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From the collection of the 


o Irrelinger 

u v 


San Francisco, California 













MAR.,13 1979 



wvais" " wros 

W Y M I N G 

JUL 1 7 1980 


APR 6 1982 

j 07 Mtt^pgmp-^ 


JAN S o 1982 

MAY 61986 

* I 

917.86 F29m 1140134 
Federal writers 1 project. 

Kansas city ) j public library 

iSSiSM * 

Books will be issued only 

i of library card. 
Please report lost cards and 

change of residence promptly. 
Card holders are responsible for 

all books, records, films, pictures 
or other library materials 
checked out on their cards. 


A $#* Guide Book 

APR 1 5 1986 



Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project 

of the Work Projects Administration 

for the State of Montana 



Sponsored by Department of Agriculture, Labor 
and Industry, State of Montana 





F. C. HARRINGTON, Commissioner 

FLORENCE KERR, Assistant Commissioner 

HENRY G. ALSBERG, Director of the Federal Writers' Project 




All rights are reserved, including the right to reproduce this book 
or parts thereof in any form. 


THE first Montana guidebook, published in 1865, described only one 
route the Mullan Military Wagon Road, completed in 1862 but took 
in a Jot of territory nevertheless. Its formidable title was Miners and 
Travelers' Guide to Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, 
and Colorado, and its author, Captain John Mullan, was the builder of 
the road. The captain started his single "tour" at Walla Walla, Washing- 
ton, and carried it across mountains of Idaho and Montana, and through 
the Clark Fork, Little Blackfoot, Prickly Pear, and Sun River Valleys to 
Fort Benton, allowing 47 days for the 624-mile trip. He described Indians 
and road conditions likely to be encountered; gave detailed advice on 
equipment, supplies, and care of horses and wagons ; and declined respon- 
sibility for the welfare of travelers who took unauthorized short cuts : 

"42nd day Move to Bird Tail Rock, 15 miles; road excellent; water 
and grass at camp; willows for fuel but scant; it would be wise to pack 
wood from the Dearborn or Sun Rivers, according to which way you are 
traveling. . . . 

"47th day Move to Fort Benton, 27 miles if you camp at the springs, 
or ii miles if you camp at Big Coulee. The latter never was a portion of 
my road, but was worked out by Major Delancey Floyd Jones, and I am 
not responsible either for its location or the character of the work per- 

Today Mullan's road is obliterated from the landscape and from the 
memories of all but the oldest pioneers; a network of modern highways 
spans the "northwestern territories" he wrote about. The Miners and 
Travelers' Guide still exists to tell in what manner travelers once made 
their difficult and devious way across the plains and "shining mountains," 
but its life as a guidebook ended in the i88o's. Now, after a hiatus of 
two or three generations this volume presents the Montana of 1939 with 
the background of a relatively short but fascinating past, against which 
are set the immediate daily experiences and concerns of the people, and 
the patterns of contemporary economic, social, and cultural life. It at- 
tempts to convey an impression of the beautiful and varied natural setting 
in Montana's recreational areas. 

The Writers' Project is deeply inaeDted to many governmental agencies 

2. so H40134 - 

loca State, and 'Federal, Vd cornmerml associations and travel agencies, 
to historical societies ^anti'Lt^iialtiyj public and private libraries for infor- 
mation and assistance. Various faculty members of Montana State Uni- 
versity and Montana "State" College acted as consultants in their respective 
professional fields. Major Evan W. Kelley, Regional Forester, U. S. For- 
est Service, placed the informational resources of the regional offices at 
the disposal of the project. Mr. George C. Ruhle, Associate Park Natu- 
ralist, and Mr. Channing Howell, Park Ranger, were consultants for the 
Glacier National Park chapter. Mr. James Willard Schultz and the late 
Mr. Frank B. Linderman contributed authentic material concerning sev- 
eral Indian tribes and reservations. 

Miss Esther Leiser, Reference Librarian, Missoula Public Library, Miss 
M. Catherine White, Reference Librarian, Montana State University, and 
Mrs. Anne McDonnell, Assistant Librarian, Montana State Historical 
Library, rendered valuable research assistance. Finally, thanks are due to 
Dr. Paul C. Phillips, State Director of the Historical Records Survey of 
the Works Progress Administration, and to Dr. H. G. Merriam, Professor 
of English, Montana State University, who critically read the final copy. 

BYRON CRANE, State Director 





/. Montana: The General Background 














//. Cities and Towns 


BUTTE 136 




///. Tours 

TOUR i. (Beach, N. D.)-Billings-Butte-Missoula- 

(Wallace, Idaho), us lO-ioS 185 

Section a. North Dakota Line to Billings 185 


Section b. Billings to Junction with us loN-ioS 194 

Section c. Junction with us loN to Garrison 204 

Section d. Garrison to Idaho Line 209 

TOUR lA. Junction with us loS-Townsend-Helena-Garrison. 

us loN 217 

TOUR 2. (Williston, N. D.)-Havre-Kalispell- 

(Bonners Ferry, Idaho), us 2 223 

Section a. North Dakota Line to Havre 223 

Section b. Havre to Browning Junction 233 

Section c. Browning Junction to Idaho Line 239 

TOUR 2A. Fort Belknap Agency-Hay s-Zortman. 

unnumbered road, STATE 19 247 

TOUR 3. Junction with us 89-Lewiston-Billings- 

(Sheridan, Wyo.). US 87 250 

Section a. Junction with us 89 to Billings 250 

Section b. Billings to Wyoming Line 259 

TOUR 4. (Calgary, Alta.) -Browning-Great Falls-Livingston- 

(Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyo.). us 89 264 

Section a. Canadian Border to Great Falls 264 

Section b. Great Falls to Livingston 268 

Section c. Livingston to Wyoming Line 272 

TOUR 5. Bozeman-Gallatin Gateway-West Yellowstone 

(St. Anthony, Idaho), us 191 274 

TOUR 6. (Lethbridge, Alta.) -Great Falls-Helena-Butte- 

(Idaho Falls, Idaho), us 91 280 

Section a. Canadian Border to Great Falls 280 

Section b. Great Falls to Butte 283 

Section c. Butte to Idaho Line 289 

TOUR 7. (Cranbrook, B. C)-Kalispell-Missoula-Hamilton- 

(Salmon, Idaho), us 93 293 

Section a. Canadian Border to Kalispell 293 

Section b. Kalispell to Missoula 295 

Section c. Missoula to Idaho Line 300 

TOUR 8. Helena-Lincoln-Bonner-Junction with us 10. 

unnumbered road, STATE 20, STATE 31 304 


TOUR 9. (Charbonneau, N. D.)-Fairview- Jordan-Grass Range. 

STATE 14, STATE 1 8 312 

TOUR 10. (Moose Jaw, Sask.) -Glasgow-Miles City- 
Wyoming Line-(Belle Fourche, S. D.). STATE 22 317 

Section a. Canadian Border to Glasgow 317 

Section b. Glasgow to Miles City 319 

Section c. Miles City to Wyoming Line 322 

TOUR 10A. Wheeler-Fort Peck-Fort Peck Rd. 324 

Forsyth-Roundup-White Sulphur Springs-Townsend. 

STATE 6 326 

TOUR 11. 

TOUR 12. Ravalli-Plains-Thompson Falls-(Sand Point, Idaho). 

STATE 3 332 

TOUR 13. Laurel-Rockvale-Warren-(Lovell, Wyo.). us 310 338 

TOUR 13A. Rockvale-Red Lodge-Cooke- 

(Yellowstone National Park). STATE 32 340 

TOUR 14. (Manyberries, Alta.) -Havre-Great Falls. STATE 29 348 
TOUR 15. Junction with us icS-Ennis-Junction with us 191. 

STATE I 354 

TOUR 1 6. Junction with us loS-Virginia City-Ennis. 

STATE 41, STATE 34 356 

TOUR 17. (Bowman, N. D.) -Baker-Miles City, us 12 363 

TOUR 18. Junction with us loS-Anaconda-Philipsburg- 

Drummond. us loA 368 

PARK TOUR 1. St. Mary-Logan Pass-Lake McDonald-Belton 

Going-to-the-Sun Highway 384 

PARK TOUR IA. Apgar-Canadian Border 390 

PARK TOUR 2. Junction with us 2-Two Medicine Chalets 392 

PARK TOUR 3. Junction with us 89- 

Rocky Mountain Trail Ranch 393 

PARK TOUR 4. Babb-Many Glacier Hotel 393 

TRAIL TOUR 1. Going-to-the-Sun-Many Glacier- 
Lake McDonald-Going-to-the-Sun 
Piegan Pass Trail, Going-to-the-Sun Trail, 
unnamed park trails 395 

TRAIL TOUR 2. Glacier Park Station to Scenic Point Mount 

Henry Trail 40 1 



Photograph by C. Owen Smithers 


Photograph from Haynes Picture Shops, Inc. 


Photograph by Clara and Channing Howell 


Photograph from Bureau of American Ethnology 


Photograph from Jorud Photo Shop 


Photograph from Montana Highway Commission 


Photograph by C. Owen Smithers 


Photograph from Montana Highway Commission 


Photograph by C. E. Martin 


Photograph by C. Owen Smithers 


Photograph by C. Owen Smithers 


Photograph by C. Owen Smithers 


Photograph jrom Anaconda Copper Mining Company 


Photograph by John J. Yaw 


Photograph by K. D. Swan for United States Forest Service 


Photograph from Jorud Photo Shop 


'Photograph from Jorud Photo Shop 


Photograph from McKay Art Company 


Photograph from Farm Security Administration 


Photograph from Farm Security Administration 


Photograph from Jorud Photo Shop 



Photograph from Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad 


Photograph by C. Owen Smithers 


Photograph from Montana Highway Commission 


Photograph by C. Owen Smithers 


Photograph from Farm Security Administration 


Photograph from Farm Security Administration 

MOOSE 239 

Photograph by Clara and Channing Howell 


Photograph by Clara and Channing Howell 


Photograph by C. Owen Smithers 


Photograph from Farm Security Administration 


Photograph from Montana Highway Commission 


Photograph from Montana Highway Commission 


Photograph from Montana Highway Commission 


Photograph from Jorud Photo Shop , 


Photograph by C. Owen Smithers 


Photograph from Montana Highway Commission 


Photograph by C. Owen Smithers 


Photograph from Montana Highway Commission 


Photograph by G. Buckner 


Photograph by C. Owen Smithers 


Photograph by K. D. Swan for United States Forest Service 


Photograph by K. D. Swan for United States Forest Service 


Photograph from Flash Studio 


Photograph from Flash Studio 


Photograph from Flash Studio 

FORT BENTON, 1869 352 

Photograph from Jorud Photo Shop 


Photograph from Montana Highway Commission 


Photograph by K. D. Swan for United States Forest Service 


Photograph from Montana Highway Commission 


Photograph from Anaconda Copper Mining Company 


Photograph from Anaconda Copper Mining Company 


Photograph by Clara and Channing Howell 


Photograph by Clara and Channing Howell 


Photograph by Clara and Channing Howell 

FAWN 399 

Photograph from Jorud Photo Shop 


Photograph by Clara and Channing Howell 


STATE MAP back pocket 

TRANSPORTATION MAP back of State map 

TOUR MAP front end paper 

BILLINGS Pages 130 and 131 

BUTTE 142 and 143 

GREAT FALLS 154 and 155 

HELENA 162 and 163 

MISSOULA 176 and 111 


General Information 

(For highways and other transport routes, see State and special maps 
in pocket of back cover.) 

Railroads: Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific (the Milwaukee) ; 
Northern Pacific (NP) ; Great Northern; Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
(the Burlington) ; Union Pacific (UP) ; Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault 
Ste. Marie (the Soo) ; Butte, Anaconda & Pacific (BAP) ; Gilmore & 
Pittsburgh; Montana Western; White Sulphur Springs & Yellowstone 
Park; Montana, Wyoming & Southern. Direct service to Glacier and Yel- 
lowstone National Parks in season (June i5~Sept. 15). (See TRANS- 

Bus Lines: Northland Greyhound (Chicago to Seattle) ; Washington 
Motor Coach (intrastate and interstate; connections with Northland Grey- 
hound) ; Burlington Transportation (Billings to Denver) ; Intermountain 
Transportation (Great Falls to Salt Lake City) ; Meisinger's Stages (Mis- 
soula to Salmon, Idaho) ; Butte-Deer Lodge Transport; Interstate Transit 
(Williston, N. D. Eastern Montana) ; Motor Transit. Feeder lines to 
main bus and rail routes. 

Air Lines: Northwest Airlines (Chicago to Seattle) lands at Glendive, 
Miles City, Billings, Butte, Helena, and Missoula; Wyoming Air Service 
(Billings to Pueblo, Colo.); Western Air Express (Great Falls to Salt 
Lake City) stops at Helena and Butte, and in season at West Yellowstone, 
western gateway to Yellowstone National Park. (See TRANSPORTA- 

Highways: Nine US, transcontinental or with transcontinental or inter- 
national connections. Two E.-W. main routes (US 2 and 10), 4 N.-S. 
(US 87, 89, 91, and 93). Arterials mostly oiled; laterals graded and 
graveled. Winter travelers should ascertain road conditions. Especially 
spectacular highways are Going-to-the-Sun (Glacier National Park) and 
Red Lodge-Cooke City (Absaroka National Forest and Beartooth Mrs.), 
open during summer tourist season. State highway commission maintains 
nine "ports of entry" which provide maps, pamphlets, and information 
concerning parks, Indian reservations, fishing streams, dude ranches, ho- 



tels and resorts. Roadside epigraphs mark historic points. Inspection at 
Canadian border. Gas tax, 60. 

Mountain and Forest Trails for hiking and riding number hundreds. Maps 
are available at U. S. Forest Service offices in Livingston (Absaroka Na- 
tional Forest), Billings (Custer), Dillon (Beaverhead), Hamilton (Bit- 
terroot), Thompson Falls (Cabinet), Kalispell (Flathead), Butte (Deer 
Lodge), Bozeman (Gallatin), Helena (Helena), Great Falls (Lewis and 
Clark), Libby (Kootenai), Missoula (Lolo). 

Motor Vehicle Laws are enforced by State Highway Patrol. Speed limit 
on marked curves, 40 m. ; in towns on Federal highways, 25 m. Hand 
signals. Vehicles entering main highways stop, yielding right-of-way to 
vehicles already on highways. Vehicles broken down must be marked at 
night by front and rear flares or lanterns, and be removed from roadway 
as soon as possible. School zone and other markers must be observed; 
cattle crossings are marked at 600 ft. Prohibited are reckless driving at 
any speed, passing on hills or where view is obstructed, and parking on 
highways. (For local regulations, see CITIES.) 

Accommodations: All types in larger cities; comfortable in most villages. 
Modern tourist camps (many municipal) and camping or picnic sites on 
all highways. Widely varying dude ranch accommodations, from $25 wk. 
Cabins and hotels at mountain and hot springs resorts; the latter usually 
have warm and cold plunges as well as natural hot baths. No scarcity of 
accommodations except in cities when annual or special events draw large 
crowds. Many dude ranches, hot springs resorts, and mountain lodges 
offer reduced winter rates. 

Climate and Equipment: Summer travelers should be prepared for warm 
days and cool nights. Medium- weight clothing and coat or sweater for 
evening wear are sufficient in general, but vacations at high altitudes re- 
quire a supply of warm clothing. In regions infested by wood ticks, cloth- 
ing should be selected that will prevent the ticks from reaching the skin. 
For outings, old clothes and light but strong shoes with flexible cord or 
rubber composition soles are best ; hobnails are seldom an advantage. Suit- 
able equipment is sold in all Montana trading centers. Guides (licensed 
by the State fish and game commission) and horses may be obtained 
through chambers of commerce or game wardens. For winter vacations, 
heavy outdoor clothing is needed. 

(Recreational Areas: See Recreation, "Forests, Glacier National Park, 
Tours, State map.) 


Pishing: Season, May 21 to March 14 of following year. Licenses: resi- 
dent, $2 (includes upland and migratory bird hunting license) ; non- 
resident, $3.50; special ic-day tourist, $1.50; alien, $10; issued by game 
wardens, sporting goods dealers, highway "ports of entry." All except 
special tourist licenses expire April 30 succeeding date of issue. Licenses 
not required of children under 15, or of visitors in Glacier National Park. 
Daily limit, 25 game fishes or 20 Ibs. and i fish; 5 fishes less than 7 in. 
long, except sunfish, yellow perch, ringed perch. In Glacier Park the limit 
(variable) is 10 fishes per day per person in most waters. Game fish may 
be taken only by hook and line, with rod in hand. Defined as game fish 
are trout (mountain, rainbow, cutthroat or native, eastern brook, Dolly 
Varden, Loch Leven, Steelhead, Mackinaw) ; salmon (chinook, silver, 
sockeye) ; grayling; Rocky Mountain whitefish; perch (yellow, ringed); 
black bass (large-mouth, small-mouth); sunfish; northern pickerel; pike 
(wall-eyed, yellow, great northern). 

Game Birds: Upland game-bird hunting season, variable. Licenses: resi- 
dent, $2 (see Fishing); non-resident, $10; alien, $50 (includes fish and 
big game licenses). Limit, 3 male birds a day. Defined as upland game 
birds are grouse (sharp-tailed, blue, sage, ruffed); prairie chicken; fool 
hen; quail; ptarmigan; wild turkey; Hungarian partridge; Chinese (ring- 
necked) pheasant. Hunting of migratory waterfowl (wild duck, wild 
goose, brant) is subject to Federal regulations under the Migratory Bird 
Act. (See FAUNA.) 

Big Game: Regulations vary from region to region. General deer and elk 
hunting season, Oct. i5~Nov. 15; bear, Oct. i5~May 14 of following 
year. Antelope, moose, caribou, and buffalo may not be taken, nor may 
cub bears or female bears with cubs. State fish and game commission may 
open any region to hunting of Rocky Mountain sheep and goats for lim- 
ited periods. Deer and elk hunting restricted to definite areas. Limit, i, 
male deer with horns 4 in. or longer; i bull elk (in some sections, i elk 
of either sex). Licenses: resident, $3; non-resident, $30; alien, $50 (resi- 
dent and alien licenses cover all hunting and fishing). Predatory animals 
may be hunted and trapped without license. Prohibited: hunting in Gla- 
cier National Park; hunting game birds or animals from automobile, air- 
plane, powerboat, sailboat, or any power-towed device. Hunters should 
obtain additional information when purchasing license. 

Camping Restrictions: When fire hazard is great, travelers may have to 
obtain permits (issued at points of entry; no red tape) before entering 
national forests. Ax, shovel, and water bucket must be carried. All trav- 


elers must obey the following Forest Fire Prevention Rules: In making 
camp, scrape away all inflammable material from a spot 5 ft. in diameter. 
Dig hole in center and keep your fire in the hole. Keep it small. Do not 
build fire near trees, logs, or brush. Be sure matches, pipe ashes, cigarette 
and cigar stubs are dead before throwing away ; even then, don't toss into 
brush, leaves, or needles; step on them, break matches in two. In break- 
ing camp, stir coals while soaking with water. Turn small sticks, and 
drench both sides. Wet ground around fire. If without water, stir in earth 
and tread down until packed tightly over and around fire. Be sure the last 
spark is dead. 

Liquor Regulations: Intoxicating liquors are dispensed by Montana State 
Liquor Stores and licensed dealers in all cities and county seats and many 
villages. State Stores generally open daily from 12 m. to 8 p.m., except 
Sundays and holidays, but local regulations vary. Saloons open 8 a.m. to 
2 a.m.; Sundays and holidays i p.m. to 2 a.m. Purchasers' permit 50^ a 
year; non-residents' permit (good for 30 days) 50$. Liquor may not be 
consumed on store premises or purchased by minors (under 21). Beer 
(4% ) is sold at bars, taverns, gardens, restaurants, and hotels. 

Precautions: Sunburn should be guarded against at high elevations. Carry 
cold cream on hikes. On glacier and mountain trips, protect the eyes with 
amber goggles. Use extreme care in the matter of drinking water. Spring 
water at its source is safe, as is mountain water at high altitudes (usually) 
and water at designated public campgrounds. Water from rivers or aban- 
doned wells is unsafe. 

Snakes: Rattlesnakes occur in the western valleys and south of the Mis- 
souri River on the plains; abundant in some areas. High-top shoes and 
stout leggings protect the legs; use hands sparingly in climbing over 
rocky places. In treatment of rattlesnake bite, a ligature, preferably rub- 
ber, should be bound above the wound, which should be opened by an 
incision not deeper than 14 m - Suck the wound, if necessary, to induce 
bleeding; but lips and mouth should be free from sores. Do not cauterize. 
Do not take whisky. Get a doctor. 

Mosquitoes, while not a disease-carrying species, are a nuisance in some 
areas. A low smudge is of aid in driving them away. So is a vessel of oil 
of citronella mixed with an equal amount of spirits of camphor and half 
as much oil of cedar. Soap rubbed on bites eases discomfort. Ammonia 
and alcohol in equal parts also help. 

Wood Ticks: Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a very serious disease car- 
ried to man exclusively by wood ticks. To infect, a tick must penetrate the 


skin enough to feed, remaining for 2 hrs. or longer. Hikers and campers 
in tick-infested country should not wear shorts or other clothing that does 
not protect the skin. They should examine the body and clothing fre- 
quently, and take advantage of the vaccination offered by the United States 
Public Health Service. In removing a tick from the body, a firm straight 
pull is best. Treat bite immediately with silver-nitrate or other cauterants. 
Tick season: early spring until about mid-July, depending upon condi- 
tions of moisture and heat. (See FAUNA.) 

Black Widow Spiders are few in number. They are small, shiny black, 
and marked with a red hourglass on lower surface of abdomen. Treatment 
for bite: put patient to bed; apply iodine to wound, and give large quan- 
tities of non-alcoholic fluids to drink. Get a doctor. 

Public Information Service: Montanans, Inc., Gold Block, Helena ; Montana 
Highway Commission, Helena; Highway Commission ports of entry at 
Columbia Falls, Monida, West Yellowstone, Gardiner, Rockvale, Wyola, 
Miles City, Culbertson, and junction of US 10 and 93 NW. of Missoula; 
Highway Patrol officers ; regional headquarters of the U. S. Forest Service, 
Missoula; forest supervisors' headquarters at Livingston, Dillon, Hamil- 
ton, Thompson Falls, Billings, Butte, Bozeman, Kalispell, Helena, Libby, 
Great Falls, and Missoula; all ranger stations; chambers of commerce in 
the larger cities; Montana Automobile Association offices at chambers of 
commerce or largest hotels in Missoula, Kalispell, Butte, Great Falls, 
Helena, Billings, Havre, Glendive, Glasgow, Hamilton, Lewistown, Miles 
City, Livingston, and Wolf Point. 


Calendar of Events 

("nfd" means no fixed date) 

Jan. ist week 
Jan. nfd 

Feb. pre-Lenten 

May ist week 

May ist week 

May 17 

May nfd 

June 13 

June 24 

June ist week 

June 4th week 

June nfd 

July 3-5 


Winter Sports Carnival (4 days) 
Blue Jay Dance at Flathead Reser- 






ist week 

ist week 
ist week 
2nd week 
2nd week 
3rd week 

3rd week 
3rd week 
4th week 

July nfd 


Butte, Anaconda, Great Mesopust Croatian Celebration 

Havre Music Festival 

Camas Prairie Bitterroot Feast of Flathead Indians 

Sheridan County Norwegian Independence Day 

Missoula Interscholastic and Intercollegiate 

Butte Miners' Union Day 

Frenchtown St. John's Day 

Hardin Rodeo 

Rocky Boy Reservation Rocky Boy Indian Ceremonial Dances 

State-wide Sheep Shearing 


ist week 
ist week 
2nd week 

Red Lodge, Butte, Kali- 
spell, Lewistown, and 
other places 



Fort Peck Reservation 
Belknap Agency 

Butte, Wolf Point, Liv- 
Blackfeet Reservation 

Blackfeet Reservation 

Thompson Falls 
Cut Bank 
Crow Agency 
Deer Lodge 


Great Falls 

Independence Day Celebrations and 


Blackfeet Medicine Lodge Ceremo- 
nial and Sun Dance 

Assiniboine and Sioux Ceremonial 
and Sun Dance 

Assiniboine and Gros Ventre Cere- 
monial and Sun Dance 


Blood Indian Medicine Lodge Cere- 
monial and Sun Dance 

Piegan Medicine Lodge Ceremonial 
and Sun Dance 


Horse Races 

Crow Ceremonial and Sun Dance 

Tri-State Semi-Pro Baseball Tourna- 

Flathead War Dances 

Miners' Field Day 

Cherry Regatta 


North Montana Fair 


Aug. 3rd week Billings Midland Empire Fair and Rodeo 

Aug. 3rd week Missoula Western Montana Fair 

Aug. 3rd week Crow Agency Crow Indian Fair 

Aug. nfd Hamilton Harvest Festival 

Aug. nfd Georgetown Lake Montana Championship Regatta 

Sept. ist week Miles City Eastern Montana Fair 

Sept. 15-16 Billings Mexican Fiesta 

Se Pt- 30 Chinook Pageant: Battle of Bear's Paw 

Oct. nfd Butte State University-State College Foot- 
ball Game 




MONTANA is too large and diverse for definition or characteriza- 
tion in general terms. Children in its schools are taught that the 
name Montana means "mountains," but many of them see only prairies 
rolling to the horizon. They are told that Montana is still a great ranching 
State, where cattle graze and cowboys ride, but some of them, as in Butte, 
see only ore dumps, great dark sheds, and barren buttes. 

To the dry-land farmer in the eastern part of the State, Montana is a 
vast agricultural plain checkered with brownish fallow land and fields of 
green wheat that ripen to a dusty gray-gold in August; or it is a drab 
waste seen through a haze of wind-blown soil. For him the mountains of 
the western part exist chiefly as the goal for some long- defer red vacation. 

To the resident of the mountain region, Montana is a land of rich val- 
leys, small thriving cities, and uncounted mineral treasures. He hesitates 
to admit that anything important or interesting can exist in the immensi- 
ties of dead brown grass and gray stubble that make up the eastern two- 
thirds of his State. At best, he believes, tank towns are there, and cattle 
and wheat. Less than best means badlands, coyotes, tumbleweeds, and 

These attitudes of high valley dweller and plainsman derive, on the one 
hand, from knowledge of the importance of the western region, the greater 
economic security of its rural population, and its relative wealth in people 
and in cultural opportunity; on the other, from knowledge of the sheer 
immensity of the plains and from the comfortable thought that the crops 
and livestock they produce are worth more to the State, in prosperous 
times, than are the minerals dug in the mountainous area. 

The people vary less than might be expected, considering that they live 
far apart and in widely contrasting environments. They number only 3.7 
per square mile, compared with 41.3 for the Nation, and are thus as scat- 
tered as the residents of Baltimore would be if distributed over Maryland, 
Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and New England. But they make fre- 
quent long trips, and think of a hundred-mile drive to a Saturday night 
dance as part of the regular order of living. Modern highways, built mostly 



since 1925, have emphasized this trait by making communication easier. 
A "neighborhood" on the plains, or the "environs" of a city, may include 
points separated by distances that would seem absurd to a stranger. 

Where physical vastness in land and resources is an accepted fact, peo- 
ple are likely to be prodigal in measuring the size of their enterprises. The 
copper industry is most conspicuous for its leviathan structure. But every 
cowpuncher scales his ambition to the proportions of the great old-time 
cattle outfits. Every farmer wants to own or rent more land, buy more and 
bigger farming machines, and then acquire still more land to keep his 
machines profitably employed. Little avarice or scheming is involved in 
this continued reaching out; there is plenty of land for everyone. Mon- 
tanans are merely so accustomed to vastness that anything less than huge 
seems trivial to them. 

The compulsion to be big is solidly rooted in the State's history, with 
its traditions of big fur companies, big cattle and sheep outfits, and big 
mining operations. During Montana's period of greatest growth (1880- 
1920), size became an end in itself. Population increased 1,400 percent, 
and still more manpower was needed. Many argued that the area and re- 
sources of this "Treasure State" warranted a population of millions. Here 
day-laborers could become owners, and owners could become wealthy. To 
gain wealth in the new empire (Montanans liked the word) became the 
hope of everyone. The prime requirement was to "get in on the ground 

Even when expansion itself faltered, with the post- War failure of prices 
and credit, the habit of thinking in terms of expansion continued. Farm- 
ers, however, remembered that Montana is semiarid, and began to use 
moisture-conserving tillage methods. The mining industry had serious 
troubles: profits on Butte copper dwindled in competition with open-cut 
operations elsewhere; silver was not in demand; coal had two rivals, oil 
and gas, growing steadily in importance. In business, sales were slow, col- 
lections difficult. The trend of population was away from the State. 

After 1922, crops and prices improved, and the market quickened for 
lumber and minerals. Agricultural expansion gained momentum until 
1930, with emphasis on mechanization and larger farm units. Even when 
mines, smelters, and sawmills ceased operations, and grain prices fell to 
staggering lows, it did not stop at once. "We can't quit now," said the 
farmers. "We're in too deep. The only way out is to till more land and 
cut per-acre production costs." But drought and dust made even large- 
scale cultivation useless ; when crop control was introduced most Montana 
farmers were glad to adopt it. 



In the dry-land areas striking changes are taking place. Between 1920 
and 1930 farmers believed that, by the use of summer fallow, they had 
solved the problem of growing crops without irrigation. But in the 1929 
drought they had the appalling experience of seeing the loosened soil 
blown away, and with it their laboriously evolved technique. Some left 
defeated. Those who remained are trying to devise new techniques. 
Throughout the middle 1930*5, two movements of population were in 
progress one from the dry-land areas to the irrigated or irrigable val- 
leys, another from outlying villages and hamlets to county seats and larger 
centers. The latter movement seems the result of better highways through 
these centers and of increased chances for employment in them. The mi- 
gration has produced a new phenomenon that of ghost towns on the 

The farmer of western Montana has in large part escaped the problems 
of the eastern section, and has developed a happier, more confident agri- 
culture. Spared the one-crop limitation, he has developed less of the gam- 
bling spirit that distinguishes the dry-lander ; instead, he shows a tendency 
to work according to plan, for there is far greater likelihood that his plans 
will be realized. Between the two stand the cattle and sheep growers, 
somewhat less secure than the western farmer, but less affected by weather 
hazards than the dry-lander. 

In Montana's "wide, open spaces" the cowpuncher no longer rides hour 
after hour, unimpeded by fences. He wears few fancy togs and carries no 
gun; he is a workingman who does his job well and cares nothing about 
the traditions of the motion-picture West. But he does ride. In at least the 
southeast quarter of the State, the resident, male or female, who cannot 
sit a horse well is a rarity. 

Increasing tourist trade and a growing dude ranch industry have made 
Montanans think of themselves as hosts, and has added a certain smooth- 
ness to the simple good-fellowship and bluff hospitality of older times; 
but, among themselves, they remain informal and respect few artificial 
conventions. Hospitality, as proud a tradition West as South, has come 
down from the days when a rancher's home was everyone's castle and a 
good citizen never locked his door, knowing that a cold, tired, and hungry 
rider might need to enter and cook a meal. 

Montana's is a labor population, and support for labor's aspirations has 
grown swiftly since 1930. Butte and Great Falls, always potential union 
towns, are well organized. 

The most cynical Montanan is the citizen of Helena, whose days are 
spent in an atmosphere of politics. Yet his interests are broad, for his live- 



lihood may depend on events in distant parts of the State or Nation. He 
understands and heartily distrusts politicians. Legislative scandals are his 
favorite gossip; his jokes are bitter meaningful allusions to such things as 
the Goddess of Liberty atop the capitol's copper dome (loosened by earth- 
quake and swung about by a big wind, the Goddess turned her back on 
Helena). He is usually alert for a "spot to land in" in times of political 

The Butte citizen's blood pressure rises and falls with the price of cop- 
per. He opposes war "and yet, when you come to think of it, war would 
probably raise the price of copper and increase work and wages ..." 
Sometimes he is half-convinced that Butte is the real capital of the United 
States and copper instead of gold the proper standard of values. If he is a 
miner, or has friends or near relatives in the mines, he is often grim and 
worried. Butte's streets are crowded nightly with persons intent upon a 
round of pleasure in bars and gambling places, some seeking to forget the 
fears of daily existence. 

Missoula, Great Falls, and Billings are agricultural centers rather than 
industrial or political ones; but Missoula has the State University and 
takes a solemn pride in its cultural position. In Great Falls, copper refining 
and power production have brought a considerable degree of adjustment 
to industrial conditions. Great Falls and Billings have retained in large 
measure the independence and pride in their own way of life that Charlie 
Russell epitomized during his career as an artist in the State. 

The tradition of the self-reliant West exerts a steadily growing influ- 
ence. Frontier and Midland, the magazine published at the State Uni- 
versity, labors for a wider understanding of the value of Indians, cow- 
punchers, farmers, miners, and lumber- jacks as literary source material. 
Montanans are becoming aware that Montana's cultural possibilities are 
as vast and relatively unexplored as her material resources. 

Natural Setting an< 

Physical Characteristics 

i HE name Montana is derived from the Spanish montana, meaning 
mountain. The State, third largest in the Union, is bounded on the 

>rth by Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia; on the east by the 
:otas ; on the south by Wyoming and Idaho ; and on the west by Idaho, 
area is 146,997 square miles, of which 866 square miles is water 

Two-thirds of the surface of the State is a plain broken by a network 
of valleys, many of the smaller ones carrying no water except during rare 
floods, and by isolated groups of low mountains. The western mountain- 
ous section, roughly 200 miles wide, is composed of generally parallel 
ranges on a northwest-southeast axis, but the Continental Divide follows 
a meandering course north and south. In the north (see GLACIER NA- 
TIONAL PARK) the main range of the Rockies fronts the eastern plain, 
but farther south an increasing spread of ranges lies east of the Divide, 
comprising the sources of the Missouri River and its tributaries. 

The highest peaks are east of the Divide rather than along its crest. 
Granite Peak (12,990 alt.), near the southern boundary, is the highest 
point in the State. Fairview (1,902 alt.), on the Dakota boundary, and 
Troy (1,892 alt.), in the northwest corner, have the lowest altitudes. 
Montana is generally lower than other Rocky Mountain States. In eastern 
Montana, along the Yellowstone River and other streams where erosion 
has been too rapid to allow vegetation to gain foothold, grotesque bad- 
lands formations in vivid colors extend for many miles. 

Montana's most important eastern rivers are the Missouri and Yellow- 
stone. As evidenced by its broad alluvial plain, the Yellowstone is the 
older; it also has the most direct course. Its valley, one of the most pro- 
ductive agricultural districts in the State, has terraced landscapes shaped 
by long processes of land elevation and erosion. The Missouri is the larger 


river, formed by the junction of the Madison, Jefferson, and Gallatin at 
Three Forks ; it describes a huge, irregular northerly arc on its course east- 
ward. Its valley bottom is narrower, the sides generally lower and smoother 
than those of the Yellowstone, but more rugged than those of the Milk, 
an important northern tributary. Between the Missouri and the Yellow- 
stone lies the vast expanse of prairie, cut by tributary streams into grassy 
uplands and rocky hills. 

Clark Fork of the Columbia is the master river of western Montana. 
Coursing westward from its source near Butte, it is joined by the Black- 
foot, the Bitterroot, and the Flathead. Generally slow-running, it becomes 
turbulent in places. The Kootenai River, which joins it in British Colum- 
bia, makes only a brief dip into the northwestern corner of the State. In 
volume of water, the Kootenai compares with the Missouri. 

The Continental Divide separates Montana into distinct climatic divi- 
sions, partially protecting the area to the west from severe southward- 
sweeping cold waves and forcing condensation of much of the moisture 
carried by westerly winds. Winters west of the Rockies are therefore more 
moderate, summers cooler, and rainfall more plentiful than in subarid 
eastern Montana. The State's climate as a whole shows great changeability. 
In January and February, fierce unpredictable storms may be followed sud- 
denly by warm chinook winds and sunshine. Late freezes and snowfalls 
may delay spring locally until June, and are not unknown even in July. 
In any of the mountain areas excessive daytime heat is sure to be relieved 
by cool nights. Westerly winds prevail. 

The mean annual temperature is 42.6. The warmest areas are in the 
south-central section traversed by the upper Yellowstone Valley, while the 
coldest habitable areas are in the northern prairie counties. The highest 
mean temperature (46.3) in the State is recorded in the Billings region; 
Bowen, Beaverhead County, because of its elevation, has the lowest mean, 
32.3. The highest recorded temperature, 117, occurred on July 20, 
1893, at Glendive, Dawson County; the lowest, 65, at Fort Keogh, 
Custer County, on January 15, 1888. Usually July is the warmest month 
and January the coldest. In the eastern section hot winds sometimes cause 
rapid deterioration of grain crops and range grasses, but in late summer 
and early autumn the winds become beneficial, curing the grasses to pro- 
vide excellent fodder. Autumn, dry and temperate, usually lasts until 

The average annual precipitation is 15.48 inches. In the west, rainfall 
is distributed through the year, but in the east it is heaviest in late spring 
and early summer. Mineral County and Bull River Valley in Sanders 


County have the heaviest precipitation, 30 to 34 inches. Regions of lightest 
precipitation are Dell, Beaverhead County, with 8.7 inches, and (curi- 
ously, because of its nearness to the place of heaviest precipitation) Lone- 
pine, Sanders County, with 10.3. In 1909 Snowshoe, in Lincoln County, 
established an all-time record with 79.75 inches; and in 1894 Fort Shaw, 
Cascade County, parched with 4.24 inches. Averages in eastern Montana 
range from 12 to 16 inches, but the peculiar topography causes wide vari- 
ations within small areas. June is usually the wettest month, February the 

Snowfall is heaviest in the mountains. Saltese, Mineral County, averages 
1 60 inches; Fallen, Prairie County, 13. Snow on the lower levels has less 
water content, and diminishes rapidly by melting and evaporation. Strong 
winds sweep it into drifts, leaving ranges uncovered for grazing. Fall- 
planted grains, lacking cover, often winter-kill. 

The frost-free growing season is longest in low altitudes. The southeast 
has 125 frostless days yearly, the northeast 123, the southwest 105. In 
high mountain districts freezing occurs every month. Average number of 
clear days is 161 ; partly cloudy, 107; cloudy, 97. The long daylight hours 
of this latitude stimulate crops. 


All geologic periods have left traces in Montana. During the Archaean, 
the entire region was the bottom of an arm of the Pacific Ocean. It shared 
the heavy vegetation of the later Paleozoic, and was the swampy residence 
of Mesozoic reptile terrors. During the mountain building at the close of 
Cretaceous time, the predecessors of the Rocky Mountains were formed 
and Montana assumed something like its present surface pattern. Volcanic 
action upthrust lava in the form of conical hills ranging to several thou- 
sand feet in height. 

During the Pleistocene epoch four great ice sheets plowed down from 
the northern part of the continent. Each erased most of the effects of its 
predecessor ; thus the fourth, or Wisconsin, sheet had the most easily trace- 
able influence. Its vast bulk (of an estimated io,ooo-foot thickness in 
places) smoothed out the plains, filled in valleys, and created new stream 
courses and lakes. It deposited silt in piles hundreds of feet thick and 
many miles long. But it came only as far as the Missouri River and only 
east of the Rockies. Similar effects in western Montana were due to the 
action of piedmont glaciers independent of the Wisconsin sheet. 

Great dams or moraines heaped up by the mountain glaciers created 
hundreds of lakes, two of the largest being the long- dry Missoula Lake, 
formed by the blocking of Clark Fork of the Columbia, and Flathead 
Lake, now one of the largest fresh-water bodies in the United States. 
Other remaining glacial lakes dot the Glacier Park region. 

Passing, the glaciers left the surface substantially as it is today. Their 
less spectacular effects appear in the composition of the State's soils. 

An outstanding geologic phenomenon is the Boulder batholith, an in- 
trusive mass of igneous rock, 40 miles in mean width, extending south- 
west from near Helena to the Big Hole River. Formed at the beginning of 
the Rocky Mountain building period, it apparently occupies a huge basin 
whose dissected sides contain remnants of the entire series of sedimentary 
rocks from pre-Cambrian shales to late Cretaceous sandstones. Its prin- 
cipal rock is a dark coarse granite. 

Seventy percent of Montana's exploited mineral wealth is concen- 
trated in Silver Bow County, a division of this region. Gold and silver 
first brought Butte to the Nation's attention, but copper, zinc, and lead 
are now of first importance. 

Ancient forms of life have left their signatures abundantly in Mon- 
tana's rocks. The first were one-celled algae, followed several million 
years later by metazoa, tiny worms. Their marks are found in the Algon- 
kian strata of the Proterozoic era, in the Little Belt Mountains, and in 
several ranges of the Rockies. Fossil mollusks, snails, corals, and trilobites 


of Paleozoic age are found throughout Montana. Extensive coal deposits, 
remains of the luxuriant forests of the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods, 
are, broadly speaking, the State's most valuable fossils. 

Several important discoveries have been made near Harlowton, Wheat- 
land County, including some Paleocene mammals, especially seven species 
of the condylarth, and the oldest primate remains known to science. An 
expedition of the American Museum of Natural History under Dr. George 
Simpson, discoverer of the primate remains, now spends four months each 
summer in the area. Since 1927, When Dr. Barnum Brown of the Mu- 
seum uncovered rich fossil deposits in the foothills of the Beartooth 
Mountains, all southern Montana east of Bozeman has been of interest- 
to paleontologists. Princeton University has a permanent base of opera- 
tions on Rock Creek, four miles south of Red Lodge, and in 1931 Dr. 
W. J. Thom of that institution discovered fragments of dinosaur eggs, 
previously found only in the Gobi Desert. This region extends into 
Wyoming, where Beartooth Butte is in effect a fascinating open book of 
geologic history (see Tour 13 A). 

Several dinosaur skeletons, usually the most publicized of fossils, have 
been unearthed in Montana. Dr. Barnum Brown discovered an almost 
complete skeleton of Tyrannosaurus, largest and fiercest carnivorous 
dinosaur, on Hell Creek north of Jordan, Garfield County. In Wheatland 
County he found one of the smallest dinosaurs known to science. Tricera- 
tops, an armored brute larger than a modern rhinoceros, was first found 
14 miles south of Glendive, Dawson County. This grotesque animal had 
a 3-foot horn projecting over each eye; another jutted from its snout; and 
a collar of bone enveloped its neck like an Elizabethan ruff. A second 
skeleton, almost complete, was found in Treasure County. 

Remains of Stegosaurus, weirdest of all armored dinosaurs, were found 
in 1924 at Sheep Creek, 25 miles north of Great Falls. Besides having 
hindlegs that boosted its rear skyward while its head was within two feet 
of the ground, the stegosaur had thick armor plates that stood erect in a 
staggered row along its back from head to tip of tail. 

Partial skeletons of Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus, seafaring reptiles 
of the Jurassic, have been found in Cascade and Wibaux Counties. A 
trachodon jaw is in the Larimer collection at Glendive, together with such 
oddities as gizzard stones rocks worn smooth in saurian digestive 

Hoplitosaurus, a 1 5-foot horned toad found 32 miles south of Billings, 
had been broken into 20,000 pieces by earth movement and exposure. 
Many other reptile fossils have been taken from the Yellowstone Valley, 


including two camptosaurs, two nodosaurs, and a tenantosaur, unusual 
species provisionally named by Henry Fairfield Osborn. The Lewis over- 
thrust, where the Rockies meet the northern plains, is rich in similar 


Montana's more than two thousand species of flowers and many non- 
flowering plants may be divided into three somewhat overlapping groups 
- subalpine, montane, and plains. 

The subalpine group, characterized by plants that appeared after the 
recession of the glaciers, or moved in along the mountains from the 
Arctic, has made the higher altitudes in the northern Rockies famous for 
their profusion of color in the short midsummer season. When the snow- 
banks melt and all the flowers bloom at once, the earth is brilliant with 
glacier lilies, alpine poppies, columbines, white dryads, globeflowers, In- 
dian paint-brushes, asters, and arnicas. The summits are, on the whole, too 
rigorous for any marked growth of shrubbery, but white and purple heath- 
ers, Rocky Mountain laurel, and Labrador teas are present. 

The montane group includes most of the coniferous forests, and ranges 
from the lower border of the subalpine to the valley grasslands. Its most 
characteristic species is the spire-crowned alpine fir, sometimes associated 
with Engelmann spruce and white-barked and limber pine (also known as 
limber-twig pine). There are many shrubs: huckleberries, Menziesia, 
mountain ash, and scrubby birches and alders. Blue phacelia and, in damp 
places, red monkey flower and fringed parnassia are conspicuous. In the 
moister parts of the lower montane forest are Moneses and prince's pine, 
lowland and Douglas fir, and western larch; but in dry places, lodgepole 
and western yellow pine, and mountain balsam are more common. Bear 
grass lifts its beautiful domed column of white blossoms among Mariposa 
lilies, dogtooth violets, and windflowers. There are many shrubs, such as 
kinnikinnick, which are not found in the upper montane. 

The plains group varies, being characterized on the eastern prairie by 
grasses such as buffalo and blue grama; in the west, by bunch grasses and 
by flowers such as the yellow bell, shooting star, bluebell, blanketflower 
or gaillardia, golden aster, and daisy. On the eastern grasslands are found 
sand and gumbo lilies, prairie evening primrose, and a little shrubby scar- 
let mallow with conspicuous waxy petals; clumps of small cacti bear red 
and yellow blossoms of a delicacy hard to reconcile with the aspect of the 
plants themselves. Wherever overgrazing, fire, or erosion has destroyed 

1 I 



the soil's water-holding capacity, desert shrubs from the south have crept 
in; the familiar sagebrush is found with greasewood, sea blite, ranger 
brush, and mountain mahogany. Moist areas are often called camas 
prairies because of the blue camas, an onionlike May-blooming plant used 
by the Indians in making pemmican. Death camas, a plant similar to blue 
camas, but highly toxic, has caused heavy losses among sheep ; even men, 
mistaking it for blue camas, have been poisoned. It bears a star-shaped 
flower, usually white ; its grasslike leaves are most often folded. Common 
on the plains are yucca or Spanish bayonet, many species of Pentstemon, 
and sego lily, which blossoms in nearly every color. 

Subsurface moisture encourages stream bank forests composed largely 
of cottonwood and aspen, but often containing alders, river birches, 
willow, and the like. In swampy areas, cattail, bulrush, and water plan- 


tain flourish beside water buttercups and various mints. Coulees and other 
favored grassland spots support serviceberry, currant, gooseberry, haw- 
thorn, fragrant mock orange, and wild rose. 

The State flower is the bitterroot. Flathead Indians who used its root 
for food gave it the name later applied to the valley, river, and moun- 
tains of the region where it was found most abundantly. It is small, with 
a rosette of 12 to 18 leaves; its low-set pink blossoms turn white after 
a few days in the sun. White men called it Lewisia in honor of Captain 
Meriwether Lewis, and rediviva (Lat, lives again) in recognition of its 
vitality. The gumbo lily, most abundant in Carbon County, is like the 
bitterroot, and even more beautiful. It is not so commonly found, how- 

Montana's four species of cactus are much smaller than southwestern 
ones. Most common is prickly pear, valued in the East as a houseplant be- 
cause of the indescribably tender tints of its blossoms. In Montana its 
beds of sharp spines would make it a pest if anything so beautiful 
could be a pest. Cacti are very easily transplanted; a stem set in the 
ground will take root. 

Wild roses are common along mountain trails as well as in coulees on 
the plains. A low-growing variety sometimes becomes a nuisance in fields. 

Sagebrush, common on open plain and hillside, is an erect shrub, one 
to six feet high, with many branches, silver-gray leaves, and small, clus- 
tered yellow flowers. 

The Oregon grape of the lower montane forests has bright yellow 
flowers and glossy green leaves. The stem is thick, the root a yellowish 
hardwood used by Indians in concocting stomach medicine and spring 
tonics. In autumn the fruit, a small, blue, rather bitter grape, is used in 
making jelly. The plant grows in shaded places, often near large rocks. 
It is conspicuous in autumn, when, after other growth is gone, a single 
leaf may present an array of orange, brown, and red. 

Kinnikinnick, with its small red berries, also provides much autumn 
color. It grows in great vinelike masses over large rocks; its sturdy root 
often spreads several feet; its small dark green leaves provide food for 
deer and other animals. The Indians used its bark for smoking. 

Mountain mahogany grows in the hills, and the pussy willow thrives 
along the banks of streams in all parts of Montana. Foothills and valley 
are well stocked with edible berries: huckleberries, currants, gooseberries, 
chokecherries, serviceberries, and buffalo or bull berries. A few wild 
cherries grow near Martinsdale, in Meagher County. Wild strawberries 
and raspberries are found in many wooded sections. 

'^f^*MyC'' ! L 

*';&*^ ; ^ 


Montana has many varieties of forage grass. Some of the most impor- 
tant are June, wheat, and pine grasses, bluejoint, and bluestem. Besides the 
grasses, edible ferns and mosses flourish in the forests. When forage 
grasses are overgrazed, an almost worthless "cheat grass" sometimes takes 
their place. Nourishing enough early in the spring, it is spoiled by sum- 
mer weather. 

Foxtail is a detriment to some pastures. At the top of an 8-inch stem 
it bears a spiculate tassel resembling the tail of a fox. Animals seldom 
attempt to eat it, but if they do the bristles may stick in their throats, 
leather grass and needle grass, both species of Stipa, are other nuisance 
grasses. When ripe, their twisted awns catch in the wool of sheep, work 
into the skin and eyes, and cause infections and blindness. 

Among Montana's worst weeds are Russian thistle and "Jim Hill" mus- 
tard, both tumbleweeds. Easily uprooted or broken off at the base, they 
roll before the wind, scattering seeds, and then pile up along fences. High 
winds strike these walls of piled weeds with such force that miles of 
fence are sometimes torn up and dragged out into the fields. 


The lupine, which bears racemes of bright blue flowers followed by 
seed pods, is often poisonous to animals, particularly sheep. Several 
varieties of locoweed exist; they resemble lupine, and all have a narcotic 
effect when eaten. 

Quee or racine de tabac, used as tobacco by the Indians, grows abun- 
dantly in Madison County. The Tobacco Root Mountains were named 
after it. 


Montana still is home to an abundance of wild life. The proudly tossed 
antlers of an elk or buck deer outlined against the sky, a bear shuffling 
through the underbrush, the flash of a pheasant rocketing from a hidden 
nest, the gleam of trout rising to a fly through the transparent waters of a 
mountain stream: these are familiar pictures to frequenters of Montana's 

The State has more than 180,000 game and fur-bearing animals in its 
12 national forests, uncounted numbers in other wooded regions, and 
more than 300 species of birds. In the spring of 1936 the Forest Service 
estimated 65,000 deer, 18,000 elk, 1,600 moose, 1,200 mountain sheep, 
4,000 mountain goats, 850 antelope, 5,000 black bears, 470 grizzly bears, 
and 8 caribou; 16,000 beaver, 1,700 foxes, 8,800 marten, 7,000 mink, 
1 60 otter, and 2,000 miscellaneous fur bearers. In addition, there were ap- 
proximately 20,000 predatory animals, including 17,000 coyotes, 2,500 
wildcats or lynxes, 250 mountain lions, and a few wolves and outlaw 
bears. Deer and elk are slowly increasing, the 1931 estimate having given 
their numbers as only 52,000 and 15,000 respectively. Moose, mountain 
goats, and antelope are nearly at a standstill; mountain sheep are grow- 
ing fewer. There is a surplus of elk in the Flathead, Lewis and Clark, Gal- 
latin, and Absaroka Forests, where the range is over-grazed to the point 
of extermination for the most valuable forage plants, and in some places 
to total denudation. Attempts at control by extension of the hunting sea- 
son have proven unsatisfactory. 

The commonest game birds include Chinese, or ring-necked, pheasant; 
Hungarian partridge; blue, ruffed, and Franklin (fool hen) grouse; mal- 
lard ; teal ; canvasback and gadwall ducks ; and Canadian geese. Montana's 
State game farm, at Warm Springs, Deer Lodge County, liberated 9,600 
Chinese pheasants and hundreds of birds of other species in 1935. 

Fourteen fish hatcheries established by the Montana Fish and Game 
Commission liberate more than 30,000,000 game fish each year. The 
hatcheries are at Big Timber, Sweet Grass County; Hamilton, Ravalli 


County; Emigrant, Park County; Libby, Lincoln County; Lewistown, 
Fergus County; Ovando, Powell County; Poison, Lake County; Red 
Lodge, Carbon County; Somers, Flathead County; Havre, Hill County; 
Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County; Anaconda; Great Falls; and 
Miles City. 

Spawning stations are at Flint Creek and Steward Mill on Georgetown 
Lake, Deer Lodge County; Ashley and Rodgers Lake, Flathead County; 
Hebgen Lake, Gallatin County; Lake Ronan, Lake County; and Lake 
Francis, Pondera County. A pond cultural station is maintained at Miles 

From 1911 to 1935 the Somers hatchery liberated more than 150 mil- 
lion fish. Its capacity would permit an annual production of 8,000,000 to 
10,000,000 fry and 200,000 fingerlings. It is perhaps the only one in the 
country that produces grayling, a fish unusually hard to raise because the 
food of the fry is microscopic, and cannot be prepared in the hatchery. 


The Somers grayling are returned soon after hatching to the waters where 
they were spawned, the Rodgers Lake spawning station, which produced 
12,000,000 grayling eggs in 1935. Later they are distributed to lakes 
and streams, usually in Flathead County. 

For several years, land-locked sockeye salmon have been increasing in 
Flathead Lake; thousands spawn along the east and west shores, and 
many run up the Swan and Flathead Rivers. 

High, almost inaccessible slopes in Glacier National Park, the Mission 
Range, and the rugged Cabinet Mountains are the stronghold of the 
mountain goat, an obscure member of the antelope tribe to which 
the American "antelope" does not belong. It lives usually above timber 
line, amid snowbanks, glaciers, and precipices, and feeds chiefly on the 
short moss that grows on rocks and in crevices. It climbs the sharpest 
slant easily, and can be approached only from above, being apparently 
unable to understand that anything can descend upon it. 

Buffalo have been wholly restricted to game preserves since the first 
protective legislation in 1894. On the National Bison Range at Dixon, 
more than 400 of them graze on the foothills of the Cabinet Mountains 
in a fenced area of 18,521 acres, and 1,100 have been removed as sur- 
plus (see Tour 12). 

Bears weighing from 300 to 800 pounds prowl the highlands. Usually 
they do little damage, eating meat only when driven by hunger. Black 
bears range all the mountain region, while the rugged Mission Range is 
the chief habitation of grizzlies. More are seen there than in any other 
part of the United States. 

Among predatory animals, cougar and wolf are most dangerous to 
young livestock. The weasel and coyote are the worst chicken thieves. 
Damage to field crops by gophers and jack rabbits yearly reaches a high 
figure. A prime nuisance is the pack rat, which carries off anything that 
takes its fancy. 

The pelican, with its large ugly fish-pouch jaw, is a bird rare in Mon- 
tana; but a flock of nearly 1,000 was once seen on Lake Bowdoin, 7 miles 
east of Malta, Phillips County (see Tour 2). The great blue heron sum- 
mers along marshy streams. Wild canaries, juncoes, meadow-larks, black- 
birds, bobolinks, chickadees, and scores of other bird species are common. 
A showy but unpopular one is the ubiquitous magpie, a long-tailed, 
noisy, black and white scavenger that frequents highways in search of 
gophers and rabbits killed by cars. Peculiarly hateful is its practice of 
harassing livestock by picking at little wounds and scratches. 

Of all the fauna in the State, the greatest menace to life and health is 


the tick. One species, Dermacentor andersoni, of the class popularly known 
as wood tick, carries tularemia and Rocky Mountain spotted fever to hu- 
man beings and tick-paralysis to humans and animals. It also causes se- 
rious local lesions. The wood tick feeds on many animals; in immature 
stages it usually fastens upon small rodents, such as mice or squirrels. Like 
its relative, the dog tick, this species is marked with reddish-brown 
splotches on the back. 

In early spring the ticks emerge from the ground and the bark of 
ips. Unable to endure hot dry weather, they disappear from the lower 
levations during June and July and from the higher ones in later summer, 
order to combat Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the U. S. Public 
[ealth Service maintains an experimental laboratory at Hamilton (see 
*our 7). 

Control efforts have been directed against the small wild animals on 
which the ticks live, and special attention has been given to systematic 
dipping of livestock. Attempts were made to destroy the ticks by propa- 
gating and liberating minute insects supposedly hostile to them, but the 
experiment gave no results. (For first aid in tick bite, see General Infor- 

Several orders of insects seriously threaten the State's forests and 
farms. The western pine beetle small, brownish, and cylindrical bores 
irregular galleries 9 to 36 inches long under the outer bark of trees. In 
these it lays 60 to 80 eggs. The developing larvae bore feeding tunnels, 
from i to 3 inches long, ending in small cells where they pass the pupal 
stage. The adults then bore outward from the cell and migrate to other 
trees, where the process is repeated. In some areas there are two annual 
generations of the pine beetles. Fortunately predacious insects and other 
natural agents destroy most of the eggs and larvae of each brood. Birds 
destroy many migrating adults. Even so they would increase up to 300 
percent yearly but for Forest Service control measures. Another species of 
beetle confines its attack almost exclusively to Douglas fir. 

The pine butterfly, which defoliates yellow and white pine, is black 
above and white beneath, with white wings netted with black. A few 
hours after mating, it lays eggs along the needles of the treetops. The eggs 
remain over the winter and hatch in June; the larvae eat the needles, and 
in late July, lowering themselves as much as 75 feet by silken threads, 
pupate in shrubs, grass, fences, and stumps. 

Many kinds of grasshoppers and cutworms, army worms, and Mormon 
crickets, have caused serious damage to Montana agriculture. In contrast, 
the bee is highly profitable. Annual production per colony averages 100 


pounds of high quality white honey; the State total is about 120 carloads. 
The abundant alfalfa and sweet clover of the irrigated valleys form the 
major sources of supply. In the fruit-growing counties bees have great 
value in cross-pollination. 

A rare animal in Montana is the axolotl (Mex.: plays in the water), a 
larval salamander found in the pools and mountain lakes of Madison 
County. Mexicans regard it as edible. It is six to ten inches long, and 
identical with young amblystoma tigrinum, terrestrial salamanders of the 
warmer parts of the United States and Mexico. The axolotl retains its 
external gills and breeds in the larval stages. But, should its native pool 
dry up, it is capable of becoming an adult salamander, adapted to land 

Rattlesnakes, the only poisonous reptiles in Montana, occur in twenty- 
three central, southern, and western counties. They average four feet in 
length, and are yellow to brown with a symmetrical row of darker rounded 
and separated blotches on the back, narrowly bordered with yellow or 
white. A distinct V of light color is on the shield above each eye. Nat- 
ural enemies of destructive rodents, rattlesnakes are also dangerous to 
man. Occasional organized hunts keep them well under control. 


Forest covers about one-fifth of the State, or a total of 20 million acres, 
1 8 million of which are in national forests. Timber of commercial size 
and quality occupies nearly half of this acreage, but only 4,636,000 acres 
can be reached profitably. Even so, the State's merchantable timber totals 
about 50 billion board feet. Three-fourths of this is west of the Con- 
tinental Divide; the forests on the eastern slopes and in the southeast 
corner of the State are chiefly of local value. 

The first national forest, then called the Yellowstone Park Timberland 
Reserve, and today known as Yellowstone National Park, was set aside in 
1891. As the idea developed and others were created, they were grouped 
into districts, or regions, now 10 in number, each supervised by a regional 
forester and a staff of assistants. Headquarters for Region One, embrac- 
ing northwestern South Dakota, Montana, northern Idaho, and eastern 
Washington, is in Missoula. Montana's 12 national forests are the Ab- 
saroka, Beaverhead, Bitterroot, Cabinet, Custer, Deer Lodge, Flathead, 
Gallatin, Helena, Kootenai, Lewis and Clark, and Lolo. 

Ponderosa (western yellow) pine makes up about one-fifth of Mon- 
tana's forests. Commercial stands of it extend along the Kootenai River 


and Clark Fork of the Columbia; extensive pure stands, resistant to fire, 
occur on Thompson River and in the Bitterroot and lower Flathead 
Valleys, and also to some extent on the hills and broken table-lands of 
Custer National Forest. It serves a variety of purposes in building houses 
and ships and in the manufacture of furniture, cars, mine timbers, and 
railroad ties. 

Western larch (tamarack) is one of the largest native trees and reaches 
its best development west of the Continental Divide from Canada to 
Missoula, where, though it may grow in pure stands, it is usually asso- 
ciated with Douglas fir, the two together constituting 40 percent of Mon- 
tana's salable timber. Douglas fir is found in all the national forests except 
Custer. Its eastern limits are the Big Horn, Big Snowy, and Little Rocky 
Mountains, where it is associated with lodgepole pine. It is more suscep- 
tible to fire injury than western larch or yellow pine, but less so than other 

Lodgepole pine forms extensive forests in the mountains of central 
Montana, along the main range of the Rockies, and on the upper Missouri 
drainage ; and in many other places it comes in as a temporary forest cover 
after fires. The best stands are usually 6,000 to 8,000 feet above sea level. 
It is not favored for lumber, but is used for fuel, mine timbers, poles, and 
posts. The railroads have used it for cross ties since the first transcon- 
tinental road crossed the Rocky Mountains. 

The greatest development of western white pine is in the more humid 
valleys near the Idaho boundary, at 1,500 to 6,500 feet. It is a somewhat 
temporary species, and may be forced out by cedar and hemlock, which re- 
quire similar moisture conditions but endure more shade. The wood re- 
sembles eastern white pine, for which it is often substituted. 

Minor species are Engelmann spruce, lowland white fir, western red 
cedar and western hemlock. Juniper, ash, and cottonwood grow in limited 
numbers along streams on the plains, but are suitable only for poles, fence 
posts, and fuel. Virtually all Montana woods are soft. 

Forests, by increasing the absorptive power of the soil, retard the run- 
off of moisture when snow is melting in the spring, prevent erosion, and 
decrease the amount of silt carried into streams and reservoirs. The shade 
prevents rapid evaporation in summer, allowing rain to soak into the 
ground and augment the supply of ground water, a very real factor in 
maintaining the flow of streams and springs. One-fourth of Montana's 
forests are valuable chiefly for watershed protection. 

The Civilian Conservation Corps, under the provisions of the Federal 
Highway Act, builds forest highways for public travel, and forest devel- 


opment roads for use in the care of national forest property. In addition 
to 1,187 miles of the former and 5,978 miles of the latter, Montana has 
22,065 miles of foot and bridle trails. Construction and improvement are 
constantly in progress. 

In 1935, not an unusual year for the destruction of forests, 931 fires 
burned 18,827 acres of Montana forest. The loss was estimated at $50,679. 
Lightning caused 503 fires; the others were due to human agencies. The 
cost of suppressing them was $136,450. 

The Forest Service operates about 400 lookout stations, trains observers 
and firemen, maintains trails, telephone lines, and other equipment, and 
builds new lookout houses and towers. 

The lookout station is a glass-walled, square building perched on a 
peak observation point. Many stations have radio equipment as well as 
telephone. With field glasses, a lookout can spot smoke anywhere within 
the field of vision; then by comparing observations with another lookout 
at another angle he can exactly locate and quickly direct fire fighters to it. 
Fire-fighting crews keep in touch with headquarters and with sources of 
supply by telephone or radio. 

Region One has a fire control plan which gives protection on each of its 
ten worst fire areas at minimum cost. The size of the needed organiza- 
tion is determined beforehand by factors of season, visibility, dryness, 
winds, and occurrence of fires, all reduced to a single figure accurately ex- 
pressing the degree or class of danger. Camping restrictions are imposed 
according to current fire hazard; when danger is extreme forests may be 
closed entirely (see GENERAL INFORMATION). 

Insects yearly destroy millions of feet of timber, and the Forest Service, 
with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, constantly struggles 
to control them. Worst is the mountain pine beetle which from 1926 to 
1936 destroyed about 5 billion board feet of lodgepole and western white 
pine in Region One. 

A beetle infestation may be controlled if attacked in its early stages. 
Crews systematically cover the areas to be treated and mark all infected 
trees, which are recognized by fading foliage or the presence of boring 
dust. Control is obtained by burning the trunks of the standing trees with 
an oil spray, or by felling and burning or peeling the logs. 

Other pests are the Douglas fir beetle, the ponderosa pine butterfly, 
the lodgepole needle tyer, and the larch and lodgepole sawflies. The Forest 
Service Insect Laboratory at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, carries on a continual 
search for inexpensive means of eradication. 

The Montana Legislature and the Fish and Game Commission have 


established 22 game preserves. Besides the 1,388,431 acres of refuges in 
the national forests, there are 1,458,328 acres on which the Forest Service 
limits grazing of domestic stock to provide forage for game. Nevertheless 
more than 500,000 acres of privately owned range are needed to supple- 
t Federal range in winter. The sanctuaries are largely in high country, 

d deep snows often force 70 percent of the animals out of the safety 
es, where an abundance of summer feed has built up herds beyond the 

inter carrying capacity. The results are heavy kills near refuge boundaries 
when early snows force migration during hunting season; death or low- 
ered vitality from starvation; overgrazing of private ranges; and damage 
by herd migration to fences, haystacks, pastures, and fields. 

The Northern Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station 
in Missoula is one of twelve operated by the Forest Service to develop and 
test better methods of forest and range management, and to reduce costs. 
Its studies include tree culture, protection, forest products, and forest 
and range resources. 

At Haugan (See Tour 1, Sec. d), the Forest Service maintains the Save- 
nac Forest Nursery, which supplies 6 million trees annually for planting 
in Region One. Plantings in Montana run from 800 to 1,000 acres yearly, 
with a total of 21,623 acres planted up to the end of 1935. 

Nearly 7 million acres of national forest land provide excellent grazing 
in summer, when the lower ranges are dry. Under Forest Service super- 
vision particular ranges are available only to the kind of stock suited to 
them, and numbers are limited according to the actual feed supply. In 
1935 there were 124,000 cattle and 533,000 sheep under permit. 

The principal grazing areas lie east of the Rocky Mountains, where 
forests are mixed grassland and timber, and the elevation favors a good 
forage crop each season. Cattle are usually allotted the lower grass ranges, 
while sheep, because of their ability to get over the ground, get the 
higher, rougher, weedy ones. The open, grassy ridges are best for horses. 

The relatively small ranges on the heavily timbered slopes of western 
Montana support many sheep, and burnt-over forest land affords excel- 
lent sheep forage until new growth crowds it out. A few cattle are pas- 
tured in the foothills. 

This use of national forest land permits the production of thousands of 
head of additional livestock. As with other national forest receipts, 25 
percent of the revenue derived from grazing reverts to the counties in 
which the forests lie. The rest goes to the national treasury. 


Resources and Their Conservation 

Of Montana's 94 million acres almost half are more than 5,000 feet 
in altitude with a restricted growing season, but none the less valuable 
for grazing and timber. Formerly it was thought the land could be di- 
vided into three classes almost equal in extent: farm, grazing, and for- 
ested and waste. Through the recent dry years the trend has been to turn 
back to grazing more and more marginal land, making the estimated 
present classification: grazing land, about 50 million acres; farm lands, 
10 to 12 million. An immediate need is a detailed survey of soils to estab- 
lish their logical use. Before 1936 only 14 of the 56 counties had such 

Montana soils are fairly well supplied with the basic elements of fer- 
tility and they have not been greatly depleted by long-continued crop- 
ping. Throughout the State, additions of phosphate greatly increase plant 
growth. Nearly all the mature soils show the effect of alkali in producing 
a compact subsoil, in places a dense claypan. White alkali (sodium sul- 
phate), which consists of mineral salts of marine origin, is widely dis- 
tributed in or just below the top soils. In moderate amounts it is beneficial 
to plant growth, and often remains unnoticed until excessive irrigation 
flushes it to the surface, where it becomes a poison to plant life. Except for 
the expense of tiling, sub-drainage is a perfect solution of this problem. 

To know Montana soils one must understand their origin as clayey 
sediments and marine shales at the bottom of a great inland sea, or as later 
products of erosion. 

The glacial drift that covers the northern plains is from 25 to 50 feet 
deep, and may exceed 100 feet where ancient depressions were filled. It 
varies in character, but has in all cases been modified by weathering and 
vegetation. At present, therefore, the northern top soils range from silty 
clay, through a series of productive loams, usually clayey rather than 
sandy, to a stony leached drift. Alluvial deposits border most of the 
streams; along the Milk River they are wide enough for important agri- 
cultural development. The loams and silt loams, well drained and sup- 
plied with organic matter, produce bountiful crops of wheat when rainfall 
is adequate. 

In the central and southern plains, which were unaffected by glaciation, 
the soils are more mature, their nature modified by erosion and by addi- 
tion of wind-blown volcanic ash from the immense igneous intrusions of 
the Rocky Mountain building period. The bench lands are characterized by 


very productive dark brown loams over clay subsoils. They lie too high 
above the rivers to be irrigable on an important scale. Although they have 
been widely cultivated, their better use would probably be as grazing 
land. Along the river bottoms, which are broader than in the north, the 
alluvial deposits differ in composition according to the character of the 
formations from which they were eroded, and occupy positions ranging 
from low flood plains to high, well drained terraces. Readily irrigable, 
they support large crops of alfalfa, small grains, sugar beets, peas, and 
other crops. 

Along the foot slopes of the Rockies and smaller mountain groups 
are extensive alluvial fans containing coarse gravel with a thin soil cov- 
ering. Where soft sandstone, shale, and clay have permitted rapid erosion, 
the true soil has been stripped off and badlands areas are the result. 

The soils of the western valleys are the result of erosion by piedmont 
glaciers, and of comparatively unimportant alluvial deposits since the 
glaciers receded. Much of this land has for centuries supported heavy 
forests. Soil developed under such cover is characterized by a veneer of 
organic matter over heavy textured, not very friable clayey subsoil. Most 
cutover land is suited only to grazing. . 

The parent material of nearly all the agricultural soils was transported. 
In general, those that have developed as grassland are the better soils, 
but the character of the subsoil (which must permit drainage) and the 
surface relief is usually the final determinant of their adaptability to prof- 
itable cultivation. As would be expected from their origin, soils through- 
out the State are characterized by gumbo rather than by sand. In the 
western valleys there are sandy areas of local extent. 

In a region of somewhat deficient rainfall, gumbo has the advantage 
of retaining moisture as it also retains tenaciously its mineral salts. The 
disadvantage of gumbo under irrigation is the possible dissolution of 
these salts and their concentration as alkali at the surface. For that reason 
not all this land is suited to irrigation. 

The unwise expansion of cultivation in dry regions, where soil was 
formerly held in place by tough-rooted, luxuriant buffalo grass, has ex- 
posed much land to soil blowing and the threat of permanent denudation. 
Present recognition of the danger would allow this land to be returned 
to permanent grass cover before the damage becomes irreparable. j 

The annual flow of Montana's rivers, with their sources in the great 
national forests, is sufficient to cover the whole State with six inches of 
water more than enough to irrigate ten million acres. It does not drain 
off in great floods for snow at the higher altitudes melts slowly but 


assures a flow throughout the summer. Nevertheless, only about two-thirds 
of the State's two million acres of irrigated land has adequate water in 
dry years. 

Most of Montana's irrigation is in the southern and southwestern coun- 
ties. Immense central, northern, and eastern areas have no irrigation ex- 
cept of the "flood" or "spot" type; either no water is available, or the 
lands are not suitable. Tributaries of the Missouri River are used in irri- 
gation, but the river itself contributes very little. 

Spot irrigation is gaining in favor in drought areas, and has received 
some Government support through Works Progress Administration proj- 
ects. Small dams are built in coulees to capture flood water for use on 
gardens and patches of fodder. Such small projects are expensive, but 
their influence for better homes makes them a social investment. 

The average farm on large irrigation projects must contain more than 
100 acres, because 90 percent of the land is devoted to the raising of hay 
and grains. Beans and sugar beets each account for only 3 percent and 
other products make up the difference. More intensive use of irrigated 
land is not feasible because of climate and distance from consuming cen- 
ters. The cost of construction on large projects has usually made them un- 
economic for the tenant or proprietor, since Montana has no law provid- 
ing for "conservancy districts" under which the whole community would 

The history of irrigation records many difficulties in financing and in 
meeting charges on the poorer lands. Present indebtedness is a serious ob- 
stacle, especially for several projects undertaken about 191920, a period 
of high costs. In contrast, a few of the older projects have retired their 
bonds and are forging ahead. The benefits of irrigation have been well 
worth their cost when measured by the public welfare. 

Montana's rivers make an average descent of 3,000 feet from source 
to State line, and could produce 2,500,000 horsepower of electric energy, 
more than five times their actual production. In annual per capita con- 
sumption (2,061 kilowatt hours), Montana ranks first and in present 
production of electricity, sixth. The State's most extensive project for the 
utilization of water power, Fort Peck Dam in Valley County (see Tour 
10 A), is also the country's largest mud dam. Fort Peck will generate 
12,000 kilowatts of continuous power. 

Many mining regions in the Rocky Mountains started as gold camps. 
It is a lucky accident for prospectors that gold ore weathers more slowly 
than other metals and is often discovered in concentrated form where the 


others have been recombined or diffused. In Montana the six principal 
metals, copper, silver, lead, zinc, manganese, and gold are usually found 
mixed, but all six seldom exist in commercial quantities in a single ore. 
The deposits are found throughout the mountain areas. Sometimes, as at 
Butte, they are almost inexhaustible. 

At Butte the metals occur in a zonal arrangement, one or two pre- 
dominating in each zone. The central zone is copper; the intermediate, 
zinc; the outer, manganese. The copper ores (chiefly chalcocite, bornite, 
and enargite) contain 80 to 240 pounds of copper, 2 ounces of silver, and 
i ounce of gold per ton; zinc ores contain 240 to 280 pounds of zinc, 40 
pounds of lead, 5 to 6 ounces of silver, and .008 ounce of gold per ton; 
manganese ores contain 600 to 760 pounds of manganese. 

Cascade, Meagher, Judith Basin, and Glacier Counties have deposits of 
iron ore. Chromite, a rare mineral in the United States, is found in Car- 
bon, Stillwater, and Park Counties. 

Fifty of Montana's fifty-six counties have coal, mostly lignite. Their 
38,000 square miles of workable coal fields contain more than 400 billion 
tons of fuel, of which perhaps 30 billion tons are bituminous or high- 
grade sub-bituminous. The extensive Fort Union formation underlies most 
of the eastern end of the State. The best beds are at Colstrip, Rosebud 
County; Roundup, Musselshell County; Bear Creek, Carbon County; and 
Griffin, near Sand Coulee. Most of the seams are from 3 to 15 feet thick; 
some exceed 30 feet. A small amount of anthracite exists in Park County, 
and deposits of lower Cretaceous coal of coking quality are found at Sand 
Coulee, Cascade County, and at Lewistown, Fergus County. Lake-bed 
coal occurs at many places in the mountain region. 

In the 1930*5 the Government spent thousands of dollars to extinguish 
fires in coal veins, some of which had burned for years. The method in 
most cases was to dig through the seam and pack dirt between the fire and 
the unconsumed coal. 

The Sweetgrass Arch, a huge upward fold of the earth's crust paral- 
leling the Rockies and extending nearly 200 miles from the Belt Moun- 
tains, south of Great Falls, to Lethbridge, Canada, is one of the most 
important geological formations in Montana. It is 60 miles wide, and 
embraces five natural gas and petroleum fields. Near Shelby in the center 
of the arch, a pronounced sag has caused a doming of the strata. This 
dome contains the oil-bearing sands. 

The most productive gas field (also yielding petroleum) is the Cut Back 
strip, 4 miles wide and 25 miles long, in Toole and Glacier Counties. The 


gas deposit of the Cedar Creek anticline in Fallon and Dawson Counties is 
one of the largest in the Northwest. One gas field is near Havre, Hill 
County, another near Malta, Phillips County. 

Major oil fields lie in Petroleum, Pondera, Toole, Carbon, and Glacier 
Counties ; several produce gas as well as oil. Most of Montana's crude oil 
is of high gravity and readily refined. Formations strongly indicating oil 
are plentiful on the plains. 

Granite, quartzite, marble, limestone, sandstone, and various clays are 
found in commercial quantities. 

Before the White Man 

MONTANA is roughly divided by the main range of the Rockies 
into two archeological provinces. Early Indians spread over both 
areas, Eastern Plains and Western Plateau, but apparently there was little 
cultural unity between the two groups before the advent of the horse in 
the eighteenth century. The eastern portion contains evidence of typical 
Plains archeology. Recent explorations in the western counties indicate a 
prehistoric people whose traits of culture were similar to those of the 
early Puget Sound tribes. In this early period the foods, manner of life, 
and occupations differed widely; the Plateau Indians probably had mi- 
grated eastward from the Pacific Coast, while the Plains Indians had come 
westward from the Mississippi Valley and beyond. 

Evidences of prehistoric man in eastern Montana appear in the form 
of buffalo cliffs, teepee rings, and peculiar arrangements of stones which 
suggest various ceremonial uses. A few graves have also been uncovered. 
Crude pottery was made by the very early inhabitants, but not by the his- 
toric tribes. 

Before horses were introduced, the Plains Indians obtained meat by 
still hunts; firing the prairie and then surrounding their quarry; or by 
drives. The drive was a common method of buffalo hunting. One or more 
series of stones were arranged in V-shape on a plateau of good grazing 
ground, with the apex at the edge of a cliff. Large rocks were piled on the 
floor of the canyon below. With the scene thus prepared, the hunting 
party stampeded a herd of buffalo toward the V, a number of the Indians 
hiding along the rock walls of the drive and waving robes to confuse the 
herd. The frightened beasts plunged over the cliff and perished either as 
a result of the fall or from the hundreds of arrows that followed. 

At the foot of each of the 400 piskuns (buffalo cliffs) discovered in 
Montana, have been found arrowheads, fragmentary buffalo skeletons, 
and teeth. The ground at the base of the piskun on Two Medicine Creek 
about two miles from US 89 (see Tour 4, Sec. a) is white with the tooth 
enamel of buffalo whose bones have crumbled (see Tour 11). 

Teepee rings are circles of stone where lodges once stood. A teepee was 



a conical tent of animal skins wrapped around three or more poles, with a 
ventilation hole in the top. The skins were weighted down with stones 
to retain heat and to prevent their flapping in the wind. Where villages 
stood, hundreds of these circles remain, sometimes on the surface, some- 
times half-buried. In some sections on the plains farmers dug and hauled 
away innumerable tons of them in preparing the land for cultivation 
(see Tour 4). 

A short distance west of Armstead, near US 91 south of Dillon, is a 
curious wheel-shaped pattern of stones thought to have had ceremonial 
uses (see Tour 6, Sec. c). In Inscription Cave on US 87, eight miles east 
of Billings, are picture writings of unknown age (see Tour 3, Sec. b). 

Indian artifacts found in Montana include spearheads, arrowheads, and 
knives; stone pestles, hammers, and mauls; and red and black soapstone 
pipes for smoking wild tobacco. Pipes were treasured possessions. "Smoke 
the peace pipe" is a term universally known, but smoking sometimes sig- 
nified warlike intent. It also propitiated the spirits of animals killed for 
food, confirmed friendships, pacified the elements, conveyed thanks for 
a good harvest, and sealed decisions. Like the coup stick (the Indian's 
Victoria Cross), the pipe was decorated with eagle feathers to record 
brave deeds. 

Clothing, bags, and mats were made of animal skins, fringed, punctured, 
dyed, painted, or decorated with porcupine quills. A man wore a hip- 
length shirt, long leggings, belt, breechclout, moccasins; and cap, head- 
band, fur hat, or feathered bonnet. A woman wore a dress reaching nearly 
to the ankles, short leggings, moccasins, belt, and headband. Shell earrings 
and necklaces were often worn, and face and body painting was general. 
Symbolical tattooing, chiefly of the wrists and forearms, was probably 
practiced only rarely by either sex. 

To the Plains people the great provider of food, shelter, and tools was 
the buffalo. Bitter intertribal wars were fought over his ranges; his favor 
was wooed in many ways. If Indians found a peculiar red "buffalo stone," 
they did a buffalo dance forthwith. If more women than men danced, 
more cows than bulls would be taken. Some villages had a saying: "Do 
not steal. A buffalo will search you out and expose you." 

The buffalo robe was the Indian's bed; dressed skins covered his 
lodges; braided strands of rawhide and twisted hair served him as ropes; 
and the green hide provided him a vessel in which to boil meat, or, when 
stretched over a frame of boughs, one in which to cross a river. Though 
deer and elk skins were preferred for other clothing, moccasins and leg- 
gings were often of buffalo hide. 


From the tough, thick hide of the bull's neck, shrunk hard, the Indians 
made a shield that would turn a lance or arrow. From dried and hairless 
rawhide (parfleche), they made carrying cases. They made cannon bones 
and ribs into tools for dressing hides; shoulder blades lashed to sticks 
into hoes and axes; hoofs into glue for fastening feathers and heads on 
arrows. Bowstrings and thread were made of back sinews; spoons, ladles, 
and ornaments, of the horns; buckets, of the lining of the paunch. The 
dried skin of the tail, fastened on a stick, was used for a fly brush. 

Some time in the eighteenth century, the horse was introduced to Mon- 
tana Indians, possibly by the Shoshones. After that, modes of living on the 
two sides of the Rockies grew more similar. As buffalo hunters, the Plains 
Indians became the best horsemen; the Crow name for a horse was 
espheta (something to hunt with). Other Indian terms for "horse" indi- 
cated it as only a bigger and better dog: "medicine-dog," "elk-dog," and 
the like. 

Plains Indians did little trapping, and did not molest "the underwater 
people" ; but the Plateau tribes were eager fishermen and trappers. The 
women of both regions dug roots for food: chiefly wild turnip on the 
Plains, and camas, bitterroot, parasitic pine moss, wild carrot, and onion 

the mountains. Mixing berries in pemmican (dried and pounded meat) 
ras a Plains practice. 

Surviving among Plains Indians are certain early secret societies, such 

the Blackfeet Ikunikahntsiks (All Friends). This society is made up of 
"sistsiks (Little Birds), youths under 20 years; Kuh-kwo-iks (Pigeons), 
young warriors; Suyis-Kaisiks (Mosquitos), mature warriors; Mut-siks 
(Braves), warriors of long experience; and Ikunuts-Omitaiks (All Crazy 
Dogs), warriors of 40 to 50 years. Other bands of the society, each with 
its own costume and way of dancing, are extinct. 

Crow societies often originated in war parties which, after a successful 
campaign, met and swore their members to supreme mutual loyalty. The 
leading ones were the Foxes, War Clubs, Big Dogs, Crazy Dogs, Muddy 
Hands, and Fighting Bulls. Meetings were held at night, with fires blaz- 
ing and drums beating as each member recited his deeds of valor. Mem- 
bers were elected upon petition, any warrior who had "counted coup" 
being eligible. When a member died, his brother could demand his place. 
The only society limited to one class of members was the Fighting Bulls, 
made up of aged warriors. 

An important duty, especially of Foxes and War Clubs, the most re- 
spected societies, was to police the villages and prevent young warriors 
from venturing out on expeditions alone. 


Each society had two tribal coup sticks carried by volunteer bearers from 
appointment until "snow fell upon their heads" (usually about a year). 
In the ceremony of appointment, the society chief asked who would next 
carry the sticks, then passed the pipe. To take the pipe and smoke it sig- 
nified acceptance of the charge. 

One stick was straight, with an eagle feather on the small end. When, 
in battle, the bearer thrust this stick into the ground, it represented his 
country, and he must remain and defend it until he died or until a society 
brother rode between him and the enemy; then it might be removed with 
honor. The other, the two-feathered "crooked stick," might be moved to a 
better position at discretion, but must not be lost to an enemy except by 
the bearer's death. 

"Coup" consisted in striking an armed enemy with coup stick, quirt, or 
bow before otherwise harming him; striking the first enemy in battle; 
striking the enemy's fortification under fire; stealing a horse tied to a 
lodge in an enemy camp ; or disarming a living enemy. Striking coup with 
the tribal sticks counted double, for a man was in greater danger while 
carrying them. In the ceremony of "counting coup," the braves sat around 
the campfire and listened to the hero's account of his exploit. A warrior 
wore an eagle feather in his hair to show that he had "counted coup." If 
he had been wounded, the feather was painted red; but it was more 
praiseworthy to have "struck coup" without being wounded. To carry an 
eagle's wing signified that one had accomplished a feat of unusual valor. 

The sun dance of the Plains tribes may be regarded as a summer solstice 
ceremony, an offering to the sky gods. The early fur traders named it the 
Medicine Lodge, which seems a better term than sun dance, at least in the 
case of the Blackfeet, with whom dancing is not the important part of the 
ceremony. The Blackfeet themselves call it O-Kan (Vision). They believe 
that dreams are actual experiences of the shadow (soul) while the body 
is inert, and their great annual rite doubtless originated in the visions of 
some ancient sleeper. A tribal legend tells that once when meat was scarce 
an old woman, in a vision, learned the use of the "piskun" from one of 
her animal friends. 

The vow to the Sun of which the sun dance is the fulfillment was made 
among the Crow, Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho by a man, but among the 
Blackfeet by a woman. In Blackfeet legend it was Tailfeathers Woman 
who, first of mankind, visited Sun and received his request that sacred 
lodges be built in his honor. (For description of Blackfeet sun dance, see 
Tour 2, Sec. b.) 

The predominant Plains tribes were the Crow and the Blackfeet. Others 


were the Assiniboine in the northeast; the Sioux, or Dakota; the Minne- 
taree (Gros Ventres of the River) ; the Shoshone (nicknamed "Snakes," 
perhaps because of the tribal symbol in the sign language), widely scat- 
tered, living also west of the mountains; the Cheyenne in the southeast; 
the Arapaho (White daymen or Gros Ventres of the Prairie). Not all 
Gros Ventres (Big Bellies) were of one stock. The Arapaho and Minne- 
taree spoke different languages and were bitter enemies. A third tribe 
called Gros Ventres of the Mountains (Atsina) spoke the Arapaho 

The Blackfeet were a loose confederacy of Pikunis (Piegans), Bloods, 
and Blackfeet proper, all of Algonquian stock. They camped and hunted 
from the North Saskatchewan River to the headwaters of the Missouri. 
They were cleanly, warlike people, and famous as horsemen. In their 
campaigns they crossed the Rockies and ranged west and south as far as 
Great Salt Lake. 

The Crow (Absarokee) were a branch of the Hidatsa from the lower 
reaches of the Missouri. Legend tells that two women's quarrel over a 

iffalo paunch split the Hidatsa into Minnetaree and Crow factions. The 
went west to the "land of the lone mountains," settling along the 
'ellowstone, Big Horn, Powder, and Wind Rivers, where they became 
ic most powerful tribe. 

The Cheyenne, who probably preceded the Sioux in the upper Missis- 
sippi region, were Algonquian. According to their traditions, they were 
the first eastern Montana Indians to use horses. The Shoshone roamed and 
hunted from the Big Horn Mountains to the Coastal Range. Arapaho 
(Algonquian) ranged over a wide territory around the headwaters of the 
Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers and were allied at various times with 
both Blackfeet and Cheyenne. 

Little is known of the earliest inhabitants of western Montana. Skeletal 
remains show that they were short and stocky, like modern Coast tribes, 
and practiced flexed burial in pits. Charcoal remains suggest cremation, 
which was not a custom of the historic Flathead. Trinkets and adorn- 
ments, beads of abalone shell and salt-water mollusks, indicate coastal 
origin. Legends describe them as courageous, but stupid and cruel. They 
lived in pit dwellings little better than holes in the ground. 

Despite their name, the Flathead (Salish) Indians never flattened the 
heads of infants, as did Coast tribes. The name may have been given them 
by their neighbors on the west, whose heads were pointed. They originally 
lived in the double lean-to, later adopting a teepee-style dwelling of poles 
chinked with grass and earth and covered with hides. Their ceremonial 



inces differed from the sun dance of the Plains, and they had no secret 

rieties. They were, in addition, fish eaters. Otherwise they were so much 
Plains Indians that anthropologists account for this only by their 

irly migrations to the Plains after they acquired horses. 

They dwelt along the shores of Flathead Lake and in the Bitterroot 
Valley, often crossing the Divide to hunt along the Judith and Mussel- 
shell Rivers. They recognized kinship with the Kalispel, Coeur d'Alene, 
Colville, and Spokan, and intermarried with the Nez Perce. The Kalispel 
are closely related to, and sometimes identified with, the Pend d'Oreille 
or Hanging Ears, who, like the Flathead and Kootenai, have given their 
name to a river and a lake. 

The Kootenai, who extend from northwestern Montana into northern 
Idaho and southeastern British Columbia, are usually accounted a distinct 
stock (Kitunahan), but their speech has similarities to Algonquian which 
may indicate relationship. It is believed that they lived east of the Rockies, 
and were driven west by the Blackfeet. They were more warlike than their 
western neighbors, and were the greatest of deer hunters and tanners of 
buckskin. They were noted for their birchbark canoes with undershot 
ends, resembling those used on the Amur River in Siberia. They hunted 
and traded peaceably with the Flatheads, but were constantly at war with 
the Blackfeet. 

The Indians who came into Montana in the i88o's as the Rocky Boy 
group were Chippewa from Minnesota and Canadian Cree (see Tour 14). 
The Bannack, a Shoshonean tribe, ranged over part of southwestern Mon- 
tana, but lived in Idaho. 

MONTANA'S history is alive with action and color, a drama in 
which the characters range from Indians and buckskin-clad trap- 
pers to copper kings and skilful modern politicians. The scenes shift from 
lonely trading posts or settlers' cabins to roaring gold camps; conflict 
sweeps from Indian battles and the "war of the copper kings" to the dry- 
land farmer's grim struggle against the elements. 

An eighteenth century French trader, Pierre Gaultier, Sieur de Varennes 
de la Verendrye, heard Indian tales of a river that flowed into a western 
sea. In 1738, after obtaining a grant of the fur trade monopoly from the 
French Government, he made his way to the Mandan villages in what is 
now North Dakota, then returned to Montreal by way of Fort La Reine, 
near the site of Winnipeg. 

In 1742 he sent two of his sons, Pierre and Frangois, on another expedi- 
tion. After long dreary marches across the Dakota plains, they first saw, 
early in January 1743, the "shining mountains" generally believed to have 
been the Big Horns of Wyoming and southern Montana. Here the threat 
of Indian war, and perhaps discouraging reports of what lay ahead, made 
them return to Montreal. 

The elder Verendrye died in 1749, the sons were deprived of their 
grants, and the French and Indian Wars stopped all expeditions of dis- 
covery. In 1763 New France (Canada) passed into British hands, and 
Louisiana came under the control of Spain. No other white men were to 
see Montana's "shining mountains" for more than sixty years. 

The Lewis and Clark expedition outfitted for its epic adventure at 
Wood River, Illinois, opposite St. Louis. On May 14, 1804, with a large 
keelboat, two smaller boats, and a party of thirty-two men, they started, 
traveling 1,609 miles against Missouri currents before ice on the river 
compelled them to go into winter quarters in a friendly Mandan village. 

The next spring they sent the keelboat back and, using the lighter craft, 
reached the mouth of the Yellowstone on April 26, 1805. Only Sacajawea, 
a Shoshone Indian woman, and her French-Canadian husband, Char- 
bonneau, who had joined the party at the Mandan villages as interpreter, 



had ever been west of that point. A little farther on, the expedition had 
its first sight of grizzly bears. Lewis later wrote that he would rather meet 
two Indians than one grizzly. 

They reached the mouth of the Marias River June 2, and saw the spray 
of the Great Falls on June 14. The 1 8-mile portage around the falls and 
rapids was enlivened by the first Fourth of July celebration west of the 
Mississippi. Lewis wrote: "I gave the men a drink of spirits which was 
the last of our stock. Fiddle was produced and a dance begun which lasted 
until 9 o'clock, when it was interrupted by rain." 

Launching their boats on the upper Missouri July 15, they began the 

irney through the mountains. On July 19, about 14 miles northeast of 
ic present site of Helena, they poled through a steep-walled canyon 
rhich they named the Gates of the Mountains. Six days later they camped 
at the three forks of the Missouri, naming each stream for a leading 
statesman: Jefferson, Madison, Gallatin. Sacajawea said it was here, five 
years earlier, that she had been captured by a band of Minnetaree Indians 
of the Dakota Nation. 

Pushing up the Jefferson River July 30, they were delayed by beaver 
dams, shallow water, and thick alder and willow growth. Game was much 
less abundant and supplies were low; it was imperative that they meet 
with Indians and obtain horses for the journey across the mountains. Up 
to this point the expedition had not encountered a single Indian. 

From the headwaters of the Beaverhead River, Lewis' advance party 
crossed the Divide through Lemhi Pass, and camped August 12 at the 
source of a stream flowing west. They were 3,000 miles from the mouth 
of the Missouri, and on short rations. Next morning they came upon a 
Shoshone camp. The chief, Cameahwait, was propitiated with presents 
and persuaded, with a few others, to return with Lewis to the Beaverhead. 
There, when Clark came up on August 17, it was learned that Cameah- 
wait was Sacajawea's brother. This happy storybook circumstance assured 
the party of a cordial welcome. 

They spent two weeks with the Shoshone, caching their canoes, bring- 
ing up their equipment, and trading for horses. Clark explored the Salmon 
River for some distance, but found it impassable. On August 30 the ex- 
pedition started north down the Bitterroot Valley with a few unshod 
horses and an Indian guide, stopping at a spot on Lolo Creek which they 
named Traveler's Rest. On September n they pushed on over Lolo Pass 
and out of Montana. 

At the Mandan villages, in the winter of 180405, a party of French- 
Canadian fur hunters led by Francois Antoine Larocque of the North- 


West Company, offered to accompany the expedition, but Lewis declined 
the offer. In the spring of 1805 Larocque's party explored the Yellowstone 
region, buying beaverskins from the Crow. 

On June 30, 1806, having returned from the Pacific, the Lewis and 
Clark expedition divided at Traveler's Rest. Captain Lewis, with nine 
men, went northward over the present site of Missoula and up the Black- 
foot River, crossing the Continental Divide at its headwaters. While ex- 
ploring the Marias River to learn whether it afforded a trade route to the 
Saskatchewan, his party skirmished with Gros Ventre Indians, killing 
two. Of the entire trip, this was the only hostile encounter that ended in 

Clark, with the remainder of the party, crossed through Gibbon's 
Pass to the Big Hole River, then went down the Beaverhead and Jefferson 
Rivers to the Missouri. A detail was sent to meet Lewis at the mouth 
of the Marias, while Clark went overland to the Yellowstone. Near the 
mouth of that river, on August 12, the expedition was reunited. 

Lewis and Clark had found St. Louis eager for news of their discov- 
eries. None was more interested than Manuel Lisa, a New Orleanian of 
Spanish descent, who had traded with the Osages to the south. Outfitting 
an expedition of 42 men, he took them up the Yellowstone to the mouth 
of the Big Horn, where, in 1807, he built Montana's first trading post. 
Lisa named it Fort Ramon, for his son, but his trappers knew it as Lisa's 
Fort or Fort Manuel. Within two years he had 350 men working for him, 
and his organization continued to spread out until his death. 

In 1807 he had sent John Colter and Sergeant Potts, veterans of the 
Lewis and Clark expedition, to the forks of the Missouri to trade with 
the Indians. Potts was slain by Indians, and Colter narrowly escaped. He 
made his way back to Lisa's Fort by way of what is now Yellowstone 
National Park. His account of the region caused fur traders to call it 
Colter's Hell. 

Under the Hudson's Bay Company the British were operating westward 
to the Rockies and far to the north. Alexander Mackenzie and Simon 
Fraser, factors, had even penetrated to the Pacific. Although they had 
missed the Columbia River, their explorations led to the forming of the 
North-West Company, in whose employ the great David Thompson, with 
few instruments, explored and mapped the Columbia Basin. Even today 
his maps are found to be amazingly accurate. 

Thompson came to Canada as a Hudson's Bay Company apprentice. 
He did not like the duties of a factor, and joined the North-West Com- 
pany as an explorer at a time when the British were being spurred by the 


prospect of American competition in the Oregon country. In the spring 
of 1806 he crossed the Rockies and a year later was on the Kootenai River 
with a group of traders, the first white men to visit many of the tribes 
west of the Rockies. He built Kootenai House that year, and in November 
1809, the Salish House near Thompson Falls. In the spring of 1810 he 
made several expeditions into the Flathead region. He returned to Canada 
in 1812 and never again came west; but in his five years of careful work 
on the Pacific slope he had explored and charted a great and previously 
unknown region. 

In the spring of 1810 Pierre Menard and Andrew Henry built a trading 
post near Three Forks. The Blackfeet began a series of attacks, and twenty 
men were killed, among them George Drouillard, the second Lewis and 
Clark veteran to be killed near this place. Henry crossed the mountains to 
the headwaters of the Snake and established a post there; Menard and 
the main party returned to St. Louis. 

In 1811 an overland party sent out by John Jacob Astor crossed the 
southeast corner of Montana. At about the same time a party sent to 
Astoria by sea landed at the mouth of the Columbia River. Among these 
were Alexander Ross, a Scot. When Astor 's Pacific Fur Company failed 
because of the War of 1812, Ross joined the North- West Company, and 
led a motley band of Canadians, half-breeds, Iroquois even Hawaiians 
through the Columbia Basin. In the spring of 1824 he passed through 
Hell Gate Canyon to the source of Clark Fork of the Columbia, and 
across the Rockies to the headwaters of the Missouri. After retiring from 
the fur trade, he became one of the first and most prominent citizens of 

On March 20, 1822, William H. Ashley advertised for 100 "enterpris- 
ing young men" to engage in the Missouri River fur trade, and the ac- 
tivities of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company then began. Among those 
who responded were Jim Bridger, Mike Fink, "king of the keelboatmen," 
and Hugh Glass. Ashley, a Virginian and a brigadier general in the War 
of 1812, had served as general of the Missouri Militia, and as Lieutenant 
Governor. Major Andrew Henry, of the ill-fated Three Forks trading 
post, was his associate. 

The first expedition set out from St. Louis on April 15, 1822. At the 
Arikara villages it encountered hostile Indians and lost a boat and valuable 
equipment. Ashley returned to St. Louis, but the remainder of the party 
proceeded upstream and weeks later built Fort Henry at the mouth of the 
Yellowstone. Ashley's defeat might have been averted, had he taken the 
warnings of his guide and interpreter, Edward Rose. Of mixed Negro, 


Indian, and white blood, Rose bore an unjustified reputation for disloyalty 
to the soldiers and trappers, probably strengthened by his notoriously 
sullen nature and mutilated face. 

In 1823 Henry pushed up the Missouri as far as Great Falls, but was 
put to flight by the Blackfeet. He then built a post on the Yellowstone at 
the mouth of the Big Horn, but again had trouble with Indians, who 
killed several trappers. 

The achievements of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company men, like those 
of David Thompson, were more important geographically than financially. 
Hiram Martin Chittenden, the historian, estimated, however, that in the 
twelve years of its career the company shipped $500,000 worth of beaver 
to St. Louis; at the same time goods, furs, and horses to the value of 
$100,000 were stolen. A hundred human lives were lost during the 
twelve years of exploring and trading. 

As trapper, guide, and scout Jim Bridger became the most famous of 
the mountain men. For about fifty years he traveled over the Rockies, ex- 
ploring and discovering, his exploits being a frontier byword. Shot by an 
Indian, he carried an arrow-head in his back for three years, and, when 
asked by Father de Smet if the wound had not become infected, smilingly 
replied, "In the mountains, meat never spoils." 

The American Fur Company was founded in 1808, with John Jacob 
Astor for years the only stockholder. In 1822 a St. Louis branch was 
formed, with Pierre Chouteau, Bernard Pratte, and others as partners. 
Kenneth McKenzie, one of several former agents of Canadian companies 
who were enlisted into the service, came in 1827 and was given charge of 
the company's interests on the upper Missouri. In 1828 he built a large 
post near the mouth of the Yellowstone not far from the site of the one 
Henry had abandoned in 1823. McKenzie called it Fort Floyd, but soon 
afterward it became known as Fort Union. 

McKenzie is said to have been the company's ablest trader. He made 
Fort Union the greatest concentration point of the western fur trade; he 
obtained the trade of the Blackfeet; he built Forts Piegan, McKenzie, 
Chardon, Lewis, Benton (on or near Marias River), Cass (Big Horn), 
and Van Buren (Tongue). Pierre Chouteau, Jr., who was the first to bring 
a steamboat up to Fort Union (1832), Alexander Culbertson, who suc- 
ceeded McKenzie as factor, and Malcolm Clark, who helped settle the 
Prickly Pear Valley near Helena and was killed there by Piegan Indians, 
all received their training at Fort Union. 

Famous visitors to Montana while the fur trade was at its height were 
George Catlin (1832), American painter of early-day Indian life; Prince 


Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied (1833), whose travel journals are among 
the most valuable records of the period; and John James Audubon 
(1843), the naturalist. 

Fort Lewis, most famous offshoot of Fort Union, was established in 
1846. In 1850 it was rebuilt by Major Alexander Culbertson and chris- 
tened Fort Benton in honor of Senator Thomas Benton of Missouri. This 
fort is conspicuous in Montana history mainly because of its site at the 
head of navigation on the Missouri River. Its importance as a fur trading 
post was secondary, for by 1850, beavers were almost extinct and other 
kinds of fur were hard to get. Nearly all profit had vanished for inde- 
pendent traders, although at Fort Owen, near Stevensville, the trade 
carried on into the gold rush period. The first steamer to arrive at Fort 
Benton was the Chippewa, in 1859. In 1862, year of the discovery of gold 
at Bannack, four boats landed cargoes; five years later there were thirty- 
nine boats. Then the traffic decreased again, and the last freight arrived 
in 1888. 

An episode of 1854, notable for sheer dash and display, was perhaps 
the last wild explosion of color in Montana's hunting and trapping era. 
A wealthy Irish sportsman, Sir St. George Gore, came in with some com- 
panions, 40 servants, 112 horses, 12 yoke of oxen, 14 hunting dogs, 
enough arms and ammunition for a small arsenal, and 6 wagons and 21 
carts laden with every luxury of the times. Engaging Jim Bridger as guide, 
he hunted in the Powder River region and slaughtered so much game that 
the Indians became resentful. In 1856 Gore drifted down to Fort Union, 
where he burned his equipment rather than pay the price Major Culbert- 
son asked for transporting it to St. Louis. He spent the winter at Fort 
Berthold, and returned to St. Louis in the spring of 1857. 

The first attempt to find a route for a railroad from St. Paul to the 
Pacific was made by one of five parties of the Pacific Railway expedition 
sent out by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis. The expedition, in charge 
of Governor Isaac I. Stevens of Washington Territory, reached Fort Union 
on August i, 1853. Only part of the way surveyed was ever used in rail- 
road building, but a member of the party, Lieutenant John Mullan, later 
(1858-1862) built the first wagon road over the northern Rockies, from 
Fort Benton to Walla Walla. 

While explorers and trappers were breaking trails in this western coun- 
try, missionaries also began to come in. Hearing of Christianity from 
Iroquois employees of the North- West Company, the Flathead and Nez 
Perce sent four delegates to St. Louis in 1831 asking for missionaries to 
teach them how to worship the Great Spirit in the white man's way. Two 


of the envoys died in St. Louis and were buried in the cathedral. Nothing 
came of the mission at that time, and in 1835, and again in 1839, other 
envoys repeated the request. 

Fired by the story of distant Indians waiting to be converted, Father 
Pierre Jean de Smet, Belgian Jesuit, traveled to the Rocky Mountains in 
1840 by way of the Platte River. He received a delegation of the Flathead 
on Green River, Wyoming, baptized them, and on July 5 celebrated mass. 
Then he accompanied the Flathead to the Gallatin Valley, where he left 
them on August 27 and returned to St. Louis. The following spring, with 
two priests and four lay brothers, he came back and founded St. Mary's 
Mission in the Bitterroot Valley. 

Late the next winter he obtained a supply of seed at Fort Colville, 
Washington, and in the spring, at St. Mary's Mission, he planted oats, 
wheat, and potatoes Montana's first crop. In 1845 Father Anthony 
Ravalli, Italian Jesuit, joined him, and the two pioneering priests built the 
first gristmill in Montana at St. Mary's Mission. 

In 1854 the Idaho mission of St. Ignatius was moved by Father Adrian 
Hoecken to the Mission Valley. Here, twenty years later, a press was 
installed and a dictionary printed of the Kalispel language. Another mis- 
sion was established near the site of Choteau, in the heart of the Blackfeet 
country, but because of the hostility of the Indians, it was moved to the 
Missouri River and then to Skull Butte above Cascade, becoming known 
as St. Peter's-by-the-Rock. While St. Ignatius still serves the Flathead, the 
other missions are now only historic points of interest. 

In 1856 a party en route from the Bitterroot Valley to Salt Lake, ob- 
tained a small quantity of gold from Francois Finlay, a quarter-breed 
Indian known as Benetsee, who had prospected on Gold Creek. Evidently 
they thought little of their find for they gave it to Richard Grant, who 
lived in the Deer Lodge Valley near by. In the spring of 1858 John Silver- 
thorne, a packer at Fort Owen, gave Major Culbertson at Fort Benton a 
small amount of what appeared to be gold dust in exchange for goods. 
Culbertson sent it to St. Louis; and there it was pronounced gold. Silver- 
thorne had procured the dust from Benetsee. 

James and Granville Stuart, returning from California, found gold 
values as high as ten cents a pan near Benetsee' s discovery, but, as they 
had neither sufficient provisions nor proper tools and were menaced by the 
Blackfeet, they went on to Fort Bridger on the Oregon Trail. In the sum- 
mer of 1860 Henry Thomas, known as "Gold Tom," sank a 3O-foot shaft 
in the glacial drift. He made only $1.50 a day, and so he moved on. 

The Stuarts returned and, on May 8, 1862, set up the first sluices in 



Montana near the head of Gold Creek. A letter written to their brother 
Thomas in Colorado, advising him to join them, started a small rush to 
Montana. Among the prospectors were John M. Bozeman, Samuel T. 
Hauser, and W. B. Dance. 

While the Gold Creek diggings were becoming active, large parties of 
Colorado miners, bound for Idaho, turned toward the Deer Lodge Valley 
when they learned that the Idaho gold camps were overrun with men 
from the coast. On Willard's (Grasshopper) Creek, a tributary of the 
Beaverhead, John White and William Eads made the first big strike in 
Montana, July 28, 1862. Bannack, named for an Indian tribe, sprang up 

Many of the gold seekers had left the East to escape the war raging 
there, but its echoes followed them. Confederate sympathizers named a 
gulch "Jeff Davis"; Bannack's residential district became "Yankee Flat." 

In 1863 the Edgar- Fairweather party from Cottonwood (Deer Lodge) 
missed a rendezvous with a party from Bannack for a prospecting trip to 
the Yellowstone Valley and the Black Hills. Turned back by Indians, they 
made one of the greatest of all gold discoveries in Alder Gulch on May 
26. The first year's yield from this gulch was estimated at $10,000,000 or 
more. At once towns sprang up; in two years Virginia City had 10,000 

Drawn to the new El Dorado, in addition to honest prospectors, were 
fugitives from older camps, among them Henry Plummer, who became 
sheriff at Bannack. With him as chief, a gang of highwaymen began op- 
erations in 1863 along the wild 9o-mile stretch between Alder Gulch and 
Bannack. Corresponding in cipher, they marked men and coaches for 
plunder, used stage stops as hang-outs, and killed at least io'2 persons. 

A group of determined men decided to act. Arresting one George Ives 
after a particularly brutal murder, they tried him before a miners' court, 
and, defying the threats of the organized criminals, convicted and hanged 
him December 21, 1863. Then a secret group calling themselves Vigi- 
lantes took up the task of swift and wholesale justice. They hanged Eras- 
tus (Red) Yeager and George W. Brown at Laurin on January 4, 1864. 
Plummer and his chief deputies, Stinson and Ray, were hanged at Ban- 
nack on January 10. Altogether, twenty-four "bad men" paid their score 
between December 20, 1863, and February 5, 1864, and organized robbery 
and murder on the road ceased. 

On July 14, 1864, John Cowen, John Crabb, Robert Stanley, and Gabe 
Johnson found traces of color in Last Chance Gulch. After prospecting 
northward in the hope of a richer find, they returned to this "last chance" 


and made a big strike. Other rich gulches were soon found in the same 
region. Some of the values in Confederate Gulch, thirty miles east of 
Helena, were sensational, Montana Bar yielding as high as $1,000 per pan 
and one clean-up of seven days amounting to $114,800. 

In May 1864 G. O. Humphreys and William Allison had found placer 
gold in Silver Bow Creek. The camp boomed for a few seasons, but a dry 
year (1869) reduced the clean-ups and by 1870 it was almost deserted. 
In 1875 William Farlin opened rich silver veins in the Travonia mine, 
and started a boom that made Butte "the silver city" for twenty years. The 
Travonia was taken over by W. A. Clark, who built a mill to handle 
the ore. 

Montana had been a component successively of Oregon, Washington, 
Nebraska, Dakota, and Idaho Territories, always with the seat of govern- 
ment far away. Miners' courts had been organized but were largely inef- 
fective; knowledge of law was not a necessary qualification of judges. As 
people poured in, some local government became a necessity. The organic 
act of May 26, 1864, created Montana Territory, and Sidney Edgerton be- 
came Governor. Three justices were provided. The first Territorial legis- 
lature met at Bannack and enacted provisions that form the basis of the 
present codes. 

In 1865 the legislature changed the capital to Virginia City, established 
the original nine counties, and then adjourned without providing for fu- 
ture meetings. As a result the court refused to recognize the legislative 
acts, thus creating grave antagonism between bar and people. Congress 
somewhat eased matters by passing an enabling act for the Legislature of 
1867. The new government followed Idaho statutes in legislative and 
judicial procedure, but among its problems were water rights and mine 
law, both new branches. 

A movement toward statehood in 1865 resulted in Acting Governor 
Meagher's calling a constitutional convention. Eight of the delegates did 
not bother to attend. The constitution was sent to St. Louis for printing 
and was lost somewhere on the way. 

At first Montana Indians were not invariably hostile as shown by the 
Laramie treaty (1851) and the Isaac I. Stevens treaties (1855) but gov- 
ernment on both sides was inadequate to compel observance of agree- 
ments, and frequent clashes resulted. 

The Indians soon made it clear that they did not like being confined to 
reservations, especially when the buffalo sought other pastures. Chiefs and 
medicine men, who had predicted distress and doom if the whites con- 
tinued to come in. found many followers. The Government's failure dur- 


ing the Civil War to forward the goods and money promised in treaties 
made the Indians openly hostile. The Sioux, who were crowded westward, 
harassed routes of travel and took heavy toll of emigrant trains. 

In 1863 John M. Bozeman blazed a road from the Oregon Trail to the 
Montana gold camps; in 1864 he escorted a large wagon train over it. 
The Sioux and Cheyenne at once began attacks on the road, and the Black- 
feet followed their example in the north. In April 1867 Bozeman was 
slain by Piegans on Mission Creek, east of Livingston. 

To guard the trail Fort C. F. Smith, Montana's first army post, was 
established on the upper Big Horn in 1866. It irritated the Indians so 
much that in 1868, a year after the notable Hayfield and Wagon Box 
fights in which a handful of United States soldiers repulsed hundreds of 
Indian horsemen, the Government withdrew the troops, declared the re- 
gion a reservation, and forbade settlers to enter it. For nine years the 
Bozeman Trail was unused; emigrants came by the Mullan Road from 
Walla Walla, the water route to Fort Benton, and a road northward from 

In 1876 the War Department launched a campaign against the Sioux 
and Cheyenne. On June 17 the Sioux, under Crazy Horse, outfought Gen- 
eral Crook on the Rosebud. Meanwhile General George A. Custer, with 
600 officers and men of the Seventh Cavalry, rode toward the Little Horn. 
When his scouts brought word that he was approaching a large Indian 
village, Custer divided his command, sending Major Marcus A. Reno with 
three troops to the river, and Captain Frederick Benteen with three more 
to keep to Reno's left and to attack any Indians before him. 

Taking somewhere between 208 and 277 (historians differ) men and 
officers, Custer swung right and soon engaged an overwhelming force on 
the hills just east of the river. When the firing ceased and the Indians left 
the field, the only living thing remaining was Comanche, Captain Myles 
Keogh's wounded horse. Four miles to the south Reno was too busily en- 
gaged to know either the whereabouts or the tragic fate of Custer. Al- 
though his losses were heavy, Reno saved his command when Benteen 
came up and, with him, took a defensible position on the bluffs above the 

The tragedy led to the establishment, later in the year, of Fort Keogh 
(the beginning of Miles City) at the mouth of the Tongue River. Next 
year Fort Custer, another cavalry post, was built at the junction of the Big 
Horn and Little Horn. 

The last major Indian battles in the United States were fought with the 
Nez Perce, who, rather than be confined to their north Idaho reservation, 


attempted a flight to Canada. Led by their chief, Joseph, they eluded 90 
cavalrymen from Fort Lapwai (Idaho) and 300 soldiers under General 
Howard, and entered Montana over the tortuous Lolo Trail. Captain C. C. 
Rawn, in command of Fort Missoula (just established), fortified Lolo 
Pass with 50 regulars and 100 volunteers. Joseph demanded free passage 
up the Bitterroot Valley, and the citizens, realizing they would not be 
molested, withdrew their support from Rawn, compelling him to return 
to Fort Missoula. Meanwhile General John Gibbon had left Helena with 
197 officers and men; on August 8, 1877, he found the Nez Perce in Big 
Hole Basin at the junction of Ruby and Trail Creeks. The battle started 
at daylight August 9; on the night of August 10 Joseph withdrew, leaving 
the wounded Gibbon with 69 casualties. 

Chief Joseph moved southeast into the Yellowstone Park region, then 
turned north through Cooke City. Across Montana he retreated, skirmish- 
ing with his pursuers but eluding them. The telegraph was his undoing; 
General Nelson A. Miles of Fort Keogh, being forewarned, headed him 
off in the Bear Paw Mountains. After a masterly i,6oo-mile retreat, en- 



cumbered by women, children, and a large band of horses, Joseph engaged 
in a four-day battle and, on October 8, finally surrendered. 

With the way cleared for settlement, the grassy plains and valleys were 
found to be as ideal for cattle as they had been for buffalo. In 1853 John 
Grant started a beef herd in Deer Lodge Valley, driving the cattle from 
the Oregon Trail. He sold out in 1865 to Conrad Kohrs, who also ran a 
large herd in the Sun River Valley. The first Texas drive was made in 
1866 by Nelson Story of Bozeman; the last, about 1888. In the years be- 
tween, large outfits financed by outside capital occupied most of the Ter- 
ritory. The great difficulty was the long drive to market. In 1874 James 
Forbes drove a herd to Ogden, Utah, and from there sent it east by rail, 
the first Montana cattle so shipped. Building of the Northern Pacific and 
Great Northern brought into being a string of "cowtowns" of which 
Billings, Miles City, Culbertson, and Havre were typical. The Montana 
Stock Growers' Association was organized July 28, 1884, with Theodore 
Roosevelt, then ranching in western Dakota, a charter member. Brand 
books had been published in 1872, with the Masonic square of Poindexter 
and Orr, of Beaverhead, the first brand entered. Sheep had first been 
brought to the Bitterroot Valley in 1857, and, despite heavy depredations 
by coyotes, they increased steadily until damage to ranges by their close 
cropping of grass forced reductions. 

Statehood and the railroad building era roughly 1880-1910 ended 
the days of the open range. Settlers flooded in ; sod was broken and fences 
built; immense counties were split up; cowtowns became small cities; the 
people of the State set about building a new way of life. 

The Territorial government having become thoroughly unsatisfactory, 
a convention held in Helena on January 14, 1884, drafted a constitution 
which the people ratified. Five years later Congress passed an enabling 
act providing for the forming of constitutions and State governments in 
several western Territories. The delegates, well practiced by then, met 
once more and drew up a constitution prefaced by the Magna Carta, the 
Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the United 
States Constitution, and organic and enabling acts. It was ratified at a spe- 
cial election, and the State was admitted to the Union on November 8, 

The new State's resources seemed limitless. Every type of endeavor of- 
fered bonanza returns. Silver and gold mines were in flush production; 
the great copper boom was getting into full swing ; immense coal deposits 
had been discovered; timber products were in demand; a new agriculture 
was beginning. The people were lusty, adventurous, seeking opportunity. 


Nowhere was the struggle for power and wealth more intense than in 
Butte, which city had come into prominence mainly through the work of 
William A. Clark and Marcus Daly, lifelong rivals. Clark developed di- 
verse interests, but Daly, having discovered in 1881, by depth explora- 
tions in his silver mine, the fabulous richness of the Butte copper deposits, 
concentrated on the development of his great mining company. 

In 1889 F. Augustus Heinze, a young engineer from the Columbia 
School of Mines, came to Butte. Two years later he inherited $50,000, 
went to Germany for a few months of study, and returned to found the 
Montana Ore Purchasing Company. With New York capital he built a 
smelter to treat ore from small mines, thus gaining a foothold in the in- 
dustry. Soon he was buying and leasing claims all over the district. 

In 1895 he was ready for bigger game. His plans were based on the 
"law of the apex," under which, within certain limits, an owner could 
follow any vein that apexed (came to the surface) on his property. In 
the Butte district, with its faulted and offset geologic structure, it was any- 
body's guess where a vein apexed. Before a friendly court a good lawyer 
and "experts," suitably rewarded, could make a convincing case of any 
claim. On this basis Heinze brought suit against the Anaconda, St. Law- 
rence, and Neversweat mines the best of the Butte properties. District 
Judge Clancy issued an injunction stopping production and throwing 
thousands out of work. When the angry miners threatened to hang him, 
he dissolved the injunction; but for eight years thereafter the courts were 
cluttered with suits and countersuits. 

When the Minnie Healy, a claim adjoining the rich Leonard mine, un- 
expectedly became a heavy producer, Heinze claimed apex rights to the 
Leonard ore bodies, though his title to the Minnie Healy itself was ques- 
tionable. The case of the Michael Davitt was even more bitter, developing 
into an underground battle in which two miners were killed and others 
barely escaped, while Heinze mined $1,000,000 worth of ore. 

After several years of strife the Amalgamated Company, rather than 
continue a fight costing $1,000,000 a year, bought out Heinze for $14,- 
000,000 and an interest in a company formed to work his holdings. 
Heinze went to New York, where, it is said, powerful interests broke him 
when he attempted to juggle prices on the New York Stock Exchange. 
His failure is held by some to have been a cause of the 1907 panic. 

Other stories from Montana mining history are nearly as exciting al- 
though the characters and events do not loom so large. In the Granite 
Mountain silver mine at Philipsburg, the owner's last shot of powder had 


been set and the men were putting on their coats to leave, when the blast 

piled bonanza at their feet. 

Before he died in 1900, Marcus Daly had created a great industrial or- 
ganization, built much of Butte, and founded Anaconda. Meanwhile, with 
scores of metal mines in the mountains, it was natural that a wider smelt- 
ing industry should develop. Great Falls, with unlimited water power and 
extensive coal deposits near by, was an ideal site. The first hydroelectric 
plant and smelter was established in 1890; within ten years the city be- 
came second in the State. A third important smelter was built at East 
Helena. In Territorial days only a few towns had had more than 2,000 
inhabitants; Helena led for many years with about 10,000. The coming of 
railroads and the admission of Montana to the Union spurred growth, 
especially in the case of Billings, Havre, Kalispell, Missoula, Miles City, 
and the mining and smelting towns. Those fortunately placed as distribut- 
ing centers grew most rapidly. In Bozeman, Missoula, and Dillon, the 
establishment of units of the University of Montana in 1893, 1895, and 
1897, respectively, helped greatly in laying the foundation for later de- 
velopment, both economic and cultural. 

Republicans and Democrats had about equal strength in the young 
State, and politics was lively from the start. It was said at the time that 
electioneering practices were open to question; this led to many charges 
of corruption. William A. Clark, a Democrat, was a leading candidate for 
Senator; Marcus Daly, also a Democrat, was determined to prevent his 
election. Daly wished to make Anaconda the State capital, while Clark 
favored Helena. Election to the United States Senate (by the State legis- 
lature) hinged on the disputed election of five representatives from Butte. 
Each party claimed the election of its own delegates, thus deadlocking the 
legislature. The Republicans sent Wilbur F. Sanders and T. C. Power to 
the Senate; the Democrats sent W. A. Clark and Martin Maginnis. The 
Senate seated Republican Sanders and Power. In the capital contest Helena 
won after two elections (1894) by a small majority. 

Clark still aspired to the Senate, but his party did not gain control of 
the legislature until 1899. Then he was elected; but twenty-seven legis- 
lators sent a memorial to Congress charging that he had bought votes. 
Before the Senate investigating committee could report, Clark resigned. 
In the absence of Governor Smith from the State, Lieutenant Governor 
Spriggs appointed Clark to the vacancy. Smith, returning, declared the 
appointment invalid and appointed Martin Maginnis, whom the Senate 
refused to seat. The office remained vacant until Clark was elected again 
in 1901. 



The passage of the Reclamation Act of 1902 made farming under 
large-scale irrigation possible for the first time. In Montana the Huntley 
project in Yellowstone County (completed 1907) was the first of the 
large projects and one of the outstandingly successful ones. It was soon 
followed by others. In the same period (1902-1910) there were large 
increases in the number of homestead entries in the dry-land areas. The 
last section settled was the northeastern one, which was still being home- 
steaded during the early years of the World War. Division of the large 
older counties into smaller and usually more convenient units continued 
into the 1920*5, in most cases under the guidance of one Dan McKay, a 
shrewd manipulator who became known to the State as County Splitter 

Meanwhile industry in the State reached something like the limit of 
logical development under prevailing conditions. In Anaconda the Wa- 

oe Smelter, replacing the older, smaller smelter in 1902, gave Montana 
one of the greatest copper reduction plants in the world. In Great Falls, 
during the wartime stimulation of markets (1918), a wire, rod, and cable 
actory was built to make the copper refined in the electrolytic plant into 
finished products. Oil and lumber production boomed and declined. Sugar 
refining, flour milling, canning, and meat packing grew slowly. Hydro- 
electric power production expanded steadily. As in other parts of the 
United States, the emphasis in transportation development swung to high- 
ways; except for a few short branch lines built for special purposes, rail- 
road expansion ended by 1920. 

The greatest growth of population after the end of the gold rush period 
came in the decade between 1880 and 1890, when the number of people 
increased 365 per cent. This record was never approached again. Later 
census reports up to 1930 show that, although the State's growth was 
still rapid, it became steadily less so; from 1890 to 1900 the increase was 
70 per cent; from 1900 to 1910, nearly 55 per cent; from 1910 to 1920, 
about 46 per cent. Then as drought and price inequalities struck hard at 
the farmers, and activity in the State's chief industries slumped, the move- 
ment of population changed its direction; from 1920 to 1930 there was a 
decline of slightly more than 2 per cent. 

Politically Montana has been somewhat unpredictable during its entire 
period of statehood. Since 1900 it has invariably cast its electoral votes 
for the winning Presidential candidate; but, while all but two of its Gov- 
ernors have been Democrats, a majority of the other elective State offices 
up to 1933 was held by Republicans. 

Socially significant laws include those on compulsory school attendance 


(1887) and child labor (1907); the initiative and referendum (1907) 
and the direct primary (1912) ; and special laws which protect the health 
of women at work, and provide for an eight-hour day (1917), and equal 
wages to men and women for identical work. Under the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Act (1915) graduated compensation is paid to those injured in 
industry, and employers are required to contribute to an insurance fund. 
An inheritance tax law imposing graduated assessments was passed in 
1923, the moneys received to go into educational, conservational, and gen- 
eral funds. A year later the people initiated and passed a law imposing a 
tax of one-fourth to one per cent on the gross production of metal mines. 
Laws on grain grading and marketing (1915), livestock and fruit inspec- 
tion, hail insurance (1917), and education through extension service have 
aided agriculture. Traffic laws were first passed in 1905, and the State 
highway commission was created in 1913. A gasoline tax of five cents 
(1931) pays for construction of hard-surfaced roads. A planning board, 
created in 1934, is studying means of bringing resources of the State into 
more extended use. A highway patrol system was inaugurated in 1935. Mon- 
tana has two executive bodies not common to all States : a special livestock 
commission of six members appointed to protect the livestock interests of 
the State, and a water conservation board whose special interest is irri- 

In 1916 Jeannette Rankin of Missoula was elected to Congress as the 
Representative of the western district. She took her seat as the Nation's 
first Congresswoman the following spring, in the special session which 
met to declare war on Germany. At first according to Walter Millis' 
Road to War (1935) she did not vote. Then "Uncle Joe" Cannon urged 
her, "You cannot afford not to vote. You represent the womanhood of the 
country in the American Congress." "At last," says Millis, "she rose . . . 
looking straight ahead. 'I want/ she said ... 'to stand by my country, but 
I cannot vote for war ... I vote No.' " Then she "fell back into her seat, 
pressed her forehead, and began to cry." Her action was widely denounced 
as discreditable to women and to women's participation in politics, and, 
from an opposite point of view, it was as widely acclaimed. 

Montanans have a fairly warlike tradition. Many of the pioneers were 
veterans of the Civil War, or had fought Indians. The First Regiment of 
Montana Infantry won high praise in the Philippines, and their flag in 
1905 became the official State flag. The Second Montana Infantry served 
four and one-half months on the Mexican border in 1916, and in 1917 
sailed for France as part of the i63rd Regiment. Montana troops fought 
at Cantigny, Chateau Thierry, and the Argonne, winning 53 Distin- 




guished Service crosses. In the Argonne, the war cry of the Ninety-first 
became famous, "(We're from) Powder River; let 'er buck!" 

In the early 1920'$, while oil and gas fields were being discovered in 
Montana, oil was indirectly responsible for bringing into Nation-wide 
prominence two Montana Senators, Thomas J. Walsh and Burton K. 
Wheeler. Walsh, who led the investigation that unearthed the illegal Tea- 
pot Dome lease and other irregular leases of naval oil lands, had been 
Senator from Montana for years; after this episode he became known as 


the inquisitorial genius of the United States Senate and one of the best 
legal minds in the Nation. In 1933 he was chosen for the post of Attorney- 
General in the Cabinet of Franklin D. Roosevelt, but died suddenly be- 
fore taking office. Senator Wheeler became the Vice-Presidential candidate 
of the Progressive ticket headed by Robert M. La Follette in 1924. When 
this ticket was defeated he continued as Senator from Montana. In 1937 
he acted as spokesman for the group in Congress that opposed the Presi- 
dent's court reform plan. 

Montana recovered slowly from the depression of the early 1930'$; ad- 
verse factors included a drought of unprecedented length. Great aids to 
the State, however, were Federal projects such as Fort Peck Dam and 
lesser undertakings, and large Federally sponsored programs of soil con- 
servation, irrigation, rural electrification, insect control, and construction 
of roads, parks, and recreational facilities, under such agencies as the Pub- 
lic Works Administration and Works Progress Administration. In 1935 
Helena suffered disastrous earthquakes. Several lives were lost and prop- 
erty damage ran to $4,000,000. Business revival and great activity in min- 
ing and oil districts were observed in 1936 and 1937; mines and ore- 
reduction plants operated at capacity. Eastern Montana, at the same time, 
was subjected to extreme drought. In the autumn of 1937 some of the 
Butte mines suspended operations ; others followed until, early in the sum- 
mer of 1938, only one or two remained in operation. In contrast to the 
gloom in industrial Butte, there was joy in the State's agricultural districts 
as a rainy summer had brought to maturity the best crops in ten years. 

Ethnic Groups 


MANY of the early trappers engaged in the Montana fur trade were 
French-Indian ; the managers of the companies were usually Eng- 
lish or Scottish, and several of them, who married Indian women, left 
descendants of mixed blood. Most of the people who poured in when 
gold was found were native whites from the Midwest and East ; those who 
rushed to the Butte silver and copper ledges were largely German and 
Irish. Between 1880 and 1900 many immigrants helped build railroads, 
then turned to farming and lumbering. Thousands of Germans and Scan- 
dinavians settled in the dry-land sections after 1900. 

Persons of foreign birth or of foreign or mixed parentage made up 
45.2 per cent of the population in 1930, according to the U. S. Bureau of 
Census. Since Canadians, who numbered 31,585, represent no single pa- 
rent stock, the 30,377 persons of German extraction formed the largest 
group. They were closely followed by the Norwegians (29,386). Swedes 
numbering 16,226 and Danes numbering 8,109 brought the figure for 
persons claiming Scandinavian birth or parentage to 53,721. The British 
Isles were represented by five groups totaling 52,819 (England, 19,815; 
Irish Free State, 17,940; Scotland, 8,174; North Ireland, 4,628; Wales, 
2,262). Other nationalities represented by more than 5,000 persons were: 
Russian, 13,761; Jugoslav, 9,278; Italian, 6,325; Finnish, 6,051; and 
Czechoslovak, 5,078. After 1920, about 2,500 Mexicans came to work in 
the sugar beet areas (see BILLINGS). 

Comparison of the 1930 census figures with those of 1920 show that 
the number of Indians in Montana is increasing (from 10,956 in 1920 to 
14,798 in 1930), while those of Orientals (1,631) and of Negroes 
(1,256) are declining. A small number of Negroes had drifted as far 
west as Montana during the brief excitement of Negro migration from 
the South after the Civil War. There were only 346 in the State in 1880, 
but by 1890 there were 1,490. Most of them went to such towns as Butte 
and Helena, and found employment in the mines, hotels, saloons, and 
gambling rooms; in 1903 a Negro owned and operated a hotel on Main 
Street in Helena, at which white and Negro guests were served. Circulars 



had been distributed telling of the Government and railroad lands that 
could be obtained cheaply, and a few settled on such land and engaged in 
agriculture. Unlike States to the east, Montana was not affected by the 
Negro migration during the World War. The peak was reached in 1910, 
when there were 1,834 Negroes in the State. By 1920 the number had 
decreased to 1,658. Most Montana Negroes live in Cascade, Silver Bow, 
Yellowstone, and Lewis and Clark Counties, where several operate retail 
businesses and a few engage in the professions. They have their own 
churches, chiefly of the African Methodist Episcopal denomination. 

The foreign-born and foreign-parentage elements are found chiefly in 
local groups. The industrial cities have large numbers of Irish, English, 
Germans, Jugoslavs, Finns, and Italians; the northeastern farming region 
has a preponderance of Norwegians and Danes. The northwestern region 
has a sprinkling of French Canadians. Some of the groups in part retain 
their native languages or dialects and a few old-country customs. 

Among Scandinavian residents no Christmas dinner is complete without 
lutfisk (Sw.) a dried cod reduced to extreme tenderness in a brine of 
wood ashes or lye, then cooked and served hot. A vast thin griddlecake 
called lefse (Nor.), made of flour and mashed potatoes, is baked on a 
floured stove top, and served folded and buttered. Two delightful old cus- 
toms are slowly passing: julotta (Sw.) a simple service held in the 
churches before dawn of Christmas Day; and the antics of julebokker 
(Nor.) or "Christmas fools," who go about the countryside in fantastic 
disguises, invading houses and entertaining their occupants. 

Among the Jugoslavs of Butte, Great Falls, and Anaconda, celebration 
of Christmas begins on the evening of January 6 (Julian calendar) with 
the preparation of the badnyak, a fire of three logs. A family's first visitor 
after midnight mass is known as the Polaznik. He sprinkles a gloveful of 
wheat on its members, saying "Christ is born" ; they reply, "Truly He is 
born," and sprinkle him with wheat. He kisses one of the logs in the fire- 
place and is given a present. If he is a close friend he spends the day with 
the family. 

In eastern Montana May 17 is celebrated as Norwegian Independence 
Day. Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian inhabitants also observe Midsum- 
mer Day and Martinmas, usually with small picnics and the serving of 
special foods in their homes. 

A three-day Balkan pre-Lenten celebration, the Mesopust (leave out 
meat), ends with public exercises on Shrove Tuesday. In symbolic expres- 
sion of the people's desire to enter Lent spiritually pure, Slarko Veljacic t 


an effigy of their sins and misfortunes, is tried, condemned, dragged 
through the streets, hanged and burned. 

Frenchtown, a small scattered settlement composed of about 140 people 
of French-Canadian descent, is 15 miles northwest of Missoula. It is of 
interest for its traces of colonial French culture and patois, though its 
origin is fairly recent (1864). Many of these people are descended from 
the Brunswick French of eastern Canada, some of whom have intermarried 
with the Indians, and others are of the Quebec French. A few of the older 
people cannot speak or understand English, and many of them speak it 
brokenly. Few old customs have survived. New Year's Day, however, is 
the "open house" holiday of the year and on St. John's Day (June 24) a 
festival is sponsored by the St. Jean Baptiste Society, named for the patron 
saint of the parish. 

In Scottish settlements Burns' birthday is celebrated with bagpipe 
music, dances, and the rendition of his songs and poems. 

Billings beet workers celebrate Mexican independence with a fiesta, 
September 15-16, at which scenes of the Revolution of 1810 are reenacted 
in pantomime. 





"ONTANA, traditionally a mining and stock raising State, is also- 
a great farming region. In a few exceptional years its wheat crop 
alone has exceeded the entire mineral output in value. Unusual hardships 
and constant change have beset the development of agriculture, and pro- 
duction was markedly curtailed in the 1930'$ both by natural conditions 
and organized crop control programs, yet the average wheat crop contin- 
ued to exceed 35,000,000 bushels yearly. 

The first small crop of grain and vegetables was grown in the Bitter- 
root Valley in 1842, but Montana had no extensive agriculture until the 
early i86o's, when successive gold rushes began to populate the western 
valleys. At first the incomes of those who broke the soil fluctuated with 
the fortunes of those who followed the mining camps. Then many dis- 
appointed prospectors found that they could acquire more gold by raising 
and selling foodstuffs for miners. In 1865 the land claimed for agricul- 
tural uses totaled 80,000 acres. 

Meanwhile cattle raising, introduced about 1832, increased more slowly, 
but was less affected by changes in other fields. In 1856 there were nearly 
2,000 beef and milch cattle in the region, and more than 4,000 oxen. Be- 
tween 1860 and 1880 cattle were trailed to market at Salt Lake City and 
other distant places; at the same time ranchers drove large herds from 
Texas to the Montana ranges, where both horses and cattle grew fat and 
sleek on buffalo grass and other rich forage. 

The i88o's and early 1890'$ were the heyday of the stockman and cow- 
boy, who shared with the miner the task of founding and governing the 
new State. In 1886-7 tne industry met and survived a major disaster, a 
hard winter when thousands of cattle died. 

After 1900 a flood of homesteaders poured into the State. Protesting 
stockmen were forced out of localities where they had been supreme; 
grain raising assumed prime importance. For some years the ranchers af- 
fected to despise the "honyak," and resisted his advance by cutting fences 
and pasturing cattle in his fields; but this attitude gave way to a realiza- 
tion that the new settlements offered a rapidly growing market for horses. 



From 1900 to 1916 large crops were harvested. Then in the northeast 
the wheat was damaged by rust; and in 1917 came a drought that was to 
last three years throughout the State and five years in the eastern part. 
These misfortunes were aggravated by an economic depression and harsh 
winters. Farmers, at the mercy of chance, had to depend on Federal loans 
for seed and feed. Adversity made them cautious; they began summer- 
fallowing to conserve moisture. Crops improved and power machinery cut 
labor and production costs. A new period of prosperity culminated in the 
late 1920*5, and was again succeeded by disaster worse this time, because 
farmers had invested so heavily in new machines. 

Agriculture, especially dry farming, has subsequently undergone read- 
justment. Strip farming is to some extent replacing summer fallow, which 
loosens the soil and promotes erosion. Land is cultivated with the one-way 
disk, which leaves stubble at the surface to hold soil in summer and snow 
in winter, or with the duck-foot cultivator, which turns up large clods. 

Rapidly expanding irrigation tends to reduce the speculative fever for 


extensive dry-land farming. Individual planning, assisted by Federal and 
State conservation programs, takes much poor land out of cultivation. But 
it will take time for native grasses to regain foothold on such land. 

From 1919 to 1923, the average annual value of farm products was 
roughly $90,000,000. This value was taken from 35,000,000 acres, di- 
vided into farms of a little more than 600 acres each. In 1927 farm prod- 
ucts reached a high of $161,700,000, but in 1935 they dropped back to 
$100,411,000. The number of farms decreased from 57,677 in 1920 to 
47,495 in 1930; at the same time the average size of the remaining farms 
rose to 955 acres, and the average income rose from $1,560 to $2,030. 

The effects of depression years upon the security and welfare of farmers 
in Montana is traceable in the statistics of the National Resources Com- 
mittee on tenancy, published in 1935. The report lists 13,985 tenant farm- 
ers, or 27.7 per cent of the total. It ranks Montana twenty- seventh in the 
Nation and third among the western States in the proportion of farmers 
without equity in the land they occupy. 

Montana has great variety in soils, but in general the dark and very 
dark grayish brown loams of the central, eastern, and northeastern sections 
are best for farming, being rich in organic material and in many other 
elements of fertility. They are especially adapted to the production of 
hard spring wheat, which in many places has been grown exclusively, 
despite a tendency toward drought-resistant crops such as corn. Because 
of the severe climate Montana's hardiest crops have always been her best. 
In the southern counties, where the growing season is longer but rainfall 
even scantier, more land is reserved for grazing. On the milder and 
moister western slopes much fruit is grown. The rich dark loams of the 
Gallatin and other sheltered valleys east of the Divide produce the State's 
finest and most varied crops of grain, fruit, and vegetables. 

Crops: Oats and hay, in great demand for stage lines and military posts, 
were for a time the leading crops. Wheat, which had originally occupied 
first rank, became first again in 1914. Although it declined briefly about 
1930, because of low grain prices, and hay far exceeded wheat in value 
for that particular period, the acreage planted to wheat continued the larg- 
est and increased in importance in the northeastern counties and the Judith 
Basin. Montana wheat ranges up to 16 percent in protein content and is 
harder, heavier, and of finer milling quality than any other American 
wheat. The chief variety is marquis, although durum also yields well. 
High prices during the World War brought huge expansion in acreage, 
but drought prevented an increase in actual production. Hence the farmers 

had to bear higher costs without a corresponding rise in income. In 1936 
the yield from 2,239,000 acres was 13,626,000 bushels. 

Next in importance are corn and hay. Corn is grown chiefly for feed in 
the eastern half of the State. Every county produces hay: alfalfa, grain, 
hay, clover, timothy, and various grasses; it is the leading crop in the 
upper Yellowstone Valley. Native blue joint is harvested in several coun- 
ties. Alfalfa and clover seed are valuable incidental crops. Tame hay in 
1936 yielded 1,302,000 short tons on 1,329,000 harvested acres; wild hay 
yielded 302,000 short tons on 464,000 acres. 

All except the highly mechanized farms raise oats and barley for feed. 
Flax is popular in the eastern and northern counties as a cash crop; Gla- 
cier County claims the greatest per acre production in the world. All grain 
crops are relatively free of weed seeds, and dockage is low; but weeds 
such as the Russian thistle have complicated cultivation on the plains. 

The quality of Montana grains has received wide commercial recogni- 
tion. Wheat, in particular, often sells at a premium that in large part com- 
pensates for the high costs of shipping to distant markets. Wheat, barley, 



oats, flax, rye, timothy seed, and alfalfa seed all have won prizes at impor- 
tant expositions. 

Excellent potatoes are grown everywhere in the State. The Yellowstone 
Valley, especially the irrigated area around Billings, produces Great North- 
ern beans. Canners contract in advance for green peas and garden produce, 
and seed peas from the irrigated valleys are in great demand in other 
States. Sugar beets are increasingly grown wherever there is watered land 
within reach of refineries ; they have attained real importance around Mis- 
soula, Billings, Sidney, and Chinook. All beets are grown on contract with 
the refiners, with the price and acreage fixed in advance. Byproduct beet 
pulp and molasses make rich stock feed ; winter fattening of cattle, sheep, 
and hogs has become a subsidiary industry. 

In the milder valleys west of the Continental Divide certain fruits do 
well. Sweet cherries have been grown in the Flathead Lake region for 
many years, and sour varieties in the Bitterroot Valley, but extreme bad 
weather in 1935-36 killed 75 percent of the trees and retarded the devel- 
opment of cherry growing. Apples produced abundantly in the western 
and south central valleys are popular in eastern markets. Strawberries, 
raspberries, gooseberries, and huckleberries are increasingly grown. 



Irrigation: In 1890 farming without irrigation, or dry farming, was 
thought impossible in Montana. Settlers established themselves along 
streams and worked out limited but inexpensive diversion systems. Al- 
though dry farming later succeeded during the periods of adequate rain- 
fall, the irrigated valleys remained the only areas wholly free from the 
danger of crop failure. Greatly extended since 1920, irrigation tends to 
stabilize agriculture even on farms that merely border on watered lands. 

Small systems range from wind-driven pumps that water gardens to 
fair-sized coulee reservoirs capable of serving whole neighborhoods. The 
largest system is at Valier in Pondera County, with three-fourths of its 
80,000 irrigable acres developed. Several others eventually will be larger; 
altogether perhaps 2,500,000 acres will be irrigated when existing projects 
are completed. 

The Huntley project in Yellowstone County, the first part of which was 
completed in 1907 under the Reclamation Act of 1902, has in large meas- 
ure proved the value of big-scale irrigation. It is useful for 24,000 acres, 
lifting the water from the Yellowstone River by power generated in its 
own plant. 

Livestock: Livestock raising remains a major industry, especially in the 
southeast and on the mountain slopes. The Blackfeet Indian Reservation 


is excellent horse country ; Gallatin, Fergus, Richland, and Sheridan Coun- 
ties lead in raising purebred stock. Principal markets within the State are 
at Billings, Great Falls, and Butte, but much livestock is sold outside the 

The number of cattle increased until 1919, when there were 1,610,000 
head. Reductions were gradual and interspersed with slight increases until 
1934, when extreme drought caused heavy sales both in the regular mar- 
kets and through the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation. Complete failure 
of feed crops in many sections during 1936-7 caused further decreases; at 
the beginning of 1937 only a little more than 1,000,000 head remained. 
Most of the cattle, principally Hereford or Shorthorn, are owned by farm- 
ers who cultivate forage crops. Few of the old, vast ranches with famous 
brands remain. 

Dairying is increasing, and butter production exceeds 15,000,000 
pounds yearly. 

In the early days sheepmen came into conflict with cattle growers, but 
sheep raising nevertheless expanded rapidly until, in 1901, there were 
6,000,000 sheep in the State. The inability of sheep raising to adapt itself 
to a limited range brought a decline when homesteading began, but the 
abandonment of many farms during the drought of the 1930'$ again made 
room for sheep. In 1936 there were 3,405,000 head, and Montana ranked 
second to Texas in wool production, with a crop of 30,343,000 pounds. 
Large bands (10,000 to 40,000) are kept near Billings, Dillon, and Deer 
Lodge, smaller ones in nearly every county. In all, 3,000 herders are em- 
ployed. Of the wool markets in the State, Dillon is the largest concentra- 
tion point. 

In the 1890*5 and early 1900*5 important horse ranches were operated 
in the Gallatin and Beaverhead Valleys and in the breaks of Phillips and 
Valley Counties. Marcus Daly's ranch in the Bitterroot drew national at- 
tention as a producer of blooded horses and fine livestock. Montana now 
has only half as many horses as in 1919, but many dry-land farmers, dis- 
appointed with the results of power farming, are turning back to them, 
and prices show an upward trend. In 1936 horses and mules together 
totaled 316,000. 

Most farms have at least a small flock of poultry. Emphasis is on egg 
production in the western counties and on market poultry in the plains 
area. In 1934 egg production exceeded 12,000,000 dozen. Turkeys have 
become popular in the northeastern counties, where they add considerably 
to the autumn and winter income on farms. The growers ship coopera- 
tively through turkey marketing associations, thereby effecting large sav- 


ings in transportation. In 1935 these shipping pools sold about 1,200,000 
pounds, or half the State's turkey crop. 

Reports for the 1935-6 marketing season showed 161 farmers' selling, 
buying, and service associations. Their membership was estimated at 28,- 
980, and their volume of business at $17,740,000. 

lEFORE metal mining became a large scale enterprise in Montana, the 
miner was his own boss. He staked his claim, bought or built his 
equipment, panned his pay dirt, and put the product of his labor into his 
own poke. But when the excitement of rich placer discoveries began to 
fade when silver, and then copper, engaged the attention of capital 
the position of the individual worker changed. He lacked capital and 
equipment to compete with promoters. The primitive tools that had served 
well enough for recovering gold were not adequate for separating copper 
and silver from the earth. While men of greater means built or financed 
the machinery of production, and thus controlled this vast natural store of 
wealth, the worker took wages instead of metal for his labors. 

From its small beginnings in the late sixties, silver mining grew to 
large proportions after 1875, employing mill and furnace workers as well 
as miners. By the time copper production on a modest scale began, Mon- 
tana labor had become conscious of its organized strength and its part in 
the life of the commonwealth. The Knights of Labor were represented in 
the Territory before 1878 by a few scattered assemblies. An organization 
in modern trade union form began its existence on June 13, 1878, when 
less than a hundred miners, many of whom had followed Marcus Daly to 
Butte from the silver mines of Nevada, joined forces to prevent a threat- 
ened wage reduction. In 1881 the organization became known as the 
Butte Miners' Union. Though born during the silver era, it grew up with 
the copper industry, and soon became the largest and strongest association 
of metal miners in the West, with a membership that exceeded 8,000 in 
its best years (190006). A base wage of $3.50 a day for all under- 
ground mine workers became the union's unyielding minimum standard. 
In 1895 the Butte Trades and Labor Council was formed. 

The foothold gained by Montana miners encouraged other western 
labor groups. In Idaho's Coeur d'Alene district in 1892 a bitter strike had 
been suppressed by the State militia, and its leaders thrown into bull pens. 
Twelve of them, while serving additional jail sentences, planned a new 
organization. Forty delegates from the metal mining regions of Colorado, 



South Dakota, Idaho, and Montana, including some of the Idaho strike 
leaders, met in Butte to organize mill and smelter workers and engineers. 
On May 15, 1893, they founded the Western Federation of Miners. A 
month later the Federation issued its first charter to the Butte Miners' 
Union. Federation objectives were establishment of a scale of wages in 
just proportion to the risks of mine employment, passage of safety laws, 
prohibition of child labor, and removal of private guards from the mines. 
Arbitration and conciliation rather than strikes were emphasized in Fed- 
eration tactics. One of the first important victories gained by the Federa- 
tion was in support of the eight-hour day. In 1897 a bill embodying the 
idea was urged in the legislature and in 1901, with the backing of the 
Western Federation of Miners, the United Mine Workers, and other labor 
organizations, it became law. 

After 1894 the Western Federation grew steadily in membership and 
influence. It affiliated in 1896 with the American Federation of Labor, 
but withdrew the following year, disappointed by the A. F. of L.'s failure 
to send material support to a Leadville, Colorado, mine strike, and by its 
seeming indifference to the problems of labor in the mountain States. Ed 
Boyce, president of the Western Federation, was determined to organize 
the large numbers of unskilled and ill-paid workers in the whole region 
lying west of the Mississippi, and to that end he launched the Western 
Labor Union in 1898, known shortly thereafter as the American Labor 

Meanwhile, in Butte, the Miners' Union took advantage of a divided 
enemy. Employers, badly in need of labor's help in their wars with one 
another, encouraged the unions and openly courted union leaders. When 
the union asked W. A. Clark, one of the three copper magnates who 
dominated Butte, to accept the eight-hour day, with no reduction of wages, 
Clark at first protested that he could not operate his mines on such a 
schedule. He changed his mind when Dan McDonald of the union con- 
vinced him that this was his chance to become the most popular man in 
Butte, and that, if he failed to grasp it, his rival F. Augustus Heinze, 
would take the advantage. Clark and Heinze not only yielded to the de- 
mand, but hastened to compliment the miners upon their progressive 
spirit, thus stealing a march on Marcus Daly, who shared the third con- 
trolling interest with the Standard Oil Company. 

In his Comical History of Montana (1912), Jerre C. Murphy, editor of 
the Butte Inter-Mountain, declared that Butte was for a time "the strong- 
est union town on earth," a place in which no employment was possible 
for a man who did not belong to one or another of the recognized work- 


ers' groups. Everything was organized; there was even a chimney sweeps' 
union composed of two chimney sweeps. Unclassified wage earners made 
up the membership of a general "Workingman's Union," which once con- 
sidered the advisability of declaring a boycott against the cemetery be- 
cause the gravedigger was unable to obtain certain concessions. Union 
terminology became the common language. When a visiting salesman 
contradicted some statement made by a local political spellbinder, the 
speaker demanded, "Who's paying you for talking?" "Nobody," said the 
salesman, highly offended. "Then you're scabbing the job!" cried the 

At the 1904 convention of the Western Federation of Miners, the dele- 
gates, believing in unity for militant industrial organizations, proposed a 
merger of the American Labor Union and the American Federation of 
Labor, but neither side responded favorably. The following year the 
Western Federation of Miners met in Chicago with several independent 
groups and individuals, including the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance, 
and formed the Industrial Workers of the World. The I. W. W. imme- 
diately declared itself the implacable enemy of the entire capitalistic sys- 
tem, and at the same time came out strongly for the industrial idea in 
union organization, as opposed to the craft-union structure of the A. F. 
of L. Although the Western Federation of Miners endorsed this industrial 
policy, it soon became dissatisfied with the I. W. W. The published aims 
of the I. W. W., its program of direct action, and its determination to 
make converts of all other labor organizations precipitated many con- 
flicts. In 1907 the kidnapping and trial of Charles H. Moyer, Bill Hay- 
wood, and George Pettibone, Federation officers, on charges of murdering 
ex-Governor Steunenberg, of Idaho, widened the breach between the Fed- 
eration and I. W. W. Although the men were acquitted, partly through 
the strong defense efforts of the latter, the Federation nevertheless re- 
sented its association in the public mind with the left-wing group. 

In 1906 F. A. Heinze sold out his Butte interests to the Amalgamated 
Copper Company, and the Amalgamated alone assumed command of em- 
ployer strategy in the copper city. Under a 5 -year contract signed with the 
Butte Miners' Union, wages were at that time computed according to the 
price of copper for the calendar month. When the price exceeded 18 
cents, the pay of underground men was $4 a day; at less than 18 cents, it 
dropped to $3.50. The 8-hour day remained effective. Although the West- 
ern Federation of Miners opposed time contracts, and declared this one 
void, the Butte local held fast. The employers disregarded the contract. 
Thousands of men were thrown out of work when the late 1907 slump 


hit the copper industry. When activity was resumed, the wage rate per 
day was not reduced, but the plan of part-time work adopted by the cop- 
per interests lowered monthly income as much as 40 percent in some 
cases. At the time union officials charged that low-price, unskilled labor 
was brought in to take the places of experienced miners. 

In industries other than metal mining and smelting 1907 was a year of 
widespread strikes. Telephone, telegraph, and street railway employees, 
janitors, meat cutters, teamsters, waiters, drug clerks, and machinists went 
out early in the year, and a strike of Butte and Anaconda printers, press- 
men, and stereotypers left both cities without newspapers for six weeks. 
The chief demand of the strikers was for higher wages. 

Recognizing that a profound change had come about in the labor situ- 
ation in Butte, the more radical elements in the Miners' Union expressed 
their dissatisfaction in the union elections of 1907 and 1909, and new 
officials were put in charge of the organization. A brother union, Local 83, 
made up of mining engineers, then tried to withdraw from the W. F. 
of M. To prevent their desertion, the Miners' Union instructed the engi- 
neers to present paid-up membership cards in Local 83 when they came to 
work in the Butte mines. Enforcement of this rule by the Miners' Union 
stopped mining operations for three days. 

In the winter of 190910, switchmen on the Great Northern Railway 
went out on strike, and it became impossible to move supplies in the 
Great Falls area. The railroad and copper interests, acting together, at- 
tempted to have miners and smeltermen act as switchmen, but the Butte 
Miners' Union, after consideration, adopted resolutions of sympathy with 
the strikers. Thereupon John D. Ryan, acting for the employers, threatened 
a shut-down in Butte, to begin January i and continue for six months, 
unless the miners consented to aid the railroad. The angry miners met, 
5,000 strong, and voted to stand firm. The shut-down order was rescinded. 

In 1911 the Western Federation of Miners reaffiliated with the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor. The following year, the Miners' Union, once 
more under conservative leadership, signed a new contract with the 
copper company. Wages again were fixed by the price of copper, being 
$4.25 a day when the price reached 18 cents and $3.50 when it fell below 
15 cents. The mines adopted the "rustling card" system under which 
company-owned employment offices issued cards granting permission to 
"rustle" (ask for work) at the mines. Before a card could be issued, the 
applicant was required to give his personal history. Upon taking a job he 
had to surrender his card. 

In the union elections of 1912, a Central Committee for Industrial 


Union Organization nominated a ticket in opposition to the conservative 
leaders headed by Charles H. Moyer, president, and charged the conserva- 
tives with election frauds ; willingness to make a deal on company terms ; 
official inaction when several hundred Socialist miners were discharged; 
and refusal to fight the "rustling card" system after the miners had con- 
demned it. The charges were voiced by Thomas Campbell at the 1912 con- 
vention, but the convention rejected them and expelled Campbell from 
the Federation. 

Bitterness intensified in 1914, to some extent because of the unsatisfac- 
tory ending of the Calumet strike in Michigan the year before. It found 
expression in a referendum vote of Butte miners that overwhelmingly re- 
pudiated the Moyer group and its policies. The majority withdrew from 
the Butte Miners' Union and formed an independent organization of 
4,000 members called the Butte Mine Workers' Union. Hostilities with 
the older union culminated in rioting, gunfire, and death. The acting 
mayor and several policemen were injured. Moyer appealed to the Gov- 
ernor for protection from violence, and his appeal, taken by the opposi- 
tion as a call for troops, enraged them more. Governor Stewart offered to 
mediate between the two factions, but the new union refused. 

A demand that all miners carry its membership cards was the first step 
of the new union to gain control of employment in the Butte district. 
Unknown persons dynamited Union Hall on June 23, and Moyer and 
other officials of the old union fled from Butte. A miners' court met on the 
flat at the southern limits of Butte, tried several prominent figures of the 
Western Federation of Miners on the charge of having acted as employers' 
agents and warned them to leave town. During this time, a mine employ- 
ment office was blown up. Following this incident, the mine operators 
asked for martial law. They closed the mines for two days, stopped all 
negotiations with organized labor, and under the protection of martial law 
established the open shop. Mucky McDonald and Joe Bradley, the president 
and vice president of the Mine Workers' Union, were sentenced to prison 
for 3 to 5 years. On charges preferred by members of the older union, the 
mayor and sheriff were removed from office for allegedly failing to perform 
their duties. An effort to amalgamate the unions came to nothing, and the 
open shop prevailed in Butte copper mines and plants from 1914 to 1934. 

Some years before the beginning of the 1912-14 troubles in Butte the 
I. W. W. had turned to organizing miners and migratory workers in lum- 
ber and construction camps and in the agricultural regions. Their plan 
called for unions of unskilled and skilled workers of every category. The 
local unions were to be united in national industrial unions, controlled by 



annual conventions and an executive board. As the I. W. W. grew, it be- 
came the outstanding expression of labor's dissatisfaction with a leader- 
ship that seemed to many workers as unintelligent and untrustworthy 
the most formidable rank-and-file revolt of the prewar and World War 
periods. It demanded immediate working-class victories, and its tactics 
included the deliberate slowing down of production and the quick or sur- 
prise strike methods that terrified employers, politicians, and conserva- 
tive union leaders alike. 

In June 1917 fire broke out on the 2,400 foot level of the Speculator 
Mine in Butte and killed 164 men by suffocation. The electricians em- 
ployed in the mines immediately struck, and when the work of the elec- 
tricians was undertaken by others, the metal trades workers also went out. 
A joint strike committee was formed, which demanded the dismissal of 
the State mine inspector, observance of the mining laws, abolition of 
"rustling cards," and the increase of wages from $4.75 to $6 a day. Promi- 
nent in the councils of the strikers were members of the I. W. W. and 


former members of the defunct Western Federation of Miners, whose 
remnants were held together in the International Union of Mine, Mill, 
and Smelter Workers. 

Again Butte was placed under martial law, and Federal troops patrolled 
the streets leading to the mines. Vigilante organizations attacked the min- 
ers and their allies; newspapers whipped public excitement into hysteria; 
W. A. Clark declared that he would rather flood his mines than recognize 
the union. The war with Germany was in progress, and there was wild 
talk of anarchists and pro-Germans. A mass meeting of strikers petitioned 
the Government to take over the mines, "so that the miners may give 
prompt and practical evidence of their patriotism," and Congresswoman 
Jeannette Rankin, in a speech to the strikers, said that if the owners could 
not operate the mines the Government could. 

In the early morning of August i, 1917, a crowd of gunmen broke into 
the room of Frank Little, bedridden I. W. W. organizer, who had de- 
nounced the troops in Butte as "scabs in uniform." They forced him to the 
street, fastened him with rope behind an automobile, and dragged him 
through the city. His body was left hanging from a railroad trestle. Pinned 
to his clothing was a card bearing the vigilante sign "3-7-77" (the dimen- 
sions of a burial pit) and the initials "LDSM." 

On July 25 the operators had announced a new sliding scale of wages 
which would have raised miners' pay on that date to $5.25; but they re- 
fused to give up "rustling cards," and the settlement was rejected. On 
August 24 the smeltermen at Anaconda struck, and an almost complete 
shut-down of Butte mines and of the Great Falls reduction works fol- 
lowed immediately. Two weeks later the smeltermen and about half the 
Butte miners accepted a 5o-cent wage increase and some concessions on 
working conditions, and returned to work. The strike ended officially in 
December 1917. Martial law, however, remained in force for more than 
a year longer. 

The first revok of lumber workers organized by the I. W. W. took place 
in 1917 at Eureka, in northwestern Montana. The men demanded wages 
of $60 per month, an 8-hour day, Sunday and holiday freedom, sanitary 
kitchens and sleeping quarters, and other concessions. Some of these con- 
cessions, including the 8-hour day, later became law. During the same 
period and for several years to follow, the "wobblies" were prominent 
among migratory agricultural workers in the central and eastern parts of 
the State, where, during the rush season of harvesting and threshing, a 
working day of 15 hours or more had not been unusual. Partly as a result 
of their activities the lo-hour day became standard in most Montana farm 


areas, while wages were considerably increased. In Butte, however, the 
influence of the I. W. W. declined with the failure of a strike in February 
1919, which was broken by troops and special deputies after only u days. 
The strike had been called to protest a wage reduction of $i a day in the 
Anaconda and Great Falls reduction plants following the postwar collapse 
of the copper market. Another strike followed in 1920, and on August 21 
of that year two men were killed and nineteen wounded when gunmen 
fired into a picket line on the Anaconda road near the Butte city limits. 

The suppressive measures taken by authorities in Butte were similar to 
those used against the I. W. W. elsewhere in the United States. War- 
time prosecutors accused the I. W. W. of taking pay and instructions from 
German agents, and of disrupting necessary industrial operations. I. W. W. 
records were confiscated and destroyed, and members were jailed, threat- 
ened with lynching, and driven into hiding. In Forsyth, Judge Crum of 
the District Court was impeached by the State senate, partly for insisting 
on fair and humane treatment for members of the I. W. W. jailed in his 
district. The 1918 laws against criminal syndicalism helped to complete 
the overthrow of the organization. After 1924, little more than the name 
and a hangover of public alarm remained. 

During the 20-year period that ended in 1934, all the crafts in Butte 
maintained their organizations, but the miners' union was denied recog- 
nition. To its record of working-class defeats, this open-shop period added 
a long death toll from accidents and industrial diseases. The maintenance 
of safety and health had always presented grave problems in Butte. Wil- 
liam D. (Big Bill) Haywood, the militant I. W. W. leader, wrote of 
Butte as it was about 1900: "There was no verdure of any kind; it had all 
been killed by the fumes and smoke of the burning ore. The noxious 
gases came from the sulphur that was allowed to burn out of the ore be- 
fore it was sent to the smelter. It was so poisonous that it not only killed 
trees, shrubs, grass, and flowers, but cats and dogs could not live in the 
city of Butte. Housewives complained that the fumes settling on the 
clothes rotted the fiber . . . The city of the dead, mostly young miners, 
was almost as large as the living population ..." 

Figures on mortality in the copper district led the Bureau of Mines and 
the Public Health Service, both Federal agencies, to begin an investiga- 
tion in 1916 of working conditions there. The findings, published in 
1921, represented four years of study on the relation of underground em- 
ployment to pneumonia, tuberculosis, and silicosis (also called miners' 
consumption), and pointed out certain hazards to which miners were ex- 
posed. Shortly after the Bureau of Mines report was issued, the mining com- 


panics announced an expenditure of several million dollars for the in- 
stallation of protective devices. A later report, submitted by other in- 
vestigators and published by the Bureau in 1925, stated: 

"Although . . . much . . . remains to be done . . . attention is again 
called to the advances already made good systems of mechanical ventila- 
tion, wet drilling, fireproofing at shafts and stations and around under- 
ground electrical installations, training of many men in first aid and use 
of oxygen breathing apparatus, and the building of an organization to see 
that improvements are properly maintained." 

As a result of legislative action in 1937, a commission was established 
to study occupational disease in Montana. In a report transmitted to Gov- 
ernor Ayers in January 1939, the commission stated that, due to the many 
improvements resulting from the recommendations of the Bureau of Mines 
and the willingness of industrialists to install the recommended improve- 
ments, much of the danger of occupational disease had been eliminated; 
and that there was no pressing need at this time to enact further workers' 
compensation laws. The commission recommended the establishment of an 
industrial hygiene division within the State department of health. Such a 
division was created by a bill passed by the 1939 legislature and enacted 
into law by the approval of Governor Ayers. 

Many improvements followed the establishment of the National Recov- 
ery Administration in 1933. As in the rest of the Nation, there were wage 
increases, shortened hours, fuller observance of safety and sanitary regula- 
tions, and a new freedom for workers to organize without fear of dis- 
crimination or discharge. Leaders and members of Montana unions im- 
mediately strengthened their organizations and prepared to turn these 
favorable conditions to good account. 

In May 1934 the reorganized International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers in Butte, Anaconda, and Great Falls struck and restored 
the closed shop in the Butte mines. The strike, which lasted until Sep- 
tember, involved all the crafts. For the first time in Butte's history the 
engineers and pump men, almost indispensable because of the constant 
influx of water in the mines (see BUTTE), were called out. In addition 
to the closed shop, the miners won a basic wage of $4.75 a day, with a 
sliding scale of increases based on the copper price. The work week was 
fixed at 40 hours, and weekly paydays were adopted. Later in the year the 
printers at Helena won wage increases after striking for wages equal to 
those paid by the Great Falls papers. 

During the mine strike an attempt was made to split the craft unions 
away from the industrial unions such as the International Union of Mine, 


Mill and Smelter Workers. In a New York conference with represent- 
atives of the copper interests, John P. Frey, president of the Metal Trades 
Department of the A. F. of L., signed an agreement for some of the 
unions without consulting the membership. The agreement was rejected; 
the discussions that followed were national in scope, and played a large 
part in laying the foundation of the Committee for Industrial Organiza- 

The victory of the miners at Butte and of the printers at Helena stim- 
ulated organization throughout the State. As in the early days, Butte was 
again a union stronghold, almost 100 percent organized, and unions in 
Great Falls, Anaconda, Missoula, Helena, and Kalispell also attained a 
greater effectiveness. In the grazing regions, the International Sheep 
Shearers' Union strengthened its position. The passage of the National 
Labor Relations Act in 1935 and the establishment under it of the Na- 
tional Labor Relations Board stiffened Government support of organized 
labor and brought legal dignity and a measure of justice to the settlement 
of labor-employer differences. With the rapid growth to power of the 
Committee for Industrial Organization in 1937, the Mine, Mill and Smel- 
ter Workers, one of the ten original member unions, took steps to estab- 
lish a State C. I. O. council. The organization was set up at East Helena 
on August 22, 1937, with Archie McLeod of the Great Falls smeltermen 
as president and Sylvester Graham of the Butte Miners' Union as secretary. 
The change from A. F. of L. to C.' I. O. affiliation among the industrially 
minded Montana unions came without the bitterness that attended such 
changes in the eastern States. C. I. O. and A. F. of L. unions today co- 
operate in matters affecting the general welfare of Montana labor. 

Unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor are strong 
throughout Montana in the service crafts, including in their membership 
barbers, retail clerks, and restaurant workers. Other affiliates represent the 
railway shopmen, building trades workers, sheep shearers, and, among 
the white-collar workers, school teachers. 

Organization in all unions has, of course, been carried farthest in 
Butte, Great Falls, and western Montana generally. In the eastern part of 
the State there has been little organizing except in the building trades 
and among the sheep shearers. The United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing, 
and Allied Workers (C. I. O.) were able in 1937 to organize the field 
workers. The sugar refinery workers, organized in the A. F. of L., signed 
an agreement in 1938 with the Great Western Sugar Company. 

In many small towns where the number of workers is limited a general 
union, somewhat like the old "Workingman's Union" of Butte, includes 


all the trades. In Basin, for example, clerks, waiters, and even teachers are 
organized in the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers. 
Beneath this phenomenon, and woven into the intellectual fabric of the 
whole State, is a consciousness of the community of interests of all types 
of workers. 


Industry and Commerce 

says that Lewis and Clark found gold in the Bitterroot 
JL River in 1805 ; that some unnamed person found traces of it in Mill 
Creek near Corvallis in 1852, the year of the real discovery by Francois 
Finlay; that priests, including Father De Smet, knew of the existence of 
the metal but were silent, fearing the effects of a gold rush upon their 
charges, the Indians. In any case, nothing was done about it. 

From the time of Lewis and Clark to that of Francois Finlay, commer- 
cial enterprise in Montana was limited to the fur trade, which enriched 
the traders, helped pave the way for settlement, and provided much of the 
color of early Montana history, but also robbed the future State of much 
)f its wealth of wildlife. By 1852 when Finlay, himself a trapper, discov- 
ered gold on Gold Creek, west of Garrison, the fur trade was nearly fin- 
ished. When Finlay's discovery was confirmed by James and Granville 

lart in 1859 an< ^ followed by more important discoveries at Bannack 
(1862), Virginia City (1863), and Last Chance (1864), furs were for- 

tten in the tumult of a hundred new activities, of which mining at 
)nce became the chief. Trade in tools and supplies became highly profit- 
ible and encouraged trail and river transportation. Manufacturing began 
is crude gristmills and ore reduction plants were devised. One of the 
irliest factories was the arrastra, or primitive gold concentrator of the 
Spanish, a pit in which dragging boulders ground small quantities of ore 
to a slime that was later treated with quicksilver. 

Placer mining was soon succeeded by lode mining. Famous locations of 
the early period are scattered throughout the central and southern moun- 
tains (see Tours 1, lA, 6, 8, 15, 16, and 18). After 1919 gold production 
fell to about 70,000 ounces a year, but the later rise in the price of gold 
revived prospecting. Many old mines were reopened, and the operations 
of regular producers were enlarged. Among the latter are the Spring Hill 
mine in Grizzly Gulch near Helena, the Golden Messenger at York, and 
the Ruby Gulch and Little Ben mines near Zortman, where a 3oo-ton 
cyanide mill is operated. Small lode mines were developed in Madison and 
Beaverhead Counties. During the middle 1930'$ dredging yielded good 



returns on several old creek bottoms, including Last Chance Gulch, where 
a machine capable of handling 5,000 cubic yards of gravel a day was put 
into operation. Montana's 1936 gold production was $6,265,000. Total 
production between 1862 and 1938 was something like $350,000,000. 

The first important silver mine was discovered at Butte in 1865 by 
William Farlin (see BUTTE). After 1875, when William A. Clark built 
a ten-stamp mill and a furnace at Butte, silver was the leading Montana 
metal for about ten years. The Butte district remained the largest pro- 
ducer, but rich deposits were also found at Philipsburg, and in Powell, 
Cascade, Jefferson, Flathead, Madison, and Beaverhead Counties. Silver 
mining was revived by high prices after 1933; even old tailings were 
worked over profitably by modern methods. The 1936 production was 
$8,650,950; altogether Montana has produced about half a billion dollars' 
worth of silver. 

In 1880 Marcus Daly began mining copper at Butte, and the boss in- 
dustry of Montana was founded. Copper was at first a bitter disappoint- 
ment to the miners, yet in less than five years it became the Territory's 
most important product, and made Butte the center around which its in- 
dustrial life revolved. At first the ore was shipped to Swansea, Wales, for 
smelting, and high transportation costs forbade handling of any but the 
richest ores. In 1884 a plant was built in Butte that converted 500 tons a 
day into a rich copper concentrate called matte. This made it possible to 
recover lower grade ores profitably, but the matte was still shipped to 
Wales for further refining. The first fully equipped reduction plant was 
built at Anaconda in 1892, to be succeeded ten years later by the great 
Washoe Smelter (see Tour 18) ; at the same time (1892) an electrolytic 
copper refinery was built at Great Falls. None but refined copper has 
since been shipped out of the State. 

With the building of the wire and cable mill at Great Falls in 1918 
(see Tour 14) the Montana copper industry was rounded out; its opera- 
tions thereafter included every step from the extraction of ore to the 
sale of finished products. 

In the deep Butte mines air-driven drills stutter like machine guns as 
they bore into the rock half a mile or more below surface. The men who 
operate the drills, set the explosive charges, and muck (shovel) the ore 
into chutes, work strenuously and often under trying conditions. Engi- 
neering specifications provide for a system of compressors that force fresh 
air through pipe lines into the mines, and of exhaust fans that remove 
foul air. Because of oxidation in the ore, and because of the heat of the 


water that seeps into the mines, temperatures sometimes reach 125 F. 
Large sums of money are spent by employers and union authorities in help- 
ing the men learn safe working methods and to acquaint them with first 
aid practices. Much progress has been made in improving working condi- 
tions. Many methods and devices for the protection of life and health 
among the 7,000 miners have been introduced. Improvements in practice 
include wet drilling, wetting of "muck piles" before shoveling, and under- 
ground spraying. Masks have also been tried. Blasting fills the workings 
with fumes that remain for hours ; therefore, most of the blasting is done 
between shifts. Electric signal systems are used in all the deep mines. 

Butte ore is delivered to the Washoe Smelter at the rate of 1,000 tons 
an hour. Here 3,500 men guide it on its progress through great ranks of 
machines and furnaces that extract the metals from the rock with scientific 
thoroughness and economy. Sent on to Great Falls, it is electrically puri- 
fied (see Tour 14). Much of it is then passed through dies and stranding 


machines, to emerge as wire and cable ready for the market. The Great 
Falls plants employ 2,000 men. 

Between 1880 and 1938 fully eleven billion pounds of Montana copper 
were produced. Most of it came from an area of about six square miles 
within a larger area which also produces zinc, silver, manganese, lead, and 
gold; but there are recoverable quantities in twenty-one counties. In all, 
Silver Bow County, in which are the Butte mines, has produced metals 
valued at more than $2,000,000,000. The 1936 copper production was 

Zinc, like copper, comes mostly from the Butte district. Until 1916, 
zinc in combination with other metals was a nuisance. Smelters penalized 
such ores heavily; when the quantity of zinc was more than 6 percent of 
metallic content, the penalties became so high as to prohibit refining. It 
was impossible to separate cleanly either lead and zinc or zinc and copper 
in commercial volume, as their specific gravities are nearly the same. Zinc 
in lead ore tended to "freeze" lead furnaces and cause large quantities of 
both metals to be lost as slag; lead in zinc had the same effect on zinc 
furnaces. Discovery of the flotation process for separately concentrating 
these refractory ores, and development of the electrolytic method of re- 
fining, revolutionized the industry by making it profitable to mine zinc 
ores formerly thought worthless. Annual production now exceeds a hun- 
dred million pounds. 

The lead concentrate obtained in zinc reduction is sent to the smelter 
at East Helena. The zinc is roasted at the Anaconda or Great Falls zinc 
plant, then dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid. After treatment with zinc 
dust, to precipitate its copper and cadmium, the solution is sent to elec- 
trolytic cells, and the zinc plated out, 99.9 percent pure. 

About a billion pounds of lead have been mined in Montana. Cascade 
County has produced up to three million pounds in a single year (1928), 
Broadwater half as much. Mines in several other counties yield heavily. 
The 1936 production was 37,332,000 pounds. 

The smelter at East Helena refines lead, gold, and silver ores and con- 
centrates and zinc plant residues. The material received is given blast 
furnace treatment ; the lead is sent to Omaha for removal of its silver and 
gold, the zinc to Great Falls for electrolysis. In the East Helena plant 
smoke is passed through 3,000 woolen bags, which filter out and recover 
the lead fumes. A slag-fuming plant near the smelter produces from zinc- 
bearing slag an impure zinc oxide for electrolytic treatment at Great Falls. 

There are several byproducts of smelting. Arsenic is recovered by pass- 
ing furnace gases through electric dust precipitators and settling chambers 



on their way to the smokestack. Another product of dust treatment is 
wood preservative. Sulphuric acid is made by treating sulphur dust from 
roasted copper concentrates with nitric acid and then spraying it with 
water. Phosphate rock treated with sulphuric acid produces liquid phos- 
phoric acid which, mixed with more phosphate rock, becomes excellent 

A foundry at Anaconda makes 18,000,000 pounds of iron castings and 
200,000 pounds of brass castings yearly. Brick factories are operated at 
Anaconda and Great Falls. 

Montana mines produce 43 percent of the Nation's manganese, most of 
it from high-grade ores at Butte and Philipsburg. Since manganese is 
used chiefly in the making of steel alloys, most of the ore (25,000 tons 
annually) is shipped to markets outside the State, and does not exert 
much influence on local manufactures; a separation mill is, however, op- 
erated intermittently at Philipsburg. Considerable quantities of the pure 
Philipsburg metal are used in making batteries. 


Nonmetals: Factories at Hanover in Fergus County and Trident in 
Gallatin County make 500,000 barrels of cement and plaster yearly from 
outcrops of Carboniferous and Devonian limestone and shale. Gypsum, 
used in making cement, is produced in several central counties; lime at 
Elliston, Red Lodge, and other places; phosphate near Garrison. The 
annual output of sand and gravel used in construction is valued at some- 
thing like $2,500,000. 

Granite is quarried in Lewis and Clark, Silver Bow, Ravalli, and other 
mountain counties; sandstone, at Dillon, Columbus, and Billings. A 
black dolomite marked with golden brown, found at Townsend, is sold 
as "black-and-gold marble." Travertine, a limy hot springs deposit at 
Gardiner and elsewhere, was placed on the market in 1932. Madison 
County produces a banded siliceous rock used in interior decoration. 

Vermiculite, mined at Libby, is a silicate similar to black mica which, 
when heated, expands tenfold and looks worm-eaten (hence the name). 
It is sold as "zonolite," an insulating material. Calcite, graphite, asbestos, 
and bentonite are produced in a small way. 

Gems: Montana produces more gem sapphires than any other State. 
The important deposits are in Rock Creek, Granite County; Yogo Gulch, 
Judith Basin County; and Cottonwood Creek, Powell County. The blue 
sapphires from Yogo Gulch are often large and of great brilliance and 
depth of color. A few green, yellow, red, and aquamarine stones have 
been found. Of 88,000 ounces annually recovered, about 86,000 are used 
in watch and meter bearings and for other mechanical purposes. 

Rubies occur rarely in Cottonwood and upper Rock Creeks. Garnets are 
recovered from placer gravels in the Tobacco Root and Ruby Mountains. 
A semi-precious gem, the moss agate, is made handsome by dendritic 
growths of manganese and iron oxide that form effects resembling wooded 
landscapes within the translucent rock. Found in the gravels of Yellow- 
stone River from Livingston to Glendive, it is cut and polished at Billings 
and Miles City. 

Mineral Fuels: The vast reserves of coal in the plains region have 
hardly been touched, though 2,500,000 tons or more are mined every year. 
Most of the mines are small developments for family or community use; 
they often consist of only one narrow tunnel with shallow work chambers 
on both sides, and are quite commonly abandoned for newer workings 
as soon as caving begins. Larger mines range from relatively lasting shaft 
and tunnel developments to such spectacular operations as those at Col- 
strip (see Tour 1, Sec. a). At Roundup and Red Lodge bituminous and 


sub-bituminous coal is taken from workings that tap 4 and n seams re- 
spectively. Coal of greater hardness is mined at Red Lodge, Bozeman, and 
Great Falls. Comparatively little Montana coal is used for industrial pur- 
poses, partly because of its low heating power and high ash content and 
partly because gas is more convenient. 

Natural gas was discovered south of Glendive in 1913, and oil at Elk 
Basin, near Red Lodge, two years later. Since then 15 fields have been 
found. The first gas field remains the most important, producing 600,- 
000,000 cubic feet daily, but the first oil field has long been surpassed 
in production. The best fields are in the Sweetgrass Arch. 

The Cut Bank field, the largest producer, runs about 250,000 barrels a 
month. When new, the Kevin-Sunburst field produced more than 560,000 
barrels in one month, but its wells declined four-fifths within a year. 
Acid-treatment later increased the yield of some wells and caused several 
dry holes to produce. 

In the Cut Bank field wells are comparatively deep, averaging 2,900 
feet as against the 1,500 feet of Kevin-Sunburst wells. The oil, easily and 
cheaply refined, yields 36 percent or more of gasoline. Both fields produce 
a nearly pure methane gas. 

The Elk Basin and Dry Creek fields in Carbon County, from wells more 
than 5,000 feet deep, produce oil of such quality (60 A.P.I.) that it 
can be used in internal combustion engines without refining. The Cat 
Creek field in Petroleum County produces from relatively shallow wells 
(1,200 feet), but here, too, the oil is of high quality (50 A.P.I.). The 
initial production of the best wells was more than 3,000 barrels a day. 

The chief oil refineries are the skimming and topping plants at or near 
producing fields; the absorption plant, for converting casing-head gas, at 
Cut Bank ; and the cracking plants at Kevin, Sunburst, and Great Falls. In 
the first the gasoline and kerosene are simply run off; what remains is 
fuel oil. More gasoline is recovered by the cracking plants, which break 
down the molecules of oil by distillation under heat and pressure. No 
lubricating oil is refined in Montana. 

Farm Product Processing and Storing: Sugar refining, the largest manu- 
facturing process consequent on agriculture, is carried on at Sidney, 
Billings, Missoula, and Chinook. The large Billings factory produces 
nearly 100 million pounds of sugar a year, from 320,000 tons of beets 
(see BILLINGS). 

A cannery at Billings packs garden vegetables and pork and beans; 
others in the agricultural valleys specialize in peas, but handle minor 


quantities of other vegetables and fruits. About half a million cases are 
packed yearly. 

Of the many creameries and flour mills the largest are at Great Falls, 
Billings, and Missoula. The products of flour milling, which is perhaps 
the State's oldest manufacturing enterprise, are worth about $17,000,000 
annually. Factories that make cheese, ice cream, and beverages are well 
distributed. There are several meat-packing plants; the one at Great Falls 
is rated the largest between Minneapolis and Spokane. 

Every village in the wheat-growing areas has grain elevators. Numerous 
warehouses store beans, peas, potatoes, garden vegetables, and wool. 

Lumber and Power: As an employer, the lumber industry is important, 
providing 6,000 jobs in normal times. Its annual output varies greatly; 
before the depression of the 1930*5 the average was about 342,000,000 
board feet of lumber and 138,000,000 feet of mine timbers, ties, poles, 
posts, and fuel valued at more than $10,000,000 altogether. In 1933 the 
lumber cut had dropped to 125,000,000 feet. Two-fifths of the State's 
lumber comes from Flathead County, which also has the basis of a large 
pulpwood industry. The largest sawmills are at Bonner and Libby (see 
Tours 2 and 8). The Bonner mill's annual capacity is 150,000,000 board 
feet. In some of the larger cities are factories that make furniture and other 
finished products. 

Power plants on Montana's rivers generate half a million horsepower 
of electric energy, less than one-fifth of the potential horsepower. The 
largest development is on the Missouri, especially at Great Falls (see Tour 
14) and at Helena, where dams have formed three artificial lakes; but 
there are also plants on the Yellowstone, Clark Fork of the Columbia, and 
other streams. About half the power generated is used by the metal indus- 
try at Butte, Anaconda, Great Falls, and East Helena. Much is used by 
coal mines and railroads. 

Altogether, Montana manufacturers in 1935 employed 9,539 wage earn- 
ers, and paid them $11,742,178. The total value of the products made 
was $124,778,215. Much of this total was contributed by enterprises of 
modest size and merely local importance; most of them were concerned 
with processing of farm or forest products. Minor manufactured products 
ranged from saddles and cigars to livestock feed and lamp posts. 

Fur farms in western and southern Montana specialize in foxes, musk- 
rats, and Chinchilla rabbits. A farm near Kalispell, besides raising its own 
silver foxes, "finishes off" pups for Alaskan fox breeders. All native fur 
bearers are bred to some extent; more than 100,000 pelts are marketed 



ii II 



each year. Montana fur farms, it is believed, eventually will supply one- 
tenth of the Nation's demand. 

There are nurseries and greenhouses in all the important centers. Inr 
Lincoln County about 400,000 young Douglas firs are cut annually for; 
Christmas trees. 


T ransDor ta tion 


DURING the half century between the Lewis and Clark expedition 
and the first large immigration, Montana was an almost endless 
wilderness inhabited by Indians and a few trappers and voyageurs, who 
traveled or transported in canoes, bullboats, and keelboats, or with horses. 
The Indians were accustomed to the horse- or dog-drawn travois, two 
trailing poles bearing a sort of platform of hide or basketwork for goods. 
White men also used it occasionally. 

Steamboats appeared on the Missouri as early as 1832, but not until 
1859 were they built with sufficiently shallow draft to reach Fort Benton. 
Navigation was very difficult on the Missouri: the tortuous channel was 
full of snags and sand bars ; and the waterstage, influenced by storms far 
up in the mountains, changed rapidly. A steamboat tied up for the night 
in plenty of water might bump bottom by morning. With navigation 
established and immigration made possible, Fort Benton became the hub 
from which spread stage lines, freight roads, and pack trails, but the com- 
ing of the railroads effaced Fort Benton from the picture. 

Freight also entered the Territory from Corinne, Utah, by bull team, 
a team usually consisting of five yokes. The rate was 8 cents a pound, the 
speed of travel with well-shod oxen 12 to 15 miles a day. Delays were 
frequent, for bulls dropped shoes, and the stopping of one team halted 
the train. Many a stop became an occasion for sampling the shipment of 
whiskey, invariably a part of the load. The usual method was to start a 
hoop and bore a hole, draw the sample and replace it with water, then 
plug the hole and drive back the hoop to conceal the evidence. 

The tradition of the "Great American Desert" was slow to die. It was 
gravely suggested that camel caravan routes into Idaho and Montana be 
established; in 1856 Congress actually appropriated $30,000 for the 
purchase of camels for military use in the West. Some of them were 
brought into Montana from Nevada, where they had been used on the 
California trail. But pack train men objected that a camel's back was no 
place for a diamond hitch and Montana trails no place for a camel's feet. 
One camel was mistaken for a deformed moose by a white hunter ; others 



were killed by Indians. Those remaining stampeded a train of mules 
loaded with whiskey for the gold camps of Last Chance Gulch, and the 
whiskey was spilled. Such an accident was more than enough to discredit 
camels in the Montana of that day. 

For a time the stagecoach was the frontier's best answer to the problem 
of swifter travel. The first coaches were small and uncomfortable four- 
horse affairs that carried mail, express, and usually a bandit-bait "treasure 
box" to which only station-masters had a key. The driver's duty was to 
the goods he carried, and the human freight could take care of itself. 
Trails were hazardous. At fords the water often rose so high in an hour 
as to make passage impossible. Concord coaches replaced the early vehicles, 
to be replaced in turn by the "jerky," an unpleasant contrivance without 
springs or thoroughbraces. 

The idea of a trancontinental railroad had received considerable atten- 
tion since the Oregon migration, the Mormon exodus, and the California 
gold rush, but not until 1853 was a survey made of a northern route to 
the coast. From Fort Union to Helena this route partly coincides with 
that of the Great Northern Railway; from Helena to the Idaho boundary 
it becomes almost exactly the road of the Northern Pacific. 

Aided by large land grants, which gave to the company twenty alternate 
sections per mile of non-mineral public land on each side of the right-of- 
way through the Territories, the Northern Pacific Railway started in 
1870 to build east from Puget Sound and west from Duluth. Before con- 
struction reached Montana, the panic of 1873 bankrupted the company. 
The Territorial legislature attempted to pass a bill authorizing counties 
along the route to borrow construction funds for the Northern Pacific. It 
was argued that Montana was already paying at least $1,500,000 a year 
for freighting by wagon and steamboat, and that a railroad would save 
half. Submitted to the people, the proposal was defeated by 248 votes. 

Overland travel from the Union Pacific in Utah had already reduced the 
long Montana trail when, in 1877, tne Utah & Northern Railroad Com- 
pany was organized. The Utah & Northern began work on a narrow gauge 
line from Ogden. Again bills were introduced to provide financial aid 
and were defeated, but the work went on. In a race with the reorganized 
Northern Pacific, the Utah & Northern won, reaching the site of Dillon 
in 1880 and Silver Bow in 1881. Rebuilt as a standard gauge line, it later 
became the Oregon Short Line, now a part of the Union Pacific system. 

The Northern Pacific track-laying gangs crossed the eastern boundary 
and reached Glendive July 5, 1881. Winter halted construction at Miles 
City, but the following summer it proceeded rapidly up the Yellowstone 



Valley to meet the crews working eastward. The last 3OO-mile section lay 
in the mountains, and the work included construction of tunnels under 
the long Bozeman Pass (3,654 feet) and Mullan Pass (3,875 feet), at an 
elevation exceeding 5,500 feet. In a faulted section of the Mullan tunnel 
extraordinary pressure necessitated constant attention to timbering; ex- 
perienced mining men from Butte had to finish the job. At Weeksville, 
northwest of Missoula, a shoulder of the Cabinet Mountains jutted across 
the way and was removed only by extensive blasting, at a cost of life to 
many Chinese coolies on the job. A tent city near the scene of operations 
passed into the control of toughs who terrorized the place until three of 
their leaders (Dick the Diver, Ohio Dan, and the Barber) were hanged. 
The Barber, a cripple, was buried where he died ; his crutches, like crosses, 
were set up to mark his grave. 

The last spike was driven by Henry Villard, Northern Pacific president, 
September 8, 1883, near Gold Creek, seven miles west of Garrison. Dis- 
tinguished visitors were present, and the hammer strokes were recorded 
telegraph in New York. 


An exciting chapter in railroad history is the story of the Great North- 
ern, formed of the combined railroad properties acquired by James J. Hill 
and his associates, with additional public timber and mineral domains in 
Idaho, Montana, and Washington, obtained through an Act of Congress 
in 1891. Hill bought the bankrupt St. Paul & Pacific Railroad in 1872 
and reorganized it as the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba. In 1886 he 
began building roadbed and bridges from Minot, Dakota Territory, to 
Helena. Missouri River steamboats brought up the equipment. 

Then he met legal obstacles. He could not build through the great 
Indian reservations without permission from Congress; and the Northern 
Pacific fought bitterly the granting of such permission. Like other pro- 
moters of his time, Hill took a practical view of political matters. By 
spring of 1887 he had completed one of the numerous campaigns that 
made him "the Jay Gould of the Northwest." Meanwhile he had stored 
great quantities of material at Minot and was ready to proceed. His track 
layers entered Montana on June 13 and raced up the Missouri and Milk 
River Valleys, laying a record four miles of track a day. Reaching Havre 
on September 6, they turned toward Great Falls and Helena over grades 
prepared by the Montana Central Railroad, also controlled by Hill. At 
Helena a forcible attempt was made to prevent their building across the 
Northern Pacific right of way, but a court order blocked it. 

The Montana Central was extended to Butte in 1889, and merged with 
the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba to form the Great Northern. Since 
the long swing southward was not suitable for a transcontinental line, 
John F. Stevens, chief engineer, undertook to find a more direct way. In 
December 1889 ^ e found Marias Pass, the lowest (5,213 feet) of the 
passes across the Continental Divide. The result was a main route almost 
unequalled in scenic interest, surmounting the Divide along the south 
edge of what became Glacier National Park and winding west through 
some of the greatest mountains and forests in the country. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad began construc- 
tion in 1906, entering Montana near Baker. It followed a route through 
the Musselshell Valley, reaching Harlowton in 1908. From Harlowton to 
Lombard and to Lewistown it used the tracks of the old Central Montana 
Railroad, known as the "Jawbone Line." 

The history of this now important part of the system is diverting. Not 
only was it promoted by the generous use of "jawbone" (promises or 
talk), but its builders seemed to have little basis for their hopes, and the 
public enthusiasm that greeted railroads elsewhere was lacking. Soon after 
its completion, the Northern Pacific requested a timetable of the new road 


to incorporate in its own. "There were no towns on the line," said Richard 
Harlow, president of the Jawbone, "nor . . . any provocation for towns, 
but ... I drew up a schedule and located . . . plenty of them. Two young 
ladies [Fan and Lulu] were visiting at my house. On the timetable you 
will find . . . Fanalulu just below . . . Ringling." 

The Milwaukee crossed the Continental Divide through a 2,290-foot 
tunnel under Pipestone Pass, and the Bitterroot Range into Idaho through 
St. Paul Pass Tunnel, 8,771 feet long. At the Montana end of the tunnel, 
construction gangs built Taft camp, which became, like Weeksville on 
the Northern Pacific, a wild and lawless place ; a thaw once disclosed fif- 
teen corpses scattered along the trail to the tunnel's mouth. A fire in the 
winter of 1909-10 reduced the camp to only three small frame structures. 

The Milwaukee, built across Montana by a difficult route, was the first 
great railroad to use electric power extensively. Its entire 438-mile Rocky 
Mountain section (Harlowton to Avery, Idaho) is electrically operated. 

In 1894 the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, also reaching to- 
ward the Pacific, built a line from the Wyoming boundary to Huntley, 
east of Billings. But in 1901 the Northern Pacific and Great Northern 
jointly bought control of it, to prevent construction of a fourth line 


through the State. A branch from Frannie, Wyoming, to Fromberg, built 
in 1911, links both railroads with the Burlington's Denver line. In 1935 
Montana had 5,194 miles of railroad, a mileage greater than that of any 
other Rocky Mountain State. 

Because its topography is difficult, its distances vast, and its population 
small, Montana was slow to build a modern highway system. Up to 1919, 
before the first grant of Federal aid, Montana roads were crude trails, 
amazingly smooth when well-worn, but winding and unsuited to speed 
and hea\jy hauling. The first highway (1923) consisted of 26 miles of 
concrete pavement between Butte and Anaconda. 

The State today is crisscrossed with a network of roads reaching every 
habitable place. Eleven highways (5,012 miles) are included in the Fed- 
eral trunk road system. Most are surfaced with oil, the remainder with 
crushed rock or gravel. Thousands of miles of State highways supplement 
these. Extraordinary scenic beauty distinguishes Montana 32 (Red Lodge- 
Cooke) and the spectacular Going-to-the-Sun Highway across Glacier 
National Park. The former rises to about 11,000 feet, the latter to 6,700; 
and when it is remembered that road construction anywhere in Montana 
entails heroic labor, the building of these two seems almost miraculous. 
Both were planned to take full advantage of sightseeing opportunities. 

Of the many thousand miles of unmarked roads and trails, 6,500 miles 


in recent years have been built, improved, or surfaced by the Works 
Progress Administration, and 2,600 by the Civil Works and the Federal 
Emergency Relief Administrations. The young men of the Civilian Con- 
servation Corps have built many fire trails in national forests. 

Growth of motor freight and passenger bus lines has accompanied high- 
way development. Such lines now have a large part in local and inter- 
state passenger business, and handle the bulk of local small freight. Lower 
fares and frequent service have greatly increased passenger traffic. Two of 
the railroads have replaced short branch lines with bus lines of their own. 

The first mail, passenger, and express air line in Montana was that of 
National Parks Airways, which began operations August i, 1928, between 
Great Falls and Salt Lake City. In 1937 three air lines served the State, 
each having connections with transcontinental lines. 

One line serves Great Falls, Helena, Butte, and, in summer, Yellow- 
stone National Park; another crosses the State from Glendive to Missoula 
on the Chicago-Seattle flight; the third connects Billings with Denver 
and Pueblo. 

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< & >>>>)>>>>>>>>>>>>> 

Education, Religion, and 

WHEN two messengers of the Flathead Indians returned to their 
people in 1840, bringing Father Pierre Jean de Smet from St. 
Louis, they introduced the learning and faith of an accomplished Jesuit 
missionary. Father de Smet called two priests into service with him. In 
1841 they founded St. Mary's Mission in the Bitterroot Valley, one of the 
first efforts of the "Black Robes" toward establishing an instructed and 
pious society in Montana. 


Schools were started at Bannack and Nevada City in 1863; it is un- 
certain which was first. Lucia Darling, a niece of Sidney Edgerton, first 
Governor of the Territory, taught at Bannack and Kate Dunlap at Nevada 

"Bannack," wrote Miss Darling, "was tumultuous and rough, the head- 
quarters of ... highwaymen, and lawlessness and misrule seemed the pre- 
vailing spirit . . . But . . . many worthy people . . . were anxious to have 
their children in school. I was requested to take charge. . . ." 

Miss Darling opened the school in October in a room of her own 
home, the pupils using any books they owned or could borrow from 
neighbors. Twenty children attended until late fall, when sessions were 
suspended because of cold. They were resumed in the spring, and the 
following summer Bannack built a log schoolhouse, which still stands. 

Thomas J. Dimsdale, an Oxford graduate who had come to the moun- 
tains seeking a cure for consumption, taught school at Virginia City in 
the winter of 1863-4. Dimsdale, author of The Vigilantes of Montana, 
was a scholar and his school a good one, according to the diary of Gran- 
ville Stuart. All the town children attended, paying tuition of $2 a week. 

An Indian boarding school, the first of its kind in the Northwest, 


opened in 1864 at St. Ignatius, where a Jesuit mission had been organized 
ten years earlier. Sisters of Providence from Montreal traveled by way of 
New York, the Isthmus of Panama, San Francisco, and Vancouver to be- 
come its teachers, crossing from Walla Walla to St. Ignatius on horseback. 

Between 1865 and 1875, numerous Catholic and other private elemen- 
tary schools were opened for both white and Indian children. Subscription 
wholly or partly supported many early schools, including those at Helena 
(January 1865) and at Bozeman (186566). The Bozeman school was 
housed in the back room of a log cabin; the earth made a convenient 
floor for the half-dozen marble-playing pupils, who could scratch rings 
in it with a stick. 

By an act of the First Legislative Assembly, in 1865, a school system 
was established for the Territory. Virginia City, the first community to or- 
ganize a school district under the law, opened a public school in March 
1866 in the Union Church, a log building. Other towns followed its 
example. The first formal report of the Territorial school commissioner 
(1868) showed 2,000 pupils, 25 organized districts, and 15 schoolhouses. 

Judge Cornelius Hedges, a lawyer who came to Montana from Massa- 
chusetts in 1864, is credited with organizing the Territorial school system. 
For five years after his appointment as Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion in 1873, he traveled by stagecoach and horseback over an area 
eighteen times as large as his native State, visiting and establishing ele- 
mentary schools of high standard. 

In 1893 the State legislature created a State board of education. The 
State College at Bozeman began its work in the same year, and the State 
University at Missoula opened two years later. These two, together with 
the State Normal College at Dillon (1897) and the Montana School of 
Mines at Butte (1900) were combined to form the University of Montana 
in 1916. The Eastern State Normal School at Billings and the Northern 
Montana College at Havre later opened as units of the university. 

Free county high schools, which were not provided for in the original 
school system, were established in 1897 in response to public demand for 
adequate and widespread educational facilities. 

Numerous secondary and college institutions were privately sponsored, 
particularly before the full development of the public school system. 
Montana Collegiate Institute at Deer Lodge, which offered a course of 
study extending from primary grades through college, was founded by 
subscription in 1878. Four years later it was taken over by the Presby- 
terian Church. The Methodist Episcopal Church established Montana 
Wesleyan at Helena in 1888. In 1923 the two institutions merged to form 


Intermountain Union College. The Billings Polytechnic Institute, em- 
phasizing practical vocational training, was founded by Lewis T. Eaton 
and his brother Dr. Ernest T. Eaton in 1907. The institute is supported 
by an endowment fund, and employment of students in the school shops 
and on the school farm is part of its program (see BILLINGS). Inter- 
mountain Union College moved to the Billings Institute campus when the 
earthquake of 1935 damaged its buildings so seriously that they had to be 
abandoned. The two institutions, however, maintain their separate identities. 

Carroll College at Helena was established as Mount St. Charles College 
by the Catholic Church in 1909, and renamed in 1931 in honor of the 
late Bishop John P. Carroll. A college for women, St. Mary's Institute at 
Great Falls, and parochial grade and high schools in the principal cities 
are also maintained by the Catholic Church. 

Professional enthusiasm among teachers was evident as early as 1882 
when the Territorial Teachers' Association was organized at Helena. This 
organization was the forerunner of the Montana Education Association 
which today brings school problems before the public and takes an active 
part in shaping educational policy. 

A war orphans' educational fund was established by law in 1937, to 
provide educational opportunities for children of sailors, soldiers, and 
marines who were killed in the World War or who died from other 
causes between April 1917 and July 1921. 

According to data issued by the U. S. Office of Education, Montana has 
3,250 public elementary schools and 215 public high schools (1933-34). 
Approximately 2,000 of its schools are the one-room rural type, but 
there is a gradual trend toward consolidated schools and transportation of 
pupils at public expense. Attendance figures show 76,500 public school 
pupils ; 8,000 private and parochial school pupils. 

Adult education is gaining momentum and several high schools have 
night school terms of six weeks during the winter months. Courses in 
practical and cultural subjects are given; Diesel engineering is partic- 
ularly popular, as are also courses in business, home economics, and home 
nursing. The rehabilitation division of the State department of public in- 
struction is in charge of work in adult education, special schools, and agri- 
cultural and vocational education. In 1938 the adult education program 
of the Works Progress Administration got under way in Montana, with 
classes in Butte, Missoula, and other cities. 


For years the only ministers in Montana were the dozen or so Jesuit 
priests connected with the missions at St. Mary's and St. Ignatius among 
the Flathead, and at St. Peter's among the Blackfeet. Protestant mis- 
sionaries, lacking the black robes and other habiliments that impressed 
the Indians, were rejected, and went on to Washington and Oregon. 

But with the gold seekers, Protestant "sky pilots" came to stay. Meth- 
odist, Baptist, and Presbyterian ministers established churches at Bannack 
and Virginia City in 1864. This followed a period of preaching in saloons, 
dance halls, and gambling houses, where roulette wheels, card tables, and 
other paraphernalia were pushed aside to let the "brimstone busters" hold 
forth. Bishop Daniel S. Tuttle, Episcopalian, was eminent among the 
clergy of this period. He worked from 1867 to 1880 in the rapidly spread- 
ing mining camps, and displayed great organizing ability. 

At the same time the Catholic fathers set up white missions at the min- 
ing camps, expanding their districts as the need arose. The group of 
Catholic missionaries of this period included Father Mengarini, who mas- 
tered the difficult Flathead language and compiled an Indian-English dic- 
tionary; Father Point, co-founder of St. Mary's, who pleased the Indians 
by painting their portraits; Father Giorda, superior of the Montana mis- 
sions during the difficult gold rush days; Father Kuppens, who founded 
the church at Helena; Father Palladino, historian of the Church in Mon- 
tana; Father Ravalli, and Father de Smet, the most distinguished of them 
all. The first secular priest was Father de Ryckere, who founded a mission 
at Deer Lodge and traveled on horseback from mining camp to mining 
camp over a large district. 

In all the early chronicles respectful mention is made of the physical 
vigor of the pastors. Many eastern candidates for missionary service pre- 
: ferred East Africa or China to frontier Montana, which may explain why 
the pioneers admired the few who chose to live with them. These clergy- 
men were always ready to ride a hundred miles in any weather to help 
those in distress, and equally ready to bury an executed desperado. They 
married and buried, built log churches with their own hands, and assumed 
full responsibility for the relief of suffering. Frontiersmen who professed 
no creed responded willingly when such men asked for money or other 
aid. Many early accounts of the deaths of ministers say merely, "he sick- 
ened and died," and make but scant mention of the hardships that con- 
tributed to their sickening. 


Churches spread with the spreading white population. More than a 
dozen denominations sent in valiant workers. The Reverend W. W. Van 
Orsdel in 1872 debarked at Fort Benton in a rainstorm, preached his first 
sermon in an adobe house with muddy water trickling on him through 
the roof, and overcame scores of such hardships in his notable career. In 
addition to being a brilliant preacher, he helped found several schools 
and hospitals. 

Religious activities of some kind entered into the early life of almost 
every community and served to offset the influence of saloons and brothels. 
These activities suppers, bazaars, lectures, and amateur theatricals often 
provided the principal, and sometimes the only available, opportunities 
for a wholesome social life. 

The Roman Catholics, the Methodists, and the Lutherans are now the 
leading denominations, the first equaling all others in number. Total 
church membership in 1930 was 152,000, or a little more than one in five 
of the State's population. The Roman Catholics number approximately 
74,000, and the Methodists and Lutherans 15,000 each. These are fol- 
lowed in the order named by the Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congrega- 
tionalists, Baptists, Disciples of Christ, Latter-Day Saints, and smaller 

Social Welfare 

Montana has played a pioneer role in social legislation. It was one of 
the first States to experiment with workmen's compensation, and (simul- 
taneously with Nevada) the first to make provisions for old age pensions 
(1923). The compensation act of 1910 for the maintenance of a State 
cooperative insurance fund for miners and laborers in and about mines 
was declared unconstitutional, but the first compulsory compensation act 
was passed in 1915. Twice revised in the face of violent opposition, the 
law sets up a graduated scale of compensation benefits. It provides a max- 
imum allowance of $21 per week for 500 weeks of total disability, and 
maximum compensations of $8,400 for a widow and $10,500 for a to- 
tally and permanently disabled workman. Protective legislation for women 
and children has also been progressive. 

This background enabled the State to function under the Federal So- 
cial Security Act with speed and efficiency. With the enactment of social 
security legislation and its approval by the Federal board, public agencies 
for social welfare were set up or enlarged to take care of increased 

The Montana State Planning Board, created in 1935, in its staff report 


for the year ending December 1936, estimates that there are 7,000 fam- 
ilies who cannot be self-supporting under present conditions, and that 
from 5,000 to 12,000 farm families have needed some relief from Federal, 
State, or private agencies during the past twenty years. 

It is these families that have been the concern of private agencies 
women's clubs, church and fraternal organizations, and family welfare 
services in the larger cities. No State-wide or uniform plan of social wel- 
fare existed up to a few years ago, nor was it needed in normal times. 
Local assistance impulsive yet matter-of-fact, and given in the spirit of 
pioneer mutual help had been enough. But it proved far from equal to 
the task of meeting widespread distress; such popular slogans as "Butte 
will take care of its own" have become more well-meaning than true. 

The picture today is one of steady development and growing coordina- 
tion. Old age assistance, aid for the blind and for dependent children, and 
unemployment compensation are administered under the Federal Social 
:urity Act by the State department of public welfare, organized in 1937, 
id by the State board of health. Special institutions care for the insane 
id feebleminded, the delinquent, the deaf, the blind, and the tuber- 
ilar. The State board of health, in addition to administering social 
irity services, carries on the usual activities in sanitation, communicable 
lisease, food and drugs, and vital statistics. Serum developed by the U. S. 
iblic Health Service is administered free each spring to combat spotted 
fever in the western part of the State. The major cities have general hos- 
pitals, and there are a few specialized institutions, such as the orthopedic 
St. Vincent Hospital-School (see BILLINGS). 

The State planning board is carrying on surveys and studies to de- 
termine State policies for public school education and social welfare. Its 
welfare section has undertaken a social study of four Montana counties 
that will include data on causes of unemployment, agencies caring for 
needy families, physical and mental ill-health and disabilities, housing, 
and children's problems. 

The Arts 


MONTANA, like most communities close to pioneer conditions, has 
produced only a small body of literature expressive of its life and 
spirit. Many of its writers have gone outside the State for their material. 
Of those who have delved fairly deeply into local lore and history, several 
have limited themselves to some particular phase, such as Indian life. The 
literature that has developed, while somewhat narrow in scope, is com- 
paratively free both from false sophistication and from cow-country ex- 
travagances. When the Frontier (later Frontier and Midland), originally 
a student publication, began in the 1920'$ to take a more prominent 
place in Northwest literature, there was a notable trend toward careful 
evaluation and utilization of regional material. 

The first inhabitants have received much attention from Montana au- 
thors; but the old Indian life is rapidly disappearing, and its interpreters 
have to depend increasingly on secondary material. Of the literature deal- 
ing with the life of the region since white settlement began, the first ex- 
ample is a contemporary account of the activities of road agents and 
vigilantes, written by Thomas Dimsdale, a Virginia City schoolmaster. 
Vigilantes of Montana, or Popular Justice in the Rocky Mountains was 
first published as a serial in the Montana Post beginning August 26, 1865, 
and later appeared in book form. A framed poster bearing the original 
announcement hangs in the lobby of Hotel Leggat in Butte. From this 
book and from Judge Lew Callaway, an authority on early days in Mon- 
tana, Hoffman Birney obtained the material for Vigilantes, which ran 
serially in the Saturday Evening Post in February and March 1929. 

A Trip to the States, by John Allen Hosmer (1850-1907), was printed 
in Virginia City in 1867, when the author, the son of Montana's first chief 
justice, was sixteen years old. This, the second book published in Mon- 
tana, describes an adventurous trip by stage, pirogue, and river steamer 
from Virginia City to the railroad at Boonesboro, Iowa. The young author 
not only wrote an entertaining account, but printed it himself on a hand 
press. "My readers will notice," he apologizes, "that in a great many 


places where there ought to be full stops, nothing appears but commas, 
my reason for that is, I had but one small font of type, and scarcely any 
capitals. One large 'W was all of that letter I had." 

Much of the best writing done later in Montana is historical: accounts 
of exploration, including the journals of the Canadian David Thompson 
(1770-1857) and of Henry Edgar (1836-1910), one of the party that 
discovered Alder Gulch; Vigilante Days and Ways (1893), by Nathaniel 
P. Langford (1832-1911); Then and Now, or Thirty -six Years in the 
Rockies (1900), by Robert Vaughn (1836-1918); Forty Years on the 
Frontier (1925), by Granville Stuart (1834-1918). State histories have 
been written by Tom Stout, Helen F. Sanders, and Robert G. Raymer. 

The journals of David Thompson, the great geographer, have been 
freely used in subsequent accounts of Northwest exploration, but it was 
not until the twentieth century that his work gained full recognition. 
E. C. Coues drew upon the journals in preparing his three- volume work, 
New Light on the Early History of the Greater Northwest (1897). J. B. 
Tyrrell in 1916 edited Thompson's Narratives, which are accounts, taken 
from the journals, of the latter's explorations. Many other writers have 
depended on Thompson's maps and descriptions for information about 
the Northwest region. A biography of Thompson by C. N. Cochrane was 
published in 1924. 

Reputedly the earliest fiction produced in Montana is the novel, Claire 
Lincoln, by Decius M. Wade (1835-1905). It was published in 1875. 
Writers from various parts of America have frequently used the North- 
western country for background, notably Owen Wister in The Virginian; 
but Montana writers did not claim popular attention until after 1900. 

In 1902 The Story of Mary MacLane, a forerunner of the modern auto- 
biographical novel, created a sensation. Discussion of its frank revelations 
swept from end to end of the country and made Mary MacLane (1881- 
1929) famous. H. L. Mencken devoted a chapter in Prejudices: First 
Series to this "Butte Bashkirtseff," in which he expressed the opinion that 
Butte was a Puritan town a suggestion no doubt startling to the citizens. 

Among contemporary writers Frank Bird Linderman (1868-1938), 
Will James, Myron Brinig, and Grace Stone Coates are nationally recog- 
nized. Linderman was an adopted member of the Chippewa and Cree tribes 
and devoted his talents to portraying Indian life and character. As trap- 
per, guide, and prospector he had known the Indians in their own free 
environment, and his books are inspired by friendly understanding and 
sympathy. His most significant volume is American: Life Story of a Great 
Indian (1930), the biography of Chief Plenty Coups of the Crow. A 


novel, Morning Light (1930), is a stirring tale of white contact with 
Indians. Indian Why Stories (1915), How It Came About Stories 
(1921), and various other collections contain fine interpretations of In- 
dian myth and folklore. Mr. Linderman served his State in public office 
as well as in his work as a writer. 

Since the appearance of Cowboys North and South (1924), Will 
James has enjoyed wide popularity, particularly among juvenile readers. 
The books that have been most favorably received are Smoky (1926), the 
story of a cow pony, and the autobiographical Lone Cowboy (1930). A 
protege of the cowboy artist Charlie Russell, James illustrates his own 
books with line drawings. He lives and works at his 4,ooo-acre ranch on 
the Crow Reservation south of Billings. 

Myron Brinig, who was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, may be 
claimed as one of Montana's most distinguished novelists, not primarily 
because he spent much of his early life in that State, but because he was a 
pioneer in the use of the life in Butte and other mining towns as material 
for realistic fiction. His Singermann (1929), Wide Open Town (1931), 
Sons of Singermann (1934), and several other novels present an uncom- 
promisingly honest picture, in colorful vibrant prose, of an era of quick 
fortunes, lusty adventure, and lawlessness. Brinig in his later work intro- 
duces western scenes but covers a wider field, as in The Sisters (1937), 
with Saratoga of the nineties as a high point, and in his latest book May 
Flavin (1938). The Montana stories, however, are generally considered 
his real contribution to literature. 

Grace Stone Coates is an active force among present-day Montana 
writers, both as novelist and poet and in her association with Frontier and 
Midland. Her novel Black Cherries (1931) is an extremely delicate and 
beautiful recollection of childhood on a Kansas farm. (Mrs. Coates was 
born in Kansas.) The father "who launched yachts on the Mediterranean 
in the face of blistering prairie winds, and hail, and mortgages" ; the 
mother, a second wife, who liked the black cherry tree and all trees, and 
the discouragement and sorrow of both parents, are revealed through the 
daily reactions of a hypersensitive child. Two volumes of verse Mead 
and Mangel-wurzel (1932), and Portulacas in the Wheat (1933) show 
the same fine choice of image and detail as the novel, but on the whole 
lack its power. Mrs. Coates has published many short stories (included in 
several anthologies) and, with Patrick T. Tucker, the narrative Riding the 
High Country (1933). 

One of the best known writers working with Indian material is James 
Willard Schultz, author of Blackfeet Tales of Glacier National Park 



(1916), My Life as an Indian (1933), and with Jessie Donaldson as co- 
author, Sun God's Children (1930). Schultz married a Blackfoot woman, 
and has lived with the tribe most of his life. Harriet Laverne Fitzgerald 
of Great Falls, author of Black Feather (1933), and Glendolin Damon 
Wagner of Billings, co-author with Dr. W. A. Allen of Blankets and 
Moccasins (1933), have used Indian material. In his novel, The Surrounded 
(1936), D'Arcy McNickle has told the grim story of the Salish in their 
unequal struggle against the whites. McNickle was born and grew up on 
the Flathead Reservation. Crow Indians (1933), by Robert H. Lowie, is 
an authoritative account of Absaroka tribal life. Memoirs of a White Crow 
(1928) and A Warrior Who Fought with Custer (1931), by Dr. Thomas 
B. Marquis (1869-1935), also deal with the Absaroka people. 
VButte, one of the world's most colorful mining camps, has fascinated 
a number of writers. Much of its literary material, like its ore, has still 
to be mined, although Myron Brinig has accomplished much in this di- 
rection. In The War of the Copper Kings (1935), C B. Glasscock pre- 
sented Butte's turbulent political and mining history, and Gertrude Ather- 
ton, in Perch of the Devil (1914), wrote of the same events with more 
asperity than understanding. The Sheriff of Silver Bow (1921), by Berton 
Braley, shows some comprehension of the city's spirit, but the tone of the 
book is that of the popular "western." 

Life in the smaller towns and on the wheat ranches and beet farms has 
provided material for several novels. Dale Eunson, who lived at Lewis- 
town, presented realistic rural scenes in Homestead (1935) ; Agnes Getty 
of Whitefish used the experiences of a village school teacher in the 
romantic novel Blue Gold (1934) ; Small Town Stuff (1932), by Albert 
Blumenthal, is an uncompromising study of life in Philipsburg, the au- 
thor's former home. 

Taylor Gordon, a Negro singer born in White Sulphur Springs, pub- 
lished his autobiography in 1929. The work, entitled Born to Be, deals 
with his boyhood in Montana. Max Miller, author of / Cover the Water- 
front (1932) and Mexico Around Me (1937), spent his childhood on a 
homestead near Conrad, and he also tells of his early years in The Begin- 
ning of a Mortal (1932). B. M. Bower (Bertha Muzzy Sinclair), for- 
merly of Big Sandy, has written several novels dealing with the ranch 
country of north-central Montana. Her first one, Chip of the Flying U, is 
typical of her work. The Yankee Bodleys (1936) is an unusually success- 
ful first novel by Naomi Lane Babson of Bozeman. Mildred Walker (Mrs. 
'. R. Schemm) of Great Falls wrote Fireweed (1934), and Light from 
returns (1935), neither of which deals with Montana life. 


An old-timer's biography, Yellowstone Kelly (1926), contains the 
memoirs and colorful anecdotes of Luther S. Kelly's scouting days. Rid- 
ing the High Country (1933), by Patrick T. Tucker and Grace Stone 
Coates, tells of Tucker's adventures in company with the artist Charlie 
Russell. Ubet (1934), by John Barrows, is a well-written account of life 
in the early i88o's at a stagecoach station in the Judith Gap country. 

Contemporary Montana poets include, besides Mrs. Coates, Jason 
Bolles, Mary Brennan Clapp, Grace Baldwin, Gwendolen Haste, Elliott 
C. Lincoln, and Norman MacLeod. Northwest Verse (1931), compiled by 
H. G. Merriam, Chairman of the Department of English at Montana 
State University, and Western Prose and Poetry (1932), edited by Rufus 
A. Coleman, contain poems of both regional and universal significance. 

Missoula is the home of Frontier and Midland, a nationally circulated 
quarterly edited and published by H. G. Merriam. It began in 1919 as the 
Montanan, a student publication which soon became the Frontier. In 1927 
it was taken out of the hands of the students and widened in scope, be- 
coming a regional magazine of the Northwest. The Midland, literary 
magazine of the Middle West, was merged with it in 1933. Emphasizing 
regional material, the Frontier and Midland publishes fiction and poetry 
of high quality, often presenting writers who, because of the experimental 
nature of their work, could not get space in popular magazines. Outstand- 
ing stories have been republished in the leading annual anthologies. 


Montana Indians knew many handicrafts. The things they made were 
not merely material necessities; often they represented the tribesman's ex- 
pression of his love of form and color, and of the sentiments which 
civilized man voices in more sophisticated art forms. Symbolic designs and 
traditional patterns possessed a religious and tribal significance. 

Earth yellow, red, green, blue, and black provided the basis of the 
paints and dyes with which they decorated their lodges and their persons. 
They created also colorful designs in feathers and quills. All tribes made 
clothing of decorated skins, and tools of wood, bone, or stone. They did 
little carving, but some of their stonework shows amazing skill. They 
made pipes of clay, baskets of skin, bark, or woven willow (see Tours 
1, 2, 1, 7, 14). 

White men brought handicrafts of their own. Among the most neces- 
sary and characteristic were gunsmithing and saddle-making, and such 
domestic crafts as spinning, knitting, and weaving. With the advance of 



civilization most of these fell into disuse, but saddle-making has survived 
and even grown into a minor industry. There are saddlers in Miles City, 
Butte, Livingston, and Billings who, besides making saddles of outstand- 
ing workmanship some inlaid with gold and silver produce belts, 
purses, holsters, traveling bags, and other leather products. 

Mary Atwater of Basin started a revival of the ancient handicraft of 
weaving, which in this region had been practiced chiefly by Swedes trained 
in their native land. Many Montanans now produce linens, tweeds, and 
dress fabrics of good quality. 

Fine hooked rugs are made in Bole; baskets woven from native reeds 
in Josephine; sculptured jewelry and carved wood in Billings. The fre- 
quently exhibited wood carvings of John Clarke, a full-blooded Blackfoot 
Indian of Glacier National Park, have gained wide recognition. 


Father Ravalli was Montana's first white artist. Pictures and wooden 
figures executed by him almost a hundred years ago are preserved at St. 
Mary's Mission, Stevensville, and at the State historical museum, at 
Helena. Since his time, Montana has produced a number of artists who 
left to make their careers elsewhere, and several who remained in the State 
and devoted their talents to the portrayal of its colorful life and history. 

The greatest of them, a noteworthy painter and sculptor, was Charles 
M. Russell (1864-1926), the "cowboy artist" of Great Falls, whose 
log cabin studio, purchased at his death by his native city, is the State's 
only important art museum. Opened to the public in 1930 as the Charles 
M. Russell Memorial Museum, it contains 320 catalogued items, covering 
every period of his career. Many of the pictures and relics remain as he 
left them, and in his studio is perpetuated something of the spirit of his 
life, of his long years as a cowboy, his great and enduring friendship with 
the Indians, and his unique and dramatic interpretation of the making 
of the West. 

Russell came west from St. Louis as a boy, in the days of the great cat- 
tle ranches. His first sketches were made for the entertainment of fellow 
workers in the cow camps. His work first aroused attention outside the 
State for its treatment of a subject suggested by the terrible winter of 
1886-87, during which a neighboring cattle outfit lost almost its entire 
herd. The artist's report of this event to the owner was the expressive 
Last of Five Thousand, which depicts a starving cow standing in the 
snow while a coyote waits hungrily near by. After 1914, when an exhibi- 


tion of his work was held in the Dore Galleries in London, Russell's 
paintings brought rapidly increasing prices; his last work, unfinished, 
sold for $30,000. 

An extensive collection of his work is on exhibit in the Mint at Great 
Falls, and a few examples are in the State capitol at Helena. A few of his 
earlier sketches, oils, and water colors, portraying the Indian in native 
surroundings and depicting cowboy life in the days when buffalo and 
longhorn cattle shared the range, are held privately. Hundreds of letters, 
illustrated with sketches, are treasured by his friends. 

Critics agree that Russell was a skilful draftsman and colorist, and that 
lis faithful portrayal of life in the Montana of his time is a significant 

mtribution to American art. He was the author of Trails Plowed Under 
'1923) and Good Medicine (1929), containing his illustrations. 

Edgar S. Paxson (18521919), while not Russell's equal in artistic 

lent, did much to memorialize the West he knew as soldier and frontiers- 
lan. Like Russell he lived and painted in several Montana cities, finally 

lilding a rustic studio in Missoula. Examples of his work are found in 
the State capitol, the Billings Public Library, and the Missoula County 
Courthouse (murals). In the Natural Science Building of the University 
of Montana is Custer's Last Stand, the large canvas Paxson regarded as 
his masterpiece. He worked on it intermittently for 21 years, putting into 
it the figures of more than 200 soldiers and Indians, some of whom he 
had known in life. 

Ralph De Camp (18581936), the third of Montana's noted frontier 
painters, is remembered for his landscapes. Born in New York, he studied 
in Milwaukee, Duluth, and Philadelphia. Working on a Red River boat, 
he attracted the attention of Charles Fee of the Northern Pacific Railway, 
who brought him to Yellowstone Park. From 1896 to 1924 he lived in 
Helena, and several of his paintings hang in the State capitol there. The 
best known is a representation of the Gates of the Mountains (see Tour 
6), but his own favorite is one that depicts the grief of his son Renan at 
having killed a bird with his air gun. 

Photographs of artistic and historic value were made by Richard Thros- 
sel and L. A. Huffman, mostly in the period between 1870 and 1900. 
Throssel, who was part Crow, made some outstanding prints of Indian 
life: Game of Arrows, Salute to the Sun God, and others. 

Leader of Montana's contemporary artists is Will James, cowboy 
author-illustrator of Pryor. Born in 1892 in a covered wagon amid rough 
surroundings, he wrangled horses at an age when most boys are in school, 
riding the range from Canada to Mexico. His refreshing and original pen 


drawings, packed with the action of everyday life on the range, are 
among the most authentic interpretations of cowboy life today. Many of 
his oils of Montana subjects are widely popular. 

Good work has been done by Hart Merriam Schultz (Lone Wolf), a 
son of James Willard Schultz; Branson Stevenson, a Great Falls etcher; 
Irvin Shope, Missoula mural painter employed by the State highway com- 
mission; and Weinold Reiss, a German-born painter who spends part of 
each year among the Blackfeet, and directs a summer art school in Glacier 
Park. His style is of more recent derivation than that of the native Mon- 
tanans, most of whom have followed in the path of Russell. The Black- 
feet Indians (1935) contains some of his portraits. Many younger artists 
are emerging, some of them with the aid of the Federal Art Projects of 
the Works Progress Administration. 

On April 7, 1938, the Butte Ait Center was opened to the public with 
a circulating exhibition supplied by the Federal Art Project and many 
works by Montana artists. Sponsored by the project and by the Butte Art 
Association, the center has been planned to provide wide opportunity to 
study, appreciate, and enjoy the visual arts. Its program includes exhibi- 
tions, free art instruction, an extension program of educational services, 
and a library, research, and reproductions division. 


Musical activities in Montana are confined largely to schools and col : 
leges, although several cities and towns have creditable bands, and the 
Servian Orthodox Church in Butte has an outstanding choral group. The 
highly regarded bands of Montana State College and the University of 
Montana make annual tours of the State, giving concerts in the principal 
cities. The Butte Mines Band, under the leadership of Samuel Treloar, 
who founded it in 1887, has won national competitions at Salt Lake City, 
Denver, and Los Angeles, and has played for five Presidents. Its excel- 
lence may or may not, as one writer suggested, be due to the fact that 
"their occupation is such as to develop their lung capacities and thereby 
give greater zest and tone," but it is certainly notable among bands whose 
members earn a livelihood in occupations other than music. 

Butte and Great Falls have amateur symphony orchestras. In Butte, 
Irish orchestras specialize in jigs and reels; Jugoslavs dance to the tradi- 
tional music of the Kolo; and a German Lieder club regularly rehearses 
the airs of the fatherland. All national groups in the industrial centers 


have transplanted in some measure their native folk music. Cowboy songs 
are popular everywhere in the State. 

Two singers have achieved prominence. Marie Montana (Ruth Waite) 
of Helena, operatic and concert soprano, has appeared in both Europe and 
America. Taylor Gordon of White Sulphur Springs has made concert 
tours in America and has achieved notable success in London and Paris 
as a singer of Negro spirituals. 

Musical composition in Montana never developed beyond a modest be- 
ginning, although at least one composer, Lowndes Maury, Jr., has at- 
tempted symphonic music besides writing for the piano, string quartet, 
and various solo instruments. 

The Theater 

In the great days of the road Montana saw the best shows. Katie Put- 
lam, Nellie Boyd, Emma Juch, Ferris Hartman, and the Tivoli Opera 
ipany came in their own stagecoaches, and were followed by Lotta 
Crabtree, Bernhardt, Modjeska, Clara Morris, Fanny Davenport, Agnes 
Huntington, Stuart Robson, the Barrymores, Robert B. Mantell, Blanche 
Bates, Minnie Maddern Fiske, Henrietta Grossman, Mrs. Leslie Carter, 
Mrs. Pat Campbell, Lillian Russell, Grace George, William Faversham. 

Today moving pictures, occasionally supplemented with vaudeville of 
the touring type, supply Montana's dramatic entertainment. Though its 
residents supposedly see cowboy life at first hand, the State prefers 
"western" films, especially in the smaller cities. 

The drama is kept alive by scattered groups of amateur players, among 
whom the Montana Masquers, a university group, has taken the lead. Ex- 
periments in writing and presenting original plays are carried on at the 
State college, the university, and Billings Polytechnic Institute. Little 
theaters have been organized, but with slight success. In Billings a civic 
group under the sponsorship of service clubs, organized in 1936, has had 
a good start. 


When white men came, Montana Indians were living in lodges made 
of skins, sticks, and mud, usually in the conical tepee form. The first build- 
ings of the invaders were crude log cabins, chinked with clay. Most of 
these have fallen into decay, but a few examples dating from the i86o's 
are well preserved. On the plains the only building material available to 
the pioneers was the turf that stretched from horizon to horizon. Furrows 


were carefully plowed to obtain sodblocks of uniform size. These were 
laid in tiers to form the four walls. A pole framework covered with sod 
formed the roof. The door and its frame were of wood; holes left for 
windows were sometimes curtained with burlap or canvas, but often left 
uncovered. A sod house was rarely larger than ten feet square, and two 
or three days' labor completed it. It was excellent for shutting out the 
harsh prairie winters, but dusty and rude. A few examples still stand in 
the northeast (see Tour 2), the section last settled. With the coming of 
sawmills and railroads, homes became plain box-type buildings of clap- 
boards or red brick, purely utilitarian; the false-front (a facade that ex- 
tended some distance above the actual building, to suggest an additional 
story) for business houses became standard. 

Building boomed in the i88o's and 1 890*5. Copper kings and gold 
barons vied with one another in building ornate, costly residences. It was 
the period of "gingerbread" decoration and architectural absurdities; but 
here and there appeared simple and handsome houses. Remaining ex- 
amples include the Worden house (1875) in Missoula, a frame dwelling 
built in the style of early New England farm houses; the Morgan Evans 
house (1883) on Warm Springs Creek (see Tour 18), a brick building 
of modified Colonial design; and the Marcus Daly house (1885) in 
Anaconda, another adaptation of Colonial style. 

Buildings of the past century, such as the red-brick box dwelling intro- 
duced from the Mormon communities of Utah, predominate on many 
streets in the older cities, but on the whole the cities show a diversity of 
treatment in the modern manner. The most common residential style is 
the Georgian Colonial; architects estimate that half of the new homes 
follow this tradition, having white columns, shuttered windows, hipped 
roofs, and slightly projecting cornices. Somewhat less common are the 
English and Mediterranean types, of which the latter is certainly incon- 
gruous in Montana. 

Most business buildings are conservative in treatment, with little orna- 
mentation. Schools have improved vastly; many excellent ones have been 
built with PWA funds. The Great Falls high school and the groups at the 
State college and the university are designed in a somewhat modified 
Renaissance idiom that suits the Montana landscape, a style introduced by 
George H. Carsley, Helena architect, and Cass Gilbert, designer of the 
Woolworth Building in New York. The older public buildings tend to- 
ward the neoclassic design, best exemplified in the State capitol at 
Helena. The newer ones are almost invariably in modern style. 

Church buildings are usually unpretentious and utilitarian, sturdy in 




construction rather than distinctive in style. However, St. Helena Cathe- 
dral in Helena and the Presbyterian Church in Great Falls are good 
examples of Gothic design. The design of the cathedral is based upon 
that of the Cathedral of Cologne in Germany, the only decided change 
being the trefoil or cloverleaf window over the arch of the middle front 
doorway. Von Herbulis, European architect who helped design the Votive 
Church in Vienna, drew the plans. 

Ranch buildings and summer homes in the mountains are usually of 
logs hewed, in most instances, on the interior surface only. The logs 
extend beyond the corners, where they are notched together, and are 
either sawed off uniformly or, if the ends are chopped, allowed to pro- 
trude at random. Outside chinking is usually of clay and gypsum; inside, 
of cedar strips. Old-style roofs are of cedar shakes nailed to poles placed 
lengthwise, but in recent construction rafters, board ceilings, and com- 
position shingles are favored. There are examples of fine log work near 
Red Lodge, at Swan and Flathead Lakes, and around Lake McDonald (see 
Glacier National Park). The slightly modified Swiss chalets of Glacier 
Park have a rightness in relation to their setting that nothing in the 
State, unless it be the old-fashioned prairie sod house, has ever equaled. 

The Press 

E first news sheet published in Montana (name unknown) was 
printed in Virginia City in January 1864, on a small press brought 
by ox team from Denver. Wilbur F. Sanders was the editor; John A. 
Creighton, who later founded Creighton University at Omaha, was 
printer's devil. 

The News Letter, a small paper printed by Francis M. Thompson, ap- 
peared in Bannack two or three months later. The press was hand- 
operated and used mostly for business purposes; no copy of the short- 
lived News Letter is extant. 

The first newspaper of consequence was the Montana Post, published 
by John Buchanan and M. M. Manner. Arriving in Virginia City in 1864 
after an adventurous trip on the steamer Yellowstone from St. Louis to 
Fort Benton they set up their equipment in a cabin cellar. The events 
of the trip were the chief matter of the first two issues, but the pub- 
lishers planned wide news service. An introductory editorial said: "We 
have correspondents in the various mining camps, who will keep our 
readers well posted on what is going on in ... our young and rapidly 
growing territory." The first issue appeared August 27, 1864; the 960 
copies sold quickly at 50^ each, usually in gold dust. Before the third 
issue, Buchanan and Manner sold out for $3,000. 

The Republican Montana Post was followed in 1865 by another Vir- 
ginia City weekly, the Montana Democrat. The publisher freighted all 
his supplies from Salt Lake City. 

The Lewiston Radiator (1865) was Helena's first newspaper. Press and 
supplies were brought across the snowy passes by mule train from Idaho's 
Snake River country. At first independent, it became a Republican or- 
gan, the Helena Herald. 

Other gold camp weeklies were the Rocky Mountain Gazette (Helena, 
1866), the Independent (Deer Lodge, 1867), the New Northwest (Deer 
Lodge, 1868), and the Missoula and Cedar Creek Pioneer (Missoula, 
1870), which later became the Daily Missoulian. The Independent be- 



came one of the strongest advocates of Helena in the impending capital 
location fight. 

These early newspapers, filled with zestful matter pertaining to gold 
strikes, Indian raids, hold-ups, and range affairs, held up a faithful mirror 
to frontier life, but they softened the reflection a little in dealing with 
politics. They were eagerly received, for printed matter was scarce. News 
from the East came most quickly through Salt Lake City, whose news- 
papers, brought in by stage, were much clipped by Montana editors. 

Railroad building brought a boom in newspaper publication, as towns 
sprang up along the routes; but it did not last long, and several papers 
reversed the usual order of newspaper evolution by becoming weeklies 
after having been dailies. The Livingston Enterprise started as a daily 
when the construction crews approached in 1883, became a weekly when 
the boom collapsed the following year, and did not return to daily pub- 
lication until 1912. 

In the turbulent 1890*5, W. A. Clark and Marcus Daly fought for 
control of public opinion, and acquired ownership or control of most of 
the influential publications. Copper-knuckled editorials followed. In 
Billings, whose first newspaper had adopted the hard-boiled slogan, "We 
did not come to Montana for our health," Shelby E. Dillard was editor 
of the Vociferator and a sharp critic of public affairs. 

Animosities among the powerful papers subsided as their economic 
interests began to grow identical. Lesser journals continued in the pugna- 
cious tradition of the earlier press, but their alignment changed from one 
of owning faction against owning faction to one of public interest against 
corporate interests. After 1917 Bill Dunne issued more or less regularly 
the small and sometimes violent but always vital Butte Daily Bulletin. 

"It is doubtful," wrote Oswald Garrison Villard in the Nation, July 9, 
1930, "if in any other State the press is ... so deeply involved in the 
great economic struggle ... at the bottom of our political life." He de- 
clared that the same corporation "generously runs both Republican and 
Democratic dailies," and that in Missoula a single versatile editor wrote 
at one time the arguments for both sides. In 1928 W. A. Clark, Jr., 
launched the Montana Free Press, at first a very promising effort to 
achieve journalistic independence on an effective scale; but the ex- 
penses of the paper were ruinous, and he gave it up within a year. 

Butte has a morning paper, and an evening paper without Sunday edi- 
tion. This pattern is repeated in Great Falls, Missoula, and Helena. Of 
120 newspapers published, 20 are dailies. 

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <#> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 

HISTORICALLY, and by popular preference, recreation in Mon- 
tana is associated with camping, hunting, and fishing. The favorite 
recreation (except "going to town") of the old-time cowboy was to 
throw a diamond hitch around a pack of grub and bedding, and start 
for the mountains to bring in a lion, bighorn sheep, grizzly bear, moun- 
tain goat, deer, antelope, or elk. The pattern was fixed before white men 
came, having been the Indian way of life for uncounted generations. 
Since the time of Sir St. George Gore, the first "dude," the State has 
attracted famous sportsmen, some of whom have come with elaborate 
equipment to hunt big game and try the mountain streams for trout. 

Present emphasis is on fishing rather than hunting, but either is readily 
available; even the larger cities are near forest reserves and primitive 
areas. Many tourists find the opportunity for camping out under ideal 
conditions the State's greatest attraction. 

Few regions offer finer inducements to the tourist with a camera. Roads 
twisting along water courses through hills and mountains reveal striking 
views at almost every turn, often with a lone horseman, a herd of sheep 
or cattle, or an abandoned cabin adding a human touch to nature's display. 
Because much of the scenery is above any plane of vision possible 
through a window, a good horse or an open car with the top down is the 
best conveyance. A lens filter is essential; besides capturing the spectacu- 
lar cloud effects common over the mountains, it guards against over- 
exposure in the clear air. 

Camping: In organizing an outing, dude ranches are undoubtedly the 
best resource for the uninitiated. They arrange for "roughing it" near 
the main lodge or for extensive pack trips, according to the taste and 
aptitude of the guest. They are not summer resorts in the usual sense; 
their hospitality is more personal. Under the supervision of a dude wran- 
gler, guests participate in riding the range, roping, branding, and other 
ranch and roundup activities; in shooting, fishing, canoeing, swimming, 
campfire entertainments, pack trips, mountain climbing even placer 



Most people, however, bring their own outfits in trailer or car, pick a 
spot that affords opportunity for their favorite sport, and pitch camp. 
Wood is free, fish and berries help out the larder; the expense is often 
less than that of staying at home. Secluded campgrounds within a few 
miles of stores and gas stations are often equipped with fireplaces and 
tables, piped water, and other conveniences. Many people lease summer 
home sites "near forest lakes or running streams. 

Except during periods of extreme fire hazard, the forests are open for 
all forms of recreation not detrimental to them. Prospecting and mining 
are permitted as on other public lands, and not a few people spend their 
vacations with pick, shovel, and sluice box, obtaining gold dust in the 
manner of earlier days. 

The camper who enjoys solitude will of course find it most readily 
in the less advertised localities. Ten great primitive areas, uncommer- 
cialized and without roads or habitations other than an occasional ranger 
station or lookout tower, are available to those who really wish to rough 
it. The areas are: 

Absaroka, in the Absaroka Forest near Yellowstone Park, a 64,ooo-acre 
tract of high wooded mountains. It has a large count of deer, elk, and 
bear, and good trout fishing. 

Beartooth, in the Custer Forest, 230,000 acres of bare, lofty peaks (includ- 
ing Granite), glaciers (including Grasshopper), and lakes (see Tour 
13 A). It offers superb scenery and opportunities for climbing. 

Mission Mountains, 67,000 acres of spectacular scenery in the Flathead 
Forest on the east slope of the Mission Range. Grizzly bear and moun- 
tain goat abound. Among its peaks and precipices are glaciers, lakes, and 
a profusion of alpine flowers. 

South Fork of the Flathead, Sun River, and Pentagon are contiguous 
primitive areas, South Fork and Pentagon in the Flathead, Sun River in 
the Lewis and Clark Forest. The 625,ooo-acre South Fork area, accessible 
by pack horse from dude ranches in the Swan River and Blackfoot coun- 
try, is wild and rugged but with excellent camp sites. It is richly stocked 
with fish and game. The Pentagon, 95,000 acres, is one of the wildest of 
all primitive areas; few white men have passed through it. Three-fourths 
of the Sun River area, 240,000 acres, is a game preserve, used by part of 
the Nation's second largest herd of elk. Its stupendous limestone peaks 
compare with those of Glacier Park. Indians still hunt there. 

Spanish Peaks, 50,000 acres of rugged crests and cliffs rising from the 
valleys of the Gallatin Forest; it contains 20 alpine lakes. 

Cabinet, 90,000 acres in the Cabinet Forest, a region of heavy snows 
among high summits rising between deep river valleys. 


Sehvay-Bitterroot, 1,870,000 acres mostly in Idaho but partly in the 
Bitterroot and Lolo Forests, Montana. The scenery is imposing and the 
hunting excellent on both sides of the State line. 

Anaconda-Pmtlar, 145,000 acres in the Deer Lodge, Beaverhead, and 
Bitterroot Forests. It lies on the high summits of the Continental Divide, 
with heavy forest sloping away on either hand. There are moose, elk, 
deer, and bear. 

The best season for a camping trip is after June 15. Before that, snow 
is excessive at the higher altitudes, the ground muddy, mosquitoes and 
ticks are active, and the streams too full for fishing. Floral displays on the 
mountain meadows are best in early July. 

Fishing: In the mountain lakes and streams, bass, grayling, whitefish, 
most varieties of trout, and other game fish may be taken even by the 
tyro. The Madison River and its tributaries are renowned for large, fight- 
ing rainbow. Native blackspot trout ("flats") and Dolly Varden ("bulls") 
abound in the northwestern lakes and larger streams. Both are taken by 
trolling or casting (fly or spinner according to season). Almost every 


mountain stream teems with 6- to lo-inch trout which rise readily to the 
fly and are perhaps the best of all fish to "smell up a pan." There is 
excellent fishing in superb surroundings in the Kootenai River region near 
Libby; on the North and South Forks of the Flathead River; on the 
headwaters of the Swan and Clearwater Rivers and in the Clearwater 
Lakes east of the Mission Range; in the tributaries of Clark Fork of the 
Columbia west of Thompson Falls; in Rock Creek east of Missoula, and 
Hebgen and Red Rock Lakes west of Yellowstone Park; in Big Hole, 
Beaverhead, Madison, Boulder, Stillwater, and Gallatin Rivers; in Clark 
Fork of the Yellowstone; in the Beartooth Lakes; and in many other 

Best fishing in the lakes is between June 1 5 and July 15; in the 
streams, after July 15. During the hot, lazy days of September there is 
usually a lull, although the expert fly-fisher on good waters will catch a 
few. Large land-locked salmon are taken from Flathead Lake by trolling 
or snagging in late September and October. 

Hunting: Elk, deer, and bear are the most numerous big game. Rocky 
Mountain goats are hunted only in limited areas. Nearly all counties east 
of the Rockies are closed to elk hunting, many to deer hunting. Closed 
areas in any part of the State are changed from year to year, however; it 
is best, before planning a hunt, to get latest information from the Fish 
and Game Commission, Helena. 

Chinese pheasant, Hungarian partridge, and various kinds of grouse 
are plentiful in all parts of the State. The many lakes out of Kalispell and 
Missoula, the Missouri River and the artificial lakes along it, and the 
lakes, reservoirs, and sloughs in northern and eastern Montana are very 
good places for duck hunting. (For fish and game laws, see General 

Mountain Climbing: The State has 25 peaks 12,000 feet or more in 
height, any of which challenges the skill of an expert climber. Innumer- 
able summits only slightly lower present equal difficulties. The best 
climbing is in the Beartooth and Absaroka Mountains and Glacier Park 
(guides available) ; here the typical ascent begins over forest trails that 
extend to the timber line, then up loose talus slopes to precipitous cliffs; 
beyond these are difficult rock seams and buttresses, leading to easier 
inclines near the summit. In August and later, snow can be avoided on 
most mountains, and only a few retain patches of ice that the climber 
must cross. Although many mountains can be climbed by experienced 
mountaineers without special equipment, it is wise to carry at least a rope 


and ax, for there is usually some ticklish bit that should be attempted 
only with an anchor to windward. Most climbs require only one day for 
the trip to the summit and back, provided there is a trail to timber line. 
Without a trail to follow, the dense forest, full of windfalls, is likely to 
be tedious. 

Riding: Nearly all dude ranches furnish horses without extra cost, 
riding being as much a part of the fare as the food. At low-priced lodges, 
hot springs resorts, and national parks, there is an extra charge. Small 
outfitters in mountain towns specialize in saddle trips into the back 
country. The rate for guides, horses, equipment, and food averages about 
$8 a day per person in parties of three or more. Large parties usually get 
a lower rate; persons traveling alone must pay slightly more. 

Good horsemen willing to look after their riding stock and to do with- 
out guides can usually rent ranch horses inexpensively and conveniently. 
An experienced camper provided with proper maps has no real need for 
a guide. The main difficulty in looking after rented horses is to keep 
them near. Horses sometimes take a notion to travel homeward over- 
night, and even when hobbled can cover several miles in a few hours. As 


they seldom separate, it is usually best to picket one or two securely on the 

best grass and hobble the others near by. 

Hiking: Glacier National Park offers the best hiking, with 900 miles of 
safe, well-kept trails through some of the most beautiful scenery in the 
Rockies. In less developed areas an extensive hike entails carrying a bed 
roll and food, as supply points are infrequent. The best plan is to select a 
supply base and make several i- or 2 -day excursions from it, then catch a 
ride to another base. 

Hikers in the Rockies should carry a topographic map of the chosen 
area. Although most of the main trails are marked at intersections, some 
are not ; and a wrong choice of trail late in the day may be a serious in- 
convenience. To hike alone except on familiar trails is unwise; an injured 
hiker might wait a long time for help. To hike without any trail at all is 
dangerous even for groups. Any safe route would likely have at least a 
game trail, since animals have been making such trails for thousands of 
years. Game trails, however, may not lead anywhere in particular. Both 
the Park Service and the Forest Service urge hikers to discuss their plans 
with a ranger before setting out into new country. 

Swimming: A swim in a clear mountain lake or river rewards the hiker 
or horseman at the end of many Montana trails. In some places the water 
is not long on its way from a melting glacier, but after the first gasp it not 
only isn't bad, it's perfect. The swimmer unaccustomed to such water 
should not stay in too long or swim too far unaccompanied by a boat, for 
it is colder than he may realize. 

Most of the cities have public pools with tempered water, and a score- 
of hot springs resorts offer water as hot as can be borne comfortably.. 
Besides plunges, the resorts usually have saddle horses, tennis courts, and 
other accommodations. Many tourists prefer hot springs to tourist camps,, 
for the sake of a warm plunge at the end of the day. 

Fossil Hunting: All Montana is a promising field for fossil hunters, but 
the best areas are south of the Missouri, where the stream courses are 
deeply eroded. Caves, rock shelters, and gravel slides in the breaks along 
the major rivers are good places to search. If a fossil or artifact is dis- 
covered, it is important to dig around it only enough to establish that it 
is a real find, and then report it to the School of Mines at Butte. A geol- 
ogist will be sent to identify the stratum in which it is imbedded and to 
authenticate the discovery. 

Prospecting: Not all the pay dirt in Montana has yet been found;; 


there remain many gulches that have been but lightly prospected. Most 
prospectors get only 50^ to $2 out of a day's work, but the possibility 
that the gold panner who finds a little in a creek may find more in a lode 
nearby is alluring. 

Prospecting requires only a long-handled shovel and a pan. For actual 
placer mining a ditch is dug, and a few boards and nails made into a 
sluice box about 6 feet long, a foot wide, and a few inches deep. A strip of 
carpet is laid on the bottom; over it are placed several pieces of wire 
screen for riffles. The box is set at a slight angle to allow coarse material 
to run out; water from the stream is led into it. The gold caught in the 
riffles settles in the carpet, which is washed at the end of the day to re- 
cover the embedded metal. The foot of gravel next to bedrock is richest. 

Rodeos: The modern outgrowth of the old-time roundup is a more pop- 
ular spectacle at Montana fairs than horse racing, though races are used 
as part of the rodeo. Rodeo events also include bronco riding, bulldogging 
(see Glossary), calf roping, steer riding (without saddle), and milking 
of wild cows. 

Some of the riders are young fellows in from the range, eager to dis- 
play their ability and perhaps win a purse. Others, including a few women, 
are professionals traveling from rodeo to rodeo, usually "grubstaked" by the 
people who organize the show, furnish the buckers and other stock, andi 
manage the brisk run-off of events. The most spirited buckers, often as 
famous as their riders, learn to make the 10 seconds allowed for a ride 
all too long for any but the most expert "busters." (For principal rodeos, 

Winter Sports: Montana has every advantage for winter sports plenty 
of snow and clear, cold weather; an open, hilly terrain; and people with 
a tradition for skiing and kindred activities. Organization was begun in 
1934 when Casper Oimoen, captain of America's 1932 and 1936 Olympic 
ski teams, came to Anaconda to supervise construction of a ski jump. It 
turned out to be one of the fastest jumps in the country; tournaments held 
there attracted the foremost performers and helped popularize all winter 
sports. The annual winter carnival now features ski jumping, cross coun- 
try ski running, hockey, dog sledding, speed and figure skating, and bob- 

Following the example of Anaconda, other cities are organizing their 
inter sports activities, collaborating with the recreational program of the 
orks Progress Administration. 




Mo tor boat Racing: Although the sport is in its infancy in Montana, some 
exciting races have been held on Flathead Lake and at Anaconda and 
Thompson Falls. Most of the motors used are of the outboard type. Regat- 
tas are held at Whitefish and at Hauser Lake, 12 miles north of Helena. 
The lake created by Fort Peck Dam will provide further opportunities 
for speedboat enthusiasts. 

Golf: Not many years ago the rough was so well named and so exten- 
sive that a few players invented "Montana golf," using no ball between 
greens, but simply basing the result of a stroke on the perfection of form 
in making it. The game had a certain Scotch merit. There are now some 
good well-kept golf courses. A few boast grass greens, but others use only 
an oily composition based on granulated smelter slag, which makes the 
greens black. Fairways have scant grass; the lie of the ball is likely to 
satisfy anyone's craving for variety. The average greens fee is 50 cents. 
Most clubs, while private, welcome visitors belonging to other clubs. A 
few dude ranches have small courses. 

Other Sports: Tennis courts are available at most towns and dude ranches. 
A State league plays amateur and professional baseball, with clubs in 
the larger cities. Football is played in schools and colleges, with outstand- 
ing teams at the university and the State college. Basketball is perhaps the 
most popular competitive sport. Nearly every fair-sized school and town 
has a team, and local rivalries are often both spirited and bitter. Bowling 
is a winter sport in several cities. Montana likes rough and hearty sports, 
and has produced some prize fighters who have graduated into the big 
arenas. Its most celebrated ring battle was the Dempsey-Gibbons fight at 
the little oil town of Shelby, July 4, 1923. Significantly, Montanans never 
forget to mention that Shelby was just a "little oil town" at the time. 


Cities and Towns 



Railroad Station: Union Station, Montana Ave. between 22nd and 24th Sts. for 
Great Northern Ry., Northern Pacific Ry., and Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R.R. 
Bus Stations: Union Terminal, 108 N. 26th St., for Greyhound, Burlington Trail- 
ways, Washington Motor Coach, Motor Transit Co. 512 N. 27th St. also for Motor 
Transit. 2302 ist Ave. N. for Northern Pacific Transport. Chappie's Drug Store, 
Montana Ave. and Broadway, for Billings Interurban. 

Airport: On Rimrock, 2.2 m. NW. by Lindbergh Blvd., for Northwest Airlines and 
Wyoming Air Service. Taxi 5O0. 
City Busses : Fare io0. 

Taxis: ist zone, i passenger, 2 50; 2nd zone, i or 2, 5O0; 3rd zone, i to 3, 750. 
Traffic Regulations: Speed limit 15 m.p.h. downtown, 25 in residential sections, 12 
within 100 yards of school in session. Parking downtown ihr., at post office 10 min.; 
free near courthouse, 200-300 N. 27th St., and on 3rd Ave. N. at Broadway. 
Street Numbering: Avenues numbered from N. P. Ry. both ways, streets numbered 
NE. to SW. to Division St., thence E. to W. 

Accommodations: Eleven hotels, many tourist camps; during large gatherings news- 
papers list homes with spare rooms. 

Information Service: Commercial Club, N. 27th St. at 3rd Ave. N. ; Rod and Gun 
Club, Boothill Mound at E. edge of city off Rimrock Dr. 
Radio Station: KGHL (950 kc.). 
Motion Picture Houses: Four. 

Swimming. Athletic Park, 901 N. 27th St.; South Park, 600 S. Broadway; free. 
Golf: Hilands Club, 1.5 m. N. over Polytechnic Dr.; Billings Country Club, 2 m. N. 
on Lindbergh Blvd.; Hiltop Club, 1.5 m. E. on US 10 and L. on Lake Elmo Rd. 
(greens fees 250 and 350). 

Tennis: Billings Polytechnic Institute, 3 m. NW. on Polytechnic Dr.; Eastern Mon- 
tana Normal School, 1500 N. 3oth St.; Pioneer Park, between Grand Ave. and 
Ave. G. 

Ice Skating: Athletic Park, 901 N. 27th St.; South Park, 600 S. Broadway; Terry 
Ave. & 5 th St. W. 

Shooting: Billings Rod & Gun Club, Boothill Mound off Rimrock Dr.; Yellowstone 
Rifle Club, 2915 ist Ave. N. 
Bowling: Basement of Babcock Theater, Broadway and 3rd Ave. N. 

Annual Events: Motor caravans to Custer Battlefield, May 30. Motorcycle climb, 
Polytechnic pageant, pioneer banquet, shooting, golf, and tennis tournaments, early 
summer. Swimming tournament, July 4. Midland Empire Fair, August. Mexican 
fiesta, September 15-16. Turkey shoot, late November. 

BILLINGS (3,117 alt., 16,380 pop.), seat of Yellowstone County and 
third largest city of Montana, lies on the west bank of the Yellowstone 
River. On the east beyond the river, and on the north, buff sandstone cliffs 
known as the Rimrock rise 400 feet above the valley floor. On the south, 
the high hills flatten down to a plain that slopes westward toward Clark 
Fork of the Yellowstone. From the streets of the city the valley seems an 
irregular bowl, rather than the great trough it is in reality, and mountains 
loom up at its southwestern rim. Though the snow-covered Beartooths are 



60 miles away, the clearness of the air sometimes makes the city seem to 
lie almost at their feet. 

Except at the west end of town there are no diagonal streets. The 
gridiron pattern is laid on a northeast-southwest axis, following the rail- 
road, which cuts the town completely in two. Only a few widely separated 
crossings connect the halves. 

On the north side are the main business section, most of the public 
buildings, and the better residential districts. Most of the buildings are 
clean and fresh. Increasing use of electricity and gas protects them from 
much of the smoke and dust of the average city. At night the business 
section is neon-lighted in all the colors of the rainbow. 

The south side is the older part of Billings. At its southern limit is the 
sugar refinery, the city's biggest industrial plant. Along the railroad are 
flour mills, lumberyards, and the warehouses of some of the leading dis- 
tributing plants in Montana. In between, in a section of vacant lots and 
old buildings, are isolated groups of attractive houses. In 1938 the Fed- 
eral Housing Administration allotted $280,000 to replace old houses with 
new. At the refinery are extensive feeding pens where cattle and sheep are 
fattened on potent smelling beet pulp, molasses, and alfalfa. 

In this section of town live many of the Mexicans employed in the 
sugar industry. Others live in a village of about 50 white adobe buildings 
on a ten-acre area of alkali flats southeast of the refinery. Often, one small 
house accommodates two families. A Mexican fiesta is held in mid- 
September, with English translation of program numbers for visitors. 

Billings shows its agricultural origin in many ways. The easy friendli- 
ness of its citizens is that of a farming community; sometimes fully half 
the people on the streets have the unmistakable air of the land about them. 
Cowboys, especially numerous on the days when sales are on at the stock- 
yards, click down the sidewalks in high-heeled boots and broad-brimmed 

Descendants of Irish, English, Scottish, and Scandinavian settlers pre- 
dominate. The foreign-born are but a small part of the population. 

It is told that when the town was only two or three months old, one 
Seth Bullock, approaching over a miserable trail on a dark, rainy night, 
asked a citizen the distance to Billings. "You're in Billings now," said the 
citizen. "The devil I am!" said Seth. "Can you tell me where Star, Bullock 
and Company's store is?" "Keep right on this street," said the citizen. 
"The store is on the left-hand side, 26 miles from here." This trait of 
reckless affirmation is more than booster spirit. It not only inspires 
Billings' claim to be the capital of a vague tributary region called the 
"Midland Empire," but has promoted its actual growth, in a brief half 
century, from a tiny frontier trading post and cowtown to the metropolis 
of an area as large as New York State. 

An Indian trail once crossed the site, passing southwest along the river 
from a gap in the Rimrock. Here Frangois Larocque came in September 
1805, looking for beaver. Ten months later Capt. William Clark and his 
party, returning from the Pacific (see HISTORY), came down the trail 
on their way to rejoin Lewis at the mouth of the Yellowstone. Then for 


years only trappers, traders, and adventurers who left little or no record 
of themselves visited the region. 

From 1853 to 1873 surveys of the valley were delayed by trouble with 
the Sioux. In June 1876 the news of the Custer Battle drew Nation-wide 
attention to the region. More troops were sent; the Sioux were subdued; 
what had been a wild and little-known land was opened to the stockman 
and land seeker. Soon small settlements were grouped around stage sta- 
tions and post offices. 

When the Northern Pacific Railway entered the valley in 1882, Coul- 
son, founded in 1877 at the eastern edge of the bowl, assumed it would be 
selected as the site of the city the railroad company ordered built. Refus- 
ing, however, to pay the exorbitant prices Coulson landowners asked for 
their property, the company laid out the new city two miles up the river, 
and named it Billings in honor of Frederick Billings, its president. Soon 
Coulson was receiving mail as East Billings. 

In a few months Billings became a thriving city with schools, churches, 
newspapers, and a street railway capitalized at $40,000, though composed 
of only two 1 5-foot yellow cars drawn by Indian ponies. The "two-bit" 
fare to Coulson also paid for two glasses of beer at the Coulson brewery. 
The trip became the joy-ride de luxe for Billings beaux and their girls. 
When huge Custer County, whose affairs were administered at Bozeman 
because it had no county seat of its own, was divided in 1883, Billings 
became the seat of Yellowstone County. 

Then the boom collapsed. Three large fires, two of them fought without 
adequate water, destroyed many of the makeshift wooden buildings. The 
disastrous winter of 1886-87 crippled the stock business, and by 1890 the 
population had shrunk from more than 1,500 to 836. With its first reck- 
less growth dramatically ended, Billings settled down. When prosperity 
came again, it was based on the solid foundation of a growing cattle in- 
dustry and agriculture under irrigation. 

In 1874 Addison Quivey reported the Yellowstone Valley "valuable 
for neither agriculture, grazing, nor minerals, but . . . interesting . . . 
as the last home and burial place of the horrible monsters of the earliest 
animal creation." Five years later an irrigation ditch was dug near Coulson 
and the valley began its magnificent refutation of Quivey 's judgment. In 
1938 irrigated land around Billings exceeded 600,000 acres. 

Irrigation early encouraged experiments in sugar-beet growing that led 
to the establishment of a refinery in 1906. The first beet field workers 
were Japanese, but the sugar company found them unsatisfactory. They 
were replaced after one season by industrious Russian-Germans who had 
heard of the new jobs and were willing to work by the "Dutchman's 
lantern" (the early morning moon) to make their way in America. Even 
the babies were carried to the fields, where their mothers were hoeing or 
thinning the long rows. Soon these people bought land and adopted the 
American way of life; many settled on the Huntley Irrigation project, 15 
miles outside of Billings, where they make up a third of the population. 
Mexicans imported in 1918 took their place in the beet fields. 

The installation in 1933 of pulp-drying equipment at the refinery en- 

1 3 o 



















couraged an industry subsidiary to sugar manufacture: the rapid condition- 
ing for market of thousands of head of livestock by the feeding of beet 

Hay, chiefly alfalfa, outranks beets in cash value and finds a ready 
market in the dry-land areas. The value of milk, butter, and wool mar- 
keted in Billings exceeds $8,000,000 a year. Milk is far in the lead, but 
Billings was once the largest inland wool shipping point in the United 
States. The city is an important cattle and horse marketing center. Indus- 
tries include flour milling, meat packing, and canning. The labor of 300 
persons is required to process the bean crop after it reaches the cleaning 
mills. Oil refining and woodworking are the most important enterprises 
independent of agriculture. 

Billings is a convenient transportation crossroads, and its wholesale 
trade flourishes. The planes of two air lines drone regularly down to the 
port on the Rimrock. Good motor roads reach up and down the Yellow- 
stone Valley, north and east across the plains, over the mountains to the 
west and southwest. Billings is Montana's only plains city having direct 
rail connections with Denver and other cities to the south. 


Fri.; 8:30-1 Sat.), 1500 N. 3Oth St., is one of the six units of the State 
University. First housed (1927) in rented rooms, it was soon moved to a 
building of Gardiner travertine and Montana-made brick on an elevation 
that permits a fine view of the city. The design is modern ; a central tower 
rises two stories above the four-story wings. The registration (resident 
students) in 1936-37 was 55 men and 258 women. Courses in art, Eng- 
lish, mathematics, music, physical education, science, and social science 
are supplemented by actual teaching experience in Billings' public schools. 

2. ST. VINCENT HOSPITAL-SCHOOL (open), ist Ave. N. and 
Division St., founded after the 1916 epidemic of infantile paralysis as a 
single orthopedic ward in the old St. Vincent Hospital, occupies the three- 
story building and the third floor of the new hospital. Special courses are 
given in stenography, dancing, drawing, and modeling. In connection 
with the school, the Billings Rotary Club sponsors a summer camp in the 
Beartooth Mountains, six miles south of Red Lodge. 

days; 1-9 Sun.), Montana Ave. and 29th St., was given to the city in 1901 
by Frederick Billings, Jr., in honor of his brother Parmly, who had lived 
in Billings. It is housed in a towered Romanesque building of native 
sandstone. The appointments emphasize the local atmosphere; the walls 
are hung with western paintings and relics. In 1922 Elizabeth Billings 
added the Frederick Billings, Jr., Memorial Wing to house the MUSEUM 
(open during library hours). There are sections devoted to pioneer days, 
the Custer Battle, Montana birds, and paleontological finds; a gun col- 
lection contains two six-foot Hudson's Bay flintlocks, each worth a six- 
foot pile of furs to an old-time Indian. 


4. The SUGAR REFINERY (open 1:15-3 weekdays; 1:15-2:45 Sun., 
during Sept -Feb.), S. 3ist St. and State Ave., is the first and largest 
Montana refinery, and one of the largest in the world. Capable of slicing 
3,000 tons of beets daily (see INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE), it covers 
about three city squares, employs 700 men in season, and makes sugar re- 
fining Billings' foremost industry. 

The central plant of red brick rises four stories and is topped with an 
attic story of whitewashed steel surmounted in turn by two smokestacks. 
Glistening steel pipes and ventilators sprout from the roof. Box-like 
smaller buildings, chiefly of brick, stand about the grounds. To one side, 
six cylindrical gray storage tanks, like those of a modern flour mill, rise 
above the roofs of the buildings. A silvery water tank on great stilt-like 
legs rises nearly to the height of the smokestacks. Railroad tracks extend 
westward from the plant on multiple trestles ; beets are dumped from the 
cars into huge washing troughs under the trestles. Behind the plant are 
great mounds of limestone and of the dark waste products of sugar 


This loop trip above the city on the north goes northwest on N. 27th 
St. into Lindbergh Blvd., which climbs steeply up the Rimrock to the 
airport. Swinging east at the airport, the road follows more or less closely 
the edge of a sheer cliff. The drive is fascinating at night for its view 
of the lighted city. 

5. The RANGE RIDER OF THE YELLOWSTONE overlooks the city 
from the airport. The bronze life-size group (unveiled July 4, 1927) of a 
cowboy and his mount, posed by William S. (Bill) Hart and his horse, 
Paint, is the work of Charles Christadora. It was placed originally at the 
edge of the Rimrock several hundred yards east of the airport, but was 
moved in February 1938 because the flood waters of June 1937 damaged the 
cliff beneath and made its position unsafe. 

-R. from Lindbergh Blvd. on Rimrock Dr. 

6. BOOTHILL CEMETERY, E. end of Rimrock Dr., was the first 
burial place used by Billings pioneers, many of whom died "with their 
boots on." Bad men, peace officers, and Indian skirmishers lie side by side 
in shallow graves. A shaft built of small stones marks the site. Of the 
original markers, only a wooden cross and a weathered sandstone slab 

R. from Rimrock Dr. on US 10; US 10 turns R. into 1st Ave. N. 

7. MIDLAND EMPIRE FAIRGROUNDS, entrance at E. end of ist 
Ave. N. has a half-mile track and permanent buildings including a large 
T-shaped main building with a barrel-vaulted roof and an auditorium 
seating 10,000. The fair features extensive agricultural and livestock ex- 
hibits, racing with pari-mutuel betting, and a rodeo in which ranking per- 
formers compete. 


8. BILLINGS STOCKYARDS (212 pens), entrance at ist Ave. N. 
and N. loth St., cover 7^/2 acres. Here, amid the dust and smell of auction 
day, the shrill yells of punchers and the shouts of buyer and seller rise 
above the bawling of cattle and the startled snorting of horses as the 
herds are hustled through long rows of corrals and chutes. As many as 
3,000 cattle and 500 horses have been shipped out in one day. 


9. SACRIFICE CLIFF, 1.5 m. on E. side of Yellowstone River, visible 
from downtown Billings, is a 2oo-foot nearly vertical escarpment from 
which, more than 100 years ago, Crow Indians afflicted with smallpox 
leaped to death to appease their gods. Scores of bodies were once fastened 
to the trees on top of the cliff, though common Indian practice was to 
place only a few in any one burial ground. 

technic Dr., was founded in 1908 by Lewis and Ernest Eaton. The entire 
job of designing, building, and equipping the school plant, including the 
quarrying of sandstone for the nine buildings, was done by student labor 
under faculty supervision. Student industries operated with student-built 
machinery include manufacture and marketing of flour and cereals ; print- 
ing and binding of books and periodicals; woodworking; radio, electric, 
and automotive servicing. Work in the plants pays for the education of 
many students. With the exception of the square red brick Science Hall 
(1909) the buildings are of gray rimrock sandstone in various adaptations 
of medieval English architecture. One of the dormitories has battlements 
and square towers. 

Huntley Irrigation Project, 15.4 m., Pompey's Pillar, 29.8 m. (see Tour 1, sec. a). 
Horsethief Cache and Home of Calamity Jane, 24 m. (see Tour 1, sec. b). Inscrip- 
tion Cave, 7.8 m., Custer Battlefield National Cemetery, 6.5.7 m. (see Tour 3, sec. b). 


Railroad Stations: Front and Utah Sts. for Northern Pacific Ry. and Union Pacific 
R.R.; 2nd and Montana Sts. for Milwaukee Rd. and for Butte, Anaconda & Pacific 
R.R.; Arizona and 3rd Sts. for Great Northern Ry. 

Bus Stations: 101 West Broadway for Intermountain Transportation; Broadway 
and Wyoming Sts. for Greyhound, Washington Motor Coach, Deer Lodge Trans- 
portation, and Northern Pacific Transport; 109 E. Broadway for Butte Wisdom 
Mail Stage. 

Airport: 4 m. S. on US 10 for Western Air Express and Northwest Airlines; taxi, 

Street Busses: Fare io0, or 4 tokens for 250. 

Taxis: Minimum 5O0; further fees depending on distance, grades, and the like. 
Traffic Regulations: No left turns at Park and Main or Broadway and Main. No 
U-turns at stop light. Parking restrictions indicated on streets. Cars going up or 
down hill have right of way. 

Street Numbering: Park St. is dividing line for streets running N. and'S., Main St. 
for streets E. and W. 

Accommodations: More than 40 hotels. Many rooming houses and tourist camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 62 W. Broadway. 

Radio Station: KGIR (1340 kc). 

Motion Picture Houses: Four. 

Golf: Municipal course, Rowe Rd., 18 holes; greens fee 350. 

Tennis: 1300 Harrison Ave. ; free. 

Athletics (incl. baseball and football) : Opposite tennis courts, 1300 Harrison Ave.; 

Clark Park, Grand 'and Texas Aves. ; the Cinders, Alabama and Silver Sts. ; Emmett 

St. field, Excelsior and Gold Sts. 

Riding: 1718 Yale Ave.; $i per hour. 

Annual Events: Balkan pre-Lenten festival (Mesopust), February. Miner's Union 
Day celebration, June 13. Rodeo, usually second week in July. Miner's field day, 
August 2. Football game, State 'University vs. State College, late October. 

BUTTE (5,755 alt, 39,532 pop.), Montana's largest city, lies against 
a bare southward-sloping hillside, like a vast page of disorderly manu- 
script, its uneven paragraphs of buildings punctuated with enormous 
yellow and gray copper ore dumps and with the gallows frames that 
mark mine shafts. At the foot of the hill Silver Bow Creek otherwise 
Clark Fork of the Columbia flows westward through a flat and almost 
treeless valley between barren mountains. To the northwest is Big Butte, 
the volcanic cone from which the city takes its name, identified by the 
white "M" placed near its summit by students of the State School of 
Mines. From a distance Butte seems to straggle all over the hill, but this 
impression is lost within the city itself, which has a lively up-to-date 
air unlike that of the average mining camp. 

The present-day miner, "coming down the hill," leaves his digging 
clothes in a locker in the dry-room near the shaft. He takes his shower, 
shaves, and appears on the street dressed like the average business man. 



Often he stops for a "John O'Farrell" (whiskey with a beer chaser), as in 
the old days, before going on to other entertainment. 

All ore is now smelted at Anaconda, 26 miles to the west, and the 
sulphurous smoke that once made it necessary to keep plants under glass, 
and street lights burning even by day, no longer blankets the town. The 
air is clear, flowers bloom in trim gardens, and trees soften the outlines 
of utilitarian structures. 

Beneath the city is one of the richest mineral deposits in the world 
an area less than five miles square that has produced between two and 
three billion dollars in mineral wealth since 1864. There are 253 miles of 
streets on the surface of Butte Hill. Under the surface the corridors and 
tunnels, which are being extended at the rate of 35 miles a year, total 
more than 2,000 miles. The deepest mine, the Steward, drops a distance 
of 3,633 feet from near the Continental Divide to a point within 2,000 
feet of sea-level. 

Though it is by no means a gross and lurid place, as commonly re- 


ported, Butte, in good times, is a prodigal, gay-living, rough-and-ready 
town. Saturday, when the miners are paid, offers an especially gay spec- 
tacle. Theaters are crowded from noon to midnight; cocktail lounges and 
beer parlors do a lively business ; night clubs and specialty cafes are filled. 
Gambling houses operate openly, and are about as common as pool halls ; 
keno players sit absorbed in their numbered cards, in the little heaps of 
corn or beans with which they mark the numbers drawn, and in the 
electric panel that announces the numbers. 

But to the discerning the city reveals another side, gallant and warm- 
hearted and perhaps equally reckless, for Butte is capable of "giving its 
shirt" when occasion arises. It is a cosmopolitan city, early settled by Irish, 
Welsh, and Cornish miners, later by representatives of many countries, 
notably the Balkan States. There is a small Chinatown, an Italian colony 
in Meaderville, and a Finnish district on East Broadway and Granite 
Street. National organizations range from German singing societies to a 
chapter of the Chinese Bing Kong Tong; several restaurants specialize in 
foreign foods. A few folk customs of the various groups have been pre- 
served, the best known being the Mesopust (see ETHNIC GROUPS). 
The old custom of singing carols on Christmas Eve was brought over by 
English miners. For more than 40 years male choruses sang on the prin- 
cipal street corners; then the singing began to attract such throngs as to 
cause dangerous traffic tie-ups, and the singers, organized as the Butte 
Male Chorus, forsook the streets in favor of the radio. 

Cornish (Cousin Jack) miners of earlier days contributed the pasty, 
or meat pie, to Butte cuisine. They called it "a letter from 'ome." Saffron 
buns or "nubbies" are another Cornish food. The favorite sport of the 
Cornishmen is coursing greyhounds pursuing rabbits. Their coursing 
tracks southeast of the city on Harrison Avenue are known as "Cousin 
Jack race tracks." 

Butte's history goes back to 1864, when G. O. Humphrey and William 

! Allison arrived from the gold camp at Virginia City and found placer 

deposits in Silver Bow Creek. They also found a prospect hole four or 
five feet deep, and near it, a pair of elk horns apparently used in digging. 
Beyond that the earlier prospector had left no record of himself. Hum- 
phrey and Allison opened what they called the Missoula lode, and a few 
other prospectors drifted in and staked out claims. Two years later, when 
the first house was built on the present Quartz Street, 40 men and 5 
women were living in tents in Buffalo Gulch, near the site of Centerville. 
In 1867 the placer camp had between 400 and 500 inhabitants. But water 
was scarce and by 1870 half the people had left. 

In 1874 William L. Farlin, one of the first prospectors in the area, re- 
turned from Idaho, and quietly claimed several outcrops of quartz from 
which he had previously taken samples for assay. Word soon spread that 
the black ledges of Butte were rich in silver, and a period of claim staking 
and claim jumping followed. Miners swarmed to the camp; the silver 
boom began. 

The excitement brought Marcus Daly (1841-1900) to Butte. Daly, 
who was an immigrant from Ireland at the age of 15, "landed in America 


with nothing in his pockets save his . . . Irish smile." He learned about 
mining in the Nevada silver camps and was known as a shrewd judge of 
silver properties. After some highly profitable preliminary operations in 
Butte, on behalf of Salt Lake City bankers, he sank a shaft on a claim of 
his own previously ignored as valueless. Experts laughed at him, and, 
when he began to strike copper instead of silver, even Daly was disap- 
pointed. He persisted, but instead of reaching silver he found increasingly 
rich copper ores. At 400 feet he reached a vein 50 feet wide and of un- 
paralleled richness. In less than 20 years he became the head of one of 
the world's most powerful monopolies, and a founder and builder of cities 
(see Tour 18). 

A townsite patent was issued in 1876, and the city was incorporated in 
1879. Two years later, when the Utah & Northern Railroad provided an 
outlet to the Union Pacific main line at Ogden, the copper boom was on. 
By 1885 Butte had a population of 14,000. There were several banks, 
churches, and schools, a hospital, a fire department, a water company, and 
a "committee of safety" composed of 200 citizens, who kept a sharp 
lookout for troublemakers. A second railroad was built, connecting with 
the newly completed Northern Pacific at Garrison. The Great Northern 
reached Butte (1889) ; the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific, which hauls ore to 


the Anaconda smelter, was completed (1894) ; and in 1908 the Chicago, 
Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific ran its first trains through the city. 

In 1900, the Montana School of Mines was opened in Butte, which 
is fortunately situated for the study of mining. 

Butte labor is strongly organized, with more than 12,000 workers in 
active unions. The Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers' local union is the 
largest, and it greatly influences the State's labor policy. Most of the 
strikes that occurred during the development of the mines were settled 
quietly, but a few were long-drawn and bitter ( see LABOR). 

Butte' s rise to the status of copper metropolis of the Americas is the 
most dramatic page in Montana's story (see HISTORY). Feverish ac- 
tivity in boom times alternated with unemployment and suffering during 
slumps. Wars between copper kings alternated with labor fights. But the 
power of copper grew throughout. The present-day Butte industry influ- 
ences more or less directly every important industry in the State, and has 
powerful connections in other States and many foreign countries. Produc- 
tion is geared to large consuming operations (for example, brass fabri- 
cation) in other parts of the Nation, and a campaign of education pro- 
motes the use of copper products. Butte copper has a greater tensile 
strength than any other, and is used in products intended to withstand 
great strain. It is claimed that there are reserves of this metal sufficient 
to last for a hundred years without the development of new ore bodies. 


1. MARCUS DALY STATUE, center of N. Main St. between Copper 
and Gagnon Sts., by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, erected by popular sub- 
scription in 1906, is a bronze of the copper king standing at ease, coat on 
arm and battered hat in hand, a picture of the self-assurance that helped 
make him master of the State's copper industry. 

9-6 weekdays), 21 W. Granite St., contains many reproductions of faded 
originals owned by pioneers. About 400 depict the life of Montana In- 
dians during the past century. 

3. The W. A. CLARK HOUSE (private), W. Granite and N. Idaho 
Sts., is a three-story red brick mansion in the style of the i88o's, with 
white stone ornamentation. Small porticoes with slender columns and 
elaborate gingerbread decorations face the street on two sides. The walls 
have many angles and the lines of the steep roof are broken by numerous 
gables and dormer windows. Because the grounds slope toward Granite 
Street, the building seems higher in front than in the rear. William An- 
drews Clark (1839-1925) was president of the Montana State Con- 
stitutional Conventions of 1884 and 1889. In his efforts to control the 
Democratic party in Montana, he was constantly opposed by Marcus 
Daly. He was twice refused the seat in the U. S. Senate to which he 
claimed election, but after a third election in 1901 he was at length seated. 
He served throughout his term, and then retired. 

4. The ART CENTER (open 2-4 and 7-9:30 daily), 2nd floor School 

BUTTE 141 

Administration Bldg., in N. Montana St., was begun early in 1938 by 
the Federal Art Project. Exhibits vary from time to time, but always in- 
clude representative works by Montana artists. 

5. The PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays; 1-9 Sun.), W. Broad- 
way and Dakota St., contains about 50,000 books, and the current peri- 
odicals. Special cases of Montaniana, art reproductions, and old or rare 
books are in the librarian's office. The building is of deep red brick with 
gray sandstone facings. The pediment at the top of the north wall is 
three stories above the arched double entrance. At one corner a round 
tower, of narrow red brick piers and glass is topped with a flaring crown, 
and is decorated with bands of carved brick and sandstone. The fenestra- 
tion on either side of the entrance is asymmetric ; on one side is an arched 
window and a deeply recessed circular one; on the other side is a large 
rectangular window. The window treatment on the east side of the build- 
ing is more regular, with all the upper windows arched, the lower ones 
rectangular, but the corner opposite the tower has an almost jocular note, 
for under a second pediment at the roof level is a circular window set 
in a sandstone horseshoe. 

6. SITE OF MAGUIRE'S OPERA HOUSE, 54 W. Broadway, is oc- 
cupied by the Leggat Hotel. Here, from 1885 to 1902, John Maguire, an 
Irish minstrel turned impresario, made theatrical history on the frontier. 
"The Grand Opera House at Butte," said the August 1885 issue of West 
Shore, a magazine published at Tacoma and Portland, "is the finest . . . 
on the Pacific Coast outside of San Francisco." It must indeed have been 
good, to make the Coast magazine class Butte, 700 miles inland, as a 
Coast city. Maguire's presented such operas as The Bohemian Girl, Tann- 
hduser, and Carmen, with some of the best operatic stars of the period. 
In 1888 the house was burned, but was soon rebuilt. In 1895 Mark 
Twain lectured from its stage. A few years later Maguire sold it, and it 
became a vaudeville theater until torn down to make room for the hotel. 

CHINATOWN occupies the single square formed by Main, Galena, 
Colorado, and Mercury Sts., and is divided by China Alley. The buildings, 
mostly of brick, are old and shabby. Except for the names on one or two 
electric signs, bulletins in Chinese characters posted on some of the walls, 
and a single building with weird carved ornaments on its facade, there 
is no external evidence that the quarter is Chinese. 

Tong wars in other cities have occasionally found echoes in Butte, and 
hatchet men have not been unknown. In 1881 the Miner reported the 
following notice in Chinese posted on several buildings in Chinatown: 
"The sign of the firm is Lun Han Tong. Three men at Walkerville keep 
a wash house against the law, and the man that goes and kills those 
three will be paid . . . $1,500." The newspaper said a Chinese lawyer 
testified under oath that the translation was correct, but added doubtfully: 
"No one can tell. The . . . document may be even more diabolical than 
it looks." 

Another 1881 item tells how Gong Sing, being refused what he re- 
garded as a fair price for a woman named You Kim, seized a hatchet and 
chopped her "at about the point where President Garfield was shot." 












NU 4 




I ROfv 


2 NO 













7. MONTANA STATE SCHOOL OF MINES (open 8-5 Mon.-Fri.; 
8-12 Sat.), W. end of Park, Galena, and Mercury Sts., occupies the south- 
ern bench of Big Butte, with a commanding view of the city and the sur- 
rounding mountains. Since its opening in 1900, this school has maintained 
high standards of scholarship and has done notable work in mining, 
metallurgy, and geology. The student body, which averages about 450, 
includes men from every State and a dozen foreign countries. The campus 
of 1 1 1/2 acres is beautified with lawns, trees, and shrubs. To plant some 
of the trees, workmen had to blast large holes in the rock and fill them 
with earth. The six modern, fire-proof buildings, of red pressed brick 
with concrete bases and white stone facings, are connected by under- 
ground passageways, a great convenience in winter. In front of^ the build- 
ings the ground drops away by steep terraces to Leonard Field, where 
there are tennis courts and other sports facilities. 

RESIDENCE HALL (1935), W. end of Park St., is a four-story struc- 
ture with two-story wings, built, in modern functional style, of tapestry 
brick with terra cotta facing. Three long flights of concrete steps lead up 
from the street. The hall is governed by an organization known as the 
Mavericks, in cooperation with the house mother, and by the fraternities 
Sigma Rho and Theta Tau. 

MAIN HALL, W. end of Galena St., the original building (1896), 
contains the administrative offices, library, and lecture rooms. It is a 
Renaissance building of red brick, with base and facings of granite and 
sandstone. Above the entrance are bas-relief portraits of leaders in physics, 
geology, mineralogy, metallurgy, and chemistry. The LIBRARY (open 
9-5 and 7-9 Mon.-FrL, 9-12 Sat.), in the south wing, houses a notable 
collection of scientific books and documents pertaining especially to min- 
ing, geology, and metallurgy, and virtually complete sets of the technical 
publications of schools and government bureaus. The W. A. Clark III 
Mineral Collection, consisting of several hundred specimens in seven large 
cases, is displayed on the first floor. The GEOLOGICAL MUSEUM (open 
8-5 weekdays), in the basement, has 10,000 or more specimens of care- 
fully classified minerals, rocks, and fossils from Montana and other parts 
of the world. A special exhibit of mine models portrays underground 
workings of all types. 

The METALLURGY BUILDING (1923), facing S. at W. end of Mercury 
St., houses laboratories, offices, a water distillation plant, and ventilating 
equipment. It is designed in a modified Renaissance style with ample 
fenestration and a carved stone entrance. 

The northern and northeastern suburbs of CENTERVILLE, WALKER- 
VILLE (reached by N. Main St.), and MEADERVILLE (reached by 
US 91) contain most of the Butte mines and miners' homes. 

The outstanding characteristic of Centerville and Walkerville is an im- 
pression of age that seems almost incredible in a town whose history goes 
back less than 80 years. Weathered frame buildings cling to steep hill- 
sides. Scattered among them are old-fashioned red brick houses with 
double bays in front, and here and there a building of rough-hewn logs 
has survived the years. Sagging picket fences surround grassless yards, and 


many of the houses are reached by broken stairways leading from the 
street. The streets themselves, striving to maintain a fairly consistent 
grade, run sometimes above, sometimes below, the floor level. The side- 
walks and battered boardwalks often give up the struggle and rise or 
descend by means of wood or concrete steps. 

The whole tenement area is trade-marked with the random upthrust 
of the surface workings of the world's richest copper mines. Rarely are 
all or nearly all of these mines in operation at one time. Of those in 
operation, some move almost without sound; others, with more of their 
machinery exposed, roar and rumble like vast threshing machines. About 
some of them the huge piles of waste resemble ash heaps ; around others 
a yellowish tinge to the ore increases the impression of a threshing op- 
eration, making the dumps look like overgrown strawstacks. In the back- 
ground are the tremendous crags of the Continental Divide. Walkerville 
is inhabited mostly by Cornish miners and their descendants. The town 
holds an election only if and when a candidate files for office. 

Meaderville, farthest east of the three suburbs, is separated from the 
others by an area that includes such famous old mines as the Badger State, 
the Speculator, the High Ore, and the Anaconda. It has a more modern 
appearance than Centerville or Walkerville, and stands on a more level 


site. The Leonard Mine in Meaderville is the only copper mine open to the 

8. The LEONARD MINE (open; tour 1-3 weekdays, by advance ar- 
rangement at Chamber of Commerce, 62 W. Broadway), off US 91 at 
Noble St., Meaderville, is a representative copper mine employing the 
deep mining methods used in the Butte mines. The greater part of the ore 
from these mines is brought to the surface through three shafts equipped 
with electric hoists capable of handling 24,000 tons every 24 hours. Scores 
of other shafts are used only for ventilation and for lowering and raising 
the 7,000 men required under normal operating conditions. The ores 
occur in faulted and complex fissure vein systems inclosed principally in 
granite. In mining, holes made with machine drills operated by com- 
pressed air, are loaded with explosives, and blasted ; the broken ore is shov- 
eled into chutes leading to ore trains; the opening made by the blast is 
timbered; finally the chamber (or stope) is filled with waste rock from 
other parts of the mine. Chambers average perhaps 20 feet in width. 
Trains carry the ore from the chutes to the shaft, and cages ("skips") 
hoist it to huge bins at the surface. Electric trains haul it to the smelter 
at Anaconda. 

A miner going to work in the Leonard Mine changes into digging 
clothes at the locker building near the shaft, and waits for his turn in 
the "chippy" the cage used to raise and lower men. Since only eight, 
tightly packed, can ride on each of the cage's three decks, it often takes 
30 minutes to convey a shift to work. The cage, suspended by a heavy 
cable that winds on winches operated by compressed air, bumpingly de- 
scends a timbered fireproof shaft at the rate of 800 feet a minute, passing 
a mine level at every 100 feet or so, until the miner reaches the "station" 
on the level where he is to work. Here are deep skip pockets for storage 
of ore; converging lines of rails for ore trains; great pumping plants for 
disposal of mine water; and all the complex machinery necessary to deep 
mining. The miner goes down a gallery to the main drift (lateral tunnel) 
on the vein, and then to his stope (work chamber), which usually has 
two or more floors 10 feet apart, reached by ladders up a manway. On his 
way he normally passes long trains of ore cars .shuttling about on the 
lower levels of the mine. Streams of warm, green water containing cop- 
per sulphate in solution rush down channels under the sloping tunnel 
floors. The sound of the pumps that force the water up from the lower 
levels of the mine to the precipitating plant at the surface is like a great, 
steady pulsebeat deep in the earth. 

9. The PRECIPITATING PLANT (open day and night), off US 91 
at Colusa St., Meaderville, is a system of flumes and settling tanks extend- 
ing for hundreds of yards back and forth, in which pure copper is recov- 
ered from water pumped out of the mines. The tanks are filled with scrap 
iron and tin cans. The iron replaces the copper in the water and forms 
iron sulphate, leaving the copper precipitated in the tanks. The plant 
recovers about 6,000,000 pounds of copper annually. Oldtimers say that 
a German, Frederick Mueller, discovered the process, but that another 



man whose name does not survive obtained his lease on the mine over- 
flow and for many years reaped the profits. 

The FLAT, a suburb in the valley at the foot of the hill, has an esti- 
mated population of 10,000, many of whom are Jugoslavs. It is somewhat 
shabby, but newer than the northern suburbs. The southern extension of 
Montana Street called the Boulevard, is well lined with road houses. Near 
its end are several Butte cemeteries. Funerals in the old days meant big 
business for the tavern keepers along the route, since those attending 
usually stopped at one or more of the "oases" both going and coming. 
Many were the exciting horse races along the Boulevard. Not all livery 
stable patrons were good drivers, but the standard order was "a fast 
horse and a couple of buggy whips." 

10. COLUMBIA GARDENS (open), 3 m. E. on Park St. and R. on 
dirt road at city limits, is Butte's principal outdoor amusement resort. 
Created in 1898 by W. A. Clark, who spent a million dollars to change 
it from a barren area to a park, it was the only picnic place available to 
Butte residents before the advent of the automobile. In summer, dances 
are held every evening at the pavilion, which accommodates 1,000 couples. 
The park has a well-equipped children's playground, and such mechanical 
amusement features as a roller coaster. There are landscaped stretches of 
lawn and flowers, a grove provided with tables and benches and fireplaces. 
Summer houses and pagodas furnish shelter. Every Thursday during sum- 
mer vacation, city busses transport children under 12 to the park without 
charge. On these days little girls may pick flowers from the mammoth 
pansy bed, which contains 85,000 plants. 


Thompson Park, 10.2 m., Summit of Continental Divide at Pipestone Pass, 13.8 
m., Gregson Hot Springs, 14.8 m., Lewis and Clark Cavern, 50.1 m. (see Tour 1, 
sec. c). 

Railroad Stations: W. end of ist Ave. S. for Great Northern Ry. and Burlington 
R.R. ; ist Ave. N., R. of viaduct to ist Ave. bridge over Missouri River, for Mil- 
waukee R.R. 

Bus Stations: Falls Hotel, 402 ist Ave. S., for Greyhound; 309 ist Ave. N. for 
Intermountain ; Milwaukee R.R. station and Falls Hotel for Milwaukee; interurban, 
fare io0, 3O-min. schedule. 

Airport: Gore Hill, 3 m. SW. on US 91 for Western Air Express and Wyoming 
Air Service; taxi 5O0. 

Taxi: 250 for 12 blocks, 350 for 20, elsewhere 50; extra passenger 250; special 
sightseeing rates. 

Traffic Regulations: Semaphores and lights on the R. at intersections. No U-turns on 
Central Ave. between Park Drive and loth St. from 7 a.m. to n p.m. All-night 
parking prohibited unless front and rear lights are displayed. 

Street Numbering: Avenues run E. and W., and are numbered from Central Ave. 
Streets numbered eastward from the river. 

Accommodations: Eleven hotels; extensive tourist and convention facilities. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, Rainbow Hotel, 20 3rd St. N. 
Radio Station: KFBB (1,290 kc.). 
Motion Picture Houses: Four. 

Swimming: Mitchell Pool, Municipal Park on River Dr. near ist Ave. bridge; 
Morony Natatorium, i2th St. N. and 2nd Ave.; Y.M.C.A. pool, ist Ave. N. and 
Park Dr., 250 for nonmembers. 

Golf: Riverview public course, 18 holes, N. of Missouri River near 9th St. bridge; 
greens fee 5O0. 

Tennis: Concrete courts, high school, 2nd Ave. and i9th St. 

Athletics (incl. baseball and football) : yth Ave. S. and i6th St.; 4th Ave. and 2oth 
St. N. ; 6th St. near fairground; high school stadium, 2nd Ave. and i9th St.; Ameri- 
can Legion, 28th St., S. of River Dr. 

Annual Events: Scottish New Year celebration, Jan. i. Balkan Christmas festival, 
Jan. 6. Winter carnival, February. North Montana fair, early August. Labor Day 
parade, September. 

GREAT FALLS (3,330 alt., 28,822 pop.), seat of Cascade County and 
second largest city in the State, is on a gentle slope of sandy plain within 
a bend of the Missouri River, opposite the mouth of the Sun River. In the 
distance four mountain ranges rise, the Highwoods and Little Belts to 
the east and southeast, the Big Belts to the south, and the main range of 
the Rockies to the west. One section of the city spreads westward across 
the river, and a town called Black Eagle, or Little Chicago, has grown 
up around the metal reduction works on the north side. 

Great Falls owes its growth largely to the development of hydroelectric 
power at the falls on the Missouri for which it is named. The city is well 
lighted and clean; its factories use few dust- and smoke-generating fuels. 
A zoning system helps to maintain high standards of construction. Most 
buildings are modern. The largest of 17 parks lies along the Missouri 



River, and smaller ones are scattered throughout the city. In the residen- 
tial area the wide shaded streets run straight from end to end of the city, 
bordered in most places by green lawns planted with trees, shrubs and 
flowers. Industrial plants are landscaped wherever possible. If its size be 
overlooked, the city bears resemblance to Minneapolis, Minnesota, from 
which many of its people came. 

The importance of Great Falls lies mainly in its industries, especially 
the refining and fabrication of copper and zinc, but it is also a banking, 
commercial, and agricultural center. Development of irrigation, of oil and 
gas production, and of coal and silver-lead mining in the country around 
has built industries and given added importance to old ones. 

Great Falls has several active literary societies and a conservatory of 

Admiration of Charlie Russell, the cowboy painter and sculptor, per- 
sists at all levels of Great Falls society; people who make no pretense of 
any knowledge of art understand and try to be like him. Largely, perhaps, 
because of his influence, Great Falls has kept the hospitality and other 
old-time virtues that have tended to wear thin in so many western cities. 

Capt. Meriwether Lewis first saw the Great Falls of the Missouri on 
June 13, 1805. The following day, while exploring alone above the falls, 
he was chased by a grizzly bear. To escape, he plunged into the river up 
to his waist and "presented the point of his espontoon," a sharp spearlike 
weapon then used in the army. The bear "retreated with as much precipita- 
tion as he had pursued." Returning toward camp late in the day he fired 
at an animal he thought "to be of the tiger kind" (probably a mountain 
lion). "He then went on, but as if the beasts of the forest had conspired 
against him, three buffaloe bulls . . . left their companions and ran at 
full speed towards him." When he stopped and faced them, they "re- 
treated as they came." The next morning he discovered a large rattlesnake 
coiled on the trunk of a tree under which he had slept. He killed it and' 
found that it had "one hundred and seventy- six scuta on the abdomen, 
and seventeen half -formed scuta on the tail." 

The party spent a month (June 15 to July 15) in making the 1 8-mile 
portage around the falls and rapids, using a rude cart with a mast from 
one of the boats as an axle, and sections of a large cottonwood tree as 
wheels. During this period Capt. William Clark made a map of the falls. 
On June 19 Captain Lewis discovered the Giant Springs. On the evening 
of July 4 he doled out their small remaining store of liquor, and the men 
sang and danced until interrupted by a brisk thunderstorm. 

Returning from the Pacific a year later, the party camped near the 
falls again. "I sincerely believe," wrote Lewis in his journal, "that there 
were not less than 10,000 buffalo within a circle of two miles." 

There is no record of other white visitors until 1822, when Jim 
Bridger passed, on a solitary trip up the Missouri. The following spring 
Andrew Henry's fur trading party was turned back by the Blackfeet. From 
1838 to 1842 a Federal scientific expedition under Capt. Charles Wilkes, 
guided by Bridger, mapped the region. 

The site of the future city was in the country of the Blackfeet, who 


were inclined to be troublesome. In April 1849 a war party of 400 at- 
tacked Jim Bridger and 83 white trappers near the mouth of Sun River, 
and killed three men. Then in 1853 Gov. Isaac I. Stevens came out with 
his railroad surveyors (see HISTORY), and two years later concluded 
treaties with the important tribes. By the time the Mullan Road, which 
passed a few miles to the north, was completed, travel was comparatively 

Unlike such centers as Butte and Helena, which came into being over- 
night upon the discovery of important mineral resources, Great Falls was, 
from the start, a planned city, a fulfillment of the dreams of its founder, 
Paris Gibson (1830-1920). Gibson, a Minneapolis man, first visited the 
spot in 1880, and was impressed by its possibilities as an industrial site. 
He returned in the spring of 1883, with Robert Vaughn, a surveyor, and 
H. P. Rolfe, an attorney. They platted the townsite and named it Great 
Falls. The first resident was Silas Beachley, who lived there that winter, 
and suffered great privation when his food supplies and blankets were 
confiscated by Indians. 

Gibson enlisted the aid of James J. Hill of the Great Northern Railway, 
C. A. Broadwater of Helena, and others in building the city. A few 
houses, a store, and a flour mill were set up in 1884, a planing mill, a 
lumber yard, a school, a bank, and a newspaper the following year. In 
October 1887 the young city's 1,200 people celebrated the arrival of the 
Great Northern Railway. 

Incorporated as a city November 28, 1888, Great Falls elected Paris 
Gibson its first mayor. A silver smelter was built near the Giant Springs 
the same year, but the venture was short-lived because of the demonetiza- 
tion of silver. 

In 1890 the meat-packing industry, which later became the largest be- 
tween St. Paul and Spokane, was organized. A railroad to the mining 
towns of Neihart and Barker opened a rich tributary district to the south. 
Black Eagle Dam, generating 9,000 (later 25,000) horsepower, was com- 
pleted the first of the four hydroelectric units near Great Falls. The 
population increased to nearly 4,000; the town's real growth began. 

The original copper reduction plant above Black Eagle Falls was com- 
pleted in 1892, and operated until 1916, when it was replaced by the 
modern electrolytic copper and zinc refineries, with a wire and cable fac- 
tory added. 

By 1912 two new hydroelectric plants, the Rainbow and the Volta, were 
together generating 140,000 horsepower. John D. Ryan organized a com- 
pany with offices in Great Falls that acquired control of these and other 
power sites in the State. A year later the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul 
& Pacific Railroad connected the city with Harlowton and Lewistown in the 
rich agricultural Judith Basin. 

Through the war years Great Falls expanded as new dams were built 
and war uses called for more and more copper. During the 1920'$ the 
use of copper decreased generally, but Great Falls retained its growth 
and prosperity because of its position as the center for a large agricultural 

f mm 




The early i93o's saw the completion of such projects as the 70,000- 
horsepower Morony dam and power plant; the million-dollar high school 
and athletic stadium; the Presbyterian church; and the Columbus Hos- 
pital, another million-dollar institution. The North Montana Fair, or- 
ganized in 1931, attracts thousands of visitors annually. Beginning in 
1935, a program of park development and other improvements were 
carried out with WPA labor. 

In 1936 and through the summer of 1937 the metal refineries and wire 
and cable mill operated at capacity, employing more than 2,500 men. The 
city benefited from increases in farm and ranch income in tributary dis- 
tricts. The demand for lead and silver caused old mines to the south to 
become active, and there was renewed development of oil and gas fields 
in the Cut Bank area. In the fall of 1937, however, employment declined 
in several industries. 

Before 1910 the city had two central labor bodies, one affiliated with the 
American Federation of Labor, the other (made up entirely of industrial 
unions) independent. In that year, however, it became clear in Great Falls, 
as it did nationally in 1937, that harmony was a prerequisite to effective 
labor action. A conference was held, and the groups united in a single 
council, the forerunner of the present strong Cascade County Trades and 
Labor Assembly. 


A city-wide lockout that began in 1916 and lasted until the United 
States declared war on Germany (April 6, 1917) left labor in Great Falls 
seriously weakened. Four years later an 1 8-month strike of cooks and 
waiters almost destroyed the assembly, but ended in recognition of the 
right to organize. With this victory, membership began to grow and 
unions that had kept their charters only by paying a per capita tax on 
"dummy members" regained their power. 

In 1933 a resurgence of organizing brought several new unions into 
Great Falls, among them one of the first Newspaper Guild locals in the 
Northwest. Union membership increased until it included at least two- 
thirds of the city's employed workers. The 1934 strike of mine, mill, and 
smelter workers was settled on the basis of a 4O-hour week, return of the 
closed shop, and a basic wage of $4.75 per day, with a sliding scale of in- 
creases depending on the price of copper. With its own position made 
secure, labor is turning more and more to public business, specifically to 
campaigns for public improvements. 

Most of the city's people are natives of Montana or nearby States, but 
among the workers in the several industries are considerable groups of 
foreign-born. Many of them keep alive distinctive national customs. As in 
Butte and Anaconda, the Jugoslav laborers celebrate the Mesopust and 
the charming Balkan Christmas rites (see ETHNIC GROUPS). The 
Scots have a New Year celebration called Hogmanay, which includes pub- 
lic performances of Scottish folk dances. The heart of it, however, is the 
ceremony of "first feasting," which takes place in the homes. A table is 
set for guests, who arrive immediately after the beginning of the New 
Year. A blond man must partake of the food first, and unless such a man 
is present visitors may not enter. 


July- Aug.; other times by appointment), 1217 4th Ave. N., is the log 
cabin studio of the late cowboy artist, who lived in Great Falls for many 
years (see THE ARTS). The cabin, his home on an adjoining lot, and an 
addition built by the city, were opened to the public in 1930. In the mu- 
seum are preserved his cowboy accouterments and other relics, including 
gifts he received from his many Indian friends. Examples of his work 
with pen, brush, and pencil are shown with a brief description of each. 
Models he made for use in painting include figures of horses, native 
animals, and other subjects. Copies of his illustrated books are prom- 
inently displayed. 

2. The PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays, 2-9 Sun.), 203 3rd 
St. N., consists of 47,000 volumes housed in a low buff brick building 
which is surmounted by a dome and has a two-columned portico. Its 
notable collection of northwest Americana contains a copy of the official 
report of the Lewis and Clark expedition published in 1815. Collections 
of rocks, minerals, fossils, mounted birds, and butterflies are housed in 
the building. 


St. between Central Ave. and 2nd Ave. N., a long, plain, rectangular 
yellow stucco building, has full modern equipment, including shops and 
laboratories for vocational training, gymnasium, tennis courts, and foot- 
ball and baseball fields. The enrollment in 1936 was 86 deaf and 21 blind. 

4. COLUMBUS HOSPITAL (open), 1601 2nd Ave. N., is a six-story 
crescent-shaped structure of reinforced concrete and dark brown tapestry 
brick, with a taller central section surmounted by a series of small pin- 
nacles. The long narrow wings that extend across the entire front of a 
city block admit maximum sunlight and air. The building is arranged 
for convenience and speed of communication and is regarded as an out- 
standing example of American hospital design. George Shanley was the 

5. ST. ANNE'S CATHEDRAL (1906), 701 3rd Ave. N., is the 
Roman Catholic diocesan headquarters for eastern Montana. It is built of 
gray-brown stone in the Gothic style. The rear of the building consists 
of several boxlike structures seemingly added without special regard for 
the original plan. On the cathedral grounds is St. Mary's Institute (1915), 
a junior college for women. 

6. The PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (1931), 1317 Central Ave., ex- 
cept for a brick memorial wing, is built entirely of light gray sandstone 
blocks of varying shapes and sizes, which give the walls a strange but 
effective patchwork appearance. The design is a modern adaptation of 
Gothic, with a high vaulted nave, stained glass windows, and small re- 
cessed windows beside a deep entrance arch. 

7. URSULINE ACADEMY (Mt. St. Mary's), 2300 Central Ave., was 
built in 1911 of brick and stone, with terra cotta trim in geometric de- 
signs. The fagade has a semi-military air, with stepped parapets on both 
central tower and wings. Grade school, high school, and junior college 
departments are conducted; the attendance is about 500. The academy is 
the center of parochial education in the city. 

8. CITY HIGH SCHOOL (1930), 2nd Ave. S. between i8th and 
20th Sts. and extending to 4th Ave. S., is the outstanding high school 
plant in the State. The many-windowed three-story building, of modern 
design, is built of tapestry brick and Bedford stone over a frame of 
concrete and steel, and is divided into north and south wings and a 
central section with a large extension to the rear. The interior is finished 
in oak, with fixtures in streamlined modern designs. The attendance is 
nearly 2,000. Laboratories for vocational training add greatly to the scope 
of the curriculum. The athletic stadium seats 10,000. Floodlighting is 
provided for evening games. 

220 Central Ave., is housed in a cigar store. Large cases along the walls 
contain many of his letters, bits of sculpture, and pen and ink sketches. 
This store and bar is typical of the places where the artist liked to lounge 
and met men of his own plain and friendly kind; like the other places 
where he is well remembered, the store has kept something of the impress 
of Russell's personality. 






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10. GIBSON PARK, Park Dr. between ist Ave. S. and 8th Ave. N., 
extending to the Great Northern Ry., is within easy walking distance from 
the shopping district, with the Missouri River flowing by just beyond the 
tracks. It has a children's playground and a lake where swans and wild- 
fowl live. In summer the municipal band gives a weekly concert from 
the Cooney memorial bandstand near Fourth Avenue N. The PARIS 
GIBSON STATUE, a bronze dedicated in 1926 to the founder of Great 
Falls, stands in Flower Circle at the head of Central Ave. 

n. MUNICIPAL PARK, E. end of ist Ave. bridge, extends south to 
Broadwater Bay, a widening of the Missouri River. A swimming pool 
with a capacity of about 1,000,000 gallons was completed in 1934 by 
WPA labor. At the bay are docks and a boathouse. 

12. NORTH MONTANA FAIRGROUND, W. of the river and N. 
of the junction of ist Ave. NW. and State 29, is a landscaped tract of 
about 40 acres, with a group of 12 modern exhibit buildings, a half-mile 
race track, and a grandstand seating 7,000. Organized in 1931, the fair 
has superseded the State fair at Helena, last held in 1932. In 1936 the 
attendance exceeded 200,000. 

River Dr. near NE. city limits, is just above the bare rock ledges that 
mark the site of the old Black Eagle Falls. South of the road a large space 
covered with trees is set aside as Black Eagle Park. Capt. Meriwether 
Lewis told how the site was named: 

"Below this fall is a beautiful little island well timbered ... On a 
cottonwood tree an eagle has placed her nest; a more inaccessible spot I 
believe she could not have found; for neither man or beast dare pass 
those gulphs which separate her little domain from the shores." 

14. The REX FLOUR MILL (open on application at office), SW. of 
the falls and S. of River Dr. at 25th St., the largest flour mill in the 
State, employs about 90 men. The elevators have a capacity of 2,250,000 

15. The SAPPHIRE FLOUR MILL (open on application at office), 
S. of River Dr. at iyth St., employs about 35 men. Its elevators hold 
1,000,000 bushels of wheat. The neon sign atop the double row of great 
cylinders has letters 15 feet high. 

1 6. OIL REFINERY (open by permission; no matches or smoking), 
loth St. N. near River Dr., was established in 1931 as a topping plant; in 
1935 a modern cracking plant was added. At the topping plant is a tower, 
fitted with a series of pipes, that resembles a huge bottle magically pour- 
ing a stream of clear gasoline from the topmost pipe; naphtha from one 
a few feet lower; kerosene from the next; and from the next, fuel oils. 
Reduced crude oil for the cracking plant is drawn from the lowest level. 


GIANT SPRINGS, 3 m. NE. on River Dr., discovered by Lewis and 
Clark in 1805, discharges, every 24 hours, 388,800,000 gallons of water 


at a constant temperature of 52 F. the year round. Its source has not been 
established, and the water has never been used commercially. 

Piegan Indians had a legend to explain the mysterious spring. They 
offered sacrifices to the Sun here in the belief that the waters gushed from 
a lake in the skies on the shores of which the Sun had his tepee. 

A park around the spring has picnic tables, good fishing, and a fish 
hatchery (open) showing trout in various stages of growth. The site is a 
favorite picnic spot for Great Falls residents. 

Fort Shaw, 26.4 m. t Lewis and Clark National Forest, 47 J m. (see Tour 4); 
Ruins of St. Peter's Mission, 42.9 m. (see Tour 6); Rainbow Falls, 7.6 m., Volta 
Dam 12.8 m., Great Falls, 16.2 m., Morony Dam, 19-8 m. (see Tour 14). 


Railroad Stations: Neill Ave. at N. end of Fuller Ave. for Great Northern Ry. ; 

Helena and Railroad Aves. for Northern Pacific Ry. 

Bus Station: 313 N. Main St. for Greyhound, for Washington Motor Coach, and 

for Intermountain Transportation Co. 

Airport: 2 m. NE. on US 91 and Airport Road (R) for Northwest Airlines and 

Western Air Express; taxi 5O0. 

Street Busses: Fare io0; 150 to Fort Harrison and East Helena. All lines start from 

6th Ave. and Main St. 

Taxis: 250 per person, $3 an hr. 

Traffic Regulations: 3O-min. parking on Main St. and 6th Ave. during business 

hours. No all-night parking downtown. No U-turns on Main St., Rodney St., or 

6th Ave. 

Street Numbering: Most streets are named, with Broadway the division between 

N. and S.; Main St. between E. and W. Numbered avenues on E. side; numbering 

begins near S. city limits, but, N. of 3rd Ave., is interrupted for several blocks by 

named avenues on both sides of Broadway. 

Accommodations: Six hotels, five tourist camps. 

Information Service: Montanans, Inc., Montana Club Bldg., 6th and Fuller Aves.; 

Commercial Club, Placer Hotel, Main and Grand Sts.; Montana Auto Association, 

19 N. Main St. 

Radio Station: KPFA (1210 kc.). 

Moving Picture Houses: Three. 

Swimming: Broadwater Natatorium, 3 m. W. on US 10; adm. 250, suits 250. 

Ice skating, boating, swimming: T.6.K. Park on shore of Lake Hauser, 12 m. NE. 

on York-Nelson Rd. ; swimming suits and rowboats for rent. 

Golf: Country Club, 7 m. W. on US 10, 18 holes, greens fee 750. 

Tennis: Beattie Park, i block W. of Great Northern Station on Neill Ave.; Hill 

Park, Fuller and Placer Aves. 

Annual Events: State legislature convenes in January of odd years. Vigilante parade, 
May. National Guard encampment, June i to 20. 

HELENA (4,124 alt., 11,803 PP-)> Montana's capital, with its back 
against low, rounded Mount Helena and Mount Ascension, looks out over 
the flat and almost treeless Prickly Pear Valley, stretching away golden 
brown to the foothills of the Big Belt Mountains on the east and to spurs 
of the Rockies on the north and west. Main Street runs along the bottom 
of historic Last Chance Gulch, and is somewhat hemmed in; but from 
almost anywhere else in the city the view is far- sweeping and memorable. 
On a summer morning, when the sun rises over the wooded Big Belts, 
the yellow-brown plain, stippled with green fields and ditches, is sud- 
denly washed with light, and the lakes along the Missouri River, a dozen 
miles away, glow and glisten with color. 

One of the first cities in the State, Helena is a blend of old and new, 
with rather more of the old, as age is understood in Montana. Its busi- 



ness streets, narrow and crooked, are adapted to the contours of moun- 
tain slopes and furrowed gulches. Many of the buildings have stood as 
they are for more than 50 years. In the early iSyo's the population was 
nearly what it is today; in the 1890'$, when the silver mining boom was 
at its height, it was larger by several thousand. The demand for new 
building, except to replace fire losses, has not been great. Some effects of 
the 1935 earthquakes cracked and reinforced buildings are visible, 
especially on the east side of the city and near the Northern Pacific 

Many of the residents are employed by governmental agencies Fed- 
eral, State, county, and city; industrial workers are in the minority. 
Though Helena, as the seat of State government, with a commission gov- 
ernment of its own, is the political center of Montana, it has a tendency 
to go quietly about its everyday affairs, but business picks up and the 
streets are thronged on Saturday afternoons when the farmers come to 
town. In odd years, however, the pattern is violently varied. When the 
legislature is in session, business booms. Lawmakers, lobbyists, and job 
hunters crowd the hotels. Restaurants, bars, gambling houses, and night 
clubs do a land-office business. Helena is "all dolled up," dazzlingly 
lighted, and gay. Wags try to invent new stories to tell about the legisla- 
ture, and end by telling the old one about the senator who explained his 
unaccustomed possession of a large roll of bills by saying that someone 
pushed it over the transom while he slept. The expression "It came over 


the transom," to explain any unusual good fortune, is a part of local 

As a supply center the city serves the surrounding mines, the cattle and 
sheep ranches to the north, the farms of the Prickly Pear Valley, and, to 
a lesser extent, of the Missouri Valley to the south. The industries include 
brick, tile, and cement pipe manufacturing. Mining operations employ 
about 1,000 men; dairy farms and other agricultural activities a few hun- 
dred. Labor is well organized, and union membership is growing. Except 
for a printers' strike that stopped publication of the two dailies for five 
months in 1934 there have been only minor disputes with employers; 
businesses are not large enough for management and labor to grow far 

There are few foreign-born people in Helena. The original settlers 
were mainly of English, Irish, Scottish, and German descent, and the 
pioneer families and their descendants still form more than half of the 
population. Many of the newer arrivals are of Scandinavian ancestry. 

The Helena region was never the regular abode of any Indian tribes, 
though the presence of stone arrowheads and other relics found in the 
vicinity indicate that it was occasionally visited by Blackfeet and Salish 
hunting parties. Members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition were the 
first white men to see the place. On July 19, 1805, the day they discovered 
the Gates of the Mountains, Captain Clark and a scouting party reached 
the Little Prickly Pear, where Clark was compelled to stop and pull 17 
cactus spines from his feet reason enough for naming the creek and 
valley Prickly Pear. In the fall of 1862, an immigrant train on the Mullan 
Road halted near what was known as the Three Mile House, about 14 
miles north of the present site of Helena. After some discussion and look- 
ing around, the newcomers decided to go south into the Prickly Pear 
Valley and build houses for the winter. Though their "settlement" was 
only temporary, they were the first people actually to dwell for a time 
on or near the site of the future city. 

Helena owes its existence to the gold discoveries in Last Chance Gulch 
late in the summer of 1864. As word of the strike spread, the miners,, 
between their stints of panning and sluicing, pitched tents and built hasty 
cabins against the slopes of the gulch. Crude business buildings began to 
appear. Among the boulders between the uneven lines of shacks, washed 
by the tailings from the sluices, was "Main Street," the trail by which 
bull and mule team freight outfits entered the lusty young city. Soon new 
streets were laid out, and as they spread away from the gulch they became 
straighter, more orderly. 

In October 1864 it was decided that Last Chance was not a suitable 
name for the rapidly growing camp. A certain John Somerville dominated 
a meeting to decide upon a more dignified name and obtained the adop- 
tion of Helena (He-le'-na), the name of his home town in Minnesota, 
The miners and bullwhackers, however, did not like his way of pronounc- 
ing the name; to them "h-e-1" spelled hell, whatever Minnesotans might 
say. They accordingly shifted the emphasis to the first syllable, and pro- 



nounced the name with the second e almost silent (Hel'-e-na). Their 
pronunciation became the accepted one. 

Here as in other gold camps, the vigilantes were organized, and several 
undesirables were hanged or banished. In a few cases, however, it was 
charged that prejudice had been allowed to outweigh facts in the scale or 
vieilante justice, and their summary methods fell into disrepute. 

It was not until 1870, when Helena was the most important town in 
the Territory, that a patent for its town-site was issued. Despite a bad 
fire the previous year, buildings valued at nearly $2,000,000 then stood on 
the site In the i8 7 o's its growth was accelerated by discovery of rich 
deposits of placer gold in the gulches east of the Missouri; of quartz gold 
to the south; of more quartz gold at Marysville to the west; and of silver 
and lead at Rimini, to the southwest (see Tour lA). In the late 1870 s and 
the i88o's it was further stimulated by development of the rich silver and 
lead deposits at Wickes, Corbin, and Elkhorn. The city was incorporated 
in 1881 and was reached by the railroad two years later. In 1888, when 
the Hi*. Helena smelter replaced that at Wickes, Helena was a great 
mining center and was said to be the richest city per capita in the United 
States numbering among its residents some fifty millionaires. 

In 1875 Helenabecame the capital of the Territory, though Virginia 
City made a strenuous campaign to retain the honor. After 1889, * 




i6 3 

















became the temporary State capital, pending an election in which almost 
every town of importance was a candidate. Helena won, but the first elec- 
tion (1892) did not satisfy Anaconda, the runner-up, and in 1894 a 
second election was held. Helena was backed by W. A. Clark, Anaconda 
by Marcus Daly (see Tour 18), its founder. After a fierce campaign 
Helena again won, but its majority was less than 1,000. Much of the 
bitterness of the contest came from the intense rivalry between Clark and 
Daly, both engaged in developing the Butte mines, and both striving for 
supremacy in politics. Daly was more popular in Butte and Anaconda, 
but Clark had more influence in the State as a whole. 

In the i88o's and early 1890*5 there was an orgy of display on the part 
of Helena's parvenus. Onetime prospectors, flush with the profits of the 
mines, became what they regarded as aristocratic, and not only "kept up 
with the Joneses" but surpassed them. Sure that the city's growth would 
continue indefinitely, they platted lots several miles out in the valley, and 
even built a streetcar line to serve these "outskirts." While waiting for 
the city to catch up with its transportation system, they lived in preten- 
tious mansions on the West Side and in the suburbs of Kenwood and 
Lennox, and rode about town, first in coaches driven by top-hatted and 
swallow-tailed coachmen, and later in electric coupes that moved at a dog- 
trot on the level and stalled on the hills. A small army of maids, butlers, 
and other servants waited on them, and served them foods and wines as 
different as possible from the sour-dough, beans, and raw firewater of 
their prospecting days. The houses they built were ornate affairs in a 
variety of designs, with exteriors featuring turrets, cupolas, and porte- 
cocheres ; interiors decorated with hand-carved mahogany, oak, and maple, 
with a fireplace in nearly every room ; spacious grounds within stone walls 
or iron fences, with iron deer on the lawns and stone lions or other 
figures at the entrances. Some lawns were further adorned with foun- 
tains, lead statuary, granite mounting blocks, and carved stone hitching 
posts. The fall in the price of silver in 1893 ended this florid period of 
architecture. Many of the people who had invested their money in elab- 
orate new houses departed. The spacious, high-ceilinged mansions were 
occupied by middle-income folk to whom adequate heating was a prime 

Building of the Canyon Ferry, Hauser, and Holter dams on the Mis- 
souri River between 1900 and 1910, and the gold mining activity at 
Marysville, brought a brief return of prosperity, since many Helena people 
were employed on the dams and in the mines. Then came another slump, 
ended by the war years 1914-1918, when the mines, especially those with 
lead, zinc, and copper ores, again hummed with activity. 

Business waned in 1919 and for years the biennial sessions of the legis- 
lature were the principal events. In 1931 pipe lines were laid from the 
gas field at Cut Bank through Helena, Butte, and Anaconda. Installation 
of gas in Helena and East Helena gave work to 500 men for nearly a 
year. With this flurry over, the depression set in. Some of the more 
energetic residents took to the hills and gulches around the city and 
found placer ground rich enough to yield fair wages. 


In the fall of 1935 a series of earthquakes caused four deaths and prop- 
erty damage estimated at $4,000,000. Within a year, however, most of the 
ruins were removed and damaged structures repaired or rebuilt. In some 
cases the buildings had to be "tied" together with long rods run through 
from wall to wall. The business section was outside the zone of severe 
early shocks, and suffered only moderate damage. Shocks of less intensity 
came at intervals through 1936 and 1937, but did no damage. Various 
theories were advanced to explain the long continuance of the quakes. 
According to one of them several faults underlie the district, and a slip 
along one fault places stress on the others, forcing them to slip in turn. 

The Civil Works Administration in 1933-34 employed hundreds of 
Helena people, extensively repaired the capitol and the county court- 
house, and landscaped a city park. In 1935 the State headquarters of the 
Works Progress Administration gave office employment to more than 
200 people, and employed 275 on various projects in the city. Federal 
monetary policies, by increasing the price of gold and silver, stimulated 
mining, and restored it to an important place in the life of the city. In 
1937 the Public Works Administration offices were closed, and WPA 
headquarters removed to Butte. 


1. The MONTANA CLUB (open on application), 6th and Fuller 
Avenues, stands on the site of the first gold discovery in Last Chance 
Gulch in 1864, an event commemorated by a bronze tablet on the Fuller 
Avenue side of the building. The seven-story brick and stone structure 
was designed by Cass Gilbert in early Italian Renaissance style. The 
rooms are richly furnished and decorated with mahogany woodwork and 
many murals and other paintings. On the membership rolls of the club, a 
social and recreational organization, are the names of some of the State's 
most distinguished citizens. 

2. The FEDERAL BUILDING, Park Avenue at West end of 6th 
Avenue, is a four-story Romanesque structure of granite and sandstone. 
A wide flight of stone steps leads to the main floor. In 1932-33 the 
building was enlarged and remodeled, but the original lines were left 

3. HELENA PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays; reference room 
only, 2-6 Sunday and holidays), Park Avenue and Lawrence Street, is 
housed in a small stone building of Tudor design, originally a church, but 
given to the city in 1933 by the Unitarian congregation, which also gave 
a fund of $20,000 for remodeling the building. The structure has some 
excellent woodwork, especially in the exposed walnut trusses that support 
the roof. The library has about 60,000 books and many newspapers and 
~igazines. The founding association was formed in 1866. 

4. ST. JAMES PRO-CATHEDRAL, Park Avenue and Placer Street, is 
igned in the manner of an English church of the Tudor period. It is 

ruciform in plan, with the nave constructed of red porphyry, the wings 
f dark red brick. It is the only Episcopal church in Helena. 


5. HILL PARK, Neill Ave. between Park Ave. and Main St. and ex- 
tending to Placer St., is cut in two by Fuller Ave. About seven acres in 
extent, it was given to the city in 1912 by the Great Northern Railway 
and was named for James J. Hill, its founder. It has walks and benches, 
drinking fountains, a wading pool, a rustic bandstand, and sloping lawns 
planted with trees and shrubs. 

6. ALGERIA SHRINE TEMPLE (open on application at Shrine 
offices, 4 N. Jackson St.), Neill Ave. at Park and Benton Aves., was built 
in 1920. It is of Moorish design, with a slender minaret, white barrel- 
vaulted roof, small grilled windows, and a mosaic entrance of black and 
white stone. It is in two sections connected by a series of halls; one sec- 
tion contains a ballroom, the other an auditorium seating 4,000. The 
walls are of tapestry brick, trimmed with stone. Lawns, trees, shrubs, and 
flower beds adorn the grounds. 

7. CARROLL COLLEGE, Benton Ave. between Leslie and Peosta Sts., 
is the only Catholic men's college in Montana. The cornerstone was laid 
in 1909 by Bishop John P. Carroll, in the presence of President William 
H. Taft. Originally Mount St. Charles College, the institution was re- 
named in honor of Bishop Carroll, who was responsible for its founding 
and development. The main building (1911), the north wing (1918), 
and the south wing (1924), all built of red Montana porphyry trimmed 
with gray granite, appear to form a single four-story structure. It is de- 
signed in the Collegiate Gothic style. The library contains 11,000 vol- 
umes. There are well-equipped laboratories, an athletic field, and a gym- 
nasium. The attendance averages about 270. High school, college, and 
pre-professional courses are offered. 

The site of the college is one of the most commanding in the city ; resi- 
dents have come to know it as Capitol Hill, and strangers often mistake 
the college buildings for the capitol. The hill was offered as a capitol site 
in 1895, but was rejected by the capitol commission because of its price 

ROCOCO HOUSES of the "golden era" stand vaingloriously along 
Dearborn Ave., which passes through a part of the West Side residential 
district. On either hand are choice examples of the "castles" which 
Helena, in the i88o's and 1890'$, regarded as the last word in fine 
houses. Most of the original owners have long been dead, and later occu- 
pants have converted many of the old homes into apartment houses. 

8. MONTANA LIFE BUILDING (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri.; 9-1 Sat.), 
Fuller Ave. and Lawrence St., is a three-story neoclassic building of white 
terra cotta block tile, with a four-columned Doric portico and a frieze of 
floral designs. 

way between E. and W. Ewing Sts., was designed on old Norman lines 
by Wallingford and Stern, St. Paul architects. The walls are of gray gran- 
ite, trimmed with red sandstone. The grounds, planted with grass, trees, 
and flowers, have the appearance of a small park. Because of earthquake 
damage, the tall clock tower was removed, and repairs made in 1936 
otherwise altered the original roof pattern. A heavy stone coping, in par- 



ticular, was eliminated, as being too great a hazard in the face of repeated 

The OLD PLACER DIGGINGS in Dry Gulch, S. end of Davis St., 
are worked to some extent in spring and summer. Miners raise "pay dirt" 
from the old shafts to the surface by hand windlass. No water is available 
for sluices and they use a hand-operated "dry-washer," which screens out 
the coarse material and saves the fine sand that carries the gold values. 
When a good deal of the finer material has accumulated it is panned in 
the usual manner with water brought in barrels. It is said that the placer 
workers average about $5 a day by these crude methods. 

at E. Lawrence St., is modeled after the Cologne Cathedral in Germany. 
There are considerable variations in detail, such as the clover leaf win- 
dow over the middle front doorway arch, but the purity of the Gothic 
design is faithfully preserved. The plans were drawn by Von Herbulis, a 
European architect who aided in designing the Votive Church in Vienna. 


The cathedral is built of Bedford limestone in the form of a Latin cross 
246 feet long and 150 feet wide. Twin spires rise 218 feet above the 
ground. The north, or Thomas Cruse spire, houses a set of 16 chimes 
operated from a keyboard. Stained glass windows made in Munich, Ger- 
many, bear representations of the patron saints of various nations, and 
depict scenes from the life of Christ and from church history. The nave 
has a seating capacity of 1,000. Marble clustered columns support the 
ceiling vaults which are 65 feet above the floor. The main altar and com- 
munion rail of white marble were made in Italy. A pipe organ was in- 
stalled in 1914. Construction of the cathedral, costing about $1,000,000, 
was made possible by gifts from the late Thomas Cruse and his heirs, and 
by contributions from members of the parish. Financing and building 
were supervised by Bishop John P. Carroll, who laid the cornerstone in 
1908 and consecrated the finished edifice in 1924. 

ii. The STATE CAPITOL (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri.; 9-4 Sat.; custodian 
acts as guide), 6th Ave. between S. Montana and S. Roberts Sts. and 
extending to Lockey Ave., is built on the crown of a gently sloping hill 
surrounded by extensive grounds. The site, with $4,000 for landscaping, 
was given to the State in 1895 by promoters of the Lennox residential 

The massive three-story structure, neoclassic in style, is built on a sym- 
metrical plan with a wide central section, broken by central and end 
pavilions and impressive colonnaded wings. The building is raised on a 
rusticated first story and topped with a classic cornice and balustraded 
parapet. The dominant external feature is the lofty central dome, surfaced 
with copper and surmounted by a small reproduction of the Statue of 
Liberty. It is raised on a heavy square base embellished on each face with 
a pedimented central motif. Light is admitted to the rotunda beneath the 
dome through triple windows in the base and through a series of bull's- 
eye windows in the collar of the dome. The building is 464 feet long and 
130 feet wide, with an average height of 90 feet. The dome rises 165 feet. 
The central, or original, section of the building, is 250 feet by 130 feet; 
it was built of sandstone, but in 1933 CWA workers faced it with Mon- 
tana granite to conform with the exterior finish of the two wings. 

The main entrance, set in a massive central pavilion and designed in 
the manner of a Roman triumphal arch adorned with four fluted Ionic 
columns, is approached by a long flight of marble steps. Four scrolled 
consoles rest upon the cornice; the whole is topped with a central pedes- 
tal, with flanking urns. The end wings, completed in 1911, have Ionic 
colonnades, two stories high, in harmony with the design of the original 

The interior of the capitol, in French Renaissance style, has flaring 
marble stairways, wide corridors, spacious chambers, and numerous stat- 
ues and murals. The interior decorations and the murals in the senate 
chamber are the work of Charles A. Pedretti. 

On the ground floor are the historical library and some of the State 

On the main or second floor are the executive offices. The Governor's 


reception room in the east wing, is decorated in brown, tan, and ivory; 
the walls are paneled in English oak; marble mantels and silver chande- 
liers complete the decorative appointments. The corridors on this floor, 
leading east and west from the central rotunda, are decorated in tones of 
deep green, brown, and gold with marble wainscoted walls, columns, and 
pilasters. The rotunda, with the dome 100 feet above the floor, is painted 
in shades of red, blue, and old ivory. Gold is freely used to enrich the 
plaster ornament. On the walls of the rotunda are four paintings depict- 
ing early pioneer characters an Indian, a cowboy, a miner, and a trapper 
said to resemble Jim Bridger, explorer and teller of tall tales. In the base 
of the dome are 16 stained-glass windows. On the ribbed soffit of the 
dome are ornamental bas-reliefs. 

The stairway from the main to the third floor is of white marble, with 
newel posts and balustrade of bronze. Above it is a stained-glass ceiling. 
At the head of the stairway, above a stained-glass window, is a painting 
of the driving of the last spike at Gold Creek, upon completion of the 
Northern Pacific Railway in the fall of 1883. It is the work of Amadee 
Joullin of San Francisco. 

On the third floor, the west wing of the central section contains the 
offices of the two houses of the legislature and their committee rooms. 
The eastern half of this floor houses the supreme court chambers and 
offices of the justices, and the law library of Montana. 

The house of representatives in the west end wing is a large rectangular 
chamber with a ceiling skylight. The walls are wainscoted with marble 
and have ornamental columns. Directly over the speaker's desk is the 
largest painting in the house: a picture, valued at $30,000, of Lewis and 
Clark meeting the Indians at Ross Hole. It is the work of Charles Russell. 
In the house lobby are six large historical paintings by E. S. Paxson. The 
first, just left of the entrance, shows Indian messengers on their way to 
St. Louis to obtain the "white man's book" (the Bible). The next pic- 
ture, The Border Land, shows settlers with their wagons on one side of a 
stream, Indians on the other. Lewis and Clark at Three Forks is a large 
panel depicting the explorers with their Indian woman guide Sacajawea 
at the spot where she identified her own country. Opposite are paintings 
of Lewis at Black Eagle Falls, of Pierre de la Verendrye, and of the sur- 
render of Chief Joseph. 

The senate chamber in the west wing of the original section is similar 
to the house in design. The floor is blue-carpeted and the furnishings are 
of mahogany. Around the room just below the skylight. is a cove twelve 
feet deep containing paintings. One of the two largest, directly over the 
president's desk, commemorates the Louisiana Purchase. Opposite is a 
depiction of Custer's last fight. To the left of the president's desk is a 
painting of the early fur traders Dawson (standing) and Chouteau (sit- 
ting), with bundles of furs and pelts heaped around them. Next to this 
work is another painting of Lewis, Clark, and Sacajawea. Left of the 
Custer picture is a panel that represents Fathers Ravalli and De Smet 
bringing Christianity to the Indians. The last panel is a scene in Nelson's 
Gulch near Helena. 


In the supreme court chamber, with its green-carpeted floor and mahog- 
any furnishings, are other paintings by Charles A. Pedretti. Above the 
rostrum are three of his paintings (left to right) an emigrant train 
being attacked by Indians, Lewis's first glimpse of the Rockies, and Presi- 
dent Cleveland signing the act that admitted Montana to the Union. 
Other paintings to right and left of this group are The Gates of the 
Mountains, The Last of the Buffalo, and The Buffalo Chase. In the law 
library are several landscapes by Ralph de Camp. 

The i2i/ 2 -acre landscaped capitol grounds are set with trees and 
shrubs native to Montana. In front of the building is a paved plaza about 
40 feet long and 35 feet wide; from Lockey Avenue a circular driveway 
leads to the south entrance of the building; winding walks cross the 
grounds. Near the west entrance is a bronze equestrian statue of General 
Francis Meagher, acting Territorial Governor, who was drowned near 
Fort Benton in 1867. The statue is the work of Charles J. Mulligan, a 
pupil of the sculptor Lorado Taft. 

The legislature of Montana first met in a log cabin with a dirt floor, 
at Bannack, on December 12, 1864. Thereafter, for a time, it met in build- 
ings that were either rented or donated. As the need for a State-owned 
capitol grew, a commission consisting of the Governor and four qualified 
electors was appointed to plan the erection of a permanent building. In 
1896 one million dollars was appropriated for the State Capitol, and an 
open competition was held to select a design. Forty-nine firms and indi- 
vidual architects submitted plans, and George R. Mann of St. Louis won. 
Second prize was awarded to Cass Gilbert. 

The cornerstone was laid July 4, 1899, under the auspices of the Grand 
Lodge of Masons with all the formality and solemnity of Masonic ritual. 
People from all parts of the State attended the ceremony. Helena was 
thrown wide open fireworks were discharged, people danced in the 
streets, and there was a shooting scrape or two. 

In 1909 the legislature voted to enlarge the capitol by adding wings. 
The firm of F. M. Andrews of New York was selected as architects with 
Link and Haire of Helena as associates. The wings were completed in 

The STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri.; 9-4 Sat.), 
first floor, east wing of the capitol, is Montana's outstanding historical 
museum and preserves souvenirs of every phase of the State's develop- 
ment. There are grim mementos of vigilante activities, of several wars, 
and of Indian history. One cabinet holds a collection of Indian curios 
gathered by Peter Ronan and presented to the historical society by Sena- 
tor W. A. Clark. Relics of the Custer Battle include the officers' swords, 
pictures of the participants, and copies of the first newspaper accounts 
of the disaster. The State's industries are represented by exhibits of wood, 
ores, metals, and refining and manufacturing processes. The natural his- 
tory section has dinosaur bones and other fossil remains, mounted speci- 
mens of buffalo, deer, elk, mountain goats, bears, and native birds. 

The library shelves contain several thousand volumes dealing with the 
history of Montana, the Northwest, and the Nation. There are complete 


files of all Montana newspapers, and some rare copies of Colonial pam- 
phlets. Another rarity is a large volume of Audubon prints, of which only 
25 copies were made before the plates were destroyed by fire. On the 
wall of the library are pictures of Montana pioneers and pioneer scenes. 

12. A STONE BARN (private), 320 E. 6th Ave., back of the Chris- 
tian Science church, was the studio of Charles M. Russell during his win- 
ters in Helena in the i88o's and early 1 890*5. The artist used to drift 
in from the range late in the fall, and stay until there was sufficient new 
grass in spring to feed his horse. He also painted in a hen house nearby. 
In such humble quarters he did some of his best-known work. The barn 
is used as a dwelling. 

The OLD BUSINESS DISTRICT, S. Main St. between Broadway and 
State St., is occupied by buildings erected in the iSyo's. Log and brick 
structures in various states of repair line the street on both sides. Here 
the richest placer deposits were found. It is said that the early-day miners 
did not reach true bedrock at this point; the older buildings rest on un- 
worked sands and gravels that are probably much more valuable than the 
buildings themselves. 

13. PLACER HOTEL, W. Main and Grand Sts., is on the site of an 
old placer working. When the basement was excavated in 1911, the 
deeper sands yielded enough gold to pay the cost of the work. 

14. HELENA'S OLDEST BUILDING (open by permission), 208 S. 
Park Ave., is a low two-room log cabin. It was built* in 1865 by a man 
named Butt, who lived there only a short time. Two large black locust 
trees in front of it were planted in 1870. It is in fair condition, and is 
occupied as a residence. 


15. MOUNT ASCENSION (5,360 alt.) is S. of the city's East Side 
(footpath at ist Ave. and Chaucer St.). The trail is not steep, and this 
mountain is the most convenient place for a night view of Helena. 

16. MOUNT HELENA (5,462 alt.), just beyond the SW. city limits, 
is reached by a footpath from W. Lawrence St. The ascent is steep in 
places, but not difficult or dangerous. The trail winds through timber 
along the north slope of the mountain, past a cavelike shelter. Near the 
summit it rises sharply. The view embraces the Continental Divide and 
Ten Mile Canyon to the west ; the Prickly Pear and Missouri Valleys, and 
the Elkhorn and Big Belt Mountains to the east. For years the State fair 
featured a run up the mountainside that was no sport for a weakling. 

UNION VILLE, 4 miles S., is reached by either of two roads that begin 
at the south end of W. Main St. and wind up Grizzly and Oro Fino 
Gulches. The roads join before reaching Unionville. In and about the 
town are several old gold mines, including the Spring Hill and Whitlatch- 
Union, the ruins of an early stamp mill, and a modern flotation milk 
Many Helena people own summer homes in the neighborhood. 

Lead Smelter and Zinc Recovery Plant, 5.5 m., Broadwater Resort, 3.4 m., Fort 
Harrison Veterans' Hospital, 43 m., McDonald Pass on the Continental Divide, 
15.9 m,, Rimini, 17.1 m. (see Tour lA). Alhambra Hot Springs, 14.6 m., Gates of 
the Mountains, 19 A m, (see Tour 6, Sec. b). Marysville, 20.7 m. (see Tour 8). 

Railroad Stations: N. end of Higgins Ave. for Northern Pacific Ry.; S. end of 

Higgins Ave. bridge for Milwaukee R.R. 

Bus Stations: 238 W. Main St. for Intermountain Transportation and Meisinger's 

Stages; 118 W. Broadway for Washington Motor Coach (Greyhound); Northern 

Pacific Ry. station for Northern Pacific busses. 

Airport: 2 m. SW. on US 93 for Northwest Airlines; taxi 5O0. 

Street Busses: Fare 50. 

Taxis: Fare 250 a person for first mile; then io0 a mile. 

Traffic Regulations: No U-turns on Higgins Ave.; no all-night parking on paved 

downtown streets; i hr. parking limit downtown, 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. 

Street Numbering: Streets are numbered from Higgins Ave. E. and W. ; from Front 

St. N. and S. 

Accommodations: Four hotels; 6 tourist camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 207 E. Main St. 

Radio Station: KGVO (1260 kc.). 

Motion Picture Houses: Five. 

Swimming: Municipal pool, Pattee and Front Sts.; free. 

Tennis: University courts, Connell and John Aves. ; fee 250 an hr. for nonmembers. 

Golf: Municipal course, 18 holes, 400 South Ave. E. ; greens fee 5O0. 

Athletics (incl. baseball and football) : Dornblaser Field, university campus ; ball 

park, Higgins and South Aves.; Kiwanis Park, 300 E. Front St. 

Annual Events: Interscholastic track and field meet, May. Western Montana fair, 
August. Fish and game banquet, no fixed date. 

MISSOULA (3,223 alt., 14,657 pop.), stands on the level bed of a pre- 
historic lake, at the mouth of Hell Gate Canyon. The Sapphire Moun- 
tains extend southward ; the Bitterroots, with Lolo Peak prominent among 
them, loom on the southwestern horizon. From the high country to the 
north, icy Rattlesnake Creek rushes down to empty into Clark Fork of the 
Columbia (locally called the Missoula River} near the city's eastern 
limits. The narrow entrance to Hell Gate Canyon is guarded by Mount 
Jumbo on the north, Mount Sentinel on the south. In the northwestern 
distance rises the symmetrical top of Squaw Peak, glistening white in win- 
ter, smoke-blue in summer. Clark Fork, which cuts the city in two, is 
shallow but swift, its current split by a series of islands. Three bridges 
unite the north and south parts of Missoula: the old-fashioned iron-and- 
plank Van Buren Street bridge near the east end of town, the Higgins 
Avenue bridge at the center, and the modern concrete Parkway bridge 
near the west end. 

The city itself is neat and attractive, and gives an impression of com- 
pactness in its business district and in such residential areas as the one 
west pf the university. South of the river the residential section merges 



imperceptibly with the environs of the university, where the homes of 
many faculty members are interspersed with fraternity and sorority houses 
that are distinguished from other residences only by occasional groups of 
loitering students. Student life in these houses, while not marked by 
restraint, has closer ties with the faculty than is generally the case in such 
institutions. The city has a tendency to straggle away with little apparent 
plan. One section extends far northeastward between Rattlesnake Creek 
and Mount Jumbo, and ends as a huddle of summer cabins in a grove of 
pines. Another, somewhat grimy and smoke-stained, is crowded between 
the Northern Pacific Railway and the base of Waterworks Hill. On its 
wide western edge where it meets no natural barrier, the city advances on 
the river flat seemingly at random. 

In general, Missoula is characterized by broad avenues lined with maple 
and cutleaf birch, handsome residences, well-kept lawns, and gardens of 
great variety and richness. Because of its comparatively low altitude and 
its situation on the Pacific slope of the Continental Divide, Missoula has 
for Montana a mild climate and generous rainfall. Cherry and apple 
trees, fragrant with blossoms or rosy with fruit according to season, adorn 
nearly every good-sized yard in the residential sections. 

In addition to being Montana's chief educational center as home of the 
State university, Missoula is headquarters for Region One of the U. S. 
Forest Service ( see FORESTS) and a trading center for the agriculture of 
four fertile valleys: the Flathead, the Bitterroot, the Blackfoot, and the 
Missoula. Its location to a large extent determines the nature of its indus- 
tries; flour milling and sugar refining are most important. A brewery, a 
meat packing plant, and several creameries handle large quantities of farm 
and ranch products. The largest sawmill in Montana is at Bonner, seven 
miles east of Missoula, and lumber and finished wood products are made 
within the city. 

Missoula takes its name from the Salish Indian word Im-i-sul-a (by the 
chilling waters). Some interpretations refer to its site as a place of bad 
omen, rather than to the temperature of the river, which is essentially 
that of any mountain stream. But if the name is one of darkness and fore- 
boding it does not describe the city. Missoula' s bright, youthful optimism, 
heightened by the presence of 2,000 university students, is, on the con- 
trary, perhaps its most definite characteristic. 

Long before the white man came, the site of Missoula was familiar to 
both Salish and Blackfeet Indians. The Salish had to pass through Hell 
Gate Canyon to reach the plains on their periodic buffalo hunts. At the 
entrance to the canyon, an ideal spot for ambush, the Blackfeet would 

Ittack them. The reputation of the place caused French-Canadian trappers 
3 call it "Porte de 1'Enfer," or "Gate of Hell." 
The first white men were not molested. Capt. Meriwether Lewis and 
is party camped briefly at the confluence of Rattlesnake Creek and Clark 
brk on July 4, 1806 (see HISTORY), then proceeded safely up Hell 
jate Canyon. David Thompson visited the site of Missoula in 1812, 
limbed Mount Jumbo, and from there mapped the surrounding country, 
lut the first settlers in the region, the Jesuits who founded St. Mary's 


Mission, 30 miles to the south, met with Indian troubles that forced them 
to abandon the mission for a time. 

Gov. Isaac I. Stevens led his railroad survey party into the region in the 
fall of 1853. With him was Capt. C. P. Higgins, one of the founders 
of Missoula. In 1855 Stevens met the Flathead, Pend d'Oreille, and 
Kootenai Indians in council at a cottonwood grove nine miles west of 
Missoula, and concluded a reservation treaty with them. 

By that time there was considerable traffic through Hell Gate Canyon, 
and the valley became a stopping place for pack trains. In 1860 Frank L. 
Worden and Captain Higgins built a log trading post four miles west of 
the present townsite, and called it "Hell Gate Ronde" ; other cabins were 
built around it. In the winter of 1860 6 1 William Hamilton erected a 
small log cabin at the mouth of Rattlesnake Creek, the first building on 
the site of present-day Missoula. The legislature of Washington Territory 
established Missoula County, including in it a large part of what later 
became western Montana, and Hell Gate became its seat. Montana's first 
county election was held there in 1861. 

Next year the Mullan military road approached Hell Gate, the crews 
working throughout the winter to complete the grades through the canyon. 
In the summer of 1863 hundreds followed this road from Idaho to the 
gold mines at Alder Gulch. 

In 1865 Worden and Higgins built a sawmill and a flour mill at 
almost the exact present-day center of the city, and started a new store 
near the mills. The handful of settlers at Hell Gate Ronde moved to the 
new site, which was at first known as Missoula Mills. 

Up to 1872 the district was served by five toll roads from Deer Lodge. 
The toll was 50 cents for horse and rider, $i for a team, and 25 cents a 
head for cattle. That year the county bought the roads, and there was a 
great celebration. The following April several Sisters of the Charity of 
Providence opened a hospital and school in a small frame building near 
the site of St. Patrick's Hospital. The small chapel in the building was 
Missoula's first place of worship. 

When the Nez Perce Indians, under Chief Joseph, went on the warpath 
in 1877 (see HISTORY), the people of Missoula became alarmed and 
asked for troops. They were not molested, but the incident led to the 
establishment of Fort Missoula, two and one-half miles southwest of the 

Missoula's principal growth dates from the arrival of the Northern 
Pacific Railway in 1883, when it became a division point with repair 
shops. On March 12, 1885, it was incorporated as a city. Growth was fur- 
ther stimulated by the building of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and 
Pacific (1908). 

The State university, established in 1895, nas greatly influenced the 
economic and cultural life of the city. The accommodation of students 
amounts to an industry that helps tide the community over lean years ; cul- 
turally, its most immediate effect has been to make higher education avail- 
able to a far greater share of the young men and women of Missoula than 
of other communities in the State, some of which are separated from it by 


a distance equal to that from New York to Quebec or Chicago to Memphis. 

Missoula experienced a slow but steady growth during the first third of 
the twentieth century. The State university began to take a larger place 
in community life, the regional office of the U. S. Forest Service was 
installed at Missoula in 1908, there was a steady increase of civic groups 
common to most cities, and the city planning board was organized in 
1934. Even so, Missoula emerged but slowly from its status as a frontier 
town. As late as the early thirties, Indians still camped on the flats around 
the city to dig camas roots. 

In 1936 and 1937 Missoula grew rapidly, and estimates of population 
ranged from 18,000 to 25,000 at the end of the latter year. The largest 
single factor in this growth was perhaps the westward movement of 
thousands of people from the eastern drought areas. 


The University is at the E. end of University Ave., and consists of 19 
buildings on a loo-acre campus at the base of Mount Sentinel. An addi- 
tional 520-acre tract extends up steep, grassy slopes to the summit, 2,000 
feet higher, a campus feature appropriate to this mountainous State. The 
modern buildings vary in architectural style, each showing the influence 
of the period when it was designed. Seen from the University Avenue 
approach in summer, the whole campus is dressed in vivid green; the 
red-brick Main Hall, standing in an open space at the head of the great 
area of greensward called the Oval, is the first object of a contrasting 
color to catch the eye. The other structures are revealed by green roofs 
rising among the trees. 

The first step toward founding Montana State University was taken in 
1 88 1, when Congress set aside 72 square miles of public land with the 
provision that the income from its sale or lease be used for the support 
of such a school. The campus site was given to the State by Frances G. 
Higgins and Edward L. Bonner of Missoula. 

In 1895 the University was established, with Oscar J. Craig as its first 
president. There was little equipment, and classes were held in temporary 
quarters until 1899 when the first buildings were ready for occupancy. 
Many buildings have been added; in 1937 the group on the campus rep- 
resented an investment of $3,000,000. The schools of forestry and jour- 
nalism were added about 1912 to round out the curriculum. The forestry 
school, in particular, has distinguished itself. Nearly all its graduates are 
employed by the U. S. Forest Service in Region One. 

Harold Clayton Urey, who was awarded the 1934 Nobel prize in 
chemistry, for his discovery of heavy water, was a student and later an 
instructor at Montana. H. G. Merriam, whose Frontier and Midland (see 
THE ARTS) is recognized as one of the Nation's important magazines 
of regional literature, is professor of English and chairman of the divi- 
sion of the humanities. The Montana Masquers, a university dramatic 
group, have a distinguished record of productions. On December 16, 
1921, they gave the first performance in English of Leonid Andreyev's 

i 7 6 




C. M. ST. P. a P. RY 





He Who Gets Slapped, anticipating the Theater Guild's New York open- 
ing by 24 days. 

The University is co-educational. Most of the 2,000 undergraduates 
register in the College of Arts and Sciences, which has four major divi- 
sions: humanities, biological science, physical science, and social science. 
About 460 take forestry and journalism. There are also schools of busi- 
ness, education, law, music, pharmacy, military science, and religion, a 
summer school, and extension courses. 


1. MAIN HALL (open 7:45-11 weekdays; 9-6 Sun.), head of Oval 
opposite end of University Ave., one of the oldest buildings (1898) on 
the campus, houses the administrative offices and has classrooms and a 
small auditorium on the second and third floors. It is designed in a modi- 
fied Romanesque style with an impressive entrance and clock tower. In 
the entrance hall is a topographic map of the State, 7 by 12 feet, with 
geological structure indicated by coloration; relief maps and an exhibit 
of Montana petroleum products are near it. In the basement are cases of 
minerals and rocks gathered by the geology department. 

2. SCIENCE HALL (open 8 a.m.-10:30 p.m. weekdays; 8-1 Sat.), just 
S. of Main Hall, was built in 1898. It is an old red brick structure with 
high-ceiled classrooms and small laboratories. 

3. The LAW SCHOOL (open 8 a.m.- 10 p.m. Mon.-Fri.; 8-12 Sat.; 
3-6 Sun.), N. of Oval and W. of John Ave., was built in 1908 to house 
the library. Its two-columned and pedimented entrance portico is de- 
signed in the classic tradition. 

4. The LIBRARY (open 8-12 and 1-5 Mon.-Fri.; also 7-9:30 Mon.- 
Thurs.; 9-12 and 2-5 Sat.; 2:30-5:30 Sun.), back of Law School at N. 
end of Hello Walk, is a three-story structure of reinforced concrete and 
tapestry brick erected in 1921. It is the largest library in the State, with 
125,000 books and 35,000 pamphlets. Stacks, protected by fireproof walls, 
extend through all three floors on the north side of the building. The 
Treasure Room on the third floor has an extensive collection of source 
material on the Northwest. Paxson's painting Sacajawea and a western 
scene by Irvin Shope hang on its walls. 

5. The modern STUDENT UNION BUILDING (hours vary; visitors 
welcome), SE. corner Maurice and Connell Aves., is the students' social 
center. Built in 1935, it is highly functional in design, with long simple 
lines and sparing use of ornamentation. A bookstore and a restaurant 
occupy the first floor; offices of student organizations and athletic board, 
the second floor; a lounge extends the entire length of the third floor; 
a large ballroom, the Gold Room, and two smaller ones, the Copper and 
Silver Rooms, are on the fourth floor. The auditorium (seating 1,500) 
and the stage occupy the entire north side of the building up to the Gold 
Room level. 

6. The low, square ART MUSEUM (open 1-5 weekdays except dur- 
ing meetings in auditorium), S. of Oval on Maurice Ave., was dedicated 
in 1937. It is the first art museum in Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, or the 


Dakotas an area once described by a magazine as "from the standpoint 
of art a cultural air pocket . . . with a nostalgia for national prominence 
in the arts. ..." Handicapped by lack of funds, the museum was obliged 
to begin its art collection with a group of 47 collotype facsimiles stress- 
ing artistic quality rather than "price tag aesthetics." The facsimilies, care- 
fully chosen for their faithfulness to the originals, included copies of 
works by such masters as Monet, Rembrandt, Van Gogh, Degas, Gauguin, 
Kent, Cezanne, and others. A set of lantern slides is used chiefly by study 
groups to illustrate architecture, painting, and sculpture. 

7. The JOURNALISM BUILDING (open 8 a.m.-10:15 p.m. Mon.- 
Fri.; 8-6 Sat.), directly S. of Science Hall, is a simple three-story brick 
structure built in 1936, which houses the school of journalism and the 
publishing plant of the student newspaper, the Montana Kaimin. The 
entrance is distinguished by five sandblasted glass panels depicting the 
history of printing. 

In this school instruction and practical experience are carried on to- 
gether. The publishing plant is similar to that of a commercial news- 
paper; students help to operate a university news service for the Montana 
Press Association, and the association has an advisory board for the school. 

8. The FORESTRY BUILDING (open 8-10 Mon.-Fri.; 8-6 Sat.), 
directly S. of Main Hall, was erected in 1921. The walls of tapestry brick 
are ornamented with pine trees and other figures in terra cotta, which 
form a decorative band encircling the building between the second and 
third floors. 

The school has its own nursery and its own 2,ooo-acre laboratory for- 
est. Large forests and lumbering operations within a few miles of the 
campus provide opportunities for study of timber stands and conditions 
prevalent in northwestern forests. Regional headquarters of the U. S. 
Forest Service cooperates with the school. Practice in the field supplements 
instruction, and insures a working grasp of forest care and wild-life man- 
agement. Enrollment is limited, and only students who show marked 
ability are permitted to take the full course. 

9. The GYMNASIUM (open 7:30-6 weekdays), SE. of the Forestry 
Bldg., S. end of Dornblaser Field, is a spacious building designed (1921) 
in the modern style. Its facilities include a swimming pool (open to men 
8-6 Mon., Wed., Fri.; to women 8-6 Tues., Thurs.) and an indoor run- 
ning track. Over the entrance is a copy in bronze of the Discobolus of 

10. The NATURAL SCIENCE BUILDING (open 8-11 Mon.-Fri.; 
8-6 Sat.; 9-6 Sun.), John Ave., N. of Oval, erected in 1918, is of func- 
tional design. Edgar S. Paxson's canvas, .Custer's Last Stand, measuring 
6 by 9 feet, hangs (R) just inside the entrance. The BIOLOGICAL MUSEUM 
(open whenever a staff member is in the building, usually 8-6), on the 
second floor, contains an extensive collection of Montana plants, animals, 
and insects. 

^ ii. The FORESTRY SCHOOL NURSERY, entrance at John Ave. and 
S. 6th St. E., can grow as many as 1,000,000 trees a year. At its south 
end are breeding pens for pheasants. 



12. The BONNER HOUSE (private), 910 Gerald Ave., is a notable 
example of the Victorian gingerbread style of architecture. Well pre- 
served and set in spacious grounds shaded by tall trees, it is designed 
with a round tower at one corner, and elaborately decorated with every 
style of ornament known to the builder of that period. 

end of Higgins Ave. bridge, is occupied by a power plant. The flour mill 
was a two-story frame building on a stone foundation. Power was sup- 
plied by an overshot wheel driven by water brought in a wooden flume 
from Rattlesnake Creek. 

14. The ROMAN CATHOLIC GROUP, on both sides of W. Pine St. 
between Harris and McCormick Sts., consists of a half-dozen institutions. 
St. Francis Xavier Church (1891) is designed in a modified Romanesque 
style, with elaborate paintings and mural decorations by Joseph Carignano, 
S. J. The Sacred Heart Academy (1873), Loyola High School (1907), 
and St. Francis Xavier Parochial School (1927) have several hundred 
students enrolled. The latter has a large modern gymnasium and audi- 
torium. St. Patrick's (1873), western Montana's best equipped hospital, 
originally shared a small building with the academy. The unused St. 
Michael's Mission (1863) was originally at Hell Gate Ronde as the first 
church for white men in western Montana ; it was later moved to its pres- 
ent situation. 

between Woody and Stevens Sts., and extending to W. Pine St., is a three- 
story structure of light gray terra cotta surmounted by a clock tower. Eight 
murals by Paxson hang above the stairs just inside the Broadway entrance. 
The panels depict a Montana roundup, an Indian buffalo hunt, early 
methods of transportation, and events in Montana history. 

On the tree-shaded grounds are a concrete bandstand used for concerts 
by the municipal band, a World War memorial (1921) in bronze, 
depicting a doughboy, and the gray stone county jail built in 1886. 

1 6. The FEDERAL BUILDING, NE. corner of Broadway and Pattee 
St., is a three-story structure of classic design. The east wing and the 
spacious addition in the rear are occupied by the U. S. Forest Service. 

17. The PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 10-9 weekdays during school 
year; 9-6 July-Aug.), SW. corner of E. Pine and Pattee Sts., contains 
50,000 volumes. The Ryman collection of more than 300 volumes em- 
phasizes Northwest history and Montana subjects. There is a special 
Montana collection of 300 volumes. A painting of Chief Chariot of the 
Flathead Indians, by Edgar S. Paxson, hangs in the reading room on the 
second floor. In the basement is the CHILDREN'S DEPARTMENT (open 
12-6 Mon.-Fri.; 10-6 Sat.). 

The two-story building is of reddish brown brick and gray stucco with 
white-trimmed windows. Wide concrete steps lead up to the entrance, 
between brick piers and concrete columns supporting a pediment. 

18. The RANKIN HOUSE (private), 134 Madison St., the former 


home of Jeannette Rankin, first woman member of Congress, is one of the 
oddities of Missoula. The building is a simple two-story boxlike brick 
structure, but the cupola of wood and glass is roofed like a Burmese tem- 
ple. It was built in the i88o's. 

19. WATERWORKS HILL, N. of Northern Pacific Ry. tracks, is 
reached by a dirt road L. from oil paved Madison St. From this point 
there is an excellent view of the city. 

20. GREENOUGH PARK, entrance at Vine and Madison Sts., ex- 
tends along Rattlesnake Creek at the foot of Waterworks Hill. It was 
given to the city by Mrs. Tennessee L. Greenough, whose gingerbread 
period house, with its spacious grounds, is opposite the park entrance. 
Most of the ly-acre park is heavily wooded. Tables for picnic parties are 
provided in cleared spaces, but in the main the wild natural beauty has 
not been disturbed. A one-way road circles the park ravine, and there 
are numerous foot trails and bridges. 

21. The SITE OF THE CHINESE CEMETERY, SE. end of Cherry St. 
between Harrison and Fillmore Sts., has known few Chinamen, dead or 
alive, for a generation. In 1865 many Chinese came in from the Cedar 
Creek placer diggings, but left after four of their number were killed by 
white laborers in 1892. The cemetery was used only temporarily, the 
bones of the dead being exhumed after 12 years and shipped to China, 
in accordance with custom. A newspaper item (1891) tells of a funeral 
in which 500 Chinese took part while most of the white population 


watched. Mourners were so adorned with festival draperies that they 
frightened horses; band music mingled with the beating of drums. The 
dead man's personal effects were burned, to prevent wrangling by the 
heirs. There was plenty of food and drink, and what remained after the 
burial was devoured by hungry Indians. 

In October 1937 WPA workmen engaged in leveling Cherry Street 
found a silver-handled casket containing a silk kimono, trousers, and a 
pair of shoes. A burial brick inscribed in Chinese explained that "Lee Foo 
Lim is buried here." 


22. MOUNT SENTINEL, reached by trail from the university cam- 
pus, is a strenuous but short climb, and the view from the top embraces 
the whole sweep of the mountain-rimmed Missoula Valley and extends 
far down the Bitterroot. On the north is a steep drop into Hell Gate 
Canyon ; on the east are gentle forested slopes. 

23. MOUNT JUMBO, reached from Vine St. or Cherry St., is some- 
what easier to climb than Sentinel. The view is excellent. A single pine 
stands guard about halfway up the grassy western slope. 

24. MONTANA POWER PARK, 3 miles N. on the Rattlesnake Rd., 
a continuation of Van Buren St., is in a shady grove, with piped running 
water, stoves for outdoor cooking, tables and benches, volley ball courts, 
and a baseball field. 

West end of Hell Gate Canyon, 1 m. Sugar Refinery, 1.7 m., Hell Gate Store, 
4.4 m., Council Grove, 9 m., Frenchtown, 16.3 m. (see Tour 1, Sec. d) ; Fort Mis- 
soula, 2J m., Flathead Indian Reservation, 42 m. Stevensville 29-5 m. (see Tour 
7); Bonner Sawmill, 7.8 m. (see Tour 8); National Bison Range Headquarters, 
47.3 m. (see Tour 12). 


Tour i 

(Beach, N. D.) Wibaux Glendive Miles City Billings Bozeman 
Three Forks Butte Garrison Missoula Saltese (Wallace, Idaho) ; 
US 10 and US 10 S. 
North Dakota Line to Idaho Line, 741.8 m. 

Intermountain Transportation Company and Northland Greyhound Bus Lines pro- 
vide transportation throughout; route paralleled by Northern Pacific Ry. between 
Glendive and Missoula ; by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific R.R. between 
Three Forks and the Idaho Line; and throughout by planes of Northwest Airlines. 
Hotels in cities; tourist cabins and campgrounds at short intervals. 
Roadbed oil-surfaced throughout. In the mountains, snow and ice sometimes create 
hazards in winter, but road is kept open. 

Section a. NORTH DAKOTA LINE to BILLINGS, 271 m., US 10. 

This section of US 10 traverses the "boots and saddle" country of east- 
ern Montana, once a limitless sweep of grassland and sagebrush, now 
largely broken up into fenced rectangles of field and pasture. The Yellow- 
stone River, paralleling the highway and providing water for irrigation, 
has determined the character of development here: a large part of the 
land is now farmed and the towns along the main highway are largely 
farmers' trade centers; out on the side roads, however, are communities 
rich in the atmosphere of the old cattle country. Here the cowpuncher 
lingers; the man who cannot travel fifty miles in the saddle without dis- 
comfort is felt to have missed the most important part of a citizen's 

The landscape varies greatly. For long distances there is only rolling 
plain the rugged sort of country that passes for level land in Montana. 
At other places the road runs for miles under high banks that shut off 
the view to one side or the other, then rapidly rises to a bench, with 
buttes and eroded cliffs between itself and the river, while in the farthest 
distance loom hills that are unmistakably hills even by western standards. 
In spring most of the hillsides are green ; later they vary from sober gray, 
through yellows and browns, to deep red. Many of them are marked with 
black bands, exposed veins of lignite, from a few inches to many feet 
in thickness. In some places, the roadbed itself is partly coal. 

The first known white party to travel along the Yellowstone was that 
led by Lt. William Clark in 1806 (see HISTORY). 

US 10 crosses the North Dakota Line, m., 2 miles west of Beach, 
N. D. 

WIBAUX (pronounced Weebo), 11 m. (2,634 alt - 6l 9 pop-) th e 
seat of Wibaux County, is in a deep coulee (valley) on the banks of 
Beaver Creek. This otherwise leisurely stream in spring becomes a flood. 


186 TOURS 

Several times its waters have partly submerged the town. The atmosphere 
of the town is reminiscent of the days when bawling cattle and hard- 
riding cowboys raised clouds of dust in its narrow streets. 

The stories of "shooting-up-the-town" that persist in many western 
places have real foundation here. Cowhands in from the range for a spree 
often amused themselves and disturbed the peace of less high-spirited 
citizens by reckless exhibitions of skill with firearms. It is said that a 
Wibaux storekeeper once built an excellent sidewalk in front of his store 
by driving into the ground the empty cartridge-shells he picked up where 
the boys "broke their guns." 

Both town and county were named for Pierre Wibaux, who settled 
here in 1883. His humor and sagacity are remembered in local legend. 
According to one tale, a Chicago packing plant once contracted with him 
for a fall shipment of cattle at a specified price. By roundup time the 
price had dropped, and the company refused to live up to its agreement. 

Certain that the contract was binding, Wibaux shipped his cattle to 
Chicago, sold to other buyers at the prevailing market price, and sent 
the packer a bill for the deficit. Payment was refused. Wibaux brought 
suit, and took a coachload of cowboys to Chicago to appear as his wit- 
nesses. "Have a good time, boys," he said. "Spend as much as you like. 
That company will pay for your entertainment." The boys needed no 
urging. They painted Chicago a rich cattle country red. Wibaux won the 
suit and the packing company was compelled to pay a large bill for 
"expense of plaintiff's witnesses/* 

The blizzards of 1886-87 wiped out Pierre Wibaux's herds but he 
found new backing in France, and lived to see the day when he owned 
75,000 head. 

Ranchers far distant from the railroad used Wibaux for a shipping 
point. Theodore Roosevelt drove his stock here from Medora, N. D., be- 
cause of the town's large loading pens. In a single year, 1,500,000 head 
of sheep were shipped from here. 

1. Left from Wibaux on State 7 to the BRUGHARD PLACE, 20 m., landscaped in 
the manner of an English country estate. Formerly known as Edgehill Ranch, it was 
the show place of the region. 

2. Right from Wibaux on Beaver Creek Road, a dirt road, to the old PIERRE 

3. Left from Wibaux on a saddle trail to ANVIL BUTTES, 11 m., in badlands. 
The coloring of the buttes is most unusual at dawn and in the early evening. 
(Guides and horses arranged for at office of the County Superintendent of Schools.) 

GLENDIVE, 38.6 m. (2,071 alt., 4,629 pop.), seat of Dawson County, 
was named for nearby Glendive Creek (a corruption of Glendale), the 
name given it by Sir St. George Gore (see HISTORY). Formerly the 
metropolis of a cattle empire, Glendive is now the trading and shipping 
center of an area that produces sugar beets, grain, and forage crops. The 
shops and division offices of the Northern Pacific Ry. provide an indus- 
trial pay roll. Lignite coal from nearby mines and natural gas piped from 
wells in the Cedar Creek anticline (arch of stratified rock) 20 miles 
south, supply the town's fuel. 


There is a free municipal swimming pool on Prospect Heights, N. 
Meade Ave. 

LARIMER'S AGATE SHOP (open weekdays 8-6), 225 N. Merrill Ave., 
contains an exhibit of moss agates, fossils, and Indian artifacts. THE 
DELL LEWIS COLLECTION (open weekdays 9-5), 308 River Ave., dis- 
plays many pieces of Indian pottery, utensils of unknown age, and arrow- 
heads showing skilled craftsmanship. 

HUNGRY JOE (L), a massive butte, was named for an old prospector 
who once lived on or near it. Its summit, accessible by an easy hike over 
an old road, provides a view across the weird and bright-colored distor- 
tions of the badlands to the south. 

US 10 turns R. on Bell St. and crosses the YELLOWSTONE RIVER, 
38.8 m. 

At 39.5 m. is the junction with State 14 (see Tour 9). 

At 40.3 m. is the junction with State 18 (see Tour 9). 

Between Glendive and Fallon, US 10 runs through range land and 
wheat country. Here in the early i88o's occurred the last great buffalo 
hunt. Robe hunters brought in as many as one million hides in a season. 
The slaughter was carried on in winter by hunters, who spent their sum- 
mers cutting wood for river steamers. 

BADLANDS BUTTE (L) rises prominently beyond the Yellowstone, with 
the white sandstone bulk of EAGLE BUTTE behind it. 

188 TOURS 

FALLON, 69.7 m. (2,251 alt., 200 pop.), was named for Benjamin 
OTallon, Indian agent and army officer, nephew of William Clark, the 
explorer. His report of the slaughter of 29 members of the Jones-Imenell 
party of the Missouri Fur Company by 400 Blackfeet, in May 1823, pre- 
sents one of the most vivid pictures of Indian warfare in the West. 

About 1900 grain raising became important in this area, gradually in- 
creasing until the late 1920*5, when mechanized farming was at its peak. 
Some farmers planted 1,200 acres of wheat yearly. Diversified farming re- 
placed specialized grain production in the early i93o's. 

Buffalo grass, which once nourished millions of bison, is the natural 
vegetation of the region. Its destruction began when cattle and sheep 
replaced the buffalo, and was completed when the rich topsoil, no longer 
held by fibrous, slow-spreading roots, blew away during the drought years. 

TERRY, 79.5 m, (2,250 alt., 779 pop.), seat of Prairie County, was 
named for Gen. Alfred H. Terry, who commanded an expedition against 
the Sioux and Cheyenne in the campaign of 1876. 

Terry is the home of Berny Kempton, a former bronco buster and 
rodeo champion, who entertained Europeans with his roughriding, and 
astonished Australians by lassoing kangaroos. The rowdy vigor of the 
West is manifest here in the banter of cowpuncher, townsman, and farm- 
hand, as they meet on the streets or congregate in the poolrooms and 
drinking places. 

For a dozen miles the highway crosses a dry upland, parched by re- 
peated years of drought. Only the scavenger magpie is at home in this 

POWDER RIVER, 86.6 m., a tributary of the Yellowstone, named the 
Redstone by Clark in 1805, acquired its present name because the fine 
black sand along its banks resembles gunpowder. Generals Terry and Cus- 
ter camped at this crossing June 10, 1876, during their ill-fated campaign 
against the Sioux and Cheyenne. Powder River is well known in cattle 
country fiction, and during the World War was the battle cry of the 
Ninety-first Division. 

At 92.3 m. the road leaves the upland, and winds through the breaks 
of the Yellowstone Valley. Many of the trees along the coulee bottoms are 
twined about with a luxuriant growth of clematis, which, when in seed, 
gives a sheen resembling hoarfrost to the thick-set boughs. Sage hens, 
Chinese pheasants, and other game birds nest along the grassy banks of 
the river. 

LEON PARK, 116.8 m. (R), has a free campground and swimming 
pool, a nine-hole golf course (fee 350), and a boat course (boats 25$ an 

At 117.3 m. is the junction with US 12 (see Tour 17). 

The HORSE ABATTOIR, 117.8 m. (R), was established to make profit- 
able use of the thousands of horses that cluttered the range after farm 
mechanization and other causes had reduced the market for horses. It 
was fully equipped with modern slaughterhouse machinery. Horses were 
driven in from large corrals, shot, skinned, boned, and converted into 
a kind of inspired corned beef, much of which was shipped to Belgium. 



When, thanks to this demand, the local price of horses soared, the plant 
was closed. The FERA established a tannery here. Hides and pelts 
tanned here were displayed by the Department of Agriculture as examples 
of fine work. When a cry went up against Government competition with 
private industry, tanning was abandoned and the plant became a repair 
shop, despite an offer from the tannery workers, backed by the Farmers' 
Union, to run it as a cooperative enterprise. 

MILES CITY, 118.8 m. (2,364 alt., 7,175 pop.), named in honor of 
Gen. Nelson A. Miles, commander of the Fifth U. S. Infantry at Fort 
Keogh for several eventful years, is the seat of Custer County. 

Much of Custer County is still devoted to grazing. Although fences 
have reduced the range and brought changes in the operation of large 
cow outfits, the ten-gallon hats and high-heeled boots of puncher tradi- 
tion are often seen on Miles City streets. The town, whose name was once 
synonymous with the "wild and woolly," has lost much of its old "tough- 
ness." Many of the riders and wearers of spurs are mounted farmhands 
who hope to be mistaken for the punchers they admire. But the town 
nevertheless retains something of the color of the days when a long 
Texas cattle trail ended here. A rodeo is held every year, usually on or 
near July 4th. A cow-country flavor is noticeable also in the Eastern Mon- 
tana Fair, held in September. 

190 TOURS 

In the old rough days, the south side of Main St. was a solid block 
of saloons, gambling dens, and brothels, while the "decent" element 
(composed of buffalo buyers, bankers, and pawnshop keepers) lived on 
the north side. On one occasion, it is said, a member of the respectable 
group hit a gambler on the head with a singletree, and killed him. To 
save the good man embarrassment, his friends hastily hanged the dead 
man as a dangerous character. 

The town, once part of the hunting and camping grounds of the Crow, 
is visited occasionally by Cheyenne from the Tongue River Reservation. 

The city is a livestock market, and has a packing plant, as well as one 
distinctive cow-country business the manufacture of saddles. 

The first settlement, Milestown, sprang up on the eastern boundary of 
Fort Keogh Military Reservation (see HISTORY), south of the Yellow- 
stone, but was abandoned when the Government gave up that part of the 
reservation east of Tongue River. The present community is on the level 
bottom land at the confluence of the Tongue and Yellowstone Rivers. 

General Miles arrived at the mouth of Tongue River in August 1876, 
with instructions to reduce the possibility of war by compelling the Sioux 
and Cheyenne to return to their reservations. He established a canton- 
ment, which the troops occupied during the winter, and arranged for the 
building of Fort Keogh at the mouth of Tongue River in the spring. 
Miles encountered Sitting Bull north of Terry in October 1876, and de- 
feated him in a running battle at Cedar Creek. Early in January he de- 
feated Crazy Horse near the present site of Birney. In May he defeated 
Lame Deer, and in the fall of 1877 he caught Chief Joseph near Chinook 
(see Tour 2, Sec. a). 

In the days of steam boating on the Missouri, this town was a river 
port that received much freight, chiefly during the June rise of the Yel- 

SADDLERIES (open to public), 423 Main St. and 506-508 Main St., sell 
their wares throughout the world. Together they employ from 12 to 18 
expert craftsmen, who make everything from the ordinary saddle sold by 
catalog advertising up to the $5,000 silver- and gold-mounted "work of 
art" ordered by some cinema cowboy. They also make bags, pocketbooks, 
and other leather articles. 

PHOTOGRAPHS BY L. A. HUFFMAN, who came to Fort Keogh in 1877, 
are displayed in the lobby of the Olive Hotel, in the Miles City Club and 
other public places. The pictures show Indian friends of the photographer, 
roundup and frontier dance-hall scenes, and wild and domestic animals. 
Huffman made his first pictures with a home-made camera and developed 
them by a process of his own. 

The D. F. BARRY COLLECTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS, also of interest, is 
on view in a room at the plant of the Miles City Star. Hailed by Charles 
M. Russell as a master photographer, Barry posed few of his subjects, who 
were ordinary people doing everyday things. The Star plant also has The 
First Newspaper, a painting by Russell depicting an Indian reading 
hieroglyphics that another is weaving into a blanket. 

TOUR I 191 

RIVERSIDE PARK, at the western city limits (R), has a swimming pool 
(free for those who bring their own suits). 

Miles City is at the junction with State 22 (see Tour 10). 

FORT KEOGH, 120.8 m. (R), was built in 1877 as a base for troops 
engaged in subjugating Indians who rebelled against the white marrs 
wanton destruction of their food supply. Gen. Nelson A. Miles com- 
manded it up to 1880, when all the buffalo and a great many of the In- 
dians had died. But it remained an army post until 1900, and then became 
a remount station where horses were trained for the U. S. Army. Later 
the fort and military reservation was converted into a livestock experi- 
ment station. Here studies are being made of range conditions in an effort 
to make grass grow as it did in the days of the bison. 

Seven of the log buildings of the original fort stand but they have 
been rebuilt, and siding has been nailed over the logs. The old parade 
ground is covered with weeds. 

SIGNAL BUTTE (L) was used by officers at Fort Keogh for relaying 
messages by heliograph to the Black Hills, 175 miles southeast. 

HATHAWAY, 140 m. (2,451 alt., 50 pop.), has a post office and 
gasoline station. 

ROSEBUD, 152.5 m. (2,501 alt, 250 pop.), was named for the wild 
roses that blossom profusely in the meadows around it. 

At 157.9 m. is the junction with State 45. 

Left on this graveled road along Rosebud Creek to a junction with State 8, 53 m.; 
L. on State 8, 4 m. to LAME DEER (3,700 alt., 69 pop.), the agency of the Tongue 
River Indian Reservation (442,840 acres; established 1884), the home of 1,561 
Northern Cheyenne. A few of the old braves who fought in the Indian wars of the 
1870*5 remain. 

The reservation lies between the Crow reservation and Tongue River. Most of it 
is rolling grassland, but there are some forests. Tribal lands total 209,720 acres. 
Some property, individually owned, is leased to white farmers. Agricultural advisers 
and a livestock association help the Cheyenne to obtain a fair income from their 
land and stock. Part of the land is irrigated. 

The Cheyenne still use tepees occasionally in summer, but have adopted the easily 
prepared canned food of the white man. A school at Busby not only gives courses 
in modern cooking, but also produces beef, vegetables, and milk to feed its pupils. 
There are Roman Catholic and Mennonite congregations among the Indians, and a 
"peyote" cult of unknown strength (see Tour 3, sec. b). 

The Cheyenne were in general too nomadic to do much craftwork, but their bead- 
work is excellent. In the office of the county superintendent of schools at Forsyth 
are some fine examples of this work, with the beads strung on finely drawn sinews 
through punched holes. 

The Cheyenne call themselves Tsis-tsis-tas (similarly bred). "Cheyenne" is from 
the Sioux Shahiela or Shahiena, though sometimes said to be derived from the 
French chien (dog). The Dog Soldiers are a Cheyenne society. 

White men first met the tribe in the Dakotas, but had no trouble with them until 
the northern (Montana) group split off. The first fight (1857) grew out of an 
argument over horses. A series of clashes followed; the Indians steadfastly refused 
to go on a reservation. 

On March 17, 1876, Colonel Reynolds with about 500 men routed them on 
Powder River. On June 17 Sioux and Cheyenne forces held back General Crook 
on the Rosebud, near the present reservation, and eight days later they wiped out 
Custer. But the power of the whites was too great for them. By the end of October 
3,000 Indians were taken; many others fled to Canada. After one more fight the 
Cheyenne surrendered. One thousand were taken (1877) * a reservation in Indian 

192 TOURS 

Territory. A year of malaria and ill-treatment sent some back toward Montana, burn- 
ing, killing, and stealing. They fought three battles against heavy odds, with a loss 
of but 15. Captured in October 1878, they were taken to Fort Robinson, Neb., only 
to make an attempt at escape in which many were killed. In the end they won their 
right to live in Montana. As it was evident they preferred death to returning south, 
they were given this reservation in 1884. 

Before it split, the tribe was governed by a council of 44 chiefs. The four oldest 
members among them could delegate authority to a single chief. At present the 
council deals only with intra-tribal affairs; a superintendent enforces Federal rules. 
The O-mis-sis, largest and most important of the tribe's ten divisions, includes most 
of the Northern Cheyenne. 

"Medicine" is at once a symbol and an invocation of what white men call luck. 
Places, things, or actions that have brought misfortune are "bad medicine." Tribes 
have a big medicine, families and individuals lesser ones. 

The sacred cap is big medicine that honors the buffalo, once the chief source of 
food. The cap is made of the skin of a buffalo cow. Attached to it are two carved 
and painted horns. The keeper of the cap, like the medicine arrow keeper, is one 
of the most important men in the tribe. 

A Cheyenne myth says that the Great Medicine (Creator) made three kinds of 
people: men covered with hair; white men with hair on their heads, faces, and legs; 
red men with long hair on their heads only. The hairy men were strong, the white 
men cunning, the red men swift. Long ago the hairy men left their home in the 
north, and the red men followed. The hairy ones disappeared, and when the red 
men returned the white men were gone. Included in the story are descriptions of 
great floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and climatic changes in effect a his- 
tory of North American geology in legendary form. 

FORSYTH, 164 m. (2,515 alt., 1,591 pop.), the seat of Rosebud 
County, was named for Gen. James W. Forsyth, who landed here from a 
river steamer before there was a town and later wrote A Report of an 
Expedition up the Yellowstone River in 1875. Indians from the Tongue 
River reservation come here to trade and visit. 

At 170.5 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Left on this road is COLSTRIP, 36 m. (2,540 alt., 160 pop.). The coal-mining 
operations here are very impressive. A 3o-foot vein of lignite lies only a few feet 
underground. A gigantic dragline scrapes the overburden, then a steam shovel takes 
up the coal at the rate of five to seven tons at each "bite." The machinery is elec- 
trically operated, and all the coal is dumped directly into railroad cars as it comes 
from the vein. If this work were done by ordinary coal-mining methods, an army of 
men would be employed. Colstrip supplies much of the coal used for operation of 
Northern Pacific locomotives. 

SANDERS, 185.1 m. (2,678 alt., 50 pop.), consists chiefly of stock- 
loading pens on the wicTe flat along the Yellowstone. 

HYSHAM, 191.5 m. (2,667 alt -> 2 5 8 PP-)> seat of Treasure County, 
was named for Charles Hysham, owner of the Flying E brand, whose 
cattle range extended more than 70 miles across the county. 

Large fossil beds lie on both sides of the river here. Moss agates found 
in the vicinity are for sale in the town. 

US 10 now winds through lonely badlands. Under an uncompromising 
sun the sides of the buttes are mottled with brown, buff, and gray. After 
sundown, as twilight shades into dusk, the masses of guttered rock take 
on eerie tones of purple and black. Only the bark and scurry of prairie 
dogs by day, and the dismal howl of coyotes by night, indicate the pres- 
ence of living things. 

BIG HORN, 208.1 m. (2,712 alt., 50 pop.), is on ground occupied 

TOUR I 193 

almost continuously by white men since Lt. William Clark camped here 
on July 26, 1806. Manuel Lisa built a trading post here in 1807. In 1822 
Col. W. H. Ashley built another post, Fort Van Buren, two miles below 
the mouth of the Big Horn River (see HISTORY). Many who followed 
the old trails or wore new ones to the "Shining Mountains," stopped to 
rest at this settlement, which remained small but contributed much to the 
comfort of travelers and adventurers who came by waterway and trail. 

General Gibbon with 450 men crossed the Yellowstone at this point in 
June 1876, as he hurried south to aid General Custer in a battle that had 
already been lost. 

The BIG HORN RIVER, 209.5 m., a tributary of the Yellowstone, 
rises in the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming. Both the river and the 
mountains were named for the bighorn or Rocky Mountain sheep. 

CUSTER, 214.4 m. (2,749 alt., 150 pop.), was named for Gen. George 
A. Custer, killed in the Battle of the Little Big Horn (see Tour 3). 

Junction, a former village on the left bank of the Yellowstone, was 
washed away by the river. It was a freighting station for the Crow Indian 
Reservation. Earlier, it had been a campground for those traveling to and 
from Fort Custer at the mouth of the Little Horn. 

Several years ago the skeleton of a Triceratops, a giant dinosaur, was 
found in the Lance formation that forms the bluff on the left riverbank. 

The D R RANCH, 226.2 m. (R), is a typical modern "spread" (cattle 

POMPEY'S PILLAR, 238.7 m. (2,849 alt -> I 3 PP-)> a Valle 7 vil ' 
lage, was named for the nearby natural monument. 

POMPEY'S PILLAR, 241.2 m. (R), is an isolated rock 200 feet high on 
the south bank of the Yellowstone River. Clark climbed it, July 25, 1806, 
and carved his name on it. He named the rock in honor of little Pomp, 
son of Charbonneau and Sacajawea, chief guides and interpreters of the 
Lewis and Clark expedition. It had long been used by the Indians as a 
lookout and as a point from which to send up smoke signals. 

WORDEN, 247 m. (2,971 alt., 250 pop.), is a shipping point for 
sugar beets, Great Northern beans, seed peas, and vegetables. 

Between Worden and Huntley on both sides of the highway are pro- 
ductive farms watered by the HUNTLEY IRRIGATION PROJECT (see AGRI- 
CULTURE). Crops yielding more than $100 net profit an acre have been 
harvested year after year. The project has been a material factor in the 
expansion of the sugar-beet industry. 

HUNTLEY, 255.6 m. (3,038 alt., 150 pop.), is the administrative 
center for the Huntley Irrigation Project. 

US 10 crosses the Yellowstone; the BIG HORN MOUNTAINS are 
visible (L) ; southwest are the BEARTOOTHS. 

At 266.1 m. is the junction (R) with US 87 (see Tour 3). Between 
this point and 270.5 m. US 10 and US 87 are one route. 

Vertical SACRIFICE CLIFF (see BILLINGS), 269.3 m. (L), rises 200 
feet above the river. Back of Sacrifice Cliff is SIGNAL POINT, where In- 
dians built their signal fires. 

At 270.5 m. is the junction (L) with US 87 (see Tour 3). 

194 TOURS 

BILLINGS, 271 m. (3,117 alt, 16,380 pop.) (see BILLINGS). 

Points of Interest: Normal School, Polytechnic Institute, Orthopedic Hospital- 
School, Parmly Billings Memorial Library, Sugar Refinery, and others. 

Billings is at the junction (L) with US 87 (see Tour 3). 

Section b. BILLINGS to junction with US 10 N and US 10 S, 
178 m., US 10. 

Between Billings and Livingston US 10 follows the tortuous course of 
Yellowstone River between mountain ranges. A large part of the valley 
is irrigated. The road swings northwest through some of the highest and 
most rugged of the northern Rockies. 

West of BILLINGS, m., at 10 m. is the junction with an unimproved 

Right on this road to BASELINE SCHOOL, 5 m.; L. over a very narrow dirt road 
that rises sharply (dangerous R.R. crossing at 7 m.) to an abandoned schoolhouse, 
11 m., at the base of an unnamed timbered butte; L. across Canyon Creek on a nar- 
row bridge, 11.5 m.; R. at 12 m. to a bend in the road where stands (L) a vacant 
house with pointed roof, 14 m. Back of this building is the SITE OF THE "HOLING- 
UP" SHANTY of Calamity Jane Martha Canary. 

Born in Princeton, Mo., May i, 1852, she came with her parents to Virginia City 
in 1865 at the height of the Alder Gulch stampede. Few women took any part in 
the roaring, dangerous life of these camps. The woman who could engage in it 
actively, and not only compete with men in their own field but actually surpass 
many of them, gained their unstinted admiration. Calamity Jane became a scout 
for the U. S. Army in Indian campaigns, a prospector, a crack shot, and an expert 
horsewoman. No chronicler has drawn Calamity as a great lover, though sentimental 
journalists have tried to make something of her friendship with Wild Bill Hickok. 
Certainly she was not the "calico cat" type of female camp follower. She was given 
to shooting up saloons, and to raising hell with tongue and quirt. Old-timers in 
Castle, where she kept a restaurant in her later years, and in Harlowton, Big Tim- 
ber, and other towns, remember little good of her. But in fiction she lives on as the 
keen-eyed, courageous, riproaring daughter of the old West. 

HORSETHIEF CACHE, a high tableland surrounded by steep bluffs, is on the south 
side of the canyon, across from the site of Calamity Jane's house. It has but one 
approach, and that is well concealed. 

In this hide-out cattle rustlers of the i88o's corral ed stolen stock while waiting 
for a market. The lusty outlaws Charles (Rattlesnake Jake) Fallon and Edward 
(Longhair) Owen used it for a long period. Both were killed in a Lewistown gun 
battle in 1884 (see Tour 3). 

LAUREL, 15.1 m. (3,311 alt., 2,558 pop.), straggles on both sides of 
an intricate pattern of railroad tracks. Products from many parts of the 
world pass over the joint trackage here of the Northern Pacific, the Great 
Northern, and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. From here much of 
Montana's wheat, hay, copper, zinc, livestock, wool, lumber, poles, and 
other products are routed directly east to midwestern towns; southeast to 
St. Louis, Kansas City, and Gulf points; and west for ocean shipment. 
Long drags (ordinary trains, or strings of empty cars), redballs (special 
merchandise trains, with sealed cars), and hotshots (trains that travel at 
excess speed from terminal to terminal) arrive here, are "broke up" and 
"made up," and depart at all hours of the day and night. 

The large ASSEMBLY YARDS and CAR REPAIR SHOPS of the Northern 


196 TOURS 

Pacific Ry. are L. The Beartooth Range and the Pryor Mountains are 
visible beyond them. 

At Laurel is the junction with US 310 (see Tour 13). 

KLAN BUTTE, 21.1 m. (R), is 200 yards from the road, its top ac- 
cessible by two narrow trails. Some years ago members of the Ku Klux 
Klan used it as a meeting place. Rumor has it that Klan ceremonials on 
the high rock came to a sudden end when, in the course of an evening's 
ritual beneath a fiery cross, a rattlesnake bit the Grand Kleagle. 

A CLARK CAMP SITE is at 22.1 m. (L). Here on the riverbank the ex- 
plorer and his followers camped from July 19 to July 24, 1806. 

PARK CITY, 23.9 m. (3,410 alt, 350 pop.), was first called Rim 
Rock. Settlers planted elm, maple, and evergreens on the prairie, to the 
north of the town ; the grove is used as a tourist camp. Farmers from sur- 
rounding ranches sell fruits and vegetables at roadside stands near the 
village throughout the summer. 

COLUMBUS, 41.9 m. (3,624 alt, 835 pop.), seat of Stillwater County, 
began as a stage station on the Yellowstone Trail. Lying between the 
large sheep and cattle ranches to the south, and the wheat farms to the 
north, it developed as a trade center and shipping point. 

This is the railroad station nearest to a comparatively uncommercialized 
mountain recreational region on the headwaters of the Stillwater River. 

Left from Columbus on an improved road is ABSAROKEE, 14 m. (4,000 alt., 
353 P P-), in a dude ranch area. There is fine trout fishing in Stillwater River and 
in mountain streams nearby. Country dances are held every Saturday night in sum- 
mer. The town and the Absaroka Range bear the Crow's own name for themselves, 
the exact meaning of which is not known. According to some interpretations, early 
French traders erred in translating the Crow word "Apsaruke" as gens de cor beaux 
(the raven people). The older Crow declare it was their enemy, the Sioux, who per- 
petuated this error and fastened the name "Crow" on them. 

REEDPOINT, 58.8 m. (3,767 alt., 158 pop.), lies below the point of 
a ridge named for a family that homesteaded here. The Absaroka Range 
is visible (L), tinted at sunset with rose and gold, its foothills touched 
with purple shadows cast by the CRAZY MOUNTAINS (R). 

GREYCLIFF, 72 m. (3,980 alt., 85 pop.), is named for a gray-tinted 
cliff 3 miles east. 

BIG TIMBER, 82.3 m. (4,072 alt., 1,224 pop.), seat of Sweet Grass 
County, was named for the creek that rises in the Crazy Mountains and 
flows into the Yellowstone opposite the town. Little remains of the tim- 
ber, chiefly large cottonwoods, that at the time of settlement grew in the 
Yellowstone Valley near the old stage station at the mouth of Big Timber 
Creek. The point was called Rivers Across by Lieutenant Clark, because 
not only Big Timber Creek but Boulder River flow into the Yellowstone 

Almost dormant in winter, Big Timber bustles in summer, its wide 
streets thronged with tourist cars, for it is the center of one of the prin- 
cipal recreational regions in the State. Montana's first dude ranch was 
started at the base of the Crazy Mountains about 1911. 

The abundance of sweet-scented grasses and flowering plants in the 
valley spurred the development of livestock ranches and made honey pro- 

TOUR I 197 

duction profitable. In the 1890'$ Big Timber was one of the largest 
wool-shipping centers in the United States. From the vast ranges that 
extend northward, ox teams brought load after huge load to town. In 
1901, Montana's first woolen mill was established here in a stone build- 
ing that stands on McLeod St. 

In early Big Timber, as in other frontier towns, justice was informal 
but effective. A character remembered only as the Bad Swede, a chronic 
disturber of the peace, was once sentenced to spend three days in jail. The 
nearest jail was at Bozeman. As the sheriff had no desire to ride 60 miles 1 , 
with his cantankerous prisoner, he lowered him into a 3o-foot prospect 
hole. Bad Swede, it is said, emerged from this form of "solitary" a 
changed man. 

The FISH HATCHERY (open) produces annually more than 3,500,000 
finger lings native, rainbow, and Loch Leven trout, and silver salmon. 

Left from Big Timber on McLeod St., which becomes a dirt road, to McLEOD 
HOT SPRINGS (recreation ball and warm-water plunge, open May 15 Sept. 15), 
17 m. 

At 20 m. is a junction with a dirt road; R. 15 m. on this road to ANDERSON HOT 
SPRINGS, where is a warm lithia-water plunge. 

CONTACT, 27 m. (5,400 alt.), on the main dirt road, was once a stage station 
notorious in its day for the gambling that went on there. It was named for its posi- 
tion at the point of contact between a limestone formation and quartz lodes. 

INDEPENDENCE, 40 m. (8,800 alt.), was a booming camp in the last years of 
the nineteenth century. Its boom is said to have been based largely on a stock- 
promotion scheme. It had 500 inhabitants when the crash came in 1893. Nothing 
remains but a few wrecked buildings and pieces of rusted machinery. In winter 
trappers live in the deserted buildings, and run their lines into the nearby hills. 

West of Big Timber the highway is hemmed in by mountains the 
Absarokas (L), the high Crazy Mountains (R), the Bridger Range 
straight ahead. 

The foothills and higher valleys provide feed for large bands of sheep. 
Some belong to ranchers in the dry lower valleys who must drive their 
herds to the national forests every summer for green forage, cool weather, 
and pure, fresh water. 

At shearing time late May and early June the big sheds on sheep 
ranches are busy places. In preparation for the shearing, the rancher 
builds jugs (pens) of boards wired together, and arranges a runway 
through which a few sheep at a time are passed on their way to and 
from the pens. Large ranches use power-driven clippers, which shear the 
sheep more closely and rapidly than do hand shears. On the average 
small ranch, however, hand shears continue in favor. 

Professional shearers travel in crews from ranch to ranch. Many start 
out early in the year and follow the season from Mexico to Montana. 

Shearing weather is usually hot, and the wool is oily and heavy. Wran- 
glers shove, tug, and whoop as they drive five or six sheep at a time down 
the runway to each pen. Sometimes the frightened creatures resist so 
stoutly that they have to be dragged or half carried; sometimes wranglers 
"fox" them by leading a trained wether before them down the runway. 

As the sheep enter the jug, each shearer catches a ewe by a hindleg and 

uls her to a sitting position. He begins shearing at the head, going 

198 TOURS 

down the throat or between the ears. If the ewe is a yearling, she is apt to 
struggle and to be nicked by the shears. If old, she sits quietly, knowing 
what a great relief it is to be sheared. Rams always fight, and shearers 
receive extra pay for working on them. Only the most expert shearer can 
take fleece after fleece without nicking a sheep. A man in a hurry occa- 
sionally kills one that plunges. The sheared sheep are cleared out and 
the pen refilled while the shearer has his last ewe on the floor. At times 
almost all the pens are empty at once; shearers call for more woolies 
while they briefly hone their shears; wranglers sweat and whoop and 

As the dirty gray fleece folds off, leaving the sheep a clean white or 
whitish yellow the shearer bunches the wool with his feet and hands, ties 
it with a string, drops it over the side of his jug, with almost a single 
motion. At the end of the day he knows how many sheep he has sheared 
and how much he has earned by the number of strings remaining in his 
belt. A shearer who can clip 200 sheep a day with the power shears, or 
100 with the hand shears, is the object of considerable admiration to 
neighbors, buyers, idle herders, and other spectators. 

While the shearer straightens his back and smokes a cigarette, his helper 
sweeps the tags out of the pen. The tags fragments of wool matted with 
dirt and manure follow the fleeces into an 8-foot wool sack suspended 
from a 12 -foot platform, and packed solidly but not too solidly by a 
"stamper" who emerges from the sack as it fills. His is very hard work, 
for the wool, full of dirt and ticks, rolls in on him; his spot is the 
hottest and grimiest place in the shed. When the sack is full, he sews the 
mouth with twine ; it is then loaded on a truck or placed in a warehouse 
to await the buyer's inspection. 

In the heat the odors of men and sheep blend into one master stench 
compounded of sweat, oily wool, sheep manure, and tobacco. 

The denuded sheep are lank and awkward, many of them bloody; a 
glance at them explains why "homelier'n a sheared sheep" has become an 
everyday westernism. They are run through a tank of creosote solution for 
disinfection, then marked with the owner's symbol in red, green or black 
paint, and taken to the summer range. 

SPRINGDALE, 97.5 m. (4,324 alt., 75 pop.), is near the point where 
Indians stole Clark's horses in 1806, and forced him and his party to 
travel down the Yellowstone in bullboats. 

Right from Springdale on a dirt road to HUNTER'S HOT SPRINGS, 1 m., which 
flow at the rate of 90,000 gallons an hour. J. A. Hunter, a physician, came here in 
1864, on his way to the gold fields in Emigrant Gulch, and decided to stay. The 
springs had long been a popular bathing place of Indians, who tried to drive Hunter 
away. On several occasions soldiers were sent to help hold the springs against their 
attacks. The buildings were destroyed by fire in 1930. 

The SITE OF THE SLAYING OF JOHN M. BOZEMAN, 103.2 m., is (R) in 
a narrow part of the valley. Bozeman was killed by Piegan Indians in 
April 1867 (see HISTORY), and buried here. In 1870 his body was re- 
moved to the city that bears his name. 

TOUR I 199 

At 115.7 m. is the junction (R) with US 89 (see Tour 4). Between 
this point and Livingston, US 10 and US 89 are one route. 

LIVINGSTON, 116.5 m. (4,490 alt., 6,391 pop.), lies near the point 
where the Yellowstone, flowing northward from its source in Wyoming, 
makes a great bend eastward. As a railroad and trade center in a farming 
and stockraising county, the town has an air of bustle and enterprise. 
Stockmen and farmers in work clothes walk its streets; many trucks and 
trailers loaded with pigs, sheep, calves, or horses are seen in the streets, on 
their way to market or from one ranch to another. 

Livingston is also the outfitting point in a large recreational area and 
its citizens try to keep alive the spirit of the old West for visitors. Its 
hotels and cafes display copies of the paintings of Russell and other west- 
ern artists, and photographs of ranch life, rodeos, and Indians in parade 
dress. The automobiles on its streets bear license plates from half the 
Union. In January when herds of elk come down from the snow-bound 
high country to the south, the town is filled with hunters. 

Like all Montana cities founded during the frantic boom days of the 
1870'$ and i88o's, Livingston has its share of old houses with Gothic 
and Romanesque windows and gingerbread ornamentation. 

At the annual Frontier Celebration, held early in July, riders from every 
part of the stock country compete in bronco-busting and other rodeo ac- 
tivities, and Indians stage the "celebration of the conqueror," which con- 
sists largely of dances and races. In keeping with the city's consciousness 
of its position as host and entertainer to easterners, a touch of Hollywood 
is usually present in the atmosphere of the Wild West show. 

The history of Livingston is studded with the names and deeds of such 
pioneers and pathfinders as John Bozeman and Jim Bridger (see Tour 13). 
Many an old-timer has settled down here to pass his remaining days re- 
membering the life that was. Such a veteran was the late Patrick T. 
(Tommy) Tucker, dean of cowpunchers and author of Riding the High 
Country (see LITERATURE). Tucker was an expert yarn spinner and 
sold many copies of his book by starting a tale of "way back when," and 
then producing the volume, with the explanation that the rest of the 
story could be found there. 

Lieutenant Clark and his men came down Billman Creek and arrived at 
the Yellowstone, just south of town, on July 15, 1806. The first settle- 
ment in the vicinity was made about 1873, when Benson's Landing came 
into being at a ferry crossing 4 miles north of this place. Livingston began 
its existence on July 14, 1882, when railroad surveyors camped on its site 
and called it Clark City for William Clark. Late in the same year North- 
ern Pacific rails reached the town. Throughout its development it has 
depended greatly upon the railroad. Even its name was changed to honor 
a director of the Northern Pacific, Crawford Livingston of St. Paul. 

During the railroad strike of June and July 1894, when service was 
interrupted for two weeks, Federal troops were brought in to protect rail- 
road property. A drunken captain stabbed a townsman with a sword, and 
President Cleveland declared martial law to maintain order. The strike 
was unsuccessful. 

200 TOURS 

MILES and SACAJAWEA PARKS are on islands in the Yellowstone River. 
A third park, STERLING PLAZA, is near the river on S. Main St. Band con- 
certs are given here in summer. 

On McLEOD ISLAND, opposite Sacajawea Park, is a 9-hole golf 
course (open). 

Eighth Ave. N., consists chiefly of objects recovered from burial places 
and from piskuns (see BEFORE THE WHITE MAN). 

The old BUCKET OF BLOOD, 113 Park St., one of many old-time Mon- 
tana saloons so named, was probably a little rougher than most. It was 
not only a tough place in its own right but was the center of a group of 
resorts of the same kind including a gambling dive run by Tex Rickard, 
Kid Brown, and Soapy Smith until the Klondike rush took them off to the 
Yukon. Madame Bulldog, once Kitty O'Leary, ran what was euphemis- 
tically known as a dance hall. Her joint, she said, was a decent one. An- 
nouncing that she would stand for no damfoolishness, she saved the 
wages of a bouncer by polishing off roughnecks herself. Her dimensions, 
like her sensibilities, were pachydermal; she tipped the scales at 190, 
stripped. And stripped she was most of the time. Calamity Jane was one 
of her associates for a time, but legend has it that they fell out, where- 
upon Madame Bulldog tossed Calamity into the street, "as easy as licking 
three men." When asked whether Calamity Jane really tried to fight back, 
one who knew both women replied succinctly, "Calamity was tougher 'n 
hell, but she wasn't crazy!" 

The SITE OF CALAMITY JANE'S CABIN, 213 Main St., is in a weed- 
grown square called the Plaza, which contains a bandstand. She lived 
here several years, suffering increasing poverty and unhappiness with the 
years. (See above.) 

At 117.3 m. (yth St. N.) is the junction with US 89 (see Tour 4). 
US 10 follows Globe St. (R). 

Between Livingston and Bozeman the route roughly parallels the old 

OLD BALDY (8,640 alt.), visible (L) at 118 m., is a prominent moun- 
tain in the Absaroka Range known to immigrants and early settlers as 
Crow Test Peak. Young Crow braves proved their strength and endur- 
ance by keeping lonely winter vigils on its summit. Naked and weapon- 
less, they spent their days in sacrifice and prayer to the Great Spirit. Those 
who endured the test were admitted to the tribal council. 

Behind and above Old Baldy tower EMIGRANT PEAK (10,950 alt.) 
and MOUNT COWAN (11,190 alt.), irregular pyramids streaked with 

At 123 m. the highway crosses the eastern boundary of the GALLA- 
TIN NATIONAL FOREST. The cover is largely lodgepole pine and 
Douglas fir, with limited numbers of Engelmann spruce. 

A series of sharp switchbacks begins at 128 m., and continues to the 
summit of BOZEMAN PASS (6,003 alt), 130 m. The high mountains 
(R) are the BRIDGER RANGE, named for Jim Bridger (see Tour 13). 

TOUR I 201 

The highway descends the narrow, rocky canyon of the East Gallatin 
River into the Gallatin Valley. 

At 141.8 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Left on this road to SUNSET HILLS CEMETERY, 0.3 m., which overlooks the city. 
Its use as a burial ground dates back to 1864. In 1872 Lord and Lady Blackmore, 
English visitors, stopped in Bozeman on their way to the Yellowstone geyser region 
with a party of geologists. Lady Blackmore died. Her husband bought five acres of 
land here and gave it to the city as a cemetery. Here he buried his wife, and placed 
a pyramidal monument over her grave. MOUNT BLACKMORE (10,196 alt.), which 
rises in the distance, directly south, is said to have been so named because its form 
resembles that of the monument. 

When the body of John M. Bozeman was brought here in 1870, the grave was 
marked with a pine headboard. Cattle grazing on the burial ground leveled the 
board, and the grave remained unmarked until 1883, when a marble monument was 

Nearby is the grave of Henry T. P. Comstock, who committed suicide on Sep- 
tember 27, 1870, after he had run through the $10,000 he received as his share in 
the discovery of the Comstock Lode of Nevada. In Lot 71, Block 31, is the un- 
marked grave of Prof. Willis G. Nash, Montana State College music instructor who 
had been the prototype of the lame boy in Dinah Maria (Mulock) Craik's The 
Little Lame Prince. 

BOZEMAN, 142.6 m. (4,754 alt., 6,855 PP-) seat of Gallatin 
County, is, for Montana, an old and decorous town. Local ordinances 
prohibit dancing anywhere after midnight and in beer halls at any time. 
It is illegal to drink beer while standing, so all Bozeman bars are 
equipped with stools. On the city's wide streets, shaded by cutleaf birch, 
there is little of the restless activity of industrial centers. Its quiet reflects 
a sense of security based on the prosperity of the surrounding farms. Yet 
its rural characteristics are modified by the thousands of visitors who every 
year pass through Bozeman on their way to Yellowstone Park. An air of 
youthful liveliness is contributed by the students of Montana State College. 

The Gallatin Valley extends westward from the town. It is one of the 
most productive agricultural and stock-raising regions in the State. To the 
south the snow-capped Gallatin and Madison ranges rim the narrowing 
valley. On the north the Bridger and flanking ranges of the Rockies pro- 
tect it from severe cold winds. 

In 1864 John M. Bozeman, traveling the trail he had blazed from 
Wyoming (see HISTORY), guided the first train of immigrants into the 
Gallatin Valley. Jim Bridger guided another train in the same year. The 
passes the leaders used now bear their names. US 10 follows Bozeman's 
route. Bridger's trail passes through the Bridger Canyon and Range to the 
north (see below). Trappers of the middle nineteenth century apparently 
preferred Bridger's route. Bridger and Bozeman were friends and rivals. 
A story often told relates how they once led wagon trains through their 
respective passes in a race to Virginia City, and arrived within a few 
hours of each other. 

Six cabins and a two-story hotel huddled at the eastern end of Gallatin 
Valley by the end of 1864. During a flour famine that winter, the settlers 
lived on "meat straight." Bozeman gave his name to the settlement, but 
for many years it was known locally as Missouri from the number of Mis- 

202 TOURS 

sourians among the settlers. The city has never depended on mining 
booms for its growth, except insofar as the mining camps provided mar- 
kets for foodstuffs. 

In 1867 it became the seat of Gallatin County, one of the nine Terri- 
torial counties of Montana. 

MONTANA STATE COLLEGE, Harrison St. and 8th Ave., estab- 
lished February 16, 1893, is the oldest operating unit of the University of 
Montana (see EDUCATION). It shares its 9 5 -acre campus and buildings 
with the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, the Agricultural Extension Service, 
and the State Agricultural Experiment Station. It offers courses leading to 
the Bachelor of Science degree, and carries on wide research in agricul- 
ture and engineering, doing agricultural extension work through county 
agents. The student enrollment averages 1,200. 

The LIBRARY of 30,000 volumes (weekdays 9-5) is on the second floor 
of MONTANA HALL, a three-story brick structure of Tudor design. The 
BIOLOGICAL MUSEUM (open 8-5 daily) in LEWIS HALL has a collection 
of 50,000 plant specimens, large groups of fossils* and many mounted 
birds and animals. A GREENHOUSE, devoted to experimental work with 
flowers and vegetables, contains many tropical and subtropical plants. 
An OUTDOOR MUSEUM, in the southwest corner of the campus, has petri- 
fied stumps 4 feet in diameter, and a spring- fed pool stocked with mutant 
rainbow trout. 

BE ALL PARK, Bozeman and Villard Sts., a pleasant village green, has 
tennis courts and a playground, as well as MILLSTONES of Bozeman's first 
flour mill (1865). 

The CITY HALL, Main and Rouse Sts., was once the Opera House, as 
the name over the entrance indicates. As such, it opened in 1890 with the 
Mendelssohn Quintette of Boston. For years it was one of a chain op- 
erated by John Maguire, pioneer impresario of Butte. The walls of the 
stage and auditorium on the second floor display advertisements, cob- 
webbed and yellow, and faded posters announcing Joseph Jefferson in 
Rip Van Winkle, Eddie Foy in A Night in Town, Clay Clement in 

The SEED PEA WAREHOUSES, Babcock and Wallace Sts., are among 
the largest of their kind in the West. Here seed peas produced in the 
Gallatin Valley and elsewhere in Montana and the West, are sorted for 
quality and size, packed, and stored to await shipment. 

Bozeman is at the junction with US 191 (see Tour 5). 

1. Right from Bozeman on Rouse Ave., which skirts the Gallatin County Fair- 
grounds (L), to a CANNERY, 1.9 m., where about 250,000 cases of canned goods- 
(mostly peas and string beans from Gallatin Valley farms) are annually packed. 

2. Right from Bozeman on State 187, which follows Wallace Ave. and becomes 
a dirt road, to a junction with an unimproved road, 2 m.; R. here 1 m. to the SITE 
OF FORT ELLIS. Here William Clark and his party camped on July 14, 1806; and 
here, on August 27, 1867, Fort Ellis, named for Col. Augustus Van Horn Ellis of 
the 1 24th New York Volunteers, was established. For 19 years it played an impor- 
tant part in the taming of the Gallatin frontier. The Washburn-Langford expedition, 
whose report of the geysers, hot springs, terraces, paint pots, and other marvels 
the Yellowstone region led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park, outfitted 
at Fort Ellis in August 1870. 

TOUR I 203 

At 5 m. State 187 enters BRIDGER CANYON. The granite pinnacle above the 
road (L), known locally as the Stone Maiden, is the subject of a Crow legend. Black 
Eagle, the lover of comely Evening Star, once led a war party to drive off an enemy 
of the tribe. Evening Star came daily to this point to watch for his return. He came 
back with honor but without life, and grief turned Evening Star to stone. The stars^ 
of evening are said to linger in compassion over her. 

Between Bozeman and Three Forks, US 10 follows an almost straight 
course through the lower Gallatin Valley. 

BELGRADE, 153.3 m. (4,467 alt., 533 pop.), a milling center with 
towering grain elevators, was named by a Serbian who was on the special 
train that took President Villard of the Northern Pacific to Gold Creek 
for the ceremony of driving the last spike. 

MANHATTAN, 162.4 m. (4,258 alt., 501 pop.), is a one-street town 
with a few business buildings facing a tree-enclosed park. It was named 
by a group of New Yorkers who operated under the name of the Man- 
hattan Co. and owned land here. The George Sinton ranches, one of the 
largest cattle spreads north of Texas, has headquarters here. 

The outline of the Continental Divide comes into view straight ahead 
at 164 m. 

LOGAN, 167.9 m. (4,114 alt, 126 pop.), formerly a stage station 
known as Cannon House, was renamed after the Northern Pacific Ry. ac- 
quired the right-of-way from Odelia Logan in 1885. 

The steep cliff, 168.4 m. (L), was once a piskun (see BEFORE THE 

At 172.2 m. is a junction with a graveled road. 

Right on this road to the THREE FORKS OF THE MISSOURI 3.5 m., where 
the Gallatin unites with the Madison and Jefferson Rivers. Lewis and Clark named 
the forks in 1805. The actual point of confluence of the Madison and Jefferson is 
obscured by thick willow growth. 

THREE FORKS, 174.4 m. (4,081 alt., 884 pop.), has an air of order 
and dignity. The homes and business houses are particularly well kept 
and many have been painted white. 

The site of Three Forks, an ancient battleground of Crow and Black- 
feet, was visited by Lewis and Clark on July 27, 1805. It was here that 
Sacajawea felt she was at last in the land of her own people, from whom 
she had been stolen in childhood. 

Trappers sent out by the Missouri Fur Company made the first attempt 
to establish a trading post here in 1810. They built a stockade on a neck 
of land between the Jefferson and Madison Rivers about 2 miles above 
the confluence, but the Blackfeet drove them out with severe losses before 
the year ended (see HISTORY). Father De Smet spent a short time in 
the Three Forks region in 1840. No attempt to establish a town near here 
was made until 1864, when a group of Missourians laid out Gallatin City 
at what they believed was the head of navigation on the Missouri. When 
they learned that the Great Falls of the Missouri stood between their site 
and the head of navigation, they abandoned it. In 1908 the railroad came 
through and established a town here as a division point. 

At 178 m. US 10 divides into US 10 S and US loN (see Tour 1A), 
alternate routes between this place and Garrison. 

204 TOURS 

Section c. JUNCTION US 10 S-US 10 N to GARRISON, 109.6 m., 

US 10 S. 

Much of US 10 S winds among mountain ranges and through canyons, 
in many places both deep and narrow. It crosses the Continental Divide 
through Pipestone Pass, offering spine-tingling views of forested moun- 
tains and boulder-strewn valleys. In its western descent it passes through 
Montana's richest mining region, skirting the thousand smokes of Butte. 
At the western end, in Deer Lodge Valley, though never out of sight of 
lofty mountains, it traverses rich fields and grazing lands. 

US 10 S runs southwest from the junction with US loN (see Tour 
1A), m., along the Jefferson River (L). 

At 9-3 m. is the junction with State i (see Tour 15). 

At 14.4 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to its end, 3.3 m.; straight ahead from here 0.6 m. on a foot 
trail to LEWIS AND CLARK CAVERN (guides), a National Monument in Jefferson 
Canyon. The cave is in the Madison limestone formation at the base of a high cliff. 
It was discovered and partly equipped with stairways in 1902 by Daniel Morrison, 
a surveyor, and is known locally as Morrison Cave. 

Exceeded in size in the United States only by Mammoth Cave in Kentucky and 
the Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico, this cavern is a succession of vaulted cham- 
bers and passageways thickly hung with stalactites and studded with stalagmites. 
Surface water seeping down the bedding planes of the Madison limestone, here 
tilted about 53, hollowed out the cave by gradually dissolving the limestone at suc- 
cessive levels. The cave is dry, except at its lowest point, about 300 feet below the 
entrance. But the dripping of water during past centuries has carved out crypts and 
corridors curtained in places with translucent stone that varies in color from pure 
white to deep amber. 

The entrance from the trail is an artificial one made by the former owner. From 
it a wooden stairway mounts a 2o-foot rise in the rock floor of the passage. Beyond 
the stairway is the natural entrance, 25 feet above the trail and about 60 feet north- 
west of the newer entrance. It can be reached only with the aid of a rope. Three 
hundred and eighty-five steps are descended to reach the FIRST LARGE CHAMBER. 
Here stalagmites and stalactites, opaque and almost flawless, form fluted pillars. A 
form of stalactite with curved and branching arms (helictite) is beautifully de- 

From this large room a tortuous path descends to the DEEPEST ROOM. A great 
number of stalactites, fallen to the floor and cemented to it by flowstone, furnish 
toeholds for scrambling up and down the steep incline. In this room is one large 
stalagmite in process of formation, with water dripping onto it. A spring makes a 
clear pool in the center of the floor, and, above, the ceiling rises to a dome that 
looks like rough mosaic work. 

From the foot of the stairway narrow corridors lead to other chambers, of which 
the first is the CATHEDRAL ROOM. From its ledged floor great spires rise toward 
the domed ceiling, in sepia hues and lighter shades of brown. 

Beyond and below is the BROWN WATERFALL. From a rocky ledge above the 
floor a cascade of rock seems to spill down the chamber wall like a plunging brown 

A rough corridor known as HELL'S HIGHWAY is traveled with the aid of ropes 
and leads into the ORGAN ROOM. The stillness of this room, with its mass of pipe- 
like columns, faintly golden, gleaming amber, and rich brown, is impressive. The 
columns give off musical sounds when struck with pieces of broken rock, as do 
many of the stalactites and stalagmites in other chambers. 

The smaller corridors and chambers vary in formation and coloring. The walls of 
some are intricately filigreed, others seem hung with draperies of weird pattern. At 
one place a COFFIN is surmounted by a stalagmite candle; the LION'S DEN, enclosed 


by joined tites and "mites," is strewn with pieces of fallen stalactites that suggest 
the bones of victims. 

The full journey requires vigor, sure-footedness, and a readiness to cling and 
sometimes to crawl by the light of a miner's lantern. The air is good. 

At 15 m. is the Canyon of the Jefferson River, known locally as Six- 
nmile Canyon. The TOBACCO ROOT MOUNTAINS are.L. in the Gal- 
latin National Forest, the Bull Mountains R. in the Deer Lodge National 



206 TOURS 

WHITEHALL, 28 m. (4,371 alt., 553 pop.), is a long, narrow, quiet 
town, the trading center for the southern part of Jefferson County, one 
of the original Territorial counties. It is apparently merely a line of stores 
and houses strung out along US 10 S but actually, most of it sits back 
among shade trees and shrubbery. Before 1863 fur traders were the only 
white inhabitants in this region. About that time Thomas Brooks built a 
stage station 4 miles north of this place on the route between Virginia 
City and Fort Benton, naming it Old Whitehall for his former home in 
England. The number of settlers in the region increased slowly but White- 
hall did not have much importance until 1889 when the Northern Pacific 
branch between Logan and Garrison was built. 

At 33.5 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to PIPESTONE HOT SPRINGS, 4 m. (hotel, cabins, free 
campgrounds; vapor baths; large plunge, adm., children 25$, adults 35$; saddle 
horses). Marine shells and bones of prehistoric animals have been found in a mixed 
shale and limestone deposit nearby. 

At 37.8 m. is the junction with State 41 (see Tour 16). 

US 10 S here begins the gradual climb to Pipestone Pass, following the 
course of Pipestone Creek. The eastern slope is arid, with much sage- 
brush and prickly pear, interspersed in early summer with the brilliant 
blossoms of Indian paintbrush, larkspur, bitterroot, lupine, and yellow 

At 47.4 m. the highway crosses the CONTINENTAL DIVIDE 
(6,418 alt.) through PIPESTONE PASS. At the summit, only a few yards 
from the source of Pipestone Creek, are the beginnings of small spring- 
fed streams that flow down the west slope into Silver Bow Creek. 

THOMPSON PARK (trail picnicking facilities, campgrounds), be- 
tween 47.9 m. and 51 m. (L), is an attractive 3,4OO-acre mountain play- 
ground covered with lodgepole pine and Douglas fir. Near timber line 
are alpine fir and limber pine. In part a gift to the city of Butte from 
William Boyce Thompson, the park was rounded out by the addition of 
several thousand acres of Deer Lodge National Forest land. There is an 
amphitheater in a natural bowl, and also a toboggan slide, a bobsled run, 
and a ski jump 610 feet long, with a descent of 229 feet. 

West of Pipestone Pass US 10 S is known as Harding Way. At one of 
the wider curves, 84.4 m., is a view of Butte, especially spectacular at 
night when the lights glow against the mountain behind the city. 

From this highway is seen BIG BUTTE (6,310 alt.), for which the 
mining city was named; the large white "M" on it is the work of students 
at the Montana School of Mines. Indians called this Evil Mountain, say- 
ing that long ago Big Butte was the highest peak of the main range. One 
time a young chief was killed there by an enemy and the medicine man 
of his tribe cursed it, and ordered it removed. During the night the great 
mountain was torn apart and the largest piece was hurled toward the 
valley. It struck where Walkerville stands (see BUTTE) and slid along 
to its present position, leaving in its path the ridge that connects it with 
the high ground at Walkerville. No trees grew on it thereafter. Indians 
intent on suicide often took their last view of earth from its summit. 

TOUR I 207 

At 49.8 m. is the junction with Roosevelt Drive. 

Left on Roosevelt Drive through Thompson Park, 4 m.; L. on a dirt road to 
HIGHLAND CITY, 21 m. This ghost gold camp at the base of RED MOUNTAIN 
(10,000 alt.) was once larger than Butte, crude in appearance and equally crude 
in its way of life. For diversion, men quarreled and killed; then others banded 
together to hunt down and kill the killers. 

After seven years the stream of gold came suddenly to an end; in another year 
the town was almost deserted. Most of the 600 log structures, many of them two 
stories high, rapidly decayed. Trees took root where hearth fires had burned, and 
dropped their needles over the debris. Streets were obliterated by the cross trails of 
later prospectors. A few buildings still stand, the cellars of others are buried in the 
sagebrush. Though few people stayed here long, the graveyard is the most tangible 
of the city's remains. Here is buried Shotgun Liz, sharpshooting hurdy-gurdy girl 
of frontier dance halls. 

Much gold came out of Highland Gulch. Evidence of large placer workings re- 
main, and in adjacent gulches men still scrape a scanty existence from reluctant 
gravel. Occasionally someone finds a pocket or a nugget, and hopes briefly to see a 
new Highland City on the ruins of the old. In 1916 John Kearn, sole resident at 
that time, picked up a nugget worth $1,200. 

US 10 S approaches Butte from the south. 

At 58.1 m. is the junction with an oiled road (Holmes Ave.). 

Left on Holmes Ave. for an alternate route that skirts the city on the south. 
Holmes Ave. runs west to the Milwaukee tracks; R. here on Rowe Road to Mon- 
tana St.; R. on Montana St. to Front St.; L. on Front St., which crosses the Mil- 
waukee tracks and bends R. to join the combined route of US 10 S and US 91, 3.6 m. 

BUTTE, 61.2 m. (5,755 alt, 39,532 pop.) (see BUTTE). 

Points of Interest: Marcus Daly Statue, Smithers Historical Photographs Collec- 
tion, Chinatown, Meaderville, Leonard Mine, State School of Mines, Columbia 
Gardens, and others. 

In Butte is the junction with US 91 (see Tour 6, sec. b) ; for 5.7 miles 
US 10 S and US 91 are one route. 

ROCKER, 65.1 m. (5,395 alt., 96 pop.), virtually a suburb of Butte, 
is an industrial town through which pass long trains of gondola cars 
loaded with ore bound for the reduction works at Anaconda ( see Tour 
18). Oil refineries and a plant for treating mine timbers are here. 

SILVER BOW CREEK (L), named in 1864 when three prospectors 
saw the sun shining on it through a rift in the clouds, is muddied with 
the refuse of Butte mines, though in places it is intensely blue from dis- 
solved copper salts. 

Between Rocker and Garrison the southern horizon (L) is banked with 
the dramatic, barren peaks of the highly glaciated Anaconda Mountains. 
Streams rise in broad amphitheaters with steep, rocky back walls and level 
floors on which lakes and parklike meadows alternate with stands of 
spired evergreens. MOUNT EVANS (10,630 alt.), the highest summit, 
rises bare and deeply furrowed above a host of lesser peaks. 

At 66.9 m. is the junction (L) with US 91 (see Tour 6). 

At74m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Left on this road to GREGSON HOT SPRINGS, 2 m. (campgrounds, natural 
steam baths, dance pavilion; warm plunge, adm. 40$). 

208 TOURS 

At 76 m., the junction with US 10 A (see Tour 18), the high smoke- 
stack of the Anaconda smelter is visible (L). 
At 84 #2. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road 0.2 m. to WARMSPRINGS (4,852 alt., no pop.), in which is the 
STATE HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE (open 9-11 and 1-4 daily). Its trim brick build- 
ings, in modern functional style, and its neatly kept grounds contribute much to the 
air of sanctuary that characterizes the town. 

Just south of the hospital buildings are the springs for which the place was 
named. A conical mound, built up by the springs' mineral deposits, resembles an 
Indian lodge with smoke ascending from it. Here came herds of white-tailed deer 
to graze on the abundant grass around the mound, and obtain salt by licking the 
rocks at its base. Indians named it It-soo-ke-en-car-ne (lodge of the white-tailed 
deer). Poetic French voyageurs called it la loge du chevreuil (the lodge of the roe- 
buck) ; this the laconic ranchers of a later day contracted to Deer Lodge (see below) . 

South of the State Hospital is the 15 -acre STATE GAME FARM (open), estab- 
lished in 1929. Small herds of elk and buffalo are maintained here; propagation of 
Chinese pheasants, Hungarian partridges, California quail, and Oregon mountain 
quail is carried on. Showbirds of brilliant plumage include the melanistic mutant, 
and the golden, silver, Reeves, and Lady Amherst pheasants. 

At 90 m. is the junction with an oiled road. 

Left 1 m. on this road to GALEN, the STATE TUBERCULOSIS SANITARIUM (open 
daily 3:30-5:30). This plant, founded in 1912, has grown slowly until it consists 
of ten main buildings and six cottages. Preference is given to county charges and 
ex-service men, and, because of the limited facilities, they are almost the only per- 
sons admitted. More than half the patients are women. One-fifth of the men ad- 
mitted are victims of silicosis. 

DEER LODGE, 98.8 m. (4,530 alt, 3,510 pop.), seat of Powell 
County, is bisected by Clark Fork of the Columbia, here called the Deer 
Lodge River. On the west side of the town are the somber stone walls and 
guard towers of the State penitentiary, and the yards and shops of the 
C.M. St. P & P R.R., the town's leading industrial unit, which employs 
250 men. On the east side, which has broad streets, are many sturdy 
square houses popular in the West during the 1870*5 and i88o's. Castles 
built with the wealth of mines and ranches and log cabin homes survive 
almost side by side. 

In 1862, when the first important gold strikes in this area attracted at- 
tention (see HISTORY), a shack town sprang up here, called variously, 
Cottonwood, Spanish Forks, and La Barge. Deer Lodge was the name offi- 
cially adopted in 1864. An important stop on the Mullan Wagon Road, it 
was listed by Captain Mullan in his Miner's and Traveler's Guide. It was 
one of the few places along the route where immigrants could obtain fresh 
beef and vegetables, and the services of a blacksmith. Prospectors coming 
up from the south called it the "good little town on the road to Bear" 
because it was a pleasant place to break the journey on the trail to Bear- 
mouth, a mining camp 50 miles farther down the Clark Fork (see Tour 
1, sec. d). 

The W. A. CLARK HOUSE (open), 311 Clark Ave., once the residence 
of W. A. Clark (see HISTORY), dates from the i86o's. The front of the 
T-shaped one-story structure is frame with a wide porch. The shank of 
the T is built of logs. 

The STATE PENITENTIARY (open 2-4 Fri.), south end of Main St., was 


TOUR I 209 

built in 1871. Its walls and older buildings are constructed of stone, the 
newer of brick and reinforced concrete. More than one-fifth of the 600 
convicts are employed on ranches and in other work outside the walls. 
Those inside work in a sawmill, weave rag rugs, or manufacture automo- 
bile license plates. The prison has a bakery and a laundry, and conducts 
barber, carpenter, shoe repair, plumbing, and vulcanizing shops. Much of 
the food is produced on prison farms. 

The WARDEN'S RESIDENCE is directly opposite the penitentiary. The 
outside is finished with varnished Oregon spliced fir, the inside with oak, 
curly birch, and Circassian walnut. The living room and dining room 
floors are bordered with zigzag inlay. 

A GOLD NUGGET COLLECTION (open on application), Main St. and 
Milwaukee Ave., contains specimens taken from the streams of Powell 
County, including Gold Creek, site of the earliest placer finds in the State. 
The nuggets have an aggregate weight of 1401/2 ounces, and are worth 
$3,707. The largest has a Troy weight of 23.18 ounces. 

MOUNT POWELL (10,300 alt.), visible (L) at 104.6 m., was named 
for John W. Powell, a rancher who homesteaded at its base and was the 
first white man to scale it. 

The SITE OF THE GRANT HOUSE is commemorated by a monument at 
109-3 m. (R). This log structure was erected by John F. Grant, a rancher, 
about 1855, near the mouth of the Little Blackfoot River. It became 
known far and wide as a stop-over for prospectors and as a place to trade, 
gather news, and forget frontier hardships in fiddle-inspired revelry. If a 
blizzard swooped down while a dance was in progress, hospitable Johnny 
Grant would tell his visitors to stay until it was over. They usually danced 
all night, slept on buffalo robes on the floor, and awoke to eat and 
dance again. As Johnny was a squaw man, the cabin was also frequented 
by Indians, many of whom claimed relationship with their host. 

At 109.6 m. is the western junction US 10 N (see Tour 1A). Near this 
point (L) the Little Blackfoot River flows into the Clark Fork of the 

Section d. GARRISON to IDAHO LINE, .783.2 m., US 10. 

Between Garrison and the Idaho Line US 10 winds through the canyons 
of the Clark Fork and the St. Regis River. At Missoula, where the Bitter- 
root, Flathead, Blackfoot, and Clark Fork Valleys meet, horizons recede 
to distant peaks and ranges; but they soon narrow again. In many places 
the Clark Fork is broad and calm, and, except after heavy rains, green ; in 
other places it spills violently through rocky channels. In the St. Regis 
Valley, near the Idaho Line, the mountain slopes are steep and rocky, 
denuded by forest fires. 

Pioneers bound for the Washington Territory followed the Mullan 
Wagon Road (see HISTORY), which entered the valley of the Clark 
Fork not far from its junction with the Little Blackfoot River. Its course 
between Garrison and Lookout Pass on the Idaho Line was roughly that 

210 TOURS 

of US 10. The building of the road from Fort Benton to Walla Walla 
took four years though it was never more than a crude trail. Loaded 
wagons required 47 days to make the 624-mile journey, pack animals 35 

US 10 goes northwest from the junction of US 10 S (see Tour 1, 
sec. c) and US 10 N (see Tour 1A), m. 

GARRISON, 0.6 m. (4,344 alt., 100 pop.), named for William Lloyd 
Garrison, is a grimy railroad town on the bank of Clark Fork, sheltered 
on the north by a high bluff. 

A PHOSPHATE MILL (R), 4.5 m., of 100 tons capacity, grinds rock of 
high phosphate content brought by truck from several small mines in the 
nearby mountains. The product is used for fertilizer. 

At 9.3 m. is a junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road is the village of GOLD CREEK, 0.2 m. (4,201 alt., 35 pop.). 
Just L. of the settlement is the confluence of Clark Fork and Gold Creek. Near the 
source of the latter gold was first discovered in Montana (see HISTORY). Gold 
Creek village was the scene of the ceremony celebrating completion of the Northern 
Pacific Ry. in 1883 (see TRANSPORTATION). 

A MINING DREDGE (visitors' passes obtainable except Mon. at offices in Gold 
Creek) 5 m., operates to bedrock, with a daily capacity of 5,000 cubic yards of 
gravel. The operators control seven miles of the stream between Gold Creek and 

PIONEER, 9 m., is the small group of cabins built in the spring of 1862 just 
before the Gold Creek diggings were abandoned for those at Bannack. Because of 
the lack of transportation, the miners had trouble in obtaining tools with which to 
work, and yields of metal were low; James and Granville Stuart made only $17.60 
on their best day here. 

At 19.3 m. is the junction with State 31 (see Tour 8). 

DRUMMOND, 20.9 m. (3,967 alt., 300 pop.), scattered on both sides 
of US 10, is on the site of a trapper's camp. The Northern Pacific water 
tank seems to dominate the town. In the SAPPHIRE MOUNTAINS 
(L) are valuable deposits of silver, sapphire, and phosphate. 

At Drummond is the junction with US 10 A (see Tour 18). 

At 32.6 m. is a junction with a dirt road. 

1. Left on this road, crossing a bridge, to BEARMOUTH, 0.5 m. (3,813 alt., 
510 pop.), formerly Bear's Mouth, a stage stop on the Mullan Road. Prospectors 
turned oft here to reach the Blackfoot River country (R). It is the main shipping 
point for ore trucked down from the Garnet region. 

2. Right over a narrow mountain road that winds up Bear Gulch to BEAR- 
TOWN, 6 m. (4,583 alt., 3 pop.). Stamping ground of the notorious "Beartown 
Roughs," and one-time runner-up for State capital, Beartown is said to have yielded 
$1,000,000 in silver and gold in 1866 and 1867. 

At 9 m. is the base of the steeply rising "Chinee Grade." In this vicinity is sup- 
posedly a Chinaman's cache of considerable amount. Many have searched in vain for 
the 5 -pound baking-powder can filled with gold that is said to have been buried 
under a tree. 

GARNET, 11/7?. (5,904 alt., 25 pop.), a few years ago a ghost town, is a busy 
mining camp. Many of the old-timers are still here, prospecting and spinning yarns. 
One of the yarns is of a winter when, because of deep snow, supplies could not be 
brought in and men could not get out. At length one man, equipped with a miner's 
lamp and laden with carbide, worked his way down to Bearmouth through the mine 
tunnels and arranged for supplies to be brought in. 


fc?*& *. s:< * Xi ^ 


At 35.6 m. is the eastern end of HELL GATE CANYON, through which 
Clark Fork flows for 36 miles. High timbered slopes rise steeply beside 
the road. The canyon was named La Porte de I'Enfer by French trappers, 
who knew it as a place of ambush. 

NIMROD HOT SPRINGS, 39.8 m., has an outdoor plunge (adm. 
250). In the river swamps (L) large beds of tender watercress are kept 
green throughout the winter by the warm spring water. 

At 50.7 m. is the junction with the Rock Creek Road. 

Left on this forest road through a winding canyon along Rock Creek to ROCK 
CREEK LAKE, 40 m., the source of the creek. There is good trout fishing through- 
out the length of the stream, and several improved campgrounds lie near its banks. 

CLINTON, 56.3 m. (3,490 alt, 50 pop.), rests like a red and gray 
bird in the middle of a neat landscape. 

At 66.1 m. is the junction with State 20 (see Tour 8). 

MILLTOWN, 66.4 m. (3,521 alt, 552 pop.), exists chiefly because of 
the sawmill (see Tour 8) whose yards stretch along the highway and give 
the town its character. When the mill is in operation, a clean smell of 
freshly sawed timber re-enforces the visual impression. 

At 71.1 m., near the western end of Hell Gate Canyon, is a curved un- 
derpass on a hill (drive with great care). In winter northeasterly storms 
sometimes sweep down through the "wind tunnel" here and burst upon 

TOUR I 213 

Missoula with the force and penetrating power of Arctic blizzards. The 
bald knob (R) is MOUNT JUMBO which, viewed from the west by per- 
sons with sufficiently vivid imaginations has the appearance of a re- 
cumbent elephant. The rocky, forested slope of MOUNT SENTINEL (L) 
rises above the winding river and the campus of Montana State University 
(see MISSOULA). 
MISSOULA, 73.4 m. (3,233 alt., 14,657 pop.) (see MISSOULA). 

Points of Interest: Montana State University, Missoula County Courthouse, Cath- 
olic Group, Free Library, Bonner House, Greenough Park, Waterworks Hill, and 

In Missoula is the junction with US 93 (see Tour 7); between Mis- 
soula and a junction 9.5 miles west US 10 and US 93 are one route. 
At 74.5 m. is the junction with the old Yellowstone Trail. 

Left on this improved road to the SUGAR REFINERY (open on application at office 
anytime except Oct. 1-15), 0.6 m. (R). This plant, completed in 1928, produces 
more than 300,000 hundredweight of sugar annually and employs 200 persons when 
operating at capacity. The two-story mill of pressed brick and steel rises to four 
stories at the east end. The eight other buildings, all of brick, steel, and concrete, 
are shops, warehouses, and the like. The operating season "campaign" in refining 
jargon begins in October, and lasts 85 to 100 days, each day divided into three 
eight-hour shifts. On the factory grounds are several small plots devoted to experi- 
mental beet growing. 

At 3.1 m. is a junction with a dirt road; L. 0.2 m. on this road to the old HELL 
GATE STORE, a small log cabin used as a chicken house and surrounded on three 
sides by pigpens. It sheltered Montana's first mercantile establishment not classified 
as a trading post. In August, 1860, Frank L. Worden and Christopher P. Higgins 
brought a pack train of merchandise for this store over the new Mullan Road from 
Walla Walla. Loaded on one of their mules was the first safe brought into the re- 
gion. A little settlement that grew up around the store was called Hell Gate Ronde; 
Mullan listed it in his Miners' and Travelers' Guide: "28th day (from Walla 
Walla). Move to Higgins' and Worden's store at Hell-gate, distance i2l/ 2 miles. 
Road excellent; wood, water and grass here. Good place to rest animals for a day 
or two; blacksmith shop at Van Dorn's and supplies of all kinds can be obtained, 
dry goods, groceries, beef, vegetables and fresh animals, if needed." But the "sup- 
plies of all kinds" were extremely expensive at Hell Gate. Sugar was 60 cents a 
pound, coffee 80 cents, and whiskey $8 a gallon. 

In the winter of 1863-64 several of Henry Plummer's gang of road agents, led 
by Cyrus Skinner, began a reign of terror in Hell Gate. They loafed in the store, 
where Skinner preferred to sit on the safe. Worden, Higgins, and everyone in the 
village believed the gang was intent on rifling the safe, which contained $65,000 in 
gold dust. 

On the night of January 27, 1864, a posse of 21 citizens from Alder Gulch rode 
into town, and rounded up the gang. Brief trials were held in the store; Cyrus 
Skinner sat on the safe as usual during the proceedings. Six men were sentenced to 
hang, and died with the password of Plummer's gang, "I am innocent," upon their 

George Shears, Skinner's lieutenant, was hanged in a barn near the store. The 
rope was thrown over a beam, and he was asked to walk up a ladder to save the 
trouble of preparing a drop for him. "Gentlemen," he said, "I am not used to this 
business. Shall I jump off or slide off?" He was told to jump. 

Whiskey Bill Graves was led outside. One end of a lariat was fastened about his 
neck, the other thrown over a stout limb. One of the vigilantes mounted a horse 
and Graves was lifted up behind him. "Good-bye, Bill," said the rider, and drove 
his spurs into the horse's flanks. 

Hell Gate survived five years; then Worden and Co. moved the store four miles 
cast, and erected a sawmill and flourmill (see MISSOULA). 

214 TOURS 

COUNCIL GROVE, 7.9 m. (L) on the old Yellowstone Trail, is the poplar and 
cottonwood thicket in which Gov. Isaac Stevens of Washington Territory in 1855 
negotiated the first treaty with the Flathead Indians. By this treaty the Jocko Reser- 
vation, carved out of the Mission Mountains and the Flathead Valley, was set aside 
for the Confederated Tribes of the Flathead (see Tour 7). All other lands occupied 
by the tribes were ceded to the Government. The treaty authorized the Salish to oc- 
cupy the Bitterroot Valley, their long-time home, for an indefinite period. The con- 
cession was temporary, and Chief Victor, the spokesman for the Salish, probably 
did not fully understand its terms. It was the cause of later misunderstandings. Rem- 
nants of the Salish continued to live in the Bitterroot Valley until 1891. 

DESMET, 79.4 m. (3,237 alt., 25 pop.), a shipping point for Grass 
Valley stock, has large loading pens (R). The town was named in honor 
of Father Pierre Jean De Smet, the first missionary in this region (see 

Northwest of Desmet the Northern Pacific Ry. turns sharply R. and 
passes through the CORIACAN DEFILE, the gateway between the Missoula 
and Flathead Valleys. 

In the distance (R) conical SQUAW PEAK (7,978 alt.) points its im- 
pudent mammilla at the sky. Known locally as Squaw Teat Peak, it is the 
most symmetrical of the mountains visible in this area. 

At 82.9 m. is the junction (R) with US 93 (see Tour 1 , sec. b). 

FRENCHTOWN, 89.7 m. (3,027 alt., 187 pop.), lies (L) in a rich 
valley. The spire and cross of its weather-beaten old church are its most 
prominent landmarks. It has an appearance of calm that is belied by the 
vigor and aggressiveness of its inhabitants, who are mostly of French- 
Canadian descent. Local children still begin their schooling with little 
understanding of the English language. St. Jean is the patron saint of the 
parish, and his day, June 24th, is noisily celebrated. 

At 95.8 m. US 10 climbs over sharp curves to a bench, from which is a 
view of the Clark Fork Valley. An observation point at 97.3 m. provides 
an equally good view westward. The rugged slopes of the Bitterroot 
Mountains are L. ; the Coeur d'Alenes are on the opposite side. 

The highway descends into a narrow canyon lined with outcroppings 
of rock rusty red, yellow, and brown. Above, the receding green hills 
and gulches are topped with pine, larch, and Douglas fir. 

ALBERTON, 104.3 m. (3,040 alt., 278 pop.), a railroad men's town, 
is named for the pioneer family of Alberts, who homesteaded here when 
Indian trails were the only routes of travel. 

Between Alberton and St. Regis the route is through the LOLO NA- 

At 106 m. is a junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this narrow mountain road to LOLO HOT SPRINGS, 26 m. (4,171 alt.) 
(see Tour 7, sec. c). This route is part of a popular loop-trip from Missoula. 

ELK LODGE, 113.3 m. (3,000 alt.), consists of cabins, a store, and 
a service station. Furrowed cliffs (R) present purple and gold faces in 
striking contrast with the predominating greens and browns of the sur- 
rounding country. 

At 114.4 m. the Clark Fork flows through a deep and narrow gorge. 
The highway crosses SCENIC BRIDGE. 

TOUR i 215 

SUPERIOR, 133.9 m. (2,725 alt., 350 pop.), is divided by the Clark 
Fork. The log and frame buildings of the iSyo's and i88o's, mostly 
abandoned, lie at the base of a steep grade on the right bank. On the flat 
across the river are the buildings of the newer town. 

The town's name was used in 1869 by a settlement at the mouth oF 
Cedar Creek, i mile east, whose first citizen came from Superior, Wis. 
When this settlement was abandoned, the name was appropriated by the 
new town. 

The ORDEAN HOTEL, with gabled roof and a two-story veranda, was 
once a favorite stopping place of prospectors who came in from the gulch 
with a "load in their pokes." They felt that its plush and gilt, mirrors and 
marble, justified the high cost of the otherwise meager accommodations. 
The drunker a man became, the more elegant the place seemed. 

1. Left from Superior to the old Yellowstone Trail; 1 m. L. on this graveled 
road to Cedar Creek Road, 2 m.; R. on Cedar Creek Road to LOUISVILLE, 16 m. 
(4,100 alt.), a ghost town that was a roaring gold camp in the 1870*5. 

In 1869 a French Canadian named Barrette, drawn by the lure of gold, was trav- 
eling overland from California to St. Joe, Idaho. Pickings were poor there, however, 
and he swung over the Bitterroot Divide and struck the Mullan Road. In the fall 
he reached the rocky defile of a creek and noted a basin that appealed to him as a 
good place to prospect. He went to Frenchtown for supplies, and returned to the 
basin with a partner, B. Lanthier. They camped on a small tributary of Cedar Creek, 
15 miles upstream from the confluence of the latter with the Clark Fork. Barrette 
named the small stream Cayuse Creek. While Lanthier cooked supper, Barrette 
panned $4 in gold. 

The pair immediately staked claims. Short rations compelled them to return to 
Lozeau's Ranch on the Clark Fork, where they intended to spend the winter. Lan- 
thier went into Frenchtown to arrange for supplies, and the news of the discovery 
leaked out. Although it was mid-January, a stampede broke for Cayuse Creek. 
Within 2 days the frantic gold seekers staked more than 200 claims, and started 
panning the stream despite bitter cold weather. Few heeded the practical need of 
supplies; even after scurvy struck the camp, the next load of freight to come in on 
pack mules was whiskey. Ten thousand people were drawn to the camp in the first 
year, but the boom continued only until 1871. Interest then shifted upstream and a 
new camp, Forest City, was made. By the winter of 1872 Forest City was deserted 
in favor of Mayville, still farther up Cedar Creek. In two years Mayville also played 
out; but this time, because of the difficulty of moving equipment by pack train, the 
residents simply walked away, leaving tools, stoves, billiard tables, pianos, bar fix- 
tures, and all the other things that they could not conveniently carry. After they 
had deserted Cedar Creek, Chinese miners drifted in to live in the crumbling shacks 
of Louisville, content to glean what the white men had passed by. 

2. Right from Superior on the unimproved Flat Creek Road to IRON MOUNTAIN 
MINE, 3 m. Ore was discovered here in 1886, and soon the town of Pardee sprang 
up around it. The surface gold and silver ores were rich enough to justify packing 
them on mules over high mountain passes to Paradise, on the Northern Pacific Ry. 
When the Coeur d'Alene branch of the Northern Pacific was built through Superior 
in 1891, the mine began to operate on a large scale. A mill was erected at Iron 
Mountain, as the station at Superior was then called, and an aerial tram connected 
it with the workings. Except for occasional operations by lessees, the mine has been 
idle for many years, and Pardee abandoned. 

ST. REGIS, 141.4 m. (2,678 alt, 300 pop.), is composed of straggling 
clumps of buildings amid convergent railroad tracks. Its center is a bridge 
across the Clark Fork. Once an important sawmill town, it dwindled to a 
supply point for small logging operators after the great forest fire that 
swept western Montana in August 1910. 

2l6 TOURS 

The St. Regis River, which comes from the west to join the Clark Fork 
here, was named by Father De Smet in 1842, in honor of St. Regis, a 
brother Jesuit. 

At St. Regis is the junction with the St. Regis Cut-Off (see Tour 12). 

US 10 goes west along the St. Regis River. At 150.7 m. US 10 enters 
the CABINET NATIONAL FOREST and begins the ascent of the Cam- 
el's Hump through dense stands of virgin white pine, feathery tamarack, 
and fir. 

CAMEL'S HUMP, 155.4 m. (3,951 alt.), is supposedly named for its 
form. Coincidentally, camel pack trains were once briefly used on the 
Mullan Road, which followed this route (see TRANSPORTATION). 
The first camel train to freight goods into Montana came toiling out of 
the Nevada desert in the summer of 1864. It was a source of wonder to 
whites and Indians alike. Each camel carried 1,000 pounds, twice the 
load of a mule, found his own forage, and ate food a mule would reject. 
But mules and horses became unmanageable when they scented the strange 
beasts, and the men who handled them did not like them much better. 

The road descends the west slope by a succession of curves and turns. 

CABIN CITY, 158.8 m. (3,100 alt.), is a post office, restaurant, store, 
and service station. 

At CANTONMENT JORDAN, 161.9 m., Capt. John Mullan camped dur- 
ing the winter and spring of 1859-60, while the difficult grade over the 
Camel's Hump was built. It was mentioned in Mullan's Guide: "2ist 
day (from Walla Walla). Move to Cantonment Jordan, $y 2 miles dis- 
tant. Grass one-half mile above camp; wood and water everywhere." 

DEBORGIA, 162.5 m. (3,035 alt., 125 pop.) named for St. Francis De 
Borgia, clings to the rocky land. 

The SAVENAC FOREST NURSERY (L), 167 m., the largest in the United 
States for the development of trees for reforestation, was established by 
the U. S. Forest Service in 1909. Its annual capacity is 6,000,000 trees; 
the major species grown from seeds include western white and yellow 
pine, and Engelmann spruce. Many small plots are used for experimental 
work. The trees remain in the seed beds from i to 2 years, are trans- 
planted once, and kept until they reach a height of 6 to 10 inches. They 
are then shipped for permanent planting on Montana and Idaho forest 
lands, usually in areas that have been twice swept by fires. On such "dou- 
ble burns," natural reforestation is improbable. 

SALTESE, 172.1 m. (3,476 alt., 200 pop.), strung out along the high- 
way and railroad tracks in a narrow canyon, is a supply point for small 
silver and gold mines in the nearby mountains. During the World War, 
copper mines to the southwest were very active. High above the town the 
electrified Milwaukee Road clings to a narrow, winding shelf carved from 
the rocky mountainside. With old-fashioned western hospitality, Saltese 
keeps the door of its small jail (R) always open, a gesture of welcome to 
weary hoboes. 

The town, first known as Silver City, was renamed in 1891 to honor a 
Nez Perce chieftain. Its site was earlier known to packers, trappers, and 
prospectors, who called it Packer's Meadow, as a good campground on 

TOUR IA 217 

the difficult trail; later it became a stop for west-bound travelers on the 
Mullan Road, for Lookout Pass, 12 miles W., could hardly be crossed 
before nightfall. 

BOOTHILL (R) is a cemetery in which are buried 9 men and women 
who died with their boots on. The first was Chris Daggett, who froze to 
death on the trail while carrying the mail to Mullan, Idaho. The others 
met death in more turbulent ways in the days before Silver City had any 
other law than a quick draw and an easy trigger. Burials on Boothill were 
informal and not very solemn. Graves were usually dug after the coffins, 
rude boxes hastily made, had been carried to the plot. The gravediggers 
amused themselves by pitching pennies at the chinks between the rough 
pine boards. Once the sport was begun, the digging could not proceed 
until he who made the fewest hits walked back to town to fetch beer for 
the others. 

TAFT, 176.6 m. (3,625 alt.), is a ghost camp of 3 or 4 unoccupied 
frame buildings. In 1908, when the Milwaukee Road was driving its St. 
Paul Pass Tunnel through the Bitterroot Mountains (see TRANSPOR- 
TATION), it was a town of 2,000 inhabitants whose many saloons, gam- 
bling houses, dance halls, and flimsy buildings crowded the narrow valley. 
In the winter of 1909-10 the town was almost entirely destroyed by fire. 
When Idaho and Washington were dry and Montana wet, Taft was one of 
the supply points for bootleggers operating in the dry States, and was 
visited frequently by residents of such towns as Mullan, Wallace, and Kel- 
logg, Idaho. But even that could not keep it alive. It saw its last real 
activity in 1916, when an electric power line was built across the Coeur 
d'Alene Mountains (R) to connect the railroad substation at East Portal, 
2 miles west with Thompson Falls. 

West of Taft the gulch divides. US 10 keeps to the R., along the 
North Fork of the St. Regis River. 

At 179.5 m. the winding ascent through Lookout Canyon begins. There 
is a sharp curve and underpass at 181 m., and near the summit are further 
sharp curves, some without guard rails (drive carefully). 

At LOOKOUT PASS SUMMIT, 183.2 m. (4,738 alt.), US 10 crosses the 
Idaho Line, 13 miles east of Wallace, Idaho (see Idaho Tour 10). 

Tour lA 

Junction with US 10 S Townsend Helena Garrison; US loN. 
Junction US 10 S to Garrison, 107.1 m. 

Route roughly paralleled by Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific R.R. between 

2l8 TOURS 

Three Forks and a point south of Toston; by Northern Pacific Ry. between Toston 

and Garrison; and by Northwest Airlines throughout. 

Many tourist camps and hotels. 

Oiled roadbed throughout, open all seasons. MacDonald Pass dangerous during wet 

or icy weather; in winter occasionally closed a few hours while snow plows work. 

Good route for trailers. 

Between Three Forks and Helena US loN runs through the broad 
valley of the upper Missouri River, a fairly level, thinly populated area. 
From dry uplands it descends to irrigated fields and meadows. On both 
sides rise mountains, brown and purple in the clear air. 

In 1805 Lewis and Clark made a careful report of what they saw along 
the Missouri but, careful as they were to report on the presence of fur- 
bearing animals and other sources of wealth they apparently saw nothing 
to indicate the mineral wealth revealed half a century later in Confeder- 
ate, Last Chance, and other gulches. 

West of Helena US 10 N runs through narrow valleys, thickly for- 
ested with pine and pointed fir. It crosses the Continental Divide through 
MacDonald Pass. 

US 10 N branches north from the point, m., where US 10 divides 
into alternate routes, 3.6 miles west of Three Forks. 

From the hill (R) just north of the junction is a bird's-eye view (L) 
of the cottonwood bottoms in which the Jefferson, Gallatin, and Madison 
Rivers join to form the Missouri (see Tour 1, sec. b). Some authorities 
say that the Missouri was named for a tribe of Sioux living near the river 
whom the Illinois called Emessourita (dwellers on the Big Muddy). On 
early French maps it appears as "Emossouritsu," "Oumossourits," and 
even "le Missouri ou R. de Peketanoui." 

The range along the road, unfenced and bare of any vegetation other 
than sparse grass and sagebrush, is dull sepia and brown. 

At 6.9 m. the foothills of the main range of the Rockies are visible 
(L). Straight ahead are the Big Belt Mountains, so named because of a 
prominent girdle of outcropping limestone. 

TOSTON, 20.2 m. (3,925 alt., 200 pop.), is a farmers' town on the 
riverbank, shaded by cottonwoods and surrounded by irrigated bottoms 
planted with alfalfa and timothy. Cattle graze on the low hills. 

Left from Toston on a dirt road to PARKER, 8 m., a ghost mining camp. 
RADERSBURG, 13 m. (4,567 alt., 152 pop.), is an old mining town that to some 
extent came back. It sprang up in 1866, when John Keating opened the Keating 
Mine, and boomed the following year, when the East Pacific claim was discovered 
north of town. The two mines together produced more than $3,000,000 in gold and 
silver up to 1904, but were worked only intermittently during the following thirty 
years. Rising prices after 1933 brought a brisk revival of activity. 

Radersburg is the birthplace of Myrna Loy, christened Myrna Williams, the movie 

TOWNSEND, 30.5 m. (3,833 alt., 740 pop.), the seat of Broadwater 
County and once a busy place, lost much of its liveliness when automo- 
biles and good roads brought Helena within easy travel distance of the 
inhabitants of the valley ranches. There are only a few business establish- 
ments, and drab frame and log buildings are neglected and weather- 

TOUR IA 219 

beaten. A few well-kept dwellings still face the wide tree-shaded streets. 
At Townsend is the junction with State 6 (see Tour 11). 

1. Left from Townsend on a dirt road is HASSEL, 5 m., the ghost of a noted 
mining camp of the 1890*5. A few lessees still work the gold and silver properties 
of the district. Though unusual faulting makes Hassel ore veins hard to follow, the 
mines are credited with a production of about $100,000 since 1934. 

2. Right from Townsend on a dirt road to another road, 15 m.; R. here to DIA- 
MOND CITY, 23 m. (4,000 alt.), formerly one of the richest camps in CON- 

Confederate soldiers captured in Civil War battles near Lexington, Mo., were 
banished up the Missouri by the Union commander. Two of the exiles, Washington 
Baker and Pomp Dennis, intent on staking claims in Last Chance Gulch, came up 
from Fort Benton in the autumn of 1864, prospecting as they went. Here at the 
mouth of one of the gulches in the Big Belt Mountains, they found unusual amounts 
of detritus and wash. The first pans yielded io0 each, but later returns were greater. 

By spring a double line of houses straggled along the single street which fol- 
lowed the bends of the gulch. Prospectors of all kinds poured in veterans of the 
gold rushes to California, Colorado, and Idaho, and amateurs who did not even 
know how to begin to hunt for the precious metal. One of the amateurs naively 
asked an old-timer to suggest a place where he could "do some digging." The older 
man, in true frontier style, pointed out the most unpromising spot in sight and sug- 
gested, "Try that bar up there; you might find something." The novice, following 
the advice, staked the claim. His MONTANA BAR, placer ground covering less 
than 2 acres, was one of the richest ever found. Occasional yields of $180 a pan on 
other claims seemed small when compared with the incredible recoveries made on 
Montana Bar, where pans worth $1,000 were common. The last of the pay dirt on 
the bar was sluiced off in one big clean-up that yielded two and one-half tons of 
gold, worth more than $1,000,000. 

During the boom years the streets seethed with excitement and activity. Crews 
labored night and day to build a flume that brought water 7 miles for hydraulic 
work. Houses had to be raised 15 feet to save them from burial beneath the ava- 
lanche of tailings and boulders that was washed down the gulch. For a time Dia- 
mond City had a population of more than 10,000. But as soon as the cream had 
been skimmed, the prospectors who had not struck it rich moved on. In 1870 the 
town had 255 people; in another 12 months, 64; by 1883 four families remained. 
At length these, too, departed, and only a few foundations remain among mounds 
and ridges of sifted tailings. The total yield of Confederate Gulch is estimated to 
have been 15 to 17 millions, of which 90 percent was produced before 1870. 

Much of the irrigated land between Townsend and Helena is used for 
growing grain and hay. There are also stock ranches here, some with inter- 
national reputations as producers of fine horses. Local sales of registered 
stallions bring buyers from the important markets of the United States, 
Canada, and Europe. 

The highway crosses numerous tributaries of the Missouri ; along them 
are thick growths of huckleberries, chokecherries, gooseberries, service- 
berries, and, in places, wild strawberries and raspberries. Rattlesnakes in- 
habit the rocky slopes of the hills, but are seldom encountered at elevations 
of more than 4,500 feet. Snake stories with a Paul Bunyan flavor are often 
heard in this neighborhood. 

At 31.7 m. US 10 crosses the Missouri River, veers L., and follows 
easier grades. 

OLD BEDFORD MILL (L), 33.9 m., is on the site of the Bedford stage 
station of the old Helena- Virginia City line. The mill was active when 
more grain was grown in this valley. A hot spring is near the mill. 

220 TOURS 

Confederate Gulch (see above) is visible (R) at 35.2 m. The Elkhorn 
Range looms (L) above the broad expanse of grass and sage. Threaded 
with gullies and canyons that once contained active placers, it still lures 
prospectors. Like the Big Belts (R), it is in the Helena National Forest. 

WINSTON, 42.8 m. (4,375 alt, 165 pop.), is a group of small build- 
ings, dull red and brilliant yellow, against barren, grayish brown moun- 

MOUNT HELENA (5,462 alt.) dominates the western sky line at 
54.7 m. ahead. 

At 55.3 m. the high smokestack of the East Helena smelter is vis- 
ible (L). 

EAST HELENA, 57.6 m. (3,901 alt., 1,039 PP-)> * s a smelter town 
with many foreign-born inhabitants, most of whom came from the Bal- 
kans shortly after 1900. During prohibition many turned to the home- 
brewing practiced in their native lands; their products became so popular 
that a number left their jobs at the smelter to devote their entire time to 
easing the dry throats of the nearby capital. Legislative sessions brought 
miniature booms. With the repeal of prohibition, however, smelting again 
became East Helena's chief industry. 

The LEAD SMELTER and the ZINC RECOVERY PLANT (both open on 
application at office), connected by a slag conveyor, are operated jointly. 
Zinc, lead, gold, and silver ores from Idaho and Montana are reduced in 
4 furnaces whose united annual capacity is 300,000 tons of ore and con- 

At 59 m. (L) the twin spires of St. Helena Cathedral and the dome of 
the State CAPITOL are seen. Mount Helena, straight ahead, is identified 
by the H of white painted rocks on its eastern slope. 

At 61.2 m. is a junction with US 91 (see Tour 6), which unites briefly 
with US 10 N. 

HELENA, 63.1 m. (4,214 alt., 11,803 pop-) (see HELENA). 

Points of Interest: State Capitol, St. Helena Cathedral, Lewis and Clark County 
Courthouse, Public Library, Carroll College, Algeria Shrine Temple, Hill Park, 
placer diggings. 

Helena is at the western junction with US 91 (see Tour 6). 
At 66.4 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

1. Right on this road to FORT HARRISON (open daily 9-7), 1 m. (4,006 alt.), 
abandoned in 1910, but reopened as a training camp for Montana troops during the 
World War. The earthquakes of 1935-37 seriously damaged 10 of the 41 brick 
buildings. About 20 of those remaining are used by the National Guard, the rest 
belong to the Veterans Administration Facility. The main building has been made 

2. Left from US loN on the one-way road, which circles Mount Helena as Le 
Grand Cannon Blvd. and enters Helena at the head of Holter St., 4 m. The route 
provides far-reaching views and along it are several picnicking spots. 

BROADWATER RESORT (R), 66.5 m., built in 1889 by Col. C. A. 
Broadwater, is a rambling two-story frame structure with wide porches. 
The large pool (open June 1-Sept. 1 ; adm. 250) is sheltered by a wooden 
structure of Moorish design ; water is piped to it from hot springs nearby. 
The spacious grounds are landscaped. In the 1890*5 Broadwater was fre- 

^ ' 


quented by the local elite but in the following decades it had a checkered 
career. For long periods it stood unused; several hopeful lessees found it 
unprofitable; but after 1935 it again became a popular roadhouse in Mon- 

Right from Broadwater on an unimproved road to GREENHORN GULCH, 
11 m., which many years ago held a populous, important, and somewhat excitable 
placer camp. In April 1883 the Territorial Governor telegraphed the postal authori- 
ties at Washington: "Vigilantes at Greenhorn, Montana, have removed postmaster 
by hanging . . . Office . . . now vacant . . ." The Northern Pacific flag station, 
AUSTIN (4,771 alt., 78 pop.) is all that remains of the settlement. 

The GREENHOUSES AND NURSERY (open to public), 67.2 m., special- 
ize in the development of flowers, shrubs, vegetables, and ornamental 
trees suitable for use in high land. Plants bloom in the greenhouses the 
year around. 

By the nursery is Tenmile Creek, which provides most of Helena's 
water supply. 

The HELENA TOWN AND COUNTRY CLUB (visitors' cards obtainable 
at Placer Hotel; greens jee $1), 71.7 m., has a clubhouse and an i8-hole 
golf course. 

At 73.2 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

222" TOURS 

Left on this gulch road into the heavily timbered TENMILE CANYON, dotted 
with the summer homes of Helena residents. Some of the houses are hidden by thick 
growths of fir, tamarack, and lodgepole pine. 

At 3 m. is an improved public campground (R). 

RIMINI, 7 m. (5,192 alt., 85 pop.), is the trade center of a district that has 
produced gold, silver, and lead to the value of $3,000,000. A few mines are still 
worked by lessees. 

Shortly after the discovery of its silverlead lodes in the early i88o's, the citizens 
saw the drama of Paolo and Francesca da Rimini performed by a road company; 
they recorded their approval in the new camp's name. Montanans pronounce it 

Left 2 m. from Rimini on a trail to CHESSMAN RESERVOIR, a part of the Helena 
water system. In early summer the trail is bordered with a mass of wild flowers 
lupine, bluebell, shooting star, phlox, aster, wild rose, and many others. 

The MONTANA LEAD MINE, 7.5 m., owned by the estate of James J. Hill, the 
railroad builder, now makes only occasional shipments to the East Helena smelter. 
The manager's residence, a log chalet with charming grounds bordering the creek, 
is one of the show places of the Helena region. 

The road ascends a steep grade to a bench between tall walls of lodgepole pine. 
Red Mountain rises impressively in the southwest. 

The PORPHYRY DIKE MINE, 12 m., is in a region where great rhyolite flows hold 
low-grade gold ore. Only large-scale milling is profitable. 

Right 0.5 m. from the Porphyry Dike on a footpath to the summit of RED 
MOUNTAIN (8,802 alt.), which gives a sweeping view westward of a rugged, 
uninhabited wilderness that rises to the Continental Divide. 

MAcDONALD PASS in the Continental Divide, 79 m. (6,323 alt.), 
was named for Alexander MacDonald, who until 1885, maintained a toll 
road there. He had to employ a full-time crew to keep the road in con- 
dition; where underground seepage created bogs, he found it necessary 
to corduroy considerable stretches. The stages between Helena and Deer 
Lodge used this pass and it was the scene of several bold mail robberies. 

A spring of clear, cold water is near the summit (R) on the east slope. 
Both slopes are long and steep (drive with care). The views are dramatic. 

Left from MacDonald Pass on a dirt road to MACDONALD CAMPGROUND (stoves, 
picnic tables, water), 0.5 m., in a forest clearing. 

ELLISTON, 85.5 m. (5,061 alt, 225 pop.), is a trade town in a gold 
quartz- and placer-mining district. A lime quarry and a mill are at the 
base of a high hill near the eastern limits of town. MOUNT BISON 
(8,0 1 8 alt.) rises (L) in the distance. 

Between Elliston and the junction with US 10 S, the route follows the 
Little Blackfoot River. 

AVON, 94.1 m. (4,702 alt., 162 pop.), is a supply point where cat- 
tle and sheep ranchers rub elbows with prospectors and miners. 

Right from Avon on a graveled road is FINN, 14 m. (4,691 alt., 17 pop.), whose 
small general store sells almost entirely to miners; for the most part they pay in 
gold dust. 

The road skirts the southern end and southeastern slopes of the Flathead Range. 

HELMVILLE, 23 m. (4,305 alt., 202 pop.) (see Tour 8), is at the junction with 
State 31 (see Tour 8). 

At 107.1 m. US 10 N and US 10 S join to become US 10 (see Tour 1), 
on the eastern outskirts of GARRISON (see Tour 1, sec. d). 

TOUR 2 223 

^ ^ -rt- yyyyyyyyy^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ y ^ ^ 

Tour 2 

(Williston, N. D.) Glasgow Malta Havre Shelby Glacier Park 
Station Kalispell Libby (Bonners Ferry, Idaho) ; US 2. 
North Dakota Line to Idaho Line, 701.7 m. 

Great Northern Ry. parallels route between North Dakota Line and Columbia Falls, 
and between Libby and Idaho Line. 

All types of accommodations in larger towns. Modern tourist-cabin camps and camp- 
grounds at long intervals. 

Oiled roadbed between North Dakota Line and Kalispell; between Kalispell and 
Idaho Line some untreated stretches where travel is difficult in winter and early 
spring. Marias Pass between Glacier Park Station and Belton sometimes closed by 
drifted snow in winter; dangerous in all weather because of sharp curves and pre- 
cipitous, unguarded edges. 

Section a. NORTH DAKOTA LINE to HAVRE, 293 m., US 2. 

US 2, following the Missouri and Milk Rivers across the windswept 
glaciated plains and shallow valleys of northern Montana, is locally 
known as the High-line, and semiofficially as the Roosevelt International 
Highway. It crosses what was the open range in Montana's spectacular 
cattle-raising days. In recent decades some high-grade wheat and other 
grain have been grown here, but this is still primarily a grazing region. 
The impressiveness of the landscape comes from its sweep of vast plain, 
from which low buttes rise here and there with sharp silhouettes. 

Between the towns few dwellings are seen. 

US 2 crosses the North Dakota Line, m., 19 miles west of Willis- 
ton, N. D. 

BAINVILLE, 8.7 m. (1,962 alt., 400 pop.), in earlier days was merely 
a trading post. The town, which was platted in 1906, is a cluster of dusty 
frame houses and a brick structure or two. It, like many other towns of 
the region, has suffered severely during the years of drought and de- 

SIGNAL BUTTE (L) is an observation point that has been used by 
Indians, trappers, and stockmen. 

Left from Bainville 11 m. on a dirt road to the SITE OF FORT UNION, near the 
junction of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. In 1805 the Lewis and Clark ex- 
pedition passed this point in pirogues. Twenty-three years later the American Fur 
Company built Fort Floyd, later known as Fort Union, as a center for its trade with 
the Assiniboine. The Indians came long distances by trail and water to exchange 
beaver, mink, marten, and other pelts for whiskey, beads, calico, tobacco, and 
most prized of all smooth-bore rifles and black powder. The liquor was sold to 
them in defiance of Federal law, but greatly helped to win the trade that might 
otherwise have gone to the Hudson's Bay post in Canada. For protection against 
drunken or marauding tribesmen, Fort Union's great log buildings were enclosed 
by a 2o-foot stockade with blockhouses at two corners. 

224 TOURS 

Until the great days of the fur trade had passed, Fort Union was eminent among 
frontier outposts. From it Kenneth McKenzie, its first factor, developed and directed 
activities covering a large region; here, on June 17, 1832, the Yellowstone, first 
steamboat to come this far up the river, arrived from St. Louis. Prince Paul of 
Wiirttemberg ; Maximilian, Prince of Wied; Audubon, the naturalist; Jim Bridger, 
the scout; and Father De Smet, the Jesuit missionary, were among those who visited 
the populous post. In 1868 the U. S. Government purchased and dismantled it, using 
its materials in the construction of Fort Buford, 8 miles down the Missouri River. 

West of Bainville massive gray buttes rise from the river flat, but they 
are often hidden by low mists from the Missouri. Sunlight is bright and 
winds are strong in this region. A breeze that makes a long chain stand 
out like the tail of a kite isn't so bad, say old-timers; but when the end 
links start snapping off, one after another, it is safe to assume that a 
good, stiff blow is about to begin. During the World War the prairie 
here produced enormous crops of wheat. Some farms were so mechanized 
that they had not a single animal. Huge unwieldy tractors were brought 
in to make their slow, grinding, and explosive ways across the land, plow- 
ing, harrowing, and sowing in one operation. The farmers, too busy with 
their hundreds of acres of grain to keep cows or to garden, bought their 
milk and vegetables in cans. When grain prices fell after the war, the use 
of the huge tractors was discontinued. Later smaller and more efficient 
ones were acquired. 

CULBERTSON, 22.7 m. (1,921 alt., 536 pop.), is a grain-shipping 
point, as its large elevators indicate to newcomers. It is named for Alex- 
ander Culbertson, who in 1839 succeeded Kenneth McKenzie as factor at 
Fort Union (see above). In 1879 n * s son J ac ^ established a ranch near 
here. Just when or how the town came into existence is not known, but 
the theory that there was a town gained currency between 1888 and 1892. 
In the latter year, however, a certain Lucy A. Isbel stepped off the train 
and spent some time looking for it. Two log buildings were not regarded 
as a town where she came from. 

At the western edge of the village is a junction with State 16. 

1. Left on State 16 to the MISSOURI RIVER BRIDGE (1934), 2.7 m. From this steel 
structure 1,169 feet long and one of the finest in the State, is viewed a great 
bend of the tree-lined river, with typical breaks along the edges of the river flat. 

2. Right on State 16, a graveled road that parallels Big Muddy Creek, is FROID, 
13 m. (2,026 alt., 434 pop.), formerly the home of John W. Schnitzler, whose wheat 
fields covered thousands of acres. His enthusiasm for aviation obtained an excellent 
landing field for Froid and the honor of being the only small town formally visited 
by the great group flight around the Nation in July 1928. He was killed, in 1932, 
when his private plane crashed against a high butte near Glasgow. 

MEDICINE LAKE (boats available), 24 m. (R), is a Federal migratory water- 
fowl reserve. The village of MEDICINE LAKE, 26 m. (1,948 alt., 384 pop.), was 
once Plentywood's rival for the business of Sheridan County. 

At 34 m. is the junction with a dirt road; R. here 10 m. is DAGMAR, the trade 
center of a Danish community that has for a long time successfully conducted vari- 
ous cooperative enterprises. These include a store, a coal mine, a telephone exchange, 
a fire insurance company, and a burial association providing funerals for $45. 

PLENTYWOOD, 49 m. (2,024 alt., 1,226 pop.), seat, of Sheridan County, is 
said to have been named, before it was settled, by the foreman'of a cattle outfit who 
found an unexpected hoard of wood on the bare prairie. No wood grows near here 
except small boxelder and poplar. 

Plentywood is the capital of a grain-producing area whose development has been 



rapid and boisterous. It has experienced prosperity, drought and starvation, pros- 
perity, and drought again. 

The people here have been notably independent in politics. They began, mildly 
enough, by supporting the Bull Moose ticket in 1912. In 1918 the Non-partisan 
League established the Producers News here, which under the editorship of Charles 
E. Taylor, helped to build up an organization that on several occasions attracted 
national attention. From 1920 to 1926 nearly the entire population of Sheridan 
County belonged to the Farmer-Labor Party; in 1922 and 1924 its ticket filled the 
county offices. The Producers News had a staff of editors, contributors, and collabo- 
rators that at one time included such people as Ella Reeve (Mother) Bloor and Tom 
O'Flaherty, brother of Liam O'Flaherty, the Irish author. Between heated political 
campaigns it found time to discuss contemporary cultural issues, and made Plenty- 
wood for several years one of the best-informed small towns in the Northwest; but 
it gathered its opposition as it went along. The Republicans and the Democrats 
consolidated their forces and in 1926 took advantage of the theft of $106,000 from 
the county treasurer's office to throw suspicion upon those in office. In the 1928 
elections the Farmer-Labor ticket was defeated; conservatives have controlled the 
county since then. Nevertheless, the non-conformist minority has been active from 
time to time through the depression years. In 1930 about 500 citizens of the county 
voted the Communist Party ticket straight; in the winter of 1932-33 a group of 
militant malcontents took clothing by force from the Red Cross headquarters here. 
Partly because of such occurrences, Alfred Miller, an editor of the Producers News, 
was later arrested and threatened with deportation to Germany, his birthplace. In 
i937 after the Producers News suspended publication, many of the former lead- 
ers left. 

Left from Plentywood (straight ahead) on State 5, crossing the Big Muddy Flat 
and passing fantastically carved badlands (R) near ARCHER, 63 m. (2,064 alt., 

226 TOURS 

22 pop.). The EAGLE'S NEST (L), 82 m., is a low basin below a piskun (see 

State 5 continues through level farmland. 

SCOBEY, 94 m. (2,450 alt., 1,259 pop.), is the seat of Daniels County. Six 
large grain elevators rising from the prairie are evidence of the fertility of the sur- 
rounding country. During the World War and the following boom times, especially 
the years 1927-28, Scobey was one of the most important primary wheat markets 
in the Northwest. Since the drought began the lines of wagons waiting by the ele- 
vators have been much shorter than formerly. 

Left from Scobey on State 13, an oiled road traversing grain- and cattle-raising 
country with many good duck-hunting areas. 

At 141 m. is a junction with US 2, 7 miles east of Wolf Point (see below). 

At 28.5 m. is the eastern boundary of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, 
home of the Assiniboine and the Yankton Sioux. The road here runs 
along the Missouri River bottom lands, in springtime fragrant with the 
scent of chokecherry blossoms and in summer shaded by cottonwoods. 

BROCKTON, 42.9 m. (1,955 a ^-> 3 PP-)> * s a wind-swept village 
on the prairie. 

POPLAR, 56.7 m. (1,963 alt, 1,046 pop.), grew up around Fort Peck, 
which was maintained until 1887 to protect cattle ranchers from hostile 
Indians. The town and the river that skirts it were so named because of 
the trees along the banks of the stream. Before a bridge spanned the 
river, swains from the town swam their horses through the spring ice 
floes, when going to court girls living on the northern ranches. 

In Poplar is the agency of the FORT PECK INDIAN RESERVATION of 
1,525,537 acres, created in 1872. Subagencies are at Frazer and Wolf 

The Assiniboine, though they are now only two-fifths of the popula- 
tion, were the owners of the original reservation. Of Siouan stock, they 
were separated from the Sioux after a battle near Devils Lake in legendary 
times. The Assiniboine hunted from the Missouri River to the Saskatch- 
ewan, and from the Assiniboine to the Milk. They felt that the Yankton 
Sioux, who arrived from South Dakota in 1886, were intruders, and 
fought them fiercely. 

Gauche (Left Hand), chief of the Assiniboine, described by Father De 
Smet as "crafty, cruel, deceitful," kept his people at war with all their 
neighbors. They were not unfriendly to the whites. Under Left Hand's 
leadership the Indians burned Fort Piegan in the course of hostilities with 
the Blackfeet, but Gov. Isaac Stevens, during his railroad survey, found 
them friendly and helpful. The Indians said Stevens "talked straight." 

The Sioux, on the other hand, were always enemies of the whites. They 
murdered settlers, harassed river boats, and shot woodcutters along the 
Missouri and the Yellowstone. In its last years, they avoided Fort Union 
as "bad medicine" and prevented other tribes from trading there. Under 
their great chiefs, Sitting Bull and Gall, they were continuously on the 
warpath until the United States finally forced them to surrender. 

Of the 2,900 Indians on the reservation half are full-bloods. The mem- 
bers of the two tribes live in separate communities, and their languages 
are so different that intertribal communication is in English. 

For years the Assiniboine filed claims against the Government for tak- 


228 TOURS 

ing their land and were eventually awarded $4,000,000. Both tribes are 
moderately well-to-do and progressive. Their chief income is rental from 
grazing lands. Under the original allotments each Indian received 320 
acres of grazing land, 40 of irrigable land, and 20 of timber, mostly 
along streams. When the reservation was opened to settlers, homestead 
fees went into the tribal funds. About 150 earn money by making moc- 
casins, beadwork, baskets, willow canes, and the like. About 900 chil- 
dren are (1939) in the public schools, and 25 youths are in college. 

In 1935 the Sioux and Assiniboine rejected the Wheeler-Howard self- 
governing act, preferring the rule of an executive board under the direc- 
tion of the Indian agent. Two board members are elected from each of 
six districts, a chairman and other officials at large. 

The Assiniboine, like other Indians, have suffered seriously from white 
men's diseases. In 1837-38 an epidemic of smallpox nearly wiped out the 
tribe. It is said that the infection was carried to them by a blanket a tribes- 
man stole from a white sufferer on a river steamer. Today less than 5 per- 
cent have tuberculosis (about 1890 the most dreaded disease) but badly 
balanced diets, composed chiefly of "store food" have lowered the re- 
sistance of many. A Government hospital and two physicians furnish 
medical care. 

The ancient grass, victory, and rain dances are performed whenever the 
council decides, but the sun dance is held annually, June 3O-July 4. Like 
all Indian dances (see sec. b), this one has religious significance. Most of 
the dancers wear the feathered headdress and beaded garments, but a 
few, brightly painted, wear only a G string. They dance facing the sun 
and a pole carved with symbols of forked lightning, sunrays, and moon- 
beams. Nearby are the sun-dance poles of past years. The Federal Gov- 
ernment has forbidden the extreme self-torture formerly indulged in, but 
the participants still dance all day without taking food or water. (Visitors 
with cameras permitted to witness dance; no set admittance fee, but gifts 
of money are expected.) 

At 71.5 m. US 2 intersects State 13 (see above). 

WOLF POINT, 78.6 m. (2,004 alt., 1,539 PP-)> seat of Roosevelt 
County, still exhibits the vigor of its early days, when it was a cattle town. 
It was named for a high hill (R) that was a landmark for steamboat 
pilots. The Wolf Point Stampede, a first-rate rodeo, is held each year in 
July. The town has a radio broadcasting station, KGCX (1310 kc.). 

West of Wolf Point US 2 traverses rolling moraines, debris left by the 
Wisconsin ice sheet (see NATURAL SETTING). 

OSWEGO, 90.6 m. (2,026 alt, 150 pop.), was named by early set- 
tlers from Oswego, N. Y. It consists of scattered buildings that escaped 
the flames of a devastating fire. Old-timers' reunions are popular summer 
events here. The oldsters, wearing the garb of the i88o's and 1 890*5, 
mingle with members of the third generation. In the evening all dance 
the lively two-step and polka, to music furnished by local fiddlers. Be- 
tween dances the settlers swap yarns of the days when they rode the range. 

Just west of Oswego is an INDIAN CEMETERY with graves above the 

TOUR 2 229 

By day, FRAZER, 98.2 m. (2,068 alt, 300 pop.), is announced by tall 
grain elevators that indicate the reason for its existence. At night a few 
neon signs break the intense darkness of the prairie. Ancient horse-drawn 
rigs move down the street beside streamlined automobiles. 

The observation tower above Fort Peck Dam is visible (L) at 107 m. 

US 2 here leaves the Missouri to follow Milk River, the most impor- 
tant stream of north central Montana. It was so named by Capt. Meri- 
wether Lewis because of the whiteness of its waters. 

NASHUA, 114.5 m. (2,068 alt, 351 pop.), is sheltered by a high 
butte (R) that in winter provides excellent opportunities for skiing and 
tobogganing. The town, at the confluence of Milk River and Porcupine 
Creek, is at the western boundary of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Its 
population has doubled since 1933 because of construction work on Fort 
Peck Dam. 

Nashua is the junction with the improved dirt Fort Peck Dam road 
(see Tour 10A). 

GLASGOW, 129 m. (2,095 alt -> 2 > 2I 6 pop.), the seat of Valley 
County, is one of the oldest communities in northeastern Montana; since 
the beginning of construction at Fort Peck Dam, it has been one of the 
busiest. Everywhere is evidence of prosperity; the population more than 
doubled between 1933 and 1937. Streams of people arrive and depart 
daily on business connected with the dam development. Hotels and tourist 
cabins are crowded. 

The town came into existence in 1887 during the building of the Great 
Northern Ry., which at first called it Siding 45 it had the forty-fifth sid- 
ing west of Minot, N. D. When it was platted in the following year it 
was named in honor of Glasgow, Scotland. By July 1888 it consisted of 
8 saloons, 3 restaurants, and i store all but 2 housed in tents. During 
this rather feverish period Charles Hall, the first settler, sold most of the 
town site without the formality of ownership. 

In time Glasgow became the cattle-, sheep-, and grain-shipping center 
of an extensive area but it did not have much other importance until 
September 1932, when two U. S. Army engineers took its mayor out along 
the Missouri River, and spoke casually about building a dam. "Why, it 
would cost a million dollars!" gasped the mayor. "Yes," said the engi- 
neers, "probably 75 million." The project was approved, a half dozen 
shanty towns mushroomed nearby, and Glasgow shook itself awake to the 
fact that it was to be, for a few years at least, a small metropolis. The life 
that immediately began fermenting in and around it almost put to shame 
the hell-roaring activities of its frontier days. The magazine Life, in its 
first issue (1936), presented a pictorial record of the revival of a wild 
west atmosphere. (Frequent bus service to dam; two planes make flights 
over dam area.) 

At Glasgow is the junction with State 22 (see Tour 10). 

HINSDALE, 158.8 m. (2,182 alt, 359 pop.), like many High-line 
towns, has a brick school on Main St. that is its most imposing structure 
and the center of civic and social activities. 

230 TOURS 

SACO, 172.7 m. (2,184 a ^- 5 PP-)> owns its own natural gas sys- 
tem. Its gas rate is the lowest in the State. 

The irrigated loam of Milk River Valley produces sugar beets, alfalfa, 
bluejoint hay, and small grains. 

LAKE BOWDOIN (L), 184.7 m., is in a widespreading area of 
swamps and pools that formerly provided the best duck-hunting in the 
State. In 1936 it became a Federal refuge for migratory birds. 

The brushlahds of Milk River Valley shelter Chinese pheasants, Hun- 
garian partridges, grouse, sage hens, and cottontail and snowshoe rabbits. 
Deer live in the breaks of the larger streams and antelope range on the 
south side of Milk River. Jack rabbits and prairie dogs are so numerous 
that they are farm and ranch pests ; coyotes maintain their number despite 
a bounty offered for their destruction. 

At 186.7 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to the AMERICAN LEGION HEALTH POOL, 4 m., on the storage 
grounds of the Milk River irrigation project. It has a warm plunge, 60 feet wide, and 
80 long, and hot baths (open 8 a.m. to midnight; adm. 10$). While drilling an oil 
well in 1924, workmen struck highly mineralized water at 3,200 feet; gas bubbling 
up through the water became ignited; and for 6 years visitors saw "burning water." 
In 1930 the local American Legion post obtained authority from Congress to use 
the water for curative and recreational purposes. 

Throughout this region the "sodbuster" tradition is of relatively recent 
origin. As late as 1916 homesteaders arrived with horses, wagons, plows, 
stoves, bedding, and small grubstakes. Since there was no timber and they 
could not afford to buy lumber, the newcomers plowed up sod and laid 
slabs of it in tiers over pole frameworks to form dwellings. Some sod huts 
still stand in outlying districts, though they are seldom used for human 

MALTA, 200.6 m. (2,254 a lt., 1,342 pop.), seat of Phillips County, 
was named for the island in the Mediterranean. Its present drabness and 
apathy give no hint that from 1870 to 1900 it was the center of a cattle 
empire that reached from Glasgow to Havre, and from the Missouri River 
breaks to the Canadian Border. Owners of four famous brands Phillips, 
Coburn, Matador, and Phelps controlled this range and the Bearpaw 

A ranch at Brookside, about 30 miles southwest of Malta, was the home 
of two brothers, Wallace and Walt Coburn. Wallace, a friend of Charles 
M. Russell (see THE ARTS), published a book of cowboy poems that 
Russell illustrated. Walt is a writer of western yarns. 

The large boulder in Malta's city park, opposite the Great Northern Ry. 
station, resembles a sleeping buffalo. Until 1934 it was a prominent land- 
mark of a place 25 miles northeast of here. Generations of Assiniboine 
revered it; the curious markings on it played a part in their tribal ritual. 

Many of Charles M. Russell's pictures were produced in and near this 

DODSON, 219-9 m. (2,291 alt., 249 pop.), was named for a merchant 
who conducted a well-patronized trading post and saloon here, before the 
building of the Great Northern Ry. Local legend commemorates "Peanut" 
Parson, a bachelor who ate his peas with a knife ground to the keenness 

TOUR 2 231 

of a razor blade. An easterner who spent two weeks with Peanut in 1911, 
was about to object to this dangerous habit, when Peanut leaned apolo- 
getically across the table: "Pardner," he protested mildly, "every time 
you put that there fork in your mouth I shiver in my boots for fear you'll 
punch a hole plumb through your tongue." 

Between Dodson and Fort Belknap, US 2 traverses the northern end of 
the FORT BELKNAP INDIAN RESERVATION (620,330 acres; created 1887). 

At 245.2 m. (L) is the FORT BELKNAP AGENCY. The Gros Ventre 
and the Assiniboine, formerly enemies, have lived amicably together for 
many years on this reservation, and have had no external conflicts since 
1887, when they made peace with the Canadian Bloods. The 758 Gros 
Ventre (Big Bellies) and 672 Assiniboine, or Mountain Sioux, are thrifty 
and industrious. 

The present Gros Ventre are remnants of the Gros Ventre of the 
Prairie, a branch of the Arapahoe that came into Montana in the early 
nineteenth century. They lived along the north bank of the Missouri River 
until driven across it by the Cree in 1872. The Assiniboine take pride in 
their Sioux origin, but intermarry with the adaptable Gros Ventre. 

Members of both tribes raise excellent cattle, including some blooded 
stock, and are among the most successful Indian stock growers in Mon- 
tana. Surplus grazing land is leased to sheep-growers. Late June is shear- 
ing time (see Tour 1). Some communal activities are carried on, though 
the land is held and exploited under individual allotments. 

Fort Belknap Indians have abandoned such ancient customs as arbi- 
trary rule by a chief, and the servitude of women. They are deeply re- 
ligious and, though many are Protestants or Roman Catholics, they con- 
tinue to perform a modified Sun Dance annually at the agency (July 1-2; 
visitors permitted). At their annual fair, usually held in September at 
Hays ( see Tour 2 A) these Indians exhibit splendid horsemanship. 

About 300 Chippewa-Cree who have never surrendered their land 
rights to the Government, live on and near the Fort Belknap Reserva- 
tion. Poor, unrecognized as a tribe, a perplexing problem to social and 
relief agencies, these Indians are making a claim of usurpation against 
the Government and asking compensation for the loss of their lands. 
Smaller remnants of various tribes are scattered over the State ; some have 
been given homes on the Rocky Boy Reservation (see Tour 14). 

A favorite among Fort Belknap Indians is Coming Day, who in 1937 
was more than eighty years old and still maintained his reputation for 
fearlessness. In his prime he rode joyously in the white man's "devil-bug," 
that sputtered and smoked and traveled like wind without the use of 
ponies. In August 1936 he boarded the white man's "thunder bird" dur- 
ing the reservation fair and waved gaily to his quaking comrades. When 
the plane was at an altitude of several thousand feet he exhorted the 
pilot in the Gros Ventre tongue to go higher. "As yet," he shouted scorn- 
fully, "we are not to the height where flies the common magpie!" 

At Fort Belknap Agency is the junction with the Zortman Road (see 
Tour 2 A). 

HARLEM, 249.4 m. (2,371 alt., 708 pop.), lies in a coulee (valley) 

232 TOURS 

shaded and sheltered by cottonwoods. Modern brick buildings intrude 
among the wooden structures of pioneer times. It is said that its first 
post office was a shoe box on the counter of a general store. When the 
volume of mail became too great for the shoe box, an empty beer case 
fitted with pigeonholes took its place. 

Harlem is the trading center for the Fort Belknap Reservation, and its 
streets are often enlivened by the presence of Indians in bright and 
complicated mixtures of white and native dress. Under an unbuttoned 
vest, a buck may wear a rose-decorated corset with dangling straps and 
buckles. Some squaws drape their shoulders with yards of brilliant calico. 
These, however, are the costumes of individualists. A buck usually wears 
a broad-brimmed hat over his braids, a faded shirt, corduroy trousers, and 
boots, shoes, or moccasins. Bright hair ribbons are worn by both buck 
and squaw. 

Formerly a sheepherders' convention was held here annually. At the 
last one (1922) the herders organized a union. 

ZURICH, 261.3 m. (2,410 alt., 305 pop.), is a small trading center 
and shipping point in the sugar-beet area. 

The CHINOOK SUGAR REFINERY, 270.3 m. (L), the fourth largest in 
Montana, has, since 1925, introduced a thriving industry into this region 
(see INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE). The Mexican and Filipino labor- 
ers employed in the beet fields as thinners and toppers gather about the 
nearby shacks after the day's work to play guitars and sing. 

CHINOOK, 271.3 m. (2,310 alt., 1,320 pop.), seat of Blaine County, 
bears the Indian name for the winds that, by melting the snow in January 
or February and letting cattle through to the rich bunch grass, have saved 
many a stockman from disaster. It was Charles M. Russell's postcard pic- 
ture of a starving range cow, Waiting for a Chinook (The Last of Five 
Thousand), that first won him recognition as an artist (see THE ARTS). 

The PUBLIC LIBRARY, Ohio Ave. and 6th St., contains reproductions of 
several Russell sculptures. 

The MUNICIPAL SWIMMING POOL (open fuly-Aug.) is at Pennsylvania 
Ave. and 8th St. 

Left from Chinook on Central Ave., which becomes a dirt road, to the NEZ 
PERCE BATTLEGROUND, 16 m., north of the low, isolated Bearpaw Mountains. A 
granite monument marks the spot where Chief Joseph, the Indian military genius, 
surrendered to Gen. Nelson A. Miles after the Battle of the Bear's Paw (October 

Joseph had led his followers in a masterly retreat from Idaho (see HISTORY). 
Here in the Bearpaw country, which they thought was in Canada, they made camp 
with their wounded. The mistake was discovered when General Miles attacked on 
September 30. A 4-day battle forced Joseph to make a decision he must either 
surrender, or abandon the wounded, the old women, and the children. 

"Hear me," he said to the white commander. "I am tired. My heart is sick and 
sad. Our chiefs are dead; the little children are freezing. My people have no blan- 
kets, no food. From where the sun stands, I will fight no more forever." 

The surrender marked the end of the major Indian wars in the United States. 
The remaining Nez Perces were taken first to Bismarck, N. D., then to Leavenworth, 
Kans. In 1884 they were placed on the Colville Reservation in Washington. 

LOHMAN, 279.4 m. (2,445 ait > 6 3 PP-)> is in a section where nat- 



TOUR 2 233 

ural gas is plentiful and where the seepage near springs is often ignited. 
Indian superstition once made much of the "fire that comes out of the 

HAVRE, 293 m. (2,486 alt., 6,372 pop.), seat of Hill County, shows 
what careful planning went into its rebuilding after a great fire in 1892. 
The presence of the students of Northern Montana College give it an air 
of youth and sprightliness. 

The town came into existence in 1887, when James J. Hill, for. whom 
Hill County is named, sent his railroad-construction camp westward to 
this point; finding plenty of good water here, he decided to build a 
branch southward to Great Falls from this point rather than from one in 
the dry region to the west, as he had planned. Great Northern officials 
named the town for the French city Le Havre, but its citizens have always 
pronounced it Hav-ver. It developed as a railroad division point and 
stock-shipping center. 

Havre is popularly known as the coldest place in the United States, but 
local patriots declare this a misconception arising from the publicity given 
to the readings of the U. S. Weather Bureau station here. The climatic 
extremes of the region, coupled with the distances between towns, make 
it easy to understand the development of a tradition of hospitality. In 
early days neighborly cooperation was essential to survival. 

NORTHERN MONTANA COLLEGE (1929), along State 29 in the south- 
western part of the city, is a junior college and a unit of the University of 
Montana. It offers two-year courses in the liberal arts and in pre- 
professional studies. First housed in the high school, in 1932 it was moved 
to a remodeled building on a 6o-acre campus. Between 1932 and 1937 

ree buildings were added and the grounds were landscaped, partly with 

ief labor. The new buildings, of modern functional design, are con- 

ructed of brick made in Havre. The school has a stadium seating 7,000, 
and an open-air theater with a large stage. 

At the annual Music Festival in May more than 50 bands and 1,500 

usicians from all parts of the State compete. The event culminates in a 

ncert held in the stadium. 

The MUNICIPAL SWIMMING POOL (open 10-8:30; suits 25$) is on 
.th St. between 7th and 8th Aves. 

The HILL COUNTY FAIRGROUNDS (fair in August) are i mile north- 
west of town on State 29. The race track, one of the best in Montana, is 
the scene of races between fast horses from several western States and 
from Canada. 

At Havre is the junction with State 29 (see Tour 14). 

Section b. HAVRE to BROWNING JUNCTION, 777.7 m., US 2. 

Between Havre and Browning Junction US 2 traverses plains that are 
for the most part bare and, in dry years, desolate. Stock range and wheat 
farms fill the area east of the sudden upthrust of the Rocky Mountains. 

In general, towns along the route present hybrid appearances, with, 
side by side, the weather-beaten buildings of the old range days and the 

234 TOURS 

cheap modern structures holding chain stores and filling stations. On 
spurs near the railroad depots are grain elevators and cattle- loading pens. 
Homes scatter away from a single short business block, or from the gen- 
eral store, the school, and the church clustered at a cross road. 

West of HAVRE, m., at 4 m. is (L) the HAVRE COUNTRY CLUB 
(greens fee weekdays 50$, Sun. $1). 

FRESNO, 13.9 m. (2,690 alt., 12 pop.), is, in the Montana vernacular, 
"a wide spot in the road." It consists of a general store, a railroad station, 
and a few houses. In the store is a collection of relics of pioneer Montana. 

KREMLIN, 19-4 m. (2,832 alt, 85 pop.), is said to have been so 
named by Russian settlers because they saw the citadel of Moscow in the 
mirages that appear on the surrounding prairie. On the unplowed lands 
along the highway grows short but highly nutritious buffalo grass. Some 
of the more prosperous ranchers of the vicinity lease their idle lands; 
others in the fall buy up as many cattle and sheep as they can afford to 
winter on the prairie. Thus when grain crops are poor, or prices low, they 
are assured of a moderate cash income. 

GILFORD, 30.9 m. (2,830 alt., 250 pop.), and HINGHAM, 35.9 m. 
(3,036 alt., 251 pop.), are storage and shipping points for stock and 

At 41.9 m. is the junction with a graded road. 

Right on this road is RUDYARD, 0.1 m. (3,112 alt., 165 pop.), named for Rud- 
yard Kipling. 

At 48.1 m. is the junction with a graded road. 

Right on this road is INVERNESS, 0.1 m. (3,306 alt., 137 pop.), named by 
"Scotty" Watson, pioneer stockman, in memory of his native town in Scotland. 

CHESTER, 61.7 m. (3,283 alt., 387 pop.), seat of Liberty County, is 
on the bank of Cottonwood Creek at the place where ranchers of the 
i88o's paused to rest on the long drive to the railhead at Minot, N. D. 

West of Chester the Sweetgrass Hills (see Tour 6, Sec. a) are prom- 
inent (R) on the horizon. 

LOTHAIR, 74.9 m. (3,308 alt., 150 pop.), is in the midst of unde- 
veloped oil and natural-gas fields. 

GALATA, 81.7 m. (3,096 alt., 75 pop.), a trading point and cattle- 
shipping station, has a history somewhat similar to that of many small 
High-line towns. In 1901 David R. McGinnis, first immigration agent of 
the Great Northern Ry., impressed by the beauty of the spot where Galata 
Creek, a dry wash (stream bed without water) crossed the railroad tracks, 
filed claim to the land, and engaged a surveyor to lay out a town. A year 
later he brought carpenters and lumber from Kalispell, and built a two- 
room house. Until 1904, when it burned, stock shippers were glad to 
crowd into the tiny rooms during cold winter days, but no one followed 
the lead of the city's founder by buying land or building houses. In 1905 
McGinnis began an earnest effort to make Galata's urban existence a real- 
ity. He built a two-room real estate office and an eight-room hotel ; he in- 
duced a storekeeper to come here and, when the man lacked funds to erect 
a store, allowed him to use a room in the real estate office. In those days a 

TOUR 2 235 

rancher would drive in with a chuck wagon, load up $500 or $1,000 
worth of supplies, pay in cash, and return home grubstaked for a long 
winter. Only a few customers were necessary to maintain a thriving busi- 
ness. Nevertheless, Galata's merchant closed his shop within a few years 
and the hotel was abandoned. 

One day McGinnis, living in Kalispell, was astonished to receive a 
check for back rent on the store. A cowhand had moved in, and was do- 
ing a fair business among the dry-land farmers who had settled on the 
former range. In 1910 Galata had four lumberyards and five stores. Dur- 
ing the wartime boom settlers came into the area in droves, but with its 
collapse many of them went away. 

In 1925 the town made an effort to ride to importance on the oilfield 
band wagon. A full-page advertisement in the achievement edition of the 
Shelby Promoter extolled Galata as the center of an agricultural paradise, 
and pointed out that it was the "city" nearest the new Liberty oil dome. 
Unfortunately, the Liberty dome was far out on the east flank of the 
Sweetgrass Arch, and all the wells drilled into it were dry. 

US 2 winds down a steep descent into Shelby Coulee, a preglacial 

SHELBY, 106.8 m. (3,283 alt., 2,004 pop-)> seat of Toole County, 
is strung out along a narrow main street that parallels the Great Northern 
Ry. tracks. It has developed through a succession of booms the cattle 
boom of the i88o's, the dry-land boom of the early 2Oth century, and the 
oil boom of the 1920'$. 

The town came into existence in 1891, when the builders of the Great 
Northern, forging across the prairies toward Marias Pass, threw off a box- 
car at the cross trails in the coulee and named it Shelby Junction for Peter 
P. Shelby, general manager of the Great Northern in Montana. The man- 
ager, thus honored, is said to have remarked: "That mudhole, God- 
forsaken place, . . . will never amount to a damn!" 

But Shelby became the distributing center for a trade area extending 
50 to 75 miles in every direction. Chuck wagons drove in from the south, 
from points up and down the Marias River, and from the Sweetgrass Hills 
to the north, and went out loaded with supplies. Cowboys and sheep- 
herders, after months on the range, rode in for a fling at the honky-tonk 
night life. In the late 1890'$ Shelby was the sort of town that producers 
of western movies have ever since been trying to reproduce in papier- 
mache. Yet this wild and woolly place with its spurs and chaps and ten- 
gallon hats never had any stockyards. Stock was loaded a few miles down 
the track near Galata at a safe distance from Shelby. 

In 1893 the town playboys were featured in the Police Gazette after 
holding up an opera troupe passing through on a railroad train. The 
various versions of the story agree that they shot out the engine head- 
light, the car windows, and the red signal lights, and forced the conductor 
to execute a clog dance. 

In 1921 Gordon Campbell, the geologist who discovered oil in Mon- 
tana, drilled successfully near Kevin, about 8 miles north of the town 
(see Tour 6), and before long the Kevin-Sunburst field, reaching from 

236 TOURS 

Shelby to the Canadian Border, was notable. Shelby's population increased 
by leaps and bounds and money flowed freely. Some citizens, yearning for 
more front-page publicity, suggested the promotion of a heavyweight 
championship fight between Jack Dempsey and Tommy Gibbons. The 
idea, first put forward as a joke, struck Shelby's fancy. Negotiations were 
opened, and at length the fight was scheduled for July 4, 1923. The town 
built an arena designed to hold 45,000 cash customers; unfortunately 
only 7,000 attended. The local promoters took it on the chin, along with 
Gibbons, who didn't get a nickel for the beating. A gaudy signboard 
marks the spot where the arena stood. 

At Shelby is the junction with US 91 (see lour 6). 

Stockmen of this area once boasted of driving cattle from Shelby to the 
North Dakota Line without cutting a fence. The dry-land settlers, with 
their 32o-acre tracts, changed this; the remaining unfenced ranges are 
few and relatively small. 

The large ABSORPTION PLANT (not open to visitors), 126.2 m., ex- 
tracts high-test gasoline from natural gas. Gas enters the plant at pipe- 
line pressure 350 pounds to the square inch and is heated in great 
tanks and coils to 700 pounds pressure, at which point the gasoline is 

CUT BANK, 130.2 m. (3,740 alt., 845 pop.), seat of Glacier County, 
is the booming center of Montana's youngest oil and gas fields. Great 
steel drums and stilted tanks tower above it. Gas piped from this region 
is used in the homes of Great Falls, Helena, Butte, and Anaconda, and has 
replaced pulverized coal in the copper-reduction plants. The Blackfeet de- 
scribed the stream that flows through the town as "the river that cuts into 
the white clay banks." From this, white men derived the name Cut Bank. 

Right from Cut Bank on a dirt road to the CUT BANK OIL AND GAS FIELD (see 
INDUSTRY and COMMERCE). Wells, oil derricks, and pumps are scattered over 
the prairie for 16 miles. Gas comes out of the ground so cold that it forms inch- 
deep ice on the piping. The flow is registered by large meters. Oil must be pumped 
into feeder lines; as many as 6 and 7 wells are pumped from one power plant. One 
4-inch pipe line leads to Sweetgrass (see Tour 6, Sec. a) on the Canadian Border, 
where the oil is sold for export to Canada. 

US 2 crosses Cut Bank Creek, 130.9 m., the eastern boundary of the 
Blackfeet Reservation. 

At 131 m. is the junction with a poor dirt road. 

Left on this road to the top of a hill, 0.3 m. (climb in low gear), an excellent 
point from which to view the oil field, Cut Bank Canyon, and the distant moun- 

At 131.1 m. a rocky gulch (R) opens toward the highway. 

Right on foot up this gulch 200 feet to a flat rock (L) from which the bones of 
a small dinosaur were taken. The imprint of backbone and ribs is visible. The skele- 
ton is in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

The sandstone shaft (R) 100 yards from the highway, 152.8 m., marks 
the most northerly point reached by Captain Lewis on his scouting trip 
up the Marias River, July 26, 1806 (see HISTORY). The shaft is 4 miles 

TOUR 2 237 

from the grove on Cut Bank Creek where Lewis and his party camped 
for two days. In late summer great blue fields of blossoming flax (see 
AGRICULTURE) in this area seem to reflect the cloudless sky. 

At 161.8 m. is a junction (L) with US 89 (see Tour 4). Between this 
point and Browning Junction, a distance of 14.9 miles, US 89 and US 2 
are one route. The mountains in Glacier National Park are visible straight 
ahead. Outstanding is Chief Mountain (9,056 alt.). 

BROWNING, 165.4 m. (4,462 alt., 1,172 pop.), is a tourist town 
named for a U. S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Roads from all parts 
of the Blackfeet Reservation converge at this town, where is the AGENCY 

The Indians, the chief year-round patrons of the stores here, in summer 
provide the local color relished by tourists. They carry themselves with 
dignity and a gravity that hides considerable amusement over their roles 
as entertainers. Many a patronizing eastern visitor would be shocked by 
the natives' private comments on his antics. Since most of the Blackfeet 
have been educated in Government schools, and speak good English, 
attempts to address them in pidgin English may result in embarrassment. 

The reservation, which now covers only 2,343 square miles, extended 
from the Continental Divide to the Dakotas when it was established in 
1855. Sales and cessions to the Government reduced it to the area that 
lies between Glacier National Park and the Cut Bank meridian. The 
eastern part of the park, the last section sold, was acquired by the Gov- 
ernment in 1919 for $1,500,000. The Blackfeet invested some of the 
money received from the sale of lands in livestock and irrigation canals; 
some of it was spent less wisely. The houses of their 400- acre tracts are, 
with few exceptions, small, poorly furnished, and ramshackle; to remedy 
this, the Government has inaugurated a housing program. The Blackfeet 
have been given several thousand cattle and they derive a fair royalty 
from some of the Cut Bank oil wells. In recent years the Court of Claims 
allowed the tribe $450,000 for lands taken by executive orders of Presi- 
dents Grant and Hayes. 

Under the Reorganization Act of 1934 the Blackfeet are governed by 
an elected council of 13 members. They were among the first Indians to 
adopt a constitution for tribal self-government. 

The Blackfeet have several large community gardens, and a few private 
ones. They now depend little on game though isapwotsists is still a 
favorite food; it consists of the small intestine of game-animals or beef 
stuffed with tender meat, broiled, and then boiled. 

The old-time Blackfeet were known and feared by other tribes as fierce 
and cruel warriors, and far-ranging hunters. They were true nomads, fol- 
lowing the buffalo up and down the plains. They were intensely hostile 
toward the white usurpers, who in later years kept them drunk and on the 
verge of starvation. (In the winter of 188384, Government rations were 
reduced and 600 died.) Their hostility was not lessened by such occur- 
rences as Major Baker's destruction of a camp quarantined for smallpox 
in 1870. 

238 TOURS 

About one-fourth of the Blackfeet adhere to the old Sun faith. Each 
summer they hold the O-Kan celebration (see BEFORE THE WHITE 

Blackfeet legend accounts for the tribal name. It tells how an old man 
with three sons had a vision that caused him to send them to the far plains 
of the North Big River (Saskatchewan) in search of game. There they 
saw great herds of buffalo, but could not approach to kill them. In an- 
other vision, Sun told the old man to rub the feet of the eldest with a 
black medicine, which Sun provided. With this aid, the young man easily 
overtook the fleeing buffalo and his father decreed that this son's descend- 
ants should be called Blackfeet. When the other sons demanded some of 
the medicine, the old man instead sent them east and south to seek ene- 
mies. The first, returning with many scalps, was named Akhaina (Many 
Chiefs) ; his descendants painted their lips red, and were called Bloods by 
white men. The other, because he brought home the garments of his ene- 
mies, was named Pikuni (Far-off Clothing), mispronounced "Piegan." It 
is a more recent tradition that the Blackfeet were given their name because 
their moccasins were blackened in crossing the burnt prairies between 
Lesser Slave Lake and the Montana plains. 

To obtain Sun's assistance for a person ill or in danger, a virtuous woman 
relative of the afflicted must vow to build a medicine lodge during the 
berries-ripe moon; other women may become her assistants. From the chief 
vow-woman of the previous summer (who becomes her "mother") she 
must buy the Natoas (Sun-turnip) bundle, and learn the rites and sacred 
songs. The vow-women's lodge, in the tribal circle, is painted the Sun's 
color, red, and decorated with a symbol of the butterfly, giver of good 
visions. A hundred beef tongues (formerly buffalo) are brought here to 
be cut up for sacrificial food and purified in a nearby sweat lodge. Vow- 
women fast 4 days, in the red lodge, learning the rituals, while medicine 
pipe-men sit with them and sing a hundred songs to Old Man (Sun), Old 
Woman (Moon), and their son, Morning Star; all purify themselves with 
grass smoke. 

During this period there is much singing, dancing, praying, visiting, 
and storytelling throughout the camp. Guns, blankets, medicine pipes, and 
tobacco are traded and sold the pipes for as much as forty horses. Each 
day a group belonging to the All Friends society dances. 

On the fourth day the vow-women open the Natoas bundle, which con- 
tains among other things, a red moose-claw digging stick, and the vow- 
woman's headdress. This is a lizard-shaped piece of buffalo leather col- 
ored red-and-blue and decorated with feathers and strips of white weasel 
skin. On its front is a small human image and a weasel skin containing an 
enemy's hair; on its back is the tail of a lynx. The new vow- woman, carry- 
ing the headdress and the digging stick, leads the way to the spot selected 
for the building of the medicine lodge, while the All Friends, mounted 
and in war costume, go to select the center post. At a forked tree, two old 
men count 4 brave deeds each, striking the tree once for each deed, and 
pray that the tree will not fall on others or split its fork when it falls. 
Young men cut and drag it to the camp, and lay its base by the hole that 


has been dug, the forked end westward. Seated on a hide before the red 
lodge, a warrior, counting 4 brave deeds, cuts strands for binding the 
roof to the wall. The vow-woman, standing on a buffalo robe with the one 
being helped, holds up a piece of dried tongue and prays. She breaks off a 
piece of meat and buries it, eats the rest, and gives pieces to others, who 
do likewise. She then faces the post, on which a member of the All 
Friends, painted black, is stretched full length. Hidden by robes, medicine 
pipe-men perform ceremonies over him. He rises, and in his place they 
attach gifts to the Sun. All Friends approach from four directions bearing 
lodgepoles tied in pairs, like tongs, with which they raise the post. This 
climaxes the celebration ; the lodge is then hurried to completion. 

BROWNING JUNCTION, 177.7 m. t is at the junction (R) with US 
89 (see Tour 4). 

Section c. BROWNING JUNCTION to IDAHO LINE, 231 m., US 2. 

The beauty of the rugged landscape along this section of US 2 is ex- 
celled in few parts of the world. The flanks of the snow-capped peaks are 
wrapped in dark-green forests. Between the ranges are broad fertile valleys 
or shadowed canyons in whose bottoms flow swift icy streams. Clear lakes 
reflect the sky, the mountains, the bold headlands that thrust out into the 
water, and their own forested shores. 

Between Browning Junction and Belton the route skirts the southern 
boundary of Glacier National Park, and crosses the Continental Divide. 

240 TOURS 

Between Belton and Kalispell, it runs through the canyon and valley of 
the Flathead. West of Kalispell it crosses the Cabinet Mountains, whose 
slopes bear a generous part of the State's timber. 

US 2 winds southward from BROWNING JUNCTION, m., to the 
summit of Two Medicine Ridge, known locally as Looking Glass Hill, 
3.9 m. At 5.2 m. it overlooks Lower Two Medicine Lake (R) with Rising 
Wolf Mountain (9,505 alt.), the central of three peaks (see GLACIER 
NATIONAL PARK), behind it. 

At 8.1 m. is the junction with an unnumbered oil-surfaced road. 

Right on this road to TWO MEDICINE LAKE, 8 m. (see GLACIER NA- 

GLACIER PARK STATION, 11.9 m. (4,806 alt., 200 pop.), is the 
principal rail station used by visitors to Glacier National Park. During the 
tourist season (June-Sept.) thousands of the pleasure seekers throng 
through here. The variety of people and costumes sometimes seen on the 
station platform is astonishing. During the other 9 months of the year the 
town lies dormant, most of the time under many feet of snow. 

The interior of large GLACIER PARK HOTEL, built of smooth logs in 
a free adaptation of Alpine hotel architecture, is decorated with western 
trophies and Indian curios. The tall unpeeled log columns of the lobby 
have rude Ionic capitals. Costumed Indians and cowboys sing, dance, and 
tell stories here. 

The woodcarvings and sculptures of John Clark, Indian deaf-mute, are 
exhibited in his curio shop just north of the hotel, on the main street. 
Indian-made goods are for sale in several shops ; fine beadwork is a Black- 
feet specialty. 

SUMMIT, 23.3 m. (5,212 alt., 10 pop.), in Marias Pass, is on the 
Continental Divide. North of the railroad tracks on the brow of the hill 
(R) is a STATUE OF JOHN F. STEVENS, who discovered the pass (see 

The tall limestone shaft in the center of the highway, 23.6 m., is a 

US 2 winds down the western slope of the Divide, following Bear 
Creek, through heavy forests of fir and pine, to its confluence at Walton 
with the Middle Fork of the Flathead. Flowers bloom luxuriantly along 
the highway. (Drive with care; narrow road with sharp curves and un- 
guarded edges.) 

At 41 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road is ESSEX (Walton), 0.2 m. (3,871 alt., 150 pop.), which, 
like many mountain towns, has two names. Essex is the post office; Walton is the 
Great Northern Ry. station. 

At NYACK (Red Eagle), 58.1 m., those who wish may cross the Mid- 
dle Fork in a basket hung from a cable. 

BELTON, 68.9 m. (3,219 alt., 180 pop.), the western entrance to 
Glacier National Park, is a service town of brisk modernity amid snow- 
capped mountains and vast evergreen forests. There is usually good fish- 
ing in the Flathead River within 100 yards of the town. On the National 
Park side no license is needed. 

1 - 

I U 


At Belton is the junction with Going-to-the-Sun Highway (see GLA- 

CORAM (Citadel) is at 76.8 m. (3,158 alt, 200 pop.). (Guides avail- 
able for pack trips into the primitive areas to south.) 

At 78.5 m. is the junction with a narrow, graded dirt road. 

Left on this road along the valley of the South Fork of the Flathead, between 
the Flathead and Swan Ranges, to HUNGRY HORSE CREEK, 8 m. (public camp- 
ground, stoves, tables, and sanitary facilities). 

The road leads into the South Fork wilderness, which covers about 1,640 square 
miles in the FLATHEAD NATIONAL FOREST. Many of its parks, streams, and 
ridges may never have been seen by man. 

The lo-mile stretch between Hungry Horse Creek and RIVERSIDE, 17 m., was 
burned over in the great fire of August 1926. It is the only bare country in the South 
Fork area. The virgin forests seem limitless; large stands of larch, western white 
pine, yellow pine, Engelmann spruce, Douglas fir, and other valuable species have 
never resounded with the lumberman's ax. 

GREAT NORTHERN MOUNTAIN (8,700 alt.) is a towering pile of naked 
rock (L). 

FELIX CREEK, 25.1 m., has a campground. Impressive views open at 27 m., 
where TROUT LAKE lies R. 

Near ELK PARK, 37.2 m., are numerous excellent camp sites. 

SPOTTED BEAR, 50 m., is at the end of the road. Here is a ranger station. A 
small lodge accommodates 15 persons. (Cabins ; horses, guides, and packers available 
for short or long trips.) 

The SPOTTED BEAR GAME PRESERVE, 200 miles square, is south of the ranger 
station. All through this area game is almost as abundant as it was 150 years ago. 
Deer, elk, moose, mountain goats and sheep, black and grizzly bears, lynxes, moun- 
tain lions, beavers, martens, and other animals are here. Lakes and streams offer 

242 TOURS 

cutthroat, rainbow, and Dolly Varden trout. A network of horse and foot trails 
gives access to rough, wild country. 

At 80.9 m. US 2 crosses the South Fork of the Flathead River just above 
its junction with the stream formed by the union of the North and Middle 
Forks of the Flathead. The united river has cut BAD ROCK CANYON, 
82 m., between the Whitensh Range (R) and the Swan Range (L). 

The highway follows the old Indian trail used by the Flathead to reach 
the buffalo range east of the mountains. At 84 m. it enters Flathead Val- 
ley, one of the most productive farming areas in the State. 

At 85.4 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Right on this road is COLUMBIA FALLS, 2 m. (3,099 alt., 637 pop.), planned 
as a division point on the Great Northern Ry., and platted on a scale that proved 
too generous when Whitefish (see Tour 7, Sec. a) became the division point. Ex- 
cellent sidewalks extend some distance beyond the built-up area. 

At 93.4 m. is the junction with State 35, and with an unnumbered 

1. Left on the unnumbered road to LAKE ELAINE, 6.6 m. (tourist cabins, gro- 
cery store, sandy beach, bathhouses, boats). The lake contains bass and silver salmon. 
Trails lead to fishing streams and over impressive ridges and mountains. 

2. Left on State 35, an improved road, through farming country subirrigated by 
an underlying layer of quicksand and water, 8 to 15 feet thick. 

CRESTON, 3.8 m. (3,000 alt., 20 pop.), consists of a general store, a post office, 
a restaurant, and a filling station. 

At 9.3 m. is the junction with a dirt road; L. 4.8 m. on this to ECHO LAKE 
(boats available), in the foothills of the Swan Mountains. The lake is dotted with 
small islands; its shores are thickly wooded. The only outlet is a subterranean 
stream. Black bass and whitefish are taken with rod and fly. There is good swimming 
in front of a sandy beach. 

BIGFORK, 14.3 m. (3,989 alt., 250 pop.), is a huddle of little gray houses in a 
hollow just below the dam and powerhouse (R) that supplies electricity to Kali- 
spell and much of Flathead County. Below the town the Swan River flows into 
Flathead Lake. 

At Bigfork is a junction with State 31 (see Tour 8). 

FLATHEAD LAKE (2,892 alt.) (see Tour 7, Sec. b) is R. at 16 m. Foothills of 
the Cabinet Mountains rise from its western shore. State 35 closely follows the east- 
ern shore. 

At 17.9 m. the road enters the FLATHEAD NATIONAL FOREST. The Swan 
Range is visible (L). These mountains have not been made the subject of legend, 
as have the austere Missions (see Tour 7, Sec. b), but the sheerness and remoteness 
of their naked granite tops, showing through perpetual snow, rouse the imagination. 
The clarity of the atmosphere surrounding them and the play of light and cloud- 
shadow on them add to the effect. 

BEARDANCE CAMPGROUND (stoves, tables, spring water), 23 m., is maintained 
by the U. S. Forest Service. 

GLEN, 23.5 m., is a general store and service station. Near here, and at numerous 
points along the eastern shore of Flathead Lake, summer cottages can be rented. 
Several very attractive summer homes are scattered along the shore. 

At intervals between 26.1 m. and 35 m. are dead cherry orchards, killed in Octo- 
ber 1935 by early storms. The raising of sweet cherries, begun 40 years before, had 
just begun to be an important industry. About 50,000 trees were destroyed after 
yielding only one mature crop. 

At 27.1 m. the road leaves the Flathead National Forest. 

At YELLOW BAY, 27.6 m., is Montana State University's BIOLOGICAL EXPERI- 
MENT STATION and SUMMER LABORATORY (R). The station was established in 
1899 by Dr. M. J. Elrod of the university's biology department for the purpose of 

TOUR 2 243 

studying the plant and animal life of Flathead Lake. Faculty members and graduate 
students of biology work here, mostly in summer. 

The road winds around the bay through a dense forest. 

BLUE BAY, 31.3 m., is popular with fishermen who come to snag the landlocked 
salmon that spawn along the east shore. This fish was once disregarded by anglers^, 
many of whom sought to have the species removed from the lake. Now, during a 
short period, roughly late November and early December, Blue Bay's sandy beach 
is crowded with shivering fishermen, some of whom have driven 100 miles to join 
the swarm along the water's edge, jostling one another for places to stand. Many 
fishermen consider the flesh unpalatable and give or throw away their catch. The 
snag usually employed, three fishhooks bound back to back, is hurled into the deep 
offshore waters among the spawning fish. 

The joy found in this form of sport is a mystery to non-fishermen. There is 
nearly always a cold raw wind; nearly everyone becomes drenched. Snags, hurled 
toward the water, often lodge in a sleeve, a trouser seat, or an exposed part of 
someone's anatomy. Tempers are short; quarrels over which fish is whose are fre- 
quent. Many go away empty-handed, though thousands of pounds of fish are taken 
by the fortunate. In 1934 and 1935 the Montana Relief Commission was permitted 
to seine and can the salmon for distribution among the needy. About 21,000 cans 
were packed in 1935. 

STATION CREEK FISH HATCHERY, 36.7 m., raised rainbow and blackspot trout for 
planting in Montana waters. 

The KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS PARK, 37.3 m., is a recreational area for members 
of the order. 

The highway swings away from the lake at 39.7 m. through a dark forest of fir 
and tamarack. At 44.7 m. is the junction with US 93 (see Tour 7, Sec. b). 

KALISPELL, 99.2 m. (2,959 alt., 6,094 pop.), seat of Flathead County, 
is a farmers' trade center and tourists' headquarters. (Guides and horses 
available for mountain trips.) Many of the buildings on the broad, tree- 
lined streets are modern in design ; the four delightful parks, covering 40 
acres, were landscaped as a W.P.A. project. Kalispell's porgressive plan- 
ners have produced a city that fits well into the awesome beauty of its 
setting. The Whitefish Range is on the north, the Swan Range rises sheer 
on the east. 

The Flathead Valley appealed highly to Indians of the Salishan tribes, 
who called it "the park between the mountains." Until 1809, when David 
Thompson of the Canadian North- West Company explored it, no white 
man had been here. As it was accessible only by hazardous travel over the 
old Tobacco Plains Trail, no permanent settlement was made until 1881 ; 
the post established by Angus McDonald for the Hudson's Bay Co., and 
the post office at Dooley's Landing on the Flathead River, had been the 
only trading points. 

When in 1891 the Great Northern completed its track to this point, 
the little settlements at Demersville, a steamboat landing on the Flathead 
River, 4.5 miles southeast, and Ashley, 0.5 mile west, were moved here 
piece by piece and became Kalispell. 

The city has grown steadily with the development of lumbering and 
agriculture in the Flathead country, which produces 40 percent of Mon- 
tana's lumber and has never known a crop failure. 

There are several dude ranches nearby, and numerous lakes and streams 
provide opportunities for bathing, boating, and fishing. 

The S. E. JOHNS COLLECTION (open; free), 128 Main St., contains fire- 

244 TOURS 

arms, Indian weapons and relics of pioneer Montana. The F. A. ROBBIN 
COLLECTION, ist Ave. E. and 2nd St., contains 100 obsolete weapons. 

Kalispell has a radio station, KGEZ (1310 kc.). 

Here is the junction with US 93 (see Tour 7 ). 

At 117.8 m. is the junction with State 24. 

Right on State 24, an improved dirt road, is MARION, 0.3 m. (3,947 alt., 10 
pop.). LITTLE BITTERROOT LAKE (L), 1 m., has cabins and a campground on 
its shore. Between it and ISLAND LAKE, 22 m. (R), the road passes through 
Pleasant Valley. LAKEVIEW, on Island Lake, and JENNINGS, 41.8 m., offer good 
fishing and camp sites. 

State 24 leads through little-visited parklike country. 

Between 131 m. and 136 m. US 2 skirts the shore of McGREGOR 
LAKE (L). In spring and fall, fishing for silver salmon and cutthroat 
trout is good. At 142.4 m. the road crosses the Flathead-Kootenai water- 
shed. Both Flathead and Kootenai Indians visited the lake country on both 
sides of this low divide to hunt and fish, but it was never the permanent 
home of any tribe. The old Kootenai Trail, the one most often used by 
these friendly tribes, passed THOMPSON LAKE, 143.5 m. (L), on its 
route between the Kootenai River and Clark Fork of the Columbia. 

HAPPY INN, 151.2 m. (3,768 alt., 10 pop.), a resort with tourist 
cabins, is by CRYSTAL LAKE (boats available). 

LOON LAKE (L), 154.2 m., close to the highway, is a good spot for 

At 158.7 m. the road swings north, and runs for a short distance down 
the heavily forested valley of the Fisher River, whose source is in the 
Cabinet Mountains (L). At 160 m. is the RAVEN RANGER STATION in 
(R), is exceptionally good fishing for cutthroat trout. Libby Creek Valley 
is the scene of commercial logging operations. 

LIBBY, 193.7 m. (2,053 ^-> T >75 2 PP-) 1S a lumberjacks' town. 
They come in from nearby logging camps for supplies and occasional cele- 
brations that are vastly exaggerated in legend and fiction. The lumber- 
jacks have a style all their own, and a swaggering vitality that seems to be 
increased rather than diminished by their exhausting and dangerous work. 
Though they do not invariably appear in brilliant checked shirts and 
mackinaws, stag pants, calked boots, and wiry black beards, the streets of 
Libby nevertheless give evidence that this is Paul Bunyan's country. Libby's 
sawmill, second largest (1938) in Montana, saws between 60 and 80 
million board feet of lumber annually. 

Libby, named for the daughter of one of a group of prospectors who 
discovered gold on Libby Creek in 1862, is the seat of Lincoln County, 
one of the most mountainous and heavily wooded areas in the State. Much 
of the region is not readily accessible, but its scenery and fine fishing repay 
the effort to reach it. Near the town the rare mineral, vermiculite, is mined 

In the PUBLIC LIBRARY, left wing of the courthouse, is a photostatic 
copy of a map of the Kootenai region drawn in 1813 by David Thompson 
(see HISTORY). The original is in the British Museum. 


Right from Libby on State 37, a partly improved road, up the primitive Kootenai 
Valley to a junction with an unimproved dirt road, 54.6 m. Left here, 34 tn. up 
Dodge Creek, a tributary of the Kootenai River, to the UPPER FORD RANGER STA- 
TION; L. down the narrow valley of the Yakt River between the YAKT MOUN- 
TAINS (R) and the PURCELL MOUNTAINS (L) to YAAK, 38 m., a general 
store. South of Yaak a dangerous 31 -mile-long road back to Libby, crosses the Pur- 
cell Mountains through a wild region of deep canyons, small waterfalls, and snow- 
capped peaks. Tiny settlements and ranger stations on this route are outposts in the 
truest sense. The area traversed is the wildest and most rugged in Montana, many 
of its sudden revelations of grandeur more exciting than those on main roads. 

West of Yaak the dirt road continues through rugged, heavily timbered country. 
GRIZZLY PEAK (9,700 alt.) is seen (L). The fishing here, as in most remote dis- 
tricts, repays the enthusiast for many difficulties encountered in reaching it. SYL- 
VANITE, 57 m., is headquarters of the Keystone Gold Mining Co., whose mines 
are in nearby gulches. The tiny town also boasts a ranger station, a C.C.C. camp, 
and a general store and post office. 

I At 68 m. is the junction with US 2, close to the Idaho Line. 
REXFORD (2,568 alt., 200 pop.) is 55 m. from US 2 on State 37. East of it, at 
EUREKA (2,315 alt., 860 pop.), 64 m. t is a junction with US 93 (see Tour 7). 
US 2 follows the KOOTENAI RIVER (R), named for the tribe of In- 
dians (the Deer Robes) formerly living in this region. They were credited 
with being the finest deer hunters and tanners of hides among western 
Indians. The remaining Kootenai live on the Flathead Indian Reservation 
(see Tour 7). 


246 TOURS 

Close to the point where Pipe Creek flows into the Kootenai River, 
indicated by thousands of pieces of rocks, broken when thrown red hot 
into shallow pits 6 to 8 feet square to heat the water. The bather covered 
the pit with hides and steamed himself in the nearly blistering water. 
When he emerged, shining with perspiration, he plunged into the icy 
waters of the Kootenai to close his pores. 

Nearby the Kootenai obtained a fine white sandstone from which they 
made pipe bowls. 

KOOTENAI FALLS (R), 205.3 m. (1,998 alt), is about 300 feet 
from the highway. There is a spring, a rock fountain, and a U. S. Forest 
Service campground nearby. The water descends more than 200 feet in a 
series of cascades. David Thompson made the difficult portage around the 
falls in 1808 and named them the Lower Dalles. In his journal he re- 
corded: "To this date we had meat of a few small antelope, but by no 
means enough to prevent us eating moss bread and dried carp, both poor, 
harsh feed . . . We met two canoes, from which we traded twelve singed 
muskrats and two shoulders of antelope, thankful for a change from the 
moss bread which gave us the belly ache." 

KOOTENAI GORGE is viewed over the iron railing of the railway at 
205.8 m. A hollow, offstage roar is heard before the place is reached; this 
becomes a welter of undifferentiated noises that is at first deafening; then 
the sounds tend to separate into distinct motifs. 

At 209.6 m. is the junction with an improved dirt road. 

Left on this road to SAVAGE LAKE, 2.9 m. (cabins and boats available; good 
fishing). Deer graze on adjacent meadows. Excellent Forest Service trails lead into 
the wilderness. 

The road follows a trail first used by Indians, and then by smugglers bringing 
Chinese from Canada to do construction work on the Northern Pacific Ry. (see 
TRANSPORTATION). It approaches the spectacular CABINET PRIMITIVE 
AREA, accessible only on foot or horseback (see RECREATION), and winds 
through an extensive forest of white pine. 

BULL LAKE, 16.5 m. (R), is in the thickly wooded foothills of the Cabinet 
Mountains. According to Indian history, a landslide dammed the stream that formed 
this lake, destroying a camp in the process. Evidence of the slide is visible at the 
foot of the lake. 

The road winds down through Bull River Valley and several times crosses the 
stream, which is known for its fine fishing. A severe forest fire occurred in this area 
in 1910. 

At 30.1 m. is a trail (L) to a lookout station on top of BERRAY MOUNTAIN. 

At 38.4 m. is the junction with State 3 (see Tour 12). 

TROY, 213.2 m. (1,892 alt., 498 pop.), is on the dividing line be- 
tween Mountain and Pacific Standard time (west-bound travelers set watches 
back 1 hour). Troy is a freight division point on the Great Northern Ry., 
and headquarters of silver mining outfits working in the Cabinet Moun- 

1. Left from Troy on a dirt road to the SNOWSTORM MINE (open to visitors), 
5 m., on Callahan Creek, a heavy producer of ore containing gold, silver, lead, zinc, 
and copper. 

2. Left from Troy on a forest road to the LOOKOUT STATION on KEELER 
MOUNTAIN (4,949 alt.), one of the few peaks in Montana with a roadway to 



the top. The Purcell Mountains (north) and the Cabinet Mountains (south) are 
plainly visible across far-sweeping, heavily timbered areas. 

For nearly a mile the road winds along a narrow shelf cut from the 
mountain side, with the river below. Many cuts are in deep shadow. 
(Watch out jor trucks bearing logs.) 

A SILVER Fox FARM is (R) at 216.5 m. 

At 225.3 m. is the junction with an improved road (see side tour above 
-from Libby). 

US 2 crosses the Idaho Line, 231 m., 27 miles east of Bonners Ferry, 


r r r r r r 

Tour 2 A 

Junction with US 2 (Fort Belknap Agency) Hays St. Paul's Mission 
Landusky Zortman; unnumbered road and State 19. 
Junction US 2 to Zortman, 46.6 m. 

Graveled roadbed between Fort Belknap Agency and St. Paul's Mission. Remainder 
of route unimproved, narrow, and winding, impassable except in dry weather. 
Hotels at Zortman and Landusky; tourist cabins at Hays; camp sites along road. 
Visitors should carry coats, campers warm blankets. 

This route traverses rolling grassland, little changed by the advent of 
white men, runs through fire-swept, spectacular mountains, and into old, 
nearly abandoned mining towns. Most of the route lies within the bound- 
aries of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation (see Tour 2, Sec. a). Large 
herds of grazing cattle are seen. 

The unnumbered road branches south from US 2 (see Tour 2, Sec. a) 

SNAKE BUTTE, 5.1 m. (R), is the site of a Government quarry, from 
which stone is being taken for construction use at Fort Peck Dam. The 
road turns L. here. Straight ahead are the LITTLE ROCKY MOUN- 
TAINS, an isolated gray-green range that rises like an island above the 

In 1912 THREE BUTTES (R), 22.2 m., sheltered robbers of a Harlem 
bank. Near the summit of the highest butte, the robbers held off the sheriff 
and his men until lack of food and water forced them to surrender. 

A FORT BELKNAP SUB AGENCY is (L) at 32.2 m. 

At a fork, 32.7 m., the road turns R. and at 34.8 m. is in the foothills 
of the Little Rockies. 

HAYS, 37.1 m. (3,550 alt., 20 pop.), is an Indian town. It comes to 

248 TOURS 

life once a year in September when the Indians hold their fair. Then 
dancing and singing goes on in the street, games are played and races 
run. Gay native trappings vie with the gaudiest products of white man's 
manufacture. Intricate beadwork is often seen. 

ST. PAUL'S MISSION (open), 38.2 m., on People's Creek, was founded 
in 1886 by a Jesuit, Father Frederick Hugo Eberschweiler, who is said to 
have gained the respect of the Gros Ventre by learning their language 
more rapidly than any other white visitor. Finding that men from Fort 
Benton were unwilling to come to the Little Rockies to build his mission 
because of warfare between the Gros Ventre and the Canadian Bloods, 
he sought aid in the settlement that later became Landusky; a crew of 
prospectors responded. The work proceeded swiftly, and early in 1887 
Father Eberschweiler, assisted by some Ursuline Sisters, began instruction. 

One of the early log houses still stands, but the main building, which 
contained paintings, used by the priest in teaching the natives, has been 
destroyed by fire. Two newer buildings are of stone. 

At 39.1 m. the road enters a narrow canyon, and becomes rough, nar- 
row, and winding; when two vehicles meet in some sections, one must 
back for a considerable distance to make passing possible. Truckloads of 
logs are a particular bane to motorists here. The canyon walls are steep 
and awe-inspiring in places, sculptured by wind, and stained by lichens, 
which in spring renew their green and bronze and yellow colorings. The 
road repeatedly fords People's Creek which has a firm gravel bed. 

At 39.4 m. is the junction with a trail. 

Right on this trail 200 yards to a NATURAL BRIDGE, a perfectly formed limestone 
arch, 50 feet wide, and, at one point 60 feet above the canyon floor. 

At 39.8 m. is a natural campground. Until some of this region was 
burned over in 1936, it had much rugged beauty. 

LANDUSKY, 44.9 m. (4,500 alt., 120 pop.), clings precariously to a 
mountain side. It is now almost abandoned, though its slumber of more 
than three decades was broken after 1933 by a modest production of gold 
from the nearby August mine, which is said to have yielded $2,000,000 
since its boom days in the early 1890*5. 

Powell Landusky, for whom the town was named, was a violent prod- 
uct of a violent time. A raw kid at Alder Gulch in the late i86o's, he 
was nicknamed "Pike" because he boasted that he "came from Pike County, 
Missouri, byGod." He won a reputation as the toughest rough-and-tumble 
fighter in the West. In 1868 he went to the mouth of the Musselshell to 
trap and trade with the Indians; captured by a war party of Brules, he 
angrily beat one of the braves with a frying pan, then whipped off the 
warrior's breechclout to continue the lashing. The awed Indians withdrew, 
and left two ponies to propitiate the demoniac captive. 

At his trading post, Lucky Fort, on Flatwillow Creek in what is now 
Petroleum County, Landusky was shot by a Piegan. His jaw shattered, he 
simply tore out a loose fragment containing four teeth and threw it away. 

In August 1893, Landusky and Bob Orman discovered the mine in the 
Little Rockies that they named for the month of discovery. At first they 
packed out their quartz by night, because they thought the claim was on 

TOUR 2A 249 

the Fort Belknap Reservation, and feared governmental interference. Other 
prospectors and miners poured in and in 1894 the settlement here was 

Five miles south was the ranch of the tough Curry brothers, who were 
said to have Indian blood. It was local gossip that these prosperous ranch- 
ers sometimes branded cattle not their own. In order of age, they were: 
Harvey (Kid), Johnny, and Loney. They and their like were the two-gun 
riders sketched by Charles M. Russell as they thundered up and down the 
street of this town, strewing lead. After a typical fray a gambler remarked 
that he could go out with a pint cup and gather a quart of bullets. 

Pike Landusky built a saloon for Jew Jake, who had drifted over from 
Great Falls after one of his legs had been shot away by a deputy sheriff. 
Jake liked to show off by using a Winchester rifle for a crutch. His saloon 
was the hang-out of the Curry boys and their friends and enemies. 

In 1894 Johnny and Kid Curry were arrested on some minor charge 
and placed in the custody of Pike Landusky. Loney, something of a ladies' 
man, had been making a play for one of Pike's stepdaughters, to the old 
fighter's rage. Pike took advantage of the arrest to taunt and abuse Loney's 
brothers. At this time the town was preparing for a big Christmas cele- 
bration. Johnny Curry lent his new log barn for the big dance. Loney 
tuned up his fiddle and whipped the home-talent orchestra into shape. A 
"dead ax" wagon was sent 10 miles to borrow a small portable Mason and 
Hamlin organ. Only one plan was frustrated: someone had told Lousy, 
the stage driver, to order four dozen quarts of big juicy oysters from Bal- 
timore, but Lousy, no authority on oysters, had ordered canned ones from 

On the evening of December 28, when the celebration was nearing its 
end, the Kid rode into town and entered Jew Jake's place. Perhaps a 
dozen men were in the room, among them Pike, wearing a heavy fur-lined 
overcoat. The Kid knocked him down, and took advantage of the coat, 
which impeded his enemy's movements, to beat him unmercifully. Lan- 
dusky at length managed to draw his automatic, but it jammed; the Kid's 
.45 revolver did not. 

The Curry gang left the country with haste. Seven years later the Kid 
held up a Great Northern passenger train at Exeter Siding, west of Malta, 
and carried $80,000 into the hills. He was captured, but escaped and van- 
ished from Montana. Johnny was killed by a rancher whom he tried to 
intimidate. Some say that he and Pike Landusky are buried side by side in 
the tiny graveyard at Landusky but old-timers believe that Pike was buried 
on a ranch about i mile from town. 

At 46 m. is a junction with State 19; L. on this improved road. 

ZORTMAN, 46.6 m. (4,000 alt., 70 pop.), is not quite a ghost town, 
but has the forlorn, time-bleached appearance common to abandoned 
camps. Many cabins, built by hopeful prospectors in the 1890*5, stand win- 
dowless and lonely among the trees. 

Pete Zortman, who came to the Little Rockies in the i88o's, discovered 
a mine he named the Alabama, which is said to have produced $600,000. 
In the early 1890*5 Charles Whitcomb discovered what became the Ruby 

250 TOURS 

Gulch mine, 2 miles north of Zortman, credited with $3,500,000. What 
was asserted to be the world's second largest cyanide mill was erected here, 
and for several years wagonloads of gold bricks were freighted out of 
town to Malta and Dodson. 

Zortman's story was very like Landusky's. It is said that there was a 
saloon entrance every 40 feet along the street and a badman on every cor- 
ner. One of its legendary characters was Joe Mallette, a freighter whose 
skill earned him the most difficult jobs in a difficult trade. He rigged a 
boom on the uphill side of his wagon, and perched on it to steady his 
loads on the primitive mountain trails. Once the slant became too great for 
his weight to offset and his load of bottled stuff turned over, tossing him 
down the slope in a cascade of glass and foaming beer. On another occa- 
sion when he was attempting to haul a large boiler over the alkali flats 
to the Ruby Gulch mine, his wagon sank to its axles. Mallette rigged a 
rolling hitch and rolled the boiler, a few feet at a time, across three miles 
of mud. 

Shortly after 1900, when all the easily accessible ore had been removed, 
Zortman's mill burned down and in 1929 a fire destroyed four buildings 
on the main street, virtually wiping out the town. 

Tour 3 

Junction with US 89 (Armington) Lewistown Grass Range Roundup 
Billings Hardin (Sheridan, Wyo.) ; US 87. 
Junction US 89 to Wyoming Line, 325.5 m. 

Route paralleled by Great Northern Ry. between junction with US 89 and Lewis- 
town; between Billings and Wyoming Line by Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R.R. 
and Great Northern Ry. 

Hotels in larger towns; tourist camps on outskirts of towns. 

Oil-surfaced roadbed with exception of a 22-mile graveled stretch between Lewis- 
town and Grass Range; open all year. 

US 87, the Custer Battlefield Highway, traverses central Montana in a 
zigzag diagonal course. 

Section a. JUNCTION US 89 to BILLINGS; 2^7.7 m., US 87. 

This section strikes through the Judith Basin, a large fertile valley in 
Fergus and Judith Basin Counties, once buffalo country that was prized 
and fought over by Indians. This flat or gently rolling region is exten- 

TOUR 3 251 

sively irrigated and subirrigated ; the green of hay and grain fields alter- 
nates with the rich black of fallow strips. Its horizons are the crescent of 
the Little Belt Mountains on the west; the Highwoods, Bearpaws, and 
Little Rockies on the north; the Moccasins and Judiths on the east; and 
the Big Snowies on the south. As a productive agricultural area, it com- 
pares favorably with the Gallatin Valley. 

South of Grass Range the route runs through rough grazing country on 
the border line between foothills and plains. It descends into the Mussel- 
shell Valley, traverses a coal mining area in the low, scrubby Bull Moun- 
tains, and descends into the Yellowstone Valley. 

US 87 branches southeast from its junction with US 89 (see Tour 4), 
m., 1.5 miles south of Armington (see Tour 4, Sec. b). 

From the crest of a ridge, 7.1 m., in the foothills of the Little Belt 
Mountains there is a panorama of Judith Basin. 

The highway emerges from the foothills of the Little Belt Mountains 
into the Judith Basin at 19.3 m. The river draining this basin was named 
by Lieutenant Clark in 1805 in honor of Miss Judith Hancock of Fair- 
castle, Va., who later became his wife. Because of its encircling mountains, 
Judith Basin receives slightly more rainfall than other parts of central and 
eastern Montana. Its chocolate loam, well supplied with lime, is fertile. 
Even dry farming yielded bountiful crops of hard red milling wheat be- 
fore the drought of the 1930*5. 

GEYSER, 21.9 m. (4,159 alt., 175 pop.), blends into the drab hills 
around it. As a railroad point and a trading town of farmers, it has a 
stable if monotonous existence. In 1925 an earthshock brought to the sur- 
face a stream of water in a theretofore dry coulee nearby. 

SQUARE BUTTE (L), an almost rectangular flat-topped mountain, is 
the principal landmark of the Judith Basin. Charles M. Russell liked to 
include it in his pictures. 

STANFORD, 37.2 m. (4,200 alt, 509 pop.), seat of Judith Basin 
County, is a stockmen's town, neat and brisk, with broad streets, pleasant 
white-painted houses, and a handsome brick high school (L). Though it 
is still active as a shipping point for livestock and grain, it had greater 
importance in the days when it was the most important freighting station 
in the basin. 

The town began as a station on the Fort Benton-Billings stage route. It 
was often visited by Charles M. Russell when he worked on ranches in the 
vicinity. One employer set him to herding sheep. To relieve his boredom 
he began making images of Indians and horses out of the richly tinted 
mineral clay. He became so absorbed that he forgot his charges, who 
wandered off over the hills. Returning to ranch headquarters, he said to 
his boss, "Jack, if you want me to herd sheep, you'll have to get me an- 
other band." 

For years stories of white wolves of prodigious strength and cunning 
grew and multiplied among the folk of this region. A huge one known 
as Old Snowdrift became a legendary monster, described variously in many 
places in central Montana. He had a fit mate, Lady Snowdrift. In 1921 it 
was reported that he was in the Highwoods killing sheep, cattle, and wild 

252 TOURS 

game. Stacy Eckert, a Forest Service ranger, spent much time on his trail. 
He did not catch Old Snowdrift, but he did find his den, and with the 
help of a rancher took seven puppies. One of these, called Lady Silver and 
trained by Eckert, played in motion pictures with the dog Strongheart. 

In two months of 1922 Old Snowdrift and his mate killed 21 cattle. 
In October Don Stevens, a Government hunter, set a trap that caught Lady 
Snowdrift. She dragged the heavy trap, and the 2o-pound rock to which it 
was attached, to her den, where Stevens found and shot her. Early in 1923 
he caught Old Snowdrift, whose pelt was the largest ever taken in the 
Highwoods. These wolves were not pure white, but a very light silver 

WINDHAM 45 m. (4,266 alt., 115 pop.), serves nearby cattle and 
wheat ranches as a trading center. 

Well known in this country was "Liver-eating" Johnson, an old fron- 
tiersman, who hated Indians implacably. Johnson received his name be- 
cause of an often repeated threat to eat the liver of the first Indian who 
came near his place ; some old-timers insist that he did eat it. 

The MOCCASIN MOUNTAINS, whose low, rounded summits are 
densely forested with lodgepole pine, are visible (L). 

The BIG SNOWY MOUNTAINS are visible ahead (R), a chain of 
rounded summits. Geologists call them laboratory mountains, because they 
are old geologically and their gentle contours illustrate the history of 
mountain building. 

At 61.4 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Right on this road is HOBSON, 0.4 m. (4,073 alt., 240 pop.), an old and rather 
faded town that has long been a trading center for wheat ranchers along the Judith 

In the i88o's UTICA, 12.5 m. (3,940 alt., 62 pop.), was headquarters for the 
great Judith roundup, described and painted by Charles M. Russell, who partici- 
pated in it for several years. All the brands on the Judith River drainage were seen 
in this roundup. 

The YOGO SAPPHIRE MINES, 25 m., in Yogo Gulch of the Little Belt Mountains, 
are important regular producers of sapphires; they and mines in Siam and Australia 
produce almost the entire world output. It is said that the first discovery of sap- 
phires here was made in February 1896 by Jim Ettien, a sheepherder, who for 
$1,600 sold the claims that have since produced $10,000,000 worth of gems. A 
chain of 18 lode claims, comprising 1,550 acres, is owned by a British firm. Only 
two of the claims have been extensively worked. 

The sapphires occur in a pipe as do the diamond-bearing clays of Africa. This is 
about 8 feet wide, 3^ miles long, and of unknown depth. The principal workings 
are now below the 25o-foot level. The clay is mined from shafts; in the beginning 
it was brought up in buckets from narrow trenches that were continually caving in. 

The sapphire-bearing clay, which appears to be hard blue rock slightly tinged 
with green, is washed with water and slaked in the open air. Nearly four years' 
slaking is required before the sapphires can be sifted from the clay. They are shipped 
to London for classification, then to France and Switzerland for cutting and polish- 
ing. Very small and imperfect sapphires have a wide market for use in watches, 
meters, and other delicate mechanical devices, and for the manufacture of phono- 
graph needles. Purity, clarity, and beauty have given Yogo sapphires their high place 
in the world market. 

At 70.3 m. is the junction with State 19; R. on this graveled road is MOORE 
0.4 m. (4,165 alt., 288 pop.), which proclaims its name on a water tank. Moore has 
a neat, prosperous appearance; its grain elevators handle the generally abundant 
wheat crops of the Rock Creek bench, which extends southward to the Snowy Moun- 


trd (Longhair) 
ere more villainous- 
CRf rode into town. After 
\ and had become very 
ot up the town. Local 
in stores and saloons 

tains. The decline that came with the drought of the 1930*5 affected A&. U ', s ^ em 
many other towns. ^ed iirmg 

Summer-fallowed fields in this vicinity often lose their topsoil during higed nine 
in summer. From the northwest appears a great black cloud a hundred feet d\g tent 
high that stretches across the entire basin. There is a scurrying of tumbleweeds, fa ev 
a stinging blizzard blots out the sun, buries miles of fences and roads, stalls _ 
and obliterates small ponds. *" n e ~ 

GARNEILL, 15 m. (4,415 alt., 160 pop.), at first seems to consist of a sin t 
brick store. Beyond this building, however, are a church, a school, and scattert * 
dwellings, then abandoned buildings, faded, rickety, and near collapse. Garneill was 
named for Garnet Neill, the wife of an early rancher; it was a trading post when 
the Central Montana R.R. established a station here in 1903. The railroad named its 
station Ubet, in honor of an old stage station, 3 miles west. Three towns were laid 
out, because of a division of sentiment on moral issues. There was Ubet around the 
railroad station; there was North (or dry) Garneill, which survives; and there was 
South (or wet) Garneill, which consisted of the pretentious hotel, saloon, black- 
smith shop, and stores that burned in recent years. The railroad company in time 
changed the name of its station to conform to local wishes. 

a two-and-one-half-ton granite rock; in its concrete base are embedded pieces of 
ore, Indian relics, petrified wood, and other objects between the names of impor- 
tant pioneers and the dates of their arrival in Montana. On each side of the monu- 
ment are pear-shaped sandstones, molded seemingly by human hands. They were 
found on Blood Creek in Petroleum County. 

i. Right 3 m. from Garneill on a dirt road to the SITE OF UBET, at one time the 
best-known stage station in Montana Territory. One or two of the old log buildings 
remain, used in the early i93o's by sheepherders. The story of Ubet is told in a 

254 TOURS 

book of that name by John R. Barrows, whose father, A. R. Barrows, established 
the post in 1880. There was a two-story log hotel elaborate for the time a post 
office, a blacksmith shop, an ice house, a saloon, a stage barn, and a stable. The 
name was a frontier improvisation inspired by the "You bet!" given by the elder 
Barrows when asked if he could think of a good name for the post office. 

At that time there were hardly half a dozen human habitations along the stage 
route between Billings and Ubet. Ubet, with Mrs. Barrows' cooking and the comfort 
of the hotel, was therefore important. It endured until advancing railroads ended 
the need for stage service. Some measure of the settler's esteem for the post is found 
in the fact that both Garneill and Judith Gap were first named for it. Many pioneers 
are buried on a hill to the north, but the graves are unmarked. 

2. Left 10 m. from Garneill on a dirt road to the old Neill ranch; L. up Neill 
Canyon to the foot of the mountains, 13 m.; from here a steep one-mile marked 
Forest Service trail leads to the OLD ICE CAVE, just under the brow of the mountain 
in a limestone formation. From a narrow opening in the cliff wall a trail drops 
steeply into the cave over about 50 feet of rubble and snow. The ceiling, 30 feet 
high at the entrance, slopes to meet the floor 100 feet away. The floor is ice, several 
feet thick. At the base of one of the many huge ice pillars formed by the water that 
"Sy drips from the ceiling, a generous, never failing spring bubbles up, flows along the 
\ice to the end of the cave, and disappears. There is some danger from jagged icicles 
^Vt now and then drop from the ceiling, and from rock fragments loosened by the 
water. From the mouth of the cave is a view that on clear days extends over 
"\ and brown checkerboard of central Montana to the Pryor, Beartooth, 
Crazy, and Little Belt Mountains. Just over the brow of the mountain, 
% NEW ICE CAVE. After a. steep initial descent into a rocky pocket, a 
'hich must be traveled on hands and knees leads into a low-ceiled 
"d 50 feet wide. The floor is solid ice of unknown depth. 

: s JUDITH GAP (4,582 alt., 288 pop.), built around a 
i church, a school, and water tank. Many of the town's 
>ved or abandoned. The village looks faded and tired, and 
_>r it is buffeted perpetually by winds and scorched inter- 
k was once a busy grain-shipping center; and its roundhouse, 
/ater tanks are reminders of the time when it was a busy division 
.threat Northern Ry. The roundhouse and shops were closed in 1922. 
>ap, in which it sits, is a funnel that attracts northern blizzards of a fe- 
.surpassed in Montana, and then lets them blow back, seeming colder than 
The gap makes a pass between the Snowy Mountains (L) and the Little 
.fountains (R) that was important in the days when freighters, prospectors, 
.' drivers, hunters, and settlers passed northward into the Judith Basin, or 
-thward toward the Yellowstone or Musselshell Valleys. These travelers followed 
path made by Indian hunting and war parties seeking or defending the rich hunt- 
ing grounds of the Judith Basin. 

Before the World War the gravel benches around Judith Gap produced wheat 
that won prizes at big expositions; the few surviving old-time farmers wonder why 
such wheat has never grown since then. 

LEWISTOWN, 85.7 m. (3,960 alt., 5,358 pop.), in the pleasant Spring 
Creek Valley, is sheltered by a bluff on the northwest. Because of this anc 
its abundant shade trees, it is almost invisible until the highway descends 
to it. Then, in the deceptively clear air, some of its residential streets seem 
to extend almost to the base of the Judith Mountains (R). To the north 
rise the blue mounds of the Moccasins. 

US 87 passes the FERGUS COUNTY COURTHOUSE (L), whose delight- 
ful well-kept lawn and skillfully arranged shrubs and flowers advertise 
the taste of the community. Lewistown is a planned city ; its people proudly 
describe it as a city of homes. It is the capital of the agricultural interests 
of the Judith Basin, though mining activity in the mountains to the north 
and drilling in the Cat Creek oil field in the east add to its prosperity. 

TOUR 3 255 

The inhabitants are increasingly aware of the recreational attractions of 
the region, and are taking steps to exploit them. 

Lewistown, first called Reed's Fort for Maj. A. S. Reed, who opened 
the first post office in 1881, began as a small trading post on the Carroll 
Trail between Helena and Crow Island at the mouth of the Musselshell. 
When it was incorporated in 1899 the name was changed to honor a Major 
Lewis who in 1876 established Fort Lewis two miles to the south. Until 
the arrival of the Central Montana (Jawbone) R.R. in 1903 (see 
TRANSPORTATION), which brought homesteaders to the Judith Basin, 
Lewistown was merely a freighting and trading center for cattlemen and 

An incident of the settlement's roaring days is related in the Journal of 
Granville Stuart. Large scale rustling was causing so much trouble for 
central and eastern Montana that in April 1884 the Montana Stock Grow- 
ers' Association, in convention at Miles City, was forced to consider the 
situation. Afraid of precipitating a range war, the majority voted to take 
no action against the cattle thieves, despite vigorous protests from Theo- 
dore Roosevelt and the Marquis de Mores. The rustlers extended their 
activities. Groups of desperate ranchers united and took matters into their 
own hands, catching and hanging a few of the thieves. 

On July 4, 1884, a couple of suspected ringleaders, Edward (Longhair) 
Owen and Charles (Rattlesnake Jake) Fallon, who were more villainous- 
looking than even their motion-picture successors, rode into town. After 
they had lost most of their money on a horse race, and had become very 
drunk, they thrashed one citizen and started to shoot up the town. Local 
men, armed with Winchesters, quickly took positions in stores and saloons 
along the single street. Rattlesnake Jake started to leave town, but, seeing 
Longhair wounded, fought his way back to him ; the two continued firing 
until they could no longer pull a trigger. Rattlesnake Jake received nine 
wounds, Longhair eleven. Their last stand was made in front of the tent 
of an itinerant photographer, who photographed the bodies where they 
fell, to his profit. The aroused ranchers continued the clean-up until large- 
scale cattle thievery in Montana ended. 

Though Lewistown today is a peaceful place, the two-gun man Ed 
McGivern, for many years the world's champion all-around pistol shot, is 
one of its special deputy sheriffs and a police deputy whose duty it is 
to teach local policemen to handle pistols. In his early barnstorming years 
he shot pieces of chalk from between his wife's fingers at 25 feet and 
targets from her head, aiming over his shoulder while looking into a mir- 
ror. Later he perfected an electric device to measure his speed. Records 
of his feats are on file in Smith & Wesson laboratories. At 12 feet, with a 
.38 special double-action revolver he can put five shots in a playing card 
in two-fifths of a second, or drawing from the holster, in one and one- 
fourth. He can shatter five charcoal balls tossed in the air by two men in 
from one and four-fifths to two and four-fifths seconds. He shoots with 
either hand or with both, and from every imaginable position. He is also 
an expert in the use of the shotgun and the high-powered rifle. 

i. Right from Lewistown on Sixth St., which becomes a dirt road, to the junction 

256 TOURS 

with a side road, 4 m.; R. here 0.2 m., crossing railroad tracks to-Bic SPRINGS, the 
source of Lewistown's water supply. The springs discharge 62,700 gallons of water 
a minute. The water supply and the charm of the surroundings made this a favorite 
Indian campground. 

Adjacent is the STATE FISH HATCHERY, established in 1921 by the Montana Fish 
and Game Commission; its capacity is 1,000,000 rainbow, brook, and blackspot 
trout each season. The fish are used to stock central Montana streams. 

The dirt road goes on to HEATH, 9m., where is the HANOVER GYPSUM AND 

Right from Heath on State 25 to the DUNLAP DUDE RANCH, 14 m., on Half 
Moon Creek. Horse trails lead from this ranch into remote sections of the Snowy 

2. Left from Lewistown on State 19 to a junction with a dirt road, 1 m.; R. here 
to NEW YEAR, 13 m. (3,980 alt.), a ghost camp. New Year sprouted brashly 
along with other camps of the Judiths and Moccasins after the discovery of gold at 
Maiden (see below) in 1880. Its mill used the cyanide process of extracting gold 
that made the Judith and Moccasin mines so profitable. 

CRYSTAL CAVE (guide and light necessary) opens off the main shaft of the New 
Year Mine. It has been only partly explored. In the main chamber, 300 feet across 
and about 100 feet high, dripping water saturated with calcites and various minerals 
has created a sparkling^showroom full of endlessly varied rock crystals. 

MAIDEN, 18 m. (4,063 alt.), also a ghost camp, witnessed the first fortune- 
making in the Judith and Moccasin fields. Perry McAdow, a veteran of the Virginia 
City boom, took two out of the Maiden diggings. At the World's Fair in Chicago 
in 1893, he exhibited a gold and silver statue of the actress Ada Rehan, and caused 
a stampede to the Judiths that brought the Giltedge, New Year, Kendall, and 
Barnes-King camps into being. It has been estimated that $18,000,000 in gold was 
taken from the Maiden, Giltedge, and Kendall mines alone. 

GILTEDGE, 21 m. (4,170 alt.), is another ghost camp; L. here on a dirt road 
to the SITE OF FORT MAGINNIS, 25 m. (4,265 alt.). The fort, named for Maj. Mar- 
tin Maginnis, Territorial delegate to Congress, was established in July 1880 by Capt. 
Dangerfield Park to protect settlers and stockmen from Indian attacks. It was built 
on the hay pasture of a ranch, laid out that summer by Granville Stuart. Stuart 
found it more trouble than protection. When cattle and horses were stolen by In- 
dians, the soldiers, through ignorance, indolence, or official delay, often made their 
recovery impossible and allowed the thieves to go unpunished. Other ranchers shared 
Stuart's disgust, and in 1890 the fort was abandoned; ranchers and Lewistown citi- 
zens later carried off the buildings. 

Granville Stuart was important in Montana history. A Virginian of Scottish descent 
who had in 1852 learned the ins and outs of gold mining in California, he came 
to Montana, and in 1858 helped find gold on Gold Creek (see Tour 1, sec. d.). 
There, besides prospecting, he raised grain and vegetables, trapped, traded, read 
Byron, married a squaw, and mended Henry Plummer's shotgun when that bright 
young man came through on his way to Bannack. At Virginia City during the fever- 
ish i86o's and later he mined and traded again, and continued educating himself by 
reading law when he could and Shakespeare, the Bible, and Adam Smith. 

He became manager of the Davis & Hauser Co. in 1879; it was soon reorganized 
as Davis, Hauser, & Stuart, with the brand DHS (D-S). With such men as James 
Fergus, Conrad Kohrs, D. A. G. Floweree, John T. Murphy, P. H. Poindexter, and 
W. C. Orr, he helped change the Montana range from a wilderness into a highly 
profitable cattle country. 

As secretary of the Montana Stock Growers' Association, Stuart urged peaceful 
means of wiping out rustlers; but when these failed, he helped engineer orderly 
hangings. Under his leadership the stockmen dealt with Indians, prairie fires, stam- 
pedes, blizzards, drought, and stock diseases and brought the Montana cattle busi- 
ness to a value of many million dollars. His plan for solving the Indian problem, 
endorsed in 1885 by the National Stock Growers' Association, showed his common 
sense and social values. He favored (i) disarming and dismounting the Indians; 
(2) granting them land in severalty, with inalienable title, and selling their surplus 
land; (3) giving them the privileges and responsibilities of full citizenship. 

TOUR 3 257 

Stuart, like most other Montana ranchers, saw his herds wiped out by the winter 
of 1886-87. In 1891 he was appointed State Land Agent; three years later he be- 
came a special United States Envoy to Uruguay and Paraguay. From 1904 to his 
death in 1918, he was librarian of the Butte Public Library. His journals and his- 
torical writings are regarded as valuable source material. 

At 102 m. sage plains succeed the low hills; ranch homes are few and 
far apart. 

At 117 m. is the junction with State 18 (see Tour 9). 

GRASS RANGE, 117.9 m. (3,488 alt, 212 pop.), is a prairie town, 
spread out, in the words of one resident, "most as big as Chicago." Here, 
as in many other Montana towns, it is not unusual to see a rancher driving 
a late-model automobile with a sheep dog, a ewe, or even a calf in the back 
seat. Livestock paid for the car livestock ride in it if the need arises. 
Most ranchers prefer the "pick-up" or station-wagon type of automobile, 
which can haul a load of salt, supplies for camp tenders, a ewe with 
lambs, or a barrel of water without difficulty. The typical Montana rancher 
puts the modern high-powered car to tests never thought of on the prov- 
ing grounds; he drives wherever there is a track for one wheel, climbing 
rocky ridges that, a few years ago, he would have negotiated on foot lead- 
ing his horses and wagon. 

The SPRING, 123.8 m. (R), was a regular watering hole on the old cat- 
tle trail north of Roundup before any towns existed on the range. The 
water, though alkaline, is fit to drink. 

Three deserted shacks are all that remain of the town of BATTRICK, 
128.8 m. (3,924 alt). 

At 150.5 m. the highway enters DEVILS BASIN, a shallow pocket 
rimmed in part with sharply eroded bluffs. Drillers found signs of oil 
here in 1919, a year before the Cat Creek discovery, but the field was not 
developed. According to a local story a geologist asked drillers at Devils 
Basin if there were any areas more worth prospecting nearby. When they 
replied carelessly that there might be one farther east, the geologist went 
on into the Cat Creek area, and almost immediately brought in a shallow 
well of high-grade oil that started a succession of booms (see Tour 9, 
Sec. b). 

At 165.3 m. is a junction with State 6 (see Tour 11). 

ROUNDUP, 165.8 m. (3,184 alt, 2,577 PP-)> * ies among rolling 
hills clad sparsely with yellow pine and dotted with granite boulders. It 
is neatly laid out, with well-shaded streets, and its houses, many of which 
stand on high terraces, are surrounded by gardens. At the southern end 
the main street runs straight toward a partly bald bluff that forces it to 
turn L. and down a hill. It ends at the railroad station. 

As seat of Musselshell County, Roundup is the educational, social, and 
business center of its region, and the trade center of the State's leading 
coal-mining region ; mining operations are seen to the east and west. 

As its name suggests, the town was once the gathering point for great 
herds that grazed up and down the valley. It remained a cowtown until 
1903, when homesteaders arrived, fenced the range, and crowded the 
stockmen behind barbwire. In 1907, when the Milwaukee Road was built 
across the State, Roundup began to develop. The former rough-and-ready 

258 TOURS 

town is now so staid that a sign in front of one of the motion picture 
houses advises passers-by: "Go to the movies often; nowhere else can you 
get so close to life for so little." 

The western tradition of tall yarning long survived here. An eastern 
visitor once wrote in a bread-and-butter letter to a Roundup newspaper 
editor: "Out there every prairie dog hole is a gold mine; every hill a 
mountain; every creek a river; and everybody you meet is a liar." A still 
popular local story declares that sheepherders' dogs, once having known 
the lure of Roundup's lampposts, never return to their masters. Sheep- 
herders themselves are attracted to Roundup when they have money, but 
perhaps for different reasons. 

Temperatures in this area vary from 50 in winter to 110 in the 
shade in summer, with nights usually cool. In winter the variation is some- 
times as much as 70 in a few hours. A chinook may bring the mercury 
far up out of subzero, but in a day or two a northwester may send it plum- 
meting again. The topsoil, fertile and of good depth, is of the gumbo 
type; in rainy weather dirt roads are both sticky and slipper) 7 , almost im- 
passable for cars. There is a local story that after a circus held on the edge 
of town during wet weather, two wagonloads of spectators' rubbers were 
picked out of the mud. 

The highway crosses the Musselshell River, 167.8 m., a shallow, wind- 
ing tributary of the Missouri, so named by Lewis and Clark because they 
found fresh-water mollusks along its lower reaches. 

KLEIN, 170.4 m. (3,224 alt., 850 pop.), a scattered coal-mining settle- 
ment in the foothills of the Bull Mountains, has a grimy, haphazard ap- 
pearance. The Republic, one of the larger coal mines of the district, sup- 
plies the coal used by the Milwaukee's locomotives and shops in this part 
of the State. Production averages 62,500 tons a month. 

At 177.4 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road into the hunting area of the BULL MOUNTAINS, 20 m., 
through yellow-pine forest and over rough eroded sandstone formations. In the 
lower country the warning buzz of rattlesnakes is often heard. On the upper slopes 
blue grouse and big game are abundant. Wild horses graze on the more open, 
higher stretches. The mountains here are low and isolated, characterized by caves, 
sharp ridges, pinnacles, and blind canyons. In places they are covered with scrubby 
growths of jack pine, buffalo bushes, and sage. 

The road crosses the summit of the Bull Mountains, at 180.3 m., then 
winds down through rocky, sparsely timbered country into the Yellow- 
stone Valley. 

At 213.3 m. is a junction with US 10 (see Tour 1). Between this point 
and Billings US 87 and US 10 are united. 

BILLINGS, 217.7 m. (3,117 alt., 16,380 pop.) (see BILLINGS). 

Points of Interest: Eastern Montana State Normal School, Billings Polytechnic 
Institute, Orthopedic Hospital-School, Parmly Billings Memorial Library, Sugar Re- 
finery, and others. 

Billings is at a junction with US 10 (see Tour 1). 

TOUR 3 259 

Section b. BILLINGS to WYOMING LINE, 107.8 m., US 87. 

This section of US 87 passes through a region of minor mountains into 

the rugged Big Horn country, the home of the Crow Indians, a land of 

plains and distances with snowy peaks at their southern end. The Crow 
called it the "good country" because they fared well in it. Here also 
ranged the fighting Sioux and Cheyenne who destroyed Custer. South of 
Hardin the highway follows the Little Horn River, crossing it several 

US 87 turns L. from the junction with US 10, m., in BILLINGS. 

US 87 crosses a boundary of the CROW INDIAN RESERVATION at 7.7 m. 

INSCRIPTION CAVE (L), 7.8 m., has walls covered with Indian hiero- 
glyphics of unknown antiquity, now badly defaced by vandals and ero- 
sion. About 200 feet west of it is GHOST CAVE, so named for no appar- 
ent reason. Below the caves is a small picnic grove. 

At 12 m. is a junction with an improved road. 

Right on this road is PRYOR, 25 m. (4,140 alt., 150 pop.), with a SUBAGENCY 
OF THE CROW RESERVATION. It was name for Sergeant Pryor of the Lewis and Clark 
expedition. Here, besides the trader's store, is a two-story log cabin, the FORMER 
HOME OF PLENTY COUPS, the last of the great Crow war chiefs; he always 
maintained friendly relations with the whites. In 1921 Plenty Coups represented the 
Indian tribes of the United States at the dedication on Armistice Day of the Tomb 
of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington Cemetery, Va. His short speech on war and 
peace has been regarded as a masterpiece of Indian oratory. Plenty Coups died in 
1933 at the age of 84. 

Pryor and its vicinity give the impression of a lazy backwater, where only the 
arrival of a stranger creates an occasional ripple of interest, and community gossip is 
exchanged almost without words. A familiar figure in its streets is Will James, the 
cowboy author and artist (see THE ARTS). 

The road continues as an ungraded trail, little changed since the old ranching 

The WILL JAMES RANCH, 35 m., embraces more than 4,000 acres of range. 
Among the herds that graze here are several famous old horses. The ranch buildings 
are small, simple log-and-frame structures, with a few trees around them. A low 
rim of red sandstone cliffs surrounds the place, with Crown Butte L. and West 
Pryor Mountain R. James used the local setting in several books. 

The unfenced rangeland of the Big Horn country is a greatly eroded 
plateau. The walls of the deep gulches expose ancient sedimentary rocks 
containing fossilized remains of prehistoric animals. 

The highway again crosses the Crow Indian Reservation at 21.1 m. to 
skirt its northern boundary for about 28 miles. 

From the top of a low ridge at 25.5 m. the BIG HORN MOUN- 
TAINS, a range reaching into Montana from northern Wyoming, are 
visible straight ahead. They may have been the "shining mountains" re- 
ported by the Verendryes in 1743 on their unsuccessful attempt to reach 
the Pacific (see HISTORY). 

In the neighborhood of FLYINN, 26.2 m. (2,510 alt., 7 pop.), a 
prairie post office, paleontologists have unearthed many fossilized skele- 
tons (see NATURAL SETTING). 

HARDIN, 49.8 m. (2,966 alt., 1,169 PP-)> seat of Bi g Horn County, 
is the trading center of an area opened to white settlement in 1906. A 

260 TOURS 

farmers' town, chiefly serving the Crow Reservation, Hardin takes on life 
in summer, when it is much frequented by the beaded and beribboned 
Indians who make up one-fourth of the county's population. On the south- 
ern outskirts is a colony of Mexican beetfield workers. 

The MUSEUM in the BIG HORN COUNTY LIBRARY, Custer Ave. and 
5th St., contains mementos of the Custer battle and of General Custer. 

Right from Hardin on State 47, an improved dirt road, is ST. XAVIER, 23 m. 
(3, O 33 a lt-, 62 pop.), largest settlement on the Crow Reservation. In 1887 Father 
Prando, a Jesuit missionary, and two companions founded a mission here. At first 
they used their single tent as church, reception room, storehouse, kitchen, and dormi- 
tory. In the following year a frame schoolhouse was completed. 

One of the leaders of the Crow, who were very restless at the time and eager 
to fight troops stationed at Fort Custer, was a medicine man who brandished a rusty 
saber when proclaiming his ability to exterminate every paleface. One evening three 
Ursuline nuns accompanied by a priest arrived at the mission and shortly afterward 
the Indians fired several shots into the agency buildings. The next morning the four 
proceeded to the mission school but were not molested. A Crow scout ended the 
incipient rebellion a few days later by shooting the medicine man. 

The RUINS OF FORT C. F. SMITH, 38 m. (4,570 alt.), are on a bluff 500 yards 
from the Big Horn River. Fort Smith was established August 12, 1866, to protect 
Bozeman Trail travelers from the resentful Sioux. Its stockade, of logs and adobe, 
125 yards square, was an impregnable haven ; from its lookout tower riders three miles 
distant could be watched. The fort was manned by the 27th Infantry, whose colonel 
had irritated Secretary of War Stanton by continually asking for a transfer to some 
easy post. Stanton at length asked his clerk, "Which next to hell is the worst place 
to send a regiment?" The clerk replied, "To the Powder River country." Stanton 
sent the 27th Infantry to this place; events proved that the clerk had been right. 
From the beginning the fort was besieged by Red Cloud's Sioux. It was abandoned 
in 1868, after several bloody encounters, notably the Hayfield fight in which n 
soldiers and 8 civilians fought off 600 Sioux, sustaining only 4 losses, and the an- 
nihilation of Capt. William T. Fetterman's command of 82 men near Fort Phil 
Kearny, Wyo. ; the fort site was included in land set aside as the Crow Reservation 
(see HISTORY). The old tower has fallen in a heap and the wall is a mass of 

Midway between the ruins and the Big Horn River was the post's burial ground. 
In 1892 the remains of 17 soldiers and civilians were removed from this place to 
the Custer Battlefield National Cemetery (see below). 

The DE SMET TREE, an ancient cottonwood under which the priest (see HIS- 
TORY) in 1840 celebrated the first Christian mass in the Big Horn country, stands 
near the ruins. Two and one-half miles south, on Warrior Creek, is the site of the 
Hayfield fight. 

At 39 m. is the mouth of BIG HORN CANYON, which winds through the Big 
Horn Mountains. Rust-colored cliffs rise almost 3,000 feet above the river. The big- 
horn sheep are native to this country, but they seldom appear near the highway. 

The TOWER, 53 m., is a knife-edged formation of sandstone, 700 feet high, 
around which the river sweeps in a horseshoe. In 1935 a herd of 300 bison and 
several hundred elk from Yellowstone Park were liberated nearby. 

At 51.6 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to the SITE OF FORT CUSTER, 1.4 m. (3,041 alt.), on the bluff 
above the confluence of the Big Horn and Little Horn Rivers. It was built by L 
Col. George P. Buell in 1877, the year after the Custer battle. Since there were n 
further uprisings in the vicinity, the soldiers had plenty of time for entertainment 
John Maguire, pioneer impresario (see BUTTE), occasionaly visited the fort on hi 
tours of the settlements. In March 1880 he presented Captain John Smith, usin 
Crow in the cast. At the point where Pocahontas was pleading for the life of Johr 
Smith, a Crow burst into the theater, shouting that a band of Sioux had stolen the 

l #3%< 

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Crow horses from the hitching rack outside. While the bugler blew boots and sad- 
dles Chief Plenty Coups called a hurried war council and the Indians joined the 
cavalry in pursuit of the thieves. 

CROW AGENCY, 63.1 #z. (3,041 alt., 350 pop.), is the administrative 
headquarters of the Crow Reservation. The administration buildings, In- 
dian park, and Baptist mission are L. 

The Crow Indian Reservation, containing 3,700 square miles, created 
1851, is the home of 2,112 Indians and as many whites. Each of its six 
districts has a subagency, with a field nurse, field agent, or other respon- 
sible officer. 

The Crow cut three crops of alfalfa during the summer, and raise oats, 
barley, and wheat. Sugar beets yield up to 19 tons an acre in the irrigated 
Big Horn Valley. On leased reservation land is Thomas Campbell's 
8o,ooo-acre dry-land wheat ranch, largest in the United States. Grassy 
slopes provide excellent summer and winter range; 34,000 acres of na- 
tional forest land reserved for Indian-owned livestock contain several 
hundred buffalo and elk. 

Most of the Indians own fairly modern homes, but in summer their 
lands are dotted with tepees. Tribal laws conform to the Department of 
Interior regulations; the council of two is elected by popular vote; the 

262 TOURS 

superintendent (1938), Robert Yellowtail, is the first Indian to adminis- 
ter a western reservation. Individual rather than communal ownership is 
traditional among the Crow but they have fine tribal unity. 

Though trachoma and tuberculosis were formerly somewhat prevalent, 
the Crow are relatively healthy. 

Widespread membership in the forbidden "peyote" societies continues 
among the Crow. Peyote ("button" of the mescal plant, a cactus), drunk 
in an infusion or chewed, brings happy visions. 

The Crow were rovers with no interest in any craft but the making of 
fine beadwork, originally quill work. 

During the Crow Agency fair in August these Indians exhibit beaded 
articles and a few others they are now learning to make, but their real 
interest is in fancy riding, horse racing, arrow throwing, and ceremonial 

The Crow call themselves Apsaruke, or Absarokee (people of the raven). 
They have lived here since long before the white man came and are pos- 
sibly the people described as "les beaux hommes" in the Verendrye jour- 
nal. Some of the Crow, enemies of the Sioux and Cheyenne, served Gen- 
eral Custer as scouts. The Indian attitude toward the land was expressed 
by a Crow named Curly: "The soil you see is not ordinary soil it is the 
dust of the blood, the flesh, and the bones of our ancestors. You will have 
to dig down to find Nature's earth, for the upper portion is Crow, my 
blood and my dead. I do not want to give it up." 

Many Crow have adopted white family names but many land titles are 
registered under school or church-given white names plus Anglicized In- 
dian names. Among them are Aloysius Child-in-his-mouth, Frank He- 
does-it, Chief Bull-dog-falls-down, Mary Takes-a-wrinkle, Montgomery 
Ward Two Bellies, Michael Bull-chief, James Medicine Tail, Ben Long 
Ears, Rides Pretty, and Oscar Other Medicine. 

Many borrowed stories are told in Crow lodges on winter evenings, 
for the Crow adopted much of the culture of their neighbors. Typical is 
a version of the Creation myth: 

"Old Man Coyote was walking round and round, as was his habit. 
That I am alone is bad,' he said. If I looked at someone now and then, 
and talked with him, it would be well.' 

"He urged two small red-eyed ducks to dive into the water and, if they 
reached something, to bring it up. After repeated trials, the ducks brought 
a little mud. Coyote said: 'Well, my younger brothers, this we will make 
big, we will make our abode/ He blew on it, and made the earth. Then 
he took a little root ; he made the grass, the trees, and other plants. 

"One of the ducks spoke: 'It is fine, but its being level is too bad. If 
there were rivers and little coulees and hills, it would be well.' 

"He traced rivers, he made hills, he went around. Then, from some of 
the dirt, he made companions for himself and the ducks: first men, then 
women. That's the way it was." The myth goes on to the creation of 
animals and other things. 

It was Crow custom to bury the dead upon a height, supposedly nearer 
the spirit world, with their belongings beside them; often their lodges 

TOUR 3 263 

were destroyed. White blankets were worn by the mourners as symbols of 
the star trail the dead were believed to be traveling; the mourners some- 
times mutilated themselves. 

Formerly Crow marriage rites were simple; after an exchange of pres- 
ents, the squaw moved into her husband's lodge. It was sometimes harder 
to get rid of a squaw than to obtain one; a white man, who won a Crow 
woman at a horse race, had to give the tribe fifty dollars to take her back. 

At 64.7 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Left on this road 1 m. to the CUSTER MONUMENT in the CUSTER BATTLEFIELD 
NATIONAL CEMETERY (custodian acts as guide) (3,029 alt.), one mile square; the 
area was set aside by the Federal Government, December 7, 1886. The monument, 
a sandstone obelisk surrounded by an iron fence, lists the names of 265 men killed 
on the battlefield, but only 209 marble slabs have been set up, supposedly marking 
the spots where men fell. When General Terry arrived on the field two days after 
the battle (see HISTORY), his troops and Reno's were too busy caring for their 
wounded to have much time for burying the dead. Four days after the battle Terry 
sent a detail that buried the bodies of officers in graves a few inches deep, but only 
partly covered those of the enlisted men. Capt. H. L. Nowlan charted the officers' 
graves. A year later a detail from Fort Keogh arrived to exhume the remains of offi- 
cers. The covering earth had been blown and washed away, and many skeletons 
were above ground. Wolves and coyotes had been busy. The skull, one femur, and 
a few small bones of Custer were found and taken to West Point for burial. In 
1885, when all bones found on the surface were buried in a square pit at the base 
of the sandstone monument, wooden stakes were placed on the places where the 
bones were found. Years later a commission arrived to replace the stakes with stone 
markers but so many of the bits of wood had rotted away that the slabs were set up 
largely by guesswork. Those in charge of the marking hunted for spots where grass 
grew rank, on the assumption that the soil under them had been enriched by animal 
matter. Large rank areas were passed over on the theory that they represented places 
where horses had died. 

Nevertheless, these irregularly grouped markers along a hilltop, with a few scat- 
tered along the edges of the field, give a better picture of what happened here on 
the afternoon of June 25, 1876, than the thousands of controversial words that have 
been published about the fight. Academicians still ask how it was that the Sioux and 
Cheyenne were armed with Winchesters, superior to the arms of the Seventh Cav- 
alry; why Custer divided his command into four parts; why Custer was in such a 
hurry; why Benteen did not come to his assistance. Authors, such as Thomas 1 B. 
Marquis, continue to assert that many of Custer's command committed suicide. 

This cemetery, covering 7.5 acres, has become a repository for the dead of various 
battles and forts of the Northwest. In 1931 the bones of 1,421 soldiers and civilians 
from Forts C. F. Smith, Phil Kearny, Maginnis, Abraham Lincoln, Custer, Keogh, 
and others, had been reburied there. 

GARRYOWEN, 69 m. (3,080 alt., 50 pop.), is a crossroads settle- 
ment. Its name commemorates the ancient Irish air, Garryoiven, that was 
the battle song of Custer's cavalry. 

of several where work is being carried on by the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture to determine types of grass most suitable to the soil. Other 
grass plots are seen at intervals along the highway. 

The Rosebud Mountains (L), a low, sparsely timbered range, parallels 
the Little Horn River. 

LODGE GRASS, 84.2 m. (3,056 alt., 373 pop.), is a trade town of 
the ranchers whose herds graze on the rich grass-covered uplands that 
were formerly covered with buffalo. Before the white man came, the 

264 TOURS 

Crow made their summer hunting camps here, and knew the place by a 
name that probably meant "rich grass," but was sometimes interpreted as 
"greasy grass." The Crow words for "lodge" and "grease" were so sim- 
ilar that by further misinterpretation this place became Lodge Grass. 

The low barren summits (L) at 86.2 m. belong to the WOLF MOUN- 
TAINS. Only a narrow valley separates the Rosebud and Wolf Ranges, 
and on maps they seem one chain. 

The valley of the Little Horn narrows into a canyon between the Wolf 
Mountains and the foothills (R) of the Big Horn Mountains. 

WYOLA, 97.9 m. (4,100 alt., 125 pop.), is a shipping point for cat- 
tle ranches in the valley. Here the Montana Highway Commission main- 
tains a port of entry during the tourist season. 

At 107.8 m. US 87 crosses the Wyoming Line, 30 miles northwest of 
Sheridan, Wyo. (see Wyoming Tour 3), 


(Calgary, Alberta) Browning Great Falls White Sulphur Springs 
Livingston Gardiner (Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyo.); US 89. 
Canadian Border to Wyoming Line, 420.5 m. 

Route paralleled by branches of Great Northern Ry. between Pendroy and Neihart, 
of Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific R.R. between White Sulphur Springs and 
Ringling, of Northern Pacific Ry. between Wilsall and Gardiner. 
Accommodations of all kinds in cities, limited but comfortable in villages and 
towns, tourist homes at intervals between towns. 

Oil-surfaced roadbed most of way; remainder graded and graveled. Mountainous 
stretches have usual mountain hazards small landslides in wet weather and occa- 
sional heavy snows in winter. 

Section a. CANADIAN BORDER to GREAT FALLS, 185.8 m., US 89. 

This section of US 89 cuts across the low divides between tributaries of 
the St. Mary, Milk, and Marias Rivers, and runs along the abrupt eastern i 
slope of the Rockies. It is part of a direct route between Glacier and 
Yellowstone Parks, sometimes known as the Yellowstone Glacier Beeline. 
The rolling grassland it traverses is the western extremity of the Great 
Plains, still to some extent an open cattle and sheep range. Almost half 
its course lies in the relatively fenceless Blackfeet Reservation, just east of 
Glacier National Park. Most of the streams that flow eastward from the 
Rockies in this area offer good fishing, especially at the points where they 
emerge from the hills. 

TOUR 4 265 

US 89, a continuation of Alberta i, crosses the Canadian Border, m., 
o.i mile south of Carway, Alberta, a customs station and port of entry 158 
miles south of Calgary. 

It runs along the western edge of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, 
with the mountains of Glacier National Park R. 

All the country east of the Rocky Mountains and north of the Yellow- 
stone River, far into Canada, was once the buffalo range and hunting 
ground of the Blackfeet, who jealously defended it from invasion by 
other tribes and stubbornly resisted white occupation until subdued by 
superior force. 

A legend common to many tribes is that the first buffalo came out of a 
hole in the ground, and when the buffalo began to disappear because of 
the whites' uncontrolled slaughter, the Indians believed that the white 
men had found the hole and had rolled a large boulder over it. 

At 10.7 m. is the junction with the Chief Mountain International 

Right on this graveled road^. locally called the Kennedy Creek Cut-off, around 
the base of CHIEF MOUNTAIN (9,056 alt.), the isolated yellow-and-tan colossus 
of hard limestone that rears up on the boundary of Glacier National Park and marks 
the eastern limit of the Lewis overthrust. The irregular wedge of the mountain 
provides an excellent opportunity for study of the geological structure of the north- 
ern Rockies (see GLACIER NATIONAL PARK). Part of the roadbed is composed 
of the glacial debris that surrounds the mountain. 

At 13 m. is the junction with a crude trail; L. here 1 m. to BELLY RIVER, a 
fishing stream of unusual reputation. In Glacier Park it flows along the eastern side 
of the mountains, with only foothills and a few detached peaks between itself and 
the Great Plains. 

At 14 m. the road and river cross into Canada, 14 miles southeast of Maskinonge 
Lake in Waterton Lakes National Park. 

BABB, 15 m. (4,460 alt., 25 pop.), has tourist cabins, a general store, 
and a post office. It was settled in 1912 as headquarters for the Reclama- 
tion Service project that diverted water from St. Mary River, which drains 
into Hudson Bay, across the Hudson Bay Divide to the Milk River for 
irrigation purposes. 

At Babb is the junction with an oiled road (see Park Tour 4). 

South of Babb the highway parallels the shore of LOWER ST. MARY 
LAKE, approaching it closely at several points. 

ST. MARY, 24.1 m. (4,480 alt., 103 pop.), is at the foot of UPPER 
ST. MARY LAKE, just within Glacier National Park. Here is the junc- 
tion with Going-to-the-Sun Highway (see Park Tour 1). 

Opposite St. Mary rises the steep Hudson Bay Divide, which US 89 
crosses at 30.7 m. (6,076 alt.). Waters north of the ridge flow into the 
Saskatchewan River; south and east, into tributaries of the Missouri. The 
first of these, the South Fork of the Milk River, is crossed at 35 m. The 
road crosses the Milk River Ridge, 36.3 m., which offers a far view (L) 
over the plains. There are only occasional glimpses of the mountains of 
Glacier Park; the road goes through dense growths of aspen and stunted 

At 38.8 m. is the junction with a narrow dirt road (see Park Tour 3). 

BROWNING JUNCTION, 43.2 m. (see Tour 2), is at the junction 

266 TOURS 

with US 2 (see Tour 2). Between this point and a junction at 59.1 m. 
US 89 and US 2 are one route (see Tour 2, Sec. b). 

At 59.1 m. is the junction with US 2 (see Tour 2). 

Between Browning and Great Falls US 89 skirts the western edge of 
the Sweetgrass Arch (see RESOURCES AND THEIR CONSERVA- 
TION), one of the important oil-bearing geologic formations in the 
world. Through much of this area exploratory drilling goes on almost 

A high open place at 63.2 m. affords a view (L) of the plains, and 
(R) the Continental Divide. During intertribal warfare on these plains, 
the Indians often started fires that swept the prairie for hundreds of miles. 

The road crosses Two Medicine Creek, 67 m., and runs through the 
irrigated lands of the Blackfeet (see Tour 2, Sec. b). Outside the small 
valley, the visible area is mostly sheep pasture. 

The TEPEE RINGS (R and L), 70 m., are circles of small stones mark- 
ing the site of an old Indian encampment. 

BIRCH CREEK, 84.8 m., is at the southeastern corner of the Blackfeet 

At 86 m. is the junction with an improved dirt road (see Side Tour 
from Tour 6, Sec. a). 

DUPUYER, 94.7 m. (4,050 alt., 45 pop.), a supply point for stock 
ranches, came into existence as a stage stop on the bull freight route be- 
tween Fort Benton and Fort Browning. Its name is from the French 
depouille, a word applied by trappers and explorers to the back fat of the 
buffalo, a delicacy esteemed by both Indian and white. 

Right from Dupuyer on a graded road to the junction with another dirt road, 9 
m.; R. here to SCOFFIN BUTTE, 14 m., which is rich in fossilized dinosaur 

South of Dupuyer the road passes over broad cattle ranges. The region 
is a consistent producer of prize-winning stock. Local lore has it that 
riders sleeping in the open here sometimes wake to find a rattlesnake 
coiled cozily among the blankets, obviously in search of warmth. The 
early ranchmen, observing that the snakes most often attack horses on the 
nose or belly where the hair is short, concluded that they dislike horse- 
hair, and adopted the practice of coiling a horsehair rope around their 
soogans (blankets) when sleeping on the ground. Early cartographers er- 
roneously indicated a Lewis Range between this point and the Continental 

At 107.6 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Left on this road is PENDROY. 1 m. (4,264 alt., 85 pop.), the terminal of a 
Great Northern branch from Great Falls, and a grain-shipping point 

BYNUM, 114.9 m. (3,970 alt., 94 pop.), is a shipping point in a 
region of large dry- land and irrigated wheat ranches. 

CHOTEAU, 128.3 m. (3,800 alt., 997 pop.), seat of Teton County, 
was named for Pierre Chouteau, Jr., a member of a family of fur traders 
associated with Astor's American Fur Company. Montana also has 
county named for Chouteau ; to avoid confusion the town name is spelled 

TOUR 4 267 

without the first "u." Choteau was once headquarters for big cattle spreads 
(ranches) whose herds ranged over large areas of north-central Montana. 

Bere are still several large ranches near. 
light from Choteau on partly improved State 33, a part of a cut-off between this 
nt and Helena. AUGUSTA, 33 m. (4,076 alt., 412 pop.), was named for the 
ighter of a pioneer rancher, D. J. Hogan. Sulphur deposits discovered near here 
in March 1885 caused much excitement, but proved unimportant commercially. A 
fairly prosperous farming area surrounds the town. 

At Augusta are junctions with State 20 (see below) and an unnumbered dirt 
road; R. on the dirt road 17 m. to SUN RIVER MEDICINE SPRINGS, where warm 
water is piped to a small outdoor swimming pool. 

State 33 approaches the rugged and abrupt main range of the Rockies, which is 
accessible by several foot and bridle trails. It crosses the Dearborn River, a tribu- 
tary of the Missouri named by Lewis and Clark for Henry Dearborn, Secretary of 
War in 1806-07. The valley is largely sheep pasture. 

WOLF CREEK, 76.1 m. (3,560 alt., no pop.), is something of a summer resort, 
r ith good fishing and beautiful mountain scenery. It is at the entrance to WOLF 
.EEK CANYON. The Indian name of the place was "the-creek-where-the-wolf- 
At 76.6 m. is the junction with US 91 (see Tour 6). 

Castellated PRIEST BUTTE (R), 130.3 m., towers above the SITE OF 

. PETER'S MISSION, established in 1859 by Father Hoecken (see HIS- 

ORY). This mission for the Blackfeet was not successful; after two 
years, Father Hoecken and his colleagues moved to Sun River. 

At 142.2 m. the highway enters the GREENFIELD BENCH, the major 
unit of the SUN RIVER IRRIGATION PROJECT. It consists of 38,000 irri- 
gated acres and 100,000 acres that can be irrigated; GREENFIELD 
LAKE (R) is the shallow reservoir of the system. 

FAIRFIELD, 150 m. (3,999 alt., 227 pop.), a trimly built and well 
cared for village amid acres of grain, is the trading center of the Green- 
field Bench. Before the development of irrigation, the grass here became 
scarce in dry summers, and stockmen were forced to move their herds. 
Consequently, the community was long known as "Freeze-out Bench." 

On the broken country between the highway and the Rockies (R) a 
few remaining pronghorn antelopes graze, sometimes within sight of the 

A panorama of the entire Greenfield region at 157.3 m., shows 
SQUARE BUTTE and, in the distance, CROWN BUTTE (R), both 
south of Sun River. As the road descends to the Sun River Valley, the 
5 06- foot smokestack of the Anaconda Reduction Works (L) at Great 
Falls is seen. 

At 165.3 m. is the junction with State 20. 

Right on State 20, which follows a route used by Capt. Meriwether Lewis and 
his party. A short section of State 20 is built on the Mullan Wagon Road, which 
came down through this region on its way between Fort Benton and the Prickly 
Pear, near Helena. 

SUN RIVER, 0.8 m. (3,416 alt., 57 pop.), one of the oldest settlements in the 
State, is at the old Sun River crossing on the trail between Fort Benton and the 
gold camps. Before the railroads came, it was a lively place a rendezvous for cow- 
boys, bullwhackers, mule skinners, and trappers. Thousands of gold seekers and set- 
tlers passed through it. 

FORT SHAW, 5.9 m. (3,502 alt., 85 pop.), the trade center of a beekeeping 

268 TOURS 

area, was settled in 1867 as a military post protecting travelers on the Mullan Road 
and settlers in the Sun Valley from Blackfeet raiders. It was named for Col. Robert 
G. Shaw, a veteran of the Civil War. One fort building, 125 feet long, was the 
scene of many dances, and was sometimes a theater. The movable benches had no 
backs and the floor was merely hard-trodden earth ; when it was necessary to dim the 
footlights, members of the orchestra rose and turned down the wicks of the kero- 
.sene lamps that lined the stage apron. Despite the primitive living conditions, the 
place was the social center of a large area; the first professional stage performance 
in Montana was given on this stage. 

From Fort Shaw Gen. John Gibbon in 1876 led the Seventh Infantry to join 
Generals Terry and Custer in the campaign against the Sioux and Cheyenne. It was 
while Terry and Gibbon were attempting an encircling movement that Custer was 
wiped out on the Little Horn. 

General Gibbon was interested in more than military affairs. He planted trees 
and flowers and made lawns and gardens about Fort Shaw. In 1890, when the fort 
was abandoned, the Government turned it over for use as an Indian school. In 1910 
the Indian school was closed and one for white children was opened. 

SIMMS, 11.5 m. (3,563 alt., 464 pop.), is a farmers' town shaded by giant cot- 
tonwoods whose branches make vaulted corridors of the streets. Irrigation has re- 
claimed much formerly barren land about the town and made grain growing as im- 
portant as cattle raising. 

At 15.8 m. is the junction with a graded dirt road; R. here 1 m. to LOWRY 
(3,650 alt., 8 pop.), a river hamlet surrounded by hay ranches. 

RIEBELING, 22.4 m. (3,755 alt., 14 pop.), is a ranch and post office. 

At 33.1 m. is the junction with State 33 (see side tour above from Choteau), 

VAUGHN, 173.4 m. (3,366 alt., 45 pop.), is at the junction with 
US 91 (see Tour 6). Between Vaughn and Great Falls, US 89 and 
US 91 are one route. 

At 185 m. is the junction with State 29 (see Tour 14). US 89 crosses 
the Missouri River. 

GREAT FALLS, 185.8 m. (3,300 alt., 28,822 pop.) (see GREAT 

Points of Interest: Russell Museum, State School for the Deaf and Blind, High 
School, Gibson Park, Black Eagle Falls, Giant Springs, and others. 

Section b. GREAT FALLS to LIVINGSTON, 1743 m., US 89. 

Between Great Falls and Belt US 89 runs along the ancient bed of a 
glacial lake; near Belt it passes the line that marks the southern reach of 
the prehistoric continental ice sheet; it crosses the Little Belt Mountains, 
whose slopes are thickly covered with the pine, fir, and spruce of the 
Lewis and Clark National Forest; and continues southward between the 
Big Belt Mountains (R) and the Castle and Crazy Mountains (L). The 
Little Belts produce some coal, silver, lead, zinc, and gold. 

In GREAT FALLS, m., US 89 goes eastward on 2nd Ave. N., leav- 
ing the Missouri River and the giant smokestack of the reduction works 

Between the city and a junction near Armitage US 89 and US 87 (see 
Tour 3) are one route. 

BELT BUTTE (L), 20.5 m., with its girdle of dark limestone, offers 
an explanation for the name of the Belt Mountains. 

BELT, 22.2 m. (3,574 alt., 810 pop.), formerly called Castner, was 

TOUR 4 269 

founded by John Castner, whose coal mine, the first in Montana, sup- 
plied fuel to Fort Benton. In 1893 the Boston and Montana Mining 
Company began operation in the Belt coal field and was soon supplying 
all fuel for the smelter at Great Falls. Finns and Slavs settled the town. 
In 1930 the smelters at Anaconda and Great Falls began using natural^ 
gas piped in from the Cut Bank field (see Tour 2, Sec. b), decreasing the 
market for coal for the Belt mines, though they continue to produce for 
the region surrounding them. 

ARMINGTON, 24.9 m. (3,558 alt, 150 pop.), is a coal miners' 

At 26.6 m. is the junction (L) with US 87 (see Tour 3). US 89 
swings R. through the deep gorge of Belt Creek. 

It leaves the narrow canyon at 36.8 m. and climbs up the northern 
slope of the Little Belt Mountains in long curves. It runs across an eroded 
plateau, low and wide, with many spurs. The mountains are forest-clad, 
with yellow and lodgepole pine predominating. 

MONARCH CANYON, 45.5 m. t is a defile between steep limestone 
cliffs of various shades. A boundary of the LEWIS AND CLARK NA- 
TIONAL FOREST is crossed at 47.5 m. Several improved public camp- 
grounds maintained by the U. S. Forest Service are near at hand. 

Old silver mines are seen here and there in this region, some of them 
abandoned, some, after years of idleness, active again because of higher 
silver prices. 

MONARCH, 48.8 m. (4,563 alt., 66 pop.), is an old, partly deserted 
mining town at the junction of two gulches whose creeks join the Belt. 
From this point prospectors, with some grub and an extra pair of socks 
in their packs, go into the hills to look for pay dirt. A mine that yields 
a profit, or at least gives a fair return in gold is known as "good ground." 
Placer gold is of four grades: nuggets, coarse gold, fine gold, and flour. 
Nuggets range from a dollar up in value. Coarse and fine gold can be 
caught in ordinary sluice boxes with little loss, but flour is so light that 
it washes out of the sluices with the water. When a considerable quantity 
of flour gold is found, miners use quicksilver in the riffles of their sluices 
and allow the mixture to settle in woolen blankets ; they burn the blankets 
(if they are old) or wash them, to recover the amalgam, which is then 
heated to drive off the quicksilver. Several machines for recovering flour 
gold by combining gravitational separation with the amalgamation process, 
have been patented. 

Left from Monarch on an improved dirt road to FINN CREEK, 8 m., whose 
waterfalls and sylvan charm amply repay a short walk up its narrow ravine. 

HUGHESVILLE, 14 m. (4,960 alt., 66 pop.), is one of a group of mining camps 
settled in 1879. From this region rich silver and lead ores were hauled by bull 
team to Fort Benton, shipped down the Missouri and Mississippi to New Orleans, 
and transferred to ocean steamers for shipment to smelters at Swansea, Wales. 

Since 1905 Hughesville has seen several mining revivals. The largest mine in the 
district is the BLOCK P, which has a mill of the most modern type, with a daily 
capacity of 1,000 tons of ore, and uses an improved flotation method (see Tour 18) 
of ore concentration. 

Between Monarch and Neihart, US 89 again follows Belt Creek 

270 TOURS 

through its deep, narrow upper canyon. Amethysts and marine fossils 
have been found here. 

NEIHART, 62.2 m. (5,800 alt., 168 pop.), trading center of the 
Little Belt mining district, was named for J. L. Neihardt, uncle of the 
poet John G. Neihardt, and discoverer in 1881 of one of the richest de- 
posits of silver-lead ore in the Little Belts; 40 mines have been operated 
in the vicinity. The igneous rock in which the ore is found is called pinto 
diorite because of its red-and-green spotted appearance. Great masses of 
it are near the town. 

Some of the Neihart lodes yielded more than 500 ounces of silver to 
the ton. Among the largest producers were the Rochester, M and I, 
Florence, and Silver Dyke mines, the last having a large low-grade de- 
posit. There was considerable new activity here between 1935 and 1937. 
Several properties yield zinc in addition to the silver-lead-gold combina- 
tion. Even in inactive periods the people of the district have an air of ex- 
pectancy, for they are certain that there are lodes, yet to be discovered, 
which will bring prosperity overnight. 

South of Neihart the highway follows Sawmill Creek, and begins the 
climb to King's Hill, a pass through the Little Belts. 

In the dark red and purple base rocks feldspar crystals are imbedded. 

At 70.3 m. is the junction with the Chamberlain Creek road. 

Left on this road to Chamberlain Creek, 1 m.; from the mouth of this creek a 
foot trail runs 2.6 m. to the SUMMIT OF NEIHART BALDY (9,000 alt.), from 
which, at night, the lights of Great Falls, 70 miles north, are visible. Two immense 
natural amphitheaters in the igneous rock of the southern slope show sharply pro- 
jecting buttresses and talus slides. A lakelet, surrounded by talus heaps overgrown 
with stunted alpine growth, fills a hollow at the bottom of the longest slope. 

The summit of KING'S HILL, 71.7 m. (7,300 alt.), has a ranger sta- 
tion and a public campground in groves of alpine fir. The highway, here 
known as King's Hill Road, winds down the southwest slopes of the Little 
Belt Mountains. At 90 m. it crosses the southern boundary of the LEWIS 

At 100.5 m. is a junction (L) with State 6 (see lour 11). For 12 miles 
US 89 and State 6 are one route. 

WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS, 100.6 m. (5,200 alt., 575 pop.), seat 
of Meagher (pronounced mar) County, was so named because of mineral 
springs. The springs are now privately exploited. Indians came great dis- 
tances to use the hot water here for medicinal purposes. White people who 
follow their example, report improvement in cases of rheumatism and 
some stomach disorders. 

Meagher County was named for Gen. Thomas Francis Meagher, an 
Irish patriot and Civil War hero who came to Montana as a Federal offi- 
cial. Acting as Territorial Governor in the absence of Sidney Edgerton, 
General Meagher made a trip to Fort Benton, July i, 1867, intending to 
go down the river to obtain arms for a campaign against the Indians. Late 
at night, on the eve of his expected departure from Fort Benton, he went 
to his stateroom on the steamer after a visit to a tavern, and was never 
seen again. For some time rumors were afloat that the general had been 


pushed into the river while attempting to board the steamer, but this was 
denied by responsible citizens of Fort Benton who had escorted him to 
his room. He was a large, powerful man; it is improbable that he could 
have been forcibly taken from his stateroom and hurled into the water 
without a struggle that would have aroused the crew and passengers. 
What happened to him remains one of the mysteries of pioneer Montana. 

Contemporaries say that Meagher was a quarrelsome person; that many 
of his decisions as Acting Governor had met bitter opposition and made 
enemies who might conceivably have seized the opportunity to do away 
with him. Some members of the Ancient Order of Hibernians took the 
stand that he was a martyr to the Irish cause and erected a statue of him 
on the capitol grounds at Helena, near the main entrance (see HELENA). 

White Sulphur Springs was the boyhood home of Taylor Gordon (see 
THE ARTS), a Negro singer of spirituals. 

The country around White Sulphur Springs offers excellent hunting 
and fishing, and is a popular summer-resort area. An annual Labor Day 
Rodeo in the town draws some of the best riders and ropers in the State. 

The AUDITORIUM, built (1870) when plans were projected to make 
White Sulphur Springs a rival of the popular spa of the same name in 
West Virginia, boasts a false ceiling made of a "big top" purchased from 
the Ringling Brothers' circus. 

Right from White Sulphur Springs on an oiled road to FORT LOGAN, 17 m. 
(3,972 alt.), a former military post established in 1869 to protect the mining camps 

272 TOURS 

and the Fort Benton freight route. First called Camp Baker, it was renamed in mem- 
ory of a Captain Logan killed at the Big Hole Battle (see HISTORY). The block- 
house still stands. 

South of White Sulphur Springs the highway traverses the wide, open, 
sage- dotted Smith River Valley, in which are holdings of the Ringling 
family of circus fame. 

At 112.5 m. is the junction (R) with State 6 (see Tour 11). 

RINGLING, 125.1 m. (5,304 alt., 152 pop.), was named for the 
circus Ringlings, whose ranch properties in this section formerly included 
more than 100,000 acres. The town is an important shipping point for 
Smith River Valley wheat, which has high protein content. It was the 
southern terminal of the old White Sulphur Springs and Yellowstone 
Park R. R., now a '23-mile spur of the Milwaukee; this short railroad for 
many years operated but one combination-train daily, yet paid regular 

South of Ringling the highway crosses a low divide into the south cen- 
tral mountains. For a part of the way three ranges are in view the Crazy 
(L), the Absaroka (straight ahead), and the Bridger (R). 

WILSALL, 146.8 m. (5,048 alt., 413 pop.), at the northern end of a 
Northern Pacific Ry. spur, depends on the shipping and trade of home- 
steaders in the upper Shields River Valley, a region producing wheat, seed 
peas, hay, and livestock. The town's name is a combination of Will and 
Sal, nicknames of the children of an early settler. 

Between Wilsall and Livingston the highway closely follows the course 
of the old Bridger trail (see Tour 1, Sec. b). 

CLYDEPARK, 154.6 m. (4,821 alt., 302 pop.), was named for a 
breed of horses popular here, and for the parklike appearance of the val- 
ley. Two cattle kings, Harvey and Tregloan, once had the run of the en- 
tire valley. 

The nighway swings into the Yellowstone Valley at 169 m. 

At 174.1 m. is the junction with US 10 (see Tour 1, Sec. b). Between 
this point and Livingston US 10 and US 89 are one route. 

LIVINGSTON, 174.5 m. (4,490 alt., 6,391 pop.) (see Tour 1, Sec. b), 
is at the junction with US 10 (see Tour 1). 

Section c. LIVINGSTON to WYOMING LINE, 60.2 m. US 89. 

This section of US 89 parallels the Yellowstone River between the 
Absaroka and Gallatin Ranges, and passes through a popular dude-ranch 
region. A dirt road on the west river bank follows the earliest trail used 
by white men in the area. The upper valley is rich in the lore of Yellow- 
stone National Park; countless people were drawn through this approach 
to the park by tales of fabulous wonders, most of which were not wholly 
believed until the official Washburn-Langford expedition of 1870 con- 
firmed them. 

South of LIVINGSTON, m., for 5 miles US 89 follows the old trail 
on the right bank of the Yellowstone, then crosses to the left bank. 

The snowcapped ABSAROKA RANGE is seen (L) at 20 m.; US 89 


TOUR 4 273 

skirts EMIGRANT PEAK (10,900 alt.). The mountains (R) which 
cast their notched and somber shadows on the Absarokas are the Gallatins. 
At 25.2 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to CHICO HOT SPRINGS (adm. 35<j:; hotels, cabins; shower, tub, 
and vapor baths, mineral water, warm and hot plunges; horses available for saddle 

d pack trips into the Absarokas, and for fishing and hunting), 1.4 m. (5,160 

.). The resort is in sheltered EMIGRANT GULCH, where placer gold was dis- 
covered by Thomas Curry in 1862 ; the earliest trappers and prospectors bathed in 
crude vats built around the hot springs. 

Jim Bridger is believed to have spent the winter of 1844-45 here, though legend 
and story set an even earlier date for his first visit. 

When a train of immigrants arrived near the narrow entrance to the gulch in 
1864, their attention was drawn to a lone pine with 18 to 20 elk horns around its 
base, so strongly imbedded that they could not be removed. In December of that 
year Jim Bridger and one of the settlers met at a primitive hotel near Bozeman. 
When, during the swapping of stories, the ring of elk horns was mentioned, 
Bridger asserted that he had placed them there 25 years before. 

The ghost town of CHICO, 2.9 m. (5,020 alt.), is inhabited by a few families 
who work side-gulch placers. 

In YELLOWSTONE CITY, 5.2 m. (5,250 alt.), only rotting log foundations of 
its early buildings remain, but some new cabins have been built by prospectors now 
plying pick and pan in the gulch. 

Gold was found in upper Emigrant Gulch on August 30, 1864. The usual stam- 
pede followed, and Yellowstone City began as a tent camp. When cold weather 
froze the sluices, the miners moved down into the valley and lived in holes dug in 
the mountain sides. The first winter was severe and supplies ran short; a 96-pound 
sack of flour cost $28, tea sold for $2 a pound, and "chawing" tobacco for $5 a 
pound. Game, plentiful in the vicinity, provided most of the food. 

Yellowstone City boomed briefly but the strike was not a rich one. Crow killed 
several whites, and in 1866, the place was abandoned. 

In the cemetery nearby is the GRAVE OF DONALD L. BYNUM, judge of the miners' 
court that tried and convicted George Ives, the first of the Virginia City road agents 
to be brought to justice (see HISTORY). 

The EMIGRANT FISH HATCHERY (R), 25.9 m., rears blackspot, rain- 
bow, eastern brook, and Loch Leven trout for stocking Montana streams. 

Five-mile YANKEE JIM CANYON, 41 m., was named for James 
George, a picturesque character of pioneer days. Almost single-handed he 
built the first road into Yellowstone National Park on what became the 
Northern Pacific right-of-way, paralleling the modern highway on the 
opposite bank. He had a tollgate at the narrowest point. When in 1883 
construction began on the Yellowstone Park branch of the Northern 
Pacific Ry., he fought the company until it agreed to build another road 
for him in the hills above the right-of-way. The old man remained in the 
region for many years, trapping and serving as a guide. Rudyard Kipling 
visited him in 1890 and told of the experience in a volume on his Ameri- 
can travels. 

CORWIN HOT SPRINGS, 49.3 m. (5,133 alt.), has cabins, a dance hall, 
a restaurant, a golf course, and a plunge. It is owned (1938) by Walter 
Hill, son of James J. Hill, the railroad builder. 

The DEVIL'S SLIDE, 51 m., an exposed dike of bright-red iron- 
impregnated rock on Cinnabar Mountain, is (R) across the river. The 
mountain was named by early settlers who thought the red rock was 

274 TOURS 

The legend of the Devil's Slide is told in a jingle: 

"Ages ago, one can easily see, 
Old Yellowstone Valley went on a spree; 
The mountains had risen, the valleys had sunk, 
And old Mother Nature got roaringly drunk. 
The Devil, as drunk as the Devil would be, 
Slid to the bottom of Cinnabaree." 

GARDINER, 56 m. (5,287 alt, 350 pop.), is the northern entrance 
to Yellowstone National Park. Rude old log buildings stand in sharp 
contrast with newer structures of pink stucco, milled logs, and brick 
veneer, that are brilliantly lighted at night during the tourist season to at- 
tract patronage. In winter Gardiner is almost deserted. 

The town was named for Johnston Gardiner, a trapper who worked 
along the upper Yellowstone and its tributaries in the 1830'$. Early efforts 
at settlement were frustrated by the hostility of the Crow, who hunted in 
this area. In 1883 the building of the railroad provided the impetus to 
settlement, but disputes arose over the proposed townsite and the North- 
ern Pacific established its terminal at Cinnabar, 4 miles north. Gardiner 
became known as "the town that waited twenty years for a railroad," be- 
cause the line was not extended to it until 1902. 

At 57.3 m. the road crosses the northern boundary of YELLOW- 
cornerstone of which was laid by Theodore Roosevelt in 1903. 

At 60.2 m. US 89 crosses the Wyoming Line, 1.9 miles north of Mam- 
moth Hot Springs, Wyo. (see WYOMING GUIDE). 

Tour 5 

Bozeman Gallatin Gateway Junction with State i West Yellowstone 
(St. Anthony, Idaho); US 191. 
Bozeman to Idaho Line, 101.1 m. 

Route paralleled by Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific R.R. between Bozeman 

Hot Springs and Gallatin Gateway. 

Hotels in Bozeman, Gallatin Gateway, and West Yellowstone. 

Dude ranches, mountain resorts, tourist camps, and public campgrounds along route. 

Oil-surfaced roadbed, open throughout year. 

US 191, the Gallatin Way, winds up the rugged canyon of the Gallatin 
River between the Gallatin and Madison Mountains. One of the two most 


TOUR 5 275 

frequently used Montana approaches to the country's oldest national park, 
it offers an appropriate introduction, and effectively whets the appetite for 
the grandeur of Yellowstone. Numerous trails and roads along this short 
route strike into forested semiwilderness, where green hills and pure air 
offer rest and peace, mountain streams provide game fish, high ridges 
challenge exploration, and a great variety of bird and animal life tempts 
the naturalist and photographer. Much of the route traverses the Gallatin 
National Forest and for nearly 30 miles it skirts the western edge of 
Yellowstone National Park. 

At intervals the canyon widens, and the summits of the mountains 
form a tremendous backdrop for the quieter landscape near at hand. 

US 191 branches west from US 10 at BOZEMAN, m. (see Tour 1, 
Sec. b). 

At 0.4 m. (L) is MONTANA STATE COLLEGE (see Tour 1, Sec. b). 
Immediately adjacent are the college experimental farms. 

The lower Gallatin Valley, across which the highway takes its course, 
bears abundant crops of hay, small grains, and garden truck. In summer 
the fields are blue and purple with flowering alfalfa and peas and along 
the roadside are brilliant wild flowers. According to an Indian legend, on 
the third day of a bloody battle here between Sioux and Nez Perce, the 
sun was blotted out, and from the terrifying darkness came a voice. It 
was the Great Spirit commanding the warriors to forget old wrongs and 
cease shedding blood, for they were in the Valley of Peace and Flowers. 
Then the sun shone again. Since then the Sioux and Nez Perce have been 
friends. Another legend declares that whoever drinks of the waters of 
the Gallatin will return to the valley before he dies. 

When Lieutenant Clark camped here in July 1806, he noted in his 
journal: "I saw Elk, deer & Antelopes, and great deel of old signs of 
buffalow. Thie roads is in every direction emence quantities of beaver 
on this Fork and their dams very much impeed the navigation of it." 

At 7.7 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road is ANCENEY, 9 m., headquarters of the Flying D Ranch. 
Charles L. Anceney was an early-day cattle baron, whose 2,500,000 acres were 
among the largest holdings in the State. The Flying D is still one of the State's 
largest ranches, though it is reduced to 399,350 acres and has to lease 1,500,000 
acres of National Forest land for summer range. No dude ranch, it runs as many as 
40,000 head of cattle in good years. 

Modern ranch roundups differ somewhat from those of the open range, but the 
Flying D operations are as lively as any of the present day. The spring, or calf, 
roundup is held in May or early June. Riders, working from the various ranches, 
bring cows and calves in from river bottoms and other sheltered spots where they 
have wintered. Since the holdings are largely under fence, there are few if any 
strays, slickears, or mavericks; consequently no repping (checking of ownership) 
is necessary, as in the old days when neighboring spreads sent riders to see that 
their calves were branded with the proper irons. The calves are separated from the 
cows and steers and thrown into corrals; as in former days, smoke goes up from 
branding fires and mingles with the fumes of burning hair; but the calves are 
branded with a stamping iron while standing up in a chute, and so there is now no 
danger from the horns of the resentful mothers. Acid branding is increasingly used; 

is quicker, safer, and more humane. The bull calves are castrated; some of the 
rs and steers are dehorned; all are checked for ticks, ringworm, blackleg, or 

276 TOURS 

The herds are wilder and more widely scattered in the fall when the beef roundup 
is held; it is simplified by the present-day freedom from cattle thieves and by the 
fact that railroad shipping pens are at most within a few days' drive, and over- 
night camps can always be made at ranch buildings. 

When the range was wild, the roundup crew went out in the spring, equipped 
for several weeks in the field. It always had one chuck wagon, sometimes several ; a 
wagon for bed-rolls and extra gear; and many horses. The riders scoured all the 
country between great natural boundaries, such as rivers or mountain ranges. What 
they gathered in a day they threw into a herd and held until they had covered a 
certain territory or had as many head as they could conveniently handle. Then, 
while some of the riders held the herd, others worked out the unbranded calves, 
cows, and steers, roped them, dragged them to a fire, and held them down by force 
while the iron was applied. The branded animals were kept apart from the un- 
branded until the whole herd had been worked; then the herd was sent back on 
grass, and the wagon went on to another part of the range. Riders slept on the 
ground, ate food cooked in a Dutch oven, and caught their horses in a flimsy rope 
corral, improvised daily by the wrangler. Each man had to stand guard during a 
part of the night, riding around the herd and singing to keep the cattle quiet. Dur- 
ing storms, when the herd was likely to stampede, the riders were sometimes in the 
saddle 24 hours at a stretch. Double roundups were held in the fall, one in Sep- 
tember, and another for beef in October. Then came the drive to the railroad, 
with stampedes, swollen rivers, soaked blankets, and cold supper or no supper, all 
in the day's work. The puncher's pay was $30 a month and grub. 

BOZEMAN HOT SPRINGS, 8.5 m. (4,772 alt.), is a health and 
recreation resort. The springs provide mineral water at a temperature of 
137.5 F. for the baths and plunge. Dances at the pavilion are summer 
attractions ; but the big annual event is the night rodeo held under flood- 
lights in August. Professional performers, many of whom have ridden 
and roped in Madison Square Garden, N.Y.C., demonstrate their skill 
on horses and steers who understand the act required of them. 

GALLATIN GATEWAY INN, 13.3 m. (R), is a dude lodginghouse 
of Spanish-Romanesque architecture, operated during the park season 
(June 20-Sept. 10) by the C.M.St.P.& P.R.R. Its cream-colored stucco 
walls and red-tile roof stand out brilliantly against the green mountains. 

GALLATIN GATEWAY, 13.7 m. (4,906 alt., 160 pop.), near the 
entrance to Gallatin Canyon is announced by an arch of logs over the 
highway. The town exists only through the tourist trade, and so its 
residents strive for rustic and picturesque effect in their buildings. Until 
the railroad company made it the terminus of a branch line to Yellow- 
stone Park, it was known as Salesville, for Zach Sales who had a mill here 
in the late i86o's to saw logs driven down the Gallatin River. 

The highway twice crosses the river, which winds through part of the 
Flying D range. 

The entrance to narrow GALLATIN CANYON is at 19.6 m. 

At 23 m. is a boundary of the GALLATIN NATIONAL FOREST, 
a 582,922-acre area that borders Yellowstone Park on the north and west. 
In season, hunters from all over the State come here to hunt the elk that 
drift over from Yellowstone Park when the snow is deep. Even without 
this immigration there are elk and a few moose in the area. Mule deer, 
whitetail deer, mountain sheep, and black and grizzly bear also range 
these forests. Marten, mink, beaver, badger, weasel, and skunk are the 
principal fur-bearing animals. Ruffed and blue grouse are plentiful. The 

TOUR 5 277 

streams are well stocked with eastern brook, Loch Leven, rainbow, and 
cutthroat trout. 

The blue mountains that bulk on the sky line straight ahead are the 
Spanish Peaks of the Madison Range; BEEHIVE PEAK (10,500 alt.) 
and WILSON (10,194 alt.) are the most prominent. About 50,000 acres 
around them, accessible by trails, has been set aside by the U. S. Forest 
Service as the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area (see RECREATION). 

ROCK HAVEN (L), 23.6 m., a group of log cabins, lies neat and 
snug along the riverbank. It is a summer camp maintained by the Presby- 
terian Church. 

SQUAW CREEK RANGER STATION (L), 26.9 m., is a typical Forest 
Service station, with neatly painted buildings, well-kept grounds, and an 
air of efficiency. Such posts are manned by well trained career men. The 
first forest ranger was perhaps a cowpuncher or homesteader before he 
took a Civil Service examination and went out to close-herd trees. His 
knowledge of botany, range conditions, silviculture, surveying, fire fight- 
ing, packing, road building, and a hundred other matters was picked up 
by haphazard practical experience. He had to mediate between angry 
ranchmen, all of whom regarded him as an intruder who ought to be 
shot; he had to placate a bewildering variety of short-tempered interests 
that did not at first like the new Forest Service; he had to prevent the 
slaughter of game by poachers. In handling such matters, he was thrust 
into the role of educator and apologist. He had to spend his evenings 
bruising two fingers on a typewriter, making out reports in duplicate, 
triplicate, infinity, and confusion. The early stations were stout log cabins 
that smelled of bacon and ham hung from the rafters, packsaddles and 
block salt, fire fighting tools oiled and stored, and, as the years went on, 
pack rats and skunks. 

The modern ranger is college-trained and has a corps of trained helpers 
to handle details. He builds landing fields, and takes jealous care of his 
short-wave radio, barometers, and humidity charts. He is not much like his 
predecessor, the venturesome ex-cowpuncher who rode out, six-gun on 
hip, but he has made the forests much safer. 

At the station is the junction with Hellroaring Trail. 

Right on this to DEER CREEK LAKES, 15 m., in the high-peak area. 

An ASBESTOS MINE on the mountain side (R), 34.5 m., is operated on 
a small scale by local people. It taps large deposits. 

KARST'S RUSTIC KAMP (R), 35.3 m., is a group of modern log cabins, 
where saddle horses and pack trains are outfitted for trips into the moun- 
tains. There is good fishing in the river. 

At 37.7 m. is the junction with the Portal Creek Trail. 

Left on this dirt road to HIDDEN LAKES, 4 m. Fishing is the main attraction 

A saddle trail leads on 2 m. to the GOLDEN TROUT LAKES (a plunge, cabins, 
saddle horses), named for the fish with which they are stocked. 



2j8 TOURS 

The highway crosses the West Fork of the Gallatin at 42.8 m. to the 
junction with a forest trail. 

Right on this trail to OUZEL FALLS, 5.5 m., a small, beautiful cataract, whose 
green water plunges in white foam over rocks. LONE MOUNTAIN (11,194 alt.) 
is R. 

The highway, winding along close to the river, gains altitude steadily. 
At 45.8 m. is the junction with Beaver Creek Trail. 

Right on this trail to BUCK CREEK RIDGE, 7 m., the GALLATIN-MADISON 

Vivid rose-colored cliffs crowned with a heavy growth of dark green 
timber here rise 200 feet, the colors emphasized in the evening and the 
morning when sunshine floods the walls. The cliffs, broken and irregular, 
appear sometimes on one side, and sometimes on the other. 

GALLATIN CAMP (R), 52.6 m., a typical tourist camp, is a rest stop 
during the park season for Milwaukee Road busses, locally called "Galla- 
gaters." Here tourists stretch themselves, and have pie and coffee, a can 
of beer, or a milk shake. 

The CINNAMON CREEK RANGER STATION (R), 54.2 m., is at the 
junction with the Cinnamon Creek Trail. 

Right on this trail to BUCK CREEK BASIN, B m. f BUCK CREEK RIDGE, 
10 m., and the GALLATIN-MADISON DIVIDE, 13 m. 

At 55.2 m. is the junction with the Buffalo Horn Road. 

Left on this dirt road to BUFFALO HORN LAKE, B m., RAMS HORN LAKE, 
8 m., and the EAST GALLATIN DIVIDE, 9 m. From the Divide a foot trail leads 
to the YELLOWSTONE RIVER, 20 m. 

At 57.5 m. is the junction with Taylor's Fork Road. 

Right on this dirt road to TAYLOR RANGER STATION, 6.5 m., and WAPITI CREEK 
CAMP, 7.5 m. 

Taylor's Peak (11,293 alt.) and the Wedge (10,508 alt.) bulk up R. 

The highway leaves Gallatin Canyon at 57.8 m. to cross a high plateau. 

SNOWFLAKE SPRINGS (R), 59 m., is a small cascade foaming down a 
heavily timbered slope. It may have been named for a somewhat larger 
Snowflake Springs in Yellowstone Park, which is the source of the Galla- 
tin River. 

At 60.2 m. is a boundary of Yellowstone National Park, along which 
US 191 runs for about 20 miles. 

BLACK BUTTE (L), 62.7 m., is a peak so densely timbered that at a 
little distance its green appears heavily shaded with black. 

SNOWSHOE CLIFF (R), 66.5 m., is a very steep, heavily timbered 

At 69.2 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to GALLATIN RANGER STATION, 0.5 m. 

From the divide, 76.1 m., between the Madison and Gallatin Valleys is 
a view embracing summits and ridges heavily furred with dark, bristling 
timber, and an occasional upthrust of gray crags. HORSESHOE CURVE, 
76.3 m., is sharp (drive carefully). 


TOUR 5 279 

At 83.8 m. is the junction with State i (see Tour 15). South of this 
point the road becomes an aisle between impenetrable ranks of lodge- 
pole pine, each shaft rising clean, straight, and lofty. So close do they 
stand that in late afternoon only an occasional gleam of sunshine reaches 
the road. 

BAKER'S HOLE CAMPGROUNDS (R), 89.5 m., is a Forest Service camp 
and picnic ground. 

WEST YELLOWSTONE, 92.7 m. (6,665 alt., 300 pop.), the western 
entrance to the park, is a tourist town, full of eager competition and alert 
service. Here thousands arrive each summer on the Union Pacific R.R., 
whose Yellowstone branch ends here, by automobile, and by plane from 
Great Falls or Salt Lake City. There are some visitors who have been here 
often but there is an ever-increasing horde of dudes. Every variation of 
western costume appears. In winter the town is abandoned, snow-bound, 
its many shops boarded up. 

The Yellowstone area was known to the Indians as the Land of Evil 
Spirits. Most of them shunned it except when gathering obsidian for 

Long ago the Sheepeaters, a peaceful people, lived in the lofty cliffs 
near the steaming hot springs, bubbling "paint pots," and spouting geysers 
that other tribes dared not approach. The men, skillful hunters of moun- 
tain sheep, their chief food, used bows made of rams' horns, bound with 
sinew. They fashioned their clothing of the skins of the dwarf whitetail 
deer that frequented the high forests and meadows. Their dwellings were 
frames made of poles covered with cedar bark and moss cemented with 

These people chipped obsidian arrowheads of exquisite design that 

won them another name, the Arrow Makers. The history of these people 

carved on the canyon walls near West Yellowstone, in what the Indians 

lied the Country of the Painted Rocks. The picture writings, tribal em- 

lems, and outlines of pygmy men and women are cut in irregular semi- 


Some anthropologists believe the Sheepeaters were a remnant of a non- 
dian race; others regard them as the descendants of outcast Bannack 
d Shoshone. Around their campfires, and in tribal ceremony and song 
e Sheepeaters told that their forebears had inhabited the geyser region 
from the beginning," and that a large part of the tribe had once been 
troyed by a terrible convulsion of the earth in the Upper Geyser Basin. 
US 191 turns westward and cuts a broad avenue through forests of 
Igepole pine; occasionally there are glimpses of the silver- white bark 
young limber pine. As the road winds upward on the 4oo-foot rise to 
Continental Divide, the sharp spires of alpine fir appear, together with 
luish Engelmann spruce and Rocky Mountain red cedar. 
TARGHEE PASS, 101.1 m. (7,078 alt.), named for a chief of the 
Bannack, was used by Chief Joseph on his way into Montana after his 

; if eat of General Howard at the Battle of the Big Hole (see HISTORY). 
ist before Joseph entered the park area, he sent back a scouting party, 

280 TOURS 

which stole a hundred of Howard's pack mules and seriously hampered 
the pursuit. 

At Targhee Pass US 191 crosses the Idaho Line, 68 miles north of St. 
Anthony, Idaho (see Tour 1, IDAHO GUIDE). 

Tour 6 

(Lethbridge, Alberta) Sweetgrass Shelby Great Falls Helena 
Butte Dillon Monida (Idaho Falls, Idaho); US 91. 
Canadian Border to Idaho Line, 423.6 m. 

Busses between Shelby and the Idaho Line; US 91 roughly paralleled by Great 

Northern Ry. between Sweetgrass and Butte, and by Oregon Short Line of the Union 

Pacific R.R. between Butte and the Idaho Line. 

Varied hotel accommodations in cities and larger towns; tourist cabin camps here 

and there south of Great Falls. 

Roadbed oil-surfaced throughout; open all seasons. 

Section a. CANADIAN BORDER to GREAT FALLS, 727.4 m., US 91. 

Between the Canadian Border and Great Falls, US 91 roughly parallels 
the Continental Divide 100 miles away which on clear days forms the 
western horizon. To the east only the unexpected upthrust of the Sweet- 
grass Hills breaks the monotony of the Great Plains. The road passes 
through oil fields and between great wheat and livestock ranches, and 
crosses several tributaries of the Missouri River. 

US 91 crosses the Canadian Border, m., as a continuation of Al- 
berta 4, 65 miles south of Lethbridge, Alberta. 

SWEETGRASS, 0.1 m. (3,471 alt., 356 pop.), is a port of entry with 
U. S. customs and immigration offices. It was so named because of the 
abundance of sweet grass on the surrounding prairie. Only the invisible 
boundary line separates Sweetgrass from Coutts, the Canadian customs 
station, and they are often mentioned as a single place, Sweetgrass-Coutts. 
The Stars and Stripes and the Union Jack flutter above the twin villages. 

In 1887 a narrow-gauge railroad called "the Turkey Track" was built 
across the border between Shelby and Lethbridge. Before that time the 
country was traversed only by range riders whose headquarters were south 
of the Marias River. Not until the coming of the dry-land farmer, about 
1900, did Sweetgrass become much of a trading center. 

The Sweetgrass Hills are visible (L) for nearly 15 miles. WEST BUTTE 
(7,000 alt.) is cone shaped; EAST BUTTE (5,000 to 6,000 alt.), consists 

TOUR 6 28l 

of three peaks whose slopes bear lodgepole pine. MIDDLE BUTTE, locally 
called Gold Butte, is farther south, on a morainal ridge. Placer gold was 
found there by a Blackfoot in 1884. It was not a fabulous strike, as stam- 
peders soon learned, but until the vein was worked out nearly every shovel 
of pay dirt yielded 25$ in colors (gold left after waste has been washed 
away). Hence, the discovery canyon was named Two Bits Gulch. 

Farthest south are the prominent Grassy and Haystack Buttes. A lobe of 
the great Keewatin ice sheet covered all this area to a depth of 2,000 feet 
and left behind a deposit of glacial drift from 15 to 100 feet deep. The 
glacial invasion smoothed the hills and filled the valleys between. Some of 
the high ridges were not entirely cut away, and new valleys were formed ; 
the countryside was thus left with a billowy appearance. 

The HUDSON BAY DIVIDE (4,000 average alt.) is visible (R) for 
about 27 miles. 

The wide coulee in which Sweetgrass, Sunburst, Kevin, and Shelby are 
built is believed to have been the preglacial stream bed of the Milk River, 
only partly filled with glacial deposits. The present Milk River is like a 
bent bow lying across southern Alberta, with both ends in the United 

US 91 closely follows the old Whoop-up Trail. In 1870 the U. S. Gov- 
ernment outlawed the selling of whiskey to the Indians. Whiskey traders 
from Fort Benton thereupon established themselves in Canadian territory. 
According to the story, someone asked a Fort Benton trader how business 
was progressing at the new post. "Oh, they're damn well whoopin' it up," 
he declared. To stop the whiskey trade among the Indians, the Royal 
Northwest Mounted Police in 1874 built Fort McLeod on Old Man's 
River, 28 miles from Whoop-up. This caused most of the traders to re- 
turn to Montana. The trail, however, was long used, all supplies for Fort 
McLeod being hauled by bull train from Fort Benton, the terminus of 
traffic on the Missouri. 

At 8.9 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road is SUNBURST, 0.3 m. (3,349 alt., 486 pop.), a gusher town, 
so named because the rising sun bursts over the Sweetgrass Hills. 

The northern end of the KEVIN-SUNBURST OIL FIELD is (R) at 14.7 m. 
Between Sunburst and Shelby the prairie on both sides of the road is for- 
ested with derricks. This field and several others nearby are in the great 
Sweetgrass Arch (see NATURAL SETTING). 

The producing sand of this oil field lies at the contact (plane between 
adjacent bodies of dissimilar rock) of the Ellis formation and the Madi- 
son limestone, at an average depth of 1,200 to 1,500 feet; its thickness 
ranges from a few inches to more than 20 feet. In nearly every well here 
is oil, gas, or sulphur water, in some wells all three. Three hundred feet 
above the Ellis-Madison contact is the Sunburst sand, the gas-producing 
horizon (deposit of a particular geologic time). 

Dry holes as well as old stripper wells (those from which oil must be 
pumped) have been made to produce again by the acid treatment intro- 
duced in 1933. Gallons of a hydrochloric acid compound are dumped into 
the wells and when it reaches the Madison limestone a sulphur colored 

282 TOURS 

smoke rises. The acid makes the limestone porous and allows the oil or 
gas to gush through. 

At 19.8 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Right on this road is KEVIN, 5 m. (3,331 alt., 324 pop.), near which the first 
gusher of the Sweetgrass Arch was drilled in 1922. 

SHELBY, 36.3 m. (3,276 alt., 2,004 PP-) (we Tour 2, Sec. b), is 
at the junction with US 2 (see Tour 2). 

From benchland the highway winds down between high and barren 
bluffs of glacial gravel into the valley of Marias River, a region of sage 
and parched grasses. This is the heart of the old Blackfeet country, where 
these Indians usually wintered. The cottonwoods and willows that fringed 
the river were among the advantages it offered. 

US 91 crosses the Marias River at 43.7 m. The Marias is closely inter- 
woven with the early history of north-central Montana. In 1806 Capt. 
Meriwether Lewis, suspecting that it might be the main channel of the 
Missouri, and hoping that it might prove an important waterway to the 
north, left the main party and ascended it to a point near the site of Cut 
Bank (see HISTORY). Later it was used by successive exploring and 
trading expeditions. In 10 days in 1831 James Kipp bought 2,400 beaver 
pelts from Indians who came to visit his new fort at its mouth. 

At 52.5 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to a FOSSIL AREA, 8 m. The Dry Fork of the Marias, a peren- 
nial stream, has cut a deep channel through the Colorado shale and exposed many 
marine fossils of the Cretaceous period. 

CONRAD, 64.1 m. (3,500 alt., 1,499 PP-) seat f Pondera County, 
is the distributing center of a prosperous grain-growing section. In the 
vicinity are oil wells that, like those in the Kevin-Sunburst field, produce 
from the Ellis-Madison contact. 

1. Right from Conrad on Main St., which becomes a dirt road, to VALIER, 24 
m. (3,802 alt, 575 pop.), on the shore of LAKE FRANCIS, the reservoir of an 
irrigation system capable of watering 100,000 acres. Formed by the damming of 
a coulee that cuts through a high bench, the lake has a 1 6-mile shore line. A 
spawning station is on the south shore, 5 miles from Valier. The lake is well 
stocked with fish, chiefly rainbow trout. Valier is served by the Montana Western 
Ry., 20. 2 miles in length; its single daily freight-and-passenger train has run be- 
tween Conrad and Valier since 1909. 

The country nearby was settled by Belgians imported in 1913 by the Great North- 
ern Ry. These people are now among the sturdiest and most prosperous citizens of 
the region. They maintain their national identity, speak their native language, and 
attend the Belgian Roman Catholic church. 

2. Right from Conrad on an improved road to the VIRGELLE FORMATION, 9 m., 
a sandstone group, eroded by wind and rain into all manner of grotesque figures, 
that lines both sides of the road for 5 miles. 

3. Left from Conrad on Main St., which becomes a graveled road, to a DUTCH 
COLONY, 3 m., established under the same conditions as was the Belgian colony 
near Valier (see above). At 22 m. is a bridge crossing DEAD INDIAN COULEE. 
Right on foot along the coulee to a steep-walled 4-acre RATTLESNAKE PIT, 
which in August and September, before the time of hibernation, swarms with hiss- 
ing, writhing snakes. Altogether they possess enough venom to do away with an 
army and they have plenty of relatives outside the pit. Hikers are comparatively 
safe but should exercise caution (see GENERAL INFORMATION, and FAUNA). 

TOUR 6 283 

BRADY, 75.6 m. (3,535 alt., 185 pop.), is a grain-marketing and dis- 
tributing center for 5,000 acres of the Bynum Irrigation Project. Water 
is conveyed to the Brady district through Muddy Creek from a reservoir 
30 miles west. 

The road crosses the Teton (Fr., woman's breast) River at 85.1 m. 
The name was first applied to a mountain at the river's source. 

BUTTON, 92.1 m. (3,535 alt., 350 pop.), is a small collection of 
frame houses built around grain elevators and a flour mill. In normal 
years it is one of the leading wheat-shipping points in the State; in 1934 
it shipped 977 carloads. Dry-land farmers in its vicinity sometimes make 

pressive income tax returns. A hard, heavy wheat, high in protein, is 

A low range of hills at 93.8 m. (R), composed of loose piles of dirt, 

k, and debris, is a terminal moraine of the great Keewatin ice sheet. 

At 101.9 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Right on this road is POWER, 1 m. (3,681 alt., 120 pop.), a wheat-shipping 
point on the Great Northern Ry. Its clustered grain elevators stand like lighthouses 
in a sea of wheat. 

At 108.4 m. is a wide view of the main range of the Rocky Mountains 
(R) and the Great Plains (L). Here and there a brown butte, with spread- 
ing fingers of alluvium, rises above the prairie. The foliage is sparse, 
bunch grass predominating. Cottonwoods and alders grow along the 
stream courses, the only trees in this dry range country. 

In a SALT MARSH, 109.8 m. (R), an alkaline crust covers consider- 
able patches of ground (see NATURAL SETTING). 

VAUGHN, 116 m. (3,366 alt., 56 pop.), is at the junction with US 89 
(see Tour 4). Between this point and 6th St. W. in Great Falls, US 91 
and US 89 are one route (see Tour 4). 

GREAT FALLS, 127.4 m. (3,330 alt., 28,822 pop.) (see GREAT 

Points of Interest: Charles M. Russell Memorial Museum, Giant Springs, State 
School for the Deaf and Blind, Black Eagle Falls, Gibson Park, and others. 

Great Falls is at the junctions with US 89 (see Tour 4) and State 29 
(see Tour 14). 

Section b. GREAT FALLS to BUTTE, 163.9 m., US 91. 

South of Great Falls the highway winds through mountainous country. 
The most glamorous pages of Montana's history were written here. 

US 91 runs southwestward from GREAT FALLS, m., on 6th St. W., 
and crosses the railroad yards between double bends of the Missouri and 
Sun Rivers. 

US 91 crosses Sun River, 1.1 m., near its confluence with the Missouri. 
Blackfeet who hunted buffalo in this vicinity called the river the Medi- 
cine. On his return from the Pacific in 1806 Capt. Meriwether Lewis (see 
HISTORY) crossed the Continental Divide from the Big Blackfoot Val- 
ley, followed the Sun River downstream, and camped at its mouth July n, 
1806. On the south bank (L) of Sun River is the MEADOW LARK 


COUNTRY CLUB. US 91 ascends from the river flat to a high bench 
affording a view of Great Falls. The Little Belt Mountains (L), then the 
Big Belts, form the horizon. 

SQUARE BUTTE, 6.1 m. (R), large, flat-topped, and isolated, has an 
area of 650 acres on its top. Abandoned ranch buildings near a clear spring 
on the top are reached by a country road from Ulm. 

Dry-land wheatnelds stretch from the highway to the distant mountains. 
During times of drought the area is partly uncultivated. Russian thistles 
flourish by the roadside. 

ULM, 11.6 m. (3,345 alt., 75 pop.), is a grain-shipping town. Three 
elevators, red storehouses for Missouri benchland wheat, rise above the 
small cluster of homes shaded and half hidden by clumps of gnarled 

At 25.9 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Right on this road to the fire-swept ruins of ST. PETER'S MISSION, 17 m., at the 
base of Bird Tail Divide on the old stage road to Helena. Across the road are the 
ruins of an early Jesuit school. The mission, which began work here in the stone 
buildings in 1886, had been established earlier just south of where Choteau now 
stands (see Tour 4, sec. a) ; after two years among the hostile Blackfeet, who, un- 
like the Flathead, were content to do without the white man's religion, the priest 
and his assistants moved to Sun River, and then to Flood, 16 miles up the Missouri 
from Great Falls. Later the mission was transferred to Skull Butte near Cascade 
and then to this place. 


Before its last move, St. Peter's had on its teaching staff Louis Riel, the man 
who had led the half-breed rebellion against the Canadian Government in 1869. 
By birth Riel was a quarter-breed, but his sympathies were those of a full-blood 
Indian. He became a citizen of the United States while at St. Peter's, but in 1885 
he returned to Canada to lead another rebellion; it failed and he was captured and 

CASCADE, 26.4 m. (3,378 alt., 520 pop.), like the county of which 
it is a part, was named for the falls of the Missouri, none of which are 
near the neat little town on the rolling bottom lands. Cascade was once 
the home of Charles M. Russell (see THE ARTS). 

At 39.4 m. the valley narrows, and the highway crosses to the south 
side of the Missouri to run through BIG BELT CANYON, in which the 
walls are mottled with tints of red, moss green, and yellow which vary in 
brilliance with the amount of sunlight and shadow. 

CRAIG, 50.6 m. (3,455 alt, 103 pop.), was named for an early set- 
tler in the valley. 

At 52.8 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to HOLTER DAM (1912), 2 m., which backs up the Missouri 
River for 30 miles in a deep canyon, and forms Holter Lake. Broad at the dam, the 
lake narrows and twists and turns through Ox Bow Bend. 

At 55.1 m. is the junction with State 33 (see Tour 4, Sec. a). 

The road turns south through the precipitous canyon of Little Prickly 
Pear Creek. The roadway in many places is carved from vertical walls of 
stratified shale. At 68.1 m. it leaves the canyon, to ascend to a high, open, 

286 TOURS 

intermountain plateau. At 76.6 m. the Gates of the Mountains (L) be- 
come visible. 

At 77.9 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Left on this road, which turns sharply back toward the north, to the GATES OF 
THE MOUNTAINS, 3 m., a deep gorge cut by the Missouri River in the Big Belt 
Mountains. Capt. Meriwether Lewis (see HISTORY) wrote of it in his journal: 

"these cliffs rise from the waters edge on either side perpendicularly to the height 
of (about) 1200 feet, every object here wears a dark and gloomy aspect, the tower- 
ing and projecting rocks in many places seem ready to tumble on us. the river ap- 
pears to have forced it's way through this immense body of solid rock for the dis- 
tance of 5^4 miles and where it makes it's exit below has thrown on either side vast 
collumns of rocks mountains high ... it is deep from side to side nor is ther in 
the i st. 3 Miles of this distance a spot except one of a few yards in extent on 
which a man could rest the soal of his foot, several fine springs burst out of the 
waters edge from the interstices of the rocks, it happens fortunately that altho' the 
current is strong it is not so much so but what it may be overcome with oars for 
there is hear no posibility of using either the cord or Setting pole, it was late in 
the evening before I entered this place and was obliged to continue my rout untill 
sometime after dark before I found a place sufficiently large to encamp my small 
party; at length such an one occurred on the lar'd side where we found plenty of 
lightwood and pitch pine, this rock is black grannite below and appears to be of 
a much lighter colour above and from the fragments I take it to be flint of a yel- 
lowish brown and light creemcoloured yellow, from the singular appearance of this 
place I called it the gates of the rocky mountains." 

At the end of the road is a boat landing. In summer motorboats make regular 
trips through the gorge. The cliffs are of limestone eroded into fantastic shapes, 
which have been given names suggestive of their forms: Indian Head, Beartooth, 
Robber's Roost, Bride and Groom, Amphitheater. On an island in the center of the 
gorge is the MERIWETHER CANYON PICNIC GROUND. Here the Lewis and Clark ex- 
pedition camped July 19, 1805. 

The highway descends to the PRICKLY PEAR VALLEY, 80 m., usu- 
ally called the Helena Valley, a scantily settled region of grain and dairy 

At 91.6 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to a GOLD DREDGE (visited on application at office, Bank of 
Montana Bldg., Helena), 0.2 m., among conical heaps of dirt and debris, the tailings 
of its operations. The dredge operates along the lower reaches of Last Chance Creek 
and reaches to a maximum depth of 74 feet. The boulders and earth it scoops up 
are placed in a washing compartment, where the gold sifts to the bottom. As the 
dredge proceeds, it makes a small pond on which to float. 

HELENA, 94.3 m. (4,124 alt, 11,802 pop.) (see HELENA). 

Points of Interest: State Capitol, St. Helena Cathedral, Lewis and Clark County 
Courthouse, Public Library, Carroll College, Algeria Shrine Temple, Hill Park, 
Placer Diggings. 

Helena is at the junction (R) with US loN (see Tour lA), which 
unites with US 91 between Helena and a junction (L) at 96.2 m. 

Across the Prickly Pear Valley (L) and above the low range of the 
Spokane Hills are the Big Belt Mountains. MOUNT ASCENSION 
(5,360 alt.) rises (R) above Helena. 

The SITE OF MONTANA CITY, 104.9 m. (4,067 alt.), is marked by the 
weed-covered tailings of what were once extensive placer operations. 
Nothing else remains to indicate the site of a town that in its flourishing 

TOUR 6 287 

days boasted a population of 3,000 and was mentioned as a possible capi- 
tal of the State. 

CLANCEY, 106.7 m. (4,213 alt., 125 pop.), a famous silver camp in 
the late nineteenth century, is still a shipping point for ore from small 
lines in the vicinity. The dumps of old mining operations are (L) near 
service station. 

Right from Clancey on a dirt road is LUMP CITY, 2 m. (4,850 alt.), the scene 
of extensive silver mining in the past. The Liverpool (R), most noteworthy of the 
mines in and about Clancey, produced $1,500,000 in the late 1890*5. Ore from the 
Clancey district was so rich that it could be hauled by bull team to Fort Benton, 
shipped by river and ocean to Swansea, Wales, and still net a profit. The only thing 
left of the once lively mining town is a dilapidated, weather-worn schoolhouse in- 
habited by mountain rats. 

ALHAMBRA HOT SPRINGS (L), 108.9 m. (4,265 alt.), is a quiet resort 
(cabins, saddle horses available; outdoor plunge, 25$ and 500; vapor 
baths, 500). The hot water, which has a high mineral content, flows un- 
derground from Lava Mountain (L), a high volcanic mound. 

JEFFERSON CITY, 112.7 m. (4,708 alt., 68 pop.), began in 1864 as 
a stage station on the line between Virginia City and Fort Benton. It has 
been active at times as a mining town. 

1. Right from Jefferson City on a dirt road to CORBIN, 2 m. (4,769 alt.), and 
WICKES, 4 m. (5,165 alt.), mining and smelting camps in the boom days. Wickes 
boasted of the first lead-silver smelter in Montana; the plant was dismantled in 
the early 1890*5. Near Wickes and Corbin are such gold and silver mines as the 
Alta, with a reported production record of $32,000,000; the Gregory, with $9,000,- 
ooo ; the Ninah and the Bertha. Most of the important production came before 
1892, but the district is still regarded as a potential source of silver, lead, zinc, and 
gold. The Mount Washington Mine (visited on application) is i mile south of 

2. Left from Jefferson City on a dirt road, barely passable for cars, to PRICKLY 
PEAR DIVIDE, 12 m. (Horses available at Jefferson City for trip.) A good view of 
the upper Prickly Pear Valley is obtained from the summit. Just over the divide are 
three small lakes, the headwaters of Crow Creek. 

3. Left from Jefferson City on a dirt road to the junction of Prickly Pear and 
Golconda Creeks, 2 m.; R. across the Prickly Pear and along Golconda Creek to the 
BUCKEYE MINE and the remains of an old Spanish ARRASTRA, 6 m., a crude mill 
for grinding gold ore, used by the first owners of the mine. 

US 91 runs through a narrow winding canyon and ascends to the divide 
between the Prickly Pear and Boulder Valleys. The descent that follows 
is a series of loops and sharp turns. 

BOULDER, 125.1 m. (5,158 alt, 760 pop.), seat of Jefferson County, 
was named for the massive stones strewn about the valley. It was estab- 
lished in the early i86o's as a stage station on the Fort Benton- Virginia 
City route, and later became the trade center of a mining and agricultural 
cation to superintendent), at the southern limits, cares for about 400 per- 
sons. Those capable of learning are trained in useful occupations; the 
older boys do farm work and care for the dairy herd ; the girls are taught 
sewing, weaving, and housekeeping. 

Left from Boulder on a dirt road to the junction with another dirt road, 2 m.; 
L. 1 m. on the side road to BOULDER HOT SPRINGS (4,824 alt.). Here are vapor 

288 TOURS 

baths (adm. 50$) and a natural hot-water plunge (adm. 25$ and 50$). (Equipment 
for saddle and pack trips and hunting and fishing available.) 

The dirt road winds southward along the mountain sides. 

ELKHORN, 18 m. (5,430 alt.), is a former mining camp, established in 1872, 
that sent out $14,000,000 worth of gold and silver. In boom days this frontier town 
had 14 saloons; bullet holes in the buildings show how disputes were sometimes 

Left from Elkhorn 4 m. on a foot and bridle trail to ELKHORN PEAK (9,500 
alt.) ; the last half mile must be climbed on foot. Near the peak the rock formation 
changes abruptly. Marble cliffs of dazzling white glisten in the sun on clear days. 

WHITEHALL, 32 m. (4,371 alt., 553 pop.) (see Tour 1, Sec. c), is at the junc- 
tion with US 10 S (see Tour 1). 

US 91 turns up the narrow canyon of Boulder River. There are gold 
and silver mines at the heads of many of the gulches that end in the 

At 132 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road up High Ore Creek to the GRAY EAGLE AND COMET MINES, 
4 m., active silver and gold producers. 

BASIN, 134.4 m. (5,306 alt., 250 pop.), a typical mining camp, 
booms or dozes as the price of metal determines. Most of the buildings 
are frame, with the second-story false fronts common in nineteenth cen- 
tury camps; some are squalid shacks. Across Boulder River (L) is the 
JIB MINE, a sensational gold producer in the 1920'$. 

The highway crosses Boulder River and follows the edge of a deep 
rocky gorge in whose walls red argillites predominate. 


After the highway crosses Bison Creek it begins the ascent of a long 
hill, becoming a narrow shelf on the mountain side, with a stream ram- 
paging over stubborn boulders far below. 

ELK PARK CAMPGROUND (L), 144.9 m., has outdoor stoves, tables, and 
other conveniences. 

ELK PARK, 146.4 m. (6,237 alt), a roadside service station, is on a 
flat plateau covered with dairy farms that supply milk to Butte. The farm- 
ers are of Swiss-Italian stock. 

The CONTINENTAL DIVIDE, 158.9 m. (6,354 alt.), marks the 
boundary between Jefferson and Silver Bow Counties; the latter is Mon- 
tana's smallest county in area, but the largest in population and wealth. 
The highway twists down through a bare and rocky canyon. At 160.1 m. 
BUTTE HILL (R), with its mine buildings, gallows frames, ore bins, 
and sprawling city, is in view across the valley. 

MEADERVILLE, 161.8 m., a suburb of Butte, has many important 
mines (see BUTTE). Its night clubs and Italian restaurants are numerous 
and popular. 

BUTTE, 163.9 m. (5,755 alt, 39,532 pop.) (see BUTTE). 

Points of Interest: Marcus Daly Statue, Smithers Historical Photographs Collec- 
tion, Chinatown, Meaderville, Leonard Mine, State School of Mines, Columbia Gar- 
dens, and others. 

Butte is at the junction (L) with US 10 S (see Tour 1). 

TOUR 6 289 

Section c. BUTTE to IDAHO LINE, 732.3 m., US 91. 

This section of US 91 crosses some of the finest grazing lands in the 
State, which are inside a great loop of the Continental Divide with east- 
ward drainage through the Big Hole and Beaverhead Rivers. The valley 
bottoms, at an average elevation of 5,000 feet, are broad; the benches rise 
gently to low, rounded summits, treeless or only lightly forested. 

This part of Montana was the first settled; it was easily reached from 
the Oregon Trail and the Mormon country to the south. The gold rush of 
1862-63 attracted many fortune hunters who, after sampling the excite- 
ment of Alder Gulch and Grasshopper Creek, settled down in the verdant 
valleys and founded Montana's livestock industry. 

Some mining is carried on in the mountains. Fishing and hunting are 

Between BUTTE, m., and a junction (R) at 5.7 m., US 91 and US 
10 S (see Tour 1) are one route (see Tour 1, Sec. c). 

South of the western junction with US 10 S, US 91 crosses the Mil- 
waukee, the Union Pacific, and the Northern Pacific tracks ; the Milwaukee 
Road is identified by the electric wires above the track. By an easy grade 
the road ascends to the CONTINENTAL DIVIDE, 14.8 m. (5,915 alt.), 
which here is scarcely recognizable as anything more than a high, sparse 
sheep range. South of the crest the waters drain into the Big Hole River, 
which flows into the Jefferson. "Hole," was the word used by early trap- 
pers to designate a mountain valley. Lewis and Clark, who followed the 
stream for a short distance in August 1805, named it Wisdom River. 

DIVIDE, 25 m. (5,397 alt., 113 pop.), is a distributing and stock- 
shipping point for the upper Big Hole Valley. 

Right from Divide on a graveled road along the Big Hole River to the RALSTON 
RANCH, 28 m., once a well-known stage station halfway between Divide and Wis- 
dom, where the up stage and the down stage met, and where passengers and drivers 
enjoyed thick, tender steaks, crisp brown grayling from the river, and Mrs. Ralston's 
pies. Strings of freight wagons, each string drawn by 8 to 1 6 horses, rounded the 
curves in the road about dinnertime; fresh horses replaced the road-weary ones, 
which stayed here and were rubbed down, fed, and bedded for the night. Sometimes 
there was a dance at the station, in which cowboys, freighters, girls from surround- 
ing ranches, and country schoolma'ams took part. 

The Big Hole River is a natural habitat of grayling; rainbow trout have been 
planted in it. There is also excellent fishing in tributary streams. Cattle fattened on 
the nutritious wild grasses of the valley compete with the corn-fed stock of the 
Middle West. Men from many parts of the country come in for the late hay harvest, 
willing to work long and hard for the sake of a summer in this fastness of the old 
West, for top-notch haying hand's pay, and excellent food. 

MELROSE, 35.2 m. (5,173 alt., 380 pop.), in large part consists of 
cabins that show the effects of time and storm. Nearby, along Big Hole 
River, are many inviting fishing holes ; from Forty-five Bend, the best of 
them all, prize-winning rainbow trout have been taken with light tackle. 

BROWNS, 41 m., is a roadside service station. 

Right from Browns on a dirt road along Rock Creek to small BROWNS LAKE, 
7 m., a favorite with Butte fishermen. 

290 TOURS 

Big Hole River parallels the road for a few miles farther, then the 
stream turns sharply northeastward to join the Jefferson. 

GLEN (Reichle P.O.), 46.2 m. (5,000 alt., 35 pop.), is a shipping 
point for surrounding hay ranches. 

The road ascends the low divide between the Big Hole and Beaverhead 
Valleys. The rocky hillsides (R) are a retreat of rattlesnakes. Local people 
conduct occasional snake hunts during which they blast the rattlers from 
their dens. 

As the highway enters the BEAVERHEAD VALLEY, fields of bunch 
grass, brome grass, sedge, and wild timothy flank the highway. In spring 
the bluebell, lupine, shooting star, buttercup, and daisy bloom profusely 
near the road. The sunflowerlike Wyethia, a comparatively rare plant in 
other sections of the State, is common here. 

At 54.1 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to ZIEGLER'S HOT SPRINGS, 12 m., on the Big Hole River, 

(Cabins, campground; plunge and hot bath, adm. 50$.) 

At 64.8 m. is the junction with State 41 (see lour 16). 

DILLON, 65.9 m. (5,057 alt., 2,422 pop.), seat of Beaverhead County, 
was named for Sidney Dillon, president of the Union Pacific R.R. It is 
a very important primary wool market, and the largest wool-shipping 
point in Montana. Dillon has the air of a much larger city, and an assur- 
ance and repose that it owes perhaps to its having known few economic 
setbacks. Many of the homes are typical of the early 1900'$, while others 
are of modern design. A few of the first log cabins remain on the north- 
ern side of town. The broad, tree-shaded streets become country roads 
that lead to ranches much older than the city. 

As the seat of the State Normal College, Dillon has a great variety of 
cultural activities, including those of literary and choral clubs, college and 
high school bands, and a college string orchestra. The college prepares 
teachers for the public schools of the State; the supervised practicwork 
is done in the local schools, which serve as laboratories. This arrange- 
ment, in operation for many years, has provided unusual educational ad- 
vantages for local children. 

The position of the town, amid the low, lazy, rather arid hills, was 
determined by accident. Construction of the Utah and Northern R.R. 
was suddenly brought to a standstill in 1880, when a rancher on land 
here refused to give up land for the right-of-way. A few enterprising 
men engaged in business at or near the terminus banded together, bought 
the ranch, and gave the railroad company the right to go through. They 
continued their partnership by executing a trust deed, recorded on De- 
cember 4, 1880, which marked the birth of Dillon. Lambert Eliel, trustee 
for the group, granted title to town lots, which were sold at public auc- 
tion. The new town became the county seat when voters decided that 
Bannack was too far off the beaten track. 

The WOOL WAREHOUSE, near the railroad station (R), is operated by 
a local company that markets wool for the growers at a charge of one 
cent for 10 pounds. The warehouse can hold 3 million pounds of wool, 
and has electric conveyors for loading and hauling the huge wool sacks. 

TOUR 6 291 

MONTANA STATE NORMAL COLLEGE (L), near the southern city lim- 
its, has a main hall, a gymnasium, residence halls, and athletic fields on an 
attractive campus of 14 acres. There are about 350 students and 25 teach- 
ers. The small MUSEUM (open when school is in session) in MAIN HALL 
contains pioneer relics and Indian artifacts. 

Right from Dillon on State 36, a graveled road, to the junction with an improved 
road, 8 m.; L. here 15 m. to BANNACK (5,510 alt., 180 pop.), Montana's oldest 
town, which was named for the Bannack Indians, who once roamed the region. 

Here, on July 28, 1862, John White and a small party of prospectors from Colo- 
rado discovered a bonanza of placer gold along GRASSHOPPER CREEK. News of 
the strike spread, and in a few months a roaring, vigorous tent, shack, and log cabin 
city of about 1,000 people grew up. A horde of rough-and-ready adventurers from 
all parts of the West came in, among them scoundrels such as Henry Plummer, who 
had been run out of California and Nevada gold camps. For a year, until vigilantes 
caught up with him and his deputies, Plummer and his gang robbed and killed 
miners by the score (see HISTORY). 

In September 1863 Sidney Edgerton, a brilliant lawyer of Akron, Ohio, who had 
been appointed chief justice of the newly created Idaho Territory, arrived here with 
his family. He was on his way to Lewiston, Idaho, but because of the lateness of the 
season and the difficulties of travel over the mountains, he decided to remain in the 
lively camp for the winter. In the spring he returned to Washington to advocate 
creation of a new territory. On May 26, 1864, Congress, heeding his pleas, created 
the Territory of Montana; President Lincoln named Edgerton its Governor and 
Bannack the temporary capital. 

Governor Edgerton called the first Montana legislative assembly to order at Ban- 
nack on December 12, 1864. By that time the Grasshopper diggings had proved 
shallow and most of the miners had pulled stakes for the richer prospects in Alder 
Gulch; there Virginia City boasted a boom population of about 10,000, with as 
many more people in its vicinity. The first legislature therefore decided that the 
second session should convene at Virginia City. 

Bannack remained a mining town, with small quartz mines and placer operations 
nearby. Its post office was closed in January 1938, but the weathered remains of the 
State's FIRST CAPITAL, FIRST JAIL, and FIRST HOTEL still face the single street in 
the narrow gulch. 

At 32 m. on State 36 is the junction with a dirt road ; R. here to ELKHORN HOT 
SPRINGS, 44 m. (4,830 alt.), in the BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST (hotel, 
cabins, baths; an open plunge, adm. 50$; guides, saddle horses, and pack outfits 
available for big-game hunting). There is good fishing nearby. A general store and 
a Forest Service campground with free firewood make this an excellent base for 
visitors to the high mountains. 

At the confluence of Beaverhead River and Rattlesnake Creek, 67.9 m., 
in 1862 stood the only signpost in a vast wilderness. On one side of a 
rough-hewn board was daubed in axle grease: 

"Tu grass Hop Per digins 

30 myle 
Kepe the trale nex the bluff e." 

On the other side was: 

"To Jonni Grants 
one Hundred & twenti myle" 

The "grass Hop Per digins" were at Bannack; "jonni Grant" was a 
rancher in the Deer Lodge Valley (see Tour 1, sec. c). 

292 TOURS 

A monument (R) at 75.1 m. is on the westward route of Lewis and 
Clark through Beaverhead Canyon, and the later trail of prospectors com- 
ing up from Fort Hall on the Oregon Trail. Through this canyon the 
tracks of the first railroad in Montana were laid (see TRANSPORTA- 
TION). The canyon sides are dark with lodgepole pine, Engelmann 
spruce, and balsam fir. 

ARMSTEAD, 89-3 m. (5,505 alt., 109 pop.), is at the junction of 
Prairie and Red Rock Creeks, which form the Beaverhead River. Capt. 
Meriwether Lewis, scouting ahead of his canoe party, turned west along 
an Indian trail by Prairie Creek, and found the camp of Cameahwait, 
Sacajawea's brother (see HISTORY). The meeting between Sacajawea 
and Cameahwait occurred a little way downstream. 

Right from Armstead on a dirt road to ROCK PAINTINGS, 1 m., believed to be 
the work of prehistoric Indians. Behind the first large red butte are lines of stones 
running from it across the valley like spokes radiating from a hub. At the foot of 
the butte are crude paintings in the center of a large ring of rock; it is supposed 
that the place was the scene of tribal rites. 

RED ROCK, 93.1 m. (5,490 alt., 20 pop.), so named because of the 
predominant red of the rocks around it, is in Red Rock Valley, a fine 
broad sweep of irrigated hayland. Because of the elevation and the short 
growing season, sheep and cattle are the chief products of the ranches, 
whose prosperity is shown by their well-kept buildings. 

DELL, 108.5 m. (6,050 alt., 45 pop.), is a trading center for valley 

LIMA, 116.9 m. (6,256 alt, 459 pop.), is a division point on the 
Oregon Short Line. Since the removal of the railroad repair shops it has 
lost much of its activity. Some of its stores are boarded up, and several 
houses have been deserted. 

Left from Lima on a dirt road to LIMA RESERVOIR, 13 m., which provides water 
for much of the grassland along Rock Creek. There is good fishing here. 

MONIDA, 132 m. (6,798 alt., 75 pop.), on the Continental Divide, 
has a name composed of parts of the names of the States meeting here. 
It was a welcome stage stop on the old Salt Lake Trail, which in the 
i86o's brought people hungry for gold into Montana and took away those 
who were satisfied. The Centennial Mountains (L) and the Beaverhead 
Mountains (R) form the Continental Divide. 

Left from Monida on an improved dirt road to LAKEVIEW, 29 m., with hotel, 
auto camp, and general store overlooking the RED ROCK LAKES. Butte and Dillon 
sportsmen maintained a duck-hunting club here, until the area became part of a 
5o,ooo-acre migratory bird refuge. When drought struck the eastern part of the 
State there was a great concentration of ducks and geese on this preserve. White 
trumpeter swans, a species almost extinct in the United States, nest here. There is 
good fishing. 

MONIDA PASS, 132.3 m. (6,823 alt), is on the hardly perceptible 
CONTINENTAL DIVIDE, which here forms the Idaho Line, at a point 
83 miles north of Idaho Falls, Idaho (see Tour 2, IDAHO GUIDE). 

TOUR 7 293 

< < & >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 

Tour 7 

{Cranbrook, B. C.) Eureka Kalispell Missoula Hamilton (Salmon, 

Idaho) ; US 93. 

Canadian Border to Idaho Line, 297 m. 

Route served by bus lines; paralleled by Great Northern Ry. between Eureka and 
Kalispell, by Northern Pacific Ry. between Poison and Missoula, and also between 
Missoula and Darby, with logging and sugar beet trains in season. 
Hotels and cabins in cities and larger towns; tourist camps at irregular intervals. 
Oil-surfaced roadbed except between Canadian Border and Eureka and for 25 miles 
north of the Idaho Line. Open all seasons except south of Hamilton; winter trav- 
elers should ascertain conditions over Clark and Gibbons Pass. 

Section a. CANADIAN BORDER to KALISPELL, 76.8 m., US 93. 

This section of US 93 in its general direction follows the Tobacco Plains 
Trail, through the country of the Salish and Kootenai Indians, an ancient 
pathway that became the route of fur traders and pack trains between 
Missoula and Vancouver, British Columbia. David Thompson, Alexander 
Ross, Finan McDonald, and Jacques Finlay, and other employees of the 
Hudson's Bay and the North West Companies, explored the region and 
established the trading posts that were the first white settlements in it. 

After rich placer discoveries in the mountains drew prospectors who 
needed goods, long and heavily laden caravans of pack mules and horses 
toiled over this trail. Later the division of Indian lands brought settlers 
swarming to the fertile Kootenai and Flathead Valleys. 

The highway passes through sections of the Kootenai National Forest, 
with tamarack and fir forming dense walls on both sides. Throughout this 
area, wood cutting is a major occupation. Great stacks of cordwood are 
piled along the highway awaiting transportation. 

US 93, a continuation of an unnumbered British Columbia road, goes 
south from the Canadian Border, m., o.i mile south of Roosville, a 
Canadian customs station, and 86 miles southwest of Cranbrook, B. C. 
The U. S. customs and immigration station (R), a red-brick Colonial- 
type structure with white columns, is among low pine-covered hills. The 
two cottages back of it are the homes of officials. 

The Whitefish Range (L), moderately timbered, is vividly green m 
the distance. MT. POORMAN (2,900 alt.) lifts its conical peak just 
south of the border. The Purcell Mountains (R) and the Cabinets (straight 
ahead), their summits often only vaguely discernible in a gray haze, form 
a dark horizon. 

At 6.9 m. is the junction with State 37 (see Tour 2, sec. c). Between 
this junction and Eureka US 93 and State 37 are united. 

EUREKA, 8.9 m. (2,571 alt., 860 pop.), is slowly climbing up a 

294 TOURS 

hillside above its first buildings on the banks of Tobacco River. After its 
large sawmill burned in 1923, the town developed a Christmas market 
for evergreens; sixty-eight carloads of small firs were shipped to eastern 
markets in 1935. Huckleberries grow in abundance on the mountain sides. 

US 93 follows the Tobacco River (R) through dairy and hay country. 

At 13.4 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left to GLEN LAKE (cabins, boats), 3 m., a tarn in a dense forest. 
Because of dense stands of larch and Douglas fir that border the high- 
way, the slopes and summits beyond are only occasionally visible. 
At 20.6 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road is FORTINE, 0.6 m. (2,955 alt., 100 pop.), one of those 
flag stops whose inhabitants gather on the station platform to watch the trains pass, 
then retire to the post office to gossip and await the distribution of letters and 

At 22.8 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to ANT FLATS RANGER STATION, 1 m., built of great rough- 
hewn logs. 

MURPHY LAKE (L), 23.6 m., is long, narrow, and bordered with 
dense tamarack growth. A State game preserve surrounds it. There is an 
improved campground on its shore. 

Between 25.4 m. and 27.4 m. the highway winds along the shore of 
the deep blue DICKEY LAKE (R), which has many small inlets. 

At 29-3 m. is the junction with a graded dirt road. 

Left to FISH LAKE (cabins and boats available), 3m., which is annually re- 
stocked with trout. 

WHITEFISH MOUNTAIN (7,445 alt.) towers (L) above lesser 
peaks. Immediately south of it is DIAMOND PEAK (7,285 alt.). 

The highway makes an S-curve at 30.4 m. through a defile between 
jagged cliffs buttressed (L) by somber outcrops of rock. 

SPRING CREEK CAMPGROUND (R) (tables, outdoor stoves, good spring 
water), 35.4 m., is in a thinned grove of firs. 

At 40.8 m. is the junction with a forest road. 

Left on this through good hunting country to STRYKER RIDGE, 5 m. (7,000 
avg. alt.), a rampart of the Whitefish Range. 

(R), is in six log buildings. The forest covers 90,000 acres. Within it 
are the headwaters of the Whitefish River, part of the Stillwater, and 
many small lakes. 

STILLWATER LAKE (R), 44.9 m., formed by a dam on the Still- 
water River, has a campground (boats, cabins) on its shore. 

WHITEFISH, 61.3 m. (3,035 alt, 2,803 PP-)> is a nea t lake-shore 
town, with modern business buildings of brick, and dwellings of frame- 
and-stucco construction. Shaded streets border lawns ornamented with 
shrubs and trees. 

The town is in the open upper Flathead Valley, with the Kootenai 
National Forest R., the Flathead L. It is a division point on the Great 

TOUR 7 295 

Northern Ry., with railroad shops. Nearby sawmills give employment to 
many men. 

WHITEFISH LAKE, i mile wide and 7 miles long, stretches north- 
ward with many summer homes and camps along its forested shores. 
Between the town and the lake is a public park and bathing beach. A 
regatta (July 4th) features outboard motorboat racing, aquaplaning, 
swimming, and diving. 

At 63.3 m. is the junction with a dirt road (see side tour from Tour 2, 
sec. c). 

KALISPELL, 76.8 m. (2,959 a ^- 6,094 PP-) ( see Tour 2, sec. c) is 
at the junction with US 2 (see Tour 2). 

Section b. KALISPELL to MISSOULA, ^23.2 m., US 93. 

For more than 40 miles this section of US 93 winds along the western 
shore of Flathead Lake, the broad blue expanse of water now in view, 
now hidden beyond a higher part of the rough, wooded rim of the lake. 
Here and there an island, steep-sided and tree-covered, rises out of the 
water; the road makes innumerable loops and long curves around the 
large and small bays that indent the shore line. Almost all the way, the 
mighty Swan and Mission Mountains (L) are in view, awe inspiring 
in their austerity, always commanding. In contrast, the view R. is mostly 
of valley flats alternating with low, rounded hills. 

US 93 follows Main St. in KALISPELL, m., around the courthouse 
and through a residential section to a level valley. 

SOMERS (L), 9.5 m. (2,950 alt., 750 pop.), is a sawmill town by Flat- 
head Lake. The buildings are of the frame type usual in mill towns; the 
water below is crowded with logs that have been shipped in by rail or 
driven down the Flathead and Stillwater Rivers and towed in by small 

FLATHEAD LAKE, about 30 miles long and 10 miles wide, has 
an average depth of 220 feet. A product of glacial action, it is fed 
mostly by the icy waters of melting glaciers and snowbanks in the 
high mountains to the east and north. Its outlet during the glacial age 
was westward through the Big Draw at Elmo into Little Bitterroot River; 
as the ice receded, a new outlet, from Poison Bay into Flathead River, 
developed. Local lore has it that Paul Bunyan became interested in Poison 
(see below), and in an effort to boom that town dug the new channel that 
replaced the Big Draw. 

Flathead Lake offers opportunities for boating, swimming, and fishing. 
(Fishing best in June.) It is stocked with salmon, trout, whitefish, and 
bass. Several charming islands lie near the west shore. Near Dayton, ac- 
cessible only by boat, are the PAINTED ROCKS, signs and characters in 
vivid colors left by an unknown Indian artist or historian long before 
white men saw the region. 

LAKESIDE, 14.9 m., near the shore of the lake, exists to entertain 

ANGEL POINT LOOKOUT, 19.5 m., on clear days offers an unobstructed 

296 TOURS 

view across the lake to the Mission Range (L). The road sweeps down a 
hill and comes close to GOOSE BAY, 21 m. In a log house among the 
trees lived Frank B. Linderman, poet, novelist, and friend of the Indian 
(see THE ARTS). 

DAYTON, 30.5 m. (2,884 a lt-) is tne embarkation point for a 4,500- 
acre dude ranch on WILD HORSE ISLAND, 7 miles from shore. 

Right from Dayton, on a dirt road to LAKE MARY RONAN (cabins, boats), 7 
m. It is stocked with silver salmon and Dolly Varden trout. 

Between Dayton and Evaro, a distance of 70 miles, the route runs 
through the Flathead Indian Reservation. 

BIG ARM, 40.2 m. (2,941 alt., 50 pop.), is a small Indian village on 
the lake shore. Indians here wear native dress and live somewhat as they 
did before the coming of the white man. 

The road proceeds over a broad, rugged headland. There are several 
deceptively sharp curves. 

POLSON, 53.1 m. (2,949 alt, 1,456 pop.), seat of Lake County, is 
in a natural amphitheater at the foot of the lake. The town, the trade 
center of one of the most fertile farming areas in Montana, has modern 
stores, and homes with delightful gardens. Within a block of the busi- 
ness district is a dock and breakwater. A 63-acre park on the lake shore 
affords facilities for golfing, playing tennis, and for boating and swim- 
ming. The Cherry Regatta on Poison Bay celebrates the cherry harvest 
(1st week in August). A 9-hole GOLF COURSE (greens fee 500) is L. 

An increasing number of visitors outfit here for mountain trips (saddle 
horses, $2.50 up; guides, $5 a day). 

Right from Poison on a dirt road to the GORGE OF THE FLAT- 
HEAD RIVER, 5 m. During May and June, flood season, water pours 
through this gorge at the rate of 500,000 gallons a second. The walls are 
perpendicular, and rise 200 to 500 feet above the white water. 

Here is the $11,000,000 FLATHEAD DAM AND POWER PLANT, built 
on a site owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Flathead. This plant 
will be able to generate between 200,000 and 250,000 horsepower. 

South of Poison the whole Mission Range is in view. The loftiest of 
these snow-capped peaks are at the southern end, with a very gradual 
diminution northward toward the mouth of Swan River, which cuts 
through the range. Among the higher peaks are glaciers, cataracts, and 
rocky precipices. The region was the ancient summer hunting ground of 
the Salish, and is rich in their lore. 

At 54.8 m. is the junction with State 35 (see side tour from Tour 2, 
sec. c). 

PABLO, 61.3 m. (3,100 alt, 150 pop.), a trading center for ranchers, 
was named for Michael Pablo, an Indian stockman, who reared a herd of 
bison in Flathead Valley. PABLO RESERVOIR (R) is a refuge for migra- 
tory waterfowl. 

Between Pablo and St. Ignatius the route traverses the irrigated lands 
of the Flathead Indians. Between Pablo and Ronan, SHEEPSHEAD 
MOUNTAIN (L), named for its form, is in view. 

RONAN, 66.8 m. (3,064 alt., 1,600 est. pop.), was named for Maj. 

TOUR 7 297 

Peter Ronan, first Indian agent to the Flathead, who wrote a history of 
valley tribes. It is a busy town with a flour mill ; the population tripled 
between 1930 and 1937, partly because of a great influx of farmers into 
the lower Flathead Valley from the drought areas of North Dakota and 
>tern Montana. The area around Ronan, formerly part of the Flathead 
nervation, was thrown open to white settlement in 1910, and 10,000 
)ple soon established themselves on ranches and small irrigated farms, 
[any Indians and numerous horse-drawn vehicles are seen on the streets. 
Above (L) is McDONALD GLACIER, on the north side of MOUNT 
[cDONALD (9,800 alt.), the loftiest peak in the Mission Range. 
[OUNT HARDING, north of Mount McDonald, is only a little lower. 
At 74.9 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to McDONALD LAKE (not to be confused with Lake Mc- 
onald in Glacier Park), 7 m., fed by glacial waters from the Mission Range. 
(Boats, campgrounds, good fishing.) 

ST. IGNATIUS, 81.2 m. (2,900 alt., 303 pop.), is a subagency almost 
at the center of the Flathead Reservation. The village is dominated by 
Indians. Like the ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSION, established here in 1854 
by Fathers De Smet, Hoecken, and Menetrey, the town was named in 
honor of St. Ignatius of Loyola, the Spanish priest who founded the So- 
ciety of Jesus. 

The MISSION SCHOOL, CHURCH, and HOSPITAL are the results of 
nearly a century of patient, conscientious work among the natives. Early 
paintings used in teaching the Indians are on view. 

Left from St. Ignatius on a dirt road to ST. MARY'S LAKE (not to be confused 
with the St. Mary Lakes in Glacier Park), 11 m., which offers excellent trout fish- 
ing. The Salish called it "the waters of the forgiven"; their tradition is that a 
brave once expiated a murder on its shore. Another Salish legend tells that beautiful 
spirits inhabited the deep waters and lured careless warriors to destruction. 

South of St. Ignatius US 93 makes a narrow winding turn (R) at the 
bottom of St. Ignatius Hill. Mostly R. is the FLATHEAD (formerly the 
Jocko) INDIAN RESERVATION, of 1,403,058 acres, created in 1855. 
The agency is i mile north of Dixon (see Tour 12). The Indian popula- 
tion in 1936 numbered 3,400, with 3,051 enrolled in the Confederated 
Tribes of the Flathead (Salish, Kalispel, and Kootenai). Though enroll- 
ments are increasing, full-blood Indians (750 in 1936) decrease in num- 
bers. The tribes have so intermarried that an accurate estimate of the 
number in each one is impossible. More than three-fourths have white 
blood. Many have French and Scottish names inherited from trappers and 
traders of the old North West Company, who married squaws (see HIS- 
TORY). Allotted to individual Indians are 227,113 acres of reservation 
land; 255,000 acres are held by the tribal council as a grazing reserve for 
Indian herds. Much land is occupied by whites. Irrigation was begun in 

Lewis and Clark, the first white men to visit the Salish (September 
1805), called them the Ootlashoots. They were few in number (about 
700), but loyal, honest, and respected by the Blackfeet for their fighting 
prowess. They believed in a Good Spirit, a Bad Spirit, and a summer 




country where the good Indian, when he died, met his wife and children 
and found game plentiful. The bad Indian passed to a land of perpetual 
ice where, shivering, he saw fire, and, thirsty, he saw water beyond his 
reach. Beavers, the Salish believed, were fallen Indians, condemned to 
their lowly state by the Great Spirit. 

In early days Flathead Valley was inhabited by the Pend d'Oreille 
(Fr., ear pendant}, or Kalispel; the Salish lived in the Bitterroot coun- 
try. When the great council signed the reservation treaty in 1855, at Grass 
Valley, near Missoula, it was agreed that the Salish should remain in the 
Bitterroot Valley until the Government needed the land. Chief Victor 
probably did not fully understand what this meant. Two years after his 
death in 1870, his son Chariot refused to move to the Jocko Reservation. 
Thereupon, Alee (or Arlee), who was willing to move, was named chief 
of the Flathead. Chariot never recognized Alee as chief and it was not 
until 1891, after years of destitution, that he gave up his ancient home and 
led a band of about 200 remaining Salish to the reservation. 

TOUR 7 299 

After the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the Confederated Tribes 
adopted a constitution under which a council is popularly elected; but 
hereditary chiefs head the tribal organization and are recognized by the 
U. S. Indian Service. Noted chiefs include Three Eagles, who ruled in the 
days of Lewis and Clark's visit; Bear Looking Up, who was chief when 
Father De Smet arrived; and Big Face, the first Salish Indian baptized a 
Roman Catholic. 

Beadwork and the making of buckskin clothing are the principal tra- 
ditional Flathead handicrafts. A few brass ornaments and pipes of stone 
and carved wood are made. Considerable beadwork in animal designs is 
used on horse trappings. 

These Indians no longer use primitive methods of cookery but still pre- 
serve meat and roots by drying. The bitterroot is sun-dried on canvas until 
hard; camas, when not sun-dried, is pit-roasted. Strips of meat from the 
back of elk are dipped in grease and smoked. 

Some of the Flathead depend on fishing and hunting for one- fourth of 
their food supply. In the fall many engage in a special hunt for meat and 
hides. The skins are soaked in water for 10 days, then treated with a mix- 
ture of brains and liver to waterproof them and rot the hair. After stretch- 
ing and scraping, they are worked over carefully until soft enough to be 
used for moccasins and the like. 

The annual bitterroot feast is held at Camas Prairie in the spring be- 
fore the bitterroot blooms; the camas feast is in June. All full-bloods par- 
ticipate. Prayers are offered for good crops, and dried camas and bitterroot 
are eaten. Other ancient ceremonies still observed are the blue- jay dance 
(January), and war dances (visitors admitted) in July. These are also 
attended by the full-bloods. From 75 to 100 tepees are pitched in a circle 
around the war dance tent, which is a double lean-to of poles and hides. 

To MOUNT E-TAM-A-NA, at the head of Crow Creek in the Mission 
Mountains, young braves used to come to fast and pray. If a petitioner 
dreamed about some animal or bird, it became his shumash (guide) 
through life, aiding him in battle and healing him in illness. 

The NATIONAL BISON RANGE, 85 m., is R. (see Tour 12). 

At 86.8 m. is the junction with State 3 (see Tour 12). 

RAVALLI, 87 m. (2,760 alt., 15 pop.), was named for Father An- 
thony Ravalli (see HISTORY). 

ARLEE, 96.9 m. (3,094 alt., 450 pop.), was named for Alee (Ind., 
red night) , the Salish chief (see above). The name is Arlee only in white 
usage, for the Salish language has no "r." Arlee is a small trading center 
for the Jocko Valley. Usually there are Indians on its streets ; in summer 
they occasionally have powwows on the river flat at the edge of town. 

Left from Arlee on a dirt road through the Mission Range to the CLEAR WATER 
LAKES, 30 m. (see Tour 8). 

EVARO, 107.8 m. (3,972 alt., 25 pop.), a small cluster of houses at 
the top of a hill, is at the southern limits of the Flathead Reservation. The 
southern peaks (L) of the Mission Range are seen here rising 7,000 feet 
above the valley. 

The highway descends through the narrow CORIACAN DEFILE, the 


gateway between the Flathead and Missoula Valleys. It is reputedly named 
for Koriaka, a Hawaiian, who was killed there during an attack by Black- 
feet upon a party of trappers and traders. 

At 114.6 m. is the junction (R) with US 10 (see Tour 1). Between 
this point and Missoula US 10 and US 93 are one route (see Tour 1, 
sec. d). 

MISSOULA, 123.2 m. (3,233 alt., 14,657 pop.) (see MISSOULA). 

Points of Interest: Montana State University, Missoula County Courthouse, Cath- 
olic Group, Free Library, Bonner House, Greenough Park, Waterworks Hill, and 

Missoula is at the junction with US 10 (see Tour 1). 

Section c. MISSOULA to IDAHO LINE, 97 m., US 93. 

US 93 traverses the entire length of the Bitterroot Valley, following 
in reverse order the route of Lewis and Clark from the Big Hole Basin 
to the Lolo Trail. Sheltered on the east and southeast by the rounded Sap- 
phire Mountains and the southwestward loop of the Continental Divide, 
and on the west by the high, irregularly toothed Bitterroot Range, this 
valley is widely known as Montana's best in some years, almost its only 
fruit-growing area. Here, where the first crop in the State was planted 
in 1842 (see HISTORY), rich fields, gardens, orchards, pastures, and 
meadows stretch from mountain range to mountain range. 

South of MISSOULA, m., US 93 crosses Clark Fork of the Columbia, 
locally called the Missoula; then swings slightly R. and L. passing the 
1.9 m. 

MOUNT LOLO (9,075 alt. ), bearing permanent snow fields, is straight 
ahead; Squaw Peak (see Tour 1) is R. 

At 2 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Right on this road to FORT MISSOULA, 0.5 m., founded in 1877 when it was 
believed that efforts to remove the Salish from the Bitterroot Valley to the Jocko 
Reservation might cause an uprising. The only garrisoned post in Montana, it is 
manned by two battalions of the Fourth Infantry. The frame buildings at the west- 
ern end of the reservation are headquarters of the CCC in Montana and northern 

The military reservation was formerly much larger, but squatters crowded in and 
were permitted to stay. Abandoned in 1898 the post was re-established in 1901; 
5 years later the city of Missoula bought land and increased the reservation to about 
3,000 acres. Fort Missoula became a regimental post, and permanent fireproof build- 
ings were completed by 1910. It was abandoned again from 1912 to 1921, except as 
the site of a mechanics' school during the World War. 

The officers' club, of logs, and the powder house, of stone, are all that remain 
of the early structures. They contrast oddly with the newer barracks and the tiled 
roof line of officers' residences. 

The Missoula Valley was once the bottom of a lake that left the marks 
of successive water levels on Mounts Sentinel and Jumbo (L). In some 
places the soil is productive; in others the smooth water-washed stones lie 
near the surface, and the thin topsoil does not retain moisture long. 

The road crosses the Bitterroot River, 4.2 m. The Bitterroot Valley was 


known to the Salish as Spetlemen (place of the root), for here, in June, 
they dug the brown bitterroot (see FLORA) and dried it for food. 

LOLO (Ind., muddy water), 11.1 m. (3,198 alt., 102 pop.), is made 
up of a store, a beer hall, a service station, and a few houses and tourist 

Right from Lolo on State 9, a graveled road through the LOLO NATIONAL 
FOREST, to the SITE OF FORT FIZZLE (R), 6 m. When Chief Joseph, on his re- 
treat toward Canada in 1877 (see HISTORY), crossed the pass from Idaho, he 
found a barricade erected here to head him off. Joseph slipped past the barricade 
and continued down the Lolo Trail and up the Bitterroot Valley with all his tribe 
and a large herd of horses. The barricade became known as Fort Fizzle. 

LOLO HOT SPRINGS (3,786 alt.) is at 30 m. (hotel, cabins, campground; warm- 
water plunge, adm. 50$). The water is not mineralized. 

The road ascends through heavy timber with only occasional far views to LOLO 
PASS, 37 m. (5,187 alt.), closely following the route of Lewis and Clark in 1805 
(see HISTORY). At the pass State 9 crosses the Idaho Line, 10 miles north of 
Powell Ranger Station, Idaho (see Tour 8, IDAHO GUIDE). 

FLORENCE, 20.1 m. (3,273 alt., 95 pop.), is a one-street trading cen- 
ter with a creamery and a cheese factory. 

Left from Florence on a graveled road to a junction with a side road, 4 m.; L. 
here 6 m. to RED ROCK MINE (open to visitors), a gold property developed by shaft 
and crosscut. 

The three pointed summits sharply outlined against the southern hori- 
zon (R) are the Como Peaks. 

302 TOURS 

At 28.5 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Left on this road to the SITE OF FORT OWEN, 0.5 m. (R), a trading post estab- 
lished in 1850 by Maj. John Owen. Nothing remains of the buildings but part of 
one wall made of crude bricks. In the spring of 1841 Father De Smet and six com- 
panions (see HISTORY) had erected a small chapel here of whipsawed lumber held 
together with wooden pins. They had built a sawmill and a gristmill, making the 
saw from the iron band of a wagon wheel. The mill stones, shipped from Antwerp, 
Belguim, had been brought ashore at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia and carried 
overland. Oxen and wagons, carts and plows had also been brought to the mission 
and in 1842 the Mission garden had produced some wheat and vegetables. 

Major Owen differed from many of the early citizens of Montana in that he came 
with definite intent to settle. He began by buying the buildings from the Catholic 
authorities at St. Mary's Mission, and added others of his own. Refusing to be di- 
verted by gold rushes and booms, he stayed at his fort and developed it into the 
most important travel and trade center in the valley. A genial host, he made the post 
popular with white and red visitors alike. 

STEVENSVILLE, 1 m. (3,500 alt., 691 pop.), is a trade center for farmers in 
this valley, which today produces grain, hay, sugar beets, seed and canning peas, 
potatoes, apples, cherries, and strawberries. A cannery and a cooperative creamery 
provide markets for local products. The creamery picnic held annually in August 
is an event of much importance to the valley people. 

ST. MARY'S MISSION (1867), near the southern edge of town, is a small log 
church of conventional design. In the rear of the church is a small MUSEUM (open) 
containing mementos of the early days of St. Mary's. 

VICTOR, 35.8 m. (3,414 alt., 350 pop.), was named for Chief Victor 
of the Flathead. 

HAMILTON, 48 m. (3,600 alt., 1,839 PP-)> seat of R avalli County 
and chief center of Bitterroot Valley business, in its modern business 
buildings and attractive dwellings reflects the prosperity of the surround- 
ing country. It owes much of its development to Marcus Daly, who estab- 
lished his Bitterroot Stock Farm east of town, and caused many fine 
homes and stores to be built. He gave two lots to each of the town's reli- 
gious congregations as sites for churches. 

appointment; guides), 900 block on S. 4th St., is maintained for research 
in the control of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (see FAUNA). It manu- 
factures and distributes without charge phenolized virus prepared from 
the tissues of infected ticks, which is used as a vaccine that lessens the 
severity of this disease. Its use in the mountains and Pacific States has low- 
ered the death rate from 85 to 26 percent or less. The laboratory produces 
enough virus annually for 50 or 60 thousand vaccinations, which is less 
than the demand. 

1. Left from Hamilton on Adirondack St. to a comfortable FREE TOURIST PARK, 
just out of town on a green meadow shaded by trees. It faces a tiny lake and has a 
rustic lodge, and camp sites with outdoor stoves. Once part of the Marcus Daly 
estate, it was used as a training ground for the Daly race horses. 

2. Left from Hamilton on an improved road to the MARCUS DALY ESTATE 
(private), 2 m., a. 22,ooo-acre ranch with a Colonial-type mansion at the end of a 
shaded avenue. Deer graze on the front meadows. 

At 50.9 m. is the junction with State 38. 

Left on this partly improved dirt road, called the Skalkaho Trail, to BLACK BEAR 
CAMP, 12.8 m. (R), a large Forest Service campground. Adjacent is the summer 
camp, with log lodge, of Hamilton's Boy Scouts. 

TOUR 7 303 

State 38 winds through a thick forest of lodgepole pine, to SKALKAHO (Ind., 
many trails} FALLS (L), 20.7 m., a slender stream descending in long, graceful 
plunges from a heavily timbered mountain side, so near the road that light breezes 
blow spray across it. Large rocks border the falls on one side, on the other the 
mountain is steep and dark green. A smaller waterfall is beyond the first, hidden in 
the forest. The green and white water of the large falls passes under a bridge and 
descends again. 

SKALKAHO PASS, 25.4 m. (7,258 alt.), is in the Sapphire Range, which forms 
the boundary between the Bitterroot and Deer Lodge National Forests. 

Between Skalkaho Pass and Rock Creek lies a region that despite its network of 
trails, seems untouched wilderness. Color is everywhere. Distant timbered ridges 
are deep blue and purple beyond the dark green of nearer slopes. Light green aspen, 
cottonwood, and willow border the streams. Red-brown and blue-gray rocks and 
slaty to auburn logs are partly covered by the green, red, and yellow of flowering 
and berry-bearing undergrowth. Brown and yellow pine needles carpet the entire 

ROCK CREEK, 36.7 m., is an excellent trout stream. Sapphires are found along 
its course, often in old placer diggings. 

At 52.3 m. is the junction with US 10 A (see Tour 18). 

At 62.8 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to SLEEPING CHILD HOT SPRINGS, 10 m., in a wooded canyon 
below austere granite peaks. The name was "Weeping Child" in the Indian tongue. 
(Hotel, cabins, campground; warm plunge, adm. 50$.) 

DARBY, 64.9 m. (3,881 alt., 285 pop.), is the terminus of the railroad. 
Except for the handsome Forest Service dwellings among the, trees (L), it 
consists chiefly of log houses and frame buildings with high false fronts. 
Prospectors dressed for the hills walk the streets, bargain for outfits in the 
stores, or "toss a poke" on a bar to pay in gold dust for a round of drinks. 

DEND POND (R) is a rearing pool for trout. 

Forested slopes at 70 m. form a foreground for the bare spire (R) of 
TRAPPER'S PEAK (10,175 alt). 

INDIAN MEDICINE TREE, 76.4 m. (L), is a large yellow pine. Above it, 
on the mountain side, the rock has profiles resembling human beings ; one 
is fairly large and quite distinct. For many years it was the custom of the 
Salish to gather each summer at Medicine Tree for ceremonial dances. 
Offerings to the Great Spirit were hung upon the tree and the Indians 
prayed beneath it for special benefits and blessings. 

According to legend, the Great Spirit once said to Coyote: "Go forth 
and discover all things that prey on human beings. You will always have a 
friend, the Fox, who will not be far behind you. You may be killed, but he 
will have power to bring you back to life." 

Coyote was wise and cunning. He went forth as he was bidden. While 
traveling he one day stepped on a lark and broke its leg. He healed the 
injury, and the lark warned him of a wicked mountain ram that killed all 
who passed along the trail. When Coyote came to the ram's lair, he taunted 
him and urged him to show his strength. The ram accepted the challenge 
and buried his horn in the trunk of a pine tree. Before he could withdraw 
it, Coyote drew a great flint knife and cut off his head. He left the horn in 
the tree and threw the ram's head and body against the mountain side. 
Blood splashed upon the rocks and left the imprints resembling faces that 
now look toward the tree. 

304 TOURS 

Old-timers in the Bitterroot Valley tell of seeing a horn imbedded in the 
tree. It was broken off in the course of time and bark grew over the hole 
it had made. 

At 81.1 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to MEDICINE HOT SPRINGS, 1 m. (cabins, hotel; warm plunge, 
adm. 50$). The Indians, who credited the waters with therapeutic qualities, called 
the spring "the dwelling place of the Great Spirit." 

SULA, 84.2 m. (6,692 alt., 25 pop.), an attractive service station, 
built of logs, is at the bottom of the ascent to Gibbons Pass. 
At 96.9 m. is the junction with State 36. 

Here on August 9, 1877, troops under Gen. John Gibbon met Chief Joseph's band 
of Nez Perce (see HISTORY). The Nez Perce did not flee, as was the Indian cus- 
tom under surprise attack, but bundled their women, children, and horses to safety, 
and put up a stiff fight. Joseph fired the Army's defense line; had the wind not 
changed, this maneuver would have routed the whites. In the evening Chief Joseph 
learned from a scout that General Howard was approaching, and withdrew toward 
the Yellowstone country (see Tour 13 A). 

Bullet-riddled trees and rifle pits mark the site. A concrete shaft erected by the 
Government bears a bronze plate upon which are inscribed the names of those of 
Gibbon's command who fell in the battle. 

GIBBONS PASS, 97 m. (6,982 alt.), on the Continental Divide, was 
named for Gen. John Gibbon. 

Here US 93 crosses the Idaho Line, 50.2 miles north of Salmon, Idaho 
(see Tour 5, Idaho Guide). 

Tour 8 

Helena Wilborn Lincoln Ovando Bonner Junction with US 10; 
unnumbered road, State 20, and State 31. 
Helena to Junction US 10, 129-9 m. 

Route paralleled between Ovando and Bonner by Blackfoot branch of C. M. ST. P. 

& P. R. R. 

Hotels in Lincoln, Ovando, and Bonner; accommodations elsewhere limited. 

Dirt roadbed between Helena and Clearwater, difficult except in good weather; 

graveled between Clearwater and Bonner. Open only in summer. 

This combination of routes strikes across the lower end of one of the 
largest primitive areas in the United States a vast expanse of forested 
mountains and valleys larger than some eastern States. 

The unnumbered route between Helena and Lincoln passes along the 
shaded, yellow-brown foothills below the Continental Divide, and pene- 

TOUR 8 305 

trates a region where mining, once impressively successful, is still pursued, 
but on a much smaller scale. The road winds over rocky ridges, through 
deep canyons, and past abandoned camps and workings. It crosses the 
Continental Divide through Stemple Pass, from which glittering peaks 
extend into blue distance. The descent into the Blackfoot Valley is through 
an extremely rugged, heavily timbered, and almost untraveled back coun- 
try. Except for the absence of hostile Indians, travel on part of this route 
is as much an adventure as it was in the mid i9th century. 
HELENA, m. (4,124 alt, 11,803 PP-) (see HELENA). 

Points of Interest: State Capitol, St. Helena Cathedral, Lewis and Clark County 
Courthouse, Public Library, Carroll College, Algeria Shrine Temple, Hill Park, 
placer diggings, and others. 

North from US 10 N, m. (see Tour 1A), on Benton Ave. in HEL- 
ENA, crossing the tracks of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Rys. 
to the unnumbered dirt road. 

breeding of registered cattle, has buildings that are Old English in style; 
stone walls enclose the yards. 

From the sagebrush flats below Last Chance Gulch, the Big Belt Moun- 
tains (R) are seen. The umber tints of the rolling foothills, which are 
dotted with farms, change to deep blues and purples in the distance. 

At 14.2 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

1. Right on this road to SILVER CITY, 0.5 m. (4,335 alt., 27 pop.), a station 
on the Great Northern Ry. 

2. Left on this road along Silver Creek to MARYSVILLE, 6.5 m. (5,035 alt., 
150 pop.), which in the i88o's and 1890*5 was the State's leading gold producer, 
with about 3,000 inhabitants. The remnants squat against high barren hills bur- 
rowed in innumerable places by prospectors. In the long years of decline, which 
began in the early part of the 2oth century, the frame buildings decayed and sagged; 
the false fronts now lean at drunken angles. Broken boardwalks along the main 
street pass closed shops and saloons in which dust is deep on the window sills and 
bars and counters have been dulled by disuse. Goats graze over tumbled grass-grown 
mounds where cabins once stood. A rickety old backstop leans over a baseball field 
on which the miners played. 

West and south of the camp is the DRUMLUMMON MINE. Thomas Cruse pros- 
pected along Silver Creek, which rises near Marysville, for nine years before 1876 
when he struck the Drumlummon ledge. He named his strike for his native town 
in Ireland, and the town for Mrs. Mary Ralston, the first woman who came to the 
settlement. The Drumlummon was so rich in gold and silver that in 1882 English 
capitalists purchased it from Cruse for $1,500,000 cash and $1,000,000 in the stock 
of the corporation they formed to develop it. The corporation gave out no figures 
on production, but authorities have estimated that between 1885 and 1895 the out- 
put was worth $20,000,000. When the cyanide process for recovering gold and sil- 
ver was perfected, a million tons of Drumlummon tailings were treated, and yielded 
an average of $8 a ton. Authorities estimate total production from the Drumlum- 
mon at $50,000,000. 

Cruse went on to develop the Bald Mountain and West Belmont mines; these 
are said to have yielded metal worth $3,000,000. Others developed the Bell Boy, 
the Piegan, the Gloster, the Penobscot, the Empire, and the Shannon, which are 
said to have produced between $20,000,000 and $30,000,000 worth of gold. The 
English company eventually lost title to the Drumlummon on apex litigation (see 
HISTORY) started by owners of adjoining claims. New owners operated the mine 
until 1920; since then it has been worked by lessees. 

Some geologists believe that rich ore bodies still exist in the old mines; and old- 

306 TOURS 

timers are sure that there will some day be another Drumlummon, Bald Butte, Bell 
Boy, or Shannon that will bring surging life again to Marysville. 

CANYON CREEK, 19.8 m. (4,380 alt., 37 pop.), a tiny outpost for 
ranches of the Prickly Pear Valley, has a general store, post office, and 
filling station, all in one building. 

The road swings sharply R. at 20.3 m. through the Little Prickly Pear 
Valley. No forests cover the brown, monotonous hills. 

At 22.1 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to GRAVELLY RANGE LAKE, 3 m., a small mountain pond 
surrounded by dense woods. Here and in nearby streams is good fishing. 

The road swings out of Prickly Pear Valley at 23.8 m. and into the nar- 
row canyon of CANYON CREEK. The yellow-brown foothills billow up 
against a distant blue and purple background. 

WILBORN, 27.2 m. (5,125 alt., 40 pop.), is a supply point and post 
office for miners of the surrounding area. It is a mistake to speak of many 
such rough mountain settlements as towns; but Wilborn does have a 
school and a sawmill. Activity here is sporadic, depending on whether or 
not the mines are in operation. 

Right from Wilborn on a dirt road to CAMP MASON, 0.3 m., a cabin camp used 
by tourists, hunters, and fishermen. The dirt road proceeds by switchbacks through 
heavy timber to FLESHER PASS, 7.8 m. (6,200 alt.), an alternate crossing of the 
Continental Divide (see below). Above the pass mountains rise in a series of old 
scarps; in the interstices of rocky outcrops, scrub timber lifts twisted greenery on 
the rims of somber cliffs. 

The road follows Willow Creek to its junction with the Blackfoot River, and 
crosses the Blackfoot Valley to LINCOLN, 27.4 m. (see below). 

West of Wilborn the mountains are pockmarked with mine tunnels 
and shafts; some of the mines are being worked, others have been aban- 
doned. Most of the active mines are in side gulches. There are deserted 
shacks and caved-in prospect holes near every creek. Typical of once 
wealthy workings that remain closed for long periods and are then re- 
opened is the old GOULD MINE (L), 29 m. 

The road follows Virginia Creek in its winding course through a 
canyon and at 31.5 m. crosses the eastern boundary of Helena National 

The JAY GOULD MINE (L), 32.9 m., and the NORTH GOULD MINE 
(R), 33.1 m., are consistent producers equipped with modern mills that 
turn out gold bullion on the premises. The BACHELOR MINE (L), 35.9 
m., was formerly a large producer. Abandoned log cabins adjacent to it 
are all that remain of STEMPLE, a mining town. 

STEMPLE PASS, 35.4 m. (6,600 alt.), leads over the Continental 
Divide. On the summit the rotting timbers of an abandoned mine shaft 
(R) evidence an ambitious effort to find gold on the roof of the continent. 

West of Stemple Pass the road winds down a lane, shaded by lodgepole 
pine, that follows the course of Poorman Creek. Several of the pitches 
are steep, and the turns sharp. Forests are heavy on the western slope. 

At 38 m. is the junction with Poorman Road. 

Right on this road to GRANITE BUTTE LOOKOUT, B m., one of the comparatively 

TOUR 8 307 

few Forest Service lookouts that can be visited by automobile. The ordinary lookout, 
such as this one, is a frame cabin about 15 feet square, anchored firmly to a peak 
and elaborately grounded against lightning. Large windows on all sides command 
the area the guard must constantly watch. In the single small room are his stove, 
bunk, emergency tools, and grub. Supplies are packed in at the beginning of the 
fire season, usually about the first of July. It is Forest Service policy to place two 
men at a lookout when possible; often a man and his wife occupy a cabin. Thus the 
peak is not deserted when one of the two leaves to snuff out a nearby smoke. If the 
guard is alone his solitude is nearly complete; he may see the packer and the ranger 
only once or twice in the 75 to 90 days he spends on guard. He soon grows bored 
with no other activity than chopping wood and carrying water, and exhausts his 
imagination in devising new things to cook. After he has memorized every contour 
in the area under surveillance, and the name of every lake, ridge, stream, and crag, 
he begins to talk to the ground squirrels. After he has read to shreds every maga- 
zine in his pack, he calls up his nearest neighbor for a chin-wagging. Three times 
a day he calls the ranger station to make his weather report. At night he may watch 
a lightning storm go around him, and count the flashes to himself. He busies him- 
self with has alidade and mapboard, and tries vainly to guess where smokes will 
break. The smokes appear at last in half a dozen or more places; the wires hum 
with excited reports. Then the danger season sets in ; smoke sometimes banks around 
until the guard cannot see more than the area close around his cabin. At night terri- 
fying red flares glow behind distant ridges; a sheet of flame sweeps a nearby hill- 
side, trailing a storm of sparks. By day planes go over the lookout, bearing men and 
tools. There is tension, weariness, and fierce drama. At the season's end perhaps a 
fog comes, cool and sweet after the stinging smoke; then rain or light snow begins, 
and finally the order is received for him to hit the downstream trail. 

On more important peaks, the cabin has two stories living quarters downstairs 
and workroom with mapboard, telescope, telephone, and possibly a short-wave set 
upstairs. Besides the lookout and his wife there may be one or several smoke chasers 
who go on foot to a fire as soon as the lookout detects it. Their job is to stop it 
while it is small, or hold it until crews can answer the lookout's call for help. 

In every cabin are packages of emergency rations stamped with the slogans of the 
Forest Service: "Get 'em while they're small!"; "Don't leave 'em till they're out!"; 
and the like. 

The guards, or lookouts, are usually young men, often students of forestry out to 
gain experience during their vacations. The smoke-chasers, or patrolmen, may be 
wire-bearded veterans who have tramped the forests all their lives. 

RAMBLE INN CAMPGROUND (R), 43.8 m., is in a grove of magnificent 
pine trees, where only the sound of running water breaks the stillness. 

The road crosses the western boundary of the Helena National Forest 
at 45.4 m., the BLACKFOOT RIVER at 50.5 m.; it follows the stream 
from this point to its confluence with the Clark Fork of the Columbia 
near Milltown (see Tour 1, Sec. d). On his return from the Pacific in 
1806, Captain Lewis worked his way up along the Blackfoot River to 
reach the Continental Divide. 

LINCOLN, 49.6 m. (4,800 alt., 25 pop.), in a forest of Montana's 
largest pines, is buried under heavy snows in winter. In summer it is a 
place to which citizens of Helena come for rest and quiet. The stores and 
post office are in a clearing among the yellow pines, with summer homes 
in the woods around them. It was once important as a placer mining camp 
but only small operations are now carried on in the vicinity. Lincoln is a 
popular point of departure for fall hunting parties and summer fishermen. 

At Lincoln is the junction with the Flesher Pass Road (see above) and 
with State 20. Left here on State 20. 

At 51.5 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

308 TOURS 

Right on this road to LAKE SMITH (good fishing), 1 m., on whose shores are 

An unimproved campground is L. at 63.8 m. 

At 65.9 m. is the junction (L) with State 31, which is united with 
State 20 between this point and Clearwater. 

Left on State 31 to the junction with a dirt road, 5 m.; L. here 1 m. to HELM- 
VILLE (4,255 alt., 202 pop.), a lonely village that is a gathering place for scat- 
tered farmers and ranchers in a large valley. Its annual Labor Day rodeo is widely 

At 23 m. on State 31 is DRUMMOND (see Tour 1, Sec. d), on US 10 (see 
Tour 1). 

BROWNS LAKE (R), 71.3 m., is much frequented by duck hunters in 
season. The road makes a half circle through barren country along the 
south shore of the lake; the eastern sky line here is formed by irregular 
purple summits. 

OVANDO, 82.2 m. (3,980 alt., 75 pop.), another backwoods place, 
was named for Ovando Hoyt, its first postmaster. It exists as a supply 
point for hay and sheep ranches and for the small logging camps in the 
heavy black forests that extend endlessly in all directions. Pack trains out- 
fit here for trips into the South Fork of the Flathead Primitive Area ( see 
RECREATION and Tour 2, Sec. c). 

At 87.2 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to WOOD WORTH, 11 m. (3,750 alt.), headquarters of log- 
ging operations for the Bonner mill (see below). A large crew of men is employed 
the year around cutting pine, fir, and tamarack. At the skidways about 30 flatcars a 
day are loaded with logs for the mill at Bonner. Caterpillar tractors have largely 
replaced horses and mules in logging; instead of the traditional "skinners" driving 
six- and eight-horse teams, the Woodworth operators have "cat skinners" and "gear 
jammers" to wrangle the big logs. 

The camp has large, neat bunkhouses, a central mess hall, a commissary, a rec- 
reation hall, shower baths, a school for the loggers' children, and a branch of the 
Missoula County Library. 

Many of the timber beasts (loggers) are of Scandinavian stock. Some students of 
folklore say that the Scandinavians created the legendary Paul Bunyan by bringing 
to America their tales of Thor, the Norse god of indomitable strength. They are 
prodigious chewers of snus (Dan. and Sw., snuff), and tellers of tales; and they 
are proud of their prowess in a difficult and hazardous occupation. They wear the 
traditional lumbermen's stag (or tin) pants, heavy woolen shirts, and logger boots. 
The pants, of tan, gray, or blue plaid, are pure wool, very thick and so closely 
woven as to be almost waterproof. They are "stagged," or cut off raggedly, so that 
the bottoms come just above the tops of eight-inch boots, a precaution against being 
snagged by low brush or broken limbs. The soles of the boots are heavily studded 
with sharp calks to guarantee sure footing, for a logger must move nimbly. 

CLEARWATER, 97.3 m. (3,773 alt.), is a stock-loading point on the 
Blackfoot branch of the C. M. St. P. & P. R. R. 

Right from Clearwater on State 31, a dirt road, to SALMON LAKE (L), 5.6 m., 
the most southerly of the Clearwater Lakes chain, all of which have natural or 
improved campgrounds along their shores. They are connected by Clearwater River, 
a tributary of the Blackfoot. Summer cottages, many owned by Missoula people, dot 
the shore of Salmon Lake. The conspicuous house on the west side was the summer 
home of the son of W. A. Clark (see HISTORY). 

At the southern boundary of Lolo National Forest, 14.5 m., is the junction with 
a dirt road ; L. here 3 m. to PLACID LAKE, a popular place for fishing, swimming, 


and boating. The Placid Lake road continues over the mountains to ARLEE, 25 m. 
(3,094 alt.) (see Tour 7, Sec. b), which is on US 93 (see Tour 7). 

SEELEY LAKE (L), 14.6 m. on State 31, is the center of a recreational area 
second only to the Flathead Lake country in this part of Montana. The small, clear 
lake was named for J. B. Seeley, the first white man to make his home on its shore. 

SEELEY LAKE POST OFFICE, 16.1 m., serves the dwellers in the cabins and sum- 
mer homes around the lake, and several dude ranches in the vicinity. 

The SEELEY LAKE RANGER STATION (R), 17.5 m., provides information concern- 
ing the trails and fishing and hunting opportunities of the Lolo National Forest. 

At LAKE INEZ (L), 23.3 m., the third of the Clearwater Lakes, the campground 
is on the heavily wooded west shore. 

LAKE ALVA (L), 24.5 m., and RAINY LAKE (L), 26.8 m., are the smallest 
of the Clearwater Lakes. Rainy Lake is reached only by footpaths. 

At 33.9 m. is the junction with a dirt road; L. here 4.7 m. to LINDBERGH 
LAKE, formerly Elbow Lake, whose name was changed in 1927 after Charles A. 
Lindbergh visited for a week in its neighborhood. Heavily timbered on three sides, 
it lies close against the base of the impressive, snow-crested Mission Mountains. On 
the eastern shore is a public campground and a rustic lodge kept (1939) by "Cap" 
Eli Laird, former captain of a packet on Coeur d'Alene Lake. His story telling is 
one of the attractions. 

GORDON'S RANCH, 34.6 m., is one of the largest dude ranches in the Clearwater 
Valley. Pack trains are outfitted here for trips into the Mission Mountains and into 
the South Fork of the Flathead Primitive Area. 

At 34.8 m. is a junction with a dirt road; R. here 1.8 m. to HOLLANt) LAKE. 
At 2.8 m. is HOLLAND LAKE LODGE, a cabin on the north shore of the lake. Except 


in a few places, dense stands of tamarack come down to the water's edge. At the 
northern end several waterfalls show against the dark forest mass. Sheer rock rises 
from the water on the east. 

North of Holland Lake, State 31 runs through the heavy Flathead National Forest 
of the Swan Valley, a wild land with fish and game, rude trails, and lookout sta- 
tions. The road is poor with an average of 20 curves to the mile. There are only 
occasional glimpses of the majestic Mission Mountains (L) and Swan Range (R). 
The forest silence is broken only by the calls of wild things, the splash and gurgle 
of tumbling streams, and the sound, like surf on a far shore, of wind flowing 
smoothly through the tops of tamaracks and firs. Nevertheless occasional cabins 
beside the road indicate that a few hardy human beings attempt to live here. 

The emergency landing field at 43.1 m. is for planes bringing in fire fighters. 

At 52.3 m. the road intersects an old Indian trail that crossed the mountains be- 
tween the Flathead Valley and the Great Plains. Part of it is now a modern forest 

SWAN LAKE POST OFFICE, 106.4 m., is at the upper end of SWAN LAKE, 
a long, narrow body of water whose clear surface reflects the rich emerald of the 
forest. On its shore, at 107.7 m., are campgrounds, wharves, and a beach. 

The road crosses the northern boundary of Flathead National Forest and contin- 
ues along Swan Lake. 

SWAN RIVER GORGE (R) is seen at 123.1 m. 

BIGFORK, 123.3 m. (2,989 alt., 250 pop.) (sec side tour from Tour 2, Sec. c), 
is at the junction with State 35 ('see Tour 2). 

State 20 crosses the Blackfoot River, 100.1 m., at its confluence with 
the Clearwater (R). 

TOUR 8 311 

GREENOUGH, 105.2 m., is a post office named for T. L. Greenough, 
an early settler who had extensive holdings in the valley. 

POTOMAC, 113.5 m. (3,870 alt., 22 pop.), was named in 1883 by a 
settler who had formerly lived by the Potomac River. Ranchers, lumber- 
jacks, miners, and prospectors make weekly trips to its general store and 
post office to get their mail and buy supplies. From 1925 to 1932 old-time 
dances held in the old log hall drew many people. 

The highway crosses the Blackfoot River at MCNAMARA'S LANDING, 
122.2 m., a loading point for sheep and cattle. From this place logs were 
formerly floated down river to Bonner. 

BONNER, 129.4 m. (3,321 alt., 707 pop.), is a collection of neat com- 
pany houses that vary only slightly in construction, but are painted accord- 
ing to individual taste; in them live the families of men who work in 
Montana's largest sawmill (R). The town lies mostly south of the mill 
buildings; the lumber yards, filled with great piles of newly sawed lum- 
ber, extend eastward. Around the mill the air is charged with the fresh, 
keen smell of the cut logs; near the sawdust dump it is sometimes dank 
and musty. Sawdust is fed to the great black burner beside the mill to 
provide heat for many buildings of the town. 

The MARGARET HOTEL (R), on a fenced square near the center of 
town, was a show place when it was built in 1892. All the ornate detail of 
its period survives. Its entrance, in which gingerbread mingles with the 
dignified restraint seen in old southern hotels, faces the mill. Missoula 
clubs and social groups sometimes have their banquets in the building. 

The BONNER SAWMILL (open; visitors' entrance at southeastern end), 
on the bank of the Blackfoot River, was built in 1886, destroyed by fire 
in 1919, and rebuilt in 1920. It employs 400 men, but in off years there 
are several months during which the men work only part of each week. 

The mill is a black frame shed, 300 feet long and 150 feet wide. Cat- 
walks afford a safe view of the screeching, bellowing room; danger signs 
warn against going near the whirring machines. The logs, sawed into 
convenient lengths before they leave the woods, are hooked out of the 
pond in the rear of the plant by an endless belt, set with ugly sharp 
prongs, that carries them to the three saw carriages ; band saws on pulleys 
rip through them. Sawdust is carried off to the engine room where it 
feeds the big furnaces that generate steam to operate the machines. End- 
less chains carry the boards to the planing department where they are 
smoothed or made into shingles and laths; or to other departments for 
special treatment. On the top floor of the shed is the filing room, where 
band saws are filed mechanically. All over the mill the men work fast; 
they wear clothing without loose ends. The noise seems almost unbear- 
able to newcomers. Between 1898 and 1938 the mill turned out 3,990,- 
000,000 board feet of lumber. In an average eight-hour shift the saws cut 
420,000 board feet of lumber and the planes finish 200,000 feet. The an- 
nual shipment of mine timbers, wedges, and other lumber to the Butte 
mines alone is 40,000,000 board feet. 

At 129-9 m. is the junction with US 10 (see Tour 1, Sec. c), 7.3 miles 
east of Missoula. 

312 TOURS 

<<<<<<<<<<<<<< fr-M 


(Charbonneau, N. D.) Fairview Glendive Circle Jordan Grass 

Range; State 14, State 18. 

North Dakota Line to Grass Range, 287.4 m. 

Route served by Intermountain Transportation Co. busses between Glendive and 
Grass Range; paralleled by Northern Pacific Ry. between Sidney and Brockway, and 
by Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific R. R. between Winnett and Grass Range. 
Hotels in towns; few tourist camps along route. 

Roadbed oil-surfaced between Fairview and Circle; unimproved dirt between Circle 
and point 13.4 miles east of Jordan; improved between this point and the junction 
with US 87. Unimproved section poor in rainy weather. 

State 14 follows the Yellowstone River through a rust-colored semi- 
badland, irrigated in part. Along the highway, traces of the old Fort 
Union Trail (L) are discernible. Here, in the late iSyo's and early i88o's, 
stagecoaches, mail carriers, and freighters traveled between Fort Keogh 
and Fort Union. A few old rest camps, stables, and bunkhouses still stand 
beside the road. State 18 reaches across rolling, thinly settled plains, 
which, when carpeted with buffalo grass, were the pastures of millions of 
bison and, later, of cattle and sheep. Much of the grass cover has been 
removed by the plow or destroyed by overgrazing; monotonous stretches 
of eroded or weed-grown fields lie between the thinned pastures and 
patches of sage and cactus. 

Montana 14 is a continuation of N. D. 23, which reaches the Montana 
Line 14 miles west of Charbonneau, N. D. 

FAIRVIEW, m. (1,902 alt., 576 pop.), on the State Line, with the 
Yellowstone River flowing by just east of it, has one street in North 
Dakota. The town was named for its panorama of fertile acres in the Yel- 
lowstone Valley. More arid lands, which in several areas take on the char- 
acter of badlands, lie on the benches above the river bottoms. A lignite 
mine on the edge of town, employing about 20 men in winter, furnishes 
fuel for local consumption at moderate cost. 

SIDNEY, 11 m. (1,928 alt., 2,010 pop.), seat of Richland County, is 
the trade town of farmers dependent on land producing under irrigation. 
Considerable wheat is grown under ditch (irrigation) in the vicinity, but 
40,000 of the 60,000 irrigated acres are used to grow beets. Most of the 
work of thinning and topping sugar beets, formerly done by migratory 
Mexican and Filipino workers, has been taken over since 1930 by Mon- 
tana and North Dakota farm families who have lost the battle with 

The RICHLAND COUNTY COURTHOUSE (R), one block from Main St., 
is the town's dominant building. In the sheriff's office is a collection of old 
firearms and of archeological finds of the county. 

TOUR 9 313 

The SUGAR REFINERY (open to visitors), near the northeastern city 
limits, is in operation in late fall and early winter. It produces 13 million 
pounds of sugar yearly. 

Just north of Sidney, on a small flat behind Levering Grove, are several 
low MOUNDS in zigzag formation. Each, 100 yards long, is larger at 
one end. Neither their purpose nor the date of their construction is 
known, but they appear much older than the ruins of Fort Union, the first 
white settlement in the region. 

Right from Sidney on Main St., which becomes a dirt road, to a junction with 
another dirt road, 5 m.; L. here to THREE BUTTES, 10 m., high sandstone domes 
that lie in an east-west line along the edge of the Missouri River badlands. West of 
the last butte is a large pit. The colors and formations are extravagantly varied. 
Numerous rattlesnakes make stout boots a necessity for visitors. (See GENERAL 
INFORMATION.) BLUE HILL, 6 miles south, is a flat-topped butte formerly used 
by Indians as a lookout. 

Southwest of Sidney are miles of weirdly eroded buttes. Below the river 
breaks (R) lignite coal workings, large or small, are occasionally seen. 
Some, little more than holes in the hillsides, have been made by indus- 
trious farmers, who have dug their winter's supply of fuel out of veins 4 
feet or less in thickness. Such mines do not justify the expense or trouble 
of installing equipment, and they are usually worked with the simplest 
tools. An auger and a tamping bar are used to place charges of blasting 
powder; in some places a single small home-made rail-car or wheel- 
barrow rolls out the coal. The miner must accustom himself to working 
in a cramped and, at first, uncomfortable position. He must also learn to 
recognize certain danger signs, for cave-ins are not unknown. 

The larger mines are sometimes of the strip type. Several farmers bring 
horses or tractors, plows, and fresno scrapers, and remove the overburden. 
This may take days or weeks. They then blast the exposed coal into pieces 
small enough to be loaded on wagons and trucks, and haul it to some shel- 
tered storage place, such as a cellar; coal of this type disintegrates rapidly 
when exposed to sunlight and air. 

The river flats are natural hay meadows; many tons of speargrasS 
(western needlegrass) have been cut in good years. Under irrigation the 
same land produces two or three crops of alfalfa a year. In 1936 Mormon 
crickets descended on forage crops here and forced livestock outfits to ship 
cattle elsewhere for winter feeding, or to import feed from western Mon- 
tana. A discovery that sheep liked the insects for food was reported; 
large areas that showed signs of becoming breeding places were ranged 
over with good results. 

At 17 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road, across railroad tracks, to the O'BRIEN RANCH, 0.2 m. The 
older buildings (open on application) were a stage station on the Fort Union Trail. 
The oldest cabin, built in 1878 as a trading post by "French Joe" Seymour, is in- 
tact; the road ran directly in front of it. Opposite is a roomy log house, built by 
Jim O'Brien in 1882. It looks much as it did when dusty stage horses stopped at 
its door and sorely shaken travelers climbed out and gratefully sat down to a hearty 
meal of meat and beans. The dining room with raftered ceiling and blue- washed walls 
extends across the front. The whitewashed "bridal chamber" opens from the dining 
room; here the infrequent lady travelers were lodged for the night. Narrow stairs 

314 TOURS 

lead from the dining room to a large bunk room. The big kitchen, in which still 
sits the mammoth cast-iron army stove brought from Fort Buford upon the aban- 
donment of the post in 1890, forms a T. The log store (L) was built a few years 
later than the house. 

Badlands are (L) across the Yellowstone at 27.8 m. 

SAVAGE, 31.6 m. (1,977 a ^-> 353 PP-)> * s a shipping point used by 
back-country grain farmers and river-bottom beet growers. The rock for- 
mations (R) resemble petrified trees. 

The highway enters the breaks of the Yellowstone. Brilliantly tinted 
sandstone formations at this point give the valley a wild and rugged 

INTAKE, 46.4 m. (2,031 alt., 45 pop.), came into existence when the 
irrigation dam (L) was built across the Yellowstone. 

STIPEK, 55.4 m. (2,063 alt., 30 pop.), is a shipping and distribution 
point that comes alive briefly on Saturday, when ranchers and their fam- 
ilies come in to shop and gossip. 

At 63.5 m. is the junction with State 18 and US 10 (see Tour 1), just 
across the Yellowstone from GLENDIVE (see Tour 1, Sec. a). Between 
this point and a junction at 64.2 m., US 10 and State 18 are one route. 

At 64.2 m. R. on State 18 across rolling range. 

LINDSAY, 86.2 m. (2,203 a ^-> 5 PP-)> a formers' village, is only 
a dot on the prairie. 

The highway descends from a hilltop at 95.8 m. to a deep dry cut; on 
both sides the buttes are much eroded. 

Redwater Creek, 111.1 m., is a tributary of the Yellowstone. Abundant 
red shale lines its banks. 

The highway turns sharply L. into CIRCLE, 112.2 m. (2,450 alt., 519 
pop.), seat of McCone County. This is one of the towns that retain some 
of the flavor of the old cattle country; the cowpunchers on its streets are 
not ornaments hired to impress romantic visitors. "Circle" was the brand 
name of one of Montana's first cow outfits. 

Right from Circle on a dirt road to the CIRCLE HOME RANCH, 1 m., with which 
nearly every old time range rider in Montana was familiar at one time or another. 
Punchers packed off to warmer climes in late fall nearly always returned to Circle 
in the spring; a man who could ride a horse and do his share of corral work was 
always sure of a job here. Many outfits used the nearby range for summer grazing, 
for water was always plentiful in creeks and prairie lakes, and the grass was un- 
surpassed for the fast finishing of steers. 

BROCKWAY, 123.8 m. (2,593 alt, 130 pop.), the railhead for a 
vast inland stock and grain country, is identified by its white two-story 
frame boarding school. Long distances and inadequate roads make day 
schools impracticable in this area. 

PARIS (R), 143.5 m., is an abandoned ranch that formerly held a post 
office. Around it the sunburnt range is dotted with red buttes and scarred 
with ravines. 

Some of the infrequent ranch buildings along the road are of stone, a 
material far cheaper than lumber in this area. A few sod houses are still 
in use. Because drought has driven many families away, there are almost 
as many abandoned houses as inhabited ones. 



The highway crosses LITTLE DRY CREEK at 161.7 m. Extensive 
fossil beds (R) have yielded skeletons and fragments of skeletons of pre- 
historic animals (see NATURAL SETTING). The beds are reached only 
afoot or with horses. 

VAN NORMAN (R), 162.6 m., is a ranch post office in a sheep- 
grazing country. Dry Creek affords water holes, and gnarled cottonwoods 
give scanty shade on a sagebrush plain interrupted by buttes. Here and 
there the wagons and small "tarp" tents of herders dot the long reaches. 
In spring and fall large herds of sheep, cattle, and, sometimes, horses are 
trailed to Brockway. 

At 180.6 m. is the junction with State 22 (see Tour 10), which unites 
with State 18 between this point and a junction at 186.6 m. (see Tour 10, 
Sec. b). 

Before the country west of Jordan became a cattle-ranching and dry-land 
farming region, it was a range where Blackfeet, Gros Ventre, Assiniboine, 
and Crow hunted buffalo, especially in late summer. The Musselshell 
was known as the Dried Meat River because in its vicinity preparations 
for winter were made meat was cured, and chokecherries were picked, 
dried, ground, and mixed with meat to make pemmican (see BEFORE 

Weather conditions in this region change rapidly. Rain frequently falls 
over very limited areas, and it is not unusual for one ranch to be well 
watered while another a few miles away is dry. Yarn spinners tell of a 
rancher who once attempted to outrun a storm with his team of fast 
horses. He heard the rain behind him but did not get wet; believing he 

316 TOURS 

had escaped, he turned to look back, and found, to his amazement, that 
the rear half of the wagon box was full of water. 

SMOKY BUTTE (see Tour 10) rises above the prairie (R). South- 
westward the countryside is gently rolling, carpeted here and there with 
grey-green sagebrush and low cactus. The plain is green under spring skies 
and dotted in the early hours with wild white morning-glories. With ad- 
vancing summer the grass turns brown, and sage and cactus blur with dust. 

An ABANDONED SHACK (R), 202.1 m., made of sun-baked bricks, its 
interior smoothly plastered with mud, is representative of the houses often 
built by early settlers. They cost little to construct and were serviceable, 
warm in winter and cool in summer. 

EDWARDS, 211 m. (2,206 alt.), is the site of one of the ranches of 
the old 79 outfit (see Tour 11). 

SAND SPRINGS, 219.2 m. (2,025 alt, 27 pop.), is a range-land post 

Between 233.3 m. and 234.6 m. the road winds among rugged hills 
heavily covered with scrub pine, fir, and juniper on their western slopes. 
These hills are the divide between the Musselshell and Big Dry drainage 

MOSBY, 240.6 m. (2,280 alt., 6 pop.), is a post office and store on 
the east bank of the Musselshell. 

Right from Mosby on a dirt road to the SITE OF FORT MUSSELSHELL, 35 m., at 
the mouth of the Musselshell River. In the i86o's and 1870*5 this was an important 
post in the trade with the Gros Ventre. The traders, a few wolfers, and the wood- 
choppers who sold fuel to Missouri River steamboats, were the only white men in 
this part of the country. When the Indians were at peace, trade was profitable; the 
Gros Ventre gladly exchanged a buffalo robe for 10 cups of flour or 6 cups of sugar. 
The Assiniboine and Sioux, however, harassed the post incessantly, and at length 
forced its abandonment. 

The highway crosses the Musselshell River. Somewhere in the breaks 
along this stream is a gold mine from which Indians brought dust and 
nuggets to Fort Musselshell. All but one of the Indian discoverers were 
killed in a skirmish with whites ; the survivor said only that the mine was 
"two sleeps" from the post. Prospectors have repeatedly, but in vain, ex- 
plored the country. 

A tourist camp is on the riverbank at 241.3 m. 

At 247.3 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to CAT CREEK OIL FIELD, 4 m., whose 174 wells produce oil 
of high quality (50 A. P. I.). In 1936 each of 150 wells was pumping about 1,000 
barrels a day. The field is a "stripper" has wells that must be pumped there are 
no gushers. Large pumping plants take out the crude oil, which is piped to Win- 
nett, 20 miles away, for shipment. 

When news of the Cat Creek discovery was flashed over the West, a mad stam- 
pede, resembling an old-time gold rush, occurred. Oil prospectors, however, reached 
their destination more swiftly and with less hardship than the pilgrims who came 
with pick and pan 50 years earlier. Every type of car was pressed into service; ex- 
pensive limousines stirred the dust of old cattle trails beside wheezing models that 
wabbled along on warped wheels. One of the richest operators in Montana arrived 
in a flivver so dilapidated the cushion seat was gone; he had hurriedly left a less 
promising field and traveled to Glasgow by train, where he had had difficulty in 
obtaining a car. When a discouraged dry-land farmer happened to drive by, the 

TOUR 10 317 

oilman hailed him and inquired if he could spare his car for a few days. "Yep, I 
can spare her forever," said the farmer. "The old girl and me is about to part after 
some mighty tough experiences." The oilman peeled two ten-spots from a roll, and 
in another minute was on his way to Cat Creek in a cloud of exhaust smoke. 

At 269.2 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road is WINNETT, 0.7 m. (2,960 alt., 408 pop.), terminus of a 
C. M. St. P. & P. R.R. branch from Lewistown. A large refinery, and three storage 
tanks holding 100,000 gallons each, announce its chief reason for existence. Win- 
nett is smudged with oil ; the fumes of the product permeate the atmosphere. Some 
of the stores sell oil rigs, drills, and similar equipment. 

Winnett is also the distributing center of a large area where wheat is grown. 
This country has suffered much from droughts but many farmers who stayed through 
the drought of 1917-1920 witnessed the miracle of seeing their parched lands yield 
"black gold" in fabulous amounts. 

The Judith Mountains are straight ahead at 270.4 m. 

YEGEN, 276.1 m. (2,087 a lt-)> * s a railroad station named for the 
Yegen brothers, Swiss immigrants who began life in Montana as sheep- 
herders, later operated a store here, and finally became prominent sheep- 
men and bankers of central Montana. 

At 287.4 m. is the junction with US 87 (see Tour 3), 0.9 mile north 
of the center of Grass Range (see Tour 3, Sec. a). 

Tour 10 

(Moose Jaw, Sask.) Opheim Glasgow Jordan Miles City Broadus 
(Belle Fourche, S. D.) ; State 22. 
Canadian Border to Wyoming Line, 385.1 m. 

Frequent bus service between Glasgow, Wheeler, and Fort Peck. 
Hotels and tourist camps in larger towns; few accommodations between them. 
With exception of 1 5-mile oil-surfaced stretch between Glasgow and Wheeler, road- 
bed is unsurfaced or wholly unimproved between Canadian Border and Jordan; 
between Jordan and Broadus it is oil-surfaced; between Broadus and the Wyoming 
Line, graveled. Unsurfaced section dusty or muddy by turns. 

Section a. CANADIAN BORDER to GLASGOW, 68 m., State 22. 

State 22 crosses a section that is perhaps nearer to the frontier than any 
other part of Montana, for the people who began to farm it did not arrive 
until the early years of the World War; and it had no modern means of 
transportation until 1926. Cattlemen had long frequented the country be- 
cause the wide grasslands dotted with small lakes were ideal for the rapid 
fattening of steers. For several years before the 1930'$, with their depres- 

3i8 TOURS 

sion and drought, this region produced almost fabulous crops. Farmers, 
striving to conquer the rich land, worked feverishly from dawn to dusk 
during the brief seasons of seeding and harvest. Sometimes they became 
wealthy from the profits of a single bumper year. But they used their 
profits to acquire more expensive equipment and larger areas for cultiva- 
tion. Then suddenly they were paupers, and the land was dusty and barren 
under a sky dark with clouds but not with rain. It was one of the 
swiftest and most tragic economic transitions in the history of the State. 

Many of the settlers stayed, counting on future seasons when rain would 
surely fall and grainfields again stretch deep green or pale gold to the 
horizon. Many others pulled stakes, to search bewilderedly for some new 
bonanza in a region where nature is less capricious. The once comfortable 
houses they abandoned stand gauntly on the dun prairie with glassless 
windows. Range cattle and horses have broken down the doors of some 
of them to find shade in summer and shelter from storms in winter. 

State 22, a continuation of Sask. 2, crosses the Canadian Border, m., 
i mile west of West Poplar River, Sask., a Canadian customs station, and 
115 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. 

OPHEIM, 10.8 m. (3,263 alt, 510 pop.), a U. S. port of entry, is in 
one of the most fertile parts of the wheat-growing region that extends 
eastward through Daniels and Sheridan Counties and northward into 
Saskatchewan. The wheat marketed here, even in unfavorable seasons, al- 
most invariably commands a high price because of its high protein con- 
tent. Opheim had no railroad until 1926, when the Great Northern 
extended its Bainville-Scobey branch to the town. This was one of the 
last pieces of railroad building in Montana. 

In the days of homesteading, Opheim was a hive of industry. Stores, 
banks, lumberyards, hotels, and bars did a very profitable business. Day 
and night the streets were crowded and noisy. In the surrounding coun- 
try, the wild grasses grew stirrup-high, and prairie fires were annual 
events; but in a few short years most of the sod was turned under, the 
grass destroyed. With the profits from their first crops the farmers built 
large houses and barns; then modern schoolhouses were erected on land 
from which the hoofprints of buffalo had scarcely been effaced. When 
drought struck, some farmers sold out while the people at large still be- 
lieved in their luck, and the land brought fair prices. Those who remained 
saw the countryside become almost an open range once more; but instead 
of the old, rich native grasses this range bore thick mats of the ugly, pro- 
lific Russian thistle. 

These tough, gray-green weeds spring up profusely wherever the soil 
has been tilled, and in dry seasons absorb most of the scanty moisture 
stored up from the winter's snowfall. When mature, the plants break off 
and roll over the prairie, to lodge in great masses against fences, around 
buildings, and in windbreaks. 

Many farmers have learned to use the thistles as emergency fodder, cut- 
ting and stacking them while they are heavy and green. The weeds cure 
in the stack, and if well salted, they have a taste that does not seem objec- 
tionable to most livestock. If unmixed and fed in large quantities, how- 

TOUR 10 319 

ever, this fodder is dangerous, inducing a violent and exhausting colic, 
particularly in horses. The feed is never a satisfactory substitute for hay, 
but serves to keep stock alive during the long, lean winters when the 
range is buried under a heavy crust of snow and even the hardy bronc 
stands shivering with tail to the wind. 

BAYLOR, 27 m. (3,251 alt., 15 pop.), a crossroads store and post 
office, was once a busy trading center for wheat farmers. 

State 22 runs southward over great stretches of rolling benchland, and 
crosses deep coulees. 

At 66 m. is the junction (L) with US 2 (see Tour 2), with which State 
22 runs into Glasgow. 

GLASGOW, 68 m. (2,095 a ^-, 2,216 pop.) (see Tour 2, Sec. a), is at 
the western junction with US 2 (see Tour 2). 

Section b. GLASGOW to MILES CITY, 1754 m., State 22. 

This section of State 22 traverses a rolling plain that, in part, is not 
quite so parched as the region north of the Milk River. Evening thunder- 
showers are relatively frequent. Much of this country between the State's 
two largest streams remains cattle country. 

In GLASGOW, m., State 22 follows Main St. which becomes an oil- 
surfaced road that crosses the Milk River, 3.2 m. There is continuous 
heavy traffic on this stretch, which was built to serve transportation needs 
during construction at Fort Peck Dam (see Tour 10 A). 

WHEELER, 15.1 m. (2,125 a ^- 4,ooo est. pop.), a modern frontier 
town, is made up of shacks hurriedly built of tar paper, packing cases, 
shiplap, and canvas. Along the main street of the camp, neon signs an- 
nounce the products of a more urbane world. 

At Wheeler is the junction with an unnumbered oiled road (see Tour 

Between Wheeler and Jordan, a 7 5 -mile stretch, there are few habita- 
tions or supply points. The dun color of the vast plains is varied only by 
intermittent growths of sage. 

LISMAS FERRY, 20.4 m., is the crossing of the Missouri River ($1 a 
car; service at any time; if ferry is on opposite side, blow horn to bring 
it across). 

The highway traverses salt sage flats, then a region of hills and gullies, 
the Missouri River Badlands. Here the vegetation is more varied. Willows 
fringe many zigzag stream courses between the sparsely timbered hills. 

HAXBY, 29.2 m. (2,018 alt., 5 pop.), a general store and post office, 
serves scattered ranches. 

South of the hamlet the country is wild and rugged. Great boulders of 
amazing shapes and sizes are bright-colored under sunlight, shadowy and 
weird by twilight. The formations are largely brick-red scoria. There are 
large areas of gumbo and silty volcanic ash which, when wet, become very 
sticky. The barren Missouri breaks are a maze of eroded peaks, ridges, 
basins, and coulees. Wild animals are numerous. Coyotes and bobcats en- 
the lives of calves and sheen, wHrh nn";e on the rHges dotte-i 

320 TOURS 

with scrub pine, spruce, and cedar. An occasional mountain lion stalks 
the deer along the river bottoms. 

DAVIDSON, 58.4 m. (2,610 alt.), is a post office and general store. 

PINEY BUTTES (3,000 to 3,500 alt.) parallel (R) the route between 
Davidson and Jordan. They are part of a broad land peninsula that juts 
into the Fort Peck Reservoir area, which includes the Missouri bottoms 
(R) and the flats along Big Dry Creek (L). "Big Dry" is from an Indian 
name that meant the creek was dry a "big" part of the time, and had no 
reference to its size as a stream. 

All land along the Missouri, between Fort Peck and the mouth of the 
Musselshell, was condemned and bought by the Government after plans 
for the building of the dam and the creation of the reservoir were ap- 

At 84.1 m. is a junction (L) with State 18 (see Tour 9)- Between this 
point and 90.1 m., State 22 and State 18 are one route. 

JORDAN, 89.7 m. (2,800 alt., 500 pop.), seat of Garfield County, is 
one of the State's real cow towns. In the winter of 1930 a New York 
radio station called it "the lonesomest town in the world," and certainly a 
New Yorker would find its isolation extreme. Until State 22 was carried 
through to Miles City and telephone service was established in 1935, its 
contacts with the world were few and sometimes broken for long periods. 
For several years the editor of the weekly Jordan Tribune had to depend 
on the world news he could pick up with his own short-wave radio. The 
material thus obtained appeared in a special column headed "A Hundred 
Miles from Miles." Miles City, 86 miles away, is the nearest railroad 

In 1901, when it was founded by Arthur Jordan, the town was even 
more remote. For years long hair and beards were fashionable among the 
citizens simply because the settlement had no barber. The roads were 
merely paired ruts in the gumbo soil almost impassable in rainy weather. 
A story is often told of a Jordan farmer who started to market with a 
four-horse load of grain. Long delayed by rain and mud he arrived at 
Miles City with only two bushels of oats, and had to buy more at the 
elevator to feed his animals on the return trip. 

In spring and fall this is a busy town. Sheep ranchers outfit their herd- 
ers here for the summer's ranging and farmers come in long distances to 
buy six months' supply of food and clothing. The town now has a golf 
course, a swimming pool, movies on three nights a week, a commercial 
club, a hospital, and a high school. 

At 90.1 m. is the junction (R) with State 18 (see Tour 9). 

South of this point is a grazing ground long used by antelopes. Their pres- 
ence was a source of joy to the early cowboys, who, despite the law, did 
not hesitate occasionally to vary their monotonous diet of sowbelly and 
flapjacks with luscious roasts of antelope meat. Since game-law enforce- 
ment has become stricter, the animals are rarely killed. They are timid by 
nature and seldom let an automobile come near them, though they are 
sometimes seen grazing on distant hills. 


SMOKY BUTTE (R), 91 m., rises majestically from the open plain. 
A thick blue haze usually seems to hang about its gaunt basalt bulk. 

COHAGEN, 114.5 m. (2,930 alt., 200 pop.), is a school and a gen- 
eral store surrounded by scattered homes. In 1919 it won brief local im- 
portance as Jordan's rival in a race for the county government. 

Southeast of Cohagen the rolling prairie is carpeted with buffalo grass. 
Owls are seen meditating on fence posts along the road. 

ROCK SPRINGS, 139.5 m. (2,870 alt., 6 pop.), by Rock Springs 
Creek, is a prairie post office, general store, and gas station. 

Left from Rock Springs on an unimproved dirt road to a junction with another 
road, 10 m.; R. to CROW ROCK, 18 m., a peculiarly shaped mound that has en- 
gaged the attention of geologists interested in oil. At its top are natural ramparts, 
behind which human bones have been uncovered. Legend tells of a band of 100 
Crow who came here from their tribal lands south of the Yellowstone to hunt buf- 
falo, and were attacked by a hunting party of Sioux, who forced them to retreat to 
the rock. Fighting without water, they were reduced to drinking the blood of their 
slain companions before the Sioux at length overpowered them, and scalped them 
to the last man. 

ANGELA, 146.2 m. (2,490 alt., 5 pop.), is a crossroads post office, 
store, and gas station in gently rolling country harshly carpeted with cac- 
tus and low sagebrush. 

322 TOURS 

State 22 crosses the Yellowstone River into MILES CITY, 175.4 m. 
(2,357 alt., 7,175 pop.) (see Tour 1, Sec. a), which is at the junction 
with US 10 (see Tour 1). 

Section c. MILES CITY to WYOMING LINE, 141.7 m., State 22. 

This section of State 22 passes through a land of grass and cattle, 
cowhands and Indians, a range from which the best Montana beef is shipped 
to eastern markets. Nutritious grasses, with an ample supply of water, 
make the entire district ideal for livestock raising. Farms and hence 
fences are few; it is the sort of region that cowboys dream about. Little 
grain is grown, and that little is used for winter feed. Only along the 
creeks, where irrigation is possible, has there been any continued effort to 
grow crops year after year. 

Pioneers of this region tell of their concern when dry-land farming 
first began in Montana. They heard about other ranges that were being 
fenced in, and expected that their own would suffer the same fate. Some 
cowboys watched the newcomers "busting the sod" with their gang plows, 
and distastefully concluded that the only thing left for them was quit- 
ting the old life of the bunkhouse and the roundup to become farmers 
themselves. A popular bit of doggerel current here is: "I've hung up the 
saddle and turned out ol' Buck; I'm feelin' right solemn and blue. I'm a 
bowlegged puncher whose shore outa luck, and I reckon my punchin' is 
through. It don't matter which way I heads in the morn, I'm shore to 
fetch up at a fence; and I'm tired o' hearin' 'em talk about corn, and 
wheat that's gone up seven cents. Oh, I shore am atastin' of life's bitter 
dregs, and I'm gettin' right des'prate you'll see, for a country that's dealin' 
in butter and eggs, gets the goat of a hombre like me. So my mind is made 
up and my purpose is grim, and I blush at the thought of my shame, for 
it shore seems a pity that Montana Slim has to play such a card in the 
game. But my program is set and I can't back out now though I squirm 
in my grief and my sorrow, for I just bought a rake and a second-hand 
plow, and I starts in at farmin' tomorrow." 

State 22 follows Main St. in MILES CITY, m., to Haynes Ave. ; R. on 
Haynes Ave. ; then southeast along the valleys of Tongue River and 
Pumpkin Creek. The red buttes in this country of coulees and canyons 
are composed of earthy hematite and scoria, a cindered lava much used in 
road construction. 

BEEBE, 30.2 m. (2,349 alt., 7 pop.), is a ranch post office in a sparsely 
settled region. 

VOLBORG, 46.8 m. (2,307 alt., 5 pop.), is a country store and post 

COALWOOD, 56.5 m. (2,270 alt., 8 pop.), is on the flank of the 
large canyon of Home Creek, surrounded by towering red buttes. It is a 
combination store and post office; a gasoline pump has replaced the old 
feed store and smithy. The region around it was once a Cheyenne hunt- 
ing ground. Tepee rings, arrowheads, and stone knives have been found 
on the sites of camps along the creek; an Indian skeleton, in almost per- 

TOUR 10 323 

feet condition, was dug from a grave. Near it were weapons and shreds 
of a robe. The body had been buried in a sitting position. 

South of Coalwood State 22 winds upward around pointed buttes and 
over ridges topped with scrub cedar, jack pine, and spruce, and at 70.7 m. 
crosses Mizpah Creek, a tributary of Powder River. The number of 
small ranches increases as the road runs southward; here and there are 
the sod-roofed log houses of farmers who wrest a scanty living from the 
rocky soil. 

BROADUS, 80.2 m. (3,030 alt., 240 pop.), seat of Powder River 
County, is another of the "biggest little towns in the west"; its high 
school is the only one in a county of 3,275 square miles inhabited by 
3,909 people. There is no railroad in the county, but good highways 
compensate for the lack. 

Broadus is the trading center of a large part of southeastern Montana. 

Right from Broadus on State 8, a partly improved dirt road, to CAMPS PASS, 
22 m. (3,100 alt., 51 pop.), a settlement on a plateau between the Tongue and 
Powder Rivers. 

State 8 enters the CUSTER NATIONAL FOREST through a canyon 50 feet wide 
and 500 feet high. HOME CREEK BUTTE, 30 m., is a sandstone wedge with a 
sheer cliff overhanging the valley. 

ASHLAND, 48 m. (3,200 alt., 82 pop.), on Tongue River, is the division head- 
quarters of the Custer National Forest, and the trade center for a group of cattle 
ranches that provide entertainment and recreation for vacationers. 

LAME DEER, 69 m. (3,700 alt., 89 pop.) (see side tour from Tour 1, Sec. a), 
is at the junction with State 45 (see Tour 1). Between Lame Deer and a junction 
at 73 m. State 8 and State 45 are one route. 

After the extermination of the buffalo (about 1885), the grasses of this region 
and its sheltered position in winter attracted cattlemen. An attempt of sheepmen to 
gain control of the section was defeated on January 3, 1901, when n masked men 
raided a sheep camp and killed 2,000 sheep in a single night. 

CROW AGENCY, 123 m. (3,041 alt., 202 pop.) (see Tour 3, Sec. b), is at the 
junction with US 87 (see Tour 3). 

At 80.9 m. State 22 crosses Powder River. Some historians believe the 
Verendryes (see HISTORY) reached this river in 1743, while seeking a 
route to the Pacific. In 1805 Frangois Larocque journeyed almost the en- 
tire length of the stream as an agent of the North West Company. Trap- 
pers operated here briefly; Indians were the only inhabitants until stock 
growers came in 1880. 

BO YES, 103.1 m., is a general store and post office. 

At 108.8 m. is the junction with an unnumbered dirt road (see side 
tour from Tour 17). 

HAMMOND, 109.7 m., is a cluster of sod-roofed log cabins and a gen- 
eral store. 

The highway at 138.1 m. crosses the Little Missouri River, a tributary 
of the Missouri. 

ALZADA, 138.6 m. (3,622 alt., 50 pop.), is the most southeasterly 
settlement in Montana. Here saddle horses tied to hitching posts outnum- 
ber parked cars. Men in ten-gallon hats, faded shirts, and denim trousers, 
whose occupation is just plain cowpunching without any frills, loiter in 
front of the store. 

Alzada was originally called Stonesville, for Lou Stone, who kept a 

324 TOURS 

saloon here in 1877-78, at the time Gen. Nelson A. Miles was building 
the telegraph line from Fort Keogh (Miles City) to Fort Mead, S. D. 
The Stonesville telegraph station was a rock-covered dugout at the top of a 
hill. The presence of older Stonesvilles in Montana led to confusion, so 
the town was renamed for Mrs. Alzada Sheldon, wife of a pioneer rancher. 
At 141.7 m. is the Wyoming Line, 39 miles northwest of Belle Fourche, 
S. D. The route cuts diagonally for 24 miles across Wyoming, a stretch 
without a single town, and into South Dakota (see Tours 3 and 13 m 

Tour loA 

Wheeler Fort Peck; Fort Peck Rd. 4.2 m. 

Frequent bus service. 

Hotel and information bureau at Fort Peck. 

Oil-surfaced roadbed; heavily congested. 

This unnumbered oiled road branches east from State 22 (see Tour 10) 
at WHEELER, m. 

FORT PECK, 4.2 m. (2,100 alt., 6,000 est. pop., 1938), a planned 
city, seems strangely misplaced on the vast bare prairie. Built by the Gov- 
ernment as a permanent town near Fort Peck Dam, today (1939) it has 
rows of barracks to house construction workers and a boulevard of stores 
and shops. South and west of the town is a maze of roads. The dam- 
building activities fill the valley. 

At the main entrance to the city is an INFORMATION BUREAU, supply- 
ing maps and answering questions. East of the river, at an observation 
point overlooking the gigantic spillway and part of the dam site, is a 
small pavilion with maps and a large model of the completed spillway. 

The construction of FORT PECK DAM, a PWA project, is under the 
supervision of U. S. Army Engineers. This great earth-fill barrier across 
the Missouri River is one of the largest structures of its kind in the world. 
Its maximum height is 242 feet, and its main length 9,000. A lower sec- 
tion on the west bank is 11,500 feet long. The dam stretches across the 
Missouri from bluff to bluff a distance of 3.68 miles. A highway 100 feet 
wide crosses its top. One hundred million cubic yards of earth, 4 million 
cubic yards of gravel, and 1,600,000 cubic yards of large rocks have been 
used in construction. At the beginning of 1938 it had cost $81,160,555, 
and it was believed that almost $11,000,000 more would be required for 
its completion by the end of 1939. 


It takes several normal years for the Missouri River to bring here such 
a quantity of water (20 million acre-feet) as will be required to fill the 
space behind the giant wall. The length of the lake thus to be created is 
estimated at 175 miles, its shore line at 1,600 miles, its maximum depth at 
240 feet. 

On October 23, 1933, a small crew began clearing brush and cutting 
trees. By July 1934 more than 7,000 men were at work, and the town of 
Fort Peck was being built to house administrative personnel, engineers, 
concessionaires, and the many laborers. In addition to residences and bar- 
racks, schools, a hospital, a recreation hall, a laboratory, a town hall, a 
theater, and various shops have been constructed. 

The huge filtration plant (L) was erected to provide the little city 
with pure water; three electric pumps force river water into the plant. 
A 288-mile power line from Great Falls, capable of carrying 154,000 
volts, has been built to furnish electricity for construction purposes. At a 
boatyard i mile below the dam, pontoons, barges, and four great dredges 
have been constructed. The dredges have been biting deep into the bottom 
of the river for material to be pumped through pipe lines resting partly 
on pontoons to the earth fill. 

The 2 -mile wall of steel plating across the dam center was driven to a 
maximum depth of 163 feet to prevent excessive seepage below the dam. 
Each of four diversion tunnels, cut through the shale beds east of the 
river, has an inside diameter of 26 feet; their combined length is 25,294 
feet. Each tunnel has a vertical shaft equipped with machinery to reg- 
ulate the flow of water. 

A large spillway from the reservoir provides an outlet for water that 
the diversion tunnels can not handle. It is 745 feet long and has 16 con- 
crete and steel gates capable of discharging 250,000 cubic feet of water a 

Great trestles span the site, carrying the railroad cars with material for 
the upstream and downstream gravel toes. The earth from the dredges is 
pumped in between these toes. The trestle on the downstream toe is part 
of a permanent road crossing to the east bank, where the tunnels are. 

Construction of the dam will increase the navigability of the Missouri 
River, and aid development of irrigation, electric power, and flood control. 

Navigation of the upper Missouri became important toward the close 
of the Civil War, when the gold camps in Alder, Last Chance, and Grass- 
hopper Gulches were established (see HISTORY). There were difficulties 
because of low water in late summer and fall, and trouble with Indians. 
In 1867 Comdr. E. H. Durfee and Col. Campbell K. Peck established the 
Indian agency and trading post of Fort Peck, a few miles from the pres- 
ent damsite, and undertook to pacify the Indians with food and gifts. 
Among the supplies they issued were loo-pound sacks of flour emblazoned 
on each side with great red circles composed of the words "Durfee and 
Peck." The Indians adopted the sacks for war dress, merely cutting holes 
for the arms and neck. The Hunkpapa, a Sioux tribe, especially valued the 

Kight red circles as "good medicine." 
Fort Peck enjoyed a monopoly of the fur trade with the Assiniboine and 

326 TOURS 

Sioux, and became more important than Fort Union had been. Colonel 
Peck went to Washington in the first attempt to get Federal aid for the 
development of Missouri navigation. He died on his way back in 1869. 
His post was abandoned in 1879, and was later swept away by the river. 
Underlying the glacial and stream deposits of the Fort Peck area are 
20 to 40 feet of volcanic ash, in which fossils from the Age of Reptiles 
are found. There is a theory that the reptiles were exterminated when 
thousands of volcanoes erupted. A FOSSIL COLLECTION (open during 
shows) in the foyer of the Fort Peck theater contains more than 1,000 
pieces gathered by project engineers. Remains of herbivorous and carniv- 
orous dinosaurs, armored fishes, and swimming reptiles are among them. 
There is also a hindfoot of the Trachodon, a large duck-billed dinosaur, 
and a Triceratops horn core 2 feet long and 8 inches across, probably from 
a horn at least 4 feet long. Fossilized flora include a segment of palm 
leaf, wood of coniferous trees, and a dozen petrified figs, indicating the 
subtropical nature of this region at one period. 



Forsyth Roundup Harlowton White Sulphur Springs Townsend ; 

State 6. 

Forsyth to Townsend, 290.2 m. 

Route served by Intermountain Transportation Co. busses; paralleled at intervals by 

the main line of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific R. R. 

Hotels and tourist camps in larger towns; many service stations. 

Roadbed graded and drained between Forsyth and Melstone; rough and, in rainy 

weather, difficult between Melstone and Roundup; graded and, except for a lo-mile 

oil-surfaced stretch south of White Sulphur Springs, graveled between Roundup 

and Townsend. 

State 6 traverses the central Montana range country, skirts the Bull and 
Big Snowy Mountains, slips between the Little Belt and Castle Ranges, 
and crosses the Big Belts into the upper Missouri Valley. The rolling plain 
and the foothills produce excellent hard wheat and afford pasturage for 
thousands of cattle and sheep. Mining for lead, silver, and gold is an im- 
portant industry in the mountains. Antelopes graze north of the Mussel- 
shell River, coyotes slink over the hills and along the sides of coulees, and 
wolves are sometimes seen. A few wild horses still exist on the prairie. 
Several kinds of upland birds are hunted here in season. 

Towns along the route are small and often far between. 


TOUR II 327 

State 6 branches northwest from US 10 (see Tour 1) at FORSYTH, 
m. (see Tour 1, Sec. a), crosses the Yellowstone River at 0.8 m., and 
follows the railroad track and the river (L). 

VANANDA, 23.1 m. (2,705 alt., 60 pop.), a village of general stores, 
a grain elevator, and a railroad station, serves the surrounding sheep and 
cattle outfits. 

West of Vananda the highway passes over rolling country dotted with 
limps of low sage and greasewood. Purple crocus, blue larkspur, and 
jllow mustard in turn lift their bright heads among the dry-land grasses, 
hich are fresh and green in spring, dusty and dun in late summer. Large 
nds of sheep or herds of cattle crowd and push and bawl around occa- 

1 water holes. 

The highway rises to the top of a ridge, 39 m., that permits a view of 
wide sweep of prairie. 

INGOMAR, 49.9 m. (3,040 alt., 315 pop.), a trade center of the 
eep-raising area, has one of the largest shearing plants in the State. It 
>erates in May and June. (For a description of shearing, see Tour 1, 
ec. b.) 

GALBRAITH, 56.6 m. (3,111 alt.), is a railroad siding with stock- 
.ding pens. 

SUMATRA, 61.2 m. (3,186 alt., 300 pop.), is on an old trail that once 
nected Fort Musselshell, at the junction of the Missouri and Mussel- 
ell Rivers, with Fort Custer in the Big Horn country. 
BASCOM, 72.1 m. (2,937 a ^- I 5 PP-)> nas f ur buildings a gen- 
eral store and post office, a railway station, a one-room school, and the 
storekeeper's home. 

State 6 crosses the Musselshell River, 75.1 m., named by Lewis and 
rk on May 20, 1805. Between farms and coal mines in this district are 
:ock ranches. In autumn and winter, when ranch work is light, neighbor- 
hunting parties break the monotony of life for the inhabitants. 
Indians believed the Musselshell Valley to be haunted by evil spirits, 
d seldom used it even as a passage to the buffalo grounds a blessing to 
rly settlers, who were thus spared the occasional Indian scares that 
afflicted other pioneer communities. 

MELSTONE, 78.2 m. (2,897 a ^- 2I 7 PP-)> was name d for Melville 
E. Stone, general manager of the Associated Press (1893-1921), who once 
lived near here. It is a livestock-shipping point. 

State 6 passes southwestward between towering rocky bluffs topped 
with scrub pine and cedar. Large cottonwoods border the river and give 
shade to livestock. 

MUSSELSHELL, 92.7 m. (2,997 alt -> I 5 I PP-)> was named for the 
old stockmen's landmark known as Musselshell Crossing, where the herds 
of Texas longhorns driven north in the i88o's were bedded down for 
the last time before being "fanned out" in smaller herds to their ultimate 
Montana owners. 

The crossing was established in 1877 on the north bank of the Mussel- 
shell River, opposite the present village. The trail between Fort Custer 
and Fort Maginnis passed through it. Three years later a store, which 

328 TOURS 

contained the post office, was opened here, and settlement of the valley 

For 30 years the rule of the stockman was disputed only by rustlers, 
many of whom ended their lawless careers at the end of 20 feet of hemp. 
The cattle king's day ended here as it ended all over the State. In 1908 
the railroad arrived and soon sodbusters were flocking in to break the 
great free range into relatively small cultivated tracts. Coal, the great 
mineral resource of the valley, was exploited. Villages sprang up amid the 
sage. The old West retreated before advancing barriers of barbwire, and 
grain farming superseded the livestock industry in importance. 

Between Musselshell and Roundup, State 6 closely follows the Mussel- 
shell River, which winds intricately. When the C. M. St. P. & P. R. R. 
was built through the valley it was necessary to bridge the river 117 times 
in 115 miles. 

State 6 enters the foothills of the BULL MOUNTAINS at 93.8 m. The 
rough higher ridges (L), which are old and eroded into fantastic pin- 
nacles and deep gorges, contain many caves of various sizes. Rattlesnakes 
are numerous, but not particularly dangerous except in August, when they 
sometimes strike without warning (see FAUNA, and GENERAL IN- 

DELPHIA, 100.1 m. (3,053 alt, 101 pop.), is the standard combina- 
tion of general store and post office that is common on the plains. 

GAGE, 109-2 m. (3,128 alt., 31 pop.), is one of the few remaining 
"cracker box communities" in Montana. Here, at the general store known 
as John Brown's, ranchers from the valley and homesteading bachelors 
from the hills buy groceries and "set awhile" to gossip and discuss poli- 
tics. Old but comfortable chairs and upended apple boxes drawn about 
the stove in winter and the doorway in summer, testify that this is the 
community center. 

ROUNDUP, 117.1 m. (3,184 alt, 2,577 pop-) (^e Tour 3, Sec. a), is 
at the junction with US 87 (see Tour 3). Between Roundup and the junc- 
tion at 118.7 m. State 6 is united with US 87. 

At 140 m. on State 6 is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road is LAVINA, 1 m. (3,443 alt., 144 pop.), a prairie village that 
began as a trading post and a stage station on the route between Billings and 

RYEGATE, 157 m. (3,641 alt., 292 pop.), is the seat of hopefully 
named Golden Valley County. A fine field of rye that attracted the atten- 
tion of railway officials suggested the town's name. Since drought struck 
this rolling farm country, much of it is returning to range. The most fer- 
tile acres are to the south ; dairying and turkey raising compete with live- 
stock raising and grain growing. 

Ryegate was built at the base of rimrocks 3 miles long that were once 
part of the shore of a large lake. Marine fossils are abundant here. Pre- 
historic inscriptions are still seen on the rocks ; one crudely drawn picture, 
a mile west of town, shows six men and three antelopes. North of the 
rimrocks (R) the benchlands rise gently to the Big Snowy Mountains, 25 
miles away. 

TOUR II 329 

Left from Ryegate on a graded dirt road is SEVENTYNINE, 16 m., a commu- 
nity composed largely of people who speak both Russian and English. Most of the 
first settlers were from Odessa. They observe many of the customs of South Russia, 
id on feast days dance the trepak to the strains of the accordion and the balalaika. 
The Russians and other farmers of this vicinity settled here in 1912 when the 
Ranch, one of the largest old-time spreads in Montana was broken up. The ranch 
named for 1879, the year John T. Murphy, president of the Montana Cattle 
ipany, started it on Sweetgrass Creek. In 1881 the outfit moved to Big Coulee a 
miles south of Seventynine. It built up its herds by trailing cattle from Texas 
at its busiest ran 50,000 head of cattle and about 40,000 sheep. The home 
ich was at Big Coulee, but there were three other large ranches, and the stock 
iged from the Yellowstone to the mouth of the Musselshell. The greatest days of 
79 were, of course, those of the open range, but it did well enough later by 
purchasing railroad land and fencing it, fencing at the same time the Government 
land on alternate sections. To obey the letter of the law and still fatten their cows 
on Federal property, the men of the 79 ran fences right up to but not quite around 
Government corners. The Government ended that practice in 1908, and in 1912 
company allowed its holding to be broken up. 

BARBER, 163.5 m. (3,727 alt., 90 pop.), is a crossroads hamlet com- 
of a general store, a schoolhouse, and a railroad station. 

DEADMAN'S BASIN (R), 170.7 m., is a natural basin 2 miles square, 
nth a storage capacity of 80,000 acre-feet of water, and an average depth 
" 58 feet. It is now filled for irrigation purposes by a 1 2-mile canal from 
ic Musselshell River, which usually runs full only in April and May. A 
,ooo-foot tunnel at the northern end of the basin controls the supply of 
rater for the irrigation of 21,000 acres of the lower benchlands along the 
tusselshell. Work on the project began in 1934 under the FERA, and 
is been continued by the WPA. 

The name of the basin is of legendary origin. Indians are said to have 
id the bodies of two men here, one on each side of the basin. 

SHAWMUT, 170.9 m. (3,857 alt, 100 pop.), is a country store and 

st office on a sparse sheep range covered largely with yucca, sage, and 

At 178 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road, crossing railroad tracks and passing through the yard of the 
^innecook Ranch to a FOSSIL AREA, 7 m., locally known as Devil's Pocket. It was 

discovered in 1902. The specimens found here are similar to those found in the 

Crazy Mountains area (see below), but less spectacular. 

The CLIFF (R), 183.2 m., is a piskun (buffalo leap) where many 
buffaloes were killed. Below it a highway cut exposes large numbers of 
buffalo bones. 

HARLOWTON, 187.3 m. (4,167 alt, 1,473 PP-) seat ojf Wheat- 
land County, is hidden by river bluffs until the road makes a turn and a 
descent about a mile from town. At the top of the hill is (L) the GRAVES 
HOTEL built in 1909 of stone quarried from the nearby rim rocks. The 
town's presence is first revealed by the concrete cylinders (R) of a flour 
mill. The road turns R. into the main street at the base of the hill. Local 
stone has been used in a number of buildings here. The town overlooks 
the Musselshell River and is protected to some extent from the almost 
continual northerly winds by the river bluffs. Many houses on the west 
side are perched on the very edge of the river-bank. 

330 TOURS 

Harlowton was named for Richard Harlow, who built the "Jawbone 
Line" (see TRANSPORTATION). It is a division point on the C. M. 
St. P. & P. R. R., whose electrified section begins here, and whose shops 
and yards provide much local employment. The flour mill, outstanding 
for this region, has 22 storage tanks with a capacity of 25,000 bushels 
each, and the daily output is 950 barrels of flour and large quantities of 
poultry and stock feeds. The town is the trading center for a steadily pro- 
ductive sheep and cattle region. 

The RENE LA BRIE ARROWHEAD COLLECTION (open on application; 
inquire at the Times Bldg., Mam St.) contains more than 1,000 arrowheads 
gathered over a period of 15 years. It is not completely catalogued, but 
includes most of the styles of points known to archeologists the slender, 
fluted Folsom, the "Folsomlike," the Yuma, and many others. The range 
of size and types is as interesting as the variety of flints and other mate- 
rials. Most of the points were found on Indian campgrounds, but many 
were obtained by laboriously screening tons of dirt from piskuns. Many 
of the Folsom and Yuma points were found buried near bones of mam- 
moths, ground sloths, camels, and prehistoric horses. La Brie also has axes 
obtained by Indians from early fur traders, stones used for pounding 
pemmican, stones used in ceremonial games, war clubs, skinning knives, 
fleshers, pipe reamers, and medicine bowls. 

The W. F. ALMQUIST FIREARMS COLLECTION (open on application; 
inquire at the Times Bldg., Main St.) is another valuable uncatalogued 
collection built up over a period of years. Some of the pieces, such as the 
Kentucky muzzle- loading rifles, have great beauty of workmanship. Others, 
such as the dragoon pistols and pepper-box revolvers, have more purely 
antiquarian interest. Most of the pieces have historical associations; many 
played a part in the making of Montana the original derringer, the early 
Sharps, the Spencer, first repeating rifle, the first Colt revolver, and the 
Winchester. A number of the guns are in bad condition. 

At 188 m. is the junction with State 19. 

Left on State 19 to the boundary, 14 m., of a FOSSIL AREA. For about 26 miles 
fossil beds extend along both sides of the highway, mostly L. The pockets are widely 
scattered. The Fort Union geological formation in this area contains some of the 
best examples of Cretaceous and Tertiary remains in North America. Bones of the 
earliest known primates were found here animals ancestral to existing lemurs, 
monkeys, apes, and man. They were very small about the size of squirrels but 
are credited with the destruction of the dinosaurs, whose eggs they ate. More than 
2,000 specimens of Paleocene mammals have been taken from the field; most of 
them are in the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Outstanding 
among the mammal finds was Ptilodus montanus, discovered in 1908 by Albert 
Silberling of Harlowton; it is one of the oldest known multituberculate mammalian 
skulls, being surpassed only by specimens found in Mongolia by Walter Granger 
and Roy Chapman Andrews. Other fossils found here include turtles, crocodiles, 
lizards, birds, plants, and several genera of dinosaurs, including the smallest one 
known a birdlike creature only 14 inches long. 

A little searching will unearth gizzard stones polished to a high gloss millions of 
years ago by the digestive processes of dinosaurs. 

MELVILLE, 30 m. (5,000 alt., 25 pop.), a supply point for sheep camps in the 
Crazy Mountains, is also headquarters of the KREMER STOCK RANCH, which breeds 
the bucking horses and other stock used in rodeos of the West and also the annual 

TOUR II 331 

Madison Square Garden show in New York. Hundreds of horses are trained on the 
ranch each year. 

State 19 follows a somewhat irregular route southward through grazing country, 
with impressive views of the mountains (R). 

BIG TIMBER, 52 m. (4,072 alt., 1,224 pop.) (see Tour 1, Sec. b), is at the 
junction with US 10 (see Tour 1). 

State 6 goes west up the Musselshell Valley. The Castle Mountains are 
straight ahead, almost indistinguishable from the Little Belts (R). 

The sharp and rugged CRAZY MOUNTAINS (L), glittering in the 
clear air, are an isolated, geologically young range; they form an almost 
incredibly jagged upthrust of rock more than 11,000 feet high. Before 
white men ever saw them, Indians knew them as the Mad Mountains, and 
feared and avoided them. Their terrifying steepness, their awe-inspiring 
structure, and the demoniac winds that blow continually out of their 
strange canyons impressed white men as much as it had their coppery 
brethren, though with less superstitious awe. The epithet "Mad" became 
the more familiar "Crazy " The weird range is rarely visited. 

DAISY NOTCH, slightly R., is a huge nick in the soft rock of a spur of 
Bluff Mountain in the Little Belts. At a distance it resembles a gunsight. 
The spur rises between Morrissey Coulee and Daisy Dean Canyon. 

At 199.6 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road is TWO DOT, 1 m. (4,434 alt., 179 pop.), named for an early 
cattle brand. It has won local fame as the scene of wild and violent dances that 
have more than once ended in free-for-all fights and grave injuries. A power sub- 
station here controls voltage for the electrified C. M. St. P. & P. R. R. 

As the road goes south, R. is isolated COFFIN BUTTE, sometimes called Gordon 
Butte, in honor of a pioneer rancher. It rises steeply on the north side, but emerges 
into high grassland on the south and west. Now and then on summer nights, the 
sheepmen's lanterns glimmering on the slopes are reported as small forest fires by 
persons unfamiliar with the place. 

The WALLIS HUIDEKOPER RANCH, 35,000 acres of hill and plain, is at 11 m. 
Strangers descending to it often mistake the collection of white-painted red-roofed 
buildings for a small village. The ranch at one time maintained a herd of buffalo 
from which came the largest buffalo head in the world, now in the Field Museum 
in Chicago. In the Huidekoper home are a number of oils by Charles Russell. One 
of them is The Last of Five Thousand, which brought Russell recognition (see 

At 214.6 m. on State 6 is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road is MARTINSDALE, 2.4 m. (4,822 alt., 188 pop.), a sheep- 
men's town. West is the Smith ranch of 86,000 acres and east is the Bair ranch of 
80,000 acres, two of the largest sheep outfits in the State. In 1910 Bair shipped east 
44 carloads of wool, worth $500,000, the largest single shipment of wool that ever 
left Montana. 

In the shearing season, blackjack and poker games often draw the itinerant work- 
ers from the shearing pens, and many shearers are as neatly "clipped" as the sheep. 

Martinsdale is the home of Grace Stone Coates, novelist and poet (see THE 

At 216 m. on State 6 is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to FINDON, 10 m., a country post office; L. from Findon on 
a dim and difficult trail to the Narrows of DAISY DEAN CANYON, 12 m. On 
the rock walls above the narrows are Indian picture writings partly obscured by the 
smoke of campers' fires. 

At 219.9 m. State 6 turns northwest to run along the North Fork of the 

332 TOURS 

Musselshell through a pass between the Little Belts (R) and the Castle 
Mountains (L). At intervals it follows an old Indian trail that ran be- 
tween Judith Gap and White Sulphur Springs along the southern slopes 
of the Little Belts. The low Castle Mountains are timbered with lodge- 
pole and yellow pine and, on the western slopes, with scrub cedar. 

SUMPTER INN, 225.2 m., is a tourist camp in a rugged, wooded 

The deserted shacks and mine shafts of COPPEROPOLIS, 236.1 m., a 
busy mining town in the 1890*5, crown the divide between the valleys of 
the upper Musselshell and Smith Rivers. The Delpine Reservoir (R), a 
storage lake for irrigation waters, backs up through a long narrow valley. 

The road here, surfaced with green, red, and yellow shales, swings 
south and descends through the Smith Valley. 

At 244.7 m. is the junction (R) with US 89 (see Tour 4). Between 
this point and the junction at 256.5 m. US 89 and State 6 are one route 
(see Tour 4, Sec. b). 

At 256.5 m. is the junction (L) with US 89 (see Tour 4). 

State 6 runs west through the foothills of the Big Belt Mountains and 
at 269.1 m. crosses the divide between the Smith and Missouri Valleys. It 
runs through narrow DEEP CREEK CANYON, where varicolored strata 
and curious rock formations tower 2,000 feet above the stream bed in 
some places. The descent toward the Missouri is long and winding. 

DEEP CREEK RANGER STATION (L), 277.6 m., is in the Helena Na- 
tional Forest, at the western end of Deep Creek Canyon. 

At 279.2 m. the main range of the Rockies is seen straight ahead. 

TOWNSEND, 290.2 m. (3,833 alt., 740 pop.) (see Tour 1A), is at the 
junction with US 10 N (see Tour 1A). 

Tour 12 

Ravalli Plains Thompson Falls (Sandpoint, Idaho) ; State 3. 
Ravalli to Idaho Line, 116.4 m. 

Northern Pacific Ry. parallels entire route. Missoula-Hot Springs busses travel 

State 3 between Ravalli and Perma. 

Better accommodations in towns; tourist camps along road. 

Oil-surfaced roadbed; open throughout year. 

State 3 is part of an alternate route to US 10 between Missoula and 
Spokane; though 40 miles longer than US 10, it is relatively free of traffic 


334 TOURS 

every seven million bison is an albino. The animals graze in scattered 
groups and often appear near the highway. Elk, deer, mountain goats, 
and other native animals share the range with them. 
At 6.3 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to FLATHEAD INDIAN RESERVATION AGENCY, 1.2 m. (se<> 
Tour 7, Sec. b) ; and MOIESE, 4.6 m., headquarters of the National Bison Range 
(conducted tours on Sat. afternoons and Sun.). Moiese was named for a Salishan 

DIXON, 7 m. (2,531 alt., 132 pop.), is a grain and cattle shipping 
center at the confluence of the Jocko and Flathead Rivers (R). 

PERMA, 21 m. (2,512 alt., 30 pop.), is scarcely noticeable at a short 
distance. To the north and south stretches the open Camas Prairie of the 
Flathead Reservation. Salish and Kootenai come here annually in late 
spring to dig the bulbs of the camas, a member of the lily family that has 
an onionlike flavor. It was formerly one of the staples of their diet. 

Right from Perma on an improved road to HOT SPRINGS, 22 m. (2,540 alt., 
447 pop.). (Riding, swimming, fishing, and hunting in summer.) The springs are 
owned and maintained by the Government; the baths (adm. 25$ and 50$) are under 
the supervision of experienced attendants. The principal mineral ingredients in the 
hot water are silica, calcium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, carbonates, bicarbonates, 
and sulphates. 

Between Perma and Paradise State 3 winds over a thickly wooded hill 
above a rocky gorge of the Flathead River. At 25 m. the Mission Moun- 
tains (R) are seen; a large glacier gleams on the face of McDONALD 
PEAK (9,800 alt.), the highest. The range was named for St. Ignatius 
Mission, established in 1854 by Jesuit missionaries (see Tour 7, Sec. b). 
McDonald Peak was named for Angus McDonald, the early North West 
trader operating in the Flathead and Clark Fork Valleys. 

State 3 crosses the western boundary of the Flathead Indian Reserva- 
tion at 30.6 m. (see Tour 7, Sec. b). 

At 31.6 m. is the junction with the graveled St. Regis Cut-off. 

Left on this road to QUINN'S HOT SPRINGS, 2 m., where are hot mineral-water 
baths. (Facilities for riding, swimming, hunting, and fishing.) 

ST. PATRICK'S NOB (6,866 alt.), directly across the Clark Fork from the hot 
springs, has a FOREST SERVICE LOOKOUT on its summit. 

The Flathead River joins the Clark Fork, which the highway now 
closely parallels. 

PARADISE (R), 34.2 m. (2,499 a ^-' 2 59 PP-) huddles on a grassy 
flat at the base of a bare mountain. Railroad yards are L. ; Paradise is a 
division point on the Northern Pacific Ry., which here changes from 
mountain standard time to Pacific standard time. The town's name is a 
polite modification of Pair o' Dice, the name of a roadhouse on the trail. 

From the mouth of the Flathead River the old Kootenai Trail followed 
the north bank of the Clark Fork to Idaho. Between 1810 and 1883, when 
the Northern Pacific was built, it was the main artery of travel through 
the lower Clark Fork Valley. Its identity was then lost, and most of the 
trail was obliterated. 

Between Paradise and the Idaho Line are (R) the Cabinet Mountains 


and (L) the Coeur d'Alenes. Early French-Canadian trappers, noting box- 
like recesses in the gorge of the Clark Fork near the present State Line, 
applied to them the French word for cabinet or room, and this rock- 
walled gorge has since been known as the Cabinet Gorge. The name Coeur 
d'Alene seems to have had its origin in an epithet applied by Salish In- 
dians to sharp-trading French Canadians, who translated it as "heart of an 
awl," and applied it to the Indians themselves. The shrewd practices re- 
ferred to probably were not confined to the French. Another explanation 
is that early trappers said the Coeur d'Alene region was as hard to get into 
as "the heart of a shoemaker's awl." 

PLAINS, 39.8 m. (2,582 alt, 522 pop.), straddles the highway, its 
business houses R., the railroad L. Beyond the stores are trim, neatly 
painted, frame dwellings, churches, and a school. Plains is the largest and 
oldest white community west of Missoula in the Clark Fork Valley, which 
at this point is about 15 miles wide. Because of the large herds of wild 
horses that once ranged the valley, the flats and town were originally 
called Wild Horse Plains. The Kootenai Trail ran near the site. 

State 3 crosses the boundary ,of the CABINET NATIONAL FOREST 
at 46.2 m., and Thompson River at 60.4 m. near the confluence with the 
Clark Fork. Large stands of western yellow pine border the stream. 

The DAVID THOMPSON MONUMENT, 64.7 m., erected by citizens of 
Thompson Falls to the memory of the explorer of the Columbia River 
watershed, stands close to the SITE OF SALISH HOUSE, built by Thompson 

336 TOURS 

in 1809. It is believed to have been the first roofed habitation of white 
men in the territory that later became Montana (see HISTORY). David 
Thompson, a surveyor, was the first white man to follow the Columbia 
from its source to its mouth. Mapping this territory with sextant and 
compass, he traveled 50,000 miles on foot, on horseback, and by canoe. 
He built Salish House in a place from which he could readily see Indian 
war parties crossing Bad Rock (Es-em-mowela, or Roche Mauvais) on the 
Kootenai Trail. 

Because of his seemingly magical instruments, Indians regarded him 
with superstitious awe, and called him Koo-koo-sint (man who looks at 
the stars). They believed that his telescope enabled him to see all things, 
so that an Indian woman could not even mend a pair of moccasins with- 
out his knowledge. 

Above the highway and the river is (R) Koo-koo-sint Ridge, over- 
looking the site of Salish House. 

THOMPSON FALLS, 65.7 m. (2,463 alt, 464 pop.), seat of Sanders 
County, was named for David Thompson. At first glance this seems to be 
merely a one-street town, a short line of buildings containing a service 
station, a hotel, and a few stores. Closer inspection reveals homes and 
more stores in a forest of yellow pine and brush. The streets have an at- 
mosphere of privacy and peace enhanced by the view of wooded summits 
to the south and by the calmness of the Clark Fork, which at this point 
is a lake. 

With the completion of the Northern Pacific Ry. in 1883, Thompson 
Falls and Belknap, 7 miles west, became rivals. The railroad company 
favored Belknap, and refused to stop trains here. The citizens of Thomp- 
son Falls thereupon placed huge logs on the railroad tracks, and, while 
crews were removing the obstructions, boarded the trains and persuaded 
emigrants to settle here. In 1883, 10,000 people on their way to the 
Idaho gold fields wintered in the place. Twenty saloons were operated, in 
tents and wooden shacks, and vigilantes worked overtime to maintain 
order. They once mailed notices to 25 desperadoes, ordering them to leave 
town; 24 left at once but the twenty-fifth went away only after feeling a 
noose about his neck. A few log cabins near the riverbank, with bullet- 
riddled slab doors and window jambs, provide proof of the dangers of 
the period. 

The town boasts of one of the natural marvels that are typical of so 
much of the northern mountain region. Crevices in the ground emit cur- 
rents of air that range down to 33 F. This air has been piped and used 
for refrigeration since the first wells were dug 50 years ago. 

The Clark Fork has been dammed at the natural falls (L) to produce 
50,000 horsepower. The lake impounded for 2 miles behind the dam is 
the site of an annual regatta (3rd week of July). Trout fishing is good in 
the lake, in the river below the falls, and in Prospect Creek, a tributary 
that enters L. 

Left from Thompson Falls on unimproved State 4 (Prospect Creek Road) to 
OBSERVATION POINT, 1 m., which affords a view of the Clark Fork, the dam, the 
falls, and the power-house. Driftwood high on the sides of the Clark Fork gorge 

TOUR 12 337 

indicates the fury with which water rushes through at the time of the spring rise, 
an event that attracts spectators from near and far. To the north extends the piled 
grandeur of the Cabinet Mountains. 

The road runs southwest through the Cabinet National Forest and over the Coeur 
d'Alene Divide at Glidden Pass, 18 m. Approaching the summit, the road is nar- 
row, with a few places where it is impossible for two vehicles to pass. This was 
the early trail from Thompson Falls to the placer gold discoveries at Murray, Idaho. 

BELKNAP, 72.3 m. (2,460 ait., 113 pop.), has a post office and little 

At 76.4 m. on State 3 is the junction with the Beaver Creek Road. 

Left on this dirt road to the JACK WAITE MINE, 17 m., a large lead, silver, and 
zinc producer on Beaver Creek. 

WHITE PINE, 78.7 m. (2,380 alt, 175 pop.), is the shipping point 
for the Jack Waite Mine. 

At 81.6 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Left on this road is TROUT CREEK, 0.1 m. (2,374 alt., 35 pop.), a coaling 
point for the Northern Pacific Ry. 

State 3 passes through cool green stretches of cedar and tamarack, which 
flourish in the richer and moister soils near the river. 

The road crosses SWAMP CREEK, 95.2 m., and ROCK CREEK, 
99.6 m. Trout fishing is good in both streams. A small section of the old 
Kootenai Trail is visible (R) near the junction of Rock Creek and the 
Clark Fork. 

At 101.8 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road, crossing the Clark Fork, to NOXON, 1 m. (2,187 alt., 151 
pop.), which seems to be only a clearing in a densely forested area of indefinite 
extent. Around it, however, is one of the richest trapping areas in Montana, and a 
region of fabulous harvests of wild huckleberries. Agnes K. Getty, who once taught 
school there, described Noxon (Boxcar) in her novel Blue Gold (1934). 

At 105.4 m. on State 3 is the junction with the Bull Lake Highway 
(see Tour 2, Sec. c). 

At 113 m. is the junction with the Blue Creek Road. 

Right on this improved dirt road to the SCOTCHMAN MINE, 4.5 m., a producer of 
gold and silver. The road runs through a belt of cedar and white pine in the Cabi- 
net National Forest. 

At 116.4 m. State 3 crosses the Idaho Line and becomes State 3 in 
Idaho (see Tour 11, IDAHO GUIDE), 34.4 miles east of Sandpoint, 

338 TOURS 

Tour 13 

Laurel Rockvale Warren (Lovell, Wyo.); US 310. 
Laurel to Wyoming Line, 55.9 m. 

Route paralleled by Northern Pacific Ry. between Laurel and Bridger; by Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy R. R. between Bridger and the Wyoming Line. 
Hotels and tourist camps in larger towns; cabin camps along route. 
Oil-surfaced roadbed; open throughout year. 

US 310 follows the old trail that ran between central Montana and 
the fur traders' rendezvous on Green River, Wyoming. Explorers, pros- 
pectors, and trappers used this route continually, and Chief Joseph fol- 
lowed it in his retreat to Canada (see HISTORY). Most of the route ran 
through the valley of Clark Fork of the Yellowstone, a region distin- 
guished for wild beauty, with the impressive Beartooth Mountains to the 
west and the Pryor Mountains on the east. From the prosperous farms that 
cover the wide valley come livestock, sugar beets, grains, and hay. 

US 310 branches south from US 10 (see Tour 1) at LAUREL, m. 
(3,311 alt, 2,558 pop.) (see Tour-1, sec. b) and at 0.4 m. crosses the 
Yellowstone River. RIVERSIDE PARK (L) is a picnic ground by the river. 

SILESIA, 9-3 m. (3,404 alt., 40 pop.), a loading point for produce 
from adjacent irrigated lands, was named, not for the German province, 
but for nearby springs of siliceous water. 

ROCKVALE, 12.1 m. (3,483 alt., 25 pop.), consists of a red gasoline 
pump and a frame store and post office. A highway department port of 
entry (see GENERAL INFORMATION) occupies a modernized log 
cabin beside the road. 

At Rockvale is the junction with State 32 (see Tour 13 A). 

At 16.4 m. on US 310 is the junction with a graveled road. 

Left on this road is EDGAR, 0.3 m. (3,473 alt., in pop.), a village in the lower 
valley of Clark Fork. It is named for Henry Edgar, one of the discoverers of Alder 
Gulch (see Tour 16). 

FROMBERG, 22.2 m. (3,538 alt., 550 pop.), shaded by cottonwoods, 
resembles the agricultural villages of the Midwest. Its trim streets, faced 
with white and gray stores, houses, and churches, have an air of peaceful 
activity. Few of the buildings are new, but all are well kept. 

Fromberg is the trade center of a section, productive when watered, 
that is locally known as Poverty Flats because its settlers nearly starved 
to death while waiting for a promised irrigation project. In summer the 
air is full of the liquid song of red-winged blackbirds, which gather to 
feed on the wildrice growing in roadside irrigation ditches. 

The Pryor Mountains (L), named for Sergeant Pryor of the Lewis and 

TOUR 13 339 

Clark expedition, are an outlying part of the Big Horn Range (see 
Tour 3). 

BRIDGER, 29.1 m. (3,664 alt., 567 pop.), is a sheep and cattle town 
set against rimrocks (R). Oil and gas from the nearby Dry Creek and 
Elk Basin fields have materially siowed down production in its once im- 
portant coal mines. Bridger might well be the faded original of some 
frontier town described in fiction. The town was named for the greatest 
frontiersman in western history ; the proof of his skill lies in the fact that 
though he was in the fur trade in 1810, he lived to be a very old man. 

James Bridger (i795(?)-i88i) began his frontier education at Fort 
Osage in 1810 and later worked with the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. 
He is sometimes called the discoverer of Great Salt Lake (1824), and was 
one of the first white men to explore the Yellowstone Park region exten- 
sively. Fort Bridger, the trading post he built in 1842 on the Black Fork 
of Green River, was of considerable importance on the Oregon-California 
Trail. He scouted many trails, including the one that bears his name (see 
Tour 1, Sec. b). His advice as scout for the U. S. Army was law to pru- 
dent officers. 

Bridger, alive, was a legend; dead, he inspired countless others. Ned 
Buntline (Edward Z. C. Judson), the popular pulp fictionist of Bridger's 
day, was responsible for the tradition that the scout was a great liar. In 
describing things that were new to the popular mind in some instances 
new even to science Bridger sometimes gave fantastic explanations. Like 
other frontiersmen he was not above exaggerating, particularly when talk- 
ing to gullible tenderfeet. He stated, for example, that a certain river was 
hot on the bottom because it ran so fast over its rocky bed. His yarns of a 
glass mountain that magnified an elk feeding 30 miles away, and of a 
"peetrified bird sitting in a peetrified tree singing a peetrified song," 
were his means of expressing his scorn for the newcomers who annoyed 
him by their blundering. 

In the 1840'$ Jim's stories of the Yellowstone Park region were national 
legend. Long before this a St. Louis editor set up his first and most sin- 
cere account in type, but he destroyed it when someone told him he would 
be laughed out of the country if he printed it. 

In his later years Army officers vied with each other to obtain his serv- 
ices as a scout. Popular belief then held that he could map any part of the 
Rocky Mountains with charcoal on a piece of buffalo skin; Jim himself 
boasted that he could smell his way where he could not see it. His daily 
schedule was eccentric; he slept when he was tired, which was often in 
the middle of the afternoon, and ate when he was hungry, which was 
sometimes after midnight. Having eaten at some ungodly hour, he was 
likely to beat a tom-tom and sing Indian chants the rest of the night. To 
keep him awake till a decent hour and avoid these serenades, Capt. J. L. 
Humfreville started to read Hiawatha aloud to him. Jim was fascinated at 
first, but could not bear Longfellow's idealized Indians. Having heard of 
Shakespeare, Bridger sat for days by the Oregon Trail until he found an 
emigrant with a set of Shakespeare and then hired a boy at $40 a month 
to read to him. To the earlier plays he listened attentively, and memorized 


many scenes that he quoted later with his own emphasis; but when the 
boy reached Richard the Third, Jim threw the book in the fire. "No man," 
he shouted, "could be that mean." 

Later in life Bridger retired to a farm near Kansas City, Mo. There he 
died, blind and poor. 

The highway crosses the Clark Fork of the Yellowstone, 31.7 m. The 
river curves away R., the highway swings L. across an unfenced plateau, 
where short grasses provide excellent pasturage for sheep. Canvas-covered 
wagons stand here and there. Near each of them a herder and his dogs 
tend the sheep. Sometimes the dogs alone hold the sheep, while thin blue 
smoke drifts away from the wagon in testimony that the herder is prepar- 
ing his beans and sauerkraut. 

Herding is a weary task, not only because the herder sees few human 
beings during the summer, but also because of the stupidity of his charges, 
their monotonous bleating, the discomforts of bad weather, and the cheer- 
lessness of his own prospects. Some herders occupy themselves with wood 
carving or basket weaving, or with gathering arrowheads or curious rocks. 
Others work stolidly, and, with almost infinite patience, save their small 
wages in the hope of some day buying herds of their own. 

At 49.8 m. the Big Horn Mountains are straight ahead. Lt. William 
Clark named them in 1806, after killing two bighorn sheep in them. 

WARREN, 51.3 m. (3,718 alt., 15 pop.), is a stock- loading point 
whose littleness and isolation are emphasized by the black ribbons of rail- 
road track that stretch into the dim distance to east and west. 

At 55.9 m. US 310 crosses the Wyoming Line, 27 miles northwest of 
Lovell, Wyo. (see Tour 10 m WYOMING GUIDE). 

Tour 13 A 

Rockvale Red Lodge Cooke Silver Gate (Yellowstone National 

Park) ; State 32. 

Rockvale to Yellowstone National Park, 105.4 m. 

Northern Pacific Ry. parallels route between Rockvale and Red Lodge. 
Hotels in Red Lodge and Cooke. Dude ranches, mountain lodges, tourist cabins, and 
free public campgrounds along highway. Entrance fee to Yellowstone National 
Park, $3.00 for car. 

Oil-surfaced roadbed; open only between late spring and early autumn. Climb to 
Beartooth Plateau is made over 51/2 percent grade; turnouts provided for safe ob- 
servation of canyons and peaks. 

Temperatures drop nightly almost to freezing, making it imperative that campers 
carry adequate bedding. 



State 32, one of five roads entering Yellowstone National Park, in part 
follows one of the oldest Indian trails in the State. It ascends and descends 
very steep grades, offering striking vistas of forests, and bare granite 
summits. It supplants old pack trails into a great recreational area, and 
provides an easy and rapid route for fire-fighting crews into a region of 
valuable timber. Near Red Lodge the highway ascends the gorge of Rock 
Creek Canyon until apparently insurmountable heights appear on all 
sides. The highest peaks in the State here rise abruptly from the Great 
Plains, many snow-capped throughout the year, others bearing glaciers in 
granite cirques (steep- walled mountain recesses eroded by glaciation). A 
vast region in these mountains has been set aside by the Federal Govern- 
ment as a permanent primitive area. 

The Red Lodge-Cooke highway was cut through the Beartooth Moun- 
tains by the Federal Government at a cost of $2,500,000. The project 
was approved in January 1931. A construction camp moved in from 
Gardiner to the western end of the plotted route, taking its heavy ma- 
chinery down an old "tote road." From Red Lodge another army of 
workers moved slowly up the mountain sides. High shelves were carved 
in canyon walls to carry the road. The two crews met on the summit of 
Beartooth Plateau. 

State 32 branches west from US 310 at ROCKVALE, m. (3,483 alt., 
25 pop.) (see Tour 13). 

The Beartooth Mountains are straight ahead at 0.1 m. 

342 TOURS 

At 2.2 m. is the junction with a graded road. 

Left on this road to MONT AQUA HOT SPRINGS (warm plunge, adm. 35$; tub 
baths, automobile campgrounds, modern tourist cabins, dining room), 0.5 m., on 
Rock Creek, a tributary of Clark Fork of the Yellowstone. From a 4,ioo-foot well 
water emerges at a temperature of 112 F. It contains 255 grains of minerals to the 
gallon and is nationally marketed. 

JOLIET, 5.8 m. (3,728 alt., 359 pop.), is a shipping point for produce 
of the irrigated valley. 

BOYD, 11.1 m. (3,898 alt., 33 pop.), lies on a gentle slope amid 
sweeping acres of grain irrigated by water from the melting snows of the 
Beartooths. Livestock, sugar beets, corn, wheat, hay, vegetables, and honey 
are the principal products. Most of the farmers are Finns; every home 
has a log-house steam bath, similar to those used in Finland. Steam is 
created by throwing water on heated rocks. 

ROBERTS, 19.6 m. (4,585 alt., 200 pop.), a shipping point for Rock 
Creek Valley produce, clusters about its elevators and railway station in 
the fashion of villages everywhere in agricultural districts. 

FOX, 26 m. (5,048 alt., 25 pop.), is a railroad siding used as a load- 
ing point for livestock. 

RED LODGE, 32.4 m. (5,548 alt., 3,026 pop.), a progressive mining 
town, is the seat of Carbon County. Legend recounts that it was originally 
called Bad Lodge because of meat that spoiled, thereby ruining a Crow 

SILVER RUN PEAK (12,610 alt.), second highest mountain in Mon- 
tana (R), seems, in the clear air, much nearer than it really is. 

Red Lodge is headquarters for expeditions of the American Museum 
of Natural History and other scientific groups studying paleontology ( see 
NATURAL SETTING). A human tooth found several years ago in coal 
of the Fort Union formation near Red Lodge, together with petrified 
bones of prehistoric mammals, gave some evidence that human life may 
have existed here earlier than was previously believed. 

A collection of 3,000 Indian relics is on display at the BEARTOOTH 
CURIO SHOP (open by appointment), N. Broadway. Specimens of frozen 
grasshoppers from Grasshopper Glacier are exhibited in the office of the 
Carbon County News. 

The RED LODGE MUNICIPAL TOURIST PARK, 33.2 m., by the highway 
at the southern edge of town, a project of the CWA and FERA, was 
built entirely of local stone and timber with the labor of Finns, Swedes, 
and Norwegians. The architecture is Scandinavian. A rock wall of the 
ancient Roman style, built by Italians, completely encloses it. A stone 
fountain and pool containing native trout is in the center of a landscaped 
plaza. There is also a wading pool for children. Each of the 54 rustic 
cabins has one, two, or three rooms, a bath, and a private garage, and is 
equipped with electric light, gas, and hot and cold water. There is a 
recreation ground and laundry. 

THE SEE 'M ALIVE Zoo (open May 15-Sept. 15, 9-sundown; adm. 
adults 100, children 50), 33.5 m., has 47 species of game animals, birds, 
and fish native to Montana, in surroundings simulating the natural. The 
zoo owner operates a silver-fox farm. 


TOUR I3A 343 

ROCK CREEK CANYON, 36.9 m., has a narrow entrance, buttressed 
(R) by jagged outcroppings of granite known as POINT OF ROCKS, and is 
in the Limestone Palisades. Rock Creek (L) flows swift and clear over 

The GREENOUGH RANCH (L), 38 m., is the home of "Pack Saddle" 
Ben Greenough, who for years has conducted pack trains over treacherous 
mountain trails. His son and daughter form a rodeo team. In 1935 "Turk" 
was named king of bronc riders and in the same year Alice rode to victory 
in the world championship Boston rodeo. She has also won acclaim for 
distinguished riding in Spain, Italy, and Australia. 

In the background is MOUNT MAURICE (L), with the Beartooth 
Geological Research Camp at its northern base. 

The highway ascends steeply between sheer cliffs and unusual rock 
formations in the rugged foothills of the Beartooths, and at 38.1 m., 
crosses the boundary of the CUSTER NATIONAL FOREST. 

SHERIDAN CAMPGROUNDS, 38.2 m., well equipped and modern, is 
maintained by the U. S. Forest Service. WAPITI MOUNTAIN is R. 

CAMP RATIN (L), 41.1 m., in a pine-belted clearing, is reached by ? 
rustic bridge crossing Rock Creek. SHERIDAN PEAK rises L. ; and R. is 
Silver Run Plateau (10,925 alt). 

At 43.5 m. on State 32 is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road 0.3 m. to RICHEL LODGE (cabins and saddle horses rented). 
At 45.3 m. on State 32 is the junction with an improved dirt road. 

Right on this road to PARKSIDE CAMP (tables, outdoor stoves, running water, 
sanitary conveniences), 0.5 m., maintained by the U. S. Forest Service on the bank 
of Wyoming Creek. 

At 47.5 m. on State 32 is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to TIN CAN CAMP, 0.7 m., another Forest Service campground. 

PRIMAL SWITCHBACK, 48.2 m. (7,895 alt.), is the lowest of four great 
switchbacks that in 16 miles carry the highway to an altitude of 10,995 
feet. The hairpin marks the spot where the herculean task of carving the 
highway from the rocky Beartooth Mountains really began. At BIG FILL 
TURN, 48.6 m., a gigantic earth fill carries the road across the mouth of a 
steep gulch. In the steep ascent here, vegetation zones are well illustrated. 
At the lowest switchback, the road enters a belt of Engelmann spruce, 
above the Douglas fir and lodgepole pine belt of the valley. The spruce 
gives way to subalpine fir, which, as it nears the limits of its altitudinal 
range, is found in dense bushlrke groups. The occasional mountain 
meadows are starred with bright blossoms. 

At 50.5 m. is a turn-out from which is viewed the Wyoming Creek 
Valley and the vertical cliffs rising to snow-capped peaks above it. 

DEAD WOOD SWITCHBACK, 51.5 m. (8,625 ait -)> nas WYOMING ROCK 
TURN, 53.4 m., as its chief curve. 

At 54.5 m. the highway winds around sinuous MAE WEST CURVE 
(9,285 alt). From KNOX POINT, 54.9 m. (9,465 alt.), is a good view of 
the curve immediately below, and of the far-flung reaches of green valley, 
timbered slopes, and parklike meadows. Sturdy CROME MOUNTAIN 

344 TOURS 

is R. with MOUNT REARGUARD (12,350 alt.) back of it, farther 
west. In the northwest SILVER RUN PEAK rises above HELLROAR- 

The highway crosses timber line, 55 m., leaving the alpine fir belt, 
and passes into the arctic-alpine meadows found in the northern Rockies 
at this altitude. Snow is still packed on the summit in July, and in shady 
places along the highway throughout the summer. The flowers spring up 
at the edge of the retreating snow. The alpine poppy, carpet pink, white 
dryad, phacelia, fireweed, Rocky Mountain laurel, heather, delicate alpine 
columbine, and various daisies and asters mingle with the rich cover of 
grass and sedge. Stems are short and the period of blooming is brief; in 
August goldenrod and late aster nod among the drying fruits of the 
brilliant early flora. 

The wind that sweeps unendingly over the plateau is chilling even on 
the hottest days. Only below timber line on the southern edge of the high 
bench is there shelter from it. 

The highway crosses the Wyoming Line, 55.2 m. (10,234 alt.), which 
is also the boundary between the Custer and Shoshone National Forests. 
Between this point and 93.2 m. the route dips into Wyoming. 

TWIN LAKES, 55.9 m. (10,697 alt.), lie (R) far below the road in a 
craggy cirque, on whose walls snow remains the entire year. A turn-out 
on the highway permits a wide view from parked cars. The aloofness 
and ageless grandeur of this plateau made it one of the eternal things to 
the Indians, and their imaginations invested it with a soul. 

BENNETT CREEK DIVIDE, 61.2 m. (10,931 alt.), is the watershed 
between flanking ranges of the Beartooths. RUBY PEAK is R., NIG 
PEAK, L.; GARDINER LAKE (10,500 alt.) is (L) at 62.5 m. and 
MIRROR LAKE (10,738 alt.) is (R) at 63.6 m. 

Short switchbacks lead to the SUMMIT, 64.9 m. (10,995 alt.), of 
Beartooth Plateau (9,500 average alt.). The highway here is close to the 
trail followed by Chief Joseph and his Nez Perce followers after the 
burning of Cooke, on their retreat from Idaho to Canada (see HISTORY). 
Far in the northwest is GRANITE PEAK (12,850 alt.), Montana's 
highest, a stone pyramid thrusting into clouds. The panorama unfolded 
from the road's summit is vast and impressive. A sea of sunny plateaus, 
shadowy gulches, and mountains some timbered, some snow-capped 
stretch away as far as the eye can see. The great reaches of primitive lake- 
speckled wilderness below are accessible only on foot, and trails are few. 

Hawks swoop toward dark canyons, sunlight glinting on their wings. 
Near the road at the summit whistling marmots sun themselves on the 
rock slides. 

PILOT PEAK (11,740 alt.), first climbed in 1930, is visible (L) at 
65.7 m. Near it INDEX PEAK (11,977 ait ) rises like a s p ire - 

FROZEN MAN'S CURVE, 66.2 m. (10,450 alt.), a double S, looks 
down (R) 1 86 feet on tiny FROZEN LAKE, whose surface is often ice- 
covered even in summer. State 32 crosses a narrow neck of LONG LAKE 
(9,640 alt.) at 70 m. 

At 70.1 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 



Left on this road to LONG LAKE CAMP, 0.5 m., a modern Forest Service picnic 
and camp site. 

LITTLE BEAR LAKE, 71.1 m. (9,549 alt.), is R. 
At 72 m. is the junction with a narrow dirt road. 

Right on this road to ISLAND LAKE and ISLAND LAKE CAMPGROUND, 0.5 m. 

BEAR CREEK links several mountain lakes; the road crosses it at 
72.6 m., near the outlet of Island Lake. Here, at timber line, the road 
drops down again from alpine meadows into the alpine fir belt and then 
into the more varied flora of lower mountain meadows. 

BEARTOOTH LAKE (9,000 alt.), 75.1 m. the most popular lake in 
the Beartooth Mountains, provides excellent trout fishing. On its pine- 
clad shores are a store, a gas station, tourist cabins, and boating and ramp- 
ing facilities. Above the lake rises BEARTOOTH BUTTE, its front bright 
with ocher tints; a great variety of fossils has been found in its exposed 
rock. The BEAR'S TOOTH (10,420 alt.), a landmark known to the earliest 
Indians, projects from its face and gives the range its name. 

BEARTOOTH FALLS (L), 75.6 m., are visible. In June, when snows from 
the high mountain ranges are melting, the falls are a foamy trough in the 
dark green of the pine-rimmed gorge. 

346 TOURS 

INSPIRATION POINT (8,745 alt.), 77 m., has a parking area offering a 
magnificent view of the densely timbered Clark Fork Valley (L), and 
the high peaks of Yellowstone National Park; to the north lies a region 
spattered with lakes. The abundant flora all about has the high colors 
common on mountain benchlands in spring; death camas, wild onion, 
bitterroot, larkspur, lupine, buttercup, wild pansy, Indian paintbrush, and 
penstemon thrust up vivid heads among the less conspicuous grasses and 
their relatives, dappling the green background with yellow, red, and vary- 
ing shades of blue and purple. Engelmann spruce gives way to the familiar 
Douglas fir and lodgepole pine ; along the streambanks are quaking aspen, 
willow, alder, and the bright-colored flowers of moister, more sheltered 
habitats. Mingling with the fragrance of alpine flowers is the pungence 
of sun-warmed balsam and of pitch. Deer and elk browse in the meadows ; 
a bear occasionally appears in a green space to busy himself with an ant- 
inhabited log. 

State 32 crosses LAKE CREEK, 83 m., between two cascades that drop 
40 feet from the brink of the dark forest, to tumble over rocky ledges 

Forest Service camp sites are (L) at 87.6 m. The highway crosses Clark 
Fork of the Yellowstone, 88.2 m., and follows it for about 6 miles. 

State 32 crosses the Wyoming Line at 93.2 m. and re-enters Montana. 

At 97 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road 0.5 m. to SODA BUTTE CAMP (tables, benches, outdoor stoves, 
running water). 

COOKE, 97.9 m. (7,535 alt, 102 pop.), busy with bright gas pumps 
and the needs of hungry tourists, began life as a prospect hole in the early 
1 870*5. Behind the modern refreshment stands are weathered cabins with 
moss-covered roofs, twisted and sagging with age, and around the town 
are mountains pitted with old diggings and laced with prospectors' trails. 
Up quiet gulches men still "take a pan" and watch eagerly as the circular 
swish of the water washes away the lighter gravel, and the residue of 
black sand and gold forms a thin line around the edge of the pan. 

Before railroads were built into the northern mountain region, Cooke 
was the receiving point for goods shipped by boat up the Missouri and 
Yellowstone Rivers and then forwarded by stage and pack train over the 
winding trail through Red Lodge. Here Buffalo Bill's Indian trade goods 
were transshipped for Cody, Wyo. The boisterous shouts of miners, and 
the deep rumble of "rock in the box," mingled with the rattle and creak 
of the slow ox and mule freight teams. 

In 1877 Chief Joseph and his Nez Perce, on their retreat to Canada 
(see HISTORY), swept through Cooke and burned the gold mills. New 
mills were built and work was resumed for a time, but the crude methods 
and equipment of the day were unequal to handling the poorer ores ; the 
"flour" (gold so fine that it does not settle in the sluice box) was lost. 
When the best of the pay dirt was gone, the miners who had stampeded 
here to dig the million dollars' worth of gold with which Cooke is un- 
officially credited, packed their picks, pans, and square-bladed shovels, and 
wandered away to richer fields. 



348 TOURS 

For 50 years before the opening of State 32, Cooke stood isolated, little 
more than a legend to the rest of the world. Saloons and mills decayed. 
Chipmunks played on the trestles and raced on the flumes. Cabins, taken 
over by pack rats, tumbled down and grass grew in the paths. 

The decaying ALLEN HOTEL, erected in the i88o's of rough-hewn 
logs, is typical of the old buildings. It contains pieces of mahogany furni- 
ture brought here in a covered wagon, and hooked rugs more than 100 
years old. 

Several trails leading from the town into the mountains are suitable 
for hiking or riding, but strangers should be careful not to stray from 
the well-defined ones, particularly where timber is heavy. 

Right from Cooke on a mountain trail to GRASSHOPPER GLACIER, 14 m., 
cradled between ICEBERG PEAK and MOUNT WILSE. All but the last half mile 
can be made on horseback. 

The almost perpendicular face of the 8o-foot cliff of ice is marked with black 
lines of frozen grasshoppers. The most widely accepted explanation is that swarms 
of the insects, carried by wind to great altitudes, were chilled in passing over the 
glacier, and fell. Snows covered them. Succeeding hordes met the same fate, and the 
glacier became striped with black bands of the frozen insects, some of them 60 feet 
deep from the present surface. The process is still going on. Warm summer thaws 
sometimes free great numbers whose decomposition creates an unforgettable stench. 

This glacier loses height in summer, but invariably builds up again in winter, 
thus providing a field of practical study of glacial formation and disintegration. 

To the northeast is GRANITE PEAK (12,850 alt.), scaled for the first time in 
1923 by Fred Inabit and U. S. Forest Service officials. 

SILVER GATE, 99.8 m. (7,470 alt.), is a summer hamlet of stores, 
amusement centers, tourist cabins, hotels, and gas stations, all catering to 
tourists. Soda Butte Creek (L) flows through pleasant, wooded land. 
SILVER MOUNTAIN (R) rises above the village. 

At 101.9 m. State 32 crosses the northeastern boundary of YELLOW- 

SILVER GATE, 102.3 m. (7,350 alt.), is an official entrance to Yellow- 
stone National Park. 

At 105.4 m. State 32 crosses the Wyoming Line, 28.9 miles east of 
Tower Falls Junction (see WYOMING GUIDE). 

Tour 14 

(Manyberries, Alberta) Havre Fort Benton Great Falls; State 29. 
Canadian Border to Great Falls, 157.3 m. 

Route served by Intermountain Transportation Co. busses between Havre and Great 
Falls; same section paralleled by Great Northern Ry. branch. 

TOUR 14 349 

Hotels in larger towns ; tourist camps at long and irregular intervals. 

Roadbed graveled or graded dirt between Canadian Border and Havre; oil-surfaced 

between Havre and Great Falls; oil-surfaced section open all seasons. 

This route forms a great inverted check mark across north-central Mon- 
tana, with the short stroke extending across the grazing and dry-land 
farming country of the Milk River Valley, the longer one across the broad 
fields and buffalo-grass ranges between Havre and Great Falls. The roll- 
ing plain is divided into benches by the Missouri, Marias, and Teton 
Rivers and their tributaries. The isolated Bearpaw and Highwood Ranges 
raise bold barriers to a far eastward view; in the blue-banked westward 
distance foothills of the Rockies are seen. 

Almost anywhere on the prairie route the eerie howl of coyotes is heard 
nightly. White-tailed jack rabbits leap like small kangaroos in the glare 
of automobile headlights. By day an occasional rattlesnake crawls in the 
dust of the prairie or among the rocks of the broken country. Canadian 
geese break migratory flights to rest on the streams and lakes in spring 
and autumn. Pheasant and grouse nest along country lanes, and feed in 
the farmers' fields. In the coulees and along the creeks, bullberries, huckle- 
berries, chokecherries, serviceberries, and wild raspberries grow profusely. 

State 29, a continuation of an unnumbered Canadian road, crosses the 
Canadian Border, m., 51 miles southeast of Manyberries, Alberta. 
North of Havre State 29 is known as the Wild Horse Trail. Over this 
trail, in the late i88o's, large herds of longhorn cattle were driven to the 
Canadian Cypress Hills for fattening, and back to the railhead in Mon- 
tana for shipment. 

SIMPSON, 2.1 m. (2,630 alt., 14 pop.), a post office and general 
store, is cut off from the world in winter. The trim buildings of an occa- 
sional large wheat farm contrast sharply with the many deserted houses 
and ruined barns along the road in this area. Russian thistles and yellow- 
flowered wild mustard grow rank in untilled fields. Great patches of 
ground are white with alkali where water has evaporated from ponds and 
stream beds. 

The Bearpaw Mountains are straight ahead at 30.8 m. 

The LIGNITE MINES, 38.6 m. (R and L), are in veins near the surface; 
the coal is removed entirely by undermining, without blasting. 

HAVRE, 39.3 m. (2,486 alt., 6,372 pop.) (see Tour 2, sec. a), is at 
the junction with US 2 (see Tour 2). 

NORTHERN MONTANA COLLEGE, 40.3 m. (see Tour 2, sec. a), is R. 

State 29, here the Old Forts Trail, follows the first overland route be- 
tween Fort Benton and Fort Assiniboine (see below). 

At 40.4 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Left on this road to BEAVER CREEK PARK (State Park No. i), 19 m. (free, im- 
proved camp sites), which extends across 12 miles of thickly wooded country along 
Beaver Creek. 

The BEARPAW MOUNTAINS (L) are now seen for 15 miles. 
At 46.9 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to FORT ASSINIBOINE, 1 m., established in 1879 to prevent the 

350 TOURS 

return of Sitting Bull and his Sioux warriors from Canada, and to overawe the rest- 
less Blackfeet. Many years later John J. Pershing served as a cavalry officer here. In 
the middle 1930*5 the fort was used as a transient relief camp. Several of the first 
buildings remain. Their sturdy construction was made possible by the fact that the 
sand and clay of Beaver Creek make excellent brick. Men who understood the manu- 
facture of brick were specially enlisted for the building period. 

LAREDO, 53.7 m. (2,423 alt, 225 pop.), is a grain-shipping point. 
South of it the road passes through a stock-growing region. At about mid- 
summer large haying crews work at cutting and stacking alfalfa for winter 
feed. The work, so far as possible, is mechanized; great two- and four- 
horse sweeps pick up the bunched or windrowed hay and deposit it on 
the huge-toothed wooden forks of the stacker, which raise it to the top of 
the stack. There one man sometimes two works like a titan to tear apart 
the tangled bunches with his pitchfork and place the hay where it is 
needed to build a symmetrical stack. 

BOX ELDER, 63.8 m. (2,682 alt., 127 pop.), is headquarters of a live- 
stock firm whose buildings surround the village. 

Left from Box Elder on a graded road to ROCKY BOY, 14 m. (3,100 alt., 40 
pop.), agency of the ROCKY BOY INDIAN RESERVATION (camp permits on applica- 
tion to superintendent). Nearly 100 years ago a large band of Chippewa (Ojibwa) 
from near Red Lake, Minn., moved west. The Sioux, who greatly outnumbered 
them, drove them into Canada, where they joined their kinsmen the Cree, or Kin- 
nisto-no (three of us). They hunted buffalo in what is now Montana, frequently 
warring with the Blackfeet, especially the Pikuni. In the spring of 1885, incited to 
revolt, they fought Canadian troops, and lost. Their leader, Louis Riel, a quarter- 
breed partly educated for the priesthood, was captured, convicted of murder, and 

The rebellion crushed, many of the Chippewa, led by Stone Child whom white 
men dubbed Rocky Boy, escaped to Montana, and brought with them a band of Cree 
led by Little Bear, who asserted he had been born in Wisconsin of a Chippewa 
mother. Lacking country or friends, they became known as the Rocky Boy renegades. 
Until the buffalo disappeared they lived well enough. Then settlers began to com- 
plain of them. "They're Canadians. Send 'em home!" they cried. 

Escorted across the border by soldiers, the Indians headed straight back, preceding 
their escorts home. Old-timers chuckled and let them alone. But now they had to 
scratch for a living. 

From deer and elk skins they made moccasins, shirts, and beaded belts, to sell to 
white men, until stopped by game laws. Then they lived by gathering thousands of 
tons of buffalo bones scattered over the plains and stacking them in immense piles 
at the railroad stations. When the bones were gone they gathered the horns, and 
polished them for souvenirs. When the horns, the buffalo's last gift to them, were 
gone, they faced starvation. They built flimsy huts, and made stoves of iron wash- 
tubs taken from city dumps to save their scanty fuel. These stoves overheated, and 
made the air in the huts so foul that sickness followed. Harried by police and ruf- 
fians, the Indian women searched garbage cans, gathered offal from slaughterhouses, 
and even used the flesh of the occasional horse or cow found dead on the plains 
for food. 

When the old Fort Assiniboine Military Reservation was abandoned, friends of 
the Indians persuaded the Indian Bureau to set aside 580,388 acres as a home for 
the wandering Chippewa and Cree. In 1916, 451 Indians were placed on this land, 
which became the Rocky Boy Reservation. Lying in the Bearpaw Mountains, 4,000 
to 5,000 feet above the sea, it was level only in small patches. Here the hungry 
Indians cut logs, built a huddle of small cabins, and lived for 10 years on the scanty 
rations issued by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, whose sole concern was to keep them 
from bothering settlers. 

Then a new policy was inaugurated. The Government gave the Indians work, 
and provided food, clothing, farming machinery, and seed to the value of $600 a 

TOUR 14 351 

man. When this sum had been repaid with work, further credit enabled the men to 
buy cattle and build homes. A farmer was hired to teach improved agricultural 
methods to the tribesmen. A flour mill and sawmill were built to handle the wheat 
they grew and the logs cut on the reservation. Roads were built by Indian labor; 
25 percent of each worker's wages was applied on his private debt. 

Drought made the first years difficult; not all the Indians took kindly to the new 
system. Improvement has been steady, however; there is scarcely a slacker on the 
reservation, and the per capita debt to the Government is less than $70. 

Surplus flour from the Rocky Boy mill is sold to other reservations, and the pro- 
ceeds applied against the tribal debt. At first the flour was sold to nearby merchants, 
but outside millers objected. Lumber from the tribal sawmill is, however, sold to 
white settlers as well as tribesmen. Children attend attractive schools equipped with 
kitchen, bath, laundry, and electric lighting. School gardens produce thousands of 
dollars' worth of vegetables; fresh milk is sent to the schools by the agency. 

Of the 750 Indians on the reservation, 90 are farmers. In 1935 they shipped 
220 steers to market. Even the old people work at $i a day rather than accept issue 
rations. In 1935 beadwork worth more than $2,000 was sold by the Indians. 

BIG SANDY, 74.7 m. (2,703 alt., 633 pop.), is one of the stoned 
cowtowns of the old West. Charles M. Russell and other well known 
riders spent many active years on nearby ranches. The places they fre- 
quented the blacksmith shop, Rusty Brown's saloon, the general store 
are gone, replaced by modern plants that serve a changed community. But 
the region remains a meeting ground of fact and fiction, for Big Sandy is 
Dry Lake of the Flying U novels of B. M. Bower (see THE ARTS), in 
which the town is described as it was at the turn of the century. Every 
ranch on the bench south of the Bearpaw Mountains has been pointed out 
as the "Flying U" ; the honor has clung with particular tenacity to the old 
Eagle Creek outfit. A dozen "original Chips of the Flying U" have an- 
nounced themselves. Mrs. Bower herself told of one of her characters 
who came to life. 

"I ... saw him perfectly, although he was like no one I know . . . Then 
I chanced to attend a dance in the Big Sandy schoolhouse . . . Perched on 
a corner of the rostrum, swinging one foot and chewing gum while he 
gazed around with his baby blue eyes, sat Cal Emmett, natural as life . . . 
I blurted to the woman alongside me, 'There's Cal Emmett!' and felt like 
a fool afterwards ..." 

VERONA, 80.7 m. (2,721 alt, 41 pop.), is a busy hamlet in early fall 
when grain is brought to the elevators and livestock is trailed to town for 

The Sweetgrass Hills and the HUDSON BAY DIVIDE are R. at 
: 98.6 m. 

LOMA, 102.6 m. (2,513 alt., 74 pop.), is just west of the confluence 
of the Marias and Missouri Rivers. The Indians called the Marias "the 
River that scolds all others" but Capt. Meriwether Lewis renamed it in 
honor of his cousin Maria Wood. The Lewis and Clark party camped at 
the mouth of the stream on June 3, 1805. 

In 1831 Fort Piegan, a trading post, was established here by James 
Kipp for the American Fur Company. A year later the post was aban- 
doned and hostile Indians burned it. 

FORT BENTON, 111.7 m. (2,600 alt, 1,109 PP-)> seat of Chouteau 
County, is one of the oldest communities in Montana (see HISTORY). 


Built at the head of navigation on the Missouri River, it was one of the 
most important of the early posts. Supplies for the gold camps of western 
Montana were transshipped here. Food, clothing, powder and ball, whis- 
key, and tobacco received at Fort Benton and sent on by ox team and pack 
train to camp traders in Montana, Idaho, and Canada, helped to found 
many great fortunes. The post was the point of debarkation for thousands 
of tenderfeet anxious to reach the gold fields. One of Fort Benton's older 
hotels has preserved the high ceilings, plush furniture, and glittering 
glass chandeliers that were the last word of fashion in the iSyo's and 

Fronting the river on Main St. are the TOURIST PARK and OLD FORT 
PARK. A monument to Lt. John Mullan (see HISTORY) who surveyed 
and supervised construction of a military road between Fort Benton and 
Walla Walla, Wash, stands near the entrance to the Old Fort Park. A 
memorial seat of stone perpetuates the name of Milton Milnar, a pic- 
turesque character of range days. 

5 -acre tract two blocks west of the tourist park. One building and parts of 
two others remain. The fort, 250 feet square and built of adobe, had 
bastions at two corners. There was no stockade. An outer wall 32 feet 
thick formed the back of the buildings, which all faced the center of the 
grounds. A larger gate and a small one faced the river. In 1870 the 
American Fur Company closed its business and leased the fort to the 
Government. The Seventh Infantry occupied it for a short time. 

The Highwood Mountains (L), seen at 121.6 m., are thickly timbered 

TOUR 14 353 

with fir and lodgepole pine; they are in the Lewis and Clark National 
Forest, and are of volcanic origin. 

At 154.2 m. is the junction with an oil-surfaced road. 

Left on this road to BLACK EAGLE (Little Chicago), 0.5 m. (3,287 alt., 1,000 
pop.), an industrial suburb of Great Falls in which employees of the copper and 
zinc refineries live. Many of these workers are of Balkan birth or descent, and retain 
the Balkan customs and habits and use Slavonic dialects. The town was named for 
Black Eagle Falls on the Missouri River (see GREAT FALLS). 

The road follows Smelter Ave. eastward. 

The COPPER AND ZINC REDUCTION WORKS (open weekdays; tours 10 and 2; 
2 to 3 hrs. required), 1.2 m., are (R) on a terraced hillside overlooking Great 
Falls, outside its limits but highly important to its development and prosperity. All 
buildings are of the modern type, of brick, steel, and cement, well lighted and ven- 
tilated; angularity of the groupings and the flat roofs is somewhat relieved by 
curving roadways and tramways. When lighted at night, as it is except during heavy 
bird migrations in spring and fall (birds blinded by light strike the stack and are 
injured), the 5o6-foot smokestack is visible 40 miles away. 

No smelting has been done here since 1918; operations are confined to electro- 
lytic refining of the copper and zinc smelted at Anaconda, and to the making of 
copper wire, cable, and rods. In the copper refinery the 6oo-pound anodes received 
from the smelter (see Tour 18) are placed in large tanks, decomposed by electric 
action, and recomposed as purified cathode copper. 

There are 1,530 tanks in a room 535 feet long and nearly half as wide. Before 
the electrolyzed copper can be used in manufacturing it is melted and cast into bars 
by the furnace refinery nearby. A third plant receives undissolved anode scraps from 
the tankroom, and melts and recasts them for further tank treatment. The rolling 
mills, the first of their kind west of the Mississippi, contain rod-making and wire- 
drawing machinery, annealing furnaces, and stranding machines for making cable. 

The zinc refinery has four divisions, one for each of the processes used in refin- 
ing: roasting, leaching, electrolyzing, and casting. It was built in 1916, soon after 
research chemists discovered the electrolytic method of refining that transformed zinc 
from a nuisance to a valuable product (see INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE). 

A brick factory near the west end of the grounds is capable of turning out 35,000 
building bricks a day. It also makes fire brick and tile. 

Electric power used in the reduction works is obtained from plants along the 
Missouri River; the maximum demand is 85,000 horsepower. An electric railway 
transports materials between departments. 

As the road goes eastward from the reduction works, it descends 600 feet to 
follow the river between walls of reddish shale and sandstone. At about 2.3 m. the 
water toward the farther side is clear and blue where the Giant Springs (see 
GREAT FALLS) pour their flood into the normally muddy Missouri. 

RAINBOW FALLS (R), 4.5 m., tamed by a dam, recover a little of their wild 
beauty only at high water in May and early June. The drop is 48 feet. "Here," 
wrote Robert Vaughn in Then and Now, "the entire river, 1,200 feet wide, hurls 
itself over an unbroken rocky rim . . . into a vast . . . amphitheater where, when the 
sun is shining, a rainbow spans the river from bank to bank." The Indian name for 
Rainbow Falls was Napa's Snarling. 

At the base of the rocky terraces is the hydroelectric plant (50,000 horsepower). 
The grounds are handsomely landscaped. 

CROOKED FALLS (R), 4.8 m., are well named. At about the center of the drop, 
a notch like a great arrowhead points far back upstream. The road winds along the 
rim of the river gorge, which grows steadily deeper. At 8.8 m. is the junction with 
a side road ; R. here 0.9 m. to the top of VOLTA DAM, which is 65 feet high. 

The road bends (L) away from the river. 

At 11.7 m. is the junction with a side road; R. here 1.4 m., down a steep hill 
covered with green-spiked yucca, to the GREAT (or BIG) FALLS (R), largest of 
the falls on the Missouri, which are also deprived of their impressiveness except at 
unusually high water. The drop is 77.8 feet. Said Robert Vaughn: "The river . . . 
is ... confined between rocky walls . . . 200 to 500 feet in height and is about 300 

354 TOURS 

yards in width . . . Nearly half the stream descends vertically with such . . . force 
as to send . . . spray ... 200 feet or more in the air. The other side ... is precipi- 
tated over successive ledges ... A vast basin of surging waters succeeds below, its 
deep green color . . . betraying prodigious volume and depth." 

Great lines of steel towers stalk across the countryside from the 90,000 horse- 
power hydroelectric plant here. Below the falls a footbridge connects the bank with 
LEWIS AND CLARK PARK on a rocky island. The park has a kitchen with free use of 
electric plates and ranges. William Clark was the first to map the area above and 
below the falls. 

At 13.7 m. on the main road is the junction with a side road; R. here 3 m. to 
MORONY DAM, the latest (1930) of the dams near Great Falls. This plant generates 
70,000 horsepower. 

At 156.7 m. is the junction with US 89 (see Tour 4) 0.6 mile west of 
the center of GREAT FALLS (see GREAT FALLS). 

Tour 15 

Junction with US 10 S Ennis Junction with US 191; State i, 98.7 m. 

Route paralleled by Northern Pacific Ry. branch between Junction US 10 S and 


Accommodations limited. 

Oil-surfaced roadbed; closed in winter south of Hutchins. 

State i traverses almost the entire length of the Madison Valley, a gen- 
erally wide, rolling park land between mountain walls. Beginning a dozen 
miles west of the point where the Madison and two other rivers pour their 
waters together to form the mighty Missouri it approaches the Madison 
at McAllister, crosses it near Ennis, and follows it closely between Ennis 
and Yellowstone National Park. On the west the Tobacco Root Moun- 
tains, deeply green on slope and summit, shelter the valley; to the east 
the Madison Range lifts its amethyst tops into the sky. The slate-colored 
Gravelly Range, near the southern end of the route, resembles vast banks 
of flowing sand. 

The ascent into the upper valley is gradual. Sometimes the road crosses 
foothills carpeted with sagebrush; the land rolls away on both sides like 
a tumbling gray-green sea. Sometimes it runs smoothly over large flats on 
which sheep and cattle graze. The route as a whole traverses one of the 
best fishing areas in the Northwest. 

State i branches south from US 10 S, m. (see Tour 1, Sec. c), 12.9 
miles west of Three Forks. At 0.7 m. it crosses the Jefferson River, the 
most westerly of the three streams that unite to form the Missouri (see 
Tour 1, Sec. b). The river was named as a memorial to the man who, 

TOUR 15 355 

more than any other, was responsible for the acquisition of the West and 
who promoted the Lewis and Clark expedition. 

HARRISON, 8.4 m. (4,903 alt., 154 pop.), is a ranch town with a 
single street and a small cluster of homes. Visible (R) north-to-south are 
Jefferson Mountain (10,640 alt.), Hollow Top (10,513 alt.), and Potosi 
Peak (10,096 alt.), summits of the Tobacco Root Range (see Tour 16). 

Right from Harrison on a dirt road is PONY, 6.5 m. (5,443 alt., 200 pop.), trade 
center of an old mining district that returned to activity with the rise in metal values 
in the 1930*8. The district has a number of placer and hard-rock claims. 

The road southwestward through POTOSI CANYON in the Tobacco Root Moun- 
tains is a pine-scented lane, overhung and shaded by boughs. The summits of the 
mountains are often obscured by clouds. In a natural park, at the base of one, lies 
POTOSI HOT SPRINGS, 13.5 m., with campground and swimming pool (adm. 
35$). Mule deer, bear, bighorn sheep, and elk often approach the springs. Within 
three miles are large tungsten deposits. 

SURE SHOT LAKE, 15.6 m., affords good trout fishing. In this lake lives the 
larval salamander known as axolotl. 

NORRIS, 18.7 m. (4,848 alt., 75 pop.), sits snugly among cottonwoods 
in a dip between two hills. It is the center of a mining district with a 
history of large production from both placers and lodes. Corundum of 
gem quality is found in the placer diggings. 

NORRIS PLUNGE, a community club project, is supplied with hot min- 
eral water that flows out of the side of NORRIS HILL (L). 

State i winds over Norris Hill. From the summit, 24.3 m. (5,300 alt.), 
is unfolded a panorama of the Madison Valley. Ennis Lake lies below 


MCALLISTER, 28.7 m., is a general store and post office. Ward Peak 
(10,267 alt.) is the most prominent summit (L) of the Madison Range 
in this vicinity. 

Left from McAllister on a dirt road to ENNIS LAKE, 1 m., the first of the hy- 
droelectric projects on the Madison; it is merely an artificial widening of the stream, 
but that does not detract from the excellence of its rainbow trout fishing (boats 
available). Brief sudden squalls have taken several lives here. The road circles the 
lake, and gives access to many parts of the shore, and to cabins and dude ranches 
around it. 

At 35.2 m. is a junction with State 34 (see Tour 16). 

ENNIS, 35.3 m. (4,927 alt., 400 pop.), a typical western village of 
wide streets and one-story frame buildings, is shaded by the abrupt bulk 
of Fan Mountain (L) and in summer by its own willows, alders, and 
poplars. It was named for William Ennis, who came to Bannack (Grass- 
hopper Gulch) in 1863, and later homesteaded on this site. 

Right from Ennis on a dirt road to THOMPSON HOT SPRINGS, 1 m., which has a 
warm plunge (adm. 

CAMERON, 46.4 m. (4,820 alt, 19 pop.), is a hamlet in the range 
district of the upper Madison. Rich grass grows on the untimbered lands 
round it. The Sphinx (10,860 alt.) is a peak (L) that vaguely resembles 
ic Great Sphinx of Gizeh. 

South of Cameron the country is an almost unfenced range. The wide 
>land valley has no towns and few ranch homes. Mounted men tend 
;rds of cattle and flocks of sheep along the highway. 

356 TOURS 

The MADISON PALISADES, 61.5 m., rich sun-bright yellow and 
ruddy brown, tower above the plunging river. 

HUTCHINS, 69.8 m. (4,637 alt., 8 pop.), is a ranch resort. 

Right from Hutchins on a dirt road crossing the Madison River to a side road, 
5 m.; R. on the side road to CLIFF and WADE LAKES, 7 m. (cabins and boats). 
From Cliff Lake 2 5 -pound rainbow trout have been taken. 

The main dirt road goes south through a forest of stunted pines broken by moun- 
tain meadows to RAYNOLDS PASS, 14 m. (about 6,050 alt.). In June 1860 Jim 
Bridger led a party of scientists under escort of Captain Raynolds, an army engineer, 
through this gap in the Continental Divide. Captain Raynolds reported: "This pass 
is so level that it is difficult to locate the exact point at which the waters divide. I 
named it Low Pass and deem it ... one of the most remarkable . . . features of ... 
the Rocky Mountains." 

At Raynolds Pass the road joins a dirt road into the Henry's Lake region of Idaho 
(see Tour 1, IDAHO GUIDE). 

At 77.8 m. the character of the country changes abruptly as the road 
swings sharply L. and enters MADISON CANYON. The highway winds 
through a shadowy evergreen forest where the river flows swiftly between 
buttressed banks; angular patches of sky show in the gaps between 
toothed and plumed summits. 

BEAVER CREEK CAMPGROUND, 82.2 m., is an improved site maintained 
by the Forest Service. 

HEBGEN DAM (fishing not permitted above footbridge), 85.3 m., backs 
up the Madison to form a lake about 21 miles long and in places 5 miles 
wide. To some extent it controls the waters of the upper Missouri, and 
assures a steady flow for the hydroelectric plants downstream. 

The highway follows the shore line of HEBGEN LAKE (R). The 
canyon widens to a broad plateau covered with parched gray sagebrush. 
Winds, dust-dry in summer, snow-laden in winter, lash this upland. The 
sky line of the Continental Divide (R) curves southward and eastward 
into Wyoming. 

GRAYLING, 94.4 m. (6,675 alt - 5 PP-)> is a lonely post office near 
one of the extremities of the lake. 

At 98.7 m. is the junction with US 191 (see Tour 5), at the boundary 
of Yellowstone National Park. 

Tour 16 

Junction with US 10 S Twin Bridges Virginia City Ennis; State 41 

and State 34. 

Junction US 10 S to Ennis, 69.8 m. 

TOUR 16 357 

Route served by daily busses; paralleled at intervals between junction with US 10 S 

and Laurin by Northern Pacific Ry. branch. 

Hotels in towns, tourist camps and campgrounds along route. 

Oil-surfaced roadbed for 15.6 miles south of junction with US loS; graded dirt 


Before this road was straightened and numbered, it was called the Vigi- 
lante Trail, one of the earliest routes of travel in Montana and part of a 
stage road between Last Chance Gulch (Helena) and Alder Gulch (Vir- 
ginia City). South of Twin Bridges it was part of the route between 
Virginia City and Bannack (Grasshopper Gulch). As such it was closely 
associated with the activities of the road agents and of the men who, 
under the symbol "3-7-77," organized to clear them out of the territory. 

White men first penetrated the region long before the time of the 
vigilantes. In 18.05 Lewis and Clark camped in the Beaverhead valley and 
named the rivers. In 1810 Pierre Menard and Andrew Henry set traps 
along the waterways. In July 1840 Father De Smet crossed the Conti- 
nental Divide near the headwaters of the Beaverhead, followed, the Beaver- 
head to the Jefferson, and the Jefferson to the Missouri. In the presence 
of hundreds of Indians, he conducted the first Christian services in Mon- 

Much of the region traversed by this route is semiarid, with hills, can- 
yons, clumps of alder, greasewood, and sagebrush against a sky line of 
mountains a land whose pitted hillsides, torn gravel bars, and diverted 
streams are like the scars of old wounds. 

State 41 branches south from US 10 S, m., 6 miles west of Whitehall 
(see Tour 1, Sec. c). 

SILVER STAR, 12.2 m. (4,538 alt., 35 pop.), a station on a branch 
of the Northern Pacific Ry., serves a small but fertile irrigated area in the 
Jefferson Valley. It is one of the oldest Montana villages. The Jefferson 
River (L) is here a winding stream of rapids with deep pools in which 
trout lie. 

At BARKELL HOT SPRINGS (L), 12.9 m., are a warm plunge (adm. 
and campgrounds. 

The road crosses the Jefferson River at 16.1 m. The prominent peak 
in the Tobacco Root Mountains (L) is Hollow Top (10,513 alt.). The 
name of the range is derived from a variety of the bitterroot that grows 
abundantly there. Shoshone Indians called it quee, and ate the roots; 
French voyageurs called it racine de tabac (tobacco root), because, when 
cooked, it smelled like tobacco. The few white men who attempted to 
eat it became nauseated. 

TWIN BRIDGES, 23-9 m. (4,868 alt., 671 pop.), is near the conflu- 
ence of the tributaries of the Jefferson that Lewis and Clark in 1805 
named Philosophy, Wisdom, and Philanthropy, for President Jefferson's 
"cardinal virtues." Philosophy became Willow Creek; Wisdom, the Big 
*ble River. Philanthropy was known for a time as the Passamari (Sho- 

one, evil smelling), or the Stinking Water; then it became Ruby River, 
earlier name referred, not to the crystalline waters of the river itself, 
to sulphur springs near it. 

358 TOURS 

The STATE ORPHANS' HOME (open 2-4:30 weekdays when school is 
not in session; 10:30-11:30 and 2-4 Sun.), 3 blocks west of the center of 
town, was created by legislative act of 1893 to care for Montana's orphans, 
foundlings, and destitute children. The four modified Colonial-type brick 
cottages normally accommodate 200 children. A small brick hospital of 
modern functional design has a resident staff and is equipped to give 
medical and surgical care. A dairy herd and gardens are maintained. 
After the children have graduated from the home's elementary school, 
they attend Twin Bridges High School. 

Right from Twin Bridges on State 41, a graded dirt road, to BEAVERHEAD ROCK 
(L), 13 m., the great landmark, named by the Indians for its form, that helped 
Sacajawea (see HISTORY) identify this region as her home. It is 300 feet high 
and almost perpendicular; the Beaverhead River sweeps around its base. Seams in 
the rock contain crystals. Warm springs bubble up nearby. 

Opposite the rock and beyond the river is ELAINE (4,987 alt.), a country post 

At 27 m. on State 41 is the junction with US 91 (see Tour 6, sec. c). 

Left from State 41 at Twin Bridges on State 34, a graded dirt road. 

The RUBY MOUNTAINS (R), 27.3 m., a short range, were named 
for garnets found there, at first believed to be rubies. 

SHERIDAN, 34.2 m. (5,079 alt., 525 pop.), named for Gen. Philip 
H. Sheridan, Civil War cavalry leader, is set in a sheltered bay of rich 
Ruby Valley farm land. It is headquarters for silver, lead, and gold 
mining operations in the Tobacco Root Mountains; mining gossip runs 
through the village like an electric current. There are four trout streams 
within walking distance of town. 

ROBBERS' ROOST (customary tip 250-500), 39-6 m., is (L) in a fenced 
grove near a farmhouse. The rambling two-story log structure is ap- 
proached through a turnstile; immediately within the gate is the old 
hitching rail where desperadoes' horses were tied. The ground-level porch, 
supported by logs, extends the length of the house and a similar veranda 
is accessible from the second story. In a large room (L) on the first floor 
is the bar at which many a dusty traveler of the i86o's quenched his thirst. 
The other furnishings were left by successive tenants. Pack rats inhabit 
the building ; the doors swing on broken hinges, and the interior is stained 
with rain that has beaten in through open windows. 

In 1863 Robbers' Roost was a stage station known as Pete Daly's Place. 
Most of the ground floor was a barroom, the undivided upper floor a 
dance hall. Here Sheriff Henry Plummer and his cutthroat associates, who 
called themselves "Innocents," planned their deeds of violence (see HIS- 

Nearing Laurin, the road crosses a region where fine herds of livestock 

LAURIN (pronounced Lawray), 43.1 m. (5,058 alt, 45 pop.), was 
originally the ranch of J. B. Laurin. The church (L) of local stone was 
his gift to the town. 

i. Right from Laurin on an unimproved road that crosses the Ruby River to 
HANGMAN'S TREE, 0.3 m. Here Erastus (Red) Yager and G. W. Brown, messenger 
and secretary of Plummer's gang, were hanged on January 4, 1864 ( see HISTORY). 


2. Right from Laurin on a dirt road is ALDER, 2.2 m. (5,128 alt., 158 pop.), 
sitting at the base of an unnamed mountain (L) and protected by a thick growth 
of cottonwood and alder along the river (R). The terminus of a Northern Pacific 
Ry. branch from Whitehall, it is a shipping point for livestock and farm produce 
of the Ruby Valley and for ore from Virginia City. 

The highway skirts a series of conical mounds of gravel and boulders 
in the lower end of Alder Gulch. These mounds are the tailings left by a 
dredge that worked n miles of the gulch before and during the World 
War. The dredge, installed under the auspices of Harvard University, is 
locally declared to have enriched that institution by several million 

RUBY, 47.6 m. (5,202 alt, 30 pop.), is now a cluster of miners' 
cabins, mud-chinked and sod-roofed, with a frame store and gas station. 
In the i86o's it was a crowded mining camp. 

The Vigilante Trail turns R. up Alder Gulch. In the early i86o's the 
gulch was a continuous avenue of claims and miners' cabins. The ground 
was worked by sinking a shaft and drifting (tunneling) on bedrock; 
then the rich sand and gravel were hoisted to the surface and washed in 
a rocker or Long Tom. In the tailings that border the creek (R) are 
beams and bits of wood, the debris of pioneer operations. 

NEVADA, 54.5 m. (5,267 alt.), a group of abandoned, crumbling 
buildings, was part of Virginia City in the first turbulent years of the 
Alder Gulch rush. Here is the site of the trial and hanging of George 
Ives, the first of Plummer's gang to meet punishment. 

A GOLD DREDGE (visited on application at office in Montana Power 
Bldg., Virginia City) operates between Nevada and Virginia City. 

360 TOURS 

VIRGINIA CITY, 55.7 m. (5,760 alt, 242 pop.), was the first in- 
corporated town in Montana (January 1864) and the second Territorial 
capital (see Tour 6, Sec. c). Though it has kept a mere fraction of its 
boom-time population, it is one of the few gold camps that have long 
maintained existence. Prospectors still outfit in its stores, and dredge 
workers make it their home. 

In May 1863 six miners led by young Bill Fairweather entered the hill 
country along the Madison River. The story of the next few days is told 
in the Journal of Henry Edgar, a member of the party: 

"We crossed the Madison and came up ... Wigwam Gulch. We 
camped beside a lake at the foot of Bald Mountain. We killed an elk 
there, and remained during the afternoon and overnight to dry and smoke 
the meat. 

"The day after, we came down the lake and over the ridge. That was 
on May 26, 1863, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon . . . Fairweather and I 
were to make camp and stand guard. The other four proceeded up the 
gulch . . . prospecting. About sundown Bill went across the creek to 
picket the horses. 

V 'There is a piece of bedrock projecting,' said Bill, 'and we had better 
go over and see if we cannot get enough money to buy a little tobacco.' 
So Bill took the pick and shovel and I took a pan and we crossed the 
creek. He dug the dirt up and shoveled it into the pan. I went down the 
creek to wash it. While I was washing the dirt, he scratched around in 
the bedrock with his butcher knife and . . . called: 'I've found a scad!' 

"I had the pan about half washed down, and I replied: 'If you have 
one I have a thousand.' And so I had . . . 

"We washed about three pans before dark and the three aggregated $12 
and some cents . . . The other four returned tired and hostile because we 
hadn't taken care of the horses ... I showed Sweeney what we had . . . 
'Salted, by God,' exclaimed Sweeney. 

' 'You know well enough if you pike me down and run me through a 
sluice you couldn't get a color,' I said . . ." 

The first day after the discovery the six miners panned out about $180. 

"We were tired and hungry and all out of provisions . . . Our supper 
consisted of antelope straight . . . We spent the next morning measuring 
the ground and staking it off ... 

"'What shall we call the Gulch?' I asked. 'You name it,' Barney 
Hughes said. So I called it Alder Gulch on account of the heavy clump 
of alders along the . . . creek." 

After a few days the party went to Bannack for supplies. They agreed 
to say nothing of their find, but the secret was written on their faces. 
Edgar wrote: 

"Friends on every side. Bob Dempsey grabbed our horses and cared 
for them. Frank Buff got us to his cabin. Salt Lake eggs, ham, potatoes, 
everything! Such a supper!" 

When the prospectors started back to their bonanza on June 2, the 
trail was crowded. At Beaverhead Rock a meeting was called, and a set of 
rules was drawn up to govern the claims. On June 6 the caravan reached 


Alder Gulch. "This is the creek," Edgar shouted, and the stampede be- 
gan. Hustling, swarming life filled the gulch from Bald Mountain to the 
valley of the Passamari. 

Southern sympathizers among the gold seekers called the new town in 
the gulch Varina, in honor of the wife of Jefferson Davis ; but when Dr. 
G. G. Bissel, a northerner and a miners' judge, was asked to head a legal 
document with that name, he said "I'll see you damned first!" and wrote 
it "Virginia." Because this name was as dear to the South as the other, 
nobody objected. There was at first no safe way of shipping out the 
millions in gold that the Alder Gulch placers yielded. The only stage route 
was the one to Bannack. There was no post office in the Territory ; letters 
were carried from Salt Lake City across 475 miles of unsettled country, 
first at $2.50 each, later at $i. Money was sent to the nearest express 
office in private hands. The outlaws attracted by such conditions (see 
HISTORY) were able to form, under Henry Plummer's leadership, an 
amazing organization, complete with officers, secretary, and spies, that 
for a time had everything its own way. Coaches were plundered and 
scores of men were murdered. No relief by legal means was possible, for 
no one within 400 miles had authority to administer an oath. Henry 
Plummer, the bandit leader, was miners' sheriff. The robbery and murder 
of the inoffensive Dutchman Nicholas Thiebalt for two hundred dollars 

362 TOURS 

in gold dust brought matters to a crisis. George Ives, the killer, was 
apprehended, tried by a miners' court, and hanged (see HISTORY). 
Other hangings followed in rapid succession ; the vigilantes, first organized 
in Virginia City, spread to other mining camps, and remained active for 
several years. Their history was at first an honorable one, but the motives 
for some of their later deeds have been questioned. Several books have 
been written about them, both by men of their own day and by later 
investigators (see THE ARTS). 

CONTENT CORNER, Wallace and Jackson Sts., was the hub of activities 
at the height of the gold rush. The Territorial officers' building, on the 
southeast corner, is used as a grocery. The building opposite, once occu- 
pied by the Montana Post, the Territory's first newspaper, is now a hotel, 

The SITE OF THE VIGILANTE HANGINGS, Wallace and Van Buren Sts., 
is covered by a frame office building. Here the road agents George Lane, 
Boone Helm, Frank Parrish, Haze Lyons, and Jack Gallagher were strung 
up on January 14, 1864. Across the street is the SITE OF THE FIVE-STORY 
HOTEL, which was razed in 1935. This building was the subject of many 
jokes in the early days. Every stage driver on the way to Virginia City 
sang the glories and comforts of the five-story hotel. For its day, it was 
comfortable enough, but the five stories were in reality five successive 
levels on a steep hillside, each level one story high. 

The THOMPSON MUSEUM (open daily 9-5 in summer; 2-5 in winter), 
east end of Wallace St., contains many relics of the gold stampede days. 
Built of granite, in marked contrast with the whitewashed one-story cabins 
nearby, it was given to the town by William Boyce Thompson, a wealthy 
New Yorker who was born and reared in Virginia City. Its records and 
pioneer mementos are carefully cataloged. Picks and pans, packsaddles, 
muzzle-loading rifles, cap-and-ball pistols, Indian arrows and hunting 
equipment all have a place here, carefully guarded but always available 
to the student. Among the irreplaceable items are bills of lading from 
shippers in St. Louis for goods sent up the Missouri River to Fort Benton 
and then by ox team overland to Virginia City. Proof of the hardships 
of pioneer life is contained in such things as bills for flour at $150 a sack. 
There are many old pictures. 

Wallace St., has turned out a weekly grist of local history since the days 
of the vigilantes. Among the rafters in the rear room hang a number of 
yellowed knapsacks marked "U.S.," looking very much as they did when 
they were discarded one day in 1877 by a group of Virginia City men 
who had taken to the field to save their homes from a threatened attack 
by Chief Joseph (see HISTORY). Hastily armed and equipped, they had 
rushed to the front only to find the Indians gone. Tired and disgruntled, 
they returned and tossed the knapsacks on the rafters, where they have 
been left undisturbed. 

i. Left from Virginia City on Jackson St., which becomes a trail, to the SITE OF 
THE ALDER GULCH DISCOVERY, 0.3 m. A bronze monument has been placed here 
by Montana pioneers. 

TOUR 17 363 

2. Right from Virginia City on Wallace St. to BUMMER DAN'S BAR, 0.8 m., on 
the north side of Alder Gulch. It is not a place to drink. During the gold rush the 
camp was bothered by one Dan, who constantly begged and often niched food, but 
would not work. In a saloon one day Dan saw a patron order pie, a luxurious item 
in those days. When the pie was brought in, Dan snatched and quickly ate it. In- 
stead of regarding the act as a joke, the patron called a camp meeting; it was the 
opinion of the camp that Dan should go to work. He was given a claim high on 
the side of the gulch, was loaned a pick and pan, and told to hop to it or get out. 
Dan went to work, and within a few weeks struck it rich. After panning thousands 
of dollars' worth of gold, he decided to go to the States, but was robbed on the 
way, and returned to Virginia City to bum once more. 

3. Left from Virginia City on a dirt road to BOOTHILL, 0.4 m., a low butte on 
which are the graves of road agents hanged in the town. Here, too, the GRAVE OF 
BILL FAIRWEATHER overlooks the site of the discovery that gave millions in gold 
to the world. Fairweather did not value his wealth; it was his pleasure to ride up 
the main street of Virginia City and scatter "dust" right and left to madly scram- 
bling children and Chinese. After selling his claims in Alder Gulch, he prospected 
on the Peace River, and in Alaska from 1868 to 1872. In 1875, at the age of 39, he 
died at Robbers' Roost (see above). 

East of Virginia City State 34 winds over a barren mountain. From the 
summit, 58.1 m., the Madison Range is seen ahead, a distant dark barrier. 
The road descends in a series of switchbacks through a country of brown 
and gray-green buttes scantily forested with scrub fir and jack pine. 

ENNIS, 69.8 m. (4,927 alt, 278 pop.) (see Tour 15), is at the junc- 
tion with State i (see Tour 15). 

Tour 17 

(Bowman, N. D.) Baker Miles City; US 12. 
North Dakota Line to Miles City, 95.2 m. 

Route paralleled by Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific R. R. between North 

Dakota Line and Plevna. 

Hotels in larger towns; tourist camps at Miles City. 

Graveled roadbed between North Dakota Line and Plevna; oil-surfaced between 

Plevna and Miles City; open all seasons. 

US 12 traverses a country that is often parched in summer, bleak and 
snow-bound in winter. Relentless sun and wind, driving hail, and swarm- 
ing insect pests contribute to the desolation. The rolling semi-arid table- 
lands are briefly green in spring; then, except in rare rainy years, brown. 
Irregular masses of colored rock, predominantly brick red, crop out among 
the wind- and sun-cured grasses on the hills. Jack rabbits, gophers, coyotes, 
lizards, and rattlesnakes thrive on the scanty rations of the land; little 

364 TOURS 

mounds mark the villages of prairie dogs. Hawks and occasional eagles 
swoop and soar in search of prey. 

Though great stretches here seem almost uninhabited, many dry-land 
farms challenge the stinginess of nature and defy the extremes of weather 
to which the region is subject. 

Lying far from the important pioneer trails, this country saw little of 
the white man until the cattle kings appeared. Only traders and trappers 
from Fort Union to the north and from Yellowstone posts to the west 
visited the area, which until 1880 remained a buffalo range and an Indian 
campground. Then great herds of longhorn cattle from Texas spread out 
fanwise from the Powder River Trail. The winter of 1886-87 depopu- 
lated the ranges ; it took years to build up the herds again. Only the more 
persistent cowmen stayed to become actual settlers. 

Lignite coal, abundant throughout the region, is mined for local use. 

US 12 crosses the North Dakota Line, m., 32 miles west of Bowman, 
N. D. 

BAKER, 12.5 m. (2,929 alt., 1,212 pop.), seat of Fallen County, be- 
gan as a camping place on the Custer Trail between Wibaux (see Tour 1, 
sec. a) and Camp Crook, S. D., because surface springs and grass were 
abundant here. The settlement that grew up was first known as Lorraine; 
it was renamed in 1908 to honor A. G. Baker, superintendent of con- 
struction on the Milwaukee Road. Wagon ruts of the old trail are still 
seen near town. 

A typical market town in a grazing and farming region, Baker is ex- 
ceptional only in being almost in the center of a great gas field (see 
INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE), which extends southward 30 miles 
and northward almost to Glendive. A driller seeking water here in 1915 
found gas; the well became ignited and remained a natural torch for six 
years. Three distinct gas sands have since been found in the Baker struc- 
ture and now 200 wells are producing commercially. 

BAKER LAKE, on the southeastern side of town, is an artificial body 
created in 1908 when a small creek was dammed to insure a water supply 
for locomotive boilers. The mile-long lake has become increasingly alka- 
line, and artesian wells have been bored to bring up good water ; the lake 
now supplies recreational needs. 

On the COURTHOUSE GROUNDS, near the southwestern edge of town, 
are PETRIFIED and AGATIZED TREES brought in from the surrounding 
country. Many of the varicolored specimens came from Cannonball Butte 
(see below) and from the region southwest of Baker. A specimen of giant 
sequoia in chalcedony is proof that this was once semitropical country. 

The THOMAS CROW PLACE, two blocks west of the courthouse, has 
a cottage surrounded by terraced gardens (open on application) bordered 
with thousands of pieces of petrified and agatized wood of varied forms 
and colors, and with bits of lava, rose quartz, obsidian, petrified moss, 
marine fossils, and the tusks of prehistoric mammals. 

i. Right from Baker on a graded dirt road to CANNONBALL BUTTE, 30 m., 
on the southern extremity of a badlands area. Rounded, projecting sandstone for- 
mations extend from a butte that resembles the Rock of Gibraltar. 


2. Left from Baker on State 7, an improved road, into the least developed part 
of Montana's plains. Badlands make up one-fourth of the region; side roads are 
twin tracks in the dust when the weather is dry, ribbons of greasy mud when it is 
wet. Many of the people living here dwell in makeshift shacks or in dugouts along 
shadeless streambanks; modern comforts are almost unknown. The available water 
has an unpleasant taste, and is so hard that it can be used for washing only with 

Most of the country is a rolling plain best suited to livestock production, but 
some crops are grown. Hills in the ordinary sense are rare, but rocky heights rise 
abruptly from the plain, affording a series of views of amazing sweep. The layers 
of sandstone, shale, clay, and various sedimentary materials enclose a wealth of 
fossils. It is a strange region, isolated and rude, but fascinating. 

At 8.4 m. is the junction with a dirt road; L. here 10 m. to the 101 RANCH, 
established by the Standard Cattle Company of Texas in 1888 when new range was 
sought in the Northwest. Several herds of longhorn cattle, each containing 3,000 
or 4,000 head, left Texas in the spring and arrived in the North in October. The 
101 was the steer ranch; the stock or calf ranch was in Wyoming, where the herds 
wintered after the long summer on the trail. Each spring 30,000 two-year-olds were 
driven into Montana from the calf ranch; at autumn roundup time they were driven 
from the 101 Ranch to Wibaux (see Tour 1, Sec. a) for shipment to Chicago stock 
markets. The 101 brand is still used but the ranch is much reduced in size. Of the 
early improvements only the corrals remain. 

On State 7 at the approach to a bridge, 28.1 m., is the junction with a dirt road; 
R. here 3.4 m. to MEDICINE ROCKS, described by Theodore Roosevelt as "fantasti- 
cally beautiful." Some of these strange sandstone buttes, which cover about one 
square mile, tower as sharp peaks or ridges 80 feet above low, sandy hills. Others 
have flat tops 25 to 200 feet wide. Eroded by wind and rain, they exhibit a confu- 
sion of spirals, columns, archways, caves, escarpments, and pyramids. In strong sun- 
light the rocky buttresses appear chalky white above the flowing sands; in moon- 

366 TOURS 

light they have the splendor of molten silver. The crannies in the rocks appear gray 
against the white, intensely black against the silver, and the whole has an effect of 
eerie unreality. The name of the rocks comes down from a time when Indian medi- 
cine men circled among them in weird ritual dances. Until white men came, several 
of the buttes bore Indian inscriptions. Among the names later carved on the sand- 
stone is that of Theodore Roosevelt, whose stock ranch at Medora, N. D., was only 
a day's ride away. 

At 36.7 m. on State 7 is a junction with State 30; L. here 23 m. to MILL IRON, 
a small streambank settlement that grew up on a ranch connected with the Hash- 
knife spread, which ranged 65,000 cattle in Montana. 

Between 36.7 m, and Ekalaka State 7 and State 30 run southwest together. 

EKALAKA, 40.3 m. (3,031 alt., 475 pop.), dubbed Puptown because of the 
prairie dogs in its vicinity, began as a deadfall (saloon) for cowboys. Claude Carter, 
its founder, a buffalo hunter and bartender, was on his way to another building site, 
when his broncos balked at pulling his load of logs through a mudhole at this spot. 
Carter stopped the plunging animals. "Hell," he said, "any place in Montana is a 
good place to build a saloon." He began the erection of the Old Stand then and 
there. For more than 50 years its bar catered profitably to Carter County punchers. 

Ekalaka was named for an Indian girl, Ijkalaka (Sioux, swift one) a niece of Sit- 
ting Bull. Women were the camp movers when the Sioux were on the trail, and 
Ijkalaka the quickest breaker of camp, was honored with a name expressing her 
ability. In 1875 David Harrison Russell, the first white homesteader here, married 
Ijkalaka, and in 1881 he brought her to the little community that had grown up 
around the Old Stand. It was her home until her death in 1901. 

After 50 years of cowtown existence, Ekalaka emerged as a fairly modern and am- 
bitious village. As seat of Carter County, it has a high school with 120 students, 
some of whom travel 90 miles to reach it. Electricity for lighting is generated by a 
Diesel-powered plant installed in 1935. A city water system is maintained, though 
many homes still use wells. Two hotels, two garages, three stores, a theater, and a 
bank provide necessary community services. Commodities are trucked in from Baker. 

The HIGH SCHOOL MUSEUM (open) exhibits a Triceratops skull 6 feet long, with 
excellently preserved supra-orbital horns and hood; a collection of plant and marine 
fossils ; leg and toe bones of Tyrannosaurus rex ; parts of Trachodon ; teeth and tusks 
of a mastodon; primate vertebrae; fragments of prehistoric alligators and turtles; 
and the remains of an unidentified oreodont mammal. All were collected in Carter 

At Ekalaka is the junction with State 30 ; R. here 2 m. to the junction with a dirt 
road; L. 25 m. to CHALK BUTTES, whose sheer white cliffs rise 20 to 30 feet 
above piny hilltops. On a butte known as STARVATION ROCK, according to legend, 
an Indian tribe once found refuge from its enemies, and guarded the single ascent 
until every member was dead of hunger and thirst. 

PLEVNA, 26.7 m. (2,757 alt -> 2 5 8 PP-) a neat village of wm ' te cot ' 
tages and red elevators on Sandstone Creek, was settled largely by Rus- 
sians after the building of the Milwaukee Road in 1907. It was named 
for a city in Bulgaria that was captured by Russian forces in 1877. The 
200 families in the village and on small farms nearby retain many Rus- 
sian peasant customs. Women wear the traditional small black head 
shawl ; at meals the food is placed in a single large dish in the center of 
the table and all at the table eat from it. The Russian feast days are kept, 
and folk dances enliven community gatherings. 

All about Plevna are fields of wheat, flax, oats, barley, rye, potatoes, 
and hay, less than 10 percent of which is grown on irrigated land. Every 
spring, farmers' tractors and teams move down the long fields, each trac- 
tor and team drawing a disk harrow, a drill, or some other of the imple- 
ments of dry-land tillage. Each machine moves in a cloud of choking 
gray dust; the horses, in four- and eight-horse teams, snort at the dust 

TOUR 17 367 

and flies, and nod rhythmically as they throw the weight of lathered 
bodies against the harness. At other times horses and men toil at another 
task familiar on Montana farms the clearing away of large and small 
boulders, which are loaded on wagons or stone boats and hauled out of 
the way, usually to a coulee, a gravelly knoll, or a fence corner. The 
largest ones are dragged out with heavy chains, often by the use of tractor 

As summer advances into the critical days of June and early July, when 
the moisture reserves of winter have been exhausted by growing crops, 
the farmer is anxiously aware of every small cloud, every change in the 
direction of the lightest breeze. No other human creature is so whole- 
heartedly weather-conscious as the man who must force a living from 
land such as this. If it hasn't rained by the Fourth of July, the green fields 
and pastures turn brown, cattle begin to lose weight, and the long- 
suffering dry-lander tightens his belt once again. 

If rain has come, harvest begins in August. Whirring machines bind- 
ers, headers, combines cut wide swaths in the grain, and leave harsh, 
dust-gray stubble to catch next winter's snow. Threshing machines roar 
and cough; wind stackers moan and vomit straw. The indefinable yet un- 
forgettable smells of chaff, steam, and warming metal parts mingle in the 
air with the stronger reek of oil and gasoline. Teams of draft horses plod 
to town, drawing wagons equipped with flareboarded grain tanks, and are 
passed on the way by modern trucks similarly equipped. 

Before 1925 the threshing season normally began after all grain had 
been cut, and often continued into November. Mountainous yellow straw- 
stacks adorned every farmyard and field. When newfangled machines 
combined the operations of reaping and threshing, this season, once the 
heyday of the migratory worker, was cut to a few days in most com- 
munities. To take the place of the straw that had formerly been used for 
feed but was now left in the fields, where it was burned or plowed under, 
farmers bought hay shipped from the western valleys. 

A service station (L) at 66.1 m. offers curios. 

US 12 crosses Powder River, 66.3 m., here fringed with cottonwood, 
ash, and various berrybushes. A popular description of the stream asserts 
that "she's 400 miles long, a mile wide, an inch deep, and runs uphill." 

In this area the cowpuncher does his stuff with rope and rein, then goes 
to town to blow in his pay. If he is a "top hand," this may be as much 
as $50 a month and board; if he is an ordinary rider, it is $30 or $35. 
The saloon and the blackjack table usually get a generous share of it, 
though occasionally there is a puncher who saves his money, and invests 
in a herd of his own. 

The road now enters rough country; high buttes marked with outcrop- 
pings of red shale support a scanty growth of jack pine. For many miles 
bare hills alternate with good grazing land; in places the soil is reddish. 

At 93.7 m. is the junction with US 10 (see Tour 1). Between this junc- 
tion and Miles City US 10 and US 12 are one route. 

MILES CITY, 95.2 m. (2,357 alt, 7,175 pop.) (see Tour 1, sec. a), 
is at a junction with US 10 (see Tour 1) and State 22 (see Tour 10). 

Tour 1 8 

Junction with US 10 S Anaconda Philipsburg Drummond; US 10 A. 
Junction with US 10 S to Drummond, 66.8 m. 

Route served by busses; roughly paralleled by Butte, Anaconda & Pacific R. R. be- 
tween Butte and Anaconda, and by a Northern Pacific Ry. branch between Philips- 
burg and Drummond. 

Accommodations limited except at Anaconda and Philipsburg. 

Concrete roadbed between junction with US 10 S and Anaconda, oil-surfaced road- 
bed between Anaconda and Drummond; open all seasons. 

Between the junction with US 10 S and Anaconda US 10 A is Mon- 
tana's first paved road (1922). This section, with that between Anaconda 
and Georgetown Lake, is called the Lakes Trail. The entire route runs 
through a rugged region of mountains and barren hills. It rises slowly to 
Georgetown Lake, along a valley that is sometimes a canyon between 
pine-dark mountains ; then it scales Flint Creek Hill and slides windingly 
down into Flint Creek Valley, a region rich in fishing streams and big 

US 10 A branches west from US 10 S, m. (see Tour 1, Sec. c), 14.8 
miles west of Butte. 

At 0.5 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Left on this road to GREGSON HOT SPRINGS, 1.5 m. (see Tour 1, Sec. c). 
At 7.1 m. on US 10 A is the junction with an oiled road. 

Right on this road 2.1 m. to the i6-room EVANS HOUSE (open May-Nov.), built 
by Mrs. Gwenellen Evans in 1860 on the first plot of Montana land held by a 
woman. Both exterior and interior are well preserved. The original carpets, drap- 
eries, plush-covered furniture, square piano, 1 6-foot mirrors, and huge walnut doors 
and staircase remain. The rooms are filled with curios from many parts of the world. 

The Washoe Smelter (L), with its huge smokestack, is seen at 8.2 m. 

BURNT HILL (L), was once, according to legend, the scene of a bat- 
tle between two Indian tribes. The losing tribe, to escape annihilation, 
fired the timber that covered the hill, and screened by the fire, found 
sanctuary beyond the mountain. 

Slipping between desolate gray piles of slag, the road crosses Ana- 
conda's bare front yard and follows Park Ave., which leads to Main St. 

ANACONDA, 10. 7 m. (5,331 alt., 12,494 pop.), set at the mouth of 
a narrow valley near the Continental Divide, is almost entirely dependent 
on the smelting of copper and zinc ores mined near Butte. When copper is 
in demand, the city has a smelter pay roll of about 3,500 men and is 
prosperous and, on the whole, content; when the market is sluggish and 
only skeleton crews work the town suffers. 

For a smelter city a mile above sea level, Anaconda is not unattractive. 


It has many pleasant modern homes, with trees and lawns, to contrast with 
massive, pillared and turreted structures of the gingerbread period. Its 
streets are paved and well lighted. But the business section lacks liveliness 
except when copper is high. Certain districts are overcrowded and in the 
original settlement on the north side many old log buildings and flimsy 
frame houses of the mining-camp type are still in use. 

Anaconda has an interest for sports that was encouraged by Marcus 
Daly, whose horses ran in important races both in America and England. 
The old race track, opposite Washoe Park, has been made into an athletic 
field. The city's recreational activities reach an annual climax in the Win- 
ter Sports Carnival (see RECREATION), which features ski jumping 
on Oimoen Hill, just south of the city. 

Marcus Daly, the originator of Montana's copper industry, personally 
picked this place for the construction of a copper smelter because of its 
nearness to ample water and limestone. Daly's decisions were often abrupt 
and made by rule of thumb. While looking over the site, he saw a cow 
standing meditatively in the valley. "Main Street," he said to his engi- 
neers, "will run north and south straight through that cow." 

The city, first called Copperopolis, was platted in 1883. When the 
postmaster, Clinton H. Moore, learned that a Copperopolis already existed 
in Meagher County, he looked about for a new name, and thought of the 
important Anaconda Mine in Butte. Mike Hickey, the discoverer of the 

370 TOURS 

Anaconda, had named it after reading in an account of the closing campaign 
of the Civil War that "Grant encircled Lee like a giant anaconda." Moore 
chose Anaconda as the name for the new city. The aptness of this second 
name has been demonstrated by the entire social and economic history of 

Anaconda expanded with the development of the copper industry, 
which about 1900 outgrew the smelter on the north side of town. A new 
one was erected farther south. Daly had high ambitions for the city he had 
founded, and was eager to see it grow. Old-timers say that when the Mon- 
tana Hotel was being completed in 1888, the energetic Irishman stepped 
to a point of vantage across the street, took a good look at its two modest 
stories, then shook his head. "It doesn't look big enough," he said. "Put 
another story on it." 

But Daly's plans for the city were not always successful. In 1889 he 
founded the Anaconda Standard to urge Anaconda's candidacy in the cam- 
paign for State capital. To impress the city's aliveness on the public mind, 
he gave the paper the make-up and features of a metropolitan daily. The 
candidate lost (see HISTORY), but the campaign publication did better. 
In 1931, when the paper was reduced to tabloid size because of the growth of 
the Montana Standard of Butte, the news magazine Time devoted several 
columns to its history, stressing the fact that when the city had only 3,000 
people the Anaconda Standard outbid the New York Herald for artists 
to prepare one of the first colored comic sections published in the Nation. 

Among Anaconda's first inhabitants, people of Irish stock were pre- 
dominant, but after 1900 there was a heavy influx of workers from the 
Balkan countries. Though, to a limited extent, the people of each na- 
tional strain kept their own customs, beliefs, and distinctive organizations, 
all were soon bound together by their dependence on copper. Labor 
unions grew in strength, and eventually won such things for the workers 
as employment insurance, a system of "rights" depending on length of 
service, and wages based on the price of copper (see HISTORY). 

The MONTANA HOTEL, Main St. and Park Ave., is a three-story brick 
structure that is still proud of its bar, a reproduction of one in the old 
Hoffman House of New York. The woodwork is of Philippine mahogany, 
the floor of alternate strips of redwood and maple. Inlaid in the floor is a 
mosaic of Daly's race horse Tammany. A fresco of beer steins and ale 
glasses adorns the wall. It is said that late one night Daly arrived at the 
hotel, unannounced and unrecognized, and found the place filled. A 
printer just leaving for night duty on the Standard offered the stranger his 
room, "hoping he was a whisky drummer and might leave me a quart." 
Next morning the hotel manager informed the printer that from then on 
his rent was to be free. 

The HEARST FREE LIBRARY (open 10-9 weekdays), Main and 4th Sts., 
has more than 90,000 books and many newspapers and magazines, housed 
in a two-story brick building of simple design. The building was given 
to the city by Mrs. Phoebe Hearst, mother of William Randolph Hearst. 
The Hearsts were among Daly's original backers. 

The CITY COMMON, a square bounded by Main, Hickory, 3rd, and 

TOUR 18 371 

4th Sts., is given over to the children as a baseball field in summer and a 
skating rink in winter. 

Left from Anaconda on 4th St., which becomes an improved road to the WASHOE 
SMELTER (open 1 p.m. weekdays ; guides) , 1 m., one of the largest copper smelters 
in the world. Its angular groups of brick and steel sheds cover the side of a hill 
surmounted by an enormous smokestack. Between the sheds and the stack extends a 
main flue half a mile long; from a distance it looks like a huge misshapen hot- 
water bottle flattened against the hill. The mountainsides for miles around are ugly 
and bare, or covered only with gaunt dead timber, destroyed, before the stack was 
built, by poisonous smelter fumes. 

The stack, one of the landmarks of western Montana, rises 585 feet, has a diam- 
eter of 75 feet at the base and 60 feet at the top, and discharges 3 to 4 million 
cubic feet of gas a minute. Nearly 7,000,000 bricks were used in its construction. 

Nearly all the zinc and copper ores mined in Montana are concentrated and 
smelted at this plant. Ore is hauled from Butte by the electrified Butte, Anaconda 
& Pacific R. R., delivered to high-line tracks in 5o-ton cars, and dumped into bin* 
by a rotary car dumper that can handle 1,000 tons an hour. It goes to a central 
crushing plant, and is then conveyed to the concentrating department, a close-set 
group of buildings left of the flue whose roofs give a terraced effect. Here the pul- 
verized ore is passed through various screens, classifiers, and filters to great batteries 
of flotation machines. 

In the flotation method of concentration the heavier minerals are made to float in 
water, while the lighter minerals sink. This phenomenon takes place when finely 
ground ore, with small quantities of oil and chemical substances added, is agitated 
and aerated. Some of the oil and chemicals cling to the heavy mineral particles; the 
mineral particles cling to air bubbles, which, because of the film of oil, expand with- 
out breaking and rise as froth to the surface. The method has been so perfected that 
certain minerals can be prevented from entering the froth if this is desired. In cop- 
per concentration, the iron-bearing minerals are to a large extent rejected. This is 
called selective flotation. 

From the concentrators the ore goes to roasting furnaces where it is dried, and 
part of its sulphur is fumed off. It is then mixed with fluxing materials (limestone, 
silica, iron) and sent to reverberatory furnaces. There the slag is "tapped off," and 
the enriched copper product (matte) is drawn into 1 3-ton ladles and carried to 
buildings that contain rows of spectacular, pot-shaped, flame-belching converter fur- 
naces, which produce "blister" copper, 98 percent pure. Further treated in refining 
furnaces, the metal is molded into slabs called anodes (see Tour 14). 

The LEACHING PLANT contains 12 great tanks in which tailings are treated with 
diluted sulphuric acid for recovery of copper that is present in the form of carbon- 
ates. The solution obtained is sent through scrap iron precipitating plants (see 
BUTTE), where the metallic copper is recovered. 

The ZINC PLANT is divided into concentrating, roasting, leaching, electrolyzing, 
and casting departments. The double lead-zinc concentrates (see INDUSTRY AND 
COMMERCE) are produced by selective flotation. In the electrolytic department are 
great tanks that hold the electrolyte solution from which the pure zinc is deposited 
on aluminum cathodes. 

Lesser plants among the smelter group extract white arsenic from furnace fumes 
and flue dust, and manufacture wood preservatives, sulphuric acid, and phosphate 
fertilizer. A foundry and brick factory supply the smelter with the castings, fire 
brick, and building brick it requires. 

US 10 A goes west from Anaconda on Park Ave. 
The ANACONDA TOURIST PARK (R), 10.9 m., is maintained by the 
city. (Outdoor fireplaces, wood, water, and comfortable cabins.) 
At 11 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Right on this road to WASHOE PARK, 0.5 m., a i5-acre playground (picnic tables, 
benches, outdoor stoves, dance pavilion, tennis courts, swimming pool, artificial lake, 
fish hatchery) with a zoo containing buffalo, bear, deer, antelope, and other large 

372 TOURS 

and small animals. Warm Springs Creek flows through the shady expanse of trees, 
shrubs, and lawn. 

The wild, tumbled peaks of the Anaconda Range are on the L. 

The highway crosses the boundary of the DEER LODGE NATIONAL 
FOREST at 19.8 m. Lodgepole pine predominates, with smaller stands 
of Douglas fir and Engelmann spruce in scattered areas. Near timber line 
are alpine fir and limber pine. Elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and mountain 
goats find pasture on the higher slopes; there are ducks on the rivers and 
lakes, and grouse in the smaller timber. 

A FOUNTAIN (R), 21.2 m., was built of local stone by the State High- 
way Commission. 

At 23.7 m. is a junction with a graveled road. 

Right on this road to CABLE, 6 m., marked by the abandoned buildings of the 
ATLANTIC CABLE MINE, so named to commemorate the laying of the second trans- 
atlantic cable. Alexander Aiken, Jonas Stow, and John Pearson discovered the mine 
in June 1867 while tracking their horses, which had wandered into this neighbor- 
hood from their camp on Flint Creek. The ground was so rich that a cigar box full 
of samples of it was worth $1,000. Its estimated subsequent production of $6,500,- 
ooo in gold included a nugget sold for $19,000 to W. A. Clark, who asserted that 
it was the largest ever found. Mill machinery was imported from Swansea, Wales, 
and freighted to the mine from Corinne, Utah, the nearest railhead. Mill whistles 
had been unknown in the Northwest up to that time; the old steamboat whistle 
installed by owners of the Cable Mine blew a blast audible twelve miles away on 
clear days. 

Stow and Pearson sold their shares in the mine for $10,000 each. Aiken could not 
agree with his new partners, and became involved in lawsuits which wiped out his 
fortune. He left the country on foot, with his blankets on his back. 

SILVER LAKE (L), 24.9 m., is a natural reservoir from which water 
is piped to the Anaconda smelter. Because of low water in this and ad- 
joining lakes, work at the smelter was curtailed during the spring and 
summer of 1937 until lakes higher in the mountains could be tapped for 
an added supply. 

The GOLD COIN MINE (R), 25.8 m., is an active gold producer that 
was once abandoned in the belief that its pockets were worked out. 

GEORGETOWN LAKE (L), 26.5 m., an irregularly shaped artificial 
body, was created to supply hydroelectric power. Several fine summer 
homes are on its shores and it is noted for its large rainbow trout. During 
the winter of 1936-37 thousands of fish died in the lake because of a 
lack of oxygen caused by low water, long-continued ice cover, and a large 
amount of decaying organic matter. 

The GEORGETOWN FISH HATCHERY (L), 27 m., is maintained by the 

GEORGETOWN, 27.3 m. (5,570 alt.), has cabins, a store, and boats 
that are rented to lake fishermen. Half a mile to the right are a few resi- 
dences, the remains of an older Georgetown, built before US 10 A was 
routed along the lakeside. 

Right from Georgetown on a forest road to SOUTHERN CROSS, 2 m., an almost 
deserted mining camp on the shoulder of Iron Mountain. Here a rich mine was 
abandoned because of flows of water that could not be pumped out. Vacant houses 
stand among the ore dumps, and rusty mining machinery lies scattered about. In all 
directions stretches a dark carpet of evergreens, unbroken except for a few bare 


summits and an occasional patch of blue-gray water on the valley floor. Unemployed 
miners from Butte often prospect in the district. 

ECHO LAKE (boats available), 3.5 m., is a favorite retreat for residents of Butte 
and Anaconda, whose summer homes line the shore. 

At the summit of FLINT CREEK HILL, 29.2 m., is a good view of the 
Continental Divide (L). The road descends Flint Creek Hill between 
walls of blue, orange-red, and brown rock. 

At 34 m. is the junction with State 38 (see Tour 7, Sec. c). 

PORTER'S CORNERS, 34.4 m., is a store and service station. 

The road enters the broad Flint Creek Valley. 

PHILIPSBURG, 40.1 m. (5,195 alt., 1,355 pop-)' seat of Granite 
County, is a silver town whose mines also produce manganese (see IN- 
DUSTRY AND COMMERCE). It clings precariously on the flank of a 
spur of the Rockies. 

Luxurious automobiles move along its hilly streets, and stop before 
very simple houses. Bright sport outfits, smart street clothes, and white 
flannels mingle in democratic informality with calked boots, overalls, and 
mackinaws, at the talkies, on the streets, and in the homes. 

Settled in 1866, Philipsburg was named for Philip Deidesheimer, super- 
intendent of a silver-mining company. The county is named for a moun- 
tain of granite north of town, on which is the site of one of the region's 
first and richest mines (see HISTORY). 

374 TOURS 

HOPE MILL, one block south of Main St., is a ten-stamp silver mill 
built in 1867 to handle the free-milling ores from the Hope Mine, a 
mile north of town. It was the first silver mill in Montana. During In- 
dian troubles it served as a fort. 

The town is in a particularly good fishing region; at an Angler's Club 
fish-fry of 1928, 1,500 guests were fed with fish caught in one day in 
Rock Creek (see Tour 1 , Sec. c), 12 miles west of Philipsburg. 

Right from Philipsburg on a dirt road to GRANITE, 1 m., a bustling silver camp 
until 1893, when it was abandoned after the drop in the value of silver. The GRAN- 

US 10 A goes north down the Flint Creek Valley, a grain and livestock 
region. At 52.1 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Left on this road is MAXVILLE, 0.2 m. (4,852 alt., 50 pop.), a distribution 
point once known as Flint. The name, changed to honor the first postmaster and 
merchant, R. R. Macleod, was intended to be Macville. 

Between Maxville and Hall is (R) a stretch of man-made badlands, the 
result of hydraulic mining. Glacial deposits, immeasurably older, extend 
(L) along the valley floor. 

HALL, 60.4 m. (4,215 alt., 151 pop.), is a livestock-shipping point. 
The Northern Pacific right-of-way in this vicinity was acquired from 
Henry Hall. 

DRUMMOND, 66.8 m. (3,967 alt., 363 pop.) (see Tour I, Sec. d), 
is at the junction with US 10 (see Tour 1). 

(International Peace Park) 

General Information 

Season: Official season June 15 to Sept. 15; but entrances not closed 
to travel at earlier and later dates. Going-to-the-Sun Highway never clear 
of snow across the Continental Divide before June 15, but generally 
passable until sometime in October. Western entrance at Belton open all 
year ; road beyond kept free of snow to Lake McDonald. 

Administrative Offices: Park headquarters just inside W. entrance; 
address, Belton. Glacier Park Hotel Co. and Glacier Park Transport Co., 
Glacier Park Station; Glacier Park Saddle Horse Co., Kalispell, or, in 
summer, Glacier Park Station. 

Admission: Free. Automobile permit $i, issued at any entrance during 

Transportation: Park reached by Great Northern Ry. and US 2 (Tour 2) 
through Glacier Park Station (E) and Belton (W) ; by US 89 (Tour 4), 
N. and SE.; by US 91 (Tour 6), N. and SW. 

Busses from Great Falls to Glacier Park Station in summer. Daily bus 
service within the park; Glacier Park Station to Two Medicine, St. Mary, 
Many Glacier, Waterton Lake, Going-to-the-Sun, Lake McDonald, and 
Belton ; Belton to Lake McDonald, Logan Pass on the Continental Divide, 
Going-to-the-Sun, and St. Mary. Connections at St. Mary to Many 
Glacier, Waterton Lake, and Glacier Park Station. Glacier Park Transport 
Co. and Glacier Park Hotel Co. jointly offer all-expense tours by bus, 
ranging from $17 for i day to $42.50 for three days. 

Saddle horses available at Glacier Park, Many Glacier, and Lake Mc- 
Donald Hotels, Going-to-the-Sun Chalets, and Goathaunt Tent Camp. At 
Two Medicine Chalets, horses for local rides only. Trails total 900 m. 
Horseback trip expenses vary according to size of party and type of ac- 
commodation used. Average rate per person for i-day trip in group with 
horses, guide, and box lunch, $5-$6. All-expense trips of several days, 
with stop each night at chalet or tent camp, about $10 a day per person. 
Private camping parties, with guide, cook, and other help, $11 to $27 a 
day per person. Experienced riders can use horses without guide at $i 
an hr., $3 for 4 hr., $5 for 8 hr. (see TRAIL TOURS). 

Launch on Waterton Lake between Goathaunt Camp and Waterton 
Lake town site (Prince of Wales Hotel), Alta. (fare 75$) ; on Josephine 
and Swiftcurrent Lakes from Many Glacier Hotel ($i); on Two Med- 
icine Lake (75^); Lake McDonald (75$). Rowboats available at hotels 


37^ TOURS 

and chalets on Two Medicine, St. Mary, Swiftcurrent, Josephine, Crossley, 
Red Eagle, and McDonald Lakes; 50$ an hr., $2.50 a day. Outboard 
motors can also be rented. 

Accommodations: Three hotels (Glacier Park, Many Glacier, Lake Mc- 
Donald) ; eight chalets (Two Medicine, Cut Bank, St. Mary, Many 
Glacier, Going-to-the-Sun, Granite Park, Sperry, Belton). Rates: Hotels, 
$6.50 to $14 a day American plan, $4.50 to $11 European plan; break- 
fast and lunch $i, dinner $1.50. Chalets, bed usually $2, breakfast and 
lunch 750, dinner $i. Going-to-the-Sun Chalet slightly higher for special 
accommodations. Ten percent discount for stay of week or more at one 

Tent camps at Goathaunt on Waterton Lake, at Fifty Mountain on the 
Continental Divide in Kootenai Pass, and at Crossley Lake; used prin- 
cipally by saddle-horse parties, but open to hikers. 

Privately owned cabins on Lake McDonald rented to tourists. Many 
tourist camps outside park along US 2 and 89, especially at Glacier Park 
Station and Belton. Rates lower than in park. 

Free public automobile campgrounds, with pure water, firewood, cook 
stoves, and sanitary facilities, at Two Medicine, Cut Bank, Roes Creek, 
and Many Glacier on E. side; at Avalanche Creek, Sprague Creek (near 
Lake McDonald Hotel), Fish Creek (near Apgar), and Bowman Lake 
on W. side. 

Climate, Clothing, Equipment: Riding breeches, golf pants, or slacks 
with puttees worn by both men and women. Shorts not good for hiking 
because trails are often closely fringed with bushes. Many hikers wear 
khaki, but wool is preferable to absorb sweat by day and to give warmth 
in evening. Stout shoes with thick soles essential for hiking on rocky 
trails; should be large enough to enable wearing of two pairs of socks, 
one pair thick wool. Warm sweater or jacket on trips; waterproof slicker 
is tied behind the cantle on every saddle horse. 

' All essential clothing and equipment can be purchased or rented at 
Glacier Park, Many Glacier, and Lake McDonald Hotels (see STATE 

Medical Service: Trained nurses at hotels, resident physician at Glacier 
Park Hotel. In emergency a physician can be summoned by telephone 
from outside the park. 

Post Offices: Mail forwarded to hotels and chalets. Mail to E. side 
should be addressed via Glacier Park; W. side, via Belton. 

Communication and Express Service: Telephone, telegraph available at 
inns and ranger stations; express service to concentration points. Hand 
baggage (c.25 lb) free on busses; may be checked at entrances or re- 
checked to point of departure. No storage charges during trips. 

Naturalist Service: Ranger naturalists at Many Glacier, Going-to-the- 
Sun, Two Medicine, Lake McDonald, Sprague Creek, Roes Creek Camp- 
ground, and Avalanche Creek Campground deliver lectures, answer ques- 
tions, conduct local field trips and campfire entertainments, and arrange 
flower exhibits. 


Warnings and Regulations: Build fires only at designated places; be 
sure they are out before leaving them. Be careful with cigarettes, cigars, 
pipe ashes, and matches. 

Speed limit of 35 m.p.h. must be reduced to 15 m. on sharp curves and 
in passing hotels and campgrounds. Keep cars in lower gears on grades. 
Hunting or trapping prohibited. Do not feed bears or leave foodstuffs 
where they can break into the containers ; leave with camp tender, or hang 
in box out of reach. Do not pick flowers; get permit to collect specimens 
for scientific purposes. Do not destroy or injure natural features. Dead 
and fallen wood may be used for fires. To camp at other than designated 
campgrounds, obtain permit from ranger; leave campground clean; put 
refuse in containers provided, or bury it. (Get additional information in 

Best Fishing: (No license required, but get a copy of seasonal regula- 
tions as to limit, etc.) Two Medicine Lake eastern brook and rainbow; 
Cut Bank Creek eastern brook and cutthroat; St. Mary Lake Macki- 
naw, cutthroat, rainbow; Red Eagle Lake and Creek large cutthroat; 
Gunsight Lake rainbow; Lake Sherburne pike, whitefish, rainbow, cut- 
throat; Swiftcurrent, Josephine, Grinnell, and Ptarmigan Lakes cut- 
throat, eastern brook, rainbow; Cracker Lake small black-spot; Kennedy 
Creek grayling, cutthroat; Belly River large rainbow, cutthroat, gray- 
ling; Crossley Lakes Mackinaw, cutthroat; Elizabeth Lake rainbow, 
grayling; Waterton Lake Mackinaw, cutthroat; Lake Francis rainbow; 
Lake McDonald cutthroat, Dolly Varden, western whitefish; Fish, Sny- 
der, Avalanche, Lincoln, Trout, and Arrow Lakes cutthroat; Lake Ellen 
Wilson eastern brook; Harrison Lake cutthroat; Logging, Quartz, 
Bowman, and Kintla Lakes cutthroat, Dolly Varden. Excellent fishing in 
forks of Flathead River. 

Centers of Interest: Outstanding scenery at Two Medicine, Red Eagle, 
Going-to-the-Sun, Many Glacier, Belly River Valley, Goathaunt, Granite 
Park, Logan Pass, Avalanche, Sperry, and North Fork. At Glacier Park 
Station, Blackfeet Indians camp, sing, dance, and tell stories. Water sports 
at Two Medicine, St. Mary (shingle beach), Going-to-the-Sun, Many 
Glacier, Goathaunt (launch from Waterton Lake village in Canada), Lake 
McDonald. Wild, primitive country in the North Fork, Two Medicine, 
Many Glacier, Goathaunt, and Granite Park regions ; abundance of moun- 
tain flowers; animals such as mountain sheep and goats. Glaciers and 
first-rate climbing at Going-to-the-Sun (largest glacier in park), Many 
Glacier (best place to see mountain sheep), Logan Pass, and Sperry. 
Forest fire damage at Granite Park mars one of best views in park. On 
Logan Pass, brilliantly flowered meadows called Hanging Gardens are 
framed among high peaks. Abundance of huckleberries at Avalanche. 

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK (1,534 sq. m.) straddles the Continen- 
tal Divide between the Canadian boundary and Marias and Theodore 
Roosevelt Passes; it stretches from the Great Plains to the North Fork 
of the Flathead River. Its latitude and altitude make the climate temperate 

378 TOURS 

during short summers, cold and snow-blanketed through long winters. 
The heavy snows keep its streams full in summer, and feed gleaming 
emerald lakes and resplendent waterfalls. 

The mountains of the park are young and spectacular segments of 
the continental backbone, with a glacier, a lake, and a singing stream in 
every interstice. On the west the ascent to the summit is gradual on the 
east the slope is so abrupt as to amount to an escarpment, a result of the 
Lewis overthrust fault, which uplifted and shoved the park area 15 to 
25 miles out over the plains. On the eastern side there is an abrupt change 
from rolling shadeless plain to tremendously rugged timbered country. 
The sixty large and small glaciers that give the park its name are not 
strictly "rivers of ice," like those in Alaska and the Alps, but remnants of 
such rivers; they are bedded in glacial cirques and cling to high benches 
and northern slopes ; every year they recede slightly. They have, however, 
all the glacial characteristics movement, crevassed surface, and morainal 
deposits but their day is spent. If there is no climatic change, they will 
be gone in a thousand years. 

While the glaciers enhance the glory of the scene they are high in the 
mountains and accessible only by trail. The park is a wild mountainous 
area with an unusually wide range of appeal. To a rider the peak of ap- 
preciation may come as he dangles a leg over a thousand vertical feet of 
space; to a fisherman, when, knee deep in a rushing stream, he brings to 
net a fighting rainbow; to the hiker when he meets a bear or mountain 
goat on some high trail; to the picture hunter when he catches a bull 
moose wallowing along the edge of a marsh. Some will find the greatest 
lure in the loneliness of a summit. 

The park is rimmed by roads, but there is only one highway across it. 
The most beautiful and dramatic spots are reached by foot and bridle 
trails that branch from the low roads and lead up valleys separated by the 
high, forested ridges of the generally impassable main range. Going-to- 
the-Sun Highway traverses a representative part of the park; nevertheless, 
valleys threaded only by trails have a charm impossible to places scarred 
with road cuts and tunnels. The area has infinite variety, and to know it 
well, visitors must come back for many seasons. 

Adjoining, across the international line, is Canada's Waterton Lakes 
National Park, a limited area with topography and scenery like that of 
Glacier Park. Dedicated in 1932 as an international park, a symbol of the 
peaceful relationship between Canada and the United States, the joint area 
straddles the only long unfortified international boundary in the world. 
The two parks are under separate managements that cooperate closely. 

The first white man in the Glacier Park area was probably Hugh Mon- 
roe, a Hudson's Bay Company trapper known to the Blackfeet as Rising 
Wolf, who arrived about 1815, and married a Piegan woman. The Black- 
feet say that Father De Smet visited the region in 1846 and gave the 
name St. Mary to two mountain lakes shown to him by Monroe. The 
origin of the name is not otherwise explained. 

The story of Marias Pass, which bounds the park on the south, is one of 
the most unusual in western annals. In 1806 Meriwether Lewis approached 



3 8o 



3 8l 

382 TOURS 

but did not enter it. Later several men who had heard of it from the In- 
dians attempted to find it, but failed. It became a sort of legendary passage 
for three-fourths of a century. In 1889, it became imperative that it be 
found as a route for a northern transcontinental railway. It is on record 
that Major Baldwin actually discovered it in October of that year; but 
either he was not given credit for it, or his report needed verification, for 
in December John Stevens set out from the East to find it. Though ham- 
pered by the lateness of the season and deserted by his superstitious Flat- 
head guide, he set up his instruments on the plain near the present Meri- 
wether station, took a bearing on the elusive gap, discernible from that 
point, and on December n walked into it. The Great Northern com- 
pleted its road in 1892. In 1895 settlers cut a narrow trail through heavy 
timber from Belton to Lake McDonald. George Snyder shipped a steam- 
boat to the lake and built a log hotel. Dr. Lyman B. Sperry penetrated to 
Avalanche Lake, reached the glacier that bears his name, saw the beau- 
tiful lake now called Ellen Wilson, and convinced the Great Northern's 
Jim Hill of the lucrative tourist business in store for his railway. 

After 1900 mining excitement threatened an inrush of prospectors. 
Mining men persuaded Congress to obtain an area east of the Divide 
from the Blackfeet, but no ore of consequence was found. In 1898 rumors 
of oil had been disproved but because of them a 5O-mile road had been 
cut from the foot of Lake McDonald to the foot of Kintla Lake the first 
substantial step toward opening the region to travelers. Homestead booms 
populated the valleys ; the Great Northern Railway began extensive adver- 
tising; and the Forest Service inaugurated a more careful patrol. Even- 
tually on May n, 1910, Glacier National Park was created by Act of 
Congress. Though the park is in the State of Montana, it is under the 
jurisdiction of the Federal Government, and violators of park regulations 
are tried before a United States commissioner at Belton. The policing is 
done by the chief ranger and 20 to 30 men. 

Eons ago the land here rose, the sea drained off, and rock bodies up- 
thrust by the wrinkling of the earth's crust became mountains. Snow 
accumulated and formed glaciers, and glacial erosion changed V-shaped 
valleys to U-shaped ones. The rocks were exfoliated by alternate thawing 
and freezing, and the glaciers plucked off the scales, forming cirques or 
amphitheaters, many of them now partly occupied by small lakes. The 
larger lakes are mostly the result of the damming of glacial valleys by 
moraines. Continued action of the ice cut into the steep walls that backed 
the cirques, so that where two glaciers lay on opposite sides of a wall, the 
crest dividing them was reduced in thickness, forming passes and saw- 
tooth ranges. 

The vast escarpment marking the end of the eastward advance of the 
Lewis overthrust is of old, hard limestone that resisted erosion, and in 
many places, most notably in Chief Mountain, towers above the softer 
sandstone and shale formations on which it rests. The fault, plainly visible 
at Summit on the Great Northern Ry. as a thin yellow line along the 
mountains to the north, is more clearly seen farther north along the east- 
ern boundary of the park. It is conspicuous below Trick Falls on Two 


Medicine Creek, and on both sides of the Narrows on St. Mary Lake. 
North of Swiftcurrent Valley it forms a barrier to every stream that 
crosses it, and on the forks of Kennedy Creek and Belly River, rises sev- 
eral hundred feet, giving the spurs and ridges between these streams al- 
most unscalable fronts. 

In general the weather during the official season is warm by day and 
cool at night. The winds that parch the Great Plains seldom reach these 
pine-scented valleys. In June, sometimes in July, cloud banks from the 
west slip over the saw-toothed crest, depositing their moisture as snow 
on the higher slopes and as rain in the valleys. Sudden thunderstorms 
with brief torrential downpours sometimes occur. Rainfall is about equal 
on the eastern and western slopes during the officially open season; ear- 
lier and later, it is much heavier on the western side of the Divide. 

Nearly 1,000 species of plants bloom in the area, the most lavish dis- 
play being in early July. The park is divided by exposure, precipitation, 
temperature, and other factors into three life zones Canadian, Hud- 
sonian, and Arctic-Alpine with remarkable contrasts. Above timber 
line, the flowers follow retreating snowbanks; there are no successive 
flowering seasons, for all bloom nearly at once in a riot of color. High 
up, only the hardiest mosses and lichens, such as the thick-rooted stone- 
crops, cling among the constantly avalanching shales; only slightly lower 
grow rare sky-blue alpine columbine, forget-me-not, velvety dryad, globe- 
flower, and carpet pink. A step lower, among stunted, gnarled alpine fir 
and white-barked pine, delicate glacier lilies push skyward through linger- 
ing snowbanks. Fringed parnassia, red and yellow mimulus, wild fragrant 
heliotrope, heather, and gentian add to the glow of color. Still lower, 
showy, creamy plumes' of beargrass bloom in alternate years. 

At the eastern base of the mountains are fields brilliant from earliest 
springtime with asters and flowering grasses that dazzle the eye until 
they fade and become tawny in the autumnal cold. Framing the highways 
in spring are passion flower, carpet pink, shooting star, buttercup; in late 
June, forget-me-not, blue Camassia, red and white geranium, scarlet paint- 
brush, bistort, and puccoon; in July, large flowering horsemint; in late 
summer, bronze agoseris, gaillardia, wild hollyhock, and in early autumn 
exuberant asters and yellow composites. 

On the western, more humid slope the same flowers occur, but in 
smaller numbers and supplemented in places by trillium, fireweed, dwarf 
cornel, and calypso. 

Forests composed almost wholly of coniferous trees lie far below the 
lofty peaks. In the valleys on the eastern side are stands of Engelmann 
spruce, alpine fir, lodgepole pine, and, rarely, Douglas fir and limber pine. 
Talus slides support a few rugged pines, and avalanche-ridden slopes 
bear mountain ash, maple, alder, and aspen. 

The dense forests of the west slope, especially about Lake McDonald, 
have an almost twilight shade, even at noon. Composed chiefly of large 
trees, they are similar to forests of the Pacific coast. Western cedar and 
hemlock are interspersed with larch, grand fir, spruce, and pine. A few 
white pines in McDonald Valley below the Logan Pass road, and cedars 

384 TOURS 

around Avalanche Creek, stand nearly 200 feet high, with a basal diam- 
eter of 5 to 7 feet. 

With abundant food, and protected by strict laws, nearly all species of 
big game of temperate North America thrive in the park. When tourists 
throng into the area they withdraw to undisturbed places, but the watch- 
ful traveler, especially on remote trails, can see white-tailed and mule deer, 
elk, moose, mountain goats and sheep, mountain lions, wolves, and grizzly 
and black bears. Moose frequent marshy ponds in the deepest forests ; elk 
take to the open ridges; and mountain sheep and goats haunt the loftiest 
cliffs and meadows. The small valleys tributary to the North Fork of the 
Flathead are natural breeding grounds for moose, deer, and bear. On hot 
summer days, moose wade in shallow lakes or browse in the thick willows 
along streams. The great brown head and humped shoulders of a bull, 
with spade-like antlers set back against the hump, are often seen moving 
in the glacial waters of Trout Lake. In the water the moose is at a disad- 
vantage ; but it is unsafe to go very near to him, for he will fight as read- 
ily as a grizzly, and can crush a light craft with one stroke. Bears frequent 
campgrounds. The smaller animals beaver, coyote, porcupine, otter, 
mink, weasel, wildcat, lynx, and marten are found most readily by those 
who learn to tread softly and remain alert. Often, a man sitting quietly 
in the shade will see more wildlife in an hour than he would in a day of 
vigorous walking. 

Fish are plentiful in all waters of the park. On the lakes the best fish- 
ing is usually near inlets or outlets, at about sundown. On the streams 
the time of day is not so important as cautious approach and quiet casting. 

Park Tour i 

St. Mary Logan Pass Lake McDonald Belton; Going-to-the-Sun 
Highway. 51 m. 

Oil-surfaced roadbed throughout. 

Going-to-the-Sun Highway branches west from US 89 (see Tour 4, 
sec. a) at ST. MARY, m. (4,478 alt., 103 pop.). 

The auto checking station, 0.1 m., registers incoming tourists. 

Left from the checking station on an oiled road to the Swiss type ST. MART 
CHALETS, 1.5 m., just above the shingle beach of UPPER ST. MARY LAKE. The 
lakes were held m reverence by the Blackfeet as the home of the Wind Maker; the 
imaginative easily understand the origin of the belief, for Upper St Mary's dark 


3 86 TOURS 

blue waters are usually spangled with whitecaps. Rough water often makes fishing 

The highway skirts the northern shore of the upper lake. Across the 
water (L) the mountains, in succession, are Divide (8,647 a ^-) Kootenai 
(8,300 alt), Red Eagle (8,800 alt), and Little Chief (9,542 alt.) ; R. are 
Singleshot (7,700 alt), Whitefish (8,000 alt.), Goat (8,816 alt), and 
Going-to-the-Sun (9,594 alt.). 

The last-named peak, which grows more majestic as it is approached, is 
the locale of an Indian legend. Long ago great adversity visited the Black- 
feet. Gone was their glory in war, gone their skill and strength; famine 
held them. Troubled by the distress of his favorite people, the Great Spirit 
sent among them a warrior of fine mien, a chief who knew all things, to 
instruct them in the way they should live. Again they became a great peo- 
ple, regaining their dominance over all tribes. As quickly as he had come, 
the chief departed up the lofty slopes of a mountain to the west, and as he 
went, amid lightning and thunder, clouds of snow eddied about him. After 
the storm the sun blazed forth, and the Blackfeet saw that the snow on the 
mountain formed the profile of the great chief as he was going to the sun. 

At 6.4 m. is the junction with a secondary dirt road. 

Right 0.5 m. on this road to ROES CREEK CAMPGROUND. 

The NARROWS, 6.9 m., mark the lake crossing of the Lewis over- 
thrust fault. The yellow limestone, on both sides of the road is the lowest 
stratum of the rocks that were uplifted and pushed out over the plain. In 
most places in the park this hard lower limestone has not been broken 
through by the glaciers that scooped out the valleys, but forms a barrier 
over which waterfalls pour from the lakes behind it. The glacier that 
formed St. Mary Valley was one of the larger ones; the continuing line 
of the overthrust is plainly visible across the lake, bearing L. along the 
foot of Red Eagle Mountain, mounting high on Kootenai, and appearing 
near the top of Divide. 

LOST LAKE (L), 9.7 m., is a small circular body of water warm 
enough for comfortable swimming. 

At 10 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Left on this road 0.3 m. to GoiNG-ro-THE-SuN CHALETS (4,500 alt.), usually 
called Sun Camp. The largest group of chalets in the park, they are, like most of 
the other chalets and hotels, of log construction in a local adaptation of the alpine 
style. Perched on the crest of a rocky eminence a little more than 100 feet above 
Upper St. Mary Lake, they afford a view of the lake and the encompassing heights. 
The azure water is rimmed with deep green forest ; higher, the yellow, green, and 
red cliffs enfolding white snowbanks accentuate the verdant tones of the cirque 
meadows above the timber line. At this point the mountains visible (L. to R.) are 
Red Eagle, immediately across the lake; Little Chief; Citadel (9,024 alt.) ; Gunsight 
(9,250 alt.), farthest distant; Fusillade (8,747 alt.), a vast wedge; Reynolds 
(9,147 alt.), a higher triangle; Going-to-the-Sun, and Goat. 

Trails branch from Going-to-the-Sun Chalets (see Trail Tour 1). 

At 10.5 m. is the junction with a footpath. 

Right on this path to SUNRIFT GORGE, 0.2 m., a spectacular cleft in red argil- 
lite hardly more than 10 feet wide, with vertical walls 25 to 50 feet high, formed 
by a slip along a fault, and scoured into fantastic shapes by water. Windfalls, over- 
grown with moss and lichens, are continuously moistened by a curtain of mist from 


the rushing water below. Sunbeams slanting obliquely into the gorge touch the mist 
with rainbow colors. 

The road mounts by an easy grade around Going-to-the-Sun Mountain 
(R), and at 13.5 m. swings L. across a tributary of Reynolds Creek to the 
side of Piegan Mountain (9,230 alt.). Across the narrow, forested valley 
(L) is Mount Reynolds. On a lower point of the latter is a lookout sta- 
tion commanding the St. Mary Valley. 

A 408-foot TUNNEL, 17 m., much of it on a shelf blasted out of solid 
rock, shows some of the difficulties and hazards encountered by the build- 
ers of this road. Several of the contractors and subcontractors failed finan- 
cially during the 12 years of construction. Completed in 1933, the stretch 
between Going-to-the-Sun and Logan Pass was the final link. At the 
opening celebration in Logan Pass, west-side Indians met the Blackfeet 
and ceremoniously ended the age-old enmity between them. 

LOGAN PASS, 18.3 m. (6,654 alt.), cuts the Continental Divide be- 
tween the towering summits of Reynolds, Clements (8,764 alt.), and 
Oberlin (8,150 alt.) Mountains (L), and Piegan and Pollock (9,211 
alt.) (R). The terraced meadows, more than a mile in diameter, in the 
open circle (L), are the HANGING GARDENS. Red and yellow mimulus, 
fragrant heliotrope, heather, glacier lily, fringed parnassia, gentian, and 
other species hardly less showy bloom at the edges of snowbanks and 
along hundreds of rills that net these uplands. From any elevated point 
in the Hanging Gardens can be seen the forested valley of St. Mary, 
with the lake far below filling a hollow between Going-to-the-Sun and 
Red Eagle. 

At Logan Pass is the junction with a park trail. 

Left on this trail is HIDDEN LAKE, 2 m. (see Trail Tour 10). 

On the west slope the road for long stretches is on a man-made ledge 
on a steep wall, guarded on the outside edge. There are several turn-outs 
for parking. The deep Logan Creek Valley is precipitously below ; Mounts 
Oberlin and Cannon (8,460 alt.) are L.; ahead across McDonald Valley 
the sweeping curve of a glacial wall leads to Heavens Peak (8,994 alt.). 
Above the road (R) the sharp outline of the Garden Wall is etched in 
saw-tooth scallops against the sky. 

HAYSTACK BUTTE (R), 21 m., around which the road winds, is a 
flying buttress of the Garden Wall. At one time it was between two arms 
of the glacier that carved out McDonald Valley. 

CAMP NINE (L), 23.2 m., is a road maintenance camp. Bears some- 
times prowl about, just below the highway. 

On the switch-back, 26 m., where the road turns away from the Garden 
Wall, is a large parking space. The once beautiful view of McDonald 
Valley in both directions now illustrates the damage a major forest fire 
accomplishes in a few hours. 

The place where the 1936 fire was started by lightning is plainly visible 
(L) on a low shoulder of Heavens Peak. The fire, quickly trenched about, 
smoldered for several days in crevices, defying efforts of men let down 
with ropes to put it out. A high wind scattered sparks over the valley, 
igniting spot fires that soon merged into a general conflagration. 

388 TOURS 

The road enters a tunnel, 192 feet long, at 26.7 m.; two openings in 
the rock overlook McDonald Valley. From the tunnel the road drops 
rapidly into the heavy forest of the west side. Mountains towering against 
an unbelievably blue sky show through vistas of tall spruce, pine, and fir 
with thickset and cone-studded boughs. 

At 28.1 m., just before the road makes its last turn down to the valley 
floor, the north side of Mount Cannon and a small glacier near the sum- 
mit are R., with a vivid green flank of Heavens Peak thrusting partly 
across the foreground. There is a similar view, with rushing water in the 
foreground, from the end of the horse bridge over McDonald Creek (R), 
28.2 m., just beyond the turn of the road. A footpath descends the bank. 
The creek affords good fishing in late summer, when the water is low. 

The highway continues through a lane of evergreens with lush roadside 

AVALANCHE CREEK CAMPGROUND (L), 33.8 m., is one of the best and 
largest campsites along the highway, with parking space for about 200 

At the camp is the junction with a park trail. 

Left on this trail to AVALANCHE LAKE, 3.5 m. (see Trail Tour 8). 
LOGAN FALLS (R), 36.5 m., large and noisy, are below but near the 
edge of the highway. 

At 38.1 m. is the junction with a spur road. 

Right on this road, which makes a turn around the head of Lake McDonald to 
MCDONALD RANGER STATION, 1 m., several summer homes, and a TOURIST CAMP, 
2.5 m. 

LAKE McDONALD (R), 38.5 m., the largest lake in the park, is 10 
miles long and more than a mile wide. Because of its depth (maximum, 
437 feet), it is often ice free all winter, though the snow along its banks 
may be more than 4 feet deep. Fly fishing is good in deep water near 
the bank. 

LAKE MCDONALD HOTEL, 39.6 m. (3,167 alt.), is a log structure 
whose second and third story verandas overlook the lake. It is the center 
of west-side recreational activities and the hub of many trails. In the hotel 
lobby is a collection of mounted specimens of game native to the park. 
The view from the front lawn includes Stanton (7,744 alt.), Vaught 
(8,840 alt.), and Heavens Peak on the west, and the Garden Wall and 
Mount Cannon on the north. Mount Brown (8,541 alt.) towers a vertical 
mile above the hotel to the east. 

1. Left from Lake McDonald Hotel on a park trail to SPERRY CHALET, 7 m. 
(see Trail Tour 1, sec. d), and MOUNT BROWN LOOKOUT STATION, 5 m. (see Trail 
Tour 9). 

2. Right from Lake McDonald Hotel on a park trail to GRANITE PARK 
CHALETS, 18 m. (see Trail Tour 1, sec. c). 

SPRAGUE CREEK CAMPGROUND (R), 40.4 m., on the shore of Lake 
McDonald at the outlet of a rushing stream, has space for 75 cars. There 
is a sandy beach, but the lake water is cold even in August. 

The road along the east shore passes many delightful picnic spots on 
gravelly points or wooded bays. The best view is to the rear. 


39 o TOURS 

APGAR, 48.6 m. (3,150 alt., 50 pop.), a community of tourist camps, 
stores, and places of recreation and refreshment, is at the lower end of 
Lake McDonald. The settlement dates from 1895 when Dimon Apgar and 
others cut a road from Belton through the heavy cedar forest to Lake Mc- 
Donald, and homesteaded there. In 1930 the Government purchased about 
half the privately owned land, A considerable acreage, still privately 
owned, is used for camp sites and summer homes. 

At Apgar is the junction with the North Fork road (see Park Tour I A). 
The west entrance checking station is at 50.7 m. 

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK HEADQUARTERS, 50.8 m., is a group of ad- 
ministrative offices, staff residences, and warehouses on the high banks of 
the Middle Fork of the Flathead. 

The highway turns upstream (L) to a narrow crossing of the river, 
which in this area doubles back toward the south after a northward jour- 
ney between the Flathead Range and the Continental Divide. 

At BELTON, 51.6 m. (3,219 alt., 180 pop.) (see Tour 2, sec. c), is 
the junction with US 2 (see Tour 2). 

Park Tour lA 

Apgar Canadian Border; 59 m. 

Narrow, graveled roadbed. 

This highway follows the pioneer road built by prospectors in 1900 to 
reach a supposed oil field near Kintla Lake. Passing up and down steep 
timbered ridges along the valley of the North Fork of the Flathead, with 
only an occasional far view, it is used chiefly by those who wish to get 
into the back country for fishing and camping. 

The road branches north from Going-to-the-Sun Highway (see Park 
Tour 1) at APGAR, m. (3,150 alt., 50 pop.) (see Park Tour 1). 

BULL HEAD LODGE (R), 0.6 m., once the summer home of Charles M. 
Russell (see THE ARTS), is identified by the buffalo skull on the drive- 
way arch. 

At 1.5 m. is the FISH CREEK RANGER STATION (R). The North Fork 
road climbs to the crest of a hill, where a small public campground (R), 
in a stand of larch and lodgepole pine overlooks the lake. 

The road mounts steadily between Howe Ridge (R) and the generally 
forested Apgar Mountains (L), the highest point of which is denuded 
Huckleberry Mountain (6,580 alt.) at the far end. 


McGEE MEADOWS (L), 5 m., is a marshy flat between the Fish and 
Camas Creek drainages. 

At 5.5 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road, barely passable even in dry weather, to muddy little HOWE 
LAKE, 1.5 m., from which small, dark cutthroat trout are taken. A raft is provided 
for anglers. 

CAMAS CREEK, 1m., drains Rogers, Trout, Arrow, and Evangeline 

At 7.5 m. is the junction with a park trail. 

Right on this trail up Camas Valley to ROGERS LAKE, 3 m.; TROUT LAKE, 3.5 
m.; and ARROW LAKE, 5 m., at the foot of a CIRQUE WALL of which Rogers, 
Longfellow, and Heavens Peak, Mount Vaught, and Stanton Mountain are parts. 

The road descends steeply to Dutch Creek, 10 m., west of which it 
climbs^ again. Then it makes a long, steep, winding descent to Anaconda 
Creek/ 13 m. Over the next ridge is LOGGING CREEK RANGER STATION 
(L), 18 m. 

Right from Logging Creek Ranger Station on a park trail to LOGGING LAKE, 
4 m. (3,800 alt.). 

At 19.5 m. the road cuts in along the high, precipitous bank above the 
North Fork of the Flathead (L), with a view of the wooded Whitefish 
Range across the valley. 

LAKE WINONA (L), 22 m., is small and marshy. At 24 m. is LONE 
PINE PRAIRIE, an open space in the woods. The road again swings close 
to the North Fork at 25 m., and angles down a long cutbank to the river 

POLEBRIDGE RANGER STATION, 26.5 m., is an entrance station at the 
park end of the bridge over the North Fork. Polebridge, a hamlet beyond 
the river, is on a Forest Service road that goes south to Columbia Falls 
and north to the Canadian Boundary. 

At 26.9 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this narrow, winding road to BOWMAN LAKE, B m. (4,020 alt.), 
which is about 7 miles long, 0.5 mile wide, and 256 feet deep. The scene is some- 
what similar to that at the foot of Lake McDonald, except that the valley is nar- 
rower. The forested Cerulean Ridge (R) culminates in Square Peak (9,800 alt.) 
and Rainbow Peak (9,860 alt.), whose bare escarpment rising from the lake shore 
is streaked with color. Indian Ridge (L) rises to an unnamed peak (8,300 alt.), 
beyond which, at the head of the lake, bulks Mount Peabody (7,282 alt.). The tops 
of many other mountains show behind the nearer fringe. The lodge and other build- 
ings (L. of the public campground) were formerly occupied by a boys' camp. 

Although the road closely parallels the North Fork, the river is usually 
out of sight. On BIG PRAIRIE, 30 m. to 33 m., it passes two or three 
ranch houses. Few if any months are frost- free here. 

At 38 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to LOWER KINTLA LAKE CAMPGROUNDS, 2 m. (4,000 alt.), 
a primitive site in a stand of tall spruce and fir. Kintla Lake, snowing blue between 
forested slopes, extends eastward. It is about 6 miles long and 0.8 mile wide. 

STARVATION RIDGE, north of the lake, leads to the Boundary Mountains, in 
which a series of peaks rises to about 8,000 feet. Parke Ridge (R) shuts off a clear 
view of Parke Peak (9,100 alt.). Kinnerly and Kintla Peaks (10,000 alt.) are 

5 <p2 TOURS 

visible only from the upper lake, which is connected with the lower lake by Kintla 



The road crosses the Canadian Border at 59 m., i mile south of Flat- 
head, British Columbia. 

Park Tour 2 

Junction with US 2 Two Medicine Chalets; 7.5 m. 

This road angles sharply downhill, northwest from US 2 (see Tour 2) 
at TWO MEDICINE JUNCTION, m., to the level of LOWER TWO 
MEDICINE LAKE (L), 0.8 m. The dam at the lower end of the lake 
regulates the flow of water for minor irrigation along Two Medicine 
Creek on the Blackfeet Reservation. The valley is thinly wooded. Rugged 
mountains slant steeply above the treetops. 

Two Medicine Valley was always a favorite camping ground of the 
Blackfeet, who met on the shores of the middle lake each year to make 
medicine and recount their exploits. Once when two factions developed, 
one camp was pitched on the upper lake and one on the lower. Some say 
this is the reason for the name "Two Medicine." 

At 2.9 m. the road crosses the park boundary and at 3.8 m. is the en- 
trance checking station. 

At 5.5 m. is the junction with a footpath. 

Right on this path to TRICK FALLS, 0.2 m., amid spruces. Early in the season, 
when the volume of water is large, it looks like any other waterfall. But some of 
the water flows from a hole beneath its brink and, late in the season, water issues 
only from the hole. The ancient limestone edge of the falls marks a line of the 
Lewis overthrust fault across the valley. The glacier that scoured out the valley 
weakened this lowest limestone; the water of Two Medicine found an underground 
passage in the structure, thus making one waterfall above another. Many believe 
this phenomenon to be the origin of the name Two Medicine. 

The road bridges Two Medicine Creek, and climbs (R) through dense 
evergreens to emerge at the foot of TWO MEDICINE LAKE (5,165 
alt.) among the TWO MEDICINE CHALETS, 7.5 m., which are large 
log cabins with sloping roofs designed to shed heavy winter snows. 

Trails branch from Two Medicine Chalets (see Trail Tours 3, 4). 
From the shore of Two Medicine a slope (R) sweeps up out of lake and 
forest to the snowfields and purple-red summit of Rising Wolf Mountain 

PARK TOUR 4 393 

(9,505 alt.). Across the lake the crags of Sinopah (8,435 alt -) rise sheerly 
and hide the parent Mount Rockwell (9,250 alt.). Near the outlet (R) 
of the lake, and elsewhere along its shores, are beaver colonies. 

Park Tour 3 

Junction with US 89 Rocky Mountain Trail Ranch; 6 m. 

The road branches west from US 89 (see Tour 4) at CUT BANK 
BRIDGE, m. (see Tour 4, sec. a), following Cut Bank Creek through 
open and brushy country cut by many cattle trails. 

CUT BANK RANGER STATION (R) is at 5 m., and a small CAMPGROUND 
(R) at 5.5 m. in a grove of pines and fir. 

Near the bank of the creek is the ROCKY MOUNTAIN TRAIL RANCH, 
6 m., with the former Cut Bank Chalets; it is now a dude ranch. At the 
head of this valley is TRIPLE DIVIDE PEAK (8,001 alt.), from which 
creeks, appropriately named Atlantic, Pacific, and Hudson Bay, flow to 
the three oceans touching North America. 

Park Tour 4 

Babb Many Glacier Hotel; 12.8 m. 

The park road branches west from US 89 (see Tour 4) at BABB, 
m. (4,461 alt., 25 pop.) (see Tour 4, sec. a), crossing part of the 
BLACKFEET RESERVATION (see Tour 2, sec. b). 

Right, farthest out on the plain, is the yellow, truncated monolith, 
Chief Mountain (9,056 alt.) ; nearer is Sherburne Peak (8,500 alt.). The 
road winds around hills of drift deposited by the ancient glacier whose 
upper branches occupied Swiftcurrent and Boulder Valleys. These vast 
mounds, lying on each side of Swiftcurrent Creek (L), demonstrate im- 

394 TOURS 

pressively the amount of material a first-class glacier can transport. Thickets 

of small quaking aspens mottle their brown slopes. 

A DAM (L), 5.7 m., impounds the water of Swiftcurrent Creek, form- 
ing LAKE SHERBURNE. Excess water is diverted to St. Mary Lake and 
Milk River. BOULDER RIDGE, south of Sherburne Lake, was burned 
over in 1934, when a sheepherder neglected to extinguish his campfire. 

The entrance station is at 8.6 m. As the road winds along the northern 
shore of Lake Sherburne, the mountains take on individual character and 
interest. Appekunny Mountain (9,053 alt.) rises R. ; it bears the Indian 
name of James Willard Schultz (see LITERATURE). Near the head of 
the lake is rosy Altyn Peak (8,050 alt.), a lower summit of yellow Mount 
Henkel (8,700 alt.). At the foot of the cliffs around Appekunny and 
Altyn is the edge line of the Lewis overthrust, which superimposed an- 
cient rocks upon more recent Cretaceous deposits. Altyn yellow limestone 
is lowest, then Appekunny green argillite, and Grinnell red argillite; 
Siyeh gray or yellow limestone forms the higher mountaintops. In some 
places the lower limestone is 1,500 feet thick; the green rocks occupy 
2,000 to 3,000 feet; the red rocks about 2,000 feet. This banding, con- 
cealed in some places by the glacial debris that forms the slopes, is very 
apparent here. 

Across Swiftcurrent Creek (L) is Point Mountain (8,300 alt.), with a 
ridge connecting it with Siyeh (10,004 alt.) farther back. Next is Allen 
(9,355 alt.) in the foreground; the gable end of Gould (9,541 alt.) in- 
terrupts the Garden Wall skyline. Grinnell (8,838 alt.) is straight ahead, 
coming to a reddish prominence in Stark Point, which rises sheer ly above 
the small Swiftcurrent Lake, west of the head of Lake Sherburne. In the 
distance, R. of Grinnell, is yellowish Swiftcurrent (8,300 alt.), and farther 
R. is Wilbur (9,293 alt). 

The road swings L. across Swiftcurrent Creek, 12.6 m., with a glimpse 
(L) of Swiftcurrent Falls. SWIFTCURRENT LAKE (R), formerly 
called McDermott, is in front of rambling, rustic MANY GLACIER HOTEL, 
12.8 m. Evidence of the 1936 forest fire, which destroyed the former 
chalets, tourist camp, and store, is everywhere visible on the lower slopes 
here. (See Trail Tour 1, sees, a and b, and 5 and 6.) 

The hotel, largest of the park buildings, is five stories high and ac- 
commodates 500 guests. It is built of logs and its design, adapted from 
those used for cottages in the Alps, is simple and charming. Balconies ex- 
tend along the walls on each floor; at the ends are stairs leading to the 
ground. Within, great log columns extend from floor to roof around the 
rectangular lobby. There are two annexes. 


<<<<<(< <# )>)>>>>>>> 

Trail Tour 

Going-to-the-Sun Many Glacier Swiftcurrent Pass Granite Park 
Lake McDonald Sperry Glacier Going-to-the-Sun. Piegan Pass Trail, 
Going-to-the-Sun Trail, and unnamed park trails; 66.2 m. 

Hotels, chalets, or campgrounds near all major points of interest. 
Trail requires caution in some places, but is nowhere unduly laborious. 

HOTEL, 17.4 m. Piegan Pass Trail. 

Along the first part of this trail are meadows and also deep forests of 
alpine larch. From Piegan Pass is seen an endlessly fascinating sea of sum- 
mits, crags, ridges, and valleys that continually vary in color and appear- 
ance according to the light and clouds. 

Piegan Pass Trail branches west from GOING-TO-THE-SUN CHALETS, 
m. (4,500 alt.) (see Park Tour 1). 

At 0.5 m. is a trail junction. 

Right on this trail to BARING CREEK FALLS and SUNRIFT GORGE, 0.5 m. 
(see Park Tour 1), SIYEH PASS, 5.7 m., and PIEGAN PASS (see below), ISA m. 

At 2.5 m. is the junction with a spur trail. 

Left on this trail 0.3 m. to ST. MARY FALLS. 

At Reynolds Creek, 3.5 m., is the junction with a park trail. 

Right on this trail to SPERRY CHALETS, 12.5 m. (see Trail Tour 1, sec. d). 

The Piegan Pass Trail follows Reynolds Creek, passes REYNOLDS 
FALLS (L), and turns R. at a trail junction, 5 m. The real climb begins 
here, though this trail is not steep by mountain trail standards. The route 
underpasses Going-to-the-Sun Highway and proceeds up along a fork of 
Reynolds Creek through a forest, then through PRESTON MEADOWS, 
one of the few places in the park where alpine larch is found. Flowers, 
especially in July, border the banks of every little mossy rill, their crisp, 
delicate colors seemingly distilled from melted snow and mountain sun- 
shine. Piegan Mountain (9,230 alt.) is L., Going-to-the-Sun (9,594 alt.), 
R. To the rear, the pyramidal peak in the middle distance is Reynolds 
(9,147 alt.), with Fusillade (8,747 alt.) just L. of it and Jackson (10,023 
alt. ) on the skyline beyond. 

Right of Reynolds, in the distance, looking like the gable of a house 
with snow on the porch roof, is Edwards (9