes ; brown mushroom or tomato 
sauce. 

— k I'lvolre (for Poultry). — Chicken breasts cut in slices 

or scallops, and cocks' combs ; suprSme sauce. 

— d la Japonaise (for Meat or Poultry). — Plain tartlet 

crusts filled with Japanese crosnes (stacki) blended 
with veloute sauce, also potato croquettes ; rich gravy. 

— ^ la Jardiniere (for Meat). — Groups of young spring 

vegetables or vegetable macedoine ; gravy or demi- 
, glace. 

— 4 la Joinville (for Fish). — Slices of truffles, and mush- 

rooms ; shrimp or lobster sauce. 

— a la Judic (for Meat). — Braised lettuces stuffed with 

savoury ham farce, also sliced truffles ; demi-glace. 

— 4 la Jules Verne (for Meat).— Stuffed kidney potatoes, 

baked, and braised turnips ; rich gravy. 

— 4 la Jussien (for Meat). — Braised cabbage lettuces and 

glazed button onions ; demi-glace sauce. 

— 4 la Landron (for Meat or Poultry).' — C6pes or morilles, 

aubergines, and Parisian potatoes ; gravy. 

— d la Lavaiiere (for Meat). — Artichoke bottoms filled with 

asparagus puree ; bordelaise sauce. 

— 4 la Lorraine (for Ham or Pork). — Braised red cabbage 

or choucroute and potato quenelles ; Albert sauce. 

— 4 la LucuIIus (for Poultry). — FiuanciSre, truffles, 

sweetbread slices, cocks' combs, and cocks' kernels ; 
demirglace sauce. 

— 4 la Lyonnaise (for Meat). — Braised stuffed onions and 

potato puree ; gravy. 



142 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Garniture ^ la Mar^chale (for Poultry). — Chicken quenelles" 
truffles, aird champignons ; suprSme sauce. 

— i la Marie Louise (for Meat or Poultry). — Paste crou- 

stades filled with pea-shaped carrots, turnips, and 
green peas ; rich gravy. 

— i la lUarigny (for Meat or Poultry). — Croutons or 

croustades filled with flageolets beans, also fondante 
potatoes ; gravy. 

— 4 la Mariniere (for Fish). — ^Mussels, bearded oysters, 

and crayfish ; white fish sauce. 

— i la Marseillaise (for Fish). — Halves of tomatoes tossed 

in butter, flavoured with garlic, and ribbon pota- 
toes ; brown fish sauce. 

— & la Mascotte (for Meat). — Artichoke bottoms, braised 

button onions, and noisette potatoes ; rich gravy. 

— 4 la M^dlcis (for Meat). — Paste or bread croustades, 

with olive-shaped braised turnips ; tomato sauce. 

— d la Mentonnaise (for Meat). — Small vegetable marrows, 

stuffed with savoury farce meat, and braised ; also 
new kidney potatoes, and artichoke bottoms ; gravy. 

— & la Mignon (for Poultry or Meat). — ^Artichoke bottoms 

filled with small green peas, chicken quenelles, and 
sliced truffles ; demi-glace sauce. 

— il la Milanaise (for Meat). — Macaroni, julieime strips 

of tongue, and mushrooms ; tomato sauce. 

— d la Mirelle (for Meat). — Plain tartlet crusts filled with 

saffron flavoured rice, potato croquettes, and toma- 
toes ; tomato sauce. 

— d la Mirabeau (for Meat). — Stoned olives, anchovy 

fillets, and artichoke bottoms ; demi-glace sauce, 
with tarragon or chervil flavour. 

— ^ la Moderne (for Meat). — Braised cabbage lettuces, 

potato croquettes, and chicken quenelles mixed with 
chopped tongue ; demi-glace sauce or gravy. 

— ^ la Montebello (for Poultry or Meat). — Tartlet crusts 

filled with shredded truffles and tongue ; bearnaise 
sauce, blended with tomato pulp. 

— ^ la Montpsnsier (for Meat). — .\sparagus tips, sliced 

truffles, and artichoke bottoms ; demi-glace. 

— 'k la NaP-tua (for Fish). — Small puff paste bouchees 

filled with salpicon of truffle and crayfish ; nantua 
sauce. 

— 4 la Napolitaine (for Meat). — Spaghetti mixed with 

tomato sauce and Parmesan cheese. 

— & la N6inours (for Meat). — Grilled cup mushrooms and 

JJuchesse potatoes ; gravy. 

— i, la Nl(oise (for Meat). — Grilled or sauteed tomatoes, 

French beans, stoned olives, and Parisienne pota- 
toes ; gravy. 



GARNITURES. 143 

Garniture & la Nivernalse (for Poultry or Meat). — Small 
braised carrots and button onions ; demi-glace. 

— 4 la Normande (for Fish). — Oysters, shrimps, mussels, 

mushrooms, fried smelts, and fried and glazed 
troutons ; Normaude sauce. 

— a la Orientale (for Poultry or Meat). — Savoury rice 

timbales and potato croquettes ; tomato sauce. 

— a la Portugaise (for Meat). — Small tomatoes stuffed 

with duxelle puree, and chclteau potatoes ; tomato 
sauce. 

— 4 la Proven^ale (for Meat). — Stuffed tomatoes and 

fried aubergines, French beans, and new potatoes 
ranged in groups ; gravy. 

— 4 la Providence (for Poultry or Meat). — Sliced mush- 

rooms and truffles, olives and slices of foie-gras ; 
Madeira or demi-glace sauce. 

— 4 la Rachel (for Meat). — Artichoke bottoms filled with 

braised beef marrow, mixed with chopped parsley ; 
bordelaise sauce. 

— a la Radzlwyl (for Fish). — Soft roe, truffles, mush- 

rooms, French gherkins, and crayfish quenelles ; 
Genevoise sauce. 

— 4 la R6forme (for Meat). — Julienne strips of truffles, 

carrots, hard-boiled white of egg and tongue ; gravy 
or demi-glace. 

— 4 la Regince (for Fish). — Fish quenelles, oysters, 

truffles, mushrooms, and soft roe ; Normande sauce. 

— 4 la Reg^nce (for Meat or Poultry). — Chicken quen- 

elles, truffles, foie-gras, mushrooms, and cocks' 
kernels ; allemande sauce. 
k la R6naissanee (for Fish or Meat). — Artichoke 
bottoms filled with macedoine of . vegetables, also 
small cauliflower buds coated with HoUandaise 
sauce. 
— • i la Riehe (for Meat). — Artichoke bottoms filled with 
green peas, and coated with choron sauce, and 
decorated with truffles. 

— i la Richelieu (for Poultry or Meat). — Braised stuffed 

musTirooms, braised cabbage-lettuces, and artichoke 
bottoms filled with chicken pur6e, also chdteau 
potatoes ; demi-glace. 

— a la Romanoff (for Meat). — Stuffed and braised cubes 

of cucumbers, and potato croustades filled with 
■ salpicon of celeriac and mushrooms ; demi-glace. 

— 4 la St.'ffland6 (for Meat). — Baked potatoes filled with 

green peas and asparagus points. 

— 4 la Sards (for Meat). — Rice croquettes flavoured with 

saffron and parmesan cheese, also stuffed tomatoes 
or cucumbers ; tomato sauce. 



144 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Garniture t la Savoisienne (for Meat). — Braised cucumbers, 
noisette potatoes, and artichoke bottoms ; demi- 
glace sauce. 

— d la Saxonne (for Poultry or Meat). — St'uSed tomatoes 

and braised cucumbers ; demi-glace sauce. 

— i la Semlllante (for Fish). — Quenelles, carp's roe, 

crayfish and mushrooms ; matelotte sauce. 

— i la Sorel (for Meat). — Slices of foie-gras and 

croiites filled with puree of mushrooms ; madere 
sauce. 

— ^ la Strasbourgeoise (for Pork or Ham). — Frankfort 

sausages, choucroute, or pickled cabbage, and slices 
of foie-gras ; demi-glace sauce. 

— & la Talleyrand (for Meat). — Spaghetti or macaroni, 

with julienne strips of truffles and slices of foie-gras ; 
perigueux sauce. 

— ^ la Trianon (for Poultry or Meat). — Puree of carrots, 

green peas, and potatoes ; demi-glace sauce. 

— & la Trouvlllalse (for Fish). — Shrimps or prawns, 

and mussels ; lobster or shrimp sauce. 

— & la Windsor (for Meat). — Green peas, braised turnips, 

and sauteed potatoes ; demi-glace or gravy. 



PART VII. 



THE ENTREE COURSE. 

Dishes following the fish course or preceding the 
Remove when such is served, are called entrees ; which, 
being translated into English, means " entrance." Hence 
the dishes served under this heading are considered by 
the epicure as the first "of the essential dishes of a correct 
dinner, and rightly so, because there may be dinners 
without hors-d'oeuvre, and even without soup, or without 
a remove or releve, but there can be no proper dinner 
without an entree course. 

Entrees are generally defined as " dressed dishes," or 
" made dishes." A dish bearing the name " entree " is, 
as a general rule, composed of more than one ingredient, 
and there should always be a distinction from roast or 
boiled meat served with a vegetable or other garnish and 
an entree. 

When two entries are chosen in a dinner, the first 
should be the lighter of the two. All entries should be 
made in fancy style, so as to avoid carving ; for entries 



THE ENTREE COURSE. 145 

snould not be carved or served from the sideboard. 
During Lent (mi-cargme) dishes known as fish entrees, 
excepting in the case of cold dishes, are allowable as 
entrees. 

The great secret in entrees in general lies undoubtedly 
in the sauces used for their preparation or their accom- 
paniment. All sauces should serve the purpose of liquid 
seasonings, and as such they must be rich and carefully 
prepared. 

Compound or long process sauces, foundation sauces 
and their offsprings, play a most important part in the 
entrees themselves, as well as in their relation to the 
dishes which precede and follow them ; their character, 
flavour, and colour must, of course, be studied so as to 
harmonise with the rest of the dishes selected for the same 
meal, more particularly so in the case of Dinner Entrees. 

Special Light Entries, including several 

New Vegetable Entrees. 

Biscuits glacis i, la tomate (Cold). — A delicately prepared 
tomato puree, enriched with cream and paprika 
seasoning, frozen in brick shape, then sliced and 
placed on thin oblong wafer biscuits ; decorated with 
whipped cream and parsley sprigs. 

BQches de tomates i, la Rossini (Cold). — Leaf or heart 
shaped tartlet crusts, filled With halves of tomatoes 
containing foie-gras puree, flavoured with tomato 
pulp and aspic ; garnished with truffles and pimientos, 
also small salad. 

Cliartreuse de jambon 4 la Clamart. — Small timbale moulds 
lined with heart-shaped slices of cooked ham and a 
layer of chicken souffle mixture, centre filled with 
green pea puree, and covered with chicken farce ; 
steamed and served with tomato sauce. 

— de legumes h la Qulrinal (Cold). — Cold vegetable 
chartreuse, octagon shape, outside decorated with 
chopped hard-boiled white of egg, egg-yolk, trufiies 
and parsley, four distinct sections ; interior filled 
with cooked asparagus tips, French beans, artichoke 
■bottoms, kidney potatoes, chopped truffles, etc., all 
blended with mayonnaise and aspic to set 

Cdtelettes de volaille k I'Ecarlate. — Small cutlets made of 
chicken farce, and poached, placed on cutlet-shaped ■ 
slices of ox-tongues, and served on similarly shaped 
fried bread croutons ; garnished with mushroom 
heads ; demi-glace sauce. 



146 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Crepinettes de toie-gras i la Princesse. — Salpicon of braised 
foie-gras, truffle, ham, etc., made up -in oblong 
shapes, wrapped in pig's cawl, and fried in butter ; 
garnished with small green asparagus (sprue) ; demi- 
glace sauce. 

Darioles de rls d'Agneau h la St. Germain (Cold). — Dariole 
or timbale shapes, lined with green pea puree, and 
filled with salpicon of lamb's bread, truffles, mush- 
rooms, and veloute sauce, covered with pea, puree, 
^and poached or steamed, then set in aspic coated 
moulds. 

— de Jambon & la Bayonne (Cold). — The same as 

" Chartreuse de Jambon k la Clamart," but prepared 
cold and set in aspic jelly. 

— d'oeufs ^ la Cr6cy. — Bouche cups or dariole moulds, 

lined with thin slices of carrot, filled with carrot 
puree and savoury custard, and poached or steamed ; 
tomato sauce. 

Feuilles de laltues aux Crevettes (Cold)^ — Salpicon 
composed of pickled shrimps, vegetable macedoine, 
mayonnaise and aspic, shaped in balls, and placed 
on round lettuce leaves, coated with mayonnaise 
aspic, and garnished with beetroot and cucumber. 

Frlandlnes de ris d'Agneau. — Round puflf-paste pasties, 
filled with a rich salpicon of lamb's bread, tongue, 
and truffle, served with tomato sauce mixed with 
chopped gherkins. 

Matelotte do cervelles de veau. — Brown fricassee of 
calf's brains, dressed in rice cassolettes or croutes 
of rice. 

CEufs pangulne 4 la Carola (Cold). — Hard-boiled penguin 
eggs, cut up and mixed with rice, lobster, bechamel, 
curry sauce, and mayonnaise ; dressed as mayonnaise, 
with sliced eggs on top ; garnished with pimiento, 
lobster, and lemon slices. 

Ris d'Agneau t la MIrabeau. — Lamb's breads braised 
white and cut in rounds (m6dallions), masked with 
white chaudfroid sauce, and placed on tartlet crusts 
filled with lamb's bread pur6e mixed with tongue ; 
garnished with truffle and pimiento slices. 

Tlmbales or Darioles t la Gaulolse (Cold).— Small aspic 
lined timbales or other shapes of green pea pur6e, 
mixed with chopped ham, mayonnaise, cream and 
aspic. 

— do tomates aux noix (Cold). — Tomato flavoured and 

coloured aspic coated timbales, filled alternately 
with walnut pur6e and sliced tomatoes ; garnished 
with julienne of salad plant. 



LIGHT ENTRIES. 147 

Entrees Legirs, etc. 
I Light Entries and Hot Side Dishes. 

A number of these dishes are also suitable as buffet 
or supper dishes for balls and receptions, and can be 
served cold. 

Seignets, etc. 

Beignets fie Cervelle de Veau (Calf's brain fritters.)— 
Boiled brain pieces dipped in batter and fried in 
deep fat. 

— de Pied de Veau (Calf's Foot Fritters). — Cooked calf's 

foot cut in strips, marinaded, coated with batter, and 
fried in deep fat. 

— de Rls de Veau (Sweetbread Fritters). — Slices of cooked 

or blanched sweetbread, egged and crumbed or 
dipped in batter, and fried in fat. 

— de VoIalUe (Chicken Fritters). — Small joints of chicken, 

boned, marinaded, coated with batter, and fried in 
deep fat. 

Boudins or Boudinades. 

These are, as a rule, small oblong, cylindrical, spherical, 
or border shapes of souffle-like mixtures (farce) of fish, 
meat, poultry or game, steamed or poached, and served 
with a suitable sauce. 
Boudins de Volaille t, la Reine. — Small cylindrical shapes 

of chicken farce, poached, and served with supreme 

sauce. 
— • de Volaille blanc. — White chicken boudins, centre filled 

with chicken salpicon, and served with white sauce. 

— de Gibier & la P^rigueux. — Small oblong or oval 

shapes of game farce mixed with chopped truffle, 
steamed, and served with a rich truffle sauce. 

— de Liivre k la Richelieu. — Boudins of hare farce with 

truffle salpicon in centre, steamed in oven, and served 
with rich truffle sauce. 

— de Sanglier. — Wild boar boudins, poached, and served 

with bigarade sauce. 

— de Veau. — Boudins of veal, poached or steamed in 

oven, served with cream or veloute sauce. 

Bouch^es or Petites Boiichtles. 

Bouchees are, unless otherwise stated, small puff-paste 
cases filled with certain savoury preparations of either 
fish, meat, poultry or game. 

Bouchdes d, I'Astrachan. — Very small pufi-paste cases or 
patties filled witji coarse-grain seas oned best Russian 
caviare. 



148 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Bouchdes de Gibier. — Game patties. 

— de Homard. — Lobster patties. 

— aux Huitres. — Oyster patties. 

— de Jambon. — Ham patties. 

— d la Mod^rne. — Small bouclie cups lined thinly with 

potato puree, and filled with chicken salpicon. 

— i la Montglas. — Puff-paste patty cases filled with 

chicken fillets, sweetbread, mushrooms and truffles 
cut in dice, and moistened with white sauce. 

— & la Prlncesse. — Puff-paste cases filled with minced 

ortolan fillets and truffles (brown sauce). 

— 4 la Relne.— Puff-paste cases filled with minced chicken 

fillets, ham or tongue, mushrooms and truffles (white 
sauce). 

— k la Toulouse. — Puff-paste cases filled with veal 

fillets, chicken, cocks' combs, mushrooms and truffles 
cut in dice (white sauce). 

— de Volatile. — Chicken patties, being puff-paste cases 

filled with chicken puree or ragout. 
Petltes Bouch6es t la Su6doise. — Pastry crusts, or patties 
of puff paste, filled with ragout of sweetbread, 
lobster, crayfish tails, and broiled bacon, top of 
bouchees sprinkled with grated cheese, breadcrumbs, 
and lobster butter, and browned in oven. 

Cannelons. 

Cannelons are small rolls of puff-paste filled with a 
savoury mince of game, poultry, meats, etc. They are 
either egged and baked in the oven, or egged and rolled 
in crushed vermicelli or breadcrumbs, and fried in clarified 
butter or dripping 

Cannelons k la purie de champignons. — Cannelons filled 
with mushroom purfee. 

— a la pur£e de gibier. — Cannelons filled with game puree. 

— aux saucisses. — Sausage meat cannelons. 

— sk la pur6e de truDes. — Cannelons filled with 

truffle puree 

— sk la purie de Volaille. — Cannelons filled with chicken 

farce. 

Cassolettes. 

These, like croustades, are small thin crusted, oval, 
round or other suitable shapes, hollowed out to receive 
any desired mixture, savoury, fish, meat, poultry or game, 
vegetable purde, salpicons, etc. 

Cassolettes are made from potato puree, semolina, 
cornflour, rice or riceflour, etc., all of which are previously 



LIGHT ENTRIES. 149 

cooked in thick pur6e or pulp form, shaped to the 
desired sizes when cold, and subsequently egged, crumbed, 
and fried in deep fat. The fat must be very hot to 
ensure the crust being crisp. Silver-plated and earthen- 
ware porcelain fireproof cassolettes have also lately 
been introduced, and are most useful for this purpose. 
Cassolettes d'isslny. — Small cake or cork shapes of fresh 
butter, twice egged and crumbed, fried in deep fat, 
carefully drained and cut open to allow the liquid 
butter to run out, when they are filled with the desired 
mixtures ^ 

— a la Piequart. — Semolina or rice cassolettes filled with 

salpicon of tongue, ham, calf's brain, bechamel, and 
truffle. 
^ a la Suzanne.— Potato or duchesse cassolette shapes, 
filled with minced chicken fillets, asparagus points, 
supreme sauce, and round of truffle on top of each. 
(For other varieties see " Croustades" and " Bouchees," 
which can be adopted.) 

— de Jambon. — Small ham souffles (dariole-shaped). 

Vol-au-Vent, 

The name " vol-au-vent " is given to a large light 
puff-paste crust made oval or round in shape, the Interior 
of which is filled with delicately flavoured ragouts of fish, 
lobster, oyster, etc., meat, veal, rabbit, and sweetbread 
or chicken. This dish is always served hot. For other 
fillings -safi Bouch£es. 
Vol-au-Vent & la Chambord. — Small fish quenelles, 

mushrooms, and truffles heated up in veloute sauce, 

and filled into vol-au-vent cases. 
— i la Duchesse. — Boned boiled fowl, cut up small, with 

mushrooms and truffles, heated in supreme sauce, and 

filled into vol-au-vent cases. 

— ^ la Financiere. — A brown stew of sweetbread, truffles, 

cocks' combs, kernels, small chicken quenelles, 
mushrooms, and stoned olives, dressed in vol-au-vent. 

— & la Toulouse. — A white stew of small chicken quenelles, 

truffles, mushrooms, and veal fillets, dressed in vol- 
au-vent 

Coguilles, etc. 
Coqiiilles are scallop shells, filled with coarsely-minced 
meats, etc., baked in the oven to brown the surface. 

C!oquUIes de Volaille truffle. — Chicken fillets minced and 
mixed with truffle and white sauce, baked in shells. 

— de Champignons. — Mushroom and white sauce baked 

in shells. 



ISO PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

CoqulUes de Cervelle de Veau.—Calf s brain and white 
sauce baked in shells. 

— de Perdreail. — Partridge fillets baked in shells. 

— de poulet ^ la Cardinal. — Minced chicken and crayfish 

tails baked in shells. 

— de Ris de Veau. — Sweetbread salpicon, breaded, and 

baked in shells. 

— de Truffes. — Sliced truffles, with brown sauce, baked 

in shells. 

Croustades or Cassolettes. 

Croustades are oval or spherical shapes of baked or 
fried paste, bread, rice or potato crusts, which are filled 
with minced or delicate ragouts of'meat or game. 

Cassolettes 4 la Montglas. — Comucopian shapes of puS- 
paste, baked and filled with braised lambs' breads, 
cut in dice, mushrooms, and truffles, with allemande 
sauce. 

CroQstades aux huitres. — Oyster croustade filled with 
poached oysters, mushroom heads, sliced truffles, and 
velout6 sauce. 

— de glbier t la Vatel. (Game Croustade, Vatel style). — 

Stewed fillets of game, richly flavoured with chopped 
truffles and mushrooms, served in fried bread 
croustades. 

— & I'lmpiriale. — Baked rice croustade filled with a 

ragout of chicken fillets, foie-gras, mushrooms, and 
truffles (supreme sauce). 

— de Macaroni. — ^Macaroni croustade filled with cooked 

macaroni, ham cut in dice, cheese and tomato sauce. 

— de volallles k la P^rigueux (Chicken Croustade, Perigord 

style). — Stewed fillets of chicken with truffles and 
brown sauce, baked in paste crust cases. 

— 4 la PSrlgourdine. — Fried rice croustade filled with 
' small game quenelles, slices of sweetbread, cocks' 

combs, kernels, and truffles ; sauce mad^e. 

— 4 la Richelieu. — Baked paste croflstade filled with 

small chicken quenelles, poached and fried, mush- 
room's, and truffle sauce. 

— de Venalson (Venison Croustade). — Finely cut or 

minced fillet of venison, moistened with brown sauce 
and baked in paste crust cases. 

Crepinettes and J ndouillettes. 

Crepinettes- are small square-shaped meat mixtures, 
wrapped in pig's caul, egged, crumbed, and fried in 
clarified butter or dripping. 

Andouillettes are made similarly to crepinettes, but, 



LIGHT ENTRIES. 151 

in place of being crumbed and fried, are braised in butter 
and served in paper cases 

Creplnettes de Volaille truffle. — Chicken and truffle 
crepinettes. 

— de Falsan.— Pheasant crepinettes. 

— de Llevre. — Hare crepinettes. 

— de Levraut. — Wild rabbit crepinettes. 

— de Perdreau truffle.— Partridge and truffle crepinettes. 

— de Pluvler. — Plover crepinettes. 
Andouillettes de Gibler. — Game andouillettes. 

— i la Romaine. — Minced chicken, mushroom, truffle, 

cheese, and meat glaze, made into salpicon, shaped 
oval, wrapped in caul, and braised ; served with 
truffle sauce. 

Cromesqui.i — jKromeskis. 

Cromesquis or kromeskis are small rolls of savoury- 
preparations called . salpicon, which are rolled in thin 
slices of bacon, dipped in frying batter, and fried in hot 
lard or other fat ; garnished with fried parsley. 

Cromesquis au Jambon. — Little rolls or cork shapes of 
minced ham, mushroom, and truffle, made up in 
salpicon with madSre sauce, rolled up in bacon, 
dipped in batter, and fried in deep fat. 

— d'^crevisses. — Crayfish kromeskis. 

— de gibier. — Game kromeskis. 

— de homard. — Lobster kromeskis. 

— aux huitres. — Oyster kromeskis 

— de pied de pore. — ^Pig's feet kromeskis. 

— de pluvier. — Plover kromeskis. 

— & la Russe (Russian Kromeskis). — These consist of 

minced chicken, ham or tongue, truffles, and 
mushrooms. 

— de volaille. — Chicken kromeskis. 

Croquettes, 

Croquette is the name given to oval, round, ball, cutlet, 
or cork shapes of minced meats, fish, poultry or game. 
These shapes are egged, crumbed, and fried in clarified 
butter or dripping. 

Croquettes de volaille. — Chicken croquettes. 

— de fole-gras.^Goose liver croquettes. 

— de gibler aux truffes. — Game croquettes with truffles. 

— de perdreau. — Partridge croquettes. 



152 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY 

Croquettes de riz au salpieon. — Cooked rice and minced 
chicken, ham, etc., made into croquettes and fried. 

— de Rognons de Veau. — Calf's kidney croquettes. 

— de Veau. — Veal croquettes. 

Friandines. 

These are made of puff-paste, rolled out thinly with 
a 2-inch fluted round cutter ; a portion of prepared mince 
or salpieon of meat or game, etc., is placed in the centre 
of each round ; this is covered with a round of paste, 
egged, dipped in crushed vermicelli, and fried in clarified 
butter, lard or dripping. 
Friandines de volallle. — Chicken friandines. 

— de fole-gras. — Goose liver friandines. 

— de glbler. — Game friandines. 

— de homard. — Lobster friandines. 

— aux huitres. — Oyster friandines. 

— de poisson. — Fish friandines. 

— de rls de veau. — Sweetbread friandines. 

Friture d'huitres (Fried Oysters). — Poached oysters, 
bearded and drained, dipped in batter, fried in boiling 
lard, and served with fried parsley. 

Petites Caisses. 

Caisses are small round or oval-shaped pastry crust, 
paper, china or silver cases. These are filled with certain 
savoury mixtures. 
Petites caisses de Ris de Veau. — Braised sweetbread in cases. 

— de Champignons (arcis. — Stuffed mushrooms in cases. 

— de Fole-gras aux trufles. — Goose liver truffled in cases. 

— ^ la Henri IV. — Chicken souifl6 mixture baked in cases. 

with mushroom head on top of each. 

— de Moelle. — Braised marrow fat in cases. 

— PStis aux Huttres. — Small oyster patties. 

— aux Alouettes. — Small lark patties. 

— aax Cailles. — Small quail patties. 

— t la, Joinville. — Small patties filled with lobster, 

chicken, and trufile. 

Petits Pains or Souffles. 

Pains or darioles are made \vith certain kinds of prepara- 
tion forcemeat, which are placed in suitable small buttered 
moulds, and poached in the oven ; usually served with 
rich white or brown sauces. Pains are made in plain and 
darioles in fluted moulds, 



LIGHT ENTR&ES 153 

Petlts Pains de Cailles. — Small souffle darioles with quail 
farced with forcemeat ; served with truffle sauce. 

— de Foie-gras. — Small goose liver and truffle timbales ; 

served with madere sauce. 

— de Jambon. — Small ham souffles (dariole shaped). 

— SoufQis de Poisson en caisses. — Small fish souffles 

baked in china or paper cases. 

— de Volaille i la Cr§me. — Chicken cream souffles baked 

in china or paper cases. 
Pilau or Pillaw i I'lndienne. — Braised, boned, and stuffed 

fowl, cut into small slices, dressed with minced fried 

onions, mangoes, on small rice shapes ; curry sauce. 
Pilau h la Turque. — Minced chicken and ham with savoury 

rice, seasoned with savoury herbs and sherry wine. 

JRissoles. 

These are small half-moon shapes of short crust or 
pufiE-paste, filled with prepared minced fish, meat or game, 
egged, crumbed, and fried in clarified butter, dripping or 
lard ; they are garnished with fresh or fried parsley. 

Rissoles d, la Russe (Russian Rissoles). — Filling : salpicon 
of minced chicken, tongue, ham, and mushrooms. 

— ^ ia Moelle de Bceuf. — Rissoles of beef marrow. 

— de B6casse aux truffes. — Snipe rissoles with truffles. 

— d la Chasseur. — Venison or other game meat rissoles. 

— de Foie-gras.— Goose liver rissoles. 

— de Gibier.^Game rissoles. 

— a ia Hollandaise. — Oyster and truffle rissoles. 

— de Homard. — ^Lobster rissoles. 

— aux Huttres. — Oyster rissoles. 

— de Rls de Veau. — Sweetbread rissoles. 

— de Volaille i i'lndienne. — Curried fowl rissoles. 

Ravioles — Ravioli. 

Ravioies t ia Napoiitaine (Neapolitan Ravioles). — These 
are very small round flat patties made of nouille paste, 
and filled with a mixture of grated parmesan cheese, 
yolks of eggs, and cayenne, poached in stock or baked 
in the oven, and served with tomato sauce. 

MOUSSES AND SOUFFLES. 

(See also Cold Entree Section.) 

A souffle or mousse usually consists of a very light souffle 
mixture, and is prepared to be served either hot or cold. 
Ham mousse, as a rule, is made with pounded cooked or 



154 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

raw ham, with panada cream, eggs, and seasoning. As>^ 
aspic cream is incorporated in the case of cold mouss 
There are also other and more modern styles of preparing 
mousse, as indicated by the new formulas. " Mousselines " 
is applied to smaller shapes or single portion shapes of 
mousse. Souffle or souffles are also adapted for dishes of 
this character. 

Mousse k la Brandimbourg (cold). — York ham, boiled and 
braised, top half cut off and cut partly in slices, 
glazed with aspic ; other part pounded with foie-gras 
and made into mousse ; then refilled with sliced ham 
and mousse mixture (cold), surface coated with 
chaudfroid sauce and decorated with'trufHe and white 
of egg squares to resemble a chessboard. 

— i la Carmen. — A light ham souffle, centre filled with 

a salpicon of artichoke bottom, champigncm, and 
supreme sauce. Pimiento or paprika sauce. 

— i la Clamart. — Souffle of ham, made &om raw ham, 

pounded with bechamel, cream, and egg whites and 
seasoning ; moulded witii centre filled with green pea 
puree, and poached or steamed ; sauce supreme. 

— de Jambon en surprise. — Boiled or braised York 

ham (whole), centre part cut out when cold, and 
refilled with hot or cold ham mousse ; served with 
reform sauce when hot, or with Cumberland sauce 
when served cold. 

— & la P^rlgourdin. — Mousse of ham, mixed with sliced 

truffles ; served hot with perigord sauce 
Mousselines de Jambon k I'Alexandra. — Quenelles of ham, 
decorated with slices of truffles, poached ; garnished 
with asparagus tips tossed in butter ; served with 
cheese-fiavoured allemande sauce. 

— i la Florentine. — Dariole or timbale shapes of ham 

mousse, ranged on a border or bed of spinach ; 
demi-glace sauce. 

— A, la HongFoise. — Ham quenelles, seasoned with 

paprika, sauced over with hongroise sauce ; garniture 
of cauliflower cassolettes. 
Souflli de Jambon & la Gastronome. — Souffle of ham, 
mixed with c6pes, morelles or sliced large mush- 
rooms ; steamed, covered with cliopped truffles, with 
a wliole truffle on top ; sauce madlre. 

— h. la Mllanalse. — Ham souffl6, centre filled with 

salpicon of cooked macaroni, cubes of ham, tongue, 
truffles, and champignons ; garnished with cheese- 
flavoured macaroni cut short ; sauce tomato. 
Souffles de langue en cocotte. — Baked ox-tongue souffles, 
filled in cocotte pans, with salpicon of cooked sweet- 
bread, asparagus tips, and peas in centre. 



LIGHT ENTlijEES. 155 

Timbales and Darioles. 

The wofd timbale means a cup, bowl or beaker, 
but in cookery it is applied to certain kinds of light fish, 
meat or game soufSes, cooked in cup, or timbale-shaped 
moulds, either baked or poached. The moulds are 
frequently lined with a thin paste, nouille or short crust 
or with cooked macaroni. 

Timbale k la Eadoise.— Paste-lined timbale shape filled 
with ragout of sweetbread, truffles, champignons, and 
nouille paste. 

— de Cailles. — Quail timbale. 

— ^ la Cond6. — Similar to "Badoise timbale,'' but omit- 

ting the nouille paste ; served hot with mad&e sauce. 

— il la Clissy. — Chicken farce-lined timbale, with layers 

of foie-gras, tongue, mushrooms, and truffles, 
moistened with madere sauce ; may also be made 
with paste crust lining and filled as above. 

— ^ la Diane. — Timbale mould lined with game farce, 

and filled with small game quenelles, truffles, cham- 
pignons and game fillets ; garnished also with latter, 
and served with sauce Diane. ^ 

— de Gibier. — Game timbale. 

— h 1 'Imp^ratrlce (cold). — Aspic-lined mould, decorated 

with truffle, etc., filled with foie-gras and chicken 
mousse, fortified with aspic jelly ; served with cold 
cucumber sauce. 

— i la Mirabeau. — Dome-shaped timbale mould, lined with 

halves of stuffed olives, coated with a layer of duck 
farce, filled with fillets of duck, champignons, and 
truffles ; served with mirabeau sauce. 

— d la D 'Orsay. — Timbale mould lined with nouille 

paste, and filled with white chicken ragout,, sliced 
artichoke bottoms, truffles, and champignons ; served 
with supreme sauce richly seasoned with paprika. 

— de Perdreau. — Partridge timbale. 

— d la Relne (cold). — Chicken mousse timbale, hot or 

cold ; in latter case mould is lined with aspic, and 
decorated with truffles and pimiento, etc., then 
masked with white chaudfroid sauce and filled with 
light chicken mousse. 

— & la St. Estephe. — Chicken forcemeat and ox-tongue 

timbales with claret sauce. 

— d la Talleyrand. — Dome-shaped timbale mould closely 

lined with cooked macaroni, and filled with tomato 
and macaroni stew ; served with supreme sauce. 

— d la Toulouse (cold).- — Timbale mould lined with aspic 

and decorated, filled with evenly cut salpicon of 
chicken and sweetbrfiad, mixed with aspic cream, etc. 



156 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

MEAT ENTREES. 
Boeuf—Beef. 

Cervelle de Boeut (Ox-Brains) en Matelote. — Stewed ox- 
brain in red wine sauce with braised button onions. 

— Irlte (Fried). — Blanched, cut into pieces, egged and 

crumbed, or dipped in frying batter and fried. 

— au gratin (Baked). — Blanched, placed in a buttered 

di^, sauced over, breaded, and baked in the oven. 

ChSteaubriand. — Double fillet, cut very thick, and 
generally boiled or grilled ; usually served with 
chateau potatoes. 

— & la B6arnaise. — Basted with sweet oil and broiled ; 

served with b^arnaise sauce. 

— ^ la Chlpolata. — Grilled ; garnished with braised 

chestnuts, fried pieces of sausages, and mushroom 
heads ; tomato sauce. 

— A la Cldrln. — Grilled a. point, sliced truffles fried in 

butter, and cooked in mad^re sauce ; garnish, pommes 
allemande, and rondelles of foie-gras dipped in flour 
and fried in butter (grouped). 

— 4 la Cordon Rouge. — Basted with oiled butter, seasoned, 

sprinkled with finely-chopped ham and fresh bread- 
crumbs, and grilled or broiled ; garnished with sliced 
trufiBes, brussels sprouts, and small stufEed tomatoes ; 
demi-glace sauce. - 

— & la Grecque. — Grilled ; garnished with fried egg-plants 

(aubergines) ; madere sauce with chopped parsley. 

— ^ ia Hotelldre. — Grilled, ; sauced over with supreme 

sauce and a few drops of dissolved meat glaze. 

— i la Lombardie. — Grilled; garnished with stuffed, baked 

tomatoes ; maddre sauce. 

— i la Marquise.— Broiled or grilled in butter ; garnished 

with artichoke bottoms, filled with small stuffed 
lettuce. 

— 4 la Marseillaise. — Broiled or grilled ; surrounded with 

groups of glazed carrots, button onions, and small 
pieces of fried calf's feet ; bordelaise sauce. 

— i la Rosny. — Grilled or broiled in butter ; served with 

fried slices of cucumber and poivrade sauce. 

— 4 la V6ron. — Stuffed from the side with " chopped 

blanched beef-marrow and savoury herbs, basted 
with sweet oil, and grilled ; served with eschalote sauce. 

— 4 la Vert-Pr§. — Grilled fillets, glazed, and round of 

green herb butter on top of each ; garnished with 
straw potatoes and watercress ; sauce demi-glace. 



MEAT ENTRIES (BEEF). 157 

Beef Steak or Small Butnp Steak, 

Beef Steak t, la Bardoux.— Steaks cut rather thin, dipped 
in oiled butter, rolled in a mixture of fresh bread- 
crumbs, chopped beef-marrow and parsley, salt and 
pepper, fried briskly, and served with brown herb 
sauce. 

— 4 la Brisse. — Slightly marinaded and broiled ; served 

with richly sj)iced tomato sauce, surrounded with 
small turnip timbales. 

— d la Godard. — Grilled ; garnished with sliced sweet- 

breads, mushroom heads, quarters of artichoke 
bottom, and truffles ; demi-glace sauce. 

— ik la Soyer. — Thickly cut steaks, dipped in oiled butter, 

sprinkled with breadcrumbs, iinely chopped chives, 
parsley, and seasoning, and broiled ; sauce fines 
herbes. 

— 4 la Su£doise. — Small steaks cut from rump, seasoned, 

and cooked in butter ; dressed with onion, finely cut 
and fried, and garnished with saute potatoes, 

— 4 la Turinoise. — Grilled ; garnished with small nouilles 

timbales ; tomato sauce. 

Entrecdtes — Sirloin Steaks. 

EntrecSte t la B^arnaise. — Grilled sirloin steak ; served 
with bearnaise sauce. 

— au beurre d'AncholS. — Grilled; with anchovy butter. 

— 4 la Bordelaise (Saut^ed).— -Broiled or grilled, with 

beef-marrow and bordelaise sauce. 

— & la Maitre d'Hdtel. — Broiled or saut^ed ; with maitre 

d'hotel butter. 
— ' & la Moelle. — Broiled ; with blanched and grilled slices 
of beef-marrow. 

— & la Montagu^. — Grilled ; garnished with small stuffed 

tomatoes, and artichoke bottoms filled with tossed 
mushrooms. 

— & la Nicolas.- — Broiled in butter ; dressed in casserole, 

with whole trufifles and slices of foie-gras. 

— i la Parisienne. — Broiled or grilled ; spread over with 

crushed shallot and chopped parsley, lemon-juice and 
meat glaze, and garnished with marble-shaped fried 
potatoes. 

— aux Pommes souRI^es. — With parsley butter, garnished 

with puff or soufi[i6 potatoes. 
• — & la Rockaway. — Grilled ; served with fried onion rings 
and grated horseradish. 

Note. — For other kinds of dressing and garnish, see 
Fillets and Tournedos. 



IS8 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Filets de BoBuf—FiUets of Beef. 

{See also Tournedos.) 

Note. — Filets mignons, or coeurs de filets de bcenf, are 
rather smaller than ordinary fillets, and more closely 
trimmed than the former. Faux-filet is the name given to 
fillets cut from other parts, such as rump, sirloin or the 
rib of beef. All these names are intended to be included 
under the above heading, the mode of cooking being 
exactly the same as for ordinary fillets. 

When no special sauce is quoted, demi-glace or plain 
gravy should be poured round the base of the dish. 

Filets de Boeuf i rAmbassadrice. — Grilled or broiled 
fillets of beef with chicken liver farce, and garnished 
with financifire ; sauce maddre. 

— & TAmericaine. — Grilled fillets with fried egg- yolk on 

top of each, garnished with fried egg-plant; sauce 
tomate. 

— A I'Andalouse. — Larded and "braised ; garnished with 

glazed chestnuts, braised cabbage-lettuces, and 
tomatoes. 

— ii I'Ath^nienne. — Larded and braised; served with 

fried, sliced egg-plants ; madSre sauce. 

— au beurre d'Anchois, — Broiled or grilled ; with anchovy 

butter. 

— d la B^arnalse. — Broiled or grilled ; with bearnaise 

sauce on fillets, and demi-glace round them. 

— it la Bordelaise. — Grilled or broiled ; with beef-marrow 

and bordelaise sauce. 

— aux Champignons. — With sliced mushrooms (cham- 

pignons) and brown sauce. 

— & la Choron. — Broiled or sauteed, with slices of beef- 

marrow, small artichoke bottoms filled with asparagus 
points as garnish ; sauce choron. 

— 4 la Clamart. — Sautfeed or grilled, garnished with 

artichoke bottoms filled with green pea pur6e ; sauce 
demi-glace. 

— 4 la Claremont. — Larded and braised ; served with 

braised cucumber and tomatoes, and small stuffed 
onions glazed ; bearnaise and demi-glace sauces. 

— i la Dauplilne. — Larded and grilled ; garnished with 

fried cocks' combs, sliced trufSes ; pferigueux sauce. 

— & la Duchesse. — Grilled or broiled fillets, dressed in 

duchesse potato border, with chclteaubriand sauce. 

— aux fines herbes. — Grilled or broiled ; with brown 

savoury herb sauce. 



MEAT ENTREES (BEEF). 159 

TUets de BoBuf k la Garfield. — Larded and grilled ; served 
with finely cut julienne strips of ham, tongue, truffles, 
and mushrooms ; poivrade sauce. ' 

— 4 la Gouffe. — Larded and fried ; garnished with small 

beef-marrow toasts ; demi-glace sauce. 

— k la Grand Veneur. — ^Marinaded fillets, braised, gar- 

nished with French beans ; sauce Moscpvite. 

— & la Helder. — Broiled or sauteed fillets with sliced 

tomatoes tossed in butter, Parisienne potato balls, 
and bearnaise sauce. 

— ^ la Jardiniere. — Grilled ; garnished with groups of 

spring vegetables. 

— ^ la Judic. — Sauteed or grilled fillets with braised 

lettuce, and gravy. 

— i la Maltre d'H6tel. — Grilled ; with parsley butter. 

— au Malaga. — Barded and braised ; dressed with madere 

or marsala wine sauce ; garnished with potato 
croquets done up in the shape of grapes, with nouille 
paste stalks inserted, and fried. 

— ^ la Marinade.— Larded and marinaded in vinegar wine 

and herbs ; grilled or braised ; poivrade sauce. 

— a la Mirabeau. — Broiled ; garnished with fried eggs, 

tarragon leaves, and anchovy fillets on fillets of beef ; 
group of truffles and champignons around dish ; 
madere sauce. 
— k la Moscovite. — Larded ; placed in Rhine wine mari- 
nade, and braised or sauteed ; served with madere 
sauce, and garnished with chopped and rolled 
almonds. 

— £l. la Nicolas. — Sauteed or grilled fillets, with a slice 

of foie-gras and truffles on top ; sauce madere. 

— aux Olives farcies. — ^Grilled ; with stuffed olives. 

— ^ la Palmeritaine. — Larded and broiled, and garnished 

with stuffed aubergines and mashed potatoes. 

— i la Parisienne. — Grilled fillets, garnished with aspara- 

gus tips and potato balls ; bearnaise sauce and 
gravy (jus 116). 

— 4 la Polonaise. — Finely chopped lean beef and chopped 

suet, seasoned, and shaped like fillets ; egged, 
crumbed, and fried in butter ; garnished with small 
rounds of fried potatoes ; demi-glace sauce. 

— & la Pompadour. — Sauteed or broiled v/ith slices of 

tomatoes tossed in butter ; noisette potatoes, and 
choron sauce. 
-=-4 la Provencal*. — Grilled ; garnished with stuffed 
mushrooms and tomatoes ; demi-glace or madere sauce. 

— & la Jtossini. — Sauteed or grilled fillets, with slice of 

foie-gras and truffle on top of each ; sauce 
perigueux 



i6o PRACTICAL GASTliONOMV. 

Filets de BcBuI 4 la Slcllienne. — Grilled ; served with rings 
of fried onion ; sauce madfere. 

— 4 la Sigurd. — Larded filletof beef, marinaded in madere, 

and braised ; garnished with small potato cassolettes 
filled with asparagus-point puree, sauteed artichoke 
bottoms cut in dice, chestnut croquettes, and mush- 
room heads. 

— 4 la St. Jean. — Broiled or sauteed ; garnished with 

artichoke bottoms filled with tossed tomato dice, and 
covered with b^arnaise, with farced olive on top ; 
derai-glace sauce 

— aux truffes. — Broiled or grilled ; served with brown 

sauce containing sliced truffles. 

— ik la Theodora. — Broiled ; dressed on a bed of mush- 

room puree, sprinkled with finely chopped herbs, 
garnished with olive-shaped fried potatoes and 
truffles, sauced over with nut-brown butter and 
Worcester sauce. 
— ^ la Toreador. — Grilled, rather underdone ; garnished 
with sauteed fresh mushrooms and Spanish pimi en tos ; 
tomato sauce. 

— k\3, Viennoise. — Fillet or other tender lean beef chopped 

finely and shaped into small fillets, fried in butter, 
garnished with onion puree and fried onion rings ; 
brown sauce. 

— d la Wellingtoii. — Tossed in butter over a brisk fire, 

cooled and wrapped carefully in thinly rolled-out puff- 
paste, with a layer of fines herbes spread over the 
fillets ; brush over the paste with egg-yolk, and bake 
in moderate oven lo to 15 minutes ; dress on potato 
puree (socle), garnish with green peas, French beans, 
truffles, and potatoes cut in cubes and tossed in 
butter. 



Tournedos de Bceuf. 

(See also Fillets of Beef.) 

Unless otherwise stated, all tournedos are to be broiled or 
tossed in butter over a fairly quick fire. 

Tournedos de Bceuf. — Small fillets of beef, trimmed into 
oval shapes, weighing about two ounces. They are 
usually dressed on croutons of fried bread. 

— & I'Arl6slenne. — Tournedos dressed on croutons 

sauced over with demi-glace containing juliennt 
strips of celery. 

— 4 1' Alexandra. — Larded, braised, and glazed ; dressed 

on croutons with slice of truffle on each ; garnished 
with quarters of artichokes ; sauce pferigueux. 



MEAT ENTRIES (BEEF). i6i 

Tournedos de BoeuJ it TArmand.— Grilled ; dressed on 
fried bread crouton, covered with foie-gras puree ; 
garnished with souffle potatoes and slices of truffles ; 
sauce bordelaise, 

— braisfis au C616rl.— Larded fillets of beef braised with 

celery, and finished in rich brown sauce ; dressed on 
croutons in a circle, with braised celery in centre. 

— !l la Chasseur.^Slightly marinaded, fried in butter, and 

served with chasseur sauce, 

— 4 la Colbert. — Fried in equal parts of sweet oil and 

butter, dished up in circle, centre of dish fiUfed with 
small rounds of fried potatoes; eschalot sauce, 
reduced with sherry wine. 

— i la Drexel. — Grilled, dressed on fried bread croutons 
' coated with bearnaise sauce, border of each fillet 

garnished with tomato pur^e, slice of truffle in 
centre, and dish surrounded with straw potatoes 
(pommes pailles). 

— 4 I'Elysie. — Slice of braised sweetbread and mushroom 

head on each tournedo, with a, border of bearnaise 
sauce. 

— d I'Empereur. — Broiled in butter, dressed on fried 

bread croutons, with half a grilled tomato and a 
sinall piece of grilled marrow on each; garnished, 
with asparagus points and noisette potatoes ; sauce ■ 
perigueux. 

— ^ la Favorite. — Grilled, dressed on croutons, with slice 

of foie-gras ; garnished with truffles and asparagus 
points ; sauce madere. 

— d la Gabrielle. — Sauteed, dressed oh rounds of puff 

pastry of similar size, covered with light chicken 
puree ; garnished with truffles, green peas, and straw 
potatqes ; sauces bearnaise and demi-glace. 

— & la Grand Hdtel. — Grilled, dressed on croutons of rice 

of same size, slices of foie-gras and asparagus points ; 
sauce madere. 

— jl la Helder. — Broiled in butter, dressed on croutons, 

with bearnaise sauce as border of each tournedo, and 
tomato puree in centre ; surrounded with noisette 
potatoes. 

— d la Khedive. — Sauteed tournedos, dressed on slices of 

foie-gras of same shape ; garniture, tossed tomatoes in 
butter, asparagus pomts, champignon heads ; sauces, 
madSre and horseradish cream. 

— i la MacMabon. — Grilled, garnislied with slices of 

truffles, flageolets, and chateau potatoes ; sauce 
madSre. 

— d la Menagdre. — Tournedos dressed on a border of 

duchess potato (puree), centre filled with braised- 
carrots and turnips (olive shape), button onions, and 
noisette potatoes ; sauce demi-glace. 



i62 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Tournedos de Bceuf i. la Mercid^s. — Coated with artichoke 
puree and mushroom heads ; sauce, demi-glace or 
madSre. 

— ^ la Merldlonale. — Grilled, garnished with sorrel, stuffed 

tomatoes, green peas, and cepes ; plain gravy. 

— i la Mikado. — Grilled and garnished with half a stuffed 

and baked tomato on each tournedo ; sauce madSre. 

— i la Mireille. — Tournedos dressed on croutons of 

brioche paste ; garnished with asparagus points ; 
sauce tomate. 

— il la Monaco. — Tournedos dressed on bread croutons 

spread with foie-gras farce ; garnished with mush- 
room heads and slices of tongue ; demi-glace sauce. 

— i la Motmonrency. — Tournedos placed on rice croutons ; 

garnished with artichoke bottoms filled with asparagus 
points ; plain gravy. 

— & la Monte Carlo. — Garnished with slice of foie-gras and 

trutSe on top of each, ^nd dish surrounded with fried 
slices of sweetbread and fried calf 's brain ; sauce madere. 

— ^ la Nelson. — Par-fried tournedos, finished in casserole, 

with braised button onions, demi-glace or maddre 
sauce, and dice of fried potatoes. 

— ik la Nesselrode. — Garnished with chestnut purfee, 

potato chips, sauced round with demi-glace. 

— ft la NiQOlse. — Sauteed beef fillets dressed on croutons ; 

garnished with small French beans and small tossed 
tomatoes ; sauce, demi-glace, 

— ft I'Orsay. — Tournedos dressed on croutons, garnished 

with stoned olives, mushrooms, and chateau potatoes ; 
sauce maddre. 

— k 1 'Othello. — Poached or fried egg on each tournedo, 

with p^rigueux sauce. 

— ft la Farlsienne. — Broiled, with a garnish of asparagus 

points, noisette potatoes, and bearnaise sauce. 

— ft la Pl^montalse. — Tournedos dressed on croutons, 

garnished with small timbales of rice mixed with 
chopped truffles, with mushroom head on each ; 
sauce demi-glace. 

— ft la Pompadour. — Tournedos spread with tomato puree, 

with a slice of fried ham and a slice of truffle on top 
of each ; clear gravy. 

— ft la Prince Murat. — Small fillets of beef and slices of 

raw foie-gras, of similar size, broiled separately, 
dressed together on bread croutons ; garnished with 
turned Spanish olives, stuffed with farce de champig- 
nons and olive-shaped potatoes baked in butter ; 
sauced over with tomato and mad^e blended sauce. 

— ft la Qulrlnal.— Tournedos dressed on croutons, spread 

with duralle or champignon pur6e ; garnished with 
straw potatoes ; sauce madere, 



MEAT ENTRIES (BEEF). 163 

Tournedos de Bceul 4 la Rachel. — Tournedos dressed on 
artichoke bottoms, sauced over with beef-marrow 
sauce (moelle). 

— ^ la Rlche. — Artichoke bottoms, filled with green peas, 

placed on each tournedo, with a slice of truffle on 
top ; sauce chorrou. 

— sk la Savoisienne, — Braised tournedos done in casserole, 

with demi-glace sauce, ' small button onions, cham- 
pignons, green peas, and chateau potatoes. 

— i la Scribe. — Tournedos dressed on croutons of rice, 

spread over with foie-gras puree ; sauce madSre. 

— 4 la Strasbourgeoise. — Slice of braised foie-gras and a 

slice of smoked sausage on each tournedo ; sauce 
maddre. 

— d la Thiers. — Par-fried tournedos finished in casserole, 

with braised button onions, slices of truffles, stoned 
olives, and brown sauce flavoured with sauterne. 

— !t la Troja. — Grilled tournedos with anchovy fillet and 

slice of truffle on top of each ; when cold enclosed in 
brioche paste and baked in a quick oven ; served 
with madere sauce, containing finely cut strips of 
trufae. 

— & la Vallidre. — Sauteed and dressed on croutons, coated 

with demi-glace sauce, containing julienne strips of 
truffle, mushrooms, and tongue. 

— 4 la Victoria. — Grilled tournedos of beef, garnished 

with broiled small cup mushrooms, filled with 

bearnaise sauce ; served with truffle sauce. 
Beignets de Boeut i la Minute. — Cold roast beef cut in 

strips, seasoned, dipped in frying batter, and fried 

in deep fat. 
Boeuf santfi 4 la Bourgeolse. — Coarsely minced broiled 

beef with braised button onions ; brown sauce. 

— 4 la Flamande. — Braised pieces of rump ' of beef ; 

garnished with stuffed spring cabbages ; brown sauce. 

Carbonade de boeuf 4 la Flamande. — Thin slices of lean 
beef stewed in casserole, in rich brown sauce, with 
minced onions, neatly shaped, plain boiled potatoes 
placed on top of stew ; served in casserole. 

Croquettes de Boeuf i I'Anglalse (Beef Croquettes). — 
Finely minced cooked beef, made into square, cork, 
cutlet or ball shapes, egged, crumbed, and fried. 

— i I'ltallenne. — Fried beef croquettes with Italian sauce. 
Culottes de Boeuf, Malntenon.— Braised beef cut in slices 

and dressed in pyramids ; garnished with small 
timbales of nouilles ; seasoned with soubise and 
duchesse potatoes ; sauce demi-glace. 
Fricot de Boeuf i la Charles X. — Braised rump steak, when 
cold cut into strips ; egged, crumbed, and fried ; 
served with a brown eschalot sauce. 



l64 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Pricot de Bceuf i I'Indlenne. — Curried beef stew, served 
with boiled rice. 

— 4 I'Irelandaise. — Stewed beef with potatoes cut in 

cubes, and onions ; brown sauce. 
Goulasch de Boeuf. — Lean beef cut in dice shapes, and 
tossed in butter ; mixed with dice-shaped potatoes ; 
seasoned with paprika, and finished in brown sauce. 

— d ia Herzigovine. — Saute of beef, sliced finely, and fried 

onions ; tomato sauce and elaret flavour ; seasoned 
with salt and paprika ; garnished with small rounds 
of fried potatoes. 

— 4 la Polonaise. — Sliced beef, stewed, with fried bacon 

and potato cut in dice ; seasoned with Hungarian red 
pepper. 
HSchls de Bceuf t la Fran^aise. — Sliced cold beef braised 
in butter and finely chopped onions, finished in brown 
sauce and chopped parsley. 

— & I'Anglalse. — ^Minced or hashed beef with poached 

eggs ; garnished with fried bread sippets. 

Langue de Bceuf— Ox-tongue. 

Langue de Boeuf d, la Flamande. — Braised ox-tongue, 
garnished with groups of cooked carrots, turnips, 
green peas, French beans, and braised spring cabbage ; 
sauced over with brown sauce. 

— fum^e aux petlts pels. — Smoked, braised ox-tongue, 

with green peas. 

— au gratln (Baked Ox-Tongue). — Sliced boiled ox- 

tongue dressed on a buttered baking-dish, with a 
mixture of brown sauce, breadcrumbs, chopped 
shallots, parsley, and mushrooms, yolks of eggs, and 
fresh butter, baked in a quick oven, and served on 
the dish it is baked in, 

— t I 'Indienne. — Curried ox- tongue with boiled rice. 

— & la NapoUtalne.i — Braised ox-tongue with stewed 

macaroni, tomato pur^e, and parmesan cheese. . 

— au Parmesan. — Boiled ox-tongue sliced, arranged on 

a gratin dish, with a mixture of white sauce, grated 
parmesan cheese, breadcrumbs, chopped shallots, and 
fresh butter, baked in a quick oven. 

— & la Robert. — Braised ox-tongue with brown onion 

sauce. 

— ^ la Romalne. — Braised pickled ox-tongue, served with 

a sauce composed of espagnole sauce, white wine, 
blanched currants, sultanas, Italian pine-seeds 
(pignolis), flavoured with chilli vinegar and castor 
sugar. 
Mlroton de Boeuf. — Sliced cooked beef broiled in butter 
and chopped onions, and stewed in brown sauce. 



MEAT ENTRIES {BEEF). 165 

Moix de Boeaf 4 la Bourgeoise. — Braised piece of kernel 
or cushion of beef larded, finished in axichly flavoured 
brown sauce witli a little tomato puree, garnished 
with braised carrots and button onions. 

— ft I'^touflade. — Kernel of beef with brown sauce, 

stewed in the oven. 

Olives de Boeuf 4 I'Anglaise. — Thin slices of rump steak 
spread over with suet stuffing, rolled and braised, 
served with richly flavoured brown sauce, chopped 
parsley, and thin slices of fried bacon. 

Oreilles de Boeuf ft la Sainte-Men^hould. — Boiled pickled 
ox-ears, when cold dipped in batter and fried in 
deep fat. 

Paupiettes de Boeuf ft la Richelieu. — Sliced fillets of beef 
spread with forcemeat, rolled and braised ; garnished 
with forcemeat quenelles, truffles, mushrooms ; 
served with Richelieu sauce. 

Palais de Boeuf— Ox-palate. 

Palais de Boeuf au gratin. — Braised ox-palates prepared 
and baked in gratin style 

— grilles. — Pickled ox-palates egged and crumbed, dipped 

in oiled butter and grilled, served with a piquant 
tomato sauce. 

— ft I'lndienne. — Curried ox-palate with boiled rice. 

— ft ritalienne. — Stewed ox-palates dished up in a circle 

with fried bread croutons ; Italian sauce. 

— aux Macaroni. — Braised ox-palates with macaroni. 

— ft I'Orly. — Stewed ox-palates; when cold spread with 

forcemeat mixed with savoury herbs, rolled, coated 
with white sauce, egged, crumbed, and fried ; served 
with tomato sauce. 

— ft la Ravigote. — Stewed ox-palates dressed in a border 

of fried bread,; sauced over with ravigote sauce. 



Poltrlne de Bceuf frite ft la Sainte-Men61iouId. — Boned and 
braised breast of beef cut into slices, egged, crumbed, 
and fried in deep fat. 

Queue de Scettf— Ox-tail. 

Queue de Boeuf, brais^e aux Olives. — Braised ox-tail with 
turned olives and brown sauce. 

— aux Haricots Verts. — Stewed ox-tail, garnished with 

French beans. 

— ft la Hotch-potch. — Hotch-potch ox-tail stew, garnished 

with glazed carrots and small onions (a national 
Scotch dish). 



i66 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Queue de Boeuf aux Pefits Pols. — Stewed ox-tail, with green 
peas in centre of dish. 

— d la Polonaise. — Braised ox-tail, with rich brown sauce ; 

garnished with cauliflower buds, tossed in brown 
butter, and besprinkled with brown breadcrumbs. 

Haricots de Queue de Boeut. — Stewed ox-tail, with braised 
carrots and turnips neatly shaped, small onions, 
and white haricot beans. 

Veavr—Veal. 

Ballotine de Veau farcie. — Stuffed rolled breast of veal, 
braised ; served with demi-glace sauce. 

Blanquette de Veau t rAlIemande.— Fillet or breast of 
veal with sliced mushrooms stewed in white sauce. 

— aux concombres. — Stewed veal in white sauce with 

cubes of braised cucumber. 

— k \ 'Indlenne. — Stewed "veal in white sauce flavoured 

with curry ; served in'border of rice. 

— k la, Poulette. — Stewed veal with sliced mushrooms in 

white sauce with finely chopped parsley- 

— aux truffes. — Stewed veal in white sauce with sliced 

truffles. 
Carr6 de Veau pique aux petits pois. — Neck of veal larded 
and braised, with green peas. 

— piqu6 t la Creme Aigre. — Braised larded neck of veal 

with sour cream sauce (sauce creme aigre). 

— la Purte de Tomate.— Braised neck of veal with 

tomato sauce. 



Cetelettes de Veau or C6tes de (Veal Cutlets).— Cotes or 
cutlets of veal should be cut from the neck or loin ; 
cutlets, however, should be trimmed with the bone 
left on, and in consequence can only be obtained 
from the neck. (See also Filets de Veau.) 

— 4 TAllemande. — Breaded veal cutlets fried in butter, 

dressed round potato puree ; sauce demi-glace. 

— k I'Anglaise. — Breaded veal cutlets .grilled ; garnished 

with potatoes fried or tossed in butter. 

— en Belle-Vue (Cold).— Fillets or cutlets of veal cooked 

set in aspic, coated with chaudfroid sauce ; garnished 
with truffles and jardinidre. 

— 4 la Bordelaise.— Broiled veal cutlets, dished up on 

fried bread croutons, with stewed c6pes in centre ; 
sauce bordelaise. 

— au Chicorte.— Broiled veal cutlets with mashed or 

braised chicory. 



' ' MEAT ENTRIES (VEAL). 167 

CStelettes de Veau A, la Cracovie.^^Broiled veal cutlets, 
larded with strips of anchovy fillets ; sauce madfere. 

— en Cr^pinettes. — ^Veal cutlets wrapped in pig's caul, 

egged, crumbed, and fried ; demi-glace or plain gravy. 

— i la Dauphine. — Veal cutlets stuffed with chopped 

tongue and truffles ; garnished with potato cro- 
quettes ; perigueux sauce. 

— i la Demi-glace. — Veal cutlets fried or grilled ; served^ 

with brown, i.e., demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Dreux. — Broiled veal cutlets la;rded with tongue, 

streaky bacon, and pickled gherkins ; served with 
a garniture of sliced mushrooms and sweetbread; 
sauce tomate. 

— aux Epinards.— Broiled veal cutlets with mashed 

spinach. 

— 4 I'Ecarlate. — Plain broiled veal cutlets, dressed 

alternately with heart-shaoed slices of ox-tongue ; 
sauce tomate. 

— gr!116es. — Plain grilled veal cutlets. 

— h ritalienne. — Plain broiled veal cutlets with Italian 

sauce. 

— & la Lorgnette. — Egged, crumbed, and fried veal 

cutlets ; garnished with rings of onions dipped in 
milk and flour, and fried in clarified butter. 

— !k la Maitre d'HStel. — Plain broiled veal cutlets served 

with ihaitre d'hotel butter. 
— • ^ la Marfichal." — Egged and cheese-crumbed veal 
cutlets fried ; served with bigarade sauce. 

— ^ la Milanaise.^ — Veal cutlets,- garnished with macaxoni, 

stewed in tomato sauce and parmesan cheese. 

— au naturel. — Plain broiled or grilled veal cutlets. 

— pannes. — Breaded and fried veal cutlets. 

— en papillotes. — Stuffed veal cutlets braised, served in 

paper cases. 

— i, la Parjarskl. — Cutlet shapes of minced veal, egged, 

crumbed, and fried ; sauces demi-glace and tomate. 

— i la Parma. — Veal cutlets egged and crumbed in 

grated parmesan cheese, and fried ; tomato or demi- 
glace sauce. 

— i la Prusse. — Veal cutlets spread with a mixture of 

truffles and finely chopped shallots braised. 

— & la Beine. — Veal cutlets egged and crumbed, broiled 

in butter ; served with demi-glace sauce, truffles, and 
' preserved mushrooms. 

— saut^es au beurre. — Veal cutlets broiled in butter ; 

served with plain gravy. 

— 4 la Singarat. — Veal cutlets, larded with small strips 

of smoked ox-tongue, and braised. 



l6S PRACTICAL CASTRONOMY. 

C6tclettes de Veau jk !a Soubise. — Egged, crumbed, and 
fried veal cutlets ; served with white onion puree. 

— 4 la Salnt-CIoud.^Veal cutlets, larded with strips oif 

truffles, broiled in fresh butter, and garnished with 
forcemeat quenelles ; sauce allemande. 

— ^ la Zingara. — Fried veal cutlets dished up alternately 

with cutlet-shaped slices of broiled ham ; sauce 
mad^re. 
Cervelle de Veau. — Calf's brain. 

— au beignets. — Calf's brain fritters. 

— au beurie nolr. — Poached calf's brain ; served with 

nut-brown butter (beurre noisette). 

— ^ la Demi-glace.— Calf's brain blanched and cooked in 

brown sauce. 

— 4 la Financiere. — Boiled calf's brain with a rich 

financi^re sauce and garniture. 

— Iriture or frites. — Fried calf's brain. 

— au gratin. — Calf's brain prepared with white sauce, 

dressed on. dish, and browned in oven. 

— aux huitres. — Calf's brain stewed with oysters and 

chopped parsley. 

— 4 la Milanalse. — Fried calf's brain served with macaroni 

and tomato sauce ; garnished with ham, tongue, 
finely shredded mushrooms, and truffles. 

— & la Ravigote. — Fried calf's. brain with savoury herb 

sauce. 

— & la Tartare. — B'ried calf's brain served with tartare 

sauce. 
Souffle de Cervelle do Veau. — Calf's brain souffle, baked 

in paper cases or shells. 
Escalopes de Veau are fillets of veal cut into cutlet, 

round, oval, or heart shapes, flattened and trimmed. 

seasoned, egged, crumbed, and fried in butter. 

— aux asperges. — With stewed asparagus points. 

— aux 6pi!iards. — With spinach as garnish. 

— 4 la Holstein. — Garnished with slices of hard-boiled 

egg, anchovy fillets, gherkins, and capers. 

— au jambon. — With fried or broiled slices of ham. 

— £k la Pirigord. — Larded with truffles and bacon, and 

fried ; served with madftre sauce. 

— aux petlts pois. — With green peas. 

— i la Savoisienne. — Dressed in the centre of a border 

of small savoury rice timbales ; sauce, demi-glace 
and tomato. 

— ^ la Toinate. — Served with tomato pur6e. 

— ik la Viennoise. — Served with brown sauce ; garnished 

with gherkins, olives, capers, fillets of anchovies, 
and hard-boiled egg. 



MEAT ENTRi:ES (VEAL). 169 

Foie de Veau—Calf's Liver. 

Fole de Veau sautt a TAllemande. — Sliced calf's liver 
tossed in butter, with brown savoury sauce. 

— ib I'Anglaise. — Fried calf's liver with slices of bacon 

and brown sauce. 

— & la Bourgeoise. — Slices of calf's liver larded and 

braised ; garnished with braised carrots and button 
onions ; sauce demi-glace. 

— bralsi k 1 'Itallenne. — Braised calf's liver with brown 

sauce containing tomato puree, chopped shallots, 
and mushrooms. 
—: pan£. — Breaded, i.e., egged or crumbed, calf's liver 
fried. 

— piqui. — Larded calf's liver braised. 

— rStl. — Roast calf's liver. 

— sant6, sauce piquante. — Stewed or tossed calf's liver 

with piquante sauce. 

— frit A, la Tomate-. — Fried calf's liver with tomato sauce. 
Quenelles de Foie de Veau. — Calf's liver quenelles poached 

and served with brown sauce. 



Fricandeau de Veau. — Cushion or kernel of veal, braised. 

— aux Champignons. — Served with stewed mushrooms. 

— d la Mac6dolne. — Larded and braised cushion piece 
of veal ; garnished with fancifully cut vegetables 
called macedoine de legumes. 

— au naturel. — Braised and served with plain gravy. 

— ^ la Regence. — Larded, braised, and glazed with its 

own gravy reduced ; garnished with veal quenelles, 
slices of sweetbread, mushrooms and truffles ; sauce 
madfire. 

— il la Tomate. — Served with stewed tomatoes and 

tomato sauce. 



Fricandelles de Veau, Sauee Tomate. — Small veal force- 
meat dumplings, boiled, drained, and when cold 
egged, crumbed, and fried ; served with tomato sauce. 

— au gratin. — ^Veal forcemeat dumplings, boiled, placed 

in a buttered dish, covered with white sauce and 
breadcrumbs ; browned in the oven. 

JFilets de Veau — Veal Fillets, 

Filets de Veau t la Bechamel. — Fillets of veal, par-boiled 
and stewed in bechamel sauce. 

— i la Franpaise. — Braised, fillets of veal, served with a 

brown sauce, blended with tomato pur6e. 



J70 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

FUets de Veau farcl k la PranpaJse.— Larded fiiJets ot veal 
stuffed, rolled, and braised; served with brown 
sauce and marble-sliaped fried potatoes. 

— aiu Haricot Verts.— Broiled fillets oi veal with French 

beans. 

— d la MUsnafse. — ^Fried fillets of veal, garnished with 

stewed macaroni mixed with white sauce, parmesan 
cheese, and finely shredded ox-tongue ; tomato sauce. 

— i I'OselUe. — Small veal fillets t>roiled, and served with 

sorrel puree, gravy or demi-glace sauce. 

— a la Purte de Concombres.— Broiled fillets of veal with 

mashed cucumber. 

— r6ti aux Pommes Pailles.— Roast fillet of veal, larded ; 

garnished with very finely cut strips of fried potatoes. 

— & la Talleyrand. — Small circular or oval slices of veal 

fillets fried in butter, and finished by cooking in a 
cream sauce flavoured with lemon juice and shallots, 
and enriched with egg-yolks. 



Fricassee de Veau i I'Anglaise. — Stewed veal in white 
sauce with sliced preserved mushrooms ; served with 
thin slices of fried bacon. 

— it I'Allemande. — Stewed pieces of breast of veal in 

white sauce, garnished with small quenelles^ crayfish 
tails, asparagus, and sprigs of cauliflower. 
G&teau de Veau aux trufles. — Savoury veal cake, baked 
and served with truffle sauce. 

— au bain-marie. — Veal cake, poached or steamed ; 

served with white sauce. 
Goulache de Veau i la Hongroise. — Finely cut broiled 

veal with pepper sauce. 
Grenadins de Veau. — Larded veal fillets (collops), broiled 

or braised. 

— aux Spinards. — .Braised veal fillets with spinach purfee. 

— & la Fermlere. — Garnished with groups of cooked 

carrots, lettuce, cauliflower, and small round fried 
potatoes ; sauce demi-glace. 

— aux petits pols. — With green peas. 

— il la Tomate.^-With tomato sauce or garnished with 

fried tomatoes. 
Timbales de Godiveau. — A kind of small pudding made of 

veal forcemeat, steamed ; served with white sauce. 
Haricot de Veau & I'Anglaise. — Stewed pieces of neck of 

veal, with braised button onions, green peas, carrots, 

and turnips ; brown sauce. 
HSchis de Veau. — Minced veal, cooked in white sauce. 



MEAT ENTRAes (VEAL). 171 

Langue de Veau — Calf's Tongue. 

Langue de Veau aux epinards. — Calf's tongue, with spinach. 

— au gratin, — Cooked calf's tongue sliced, dressed on 

dish, and baked with brown sauce. 

— a I'ltallenne. — Boiled pickled calf's tongue with 

Italian sauce. ' 

— en papillotes. — Braised calf's tongue in paper cases. 

— aux petits pois. — Braised calf's tongue with green peas. 

— a la Polvrade. — Braised calf's tongue with brown 

pepper sauce. 

— aux pointes d'asperges. — With asparagus points. 

— & la Tartaie. — Cooked veal tongues, cut in halves, 

egged, crumbed, and fried ; served with tartare sauce. 

Longe de Veau— Loin of Veal. 

Longe de Veau k I'Anglaise. — Loin of veal stuffed with 
forcemeat and savoury herl?s ; served with fried or 
grilled slices of bacon. 

— d I'Allemande. — Braised loin of veal, boned, and stuSed 

with veal forcemeat and bacon. 

— 4 la FrauQaise. — Braised loin of veal, boned, and 

stufied ; served with stuffed tomatoes and potato 
croquettes. 

— ^ la Montglas. — Braised loin of veal, larded, garnished 

with tongue, truffles, chicken fillet, and mushrooms 
cut in dice or shreds ; sauce demi-glace. 

— ^ la Provenyale. — Roast loin of veal, stuffed with 

minced onions and pork forcemeat ; served with 
stuffed tomatoes ; sauce proven9ale. 
Mous de Veau Si I'lndienne. — Calf's lungs, stewed in curry 
sauce, and served with boiled rice. 

Noix de Veau— Kernel of Veal. 

Noix de Veau piquee k la Bechamel. — Larded kernel or 
cushion of veal, braised white ; served with b6chamel 
sauce. 

— ^ la Financiere. — Stewed whole with cocks' combs, 

cocks' kernels, sliced mushrooms, and truffles ; 
sauce demi-glace or financiere. 

— ^ la Gendarme. — Larded and roasted ; served with a, 

highly spiced brown sauce reduced with chilli vinegar 
and tomato puree. 

— 4 la Jardiniere.— Larded and braised ; garnished with 

groups of small spring vegetables. 

— & la Lyonnaise. — Braised ; garnished with stuffed 

braised onions, glazed chestnuts, and small pieces 
of fried sausages. 



172 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Noix de Veau piqufie i la Montpensier. — Braised cushion 
or kernel of veal, larded with truffles and bacon. 

— 4 la Napolitaine. — Stewed or braised with macaroni 

and timbales ; tomato sauce. 

— a la Nivernalse.— Braised ; garnished with braised 

turnips ; sauce espagnole reduced with white wine. 

— & la Sarde. — Larded and braised ; garnished with 

baked, parboiled ravioli, previously filled with 
spinach and parmesan cheese. 

— piquie i la Tiianon. — Larded and braised ; served with 

a puree of chestnuts and demi-glace sauce. 

— & la Westphalle. — Braised with slices of Westphalian 

ham. 

Paupiettes de Veau aux Champignons.— Rolled fillets of 
veal, larded and braised ; served with sliced mush- 
rooms and brown sauce. 

— aux tomates farcies. — Served with braised stuffed 

tomatoes. 

Pieds de Veau— Calf s Feet. 

Pieds de Veau en fricassee. — Stewed in white sauce with 
sliced mushrooms. 

— & la Poulette. — Boiled and stewed in white sauce, 

sliced mushrooms, and chopped parsley. 

— frits i, la Tyrolienne. — Fried calf's feet with tomato 

sauce. 

— a la Vinaigrette. — Boiled in stock, dressed and served 

with vinaigrette sauce. 

Olives de Veau— Veal Olives. 

Olives de Veau.- — Slices of lean veal, spread over with 
savoury forcemeat, rolled up like olives, and stewed 
in white or brown sauce. 

— k I'Anglaise. — Small olive-shaped rolls of thin sUces' 

of fillet of veal, stuffed with veal forcemeat and bacon, 
egged, crumbed, and fried ; served with brown sauce 
and fried slices of bacon 

Oreilles de Veau— Calf s Ears. 

Orellies de Veau farcies, sauce tomate. — Stuffed with 
forcemeat and baked, and tomato sauce, 

— ^ la Lyonnalse. — Boiled, cut into strips, stewed in 

brown sauce, and served with fried onion rings and 
bread croutons. 

— ^ la Tomate. — Calf's ears fried with tomato sauce. 



MEAT ENTRIES (VEAL). 173 

Queue de Veau — Calf's tail. 

— A I'AIIeniande. — Calf's tail stewed in white sauce. 

— i, I 'Indlenne. — Curried calf's tail with rice. 

RagoQt de Veau.— Pieces of breast or other parts of veal 
fried and stewed in brown sauce, with sliced mush- 
rooms, carrots, turnips, and button onions. 

Mis de Veau— Sweetbread, 

Ris de Veau k la Car§me. — Braised sweetbread, stuffed 
with^ taushroom and trilfifJe puree, coated with 
supreme or velout6 sauce, dished and breaded with 
cheesecrumbs, and browned in oven. 

— d la Chasseur. — Stewed in brown sauce ; served in a 

border of puree of game. 

— ^ la Chicor€e. — With chicory or endive puree. 

— ^ la Colbert. — rSlices of cooked sweetbread, dipped in 

melted butter, sprinkled with, fresh breadcrumbs, 
and broiled ; served with Colbert sauce. 

— i la Comtesse. — Braised, garnished with^ small puff- 

paste bouchees filled with vegetable macedoine tossed 
in butter, 

— i la Creme sur Bordure de Riz. — White sweetbread 

stew ; served on a border of rice. 

— d la Pauphine. — Larded and braised ; serve'd with 

potato croquettes and sori^el puree-. 

— en Demi-Deuil. — Braised sweetbreads, larded with 

black truffles only, 

— a la Duxelles. — Slices of sweetbread, coated with 

veloute sauce, mixed with chopped parsley, ox- 
tongue, and mushrooms, breaded and fried ; sauce 
supreme. 

— aux £pinards. — ^Braised sweetbread with spinach. 

— frit, sauce tomate. — Fried sweetbread with tomato sauce. 

— ^ la Finanddre.— Same as " Toulouse," but garniture 

is prepared in brown Madeira sauce, 

— 4 la Gentilhomme. — Larded with bacon and truffle, and 

braised ; served with perigord sauce. 

— & la Godard. — The same as "Financiere;" with addi- 

tion of stuffed "olives. 

— k I'ltalienne. — Fried sweetbread, masked with white 

sauce and breaded ; Italian sauce. 

— ^ la Jardiniere. — Larded and braised, with neatly cut 

groups of spring vegetables ; demi-glace sauce. 

— & la Matlgnon. — Parboiled, slightly marinaded in white 

wine and savoury herbs seasoning, and braised ; 
served with demi-glace sauce. 



174 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. .'.\^ 

Ris do Veau i la Mllaaaise.^Larded, braised and gla2,<",d ; 
served with stewed macaroni, flavoured with parmesan 
cheese, and mingled with shreds of ox-tongue, mush- 
rooms, and truffles ; demi-glace sauce. 

— & la Montpensier. — Larded and braised ; served in a, 

border of rice with truffles. 

— i rOsellle. — Braised sweetbread with sorrel puree. 

— en papUlotes. — Braised sweetbread, served in paper 

cases. 

— aux petits pols. — Braised sweetbread with green peas. 

— plqu6 aux champignons. — Larded and braised, with 

mushrooms ; demi-glace sauce. 

— aux pointes d'asperges. — With asparagus points. 

— & la Rachel. — Larded and braised ; garnished with 

artichoke bottoms filled with finely shredded truffles. 
— k la St. Cloud. — Braised sweetbread, larded, served 
with tomato sauce and sliced truffles. 

— & la Senn (invented by M. A. Meyer, New York). — 

Par-boiled, slit in two, dipped in butter and crumbed, 
and broiled in butter ; garnished with straw potatoes 
and watercress ; served with tarragon-flavoured butter 
sauce enriched with beef extract. 

— d la Talleyrand. — Larded and braised ; dressed on 

spinach or chicory pur6e ; truffle sauce. 

— & la Tomate. — Braised sweetbread with stewed toma- 

toes, and tomato sauce. 

— 4 la Toulouse. — Larded and braised white ; served with 

truffles, chicken quenelles, and cocks' combs ; pre- 
pared in allemande sauce ; garnished with fried 
bread croutons or fleurons. 

— & la Tnrque. — Blanched and braised, cut into slices, 

then egged, crumbed, and fried ; sauce tomate. 
au Vol-au-Vent. — White sweetbread stew in a light 
puff-paste crust. 

— !l la Vllleroi. — Braised sweetbread, sliced, coated with 

veloute sauce, egged, crumbed, and fried in butter ; 

garnished with fried parsley ; tomato sauce. 
Belgnets de Rls de Veau. — Sweetbread fritters. 
CoquiUes de Rls de Veau. — Sweetbread stew, baked in 

shells. 
Escalopes de Ris de Veau aux Huttres. — Slices of fried 

sweetbread, with stewed oysters as garnish. 

— ^ la Dorla. — Slices of braised sweetbread,, finished in 

veloutfe sauce ; garnished with cooked cucumber slices. 
HStelettes de Rls de Veau. — Larded sweetbread fried, 

grilled or broiled on silver skewers. 
PapUlotes de Veau i la Malntenon. — Boned veal cutlets, 

fried in butter, stufied with forcemeat and savoury 

herbs, wrapped in paper, and baked ; served with 

fried parsley. 



MEAT ENTRIES {VEAL). 175 

Mdgnon ite Veaw—Valfs Kidney. 

RSgnon de Veau k la Bordelaise.— Fried and stewed ; 
red wine sauce with chopped shallots and parsley, 
and dice shapes of fried potatoes. ■■ 

— 4 la Demldofl.— Sliced, fried in butter, with sliced 

mushrooms, chopped parsley, and stewed in sauce 
madSre ; dressed in border of stewed rice mixed with 
truffles. 

— en Demi-glace. — Veal kidneys, larded and braised 

whole ; served with demi-glace sauce 

— grinds. — Grilled veal kidneys, cut in halves and served 

with fried bacon. 

— 4 la Maitre d'HStel. — Stewed veal kidneys with sliced 

mushrooms and chopped parsley. 

— saut6s. — Thinly sliced veal kidney, tossed in butter, 

and stewed with onion sauce. 

— sautes au Vln blanc. — Sliced, sauteed, and stewed in 

white wine sauce. 

— sautes au Vln rouge. — Sliced, sauteed, and stewed in 

red wine sauce. 



Roulade de Veau au Madere. — Rolled fillet or boned loin 
of veal, stuffed and braised ; served with madSre 
sauce. 

Sauti de Veau ^ la Marengo. — Slices of cushion, neck, or 
loin of veal, fried and stewed, with sliced mushrooms, 
chopped shallots, tomato and espagnole sauce ; 
flavoured with sherry wine ; dished up in pyramid 
form ; garnished with eggs fried whole in very hot 
sweet oil, and bread croutons. 

Tendrons de Veau. — Veal gristles, or veal tendrons, cut 
off the thick end of the breast of veal and fried, and 
stewed in brown sauce. 

— aux Concombres. — Braised and garnished with stewed 

cucumbers. 

— k 1 'Indienne. — Stewed in curry sauce with slices of 

fried bacon and boiled rice. 

— 4 la Provenijale. — Fried in salad oil with finely 

chopped onions and herbs, drained, and stewed in 
a brown onion sauce. 

— frits k la Suisse. — Braised ; when cold cut into one 

inch thick slices, egged, crumbed, and fried ; tomato 
sauce. 

— au Velout^. — Braised white and stewed in veloute 

sauce. 

— i la Villerol. — Braised ; when cold, cut into slices, 

soaked in marinade, drained, dipped in frying batter, 
and fried : tomato sauced 



176 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Tete de Veau — Calfs Head. 

T6te de Veau t I'Amirieaine. — Stewed in tomato sauce, 
with peeled tomatoes, chopped parsley, and fennel. 

— & I'Anglalse. — Stewed in brown sauce, garnished with 

calf's brain fritters and sippets of bread. 

— & la Destilllire. — Stewed in brown sauce with sliced 

ox-tongue, gherkins and mushrooms ; garnished with 
pieces of calf's brain and slices of pickled beetroot. 

— Escalopes (de). — Boiled, cut in slices, steeped in oil and 

vinegar, sprinkled with chopped parsley, dipped in 
batter and fried. 

— trite k la Tartare. — ^Boiled, cut in pieces, pickled, 

egged, crumbed, and fried ; served with tartare sauce. 

— en fricassee. — Stewed in white sauce with sliced 

mushrooms. 

— aux huitres, — Stewed in white sauce with oysters. 

— i I'ltalienne. — Stewed in brown sauce, chopped mush- 

rooms, shallots, white wine, and tomato puree. 

— 4 la Maltre d'HStel. — Stewed in white sauce with 

choppted parsley ; maltre d'hotel sauce. 
^ 4 la Poulette. — Calf's head stewed in white sauce 
with sliced mushrooms and chopped parsley. 

— i la Robert. — Stewed in brown onion sauce. 

— d la Sainte-Menihould. — Boiled, dished in a well- 

buttered dish, covered with a mixture of veloute 
sauce, yolks of eggs and breadcrumbs, baked in the 
oven. 

— en Tortue. — Stewed in rich brown sauce with veal 

quenelles, button mushrooms, sliced trufBes, cocks' 
combs, cocks' kernels, crayfish tails, and pickled 
gherkins ; garnished with fried whole eggs and 
fleurons (little half-moon shapes of baked puff-pjiste). 

— i la TyroUenne. — Cooked in stock, cut in slices, egged, 

crumbed, and fried in butter ; garnished with fried 
parsley and lemon quarters ; sauce Tyrolienne, 

— 4 la Vinaigrette. — Boiled in stock and served with 

vinaigrette sauce ; garnished with hard-boiled eggs, 
anchovy fillets, and olives. 

Agneau et Mouton — Lamb and Mutton. 

Note. — Pr£-sal6 or Behagu6 denotes Southdown 
mutton, and is frequently quoted on menus for mutton. 

Blanquette d' Agneau k la Romaine.— A white stew of 
lamb (shoulder and breast pieces), enriched with 
egg-yolks, lemon juice and meat glaze ; garnished 
with small baked timbales of pur^e of artichoke 
bottoms. 



MEAT ENTREES (LAMB). 177 

CerveUes d'Agneau — Lamb's Brains. 

Cervelles d'Agneau au beurre noir. — Blanched lamb's 
brains, boiled and drained, with nut-brown butter 
poured over. 

— en coquilles.— Stewed sheep's brains, baked and served 

in shells. 

— Irltes. — Parboiled sheep's brains, egged, crumbed, and 

fried. 

— 4 la Mattre d'HStel. — Blanched sheep's brains cooked 

in white sauce with chopped parsley. 

— en Matelote. — Braised sheep's or lamb's brains with 

a red wine sauce ; served with small dice of broiled 
bacon and glazed button onions. 

— & la Rosita. — Croustades of fried bread with half a 

poached lamb's brain, sauced over with mornay 
sauce, sprinkled with parmesan, and baked ; dished 
in circle with fine macaroni, and shredded trufides in 
centre of dish. 

Beignets de Cervelles i, la Turquo. — Parboiled, seasoned, 
dipped in frying batter, fried, and served with 
tomato sauce. 

Chartreuse d'Agneau A, la Gastronome. — Boned breasts of 
lamb, stewed in white stock, cut into strips, ranged 
in a, chartreuse mould, alternately with braised 
lettuce steamed " au bain-marie," and served with 
demi-glace sauce. 

Carbonados d'Agneau k la Bechamel. — Larded fillets of 
lamb or mutton braised, and served with bechamel 
sauce. 

— d la Bretonne. — Cooked as above ; served with puree 

of white haricot beans. 

— & la Chartreuse. — Cooked as above, cut in slices, and 

dressed in a plain mould, with green peas, sprigs of 
cauliflower, and French beans ; demi-glace sauce. 

— 4 I'Osellle. — Cooked as above ; served with pur6e of 

sorrel. 

— sauce Poivrade. — Braised boned loin of lamb or 

mutton larded, served with poivrade sauce. 
Casserole k I'Anglaise. — Slices of lean lamb or mutton 
with suet crust, stock, and seasoning, stewed in 
earthenware pot. 

Cotelettes d'Agneau — Lamb Cullets. 

COtelettes d'Agneau i la Constance. — Breaded and fried 
with financiere ragout as garnish. 

— aux Concombres.-^Broiled or grilled with slightly 

fr;e(i cucunibers. 



178 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Cdtelettes d'Agneau k la Cussy.— Breaded and fried ; 
served with veloute sauce, mixed with cliopped 
cooked ox-tongue and mushrooms. 

— & la Ducbesse. — Braised, masked with duxelle puree, 

egged, crumbed, and fried ; dished up on a border of 
green peas pur6e ; served with sauce suprferne. 

— aux £pinards. — Grilled or fried ; garnished with 

spinach. 

— 4 la Jaidlnlire. — Breaded and fried ; served with 

stewed spring vegetables. 

— & la Longuet. — Partially cooked, pressed, and coated 

with villeroi sauce mixed with mustaoom and soubise 
purfee, then egged and crunibed, and fried in butter ; 
garnished with mushroom heads ; sauce demi-glace. 

— & la Maltalse. — Breaded and fried ; served with well re- 

duced sauce, composed of veloute sauce, sherry, leraou 
and orange juice, and finely shredded orange peel. 

— ft la Mar6chal. — Egged and cheese crumbed, fried, with 

bigarade sauce. 

— ft la Mlnute.^Plain grilled or fried ; served with gravy 

or demi-glace sauce. 
^- en paplUotes. — Par-broiled, wrapped in oiled paper with 
ends twisted, baked in the oven, and served 
with demi-glace sauce. 

— aux petits pols. — Broiled ; garnished with green peas. 

— ft la Princesse. — Par-fried, pressed, coated with chicken 

farce, mixed with finely chopped parsley, shallots, 
mushrooms, ham, lemon juice, and grated nutmeg ; 
when set, egged, crumbed, and fried ; dressed round 
a pur§e of green peas or asparagus. 

— ft la Robert. — Breaded and fried ; served with brown 

onion sauce. 

— ft la Royale. — Grilled, dressed en couronne, with foie- 

gras purfee and tomato pulp (mousse) in centre ; 
garnished with pommes souifl^es ; sauce madere. 

— ft la Sainte-Men6hould. — Stuffed from the sides with 

a mixture of bfechamel sauce, grated cheese, chopped 
shallots, mushrooms, sind parsley ; braised in the 
oven and served with Italian sauce. 

— ft la SIngarat. — Grilled or broiled ; served with finely 

shredded ox-tongue and onion pur6e. 

— anx truffes. — Grilled or broiled ; served with truffle 

sauce. 

— ft la Villeroi. — Broiled or grilled and pressed, dipped in 

velout6 sauce, rolled in crushed vermicelli, egged, 
crumbed, and fried in deep fat. 
RIs d'Agneau (Lamb's breads). — These can be treated 
in the same way as calf's sweetbreads {see Ris de 
Veau). Lamb's breads are also largely used as 
garnish for all kinds of entree?, 



MEAT ENTREES {MUTTON). 179 

Cdtelettes de Mouton — Mtitton Cutlets. 

CSteJsttes de Mouton h I'Avignonnaise. — Boiled or grilled, 
dressed in a circle on a baking dish, maslied with 
veloute sauce, sprinkled with breadcrumbs and 
parmesan cheese, and baked in the oven. 

— i la Bardoux. — Breaded, and broiled in butter ; served 

with green peas mixed with chopped fried ham. 

— ^ !a Bouchere. — Breaded and fried ; served plain or 

with gravy. 

— i la Byron. — Par-broiled, pressed, immersed in brown 

sauce, egged, crumbed, and fried ; dished up in a 
circle, with stewed kidneys in centre. 

— ^ la Chasseur. — Broiled, served with brown sauce 

containing finely chopped mushrooms. 

— S la Chatelaine.— Grilled mutton cutlets served round 
. a bed of soubise puree, surrounded by artichoke 

bottoms filled with petits pois (green peas) au beurre, 
and a slice of truffle on top ; demi-glace sauce. 

— d la Choiseuil. — Spread over with veal forcemeat, 

mixed with chopped herbs and mushrooms, wrapped 
in pig's or lamb's caul, dipped in oiled butter, rolled in 
fresh breadcrumbs, and fried ; tomato sauce. 

— d la Clamart. — Breaded, fried, dished up in a circle with 

pnr^e of green peas in centre ; demi-glace sauce. 

— a la Dreux. — Breaded and fried ; garnished with minced 

fried bacon, tongue, and gherkins ; dished up in a 
circle with mashed potatoes, in centre. 
— & la Finaneiere. — Larded, cooked in butter, sliced onion , 
carrot, and bay-leaf ; dressed in crown shapes, with 
financidre ragout in centre. 

— !l la Frangaise. — Breaded and fried in butter ; garnished 

with macedoine of vegetables ; sauce madere. 

— aux Haricots Verts. — Fried, garnished with French 

beans. 

— d, rindienne. — Breaded and fried, served with curry 

sauce and boiled rice. 

— ^ I'ltallenne. — Marinaded in a mixture of salad oil and 

chopped savour)' herbs, egged and crumbed in finely 
chopped mushrooms, parsley, shallots, lemon peel, 
a pinch of mace, and breadcrumbs, fried in butter ; 
Italian sauce. 

— 4 la Malntenon. — Split open from side, filled with a 

stuffing of chopped mushrooms, parslej^ shallots, 
and chicken forcemeat, broiled or baked in the oven, 
dressed alternately with heart shapes of tongue and 
ham ; Italian sauce. 

— ^ la Madras. — Breaded and fried (crumbs mixed with 

finely chopped ham) ; garnished with piccalilli cut 
in julienne shreds, and served with curry sauce. 



i8o PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Cdtelettes de Mouton ^ la Mancelle. — Plain broiled or grilled, 
dressed round a puree of chestnuts; demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Milanaise. — Grilled, dressed in the centre of a rice 

border, the rice being stewed with tomato puree and 
parmesan cheese ; demi-glace or tomato sauce. 

— ^ la Minute. — Plain grilled or broiled, with gravy or 

brown sauce, chopped mushrooms and shallots. 

— au naturel. — Plain broiled or grilled mutton cutlets. 

— ^ la Nelson. — Par-broiled and pressed, covered with 

chicken forcemeat, onion puree, and grated cheese, 
baked in the oven ; demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Nivernalse. — Plain broiled ; served with glazed 

turnips in centre ; gravy or demi-glace sauce. 

— & la Pompadour. — Stuffed with onion puree, fried, and 

garnished with stuffed tomatoes. 

— & la Proven; ale. — Par-broiled, one side coated with 

onion puree, egged, and breaded (crumbs mixed with 
grated cheese), -fried, and served with olive-shaped 
fried potatoes. 

— & la Purie de Pommes de Terre, — Breaded and fried, 

dressed round mashed potatoes. 

— ^ la R^forme.— Ireaded with white breadcrumbs, 

mixed with finely chopped ham, and fried in butter ; 
garnished with mushrooms, trufHes, gherkins, ham, 
and hard-boiled white of eggs, all cut into fine 
julienne strips, and served with poivrade sauce, 
mixed with red- currant jelly. 

— 4 la Salvanty. — Braised neck of mutton, divided into 

cutlets, dished up with pur^e of green peas in centre ; 
sauce demi-glace. 

— 4 la St. Cloud. — Larded with truffles and broiled ; 

served with gravy or demi-glace sauce. 

— & la St. Germain. — Grilled or broiled with green pea 

puree. 

— d la Soubise. — Broiled or braised with white onion 

soubise sauce. 

— & la Soyer. — Par-broiled and pressed, seasoned, 

sprinkled with finely chopped parsley, shallots, and 
savoury herbs, crumbed, and fried in butter, served 
with demi-glace sauce, and flavoured with garlic and 
red-currant jelly. 

— aux Tomates. — f",rumbed and fried, with stewed 

tomatoes or tomato pur6e. 

— A la Vatel. — Stuffed from tlie sides with chicken farce, 

mixed with chopped truffles, egged, crumbed, and 
fried ; garnished with financiSre ragout. 

— d la Vicomtesse. — Grilled and pressed, coated with 

reduced madSre sauce, egged, crumbed, and fried ; 
garnished with macidoine of spring vegetables ; 
demi-glace sauce. 



MEAT ENTR&ES {MUTTON). i8i 

Oarbonades de Mouton en RagoQt. — Stewed mutton, neck 
' or loin chops, with carrots, turnips, onions, and 
f mushrooms, and brown sauce, 

— ^ la Jardiniere. — A brown stew of mutton, garnished 

with a mixture of carrots, turnips, peas, and French 
beans. 

Epaule — Shoulder (lamb or mutton), 

Epaule d'Agneau (de Mouton) roul^e aux petits pois. — 

Boned, rolled shoulder of lamb, braised, served with 
green peas. 

— a la Bretonne. — Braised ; served with a puree of white 

haricot beans and denii-glace sauce. 

— brais^e aux trufles. — Boned, stuffed, and rolled, braised ; 

served with sliced truffles and demi-glace sauce. 

— A. la Chevet. — Boned, rolled, roasted, and glazed ; 

served with a brown sauce reduced with white wine, 
flavoured with chopped shallots and parsley. 

— glacie. — Boned, rolled, braised, and glazed ; served with 

demi-glace sauce. 

— a la Montmorency. — Boned, stuffed with forcemeat, 

larded and braised ; served with a garniture of cocks' 
combs, mushroom heads, truffles, chicken quenelles, 
and slices of sweetbread, done in veloute or allemande 
sauce. 

— ^ la Paysahne. — Boned and braised ; garnished with 

small stewed carrots, turnips, and peeled tomatoes ; 
demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Polonaise. — Boned, braised, and sliced ; dressed 

in the centre of a border of mashed potatoes ; sauced 
over with gravy, sprinkled over with fried bread- 
crumbs, and baked. 

— ^ la Sainte-MenShOuId. — Boned and braised, with 

carrots, turnips, bacon, and savoury herbs ; when 
done cut into slices, dished up, covered with brown 
sauce, breadcrumbs, and small pieces of butter, 
browned in a hot oven or under the salamander. 

— aux tomates farcies. — Braised with baked stuffed 

tomatoes and demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Windsor. — Boned, rolled, and braised ; garnished 

with cauliflower, carrots, turnips, capers, and fried 

potato croquettes ; espagnole sauce. 
Epigrammes. — Boned breast of lamb or mutton, braised 

or boiled, pressed, and cut into small portions 
coUops) ; denotes also a dish of alternate cutlets, cut 

from_the neck and the breast, according to the style 

adopted. 
Epigrammes d'Agneau (de Mouton) k la P^rigord. — 

Fried slices of lamb stewed in truffle sauce. 



1 82 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Epigrammes d'Agneau (de Moulon) aplapfiarna!s^r//7p^ 
pared as above ; when cold, coated with veloute J-ugg ' 
dipped in eggs and breadcrumbs, and fried in clariftv ' 
butter ; served with bearnaise sauce in the centre oi~ 
dish. 

— d'Agneaux i la Dauphlne. — Cooked, pressed, cut up, 

dipped in a mixture of butter and yolks of eggs, 
and crumbed, fried, and served with a puree of green 
peas and potato croquettes. 

— i la Mac6doine. — As above, with a mixture of vegetables 

in centre of dish ; gravy or demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Napolitaine. — ^Fried, served with stewed macaroni 

and tomato puree. 

— 4 la Parme.— Braised, pressed, cut up, egged, and 

crumbed in bread and grated parmesan cheese, and 
fried in butter. 

— au Pur6e de Marrons. — As above, with chestnut puree 

in centre of dish ; gravy or demi-glace sauce. 

— ^ la Soubise. — Prepared as above and fried in butter ; 

served with white onion puree in centre of dish ; 
demi-glace sauce. 
Escalopes. — Fillets or cutlets' cut from the neck or loin 
(chump end) of lamb or mutton, freed from bone or 
fat ; egged, crumbed, and fried in butter. 

— 4 la Chlpolata. — Crumbed and fried ; garnished with 

braised chestnuts, carrots, turnips, and button onions, 
pieces of fried sausages, and potato croquettes 

— aux fines herbes. — Broiled, served with a rich brown 

sauce, mixed with chopped shallots and parsley. 

— h \& Pur6e de Champignons. — Grilled or broiled, with 

puree of fresh mushrooms. 

Filets d'Agneau ou de Mouton — Fillets of 

Lamb or Mutton. 

These are obtained from the loin or neck of lamb or 
mutton, cut of usual thickness, and musl: be free from 
bone and fat. 

Filet de Mouton brais6 4 1'Anglaise. — Boned loin of mutton 
stufEed with forcemeat, braised, cut up and" dressed ; 
garnished with French beans. 

— & la Byron. — Grilled or broiled, coated with onion 

pur6e, and stewed sheep's kidne3rs in centre of dish. 

— & la Gascogne. — Larded with anchovy fillets, and 

braised ; served with brown sauce, flavoured with 
garlic. 

— i la Minute. — Grilled or broiled ; served with plain 

gravy. 

— i la Polonaise. — Larded, pickled, and braised ; gar- 

nished with stuffed mushrooms ; brown sauce. 



MEAT ENTREES '(MUTTON). 183 

; de Mouton braiss k la Venaison. — Larded and mari- 
naded whole in vinegar brine ; flavoured with cloves, 
juniper berries, peppercorns, and savoury herbs ; 
braised, and served with brown sauce enriched with 
sour cream. 

— t\a, Viiieroi. — Braised whole, cooled, cut up, and masked 

w;ith alletnande sauce, then egged and crumbed in 
bread and grated cheese, fried in deep fat, and served 
%vith tomato sauce. 
Fricassee d'Agneau. — Stewed breast of lamb in white 
sauce with mushrooms and chopped parsley. 

— aux Champignons. — Stewed breast of lamb in white 

sauce with sliced mushrooms. 

— aux Houblons. — Stewed breast of lamb with hop sprigs. 

— aux pointes d'Asperges. — Stewed breast of lamb with 

asparagus points. 
HSchis de Viande. — A superior kind of hashed or minced 
meat, lamb or mutton. 

— k I'Eeossaise. — Hashed or minced meat laid in a pie- 

dish ; seasoned, covered with brown or white sauce 
and breadcrumbs, and baked in the oven. 

— aux oeufs poclv^s. — Hashed or minced cold meat fried 

in butter and heated up in brown sauce, with poached 
eggs placed on top. 

— 4 la Pompadour. — Hashed meat, with stewed mush- 

rooms, truffles, and artichoke bottoms as garnish. 

— ^ la Portugaise. — Sliced cold lamb or mutton slightly 

browned in butter, with ham, carrots, and shallots, a 
little garlic, and parsley ; heated up in brown sauce. 
Haricot or RagoQt. — Pieces of loin or neck of mutton or 
lamb, fried in butter, with a few small turned carrots, 
turnips, and onions, drained, and stewed in brown 
sauce. 

— & la Bourgeoise. — Braised, with vegetables ; garnished 

with same, and small braised button onions and 
boiled potato dumplings. 

— 4 I'Eeossaise. — Stewed lamb in brown sauce, surrounded 

with small forcemeat timbales lined with thin pan- 
cakes. 

— a la Flamande. — Stewed in brown sauce, with spring 

vegetables cut into neat shapes. 

— 4 la Hessoise. — Par-fried, stewed in brown sauce ; 

served with sour-crout (chou-croute), and pieces of 
small ham sausages. 

— k I'Indienne. — Par-frieid, and stewed in curry sauce; 

served in a border of boiled rice. 

— a la Parisienne. — Par-fried, stewed in brown sauce, 

with cubes of carrots and turnips and fried button 
onions ; garnished with small round fried potatoes. 



1 84 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Haricot or Ragoflt aux Petits Pols. — Par-fried, stewed in 
brown sauce, with green peas. 

— & la Provencale. — Hashed, re-heated in brown onion 

sauce, and garnished with small stuffed tomatoes. 

Langues d'Agneau — Lamb's Tongues. 

Langues d la Duxelles.^-Braised, spread over with a mix- 
ture of breadcrumbs, chopped shallots, parsley, and 
mushrooms, butter, and egg-yolks, dressed on a dish, 
coated with duxelles sauce, and browned in a, sharp 
oven. 

— marin^es. — Pickled and broiled ; served with brown 

sauce. 

— au Madere. — Braised, in Madeira wine sauce. 

— il la Soubise. — Braised, served with white onion puree 

and demi-glace sauce. 

Langues de Mouton — Sheep's longues. 

Langues de Mouton bralsees i la Fran^aise. — Blanched 
and braised, split in half, and garnished with puree of 
turnips, braised button onions, and turned carrots ; 
brown sauce. 

— aux Olives. — Braised, with French olives ; brown sauce. 

— en papillotes. — Braised, dressed in paper cases, and 

glazed. 

— grill6es h la Suisse. — Cooked, split in halves, seasoned, 

dipped in butter and breadcrumbs, and grilled ; 
served with piquant sauce. 

Longe de Mouton — 1 oin of JUutton, 

Longe de Mouton en ChevreuU. — Boned loin of mutton 
stewed in a rich game stock, flavoured with savoury 
herbs, carrots, onions, peppercorns, and juniper 
berries ; served with port wine sauce. 

— A, la C61estine.— Braised, garnished with pancakes 

spread over with chicken farce, rolled, dipped in 
frying batter, and fried. 

— i la Demi-glace. — Braised, and served with demi- 

glace sauce. 



Noisettes de prt-sal6, ChStelalne.— Braised noisettes (fillets 
of mutton) dressed on halves of braised lettuce ; 
garnished with noisette potatoes and artichoke 
bottoms filled with chestnut pur6e ; sauce madfire. 

— Malntenon. — Small slices from neck or loin of mutton, 
free from bone and skin, breaded, and fried, dressed 
on croutons ; garnished with artichoke bottoms filled 
with green peas ; sauce demi-glace. 



, MEAT ENTRi:ES [LAMB). 185 

Noisettes d'Agneau au Chou.— Small lamb chops, freed 
from skin, fat, and bone, tossed in butter and braised, 
with small spring cabbages, 

Oreillcs — Ears. 

Oreilles d'Agneau. — Lamb's ears. 

— de Houton. — Sheep's ears. 

— d'Agneau farcies. — Stuffed lamb's ears, fried or braised. 

— frites, sauce Tomatei — Fried lamb's ears, with tomato 

sauce. 

— gratin§es. — Stewed lamb's ears, sauced over, breaded, 

and baked. 

— i I'Indienne. — Curried lamb's ears with boiled rice. 

— i, I'ltalienue. — Braised lamb's ears with Italian sauce. 

Pieds — Feet. 
Pieds d'Agneau. — Lamb's feet {see Pieds de Mouton). 

— de Mouton. — Sheep's trotters. 

— (arcis et braises. — Boiled, boned, stuflfed, and braised ; 

sauce demi-glace. 

— frits i, I'Horley. — Cooked in stock, boned, and cut in 

slices, marinaded in oil, vinegar, and herbs, dipped in 
frying batter, and fried in deep fat ; sauce tomate. 

— A I'Indienne. — Boiled, boned, egged, crumbed, and 

fried ; served with curry sauce and boiled rice. 

— d la Poulette. — Cooked in stock, boned, and stewed in 

white sauce, with sliced mushrooms, chopped parsley, 
and lemon juice. 

— ^ la Souennaise. — Boiled, boned, and stuffed with 

sausage meat, dipped in frying batter, and fried in 
hot fat ; served with piquant sauce. 

— frits i la Tartare. — Fried as above ; served with tartare 

sauce. 

— !k la Villeroi. — Boiled, boned, stuffed, rolled, coated 

with suprgme sauce, egged, and crumbed, and fried 
in deep fat. 



Poitrine d'Agneau. — Breast of lamb. 

— aux Asperges. — Biaised ; served with asparagus points. 

— d I'Espagnole. — Boned, stuffed, rolled, and braised; 

garnished with olives, and served with Spanish sauce. 

— ^ la Milanaise. — Braised ; dressed on a bed of rice, 

stewed in tomato sauce, etc. 

— farcie k la V6ry. — Boned, stuffed with veal forcemeat, 

and braised ; served with saut6 of French beans and 
demi-glace sauce. 

— d'Agneau 4 la Turque. — Boned, stuffed, with sausage 

meat, braised, dressed in a border of stewed rice, 
flavoured with saffron, sauced over with demi-glace. 



i86 PRACTIQAL GASTRONOMY. 

Poitrine de Mouton.— Breast of mutton. 

— aux Haricots Verts. — Braised ; served witii Frencli 

beans. 

— aux Macaroni. — Cut into pieces, stewed, and served 

with macaroni stewed in tomato sauce. 

— ^ la Nivernaise. — Stuffed and braised ; garnished with 

braised turnips and button onions. 
— ■ aux Petits Pois. — Slewed the same way as ragout or 
haricot ; served with green peas. 

— & la Robert. — Braised ; served with brown onion sauce. 



Queue d'Agneau. — Lamb's tail. 

— sauties. — Sheep's or lamb's tails fried in butter and 

stewed in brown sauce. 

— t\ZL pirrie de pois. — Stewed in brown sauce, dressed in 

a border of puree of green peas. 

— au Riz. — Stewed in brown sauce with rice. 
Queue de Moutoc. — Sheep's tail. 

— aux ^pinards.— Braised, served with spinach. 

— braisSes 4 la Franpaise. — Braised, with carrots, turnips, 

and small onions ; garnished with these vegetables 
and with fried potato balls. 

— si la Jardiniere. — Braised, served with neatly cut mixed 

spring vegetables. 



Rls d'Agneau aux Petits Pois. — Braised lamb's breads, 
larded ; served with green peas. 

— en ealsses. — Braised lamb's breads, served in paper 

cases. 

— frit. — Fried lamb's breads. 

— & la Jardiniere. — Braised lamb's breads, larded ; served 

with finely cut spring vegetables. 

— au riz. — Stewed lamb's breads with sliced mushrooms 

and white sauce ; served in a rice border. 



Coquilles de Ris d'Agneau. — Lamb's breads-stew baked 
in shells or cases. 

Mognons — Kidneys. 

RSgnons de Mouton. — Sheep's kidney. 

— au beurre d'Anchois. — Broiled or grilled, with anchovy 

butter in centre ; demi-glace sauce. 

— & la broche. — Grilled or broiled on skewers. 

— au Champagne. — Sliced, par-fried, and stewed with 

champagne and brown sauce. 

— 4 la Chlnoise. — Split, grilled, centres filled with stewed 

asparagus points, and garnished with whole fried 
eggs ; tomato sauce. 



MEAT ENTRIES (PORK). 187 

Rdgnons de Mouton i rEpleufienne. — SpHt open and 
broiled, the centres filled with tartare sauce ; garnished 
with small round fried potatoes ; poivrade sauce 
round dish. 

— dia Maitre d'HStel. — Skinned, split open, and broiled ; 

served with maitre d'hotel butter. 

— aux fines herbes. — Grilled or broiled, centre filled with 

parsley butter ; demi-glace sauce. 

— saut^es i, la Franpaise. — Sliced and seasoned, tossed, 

with butter over a quick fire, when partly done 
dredged with flour, and finished with demi-glace 
sauce ; garnished ^ with fried bread croutons, and 
sprinkled with chopped parsley 

— sautts au Madire. — Sliced, tossed in butter, and served 

with madSre sauce. 

— panSs. — Par-broiled split sheep's kidneys put on 

skewers, buttered, breadcrumbed, and baked in .the 
oven or fried in deep fat. 

— ft la Turblgo.— Sliced and stewed, with finely chopped 

shallots and white wine, mixed with thin slices of 
sausages and dice of fried lean bacon. 

Pore — Pork. 

(See also Light Entree Section.) 

Carbonade de Pore ft la Franpalse (Breast or Belly part). — 
Slices of fresh pork with vegetable garnish stewed 
in brown sauce. 

Carrfi de Pore ft la Nivernaise. — ^Braised neck of pork with 
glazed button onions and cubes of turnips. 

— brais^e, sauce Piquante. — Braised neck of pork with 

piquant sauce. 

— ft 1 'Indienne. — Curried neck of pork, with boiled rice. 

Cervelles de Pore ft la Demi-Glace. — Blanched pork brains 
stewed; in dpmi-glace sauce. 

— ft I 'Italienne. — Stewed in Italian sauce, with macaroni 

garnish. 
C6tes de Pore ft la, Diplomate. — Braised spare ribs of pork, 
garnished with stewed red cabbage, fried pork 
sausages, and stuffed potatoes. 

CStelettes de Pore griil^es. — Broiled pork cutlets. 

— aux fines herbes. — Broiled, and stewed in brown sauce 

containing chopped parsley and white wine. 

— aux Haricots blancs.- — Fried, served with purSe of white 

haricot Beans. 

— de Pore ft 1 'Indienne. — Par-fried, stewed m curry sauce, 

and served with boiled rice. 



i88 PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

Catelettes de Pore aux LentUles. — Braised or stewed, with 
a puree of lentils. 

— marin6es. — Pickled pork cutlets, fried in oil, stewed, 

and served in tomato sauce. 

— ^ la Navarraise. — Pickled, fried, and stewed in brown 

sauce with sliced tomatoes ; dressed on a bed of 
stewed rice. 

— aux Pommes. — Fried- pork cutlets or chops with 

apple sauce. 

— & la Robert. — Par-fried, and stewed in brown onion 

sauce. 

— d la Soubise.— Grilled or fried ; served with onion puree ; 

demi-glace sauce. 
Jambon grill6 aux petits pois. — Grilled ham with green 
peas. 

— k rAIsacienne. — Braised ham, with sour-crout, mashed 

potatoes, and Strasbourg sausages. 

— i I'Anglaise. — Parboiled ham, wrapped in a paste crust 

made of flour and water, and baked ; served with the 
crust and skin removed ; reduced wine sauce. 

— bouilli, sauee MadJre.— Boiled ham with Madeira wine 

sauce. 

— brais^ aux NouiUes. — Braised ham with nouilles as 

garnish. 

— brais6 au Champagne. — Braised ham with champagne 

sauce. 

— brals6 ^ la Franfaise. — Parboiled ham, braised in 

espagnole sauce, flavoured with sherry or Madeira 
wine, 
Jambon bralsfi ^ la Choucroute. — Braised ham with stewed 
choucroute (sauerkraut). 

— ik la Bayonnalse. — Braised ham with fried onions. 

dressed on stewed rice ; garnished with pieces of fried 
sausages ; demi-glace sauce. 

— & la Clamait. — Braised ham, glazed with reduced demi- 

glace ; garnished with puree of green peas. 

— & la Polonaise. — Braised ham, garnished with small 

timbales of peas, choucroute (sauerkraut), and small 
smoked pork sausages. 

— 4 la Russe. — Braised ham, with small stuffed spring 

cabbages and stewed rice. 
Beignets de Jambon (Ham Fritters). — Minced ham, mixed 

with yolk of eggs and bechamel sauce, shaped into 
- small rolls or balls, dipped in frying batter, and fried 

in fat. 
Jarrets de Pore marine 4 I'AUemande.— Boiled pickled 

knuckles of pork with stewed sauerkraut, forcemeat 

dumplings, and white sauce. 



MEAT ENTRIES {PORK). 189 

Langues de Pore i I'ltalienne.— Braised pork tongues with 
brown sauce and chopped preserved mushrooms. 

— it la Lyonnaise. — Boiled with fried sliced onions and 

brown sauce. 

Oreilles de Pore en Vinaigrette. — Boiled pickled pig's ears 
with vinaigrette sauce ; garnished with hard-boiled 
eggs, capers, gherkins, and olives. 

— frites, sauce Tartare. — Boiled, soaked in oil and chopped 

herbs, dipped in frying batter and fried ; served with 
tartare sauce. 

— en Menus Droits. — Pickled, braised, and served with 

finely sliced fried onions. 
Palais de Pore grating. — Boiled pig's palate, seasoned, 
dressed in a gratin dish with bechamel sauce, sliced 
mushrooms, breadcrumbs, and small pieces of butter, 
baked in a quick oven. 

— aux Champignons. — Stewed pig's palate with sliced 

mushrooms. 
Pleds de Cochon au Champagne. — Pickled pig's feet, 
stewed in champagne sauce. 

— en Fricassee.— Fricasseed pig's feet (white sauce and 

mushrooms). 

— au Madere. — Stewed pickled pig's trotters (pig's feet), 

with madere sauce. 

— farcis A, la P6rigueux. — Pickled, stuffed with finely 

chopped truffles, braised, and served with truffle 
sauce. 

— sauce Piquante. — Pickled pig's feet, stewed and served 

in piquant sauce. 

— ^ la Sainte-Men^hould. — Pickled, boned, boiled, and 

stuffed, dipped in frying batter, fried in deep fat ; 
served with piquant or Robert sauce. 
Saucisses"" de Pore aux truffes. — Fresh German pork 
sausages (Bratwurste) fried ; served with truffle sauce. 

— 4 la ' Lyonnaise. — Fried pork sausages with braised 

sliced onions, 

— d la Purfie de Pommes de Terre. — Fried pork sausages 

with mashed potatoes, 
TSte de Pore 4 la Poulette. — Boiled pickled pig's head 
with parsley sauce. 

— frite, sauce R6mouiade. — Boiled pickled pig's head, cut 

in small pieces, egged, crumbed, and fried ; served 
with remoulade sauce and fried parsley. 

— &\a Mobile. — Braised salted pig's head, with fried sliced 

tomatoes ; dished on stewed rice ; demi-glace sauce. 

* Saucisse usually stands for fresh sausage, whilst saucisson denotes 
smoked sausage. 



igo PRACTICAL GASTRONOMY. 

VOLAILLE— POULTRY. 
Canard — Duck : or Caneton — Duckling. 

Canard (or Caneton) bra1s§ aux Petits Pois. —Braised duck 
with green peas. 

— 4 rAmiricaine. — Duck divided down the middle, 

rubbed over with a mixture of French mustard, 
chutney sauce, and seasoning, broiled in butter ; 
served with brown sauce containing white wine, 
chopped lemon, pickles, and preserved mushrooms. 

— i la Blgarade. — Braised duck with orange sections and 

bigarade sauce. 

— t la Bordelaise. — Boned, stuffed, and braised, served 

with bordelaise sauce. 

— en casserole. — Braised and served in earthenware fire- 

proof casserole, with demi-glace or other browiL 
sauce. 

— & la Chasseur. — Par-roasted, and stewed in brown 

sauce with chopped mushrooms and fillets of game. 

— en ehemlse. — StufEed and braised like "Rouennaise," 

wrapped in pig's caul, and finished "en casserole"; 
rouennaise sauce.- 

— d la ehlpolata. — Braised in casserole, with reduced 

demi-glace and chipolata garniture. 

— !l la Duclair. — Stuffed with the hearts and livers, 

finely chopped shallots, parsley, and seasoning, 
roasted, and sauced with demi-glace reduced with 
claret, orange juice, and chopped chives. 

— Escalopes or Filets de Canard. — Breast part of duck or 

duckling, braised and cut into slices, served with 
suitable sauce. 

— braisi A, la Fran^alse. — Braised (breast larded), stuffed 

with chestnuts, chopped onions, and savoury herbs ; 
served with port-wine sauce. 

— & 1 'Itallenne. — Par-roasted, cut up, fried in oil, with 

chopped chives, parsley, and herbs, stewed in Italian 
sauce. 

— & la Lyonnaise. — Braised, liquor reduced to demi- 

glace, with small glazed button onions and glazed 
chestnuts. 

— & la Moll^fb. — Boned, stuffed w.ith liver farce, and 

braised ; sauce madSre. 

— aux Navets. — Stewed duck with new turnips. 

— & la Nlvelle. — Boned, and stuffed with chopped ham 

and beef, braised, cut up, and sauced over with 
demi-glace. 



POULTRY ENTRIES (DUCK). 191 

Canard t la Nivernaise. — Braised, with glazed turnips and 
button onions, and demi-glace sauce. 

— aux Olives. — Stewed duck with olives and brown sauce. 

— d 1 'Orange. — Braised, with sections of orange, glazed ; 

orange ilavoured brown sauce. 

— k l& Palestine. — Braised, with quarters of Jerusalem 

articholjes and demi-glace sauce. 

— au Porto. — Par-roasted, and braised in casserole, with 

port-wine sauce. 

— i la Proven^ ale. — Broiled, and stewed in brown sauce ; 

garnished with braised carrots, turnips, and button 
onions. 

— ^ la Presse. — Roast fillets and wing portions removed, 

carcase chopped and pressed, and the juice thus 
obtained is blended with chopped liver and port- 
wine sauce ; this, is strained over the dish. 

— sk la Routiere. — Roasted, and served with brown 

sauce containing finely chopped duck liver, duck 
juice, and shallots. (Ducklings or ducks can be 
served in the same manner as a roast by stuiifing 
them with a mixture of breadcrumbs, chopped 
, livers and hearts,, herb seasoning, chopped parsley 
and shallots, egg,' and fresh butter.) 

— i la Rouennaise. — Boned, stuffed with liver farce, and 

braised ; demi-glace sauce, reduced with Burgundy 
wine. 

— 4 la Saint-Mand6. — Braised, and served with madfird 

sauce ; garnished with thick slices of cooked cucumber, 
slightly fried in butter, and fried bread croutons. 

— & la Valeneienne. — Roasted, garnished with rows of 

slices of orange, and served with orange sauce. 

— saut6 au PScheur. — Par-fried, and stewed in demi-glace 

sauce ; garnished with crayfish-tails. 

— ^ la R^forme. — Par-roasted, and stewed in brown 

sauce, reduced with black-currant jelly and port wine. 

Croustade de Canard t la Chariraine. — French raised pie 
crust lined with forcemeat and filled alternately with 
sausage meat and stewed fillets of duCk, baked in 
the oven. 

Darioles de Canard k la St. Germain. — Dariole shapes made 
of braised duck, made into souffle and poached or 
steamed ; garnished with paste crusts (tartlet 
shapes), filled with green pea puree, and glazed 
tangerine sections ; hot zingara sauce. 

Mousse deCaneton. — A light souffle of duckling, with 
garniture of oranges, cherries, or vegetable puree ; 
- Rouennaise or bigarade sauce.