Samkhya Karikasof Is'vara Kr/shna
Commentary of Gauc/apada
ABSTRACT OF THESIS
PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVER-
SITY OF PENNSYLVANIA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRE-
MENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
ELLWOOD AUSTIN WELDEN
Sa/nkhya Karikasof Is Vara Kn'shna
Commentary of Gauc/apada
ABSTRACT OF THESIS
PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVER-
SITY OF PENNSYLVANIA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRE-
MENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
ELLWOOD AUSTIN WELDEN
The Samkhya Karikas of Is'vara Krishna
Commentary of GauJapada
The Sawkhya Karikas 1 of Igvara Krishwa take without
doubt the first place among the formal treatises of that system of
philosophic speculation, the Sawkhya, which had its beginnings
several centuries before the Christian era and which was in its
teachings the precursor of the Buddhist reformation. This school
of philosophy, atheistic in its tendencies, directly antagonistic to
the doctrines of the earlier Upanishads and, in consequence, the
strong opponent of the monistic Vedanta, conceives of the visible
universe as a real creation emanating from a material principle
or substratum, called prakriti, which in its characteristics and
attributes is the exact opposite of the purusha or soul, this latter
being regarded by the masters of the school as multitudinous and
The word karika signifies a memorial or technical verse, and
the work was drawn up in its present form some time prior to
the cycle 557-583 A. D. This fact is established by a Chinese
translation of the work, made during this period of twenty-six
years. The collection consists of sixty-nine stanzas, written in
the arya metre, to which number were subsequently added three
verses, describing the composition of the book and enumerating
in brief its sources. It is evident that these last three karika are
apochryphal from the absence of comment upon them by Gaurfa-
pada and from the fact that verse 69 is properly the concluding
In a concise and comprehensive way, these sixty-nine me-
morial verses, each in turn, explain the several doctrines of the
earlier and pure Samkhya school, as yet untouched by Vedantic
colorings, and in their brevity and terseness they resemble, in
every particular, except their metrical structure, the sutras of
the remaining five orthodox systems of Hindu philosophy.
The Form of the Work. Within the body of the karikas
present paper, together with my articles "The Sawkhya
Term linga" (A. J. P., Oct.-Dec., 1910), and "I metri delle
Samkhya Karika (Studi Italiani di Filologia Indo-Iranica, vol.
viii, Firenze, 1912), form part of the introduction to my original
work the Sawi-khya Karika with Commentary of Gawdapada,
presented as a thesis.
themselves there is indeed no division into books and parts, as is
so common to most Sanskrit treatises, due to the Hindu's mania
for artificial classification; but, on the other hand, there is a
markedly clear, systematic treatment of each topic in its proper
place, and an orderliness of method, almost unknown to other
philosophical text-books. Thus it is possible to recognize a
scheme of internal division into sections, in accordance with the
general theme under discussion.
SECTION 1. Karikas 1-9. General Introduction The first
nine karikas serve as a sort of introductory sketch or general
outline of the Sawkhya doctrines and of the methods to be pur-
sued in investigation, as follows:
1-2. Reasons for investigation into the means of alle-
viating and annihilating the three kinds of pain: internal,
external and superhuman.
3. Tabulation of the main theory of the Sawkhya
school, to wit, the twenty-five tattvas or principles, composing
the invisible, universe, the visible and the soul.
4-7. The logical means of proof, by which a conclusion
may be reached and the impediments to perception of an
8. Impediments to the perception of the prakriti or
substratum of the material universe.
9. The doctrine of sat-karya, or the existence of an
effect in its material cause.
SECTION 2. Karikas 10-21. Ontology. Attributes of mat-
ter and soul. These twelve karikas take up the subject already
introduced in karika 3, and enumerate the qualities or attributes
of both prakriti or matter and purusha, or soul.
10-11. The similarities and diversities of the charac-
teristics of prakriti, her evolvents and purusha.
12-13. The doctrine of the three guwas or constituents
of prakriti and her evolvents.
14-16. Proofs of the existence of prakriti as the mate-
rial cause of the universe.
(16)-17. Proofs of the existence of purusha, the soul.
18. The multitudinousness and individuality of puru-
sha, the soul.
19. Soul's attributes isolation, neutrality, perceptivity
20-21. Causes of bondage, or the union of soul and
SECTION 3. Karikas 22-28. Physiology. Herein is de-
scribed the process of evolution of the universe, the nature of
the products of prakriti and their functions.
22. Classified list of prakriti's evolvents.
22-24. The inner organs Buddhi, or intellect, and
ahawkara or self-reference, the origin of subjectivity.
25-26. The names and origin of the five organs of
sense and the fire organs of action.
27. The manas, or mind its nature.
28-37. The functions of both inner and outer organs
and their method of functionating.
38. The gross elements and their characteristics.
SECTION 3. Karikas 39-51. Metempsychosis. Karika 39
introduces for the first time the theory of a subtle or inner body,
composed of the thirteen organs, or linga 1 , plus the rudimentary
elements which accompanies the purusha or soul on its rounds
of re-birth; the succeeding karikas treat of the doctrine of me-
tempsychosis and of the subtle body.
39. The three kinds of objects of sense.
40-42. The nature of the subtle body and the reasons
for its existence.
43-45, The attributes of buddhi or intellect and the
result of each.
46-51. The bhavas or dispositions of the intellect and
the results of each.
SECTION 4. Karikas 52-54 The Two-fold Creation: intel-
lectual and material, and the prevalence of the guwas or con-
stituents of matter in the various forms of creation are here de-
SECTION 5. Karikas 55-68. Psychology. In these verses
is described the union of purusha, the soul, with prakriti, or mat-
ter, and the methods of liberation.
55-61. Causes of bondage. Reasons for the union of
the two principles, in order that purusha shall eventually
attain to final emancipation.
62-63. Purusha is not bound, but prakriti.
64-68. Final emancipation. Its nature and when at-
SECTION 6. Karika 69 (70-72). Concluding verse and
Metrical Structure. The Sawkhya Karikas differ from the
vast majority of Hindu works on philosophy, through the fact
that they are composed in metrical form, at least in their present
state. The metre employed by Igvara Krishna is the arya, per-
haps the most complicated and most different of all the many
modes of Sanskrit versification, but one which is frequent in
works of the golden age of the literature, during which period
our author flourished. In structure this metre is quite different
from nearly all other Indian metrical forms, inasmuch as it is
based not on the number of syllables in the verse, or pada, but
on the number of morae. A light syllable, that is, one contain-
ing a short vowel, counts as one mora ; a heavy syllable, in other
words, a syllable containing a long vowel, or a closed syllable,
counts as two.
The verse is divided into two half stanzas, each of which is
made up of eight padas or feet, and the caesura occurs in both
cases at the end of the third foot. These feet are formed, each
of two morae, appearing as two heavy syllables ( ), as two
light syllables and one heavy (__ , _ _, __), or a four
light syllables (____). The eighth foot of each half stanza is
catalectic, consisting of one heavy syllable ( ). But here
occurs an irregularity, frequent also in other works than the
Karika, namely, the occasional occurrence of a light (_) in place
of the heavy syllable.
It should be noted further that the sixth foot of the first
half stanza must always form an amphibrach (_ _), and the
sixth foot of the second half stanza must be a single light syllable
(_), while no odd foot may be an amphibrach. Applying these
rules, it is easily seen that the first half stanza consists of thirty
morae, the second of twenty-seven, as follows :
In my recent paper, "I Metri delle Sawkhya Karika," pub-
lished in "Sttidi Italiani di Filologia Indo-Iranica" (vol. viii. tip.
Carnesecchi, Firenze, 1912), I have already treated in detail the
numerous metrical defects of the Karikas. Of the entire seventy-
two verses, forty-seven contain to a greater or less degree errors
in regard to versification.
1. Thirty-three of the Karikas are found to have the irreg-
ularity mentioned above; that is to say, a single mora, or light
syllable, in the last foot, of one-half verse or of both. These
verses are 3 1 , 4 2 , 5 2 , 7 2 , 8 2 , II 1 , IS 1 ' 2 , 16 1 , 17 2 , 18 1 ' 2 , 19 1 ' 2 , 21 1 ,
22 2 , 24 2 , 27 2 , 29 2 , 32 2 , 34 1 ' 2 , 35 2 , 36 2 , 38 2 , 42 1 , 44 1 , S3 1 , 55 2 ,
57 1 ' 2 , [60 2 ], 61 1 - 2 , 63 2 , 66 2 , 68 2 , and (72 1 - 2 ). It is noteworthy
that the majority of these irregularities occurs in the second half
verse, and indeed many may be regarded as due to the fact that
the words in question as mere verse fillers.
2. In two karikas there is a disregard for the rule of the
amphibrach in the sixth foot of the first half serve.
Karika 3 reads :
"mulaprakritir avikritir; | mahad-adya/* prakriti-vikritaya/i
sapta ; |
shodacakas tu vikaro; | na prakritir, na vikriti/z purusha/t||"
and Karika 47 :
"paiica viparyaya-bheda | bhavanty, agaktes tu karawa-
ashtaviragati-bhedas ; tushfir navadha; 'shtedha siddhi/i ||."
In both cases, the foot in question consists of four short
3. Four karikas contain more than the regular number of
"tasmat, tat-sawyogad | acetanaw cetanavad iva lingam, |
guwa-kartritve ca tatha | karteva bhavatiti udasina/t ||." (1)
Scheme: I I II.. . I I I
Karika 43 :
"sawsiddhikag ca bhavaft |
"sawsiddhikag ca bhava/z | prakritika, vaikritikag ca dharma-
drsh/a/i karawa-'grayiwa/i, karya-'grayiag ca kalala-'dya/i 1 1
Scheme: U~ _ | II -. , I ^ I ^~
v< na vina bhavair lingaw, | na vina lingena bhava-nirvritti/* ; |
linga-'khyo, bhava-'khyas | tasmad dvividha/i pravartate
sarga/i || "
Scheme: _-| I ll.-l l_-_|-
Iii this case the second half verse has the scheme of a first
half verse. In classical Sanskrit this occurs regularly and is
known as the giti or udgatha.
" 'drishfa rnaya' ity upekshaka | eko ; 'drish^a 'ham' ity
uparamaty anya; |
sati sawyoge 'pi, tayo/? | prayojanam na 'sti sargasya || (2)
Scheme: |^_^|_^ _|| | U w |
J Better reading perhaps "sanaka/z sanandanag ca" cf Saw-
khya Sutras 6.69).
2 Some manuscripts read u uparatai-'ka" for "uparamaty"
anya," correcting the metre.
4. Karikas 50 and 59 are defective in the fifth foot of the
second half verse, the scheme of which is ^
5. The most serious fault in the metrical structure of the
karikas is to be found in the separation of words and compounds
by the caesura in one half verse, or even in both. This occurs
twelve times throughout the work, to wit, Karika 4, 7, 9, 10 12,
22, 26 2 , 28, 32 and 62*.
Commentaries to the Karikas. There are extant four com-
mentaries to the Sainkhya Karikas. Besides that of Gaudapada,
the earliest and by far the most important, there is a long com-
ment known as the Sawkhya Tattva KaumudI, composed by
Vacaspati Migra at a much later date and influenced throughout
its pages by the monistic Vedanta and the theistic Yoga. It has
been translated by Prof. Richard Garbe (Der Mondschein der
Sawkhya Wahrheit, 1892). The remaining two are very modern
works, and throw but little light on the original doctrines of the
school. They are known as the Sawkhya Candrika, of Narayawa
Tirtha and the Sawkhya Kaumudi by Ramakrisrwa Bhafrfacarya.
Gaudapada's Bhashya. The bhashya or gloss of Gaudapada,
under which simple and modest title this earliest comment on the
memorial verses goes, is the work of a scholiast who is believed
to have lived at least two generations before the celebrated
Vedanta commentator, S'awkaracarya, who flourished somewhere
about the first half of the eighth century of our era. A trans-
lation of this gloss into Chinese in connection with the Karikas
themselves was made during the latter part of the sixth century,
as mentioned above, fixing beyond question the latest date to
which this work may be assigned, but further than that the
uncertain chronology of Indian history does not aid us.
Gaudapada treats the Karikas in an extremely brief and
comprehensive manner, and his work is throughout a truer picture
and better reflex of the pure, formal Samkhya teachings than
are the fuller annotations of his successor, Vacaspati Miqra.
The earlier scholiast represents faithfully the doctrines as taught
by their founder, Kapila, and much less than the Samkhya
Sutras is he influenced by the Brahman priesthood or the
panthersin of the Upanishads and Arawyakas. Every effort is
here made to disprove by cold, logical reasoning the theory of
the existence of the one all-supreme soul, as creator of the
material universe. Prakriti alone is responsible for this visible
creation, and she is "na dvitiya" (Karikas 61, 66, Commentary).
In contrast to Vijnana Bhikshu, in his Sawkhya Pravacana
Bhashya, nowhere does our commentator attempt to harmonize
the opposing tenets of the two rival schools, and he is indeed
what S'awkaracarya later calls, in his treatment of the Sawkhya
doctrine, "acabda," "contrary to the Vedas, veda-viruddha, con-
testing the Veda, and aveda-prasiddha, not recognized in the
Vedas. Gaudapada is the heretic par excellence, and only his
recognition of apta-vacana (oral tradition) as a third means of
proof demonstrates that Brahmanic influence was beginning
to creep into the original teachings of Kapila and force more
and more into the background the pure Samkhya.
Citations. The commentary contains a large number of
citations drawn from various Sanskrit works, both of the
strictly classical and of the philosophical literature. For the
most part these are references to doctrines and tenets of the
Sawzkhya school itself, but in several instances they are mere
illustrations of the topic under discussion. It is a next to impos-
sible task to place them all with any degree of certainty, and
this statement naturally holds more especially for the passages
taken from other Sawkhya sources, this in view of the fact that
there is no extant text of the school, of date prior to the Karikas
themselves, of which Gaudapada is the earliest known com-
mentator. The citations may be grouped under four separate
1. Vedic Citations, including the Upanishads.
2. Citations strictly Classical.
3. Philosophical Citations, other than Sawkhya.
4. Sawkhya Citations.
1. Vedic Citations. There occur two passages, apparently
taken from the mantra literature. Both are found in the com-
ment of Gaudapada to the second Karika. The provenience of
the first is Rig Veda 8.48.3.
"apama somam, amrita abhuma | aganma jyotir, avidama
devan | kirn nunan asman kriwavad arati/z | k'un u dhutir
amrita martyasya? ||"
"We drank the Soma, we became immortal, we entered
the realm of light, we reached the gods. What may the
enemy do to us now? and what (may) the injury of a mortal
(do to us), O Immortal?"
The second passage reads as follows :
"anyac ca vede cruyate; 'atyantikam phalam paqu-badhena ;
sarvawil lokam jayati, mrityuw tarati, papmanaw tarati,
brahma-hatyam tarati, yo yo 'gva-medhena yajata' iti."
"And moreover it is said in the Veda : "Endless rewards
are to be obtained by the slaughter of cattle; whosoever
offers the horse-sacrifice, subdues the whole world, passes
over death, passes over evil, passes over Brahman murder."
Taittiriya Sa7tzhita 18.104.22.168-2 reads:
"sarvam papmanaw tarati, tarati brahma-hatyaw, yo yo 'gva-
Similarly Catapatha Brahmana 22.214.171.124. :
"sarvam papmanaw tarati, brahma-hatyaw?, yo yo 'gva-
Both of these texts omit the first three clauses of the com-
mentary, which seems to support the theory that Gaudapada's
source was a different recension of Sawmita or not improbably
a third work. It should be noted that it is possible to construe
"atyantikam phalam pagu-badhena with the preceding introduc-
tory clause and to begin the quotation with the words "sarvam
lokaw jayati," and it may be suggested, in passing, that, although
the commentator omits "sarvam" before "papmanawi," it occurs
in his gloss before "lokaw" and in the faminine form.
There is a third citation in Gaudapada which may have its
origin in Vedic writing. This occurs in the comment on
"vairagya" in Karika 23, and reads : "pradhanam apy atra
svapne-'dra-jala-sadrigam" "even pradhana here is similar to
the net of Indra in a dream." (cf. Maitri Upanishad IV. 2:
"indra-jalam iva maya-mayam.")
2. Citations Strictly Classical. Three passages apparently
drawn from classical sources occur in Karika 1. The first is in
"sanakag ca sanadag ca 1 | tritiyag ca sanatanah 1 1
asuri/t kapilag cai 'va | vodhuh pancacikhas tatha |
ity etc brahmana/i putra/i | sapta prokta maharshaya/i. 1 1
"Sanaka and Sananda(na), and Sanatana as third, Asuri
and Kapila, Vodhu and Pancagikha; these are declared (to
be) the great Rshis (or) seven sons of Brahman." (cf. also
Gaudapada to Karika 43.)
A reproduction of this citation is to be found in the Brihat-
Paragara Dharmagastra (Weber, Verzeichniss der Berliner San-
skrit-Handschriften, vol. II., p. 36; also p. 344). Mahabharata
XII. 13078-80 gives the names in slightly altered form, and they
occur also in the AtharvaparigishJa (Weber, Verz. II. 91), and
in several passages used in connection with the pitri-tarpana and
rishi-tarpana ceremonies (Weber, Verz. I. 46, 327; II. 78, 1152).
The second quotation in the gloss to Karika 1 occurs as
well in Karika 43. "kapilasya saho 'tpanna dharmo, jnanawi,
vairagyam, aigvaryaw ca," "together with Kapila arose right
conduct, knowledge, worldly indifference and superhuman
power." Its provenience is uncertain.
The last passage is a gloka:
"panca-viwgati-tattva-jiio | yatra tatra 'crame vaset |
jafi, mundi, gikhl va 'pi | mucyate; na 'tra sawcaya/i. ||"
"He who knows the twenty-five tattvas, in whatsoever stage
manuscripts read : "bhavaty" for "bhavatlti," rectify-
ing the metrical defect.
of life he may be, (whether) he be one who wears all his hair
in a knot'' (jafin) "or be shaven 1 ' (mundm) "or only the part
on the crown in a knot" (gikhin), "he is released; of this there
is no doubt." (The above is found also in the commentary to
Karikas 2 and 22.)
Fitz-Edward Hall, in his Sawkhya Sara (Introduction, p.
23, note), says that the above passage "is in Kshemananda on
the Tattwa-Samasa, in Charitaswma Gam on the Shad-dargana-
samuccaya." He adds further that Bhavagawega in his Tattva-
yatharthya-dipana introduces this couplet together with three
others, intimating that "they were borrowed, not from, but
In Karika 2 there occurs two verses in epic metre.
"sat gatani niyujyante pacunam madhyame 'hani \
acva-medhasya vacanad \ unani pagubhis tribhi/i. ||"
''According to the prescription of the horse-sacrifice, six
hundred cattle less three are to be yoked at midday."
"bahuni 'ndra-sahasrani | devanaw ca yuge yuge |
kalena samatltani | kalo hi duratikramah. ||"
"Indra and many thousands of gods have passed away with
time in successive ages, for time is invulnerable."
The provenience of the first is questionable. The second
occurs in Manhabharata XII. 8253, with change of "devanam"
to "daivatanam'' and consequent omission of "ca" and with sub-
stitution of "abhyatitani kalena" for "kalena samatltani." The
sense of both is identical.
So far, investigation has failed to reveal the sources of two
quotations in Karika 4.
"agamo hy apta-vacanam ; | aptaw dosa-kshayad vidu/i |
Kshma-dosho 'nritawt vakyam | na bruyad dhetv-asambha-
vat 1 1
sva-karmawy abhiyukto yah \ sanga-dvesha-vivarjitah |
pnjitas tad-vidhair nityam | apto jneya/t sa tadriga/i. ||"
"For scripture is the word of an authority; they recog-
nize an authority, from (his) lack of fault; (being) free
from fault, he would not utter an untrue speech, because no
reason would arise (therefor). Such an one should be
recognized as an authority (and) ever honored by his peers,
who, devoted to his own duties, (yet) is devoid of love or
"dakshiwena ca vindhyasya | sahyasya ca yad uttaram |
prithivyam a samudrayam | sa pradego manorama/z. ||"
"That region, south of the Vindhya (mountains) and north
of the Sahya (mountains) as far as the sea-coast is charm-
No further quotations occur in the commentary until Karkia
12. Then we find the following gloka :
"rajaso mithunaw sattvaw | sattvasya mithunaw rajah |
ubhayoA sattva-rajasor | mithunaw tama ucyate. ||"
The Tattva Kaumudi cites more fully and refers the verses
to the Devi Bhagavata 3 . 8.
"anyonya-mithunaA sarve | sarve sarvatra gamina/z |
rajaso mithunaw sattvam | sattvasya mithuna m rajah \\
tamasae, ca 'pi mithune
te sattva-rajasi ubhi
mithunam tama ucyate.
nai 'sham adih samprayogo viyogo vo 'palabhyate. ||"
"All are mutual complements, all pervade everywhere ; sattva
is the complement or rajas ; rajas is the complement of sattva ;
and both (of) these, sattva and rajas, are the complements
of tamas ; tamas is called the complement of both, sattva and
rajas. Their primal union is not perceived, nor (their)
Karika 12 (also Karika 27) contain the words : "guwa guwesu
vartante," cited from the Bhagavad Gita 3. 18, which reads:
"tattva-vit tu, mahabaho giwa-karma-vibhagayo/i |
'guna guneshu vartante' | it! matva na sajjate. |f"
"He who knows the tattvas" (twenty-five principles) "does
not cling to the two distinctions of the guwas and actions"
(karman) "reflecting (that) 'qualities functionate in the
It would not be surprising, however, if this clause, found in
slightly different form in Bh. G. 14.23, were a borrowing from
some earlier treatise of the Sawikhya school itself, (cf. Karika
It seems that the short sentence "bhiksha-matram labhyate,
na 'nyo viqesha" "alms merely ars received; nothing else in
particular" is a quotation from either a Sanskrit legal treatise
or a Buddhist source.
A qloka passage is found in Karikas 44 and 62.
"prakritena ca bandhena | tatha vaikarikena ca |
dakshmena tritiyena \ baddho na 'nyena mucyate. ||"
"By nothing else is one released, who is bound by a bondage
(arising) from prakriti, or from her products, or by (bond-
age) connected with sacrificial fees (as) a third." This
passage may possibly be derived from Samkhya sources.
Passing briefly from over the short and unimportant half-line
"manusha-yonir ekai Va" "human wombs are of one variety"
probably from the legal institutes, we come to Karika 61, with
three cjoka verses. The first of these is mentioned in the Com-
mentary of Madhusiidana Gupta to the Bhagavad Gita 5.14, he
referring it to "smriti."
"ajfio jantur anic.o 'yam | atmanaA du/zkha-sukhayo/i |
Igvara-prerito gacchat | svargaw warakam eva va. ||"
"This creature, ignorant and not master of its own pain or
pleasure, driven by a Supreme Lord, goes to heaven or in-
deed to hell."
The second is fragmentary :
"kena cukli-krita hawsa | mayura/t kena citrita/i |
sva-bhavenai 'va . . . . " ||
"By whom are the swans made white? by whom the peacocks
many-colored? Just by nature "
Hitopadega I. 191 (Edition Johnston), reads:
"yena gukli-krta hawsa | gukag ca harita-krita/t |
mayurag citrita yena | sa te vrittiw vidhasyati. |"
"By whom the swans are made white, and the parrots made
green ; by whom the peacocks are (made) many-colored, he
lays down thy rule."
The third and last is as follows :
"Kala/i panca 'sti bhutani kala/r samharate jagat |
kala/z supteshu jagarti | kalo hi duratikrama/t. 1 | "
"Time is the five elements" (bhutas) ; "time destroys the
universe; time is awake amongst the sleeping; for time is
The above occurs at Mahabharata XL 69, with "praja/r"
"creatures" for "jagat" "universe" and "pacati" "cooks" for
3. Philosophical Citations other than Samkhya. There are
two passages in Karika 23 identical in content with Yoga Sutras
II. 30 and 32 respectively.
"The restraints are non-injury, truth, honesty, chastity and
"The observances are purification (rites), contentment (of
the priests), penance, study (of the Veda) and contempla-
tion of the Supreme Lord."
4. Samkhya Citations. There are twenty-four passages
scattered throughout the commentary of Gaudapada, apparently
quoted from earlier Samkhya sources, which are, unfortunately,
lost to-day. The following is an alphabetical list :
1. acetanam pradhanaw, cetanaA purusha/*. (Karika 56.)
The pradhana is non-intelligent, the purusha intelligent.
2. aprapta-prapawa-'rthaw sawsarawam. (Karika 62.)
Round of re-birth is to gain the ungained.
3. atrna-'dhishthanac chariram. (Karika 17.)
The body (stands) from the soul's superintendence.
4. kumbhavat pradhanam purusha-'rthaw kritva nivartate.
Like a water-jar pradhana after performing purusha's
5. guwa-purusha-'ntaro-'palabdhir moksha/z. (Karika 42.)
Liberation is the perception of the distinction of the
guwas and purusha.
6. guwanaw ya vritti/z, sa guna-vishaya eva. (Karika 27.)
The functionating of the guwas has the guwas as object.
7. trishu lokeshu gabda-'di-vishayai/i purusha yojayitavya
ante ca mokshena. (Karika 56; cf. No. 14.)
In the three worlds the purushas must be yoked with the
objects of sense, sound and so forth, and in the end
8. na hi bhtitani ('va) kutag cid utpadyate. (Karika 10.)
For it (pradhana) does not, as the elements do, arise
9. purusha-'dhishfatam pradhanam pravartate. (Karika 17.)
The pradhana rolls forth, superintended by purusha.
(Quoted as from Shashtitantra.)
10. purusha-'rtha-hetukam idam sukshma-Qarlram pravartate.
(Karika 42; cf. the Karika.)
This subtle body evolves for the sake of purusha's pur-
11. purusho mukto purusha/* | samsarati 'ti co 'dita. ||
'The purusha is liberated; the purusha transmigrated/
thus 'tis said.
12. prakaca-kriya-sthiti-gila gunah. (Karika 12.)
The guwas are capable of illumination, exertion and in-
ertia, (cf. Yoga-sutras II. 18.)
13. prawo 'pi panjara-gakunivat sarvasya calanaw karoti.
The breath, like a caged bird, causes all to shake.
14. maya trishu lokeshu gabda-'dibhir vishayai/* purusho
yojyo, 'nte moksha/i kartavya/i. (Karika 56.)
By me, in the three worlds, purusha must be yoked with
the objects (of sense), sound and so forth; in the end
liberation must be performed, (cf. No. 7.)
15. yatag ca 'cetanawt cetanam iva 'bhati, ato 'nyo 'dhishfhata
purusha/*. (Karika 6.)
And since the non-intelligent shines hither as if intelli-
gent, therefore there is another, a superintendent,
purusha. (It is possible to make two passages, omitting
"yatag ca" and "ata/i.")
16. yatha vyaktawi, tatha pradhanam. (Karika 11.)
As it is the manifest, so is pradhana.
17. yad-atmakaw karawaw, tad-atmakaw* karyam.
(Karikas 11, 14.)
Of (whatsoever) nature the material cause, of that
nature is the effect.
18. yas tais trailokyaw vyaptaw janati, tasya bhavo 'stitvaw,
tattvam. (Karika 22.)
Whoever recognizes that the three worlds are pervaded
those (principles), of him there is being, existence,
20. ye guwas, tad vyaktaw ; yad vyaktaw, te ca gunah.
What the gtwas are, that the manifest is ; what the mani-
fest is, those are the guwas.
21. vyakta-Vyakta-jiianan mokshah prapyate. (Karika 17;
22; cf. Karika 2.)
Liberation is gained by discriminative knowledge of the
manifest, the non-manifest and the soul.
22. sati prawe yasmat karananam atma-labha/t. Karika 29.)
Since, when breath exists, the organs possess a soul.
23. sattva-rajas-tamasaw samyavastha pradhanam. (Karika
16, 23; cf. SamSutras 1, 61.)
The pradhana is the equilibrum of sattva, rajas and
24. sad asan na bhavaty, atha 'sat san na bhavati. (Karika 8.)
The existent does not become non-existent, nor does the
non-existent become existent.
These passages are all of Samkhya tendency and drawn evi-
dently from lost Samkhya treatises. They are unquestionably
citations, but there are a few others, if not all, citations in Gauda-
Conclusion. At present, the Satftkhya philosophy is un-
fortunately but little cultivated by the pandits of India. It is not
to be doubted, however, that it exercised an enormous influence
on the minds of the Hindus in the earlier history of its develop-
merit.- In it we have first exhibited that growing spirit of unrest
and dissatisfaction with both priestly predominance and priestly
speculation which led the princely sage Gautama to the renuncia-
tion of friends and title and the establishment of a system of
philosophic thought, which later developed into one of the world's
great religions and to the system of philosophy, or, we may say,
physiology, are due the conception of the modern school of the-
osophy. It cannot be denied that the Sawkhya is the most inter-
esting, if not the greatest, of the six orthodox systems of Hindu
speculation and the sixty-nine memorial verses of Igvara Krishna
though undoubtedly representing a late period in its development,
portray more exactly than any other work the true teachings of
the school, generally known as atheistic.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY
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